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Sample records for flavin reductase component

  1. Functional Analysis of the Small Component of the 4-Hydroxyphenylacetate 3-Monooxygenase of Escherichia coli W: a Prototype of a New Flavin:NAD(P)H Reductase Subfamily

    PubMed Central

    Galán, Beatriz; Díaz, Eduardo; Prieto, María A.; García, José L.

    2000-01-01

    Escherichia coli W uses the aromatic compound 4-hydroxyphenylacetate (4-HPA) as a sole source of carbon and energy for growth. The monooxygenase which converts 4-HPA into 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate, the first intermediate of the pathway, consists of two components, HpaB (58.7 kDa) and HpaC (18.6 kDa), encoded by the hpaB and hpaC genes, respectively, that form a single transcription unit. Overproduction of the small HpaC component in E. coli K-12 cells has facilitated the purification of the protein, which was revealed to be a homodimer that catalyzes the reduction of free flavins by NADH in preference to NADPH. Subsequently, the reduced flavins diffuse to the large HpaB component or to other electron acceptors such as cytochrome c and ferric ion. Amino acid sequence comparisons revealed that the HpaC reductase could be considered the prototype of a new subfamily of flavin:NAD(P)H reductases. The construction of a fusion protein between the large HpaB oxygenase component and the choline-binding domain of the major autolysin of Streptococcus pneumoniae allowed us to develop a rapid method to efficiently purify this highly unstable enzyme as a chimeric CH-HpaB protein, which exhibited a 4-HPA hydroxylating activity only when it was supplemented with the HpaC reductase. These results suggest the 4-HPA 3-monooxygenase of E. coli W as a representative member of a novel two-component flavin-diffusible monooxygenase (TC-FDM) family. Relevant features on the evolution and structure-function relationships of these TC-FDM proteins are discussed. PMID:10633095

  2. Identification and Characterization of the Flavin:NADH Reductase (PrnF) Involved in a Novel Two-Component Arylamine Oxygenase▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Kul; Zhao, Huimin

    2007-01-01

    Two-component oxygenases catalyze a wide variety of important oxidation reactions. Recently we characterized a novel arylamine N-oxygenase (PrnD), a new member of the two-component oxygenase family (J. Lee et al., J. Biol. Chem. 280:36719-36728, 2005). Although arylamine N-oxygenases are widespread in nature, aminopyrrolnitrin N-oxygenase (PrnD) represents the only biochemically and mechanistically characterized arylamine N-oxygenase to date. Here we report the use of bioinformatic and biochemical tools to identify and characterize the reductase component (PrnF) involved in the PrnD-catalyzed unusual arylamine oxidation. The prnF gene was identified via sequence analysis of the whole genome of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 and subsequently cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The purified PrnF protein catalyzes reduction of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) by NADH with a kcat of 65 s−1 (Km = 3.2 μM for FAD and 43.1 μM for NADH) and supplies reduced FAD to the PrnD oxygenase component. Unlike other known reductases in two-component oxygenase systems, PrnF strictly requires NADH as an electron donor to reduce FAD and requires unusual protein-protein interaction with the PrnD component for the efficient transfer of reduced FAD. This PrnF enzyme represents the first cloned and characterized flavin reductase component in a novel two-component arylamine oxygenase system. PMID:17921302

  3. Identification and characterization of the flavin:NADH reductase (PrnF) involved in a novel two-component arylamine oxygenase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Kul; Zhao, Huimin

    2007-12-01

    Two-component oxygenases catalyze a wide variety of important oxidation reactions. Recently we characterized a novel arylamine N-oxygenase (PrnD), a new member of the two-component oxygenase family (J. Lee et al., J. Biol. Chem. 280:36719-36728, 2005). Although arylamine N-oxygenases are widespread in nature, aminopyrrolnitrin N-oxygenase (PrnD) represents the only biochemically and mechanistically characterized arylamine N-oxygenase to date. Here we report the use of bioinformatic and biochemical tools to identify and characterize the reductase component (PrnF) involved in the PrnD-catalyzed unusual arylamine oxidation. The prnF gene was identified via sequence analysis of the whole genome of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 and subsequently cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The purified PrnF protein catalyzes reduction of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) by NADH with a k(cat) of 65 s(-1) (K(m) = 3.2 muM for FAD and 43.1 muM for NADH) and supplies reduced FAD to the PrnD oxygenase component. Unlike other known reductases in two-component oxygenase systems, PrnF strictly requires NADH as an electron donor to reduce FAD and requires unusual protein-protein interaction with the PrnD component for the efficient transfer of reduced FAD. This PrnF enzyme represents the first cloned and characterized flavin reductase component in a novel two-component arylamine oxygenase system.

  4. Mechanisms of reduced flavin transfer in the two-component flavin-dependent monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Sucharitakul, Jeerus; Tinikul, Ruchanok; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2014-08-01

    Two-component flavin-dependent enzymes are abundant in nature and are involved in a wide variety of biological reactions. These enzymes consist of a reductase which generates a reduced flavin and a monooxygenase that utilizes the reduced flavin as a substrate for monooxygenation. As reduced flavin is unstable and can be oxidized by oxygen, these enzymes must have a means to efficiently coordinate the transfer of the reduced flavin such that auto-oxidation can be minimized. Various types of experiments and methodologies have been used to probe the mode of reduced flavin transfer. Results from many systems have indicated that the transfer can be achieved by free diffusion and that the presence of one component has no influence on the kinetics of the other component. Contradicting results indicating that the transfer of the reduced flavin may be achieved via protein-protein mediation also exist. Regardless of the mode of reduced flavin transfer, these enzymes have a means to control their overall kinetics such that the reaction rate is slow when the demand for oxygenation is not high.

  5. Structural Basis of Free Reduced Flavin Generation by Flavin Reductase from Thermus thermophilus HB8*

    PubMed Central

    Imagawa, Takahito; Tsurumura, Toshiharu; Sugimoto, Yasushi; Aki, Kenji; Ishidoh, Kazumi; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Tsuge, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    Free reduced flavins are involved in a variety of biological functions. They are generated from NAD(P)H by flavin reductase via co-factor flavin bound to the enzyme. Although recent findings on the structure and function of flavin reductase provide new information about co-factor FAD and substrate NAD, there have been no reports on the substrate flavin binding site. Here we report the structure of TTHA0420 from Thermus thermophilus HB8, which belongs to flavin reductase, and describe the dual binding mode of the substrate and co-factor flavins. We also report that TTHA0420 has not only the flavin reductase motif GDH but also a specific motif YGG in C terminus as well as Phe-41 and Arg-11, which are conserved in its subclass. From the structure, these motifs are important for the substrate flavin binding. On the contrary, the C terminus is stacked on the NADH binding site, apparently to block NADH binding to the active site. To identify the function of the C-terminal region, we designed and expressed a mutant TTHA0420 enzyme in which the C-terminal five residues were deleted (TTHA0420-ΔC5). Notably, the activity of TTHA0420-ΔC5 was about 10 times higher than that of the wild-type enzyme at 20–40 °C. Our findings suggest that the C-terminal region of TTHA0420 may regulate the alternative binding of NADH and substrate flavin to the enzyme. PMID:22052907

  6. Structural basis of free reduced flavin generation by flavin reductase from Thermus thermophilus HB8.

    PubMed

    Imagawa, Takahito; Tsurumura, Toshiharu; Sugimoto, Yasushi; Aki, Kenji; Ishidoh, Kazumi; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Tsuge, Hideaki

    2011-12-23

    Free reduced flavins are involved in a variety of biological functions. They are generated from NAD(P)H by flavin reductase via co-factor flavin bound to the enzyme. Although recent findings on the structure and function of flavin reductase provide new information about co-factor FAD and substrate NAD, there have been no reports on the substrate flavin binding site. Here we report the structure of TTHA0420 from Thermus thermophilus HB8, which belongs to flavin reductase, and describe the dual binding mode of the substrate and co-factor flavins. We also report that TTHA0420 has not only the flavin reductase motif GDH but also a specific motif YGG in C terminus as well as Phe-41 and Arg-11, which are conserved in its subclass. From the structure, these motifs are important for the substrate flavin binding. On the contrary, the C terminus is stacked on the NADH binding site, apparently to block NADH binding to the active site. To identify the function of the C-terminal region, we designed and expressed a mutant TTHA0420 enzyme in which the C-terminal five residues were deleted (TTHA0420-ΔC5). Notably, the activity of TTHA0420-ΔC5 was about 10 times higher than that of the wild-type enzyme at 20-40 °C. Our findings suggest that the C-terminal region of TTHA0420 may regulate the alternative binding of NADH and substrate flavin to the enzyme.

  7. Purification, Characterization, and Overexpression of Flavin Reductase Involved in Dibenzothiophene Desulfurization by Rhodococcus erythropolis D-1

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, Toshiyuki; Ohshiro, Takashi; Nishina, Yoshihiro; Izumi, Yoshikazu

    2001-01-01

    The dibenzothiophene (DBT)-desulfurizing bacterium, Rhodococcus erythropolis D-1, removes sulfur from DBT to form 2-hydroxybiphenyl using four enzymes, DszC, DszA, DszB, and flavin reductase. In this study, we purified and characterized the flavin reductase from R. erythropolis D-1 grown in a medium containing DBT as the sole source of sulfur. It is conceivable that the enzyme is essential for two monooxygenase (DszC and DszA) reactions in vivo. The purified flavin reductase contains no chromogenic cofactors and was found to have a molecular mass of 86 kDa and four identical 22-kDa subunits. The enzyme catalyzed NADH-dependent reduction of flavin mononucleotide (FMN), and the Km values for NADH and FMN were 208 and 10.8 μM, respectively. Flavin adenine dinucleotide was a poor substrate, and NADPH was inert. The enzyme did not catalyze reduction of any nitroaromatic compound. The optimal temperature and optimal pH for enzyme activity were 35°C and 6.0, respectively, and the enzyme retained 30% of its activity after heat treatment at 80°C for 30 min. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified flavin reductase was identical to that of DszD of R. erythropolis IGTS8 (K. A. Gray, O. S. Pogrebinsky, G. T. Mrachko, L. Xi, D. J. Monticello, and C. H. Squires, Nat. Biotechnol. 14:1705–1709, 1996). The flavin reductase gene was amplified with primers designed by using dszD of R. erythropolis IGTS8, and the enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The specific activity in crude extracts of the overexpressed strain was about 275-fold that of the wild-type strain. PMID:11229908

  8. Flavin reductase: sequence of cDNA from bovine liver and tissue distribution.

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, K S; Hultquist, D E

    1994-01-01

    Flavin reductase catalyzes electron transfer from reduced pyridine nucleotides to methylene blue or riboflavin, and this catalysis is the basis of the therapeutic use of methylene blue or riboflavin in the treatment of methemoglobinemia. A cDNA for a mammalian flavin reductase has been isolated and sequenced. Degenerate oligonucleotides, with sequences based on amino acid sequences of peptides derived from bovine erythrocyte flavin reductase, were used as primers in PCR to selectively amplify a partial cDNA that encodes the bovine reductase. The template used in the PCR was first strand cDNA synthesized from bovine liver total RNA using oligo(dT) primers. A PCR product was used as a specific probe to screen a bovine liver cDNA library. The sequence determined from two overlapping clones contains an open reading frame of 621 nucleotides and encodes 206 amino acids. The amino acid sequence deduced from the bovine liver flavin reductase cDNA matches the amino acid sequences determined for erythrocyte reductase-derived peptides, and the predicted molecular mass of 22,001 Da for the liver reductase agrees well with the molecular mass of 21,994 Da determined for the erythrocyte reductase by electrospray mass spectrometry. The amino acid sequence at the N terminus of the reductase has homology to sequences of pyridine nucleotide-dependent enzymes, and the predicted secondary structure, beta alpha beta, resembles the common nucleotide-binding structural motif. RNA blot analysis indicates a single 1-kilobase reductase transcript in human heart, kidney, liver, lung, pancreas, placenta, and skeletal muscle. Images PMID:7937764

  9. Trichomonas vaginalis Flavin Reductase 1 and its Role in Metronidazole Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Leitsch, David; Janssen, Brian D.; Kolarich, Daniel; Johnson, Patricia J.; Duchêne, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Summary The enzyme flavin reductase 1 (FR1) from Trichomonas vaginalis, formerly known as NADPH oxidase, was isolated and identified. Flavin reductase is part of the antioxidative defense in T. vaginalis and indirectly reduces molecular oxygen to hydrogen peroxide via free flavins. Importantly, a reduced or absent flavin reductase activity has been reported in metronidazole-resistant T. vaginalis, resulting in elevated intracellular oxygen levels and futile cycling of metronidazole. Interestingly, FR1 has no close homologue in any other sequenced genome, but seven full-length and three truncated isoforms exist in the T. vaginalis genome. However, out of these, only FR1 has an affinity for flavins, i.e. FMN, FAD, and riboflavin, which is high enough to be of physiological relevance. Although there are no relevant changes in the gene sequence or any alterations of the predicted FR1-mRNA structure in any of the strains studied, FR1 is not expressed in highly metronidazole-resistant strains. Transfection of a metronidazole-resistant clinical isolate (B7268), which does not express any detectable amounts of FR, with a plasmid bearing a functional FR1 gene nearly completely restored metronidazole sensitivity. Our results indicate that FR1 has a significant role in the emergence of metronidazole resistance in T. vaginalis. PMID:24256032

  10. Trichomonas vaginalis flavin reductase 1 and its role in metronidazole resistance.

    PubMed

    Leitsch, David; Janssen, Brian D; Kolarich, Daniel; Johnson, Patricia J; Duchêne, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The enzyme flavin reductase 1 (FR1) from Trichomonas vaginalis, formerly known as NADPH oxidase, was isolated and identified. Flavin reductase is part of the antioxidative defence in T. vaginalis and indirectly reduces molecular oxygen to hydrogen peroxide via free flavins. Importantly, a reduced or absent flavin reductase activity has been reported in metronidazole-resistant T. vaginalis, resulting in elevated intracellular oxygen levels and futile cycling of metronidazole. Interestingly, FR1 has no close homologue in any other sequenced genome, but seven full-length and three truncated isoforms exist in the T. vaginalis genome. However, out of these, only FR1 has an affinity for flavins, i.e. FMN, FAD and riboflavin, which is high enough to be of physiological relevance. Although there are no relevant changes in the gene sequence or any alterations of the predicted FR1-mRNA structure in any of the strains studied, FR1 is not expressed in highly metronidazole-resistant strains. Transfection of a metronidazole-resistant clinical isolate (B7268), which does not express any detectable amounts of FR, with a plasmid bearing a functional FR1 gene nearly completely restored metronidazole sensitivity. Our results indicate that FR1 has a significant role in the emergence of metronidazole resistance in T. vaginalis.

  11. Studies on the Mechanism of p-Hydroxyphenylacetate 3-Hydroxylase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa – a System Composed of a Small Flavin Reductase and a Large Flavin-Dependent Oxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Sumita; Ortiz-Maldonado, Mariliz; Entsch, Barrie; Ballou, David P.

    2009-01-01

    There are two known types of microbial two-component flavin-dependent monooxygenases that catalyze oxygenation of p-hydroxyphenylacetate (HPA), and they are distinguished by having structurally distinct reductases and oxygenases. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the properties of the enzyme from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an example of one group, and compares its properties to those published for the Acinetobacter baumannii enzyme, an example of the alternative group. The reductase and oxygenase from P. aeruginosa were expressed in Escherichia coli. The reductase was purified as a stable C-terminal His-tagged yellow protein containing weakly bound FAD, and the oxygenase was purified as a stable colorless N-terminal His-tagged protein. The reductase catalyzes the reduction of FAD by NADH and releases the FADH− product into solution, but unlike the reductase from A. baumannii, this catalysis is not influenced by HPA. The oxygenase binds the released FADH− and catalyzes the oxygenation of HPA to form 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate, after which the FAD dissociates to be re-reduced by the reductase, a common overall pattern for two-component flavin-dependent oxygenases. With this system, it appears that interactions between the reductase and the oxygenase can facillitate the transfer of FADH− to the oxygenase, although they are not required. We show that the P. aeruginosa oxygenase system in complex with FADH− reacts with O2 to form a quasi-stable, unusually high-extinction flavin hydroperoxide species that binds HPA and reacts to form the product. The resultant flavin hydroxide decomposes to FAD and water while still bound to the oxygenase, and then releases product and FAD from the protein. Unlike the enzyme from A. baumannii, during normal catalysis involving both the reductase and oxygenase, the rate-determining step in catalysis is the dissociation of FAD from the oxygenase in a process that is independent of the concentration of HPA. Structures for the

  12. Unusual folded conformation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide bound to flavin reductase P.

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, J. J.; Tu, S. C.; Barbour, L. J.; Barnes, C. L.; Krause, K. L.

    1999-01-01

    The 2.1 A resolution crystal structure of flavin reductase P with the inhibitor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) bound in the active site has been determined. NAD adopts a novel, folded conformation in which the nicotinamide and adenine rings stack in parallel with an inter-ring distance of 3.6 A. The pyrophosphate binds next to the flavin cofactor isoalloxazine, while the stacked nicotinamide/adenine moiety faces away from the flavin. The observed NAD conformation is quite different from the extended conformations observed in other enzyme/NAD(P) structures; however, it resembles the conformation proposed for NAD in solution. The flavin reductase P/NAD structure provides new information about the conformational diversity of NAD, which is important for understanding catalysis. This structure offers the first crystallographic evidence of a folded NAD with ring stacking, and it is the first enzyme structure containing an FMN cofactor interacting with NAD(P). Analysis of the structure suggests a possible dynamic mechanism underlying NADPH substrate specificity and product release that involves unfolding and folding of NADP(H). PMID:10493573

  13. Recombinant flavin-dependent halogenases are functional in tobacco chloroplasts without co-expression of flavin reductase genes.

    PubMed

    Fräbel, Sabine; Krischke, Markus; Staniek, Agata; Warzecha, Heribert

    2016-12-01

    Halogenation of natural compounds in planta is rare. Herein, a successful engineering of tryptophan 6-halogenation into the plant context by heterologous expression of the Streptomyces toxytricini Stth gene and localization of its enzymatic product in various tobacco cell compartments is described. When co-expressed with the flavin reductase rebF from Lechevalieria aerocolonigenes, Stth efficiently produced chlorinated tryptophan in the cytosol. Further, supplementation of KBr yielded the brominated metabolite. More strikingly, targeting of the protein to the chloroplasts enabled effective halogenation of tryptophan even in absence of the partner reductase, providing crucial evidence for sufficient, organelle-specific supply of the FADH2 cofactor to drive halogen integration. Incorporation of an alternative enzyme, the 7-halogenase RebH from L. aerocolonigenes, into the metabolic set-up resulted in the formation of 6,7-dichlorotryptophan. Finally, expression of tryptophan decarboxylase (tdc) in concert with stth led to the generation of 6-chlorotryptamine, a new-to-nature precursor of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids. In sum, the report highlights the tremendous application potential of plants as a unique chassis for the engineering of rare and valuable halogenated natural products, with chloroplasts as the cache of reduction equivalents driving metabolic reactions. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Distribution of valence electrons of the flavin cofactor in NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase

    PubMed Central

    Takaba, Kiyofumi; Takeda, Kazuki; Kosugi, Masayuki; Tamada, Taro; Miki, Kunio

    2017-01-01

    Flavin compounds such as flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), flavin mononucleotide and riboflavin make up the active centers in flavoproteins that facilitate various oxidoreductive processes. The fine structural features of the hydrogens and valence electrons of the flavin molecules in the protein environment are critical to the functions of the flavoproteins. However, information on these features cannot be obtained from conventional protein X-ray analyses at ordinary resolution. Here we report the charge density analysis of a flavoenzyme, NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase (b5R), at an ultra-high resolution of 0.78 Å. Valence electrons on the FAD cofactor as well as the peptide portion, which are clearly visualized even after the conventional refinement, are analyzed by the multipolar atomic model refinement. The topological analysis for the determined electron density reveals the valence electronic structure of the isoalloxazine ring of FAD and hydrogen-bonding interactions with the protein environment. The tetrahedral electronic distribution around the N5 atom of FAD in b5R is stabilized by hydrogen bonding with CαH of Tyr65 and amide-H of Thr66. The hydrogen bonding network leads to His49 composing the cytochrome b5-binding site via non-classical hydrogen bonds between N5 of FAD and CαH of Tyr65 and O of Tyr65 and CβH of His49. PMID:28225078

  15. LuxG is a functioning flavin reductase for bacterial luminescence.

    PubMed

    Nijvipakul, Sarayut; Wongratana, Janewit; Suadee, Chutintorn; Entsch, Barrie; Ballou, David P; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2008-03-01

    The luxG gene is part of the lux operon of marine luminous bacteria. luxG has been proposed to be a flavin reductase that supplies reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMN) for bacterial luminescence. However, this role has never been established because the gene product has not been successfully expressed and characterized. In this study, luxG from Photobacterium leiognathi TH1 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli in both native and C-terminal His6-tagged forms. Sequence analysis indicates that the protein consists of 237 amino acids, corresponding to a subunit molecular mass of 26.3 kDa. Both expressed forms of LuxG were purified to homogeneity, and their biochemical properties were characterized. Purified LuxG is homodimeric and has no bound prosthetic group. The enzyme can catalyze oxidation of NADH in the presence of free flavin, indicating that it can function as a flavin reductase in luminous bacteria. NADPH can also be used as a reducing substrate for the LuxG reaction, but with much less efficiency than NADH. With NADH and FMN as substrates, a Lineweaver-Burk plot revealed a series of convergent lines characteristic of a ternary-complex kinetic model. From steady-state kinetics data at 4 degrees C pH 8.0, Km for NADH, Km for FMN, and kcat were calculated to be 15.1 microM, 2.7 microM, and 1.7 s(-1), respectively. Coupled assays between LuxG and luciferases from P. leiognathi TH1 and Vibrio campbellii also showed that LuxG could supply FMNH- for light emission in vitro. A luxG gene knockout mutant of P. leiognathi TH1 exhibited a much dimmer luminescent phenotype compared to the native P. leiognathi TH1, implying that LuxG is the most significant source of FMNH- for the luminescence reaction in vivo.

  16. Characteristic analysis of the luxG gene encoding the probable flavin reductase that resides in the lux operon of Photobacterium leiognathi.

    PubMed

    Lin, J W; Chao, Y F; Weng, S F

    1998-05-19

    Nucleotide sequence of the luxG gene (GenBank Accession No. AF053227) from Photobacterium leiognathi PL741 has been determined, and the encoded probable flavin reductase is deduced. The probable flavin reductase encoded by the luxG gene has a calculated M(r) 26,544 and comprises 235 amino acid residues. The probable flavin reductase like the NAD(P)H-flavin reductase might catalyze the reduction of flavins. Alignment and comparison of the probable flavin reductases from P. leiognathi PL741, ATCC 25521, P. phosphoreum, Vibrio fischeri, and V. harveyi show that they are homologous; there is 66% homologous (29.4% identity and 36.6% similarity). Also, the probable flavin reductase is homologous to the NAD(P)H-flavin reductase; it is perceived that the probable flavin reductase and the NAD(P)H-flavin reductase could be enzyme isoforms encoded by two genes of a multigene family for differential response functions. Functional analysis illustrates that the specific segment sequence lay inside and behind the luxG gene might form the potential hairpin loops omega gI, omega gII, omega o, and omega oT as mRNA stability loop or/and as the attenuator-like loop or the dynamic terminator-like block for sub-regulation in the lux operon. The gene order of the luxG gene in the lux operon and the lum operon is <--ter-lumQ-lumP-R&R-luxC-luxD-luxA-luxB-+ ++luxN-luxE-luxG--> (R&R: regulatory region; ter: transcriptional terminator), whereas the R&R is the regulatory region for the lum operon and the lux operon, and ter is the transcriptional terminator for the lum operon.

  17. Down-regulation of flavin reductase and alcohol dehydrogenase-1 (ADH1) in metronidazole-resistant isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Leitsch, David; Drinić, Mirjana; Kolarich, Daniel; Duchêne, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The microaerophilic parasite Trichomonas vaginalis is a causative agent of painful vaginitis or urethritis, termed trichomoniasis, and can also cause preterm delivery or stillbirth. Treatment of trichomoniasis is almost exclusively based on the nitroimidazole drugs metronidazole and tinidazole. Metronidazole resistance in T. vaginalis does occur and is often associated with treatment failure. In most cases, metronidazole-resistant isolates remain susceptible to tinidazole, but cross resistance between the two closely related drugs can be a problem. In this study we measured activities of thioredoxin reductase and flavin reductase in four metronidazole-susceptible and five metronidazole-resistant isolates. These enzyme activities had been previously found to be downregulated in T. vaginalis with high-level metronidazole resistance induced in the laboratory. Further, we aimed at identifying factors causing metronidazole resistance and compared the protein expression profiles of all nine isolates by application of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). Thioredoxin reductase activity was nearly equal in all strains assayed but flavin reductase activity was clearly down-regulated, or even absent, in metronidazole-resistant strains. Since flavin reductase has been shown to reduce oxygen to hydrogen peroxide, its down-regulation could significantly contribute to the impairment of oxygen scavenging as reported by others for metronidazole-resistant strains. Analysis by 2DE revealed down-regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (ADH1) in strains with reduced sensitivity to metronidazole, an enzyme that could be involved in detoxification of intracellular acetaldehyde. PMID:22449940

  18. Reactions of antimalarial peroxides with each of leucomethylene blue and dihydroflavins: flavin reductase and the cofactor model exemplified.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Richard K; Cheu, Kwan-Wing; Tang, Maggie Mei-Ki; Chen, Min-Jiao; Guo, Zu-Feng; Guo, Zhi-Hong; Coghi, Paolo; Monti, Diego

    2011-02-07

    Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is reduced by NADPH-E. coli flavin reductase (Fre) to FADH(2) in aqueous buffer at pH 7.4 under argon. Under the same conditions, FADH(2) in turn cleanly reduces the antimalarial drug methylene blue (MB) to leucomethylene blue. The latter is rapidly re-oxidized by artemisinins, thus supporting the proposal that MB exerts its antimalarial activity, and synergizes the antimalarial action of artemisinins, by interfering with redox cycling involving NADPH reduction of flavin cofactors in parasite flavin disulfide reductases. Direct treatment of the FADH(2) generated from NADPH-Fre-FAD by artemisinins and antimalaria-active tetraoxane and trioxolane structural analogues under physiological conditions at pH 7.4 results in rapid reduction of the artemisinins, and efficient conversion of the peroxide structural analogues into ketone products. Comparison of the relative rates of FADH(2) oxidation indicate optimal activity for the trioxolane. Therefore, the rate of intraparastic redox perturbation will be greatest for the trioxolane, and this may be significant in relation to its enhanced in vitro antimalarial activities. (1)H NMR spectroscopic studies using the BNAH-riboflavin (RF) model system indicate that the tetraoxane is capable of using both peroxide units in oxidizing the RFH(2) generated in situ. Use of the NADPH-Fre-FAD catalytic system in the presence of artemisinin or tetraoxane confirms that the latter, in contrast to artemisinin, consumes two reducing equivalents of NADPH. None of the processes described herein requires the presence of ferrous iron. Ferric iron, given its propensity to oxidize reduced flavin cofactors, may play a role in enhancing oxidative stress within the malaria parasite, without requiring interaction with artemisinins or peroxide analogues. The NADPH-Fre-FAD system serves as a convenient mimic of flavin disulfide reductases that maintain redox homeostasis in the malaria parasite. Copyright

  19. FQR1, a Novel Primary Auxin-Response Gene, Encodes a Flavin Mononucleotide-Binding Quinone Reductase1

    PubMed Central

    Laskowski, Marta J.; Dreher, Kate A.; Gehring, Mary A.; Abel, Steffen; Gensler, Arminda L.; Sussex, Ian M.

    2002-01-01

    FQR1 is a novel primary auxin-response gene that codes for a flavin mononucleotide-binding flavodoxin-like quinone reductase. Accumulation of FQR1 mRNA begins within 10 min of indole-3-acetic acid application and reaches a maximum of approximately 10-fold induction 30 min after treatment. This increase in FQR1 mRNA abundance is not diminished by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, demonstrating that FQR1 is a primary auxin-response gene. Sequence analysis reveals that FQR1 belongs to a family of flavin mononucleotide-binding quinone reductases. Partially purified His-tagged FQR1 isolated from Escherichia coli catalyzes the transfer of electrons from NADH and NADPH to several substrates and exhibits in vitro quinone reductase activity. Overexpression of FQR1 in plants leads to increased levels of FQR1 protein and quinone reductase activity, indicating that FQR1 functions as a quinone reductase in vivo. In mammalian systems, glutathione S-transferases and quinone reductases are classified as phase II detoxification enzymes. We hypothesize that the auxin-inducible glutathione S-transferases and quinone reductases found in plants also act as detoxification enzymes, possibly to protect against auxin-induced oxidative stress. PMID:11842161

  20. Expression, Purification, and Characterization of a Recombinant Flavin Reductase from the Luminescent Marine Bacterium "Photobacterium Leiognathi": A Set of Exercises for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    In "Photobacterium," the flavin reductase encoded by "lux"G regenerates the reduced form of flavin mononucleotide (FMN). Reduced FMN is one of the substrates of the luciferase enzyme that catalyzes a light-emitting reaction. A set of experiments, that employs a "lux"G-expression plasmid construct (pGhis) and is suitable for an undergraduate…

  1. Expression, Purification, and Characterization of a Recombinant Flavin Reductase from the Luminescent Marine Bacterium "Photobacterium Leiognathi": A Set of Exercises for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    In "Photobacterium," the flavin reductase encoded by "lux"G regenerates the reduced form of flavin mononucleotide (FMN). Reduced FMN is one of the substrates of the luciferase enzyme that catalyzes a light-emitting reaction. A set of experiments, that employs a "lux"G-expression plasmid construct (pGhis) and is suitable for an undergraduate…

  2. Characterization of an NADH oxidase of the flavin-dependent disulfide reductase family from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii.

    PubMed

    Case, Christopher L; Rodriguez, Jason R; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup

    2009-01-01

    Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, a deeply rooted hyperthermophilic anaerobic methanarchaeon from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent, carries an NADH oxidase (Nox) homologue (MJ0649). According to the characteristics described here, MJ0649 represents an unusual member within group 3 of the flavin-dependent disulfide reductase (FDR) family. This FDR group comprises Nox, NADH peroxidases (Npx) and coenzyme A disulfide reductases (CoADRs); each carries a Cys residue that forms Cys-sulfenic acid during catalysis. A sequence analysis identified MJ0649 as a CoADR homologue. However, recombinant MJ0649 (rMJNox), expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity an 86 kDa homodimer with 0.27 mol FAD (mol subunit)(-1), showed Nox but not CoADR activity. Incubation with FAD increased FAD content to 1 mol (mol subunit)(-1) and improved NADH oxidase activity 3.4-fold. The FAD-incubated enzyme was characterized further. The optimum pH and temperature were > or =10 and > or =95 degrees C, respectively. At pH 7 and 83 degrees C, apparent Km values for NADH and O2 were 3 microM and 1.9 mM, respectively, and the specific activity at 1.4 mM O2 was 60 micromol min(-1) mg(-1); 62 % of NADH-derived reducing equivalents were recovered as H2O2 and the rest probably generated H2O. rMjNox had poor NADPH oxidase, NADH peroxidase and superoxide formation activities. It reduced ferricyanide, plumbagin and 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid), but not disulfide coenzyme A and disulfide coenzyme M. Due to a high Km, O2 is not a physiologically relevant substrate for MJ0649; its true substrate remains unknown.

  3. Flavin-Dependent Redox Transfers by the Two-Component Diketocamphane Monooxygenases of Camphor-Grown Pseudomonas putida NCIMB 10007

    PubMed Central

    Willetts, Andrew; Kelly, David

    2016-01-01

    The progressive titres of key monooxygenases and their requisite native donors of reducing power were used to assess the relative contribution of various camphor plasmid (CAM plasmid)- and chromosome-coded activities to biodegradation of (rac)-camphor at successive stages throughout growth of Pseudomonas putida NCIMB 10007 on the bicylic monoterpenoid. A number of different flavin reductases (FRs) have the potential to supply reduced flavin mononucleotide to both 2,5- and 3,6-diketocamphane monooxygenase, the key isoenzymic two-component monooxygenases that delineate respectively the (+)- and (−)-camphor branches of the convergent degradation pathway. Two different constitutive chromosome-coded ferric reductases able to act as FRs can serve such as role throughout all stages of camphor-dependent growth, whereas Fred, a chromosome-coded inducible FR can only play a potentially significant role in the relatively late stages. Putidaredoxin reductase, an inducible CAM plasmid-coded flavoprotein that serves an established role as a redox intermediate for plasmid-coded cytochrome P450 monooxygenase also has the potential to serve as an important FR for both diketocamphane monooxygenases (DKCMOs) throughout most stages of camphor-dependent growth. PMID:27754389

  4. H2O2 Production in Species of the Lactobacillus acidophilus Group: a Central Role for a Novel NADH-Dependent Flavin Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Hertzberger, Rosanne; Arents, Jos; Dekker, Henk L.; Pridmore, R. David; Gysler, Christof; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide production is a well-known trait of many bacterial species associated with the human body. In the presence of oxygen, the probiotic lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 excretes up to 1 mM H2O2, inducing growth stagnation and cell death. Disruption of genes commonly assumed to be involved in H2O2 production (e.g., pyruvate oxidase, NADH oxidase, and lactate oxidase) did not affect this. Here we describe the purification of a novel NADH-dependent flavin reductase encoded by two highly similar genes (LJ_0548 and LJ_0549) that are conserved in lactobacilli belonging to the Lactobacillus acidophilus group. The genes are predicted to encode two 20-kDa proteins containing flavin mononucleotide (FMN) reductase conserved domains. Reductase activity requires FMN, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), or riboflavin and is specific for NADH and not NADPH. The Km for FMN is 30 ± 8 μM, in accordance with its proposed in vivo role in H2O2 production. Deletion of the encoding genes in L. johnsonii led to a 40-fold reduction of hydrogen peroxide formation. H2O2 production in this mutant could only be restored by in trans complementation of both genes. Our work identifies a novel, conserved NADH-dependent flavin reductase that is prominently involved in H2O2 production in L. johnsonii. PMID:24487531

  5. Trichomonas vaginalis: metronidazole and other nitroimidazole drugs are reduced by the flavin enzyme thioredoxin reductase and disrupt the cellular redox system. Implications for nitroimidazole toxicity and resistance.

    PubMed

    Leitsch, David; Kolarich, Daniel; Binder, Marina; Stadlmann, Johannes; Altmann, Friedrich; Duchêne, Michael

    2009-04-01

    Infections with the microaerophilic parasite Trichomonas vaginalis are treated with the 5-nitroimidazole drug metronidazole, which is also in use against Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis and microaerophilic/anaerobic bacteria. Here we report that in T. vaginalis the flavin enzyme thioredoxin reductase displays nitroreductase activity with nitroimidazoles, including metronidazole, and with the nitrofuran drug furazolidone. Reactive metabolites of metronidazole and other nitroimidazoles form covalent adducts with several proteins that are known or assumed to be associated with thioredoxin-mediated redox regulation, including thioredoxin reductase itself, ribonucleotide reductase, thioredoxin peroxidase and cytosolic malate dehydrogenase. Disulphide reducing activity of thioredoxin reductase was greatly diminished in extracts of metronidazole-treated cells and intracellular non-protein thiol levels were sharply decreased. We generated a highly metronidazole-resistant cell line that displayed only minimal thioredoxin reductase activity, not due to diminished expression of the enzyme but due to the lack of its FAD cofactor. Reduction of free flavins, readily observed in metronidazole-susceptible cells, was also absent in the resistant cells. On the other hand, iron-depleted T. vaginalis cells, expressing only minimal amounts of PFOR and hydrogenosomal malate dehydrogenase, remained fully susceptible to metronidazole. Thus, taken together, our data suggest a flavin-based mechanism of metronidazole activation and thereby challenge the current model of hydrogenosomal activation of nitroimidazole drugs.

  6. Mutagenesis of the redox-active disulfide in mercuric ion reductase: Catalysis by mutant enzymes restricted to flavin redox chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Distefano, M.D.; Au, K.G.; Walsh, C.T. )

    1989-02-07

    Mercuric reductase, a flavoenzyme that possesses a redox-active cystine, Cys{sub 135}Cys{sub 140}, catalyzes the reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0) by NADPH. As a probe of mechanism, the authors have constructed mutants lacking a redox-active disulfide by eliminating Cys{sub 135} (Ala{sub 135}Cys{sub 140}), Cys{sub 14} (Cys{sub 135}Ala{sub 140}), or both (Ala{sub 135}Ala{sub 140}). Additionally, they have made double mutants that lack Cys{sub 135} (Ala{sub 135}Cys{sub 139}Cys{sub 140}) or Cys{sub 140} (Cys{sub 135}Cys{sub 139}Ala{sub 140}) but introduce a new Cys in place of Gly{sub 139} with the aim of constructing dithiol pairs in the active site that do not form a redox-active disulfide. The resulting mutant enzymes all lack redox-active disulfides and are hence restricted to FAD/FADH{sub 2} redox chemistry. Each mutant enzyme possesses unique physical and spectroscopic properties that reflect subtle differences in the FAD microenvironment. Preliminary evidence for the Ala{sub 135}Cys{sub 139}Cys{sub 14} mutant enzyme suggests that this protein forms a disulfide between the two adjacent Cys residues. Hg(II) titration experiments that correlate the extent of charge-transfer quenching with Hg(II) binding indicate that the Ala{sub 135}Cys{sub 140} protein binds Hg(II) with substantially less avidity than does the wild-type enzyme. All mutant mercuric reductases catalyze transhydrogenation and oxygen reduction reactions through obligatory reduced flavin intermediates at rates comparable to or greater than that of the wild-type enzyme. In multiple-turnover assays which monitored the production of Hg(0), two of the mutant enzymes were observed to proceed through at least 30 turnovers at rates ca. 1000-fold slower than that of wild-type mercuric reductase. They conclude that the Cys{sub 135} and Cys{sub 140} thiols serve as Hg(II) ligands that orient the Hg(II) for subsequent reduction by a reduced flavin intermediate.

  7. Flavin-binding and protein structural integrity studies on NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase are consistent with the presence of distinct domains.

    PubMed

    Narayanasami, R; Horowitz, P M; Masters, B S

    1995-01-10

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (reductase) contains FMN and FAD in 1:1 stoichiometry as tightly bound cofactors. Electrons from NADPH are transferred to cytochrome P450 through the intermediacy of reductase. A knowledge of the interactions which must occur to allow the intermolecular and intramolecular transfer of electrons is not only of intrinsic interest but is necessary to understand the regulation of the overall oxidation-reduction processes in which cytochromes P450 participate in the endoplasmic reticulum of many organs. In the present study, urea has been employed as a chaotropic agent to study the dissociation of flavins from NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. The results show that dissociation of FMN occurs at concentrations of urea between 0 and 1 M and that, as the concentrations of urea approach 1 M, the intrinsic protein fluorescence increases, indicating a change in protein conformation. Above 2 M urea protein fluorescence increases, reaching a plateau at 3 M urea, and FAD begins to dissociate from the enzyme. In the range of 0-1 M urea, a completely reversible dissociation of FMN occurs and, at 3 M urea, the fluorescence values representing flavin dissociation and protein conformation changes have reached a maximum. Thus, the definition of various states of the flavoprotein with both, one, or no flavins bound and the ability to remove the flavins reversibly under specific conditions have permitted the construction of a simple model to explain the various unfolding intermediates of this enzyme. Our experiments suggest that reductase is composed of distinct domains which can be examined independently by the application of chaotropic agents.

  8. Distinct Conformational Behaviors of Four Mammalian Dual-Flavin Reductases (Cytochrome P450 Reductase, Methionine Synthase Reductase, Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase, Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase) Determine their Unique Catalytic Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Mohammad Mahfuzul; Bayachou, Mekki; Tejero, Jesus; Kenney, Claire; Pearl, Naw May; Im, Sang-Choul; Waskell, Lucy; Stuehr, Dennis J.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-domain enzymes often rely on large conformational motions to function. However, the conformational setpoints, rates of domain motions, and relationships between these parameters and catalytic activity is not well understood. To address this, we determined and compared the conformational setpoints and the rates of conformational switching between closed unreactive and open reactive states in four mammalian di-flavin NADPH oxidoreductases that catalyze important biological electron transfer reactions: cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR), methionine synthase reductase (MSR), and endothelial and neuronal NO synthase (eNOS & nNOS). We used stopped-flow spectroscopy, single turnover methods, and a kinetic model that relates electron flux through each enzyme to its conformational setpoint and its rates of conformational switching. Results show that the four flavoproteins, when fully-reduced, have a broad range of conformational setpoints (from 12 to 72% open state) and also vary 100-fold regarding their rates of conformational switching between unreactive closed and reactive open states (CPR > nNOS > MSR > eNOS). Furthermore, simulations of the kinetic model could explain how each flavoprotein can support its given rate of electron flux (cytochrome c reductase activity) based on its unique conformational setpoint and switching rates. Our study is the first to quantify these conformational parameters among the di-flavin enzymes, and suggests how the parameters might be manipulated to speed or slow biological electron flux. PMID:25265015

  9. Biochemical Characterization of StyAB from Pseudomonas sp. Strain VLB120 as a Two-Component Flavin-Diffusible Monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Katja; Hofstetter, Karin; Röthlisberger, Martina; Witholt, Bernard; Schmid, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. VLB120 uses styrene as a sole source of carbon and energy. The first step in this metabolic pathway is catalyzed by an oxygenase (StyA) and a NADH-flavin oxidoreductase (StyB). Both components have been isolated from wild-type Pseudomonas strain VLB120 as well as from recombinant Escherichia coli. StyA from both sources is a dimer, with a subunit size of 47 kDa, and catalyzes the enantioselective epoxidation of C=C double bonds. Styrene is exclusively converted to S-styrene oxide with a specific activity of 2.1 U mg−1 (kcat = 1.6 s−1) and Km values for styrene of 0.45 ± 0.05 mM (wild type) and 0.38 ± 0.09 mM (recombinant). The epoxidation reaction depends on the presence of a NADH-flavin adenine dinucleotide (NADH-FAD) oxidoreductase for the supply of reduced FAD. StyB is a dimer with a molecular mass of 18 kDa and a NADH oxidation activity of 200 U mg−1 (kcat [NADH] = 60 s−1). Steady-state kinetics determined for StyB indicate a mechanism of sequential binding of NADH and flavin to StyB. This enzyme reduces FAD as well as flavin mononucleotide and riboflavin. The NADH oxidation activity does not depend on the presence of StyA. During the epoxidation reaction, no formation of a complex of StyA and StyB has been observed, suggesting that electron transport between reductase and oxygenase occurs via a diffusing flavin. PMID:15292130

  10. Spectroscopic and kinetic properties of a recombinant form of the flavin domain of spinach NADH: nitrate reductase.

    PubMed

    Quinn, G B; Trimboli, A J; Prosser, I M; Barber, M J

    1996-03-01

    The C-terminal 268 residues of the spinach assimilatory NADH:nitrate reductase amino acid sequence that correspond to the flavin-containing domain of the enzyme have been selectively amplified and expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein, which was produced in both soluble and insoluble forms, was purified to homogeneity using a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation, affinity chromatography on 5'-ADP-agarose and FPLC gel filtration. The purified domain exhibited a molecular weight of approximately 30 kDa, estimated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and a molecular mass of 30,169 for the apoprotein determined by mass spectrometry, which also confirmed the presence of FAD. The UV/visible spectrum was typical of a flavoprotein, with maxima at 272, 386, and 461 nm in the oxidized form while CD spectroscopy yielded both positive and negative maxima at 313 and 382 nm and 461 and 484 nm, respectively. The purified domain showed immunological cross-reactivity with anti-spinach nitrate reductase polyclonal antibodies while both N-terminal and internal amino acid sequencing of isolated peptides confirmed the fidelity of the domain's primary sequence. The protein retained NADH-ferricyanide reductase activity (Vmax=84 micromol NADH consumer/min/nmol FAD) with Km's of 17 and 34 microM for NADH and ferricyanide, respectively, with a pH optimum of approximately 6.5 A variety of NADH-analogs could also function as electron donors, though with decreased efficiency, the most effective being reduced nicotinamide hypoxanthine dinucleotide (V(max) = 35 micromol NHDH consumer/min/nmol FAD) and Km = 22 microM). NAD+ was demonstrated to be a competitive inhibitor (Ki = 1.9 mM) while analysis of inhibition by a variety of NAD+-analogs indicated the most efficient inhibitor to be ADP (Ki = 0.2 mM), with analogs devoid of either the phosphate, ribose, or adenine moieties proving to be markedly less-efficient inhibitors. The isolated domain

  11. Deficiency of two red-cell flavin enzymes in a population in Sardinia: was glutathione reductase deficiency specifically selected for by malaria?

    PubMed

    Anderson, B B; Corda, L; Perry, G M; Pilato, D; Giuberti, M; Vullo, C

    1995-09-01

    In two areas in Italy where malaria was endemic--in the Po delta and Maremma on the west coast--we have found a high prevalence of an inherited flavin-deficient red cell in the normal population, suggesting selection by malaria. This study in Sardinia enabled a direct comparison of red-cell activities of FAD-dependent glutathione reductase (EGR) and FMN-dependent pyridoxine phosphate (PNP) oxidase in an ethnically homogeneous population, between two coastal villages where malaria was endemic from 300 B.C. and two mountain villages with no history of malaria. Both enzyme activities were significantly lower on the coast, and it did not seem that this could be explained by possible small differences in dietary riboflavin. As was thought to be the case in Ferrara and Grosseto, it is probable that a genetically controlled flavin-deficient red cell was selected for by malaria. Low EGR apoenzyme activity was more common on the coast, usually explaining the accompanying low basic EGR activity, and may also have been selected for by malaria. This adds to evidence from others that the mechanism of defence of a flavin-deficient red cell against malaria may be through EGR deficiency. It could also play a part in the protection given by heterozygous beta-thalassemia. The multifactorial protection of the population against malaria is discussed.

  12. Camphor Pathway Redux: Functional Recombinant Expression of 2,5- and 3,6-Diketocamphane Monooxygenases of Pseudomonas putida ATCC 17453 with Their Cognate Flavin Reductase Catalyzing Baeyer-Villiger Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Iwaki, Hiroaki; Grosse, Stephan; Bergeron, Hélène; Leisch, Hannes; Morley, Krista; Hasegawa, Yoshie

    2013-01-01

    Whereas the biochemical properties of the monooxygenase components that catalyze the oxidation of 2,5-diketocamphane and 3,6-diketocamphane (2,5-DKCMO and 3,6-DKCMO, respectively) in the initial catabolic steps of (+) and (−) isomeric forms of camphor (CAM) metabolism in Pseudomonas putida ATCC 17453 are relatively well characterized, the actual identity of the flavin reductase (Fred) component that provides the reduced flavin to the oxygenases has hitherto been ill defined. In this study, a 37-kDa Fred was purified from a camphor-induced culture of P. putida ATCC 17453 and this facilitated cloning and characterization of the requisite protein. The active Fred is a homodimer with a subunit molecular weight of 18,000 that uses NADH as an electron donor (Km = 32 μM), and it catalyzes the reduction of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) (Km = 3.6 μM; kcat = 283 s−1) in preference to flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) (Km = 19 μM; kcat = 128 s−1). Sequence determination of ∼40 kb of the CAM degradation plasmid revealed the locations of two isofunctional 2,5-DKCMO genes (camE25–1 for 2,5-DKCMO-1 and camE25–2 for 2,5-DKCMO-2) as well as that of a 3,6-DKCMO-encoding gene (camE36). In addition, by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, the CAM plasmid was established to be linear and ∼533 kb in length. To enable functional assessment of the two-component monooxygenase system in Baeyer-Villiger oxidations, recombinant plasmids expressing Fred in tandem with the respective 2,5-DKCMO- and 3,6-DKCMO-encoding genes in Escherichia coli were constructed. Comparative substrate profiling of the isofunctional 2,5-DCKMOs did not yield obvious differences in Baeyer-Villiger biooxidations, but they are distinct from 3,6-DKCMO in the stereoselective oxygenations with various mono- and bicyclic ketone substrates. PMID:23524667

  13. Role of a novel dual flavin reductase (NR1) and an associated histidine triad protein (DCS-1) in menadione-induced cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Kwasnicka-Crawford, Dorota A.; Vincent, Steven R. . E-mail: svincent@interchg.ubc.ca

    2005-10-21

    Microsomal cytochrome P450 reductase catalyzes the one-electron transfer from NADPH via FAD and FMN to various electron acceptors, such as cytochrome P450s or to some anti-cancer quinone drugs. This results in generation of free radicals and toxic oxygen metabolites, which can contribute to the cytotoxicity of these compounds. Recently, a cytosolic NADPH-dependent flavin reductase, NR1, has been described which is highly homologous to the microsomal cytochrome P450 reductase. In this study, we show that over-expression of NR1 in human embryonic kidney cells enhances the cytotoxic action of the model quinone, menadione. Furthermore, we show that a novel human histidine triad protein DCS-1, which is expressed together with NR1 in many tissues, can significantly reduce menadione-induced cytotoxicity in these cells. We also show that DCS-1 binds NF1 and directly modulates its activity. These results suggest that NR1 may play a role in carcinogenicity and cell death associated with one-electron reductions.

  14. Expression, purification, and characterization of a recombinant flavin reductase from the luminescent marine bacterium Photobacterium leiognathi: A set of exercises for students.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Thomas E

    2010-05-01

    In Photobacterium, the flavin reductase encoded by luxG regenerates the reduced form of flavin mononucleotide (FMN). Reduced FMN is one of the substrates of the luciferase enzyme that catalyzes a light-emitting reaction. A set of experiments, that employs a luxG-expression plasmid construct (pGhis) and is suitable for an undergraduate laboratory course, is presented. Hexahistidine-tagged protein is expressed in E. coli from pGhis, with the T7 RNA polymerase/lac repressor induction system. Bacteria are lysed by sonication and the tag allows for purification by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. A gel filtration column is used to remove ions and the other small molecules. The Bradford assay, with multiwell plates and an automated plate reader, is used to identify protein concentration peaks from both columns. The concentration of purified enzyme is then calculated from its A(280) using the predicted extinction coefficient. Yield and purity are further assayed with SDS-PAGE. Activity of purified enzyme is measured with riboflavin or FMN as substrate. Reaction rate is quantified by monitoring decrease in A(340) as the redox partner, NADH, is oxidized.

  15. Fundamental Role of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase 677 C → T Genotype and Flavin Compounds in Biochemical Phenotypes for Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Fryar-Williams, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The Mental Health Biomarker Project (2010–2016) explored variables for psychosis in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Blood samples from 67, highly characterized symptomatic cases and 67 gender and age matched control participants were analyzed for methyl tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C → T gene variants and for vitamin B6, B12 and D, folate, unbound copper, zinc cofactors for enzymes in the methylation cycle, and related catecholamine pathways. Urine samples were analyzed for indole-catecholamines, their metabolites, and oxidative-stress marker, hydroxylpyrolline-2-one (HPL). Rating scales were Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Global Assessment of Function scale, Clinical Global Impression (CGI) score, and Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS). Analysis used Spearman’s correlates, receiver operating characteristics and structural equation modeling (SEM). The correlative pattern of variables in the overall participant sample strongly implicated monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzyme inactivity so the significant role of MAO’s cofactor flavin adenine nucleotide and its precursor flavin adenine mononucleotide (FMN) within the biochemical pathways was investigated and confirmed as 71% on SEM of the total sample. Splitting the data sets for MTHFR 677C → T polymorphism variants coding for the MTHFR enzyme, discovered that biochemistry variables relating to the wild-type enzyme differed markedly in pattern from those coded by the homozygous variant and that the hereozygous-variant pattern resembled the wild-type-coded pattern. The MTHFR 677C → T-wild and -heterozygous gene variants have a pattern of depleted vitamin cofactors characteristic of flavin insufficiency with under-methylation and severe oxidative stress. The second homozygous MTHFR 677TT pattern related to elevated copper:zinc ratio and a vitamin pattern related to flavin sufficiency and risk of over-methylation. The

  16. Oxidation--reduction midpoint potentials of the flavin, haem and Mo-pterin centres in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) nitrate reductase.

    PubMed Central

    Kay, C J; Barber, M J; Notton, B A; Solomonson, L P

    1989-01-01

    Oxidation-reduction midpoint potentials have been determined for the flavin, cytochrome b557 and Mo-pterin prosthetic groups of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) assimilatory nitrate reductase using visible, c.d. and room-temperature e.p.r. potentiometric titrations. At pH 7 and 25 degrees C, the midpoint potential for the FAD/FADH2 couple was determined by c.d. potentiometry to be -280 +/- 10 mV (n = 2). The redox potential for reduction of the haem was determined by visible potentiometry to be -123 +/- 10 mV (n = 1), significantly lower than the previously published value of -60 mV [Fido, Hewitt, Notton, Jones & Nasrulhaq-Boyce (1979) FEBS Lett. 99, 180-182]. Potentials for the Mo(VI)/Mo(V) and Mo(V)/Mo(IV) redox couples, determined by room-temperature e.p.r. potentiometry, were found to be +2 +/- 20 and -6 +/- 20 mV respectively. These values are very similar to the values previously determined for the FAD, haem and Mo-pterin centres in assimilatory nitrate reductase isolated from the unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris and indicate a close thermodynamic similarity between the two enzymes. PMID:2604699

  17. Kinetics of flavin semiquinone reduction of the components of the cytochrome c-cytochrome b5 complex.

    PubMed

    Eltis, L; Mauk, A G; Hazzard, J T; Cusanovich, M A; Tollin, G

    1988-07-26

    The kinetics of flavin semiquinone reduction of the components of the 1:1 complex formed by cytochrome c with either cytochrome b5 or a derivative of cytochrome b5 in which the heme propionates are esterified (DME-cytochrome b5) have been studied. The rate constant for the reduction of horse heart cytochrome c by the electrostatically neutral lumiflavin semiquinone (LfH) is unaffected by complexation with native cytochrome b5 at pH 7. However, complex formation with DME-cytochrome b5 (pH 7) decreases by 35% the rate constant for cytochrome c reduction by LfH. At pH 8, complex formation with native cytochrome b5 decreases the rate constant for cytochrome c reduction by LfH markedly, whereas the rate constant for cytochrome c reduction, either unbound or in the complex formed with DME-cytochrome b5, is increased 2-fold relative to pH 7. These results indicate that the accessibility of the cytochrome c heme is not the same in the complexes formed with the two cytochrome b5 derivatives and that the docking geometry of the complex formed by the two native cytochromes is pH dependent. Binding of horse heart and tuna cytochromes c to native and DME-cytochromes b5 decreases the rate constants for reduction of cytochrome c by the negatively charged flavin mononucleotide semiquinone (FMNH) by approximately 30% and approximately 40%, respectively. This finding is attributed to substantial neutralization of the positive electrostatic potential surface of cytochrome c that occurs when it binds to either form of cytochrome b5.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Catalytic activity of the two-component flavin-dependent monooxygenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa toward cinnamic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Toshiki; Kino, Kuniki

    2014-02-01

    4-Hydroxyphenylacetate 3-hydroxylases (HPAHs) of the two-component flavin-dependent monooxygenase family are attractive enzymes that possess the catalytic potential to synthesize valuable ortho-diphenol compounds from simple monophenol compounds. In this study, we investigated the catalytic activity of HPAH from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 toward cinnamic acid derivatives. We prepared Escherichia coli cells expressing the hpaB gene encoding the monooxygenase component and the hpaC gene encoding the oxidoreductase component. E. coli cells expressing HpaBC exhibited no or very low oxidation activity toward cinnamic acid, o-coumaric acid, and m-coumaric acid, whereas they rapidly oxidized p-coumaric acid to caffeic acid. Interestingly, after p-coumaric acid was almost completely consumed, the resulting caffeic acid was further oxidized to 3,4,5-trihydroxycinnamic acid. In addition, HpaBC exhibited oxidation activity toward 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid, ferulic acid, and coniferaldehyde to produce the corresponding ortho-diphenols. We also investigated a flask-scale production of caffeic acid from p-coumaric acid as the model reaction for HpaBC-catalyzed syntheses of hydroxycinnamic acids. Since the initial concentrations of the substrate p-coumaric acid higher than 40 mM markedly inhibited its HpaBC-catalyzed oxidation, the reaction was carried out by repeatedly adding 20 mM of this substrate to the reaction mixture. Furthermore, by using the HpaBC whole-cell catalyst in the presence of glycerol, our experimental setup achieved the high-yield production of caffeic acid, i.e., 56.6 mM (10.2 g/L) within 24 h. These catalytic activities of HpaBC will provide an easy and environment-friendly synthetic approach to hydroxycinnamic acids.

  19. Flavin-Dependent Enzymes in Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Wojcieszyńska, Danuta; Hupert-Kocurek, Katarzyna; Guzik, Urszula

    2012-01-01

    Statistical studies have demonstrated that various agents may reduce the risk of cancer’s development. One of them is activity of flavin-dependent enzymes such as flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO)GS-OX1, FAD-dependent 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and flavin-dependent monoamine oxidase. In the last decade, many papers concerning their structure, reaction mechanism and role in the cancer prevention were published. In our work, we provide a more in-depth analysis of flavin-dependent enzymes and their contribution to the cancer prevention. We present the actual knowledge about the glucosinolate synthesized by flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO)GS-OX1 and its role in cancer prevention, discuss the influence of mutations in FAD-dependent 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase on the cancer risk, and describe FAD as an important cofactor for the demethylation of histons. We also present our views on the role of riboflavin supplements in the prevention against cancer. PMID:23222680

  20. Recombinant expression and biochemical characterization of an NADPH:flavin oxidoreductase from Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Bruchhaus, I; Richter, S; Tannich, E

    1998-01-01

    The gene encoding a putative NADPH:flavin oxidoreductase of the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica (Eh34) was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant protein (recEh34) has a molecular mass of about 35 kDa upon SDS/PAGE analysis, exhibits a flavoprotein-like absorption spectrum and contains 1 mol of non-covalently bound FMN per mol of protein. RecEh34 reveals two different enzymic activities. It catalyses the NADPH-dependent reduction of oxygen to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), as well as of disulphides such as 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) and cystine. The disulphide reductase but not the H2O2-forming NADPH oxidase activity is inhibitable by sulphydryl-active compounds, indicating that a thiol component is part of the active site for the disulphide reductase activity, whereas for the H2O2-forming NADPH oxidase activity only the flavin is required. Compared with the recombinant protein, similar activities are present in amoebic extracts. Native Eh34 is active in a monomeric as well as in a dimeric state. In contrast to recEh34, no flavin was associated with the native protein. However, both NADPH oxidase as well as DTNB reductase activity were found to be dependent on the addition of FAD or FMN. PMID:9494088

  1. Structure and general properties of flavins.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Flavins are a family of yellow-colored compounds with the basic structure of 7,8-dimethyl-10-alkylisoalloxazine. Riboflavin, commonly known as vitamin B2, is an essential component of living organisms and is the precursor of all biologically important flavins. In this chapter, the redox properties of flavins are described, with special emphasis in their ability to participate in both one-electron and two-electron transfer processes; hence, flavins are indispensable mediators between two-electron and one-electron processes in biological systems. The photophysical and photochemical properties of flavins are also discussed. All oxidized flavins exhibit strong absorption in the ultraviolet and visible regions and an intense yellow-green fluorescence (in their neutral oxidized form). Flavins are thermostable compounds; however, they are photosensitive. In the absence of an external reductant, the isoalloxazine ring system undergoes intramolecular photoreduction. Some flavins are efficient photosensitizers; they can induce photomodifications of compounds that are not directly modified by visible light.

  2. Interaction of glutathione reductase with heavy metal: the binding of Hg(II) or Cd(II) to the reduced enzyme affects both the redox dithiol pair and the flavin.

    PubMed

    Picaud, Thierry; Desbois, Alain

    2006-12-26

    To determine the inhibition mechanism of yeast glutathione reductase (GR) by heavy metal, we have compared the electronic absorption and resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the enzyme in its oxidized (Eox) and two-electron reduced (EH2) forms, in the absence and the presence of Hg(II) or Cd(II). The spectral data clearly show a redox dependence of the metal binding. The metal ions do not affect the absorption and RR spectra of Eox. On the contrary, the EH2 spectra, generated by addition of NADPH, are strongly modified by the presence of heavy metal. The absorption changes of EH2 are metal-dependent. On the one hand, the main flavin band observed at 450 nm for EH2 is red-shifted at 455 nm for the EH2-Hg(II) complex and at 451 nm for the EH2-Cd(II) complex. On the other hand, the characteristic charge-transfer (CT) band at 540 nm is quenched upon metal binding to EH2. In NADPH excess, a new CT band is observed at 610 nm for the EH2-Hg(II)-NADPH complex and at 590 nm for EH2-Cd(II)-NADPH. The RR spectra of the EH2-metal complexes are not sensitive to the NADPH concentration. With reference to the RR spectra of EH2 in which the frequencies of bands II and III were observed at 1582 and 1547 cm-1, respectively, those of the EH2-metal complexes are detected at 1577 and 1542 cm-1, indicating an increased flavin bending upon metal coordination to EH2. From the frequency shifts of band III, a concomitant weakening of the H-bonding state of the N5 atom is also deduced. Taking into account the different chemical properties of Hg(II) and Cd(II), the coordination number of the bound metal ion was deduced to be different in GR. A mechanism of the GR inhibition is proposed. It proceeds primarily by a specific binding of the metal to the redox thiol/thiolate pair and the catalytic histidine of EH2. The bound metal ion then acts on the bending of the isoalloxazine ring of FAD as well as on the hydrophobicity of its microenvironment.

  3. Synthesis of nitrate reductase components in chlorate-resistant mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, C H

    1975-01-01

    Specific antibody to purified nitrate reductase from Escherichia coli was used to identify enzyme components present in mutants which lack functional nitrate reductase. chlA and B mutants contained all three subunits present in the wild-type enzyme. Different peptides with a broad range of molecular weights could be precipitated from chlCmutants, and chlE mutants contained either slightly degraded enzyme subunits or no precipitable protein. No mutants produced significant amounts of cytoplasmic enzyme. The chlA and B loci are suggested to function in the synthesis and attachment of a molybdenum-containing factor. The chlC locus is suggested to be the structural gene for nitrate reductase subunit A and chlE is suggested to be involved in the synthesis of the cytochrome b1 apoprotein. PMID:1090592

  4. Biochemical Characterization of Inducible 'Reductase' Component of Benzoate Dioxygenase and Phthalate Isomer Dioxygenases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PP4.

    PubMed

    Karandikar, Rohini; Badri, Abinaya; Phale, Prashant S

    2015-09-01

    The first step involved in the degradation of phthalate isomers (phthalate, isophthalate and terephthalate) is the double hydroxylation by respective aromatic-ring hydroxylating dioxygenases. These are two component enzymes consisting of 'oxygenase' and 'reductase' components. Soil isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PP4 degrades phthalate isomers via protocatechuate and benzoate via catechol 'ortho' ring cleavage pathway. Metabolic studies suggest that strain PP4 has carbon source-specific inducible phthalate isomer dioxygenase and benzoate dioxygenase. Thus, it was of interest to study the properties of reductase components of these enzymes. Reductase activity from phthalate isomer-grown cells was 3-5-folds higher than benzoate grown cells. In-gel activity staining profile showed a reductase activity band of R f 0.56 for phthalate isomer-grown cells as compared to R f 0.73 from benzoate-grown cells. Partially purified reductase components from phthalate isomer grown cells showed K m in the range of 30-40 μM and V max = 34-48 μmol min(-1) mg(-1). However, reductase from benzoate grown cells showed K m = 49 μM and V max = 10 μmol min(-1) mg(-1). Strikingly similar molecular and kinetic properties of reductase component from phthalate isomer-grown cells suggest that probably the same reductase component is employed in three phthalate isomer dioxygenases. However, reductase component is different, with respect to kinetic properties and zymogram analysis, from benzoate-grown cells when compared to that from phthalate isomer grown cells of PP4.

  5. Engineering Styrene Monooxygenase for Biocatalysis: Reductase-Epoxidase Fusion Proteins.

    PubMed

    Heine, Thomas; Tucker, Kathryn; Okonkwo, Nonye; Assefa, Berhanegebriel; Conrad, Catleen; Scholtissek, Anika; Schlömann, Michael; Gassner, George; Tischler, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    The enantioselective epoxidation of styrene and related compounds by two-component styrene monooxygenases (SMOs) has targeted these enzymes for development as biocatalysts. In the present work, we prepare genetically engineered fusion proteins that join the C-terminus of the epoxidase (StyA) to the N-terminus of the reductase (StyB) through a linker peptide and demonstrate their utility as biocatalysts in the synthesis of Tyrain purple and other indigoid dyes. A single-vector expression system offers a simplified platform for transformation and expansion of the catalytic function of styrene monooxygenases, and the resulting fusion proteins are self-regulated and couple efficiently NADH oxidation to styrene epoxidation. We find that the reductase domain proceeds through a sequential ternary-complex mechanism at low FAD concentration and a double-displacement mechanism at higher concentrations of FAD. Single-turnover studies indicate an observed rate constant for FAD-to-FAD hydride transfer of ~8 s(-1). This step is rate limiting in the styrene epoxidation reaction and helps to ensure that flavin reduction and styrene epoxidation reactions proceed without wasteful side reactions. Comparison of the reductase activity of the fusion proteins with the naturally occurring reductase, SMOB, and N-terminally histidine-tagged reductase, NSMOB, suggests that the observed changes in catalytic mechanism are due in part to an increase in flavin-binding affinity associated with the N-terminal extension of the reductase.

  6. Robust in vitro activity of RebF and RebH, a two-component reductase/halogenase, generating 7-chlorotryptophan during rebeccamycin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Ellen; Garneau, Sylvie; Walsh, Christopher T.

    2005-01-01

    The indolocarbazole antitumor agent rebeccamycin is modified by chlorine atoms on each of two indole moieties of the aglycone scaffold. These halogens are incorporated during the initial step of its biosynthesis from conversion of l-Trp to 7-chlorotryptophan. Two genes in the biosynthetic cluster, rebF and rebH, are predicted to encode the flavin reductase and halogenase components of an FADH2-dependent halogenase, a class of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of numerous halogenated natural products. Here, we report that, in the presence of O2, chloride ion, and l-Trp as cosubstrates, purified RebH displays robust regiospecific halogenating activity to generate 7-chlorotryptophan over at least 50 catalytic cycles. Halogenation by RebH required the addition of RebF, which catalyzes the NADH-dependent reduction of FAD to provide FADH2 for the halogenase. Maximal rates were achieved at a RebF/RebH ratio of 3:1. In air-saturated solutions, a kcat of 1.4 min–1 was observed for the RebF/RebH system but increased at least 10-fold in low-pO2 conditions. RebH was also able to use bromide ions to generate monobrominated Trp. The demonstration of robust chlorinating activity by RebF/RebH sets up this system for the probing of mechanistic questions regarding this intriguing class of enzymes. PMID:15743914

  7. A Two-component NADPH Oxidase (NOX)-like System in Bacteria Is Involved in the Electron Transfer Chain to the Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase MsrP.

    PubMed

    Juillan-Binard, Céline; Picciocchi, Antoine; Andrieu, Jean-Pierre; Dupuy, Jerome; Petit-Hartlein, Isabelle; Caux-Thang, Christelle; Vivès, Corinne; Nivière, Vincent; Fieschi, Franck

    2017-02-10

    MsrPQ is a newly identified methionine sulfoxide reductase system found in bacteria, which appears to be specifically involved in the repair of periplasmic proteins oxidized by hypochlorous acid. It involves two proteins: a periplasmic one, MsrP, previously named YedY, carrying out the Msr activity, and MsrQ, an integral b-type heme membrane-spanning protein, which acts as the specific electron donor to MsrP. MsrQ, previously named YedZ, was mainly characterized by bioinformatics as a member of the FRD superfamily of heme-containing membrane proteins, which include the NADPH oxidase proteins (NOX/DUOX). Here we report a detailed biochemical characterization of the MsrQ protein from Escherichia coli We optimized conditions for the overexpression and membrane solubilization of an MsrQ-GFP fusion and set up a purification scheme allowing the production of pure MsrQ. Combining UV-visible spectroscopy, heme quantification, and site-directed mutagenesis of histidine residues, we demonstrated that MsrQ is able to bind two b-type hemes through the histidine residues conserved between the MsrQ and NOX protein families. In addition, we identify the E. coli flavin reductase Fre, which is related to the dehydrogenase domain of eukaryotic NOX enzymes, as an efficient cytosolic electron donor to the MsrQ heme moieties. Cross-linking experiments as well as surface Plasmon resonance showed that Fre interacts with MsrQ to form a specific complex. Taken together, these data support the identification of the first prokaryotic two-component protein system related to the eukaryotic NOX family and involved in the reduction of periplasmic oxidized proteins. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. H-tunneling in the multiple H-transfers of the catalytic cycle of morphinone reductase and in the reductive half-reaction of the homologous pentaerythritol tetranitrate reductase.

    PubMed

    Basran, Jaswir; Harris, Richard J; Sutcliffe, Michael J; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2003-11-07

    The mechanism of flavin reduction in morphinone reductase (MR) and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) reductase, and flavin oxidation in MR, has been studied by stopped-flow and steady-state kinetic methods. The temperature dependence of the primary kinetic isotope effect for flavin reduction in MR and PETN reductase by nicotinamide coenzyme indicates that quantum mechanical tunneling plays a major role in hydride transfer. In PETN reductase, the kinetic isotope effect (KIE) is essentially independent of temperature in the experimentally accessible range, contrasting with strongly temperature-dependent reaction rates, consistent with a tunneling mechanism from the vibrational ground state of the reactive C-H/D bond. In MR, both the reaction rates and the KIE are dependent on temperature, and analysis using the Eyring equation suggests that hydride transfer has a major tunneling component, which, unlike PETN reductase, is gated by thermally induced vibrations in the protein. The oxidative half-reaction of MR is fully rate-limiting in steady-state turnover with the substrate 2-cyclohexenone and NADH at saturating concentrations. The KIE for hydride transfer from reduced flavin to the alpha/beta unsaturated bond of 2-cyclohexenone is independent of temperature, contrasting with strongly temperature-dependent reaction rates, again consistent with ground-state tunneling. A large solvent isotope effect (SIE) accompanies the oxidative half-reaction, which is also independent of temperature in the experimentally accessible range. Double isotope effects indicate that hydride transfer from the flavin N5 atom to 2-cyclohexenone, and the protonation of 2-cyclohexenone, are concerted and both the temperature-independent KIE and SIE suggest that this reaction also proceeds by ground-state quantum tunneling. Our results demonstrate the importance of quantum tunneling in the reduction of flavins by nicotinamide coenzymes. This is the first observation of (i) three H-nuclei in an

  9. Flavin-dependent halogenases involved in secondary metabolism in bacteria.

    PubMed

    van Pée, Karl-Heinz; Patallo, Eugenio P

    2006-05-01

    The understanding of biological halogenation has increased during the last few years. While haloperoxidases were the only halogenating enzymes known until 1997, it is now clear that haloperoxidases are hardly, if at all, involved in biosynthesis of more complex halogenated compounds in microorganisms. A novel type of halogenating enzymes, flavin-dependent halogenases, has been identified as a major player in the introduction of chloride and bromide into activated organic molecules. Flavin-dependent halogenases require the activity of a flavin reductase for the production of reduced flavin, required by the actual halogenase. A number of flavin-dependent tryptophan halogenases have been investigated in some detail, and the first three-dimensional structure of a member of this enzyme subfamily, tryptophan 7-halogenase, has been elucidated. This structure suggests a mechanism involving the formation of hypohalous acid, which is used inside the enzyme for regioselective halogenation of the respective substrate. The introduction of halogen atoms into non-activated alkyl groups is catalysed by non-heme FeII alpha-ketoglutarate- and O2-dependent halogenases. Examples for the use of flavin-dependent halogenases for the formation of novel halogenated compounds in in vitro and in vivo reactions promise a bright future for the application of biological halogenation reactions.

  10. Purification and properties of NADH-ferredoxinNAP reductase, a component of naphthalene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816.

    PubMed Central

    Haigler, B E; Gibson, D T

    1990-01-01

    Cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816, after growth with naphthalene or salicylate, contain a multicomponent enzyme system that oxidizes naphthalene to cis-(1R,2S)-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydronaphthalene. We purified one of these components to homogeneity and found it to be an iron-sulfur flavoprotein that loses the flavin cofactor during purification. Dialysis against flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) showed that the enzyme bound 1 mol of FAD per mol of enzyme protein. The enzyme consisted of a single polypeptide with an apparent molecular weight of 36,300. The purified protein contained 1.8 g-atoms of iron and 2.0 g-atoms of acid-labile sulfur and showed absorption maxima at 278, 340, 420, and 460 nm, with a broad shoulder at 540 nm. The purified enzyme catalyzed the reduction of cytochrome c, dichlorophenolindophenol, Nitro Blue Tetrazolium, and ferricyanide. These activities were enhanced in the presence of added FAD. The ability of the enzyme to catalyze the reduction of the ferredoxin involved in naphthalene reduction and other electron acceptors indicates that it functions as an NAD(P)H-oxidoreductase in the naphthalene dioxygenase system. The results suggest that naphthalene dioxygenase requires two proteins with three redox groups to transfer electrons from NADH to the terminal oxygenase. Images FIG. 3 PMID:2294092

  11. Azo Reductase Activity of Intact Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells Is Dependent on the Fre1p Component of Plasma Membrane Ferric Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Ramalho, Patrícia A.; Paiva, Sandra; Cavaco-Paulo, A.; Casal, Margarida; Cardoso, M. Helena; Ramalho, M. Teresa

    2005-01-01

    Unspecific bacterial reduction of azo dyes is a process widely studied in correlation with the biological treatment of colored wastewaters, but the enzyme system associated with this bacterial capability has never been positively identified. Several ascomycete yeast strains display similar decolorizing behaviors. The yeast-mediated process requires an alternative carbon and energy source and is independent of previous exposure to the dyes. When substrate dyes are polar, their reduction is extracellular, strongly suggesting the involvement of an externally directed plasma membrane redox system. The present work demonstrates that, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the ferric reductase system participates in the extracellular reduction of azo dyes. The S. cerevisiae Δfre1 and Δfre1 Δfre2 mutant strains, but not the Δfre2 strain, showed much-reduced decolorizing capabilities. The FRE1 gene complemented the phenotype of S. cerevisiae Δfre1 cells, restoring the ability to grow in medium without externally added iron and to decolorize the dye, following a pattern similar to the one observed in the wild-type strain. These results suggest that under the conditions tested, Fre1p is a major component of the azo reductase activity. PMID:16000801

  12. Roles of the methane monooxygenase reductase component in the regulation of catalysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Nesheim, J C; Paulsen, K E; Stankovich, M T; Lipscomb, J D

    1997-04-29

    The reductase component (MMOR) of the soluble methane monooxygenase isolated from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b catalyzes transfer of 2e- from NADH to the hydroxylase component (MMOH) where oxygen activation and substrate oxidation occur. It is shown here that MMOR can also exert regulatory effects on catalysis by binding to MMOH or to the binary complex of MMOH and component B (MMOB), another regulatory protein. MMOR alters the oxidation-reduction potentials of the dinuclear iron cluster at the active site of MMOH. Although little change is observed in the potential for the first electron transfer to the cluster (E(1)0' = 76 mV), the E(2)0' potential value for the second electron transfer is increased from 21 to 125 mV. This shift provides a larger driving force for electron transfer from MMOR and favors transfer of two rather than one electron as required by catalysis. Similar positive shifts in potential are observed even in the presence of MMOB which has been shown to cause a 132 mV negative shift in the midpoint potential of MMOH in the absence of MMOR. MMOR is also shown to decrease the rate of reaction between the fully reduced MMOH-MMOB and O2 approximately 20-fold at 4 degrees C. However, the time course of the key catalytic cycle intermediate that can react with substates, compound Q, is unaffected. This implies a compensating faster decay of one or more of the intermediates that occur between diferrous MMOH and compound Q in the reaction cycle, thereby limiting potential nonproductive autodecay of these intermediates. Accordingly, an increase in single turnover product yield is observed in the presence of MMOR. Interestingly, MMOR can cause the redox potential increases, changes in rates, and the increase in product yield when present at only 10% of the concentration of MMOH active sites. Substrate binding is shown to induce negligible changes in the redox potentials. Two alternative regulatory schemes are presented based on (i) thermodynamic coupling

  13. Flavins secreted by roots of iron-deficient Beta vulgaris enable mining of ferric oxide via reductive mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sisó-Terraza, Patricia; Rios, Juan J; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación; Álvarez-Fernández, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is abundant in soils but generally poorly soluble. Plants, with the exception of Graminaceae, take up Fe using an Fe(III)-chelate reductase coupled to an Fe(II) transporter. Whether or not nongraminaceous species can convert scarcely soluble Fe(III) forms into soluble Fe forms has deserved little attention so far. We have used Beta vulgaris, one among the many species whose roots secrete flavins upon Fe deficiency, to study whether or not flavins are involved in Fe acquisition. Flavins secreted by Fe-deficient plants were removed from the nutrient solution, and plants were compared with Fe-sufficient plants and Fe-deficient plants without flavin removal. Solubilization of a scarcely soluble Fe(III)-oxide was assessed in the presence or absence of flavins, NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced form) or plant roots, and an Fe(II) trapping agent. The removal of flavins from the nutrient solution aggravated the Fe deficiency-induced leaf chlorosis. Flavins were able to dissolve an Fe(III)-oxide in the presence of NADH. The addition of extracellular flavins enabled roots of Fe-deficient plants to reductively dissolve an Fe(III)-oxide. We concluded that root-secretion of flavins improves Fe nutrition in B. vulgaris. Flavins allow B. vulgaris roots to mine Fe from Fe(III)-oxides via reductive mechanisms.

  14. Reduction Kinetics of a Flavin Oxidoreductase LuxG from Photobacterium leiognathi (TH1):Half Sites Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Nijvipakul, Sarayut; Ballou, David P.; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial bioluminescence is a phenomenon resulting from the reaction of a two-component FMN-dependent aldehyde monooxygenase system, which comprises a bacterial luciferase and a flavin reductase. Bacterial luciferase (LuxAB) is one of the most extensively investigated two-component monooxygenases, while its reductase partner, the flavin reductase (LuxG) from the same operon, has only been recently expressed in a functional form. This work reports transient kinetics identification of intermediates in the LuxG reaction using stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The results indicate that the overall reaction follows a sequential-ordered mechanism in which NADH binds first to the enzyme, followed by FMN, resulting in the formation of charge-transfer intermediate 1 (CT-1) typical of those between reduced pyridine nucleotides and oxidized flavins. The next step is the reduction of FMN as indicated by a large decrease in absorbance at 450 nm. The reduction of FMN is biphasic. The first phase of FMN reduction occurs concurrently with formation of charge-transfer intermediate 2 (CT-2), while the second phase is synchronous with the decay of CT-2. When the isotope-labeled substrate, 4(R) [2H]NADH, was used, the first reduction phase showed a primary kinetic isotope effect (Dkred) of ≥ 3.9 and resulted in greater accumulation of CT-1. These results are consistent with CT-1 being the FMNox:NADH complex, while CT-2 is the FMNred:NAD+ complex. Because CT-2 decays with a rate constant of 2.8 ± 0.2 s-1, while the turnover number obtained from the steady-steady state kinetics is 1.7 s-1, it is likely that the CT-2 decay step largely controls the overall reaction rate. All kinetic data are consistent with a half-sites reactivity model in which flavin reduction occurs at only at one subunit at a time. The first reduction phase is due to the reduction of FMN in first subunit, while the second phase is due to the reduction of FMN in the second subunit. The latter phase is limited by the

  15. Reduction kinetics of a flavin oxidoreductase LuxG from Photobacterium leiognathi (TH1): half-sites reactivity.

    PubMed

    Nijvipakul, Sarayut; Ballou, David P; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2010-11-02

    Bacterial bioluminescence is a phenomenon resulting from the reaction of a two-component FMN-dependent aldehyde monooxygenase system, which comprises a bacterial luciferase and a flavin reductase. Bacterial luciferase (LuxAB) is one of the most extensively investigated two-component monooxygenases, while its reductase partner, the flavin reductase (LuxG) from the same operon, has only been recently expressed in a functional form. This work reports transient kinetics identification of intermediates in the LuxG reaction using stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The results indicate that the overall reaction follows a sequential-ordered mechanism in which NADH binds first to the enzyme, followed by FMN, resulting in the formation of charge-transfer intermediate 1 (CT-1) typical of those between reduced pyridine nucleotides and oxidized flavins. The next step is the reduction of FMN as indicated by a large decrease in absorbance at 450 nm. The reduction of FMN is biphasic. The first phase of FMN reduction occurs concurrently with formation of charge-transfer intermediate 2 (CT-2), while the second phase is synchronous with the decay of CT-2. When the isotope-labeled substrate, 4(R)-[(2)H]NADH, was used, the first reduction phase showed a primary kinetic isotope effect ((D)k(red)) of ≥3.9 and resulted in greater accumulation of CT-1. These results are consistent with CT-1 being the FMN(ox):NADH complex, while CT-2 is the FMN(red):NAD(+) complex. Because CT-2 decays with a rate constant of 2.8 ± 0.2 s(-1), while the turnover number obtained from the steady-steady-state kinetics is 1.7 s(-1), it is likely that the CT-2 decay step largely controls the overall reaction rate. All kinetic data are consistent with a half-sites reactivity model in which flavin reduction occurs at only one subunit at a time. The first reduction phase is due to the reduction of FMN in the first subunit, while the second phase is due to the reduction of FMN in the second subunit. The latter phase

  16. The Application Of Picosecond-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy In The Study Of Flavins And Flavoproteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, Antonie J.; van Hoek, Arie

    1988-06-01

    Picosecond relaxation processes of flavins and flavoproteins were investigated with mode-locked and synchronously pumped lasers as source of excitation and time-correlated single photon counting in detection. Free flavin rotational correlation times of 80-150 ps (values depending on the flavin derivative used) could be precisely determined. Picosecond-resolved fluorescence of the flavin bound in the electron-carrier protein flavodoxin from Desulfovibrio vulgaris yields a fluorescence lifetime component of 30 ps in the fluorescence decay. Time-resolved tryptophan fluorescence in flavodoxin exhibits a short lifetime component, which is attributed in part to energy transfer from tryptophan to flavin. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence anisotropy decay analysis of the two tryptophan residues in flavodoxin provide new evidence for specific flavin-tryptophan interaction. Finally, picosecond-resolved spectroscopy enables the direct measurement of energy transfer between two different chromophores in a protein, from which topographical details can be inferred.

  17. The Diverse Roles of Flavin Coenzymes - Nature’s Most Versatile Thespians

    PubMed Central

    Mansoorabadi, Steven O.; Thibodeaux, Christopher J.; Liu, Hung-wen

    2008-01-01

    Flavin coenzymes play a variety of roles in biological systems. This Perspective highlights the chemical versatility of flavins by reviewing research on five flavoenzymes that have been studied in our laboratory. Each of the enzymes discussed in this review (the acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACDs), CDP-6-deoxy-L-threo-D-glycero-4-hexulose-3-dehydrase reductase (E3), CDP-4-aceto-3,6-dideoxygalactose synthase (YerE), UDP-galactopyranose mutase (UGM), and type II isopentenyl diphosphate:dimethylallyl diphosphate isomerase (IDI-2)) utilize flavin in a distinct role. In particular, the catalytic mechanisms of two of these enzymes, UGM and IDI-2, may involve novel flavin chemistry. PMID:17580897

  18. Components of glycine reductase from Eubacterium acidaminophilum. Cloning, sequencing and identification of the genes for thioredoxin reductase, thioredoxin and selenoprotein PA.

    PubMed

    Lübbers, M; Andreesen, J R

    1993-10-15

    The genes encoding thioredoxin reductase (trxB), thioredoxin (trxA), protein PA of glycine reductase (grdA) and the first 23 amino acids of the large subunit of protein PC of glycine reductase (grdC) belonging to the reductive deamination systems present in Eubacterium acidaminophilum were cloned and sequenced. The proteins were products of closely linked genes with 314 codons (thioredoxin reductase), 110 codons (thioredoxin), and 158 codons (protein PA). The protein previously called 'atypically small lipoamide dehydrogenase' or 'electron transferring flavoprotein' could now conclusively be identified as a thioredoxin reductase (subunit mass of 34781 Da) by the alignment with the enzyme of Escherichia coli showing the same typical order of the corresponding domains. The thioredoxin (molecular mass of 11742 Da) deviated considerably from the known consensus sequence, even in the most strongly conserved redox-active segment WCGPC that was now GCVPC. The selenocysteine of protein PA (molecular mass of 16609 Da) was encoded by TGA. The protein was highly similar to those of Clostridium purinolyticum and Clostridium sticklandii involved in glycine reductase. Thioredoxin reductase and thioredoxin of E. acidaminophilum could be successfully expressed in E. coli.

  19. Methane monooxygenase component B and reductase alter the regioselectivity of the hydroxylase component-catalyzed reactions. A novel role for protein-protein interactions in an oxygenase mechanism.

    PubMed

    Froland, W A; Andersson, K K; Lee, S K; Liu, Y; Lipscomb, J D

    1992-09-05

    The soluble methane monooxygenase (MMO) system, consisting of reductase, component B, and hydroxylase (MMOH), catalyzes NADH and O2-dependent monooxygenation of many hydrocarbons. MMOH contains 2 mu-(H or R)oxo-bridged dinuclear iron clusters thought to be the sites of catalysis. Although rapid NADH-coupled turnover requires all three protein components, three less complex systems are also functional: System I, NADH, O2, reductase, and MMOH; System II, H2O2 and oxidized MMOH; System III, MMOH reduced nonenzymatically by 2e- and then exposed to O2 (single turnover). All three systems give the same products, suggesting a common reactive oxygen species. However, the distribution of products observed for most substrates that are hydroxylated in more than one position is different for each system. For several of these substrates, addition of component B to Systems I, II, or III causes the product distributions to shift dramatically. These shifts result in identical product distributions for Systems I and III in which MMOH passes through the 2e- reduced state ([Fe(II).Fe(II)]) during catalysis. In contrast, System II (in which MMOH probably does not become reduced) generally gives a unique product distribution. It is proposed that changes in MMOH structure occurring upon diiron cluster reduction and/or component complex formation cause substrates to be presented differently to the activated oxygen species. Kinetic studies show that component B strongly activates System I and, in most cases, strongly deactivates System II. The effect of component B on product distribution of System I (and III) occurs at less than 5% of the MMOH concentration, while nearly stoichiometric concentrations are required to maximize the rate of System I. This shows that component B has at least two roles in catalysis. EPR monitored titration of reduced MMOH ([Fe(II).Fe(II)]) with component B suggests that the effect of substoichiometric component B on product distribution is due to hysteresis in

  20. Thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase system of Streptomyces clavuligerus: sequences, expression, and organization of the genes.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, G; Yanko, M; Mislovati, M; Argaman, A; Schreiber, R; Av-Gay, Y; Aharonowitz, Y

    1993-01-01

    The genes that encode thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase of Streptomyces clavuligerus were cloned, and their DNA sequences were determined. Previously, we showed that S. clavuligerus possesses a disulfide reductase with broad substrate specificity that biochemically resembles the thioredoxin oxidoreductase system and may play a role in the biosynthesis of beta-lactam antibiotics. It consists consists of two components, a 70-kDa NADPH-dependent flavoprotein disulfide reductase with two identical subunits and a 12-kDa heat-stable protein general disulfide reductant. In this study, we found, by comparative analysis of their predicted amino acid sequences, that the 35-kDa protein is in fact thioredoxin reductase; it shares 48.7% amino acid sequence identity with Escherichia coli thioredoxin reductase, the 12-kDa protein is thioredoxin, and it shares 28 to 56% amino acid sequence identity with other thioredoxins. The streptomycete thioredoxin reductase has the identical cysteine redox-active region--Cys-Ala-Thr-Cys--and essentially the same flavin adenine dinucleotide- and NADPH dinucleotide-binding sites as E. coli thioredoxin reductase and is partially able to accept E. coli thioredoxin as a substrate. The streptomycete thioredoxin has the same cysteine redox-active segment--Trp-Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys--that is present in virtually all eucaryotic and procaryotic thioredoxins. However, in vivo it is unable to donate electrons to E. coli methionine sulfoxide reductase and does not serve as a substrate in vitro for E. coli thioredoxin reductase. The S. clavuligerus thioredoxin (trxA) and thioredoxin reductase (trxB) genes are organized in a cluster. They are transcribed in the same direction and separated by 33 nucleotides. In contrast, the trxA and trxB genes of E. coli, the only other organism in which both genes have been characterized, are physically widely separated. Images PMID:8349555

  1. Flavin reduction activates Drosophila cryptochrome.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Anand T; Top, Deniz; Manahan, Craig C; Tokuda, Joshua M; Zhang, Sheng; Pollack, Lois; Young, Michael W; Crane, Brian R

    2013-12-17

    Entrainment of circadian rhythms in higher organisms relies on light-sensing proteins that communicate to cellular oscillators composed of delayed transcriptional feedback loops. The principal photoreceptor of the fly circadian clock, Drosophila cryptochrome (dCRY), contains a C-terminal tail (CTT) helix that binds beside a FAD cofactor and is essential for light signaling. Light reduces the dCRY FAD to an anionic semiquinone (ASQ) radical and increases CTT proteolytic susceptibility but does not lead to CTT chemical modification. Additional changes in proteolytic sensitivity and small-angle X-ray scattering define a conformational response of the protein to light that centers at the CTT but also involves regions remote from the flavin center. Reduction of the flavin is kinetically coupled to CTT rearrangement. Chemical reduction to either the ASQ or the fully reduced hydroquinone state produces the same conformational response as does light. The oscillator protein Timeless (TIM) contains a sequence similar to the CTT; the corresponding peptide binds dCRY in light and protects the flavin from oxidation. However, TIM mutants therein still undergo dCRY-mediated degradation. Thus, photoreduction to the ASQ releases the dCRY CTT and promotes binding to at least one region of TIM. Flavin reduction by either light or cellular reductants may be a general mechanism of CRY activation.

  2. Flavin reduction activates Drosophila cryptochrome

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Anand T.; Top, Deniz; Manahan, Craig C.; Tokuda, Joshua M.; Zhang, Sheng; Pollack, Lois; Young, Michael W.; Crane, Brian R.

    2013-01-01

    Entrainment of circadian rhythms in higher organisms relies on light-sensing proteins that communicate to cellular oscillators composed of delayed transcriptional feedback loops. The principal photoreceptor of the fly circadian clock, Drosophila cryptochrome (dCRY), contains a C-terminal tail (CTT) helix that binds beside a FAD cofactor and is essential for light signaling. Light reduces the dCRY FAD to an anionic semiquinone (ASQ) radical and increases CTT proteolytic susceptibility but does not lead to CTT chemical modification. Additional changes in proteolytic sensitivity and small-angle X-ray scattering define a conformational response of the protein to light that centers at the CTT but also involves regions remote from the flavin center. Reduction of the flavin is kinetically coupled to CTT rearrangement. Chemical reduction to either the ASQ or the fully reduced hydroquinone state produces the same conformational response as does light. The oscillator protein Timeless (TIM) contains a sequence similar to the CTT; the corresponding peptide binds dCRY in light and protects the flavin from oxidation. However, TIM mutants therein still undergo dCRY-mediated degradation. Thus, photoreduction to the ASQ releases the dCRY CTT and promotes binding to at least one region of TIM. Flavin reduction by either light or cellular reductants may be a general mechanism of CRY activation. PMID:24297896

  3. UbiX is a flavin prenyltransferase required for bacterial ubiquinone biosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Mark D.; Payne, Karl A. P.; Fisher, Karl; Marshall, Stephen A.; Parker, David; Rattray, Nicholas J. W.; Trivedi, Drupad K.; Goodacre, Royston; Rigby, Stephen E. J.; Scrutton, Nigel S.; Hay, Sam; Leys, David

    2015-06-01

    Ubiquinone (also known as coenzyme Q) is a ubiquitous lipid-soluble redox cofactor that is an essential component of electron transfer chains. Eleven genes have been implicated in bacterial ubiquinone biosynthesis, including ubiX and ubiD, which are responsible for decarboxylation of the 3-octaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate precursor. Despite structural and biochemical characterization of UbiX as a flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-binding protein, no decarboxylase activity has been detected. Here we report that UbiX produces a novel flavin-derived cofactor required for the decarboxylase activity of UbiD. UbiX acts as a flavin prenyltransferase, linking a dimethylallyl moiety to the flavin N5 and C6 atoms. This adds a fourth non-aromatic ring to the flavin isoalloxazine group. In contrast to other prenyltransferases, UbiX is metal-independent and requires dimethylallyl-monophosphate as substrate. Kinetic crystallography reveals that the prenyltransferase mechanism of UbiX resembles that of the terpene synthases. The active site environment is dominated by π systems, which assist phosphate-C1' bond breakage following FMN reduction, leading to formation of the N5-C1' bond. UbiX then acts as a chaperone for adduct reorientation, via transient carbocation species, leading ultimately to formation of the dimethylallyl C3'-C6 bond. Our findings establish the mechanism for formation of a new flavin-derived cofactor, extending both flavin and terpenoid biochemical repertoires.

  4. Assimilatory nitrate reductase from the green alga Ankistrodesmus braunii.

    PubMed

    De la Rosa, M A

    1983-01-01

    Assimilatory nitrate reductase (NAD(P)H-nitrate oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.6.2) from the green alga Ankistrodesmus braunii can be purified to homogeneity by dye-ligand chromatography on blue-Sepharose. The purified enzyme, whose turnover number is 623 s-1, presents an optimum pH of 7.5 and Km values of 13 microM, 23 microM and 0.15 mM for NADH, NADPH and nitrate, respectively. The NADH-nitrate reductase activity exhibits an iso ping pong bi bi kinetic mechanism. The molecular weight of the native nitrate reductase is 467 400, while that of its subunits is 58 750. These values suggest an octameric structure for the enzyme, which has been confirmed by electron microscopy. As deduced from spectrophotometric and fluorimetric studies, the enzyme contains FAD and cytochrome b-557 as prosthetic groups. FAD is not covalently bound to the protein and is easily dissociated in diluted solutions from the enzyme. Its apparent Km value is 4 nM, indicative of a high affinity of the enzyme for FAD. The results of the quantitative analyses of prosthetic groups indicate that nitrate reductase contains four molecules of flavin, four heme irons, and two atoms of molybdenum. The three components act sequentially transferring electrons from reduced pyridine nucleotides to nitrate, thus forming a short electron transport chain along the protein. A mechanism is proposed for the redox interconversion of the nitrate reductase activity. Inactivation seems to occur by formation of a stable complex of reduced enzyme with cyanide or superoxide, while reactivation is a consequence of reoxidation of the inactive enzyme. Both reactions imply the transfer of only one electron.

  5. Characterization of the second prosthetic group of the flavoenzyme NADH-acceptor reductase (component C) of the methane mono-oxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed Central

    Colby, J; Dalton, H

    1979-01-01

    1. A new two-step purification is described that routinely yields 100mg quantities of component C for biochemical studies. 2. Chemical analyses show component C purified by this procedure to contain 2 g-atoms of iron, 2 mol of acid-labile sulphide (S) and 1 mol of FAD per mol of protein. 3. The Fe-S core of component C was extruded by treating the protein with p-methoxybenzenethiol in hexamethyl phosphoramide/50mM-Tris/HCl buffer, pH 8.5 (4:1, v/v), under anaerobic conditions. The spectral properties of the extruded core suggest that component C contains 1 mol of [2Fe-2S(S-Cys)4] centre per mol of protein. 4. E.p.r. spectroscopy confirms the presence of a Fe-S centre in component C. 5. Component C catalyses the reduction by NADH of ferricyanide, 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol or horse heart cytochrome c, with specific activities of 50--230 units/mg of protein. 6. The optimum pH for the NADH-acceptor reductase activity is 8.5--9.0, and the apparent Km values for NADH and NADPH are 0.05mM and 15.5mM respectively. 7. Unlike methane mono-oxygenase activity, NADH-acceptor reductase activity of component C is not inhibited by 8-hydroxyquinoline or by acetylene. PMID:220953

  6. Characterization of the second prosthetic group of the flavoenzyme NADH-acceptor reductase (component C) of the methane mono-oxygenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    PubMed

    Colby, J; Dalton, H

    1979-03-01

    1. A new two-step purification is described that routinely yields 100mg quantities of component C for biochemical studies. 2. Chemical analyses show component C purified by this procedure to contain 2 g-atoms of iron, 2 mol of acid-labile sulphide (S) and 1 mol of FAD per mol of protein. 3. The Fe-S core of component C was extruded by treating the protein with p-methoxybenzenethiol in hexamethyl phosphoramide/50mM-Tris/HCl buffer, pH 8.5 (4:1, v/v), under anaerobic conditions. The spectral properties of the extruded core suggest that component C contains 1 mol of [2Fe-2S(S-Cys)4] centre per mol of protein. 4. E.p.r. spectroscopy confirms the presence of a Fe-S centre in component C. 5. Component C catalyses the reduction by NADH of ferricyanide, 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol or horse heart cytochrome c, with specific activities of 50--230 units/mg of protein. 6. The optimum pH for the NADH-acceptor reductase activity is 8.5--9.0, and the apparent Km values for NADH and NADPH are 0.05mM and 15.5mM respectively. 7. Unlike methane mono-oxygenase activity, NADH-acceptor reductase activity of component C is not inhibited by 8-hydroxyquinoline or by acetylene.

  7. Genomic and bioinformatic analysis of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Suwanchaichinda, C; Brattsten, L B

    2014-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) enzyme system is a major mechanism of xenobiotic biotransformation. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is required for transfer of electrons from NADPH to P450. One CPR gene was identified in the genome of the malaria-transmitting mosquito Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). The gene encodes a polypeptide containing highly conserved flavin mononucleotide-, flavin adenine dinucleotide-, and NADPH-binding domains, a unique characteristic of the reductase. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the A. stephensi and other known mosquito CPRs belong to a monophyletic group distinctly separated from other insects in the same order, Diptera. Amino acid residues of CPRs involved in binding of P450 and cytochrome c are conserved between A. stephensi and the Norway rat Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout (Rodentia: Muridae). However, gene structure particularly within the coding region is evidently different between the two organisms. Such difference might arise during the evolution process as also seen in the difference of P450 families and isoforms found in these organisms. CPR in the mosquito A. stephensi is expected to be active and serve as an essential component of the P450 system. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  8. Genomic and Bioinformatic Analysis of NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Reductase in Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Suwanchaichinda, C.; Brattsten, L. B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) enzyme system is a major mechanism of xenobiotic biotransformation. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is required for transfer of electrons from NADPH to P450. One CPR gene was identified in the genome of the malaria-transmitting mosquito Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). The gene encodes a polypeptide containing highly conserved flavin mononucleotide-, flavin adenine dinucleotide-, and NADPH-binding domains, a unique characteristic of the reductase. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the A. stephensi and other known mosquito CPRs belong to a monophyletic group distinctly separated from other insects in the same order, Diptera. Amino acid residues of CPRs involved in binding of P450 and cytochrome c are conserved between A. stephensi and the Norway rat Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout (Rodentia: Muridae). However, gene structure particularly within the coding region is evidently different between the two organisms. Such difference might arise during the evolution process as also seen in the difference of P450 families and isoforms found in these organisms. CPR in the mosquito A. stephensi is expected to be active and serve as an essential component of the P450 system. PMID:25368081

  9. Loss of nitrate reductases NIA1 and NIA2 impairs stomatal closure by altering genes of core ABA signaling components in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chenchen; Cai, Shengguan; Wang, Yizhou; Chen, Zhong-Hua

    2016-06-02

    Nitrate reductases NIA1 and NIA2 determine NO production in plants and are critical to abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stomatal closure. However, the role for NIA1 and NIA2 in ABA signaling has not been paid much attention in nitrate reductase loss-of-function mutant nia1nia2. Recently, we have demonstrated that ABA-inhibited K(+)in current and ABA-enhanced slow anion current were absent in nia1nia2. Exogenous NO restored regulation of these channels for stomatal closure in nia1nia2. In this study, we found that mutating NIA1 and NIA2 impaired nearly all the key components of guard cell ABA signaling pathway in Arabidopsis. We also propose a simplified model for ABA signaling in the nia1nia2 mutant.

  10. YeeO from Escherichia coli exports flavins.

    PubMed

    McAnulty, Michael J; Wood, Thomas K

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins help maintain cellular homeostasis by secreting metabolic wastes. Flavins may occur as cellular waste products, with their production and secretion providing potential benefit for industrial applications related to biofuel cells. Here we find that MATE protein YeeO from Escherichia coli exports both flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Significant amounts of flavins were trapped intracellularly when YeeO was produced indicating transport limits secretion of flavins. Wild-type E. coli secreted 3 flavins (riboflavin, FMN, and FAD), so E. coli likely produces additional flavin transporters.

  11. YeeO from Escherichia coli exports flavins

    PubMed Central

    McAnulty, Michael J; Wood, Thomas K

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins help maintain cellular homeostasis by secreting metabolic wastes. Flavins may occur as cellular waste products, with their production and secretion providing potential benefit for industrial applications related to biofuel cells. Here we find that MATE protein YeeO from Escherichia coli exports both flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Significant amounts of flavins were trapped intracellularly when YeeO was produced indicating transport limits secretion of flavins. Wild-type E. coli secreted 3 flavins (riboflavin, FMN, and FAD), so E. coli likely produces additional flavin transporters. PMID:25482085

  12. Nitrate reductase from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides.

    PubMed Central

    Kerber, N L; Cardenas, J

    1982-01-01

    The facultative phototroph Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides DSM158 was incapable of either assimilating or dissimilating nitrate, although the organism could reduce it enzymatically to nitrite either anaerobically in the light or aerobically in the dark. Reduction of nitrate was mediated by a nitrate reductase bound to chromatophores that could be easily solubilized and functioned with chemically reduced viologens or photochemically reduced flavins as electron donors. The enzyme was solubilized, and some of its kinetic and molecular parameters were determined. It seemed to be nonadaptive, ammonia did not repress its synthesis, and its activity underwent a rapid decline when the cells entered the stationary growth phase. Studies with inhibitors and with metal antagonists indicated that molybdenum and possibly iron participate in the enzymatic reduction of nitrate. The conjectural significance of this nitrate reductase in phototrophic bacteria is discussed. PMID:6978883

  13. Human carotid atherosclerotic lesion protein components decrease cholesterol biosynthesis rate in macrophages through 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase regulation.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Elad; Aviram, Michael; Khatib, Soliman; Rosenblat, Mira; Vaya, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterized by the formation of cholesterol-loaded macrophages, which are turned into foam cells, the hallmark of early atherogenesis. As part of ongoing research on the interactions among human carotid lesion components and blood elements, the effect of plaque homogenate on macrophage cholesterol biosynthesis rate was examined. Human carotid plaques were ground, extracted with phosphate-buffered saline (homogenate), and then added to the macrophage medium. This extract decreased macrophage cholesterol biosynthesis rate up to 50% in a dose-dependent manner. Cholesterol or lipoproteins were separated from the homogenate and added to the MQ medium. Unlike the homogenate, neither free cholesterol nor the lipoproteins were able to inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis rate under the above experimental concentration, suggesting that the homogenate-induced cholesterol biosynthesis inhibition in our experimental system was not owing to the feedback inhibition of cholesterol. Furthermore, the homogenate remaining after lipoprotein removal (lipoprotein-deficient homogenate) also decreased cholesterol biosynthesis rate, whereas boiled homogenate or phospholipids extracted from the homogenate decreased macrophage cholesterol biosynthesis rate only partially. Finally, cholesterol biosynthesis inhibition was achieved only upon using the precursor [(3)H]acetate, but not [(14)C]mevalonate, suggesting that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCoA Reductase), the rate-limiting enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, is involved in the above antiatherogenic effect of the homogenate, whereas the treatment with homogenate decreased HMGCoA Reductase mRNA. Proteins and phospholipids from human carotid lesion homogenate decrease cholesterol biosynthesis rate in macrophages secondary to HMGCoA Reductase feedback regulation. Such an effect may delay foam cell formation and atherosclerosis progression.

  14. Binding of the Covalent Flavin Assembly Factor to the Flavoprotein Subunit of Complex II*

    PubMed Central

    Maklashina, Elena; Rajagukguk, Sany; Starbird, Chrystal A.; McDonald, W. Hayes; Koganitsky, Anna; Eisenbach, Michael; Iverson, Tina M.; Cecchini, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli harbors two highly conserved homologs of the essential mitochondrial respiratory complex II (succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase). Aerobically the bacterium synthesizes succinate:quinone reductase as part of its respiratory chain, whereas under microaerophilic conditions, the quinol:fumarate reductase can be utilized. All complex II enzymes harbor a covalently bound FAD co-factor that is essential for their ability to oxidize succinate. In eukaryotes and many bacteria, assembly of the covalent flavin linkage is facilitated by a small protein assembly factor, termed SdhE in E. coli. How SdhE assists with formation of the covalent flavin bond and how it binds the flavoprotein subunit of complex II remain unknown. Using photo-cross-linking, we report the interaction site between the flavoprotein of complex II and the SdhE assembly factor. These data indicate that SdhE binds to the flavoprotein between two independently folded domains and that this binding mode likely influences the interdomain orientation. In so doing, SdhE likely orients amino acid residues near the dicarboxylate and FAD binding site, which facilitates formation of the covalent flavin linkage. These studies identify how the conserved SdhE assembly factor and its homologs participate in complex II maturation. PMID:26644464

  15. Redox-dependent substrate-cofactor interactions in the Michaelis-complex of a flavin-dependent oxidoreductase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werther, Tobias; Wahlefeld, Stefan; Salewski, Johannes; Kuhlmann, Uwe; Zebger, Ingo; Hildebrandt, Peter; Dobbek, Holger

    2017-07-01

    How an enzyme activates its substrate for turnover is fundamental for catalysis but incompletely understood on a structural level. With redox enzymes one typically analyses structures of enzyme-substrate complexes in the unreactive oxidation state of the cofactor, assuming that the interaction between enzyme and substrate is independent of the cofactors oxidation state. Here, we investigate the Michaelis complex of the flavoenzyme xenobiotic reductase A with the reactive reduced cofactor bound to its substrates by X-ray crystallography and resonance Raman spectroscopy and compare it to the non-reactive oxidized Michaelis complex mimics. We find that substrates bind in different orientations to the oxidized and reduced flavin, in both cases flattening its structure. But only authentic Michaelis complexes display an unexpected rich vibrational band pattern uncovering a strong donor-acceptor complex between reduced flavin and substrate. This interaction likely activates the catalytic ground state of the reduced flavin, accelerating the reaction within a compressed cofactor-substrate complex.

  16. Selenoprotein A component of the glycine reductase complex from Clostridium purinolyticum: nucleotide sequence of the gene shows that selenocysteine is encoded by UGA.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, G E; Stadtman, T C

    1991-01-01

    The gene encoding the selenoprotein A component of glycine reductase was isolated from Clostridium purinolyticum. The nucleotide sequence of this gene (grdA) was determined. The opal termination codon (TGA) was found in-frame at the position corresponding to the location of the selenocysteine residue in the gene product. A comparison of the nucleotide sequences and secondary mRNA structures corresponding to the selenoprotein A gene and the fdhF gene of Escherichia coli formate dehydrogenase shows that there is a similar potential for regulation of the specific insertion of selenocysteine at the UGA codon. PMID:1825826

  17. Selenoprotein A component of the glycine reductase complex from Clostridium purinolyticum: nucleotide sequence of the gene shows that selenocysteine is encoded by UGA.

    PubMed

    Garcia, G E; Stadtman, T C

    1991-03-01

    The gene encoding the selenoprotein A component of glycine reductase was isolated from Clostridium purinolyticum. The nucleotide sequence of this gene (grdA) was determined. The opal termination codon (TGA) was found in-frame at the position corresponding to the location of the selenocysteine residue in the gene product. A comparison of the nucleotide sequences and secondary mRNA structures corresponding to the selenoprotein A gene and the fdhF gene of Escherichia coli formate dehydrogenase shows that there is a similar potential for regulation of the specific insertion of selenocysteine at the UGA codon.

  18. Antisense expression of 3-oxoacyl-ACP reductase affects whole plant productivity and causes collateral changes in activity of fatty acid synthase components.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Paul; Slabas, Antoni R; Fawcett, Tony

    2007-05-01

    Brassica napus cv Westar plants were transformed with 3-oxoacyl-ACP reductase (KR) in antisense orientation, driven by either the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter or a seed-specific acyl carrier protein promoter to determine the effects on plant productivity and on the activity of other fatty acid synthase (FAS) components. In plants with altered KR activity, total seed yield was reduced in all cases. In less severely affected plant lines, seeds had a normal appearance and composition but the yield of seeds was reduced by approximately 50%. In more severely affected lines, reductions in both seed fatty acid content and the number of seeds produced per plant were evident, resulting in a 90% reduction in fatty acid synthesized per plant. These phenotypes were independent of the promoter used. In severely affected lines, a large proportion of seeds showed precocious germination, and these had a reduced oleate content and increased levels of polyunsaturated 18-carbon fatty acids, compared with normal seeds of the same line. This reduction in 18:1 fatty acids was mimicked on imbibition of seeds with a normal appearance, indicating a preferential use of oleate moieties in precocious germination events. The reduction in activity of KR was mirrored for a second fatty acid synthase component, enoyl-ACP reductase, indicating a mechanism to maintain the ratio of fatty acid synthase components throughout embryogenesis.

  19. An essential role for UshA in processing of extracellular flavin electron shuttles by Shewanella oneidensis.

    PubMed

    Covington, Elizabeth D; Gelbmann, Christopher B; Kotloski, Nicholas J; Gralnick, Jeffrey A

    2010-10-01

    The facultative anaerobe Shewanella oneidensis can reduce a number of insoluble extracellular metals. Direct adsorption of cells to the metal surface is not necessary, and it has been shown that S. oneidensis releases low concentrations flavins, including riboflavin and flavin mononucleotide (FMN), into the surrounding medium to act as extracellular electron shuttles. However, the mechanism of flavin release by Shewanella remains unknown. We have conducted a transposon mutagenesis screen to identify mutants deficient in extracellular flavin accumulation. Mutations in ushA, encoding a predicted 5'-nucleotidase, resulted in accumulation of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) in culture supernatants, with a corresponding decrease in FMN and riboflavin. Cellular extracts of S. oneidensis convert FAD to FMN, whereas extracts of ushA mutants do not, and fractionation experiments show that UshA activity is periplasmic. We hypothesize that S. oneidensis secretes FAD into the periplasmic space, where it is hydrolysed by UshA to FMN and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). FMN diffuses through outer membrane porins where it accelerates extracellular electron transfer, and AMP is dephosphorylated by UshA and reassimilated by the cell. We predict that transport of FAD into the periplasm also satisfies the cofactor requirement of the unusual periplasmic fumarate reductase found in Shewanella.

  20. Nitrate reductase and nitrite as additional components of defense system in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) against Helicoverpa armigera herbivory.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Rimaljeet; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Taggar, Gaurav Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Amylase inhibitors serve as attractive candidates of defense mechanisms against insect attack. Therefore, the impediment of Helicoverpa armigera digestion can be the effective way of controlling this pest population. Nitrite was found to be a potent mixed non-competitive competitive inhibitor of partially purified α-amylase of H. armigera gut. This observation impelled us to determine the response of nitrite and nitrate reductase (NR) towards H. armigera infestation in nine pigeonpea genotypes (four moderately resistant, three intermediate and two moderately susceptible). The significant upregulation of NR in moderately resistant genotypes after pod borer infestation suggested NR as one of the factors that determine their resistance status against insect attack. The pod borer attack caused greater reduction of nitrate and significant accumulation of nitrite in moderately resistant genotypes. The activity of nitrite reductase (NiR) was also enhanced more in moderately resistant genotypes than moderately susceptible genotypes on account of H. armigera herbivory. Expression of resistance to H. armigera was further revealed when significant negative association between NR, NiR, nitrite and percent pod damage was observed. This is the first report that suggests nitrite to be a potent inhibitor of H. armigera α-amylase and also the involvement of nitrite and NR in providing resistance against H. armigera herbivory.

  1. Component A2 of methylcoenzyme M reductase system from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum delta H: nucleotide sequence and functional expression by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Kuhner, C H; Lindenbach, B D; Wolfe, R S

    1993-01-01

    The gene for component A2 of the methylcoenzyme M reductase system from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum delta H was cloned, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The gene for A2, designated atwA, encodes an acidic protein of 59,335 Da. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed partial homology of A2 to a number of eucaryotic and bacterial proteins in the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of transport systems. Component A2 possesses two ATP-binding domains. A 2.2-kb XmaI-BamHI fragment containing atwA and the surrounding open reading frames was cloned into pGEM-7Zf(+). A cell extract from this strain replaced purified A2 from M. thermoautotrophicum delta H in an in vitro methylreductase assay. Images PMID:8491734

  2. Effect of thiol compounds and flavins on mercury and organomercurial degrading enzymes in mercury resistant aquatic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Pahan, K.; Ray, S.; Gachhui, R.; Chaudhuri, J.; Mandal, A. )

    1990-02-01

    Plasmid-determined mercuric and organomercurial resistance in microorganisms has been studied by several workers. Mercury reductase, catalyzing the reduction of mercury depends on sulfhydryl compounds. Organomercurial lyase that catalyzes the splitting of C-Hg linkages also needs thiol compounds for its activity. Until recently, no study has been reported on thiol specificity of these enzymes from various sources. In the present study, the authors report on enzymatic volatilization of HgCl{sub 2} by fourteen Hg-resistant bacterial strains. They have also studied thiol specificity of Hg-reductases and organomercurial lyases isolated from the above bacterial species. Hg-reductase is known to have FAD-moiety which stimulates enzyme activity whereas FMN and riboflavin are ineffective in this regard. The effect of flavins, namely FAD, FMN and riboflavin, on Hg-reductase and organomercurial lyase activity is also reported here.

  3. Flavins as Covalent Catalysts: New Mechanisms Emerge.

    PubMed

    Piano, Valentina; Palfey, Bruce A; Mattevi, Andrea

    2017-06-01

    With approximately 1% of proteins being flavoproteins, flavins are at the heart of a plethora of redox reactions in all areas of biology. Thanks to a series of fascinating recent discoveries, in addition to redox chemistry, covalent catalysis is now being recognized more frequently as a common strategy in flavoenzymes, with unprecedented mechanisms becoming apparent. Thus, noncanonical covalent reactions by flavins are emerging as a new pervasive concept in basic enzymology and biochemistry. These diverse enzymes are engaged in most biological processes, positioning the knowledge being gained from these new mechanisms to be translated into drugs that function through covalent mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of 4-Hydroxyphenylacetate 3-Hydroxylase (HpaB) of Escherichia coli as a Reduced Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide-Utilizing Monooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Xun, Luying; Sandvik, Erik R.

    2000-01-01

    4-Hydroxyphenylacetate 3-hydroxylase (HpaB and HpaC) of Escherichia coli W has been reported as a two-component flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent monooxygenase that attacks a broad spectrum of phenolic compounds. However, the function of each component in catalysis is unclear. The large component (HpaB) was demonstrated here to be a reduced FAD (FADH2)-utilizing monooxygenase. When an E. coli flavin reductase (Fre) having no apparent homology with HpaC was used to generate FADH2 in vitro, HpaB was able to use FADH2 and O2 for the oxidation of 4-hydroxyphenylacetate. HpaB also used chemically produced FADH2 for 4-hydroxyphenylacetate oxidation, further demonstrating that HpaB is an FADH2-utilizing monooxygenase. FADH2 generated by Fre was rapidly oxidized by O2 to form H2O2 in the absence of HpaB. When HpaB was included in the reaction mixture without 4-hydroxyphenylacetate, HpaB bound FADH2 and transitorily protected it from rapid autoxidation by O2. When 4-hydroxyphenylacetate was also present, HpaB effectively competed with O2 for FADH2 utilization, leading to 4-hydroxyphenylacetate oxidation. With sufficient amounts of HpaB in the reaction mixture, FADH2 produced by Fre was mainly used by HpaB for the oxidation of 4-hydroxyphenylacetate. At low HpaB concentrations, most FADH2 was autoxidized by O2, causing uncoupling. However, the coupling of the two enzymes' activities was increased by lowering FAD concentrations in the reaction mixture. A database search revealed that HpaB had sequence similarities to several proteins and gene products involved in biosynthesis and biodegradation in both bacteria and archaea. This is the first report of an FADH2-utilizing monooxygenase that uses FADH2 as a substrate rather than as a cofactor. PMID:10653707

  5. Policosanol safely down-regulates HMG-CoA reductase - potential as a component of the Esselstyn regimen.

    PubMed

    McCarty, M F

    2002-09-01

    Many of the wide-ranging health benefits conferred by statin therapy are mediated, not by reductions in LDL cholesterol, but rather by inhibition of isoprenylation reactions essential to the activation of Rho family GTPases; this may be the mechanism primarily responsible for the favorable impact of statins on risk for ischemic stroke, senile dementia, and fractures, as well as the anti-hypertensive and platelet-stabilizing actions of these drugs. Indeed, the extent of these benefits is such as to suggest that most adults would be wise to take statins; however, owing to the significant expense of statin therapy, as well as to the potential for dangerous side effects that mandates regular physician follow-up, this strategy appears impractical. However, policosanol, a mixture of long-chain aliphatic alcohols extractable from sugar cane wax, has shown cholesterol-lowering potency comparable to that of statins, and yet appears to be devoid of toxic risk. Recent evidence indicates that policosanol down-regulates cellular expression of HMG-CoA reductase, and thus has the potential to suppress isoprenylation reactions much like statins do. Consistent with this possibility, the results of certain clinical and animal studies demonstrate that policosanol has many effects analogous to those of statins that are not likely explained by reductions of LDL cholesterol. However, unlike statins, policosanol does not directly inhibit HMG-CoA reductase, and even in high concentrations it fails to down-regulate this enzyme by more than 50% - thus likely accounting for the safety of this nutraceutical. In light of the fact that policosanol is quite inexpensive and is becoming available as a non-prescription dietary supplement, it may represent a practical resource that could enable the general public to enjoy health benefits comparable to those conferred by statins. In a long-term clinical study enrolling patients with significant symptomatic coronary disease, Esselstyn has demonstrated

  6. Biomimetic flavin-catalyzed aldehyde oxidation.

    PubMed

    Murray, Alexander T; Matton, Pascal; Fairhurst, Nathan W G; John, Matthew P; Carbery, David R

    2012-07-20

    The oxidation of alkyl and aryl aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids has been achieved through the action of a biomimetic bridged flavin catalyst. The reaction uses readily available 35% aqueous hydrogen peroxide and is operationally simple. The oxidation is a green and sustainable reaction, obviating chlorinated solvents with minimal byproducts.

  7. Structure and function of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and nitric oxide synthase reductase domain

    SciTech Connect

    Iyanagi, Takashi . E-mail: iyanagi@spring8.or.jp

    2005-12-09

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) reductase domains are members of the FAD-FMN family of proteins. The FAD accepts two reducing equivalents from NADPH (dehydrogenase flavin) and FMN acts as a one-electron carrier (flavodoxin-type flavin) for the transfer from NADPH to the heme protein, in which the FMNH {sup {center_dot}}/FMNH{sub 2} couple donates electrons to cytochrome P450 at constant oxidation-reduction potential. Although the interflavin electron transfer between FAD and FMN is not strictly regulated in CPR, electron transfer is activated in neuronal NOS reductase domain upon binding calmodulin (CaM), in which the CaM-bound activated form can function by a similar mechanism to that of CPR. The oxygenated form and spin state of substrate-bound cytochrome P450 in perfused rat liver are also discussed in terms of stepwise one-electron transfer from CPR. This review provides a historical perspective of the microsomal mixed-function oxidases including CPR and P450. In addition, a new model for the redox-linked conformational changes during the catalytic cycle for both CPR and NOS reductase domain is also discussed.

  8. Expression in Escherichia coli of Cytochrome c Reductase Activity from a Maize NADH:Nitrate Reductase Complementary DNA 1

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Wilbur H.

    1992-01-01

    A cDNA clone was isolated from a maize (Zea mays L. cv W64A×W183E) scutellum λgt11 library using maize leaf NADH:nitrate reductase Zmnr1 cDNA clone as a hybridization probe; it was designated Zmnr1S. Zmnr1S was shown to be an NADH:nitrate reductase clone by nucleotide sequencing and comparison of its deduced amino acid sequence to Zmnr1. Zmnr1S, which is 1.8 kilobases in length and contains the code for both the cytochrome b and flavin adenine dinucleotide domains of nitrate reductase, was cloned into the EcoRI site of the Escherichia coli expression vector pET5b and expressed. The cell lysate contained NADH:cytochrome c reductase activity, which is a characteristic partial activity of NADH:nitrate reductase dependent on the cytochrome b and flavin adenine dinucleotide domains. Recombinant cytochrome c reductase was purified by immunoaffinity chromatography on monoclonal antibody Zm2(69) Sepharose. The purified cytochrome c reductase, which had a major size of 43 kilodaltons, was inhibited by polyclonal antibodies for maize leaf NADH:nitrate reductase and bound these antibodies when blotted to nitrocellulose. Ultraviolet and visible spectra of oxidized and NADH-reduced recombinant cytochrome c reductase were nearly identical with those of maize leaf NADH:nitrate reductase. These two enzyme forms also had very similar kinetic properties with respect to NADH-dependent cytochrome c and ferricyanide reduction. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3 PMID:16668941

  9. Presence of a flavin semiquinone in methanol oxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Mincey, T; Tayrien, G; Mildvan, A S; Abeles, R H

    1980-01-01

    Methanol oxidase from Hansenula polymorpha contains five "red" flavin semiquinones and two oxidized flavins per octamer. Addition of substrate results in the reduction of the two oxidized flavins but does not affect the flavin semiquinones. Enhanced water proton relaxation rates indicate that the unpaired electron of the flavin semiquinones is accessible to the solvent and this accessibility is significantly decreased upon binding of the suicide inhibitor cyclopropanol. In the native enzyme, the semiquinones are not oxidizable by air. All flavins were resolved from the enzyme, and holoenzyme was reconstituted by addition of oxidized flavin. The reconstituted enzyme was catalytically active. The specific activity was 50% that of the original enzyme. It was concluded that the semiquinone is not required for the oxidation of methanol, although it may be present at an otherwise intact site. PMID:6261238

  10. UbiX is a flavin prenyltransferase required for bacterial ubiquinone biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    White, Mark D.; Payne, Karl A.P.; Fisher, Karl; Marshall, Stephen A.; Parker, David; Rattray, Nicholas J.W.; Trivedi, Drupad K.; Goodacre, Royston; Rigby, Stephen E.J.; Scrutton, Nigel S.; Hay, Sam; Leys, David

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquinone, or coenzyme Q, is a ubiquitous lipid-soluble redox cofactor that is an essential component of electron transfer chains1. Eleven genes have been implicated in bacterial ubiquinone biosynthesis, including ubiX and ubiD, which are responsible for decarboxylation of the 3-octaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoate precursor2. Despite structural and biochemical characterization of UbiX as an FMN-binding protein, no decarboxylase activity has been detected3–4. We report here that UbiX produces a novel flavin-derived cofactor required for the decarboxylase activity of UbiD5. UbiX acts as a flavin prenyltransferase, linking a dimethylallyl moiety to the flavin N5 and C6 atoms. This adds a fourth non-aromatic ring to the flavin isoalloxazine group. In contrast to other prenyltransferases6–7, UbiX is metal-independent and requires dimethylallyl-monophosphate as substrate. Kinetic crystallography reveals that the prenyl transferase mechanism of UbiX resembles that of the terpene synthases8. The active site environment is dominated by π-systems, which assist phosphate-C1’ bond breakage following FMN reduction, leading to formation of the N5-C1’ bond. UbiX then acts as a chaperone for adduct reorientation, via transient carbocation species, leading ultimately to formation of the dimethylallyl C3’-C6 bond. The study establishes the mechanism for formation of a new flavin-derived cofactor, extending both flavin and terpenoid biochemical repertoire. PMID:26083743

  11. Catalytic cycle of human glutathione reductase near 1 Å resolution

    PubMed Central

    Berkholz, Donald S.; Faber, H. Richard; Savvides, Savvas N.; Karplus, P. Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Summary Efficient enzyme catalysis depends on exquisite details of structure beyond those resolvable in typical medium- and high-resolution crystallographic analyses. Here we report synchrotron-based cryocrystallographic studies of natural substrate complexes of the flavoenzyme human glutathione reductase (GR) at nominal resolutions between 1.1 and 0.95 Å that reveal new aspects of its mechanism. Compression in the active site causes overlapping van der Waals radii and distortion in the nicotinamide ring of the NADPH substrate, which enhances catalysis via stereoelectronic effects. The bound NADPH and redox-active disulfide are positioned optimally on opposite sides of the flavin for a 1,2-addition across a flavin double bond. The new structures extend earlier observations to reveal that the redox-active disulfide loop in GR is an extreme case of sequential peptide bonds systematically deviating from planarity, a net deviation of 53° across 5 residues. But this apparent strain is not a factor in catalysis as it is present in both oxidized and reduced structures. Intriguingly, the flavin bond lengths in oxidized GR are intermediate between those expected for oxidized and reduced flavin, but we present evidence that this may not be due to the protein environment but instead to partial synchrotron reduction of the flavin by the synchrotron beam. Finally, of more general relevance, we present evidence that the structures of synchrotron-reduced disulfide bonds cannot generally be used as reliable models for naturally reduced disulfide bonds. PMID:18638483

  12. Reduction–Oxidation Photocycle Dynamics of Flavins in Starch Films

    PubMed Central

    Penzkofer, Alfons

    2012-01-01

    The blue-light photo-reduction (conversion of oxidized flavin quinone via flavin semiquinone to fully reduced flavin hydroquinone) and dark re-oxidation of the flavins riboflavin and lumiflavin in starch (α-amylose) films was studied by absorption and luminescence spectroscopy. Blue-light photo-excitation caused an absorption, fluorescence, and phosphorescence decrease which recovered in the dark. The photo-reduction dark-oxidation cycle could be repeated. The efficiency of photo-reduction decreased with exposed excitation energy, and the speed of re-oxidation in the dark slowed down with time after excitation. The absorption did not fully recover. The fluorescence efficiency after a long time of storage in the dark increased beyond the initial flavin quinone fluorescence efficiency. Flavin photo-excitation is thought to cause starch-flavin restructuring (static fluorescence quenching center formation), enabling enhanced photo-induced starch to flavin electron transfer with subsequent flavin reduction and starch oxidation. In the dark, after light switch-off, thermal reversion of flavin reduction and starch oxidation occurred. PMID:22942758

  13. The transfer of reduced flavin mononucleotide from LuxG oxidoreductase to luciferase occurs via free diffusion.

    PubMed

    Tinikul, Ruchanok; Pitsawong, Warintra; Sucharitakul, Jeerus; Nijvipakul, Sarayut; Ballou, David P; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2013-10-01

    Bacterial luciferase (LuxAB) is a two-component flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes the oxidation of reduced FMN (FMNH(-)) and a long-chain aliphatic aldehyde by molecular oxygen to generate oxidized FMN, the corresponding aliphatic carboxylic acid, and concomitant emission of light. The LuxAB reaction requires a flavin reductase to generate FMNH(-) to serve as a luciferin in its reaction. However, FMNH(-) is unstable and can react with oxygen to generate H2O2, so that it is important to transfer it efficiently to LuxAB. Recently, LuxG has been identified as a NADH:FMN oxidoreductase that supplies FMNH(-) to luciferase in vivo. In this report, the mode of transfer of FMNH(-) between LuxG from Photobacterium leiognathi TH1 and LuxABs from both P. leiognathi TH1 and Vibrio campbellii (PlLuxAB and VcLuxAB, respectively) was investigated using single-mixing and double-mixing stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The oxygenase component of p-hydroxyphenylacetate hydroxylase (C2) from Acinetobacter baumannii, which has no structural similarity to LuxAB, was used to measure the kinetics of release of FMNH(-) from LuxG. With all FMNH(-) acceptors used (C2, PlLuxAB, and VcLuxAB), the kinetics of FMN reduction on LuxG were the same, showing that LuxG releases FMNH(-) with a rate constant of 4.5-6 s(-1). Our data showed that the kinetics of binding of FMNH(-)to PlLuxAB and VcLuxAB and the subsequent reactions with oxygen were the same with either free FMNH(-) or FMNH(-) generated in situ by LuxG. These results strongly suggest that no complexes between LuxG and the various species are necessary to transfer FMNH(-) to the acceptors. The kinetics of the overall reactions and the individual rate constants correlate well with a free diffusion model for the transfer of FMNH(-) from LuxG to either LuxAB.

  14. Purification, characterization, and crystallization of the components of the nitrobenzene and 2-nitrotoluene dioxygenase enzyme systems.

    PubMed

    Parales, R E; Huang, R; Yu, C-L; Parales, J V; Lee, F K N; Lessner, D J; Ivkovic-Jensen, M M; Liu, W; Friemann, R; Ramaswamy, S; Gibson, D T

    2005-07-01

    The protein components of the 2-nitrotoluene (2NT) and nitrobenzene dioxygenase enzyme systems from Acidovorax sp. strain JS42 and Comamonas sp. strain JS765, respectively, were purified and characterized. These enzymes catalyze the initial step in the degradation of 2-nitrotoluene and nitrobenzene. The identical shared reductase and ferredoxin components were monomers of 35 and 11.5 kDa, respectively. The reductase component contained 1.86 g-atoms iron, 2.01 g-atoms sulfur, and one molecule of flavin adenine dinucleotide per monomer. Spectral properties of the reductase indicated the presence of a plant-type [2Fe-2S] center and a flavin. The reductase catalyzed the reduction of cytochrome c, ferricyanide, and 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol. The ferredoxin contained 2.20 g-atoms iron and 1.99 g-atoms sulfur per monomer and had spectral properties indicative of a Rieske [2Fe-2S] center. The ferredoxin component could be effectively replaced by the ferredoxin from the Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4 naphthalene dioxygenase system but not by that from the Burkholderia sp. strain LB400 biphenyl or Pseudomonas putida F1 toluene dioxygenase system. The oxygenases from the 2-nitrotoluene and nitrobenzene dioxygenase systems each had spectral properties indicating the presence of a Rieske [2Fe-2S] center, and the subunit composition of each oxygenase was an alpha(3)beta(3) hexamer. The apparent K(m) of 2-nitrotoluene dioxygenase for 2NT was 20 muM, and that for naphthalene was 121 muM. The specificity constants were 7.0 muM(-1) min(-1) for 2NT and 1.2 muM(-1) min(-1) for naphthalene, indicating that the enzyme is more efficient with 2NT as a substrate. Diffraction-quality crystals of the two oxygenases were obtained.

  15. Purification, Characterization, and Crystallization of the Components of the Nitrobenzene and 2-Nitrotoluene Dioxygenase Enzyme Systems

    PubMed Central

    Parales, R. E.; Huang, R.; Yu, C.-L.; Parales, J. V.; Lee, F. K. N.; Lessner, D. J.; Ivkovic-Jensen, M. M.; Liu, W.; Friemann, R.; Ramaswamy, S.; Gibson, D. T.

    2005-01-01

    The protein components of the 2-nitrotoluene (2NT) and nitrobenzene dioxygenase enzyme systems from Acidovorax sp. strain JS42 and Comamonas sp. strain JS765, respectively, were purified and characterized. These enzymes catalyze the initial step in the degradation of 2-nitrotoluene and nitrobenzene. The identical shared reductase and ferredoxin components were monomers of 35 and 11.5 kDa, respectively. The reductase component contained 1.86 g-atoms iron, 2.01 g-atoms sulfur, and one molecule of flavin adenine dinucleotide per monomer. Spectral properties of the reductase indicated the presence of a plant-type [2Fe-2S] center and a flavin. The reductase catalyzed the reduction of cytochrome c, ferricyanide, and 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol. The ferredoxin contained 2.20 g-atoms iron and 1.99 g-atoms sulfur per monomer and had spectral properties indicative of a Rieske [2Fe-2S] center. The ferredoxin component could be effectively replaced by the ferredoxin from the Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4 naphthalene dioxygenase system but not by that from the Burkholderia sp. strain LB400 biphenyl or Pseudomonas putida F1 toluene dioxygenase system. The oxygenases from the 2-nitrotoluene and nitrobenzene dioxygenase systems each had spectral properties indicating the presence of a Rieske [2Fe-2S] center, and the subunit composition of each oxygenase was an α3β3 hexamer. The apparent Km of 2-nitrotoluene dioxygenase for 2NT was 20 μM, and that for naphthalene was 121 μM. The specificity constants were 7.0 μM−1 min−1 for 2NT and 1.2 μM−1 min−1 for naphthalene, indicating that the enzyme is more efficient with 2NT as a substrate. Diffraction-quality crystals of the two oxygenases were obtained. PMID:16000792

  16. The ferredoxin-thioredoxin system of a green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: identification and characterization of thioredoxins and ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huppe, H. C.; de Lamotte-Guery, F.; Buchanan, B. B.

    1990-01-01

    The components of the ferredoxin-thioredoxin (FT) system of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have been purified and characterized. The system resembled that of higher plants in consisting of a ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase (FTR) and two types of thioredoxin, a single f and two m species, m1 and m2. The Chlamydomonas m and f thioredoxins were antigenically similar to their higher-plant counterparts, but not to one another. The m thioredoxins were recognized by antibodies to both higher plant m and bacterial thioredoxins, whereas the thioredoxin f was not. Chlamydomonas thioredoxin f reacted, although weakly, with the antibody to spinach thioredoxin f. The algal thioredoxin f differed from thioredoxins studied previously in behaving as a basic protein on ion-exchange columns. Purification revealed that the algal thioredoxins had molecular masses (Mrs) typical of thioredoxins from other sources, m1 and m2 being 10700 and f 11500. Chlamydomonas FTR had two dissimilar subunits, a feature common to all FTRs studied thus far. One, the 13-kDa ("similar") subunit, resembled its counterpart from other sources in both size and antigenicity. The other, 10-kDa ("variable") subunit was not recognized by antibodies to any FTR tested. When combined with spinach, (Spinacia oleracea L.) thylakoid membranes, the components of the FT system functioned in the light activation of the standard target enzymes from chloroplasts, corn (Zea mays L.) NADP-malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.82) and spinach fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11) as well as the chloroplast-type fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase from Chlamydomonas. Activity was greatest if ferredoxin and other components of the FT system were from Chlamydomonas. The capacity of the Chlamydomonas FT system to activate autologous FBPase indicates that light regulates the photosynthetic carbon metabolism of green algae as in other oxygenic photosynthetic organisms.

  17. Methyl-coenzyme M reductase of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum delta H catalyzes the reductive dechlorination of 1,2-dichloroethane to ethylene and chloroethane.

    PubMed Central

    Holliger, C; Kengen, S W; Schraa, G; Stams, A J; Zehnder, A J

    1992-01-01

    Reductive dechlorination of 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) to ethylene and chloroethane (CA) by crude cell extracts of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum delta H with H2 as the electron donor was stimulated by Mg-ATP. The heterodisulfide of coenzyme M (CoM) and 7-mercaptoheptanoylthreonine phosphate together with Mg-ATP partially inhibited ethylene production but stimulated CA production compared Mg-ATP alone. The pH optimum for the dechlorination was 6.8 (at 60 degrees C). Michaelis-Menten kinetics for initial product formation rates with different 1,2-DCA concentrations indicated the enzymatic character of the dechlorination. Apparent Kms for 1,2-DCA of 89 and 119 microM and Vmaxs of 34 and 20 pmol/min/mg of protein were estimated for ethylene and CA production, respectively. 3-Bromopropanesulfonate, a specific inhibitor for methyl-CoM reductase, completely inhibited dechlorination of 1,2-DCA. Purified methyl-CoM reductase, together with flavin adenine dinucleotide and a crude component A fraction which reduced the nickel of factor F430 in methyl-CoM reductase, converted 1,2-DCA to ethylene and CA with H2 as the electron donor. In this system, methyl-CoM reductase was also able to transform its own inhibitor 2-bromoethanesulfonate to ethylene. PMID:1624435

  18. Biochemical characterization of NfsA, the Escherichia coli major nitroreductase exhibiting a high amino acid sequence homology to Frp, a Vibrio harveyi flavin oxidoreductase.

    PubMed Central

    Zenno, S; Koike, H; Kumar, A N; Jayaraman, R; Tanokura, M; Saigo, K

    1996-01-01

    We identified the nfsA gene, encoding the major oxygen-insensitive nitroreductase in Escherichia coli, and determined its position on the E. coli map to be 19 min. We also purified its gene product, NfsA, to homogeneity. It was suggested that NfsA is a nonglobular protein with a molecular weight of 26,799 and is associated tightly with a flavin mononucleotide. Its amino acid sequence is highly similar to that of Frp, a flavin oxidoreductase from Vibrio harveyi (B. Lei, M. Liu, S. Huang, and S.-C. Tu, J. Bacteriol. 176:3552-3558, 1994), an observation supporting the notion that E. coli nitroreductase and luminescent-bacterium flavin reductase families are intimately related in evolution. Although no appreciable sequence similarity was detected between two E. coli nitroreductases, NfsA and NfsB, NfsA exhibited a low level of the flavin reductase activity and a broad electron acceptor specificity similar to those of NfsB. NfsA reduced nitrofurazone by a ping-pong Bi-Bi mechanism possibly to generate a two-electron transfer product. PMID:8755878

  19. Interactions of Methylene Blue with Human Disulfide Reductases and Their Orthologues from Plasmodium falciparum▿

    PubMed Central

    Buchholz, Kathrin; Schirmer, R. Heiner; Eubel, Jana K.; Akoachere, Monique B.; Dandekar, Thomas; Becker, Katja; Gromer, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Methylene blue (MB) has experienced a renaissance mainly as a component of drug combinations against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Here, we report biochemically relevant pharmacological data on MB such as rate constants for the uncatalyzed reaction of MB at pH 7.4 with cellular reductants like NAD(P)H (k = 4 M−1 s−1), thioredoxins (k = 8.5 to 26 M−1 s−1), dihydrolipoamide (k = 53 M−1 s−1), and slowly reacting glutathione. As the disulfide reductases are prominent targets of MB, optical tests for enzymes reducing MB at the expense of NAD(P)H under aerobic conditions were developed. The product leucomethylene blue (leucoMB) is auto-oxidized back to MB at pH 7 but can be stabilized by enzymes at pH 5.0, which makes this colorless compound an interesting drug candidate. MB was found to be an inhibitor and/or a redox-cycling substrate of mammalian and P. falciparum disulfide reductases, with the kcat values ranging from 0.03 s−1 to 10 s−1 at 25°C. Kinetic spectroscopy of mutagenized glutathione reductase indicates that MB reduction is conducted by enzyme-bound reduced flavin rather than by the active-site dithiol Cys58/Cys63. The enzyme-catalyzed reduction of MB and subsequent auto-oxidation of the product leucoMB mean that MB is a redox-cycling agent which produces H2O2 at the expense of O2 and of NAD(P)H in each cycle, turning the antioxidant disulfide reductases into pro-oxidant enzymes. This explains the terms subversive substrate or turncoat inhibitor for MB. The results are discussed in cell-pathological and clinical contexts. PMID:17967916

  20. Shewanella secretes flavins that mediate extracellular electron transfer

    PubMed Central

    Marsili, Enrico; Baron, Daniel B.; Shikhare, Indraneel D.; Coursolle, Dan; Gralnick, Jeffrey A.; Bond, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    Bacteria able to transfer electrons to metals are key agents in biogeochemical metal cycling, subsurface bioremediation, and corrosion processes. More recently, these bacteria have gained attention as the transfer of electrons from the cell surface to conductive materials can be used in multiple applications. In this work, we adapted electrochemical techniques to probe intact biofilms of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and Shewanella sp. MR-4 grown by using a poised electrode as an electron acceptor. This approach detected redox-active molecules within biofilms, which were involved in electron transfer to the electrode. A combination of methods identified a mixture of riboflavin and riboflavin-5′-phosphate in supernatants from biofilm reactors, with riboflavin representing the dominant component during sustained incubations (>72 h). Removal of riboflavin from biofilms reduced the rate of electron transfer to electrodes by >70%, consistent with a role as a soluble redox shuttle carrying electrons from the cell surface to external acceptors. Differential pulse voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry revealed a layer of flavins adsorbed to electrodes, even after soluble components were removed, especially in older biofilms. Riboflavin adsorbed quickly to other surfaces of geochemical interest, such as Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxy(hydr)oxides. This in situ demonstration of flavin production, and sequestration at surfaces, requires the paradigm of soluble redox shuttles in geochemistry to be adjusted to include binding and modification of surfaces. Moreover, the known ability of isoalloxazine rings to act as metal chelators, along with their electron shuttling capacity, suggests that extracellular respiration of minerals by Shewanella is more complex than originally conceived. PMID:18316736

  1. Shewanella secretes flavins that mediate extracellular electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Marsili, Enrico; Baron, Daniel B; Shikhare, Indraneel D; Coursolle, Dan; Gralnick, Jeffrey A; Bond, Daniel R

    2008-03-11

    Bacteria able to transfer electrons to metals are key agents in biogeochemical metal cycling, subsurface bioremediation, and corrosion processes. More recently, these bacteria have gained attention as the transfer of electrons from the cell surface to conductive materials can be used in multiple applications. In this work, we adapted electrochemical techniques to probe intact biofilms of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and Shewanella sp. MR-4 grown by using a poised electrode as an electron acceptor. This approach detected redox-active molecules within biofilms, which were involved in electron transfer to the electrode. A combination of methods identified a mixture of riboflavin and riboflavin-5'-phosphate in supernatants from biofilm reactors, with riboflavin representing the dominant component during sustained incubations (>72 h). Removal of riboflavin from biofilms reduced the rate of electron transfer to electrodes by >70%, consistent with a role as a soluble redox shuttle carrying electrons from the cell surface to external acceptors. Differential pulse voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry revealed a layer of flavins adsorbed to electrodes, even after soluble components were removed, especially in older biofilms. Riboflavin adsorbed quickly to other surfaces of geochemical interest, such as Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxy(hydr)oxides. This in situ demonstration of flavin production, and sequestration at surfaces, requires the paradigm of soluble redox shuttles in geochemistry to be adjusted to include binding and modification of surfaces. Moreover, the known ability of isoalloxazine rings to act as metal chelators, along with their electron shuttling capacity, suggests that extracellular respiration of minerals by Shewanella is more complex than originally conceived.

  2. A VOLTAMMETRIC FLAVIN MICROELECTRODE FOR USE IN BIOFILMS

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hung Duc; Renslow, Ryan; Babauta, Jerome; Ahmed, Bulbul; Beyenal, Haluk

    2011-01-01

    Biofilms used in bioelectrochemical systems are expected to transfer electrons using electron transfer mediators. One mediator type, flavins, which includes flavin mononucleotide, riboflavin, and flavin adenine dinucleotide, has been found to be endogenously produced by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. However, the presence and concentration of flavins inside a S. oneidensis MR-1 biofilm have never been reported. The goal of this study was to develop a flavin microelectrode capable of measuring flavins inside a living biofilm and apply it to a biofilm which produces flavins. Because flavins are electrochemically active molecules, the flavin microelectrode was based on detection via square-wave voltammetry. The microelectrode consisted of a carbon working electrode with a 10–30 μm tip diameter, a built-in platinum counter electrode, and a Ag/AgCl reference electrode, all enclosed in a glass outer case. The microelectrode was calibrated between 0.1 μM and 10 μM flavins and showed a linear correlation between flavin concentration and peak currents located at −424 mVAg/AgCl on a square-wave voltammogram. We also developed a model to explain the electrochemical mechanism of flavin detection, and to determine the effective surface area of the microelectrode, the standard reduction potential, and the transfer coefficient. We found that the effective surface area of the microelectrode was close to 100 times the projected surface area. The model predicted a standard reduction potential for RF/RFH2 of −419 mVAg/AgCl at 20 °C and a transfer coefficient of 0.45. Lastly, we measured flavin concentration inside a S. oneidensis MR-1 biofilm grown on a glass surface using oxygen as the electron acceptor. The flavin concentration reached 0.7 μM, increasing near the bottom of the biofilm, where no oxygen was present. This shows the possibility that flavins are produced in the anaerobic zone to act as intermediate electron acceptors in the deeper parts of the biofilm, where

  3. Genetic Control of Biosynthesis and Transport of Riboflavin and Flavin Nucleotides and Construction of Robust Biotechnological Producers†

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Charles A.; Sibirny, Andriy A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Riboflavin [7,8-dimethyl-10-(1′-d-ribityl)isoalloxazine, vitamin B2] is an obligatory component of human and animal diets, as it serves as the precursor of flavin coenzymes, flavin mononucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide, which are involved in oxidative metabolism and other processes. Commercially produced riboflavin is used in agriculture, medicine, and the food industry. Riboflavin synthesis starts from GTP and ribulose-5-phosphate and proceeds through pyrimidine and pteridine intermediates. Flavin nucleotides are synthesized in two consecutive reactions from riboflavin. Some microorganisms and all animal cells are capable of riboflavin uptake, whereas many microorganisms have distinct systems for riboflavin excretion to the medium. Regulation of riboflavin synthesis in bacteria occurs by repression at the transcriptional level by flavin mononucleotide, which binds to nascent noncoding mRNA and blocks further transcription (named the riboswitch). In flavinogenic molds, riboflavin overproduction starts at the stationary phase and is accompanied by derepression of enzymes involved in riboflavin synthesis, sporulation, and mycelial lysis. In flavinogenic yeasts, transcriptional repression of riboflavin synthesis is exerted by iron ions and not by flavins. The putative transcription factor encoded by SEF1 is somehow involved in this regulation. Most commercial riboflavin is currently produced or was produced earlier by microbial synthesis using special selected strains of Bacillus subtilis, Ashbya gossypii, and Candida famata. Whereas earlier RF overproducers were isolated by classical selection, current producers of riboflavin and flavin nucleotides have been developed using modern approaches of metabolic engineering that involve overexpression of structural and regulatory genes of the RF biosynthetic pathway as well as genes involved in the overproduction of the purine precursor of riboflavin, GTP. PMID:21646432

  4. Structure of nitrilotriacetate monooxygenase component B from Mycobacterium thermoresistibile

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y.; Edwards, T. E.; Begley, D. W.; Abramov, A.; Thompkins, K. B.; Ferrell, M.; Guo, W. J.; Phan, I.; Olsen, C.; Napuli, A.; Sankaran, B.; Stacy, R.; Van Voorhis, W. C.; Stewart, L. J.; Myler, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis belongs to a large family of soil bacteria which can degrade a remarkably broad range of organic compounds and utilize them as carbon, nitrogen and energy sources. It has been proposed that a variety of mycobacteria can subsist on alternative carbon sources during latency within an infected human host, with the help of enzymes such as nitrilotriacetate monooxygenase (NTA-Mo). NTA-Mo is a member of a class of enzymes which consist of two components: A and B. While component A has monooxygenase activity and is responsible for the oxidation of the substrate, component B consumes cofactor to generate reduced flavin mononucleotide, which is required for component A activity. NTA-MoB from M. thermoresistibile, a rare but infectious close relative of M. tuberculosis which can thrive at elevated temperatures, has been expressed, purified and crystallized. The 1.6 Å resolution crystal structure of component B of NTA-Mo presented here is one of the first crystal structures determined from the organism M. thermo­resistibile. The NTA-MoB crystal structure reveals a homodimer with the characteristic split-barrel motif typical of flavin reductases. Surprisingly, NTA-MoB from M. thermoresistibile contains a C-terminal tail that is highly conserved among myco­bacterial orthologs and resides in the active site of the other protomer. Based on the structure, the C-terminal tail may modulate NTA-MoB activity in mycobacteria by blocking the binding of flavins and NADH. PMID:21904057

  5. Quantitive determination of flavin nucleotide using the bacterial bioluminescent reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.

    1969-01-01

    Photometric method based on the use of bacterial luminiscent reaction quantitatively detects the presence of flavin compounds in all forms of life. Aqueous cellular dispersion of a biological sample with an aqueous perchloric acid ruptures the cells and frees the flavin coenzymes from their proteins.

  6. Remaining challenges in cellular flavin cofactor homeostasis and flavoprotein biogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giancaspero, Teresa Anna; Colella, Matilde; Brizio, Carmen; Difonzo, Graziana; Fiorino, Giuseppina Maria; Leone, Piero; Brandsch, Roderich; Bonomi, Francesco; Iametti, Stefania; Barile, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The primary role of the water-soluble vitamin B2 (riboflavin) in cell biology is connected with its conversion into FMN and FAD, the cofactors of a large number of dehydrogenases, oxidases and reductases involved in energetic metabolism, epigenetics, protein folding, as well as in a number of diverse regulatory processes. The problem of localisation of flavin cofactor synthesis events and in particular of the FAD synthase (EC 2.7.7.2) in HepG2 cells is addressed here by confocal microscopy in the frame of its relationships with kinetics of FAD synthesis and delivery to client apo-flavoproteins. FAD synthesis catalysed by recombinant isoform 2 of FADS occurs via an ordered bi-bi mechanism in which ATP binds prior to FMN, and pyrophosphate is released before FAD. Spectrophotometric continuous assays of the reconstitution rate of apo-D-aminoacid oxidase with its cofactor, allowed us to propose that besides its FAD synthesising activity, hFADS is able to operate as a FAD "chaperone". The physical interaction between FAD forming enzyme and its clients was further confirmed by dot blot and immunoprecipitation experiments carried out testing as a client either a nuclear or a mitochondrial enzyme that is lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1, EC 1.-.-.-) and dimethylglycine dehydrogenase (Me2GlyDH, EC 1.5.8.4), respectively which carry out similar reactions of oxidative demethylation, assisted by tetrahydrofolate used to form 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate. A direct transfer of the cofactor from hFADS2 to apo-dimethyl glycine dehydrogenase was also demonstrated. Thus, FAD synthesis and delivery to these enzymes are crucial processes for bioenergetics and nutri-epigenetics of liver cells.

  7. Fumarate Reductase Activity of Streptococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Aue, B. J.; Diebel, R. H.

    1967-01-01

    Some characteristics of a fumarate reductase from Streptococcus faecalis are described. The enzyme had a pH optimum of 7.4; optimal activity was observed when the ionic strength of the phosphate buffer was adjusted to 0.088. The Km value of the enzyme for reduced flavin mononucleotide was 2 × 10−4 m as determined with a 26-fold preparation. In addition to fumarate, the enzyme reduced maleate and mesaconate. No succinate dehydrogenase activity was detected, but succinate did act as an inhibitor of the fumarate reductase activity. Other inhibitors were malonate, citraconate, and trans-, trans-muconate. Metal-chelating agents did not inhibit the enzyme. A limited inhibition by sulfhydryl-binding agents was observed, and the preparations were sensitive to air oxidation and storage. Glycine, alanine, histidine, and possibly lysine stimulated fumarate reductase activity in the cell-free extracts. However, growth in media supplemented with glycine did not enhance fumarate reductase activity. The enzymatic activity appears to be constitutive. PMID:4960892

  8. Thioredoxin reductase.

    PubMed Central

    Mustacich, D; Powis, G

    2000-01-01

    The mammalian thioredoxin reductases (TrxRs) are a family of selenium-containing pyridine nucleotide-disulphide oxidoreductases with mechanistic and sequence identity, including a conserved -Cys-Val-Asn-Val-Gly-Cys- redox catalytic site, to glutathione reductases. TrxRs catalyse the NADPH-dependent reduction of the redox protein thioredoxin (Trx), as well as of other endogenous and exogenous compounds. The broad substrate specificity of mammalian TrxRs is due to a second redox-active site, a C-terminal -Cys-SeCys- (where SeCys is selenocysteine), that is not found in glutathione reductase or Escherichia coli TrxR. There are currently two confirmed forms of mammalian TrxRs, TrxR1 and TrxR2, and it is possible that other forms will be identified. The availability of Se is a key factor determining TrxR activity both in cell culture and in vivo, and the mechanism(s) for the incorporation of Se into TrxRs, as well as the regulation of TrxR activity, have only recently begun to be investigated. The importance of Trx to many aspects of cell function make it likely that TrxRs also play a role in protection against oxidant injury, cell growth and transformation, and the recycling of ascorbate from its oxidized form. Since TrxRs are able to reduce a number of substrates other than Trx, it is likely that additional biological effects will be discovered for TrxR. Furthermore, inhibiting TrxR with drugs may lead to new treatments for human diseases such as cancer, AIDS and autoimmune diseases. PMID:10657232

  9. TRAIL-Based High Throughput Screening Reveals a Link between TRAIL-Mediated Apoptosis and Glutathione Reductase, a Key Component of Oxidative Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Rozanov, Dmitri; Cheltsov, Anton; Sergienko, Eduard; Vasile, Stefan; Golubkov, Vladislav; Aleshin, Alexander E.; Levin, Trevor; Traer, Elie; Hann, Byron; Freimuth, Julia; Alexeev, Nikita; Alekseyev, Max A.; Budko, Sergey P; Bächinger, Hans Peter; Spellman, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A high throughput screen for compounds that induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis identified ML100 as an active chemical probe, which potentiated TRAIL activity in prostate carcinoma PPC-1 and melanoma MDA-MB-435 cells. Follow-up in silico modeling and profiling in cell-based assays allowed us to identify NSC130362, pharmacophore analog of ML100 that induced 65-95% cytotoxicity in cancer cells and did not affect the viability of human primary hepatocytes. In agreement with the activation of the apoptotic pathway, both ML100 and NSC130362 synergistically with TRAIL induced caspase-3/7 activity in MDA-MB-435 cells. Subsequent affinity chromatography and inhibition studies convincingly demonstrated that glutathione reductase (GSR), a key component of the oxidative stress response, is a target of NSC130362. In accordance with the role of GSR in the TRAIL pathway, GSR gene silencing potentiated TRAIL activity in MDA-MB-435 cells but not in human hepatocytes. Inhibition of GSR activity resulted in the induction of oxidative stress, as was evidenced by an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and peroxidation of mitochondrial membrane after NSC130362 treatment in MDA-MB-435 cells but not in human hepatocytes. The antioxidant reduced glutathione (GSH) fully protected MDA-MB-435 cells from cell lysis induced by NSC130362 and TRAIL, thereby further confirming the interplay between GSR and TRAIL. As a consequence of activation of oxidative stress, combined treatment of different oxidative stress inducers and NSC130362 promoted cell death in a variety of cancer cells but not in hepatocytes in cell-based assays and in in vivo, in a mouse tumor xenograft model. PMID:26075913

  10. TRAIL-Based High Throughput Screening Reveals a Link between TRAIL-Mediated Apoptosis and Glutathione Reductase, a Key Component of Oxidative Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Rozanov, Dmitri; Cheltsov, Anton; Sergienko, Eduard; Vasile, Stefan; Golubkov, Vladislav; Aleshin, Alexander E; Levin, Trevor; Traer, Elie; Hann, Byron; Freimuth, Julia; Alexeev, Nikita; Alekseyev, Max A; Budko, Sergey P; Bächinger, Hans Peter; Spellman, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A high throughput screen for compounds that induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis identified ML100 as an active chemical probe, which potentiated TRAIL activity in prostate carcinoma PPC-1 and melanoma MDA-MB-435 cells. Follow-up in silico modeling and profiling in cell-based assays allowed us to identify NSC130362, pharmacophore analog of ML100 that induced 65-95% cytotoxicity in cancer cells and did not affect the viability of human primary hepatocytes. In agreement with the activation of the apoptotic pathway, both ML100 and NSC130362 synergistically with TRAIL induced caspase-3/7 activity in MDA-MB-435 cells. Subsequent affinity chromatography and inhibition studies convincingly demonstrated that glutathione reductase (GSR), a key component of the oxidative stress response, is a target of NSC130362. In accordance with the role of GSR in the TRAIL pathway, GSR gene silencing potentiated TRAIL activity in MDA-MB-435 cells but not in human hepatocytes. Inhibition of GSR activity resulted in the induction of oxidative stress, as was evidenced by an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and peroxidation of mitochondrial membrane after NSC130362 treatment in MDA-MB-435 cells but not in human hepatocytes. The antioxidant reduced glutathione (GSH) fully protected MDA-MB-435 cells from cell lysis induced by NSC130362 and TRAIL, thereby further confirming the interplay between GSR and TRAIL. As a consequence of activation of oxidative stress, combined treatment of different oxidative stress inducers and NSC130362 promoted cell death in a variety of cancer cells but not in hepatocytes in cell-based assays and in in vivo, in a mouse tumor xenograft model.

  11. A novel NADPH-dependent reductase of Sulfobacillus acidophilus TPY phenol hydroxylase: expression, characterization, and functional analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Guo, Wenbin; Chen, Xinhua

    2016-12-01

    The reductase component (MhpP) of the Sulfobacillus acidophilus TPY multicomponent phenol hydroxylase exhibits only 40 % similarity to Pseudomonas sp. strain CF600 phenol hydroxylase reductase. Amino acid sequence alignment analysis revealed that four cysteine residues (Cys-X 4 -Cys-X 2 -Cys-X 29-35 -Cys) are conserved in the N terminus of MhpP for [2Fe-2S] cluster binding, and two other motifs (RXYS and GXXS/T) are conserved in the C terminus for binding the isoalloxazine and phosphate groups of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Two motifs (S/T-R and yXCGp) responsible for binding to reduce nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) are also conserved in MhpP, although some residues differ. To confirm the function of this reductase, MhpP was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and purified. UV-visible spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that MhpP contains a [2Fe-2S] cluster. MhpP mutants in which the four cysteine residues were substituted via site-directed mutagenesis lost the ability to bind the [2Fe-2S] cluster, resulting in a decrease in enzyme-specific oxidation of NADPH. Thin-layer chromatography revealed that MhpP contains FAD. Substrate specificity analyses confirmed that MhpP uses NADPH rather than NADH as an electron donor. MhpP oxidizes NADPH using cytochrome c, potassium ferricyanide, or nitro blue tetrazolium as an electron acceptor, with a specific activity of 1.7 ± 0.36, 0.78 ± 0.13, and 0.16 ± 0.06 U/mg, respectively. Thus, S. acidophilus TPY MhpP is a novel NADPH-dependent reductase component of phenol hydroxylase that utilizes FAD and a [2Fe-2S] cluster as cofactors.

  12. Characterization of the Reversible Inactivation of Ankistrodesmus braunii Nitrate Reductase by Hydroxylamine.

    PubMed

    Balandin, T; Fernández, V M; Aparicio, P J

    1986-09-01

    The photoreversible nature of the regulation of nitrate reductase is one of the most interesting features of this enzyme. As well as other chemicals, NH(2)OH reversibly inactivates the reduced form of nitrate reductase from Ankistrodesmus braunii. From the partial activities of the enzyme, only terminal nitrate reductase is affected by NH(2)OH. To demonstrate that the terminal activity was readily inactivted by NH(2)OH, the necessary reductants of the terminal part of the enzyme had to be cleared of dithionite since this compound reacts chemically with NH(2)OH. Photoreduced flavins and electrochemically reduced methyl viologen sustain very effective inactivation of terminal nitrate reductase activity, even if the enzyme was previously deprived of its NADH-dehydrogenase activity. The early inhibition of nitrate reductase by NH(2)OH appears to be competitive versus NO(3) (-). Since NO(3) (-), as well as cyanate, carbamyl phosphate and azide (competitive inhibitors of nitrate reductase versus NO(3) (-)), protect the enzyme from NH(2)OH inactivation, it is suggested that NH(2)OH binds to the nitrate active site. The NH(2)OH-inactivated enzyme was photoreactivated in the presence of flavins, although slower than when the enzyme was previously inactivated with CN(-). NH(2)OH and NADH concentrations required for full inactivation of nitrate reductase appear to be low enough to potentially consider this inactivation process of physiological significance.

  13. Characterization of the Reversible Inactivation of Ankistrodesmus braunii Nitrate Reductase by Hydroxylamine 1

    PubMed Central

    Balandin, Teresa; Fernández, Victor M.; Aparicio, Pedro J.

    1986-01-01

    The photoreversible nature of the regulation of nitrate reductase is one of the most interesting features of this enzyme. As well as other chemicals, NH2OH reversibly inactivates the reduced form of nitrate reductase from Ankistrodesmus braunii. From the partial activities of the enzyme, only terminal nitrate reductase is affected by NH2OH. To demonstrate that the terminal activity was readily inactivted by NH2OH, the necessary reductants of the terminal part of the enzyme had to be cleared of dithionite since this compound reacts chemically with NH2OH. Photoreduced flavins and electrochemically reduced methyl viologen sustain very effective inactivation of terminal nitrate reductase activity, even if the enzyme was previously deprived of its NADH-dehydrogenase activity. The early inhibition of nitrate reductase by NH2OH appears to be competitive versus NO3−. Since NO3−, as well as cyanate, carbamyl phosphate and azide (competitive inhibitors of nitrate reductase versus NO3−), protect the enzyme from NH2OH inactivation, it is suggested that NH2OH binds to the nitrate active site. The NH2OH-inactivated enzyme was photoreactivated in the presence of flavins, although slower than when the enzyme was previously inactivated with CN−. NH2OH and NADH concentrations required for full inactivation of nitrate reductase appear to be low enough to potentially consider this inactivation process of physiological significance. PMID:16665024

  14. Flavin nucleotides in human lens: regional distribution in brunescent cataracts.

    PubMed

    Bhat, K S; Nayak, S

    1998-12-01

    The biochemical mechanism(s) underlying brunescent cataracts remain unclear. Oxidative stress due to reactive oxygen species may have a role in the pigmentation process in eye lens. We have analysed human cataractous lenses for flavins by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), since flavins are light sensitive and act as endogenous sensitizers generating reactive oxygen species in the eye. The most significant observation in this study is that higher levels of flavin nucleotides occur in brown lens compared to yellow lens. The concentration of flavin nucleotides (flavin monouncleotide, FMN + flavin adenine dinucleotide, FAD) was highest in the nuclear region of the lens followed by the cortical and capsule-epithelial regions. However, the ratio of FAD/FMN was lowest in the nuclear region of the lens followed by other regions. On the other hand, riboflavin was not detected in any of the lens (cataractous) regions. These results suggest that the observed increase in flavin nucleotides in the ocular tissue could contribute towards deepening of lens pigmentation.

  15. Flavin Electron Shuttles Dominate Extracellular Electron Transfer by Shewanella oneidensis

    PubMed Central

    Kotloski, Nicholas J.; Gralnick, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 is widely studied for its ability to respire a diverse array of soluble and insoluble electron acceptors. The ability to breathe insoluble substrates is defined as extracellular electron transfer and can occur via direct contact or by electron shuttling in S. oneidensis. To determine the contribution of flavin electron shuttles in extracellular electron transfer, a transposon mutagenesis screen was performed with S. oneidensis to identify mutants unable to secrete flavins. A multidrug and toxin efflux transporter encoded by SO_0702 was identified and renamed bfe (bacterial flavin adenine dinucleotide [FAD] exporter) based on phenotypic characterization. Deletion of bfe resulted in a severe decrease in extracellular flavins, while overexpression of bfe increased the concentration of extracellular flavins. Strains lacking bfe had no defect in reduction of soluble Fe(III), but these strains were deficient in the rate of insoluble Fe(III) oxide reduction, which was alleviated by the addition of exogenous flavins. To test a different insoluble electron acceptor, graphite electrode bioreactors were set up to measure current produced by wild-type S. oneidensis and the Δbfe mutant. With the same concentration of supplemented flavins, the two strains produced similar amounts of current. However, when exogenous flavins were not supplemented to bioreactors, bfe mutant strains produced significantly less current than the wild type. We have demonstrated that flavin electron shuttling accounts for ~75% of extracellular electron transfer to insoluble substrates by S. oneidensis and have identified the first FAD transporter in bacteria. PMID:23322638

  16. NapGH components of the periplasmic nitrate reductase of Escherichia coli K-12: location, topology and physiological roles in quinol oxidation and redox balancing.

    PubMed Central

    Brondijk, T Harma C; Nilavongse, Arjaree; Filenko, Nina; Richardson, David J; Cole, Jeffrey A

    2004-01-01

    Nap (periplasmic nitrate reductase) operons of many bacteria include four common, essential components, napD, napA, napB and napC (or a homologue of napC ). In Escherichia coli there are three additional genes, napF, napG and napH, none of which are essential for Nap activity. We now show that deletion of either napG or napH almost abolished Nap-dependent nitrate reduction by strains defective in naphthoquinone synthesis. The residual rate of nitrate reduction (approx. 1% of that of napG+ H+ strains) is sufficient to replace fumarate reduction in a redox-balancing role during growth by glucose fermentation. Western blotting combined with beta-galactosidase and alkaline phosphatase fusion experiments established that NapH is an integral membrane protein with four transmembrane helices. Both the N- and C-termini as well as the two non-haem iron-sulphur centres are located in the cytoplasm. An N-terminal twin arginine motif was shown to be essential for NapG function, consistent with the expectation that NapG is secreted into the periplasm by the twin arginine translocation pathway. A bacterial two-hybrid system was used to show that NapH interacts, presumably on the cytoplasmic side of, or within, the membrane, with NapC. As expected for a periplasmic protein, no NapG interactions with NapC or NapH were detected in the cytoplasm. An in vitro quinol dehydrogenase assay was developed to show that both NapG and NapH are essential for rapid electron transfer from menadiol to the terminal NapAB complex. These new in vivo and in vitro results establish that NapG and NapH form a quinol dehydrogenase that couples electron transfer from the high midpoint redox potential ubiquinone-ubiquinol couple via NapC and NapB to NapA. PMID:14674886

  17. Inhibition of pea ferredoxin-NADP(H) reductase by Zn-ferrocyanide.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Daniela L Catalano; Rial, Daniela V; Ceccarelli, Eduardo A

    2004-11-01

    Ferredoxin-NADP(H) reductases (FNRs) represent a prototype of enzymes involved in numerous metabolic pathways. We found that pea FNR ferricyanide diaphorase activity was inhibited by Zn2+ (Ki 1.57 microM). Dichlorophenolindophenol diaphorase activity was also inhibited by Zn2+ (Ki 1.80 microM), but the addition of ferrocyanide was required, indicating that the inhibitor is an arrangement of both ions. Escherichia coli FNR was also inhibited by Zn-ferrocyanide, suggesting that inhibition is a consequence of common structural features of these flavoenzymes. The inhibitor behaves in a noncompetitive manner for NADPH and for artificial electron acceptors. Analysis of the oxidation state of the flavin during catalysis in the presence of the inhibitor suggests that the electron-transfer process between NADPH and the flavin is not significantly altered, and that the transfer between the flavin and the second substrate is mainly affected. Zn-ferrocyanide interacts with the reductase, probably increasing the accessibility of the prosthetic group to the solvent. Ferredoxin reduction was also inhibited by Zn-ferrocyanide in a noncompetitive manner, but the observed Ki was about nine times higher than those for the diaphorase reactions. The electron transfer to Anabaena flavodoxin was not affected by Zn-ferrocyanide. Binding of the apoflavodoxin to the reductase was sufficient to overcome the inhibition by Zn-ferrocyanide, suggesting that the interaction of FNRs with their proteinaceous electron partners may induce a conformational change in the reductase that alters or completely prevents the inhibitory effect.

  18. A biomimetic redox flow battery based on flavin mononucleotide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orita, Akihiro; Verde, Michael G.; Sakai, Masanori; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2016-10-01

    The versatility in design of redox flow batteries makes them apt to efficiently store energy in large-scale applications at low cost. The discovery of inexpensive organic electroactive materials for use in aqueous flow battery electrolytes is highly attractive, but is thus far limited. Here we report on a flow battery using an aqueous electrolyte based on the sodium salt of flavin mononucleotide. Flavins are highly versatile electroactive molecules, which catalyse a multitude of redox reactions in biological systems. We use nicotinamide (vitamin B3) as a hydrotropic agent to enhance the water solubility of flavin mononucleotide. A redox flow battery using flavin mononucleotide negative and ferrocyanide positive electrolytes in strong base shows stable cycling performance, with over 99% capacity retention over the course of 100 cycles. We hypothesize that this is enabled due to the oxidized and reduced forms of FMN-Na being stabilized by resonance structures.

  19. A biomimetic redox flow battery based on flavin mononucleotide

    PubMed Central

    Orita, Akihiro; Verde, Michael G.; Sakai, Masanori; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2016-01-01

    The versatility in design of redox flow batteries makes them apt to efficiently store energy in large-scale applications at low cost. The discovery of inexpensive organic electroactive materials for use in aqueous flow battery electrolytes is highly attractive, but is thus far limited. Here we report on a flow battery using an aqueous electrolyte based on the sodium salt of flavin mononucleotide. Flavins are highly versatile electroactive molecules, which catalyse a multitude of redox reactions in biological systems. We use nicotinamide (vitamin B3) as a hydrotropic agent to enhance the water solubility of flavin mononucleotide. A redox flow battery using flavin mononucleotide negative and ferrocyanide positive electrolytes in strong base shows stable cycling performance, with over 99% capacity retention over the course of 100 cycles. We hypothesize that this is enabled due to the oxidized and reduced forms of FMN-Na being stabilized by resonance structures. PMID:27767026

  20. A biomimetic redox flow battery based on flavin mononucleotide.

    PubMed

    Orita, Akihiro; Verde, Michael G; Sakai, Masanori; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2016-10-21

    The versatility in design of redox flow batteries makes them apt to efficiently store energy in large-scale applications at low cost. The discovery of inexpensive organic electroactive materials for use in aqueous flow battery electrolytes is highly attractive, but is thus far limited. Here we report on a flow battery using an aqueous electrolyte based on the sodium salt of flavin mononucleotide. Flavins are highly versatile electroactive molecules, which catalyse a multitude of redox reactions in biological systems. We use nicotinamide (vitamin B3) as a hydrotropic agent to enhance the water solubility of flavin mononucleotide. A redox flow battery using flavin mononucleotide negative and ferrocyanide positive electrolytes in strong base shows stable cycling performance, with over 99% capacity retention over the course of 100 cycles. We hypothesize that this is enabled due to the oxidized and reduced forms of FMN-Na being stabilized by resonance structures.

  1. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase: biochemical characterization and medical significance.

    PubMed

    Trimmer, Elizabeth E

    2013-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) catalyzes the reduction of 5,10-methylenetetrahydofolate (CH2-H4folate) to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (CH3-H4folate). The enzyme employs a noncovalently-bound flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), which accepts reducing equivalents from NAD(P)H and transfers them to CH2-H4folate. The reaction provides the sole source of CH3-H4folate, which is utilized by methionine synthase in the synthesis of methionine from homocysteine. MTHFR plays a key role in folate metabolism and in the homeostasis of homocysteine; mutations in the enzyme lead to hyperhomocyst(e)inemia. A common C677T polymorphism in MTHFR has been associated with an increased risk for the development of cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, and depression in adults, and of neural tube defects in the fetus. The mutation also confers protection for certain types of cancers. This review presents the current knowledge of the enzyme, its biochemical characterization, and medical significance.

  2. Trp(359) regulates flavin thermodynamics and coenzyme selectivity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis FprA.

    PubMed

    Neeli, Rajasekhar; Sabri, Muna; McLean, Kirsty J; Dunford, Adrian J; Scrutton, Nigel S; Leys, David; Munro, Andrew W

    2008-05-01

    Mtb (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) FprA (flavoprotein reductase A) is an NAD(P)H-dependent FAD-binding reductase that is structurally related to mammalian adrenodoxin reductase, and which supports the catalytic function of Mtb cytochrome P450s. Trp(359), proximal to the FAD, was investigated in light of its potential role in controlling coenzyme interactions, as observed for similarly located aromatic residues in diflavin reductases. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that a tryptophan residue corresponding to Trp(359) is conserved across FprA-type enzymes and in adrenodoxin reductases. W359A/H mutants of Mtb FprA were generated, expressed and the proteins characterized to define the role of Trp(359). W359A/H mutants exhibited perturbed UV-visible absorption/fluorescence properties. The FAD semiquinone formed in wild-type NADPH-reduced FprA was destabilized in the W359A/H mutants, which also had more positive FAD midpoint reduction potentials (-168/-181 mV respectively, versus the standard hydrogen electrode, compared with -230 mV for wild-type FprA). The W359A/H mutants had lower ferricyanide reductase k(cat) and NAD(P)H K(m) values, but this led to improvements in catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) with NADH as reducing coenzyme (9.6/18.8 muM(-1).min(-1) respectively, compared with 5.7 muM(-1).min(-1) for wild-type FprA). Stopped-flow spectroscopy revealed NAD(P)H-dependent FAD reduction as rate-limiting in steady-state catalysis, and to be retarded in mutants (e.g. limiting rate constants for NADH-dependent FAD reduction were 25.4 s(-1) for wild-type FprA and 4.8 s(-1)/13.4 s(-1) for W359A/H mutants). Diminished mutant FAD content (particularly in W359H FprA) highlighted the importance of Trp(359) for flavin stability. The results demonstrate that the conserved Trp(359) is critical in regulating FprA FAD binding, thermodynamic properties, catalytic efficiency and coenzyme selectivity.

  3. Identification of the 7-Hydroxymethyl Chlorophyll a Reductase of the Chlorophyll Cycle in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Meguro, Miki; Ito, Hisashi; Takabayashi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Ryouichi; Tanaka, Ayumi

    2011-01-01

    The interconversion of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, referred to as the chlorophyll cycle, plays a crucial role in the processes of greening, acclimation to light intensity, and senescence. The chlorophyll cycle consists of three reactions: the conversions of chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b by chlorophyllide a oxygenase, chlorophyll b to 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a by chlorophyll b reductase, and 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a to chlorophyll a by 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a reductase. We identified 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a reductase, which is the last remaining unidentified enzyme of the chlorophyll cycle, from Arabidopsis thaliana by genetic and biochemical methods. Recombinant 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a reductase converted 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a to chlorophyll a using ferredoxin. Both sequence and biochemical analyses showed that 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a reductase contains flavin adenine dinucleotide and an iron-sulfur center. In addition, a phylogenetic analysis elucidated the evolution of 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a reductase from divinyl chlorophyllide vinyl reductase. A mutant lacking 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a reductase was found to accumulate 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a and pheophorbide a. Furthermore, this accumulation of pheophorbide a in the mutant was rescued by the inactivation of the chlorophyll b reductase gene. The downregulation of pheophorbide a oxygenase activity is discussed in relation to 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a accumulation. PMID:21934147

  4. Effect of xenon on the excited states of phototropic receptor flavin in corn seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Vierstra, R.D.; Poff, K.L.; Walker, E.B.; Song, P.S.

    1981-05-01

    The chemically inert, water-soluble heavy atom gas, xenon, at millimolar concentrations specifically quenches the triplet excited state of flavin in solution without quenching the flavin singlet excited state. The preferential quenching of the flavin triplet over the singlet excited state by Xe has been established by showing that the flavin triplet-sensitized photooxidation of NADH is inhibited while the fluorescence intensity and lifetime of flavin are not affected by Xe. No significant inhibition of phototropism and geotropism by Xe was observed, suggesting that a flavin singlet state is more likely involved than the triplet state in the primary photoprocess of phototropism in corn.

  5. Dynamic Control of Electron Transfers in Diflavin Reductases

    PubMed Central

    Aigrain, Louise; Fatemi, Fataneh; Frances, Oriane; Lescop, Ewen; Truan, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Diflavin reductases are essential proteins capable of splitting the two-electron flux from reduced pyridine nucleotides to a variety of one electron acceptors. The primary sequence of diflavin reductases shows a conserved domain organization harboring two catalytic domains bound to the FAD and FMN flavins sandwiched by one or several non-catalytic domains. The catalytic domains are analogous to existing globular proteins: the FMN domain is analogous to flavodoxins while the FAD domain resembles ferredoxin reductases. The first structural determination of one member of the diflavin reductases family raised some questions about the architecture of the enzyme during catalysis: both FMN and FAD were in perfect position for interflavin transfers but the steric hindrance of the FAD domain rapidly prompted more complex hypotheses on the possible mechanisms for the electron transfer from FMN to external acceptors. Hypotheses of domain reorganization during catalysis in the context of the different members of this family were given by many groups during the past twenty years. This review will address the recent advances in various structural approaches that have highlighted specific dynamic features of diflavin reductases. PMID:23203109

  6. Production of a recombinant hybrid hemoflavoprotein: engineering a functional NADH:cytochrome c reductase.

    PubMed

    Barber, M J; Quinn, G B

    2001-11-01

    A gene has been constructed coding for a unique fusion protein, NADH:cytochrome c reductase, that comprises the soluble heme-containing domain of rat hepatic cytochrome b(5) as the amino-terminal portion of the protein and the soluble flavin-containing domain of rat hepatic cytochrome b(5) reductase as the carboxyl terminus. The gene has been expressed in Escherichia coli resulting in the highly efficient production of a functional hybrid hemoflavoprotein which has been purified to homogeneity by a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation, affinity chromatography on 5'-ADP agarose, and size-exclusion chromatography. The purified protein exhibited a molecular mass of approximately 46 kDa by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 40,875 Da, for the apoprotein, using mass spectrometry which also confirmed the presence of both heme and FAD prosthetic groups. The fusion protein showed immunological cross-reactivity with both anti-rat cytochrome b(5) and anti-rat cytochrome b(5) reductase antibodies indicating the conservation of antigenic determinants from both native domains. Spectroscopic analysis indicated the fusion protein contained both a b-type cytochrome and flavin chromophors with properties identical to those of the native proteins. Amino-terminal and internal amino acid sequencing confirmed the identity of peptides derived from both the heme- and flavin-binding domains with sequences identical to the deduced amino acid sequence. The isolated fusion protein retained NADH:ferricyanide reductase activity (k(cat) = 8.00 x 10(2) s(-1), K(NADH)(m) = 4 microM, K(FeCN(6))(m) = 11 microM) comparable to that of that of native NADH:cytochrome b(5) reductase and also exhibited both NADH:cytochrome c reductase activity (k(cat) = 2.17 x 10(2) s(-1), K(NADH)(m) = 2 microM, K(FeCN(6))(m) = 11 microM, K(Cyt.c)(m) = 1 microM) and NADH:methemoglobin reductase activity (k(cat) = 4.40 x 10(-1) s(-1), K(NADH)(m) = 3 microM, K(mHb)(m) = 47 microM), the latter two activities

  7. Spin Densities in Flavin Analogs within a Flavoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Jesús Ignacio; Frago, Susana; Lans, Isaías; Alonso, Pablo Javier; García-Rubio, Inés; Medina, Milagros

    2016-01-01

    Characterization by electron paramagnetic resonance techniques of several variants of Anabaena flavodoxin, where the naturally occurring FMN cofactor is substituted by different analogs, makes it possible to improve the details of the spin distribution map in the isoallosazine ring in its semiquinone state. The analyzed variants were selected to monitor the effects of intrinsic changes in the flavin ring electronic structure, as well as perturbations in the apoflavodoxin-flavin interaction, on the spin populations. When these effects were analyzed together with the functional properties of the different flavodoxin variants, a relationship between spin population and biochemical parameters, as the reduction potential, could be envisaged. PMID:26840722

  8. Crystal structure of pentaerythritol tetranitrate reductase: "flipped" binding geometries for steroid substrates in different redox states of the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Barna, T M; Khan, H; Bruce, N C; Barsukov, I; Scrutton, N S; Moody, P C

    2001-07-06

    Pentaerythritol tetranitrate reductase (PETN reductase) degrades high explosive molecules including nitrate esters, nitroaromatics and cyclic triazine compounds. The enzyme also binds a variety of cyclic enones, including steroids; some steroids act as substrates whilst others are inhibitors. Understanding the basis of reactivity with cyclic enones requires structural information for the enzyme and key complexes formed with steroid substrates and inhibitors. The crystal structure of oxidised and reduced PETN reductase at 1.5 A resolution establishes a close structural similarity to the beta/alpha-barrel flavoenzyme, old yellow enzyme. In complexes of oxidised PETN reductase with progesterone (an inhibitor), 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione and prednisone (both substrates) the steroids are stacked over the si-face of the flavin in an orientation different from that reported for old yellow enzyme. The specifically reducible 1,2 unsaturated bonds in 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione and prednisone are not optimally aligned with the flavin N5 in oxidised enzyme complexes. These structures suggest either relative "flipping" or shifting of the steroid with respect to the flavin when bound in different redox forms of the enzyme. Deuterium transfer from nicotinamide coenzyme to 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione via the enzyme bound FMN indicates 1alpha addition at the steroid C2 atom. These studies rule out lateral motion of the steroid and indicate that the steroid orientation is "flipped" in different redox states of the enzyme. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  9. Redox State of Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide Drives Substrate Binding and Product Release in Escherichia coli Succinate Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Victor W.T.; Piragasam, Ramanaguru Siva; Rothery, Richard A.; Maklashina, Elena; Cecchini, Gary; Weiner, Joel H.

    2016-01-01

    The Complex II family of enzymes, comprising the respiratory succinate dehydrogenases and fumarate reductases, catalyze reversible interconversion of succinate and fumarate. In contrast to the covalent flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor assembled in these enzymes, the soluble fumarate reductases (e.g. that from Shewanella frigidimarina) that assemble a noncovalent FAD cannot catalyze succinate oxidation but retain the ability to reduce fumarate. In this study, an SdhA-H45A variant that eliminates the site of the 8α-N3-histidyl covalent linkage between the protein and the FAD was examined. The variants SdhA-R286A/K/Y and -H242A/Y, that target residues thought to be important for substrate binding and catalysis were also studied. The variants SdhA-H45A and -R286A/K/Y resulted in assembly of a noncovalent FAD cofactor, which led to a significant decrease (−87 mV or more) in its reduction potential. The variant enzymes were studied by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy following stand-alone reduction and potentiometric titrations. The “free” and “occupied” states of the active site were linked to the reduced and oxidized states of the FAD, respectively. Our data allows for a proposed model of succinate oxidation that is consistent with tunnel diode effects observed in the succinate dehydrogenase enzyme and a preference for fumarate reduction catalysis in fumarate reductase homologues that assemble a noncovalent FAD. PMID:25569225

  10. A productive NADP+ binding mode of ferredoxin-NADP + reductase revealed by protein engineering and crystallographic studies.

    PubMed

    Deng, Z; Aliverti, A; Zanetti, G; Arakaki, A K; Ottado, J; Orellano, E G; Calcaterra, N B; Ceccarelli, E A; Carrillo, N; Karplus, P A

    1999-09-01

    The flavoenzyme ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR) catalyzes the production of NADPH during photosynthesis. Whereas the structures of FNRs from spinach leaf and a cyanobacterium as well as many of their homologs have been solved, none of these studies has yielded a productive geometry of the flavin-nicotinamide interaction. Here, we show that this failure occurs because nicotinamide binding to wild type FNR involves the energetically unfavorable displacement of the C-terminal Tyr side chain. We used mutants of this residue (Tyr 308) of pea FNR to obtain the structures of productive NADP+ and NADPH complexes. These structures reveal a unique NADP+ binding mode in which the nicotinamide ring is not parallel to the flavin isoalloxazine ring, but lies against it at an angle of approximately 30 degrees, with the C4 atom 3 A from the flavin N5 atom.

  11. Evidence for a Hexaheteromeric Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase in Moorella thermoacetica

    PubMed Central

    Mock, Johanna; Wang, Shuning; Huang, Haiyan; Kahnt, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Moorella thermoacetica can grow with H2 and CO2, forming acetic acid from 2 CO2 via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. All enzymes involved in this pathway have been characterized to date, except for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MetF). We report here that the M. thermoacetica gene that putatively encodes this enzyme, metF, is part of a transcription unit also containing the genes hdrCBA, mvhD, and metV. MetF copurified with the other five proteins encoded in the unit in a hexaheteromeric complex with an apparent molecular mass in the 320-kDa range. The 40-fold-enriched preparation contained per mg protein 3.1 nmol flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), 3.4 nmol flavin mononucleotide (FMN), and 110 nmol iron, almost as predicted from the primary structure of the six subunits. It catalyzed the reduction of methylenetetrahydrofolate with reduced benzyl viologen but not with NAD(P)H in either the absence or presence of oxidized ferredoxin. It also catalyzed the reversible reduction of benzyl viologen with NADH (diaphorase activity). Heterologous expression of the metF gene in Escherichia coli revealed that the subunit MetF contains one FMN rather than FAD. MetF exhibited 70-fold-higher methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase activity with benzyl viologen when produced together with MetV, which in part shows sequence similarity to MetF. Heterologously produced HdrA contained 2 FADs and had NAD-specific diaphorase activity. Our results suggested that the physiological electron donor for methylenetetrahydrofolate reduction in M. thermoacetica is NADH and that the exergonic reduction of methylenetetrahydrofolate with NADH is coupled via flavin-based electron bifurcation with the endergonic reduction of an electron acceptor, whose identity remains unknown. PMID:25002540

  12. Cofactor Trapping, a New Method To Produce Flavin Mononucleotide ▿

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Ulrich; Svensson, Vera; Wirtz, Astrid; Knieps-Grünhagen, Esther; Jaeger, Karl-Erich

    2011-01-01

    We have purified flavin mononucleotide (FMN) from a flavoprotein-overexpressing Escherichia coli strain by cofactor trapping. This approach uses an overexpressed flavoprotein to trap FMN, which is thus removed from the cascade regulating FMN production in E. coli. This, in turn, allows the isolation of highly pure FMN. PMID:21131527

  13. Excited flavin and pterin coenzyme molecules in evolution.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, M S; Telegina, T A; Vechtomova, Y L; Kolesnikov, M P; Lyudnikova, T A; Golub, O A

    2010-10-01

    Excited flavin and pterin molecules are active in intermolecular energy transfer and in photocatalysis of redox reactions resulting in conservation of free energy. Flavin-containing pigments produced in models of the prebiotic environment are capable of converting photon energy into the energy of phosphoanhydride bonds of ATP. However, during evolution photochemical reactions involving excited FMN or FAD molecules failed to become participants of bioenergy transfer systems, but they appear in enzymes responsible for repair of UV-damaged DNA (DNA photolyases) and also in receptors of blue and UV-A light regulating vital functions of organisms. The families of these photoproteins (DNA-photolyases and cryptochromes, LOV-domain- and BLUF-domain-containing proteins) are different in the structure and in mechanisms of the photoprocesses. The excited flavin molecules are involved in photochemical processes in reaction centers of these photoproteins. In DNA photolyases and cryptochromes the excitation energy on the reaction center flavin is supplied from an antenna molecule that is bound with the same polypeptide. The role of antenna is played by MTHF or by 8-HDF in some DNA photolyases, i.e. also by molecules with known coenzyme functions in biocatalysis. Differences in the structure of chromophore-binding domains suggest an independent origin of the photoprotein families. The analysis of structure and properties of coenzyme molecules reveals some specific features that were significant in evolution for their being selected as chromophores in these proteins.

  14. Is the flavin-deficient red blood cell common in Maremma, Italy, an important defense against malaria in this area?

    PubMed

    Anderson, B B; Scattoni, M; Perry, G M; Galvan, P; Giuberti, M; Buonocore, G; Vullo, C

    1994-11-01

    There is a high prevalence of a familial flavin-deficient red blood cell in Ferrara province in the Po delta in northern Italy, believed to have been selected for by malaria which was endemic from the 12th century. In the present study, activities of FAD-dependent red-cell glutathione reductase (EGR) in the Grosseto area of Maremma on the west coast of Italy where malaria was endemic from 300 B.C. are compared both with activities in the Ferrara area and with activities where there was no history of endemic malaria--in the Florence area and in London in people of Anglo-Saxon origin. EGR activities were similar in Grosseto and Ferrara and were significantly lower than in Florence and London. As previously found in Ferrara, low EGR activity in Grosseto was shown to be unrelated to low dietary riboflavin intake. These findings in Grosseto, suggesting selection by malaria, are particularly interesting because, unlike the situation in Ferrara and most other malarial areas, the prevalence of thalassemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is very low, and they do not appear to have been selected for in Maremma. It is possible that a flavin-deficient red cell, known to inhibit growth of the malaria parasite, was an important protecting factor in the population of this area over the centuries.

  15. Alternative Pyrimidine Biosynthesis Protein ApbE Is a Flavin Transferase Catalyzing Covalent Attachment of FMN to a Threonine Residue in Bacterial Flavoproteins*

    PubMed Central

    Bertsova, Yulia V.; Fadeeva, Maria S.; Kostyrko, Vitaly A.; Serebryakova, Marina V.; Baykov, Alexander A.; Bogachev, Alexander V.

    2013-01-01

    Na+-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na+-NQR) contains two flavin residues as redox-active prosthetic groups attached by a phosphoester bond to threonine residues in subunits NqrB and NqrC. We demonstrate here that flavinylation of truncated Vibrio harveyi NqrC at Thr-229 in Escherichia coli cells requires the presence of a co-expressed Vibrio apbE gene. The apbE genes cluster with genes for Na+-NQR and other FMN-binding flavoproteins in bacterial genomes and encode proteins with previously unknown function. Experiments with isolated NqrC and ApbE proteins confirmed that ApbE is the only protein factor required for NqrC flavinylation and also indicated that the reaction is Mg2+-dependent and proceeds with FAD but not FMN. Inactivation of the apbE gene in Klebsiella pneumoniae, wherein the nqr operon and apbE are well separated in the chromosome, resulted in a complete loss of the quinone reductase activity of Na+-NQR, consistent with its dependence on covalently bound flavin. Our data thus identify ApbE as a novel modifying enzyme, flavin transferase. PMID:23558683

  16. What's in a covalent bond? On the role and formation of covalently bound flavin cofactors.

    PubMed

    Heuts, Dominic P H M; Scrutton, Nigel S; McIntire, William S; Fraaije, Marco W

    2009-07-01

    Many enzymes use one or more cofactors, such as biotin, heme, or flavin. These cofactors may be bound to the enzyme in a noncovalent or covalent manner. Although most flavoproteins contain a noncovalently bound flavin cofactor (FMN or FAD), a large number have these cofactors covalently linked to the polypeptide chain. Most covalent flavin-protein linkages involve a single cofactor attachment via a histidyl, tyrosyl, cysteinyl or threonyl linkage. However, some flavoproteins contain a flavin that is tethered to two amino acids. In the last decade, many studies have focused on elucidating the mechanism(s) of covalent flavin incorporation (flavinylation) and the possible role(s) of covalent protein-flavin bonds. These endeavors have revealed that covalent flavinylation is a post-translational and self-catalytic process. This review presents an overview of the known types of covalent flavin bonds and the proposed mechanisms and roles of covalent flavinylation.

  17. Why flavins are not competitors of chlorophyll in the evolution of biological converters of solar energy.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Mikhail S; Telegina, Taisiya A; Vechtomova, Yulia L; Buglak, Andrey A

    2012-12-27

    Excited flavin molecules can photocatalyze reactions, leading to the accumulation of free energy in the products, and the data accumulated through biochemical experiments and by modeling prebiological processes suggest that flavins were available in the earliest stages of evolution. Furthermore, model experiments have shown that abiogenic flavin conjugated with a polyamino acid matrix, a pigment that photocatalyzes the phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP, could have been present in the prebiotic environment. Indeed, excited flavin molecules play key roles in many photoenzymes and regulatory photoreceptors, and the substantial structural differences between photoreceptor families indicate that evolution has repeatedly used flavins as chromophores for photoreceptor proteins. Some of these photoreceptors are equipped with a light-harvesting antenna, which transfers excitation energy to chemically reactive flavins in the reaction center. The sum of the available data suggests that evolution could have led to the formation of a flavin-based biological converter to convert light energy into energy in the form of ATP.

  18. Theoretical study of the structures of flavin in different oxidation and protonation states

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Y.J.; Ornstein, R.L.

    1996-10-02

    Ab initio molecular orbital theory was used to investigate the structure of flavin in different oxidation and protonation states using lumiflavin as a model compound. According to our study. oxidized flavin is planar no matter what its protonation state or whether it participates in hydrogen bonding. The structures of flavin semiquinone radicals are planar or very close to planar, but the reduced flavin H{sub 3}Fl{sub red} (9) is bent with a ring puckering angle of 27.3{degree} along the N5 and N10 axis. The calculations indicate that N1 is the site of protonation for oxidized flavin, which is in agreement with several crystallographic studies. The calculated spin density distribution for flavin semiquinone radicals is also consistent with experimental results. Electrostatic potential derived charges at the RHF/6-31G{sup *} level of theory are also provided for both oxidized and reduced flavins. 34 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Identification and characterization of 2-naphthoyl-coenzyme A reductase, the prototype of a novel class of dearomatizing reductases.

    PubMed

    Eberlein, Christian; Estelmann, Sebastian; Seifert, Jana; von Bergen, Martin; Müller, Michael; Meckenstock, Rainer U; Boll, Matthias

    2013-06-01

    The enzymatic dearomatization of aromatic ring systems by reduction represents a highly challenging redox reaction in biology and plays a key role in the degradation of aromatic compounds under anoxic conditions. In anaerobic bacteria, most monocyclic aromatic growth substrates are converted to benzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA), which is then dearomatized to a conjugated dienoyl-CoA by ATP-dependent or -independent benzoyl-CoA reductases. It was unresolved whether or not related enzymes are involved in the anaerobic degradation of environmentally relevant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this work, a previously unknown dearomatizing 2-naphthoyl-CoA reductase was purified from extracts of the naphthalene-degrading, sulphidogenic enrichment culture N47. The oxygen-tolerant enzyme dearomatized the non-activated ring of 2-naphthoyl-CoA by a four-electron reduction to 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthoyl-CoA. The dimeric 150 kDa enzyme complex was composed of a 72 kDa subunit showing sequence similarity to members of the flavin-containing 'old yellow enzyme' family. NCR contained FAD, FMN, and an iron-sulphur cluster as cofactors. Extracts of Escherichia coli expressing the encoding gene catalysed 2-naphthoyl-CoA reduction. The identified NCR is a prototypical enzyme of a previously unknown class of dearomatizing arylcarboxyl-CoA reductases that are involved in anaerobic PAH degradation; it fundamentally differs from known benzoyl-CoA reductases.

  20. Peroxidase activity of selenoprotein GrdB of glycine reductase and stabilisation of its integrity by components of proprotein GrdE from Eubacterium acidaminophilum.

    PubMed

    Gröbe, Tina; Reuter, Michael; Gursinsky, Torsten; Söhling, Brigitte; Andreesen, Jan R

    2007-01-01

    The anaerobe Eubacterium acidaminophilum has been shown to contain an uncharacterized peroxidase, which may serve to protect the sensitive selenoproteins in that organism. We purified this peroxidase and found that it was identical with the substrate-specific "protein B"-complex of glycine reductase. The "protein B"-complex consists of the selenocysteine-containing GrdB subunit and two subunits, which derive from the GrdE proprotein. The specific peroxidase activity was 1.7 U (mg protein)(-1) with DTT and cumene hydroperoxide as substrates. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that GrdB was important for DTT- and NADH-dependent peroxidase activities in crude extracts, whereas the selenoperoxiredoxin PrxU could be depleted without affecting these peroxidase activities. GrdB could be heterologously produced in Escherichia coli with coexpression of selB and selC from E. acidaminophilum for selenocysteine insertion. Although GrdB was sensitive to proteolysis, some full-size protein was present which accounted for a peroxidase activity of about 0.5 U (mg protein)(-1) in these extracts. Mutation of the potentially redox-active UxxCxxC motif in GrdB resulted in still significant, but decreased activity. Heterologous GrdB was protected from degradation by full-length GrdE or by GrdE-domains. The GrdB-GrdE interaction was confirmed by copurification of GrdE with Strep-tagged GrdB. The data suggest that GrdE domains serve to stabilise GrdB.

  1. Mammalian flavin-containing monooxygenases: structure/function, genetic polymorphisms and role in drug metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Sharon K.; Williams, David E.

    2005-01-01

    Flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) oxygenates drugs and xenobiotics containing a “soft-nucleophile”, usually nitrogen or sulfur. FMO, like cytochrome P450 (CYP), is a monooxygenase, utilizing the reducing equivalents of NADPH to reduce 1 atom of molecular oxygen to water, while the other atom is used to oxidize the substrate. FMO and CYP also exhibit similar tissue and cellular location, molecular weight, substrate specificity, and exist as multiple enzymes under developmental control. The human FMO functional gene family is much smaller (5 families each with a single member) than CYP. FMO does not require a reductase to transfer electrons from NADPH and the catalytic cycle of the 2 monooxygenases is strikingly different. Another distinction is the lack of induction of FMOs by xenobiotics. In general, CYP is the major contributor to oxidative xenobiotic metabolism. However, FMO activity may be of significance in a number of cases and should not be overlooked. FMO and CYP have overlapping substrate specificities, but often yield distinct metabolites with potentially significant toxicological/pharmacological consequences. The physiological function(s) of FMO are poorly understood. Three of the 5 expressed human FMO genes, FMO1, FMO2 and FMO3, exhibit genetic polymorphisms. The most studied of these is FMO3 (adult human liver) in which mutant alleles contribute to the disease known as trimethylaminuria. The consequences of these FMO genetic polymorphisms in drug metabolism and human health are areas of research requiring further exploration. PMID:15922018

  2. Kinetic and structural basis of reactivity of pentaerythritol tetranitrate reductase with NADPH, 2-cyclohexenone, nitroesters, and nitroaromatic explosives.

    PubMed

    Khan, Huma; Harris, Richard J; Barna, Terez; Craig, Daniel H; Bruce, Neil C; Munro, Andrew W; Moody, Peter C E; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2002-06-14

    The reaction of pentaerythritol tetranitrate reductase with reducing and oxidizing substrates has been studied by stopped-flow spectrophotometry, redox potentiometry, and X-ray crystallography. We show in the reductive half-reaction of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) reductase that NADPH binds to form an enzyme-NADPH charge transfer intermediate prior to hydride transfer from the nicotinamide coenzyme to FMN. In the oxidative half-reaction, the two-electron-reduced enzyme reacts with several substrates including nitroester explosives (glycerol trinitrate and PETN), nitroaromatic explosives (trinitrotoluene (TNT) and picric acid), and alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds (2-cyclohexenone). Oxidation of the flavin by the nitroaromatic substrate TNT is kinetically indistinguishable from formation of its hydride-Meisenheimer complex, consistent with a mechanism involving direct nucleophilic attack by hydride from the flavin N5 atom at the electron-deficient aromatic nucleus of the substrate. The crystal structures of complexes of the oxidized enzyme bound to picric acid and TNT are consistent with direct hydride transfer from the reduced flavin to nitroaromatic substrates. The mode of binding the inhibitor 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) is similar to that observed with picric acid and TNT. In this position, however, the aromatic nucleus is not activated for hydride transfer from the flavin N5 atom, thus accounting for the lack of reactivity with 2,4-DNP. Our work with PETN reductase establishes further a close relationship to the Old Yellow Enzyme family of proteins but at the same time highlights important differences compared with the reactivity of Old Yellow Enzyme. Our studies provide a structural and mechanistic rationale for the ability of PETN reductase to react with the nitroaromatic explosive compounds TNT and picric acid and for the inhibition of enzyme activity with 2,4-DNP.

  3. Spin Densities in Flavin Analogs within a Flavoprotein.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Jesús Ignacio; Frago, Susana; Lans, Isaías; Alonso, Pablo Javier; García-Rubio, Inés; Medina, Milagros

    2016-02-02

    Characterization by electron paramagnetic resonance techniques of several variants of Anabaena flavodoxin, where the naturally occurring FMN cofactor is substituted by different analogs, makes it possible to improve the details of the spin distribution map in the isoallosazine ring in its semiquinone state. The analyzed variants were selected to monitor the effects of intrinsic changes in the flavin ring electronic structure, as well as perturbations in the apoflavodoxin-flavin interaction, on the spin populations. When these effects were analyzed together with the functional properties of the different flavodoxin variants, a relationship between spin population and biochemical parameters, as the reduction potential, could be envisaged. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Studies of Monolayers of Cyclodextrin and Flavin Derivatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    formation has been continued. These flavins are modified in the N-10 position with a methylthiopropyl group or other alkyl groups and can have electron ...the reduction potentials for the 7- carboxyl (-0.36 V) and 7-trifluoromethyl (-0.25 V) vs. Ag|AgCl show the versatility of this approach. Electron ...for polishing silver foil and electrochemical roughening have been investigated and practiced by the PI. (3) An automated surface tensiometer has

  5. The nitric oxide reductase mechanism of a flavo-diiron protein: identification of active-site intermediates and products.

    PubMed

    Caranto, Jonathan D; Weitz, Andrew; Hendrich, Michael P; Kurtz, Donald M

    2014-06-04

    The unique active site of flavo-diiron proteins (FDPs) consists of a nonheme diiron-carboxylate site proximal to a flavin mononucleotide (FMN) cofactor. FDPs serve as the terminal components for reductive scavenging of dioxygen or nitric oxide to combat oxidative or nitrosative stress in bacteria, archaea, and some protozoan parasites. Nitric oxide is reduced to nitrous oxide by the four-electron reduced (FMNH2-Fe(II)Fe(II)) active site. In order to clarify the nitric oxide reductase mechanism, we undertook a multispectroscopic presteady-state investigation, including the first Mössbauer spectroscopic characterization of diiron redox intermediates in FDPs. A new transient intermediate was detected and determined to be an antiferromagnetically coupled diferrous-dinitrosyl (S = 0, [{FeNO}(7)]2) species. This species has an exchange energy, J ≥ 40 cm(-1) (JS1 ° S2), which is consistent with a hydroxo or oxo bridge between the two irons. The results show that the nitric oxide reductase reaction proceeds through successive formation of diferrous-mononitrosyl (S = ½, Fe(II){FeNO}(7)) and the S = 0 diferrous-dinitrosyl species. In the rate-determining process, the diferrous-dinitrosyl converts to diferric (Fe(III)Fe(III)) and by inference N2O. The proximal FMNH2 then rapidly rereduces the diferric site to diferrous (Fe(II)Fe(II)), which can undergo a second 2NO → N2O turnover. This pathway is consistent with previous results on the same deflavinated and flavinated FDP, which detected N2O as a product (Hayashi Biochemistry 2010, 49, 7040). Our results do not support other proposed mechanisms, which proceed either via "super-reduction" of [{FeNO}(7)]2 by FMNH2 or through Fe(II){FeNO}(7) directly to a diferric-hyponitrite intermediate. The results indicate that an S = 0 [{FeNO}(7)}]2 complex is a proximal precursor to N-N bond formation and N-O bond cleavage to give N2O and that this conversion can occur without redox participation of the FMN cofactor.

  6. The Nitric Oxide Reductase Mechanism of a Flavo-Diiron Protein: Identification of Active-Site Intermediates and Products

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The unique active site of flavo-diiron proteins (FDPs) consists of a nonheme diiron-carboxylate site proximal to a flavin mononucleotide (FMN) cofactor. FDPs serve as the terminal components for reductive scavenging of dioxygen or nitric oxide to combat oxidative or nitrosative stress in bacteria, archaea, and some protozoan parasites. Nitric oxide is reduced to nitrous oxide by the four-electron reduced (FMNH2–FeIIFeII) active site. In order to clarify the nitric oxide reductase mechanism, we undertook a multispectroscopic presteady-state investigation, including the first Mössbauer spectroscopic characterization of diiron redox intermediates in FDPs. A new transient intermediate was detected and determined to be an antiferromagnetically coupled diferrous-dinitrosyl (S = 0, [{FeNO}7]2) species. This species has an exchange energy, J ≥ 40 cm–1 (JS1 ° S2), which is consistent with a hydroxo or oxo bridge between the two irons. The results show that the nitric oxide reductase reaction proceeds through successive formation of diferrous-mononitrosyl (S = 1/2, FeII{FeNO}7) and the S = 0 diferrous-dinitrosyl species. In the rate-determining process, the diferrous-dinitrosyl converts to diferric (FeIIIFeIII) and by inference N2O. The proximal FMNH2 then rapidly rereduces the diferric site to diferrous (FeIIFeII), which can undergo a second 2NO → N2O turnover. This pathway is consistent with previous results on the same deflavinated and flavinated FDP, which detected N2O as a product (HayashiBiochemistry2010, 49, 704020669924). Our results do not support other proposed mechanisms, which proceed either via “super-reduction” of [{FeNO}7]2 by FMNH2 or through FeII{FeNO}7 directly to a diferric-hyponitrite intermediate. The results indicate that an S = 0 [{FeNO}7}]2 complex is a proximal precursor to N–N bond formation and N–O bond cleavage to give N2O and that this conversion can occur without redox participation of the FMN cofactor. PMID:24828196

  7. Specific recognition of flavin in a sol-gel matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greaves, Michael D.; Rotello, Vincent M.

    1997-10-01

    A wide variety of biomolecules have been incorporated into sol-gel matrices, retaining their ability to function once immobilized. The interactions required for their activity occur within the macromolecular structure of these dopants. As a result, there is relatively little known about impact of the silicate matrix on fundamental recognition events. To investigate thai effects of the silicate matrix upon the specific hydrogen bond recognition between an immobilized species and a substrate at the molecular level, we have incorporated the biological cofactor flavin mononucleotide (FMN) into a silicate matrix. Molecular recognition of the flavin isoalloxazine unit immobilized within the gel cybotactic regions has been investigated via co-doping with a synthetic diaminopyridine receptor. The presence and specificity of the host-guest interaction was established via quenching of the flavin fluorophore by the receptor, and complete absence of quenching by a non-hydrogen bonding control. The degree of recognition achieved was quantified via fluorescence titration, demonstrating significantly enhanced binding relative to methanolic solution. Investigations into this recognition proces are discussed.

  8. Substrate Activation in Flavin-Dependent Thymidylate Synthase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Thymidylate is a critical DNA nucleotide that has to be synthesized in cells de novo by all organisms. Flavin-dependent thymidylate synthase (FDTS) catalyzes the final step in this de novo production of thymidylate in many human pathogens, but it is absent from humans. The FDTS reaction proceeds via a chemical route that is different from its human enzyme analogue, making FDTS a potential antimicrobial target. The chemical mechanism of FDTS is still not understood, and the two most recently proposed mechanisms involve reaction intermediates that are unusual in pyrimidine biosynthesis and biology in general. These mechanisms differ in the relative timing of the reaction of the flavin with the substrate. The consequence of this difference is significant: the intermediates are cationic in one case and neutral in the other, an important consideration in the construction of mechanism-based enzyme inhibitors. Here we test these mechanisms via chemical trapping of reaction intermediates, stopped-flow, and substrate hydrogen isotope exchange techniques. Our findings suggest that an initial activation of the pyrimidine substrate by reduced flavin is required for catalysis, and a revised mechanism is proposed on the basis of previous and new data. These findings and the newly proposed mechanism add an important piece to the puzzle of the mechanism of FDTS and suggest a new class of intermediates that, in the future, may serve as targets for mechanism-based design of FDTS-specific inhibitors. PMID:25025487

  9. Chloramphenicol Biosynthesis: The Structure of CmlS, a Flavin-Dependent Halogenase Shwing a Covalent Flavin-Aspartate Bond

    SciTech Connect

    Podzelinska, K.; Latimer, R; Bhattacharya, A; Vining, L; Zechel, D; Jia, Z

    2010-01-01

    Chloramphenicol is a halogenated natural product bearing an unusual dichloroacetyl moiety that is critical for its antibiotic activity. The operon for chloramphenicol biosynthesis in Streptomyces venezuelae encodes the chloramphenicol halogenase CmlS, which belongs to the large and diverse family of flavin-dependent halogenases (FDH's). CmlS was previously shown to be essential for the formation of the dichloroacetyl group. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure of CmlS determined at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution, revealing a flavin monooxygenase domain shared by all FDHs, but also a unique 'winged-helix' C-terminal domain that creates a T-shaped tunnel leading to the halogenation active site. Intriguingly, the C-terminal tail of this domain blocks access to the halogenation active site, suggesting a structurally dynamic role during catalysis. The halogenation active site is notably nonpolar and shares nearly identical residues with Chondromyces crocatus tyrosyl halogenase (CndH), including the conserved Lys (K71) that forms the reactive chloramine intermediate. The exception is Y350, which could be used to stabilize enolate formation during substrate halogenation. The strictly conserved residue E44, located near the isoalloxazine ring of the bound flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor, is optimally positioned to function as a remote general acid, through a water-mediated proton relay, which could accelerate the reaction of the chloramine intermediate during substrate halogenation, or the oxidation of chloride by the FAD(C4{alpha})-OOH intermediate. Strikingly, the 8{alpha} carbon of the FAD cofactor is observed to be covalently attached to D277 of CmlS, a residue that is highly conserved in the FDH family. In addition to representing a new type of flavin modification, this has intriguing implications for the mechanism of FDHs. Based on the crystal structure and in analogy to known halogenases, we propose a reaction mechanism for CmlS.

  10. Kinetic, spectroscopic and thermodynamic characterization of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis adrenodoxin reductase homologue FprA.

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Kirsty J; Scrutton, Nigel S; Munro, Andrew W

    2003-01-01

    The genome sequence of the pathogenic bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis revealed numerous cytochrome P450 enzymes, which require accessory redox enzymes for catalytic function (ferredoxin reductase and ferredoxin). The most likely ferredoxin reductase is encoded by fprA, and its structure resembles eukaryotic adrenodoxin reductases. We have cloned, expressed and purified the flavoenzyme product of the fprA gene in Escherichia coli. FprA reduces various electron acceptors using either NADPH or NADH as the electron donor, but discriminates in favour of NADPH (apparent K (m) for NADH=50.6+/-3.1 microM; NADPH=4.1+/-0.3 microM from ferricyanide reduction experiments). Stopped-flow studies of reduction of the FprA FAD by NADPH demonstrate increased flavin reduction rate at low NADPH concentration (<200 microM), consistent with the presence of a second, kinetically distinct and inhibitory, pyridine nucleotide-binding site, similar to that identified in human cytochrome P450 reductase [Gutierrez, Lian, Wolf, Scrutton and Roberts (2001) Biochemistry 40, 1964-1975]. Flavin reduction by NADH is slower than with NADPH and displays hyperbolic dependence on NADH concentration [maximal reduction rate ( k (red))=25.4+/-0.7 s(-1), apparent K (d)=42.9+/-4.6 microM]. Flavin reoxidation by molecular oxygen is more rapid for NADH-reduced enzyme. Reductive titrations show that the enzyme forms a species with spectral characteristics typical of a neutral (blue) FAD semiquinone only on reduction with NADPH, consistent with EPR studies. The second order dependence of semiquinone formation on the concentration of FprA indicates a disproportionation reaction involving oxidized and two-electron-reduced FprA. Titration of FprA with dithionite converts oxidized FAD into the hydroquinone form; the flavin semiquinone is not populated under these conditions. The midpoint reduction potential for the two electron couple is -235+/-5 mV (versus the normal hydrogen electrode), similar to that for

  11. Metabolic pathway involved in 2-methyl-6-ethylaniline degradation by Sphingobium sp. strain MEA3-1 and cloning of the novel flavin-dependent monooxygenase system meaBA.

    PubMed

    Dong, Weiliang; Chen, Qiongzhen; Hou, Ying; Li, Shuhuan; Zhuang, Kai; Huang, Fei; Zhou, Jie; Li, Zhoukun; Wang, Jue; Fu, Lei; Zhang, Zhengguang; Huang, Yan; Wang, Fei; Cui, Zhongli

    2015-12-01

    2-Methyl-6-ethylaniline (MEA) is the main microbial degradation intermediate of the chloroacetanilide herbicides acetochlor and metolachlor. Sphingobium sp. strain MEA3-1 can utilize MEA and various alkyl-substituted aniline and phenol compounds as sole carbon and energy sources for growth. We isolated the mutant strain MEA3-1Mut, which converts MEA only to 2-methyl-6-ethyl-hydroquinone (MEHQ) and 2-methyl-6-ethyl-benzoquinone (MEBQ). MEA may be oxidized by the P450 monooxygenase system to 4-hydroxy-2-methyl-6-ethylaniline (4-OH-MEA), which can be hydrolytically spontaneously deaminated to MEBQ or MEHQ. The MEA microbial metabolic pathway was reconstituted based on the substrate spectra and identification of the intermediate metabolites in both the wild-type and mutant strains. Plasmidome sequencing indicated that both strains harbored 7 plasmids with sizes ranging from 6,108 bp to 287,745 bp. Among the 7 plasmids, 6 were identical, and pMEA02' in strain MEA3-1Mut lost a 37,000-bp fragment compared to pMEA02 in strain MEA3-1. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and protein mass fingerprinting (PMF) showed that MEA3-1Mut lost the two-component flavin-dependent monooxygenase (TC-FDM) MeaBA, which was encoded by a gene in the lost fragment of pMEA02. MeaA shared 22% to 25% amino acid sequence identity with oxygenase components of some TC-FDMs, whereas MeaB showed no sequence identity with the reductase components of those TC-FDMs. Complementation with meaBA in MEA3-1Mut and heterologous expression in Pseudomonas putida strain KT2440 resulted in the production of an active MEHQ monooxygenase.

  12. Metabolic Pathway Involved in 2-Methyl-6-Ethylaniline Degradation by Sphingobium sp. Strain MEA3-1 and Cloning of the Novel Flavin-Dependent Monooxygenase System meaBA

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Weiliang; Chen, Qiongzhen; Hou, Ying; Li, Shuhuan; Zhuang, Kai; Huang, Fei; Zhou, Jie; Li, Zhoukun; Wang, Jue; Fu, Lei; Zhang, Zhengguang; Huang, Yan; Wang, Fei

    2015-01-01

    2-Methyl-6-ethylaniline (MEA) is the main microbial degradation intermediate of the chloroacetanilide herbicides acetochlor and metolachlor. Sphingobium sp. strain MEA3-1 can utilize MEA and various alkyl-substituted aniline and phenol compounds as sole carbon and energy sources for growth. We isolated the mutant strain MEA3-1Mut, which converts MEA only to 2-methyl-6-ethyl-hydroquinone (MEHQ) and 2-methyl-6-ethyl-benzoquinone (MEBQ). MEA may be oxidized by the P450 monooxygenase system to 4-hydroxy-2-methyl-6-ethylaniline (4-OH-MEA), which can be hydrolytically spontaneously deaminated to MEBQ or MEHQ. The MEA microbial metabolic pathway was reconstituted based on the substrate spectra and identification of the intermediate metabolites in both the wild-type and mutant strains. Plasmidome sequencing indicated that both strains harbored 7 plasmids with sizes ranging from 6,108 bp to 287,745 bp. Among the 7 plasmids, 6 were identical, and pMEA02′ in strain MEA3-1Mut lost a 37,000-bp fragment compared to pMEA02 in strain MEA3-1. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and protein mass fingerprinting (PMF) showed that MEA3-1Mut lost the two-component flavin-dependent monooxygenase (TC-FDM) MeaBA, which was encoded by a gene in the lost fragment of pMEA02. MeaA shared 22% to 25% amino acid sequence identity with oxygenase components of some TC-FDMs, whereas MeaB showed no sequence identity with the reductase components of those TC-FDMs. Complementation with meaBA in MEA3-1Mut and heterologous expression in Pseudomonas putida strain KT2440 resulted in the production of an active MEHQ monooxygenase. PMID:26386060

  13. Microsecond light-induced proton transfer to flavin in the blue light sensor plant cryptochrome.

    PubMed

    Langenbacher, Thomas; Immeln, Dominik; Dick, Bernhard; Kottke, Tilman

    2009-10-14

    Plant cryptochromes are blue light photoreceptors that regulate key responses in growth and daily rhythm of plants and might be involved in magnetoreception. They show structural homology to the DNA repair enzyme photolyase and bind flavin adenine dinucleotide as chromophore. Blue light absorption initiates the photoreduction from the oxidized dark state of flavin to the flavin neutral radical, which is the signaling state of the sensor. Previous time-resolved studies of the photoreduction process have been limited to observation of the decay of the radical in the millisecond time domain. We monitored faster, light-induced changes in absorption of an algal cryptochrome covering a spectral range of 375-750 nm with a streak camera setup. Electron transfer from tryptophan to flavin is completed before 100 ns under formation of the flavin anion radical. Proton transfer takes place with a time constant of 1.7 micros leading to the flavin neutral radical. Finally, the flavin radical and a tryptophan neutral radical decay with a time constant >200 micros in the millisecond and second time domain. The microsecond proton transfer has not been observed in animal cryptochromes from insects or photolyases. Furthermore, the strict separation in time of electron and proton transfer is novel in the field of flavin-containing photoreceptors. The reaction rate implies that the proton donor is not in hydrogen bonding distance to the flavin N5. Potential candidates for the proton donor and the involvement of the tryptophan triad are discussed.

  14. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopic study of flavin fluorescence in purified enzymes of bioluminescent bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrova, Elena; Kudryasheva, N.; Cheng, K.

    2006-10-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence intensity and anisotropy decay measurements have been used to study the environment and rotational mobility of endogenous flavin in two purified enzymes of bioluminescent bacteria, Luciferase from Photobacterium leiognathi and NAD(P)H:FMN-oxidoreductase from Vibrio fischeri. We compared the time-resolved fluorescence parameters, intensity decay lifetimes, rotational correlation times, and their fractional contribution, of the endogeneous flavin fluorescence in each of the two enzymes in the presence or absence of quinones of different structures and redox potentials. The endogeneous flavin exhibited multi-exponential decay characteristics as compared to a single decay lifetime of around 5 ns for free flavin, suggesting a complex and heterogeneous environment of flavin bound to the enzyme. In addition, a significant increase in the rotational correlation time and a certain degree of ordering of the molecule were observed for endogenous flavin when compared to a single and fast rotational correlation time of 150 ps of free flavin. Quinone significantly altered both the lifetime and rotational characteristics of endogenous flavin suggesting specific interactions of quinones to the endogeneous flavin in the bacterial enzyme.

  15. Synthesis of rigidified flavin-guanidinium ion conjugates and investigation of their photocatalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Schmaderer, Harald; Bhuyan, Mouchumi; König, Burkhard

    2009-05-28

    Flavin chromophores can mediate redox reactions upon irradiation by blue light. In an attempt to increase their catalytic efficacy, flavin derivatives bearing a guanidinium ion as oxoanion binding site were prepared. Chromophore and substrate binding site are linked by a rigid Kemp's acid structure. The molecular structure of the new flavins was confirmed by an X-ray structure analysis and their photocatalytic activity was investigated in benzyl ester cleavage, nitroarene reduction and a Diels-Alder reaction. The modified flavins photocatalyze the reactions, but the introduced substrate binding site does not enhance their performance.

  16. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Two Pseudomonas Flavoprotein Xenobiotic Reductases

    PubMed Central

    Blehert, David S.; Fox, Brian G.; Chambliss, Glenn H.

    1999-01-01

    The genes encoding flavin mononucleotide-containing oxidoreductases, designated xenobiotic reductases, from Pseudomonas putida II-B and P. fluorescens I-C that removed nitrite from nitroglycerin (NG) by cleavage of the nitroester bond were cloned, sequenced, and characterized. The P. putida gene, xenA, encodes a 39,702-Da monomeric, NAD(P)H-dependent flavoprotein that removes either the terminal or central nitro groups from NG and that reduces 2-cyclohexen-1-one but did not readily reduce 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). The P. fluorescens gene, xenB, encodes a 37,441-Da monomeric, NAD(P)H-dependent flavoprotein that exhibits fivefold regioselectivity for removal of the central nitro group from NG and that transforms TNT but did not readily react with 2-cyclohexen-1-one. Heterologous expression of xenA and xenB was demonstrated in Escherichia coli DH5α. The transcription initiation sites of both xenA and xenB were identified by primer extension analysis. BLAST analyses conducted with the P. putida xenA and the P. fluorescens xenB sequences demonstrated that these genes are similar to several other bacterial genes that encode broad-specificity flavoprotein reductases. The prokaryotic flavoprotein reductases described herein likely shared a common ancestor with old yellow enzyme of yeast, a broad-specificity enzyme which may serve a detoxification role in antioxidant defense systems. PMID:10515912

  17. Identification and Characterization of the Missing Pyrimidine Reductase in the Plant Riboflavin Biosynthesis Pathway1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hasnain, Ghulam; Frelin, Océane; Roje, Sanja; Ellens, Kenneth W.; Ali, Kashif; Guan, Jiahn-Chou; Garrett, Timothy J.; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Gregory, Jesse F.; McCarty, Donald R.; Hanson, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is the precursor of the flavin coenzymes flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide. In Escherichia coli and other bacteria, sequential deamination and reduction steps in riboflavin biosynthesis are catalyzed by RibD, a bifunctional protein with distinct pyrimidine deaminase and reductase domains. Plants have two diverged RibD homologs, PyrD and PyrR; PyrR proteins have an extra carboxyl-terminal domain (COG3236) of unknown function. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) PyrD (encoded by At4g20960) is known to be a monofunctional pyrimidine deaminase, but no pyrimidine reductase has been identified. Bioinformatic analyses indicated that plant PyrR proteins have a catalytically competent reductase domain but lack essential zinc-binding residues in the deaminase domain, and that the Arabidopsis PyrR gene (At3g47390) is coexpressed with riboflavin synthesis genes. These observations imply that PyrR is a pyrimidine reductase without deaminase activity. Consistent with this inference, Arabidopsis or maize (Zea mays) PyrR (At3g47390 or GRMZM2G090068) restored riboflavin prototrophy to an E. coli ribD deletant strain when coexpressed with the corresponding PyrD protein (At4g20960 or GRMZM2G320099) but not when expressed alone; the COG3236 domain was unnecessary for complementing activity. Furthermore, recombinant maize PyrR mediated NAD(P)H-dependent pyrimidine reduction in vitro. Import assays with pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplasts showed that PyrR and PyrD are taken up and proteolytically processed. Ablation of the maize PyrR gene caused early seed lethality. These data argue that PyrR is the missing plant pyrimidine reductase, that it is plastid localized, and that it is essential. The role of the COG3236 domain remains mysterious; no evidence was obtained for the possibility that it catalyzes the dephosphorylation that follows pyrimidine reduction. PMID:23150645

  18. Quinone Reductase 2 Is a Catechol Quinone Reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Yue; Buryanovskyy, Leonid; Zhang, Zhongtao

    2008-09-05

    The functions of quinone reductase 2 have eluded researchers for decades even though a genetic polymorphism is associated with various neurological disorders. Employing enzymatic studies using adrenochrome as a substrate, we show that quinone reductase 2 is specific for the reduction of adrenochrome, whereas quinone reductase 1 shows no activity. We also solved the crystal structure of quinone reductase 2 in complexes with dopamine and adrenochrome, two compounds that are structurally related to catecholamine quinones. Detailed structural analyses delineate the mechanism of quinone reductase 2 specificity toward catechol quinones in comparison with quinone reductase 1; a side-chain rotational difference between quinone reductase 1 and quinone reductase 2 of a single residue, phenylalanine 106, determines the specificity of enzymatic activities. These results infer functional differences between two homologous enzymes and indicate that quinone reductase 2 could play important roles in the regulation of catecholamine oxidation processes that may be involved in the etiology of Parkinson disease.

  19. OYE flavoprotein reductases initiate the condensation of TNT-derived intermediates to secondary diarylamines and nitrite.

    PubMed

    Wittich, Rolf-Michael; Haïdour, Ali; Van Dillewijn, Pieter; Ramos, Juan-Luis

    2008-02-01

    Polynitroaromatic explosives such as 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (picric acid) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) are toxic and recalcitrant environmental pollutants. They persist in the environment due to the highly inactivated pi system of their aromatic rings, which are inaccessible to dioxygenases that normally initiate the bacterial aerobic catabolism of (nitro-) aromatic compounds. Aside from reductive transformation of nitro side groups to hydroxylamines, trinitroarenes are prone to aromatic ring reductions by some flavin reductases to yield Meisenheimer mono and dihydride complexes. Here we show that the simultaneous accumulation of Meisenheimer complexes and aromatic hydroxylamines derived from TNT gives rise to the condensation of both types of reactive intermediates to secondary diarylamines and nitrite as the end-products of this environmentally relevant reaction sequence. As a consequence, overall mass balances of aerobic biotransformations of TNT become possible for the first time. In our study, the process of TNT activation was enzymatically initiated by the xenobiotic reductase B (XenB)-like flavin reductase of Pseudomonas putida JLR11 and then completed chemically by autodimerization. The structures of the formed end products were unequivocally elucidated by NMR.

  20. Limited proteolysis of the nitrate reductase from spinach leaves.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Y; Ogura, N; Nakagawa, H

    1988-12-25

    The functional structure of assimilatory NADH-nitrate reductase from spinach leaves was studied by limited proteolysis experiments. After incubation of purified nitrate reductase with trypsin, two stable products of 59 and 45 kDa were observed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The fragment of 45 kDa was purified by Blue Sepharose chromatography. NADH-ferricyanide reductase and NADH-cytochrome c reductase activities were associated with this 45-kDa fragment which contains FAD, heme, and NADH binding fragment. After incubation of purified nitrate reductase with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, two major peaks were observed by high performance liquid chromatography size exclusion gel filtration. FMNH2-nitrate reductase and reduced methyl viologen-nitrate reductase activities were associated with the first peak of 170 kDa which consists of two noncovalently associated (75-90-kDa) fragments. NADH-ferricyanide reductase activity, however, was associated with the second peak which consisted of FAD and NADH binding sites. Incubation of the 45-kDa fragment with S. aureus V8 protease produced two major fragments of 28 and 14 kDa which contained FAD and heme, respectively. These results indicate that the molybdenum, heme, and FAD components of spinach nitrate reductase are contained in distinct domains which are covalently linked by exposed hinge regions. The molybdenum domain appears to be important in the maintenance of subunit interactions in the enzyme complex.

  1. Interaction of flavins with electron-rich metals.

    PubMed

    Yu, M W; Fritchie, C J

    1975-02-10

    A complex of the electron-rich ion Cu(I) with the flavoquinone analogue 10-methylisoalloxazine has been synthesized and characterized by x-ray methods. The complex is unstable to oxygen. It is black-green in color, in contrast with the bright yellow, orange, or orange-brown crystalline complexes of 10-methylisoalloxazine or riboflavin with Cu(II), Ag(I), and Pb(II). These results are indicative of strong perturbation of the flavin electronic structure by the Cu(I) ion and suggest that this complex is a reasonable model for incipient transfer of an electron from a reduced metal to flavoquinone. the crystal structure is orthorhombic, Pna2-1, with unit cell constants a = 31.24(1) (figures in parentheses are estimated standard deviations), b = 12.862(4), c = 6.239(2) A, Pobs = 1.76 g per cm-3 and Pcalc = 1.77 g per cm-3 for Z = 4 and asymmetric formula CuClO4-2(C11H8N4O2). HCOOH. The final R factor based on 1250 counter-measured data is 8.8%. The 2 independent 10-methylisoalloxazine molecules, A and B, bind strongly to the cuprous ion throug N(5) of each flavin. The copper is approximately linearly coordinated with an N-Cu-N angle of 153(1) degrees, and Cu-N(5) distances of 1.94(2) A and 1.92(2) A. The next nearest atoms to Cu are the O(4) oxygens of each flavin, forming weak bonds with distances Cu-O(4) = 2.27(2) A and 2.21(2) A for molecules A and B. The dihedral angle between the 2 10-methylisoalloxazine molecules is 65.4 degrees.

  2. Self-assembled monolayers of flavin and cyclodextrin derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrauskas, Donna Marie

    The development of surfaces capable of molecular recognition and catalysis is technologically important for uses such as chemical sensing. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold and silver surfaces were explored. SAMs of synthetic derivatives of flavin were studied, as flavins are well-known natural coenzymes. SAMs of cyclodextrin derivatives were studied, as they may be useful as the active surfaces of chemical sensors. The electrochemical behavior of SAMs of the synthetic flavin 10-(3 '-methylthiopropyl)- isoalloxazinyl-7-carboxylic acid was examined. Quasi- reversible redox behavior was found. Electron transfer rates of 340 s-1 and 536 s-1 were estimated for the cathodic and anodic processes, respectively, at pH 7. The reduction potential shifted regularly with pH. SAMs were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and low voltage field emission secondary electron microscopy (LVFESEM). Angle-resolved XPS indicated that the carboxyl groups tended to orient towards the film surface. The molecules packed in domains that did not follow the topology of the gold grains of the substrate, and approximately 10-15% of the gold surface was uncovered. The possible oxidation of the coenzyme NADH by the SAMs was examined, it was found that the Au(111) substrate catalyzed this reaction. SAMs of three other synthetic flavins were also studied. SAMs of β-cyclodextrin with methyl sulfides on the primary sites and anthraquinone on a secondary site were studied. The surface coverage obtained by electrochemistry was consistent with that previously reported for nonelectroactive derivatives. Electron transfer rate constants varied markedly with pH, increasing rapidly between pH 7 and pH 9 to values of approximately 700-900 s -1. The formation of SAMs of sulfide derivatives of cyclodextrins onto silver and gold-coated prisms was followed using the method of surface-plasmon resonance (SPR) in a flow-cell. It was found that a SAM of somewhat greater than monolayer

  3. Sequence analysis of the oxidase/reductase genes upstream of the Rhodococcus erythropolis aldehyde dehydrogenase gene thcA reveals a gene organisation different from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Nagy, I; De Mot, R

    1999-01-01

    The sequence of the DNA region upstream of the thiocarbamate-inducible aldehyde dehydrogenase gene thcA of Rhodococcus erythropolis NI86/21 was determined. Most of the predicted ORFs are related to various oxidases/reductases, including short-chain oxidases/reductases, GMC oxidoreductases, alpha-hydroxy acid oxidases (subfamily 1 flavin oxidases/dehydrogenases), and subfamily 2 flavin oxidases/dehydrogenases. One ORF is related to enzymes involved in biosynthesis of PQQ or molybdopterin cofactors. In addition, a putative member of the TetR family of regulatory proteins was identified. The substantial sequence divergence from functionally characterized enzymes precludes a reliable prediction about the probable function of these proteins at this stage. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, most of these ORFs have homologs that are also clustered in the genome, but some striking differences in gene organization were observed between Rhodococcus and Mycobacterium.

  4. Kinetic Mechanism of the Dechlorinating Flavin-dependent Monooxygenase HadA.

    PubMed

    Pimviriyakul, Panu; Thotsaporn, Kittisak; Sucharitakul, Jeerus; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2017-03-24

    The accumulation of chlorophenols (CPs) in the environment, due to their wide use as agrochemicals, has become a serious environmental problem. These organic halides can be degraded by aerobic microorganisms, where the initial steps of various biodegradation pathways include an oxidative dechlorinating process in which chloride is replaced by a hydroxyl substituent. Harnessing these dechlorinating processes could provide an opportunity for environmental remediation, but detailed catalytic mechanisms for these enzymes are not yet known. To close this gap, we now report transient kinetics and product analysis of the dechlorinating flavin-dependent monooxygenase, HadA, from the aerobic organism Ralstonia pickettii DTP0602, identifying several mechanistic properties that differ from other enzymes in the same class. We first overexpressed and purified HadA to homogeneity. Analyses of the products from single and multiple turnover reactions demonstrated that HadA prefers 4-CP and 2-CP over CPs with multiple substituents. Stopped-flow and rapid-quench flow experiments of HadA with 4-CP show the involvement of specific intermediates (C4a-hydroperoxy-FAD and C4a-hydroxy-FAD) in the reaction, define rate constants and the order of substrate binding, and demonstrate that the hydroxylation step occurs prior to chloride elimination. The data also identify the non-productive and productive paths of the HadA reactions and demonstrate that product formation is the rate-limiting step. This is the first elucidation of the kinetic mechanism of a two-component flavin-dependent monooxygenase that can catalyze oxidative dechlorination of various CPs, and as such it will serve as the basis for future investigation of enzyme variants that will be useful for applications in detoxifying chemicals hazardous to human health.

  5. Myeloma with xanthoderma due to an IgG lambdamonoclonal anti-flavin antibody.

    PubMed

    Farhangi, M; Osserman, E F

    1976-01-22

    When yellow skin and yellow hair developed in an elderly patient with multiple myeloma, we ruled out the usual causes of such pigmentation but identified a monoclonal IgGlambda (lgGGar) with anti-flavin antibody activity. Purified IgGGar was bright yellow, and the acid-dissociated chromophore was identified as riboflavin by chromatography and absorption spectroscopy. Native IgGGar contained 1.45 moles of flavin per mole of IgG, and increased to 2 moles with addition of riboflavin to saturation. The flavin was localized to the Fab fragment and was bound to IgGGar with high affinity. IgGGar showed strongest affinities for riboflavin, flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide, and lower affinities for dinitrophenyl derivatives and naphthoquinone. The demonstration of hapten bound to the circulating monoclonal immunoglobulin in this case suggests the possibility of bound but colorless haptens on other myeloma proteins as well as on normal immunoglobulins.

  6. Functional expression of Phanerochaete chrysosporium cellobiose dehydrogenase flavin domain in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Desriani; Ferri, Stefano; Sode, Koji

    2010-06-01

    Cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH; EC 1.1.99.18) is an extracellular glycosylated protein composed of two distinct domains, a C-terminal catalytic flavin domain and an N-terminal cytochrome-b-type heme domain, which transfers electrons from the flavin domain to external electron acceptors. The soluble flavin domain of the Phanerochaete chrysosporium CDH was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme showed dye-mediated CDH activity higher than that of the complete CDH, composed of flavin domain and heme domain, prepared using Pichia pastoris as the host microorganism. The ability to conveniently express the recombinant CDH flavin domain in E. coli provides great opportunities for the molecular engineering of the catalytic properties of CDH.

  7. Structure and Mechanism of Styrene Monooxygenase Reductase: New Insight into the FAD–Transfer Reaction†

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Eliot; Kantz, Auric; Gassner, George T.; Sazinsky, Matthew H.

    2013-01-01

    The two–component flavoprotein styrene monooxygenase (SMO) from Pseudomonas putida S12 catalyzes the NADH– and FAD–dependent epoxidation of styrene to styrene oxide. In this study we investigate the mechanism of flavin reduction and transfer from the reductase (SMOB) to epoxidase (NSMOA) component and report our findings in light of the 2.2–Å crystal structure of SMOB. Upon rapidly mixing with NADH, SMOB forms an NADH→FADox charge–transfer intermediate and catalyzes a hydride–transfer reaction from NADH to FAD, with a rate constant of 49.1 ± 1.4 s−1, in a step that is coupled to the rapid dissociation of NAD+. Electrochemical and equilibrium–binding studies indicate that NSMOA binds FADhq ~13–times more tightly than SMOB, which supports a vectoral transfer of FADhq from the reductase to the epoxidase. After binding to NSMOA, FADhq rapidly reacts with molecular oxygen to form a stable C(4a)–hydroperoxide intermediate. The half–life of apoSMOB generated in the FAD–transfer reaction is increased ~21–fold, supporting the model of a protein–protein interaction between apoSMOB and NSMOA with the peroxide intermediate. The mechanisms of FAD–dissociation and transport from SMOB to NSMOA were probed by monitoring the competitive reduction of cytochrome c in the presence and absence of pyridine nucleotides. Based on these studies, we propose a model in which reduced FAD binds to SMOB in equilibrium between an unreactive, sequestered state (S–state) and more reactive, transfer state (T–state). Dissociation of NAD+ after the hydride transfer–reaction transiently populates the T–state, promoting the transfer of FADhq to NSMOA. The binding of pyridine nucleotides to SMOB–FADhq shifts the FADhq–binding equilibrium from the T–state to the S–state. Additionally, the 2.2–Å crystal structure of SMOB–FADox reported in this work is discussed in light of the pyridine nucleotide–gated flavin–transfer and electron

  8. Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy of flavin after optical excitation.

    PubMed

    Weigel, A; Dobryakov, A; Klaumünzer, B; Sajadi, M; Saalfrank, P; Ernsting, N P

    2011-04-07

    In blue-light photoreceptors using flavin (BLUF), the signaling state is formed already within several 100 ps after illumination, with only small changes of the absorption spectrum. The accompanying structural evolution can, in principle, be monitored by femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS). The method is used here to characterize the excited-state properties of riboflavin and flavin adenine dinucleotide in polar solvents. Raman modes are observed in the range 90-1800 cm(-1) for the electronic ground state S(0) and upon excitation to the S(1) state, and modes >1000 cm(-1) of both states are assigned with the help of quantum-chemical calculations. Line shapes are shown to depend sensitively on resonance conditions. They are affected by wavepacket motion in any of the participating electronic states, resulting in complex amplitude modulation of the stimulated Raman spectra. Wavepackets in S(1) can be marked, and thus isolated, by stimulated-emission pumping with the picosecond Raman pulses. Excited-state absorption spectra are obtained from a quantitative comparison of broadband transient fluorescence and absorption. In this way, the resonance conditions for FSRS are determined. Early differences of the emission spectrum depend on excess vibrational energy, and solvation is seen as dynamic Stokes shift of the emission band. The nπ* state is evidenced only through changes of emission oscillator strength during solvation. S(1) quenching by adenine is seen with all methods in terms of dynamics, not by spectral intermediates.

  9. Low red blood cell glutathione reductase and pyridoxine phosphate oxidase activities not related to dietary riboflavin: selection by malaria?

    PubMed

    Anderson, B B; Giuberti, M; Perry, G M; Salsini, G; Casadio, I; Vullo, C

    1993-05-01

    This study was designed to confirm that low dietary riboflavin does not contribute to the flavin-deficient red blood cells commonly found in subjects in Ferrara Province, northern Italy. In this area it is primarily an inherited characteristic believed to have been selected for by malaria, which was endemic from the 12th century. In parallel with assessment of daily riboflavin intake (DRI), flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glutathione reductase (EGR) and flavin mononucleotide-dependent pyridoxine phosphate oxidase (PPO) were measured in beta-thalassemic heterozygotes, their normal relatives, and normal spouses (representative of the normal population). In all of these groups there is a high incidence of deficiency of these flavin enzymes. We found that the majority had an adequate riboflavin intake and there was no significant correlation of EGR and PPO activities with DRI. Thus, interpretation of low EGR activity is discussed with reference to studies of EGR done to detect nutritional riboflavin deficiency in countries where there is malnutrition and endemic malaria.

  10. The N-reductive system composed of mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component (mARC), cytochrome b5 (CYB5B) and cytochrome b5 reductase (CYB5R) is regulated by fasting and high fat diet in mice.

    PubMed

    Jakobs, Heyka H; Mikula, Michal; Havemeyer, Antje; Strzalkowska, Adriana; Borowa-Chmielak, Monika; Dzwonek, Artur; Gajewska, Marta; Hennig, Ewa E; Ostrowski, Jerzy; Clement, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    The mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component mARC is the fourth mammalian molybdenum enzyme. The protein is capable of reducing N-oxygenated structures, but requires cytochrome b5 and cytochrome b5 reductase for electron transfer to catalyze such reactions. It is well accepted that the enzyme is involved in N-reductive drug metabolism such as the activation of amidoxime prodrugs. However, the endogenous function of the protein is not fully understood. Among other functions, an involvement in lipogenesis is discussed. To study the potential involvement of the protein in energy metabolism, we tested whether the mARC protein and its partners are regulated due to fasting and high fat diet in mice. We used qRT-PCR for expression studies, Western Blot analysis to study protein levels and an N-reductive biotransformation assay to gain activity data. Indeed all proteins of the N-reductive system are regulated by fasting and its activity decreases. To study the potential impact of these changes on prodrug activation in vivo, another mice experiment was conducted. Model compound benzamidoxime was injected to mice that underwent fasting and the resulting metabolite of the N-reductive reaction, benzamidine, was determined. Albeit altered in vitro activity, no changes in the metabolite concentration in vivo were detectable and we can dispel concerns that fasting alters prodrug activation in animal models. With respect to high fat diet, changes in the mARC proteins occur that result in increased N-reductive activity. With this study we provide further evidence that the endogenous function of the mARC protein is linked with lipid metabolism.

  11. Cloning, sequencing, and analysis of a gene cluster from Chelatobacter heintzii ATCC 29600 encoding nitrilotriacetate monooxygenase and NADH:flavin mononucleotide oxidoreductase.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Y; Mortimer, M W; Fisher, T S; Kahn, M L; Brockman, F J; Xun, L

    1997-01-01

    Nitrilotriacetate (NTA) is an important chelating agent in detergents and has also been used extensively in processing radionuclides. In Chelatobacter heintzii ATCC 29600, biodegradation of NTA is initiated by NTA monooxygenase that oxidizes NTA to iminodiacetate and glyoxylate. The NTA monooxygenase activity requires two component proteins, component A and component B, but the function of each component is unclear. We have cloned and sequenced a gene cluster encoding components A and B (nmoA and nmoB) and two additional open reading frames, nmoR and nmoT, downstream of nmoA. Based on sequence similarities, nmoR and nmoT probably encode a regulatory protein and a transposase, respectively. The NmoA sequence was similar to a monooxygenase that uses reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2) as reductant; NmoB was similar to an NADH:flavin mononucleotide (FMN) oxidoreductase. On the basis of this information, we tested the function of each component. Purified component B was shown to be an NADH:FMN oxidoreductase, and its activity could be separated from that of component A. When the Photobacterium fischeri NADH:FMN oxidoreductase was substituted for component B in the complete reaction, NTA was oxidized, showing that the substrate specificity of the reaction resides in component A. Component A is therefore an NTA monooxygenase that uses FMNH2 and O2 to oxidize NTA, and component B is an NADH:FMN oxidoreductase that provides FMNH2 for NTA oxidation. PMID:9023192

  12. Blue light induced reactive oxygen species from flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide on lethality of HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Yeh; Chang, Chih-Jui; Chen, Liang-Yü

    2017-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a safe and non-invasive treatment for cancers and microbial infections. Various photosensitizers and light sources have been developed for clinical cancer therapies. Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are the cofactor of enzymes and are used as photosensitizers in this study. Targeting hypoxia and light-triggering reactive oxygen species (ROS) are experimental strategies for poisoning tumor cells in vitro. HeLa cells are committed to apoptosis when treated with FMN or FAD and exposed to visible blue light (the maximum emitted wavelength of blue light is 462nm). Under blue light irradiation at 3.744J/cm(2) (=0.52mW/cm(2) irradiated for 2h), the minimal lethal dose is 3.125μM and the median lethal doses (LD50) for FMN and FAD are 6.5μM and 7.2μM, respectively. Individual exposure to visible blue light irradiation or riboflavin photosensitizers does not produce cytotoxicity and no side effects are observed in this study. The western blotting results also show that an intrinsic apoptosis pathway is activated by the ROS during photolysis of riboflavin analogues. Blue light triggers the cytotoxicity of riboflavins on HeLa cells in vitro. Based on these results, this is a feasible and efficient of PDT with an intrinsic photosensitizer for cancer research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Structure determination of an FMN reductase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 using sulfur anomalous signal

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Rakhi; Bonanno, Jeffrey B.; Burley, Stephen K.; Swaminathan, Subramanyam

    2006-01-01

    The availability of high-intensity synchrotron facilities, technological advances in data-collection techniques and improved data-reduction and crystallographic software have ushered in a new era in high-throughput macromolecular crystallography. Here, the de novo automated crystal structure determination at 1.28 Å resolution of an NAD(P)H-dependent FMN reductase flavoprotein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01-derived protein Q9I4D4 using the anomalous signal from an unusually small number of S atoms is reported. Although this protein lacks the flavodoxin key fingerprint motif [(T/S)XTGXT], it has been confirmed to bind flavin mononucleotide and the binding site was identified via X-ray crystallography. This protein contains a novel flavin mononucleotide-binding site GSLRSGSYN, which has not been previously reported. Detailed statistics pertaining to sulfur phasing and other factors contributing to structure determination are discussed. Structural comparisons of the apoenzyme and the protein complexed with flavin mononucleotide show conformational changes on cofactor binding. NADPH-dependent activity has been confirmed with biochemical assays. PMID:16552139

  14. Structure Determination of an FMN Reductase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 using Sulfur Anomalous Signal

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal,R.; Bonanno, J.; Burley, S.; Swaminathan, S.

    2006-01-01

    The availability of high-intensity synchrotron facilities, technological advances in data-collection techniques and improved data-reduction and crystallographic software have ushered in a new era in high-throughput macromolecular crystallography. Here, the de novo automated crystal structure determination at 1.28 Angstroms resolution of an NAD(P)H-dependent FMN reductase flavoprotein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01-derived protein Q9I4D4 using the anomalous signal from an unusually small number of S atoms is reported. Although this protein lacks the flavodoxin key fingerprint motif [(T/S)XTGXT], it has been confirmed to bind flavin mononucleotide and the binding site was identified via X-ray crystallography. This protein contains a novel flavin mononucleotide-binding site GSLRSGSYN, which has not been previously reported. Detailed statistics pertaining to sulfur phasing and other factors contributing to structure determination are discussed. Structural comparisons of the apoenzyme and the protein complexed with flavin mononucleotide show conformational changes on cofactor binding. NADPH-dependent activity has been confirmed with biochemical assays.

  15. Crystal Structure of ChrR -- A Quinone Reductase with the Capacity to Reduce Chromate

    SciTech Connect

    Eswaramoorthy S.; Poulain, S.; Hienerwadel, R.; Bremond, N.; Sylvester, M. D.; Zhang, Y.-B.; Berthomieu, C.; van der Lelie, D.; Matin, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Escherichia coli ChrR enzyme is an obligatory two-electron quinone reductase that has many applications, such as in chromate bioremediation. Its crystal structure, solved at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution, shows that it belongs to the flavodoxin superfamily in which flavin mononucleotide (FMN) is firmly anchored to the protein. ChrR crystallized as a tetramer, and size exclusion chromatography showed that this is the oligomeric form that catalyzes chromate reduction. Within the tetramer, the dimers interact by a pair of two hydrogen bond networks, each involving Tyr128 and Glu146 of one dimer and Arg125 and Tyr85 of the other; the latter extends to one of the redox FMN cofactors. Changes in each of these amino acids enhanced chromate reductase activity of the enzyme, showing that this network is centrally involved in chromate reduction.

  16. Time- and spectrally resolved characteristics of flavin fluorescence in U87MG cancer cells in culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horilova, Julia; Cunderlikova, Beata; Marcek Chorvatova, Alzbeta

    2015-05-01

    Early detection of cancer is crucial for the successful diagnostics of its presence and its subsequent treatment. To improve cancer detection, we tested the progressive multimodal optical imaging of U87MG cells in culture. A combination of steady-state spectroscopic methods with the time-resolved approach provides a new insight into the native metabolism when focused on endogenous tissue fluorescence. In this contribution, we evaluated the metabolic state of living U87MG cancer cells in culture by means of endogenous flavin fluorescence. Confocal microscopy and time-resolved fluorescence imaging were employed to gather spectrally and time-resolved images of the flavin fluorescence. We observed that flavin fluorescence in U87MG cells was predominantly localized outside the cell nucleus in mitochondria, while exhibiting a spectral maximum under 500 nm and fluorescence lifetimes under 1.4 ns, suggesting the presence of bound flavins. In some cells, flavin fluorescence was also detected inside the cell nuclei in the nucleoli, exhibiting longer fluorescence lifetimes and a red-shifted spectral maximum, pointing to the presence of free flavin. Extra-nuclear flavin fluorescence was diminished by 2-deoxyglucose, but failed to increase with 2,4-dinitrophenol, the uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, indicating that the cells use glycolysis, rather than oxidative phosphorylation for functioning. These gathered data are the first step toward monitoring the metabolic state of U87MG cancer cells.

  17. Rate enhancement of bacterial extracellular electron transport involves bound flavin semiquinones

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Akihiro; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Nakamura, Ryuhei

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular redox-active compounds, flavins and other quinones, have been hypothesized to play a major role in the delivery of electrons from cellular metabolic systems to extracellular insoluble substrates by a diffusion-based shuttling two-electron-transfer mechanism. Here we show that flavin molecules secreted by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 enhance the ability of its outer-membrane c-type cytochromes (OM c-Cyts) to transport electrons as redox cofactors, but not free-form flavins. Whole-cell differential pulse voltammetry revealed that the redox potential of flavin was reversibly shifted more than 100 mV in a positive direction, in good agreement with increasing microbial current generation. Importantly, this flavin/OM c-Cyts interaction was found to facilitate a one-electron redox reaction via a semiquinone, resulting in a 103- to 105-fold faster reaction rate than that of free flavin. These results are not consistent with previously proposed redox-shuttling mechanisms but suggest that the flavin/OM c-Cyts interaction regulates the extent of extracellular electron transport coupled with intracellular metabolic activity. PMID:23576738

  18. Why Flavins Are not Competitors of Chlorophyll in the Evolution of Biological Converters of Solar Energy

    PubMed Central

    Kritsky, Mikhail S.; Telegina, Taisiya A.; Vechtomova, Yulia L.; Buglak, Andrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Excited flavin molecules can photocatalyze reactions, leading to the accumulation of free energy in the products, and the data accumulated through biochemical experiments and by modeling prebiological processes suggest that flavins were available in the earliest stages of evolution. Furthermore, model experiments have shown that abiogenic flavin conjugated with a polyamino acid matrix, a pigment that photocatalyzes the phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP, could have been present in the prebiotic environment. Indeed, excited flavin molecules play key roles in many photoenzymes and regulatory photoreceptors, and the substantial structural differences between photoreceptor families indicate that evolution has repeatedly used flavins as chromophores for photoreceptor proteins. Some of these photoreceptors are equipped with a light-harvesting antenna, which transfers excitation energy to chemically reactive flavins in the reaction center. The sum of the available data suggests that evolution could have led to the formation of a flavin-based biological converter to convert light energy into energy in the form of ATP. PMID:23271372

  19. The FAD Cofactor of RebC Shifts to an IN Conformation upon Flavin Reduction†,‡

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    RebC is a putative flavin hydroxylase functioning together with RebP to carry out a key step in the biosynthesis of rebeccamycin. To probe the mechanism of flavin-based chemistry in RebC, we solved the structure of RebC with reduced flavin. Upon flavin reduction, the RebC crystal undergoes a change in its unit cell dimension concurrent with a 5 Å movement of the isoalloxazine ring, positioning the flavin ring adjacent to the substrate-binding pocket. Additionally, a disordered helix becomes ordered upon flavin reduction, closing off one side of the substrate-binding pocket. This structure, along with previously reported structures, increases our understanding of the RebC enzyme mechanism, indicating that either the reduction of the flavin itself or binding of substrate is sufficient to drive major conformational changes in RebC to generate a closed active site. Our finding that flavin reduction seals the active site such that substrate cannot enter suggests that our reduced flavin RebC structure is off-pathway and that substrate binding is likely to precede flavin reduction during catalysis. Along with kinetic data presented here, these structures suggest that the first cycle of catalysis in RebC may resemble that of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase, with substrate binding promoting flavin reduction. PMID:19035832

  20. Electrode-assisted catalytic water oxidation by a flavin derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzakulova, Ekaterina; Khatmullin, Renat; Walpita, Janitha; Corrigan, Thomas; Vargas-Barbosa, Nella M.; Vyas, Shubham; Oottikkal, Shameema; Manzer, Samuel F.; Hadad, Christopher M.; Glusac, Ksenija D.

    2012-10-01

    The success of solar fuel technology relies on the development of efficient catalysts that can oxidize or reduce water. All molecular water-oxidation catalysts reported thus far are transition-metal complexes, however, here we report catalytic water oxidation to give oxygen by a fully organic compound, the N(5)-ethylflavinium ion, Et-Fl+. Evolution of oxygen was detected during bulk electrolysis of aqueous Et-Fl+ solutions at several potentials above +1.9 V versus normal hydrogen electrode. The catalysis was found to occur on glassy carbon and platinum working electrodes, but no catalysis was observed on fluoride-doped tin-oxide electrodes. Based on spectroelectrochemical results and preliminary calculations with density functional theory, one possible mechanistic route is proposed in which the oxygen evolution occurs from a peroxide intermediate formed between the oxidized flavin pseudobase and the oxidized carbon electrode. These findings offer an organic alternative to the traditional water-oxidation catalysts based on transition metals.

  1. Flavin-based fluorescent proteins: emerging paradigms in biological imaging.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Arnab; Schroeder, Charles M

    2015-02-01

    Flavin-based fluorescent proteins (FbFPs) are an emerging class of fluorescent reporters characterized by oxygen-independent fluorescence and a small size - key advantages compared to the green fluorescent protein (GFP). FbFPs are at a nascent stage of development. However, they have already been used as versatile reporters for studying anaerobic biosystems and viral assemblies. Recently, FbFPs with improved brightness and photostability have been engineered. In addition, several FbFPs show high degrees of thermal and pH stability. For these reasons, FbFPs hold strong promise to extend bioimaging to clinically and industrially significant systems that have been challenging to study using GFPs. In this review, we highlight recent developments in the FbFP toolbox and explore further improvements necessary to maximize the potential of FbFPs.

  2. FRET in a Synthetic Flavin- and Bilin-binding Protein.

    PubMed

    Simon, Julian; Losi, Aba; Zhao, Kai-Hong; Gärtner, Wolfgang

    2017-07-01

    The last decade has seen development and application of a large number of novel fluorescence-based techniques that have revolutionized fluorescence microscopy in life sciences. Preferred tags for such applications are genetically encoded fluorescent proteins (FP), mostly derivatives of the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Combinations of FPs with wavelength-separated absorption/fluorescence properties serve as excellent tools for molecular interaction studies, for example, protein-protein complexes or enzyme-substrate interactions, based on the FRET phenomenon (Förster resonance energy transfer). However, alternatives are requested for experimental conditions where FP proteins or FP couples are not or less efficiently applicable. We here report as a "proof of principle" a specially designed, non-naturally occurring protein (LG1) carrying a combination of a flavin-binding LOV- and a photochromic bilin-binding GAF domain and demonstrate a FRET process between both chromophores. © 2017 The American Society of Photobiology.

  3. Dihydrofolate Reductase Activity in Strains of Streptococcus faecium var. durans Resistant to Methasquin and Amethopterin1

    PubMed Central

    Rader, Jeanne I.; Hutchison, Dorris J.

    1972-01-01

    Resistance to the antifolates methasquin and amethopterin has been studied in new strains of Streptococcus faecium var. durans. Two methasquin-resistant strains (SF/MQ, SF/MQT) and an amethopterin-resistant strain (SF/AM) were selected independently from the wild-type S. faecium var. durans (SF/O). SF/MQT is a thymine auxotroph. Total dihydrofolate reductase activity was elevated in each of the resistant strains. The greatest increase (36-fold) was observed in extracts of SF/AM. The methasquin-resistant strains, SF/MQ and SF/MQT, had 29-fold and 8-fold, respectively, more dihydrofolate reductase activity than the parental strain. Total dihydrofolate reductase activity of SF/O was separable by gel filtration into two components: a folate reductase (11%) and a specific dihydrofolate reductase (89%). Folate reductase activity was associated with 88% of the total dihydrofolate reductase activity of SF/MQT, with specific dihydrofolate reductase activity accounting for the remaining 12%. In SF/MQ and SF/AM, folate reductase activity was associated with 97% of the total dihydrofolate reductase activity. Studies of the inhibition by methasquin and amethopterin of partially purified folate reductase and specific dihydrofolate reductase of the mutant strains suggested that resistance was not accompanied by changes in the affinities of these enzymes for either antifolate. PMID:4401600

  4. Control of redox reactivity of flavin and pterin coenzymes by metal ion coordination and hydrogen bonding.

    PubMed

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Kojima, Takahiko

    2008-03-01

    The electron-transfer activities of flavin and pterin coenzymes can be fine-tuned by coordination of metal ions, protonation and hydrogen bonding. Formation of hydrogen bonds with a hydrogen-bond receptor in metal-flavin complexes is made possible depending on the type of coordination bond that can leave the hydrogen-bonding sites. The electron-transfer catalytic functions of flavin and pterin coenzymes are described by showing a number of examples of both thermal and photochemical redox reactions, which proceed by controlling the electron-transfer reactivity of coenzymes with metal ion binding, protonation and hydrogen bonding.

  5. Inhibition of NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase by the model sulfur mustard vesicant 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Joshua P.; Mishin, Vladimir; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2010-09-01

    Inhalation of vesicants including sulfur mustard can cause significant damage to the upper airways. This is the result of vesicant-induced modifications of proteins important in maintaining the integrity of the lung. Cytochrome P450s are the major enzymes in the lung mediating detoxification of sulfur mustard and its metabolites. NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase is a flavin-containing electron donor for cytochrome P450. The present studies demonstrate that the sulfur mustard analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), is a potent inhibitor of human recombinant cytochrome P450 reductase, as well as native cytochrome P450 reductase from liver microsomes of saline and {beta}-naphthoflavone-treated rats, and cytochrome P450 reductase from type II lung epithelial cells. Using rat liver microsomes from {beta}-naphthoflavone-treated rats, CEES was found to inhibit CYP 1A1 activity. This inhibition was overcome by microsomal cytochrome P450 reductase from saline-treated rats, which lack CYP 1A1 activity, demonstrating that the CEES inhibitory activity was selective for cytochrome P450 reductase. Cytochrome P450 reductase also generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) via oxidation of NADPH. In contrast to its inhibitory effects on the reduction of cytochrome c and CYP1A1 activity, CEES was found to stimulate ROS formation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sulfur mustard vesicants target cytochrome P450 reductase and that this effect may be an important mechanism mediating oxidative stress and lung injury.

  6. Inhibition of NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase by the model sulfur mustard vesicant 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Joshua P.; Mishin, Vladimir; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Inhalation of vesicants including sulfur mustard can cause significant damage to the upper airways. This is the result of vesicant-induced modifications of proteins important in maintaining the integrity of the lung. Cytochrome P450’s are the major enzymes in the lung mediating detoxification of sulfur mustard and its metabolites. NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase is a flavin-containing electron donor for cytochrome P450. The present studies demonstrate that the sulfur mustard analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), is a potent inhibitor of human recombinant cytochrome P450 reductase, as well as native cytochrome P450 reductase from liver microsomes of saline and β-naphthoflavone treated rats, and cytochrome P450 reductase from type II lung epithelial cells. Using rat liver microsomes from β-naphthoflavone-treated rats, CEES was found to inhibit CYP 1A1 activity. This inhibition was overcome by microsomal cytochrome P450 reductase from saline-treated rats, which lack CYP 1A1 activity, demonstrating that the CEES inhibitory activity was selective for cytochrome P450 reductase. Cytochrome P450 reductase also generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) via oxidation of NADPH. In contrast to its inhibitory effects on the reduction of cytochrome c and CYP1A1 activity, CEES was found to stimulate ROS formation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sulfur mustard vesicants target cytochrome P450 reductase and that this effect may be an important mechanism mediating oxidative stress and lung injury. PMID:20561902

  7. Flavin-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of sulfides and thiols with formic acid/triethylamine.

    PubMed

    Murahashi, Shun-Ichi; Zhang, Dazhi; Iida, Hiroki; Miyawaki, Toshio; Uenaka, Masaaki; Murano, Kenji; Meguro, Kanji

    2014-09-14

    An efficient and practical catalytic method for the aerobic oxidative transformation of sulfides into sulfoxides, and thiols into disulfides with formic acid/TEA in the presence of a new, readily available, and stable flavin catalyst 5d is described.

  8. Comparative Studies on the Induction and Inactivation of Nitrate Reductase in Corn Roots and Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad; Oaks, Ann

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of induction and inactivation of nitrate reductase and two of its component activities, namely FMNH2-nitrate reductase and NO3−-induced NADH-cytochrome c reductase, was made in roots and leaves of corn (Zea mays L. var. W64A × 182E). The three activities were induced in parallel in both tissues when NO3− was supplied. WO4= suppressed the induction of NADH- and FMNH2-nitrate reductase activities in root tips and leaves. The NO3−-induced NADH-cytochrome c reductase activity showed a normal increase in roots treated with WO4=. In leaves, on the other hand, there was a marked superinduction of the NO3−-induced NADH-cytochrome c reductase in the presence of WO4=. The half-life values of NADH-nitrate reductase and FMNH2-nitrate reductase measured by removing NO3− and adding WO4= to the medium, were 4 hours in root tips and 6 hours in excised leaves. Addition of NO3− in the induction medium together with WO4= gave partial protection of NADH-nitrate reductase and FMNH2-nitrate reductase activities in both root tips and leaves with a t0.5 of 6 and 8 hours, respectively. NO3− also reduced the loss of nitrate reductase activity from mature root sections. In the presence of cycloheximide, both NADH-nitrate reductase and NO3−-induced NADH-cytochrome c reductase activities were lost at similar rates in root tips. NO3− protected the loss of NO3−-induced NADH-cytochrome c reductase to the same extent as that of NADH-nitrate reductase. PMID:16659529

  9. Aerobic organocatalytic oxidation of aryl aldehydes: flavin catalyst turnover by Hantzsch's ester.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuai; Foss, Frank W

    2012-10-05

    The first Dakin oxidation fueled by molecular oxygen as the terminal oxidant is reported. Flavin and NAD(P)H coenzymes, from natural enzymatic redox systems, inspired the use of flavin organocatalysts and a Hantzsch ester to perform transition-metal-free, aerobic oxidations. Catechols and electron-rich phenols are achieved with as low as a 0.1 mol % catalyst loading, 1 equiv of Hantzsch ester, and O(2) or air as the stoichiometric oxidant source.

  10. Comparative study of flavins binding with human serum albumin: a fluorometric, thermodynamic, and molecular dynamics approach.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Abhigyan; Sasikala, Wilbee D; Mukherjee, Arnab; Hazra, Partha

    2012-06-04

    Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) are derivatives of riboflavin (RF), a water-soluble vitamin, more commonly known as vitamin B(2). Flavins have attracted special attention in the last few years because of the recent discovery of a large number of flavoproteins. In this work, these flavins are used as extrinsic fluorescence markers for probing the microheterogeneous environment of a well-known transport protein, human serum albumin (HSA). Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence experiments confirm that both FMN and FAD bind to the Sudlow's site-1 (SS1) binding pocket of HSA, where Trp214 resides. In the case of RF, a fraction of RF molecules binds at the SS1, whereas the major fraction of RF molecules remains unbound or surface bound to the protein. Moreover, flavin(s)-HSA interactions are monitored with the help of isothermal titration calorimetry, which provides free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes of binding along with the binding constants. The molecular picture of binding interaction between flavins and HSA is well explored by docking and molecular dynamics studies. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Functional characterization of a soluble NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase from Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Etzerodt, Thomas; Wetterhorn, Karl; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Rayment, Ivan

    2017-10-01

    Fusarium head blight is a devastating disease in wheat caused by some fungal pathogens of the Fusarium genus mainly F. graminearum, due to accumulation of toxic trichothecenes. Most of the trichothecene biosynthetic pathway has been mapped, although some proteins of the pathway remain uncharacterized, including an NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. We subcloned a F. graminearum cytochrome P450 reductase that might be involved in the trichothecene biosynthesis. It was expressed heterologously in E. coli as N-terminal truncated form with an octahistidine tag for purification. The construct yielded a soluble apoprotein and its incubation with flavins yielded the corresponding monomeric holoprotein. It was characterized for activity in the pH range 5.5-9.5, using thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) or cytochrome c as substrates. Binding of the small molecule MTT was weaker than for cytochrome c, however, the rate of MTT reduction was faster. Contrary to other studies of cytochrome reductase proteins, MTT reduction proceeded in a cooperative manner in our studies. Optimum kinetic activity was found at pH 7.5-8.5 for bothMTT and cytochrome c. This is the first paper presenting characterization of a cytochrome P450 reductase from F. graminearum which most likely is involved in mycotoxin biosynthesis or some primary metabolic pathway such as sterol biosynthesis in F. graminearum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Distribution of Prx-linked hydroperoxide reductase activity among microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kouji; Nishiyama, Yoshitaka; Yoda, Koji; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Nimura-Matsune, Kaori; Mura, Kiyoshi; Tokue, Chiyoko; Katoh, Tetzuya; Kawasaki, Shinji; Niimura, Youichi

    2004-01-01

    Peroxiredoxin (Prx) constitutes a large family of enzymes found in microorganisms, animals, and plants, but the detection of the activities of Prx-linked hydroperoxide reductases (peroxiredoxin reductases) in cell extracts, and the purification based on peroxide reductase activity, have only been done in bacteria and Trypanosomatidae. A peroxiredoxin reductase (NADH oxidase) from a bacterium, Amphibacillus, displayed only poor activities in the presence of purified Prx from Saccharomyces or Synechocystis, while it is highly active in the presence of bacterial Prx. These results suggested that an enzyme system different from that in bacteria might exist for the reduction of Prx in yeast and cyanobacteria. Prx-linked hydroperoxide reductase activities were detected in cell extracts of Saccharomyces, Synechocystis, and Chlorella, and the enzyme activities of Saccharomyces and Chlorella were induced under vigorously aerated culture conditions and intensive light exposure conditions, respectively. Partial purification of Prx-linked peroxidase from the induced yeast cells indicated that the Prx-linked peroxidase system consists of two protein components, namely, thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase. This finding is consistent with the previous report on its purification based on its protein protection activity against oxidation [Chae et al., J. Biol. Chem., 269, 27670-27678 (1994)]. In this study we have confirmed that Prx-linked peroxidase activity are widely distributed, not only in bacteria species and Trypanosomatidae, but also in yeast and photosynthetic microorganisms, and showed reconstitution of the activity from partially purified interspecies components.

  13. Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of YqjH from Escherichia coli: a putative cytoplasmic ferri-siderophore reductase

    PubMed Central

    Bamford, Vicki A.; Armour, Maria; Mitchell, Sue A.; Cartron, Michaël; Andrews, Simon C.; Watson, Kimberly A.

    2008-01-01

    YqjH is a cytoplasmic FAD-containing protein from Escherichia coli; based on homology to ViuB of Vibrio cholerae, it potentially acts as a ferri-siderophore reductase. This work describes its overexpression, purification, crystallization and structure solution at 3.0 Å resolution. YqjH shares high sequence similarity with a number of known siderophore-interacting proteins and its structure was solved by molecular replacement using the siderophore-interacting protein from Shewanella putrefaciens as the search model. The YqjH structure resembles those of other members of the NAD(P)H:flavin oxidoreductase superfamily. PMID:18765906

  14. A STD-NMR study of the interaction of the Anabaena ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase with the coenzyme.

    PubMed

    Antonini, Lara V; Peregrina, José R; Angulo, Jesús; Medina, Milagros; Nieto, Pedro M

    2014-01-07

    Ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase (FNR) catalyzes the electron transfer from ferredoxin to NADP+ via its flavin FAD cofactor. To get further insights in the architecture of the transient complexes produced during the hydride transfer event between the enzyme and the NADP+ coenzyme we have applied NMR spectroscopy using Saturation Transfer Difference (STD) techniques to analyze the interaction between FNRox and the oxidized state of its NADP+ coenzyme. We have found that STD NMR, together with the use of selected mutations on FNR and of the non-FNR reacting coenzyme analogue NAD+, are appropriate tools to provide further information about the the interaction epitope.

  15. Biocatalytic Asymmetric Alkene Reduction: Crystal Structure and Characterization of a Double Bond Reductase from Nicotiana tabacum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The application of biocatalysis for the asymmetric reduction of activated C=C is a powerful tool for the manufacture of high-value chemical commodities. The biocatalytic potential of “-ene” reductases from the Old Yellow Enzyme (OYE) family of oxidoreductases is well-known; however, the specificity of these enzymes toward mainly small molecule substrates has highlighted the need to discover “-ene” reductases from different enzymatic classes to broaden industrial applicability. Here, we describe the characterization of a flavin-free double bond reductase from Nicotiana tabacum (NtDBR), which belongs to the leukotriene B4 dehydrogenase (LTD) subfamily of the zinc-independent, medium chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily of enzymes. Using steady-state kinetics and biotransformation reactions, we have demonstrated the regio- and stereospecificity of NtDBR against a variety of α,β-unsaturated activated alkenes. In addition to catalyzing the reduction of typical LTD substrates and several classical OYE-like substrates, NtDBR also exhibited complementary activity by reducing non-OYE substrates (i.e., reducing the exocyclic C=C double bond of (R)-pulegone) and in some cases showing an opposite stereopreference in comparison with the OYE family member pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) reductase. This serves to augment classical OYE “-ene” reductase activity and, coupled with its aerobic stability, emphasizes the potential industrial value of NtDBR. Furthermore, we also report the X-ray crystal structures of the holo-, binary NADP(H)-bound, and ternary [NADP+ and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamaldehyde (9a)-bound] NtDBR complexes. These will underpin structure-driven site-saturated mutagenesis studies aimed at enhancing the reactivity, stereochemistry, and specificity of this enzyme. PMID:27547488

  16. Mechanism of Action of a Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Eswaramoorthy,S.; Bonanno, J.; Burley, S.; Swaminathan, S.

    2006-01-01

    Elimination of nonnutritional and insoluble compounds is a critical task for any living organism. Flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) attach an oxygen atom to the insoluble nucleophilic compounds to increase solubility and thereby increase excretion. Here we analyze the functional mechanism of FMO from Schizosaccharomyces pombe using the crystal structures of the wild type and protein-cofactor and protein-substrate complexes. The structure of the wild-type FMO revealed that the prosthetic group FAD is an integral part of the protein. FMO needs NADPH as a cofactor in addition to the prosthetic group for its catalytic activity. Structures of the protein-cofactor and protein-substrate complexes provide insights into mechanism of action. We propose that FMOs exist in the cell as a complex with a reduced form of the prosthetic group and NADPH cofactor, readying them to act on substrates. The 4{alpha}-hydroperoxyflavin form of the prosthetic group represents a transient intermediate of the monooxygenation process. The oxygenated and reduced forms of the prosthetic group help stabilize interactions with cofactor and substrate alternately to permit continuous enzyme turnover.

  17. Regulated O2 activation in flavin-dependent monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Rosanne E; Mayfield, Jeffery A; DuBois, Jennifer L

    2011-08-17

    Flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs) are involved in important biosynthetic pathways in diverse organisms, including production of the siderophores used for the import and storage of essential iron in serious pathogens. We have shown that the FMO from Aspergillus fumigatus, an ornithine monooxygenase (Af-OMO), is mechanistically similar to its well-studied distant homologues from mammalian liver. The latter are highly promiscuous in their choice of substrates, while Af-OMO is unusually specific. This presents a puzzle: how do Af-OMO and other FMOs of the biosynthetic classes achieve such specificity? We have discovered substantial enhancement in the rate of O(2) activation in Af-OMO in the presence of L-arginine, which acts as a small molecule regulator. Such protein-level regulation could help explain how this and related biosynthetic FMOs manage to couple O(2) activation and substrate hydroxylation to each other and to the appropriate cellular conditions. Given the essentiality of Fe to Af and the avirulence of the Af-OMO gene knock out, inhibitors of Af-OMO are likely to be drug targets against this medically intractable pathogen.

  18. Regulated O2 Activation in Flavin-Dependent Monooxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Frederick, Rosanne E.; Mayfield, Jeffery A.; DuBois, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs) are involved in important biosynthetic pathways in diverse organisms, including production of the siderophores used for the import and storage of essential iron in serious pathogens. We have shown that the FMO from Aspergillus fumigatus, an ornithine monooxygenase (Af-OMO), is mechanistically similar to its well-studied distant homologues from mammalian liver. The latter are highly promiscuous in their choice of substrates, while Af-OMO is unusually specific. This presents a puzzle: how do Af-OMO and other FMOs of the biosynthetic classes achieve such specificity? We have discovered substantial enhancement in the rate of O2 activation in Af-OMO in the presence of l-arginine, which acts as a small molecule regulator. Such protein-level regulation could help explain how this and related biosynthetic FMOs manage to couple O2 activation and substrate hydroxylation to each other and to the appropriate cellular conditions. Given the essentiality of Fe to Af and the avirulence of the Af-OMO gene knock out, inhibitors of Af-OMO are likely to be drug targets against this medically intractable pathogen. PMID:21774554

  19. Electrode-assisted catalytic water oxidation by a flavin derivative.

    PubMed

    Mirzakulova, Ekaterina; Khatmullin, Renat; Walpita, Janitha; Corrigan, Thomas; Vargas-Barbosa, Nella M; Vyas, Shubham; Oottikkal, Shameema; Manzer, Samuel F; Hadad, Christopher M; Glusac, Ksenija D

    2012-10-01

    The success of solar fuel technology relies on the development of efficient catalysts that can oxidize or reduce water. All molecular water-oxidation catalysts reported thus far are transition-metal complexes, however, here we report catalytic water oxidation to give oxygen by a fully organic compound, the N(5)-ethylflavinium ion, Et-Fl(+). Evolution of oxygen was detected during bulk electrolysis of aqueous Et-Fl(+) solutions at several potentials above +1.9 V versus normal hydrogen electrode. The catalysis was found to occur on glassy carbon and platinum working electrodes, but no catalysis was observed on fluoride-doped tin-oxide electrodes. Based on spectroelectrochemical results and preliminary calculations with density functional theory, one possible mechanistic route is proposed in which the oxygen evolution occurs from a peroxide intermediate formed between the oxidized flavin pseudobase and the oxidized carbon electrode. These findings offer an organic alternative to the traditional water-oxidation catalysts based on transition metals.

  20. Coenzyme Recognition and Gene Regulation by a Flavin Mononucleotide Riboswitch

    SciTech Connect

    Serganov, A.; Huang, L; Patel, D

    2009-01-01

    The biosynthesis of several protein cofactors is subject to feedback regulation by riboswitches. Flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-specific riboswitches also known as RFN elements, direct expression of bacterial genes involved in the biosynthesis and transport of riboflavin (vitamin B2) and related compounds. Here we present the crystal structures of the Fusobacterium nucleatum riboswitch bound to FMN, riboflavin and antibiotic roseoflavin. The FMN riboswitch structure, centred on an FMN-bound six-stem junction, does not fold by collinear stacking of adjacent helices, typical for folding of large RNAs. Rather, it adopts a butterfly-like scaffold, stapled together by opposingly directed but nearly identically folded peripheral domains. FMN is positioned asymmetrically within the junctional site and is specifically bound to RNA through interactions with the isoalloxazine ring chromophore and direct and Mg{sup 2+}-mediated contacts with the phosphate moiety. Our structural data, complemented by binding and footprinting experiments, imply a largely pre-folded tertiary RNA architecture and FMN recognition mediated by conformational transitions within the junctional binding pocket. The inherent plasticity of the FMN-binding pocket and the availability of large openings make the riboswitch an attractive target for structure-based design of FMN-like antimicrobial compounds. Our studies also explain the effects of spontaneous and antibiotic-induced deregulatory mutations and provided molecular insights into FMN-based control of gene expression in normal and riboflavin-overproducing bacterial strains.

  1. Photo-induced reduction of flavin mononucleotide in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, S.-H.; Dick, B.; Penzkofer, A.

    2007-01-01

    The photo-induced reduction of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) in aqueous solutions is studied by absorption spectra measurement under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Samples without exogenous reducing agent and with the exogenous reducing agents ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and dithiothreitol (DTT) are investigated. Under anaerobic conditions the photo-induced reduction with and without reducing agents is irreversible. Under aerobic conditions the photo-reduction without added reducing agent is small compared to the photo-degradation, and the photo-reduction of FMN by the reducing agents is reversible (re-oxidation in the dark). During photo-excitation of FMN the dissolved oxygen is consumed by singlet oxygen formation and subsequent chemical reaction. After light switch-off slow re-oxidation (slow absorption recovery) occurs due to air in-diffusion from surface. EDTA degradation by FMN excitation leads to oxygen scavenging. The quantum efficiencies of photo-reduction under aerobic and anaerobic conditions are determined. The re-oxidation of reduced FMN under aerobic conditions and due to air injection is investigated.

  2. KDM1 Class Flavin-Dependent Protein Lysine Demethylases

    PubMed Central

    Burg, Jonathan M.; Link, Jennifer E.; Morgan, Brittany S.; Heller, Frederick J.; Hargrove, Amanda E.; McCafferty, Dewey G.

    2015-01-01

    Flavin-dependent, lysine-specific protein demethylases (KDM1s) are a subfamily of amine oxidases that catalyze the selective posttranslational oxidative demethylation of methyllysine side chains within protein and peptide substrates. KDM1s participate in the widespread epigenetic regulation of both normal and disease state transcriptional programs. Their activities are central to various cellular functions, such as hematopoietic and neuronal differentiation, cancer proliferation and metastasis, and viral lytic replication and establishment of latency. Interestingly, KDM1s function as catalytic subunits within complexes with coregulatory molecules that modulate enzymatic activity of the demethylases and coordinate their access to specific substrates at distinct sites within the cell and chromatin. Although several classes of KDM1 -selective small molecule inhibitors have been recently developed, these pan-active site inhibition strategies lack the ability to selectively discriminate between KDM1 activity in specific, and occasionally opposing, functional contexts within these complexes. Here we review the discovery of this class of demethylases, their structures, chemical mechanisms, and specificity. Additionally, we review inhibition of this class of enzymes as well as emerging interactions with coregulatory molecules that regulate demethylase activity in highly specific functional contexts of biological and potential therapeutic importance. PMID:25787087

  3. Controlling the reactivity of chlorinated ethylenes with flavin mononucleotide hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Ciptadjaya, Christopher G E; Guo, Wen; Angeli, Jayni M; Obare, Sherine O

    2009-03-01

    Reduction rate constants of the chlorinated ethylenes cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) reacted with flavin mononucleotide hydroquinone (FMNH2) under anoxic conditions were investigated. FMNH2 was produced in methanol solvent by the photoreduction of FMN. In aqueous solution, FMN was not fully reduced to FMNH2 but instead yielded the semiquinone radical FMNH*. However, when FMN was anchored to nanocrystalline TiO2, band gap irradiation resulted in electron transfer from the TiO2 conduction band to FMN, thus yielding FMNH2. The FMNH2 generated in aqueous solution on the TiO2 surface was a stronger reductant toward chlorinated ethylenes, relative to FMNH2 in solution. Furthermore, by combining the reactivity of the TiO2 conduction band electrons [TiO2(e-(CB)] with FMNH2, reduction rate constants for the chlorinated ethylenes increased by 2 orders of magnitude relative to FMNH2 alone. The results show how biological molecules such as FMNH2 could have significant effects toward the remediation of organic pollutants.

  4. Flavins in Marine Sediments: A Potentially Ubiquitous Intermediary In Microbial Electron Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteverde, D.; Sylvan, J. B.; Suffridge, C.; Berelson, W.; Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.; Baronas, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    The flavins (riboflavin, flavin mononucleotide [FMN], flavin adenine dinucleotide [FA­­D]) are a class of organic compounds synthesized by organisms to assist in redox reactions. They represent the largest class of required coenzymes, rivaled only by iron in the number of unique enzymes they bind. In addition to internal use, cultured metal-reducing organisms such as Shewanella and Geobacter have been known to release flavins into the extracellular pool to aid in external electron transfer. So called "electron shuttles" can allow organisms to overcome unfavorable geochemical zonation by transferring electrons onto a relatively distant insoluble acceptor. Despite the extensive culture work, flavins have not been systematically measured in the environment. Here we present the first set of flavin profiles from the water column and pore waters of a marine environment. Samples were taken from San Pedro Basin, a 900 meter deep, silled basin, with high seasonal inputs of organic carbon, low bottom water oxygen concentrations, and laminated sediments - making it ideal to explore variations in sediment geochemical zonations. Dissolved flavin concentrations in the water column and pore waters collected from two cores were preconcentrated via solid phase extraction and measured via LC/MS. Flavin profiles are compared to a suite of geochemical parameters as well as sediment microbial 16s rRNA data. Preliminary results show that FMN is typically an order of magnitude higher concentration than riboflavin (800-300pM versus 100-50pM). Porewater concentrations were elevated over water column values for all analytes (ranging from 100-2000pM) and displayed an increasing trend with depth in both cores. This increasing trend correlated with a decrease in dissolved Fe (ranging from 160 µM in surface sediments to 65 µM at 40 cm) and shifts in microbial diversity from sediments shallower than 5 cm depth dominated by Delta- and Gammaproteobacteria to subsurface sediments dominated by

  5. Flavins in Coastal Marine Sediments: New Perspectives on Diagenetic Electron Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteverde, D.; Berelson, W.; Baronas, J. J.; Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal marine sediments play a critical role in the global cycling of metals and nutrients, many of which undergo diagenetic alteration. Central to these transformations are redox reactions where electron-rich organic matter is oxidized via transfer to terminal electron acceptors (NO3-, MnOx, FeOx, SO42-). The flavins (flavin adenine dinucleotide [FAD], flavin mononucleotide [FMN], and riboflavin [B2]) are microbially synthesized organic coenzymes that perform both single and double electron transfer and are known to mediate reduction of insoluble metal oxides. Culture experiments have found high rates of flavin excretion in metal-reducing Shewanella and Geobacter species, however environmental measurements of these highly labile molecules have not been previously reported. Here we present porewater measurements of FAD, FMN, and B2 from San Pedro Basin. This California Borderland basin is silled, suboxic, 900 m deep, and experiences high sedimentation. Flavin concentrations ranged from pico- (FAD: 0- 60 pM; B2: 40 - 90 pM) to nanomolar (FMN: 0.4 - 1.2 nM). The concentration cascade of FMN>B2>FAD fits well within culture experiments. Interestingly, profiles of all three flavins show a near linear increase with depth from 0-30 cm and a relatively steady concentration from 30-45 cm, supporting likely in situ production. Additionally, the flavins showed a negative correlation with dissolved Fe (R2 = 0.7 for FMN, 0.8 for FAD, and 0.9 for B2), which decreased linearly with depth from 160µM to 65µM. We discuss hypothesized mechanisms controlling flavin concentrations based on a suite of sediment geochemical parameters (dissolved Fe, Mn, TCO2, δ13C, NH3, DOM, and SO42-) as well as implications for microbial redox syntrophy. These data provide a critical link between the extensive culture-based mechanistic understanding of flavin function and the sedimentary environment. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that flavins likely serve as a significant electron transfer

  6. Kinetic isotope effects on the noncovalent flavin mutant protein of pyranose 2-oxidase reveal insights into the flavin reduction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sucharitakul, Jeerus; Wongnate, Thanyaporn; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2010-05-04

    Pyranose 2-oxidase (P2O) from Trametes multicolor contains a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor covalently linked to the N(3) atom of His167. The enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of aldopyranoses by molecular oxygen to generate 2-keto-aldoses and H(2)O(2) as products. In this study, the transient kinetics and primary and solvent kinetic isotope effects of the mutant in which His167 has been replaced with Ala (H167A) were investigated, to elucidate the functional role of the 8a-N(3)-histidyl FAD linkage and to gain insights into the reaction mechanism of P2O. The results indicate that the covalent linkage is mainly important for a reductive half-reaction in which the FAD cofactor is reduced by d-glucose, while it is not important for an oxidative half-reaction in which oxygen reacts with the reduced FAD to generate H(2)O(2). d-Glucose binds to H167A via multiple binding modes before the formation of the active Michaelis complex, and the rate constant of flavin reduction decreases approximately 22-fold compared to that of the wild-type enzyme. The reduction of H167A using d-glucose isotopes (2-d-d-glucose, 3-d-d-glucose, and 1,2,3,4,5,6,6-d(7)-d-glucose) as substrates indicates that the primary isotope effect results only from substitution at the C2 position, implying that H167A catalyzes the oxidation of d-glucose regiospecifically at this position. No solvent kinetic isotope effect was detected during the reductive half-reaction of the wild-type or H167A enzyme, implying that the deprotonation of the d-glucose C2-OH group may occur readily upon the binding to P2O and is not synchronized with the cleavage of the d-glucose C2-H bond. The mutation has no drastic effect on the oxidative half-reaction of P2O, as H167A is very similar to the wild-type enzyme with respect to the kinetic constants and the formation of the C4a-hydroperoxyflavin intermediate. Kinetic mechanisms for both half-reactions of H167A were proposed on the basis of transient kinetic data and

  7. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of flavins and flavoenzymes: photochemical and photophysical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, Petra A. W.; Widengren, Jerker; Hink, Mark A.; Rigler, Rudolf; Visser, Antonie J. W. G.

    2001-09-01

    Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) was used to investigate the excited-state properties of flavins and flavoproteins in solution at the single molecule level. Flavin mononucleotide (FMN), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and lipoamide dehydrogenase served as model systems in which the flavin cofactor is either free in solution (FMN, FAD) or enclosed in a protein environment as prosthetic group (lipoamide dehydrogenase). Parameters such as excitation light intensity, detection time and chromophore concentration were varied in order to optimize the autocorrelation traces. Only in experiments with very low light intensity (<10 kW/cm 2), FMN and FAD displayed fluorescence properties equivalent to those found with conventional fluorescence detection methods. Due to the high triplet quantum yield of FMN, the system very soon starts to build up a population of non-fluorescent molecules, which is reflected in an apparent particle number far too low for the concentration used. Intramolecular photoreduction and subsequent photobleaching may well explain these observations. The effect of photoreduction was clearly shown by titration of FMN with ascorbic acid. While titration of FMN with the quenching agent potassium iodide at higher concentrations (> 50 mM of I -) resulted in quenched flavin fluorescence as expected, low concentrations of potassium iodide led to a net enhancement of the de-excitation rate from the triplet state, thereby improving the fluorescence signal. FCS experiments on FAD exhibited an improved photostability of FAD as compared to FMN: As a result of stacking of the adenine and flavin moieties, FAD has a considerably lower triplet quantum yield. Correlation curves of lipoamide dehydrogenase yielded correct values for the diffusion time and number of molecules at low excitation intensities. However, experiments at higher light intensities revealed a process which can be explained by photophysical relaxation or photochemical destruction of the

  8. Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide Structural Motifs: From Solution to Gas Phase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is involved in important metabolic reactions where the biological function is intrinsically related to changes in conformation. In the present work, FAD conformational changes were studied in solution and in gas phase by measuring the fluorescence decay time and ion-neutral collision cross sections (CCS, in a trapped ion mobility spectrometer, TIMS) as a function of the solvent conditions (i.e., organic content) and gas-phase collisional partner (i.e., N2 doped with organic molecules). Changes in the fluorescence decay suggest that FAD can exist in four conformations in solution, where the abundance of the extended conformations increases with the organic content. TIMS-MS experiments showed that FAD can exist in the gas phase as deprotonated (M = C27H31N9O15P2) and protonated forms (M = C27H33N9O15P2) and that multiple conformations (up to 12) can be observed as a function of the starting solution for the [M + H]+ and [M + Na]+molecular ions. In addition, changes in the relative abundances of the gas-phase structures were observed from a “stack” to a “close” conformation when organic molecules were introduced in the TIMS cell as collision partners. Candidate structures optimized at the DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) were proposed for each IMS band, and results showed that the most abundant IMS band corresponds to the most stable candidate structure. Solution and gas-phase experiments suggest that the driving force that stabilizes the different conformations is based on the interaction of the adenine and isoalloxazine rings that can be tailored by the “solvation” effect created with the organic molecules. PMID:25222439

  9. Flavin Charge Transfer Transitions Assist DNA Photolyase Electron Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skourtis, Spiros S.; Prytkova, Tatiana; Beratan, David N.

    2007-12-01

    This contribution describes molecular dynamics, semi-empirical and ab-initio studies of the primary photo-induced electron transfer reaction in DNA photolyase. DNA photolyases are FADH--containing proteins that repair UV-damaged DNA by photo-induced electron transfer. A DNA photolyase recognizes and binds to cyclobutatne pyrimidine dimer lesions of DNA. The protein repairs a bound lesion by transferring an electron to the lesion from FADH-, upon photo-excitation of FADH- with 350-450 nm light. We compute the lowest singlet excited states of FADH- in DNA photolyase using INDO/S configuration interaction, time-dependent density-functional, and time-dependent Hartree-Fock methods. The calculations identify the lowest singlet excited state of FADH- that is populated after photo-excitation and that acts as the electron donor. For this donor state we compute conformationally-averaged tunneling matrix elements to empty electron-acceptor states of a thymine dimer bound to photolyase. The conformational averaging involves different FADH--thymine dimer confromations obtained from molecular dynamics simulations of the solvated protein with a thymine dimer docked in its active site. The tunneling matrix element computations use INDO/S-level Green's function, energy splitting, and Generalized Mulliken-Hush methods. These calculations indicate that photo-excitation of FADH- causes a π→π* charge-transfer transition that shifts electron density to the side of the flavin isoalloxazine ring that is adjacent to the docked thymine dimer. This shift in electron density enhances the FADH--to-dimer electronic coupling, thus inducing rapid electron transfer.

  10. Reductive Dissolution of Goethite and Hematite by Reduced Flavins

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Zhi; Zachara, John M.; Wang, Zheming; Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2013-10-02

    The abiotic reductive dissolution of goethite and hematite by the reduced forms of flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2) and riboflavin (RBFH2), electron transfer mediators (ETM) secreted by the dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella, was investigated under stringent anaerobic conditions. In contrast to the rapid redox reaction rate observed for ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite (Shi et al., 2012), the reductive dissolution of crystalline goethite and hematite was slower, with the extent of reaction limited by the thermodynamic driving force at circumneutral pH. Both the initial reaction rate and reaction extent increased with decreasing pH. On a unit surface area basis, goethite was less reactive than hematite between pH 4.0 and 7.0. AH2DS, the reduced form of the well-studied synthetic ETM anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), yielded higher rates than FMNH2 under most reaction conditions, despite the fact that FMNH2 was a more effective reductant than AH2DS for ferryhydrite and lepidocrocite. Two additional model compounds, methyl viologen and benzyl viologen, were investigated under similar reaction conditions to explore the relationship between reaction rate and thermodynamic properties. Relevant kinetic data from the literature were also included in the analysis to span a broad range of half-cell potentials. Other conditions being equal, the surface area normalized initial reaction rate (ra) increased as the redox potential of the reductant became more negative. A non-linear, parabolic relationship was observed between log ra and the redox potential for eight reducants at pH 7.0, as predicted by Marcus theory for electron transfer. When pH and reductant concentration were fixed, log ra was positively correlated to the redox potential of four Fe(III) oxides over a wide pH range, following a non-linear parabolic relationship as well.

  11. Biotransformation of lepidocrocite in the presence of quinones and flavins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Sungjun; Lee, Woojin

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the bioreduction of lepidocrocite (γ-FeIIIOOH) and its mineral transformation in the presence of exogenous (quinones) and endogenous (flavins) electron transfer mediators (ETMs) at low concentrations of the ETMs and bacterial cells (Shewanella putrefaciens CN32). It is very important to investigate the bioreduction of lepidocrocite in the presence of different ETMs because biotransformation of Fe(III)-containing minerals can be stimulated by ETMs and affect fate and transport of contaminants in contaminated environments. In the absence of phosphate, green rust formation was observed with fast Fe(II) production rate (0.44-0.56 mM d-1) during the bioreduction of lepidocrocite with exogenous ETMs, while goethite formed at slow Fe(II) production rate (0.24-0.29 mM d-1) with endogenous ETMs. In the presence of phosphate, formation of green rust and vivianite was observed with fast Fe(II) production rate (0.54-0.74 mM d-1) during the bioreduction of lepidocrocite with exogenous ETMs, while vivianite formed at moderate Fe(II) production rate (0.36-0.40 mM d-1) with endogenous ETMs. Vivianite formed in all experimental cases with phosphate in a broad range of Fe(II) production rates (0.23-0.74 mM d-1). Our results (1) suggest that exogenous and endogenous ETMs can significantly but differently affect the biotransformation of lepidocrocite, especially at low concentrations of the ETMs and bacterial cells, (2) highlight the importance of Fe(II) production rate to determine the formation of specific biogenic minerals, (3) provide additional evidence that phosphate can significantly affect the bioreduction rate and the mineral transformation, and (4) help to understand the basic knowledge about complex interactions among microbial cell, soil mineral, and ETM in natural environments and engineered systems.

  12. Resolution of strongly competitive product channels with optimal dynamic discrimination: Application to flavins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslund, Jonathan; Roth, Matthias; Guyon, Laurent; Boutou, Véronique; Courvoisier, Francois; Wolf, Jean-Pierre; Rabitz, Herschel

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental molecular selectivity limits are probed by exploiting laser-controlled quantum interferences for the creation of distinct spectral signatures in two flavin molecules, erstwhile nearly indistinguishable via steady-state methods. Optimal dynamic discrimination (ODD) uses optimally shaped laser fields to transiently amplify minute molecular variations that would otherwise go unnoticed with linear absorption and fluorescence techniques. ODD is experimentally demonstrated by combining an optimally shaped UV pump pulse with a time-delayed, fluorescence-depleting IR pulse for discrimination amongst riboflavin and flavin mononucleotide in aqueous solution, which are structurally and spectroscopically very similar. Closed-loop, adaptive pulse shaping discovers a set of UV pulses that induce disparate responses from the two flavins and allows for concomitant flavin discrimination of ˜16σ. Additionally, attainment of ODD permits quantitative, analytical detection of the individual constituents in a flavin mixture. The successful implementation of ODD on quantum systems of such high complexity bodes well for the future development of the field and the use of ODD techniques in a variety of demanding practical applications.

  13. Resolution of strongly competitive product channels with optimal dynamic discrimination: application to flavins.

    PubMed

    Roslund, Jonathan; Roth, Matthias; Guyon, Laurent; Boutou, Véronique; Courvoisier, Francois; Wolf, Jean-Pierre; Rabitz, Herschel

    2011-01-21

    Fundamental molecular selectivity limits are probed by exploiting laser-controlled quantum interferences for the creation of distinct spectral signatures in two flavin molecules, erstwhile nearly indistinguishable via steady-state methods. Optimal dynamic discrimination (ODD) uses optimally shaped laser fields to transiently amplify minute molecular variations that would otherwise go unnoticed with linear absorption and fluorescence techniques. ODD is experimentally demonstrated by combining an optimally shaped UV pump pulse with a time-delayed, fluorescence-depleting IR pulse for discrimination amongst riboflavin and flavin mononucleotide in aqueous solution, which are structurally and spectroscopically very similar. Closed-loop, adaptive pulse shaping discovers a set of UV pulses that induce disparate responses from the two flavins and allows for concomitant flavin discrimination of ∼16σ. Additionally, attainment of ODD permits quantitative, analytical detection of the individual constituents in a flavin mixture. The successful implementation of ODD on quantum systems of such high complexity bodes well for the future development of the field and the use of ODD techniques in a variety of demanding practical applications.

  14. Nitrate and periplasmic nitrate reductases

    PubMed Central

    Sparacino-Watkins, Courtney; Stolz, John F.; Basu, Partha

    2014-01-01

    The nitrate anion is a simple, abundant and relatively stable species, yet plays a significant role in global cycling of nitrogen, global climate change, and human health. Although it has been known for quite some time that nitrate is an important species environmentally, recent studies have identified potential medical applications. In this respect the nitrate anion remains an enigmatic species that promises to offer exciting science in years to come. Many bacteria readily reduce nitrate to nitrite via nitrate reductases. Classified into three distinct types – periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap), respiratory nitrate reductase (Nar) and assimilatory nitrate reductase (Nas), they are defined by their cellular location, operon organization and active site structure. Of these, Nap proteins are the focus of this review. Despite similarities in the catalytic and spectroscopic properties Nap from different Proteobacteria are phylogenetically distinct. This review has two major sections: in the first section, nitrate in the nitrogen cycle and human health, taxonomy of nitrate reductases, assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate reduction, cellular locations of nitrate reductases, structural and redox chemistry are discussed. The second section focuses on the features of periplasmic nitrate reductase where the catalytic subunit of the Nap and its kinetic properties, auxiliary Nap proteins, operon structure and phylogenetic relationships are discussed. PMID:24141308

  15. Iron limitation effects a massive shift in iron and flavin based antioxidant enzyme systems and their substrates in the Chlorophyte alga Dunaliella tertiolecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traggis, H. M.

    2012-12-01

    Ubiquitous in the neritic ocean, it is now believed that iron-limitation is the most important factor controlling primary production in oceanic phytoplankton. To investigate the effects of iron deficiency, Dunaliella tertiolecta was cultured under limiting (100 nM Fe) and replete (1μM Fe) iron concentrations. The physiological status and the Water-Water antioxidant defense system were evaluated. Iron limitation effected a 21% drop in PSII efficiency (replete= 0.634± 0.012; limiting= 0.507± 0.012) concurrent with a 17.5% reduction in photosynthetic rates (replete= 265.8 umol 02/mg chl/hr ± 5.7; limiting= 219.3 umol 02/mg chl/hr ± 5.7). Both heme and non-heme based antioxidant enzyme activities were assessed. Heme-based Ascorbate peroxidase (APX), exhibits an 84% iron limited rate reduction (replete and limited = 36.23 and 5.72 umol ascorbate mg prot-1 hr-1 ±2.96, respectively). Conversely, the flavin-based Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), exhibits a significant rate increase, 2.16±0.19 (replete) to 3.86±0.19 umol NADH mg prot-1 hr-1 under iron-limitation. Iron deficient cultures exhibit a 34% increase in total available ascorbate. These investigations suggest that D. tertiolecta is able to maintain a stable growth rate under iron limitation by re-allocating its subcellular usage of available iron and increasing the availability of total ascorbate. Further investigations will determine the presence of additional iron/flavin based molecules involved in the photosynthetic apparatus and anti-oxidant scavenging mechanisms.

  16. Purification of glutamyl-tRNA reductase from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    SciTech Connect

    Rieble, S.; Beale, S.I. )

    1991-05-01

    {delta}-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is the universal precursor for all tetrapyrroles including hemes, chlorophylls, and bilins. In plants, algae, cyanobacteria, and many other bacteria, ALA is synthesized from glutamate in a reaction sequence that requires three enzymes, ATP, NADPH, and tRNA{sup Glu}. The three enzymes have been characterized as glutamyl-tRNA synthetase, glutamyl-tRNA reductase, and glutamate-1-semialdehyde (GSA) aminotransferase. All three enzymes have been separated and partially characterized from plants and algae. In prokaryotic phototrophs, only the glutamyl-tRNA synthetase and GSA aminotransferase have been described. The authors report here the purification and some properties of the glutamyl-tRNA reductase from extracts of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The glutamyl-tRNA reductase has been purified over 370 fold to apparent homogeneity. Its native molecular mass was determined to be 350 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The N-terminal amino acid sequence was determined for 42 residues. Much higher activity occurred with NADPH than with NADH as the reduced pyridine nucleotide substrate. Half-maximal rates occurred at 5 {mu}M NADPH, whereas saturation was not reached even at 10 mM NADH. Purified Synechocystis glutamyl-tRNA reductase was inhibited 50% by 5 {mu}M heme. Activity was unaffected by 10 {mu}M gabaculine. No flavin, pyridine nucleotide, or other light-absorbing prosthetic group was detected on the purified enzyme. The catalytic turnover number of purified Synechocystis glutamyl-tRNA reductase is comparable to those of prokaryotic and plastidic glutamyl-tRNA synthetases.

  17. Synthesis of 10-Ethyl Flavin: A Multistep Synthesis Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment for Upper-Division Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sichula, Vincent A.

    2015-01-01

    A multistep synthesis of 10-ethyl flavin was developed as an organic chemistry laboratory experiment for upper-division undergraduate students. Students synthesize 10-ethyl flavin as a bright yellow solid via a five-step sequence. The experiment introduces students to various hands-on experimental organic synthetic techniques, such as column…

  18. Hydrogen-bonding modulation of excited-state properties of flavins in a model of aqueous confined environment.

    PubMed

    Valle, Lorena; Vieyra, Faustino E Morán; Borsarelli, Claudio D

    2012-06-01

    The singlet and triplet excited states properties of lumiflavin (LF), riboflavin (RF), flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) in reversed micelles (RM) of sodium docusate (AOT) in n-hexane solutions were evaluated as a function of the water to surfactant molar ratio, w(0) = [H(2)O]/[AOT], by both steady-state and time-resolved absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results indicated that hydrogen-bonding interactions between the isoalloxazine ring of the flavins with the water molecules of the micellar interior play a crucial role on the modulation of the excited state properties of the flavins. Fluorescence dynamic experiments in the RM, allowed the calculation of similar values for both the internal rotational time of the flavins (θ(i)) and the hydrogen-bonding relaxation time (τ(HB)), e.g.≈ 7 and 1.5 ns at w(0) = 1 and 20, respectively. In turn, the triplet state lifetimes of the flavins were also enlarged in RM solutions at low w(0), without modifications of their quantum yields. A hydrogen bonding relaxation model is proposed to explain the singlet excited state properties of the flavins, while the changes of the triplet state decays of the flavins were related with the global composition and strength of the hydrogen bonding network inside of the RM.

  19. Synthesis of 10-Ethyl Flavin: A Multistep Synthesis Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment for Upper-Division Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sichula, Vincent A.

    2015-01-01

    A multistep synthesis of 10-ethyl flavin was developed as an organic chemistry laboratory experiment for upper-division undergraduate students. Students synthesize 10-ethyl flavin as a bright yellow solid via a five-step sequence. The experiment introduces students to various hands-on experimental organic synthetic techniques, such as column…

  20. ArsH from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is an efficient NADPH-dependent quinone reductase.

    PubMed

    Hervás, Manuel; López-Maury, Luis; León, Pilar; Sánchez-Riego, Ana M; Florencio, Francisco J; Navarro, José A

    2012-02-14

    The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 possesses an arsenic resistance operon that encodes, among others, an ArsH protein. ArsH is a flavin mononucleotide (FMN)-containing protein of unknown function and a member of the family of NADPH-dependent FMN reductases. The nature of its final electron acceptor and the role of ArsH in the resistance to arsenic remained to be clarified. Here we have expressed and purified Synechocystis ArsH and conducted an intensive biochemical study. We present kinetic evidence supporting a quinone reductase activity for ArsH, with a preference for quinones with hydrophobic substituents. By using steady-state activity measurements, as well as stopped-flow and laser-flash photolysis kinetic analyses, it has been possible to establish the mechanism of the process and estimate the values of the kinetic constants. Although the enzyme is able to stabilize the anionic semiquinone form of the FMN, reduction of quinones involves the hydroquinone form of the flavin cofactor, and the enzymatic reaction occurs through a ping-pong-type mechanism. ArsH is able to catalyze one-electron reactions (oxygen and cytocrome c reduction), involving the FMN semiquinone form, but with lower efficiency. In addition, arsH mutants are sensitive to the oxidizing agent menadione, suggesting that ArsH plays a role in the response to oxidative stress caused by arsenite.

  1. Functional plasticity and catalytic efficiency in plant and bacterial ferredoxin-NADP(H) reductases.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Eduardo A; Arakaki, Adrián K; Cortez, Néstor; Carrillo, Néstor

    2004-05-06

    Ferredoxin (flavodoxin)-NADP(H) reductases (FNRs) are ubiquitous flavoenzymes that deliver NADPH or low potential one-electron donors (ferredoxin, flavodoxin, adrenodoxin) to redox-based metabolisms in plastids, mitochondria and bacteria. Two great families of FAD-containing proteins displaying FNR activity have evolved from different and independent origins. The enzymes present in mitochondria and some bacterial genera are members of the structural superfamily of disulfide oxidoreductases whose prototype is glutathione reductase. A second group, comprising the FNRs from plastids and most eubacteria, constitutes a unique family, the plant-type FNRs, totally unrelated in sequence with the former. The two-domain structure of the plant family of FNR also provides the basic scaffold for an extended superfamily of electron transfer flavoproteins. In this article we compare FNR flavoenzymes from very different origins and describe how the natural history of these reductases shaped structure, flavin conformation and catalytic activity to face the very different metabolic demands they have to deal with in their hosts. We show that plant-type FNRs can be classified into a plastidic class, characterised by extended FAD conformation and high catalytic efficiency, and a bacterial class displaying a folded FAD molecule and low turnover rates. Sequence alignments supported this classification, providing a criterion to predict the structural and biochemical properties of newly identified members of the family.

  2. The Occurrence of Nitrate Reductase in Leaves of Prunus Species 1

    PubMed Central

    Leece, D. R.; Dilley, David R.; Kenworthy, A. L.

    1972-01-01

    Nitrate reductase was found in leaves of apricot Prunus armeniaca, sour cherry P. cerasus, sweet cherry P. avium, and plum P. domestica, but not in peach P. persica, from trees grown in sand culture receiving a nitrate containing nutrient solution. Nitrate was found in the leaves of all species. Nitrate and nitrate reductase were found in leaves of field-grown apricot, sour cherry, and plum trees. The enzyme-extracting medium contained insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidone, and including dithiothreitol or mercaptobenzothiazole did not improve enzyme recovery. Inclusion of cherry leaf extract diminished, and peach leaf extract abolished, recovery of nitrate reductase from oat tissue. Low molecular weight phenols liberated during extraction were probably responsible for inactivation of the enzyme. The enzyme from apricot was two to three times as active as from the other species. Both nicotine adenine diphosphopyridine nucleotide and flavin mononucleotide were effective electron donors. The enzyme was readily induced in apricot leaves by 10 mm nitrate supplied through the leaf petiole. PMID:16658037

  3. NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase: Prototypic Member of the Diflavin Reductase Family

    PubMed Central

    Iyanagi, Takashi; Xia, Chuanwu; Kim, Jung-Ja P.

    2012-01-01

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), two members of the diflavin oxidoreductase family, are multi-domain enzymes containing distinct FAD and FMN domains connected by a flexible hinge. FAD accepts a hydride ion from NADPH, and reduced FAD donates electrons to FMN, which in turn transfers electrons to the heme center of cytochrome P450 or NOS oxygenase domain. Structural analysis of CYPOR, the prototype of this enzyme family, has revealed the exact nature of the domain arrangement and the role of residues involved in cofactor binding. Recent structural and biophysical studies of CYPOR have shown that the two flavin domains undergo large domain movements during catalysis. NOS isoforms contain additional regulatory elements within the reductase domain that control electron transfer through Ca2+-dependent calmodulin (CaM) binding. The recent crystal structure of an iNOS Ca2+/CaM-FMN construct, containing the FMN domain in complex with Ca2+/CaM, provided structural information on the linkage between the reductase and oxgenase domains of NOS, making it possible to model the holo iNOS structure. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the dynamics of domain movements during CYPOR catalysis and the role of the NOS diflavin reductase domain in the regulation of NOS isozyme activities. PMID:22982532

  4. Iron Reductase for Magnetite Synthesis in the Magnetotactic Bacterium Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Yasushi; Fujiwara, Taketomo; Yoshimatsu, Katsuhiko; Fukumori, Yoshihiro

    1999-01-01

    Ferric iron reductase was purified from magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum (formerly Aquaspirillum) magnetotacticum (ATCC 31632) to an electrophoretically homogeneous state. The enzyme was loosely bound on the cytoplasmic face of the cytoplasmic membrane and was found more frequently in magnetic cells than in nonmagnetic cells. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was calculated upon sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to be about 36 kDa, almost the same as that calibrated by gel filtration analysis. The enzyme required NADH and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) as optimal electron donor and cofactor, respectively, and the activity was strongly inhibited by Zn2+ acting as a partial mixed-type inhibitor. The Km values for NADH and FMN were 4.3 and 0.035 μM, respectively, and the Ki values for Zn2+ were 19.2 and 23.9 μM for NADH and FMN, respectively. When the bacterium was grown in the presence of ZnSO4, the magnetosome number in the cells and the ferric iron reductase activity declined in parallel with an increase in the ZnSO4 concentration of the medium, suggesting that the ferric iron reductase purified in the present study may participate in magnetite synthesis. PMID:10094692

  5. Structural Basis for Activation of Class Ib Ribonucleotide Reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Boal, Amie K.; Cotruvo, Jr., Joseph A.; Stubbe, JoAnne; Rosenzweig, Amy C.

    2010-12-03

    The class Ib ribonucleotide reductase of Escherichia coli can initiate reduction of nucleotides to deoxynucleotides with either a Mn{sub 2}{sup III}-tyrosyl radical (Y{sm_bullet}) or a Fe{sub 2}{sup III}-Y{sm_bullet} cofactor in the NrdF subunit. Whereas Fe{sub 2}{sup III}-Y{sm_bullet} can self-assemble from Fe{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF and O{sub 2}, activation of Mn{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF requires a reduced flavoprotein, NrdI, proposed to form the oxidant for cofactor assembly by reduction of O{sub 2}. The crystal structures reported here of E. coli Mn{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF and Fe{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF reveal different coordination environments, suggesting distinct initial binding sites for the oxidants during cofactor activation. In the structures of Mn{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF in complex with reduced and oxidized NrdI, a continuous channel connects the NrdI flavin cofactor to the NrdF Mn{sub 2}{sup II} active site. Crystallographic detection of a putative peroxide in this channel supports the proposed mechanism of Mn{sub 2}{sup III}-Y{sm_bullet} cofactor assembly.

  6. Structure of Escherichia coli Flavodiiron Nitric Oxide Reductase.

    PubMed

    Romão, Célia V; Vicente, João B; Borges, Patrícia T; Victor, Bruno L; Lamosa, Pedro; Silva, Elísio; Pereira, Luís; Bandeiras, Tiago M; Soares, Cláudio M; Carrondo, Maria A; Turner, David; Teixeira, Miguel; Frazão, Carlos

    2016-11-20

    Flavodiiron proteins (FDPs) are present in organisms from all domains of life and have been described so far to be involved in the detoxification of oxygen or nitric oxide (NO), acting as O2 and/or NO reductases. The Escherichia coli FDP, named flavorubredoxin (FlRd), is the most extensively studied FDP. Biochemical and in vivo studies revealed that FlRd is involved in NO detoxification as part of the bacterial defense mechanisms against reactive nitrogen species. E. coli FlRd has a clear preference for NO as a substrate in vitro, exhibiting a very low reactivity toward O2. To contribute to the understanding of the structural features defining this substrate selectivity, we determined the crystallographic structure of E. coli FlRd, both in the isolated and reduced states. The overall tetrameric structure revealed a highly conserved flavodiiron core domain, with a metallo-β-lactamase-like domain containing a diiron center, and a flavodoxin domain with a flavin mononucleotide cofactor. The metal center in the oxidized state has a μ-hydroxo bridge coordinating the two irons, while in the reduced state, this moiety is not detected. Since only the flavodiiron domain was observed in these crystal structures, the structure of the rubredoxin domain was determined by NMR. Tunnels for the substrates were identified, and through molecular dynamics simulations, no differences for O2 or NO permeation were found. The present data represent the first structure for a NO-selective FDP.

  7. Conformational behavior of flavin adenine dinucleotide: conserved stereochemistry in bound and free states.

    PubMed

    Kuppuraj, Gopi; Kruise, Dennis; Yura, Kei

    2014-11-26

    Metabolic enzymes utilize the cofactor flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) to catalyze essential biochemical reactions. Because these enzymes have been implicated in disease pathways, it will be necessary to target them via FAD-based structural analogues that can either activate/inhibit the enzymatic activity. To achieve this, it is important to explore the conformational space of FAD in the enzyme-bound and free states. Herein, we analyze X-ray crystallographic data of the enzyme-bound FAD conformations and sample conformations of the molecule in explicit water by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Enzyme-bound FAD conformations segregate into five distinct groups based on dihedral angle principal component analysis (PCA). A notable feature in the bound FADs is that the adenine base and isoalloxazine ring are oppositely oriented relative to the pyrophosphate axis characterized by near trans hypothetical dihedral angle "δV" values. Not surprisingly, MD simulations in water show final compact but not perfectly stacked ring structures in FAD. Simulation data did not reveal noticeable changes in overall conformational dynamics of the dinucleotide in reduced and oxidized forms and in the presence and/or absence of ions. During unfolding-folding dynamics, the riboflavin moiety is more flexible than the adenosine monophosphate group in the molecule. Conversely, the isoalloxazine ring is more stable than the variable adenine base. The pyrophosphate group depicts an unusually highly organized fluctuation illustrated by its dihedral angle distribution. Conformations sampled from enzymes and MD are quantified. The extent to which the protein shifts the distribution from the unbound state is discussed in terms of prevalent FAD shapes and dihedral angle population.

  8. The transient catalytically competent coenzyme allocation into the active site of Anabaena ferredoxin NADP+ -reductase.

    PubMed

    Peregrina, José Ramón; Lans, Isaías; Medina, Milagros

    2012-01-01

    Ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase (FNR) catalyses the electron transfer from ferredoxin to NADP(+) via its flavin FAD cofactor. A molecular dynamics theoretical approach is applied here to visualise the transient catalytically competent interaction of Anabaena FNR with its coenzyme, NADP(+). The particular role of some of the residues identified as key in binding and accommodating the 2'P-AMP moiety of the coenzyme is confirmed in molecular terms. Simulations also indicate that the architecture of the active site precisely contributes to the orientation of the N5 of the FAD isoalloxazine ring and the C4 of the coenzyme nicotinamide ring in the conformation of the catalytically competent hydride transfer complex and, therefore, contributes to the efficiency of the process. In particular, the side chain of the C-terminal Y303 in Anabaena FNR appears key to providing the optimum geometry by reducing the stacking probability between the isoalloxazine and nicotinamide rings, thus providing the required co-linearity and distance among the N5 of the flavin cofactor, the C4 of the coenzyme nicotinamide and the hydride that has to be transferred between them. All these factors are highly related to the reaction efficiency, mechanism and reversibility of the process.

  9. FAD binding, cobinamide binding and active site communication in the corrin reductase (CobR)

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Andrew D.; Taylor, Samantha L.; Scott, Alan; Rowe, Michelle L.; Johnson, Christopher M.; Rigby, Stephen E. J.; Geeves, Michael A.; Pickersgill, Richard W.; Howard, Mark J.; Warren, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Adenosylcobalamin, the coenzyme form of vitamin B12, is one Nature's most complex coenzyme whose de novo biogenesis proceeds along either an anaerobic or aerobic metabolic pathway. The aerobic synthesis involves reduction of the centrally chelated cobalt metal ion of the corrin ring from Co(II) to Co(I) before adenosylation can take place. A corrin reductase (CobR) enzyme has been identified as the likely agent to catalyse this reduction of the metal ion. Herein, we reveal how Brucella melitensis CobR binds its coenzyme FAD (flavin dinucleotide) and we also show that the enzyme can bind a corrin substrate consistent with its role in reduction of the cobalt of the corrin ring. Stopped-flow kinetics and EPR reveal a mechanistic asymmetry in CobR dimer that provides a potential link between the two electron reduction by NADH to the single electron reduction of Co(II) to Co(I). PMID:24909839

  10. Flavin-mediated dual oxidation controls an enzymatic Favorskii-type rearrangement

    PubMed Central

    Louie, Gordon; Noel, Joseph P.; Baran, Phil S.; Palfey, Bruce; Moore, Bradley S.

    2013-01-01

    Flavoproteins catalyze a diversity of fundamental redox reactions and are one of the most studied enzyme families1,2. As monooxygenases, they are universally thought to control oxygenation by means of a peroxyflavin species that transfers a single atom of molecular oxygen to an organic substrate1,3,4. Here we report that the bacterial flavoenzyme EncM5,6 catalyzes the peroxyflavin-independent oxygenation-dehydrogenation dual oxidation of a highly reactive poly(β-carbonyl). The crystal structure of EncM with bound substrate mimics coupled with isotope labeling studies reveal previously unknown flavin redox biochemistry. We show that EncM maintains an unanticipated stable flavin oxygenating species, proposed to be a flavin-N5-oxide, to promote substrate oxidation and trigger a rare Favorskii-type rearrangement that is central to the biosynthesis of the antibiotic enterocin. This work provides new insight into the fine-tuning of the flavin cofactor in offsetting the innate reactivity of a polyketide substrate to direct its efficient electrocyclization. PMID:24162851

  11. Human Cryptochrome-1 Confers Light Independent Biological Activity in Transgenic Drosophila Correlated with Flavin Radical Stability

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Jacqueline; Jones, Alex R.; Danon, Antoine; Sakuma, Michiyo; Hoang, Nathalie; Robles, David; Tait, Shirley; Heyes, Derren J.; Picot, Marie; Yoshii, Taishi; Helfrich-Förster, Charlotte; Soubigou, Guillaume; Coppee, Jean-Yves; Klarsfeld, André; Rouyer, Francois; Scrutton, Nigel S.; Ahmad, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Cryptochromes are conserved flavoprotein receptors found throughout the biological kingdom with diversified roles in plant development and entrainment of the circadian clock in animals. Light perception is proposed to occur through flavin radical formation that correlates with biological activity in vivo in both plants and Drosophila. By contrast, mammalian (Type II) cryptochromes regulate the circadian clock independently of light, raising the fundamental question of whether mammalian cryptochromes have evolved entirely distinct signaling mechanisms. Here we show by developmental and transcriptome analysis that Homo sapiens cryptochrome - 1 (HsCRY1) confers biological activity in transgenic expressing Drosophila in darkness, that can in some cases be further stimulated by light. In contrast to all other cryptochromes, purified recombinant HsCRY1 protein was stably isolated in the anionic radical flavin state, containing only a small proportion of oxidized flavin which could be reduced by illumination. We conclude that animal Type I and Type II cryptochromes may both have signaling mechanisms involving formation of a flavin radical signaling state, and that light independent activity of Type II cryptochromes is a consequence of dark accumulation of this redox form in vivo rather than of a fundamental difference in signaling mechanism. PMID:22427812

  12. A Click Chemistry Approach towards Flavin-Cyclodextrin Conjugates-Bioinspired Sulfoxidation Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Tomanová, Petra; Šturala, Jiří; Buděšínský, Miloš; Cibulka, Radek

    2015-11-04

    A click chemistry approach based on the reaction between alkynylflavins and mono(6-azido-6-deoxy)-β-cyclodextrin has proven to be a useful tool for the synthesis of flavin-cyclodextrin conjugates studied as monooxygenase mimics in enantioselective sulfoxidations.

  13. The modification of the cytotoxic effect of leucocidin by N-ethylmaleimide, flavine mononucleotide and menadione

    PubMed Central

    Woodin, A. M.; Wieneke, Antonnette A.

    1966-01-01

    1. The movement of the cytoplasmic granules in the leucocidin-treated leucocyte is prevented in the presence of N-ethylmaleimide or menadione. This effect follows a change of state in the cytoplasm. It may not be due to reaction with SH groups. When granule movement is prevented in this way the subsequent addition of Ca2+ and ATP does not induce the secretion of the proteins of the granules. 2. Menadione or iodoacetate stimulates some effects of suboptimum amounts of leucocidin. This effect probably follows a reaction with SH groups. 3. Flavine mononucleotide inhibits some effects of suboptimum amounts of leucocidin. 4. Leucocidin decreases the stimulation of glucose oxidation due to menadione but increases that due to flavine mononucleotide. Leucocidin decreases the adsorption of menadione by leucocytes but increases that of flavine mononucleotide. 5. The redox state of the nicotinamide–adenine nucleotide coenzymes is not altered during leucocidin action and flavine mononucleotide and menadione do not undergo significant continuous oxidation and reduction when added to the leucocyte. ImagesFig. 2. PMID:5329340

  14. Structure of Hordeum vulgare NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase 2. Unwinding the reaction mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkensgaard, Kristine G.; Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Henriksen, Anette

    2009-09-01

    The first crystal structure of a cereal NTR, a protein involved in seed development and germination, has been determined. The structure is in a conformation that excludes NADPH binding and indicates that a domain reorientation facilitated by Trx binding precedes NADPH binding in the reaction mechanism. Thioredoxins (Trxs) are protein disulfide reductases that regulate the intracellular redox environment and are important for seed germination in plants. Trxs are in turn regulated by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRs), which provide reducing equivalents to Trx using NADPH to recycle Trxs to the active form. Here, the first crystal structure of a cereal NTR, HvNTR2 from Hordeum vulgare (barley), is presented, which is also the first structure of a monocot plant NTR. The structure was determined at 2.6 Å resolution and refined to an R{sub cryst} of 19.0% and an R{sub free} of 23.8%. The dimeric protein is structurally similar to the structures of AtNTR-B from Arabidopsis thaliana and other known low-molecular-weight NTRs. However, the relative position of the two NTR cofactor-binding domains, the FAD and the NADPH domains, is not the same. The NADPH domain is rotated by 25° and bent by a 38% closure relative to the FAD domain in comparison with AtNTR-B. The structure may represent an intermediate between the two conformations described previously: the flavin-oxidizing (FO) and the flavin-reducing (FR) conformations. Here, analysis of interdomain contacts as well as phylogenetic studies lead to the proposal of a new reaction scheme in which NTR–Trx interactions mediate the FO to FR transformation.

  15. Purification and properties of proline reductase from Clostridium sticklandii.

    PubMed

    Seto, B; Stadtman, T C

    1976-04-25

    Proline reductase of Clostridium sticklandii is a membrane-bound protein and is released by treatment with detergents. The enzyme has been purified to homogeneity and is estimated by gel filtration and sedimentation equilibrium centrifugation to have a molecular weight of 298,000 to 327,000. A minimum molecular weight of 30,000 to 31,000 was calculated on the basis of sodium dodecyl sulfate-acrylamide gel electrophoresis and amino acid composition. Amino acid analysis showed a preponderance of acidic amino acids. No tryptophan was detected in the protein either spectrophotometrically or by amino acid analysis. A total of 20 sulfhydryl groups measured by titration of the reduced protein with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) is in agreement with 20 cystic acid residues determined in hydrolysates of performic acid-oxidized protein. No molybdenum, iron, or selenium was found in the pure protein. Although NADH is the physiological electron donor for the proline reductase complex, the purified 300,000 molecular weight reductase component is inactive in the presence of NADH in vitro. Dithiothreitol, in contrast, can serve as electron donor both for unpurified (putative proline reductase complex) and purified proline reductase in vitro.

  16. Blue-light-activated histidine kinases: two-component sensors in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Trevor E; Tseng, Tong-Seung; Frederickson, Marcus A; Paris, Gastón; Comerci, Diego J; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Kim, Jung-Gun; Mudgett, Mary Beth; Splitter, Gary A; Ugalde, Rodolfo A; Goldbaum, Fernando A; Briggs, Winslow R; Bogomolni, Roberto A

    2007-08-24

    Histidine kinases, used for environmental sensing by bacterial two-component systems, are involved in regulation of bacterial gene expression, chemotaxis, phototaxis, and virulence. Flavin-containing domains function as light-sensory modules in plant and algal phototropins and in fungal blue-light receptors. We have discovered that the prokaryotes Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, Erythrobacter litoralis, and Pseudomonas syringae contain light-activated histidine kinases that bind a flavin chromophore and undergo photochemistry indicative of cysteinyl-flavin adduct formation. Infection of macrophages by B. abortus was stimulated by light in the wild type but was limited in photochemically inactive and null mutants, indicating that the flavin-containing histidine kinase functions as a photoreceptor regulating B. abortus virulence.

  17. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of a self-stabilized synthetic flavin anchored on a TiO2 surface.

    PubMed

    Pandiri, Manjula; Hossain, Mohammad S; Foss, Frank W; Rajeshwar, Krishnan; Paz, Yaron

    2016-07-21

    Synthetic flavin molecules were anchored on Degussa P25 titanium dioxide (TiO2). The effect of their presence on the photocatalytic (PC) activity of TiO2 was studied. Under UV light, an increase in the degradation rate of ethanol was observed. This increase was accompanied by stabilization of the anchored flavin against self-degradation. The unprecedented stabilization effect was found also in the absence of a reducing agent such as ethanol. In contrast, under the less energetic visible light, fast degradation of the anchored flavin was observed. These rather surprising observations were attributed to the propensity for charge transport from excited flavin molecules to the semiconductor and to the role that such charge transfer may play in stabilizing the overall assembly. Anchored flavins excited by UV light to their S2, S3 electronic states were able to transfer the excited electrons to the TiO2 phase whereas anchored flavin molecules that were excited by visible light to the S1 state were less likely to transfer the photo-excited electrons and therefore were destabilized. These findings may be relevant not only to anchored flavins in general but to other functionalized photocatalysts, and may open up new vistas in the implementation of sensitizers in PC systems.

  18. 15N solid-state NMR provides a sensitive probe of oxidized flavin reactive sites.

    PubMed

    Koder, Ronald L; Walsh, Joseph D; Pometun, Maxim S; Dutton, P Leslie; Wittebort, Richard J; Miller, Anne-Frances

    2006-11-29

    Flavins are central to the reactivity of a wide variety of enzymes and electron transport proteins. There is great interest in understanding the basis for the different reactivities displayed by flavins in different protein contexts. We propose solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SS-NMR) as a tool for directly observing reactive positions of the flavin ring and thereby obtaining information on their frontier orbitals. We now report the SS-NMR signals of the redox-active nitrogens N1 and N5, as well as that of N3. The chemical shift tensor of N5 is over 720 ppm wide, in accordance with the predictions of theory and our calculations. The signal of N3 can be distinguished on the basis of coupling to 1H absent for N1 and N5, as well as the shift tensor span of only 170 ppm, consistent with N3's lower aromaticity and lack of a nonbonding lone pair. The isotropic shifts and spans of N5 and N1 reflect two opposite extremes of the chemical shift range for "pyridine-type" N's, consistent with their electrophilic and nucleophilic chemical reactivities, respectively. Upon flavin reduction, N5's chemical shift tensor contracts dramatically to a span of less than 110 ppm, and the isotropic chemical shift changes by approximately 300 ppm. Both are consistent with loss of N5's nonbonding lone pair and decreased aromaticity, and illustrate the responsiveness of the 15N chemical shift principal values to electronic structure. Thus. 15N chemical shift principal values promise to be valuable tools for understanding electronic differences that underlie variations in flavin reactivity, as well as the reactivities of other heterocyclic cofactors.

  19. Zeatin reductase in Phaseolus embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.C.; Mok, David, W.S.; Mok, M.C. )

    1989-04-01

    Zeatin was converted to O-xylosylzeatin in embryos of Phaseolus vulgaris . O-xylosyldihydrozeatin was also identified as a zeatin metabolite. Incubation of embryo extracts with {sup 14}C-zeatin and {sup 14}C-O-xylosylzeatin revealed that reduction preceeds the O-xylosylation of zeatin. An enzyme responsible for reducing the N{sup 6}-side chain was isolated and partially purified using ammonium sulfate fractionation and affinity, gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography. The NADPH dependent reductase was zeatin specific and did not recognize cis-zeatin, ribosylzeatin, i{sup 6}Ade or i{sup 6}Ado. Two forms of the reductase could be separated by either gel filtration or anion exchange HPLC. The HMW isozyme (Mr. 55,000) eluted from the anion exchange column later than the LMW isozyme (Mr. 25,000). Interspecific differences in zeatin reductase activity were also detected.

  20. Isolated menthone reductase and nucleic acid molecules encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney B; Davis, Edward M; Ringer, Kerry L

    2013-04-23

    The present invention provides isolated menthone reductase proteins, isolated nucleic acid molecules encoding menthone reductase proteins, methods for expressing and isolating menthone reductase proteins, and transgenic plants expressing elevated levels of menthone reductase protein.

  1. Remaining challenges in cellular flavin cofactor homeostasis and flavoprotein biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Giancaspero, Teresa A.; Colella, Matilde; Brizio, Carmen; Difonzo, Graziana; Fiorino, Giuseppina M.; Leone, Piero; Brandsch, Roderich; Bonomi, Francesco; Iametti, Stefania; Barile, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The primary role of the water-soluble vitamin B2 (riboflavin) in cell biology is connected with its conversion into FMN and FAD, the cofactors of a large number of dehydrogenases, oxidases and reductases involved in a broad spectrum of biological activities, among which energetic metabolism and chromatin remodeling. Subcellular localisation of FAD synthase (EC 2.7.7.2, FADS), the second enzyme in the FAD forming pathway, is addressed here in HepG2 cells by confocal microscopy, in the frame of its relationships with kinetics of FAD synthesis and delivery to client apo-flavoproteins. FAD synthesis catalyzed by recombinant isoform 2 of FADS occurs via an ordered bi-bi mechanism in which ATP binds prior to FMN, and pyrophosphate is released before FAD. Spectrophotometric continuous assays of the reconstitution rate of apo-D-aminoacid oxidase with its cofactor, allowed us to propose that besides its FAD synthesizing activity, hFADS is able to operate as a FAD “chaperone.” The physical interaction between FAD forming enzyme and its clients was further confirmed by dot blot and immunoprecipitation experiments carried out testing as a client either a nuclear lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) or a mitochondrial dimethylglycine dehydrogenase (Me2GlyDH, EC 1.5.8.4). Both enzymes carry out similar reactions of oxidative demethylation, in which tetrahydrofolate is converted into 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate. A direct transfer of the cofactor from hFADS2 to apo-dimethyl glycine dehydrogenase was also demonstrated. Thus, FAD synthesis and delivery to these enzymes are crucial processes for bioenergetics and nutri-epigenetics of liver cells. PMID:25954742

  2. Remaining challenges in cellular flavin cofactor homeostasis and flavoprotein biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Giancaspero, Teresa A; Colella, Matilde; Brizio, Carmen; Difonzo, Graziana; Fiorino, Giuseppina M; Leone, Piero; Brandsch, Roderich; Bonomi, Francesco; Iametti, Stefania; Barile, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The primary role of the water-soluble vitamin B2 (riboflavin) in cell biology is connected with its conversion into FMN and FAD, the cofactors of a large number of dehydrogenases, oxidases and reductases involved in a broad spectrum of biological activities, among which energetic metabolism and chromatin remodeling. Subcellular localisation of FAD synthase (EC 2.7.7.2, FADS), the second enzyme in the FAD forming pathway, is addressed here in HepG2 cells by confocal microscopy, in the frame of its relationships with kinetics of FAD synthesis and delivery to client apo-flavoproteins. FAD synthesis catalyzed by recombinant isoform 2 of FADS occurs via an ordered bi-bi mechanism in which ATP binds prior to FMN, and pyrophosphate is released before FAD. Spectrophotometric continuous assays of the reconstitution rate of apo-D-aminoacid oxidase with its cofactor, allowed us to propose that besides its FAD synthesizing activity, hFADS is able to operate as a FAD "chaperone." The physical interaction between FAD forming enzyme and its clients was further confirmed by dot blot and immunoprecipitation experiments carried out testing as a client either a nuclear lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) or a mitochondrial dimethylglycine dehydrogenase (Me2GlyDH, EC 1.5.8.4). Both enzymes carry out similar reactions of oxidative demethylation, in which tetrahydrofolate is converted into 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate. A direct transfer of the cofactor from hFADS2 to apo-dimethyl glycine dehydrogenase was also demonstrated. Thus, FAD synthesis and delivery to these enzymes are crucial processes for bioenergetics and nutri-epigenetics of liver cells.

  3. Histochemical localization of nitrate reductase.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, K C; Duke, S O

    1981-01-01

    NADH-dependent nitrate reductase (E.C. 1.6.6.1) was ultrastructurally localized in norflurazon-treated and control soybean cotyledons [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] by a method based upon the increase in osmiophilia due to the formation of an azo dye. The reaction product was observed in small vesicles throughout the cytoplasm. An apparent transport of nitrite to the plastid, the site of nitrite reduction, may occur through fusion of the nitrite-containing vesicles with the chloroplast envelope. Plants grown in tungstate lacked nitrate reductase activity as measured by standard assay procedures, and showed no increase in osmiophilia, suggesting a degree of specificity of this cytochemical procedure.

  4. Human augmenter of liver regeneration: probing the catalytic mechanism of a flavin-dependent sulfhydryl oxidase.

    PubMed

    Schaefer-Ramadan, Stephanie; Gannon, Shawn A; Thorpe, Colin

    2013-11-19

    Augmenter of liver regeneration is a member of the ERV family of small flavin-dependent sulfhydryl oxidases that contain a redox-active CxxC disulfide bond in redox communication with the isoalloxazine ring of bound FAD. These enzymes catalyze the oxidation of thiol substrates with the reduction of molecular oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. This work studies the catalytic mechanism of the short, cytokine form of augmenter of liver regeneration (sfALR) using model thiol substrates of the enzyme. The redox potential of the proximal disulfide in sfALR was found to be approximately 57 mV more reducing than the flavin chromophore, in agreement with titration experiments. Rapid reaction studies show that dithiothreitol (DTT) generates a transient mixed disulfide intermediate with sfALR signaled by a weak charge-transfer interaction between the thiolate of C145 and the oxidized flavin. The subsequent transfer of reducing equivalents to the flavin ring is relatively slow, with a limiting apparent rate constant of 12.4 s(-1). However, reoxidation of the reduced flavin by molecular oxygen is even slower (2.3 s(-1) at air saturation) and thus largely limits turnover at 5 mM DTT. The nature of the charge-transfer complexes observed with DTT was explored using a range of simple monothiols to mimic the initial nucleophilic attack on the proximal disulfide. While β-mercaptoethanol is a very poor substrate of sfALR (∼0.3 min(-1) at 100 mM thiol), it rapidly generates a mixed disulfide intermediate allowing the thiolate of C145 to form a strong charge-transfer complex with the flavin. Unlike the other monothiols tested, glutathione is unable to form charge-transfer complexes and is an undetectable substrate of the oxidase. These data are rationalized on the basis of the stringent steric requirements for thiol-disulfide exchange reactions. The inability of the relatively bulky glutathione to attain the in-line geometry required for efficient disulfide exchange in sfALR may be

  5. The g-tensor of the flavin cofactor in (6-4) photolyase: a 360 GHz/12.8 T electron paramagnetic resonance study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnegg, A.; Kay, C. W. M.; Schleicher, E.; Hitomi, K.; Todo, T.; Möbius, K.; Weber, S.

    2006-05-01

    The g-tensor of the neutral radical form of the flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor FADH• of (6-4) photolyase from Xenopus laevis has been determined by very high-magnetic-field/high-microwave-frequency electron-paramagnetic resonance (EPR) performed at 360 GHz/12.8 T. Due to the high spectral resolution the anisotropy of the g-tensor could be fully resolved in the frozen-solution continuous-wave EPR spectrum. By least square fittings of spectral simulations to experimental data, the principal values of the g-tensor have been established: gX = 2.00433(5), gY = 2.00368(5), gZ = 2.00218(7). A comparison of very high-field EPR data and proton and deuteron electron-nuclear double resonance measurements yielded precise information concerning the orientation of the g-tensor with respect to the molecular frame. This data allowed a comparison to be made between the principal values of the g-tensors of the FADH• cofactors of photolyases involved in the repair of two different DNA lesions: the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and the (6-4) photoproduct. It was found that gX and gZ are similar in both enzymes, whereas the gY component is slightly larger in (6-4) photolyase. This result clearly shows the sensitivity of the g-tensor to subtle differences in the protein environment experienced by the flavin.

  6. Characteristics of endogenous flavin fluorescence of Photobacterium leiognathi luciferase and Vibrio fischeri NAD(P)H:FMN-oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Vetrova, E V; Kudryasheva, N S; Visser, A J W G; van Hoek, A

    2005-01-01

    The bioluminescent bacterial enzyme system NAD(P)H:FMN-oxidoreductase-luciferase has been used as a test system for ecological monitoring. One of the modes to quench bioluminescence is the interaction of xenobiotics with the enzymes, which inhibit their activity. The use of endogenous flavin fluorescence for investigation of the interactions of non-fluorescent compounds with the bacterial luciferase from Photobacterium leiognathi and NAD(P)H:FMN-oxidoreductase from Vibrio fischeri has been proposed. Fluorescence spectroscopy methods have been used to study characteristics of endogenous flavin fluorescence (fluorophore lifetime, the rotational correlation time). The fluorescence anisotropy behaviour of FMN has been analysed and compared to that of the enzyme-bound flavin. The fluorescence characteristics of endogenous flavin of luciferase and NAD(P)H:FMN-oxidoreductase have been shown to be applicable in studying enzymes' interactions with non-fluorescent compounds.

  7. X-ray Crystallography Reveals a Reduced Substrate Complex of UDP-Galactopyranose Mutase Poised for Covalent Catalysis by Flavin

    SciTech Connect

    Gruber, Todd D.; Westler, William M.; Kiessling, Laura L.; Forest, Katrina T.

    2009-11-04

    The flavoenzyme uridine 5'-diphosphate galactopyranose mutase (UGM or Glf) catalyzes the interconversion of UDP-galactopyranose and UDP-galactofuranose. The latter is a key building block for cell wall construction in numerous pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mechanistic studies of UGM suggested a novel role for the flavin, and we previously provided evidence that the catalytic mechanism proceeds through a covalent flavin-galactose iminium. Here, we describe 2.3 and 2.5 {angstrom} resolution X-ray crystal structures of the substrate-bound enzyme in oxidized and reduced forms, respectively. In the latter, C1 of the substrate is 3.6 {angstrom} from the nucleophilic flavin N5 position. This orientation is consistent with covalent catalysis by flavin.

  8. Distortion of Flavin Geometry Is Linked to Ligand Binding in Cholesterol Oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Lyubimov, A.Y.; Heard, K.; Tang, H.; Sampson, N.S.; Vrielink, A.

    2009-06-03

    Two high-resolution structures of a double mutant of bacterial cholesterol oxidase in the presence or absence of a ligand, glycerol, are presented, showing the trajectory of glycerol as it binds in a Michaelis complex-like position in the active site. A group of three aromatic residues forces the oxidized isoalloxazine moiety to bend along the N5-N10 axis as a response to the binding of glycerol in the active site. Movement of these aromatic residues is only observed in the glycerol-bound structure, indicating that some tuning of the FAD redox potential is caused by the formation of the Michaelis complex during regular catalysis. This structural study suggests a possible mechanism of substrate-assisted flavin activation, improves our understanding of the interplay between the enzyme, its flavin cofactor and its substrate, and is of use to the future design of effective cholesterol oxidase inhibitors.

  9. Mechanistic insights into energy conservation by flavin-based electron bifurcation.

    PubMed

    Lubner, Carolyn E; Jennings, David P; Mulder, David W; Schut, Gerrit J; Zadvornyy, Oleg A; Hoben, John P; Tokmina-Lukaszewska, Monika; Berry, Luke; Nguyen, Diep M; Lipscomb, Gina L; Bothner, Brian; Jones, Anne K; Miller, Anne-Frances; King, Paul W; Adams, Michael W W; Peters, John W

    2017-04-10

    The recently realized biochemical phenomenon of energy conservation through electron bifurcation provides biology with an elegant means to maximize utilization of metabolic energy. The mechanism of coordinated coupling of exergonic and endergonic oxidation-reduction reactions by a single enzyme complex has been elucidated through optical and paramagnetic spectroscopic studies revealing unprecedented features. Pairs of electrons are bifurcated over more than 1 volt of electrochemical potential by generating a low-potential, highly energetic, unstable flavin semiquinone and directing electron flow to an iron-sulfur cluster with a highly negative potential to overcome the barrier of the endergonic half reaction. The unprecedented range of thermodynamic driving force that is generated by flavin-based electron bifurcation accounts for unique chemical reactions that are catalyzed by these enzymes.

  10. Mechanistic insights into energy conservation by flavin-based electron bifurcation

    DOE PAGES

    Lubner, Carolyn E.; Jennings, David P.; Mulder, David W.; ...

    2017-04-10

    The recently realized biochemical phenomenon of energy conservation through electron bifurcation provides biology with an elegant means to maximize utilization of metabolic energy. The mechanism of coordinated coupling of exergonic and endergonic oxidation-reduction reactions by a single enzyme complex has been elucidated through optical and paramagnetic spectroscopic studies revealing unprecedented features. Pairs of electrons are bifurcated over more than 1 volt of electrochemical potential by generating a low-potential, highly energetic, unstable flavin semiquinone and directing electron flow to an iron-sulfur cluster with a highly negative potential to overcome the barrier of the endergonic half reaction. As a result, the unprecedentedmore » range of thermodynamic driving force that is generated by flavin-based electron bifurcation accounts for unique chemical reactions that are catalyzed by these enzymes.« less

  11. Atomic-Resolution Structure of an N(5) Flavin Adduct in D-Arginine Dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Guoxing; Yuan, Hongling; Wang, Siming; Gadda, Giovanni; Weber, Irene T.

    2011-09-06

    D-Arginine dehydrogenase (DADH) catalyzes the flavin-dependent oxidative deamination of D-arginine and other D-amino acids to the corresponding imino acids. The 1.07 {angstrom} atomic-resolution structure of DADH crystallized with D-leucine unexpectedly revealed a covalent N(5) flavin adduct, instead of the expected iminoleucine product in the active site. This acyl adduct has been successfully reproduced by photoreduction of DADH in the presence of 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoic acid (ketoleucine). The iminoleucine may be released readily because of weak interactions in the binding site, in contrast to iminoarginine, converted to ketoleucine, which reacts with activated FAD to form the covalently linked acyl adduct.

  12. Distortion of flavin geometry is linked to ligand binding in cholesterol oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Lyubimov, Artem Y.; Heard, Kathryn; Tang, Hui; Sampson, Nicole S.; Vrielink, Alice

    2007-01-01

    Two high-resolution structures of a double mutant of bacterial cholesterol oxidase in the presence or absence of a ligand, glycerol, are presented, showing the trajectory of glycerol as it binds in a Michaelis complex-like position in the active site. A group of three aromatic residues forces the oxidized isoalloxazine moiety to bend along the N5-N10 axis as a response to the binding of glycerol in the active site. Movement of these aromatic residues is only observed in the glycerol-bound structure, indicating that some tuning of the FAD redox potential is caused by the formation of the Michaelis complex during regular catalysis. This structural study suggests a possible mechanism of substrate-assisted flavin activation, improves our understanding of the interplay between the enzyme, its flavin cofactor and its substrate, and is of use to the future design of effective cholesterol oxidase inhibitors. PMID:18029419

  13. Bioluminophore and Flavin Mononucleotide Fluorescence Quenching of Bacterial Bioluminescence-A Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yanling; Liu, Ya-Jun

    2016-11-02

    Bacterial bioluminescence with continuous glow has been applied to the fields of environmental toxin monitoring, drug screening, and in vivo imaging. Nonetheless, the chemical form of the bacterial bioluminophore is still a bone of contention. Flavin mononucleotide (FMN), one of the light-emitting products, and 4a-hydroxy-5-hydro flavin mononucleotide (HFOH), an intermediate of the chemical reactions, have both been assumed candidates for the light emitter because they have similar molecular structures and fluorescence wavelengths. The latter is preferred in experiments and was assigned in our previous density functional study. HFOH displays weak fluorescence in solutions, but exhibits strong bioluminescence in the bacterial luciferase. FMN shows the opposite behavior; its fluorescence is quenched when it is bound to the luciferase. This is the first example of flavin fluorescence quenching observed in bioluminescent systems and is merely an observation, both the quenching mechanism and quencher are still unclear. Based on theoretical analysis of high-level quantum mechanics (QM), combined QM and molecular mechanics (QM/MM), and molecular dynamics (MD), this paper confirms that HFOH in its first singlet excited state is the bioluminophore of bacterial bioluminescence. More importantly, the computational results indicate that Tyr110 in the luciferase quenches the FMN fluorescence via an electron-transfer mechanism.

  14. Modifying the collagen framework of costal cartilage under the impact of UV and a flavin mononucleotide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignat'eva, N. Yu.; Zakharkina, O. L.; Semchishen, V. A.; Molchanov, M. D.; Lunin, V. V.; Bagratashvili, V. N.

    2016-03-01

    Modifications of the matrix of the tissue of costal cartilage under the impact of UV (λ = 365 nm) and a flavin mononucleotide (FMN) is studied. The changes in the macroscopic properties of the tissue are detected by means of differential scanning calorimetry and under the conditions of uniaxial compression during mechanical testing. The endothermic effects of the denaturation of the collagen framework of the tissue and the Young's modulus are determined. It is shown that the presence of a flavin mononucleotide in the interstitial fluid leads lowers the temperature of collagen denaturation by 2.5°C and doubles the Young's modulus. It is found that the temperature of denaturation and the Young's modulus grow gradually after treating the tissue with the UV radiation, and their values ultimately exceed by far the corresponding values for intact samples. It is concluded that the obtained data indicate the possibility of stabilizing the framework of the matrix of costal cartilage under the impact of UV radiation and a flavin mononucleotide.

  15. FAD Synthesis and Degradation in the Nucleus Create a Local Flavin Cofactor Pool*

    PubMed Central

    Giancaspero, Teresa Anna; Busco, Giovanni; Panebianco, Concetta; Carmone, Claudia; Miccolis, Angelica; Liuzzi, Grazia Maria; Colella, Matilde; Barile, Maria

    2013-01-01

    FAD is a redox cofactor ensuring the activity of many flavoenzymes mainly located in mitochondria but also relevant for nuclear redox activities. The last enzyme in the metabolic pathway producing FAD is FAD synthase (EC 2.7.7.2), a protein known to be localized both in cytosol and in mitochondria. FAD degradation to riboflavin occurs via still poorly characterized enzymes, possibly belonging to the NUDIX hydrolase family. By confocal microscopy and immunoblotting experiments, we demonstrate here the existence of FAD synthase in the nucleus of different experimental rat models. HPLC experiments demonstrated that isolated rat liver nuclei contain ∼300 pmol of FAD·mg−1 protein, which was mainly protein-bound FAD. A mean FAD synthesis rate of 18.1 pmol·min−1·mg−1 protein was estimated by both HPLC and continuous coupled enzymatic spectrophotometric assays. Rat liver nuclei were also shown to be endowed with a FAD pyrophosphatase that hydrolyzes FAD with an optimum at alkaline pH and is significantly inhibited by adenylate-containing nucleotides. The coordinate activity of these FAD forming and degrading enzymes provides a potential mechanism by which a dynamic pool of flavin cofactor is created in the nucleus. These data, which significantly add to the biochemical comprehension of flavin metabolism and its subcellular compartmentation, may also provide the basis for a more detailed comprehension of the role of flavin homeostasis in biologically and clinically relevant epigenetic events. PMID:23946482

  16. FAD synthesis and degradation in the nucleus create a local flavin cofactor pool.

    PubMed

    Giancaspero, Teresa Anna; Busco, Giovanni; Panebianco, Concetta; Carmone, Claudia; Miccolis, Angelica; Liuzzi, Grazia Maria; Colella, Matilde; Barile, Maria

    2013-10-04

    FAD is a redox cofactor ensuring the activity of many flavoenzymes mainly located in mitochondria but also relevant for nuclear redox activities. The last enzyme in the metabolic pathway producing FAD is FAD synthase (EC 2.7.7.2), a protein known to be localized both in cytosol and in mitochondria. FAD degradation to riboflavin occurs via still poorly characterized enzymes, possibly belonging to the NUDIX hydrolase family. By confocal microscopy and immunoblotting experiments, we demonstrate here the existence of FAD synthase in the nucleus of different experimental rat models. HPLC experiments demonstrated that isolated rat liver nuclei contain ∼300 pmol of FAD·mg(-1) protein, which was mainly protein-bound FAD. A mean FAD synthesis rate of 18.1 pmol·min(-1)·mg(-1) protein was estimated by both HPLC and continuous coupled enzymatic spectrophotometric assays. Rat liver nuclei were also shown to be endowed with a FAD pyrophosphatase that hydrolyzes FAD with an optimum at alkaline pH and is significantly inhibited by adenylate-containing nucleotides. The coordinate activity of these FAD forming and degrading enzymes provides a potential mechanism by which a dynamic pool of flavin cofactor is created in the nucleus. These data, which significantly add to the biochemical comprehension of flavin metabolism and its subcellular compartmentation, may also provide the basis for a more detailed comprehension of the role of flavin homeostasis in biologically and clinically relevant epigenetic events.

  17. Structure of a flavin-binding plant photoreceptor domain: Insights into light-mediated signal transduction

    PubMed Central

    Crosson, Sean; Moffat, Keith

    2001-01-01

    Phototropin, a major blue-light receptor for phototropism in seed plants, exhibits blue-light-dependent autophosphorylation and contains two light, oxygen, or voltage (LOV) domains and a serine/threonine kinase domain. The LOV domains share homology with the PER-ARNT-SIM (PAS) superfamily, a diverse group of sensor proteins. Each LOV domain noncovalently binds a single FMN molecule and exhibits reversible photochemistry in vitro when expressed separately or in tandem. We have determined the crystal structure of the LOV2 domain from the phototropin segment of the chimeric fern photoreceptor phy3 to 2.7-Å resolution. The structure constitutes an FMN-binding fold that reveals how the flavin cofactor is embedded in the protein. The single LOV2 cysteine residue is located 4.2 Å from flavin atom C(4a), consistent with a model in which absorption of blue light induces formation of a covalent cysteinyl-C(4a) adduct. Residues that interact with FMN in the phototropin segment of the chimeric fern photoreceptor (phy3) LOV2 are conserved in LOV domains from phototropin of other plant species and from three proteins involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms in Arabidopsis and Neurospora. This conservation suggests that these domains exhibit the same overall fold and share a common mechanism for flavin binding and light-induced signaling. PMID:11248020

  18. Outer membrane cytochromes/flavin interactions in Shewanella spp.-A molecular perspective.

    PubMed

    Babanova, Sofia; Matanovic, Ivana; Cornejo, Jose; Bretschger, Orianna; Nealson, Kenneth; Atanassov, Plamen

    2017-05-31

    Extracellular electron transfer (EET) is intrinsically associated with the core phenomena of energy harvesting/energy conversion in natural ecosystems and biotechnology applications. However, the mechanisms associated with EET are complex and involve molecular interactions that take place at the "bionano interface" where biotic/abiotic interactions are usually explored. This work provides molecular perspective on the electron transfer mechanism(s) employed by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Molecular docking simulations were used to explain the interfacial relationships between two outer-membrane cytochromes (OMC) OmcA and MtrC and riboflavin (RF) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN), respectively. OMC-flavin interactions were analyzed by studying the electrostatic potential, the hydrophilic/hydrophobic surface properties, and the van der Waals surface of the OMC proteins. As a result, it was proposed that the interactions between flavins and OMCs are based on geometrical recognition event. The possible docking positions of RF and FMN to OmcA and MtrC were also shown.

  19. A Well-Balanced Preexisting Equilibrium Governs Electron Flux Efficiency of a Multidomain Diflavin Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Frances, Oriane; Fatemi, Fataneh; Pompon, Denis; Guittet, Eric; Sizun, Christina; Pérez, Javier; Lescop, Ewen; Truan, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Diflavin reductases are bidomain electron transfer proteins in which structural reorientation is necessary to account for the various intramolecular and intermolecular electron transfer steps. Using small-angle x-ray scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance data, we describe the conformational free-energy landscape of the NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR), a typical bidomain redox enzyme composed of two covalently-bound flavin domains, under various experimental conditions. The CPR enzyme exists in a salt- and pH-dependent rapid equilibrium between a previously described rigid, locked state and a newly characterized, highly flexible, unlocked state. We further establish that maximal electron flux through CPR is conditioned by adjustable stability of the locked-state domain interface under resting conditions. This is rationalized by a kinetic scheme coupling rapid conformational sampling and slow chemical reaction rates. Regulated domain interface stability associated with fast stochastic domain contacts during the catalytic cycle thus provides, to our knowledge, a new paradigm for improving our understanding of multidomain enzyme function. PMID:25809265

  20. Enhanced Purification of Recombinant Rat NADPH-P450 Reductase by Using a Hexahistidine-Tag.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyoung-Goo; Lim, Young-Ran; Han, Songhee; Jeong, Dabin; Kim, Donghak

    2017-05-28

    NADPH-P450 reductase (NPR) transfers electrons from NADPH to cytochrome P450 and heme oxygenase enzymes to support their catalytic activities. This protein is localized within the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and utilizes FMN, FAD, and NADPH as cofactors. Although NPR is essential toward enabling the biochemical and pharmacological analyses of P450 enzymes, its production as a recombinant purified protein requires a series of tedious efforts and a high cost due to the use of NADP(+) in the affinity chromatography process. In the present study, the rat NPR clone containing a 6× Histidine-tag (NPR-His) was constructed and heterologously expressed. The NPR-His protein was purified using Ni(2+)-affinity chromatography, and its functional features were characterized. A single band at 78 kDa was observed from SDS-PAGE and the purified protein displayed a maximum absorbance at 455 nm, indicating the presence of an oxidized flavin cofactor. Cytochrome c and nitroblue tetrazolium were reduced by purified NPR-His in an NADPH-dependent manner. The purified NPR-His successfully supported the catalytic activities of human P450 1A2 and 2A6 and fungal CYP52A21, yielding results similar to those obtained using conventional purified rat reductase. This study will facilitate the use of recombinant NPR-His protein in the various fields of P450 research.

  1. A well-balanced preexisting equilibrium governs electron flux efficiency of a multidomain diflavin reductase.

    PubMed

    Frances, Oriane; Fatemi, Fataneh; Pompon, Denis; Guittet, Eric; Sizun, Christina; Pérez, Javier; Lescop, Ewen; Truan, Gilles

    2015-03-24

    Diflavin reductases are bidomain electron transfer proteins in which structural reorientation is necessary to account for the various intramolecular and intermolecular electron transfer steps. Using small-angle x-ray scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance data, we describe the conformational free-energy landscape of the NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR), a typical bidomain redox enzyme composed of two covalently-bound flavin domains, under various experimental conditions. The CPR enzyme exists in a salt- and pH-dependent rapid equilibrium between a previously described rigid, locked state and a newly characterized, highly flexible, unlocked state. We further establish that maximal electron flux through CPR is conditioned by adjustable stability of the locked-state domain interface under resting conditions. This is rationalized by a kinetic scheme coupling rapid conformational sampling and slow chemical reaction rates. Regulated domain interface stability associated with fast stochastic domain contacts during the catalytic cycle thus provides, to our knowledge, a new paradigm for improving our understanding of multidomain enzyme function.

  2. Purification and some properties of 2-halobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase, a two-component enzyme system from Pseudomonas cepacia 2CBS.

    PubMed Central

    Fetzner, S; Müller, R; Lingens, F

    1992-01-01

    The two components of the inducible 2-halobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas cepacia 2CBS were purified to homogeneity. Yellow component B is a monomer (Mr, 37,500) with NADH-acceptor reductase activity. Ferricyanide, 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol, and cytochrome c acted as electron acceptors. Component B was identified as an iron-sulfur flavoprotein containing 0.8 mol of flavin adenine dinucleotide, 1.7 mol of iron, and 1.7 mol of acid-labile sulfide per mol of enzyme. The isoelectric point was estimated to be pH 4.2. Component B was reduced by the addition of NADH. Red-brown component A (Mr, 200,000 to 220,000) is an iron-sulfur protein containing 5.8 mol of iron and 6.0 mol of acid-labile sulfide. The isoelectric point was within the range of pH 4.5 to 5.3. Component A could be reduced by dithionite or by NADH plus catalytic amounts of component B. Component A consisted of nonidentical subunits alpha (Mr, 52,000) and beta (Mr, 20,000). It contained approximately equimolar amounts of alpha and beta, and cross-linking studies suggested an alpha 3 beta 3 subunit structure of component A. The NADH- and Fe(2+)-dependent enzyme system was named 2-halobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase, because it catalyzes the conversion of 2-fluoro-, 2-bromo-, 2-chloro-, and 2-iodobenzoate to catechol. 2-Halobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase exhibited a very broad substrate specificity, but benzoate analogs with electron-withdrawing substituents at the ortho position were transformed preferentially. Images PMID:1370284

  3. The Thiol Reductase Activity of YUCCA6 Mediates Delayed Leaf Senescence by Regulating Genes Involved in Auxin Redistribution.

    PubMed

    Cha, Joon-Yung; Kim, Mi R; Jung, In J; Kang, Sun B; Park, Hee J; Kim, Min G; Yun, Dae-Jin; Kim, Woe-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Auxin, a phytohormone that affects almost every aspect of plant growth and development, is biosynthesized from tryptophan via the tryptamine, indole-3-acetamide, indole-3-pyruvic acid, and indole-3-acetaldoxime pathways. YUCCAs (YUCs), flavin monooxygenase enzymes, catalyze the conversion of indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA) to the auxin (indole acetic acid). Arabidopsis thaliana YUC6 also exhibits thiol-reductase and chaperone activity in vitro; these activities require the highly conserved Cys-85 and are essential for scavenging of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the drought tolerance response. Here, we examined whether the YUC6 thiol reductase activity also participates in the delay in senescence observed in YUC6-overexpressing (YUC6-OX) plants. YUC6 overexpression delays leaf senescence in natural and dark-induced senescence conditions by reducing the expression of SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED GENE 12 (SAG12). ROS accumulation normally occurs during senescence, but was not observed in the leaves of YUC6-OX plants; however, ROS accumulation was observed in YUC6-OX(C85S) plants, which overexpress a mutant YUC6 that lacks thiol reductase activity. We also found that YUC6-OX plants, but not YUC6-OX(C85S) plants, show upregulation of three genes encoding NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRA, NTRB, and NTRC), and GAMMA-GLUTAMYLCYSTEINE SYNTHETASE 1 (GSH1), encoding an enzyme involved in redox signaling. We further determined that excess ROS accumulation caused by methyl viologen treatment or decreased glutathione levels caused by buthionine sulfoximine treatment can decrease the levels of auxin efflux proteins such as PIN2-4. The expression of PINs is also reduced in YUC6-OX plants. These findings suggest that the thiol reductase activity of YUC6 may play an essential role in delaying senescence via the activation of genes involved in redox signaling and auxin availability.

  4. The Thiol Reductase Activity of YUCCA6 Mediates Delayed Leaf Senescence by Regulating Genes Involved in Auxin Redistribution

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Joon-Yung; Kim, Mi R.; Jung, In J.; Kang, Sun B.; Park, Hee J.; Kim, Min G.; Yun, Dae-Jin; Kim, Woe-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Auxin, a phytohormone that affects almost every aspect of plant growth and development, is biosynthesized from tryptophan via the tryptamine, indole-3-acetamide, indole-3-pyruvic acid, and indole-3-acetaldoxime pathways. YUCCAs (YUCs), flavin monooxygenase enzymes, catalyze the conversion of indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA) to the auxin (indole acetic acid). Arabidopsis thaliana YUC6 also exhibits thiol-reductase and chaperone activity in vitro; these activities require the highly conserved Cys-85 and are essential for scavenging of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the drought tolerance response. Here, we examined whether the YUC6 thiol reductase activity also participates in the delay in senescence observed in YUC6-overexpressing (YUC6-OX) plants. YUC6 overexpression delays leaf senescence in natural and dark-induced senescence conditions by reducing the expression of SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED GENE 12 (SAG12). ROS accumulation normally occurs during senescence, but was not observed in the leaves of YUC6-OX plants; however, ROS accumulation was observed in YUC6-OXC85S plants, which overexpress a mutant YUC6 that lacks thiol reductase activity. We also found that YUC6-OX plants, but not YUC6-OXC85S plants, show upregulation of three genes encoding NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRA, NTRB, and NTRC), and GAMMA-GLUTAMYLCYSTEINE SYNTHETASE 1 (GSH1), encoding an enzyme involved in redox signaling. We further determined that excess ROS accumulation caused by methyl viologen treatment or decreased glutathione levels caused by buthionine sulfoximine treatment can decrease the levels of auxin efflux proteins such as PIN2-4. The expression of PINs is also reduced in YUC6-OX plants. These findings suggest that the thiol reductase activity of YUC6 may play an essential role in delaying senescence via the activation of genes involved in redox signaling and auxin availability. PMID:27242830

  5. Molybdenum-containing nitrite reductases: Spectroscopic characterization and redox mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Keceli, Gizem; Cao, Rui; Su, Jiangtao; Mi, Zhiyuan

    2017-01-01

    This review summarizes the spectroscopic results, which will provide useful suggestions for future research. In addition, the fields that urgently need more information are also advised. Nitrite-NO-cGMP has been considered as an important signaling pathway of NO in human cells. To date, all the four known human molybdenum-containing enzymes, xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, sulfite oxidase, and mitochondrial amidoxime-reducing component, have been shown to function as nitrite reductases under hypoxia by biochemical, cellular, or animal studies. Various spectroscopic techniques have been applied to investigate the structure and catalytic mechanism of these enzymes for more than 20 years. We summarize the published data on the applications of UV-vis and EPR spectroscopies, and X-ray crystallography in studying nitrite reductase activity of the four human molybdenum-containing enzymes. UV-vis has provided useful information on the redox active centers of these enzymes. The utilization of EPR spectroscopy has been critical in determining the coordination and redox status of the Mo center during catalysis. Despite the lack of substrate-bound crystal structures of these nitrite reductases, valuable structural information has been obtained by X-ray crystallography. To fully understand the catalytic mechanisms of these physiologically/pathologically important nitrite reductases, structural studies on substrate-redox center interaction are needed.

  6. Thioredoxin and NADP-thioredoxin reductase from cultured carrot cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. C.; Cao, R. Q.; Kung, J. E.; Buchanan, B. B.

    1987-01-01

    Dark-grown carrot (Daucus carota L.) tissue cultures were found to contain both protein components of the NADP/thioredoxin system--NADP-thioredoxin reductase and the thioredoxin characteristic of heterotrophic systems, thioredoxin h. Thioredoxin h was purified to apparent homogeneity and, like typical bacterial counterparts, was a 12-kdalton (kDa) acidic protein capable of activating chloroplast NADP-malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.82) more effectively than fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11). NADP-thioredoxin reductase (EC 1.6.4.5) was partially purified and found to be an arsenite-sensitive enzyme composed of two 34-kDa subunits. Carrot NADP-thioredoxin reductase resembled more closely its counterpart from bacteria rather than animal cells in acceptor (thioredoxin) specificity. Upon greening of the cells, the content of NADP-thioredoxin-reductase activity, and, to a lesser extent, thioredoxin h decreased. The results confirm the presence of a heterotrophic-type thioredoxin system in plant cells and raise the question of its physiological function.

  7. Thioredoxin and NADP-thioredoxin reductase from cultured carrot cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, T. C.; Cao, R. Q.; Kung, J. E.; Buchanan, B. B.

    1987-01-01

    Dark-grown carrot (Daucus carota L.) tissue cultures were found to contain both protein components of the NADP/thioredoxin system--NADP-thioredoxin reductase and the thioredoxin characteristic of heterotrophic systems, thioredoxin h. Thioredoxin h was purified to apparent homogeneity and, like typical bacterial counterparts, was a 12-kdalton (kDa) acidic protein capable of activating chloroplast NADP-malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.82) more effectively than fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (EC 3.1.3.11). NADP-thioredoxin reductase (EC 1.6.4.5) was partially purified and found to be an arsenite-sensitive enzyme composed of two 34-kDa subunits. Carrot NADP-thioredoxin reductase resembled more closely its counterpart from bacteria rather than animal cells in acceptor (thioredoxin) specificity. Upon greening of the cells, the content of NADP-thioredoxin-reductase activity, and, to a lesser extent, thioredoxin h decreased. The results confirm the presence of a heterotrophic-type thioredoxin system in plant cells and raise the question of its physiological function.

  8. The conserved baculovirus protein p33 (Ac92) is a flavin adenine dinucleotide-linked sulfhydryl oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Long, C.M.; Rohrmann, G.F.; Merrill, G.F.

    2009-06-05

    Open reading frame 92 of the Autographa californica baculovirus (Ac92) is one of about 30 core genes present in all sequenced baculovirus genomes. Computer analyses predicted that the Ac92 encoded protein (called p33) and several of its baculovirus orthologs were related to a family of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-linked sulfhydryl oxidases. Alignment of these proteins indicated that, although they were highly diverse, a number of amino acids in common with the Erv1p/Alrp family of sulfhydryl oxidases are present. Some of these conserved amino acids are predicted to stack against the isoalloxazine and adenine components of FAD, whereas others are involved in electron transfer. To investigate this relationship, Ac92 was expressed in bacteria as a His-tagged fusion protein, purified, and characterized both spectrophotometrically and for its enzymatic activity. The purified protein was found to have the color (yellow) and absorption spectrum consistent with it being a FAD-containing protein. Furthermore, it was demonstrated to have sulfhydryl oxidase activity using dithiothreitol and thioredoxin as substrates.

  9. Mechanistic insights into ferredoxin-NADP(H) reductase catalysis involving the conserved glutamate in the active site.

    PubMed

    Dumit, Verónica I; Essigke, Timm; Cortez, Néstor; Ullmann, G Matthias

    2010-04-02

    Plant-type ferredoxin-NADP(H) reductases (FNRs) are flavoenzymes harboring one molecule of noncovalently bound flavin adenine dinucleotide that catalyze reversible reactions between obligatory one-electron carriers and obligatory two-electron carriers. A glutamate next to the C-terminus is strictly conserved in FNR and has been proposed to function as proton donor/acceptor during catalysis. However, experimental studies of this proposed function led to contradicting conclusions about the role of this glutamate in the catalytic mechanism. In the present work, we study the titration behavior of the glutamate in the active site of FNR using theoretical methods. Protonation probabilities for maize FNR were computed for the reaction intermediates of the catalytic cycle by Poisson-Boltzmann electrostatic calculations and Metropolis Monte Carlo titration. The titration behavior of the highly conserved glutamate was found to vary depending on the bound substrates NADP(H) and ferredoxin and also on the redox states of these substrates and the flavin adenine dinucleotide. Our results support the involvement of the glutamate in the FNR catalytic mechanism not only as a proton donor but also as a key residue for stabilizing and destabilizing reaction intermediates. On the basis of our findings, we propose a model rationalizing the function of the glutamate in the reaction cycle, which allows reinterpretation of previous experimental results. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Rates of the phthalate dioxygenase reaction with oxygen are dramatically increased by interactions with phthalate and phthalate oxygenase reductase.

    PubMed

    Tarasev, Michael; Rhames, Frank; Ballou, David P

    2004-10-12

    The phthalate dioxygenase system, which catalyzes the dihydroxylation of phthalate to form its cis-dihydrodiol (DHD), has two components: phthalate dioxygenase (PDO), a multimer with one Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] and one Fe(II) center per monomer, and phthalate dioxygenase reductase (PDR), which contains flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and a plant-like ferredoxin [2Fe-2S] center. PDR is responsible for transferring electrons from NADH to the Rieske center of PDO, and the Rieske center supplies electrons to the mononuclear center for the oxygenation of substrate. Reduced PDO (PDO(red)) that lacks Fe(II) at the mononuclear metal site (PDO-APO) reacts slowly with O(2) (1.4 x 10(-3) s(-1) at 125 microM O(2) and 22 degrees C), presumably in a direct reaction with the Rieske center. Binding of phthalate and/or PDR(ox) to reduced PDO-APO increases the reactivity of the Rieske center with O(2). When no PDR or phthalate is present, the oxidation of the Rieske center in native PDO(red) [which contains Fe(II) at the mononuclear site] occurs in two phases (approximately 1 and 0.1 s(-1) at 125 mM O(2), 23 degrees C), both much faster than in the absence of Fe(II), presumably because in this case O(2) reacts at the mononuclear Fe(II). Addition of PDR(ox) to native PDO(red) resulted in a large fraction of the Rieske center being oxidized at 5 s(-1), and the addition of phthalate resulted in about 70% of the reaction proceeding at 42 s(-1). With both PDR(ox) and phthalate present, most of the PDO(red) (approximately 80-85%) oxidizes at 42 s(-1), with the remaining oxidizing at approximately 5 s(-1). Thus, the binding of phthalate or PDR(ox) to PDO(red) each results in greater reactivity of PDO with O(2). The presence of both the substrate and PDR was synergistic, making PDO fully catalytically active. A model that explains the observed effects is presented and discussed in terms of PDO subunit cooperativity. It is proposed that, during oxidation of reduced PDO, each of two Rieske centers

  11. Detoxification of hexavalent chromium by Leucobacter sp. uses a reductase with specificity for dihydrolipoamide.

    PubMed

    Sarangi, Abhipsa; Krishnan, Chandraraj

    2016-02-01

    Leucobacter sp. belongs to the metal stressed community and possesses higher tolerance to metals including chromium and can detoxify toxic hexavalent chromium by reduction to less toxic trivalent chromium. But, the mechanism of reduction of hexavalent chromium by Leucobacter sp. has not been studied. Understanding the enzyme catalyzing reduction of chromium is important to improve the species for application in bioremediation. Hence, a soluble reductase catalyzing the reduction of hexavalent chromium was purified from a Leucobacter sp. and characterized. The pure chromate reductase was obtained from the cell-free extract through hydrophobic interaction and gel filtration column chromatographic methods. It was a monomeric enzyme and showed similar molecular weights in both gel filtration (∼68 KDa) and SDS-PAGE (64 KDa). It reduced Cr(VI) using both NADH and NADPH as the electron donor, but exhibited higher activity with NADH. The optimal activity was found at pH 5.5 and 30 °C. The K(m) and V(max) for Cr(VI) reduction with NADH were 46.57 μM and 0.37 μmol min(-1) (mg protein) (-1), respectively. The activity was inhibited by p-hydroxy mercury benzoate, Ag(2+) and Hg(2+) indicating the role of thiol groups in the catalysis. The spectrophotometric analysis of the purified enzyme showed the absence of bound flavin in the enzyme. The N-terminal amino acid sequence and LC/MS analysis of trypsin digested purified enzyme showed similarity to dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase. The purified enzyme had dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase activity with dihydrolipoamide as the substrate, which suggested that Leucobacter sp. uses reductase with multiple substrate specificity for reduction of Cr(VI) detoxification.

  12. Purification and properties of assimilatory nitrate reductase [NAD(P)H] from Ankistrodesmus braunii.

    PubMed

    de la Rosa, M A; Diez, J; Vega, J M; Losada, M

    1980-05-01

    Assimilatory nitrate reductase [NAD(P)H] (EC 1.6.6.2) from Ankistrodesmus braunii has been purified to homogeneity by a simple procedure that utilizes as the main step affinity chromatography on Blue-Sepharose. The best enzyme preparation has a specific activity of 61.25 units/mg protein. The enzyme has a sedimentation coefficient of 10.9 S by sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation, and a Stokes radius of 9.8 nm was estimated by gel filtration techniques. Its molecular weight is 460000, but only one single band of 58000 was detected after sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The native enzyme seems thus to be composed of eight subunits. The nitrate reductase absorption spectrum shows wavelengths maxima at 280 and 416 nm and a broad shoulder at 450 nm. Reduced enzyme shows maxima at 424 (Soret), 527 (beta) and 557 (alpha) nm, and a bleaching at 450 nm. The reduced extracted heme chromophore, in pyridine and KOH, shows absorption bands at 414, 522 and 552 nm. These properties indicate the presence of a b-type cytochrome and flavin as prosthetic groups of A. braunii nitrate reductase. A minimum of four molecules of heme has been calculated per molecule of the enzyme complex. Redox titration of the enzyme shows a midpoint potential for the heme of -73 mV at pH 7.0. In the presence of p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, which inhibits the NAD(P)H-dependent activities of the complex, the enzyme-bound heme can be reduced with dithionite, but not with NAD(P)H.

  13. Hydrogen-1, carbon-13, and nitrogen-15 NMR spectroscopy of Anabaena 7120 flavodoxin: Assignment of. beta. -sheet and flavin binding site resonances and analysis of protein-flavin interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Stockman, B.J.; Krezel, A.M.; Markley, J.L. ); Leonhardt, K.G.; Straus, N.A. )

    1990-10-01

    Sequence-specific {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR assignments have been made for residues that form the five-stranded parallel {beta}-sheet and the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) binding site of oxidized Anabaena 7120 flavodoxin. Interstrand nuclear Overhauser enhancements (NOEs) indicate that the {beta}-sheet arrangement is similar to that observed in the crystal structure of the 70% homologous long-chain flavodoxin from Anacystis nidulans. A total of 62 NOEs were identified: 8 between protons of bound FMN, 29 between protons of the protein in the flavin binding site, and 25 between protons of bound FMN and protons of the protein. These constraints were used to determine the localized solution structure of the FMN binding site. The electronic environment and conformation of the protein-bound flavin isoalloxazine ring were investigated by determining {sup 13}C-{sup 1}H coupling constants. The carbonyl edge of the flavin ring was found to be slightly polarized. The xylene ring was found to be nonplanar. Tyrosine 94, located adjacent to the flavin isoalloxazine ring, was shown to have a hindered aromatic ring flip rate.

  14. Fatty acyl-CoA reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Reiser, Steven E.; Somerville, Chris R.

    1998-12-01

    The present invention relates to bacterial enzymes, in particular to an acyl-CoA reductase and a gene encoding an acyl-CoA reductase, the amino acid and nucleic acid sequences corresponding to the reductase polypeptide and gene, respectively, and to methods of obtaining such enzymes, amino acid sequences and nucleic acid sequences. The invention also relates to the use of such sequences to provide transgenic host cells capable of producing fatty alcohols and fatty aldehydes.

  15. Deletion of the gene encoding the reductase component of 3-ketosteroid 9α-hydroxylase in Rhodococcus equi USA-18 disrupts sterol catabolism, leading to the accumulation of 3-oxo-23,24-bisnorchola-1,4-dien-22-oic acid and 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chin-Hsing; Kuo, Yung-Shun; Chang, Che-Ming; Liu, Wen-Hsiung; Sheu, Meei-Ling; Meng, Menghsiao

    2014-09-09

    The gene encoding the putative reductase component (KshB) of 3-ketosteroid 9α-hydroxylase was cloned from Rhodococcus equi USA-18, a cholesterol oxidase-producing strain formerly named Arthrobacter simplex USA-18, by PCR according to consensus amino acid motifs of several bacterial KshB subunits. Deletion of the gene in R. equi USA-18 by a PCR-targeted gene disruption method resulted in a mutant strain that could accumulate up to 0.58 mg/ml 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione (ADD) in the culture medium when 0.2% cholesterol was used as the carbon source, indicating the involvement of the deleted enzyme in 9α-hydroxylation of steroids. In addition, this mutant also accumulated 3-oxo-23,24-bisnorchola-1,4-dien-22-oic acid (Δ1,4-BNC). Because both ADD and Δ1,4-BNC are important intermediates for the synthesis of steroid drugs, this mutant derived from R. equi USA-18 may deserve further investigation for its application potential.

  16. Covalent Binding of Flavins to RnfG and RnfD in the Rnf Complex from Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Backiel, Julianne; Juárez, Oscar; Zagorevski, Dmitri V.; Wang, Zhenyu; Nilges, Mark J.; Barquera, Blanca

    2009-01-01

    Enzymes of the Rnf family are believed to be bacterial redox-driven ion pumps, coupling an oxidoreduction process to the translocation of Na+ across the cell membrane. Here we show for the first time that Rnf is a flavoprotein, with FMN covalently bound to threonine-175 in RnfG and a second flavin bound to threonine-187 in RnfD. Rnf subunits D and G are homologous to subunits B and C of Na+-NQR, respectively. Each of these Na+-NQR subunits includes a conserved S(T)GAT motif, with FMN covalently bound to the final threonine. RnfD and RnfG both contain the same motif, suggesting that they bind flavins in a similar way. In order to investigate this, the genes for RnfD and RnfG from Vibrio cholerae were cloned and expressed individually in that organism. In both cases the produced protein fluoresced under UV illumination on an SDS gel, further indicating the presence of flavin. However, analysis of the mutants RnfG-T175L, RnfD-T278L, and RnfD-T187V showed that RnfG-T175 and RnfD-T187 are the likely flavin ligands. This indicates that, in the case of RnfD, the flavin is bound, not to the SGAT sequence but to the final residues of a TMAT sequence, a novel variant of the flavin binding motif. In the case of RnfG, flavin analysis, followed by MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry, showed that an FMN is covalently attached to threonine-175, the final threonine of the S(T)GAT sequence. Studies by visible, EPR, and ENDOR spectroscopy showed that, upon partial reduction, the isolated RnfG produces a neutral semiquinone intermediate. The semiquinone species disappeared upon full reduction and was not observed in the denatured protein. A topological analysis combining reporter protein fusion and computer predictions indicated that the flavins in RnfG and RnfD are localized in the periplasmic space. In contrast, in NqrC and NqrB the flavins are located in a cytoplasmic loop. This topological analysis suggests that there may be mechanistic differences between the Rnf and Na

  17. Cysteine-286 as the site of acylation of the Lux-specific fatty acyl-CoA reductase.

    PubMed

    Lee, C Y; Meighen, E A

    1997-04-04

    The channelling of fatty acids into the fatty aldehyde substrate for the bacterial bioluminescence reaction is catalyzed by a fatty acid reductase multienzyme complex, which channels fatty acids through the thioesterase (LuxD), synthetase (LuxE) and reductase (LuxC) components. Although all three components can be readily acylated in extracts of different luminescent bacteria, this complex has been successfully purified only from Photobacterium phosphoreum and the sites of acylation identified on LuxD and LuxE. To identify the acylation site on LuxC, the nucleotide sequence of P. phosphoreum luxC has been determined and the gene expressed in a mutant Escherichia coli strain. Even in crude extracts, the acylated reductase intermediate as well as acyl-CoA reductase activity could be readily detected, providing the basis for analysis of mutant reductases. Comparison of the amino-acid sequences of LuxC from P. phosphoreum, P. leiognathi and other luminescent bacteria, showed that only three cysteine residues (C171, C279, and C286) were conserved. As a cysteine residue on LuxC has been implicated in fatty acyl transfer, each of the conserved cysteine residues of the P. phosphoreum and P. leiognathi reductases was converted to a serine residue, and the properties of the mutant proteins examined. Only mutation of C286-blocked reductase activity and prevented formation of the acylated reductase intermediate, showing that C286 is the site of acylation on LuxC.

  18. Sinorhizobium meliloti flavin secretion and bacteria-host interaction: role of the bifunctional RibBA protein.

    PubMed

    Yurgel, Svetlana N; Rice, Jennifer; Domreis, Elizabeth; Lynch, Joseph; Sa, Na; Qamar, Zeeshan; Rajamani, Sathish; Gao, Mengsheng; Roje, Sanja; Bauer, Wolfgang D

    2014-05-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti, the nitrogen-fixing bacterial symbiont of Medicago spp. and other legumes, secretes a considerable amount of riboflavin. This precursor of the cofactors flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide is a bioactive molecule that has a beneficial effect on plant growth. The ribBA gene of S. meliloti codes for a putative bifunctional enzyme with dihydroxybutanone phosphate synthase and guanosine triphosphate (GTP) cyclohydrolase II activities, catalyzing the initial steps of the riboflavin biosynthesis pathway. We show here that an in-frame deletion of ribBA does not cause riboflavin auxotrophy or affect the ability of S. meliloti to establish an effective symbiosis with the host plant but does affect the ability of the bacteria to secrete flavins, colonize host-plant roots, and compete for nodulation. A strain missing the RibBA protein retains considerable GTP cyclohydrolase II activity. Based on these results, we hypothesize that S. meliloti has two partly interchangeable modules for biosynthesis of riboflavin, one fulfilling the internal need for flavins in bacterial metabolism and the other producing riboflavin for secretion. Our data also indicate that bacteria-derived flavins play a role in communication between rhizobia and the legume host and that the RibBA protein is important in this communication process even though it is not essential for riboflavin biosynthesis and symbiosis.

  19. Structure of dihydromethanopterin reductase, a cubic protein cage for redox transfer.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Dan E; Cascio, Duilio; Jorda, Julien; Bustos, Cheene; Wang, Tzu-Chi; Rasche, Madeline E; Yeates, Todd O; Bobik, Thomas A

    2014-03-28

    Dihydromethanopterin reductase (Dmr) is a redox enzyme that plays a key role in generating tetrahydromethanopterin (H4MPT) for use in one-carbon metabolism by archaea and some bacteria. DmrB is a bacterial enzyme understood to reduce dihydromethanopterin (H2MPT) to H4MPT using flavins as the source of reducing equivalents, but the mechanistic details have not been elucidated previously. Here we report the crystal structure of DmrB from Burkholderia xenovorans at a resolution of 1.9 Å. Unexpectedly, the biological unit is a 24-mer composed of eight homotrimers located at the corners of a cubic cage-like structure. Within a homotrimer, each monomer-monomer interface exhibits an active site with two adjacently bound flavin mononucleotide (FMN) ligands, one deeply buried and tightly bound and one more peripheral, for a total of 48 ligands in the biological unit. Computational docking suggested that the peripheral site could bind either the observed FMN (the electron donor for the overall reaction) or the pterin, H2MPT (the electron acceptor for the overall reaction), in configurations ideal for electron transfer to and from the tightly bound FMN. On this basis, we propose that DmrB uses a ping-pong mechanism to transfer reducing equivalents from FMN to the pterin substrate. Sequence comparisons suggested that the catalytic mechanism is conserved among the bacterial homologs of DmrB and partially conserved in archaeal homologs, where an alternate electron donor is likely used. In addition to the mechanistic revelations, the structure of DmrB could help guide the development of anti-obesity drugs based on modification of the ecology of the human gut.

  20. Structure of Dihydromethanopterin Reductase, a Cubic Protein Cage for Redox Transfer*

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Dan E.; Cascio, Duilio; Jorda, Julien; Bustos, Cheene; Wang, Tzu-Chi; Rasche, Madeline E.; Yeates, Todd O.; Bobik, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Dihydromethanopterin reductase (Dmr) is a redox enzyme that plays a key role in generating tetrahydromethanopterin (H4MPT) for use in one-carbon metabolism by archaea and some bacteria. DmrB is a bacterial enzyme understood to reduce dihydromethanopterin (H2MPT) to H4MPT using flavins as the source of reducing equivalents, but the mechanistic details have not been elucidated previously. Here we report the crystal structure of DmrB from Burkholderia xenovorans at a resolution of 1.9 Å. Unexpectedly, the biological unit is a 24-mer composed of eight homotrimers located at the corners of a cubic cage-like structure. Within a homotrimer, each monomer-monomer interface exhibits an active site with two adjacently bound flavin mononucleotide (FMN) ligands, one deeply buried and tightly bound and one more peripheral, for a total of 48 ligands in the biological unit. Computational docking suggested that the peripheral site could bind either the observed FMN (the electron donor for the overall reaction) or the pterin, H2MPT (the electron acceptor for the overall reaction), in configurations ideal for electron transfer to and from the tightly bound FMN. On this basis, we propose that DmrB uses a ping-pong mechanism to transfer reducing equivalents from FMN to the pterin substrate. Sequence comparisons suggested that the catalytic mechanism is conserved among the bacterial homologs of DmrB and partially conserved in archaeal homologs, where an alternate electron donor is likely used. In addition to the mechanistic revelations, the structure of DmrB could help guide the development of anti-obesity drugs based on modification of the ecology of the human gut. PMID:24523405

  1. Covalent attachment of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) to enzymes: the current state of affairs.

    PubMed Central

    Mewies, M.; McIntire, W. S.; Scrutton, N. S.

    1998-01-01

    The first identified covalent flavoprotein, a component of mammalian succinate dehydrogenase, was reported 42 years ago. Since that time, more than 20 covalent flavoenzymes have been described, each possessing one of five modes of FAD or FMN linkage to protein. Despite the early identification of covalent flavoproteins, the mechanisms of covalent bond formation and the roles of the covalent links are only recently being appreciated. The main focus of this review is, therefore, one of mechanism and function, in addition to surveying the types of linkage observed and the methods employed for their identification. Case studies are presented for a variety of covalent flavoenzymes, from which general findings are beginning to emerge. PMID:9514256

  2. Sub-millitesla magnetic field effects on the recombination reaction of flavin and ascorbic acid radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Emrys W.; Kattnig, Daniel R.; Henbest, Kevin B.; Hore, P. J.; Mackenzie, Stuart R.; Timmel, Christiane R.

    2016-08-01

    Even though the interaction of a <1 mT magnetic field with an electron spin is less than a millionth of the thermal energy at room temperature (kBT), it still can have a profound effect on the quantum yields of radical pair reactions. We present a study of the effects of sub-millitesla magnetic fields on the photoreaction of flavin mononucleotide with ascorbic acid. Direct control of the reaction pathway is achieved by varying the rate of electron transfer from ascorbic acid to the photo-excited flavin. At pH 7.0, we verify the theoretical prediction that, apart from a sign change, the form of the magnetic field effect is independent of the initial spin configuration of the radical pair. The data agree well with model calculations based on a Green's function approach that allows multinuclear spin systems to be treated including the diffusive motion of the radicals, their spin-selective recombination reactions, and the effects of the inter-radical exchange interaction. The protonation states of the radicals are uniquely determined from the form of the magnetic field-dependence. At pH 3.0, the effects of two chemically distinct radical pair complexes combine to produce a pronounced response to ˜500 μT magnetic fields. These findings are relevant to the magnetic responses of cryptochromes (flavin-containing proteins proposed as magnetoreceptors in birds) and may aid the evaluation of effects of weak magnetic fields on other biologically relevant electron transfer processes.

  3. Identification of a flavin-containing S-oxygenating monooxygenase involved in alliin biosynthesis in garlic.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Naoko; Onuma, Misato; Mizuno, Shinya; Sugino, Yuka; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Imai, Shinsuke; Tsuneyoshi, Tadamitsu; Sumi, Shin-ichiro; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-09-01

    S-Alk(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides are cysteine-derived secondary metabolites highly accumulated in the genus Allium. Despite pharmaceutical importance, the enzymes that contribute to the biosynthesis of S-alk-(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides in Allium plants remain largely unknown. Here, we report the identification of a flavin-containing monooxygenase, AsFMO1, in garlic (Allium sativum), which is responsible for the S-oxygenation reaction in the biosynthesis of S-allyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide (alliin). Recombinant AsFMO1 protein catalyzed the stereoselective S-oxygenation of S-allyl-l-cysteine to nearly exclusively yield (RC SS )-S-allylcysteine sulfoxide, which has identical stereochemistry to the major natural form of alliin in garlic. The S-oxygenation reaction catalyzed by AsFMO1 was dependent on the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), consistent with other known flavin-containing monooxygenases. AsFMO1 preferred S-allyl-l-cysteine to γ-glutamyl-S-allyl-l-cysteine as the S-oxygenation substrate, suggesting that in garlic, the S-oxygenation of alliin biosynthetic intermediates primarily occurs after deglutamylation. The transient expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins indicated that AsFMO1 is localized in the cytosol. AsFMO1 mRNA was accumulated in storage leaves of pre-emergent nearly sprouting bulbs, and in various tissues of sprouted bulbs with green foliage leaves. Taken together, our results suggest that AsFMO1 functions as an S-allyl-l-cysteine S-oxygenase, and contributes to the production of alliin both through the conversion of stored γ-glutamyl-S-allyl-l-cysteine to alliin in storage leaves during sprouting and through the de novo biosynthesis of alliin in green foliage leaves.

  4. The structure of flavin-dependent tryptophan 7-halogenase RebH

    SciTech Connect

    Bitto, Eduard; Huang, Yu; Bingman, Craig A.; Singh, Shanteri; Thorson, Jon S.; Phillips, Jr., George N.

    2010-02-19

    Enzyme catalyzed regio- and stereo-specific halogenations influence the biological activity of a diverse array of therapeutically important natural products, including the antibiotics vancomycin and chloramphenicol as well as the anticancer agents calicheamicin and rebeccamycin. The major class of enzymes responsible for this challenging synthetic reaction, the flavin-dependent halogenases, catalyzes the formation of carbon-halogen bonds using flavin, a halide ion (Cl{sup -}, Br{sup -} or I{sup -}), and O{sub 2}. Recent mechanistic and structural advances achieved with the model flavin-dependent tryptophan 7-halogenases PrnA and RebH have greatly enhanced the level of understanding of this unique reaction. According to these studies, the mechanism for tryptophan halogenation proceeds via FAD(C4a)-OOH activation of a chloride ion into the transient chlorinating species HOCl. The key evidence for the requirement of a transient chlorinating species is the discovery that a {approx}10-{angstrom}-long tunnel separates FAD and tryptophan in the ligand-bound form of PrnA. In a recent compelling study to elucidate the strategy by which RebH controls this highly reactive and indiscriminant oxidant, a Lys79-{var_epsilon}NH-Cl chloramine intermediate was implicated as the actual chlorinating species within RebH and a structural investigation of RebH was reported. Here we report our independent structural analysis of Lechevalieria aerocolonigenes RebH (Uni-Prot accession number Q8KHZ8, 530 amino acids) in its apo-form as well as in a complex with both tryptophan and FAD.

  5. The Biochemical Mechanism of Auxin Biosynthesis by an Arabidopsis YUCCA Flavin-containing Monooxygenase*

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xinhua; Mashiguchi, Kiyoshi; Chen, Qingguo; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Kamiya, Yuji; Ojha, Sunil; DuBois, Jennifer; Ballou, David; Zhao, Yunde

    2013-01-01

    Auxin regulates every aspect of plant growth and development. Previous genetic studies demonstrated that YUCCA (YUC) flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) catalyze a rate-limiting step in auxin biosynthesis and that YUCs are essential for many developmental processes. We proposed that YUCs convert indole-3-pyruvate (IPA) to indole-3-acetate (IAA). However, the exact biochemical mechanism of YUCs has remained elusive. Here we present the biochemical characterization of recombinant Arabidopsis YUC6. Expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli, YUC6 contains FAD as a cofactor, which has peaks at 448 nm and 376 nm in the UV-visible spectrum. We show that YUC6 uses NADPH and oxygen to convert IPA to IAA. The first step of the YUC6-catalyzed reaction is the reduction of the FAD cofactor to FADH− by NADPH. Subsequently, FADH− reacts with oxygen to form a flavin-C4a-(hydro)peroxy intermediate, which we show has a maximum absorbance at 381 nm in its UV-visible spectrum. The final chemical step is the reaction of the C4a-intermediate with IPA to produce IAA. Although the sequences of the YUC enzymes are related to those of the mammalian FMOs, which oxygenate nucleophilic substrates, YUC6 oxygenates an electrophilic substrate (IPA). Nevertheless, both classes of enzymes form quasi-stable C4a-(hydro)peroxyl FAD intermediates. The YUC6 intermediate has a half-life of ∼20 s whereas that of some FMOs is >30 min. This work reveals the catalytic mechanism of the first known plant flavin monooxygenase and provides a foundation for further investigating how YUC activities are regulated in plants. PMID:23188833

  6. Aspergillus fumigatus SidA is a highly specific ornithine hydroxylase with bound flavin cofactor.

    PubMed

    Chocklett, Samuel W; Sobrado, Pablo

    2010-08-10

    Ferrichrome is a hydroxamate-containing siderophore produced by the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus under iron-limiting conditions. This siderophore contains N(5)-hydroxylated l-ornithines essential for iron binding. A. fumigatus siderophore A (Af SidA) catalyzes the flavin- and NADPH-dependent hydroxylation of l-ornithine in ferrichrome biosynthesis. Af SidA was recombinantly expressed and purified as a soluble tetramer and is the first member of this class of flavin monooxygenases to be isolated with a bound flavin cofactor. The enzyme showed typical saturation kinetics with respect to l-ornithine while substrate inhibition was observed at high concentrations of NADPH and NADH. Increasing amounts of hydrogen peroxide were measured as a function of reduced nicotinamide coenzyme concentration, indicating that inhibition was caused by increased uncoupling. Af SidA is highly specific for its amino acid substrate, only hydroxylating l-ornithine. An 8-fold preference in the catalytic efficiency was determined for NADPH compared to NADH. In the absence of substrate, Af SidA can be reduced by NADPH, and a C4a-(hydro)peroxyflavin intermediate is observed. The decay of this intermediate is accelerated by l-ornithine binding. This intermediate was only stabilized by NADPH and not by NADH, suggesting a role for NADP(+) in the stabilization of intermediates in the reaction of Af SidA. NADP(+) is a competitive inhibitor with respect to NADPH, demonstrating that Af SidA forms a ternary complex with NADP(+) and l-ornithine during catalysis. The data suggest that Af SidA likely proceeds by a sequential kinetic mechanism.

  7. Mechanism of Oxygen Activation in a Flavin-Dependent Monooxygenase: A Nearly Barrierless Formation of C4a-Hydroperoxyflavin via Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer.

    PubMed

    Visitsatthawong, Surawit; Chenprakhon, Pirom; Chaiyen, Pimchai; Surawatanawong, Panida

    2015-07-29

    Understanding how flavin-dependent enzymes activate oxygen for their oxidation and oxygenation reactions is one of the most challenging issues in flavoenzymology. Density functional calculations and transient kinetics were performed to investigate the mechanism of oxygen activation in the oxygenase component (C2) of p-hydroxyphenylacetate 3-hydroxylase (HPAH). We found that the protonation of dioxygen by His396 via a proton-coupled electron transfer mechanism is the key step in the formation of the triplet diradical complex of flavin semiquinone and (•)OOH. This complex undergoes intersystem crossing to form the open-shell singlet diradical complex before it forms the closed-shell singlet C4a-hydroperoxyflavin intermediate (C4aOOH). Notably, density functional calculations indicated that the formation of C4aOOH is nearly barrierless, possibly facilitated by the active site arrangement in which His396 positions the proximal oxygen of the (•)OOH in an optimum position to directly attack the C4a atom of the isoalloxazine ring. The nearly barrierless formation of C4aOOH agrees well with the experimental results; based on transient kinetics and Eyring plot analyses, the enthalpy of activation for the formation of C4aOOH is only 1.4 kcal/mol and the formation of C4aOOH by C2 is fast (∼10(6) M(-1) s(-1) at 4 °C). The calculations identified Ser171 as the key residue that stabilizes C4aOOH by accepting a hydrogen bond from the H(N5) of the isoalloxazine ring. Both Ser171 and Trp112 facilitate H2O2 elimination by donating hydrogen bonds to the proximal oxygen of the OOH moiety during the proton transfer. According to our combined theoretical and experimental studies, the existence of a positively charged general acid at the position optimized for facilitating the proton-coupled electron transfer has emerged as an important catalytic feature for the oxygen activation process in flavin-dependent enzymes.

  8. Phagocyte NADPH-oxidase. Studies with flavin analogues as active site probes in triton X-100-solubilized preparations.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, J F; Gabig, T G

    1988-06-25

    NADPH-oxidase of stimulated human neutrophil membranes was solubilized in Triton X-100 and activity reconstituted with FAD, 8-F-FAD, 8-phenyl-S-FAD, and 8-S-FAD. The enzyme had similar affinities for all the flavins with Km values in the 60-80 nM range. Vmax was found to increase 4-fold with increasing redox midpoint potential of the flavin. 8-F-FAD reconstituted with the enzyme was reactive toward thiophenol, suggesting exposure of the 8-position to solvent, a finding supported by unsuccessful attempts to label the enzyme with the photoaffinity probe 8-N3-[32P]FAD. Solubilized oxidase stabilized the red thiolate form of 8-S-FAD, a characteristic of flavoproteins of the dehydrogenase/electron transferase classes which stabilize the blue neutral form of the flavin semiquinone radical.

  9. Light-activated cryptochrome reacts with molecular oxygen to form a flavin-superoxide radical pair consistent with magnetoreception.

    PubMed

    Müller, Pavel; Ahmad, Margaret

    2011-06-17

    Cryptochromes are flavin-based photoreceptors occurring throughout the biological kingdom, which regulate growth and development in plants and are involved in the entrainment of circadian rhythms of both plants and animals. A number of recent theoretical works suggest that cryptochromes might also be the receptors responsible for the sensing of the magnetic field of the earth (e.g. in insects, migratory birds, or migratory fish). Cryptochromes undergo forward light-induced reactions involving electron transfer to excited state flavin to generate radical intermediates, which correlate with biological activity. Here, we give evidence of a mechanism for the reverse reaction, namely dark reoxidation of protein-bound flavin in Arabidopsis thaliana cryptochrome (AtCRY1) by molecular oxygen that involves formation of a spin-correlated FADH(•)-superoxide radical pair. Formation of analogous radical pairs in animal cryptochromes might enable them to function as magnetoreceptors.

  10. Nitrate Reductase Regulates Expression of Nitrite Uptake and Nitrite Reductase Activities in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii 1

    PubMed Central

    Galván, Aurora; Cárdenas, Jacobo; Fernández, Emilio

    1992-01-01

    In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutants defective at the structural locus for nitrate reductase (nit-1) or at loci for biosynthesis of the molybdopterin cofactor (nit-3, nit-4, or nit-5 and nit-6), both nitrite uptake and nitrite reductase activities were repressed in ammonium-grown cells and expressed at high amounts in nitrogen-free media or in media containing nitrate or nitrite. In contrast, wild-type cells required nitrate induction for expression of high levels of both activities. In mutants defective at the regulatory locus for nitrate reductase (nit-2), very low levels of nitrite uptake and nitrite reductase activities were expressed even in the presence of nitrate or nitrite. Both restoration of nitrate reductase activity in mutants defective at nit-1, nit-3, and nit-4 by isolating diploid strains among them and transformation of a structural mutant upon integration of the wild-type nit-1 gene gave rise to the wild-type expression pattern for nitrite uptake and nitrite reductase activities. Conversely, inactivation of nitrate reductase by tungstate treatment in nitrate, nitrite, or nitrogen-free media made wild-type cells respond like nitrate reductase-deficient mutants with respect to the expression of nitrite uptake and nitrite reductase activities. Our results indicate that nit-2 is a regulatory locus for both the nitrite uptake system and nitrite reductase, and that the nitrate reductase enzyme plays an important role in the regulation of the expression of both enzyme activities. PMID:16668656

  11. Nitrous oxide reduction by members of the family Rhodospirillaceae and the nitrous oxide reductase of Rhodopseudomonas capsulata

    SciTech Connect

    McEwan, A.G.; Greenfield, A.J.; Wetzstein, H.G.; Jackson, J.B.; Ferguson, S.J.

    1985-11-01

    After growth in the absence of nitrogenous oxides under anaerobic phototrophic conditions, several strains of Rhodopseudomonas capsulata were shown to possess a nitrous oxide reductase activity. The enzyme responsible for this activity had a periplasmic location and resembled a nitrous oxide reductase purified from Pseudomonas perfectomarinus. Electron flow to nitrous oxide reductase was coupled to generation of a membrane potential and inhibited by rotenone but not antimycin. It is suggested that electron flow to nitrous oxide reductase branches at the level of ubiquinone from the previously characterized electron transfer components of R. capsulata. R. capsulata grew under dark anaerobic conditions in the presence of malate as carbon source and nitrous oxide as electron acceptor. This confirms that nitrous oxide respiration is linked to ATP synthesis. Phototrophically and anaerobically grown cultures of nondenitrifying strains of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, and Rhodospirillum rubrum also possessed nitrous oxide reductase activity.

  12. Crystal structure of a Baeyer-Villiger flavin-containing monooxygenase from Staphylococcus aureus MRSA strain MU50.

    PubMed

    Hwang, William C; Xu, Qingping; Wu, Bainan; Godzik, Adam

    2014-08-05

    Flavin-containing Monooxygenase (FMO) catalyzed the oxygenation of broad spectrum of substrates. FMO can also serve as biocatalysts in the Baeyer-Villiger reaction in organic synthesis. Here, we report the high-resolution crystal structure of a Baeyer-Villiger Flavin-containing Monooxygenase (BVFMO) from methicillin- and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain MU50. The structure of S. aureus FMO should facilitate further development of BVFMO as biocatalysts. A possible role of S. aureus FMO in methicillin and vancomycin resistance is discussed. Proteins 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Regioselectivity of nitroglycerin denitration by flavoprotein nitroester reductases purified from two Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed Central

    Blehert, D S; Knoke, K L; Fox, B G; Chambliss, G H

    1997-01-01

    Two species of Pseudomonas capable of utilizing nitroglycerin (NG) as a sole nitrogen source were isolated from NG-contaminated soil and identified as Pseudomonas putida II-B and P. fluorescens I-C. While 9 of 13 laboratory bacterial strains that presumably had no previous exposure to NG could degrade low concentrations of NG (0.44 mM), the natural isolates tolerated concentrations of NG that were toxic to the lab strains (1.76 mM and higher). Whole-cell studies revealed that the two natural isolates produced different mixtures of the isomers of dinitroglycerol (DNG) and mononitroglycerol (MNG). A monomeric, flavin mononucleotide-containing NG reductase was purified from each natural isolate. These enzymes catalyzed the NADPH-dependent denitration of NG, yielding nitrite. Apparent kinetic constants were determined for both reductases. The P. putida enzyme had a Km for NG of 52 +/- 4 microM, a Km for NADPH of 28 +/- 2 microM, and a Vmax of 124 +/- 6 microM x min(-1), while the P. fluorescens enzyme had a Km for NG of 110 +/- 10 microM, a Km for NADPH of 5 +/- 1 microM, and a Vmax of 110 +/- 11 microM x min(-1). Anaerobic titration experiments confirmed the stoichiometry of NADPH consumption, changes in flavin oxidation state, and multiple steps of nitrite removal from NG. The products formed during time-dependent denitration reactions were consistent with a single enzyme being responsible for the in vivo product distributions. Simulation of the product formation kinetics by numerical integration showed that the P. putida enzyme produced an approximately 2-fold molar excess of 1,2-DNG relative to 1,3-DNG. This result could be fortuitous or could possibly be consistent with a random removal of the first nitro group from either the terminal (C-1 and C-3) positions or middle (C-2) position. However, during the denitration of 1,2-DNG, a 1.3-fold selectivity for the C-1 nitro group was determined. Comparable simulations of the product distributions from the P. fluorescens

  14. Human aldose reductase and human small intestine aldose reductase are efficient retinal reductases: consequences for retinoid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Crosas, Bernat; Hyndman, David J; Gallego, Oriol; Martras, Sílvia; Parés, Xavier; Flynn, T Geoffrey; Farrés, Jaume

    2003-08-01

    Aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) are NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductases that catalyse the reduction of a variety of carbonyl compounds, such as carbohydrates, aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes and steroids. We have studied the retinal reductase activity of human aldose reductase (AR), human small-intestine (HSI) AR and pig aldehyde reductase. Human AR and HSI AR were very efficient in the reduction of all- trans -, 9- cis - and 13- cis -retinal ( k (cat)/ K (m)=1100-10300 mM(-1).min(-1)), constituting the first cytosolic NADP(H)-dependent retinal reductases described in humans. Aldehyde reductase showed no activity with these retinal isomers. Glucose was a poor inhibitor ( K (i)=80 mM) of retinal reductase activity of human AR, whereas tolrestat, a classical AKR inhibitor used pharmacologically to treat diabetes, inhibited retinal reduction by human AR and HSI AR. All- trans -retinoic acid failed to inhibit both enzymes. In this paper we present the AKRs as an emergent superfamily of retinal-active enzymes, putatively involved in the regulation of retinoid biological activity through the assimilation of retinoids from beta-carotene and the control of retinal bioavailability.

  15. 15N Solid-State NMR as a Probe of Flavin H-bonding

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Dongtao; Koder, Ronald L.; Dutton, P. Leslie; Miller, Anne-Frances

    2011-01-01

    Flavins mediate a wide variety of different chemical reactions in biology. To learn how one cofactor can be made to execute different reactions in different enzymes, we are developing solid-state NMR (SSNMR) to probe the flavin electronic structure, via the 15N chemical shift tensor principal values (δii). We find that SSNMR has superior responsiveness to H-bonds, compared to solution NMR. H-bonding to a model of the flavodoxin active site produced an increase of 10 ppm in the δ11 of N5 although none of the H-bonds directly engage N5, and solution NMR detected only a 4 ppm increase in the isotropic chemical shift (δiso). Moreover SSNMR responded differently to different H-bonding environments as H-bonding with water caused δ11 to decrease by 6 ppm whereas δiso increased by less than 1 ppm. Our density functional theoretical (DFT) calculations reproduce the observations, validating the use of computed electronic structures to understand how H-bonds modulate the flavin’s reactivity. PMID:21619002

  16. Purification, Characterization, and Mechanism of a Flavin Mononucleotide-Dependent 2-Nitropropane Dioxygenase from Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Gorlatova, Natalia; Tchorzewski, Marek; Kurihara, Tatsuo; Soda, Kenji; Esaki, Nobuyoshi

    1998-01-01

    A nitroalkane-oxidizing enzyme was purified to homogeneity from Neurospora crassa. The enzyme is composed of two subunits; the molecular weight of each subunit is approximately 40,000. The enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of nitroalkanes to produce the corresponding carbonyl compounds. It acts on 2-nitropropane better than on nitroethane and 1-nitropropane, and anionic forms of nitroalkanes are much better substrates than are neutral forms. The enzyme does not act on aromatic compounds. When the enzyme reaction was conducted in an 18O2 atmosphere with the anionic form of 2-nitropropane as the substrate, acetone (with a molecular mass of 60 Da) was produced. This indicates that the oxygen atom of acetone was derived from molecular oxygen, not from water; hence, the enzyme is an oxygenase. The reaction stoichiometry was 2CH3CH(NO2)-CH3 + O2→2CH3COCH3 + 2HNO2, which is identical to that of the reaction of 2-nitropropane dioxygenase from Hansenula mrakii. The reaction of the Neurospora enzyme was inhibited by superoxide anion scavengers in the same manner as that of the Hansenula enzyme. Both of these enzymes are flavoenzymes; however, the Neurospora enzyme contains flavin mononucleotide as a prosthetic group, whereas the Hansenula enzyme contains flavin adenine dinucleotide. PMID:9501443

  17. Determination of free and bound riboflavin in cow's milk using a novel flavin-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Koop, Julia; Monschein, Stefanie; Pauline Macheroux, E; Knaus, Tanja; Macheroux, Peter

    2014-03-01

    A recently described putative protease from the gut bacterium Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (termed ppBat) exhibits two tryptophan residues in the interface which enable specific binding of the isoalloxazine heterocycle of riboflavin and its two cofactor forms, FMN and FAD. Recombinant ppBat was used to capture riboflavin from bovine milk directly without any prior preparation steps. The flavin-loaded protein was then re-isolated by means of affinity chromatography to identify and quantify the captured flavins. Free riboflavin concentrations were determined to 197 and 151μg/l for milk with 3.5% and 0.5% fat content, respectively. Total riboflavin concentrations were also determined after acid-treatment of milk and were 4-5 times higher than for free riboflavin. Free FMN and FAD were not detectable and only trace amounts of FMN were found in milk following acid treatment. The method appears to be amenable to develop a direct assay for free riboflavin in milk and other foods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermodynamics of the quasi-epitaxial flavin assembly around various-chirality carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Roholah; Samaraweera, Milinda; Gascón, José A; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios

    2014-05-21

    Establishing methods to accurately assess and model the binding strength of surfactants around a given-chirality single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) are crucial for selective enrichment, targeted functionalization, and spectrally sharp nanodevices. Unlike surfactant exchange, which is subject to interferences from the second surfactant, we herein introduce a thermal dissociation method based on reversible H(+)/O2 doping to determine SWNT/surfactant thermodynamic stability values with greater fidelity. Thermodynamic values were reproduced using molecular mechanics augmented by ab initio calculations in order to better assess π-π interactions. This afforded detailed quantification of the flavin binding strength in terms of π-π stacking (55-58%), with the remaining portion roughly split 3:1 between electrostatic plus van der Waals flavin mononucleotide (FMN) interdigitation and H-bonding interactions, respectively. Quasi-epitaxial π-π alignment between the near-armchair FMN helix and the underlying nanotube lattice plays a crucial role in stabilizing these assemblies. The close resemblance of the thermal dissociation method to helix-coil and ligand-binding transitions of DNA opens up a unique insight into the molecular engineering of self-organizing surfactants around various-chirality nanotubes.

  19. Photoirradiation products of flavin derivatives, and the effects of photooxidation on guanine.

    PubMed

    Kino, Katsuhito; Kobayashi, Teruhiko; Arima, Eiji; Komori, Rie; Kobayashi, Takanobu; Miyazawa, Hiroshi

    2009-04-01

    Photoirradiation in the presence of riboflavin led to guanine oxidation and the formation of imidazolone. Meanwhile, riboflavin itself was degraded by ultraviolet light A (UV-A) and visible light (VIS) radiation, and the end product was lumichrome. VIS radiation in the presence of riboflavin oxidized guanine similarly to UV-A radiation. Although UV-A radiation with lumichrome oxidized guanine, VIS radiation with lumichrome did not. Thus, UV-A radiation with riboflavin can oxidize guanine even if riboflavin is degraded to lumichrome. In contrast, following VIS radiation degradation of riboflavin to lumichrome, VIS radiation with riboflavin is hardly capable of oxidizing guanine. The consequences of riboflavin degradation and guanine photooxidation can be extended to flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide. In addition, we report advanced synthesis; carboxymethylflavin was obtained by oxidation of formylmethylflavin with chlorite and hydrogen peroxide; lumichrome was obtained by heating of formylmethylflavin in 50% AcOH; lumiflavin was obtained by incubation of formylmethylflavin in 2 M NaOH, followed by isolation by step-by-step concentration.

  20. The role of threonine 37 in flavin reactivity of the old yellow enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dong; Kohli, Rahul M.; Massey, Vincent

    1999-01-01

    Threonine 37 is conserved among all the members of the old yellow enzyme (OYE) family. The hydroxyl group of this residue forms a hydrogen bond with the C-4 oxygen atom of the FMN reaction center of the enzyme [Fox, K. M. & Karplus, P. A. (1994) Structure 2, 1089–1105]. The position of Thr-37 and its interaction with flavin allow for speculations about its role in enzyme activity. This residue was mutated to alanine and the mutant enzyme was studied and compared with the wild-type OYE1 to evaluate its mechanistic function. The mutation has different effects on the two separate half-reactions of the enzyme. The mutant enzyme has enhanced activity in the oxidative half-reaction but the reductive half-reaction is slowed down by more than one order of magnitude. The peaks of the absorption spectra for enzyme bound with phenolic compounds are shifted toward shorter wavelengths than those of wild-type OYE1, consistent with its lower redox potential. It is suggested that Thr-37 in the wild-type OYE1 increases the redox potential of the enzyme by stabilizing the negative charge of the reduced flavin through hydrogen bonding with it. PMID:10097075

  1. Flavin-Induced Oligomerization in Escherichia coli Adaptive Response Protein AidB

    SciTech Connect

    Hamill, Michael J.; Jost, Marco; Wong, Cintyu; Elliott, Sean J.; Drennan, Catherine L.

    2011-11-21

    The process known as 'adaptive response' allows Escherichia coli to respond to small doses of DNA-methylating agents by upregulating the expression of four proteins. While the role of three of these proteins in mitigating DNA damage is well understood, the function of AidB is less clear. Although AidB is a flavoprotein, no catalytic role has been established for the bound cofactor. Here we investigate the possibility that flavin plays a structural role in the assembly of the AidB tetramer. We report the generation and biophysical characterization of deflavinated AidB and of an AidB mutant that has greatly reduced affinity for flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Using fluorescence quenching and analytical ultracentrifugation, we find that apo AidB has a high affinity for FAD, as indicated by an apparent dissociation constant of 402.1 {+-} 35.1 nM, and that binding of substoichiometric amounts of FAD triggers a transition in the AidB oligomeric state. In particular, deflavinated AidB is dimeric, whereas the addition of FAD yields a tetramer. We further investigate the dimerization and tetramerization interfaces of AidB by determining a 2.8 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure in space group P3{sub 2} that contains three intact tetramers in the asymmetric unit. Taken together, our findings provide strong evidence that FAD plays a structural role in the formation of tetrameric AidB.

  2. NADH and flavin fluorescence responses of starved yeast cultures to substrate additions.

    PubMed

    Siano, S A; Mutharasan, R

    1989-08-20

    Model experiments were performed with starved yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cultures in a batch reactor in order to develop a better understanding of NAD(P)H and flavin culture fluorescence. Fluorescence was monitored during aerobic-anaerobic-aerobic transitions and ethanol and glucose substrate addition experiments. Interpretations of the fluorescence responses obtained are provided, with consideration given to redox compartmentation and the formation of ethanol shortly after a glucose addition. An analytical spectrofluorophotometer was interfaced to a personal computer and adapted to measure fluorescence in a bioreactor. This was achieved by the use of quartz fiber-optic waveguides to convert the right-angle cuvette geometry of the analytical spectrofluorophotometer to an open-ended fluorescence probe geometry, resulting in a flexible culture fluorescence apparatus. Features of the apparatus include variable excitation and emission wavelengths, allowing for detection of NAD(P)H or flavin fluorescence, as well as small slit widths, a variable sampling rate, excitation and emission scanning capabilities, and good sensitivity.

  3. Solving Blue Light Riddles: New Lessons from Flavin-binding LOV Photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Losi, Aba; Gärtner, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Detection of blue light (BL) via flavin-binding photoreceptors (Fl-Blues) has evolved throughout all three domains of life. Although the main BL players, that is light, oxygen and voltage (LOV), blue light sensing using flavins (BLUF) and Cry (cryptochrome) proteins, have been characterized in great detail with respect to structure and function, still several unresolved issues at different levels of complexity remain and novel unexpected findings were reported. Here, we review the most prevailing riddles of LOV-based photoreceptors, for example: the relevance of water and/or small metabolites for the dynamics of the photocycle; molecular details of light-to-signal transduction events; the interplay of BL sensing by LOV domains with other environmental stimuli, such as BL plus oxygen-mediating photodamage and its impact on microbial lifestyles; the importance of the cell or chromophore redox state in determining the fate of BL-driven reactions; the evolutionary pathways of LOV-based BL sensing and associated functions through the diverse phyla. We will discuss major novelties emerged during the last few years on these intriguing aspects of LOV proteins by presenting paradigmatic examples from prokaryotic photosensors that exhibit the largest complexity and richness in associated functions. © 2016 The American Society of Photobiology.

  4. A flavin binding cryptochrome photoreceptor responds to both blue and red light in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Beel, Benedikt; Prager, Katja; Spexard, Meike; Sasso, Severin; Weiss, Daniel; Müller, Nico; Heinnickel, Mark; Dewez, David; Ikoma, Danielle; Grossman, Arthur R; Kottke, Tilman; Mittag, Maria

    2012-07-01

    Cryptochromes are flavoproteins that act as sensory blue light receptors in insects, plants, fungi, and bacteria. We have investigated a cryptochrome from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with sequence homology to animal cryptochromes and (6-4) photolyases. In response to blue and red light exposure, this animal-like cryptochrome (aCRY) alters the light-dependent expression of various genes encoding proteins involved in chlorophyll and carotenoid biosynthesis, light-harvesting complexes, nitrogen metabolism, cell cycle control, and the circadian clock. Additionally, exposure to yellow but not far-red light leads to comparable increases in the expression of specific genes; this expression is significantly reduced in an acry insertional mutant. These in vivo effects are congruent with in vitro data showing that blue, yellow, and red light, but not far-red light, are absorbed by the neutral radical state of flavin in aCRY. The aCRY neutral radical is formed following blue light absorption of the oxidized flavin. Red illumination leads to conversion to the fully reduced state. Our data suggest that aCRY is a functionally important blue and red light-activated flavoprotein. The broad spectral response implies that the neutral radical state functions as a dark form in aCRY and expands the paradigm of flavoproteins and cryptochromes as blue light sensors to include other light qualities.

  5. JS-K, a Nitric Oxide Prodrug, Has Enhanced Cytotoxicity in Colon Cancer Cells with Knockdown of Thioredoxin Reductase 1

    PubMed Central

    Edes, Kornelia; Cassidy, Pamela; Shami, Paul J.; Moos, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The selenoenzyme thioredoxin reductase 1 has a complex role relating to cell growth. It is induced as a component of the cellular response to potentially mutagenic oxidants, but also appears to provide growth advantages to transformed cells by inhibiting apoptosis. In addition, selenocysteine-deficient or alkylated forms of thioredoxin reductase 1 have also demonstrated oxidative, pro-apoptotic activity. Therefore, a greater understanding of the role of thioredoxin reductase in redox initiated apoptotic processes is warranted. Methodology The role of thioredoxin reductase 1 in RKO cells was evaluated by attenuating endogenous thioredoxin reductase 1 expression with siRNA and then either inducing a selenium-deficient thioredoxin reductase or treatment with distinct redox challenges including, hydrogen peroxide, an oxidized lipid, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenol, and a nitric oxide donating prodrug. Thioredoxin redox status, cellular viability, and effector caspase activity were measured. Conclusions/Significance In cells with attenuated endogenous thioredoxin reductase 1, a stably integrated selenocysteine-deficient form of the enzyme was induced but did not alter either the thioredoxin redox status or the cellular growth kinetics. The oxidized lipid and the nitric oxide donor demonstrated enhanced cytotoxicity when thioredoxin reductase 1 was knocked-down; however, the effect was more pronounced with the nitric oxide prodrug. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that attenuation of the thioredoxin-system can promote apoptosis in a nitric oxide-dependent manner. PMID:20098717

  6. Neuroprotective role for carbonyl reductase?

    PubMed

    Maser, Edmund

    2006-02-24

    Oxidative stress is increasingly implicated in neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, and Creutzfeld-Jakob diseases or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Reactive oxygen species seem to play a significant role in neuronal cell death in that they generate reactive aldehydes from membrane lipid peroxidation. Several neuronal diseases are associated with increased accumulation of abnormal protein adducts of reactive aldehydes, which mediate oxidative stress-linked pathological events, including cellular growth inhibition and apoptosis induction. Combining findings on neurodegeneration and oxidative stress in Drosophila with studies on the metabolic characteristics of the human enzyme carbonyl reductase (CR), it is clear now that CR has a potential physiological role for neuroprotection in humans. Several lines of evidence suggest that CR represents a significant pathway for the detoxification of reactive aldehydes derived from lipid peroxidation and that CR in humans is essential for neuronal cell survival and to confer protection against oxidative stress-induced brain degeneration.

  7. Ascorbate free radical reductases and diaphorases in soluble fractions of the human lens.

    PubMed

    Bando, M; Obazawa, H

    1995-12-01

    Major and minor ascorbate free radical (AFR) reductases, with diaphorase activity, and three other diaphorases were separated from the human lens soluble fraction by DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange column chromatography. They were characterized for adsorptivity to ion-exchange and 5'AMP-Sepharose 4B affinity columns, kinetic properties, and substrate specificity. The latter diaphorases were closely correlated with NADH-cytochrome beta 5 reductase. The major and minor AFR reductases were regarded as a major diaphorase group different from two ubiquitous diaphorases, i.e., NADH-cytochrome beta 5 reductase and DT-diaphorase. A major AFR reductase was partially purified approximately 50 fold over the lens soluble fraction by ion-exchange, affinity, and gel filtration (Sephacryl S-200 HR) column chromatography. From the partially purified enzyme, 2 bands, one sharp and one diffuse, were obtained by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two proteins, of 20 and 24 kDa, were identified in the active enzyme bands by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This suggests that the 20 and/or 24 kDa proteins may be components of the major AFR reductase.

  8. Perchlorate Reductase Is Distinguished by Active Site Aromatic Gate Residues*

    PubMed Central

    Youngblut, Matthew D.; Tsai, Chi-Lin; Clark, Iain C.; Carlson, Hans K.; Maglaqui, Adrian P.; Gau-Pan, Phonchien S.; Redford, Steven A.; Wong, Alan; Tainer, John A.; Coates, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Perchlorate is an important ion on both Earth and Mars. Perchlorate reductase (PcrAB), a specialized member of the dimethylsulfoxide reductase superfamily, catalyzes the first step of microbial perchlorate respiration, but little is known about the biochemistry, specificity, structure, and mechanism of PcrAB. Here we characterize the biophysics and phylogeny of this enzyme and report the 1.86-Å resolution PcrAB complex crystal structure. Biochemical analysis revealed a relatively high perchlorate affinity (Km = 6 μm) and a characteristic substrate inhibition compared with the highly similar respiratory nitrate reductase NarGHI, which has a relatively much lower affinity for perchlorate (Km = 1.1 mm) and no substrate inhibition. Structural analysis of oxidized and reduced PcrAB with and without the substrate analog SeO32− bound to the active site identified key residues in the positively charged and funnel-shaped substrate access tunnel that gated substrate entrance and product release while trapping transiently produced chlorate. The structures suggest gating was associated with shifts of a Phe residue between open and closed conformations plus an Asp residue carboxylate shift between monodentate and bidentate coordination to the active site molybdenum atom. Taken together, structural and mutational analyses of gate residues suggest key roles of these gate residues for substrate entrance and product release. Our combined results provide the first detailed structural insight into the mechanism of biological perchlorate reduction, a critical component of the chlorine redox cycle on Earth. PMID:26940877

  9. Structure of genes narL and narX of the nar (nitrate reductase) locus in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, V; Parales, J; Merkel, S M

    1989-01-01

    narL and narX mediate nitrate induction of nitrate reductase synthesis and nitrate repression of fumarate reductase synthesis. We report here the nucleotide sequences of narL and narX. The deduced protein sequences aid in defining distinct subclasses of regulators and sensors in the family of two-component regulatory proteins. PMID:2649492

  10. Pseudomonas aeruginosa 142 uses a three-component ortho-halobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase for metabolism of 2,4-dichloro- and 2-chlorobenzoate.

    PubMed Central

    Romanov, V; Hausinger, R P

    1994-01-01

    Cell extracts of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 142, which was previously isolated from a polychlorinated biphenyl-degrading consortium, were shown to degrade 2,4-dichlorobenzoate, 2-chlorobenzoate, and a variety of other substituted ortho-halobenzoates by a reaction that requires oxygen, NADH, Fe(II), and flavin adenine dinucleotide. By using extracts that were chromatographically depleted of chlorocatechol and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase activities, products of the initial reaction with 2,4- or 2,5-dichlorobenzoate and 2-chlorobenzoate were identified by mass spectrometry as 4-chlorocatechol and catechol. In contrast to the well-characterized benzoate dioxygenases or the recently described 2-halobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase from P. cepacia 2CBS (S. Fetzner, R. Müller, and F. Lingens, J. Bacteriol. 174:279-290, 1992) that possess two protein components, the P. aeruginosa enzyme was resolved by ion-exchange chromatography into three components, each of which is required for activity. To verify the distinct nature of this enzyme, we purified, characterized, and identified one component as a ferredoxin (M(r), approximately 13,000) containing a single [2Fe-2S] Rieske-type cluster (electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic values of gx = 1.82, gy = 1.905, and gz = 2.02 in the reduced state) that is related in sequence to ferredoxins found in the naphthalene and biphenyl three-component dioxygenase systems. By analogy to these enzymes, we propose that the P. aeruginosa ferredoxin serves as an electron carrier between an NADH-dependent ferredoxin reductase and the terminal component of the ortho-halobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase. The broad specificity and high regiospecificity of the enzyme make it a promising candidate for use in the degradation of mixtures of chlorobenzoates. PMID:8195093

  11. Flavin-derived self-organization and chirality separation of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Sang-Yong

    2008-07-01

    Formed by rolling up a two-dimensional sheet of one or more layer of graphite, graphene, carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are the marvel materials of modern materials science. They are phenomenally strong and stiff, and have the unusual property of being excellent conductors of heat along the tube's axis, but good thermal insulators across it. But it is their electrical characteristics that excite the most interest. Especially, single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNTs), formed by one layer of cylindrical graphene, has better physical properties over multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) having over two layer of graphene. Depending on the precise way they are rolled up, which is defined by ( n,m) vector, SWNTs can be made into either metals or semiconductors. So far, SWNTs can generally only be fabricated in batches that vary widely, both in the diameter of the individual tubes and in the orientation of their graphene lattice relative to the tube axis, the property known as chirality. Separating out these various conformations is a challenging, but one that must be solved if nanotubes are ever to fulfill their electrifying potential in devices. This thesis presents that flavin-based helical self-assembly can impart multi degrees of SWNTs separation (i.e., metallicity, diameter, chirality, and handedness). As opening chapters for carbon nanotube and flavin derivative, Chapter 1 provide the introduction of carbon nanotubes, especially single-walled tubes, and the current state-of-the-art nanotube separation. Also, Chapter 1 presents a variety of naturally-occurring flavin derivatives, their redox behavior, and their biological utilization as cofactors for various proteins. Motivated by chemoluminescence of flavin mononucleotide (FMN, phosphorylated form of Vitamin B2) with bacterial luciferase, Chapter 2 discuss about the synthesis and covalent attachment of flavin mononucleotide (FMN, phosphorylated form of Vitamin B2) analogue to oxidized SWNTs. Along with nine step synthesis

  12. Formation and function of flavin anion radical in cryptochrome 1 blue-light photoreceptor of monarch butterfly.

    PubMed

    Song, Sang-Hun; Oztürk, Nuri; Denaro, Tracy R; Arat, N Ozlem; Kao, Ya-Ting; Zhu, Haisun; Zhong, Dongping; Reppert, Steven M; Sancar, Aziz

    2007-06-15

    The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) cryptochrome 1 (DpCry1) belongs in the class of photosensitive insect cryptochromes. Here we purified DpCry1 expressed in a bacterial host and obtained the protein with a stoichiometric amount of the flavin cofactor in the two-electron oxidized, FAD(ox), form. Exposure of the purified protein to light converts the FAD(ox) to the FAD*(-) flavin anion radical by intraprotein electron transfer from a Trp residue in the apoenzyme. To test whether this novel photoreduction reaction is part of the DpCry1 physiological photocycle, we mutated the Trp residue that acts as the ultimate electron donor in flavin photoreduction. The mutation, W328F, blocked the photoreduction entirely but had no measurable effect on the light-induced degradation of DpCry1 in vivo. In light of this finding and the recently published action spectrum of this class of Crys, we conclude that DpCry1 and similar insect cryptochromes do not contain flavin in the FAD(ox) form in vivo and that, most likely, the [see text] photoreduction reaction is not part of the insect cryptochrome photoreaction that results in proteolytic degradation of the photopigment.

  13. Redox Modulation of Flavin and Tyrosine Determines Photoinduced Proton-coupled Electron Transfer and Photoactivation of BLUF Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Mathes, Tilo; van Stokkum, Ivo H. M.; Stierl, Manuela; Kennis, John T. M.

    2012-01-01

    Photoinduced electron transfer in biological systems, especially in proteins, is a highly intriguing matter. Its mechanistic details cannot be addressed by structural data obtained by crystallography alone because this provides only static information on a given redox system. In combination with transient spectroscopy and site-directed manipulation of the protein, however, a dynamic molecular picture of the ET process may be obtained. In BLUF (blue light sensors using FAD) photoreceptors, proton-coupled electron transfer between a tyrosine and the flavin cofactor is the key reaction to switch from a dark-adapted to a light-adapted state, which corresponds to the biological signaling state. Particularly puzzling is the fact that, although the various naturally occurring BLUF domains show little difference in the amino acid composition of the flavin binding pocket, the reaction rates of the forward reaction differ quite largely from a few ps up to several hundred ps. In this study, we modified the redox potential of the flavin/tyrosine redox pair by site-directed mutagenesis close to the flavin C2 carbonyl and fluorination of the tyrosine, respectively. We provide information on how changes in the redox potential of either reaction partner significantly influence photoinduced proton-coupled electron transfer. The altered redox potentials allowed us furthermore to experimentally describe an excited state charge transfer intermediately prior to electron transfer in the BLUF photocycle. Additionally, we show that the electron transfer rate directly correlates with the quantum yield of signaling state formation. PMID:22833672

  14. Characterization of flavin-based fluorescent proteins: an emerging class of fluorescent reporters.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Arnab; Walker, Joshua; Weyant, Kevin B; Schroeder, Charles M

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent reporter proteins based on flavin-binding photosensors were recently developed as a new class of genetically encoded probes characterized by small size and oxygen-independent maturation of fluorescence. Flavin-based fluorescent proteins (FbFPs) address two major limitations associated with existing fluorescent reporters derived from the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-namely, the overall large size and oxygen-dependent maturation of fluorescence of GFP. However, FbFPs are at a nascent stage of development and have been utilized in only a handful of biological studies. Importantly, a full understanding of the performance and properties of FbFPs as a practical set of biological probes is lacking. In this work, we extensively characterize three FbFPs isolated from Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus subtilis, and Arabidopsis thaliana, using in vitro studies to assess probe brightness, oligomeric state, maturation time, fraction of fluorescent holoprotein, pH tolerance, redox sensitivity, and thermal stability. Furthermore, we validate FbFPs as stable molecular tags using in vivo studies by constructing a series of FbFP-based transcriptional constructs to probe promoter activity in Escherichia coli. Overall, FbFPs show key advantages as broad-spectrum biological reporters including robust pH tolerance (4-11), thermal stability (up to 60°C), and rapid maturation of fluorescence (<3 min.). In addition, the FbFP derived from Arabidopsis thaliana (iLOV) emerged as a stable and nonperturbative reporter of promoter activity in Escherichia coli. Our results demonstrate that FbFP-based reporters have the potential to address key limitations associated with the use of GFP, such as pH-sensitive fluorescence and slow kinetics of fluorescence maturation (10-40 minutes for half maximal fluorescence recovery). From this view, FbFPs represent a useful new addition to the fluorescent reporter protein palette, and our results constitute an important framework to enable

  15. Effects of 3G cell phone exposure on the structure and function of the human cytochrome P450 reductase.

    PubMed

    Tanvir, Shazia; Thuróczy, György; Selmaoui, Brahim; Silva Pires Antonietti, Viviane; Sonnet, Pascal; Arnaud-Cormos, Delia; Lévêque, Philippe; Pulvin, Sylviane; de Seze, René

    2016-10-01

    Cell phones increase exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Whether EMFs exert specific effects on biological systems remains debatable. This study investigated the effect of cell phone exposure on the structure and function of human NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR). CPR plays a key role in the electron transfer to cytochrome P450, which takes part in a wide range of oxidative metabolic reactions in various organisms from microbes to humans. Human CPR was exposed for 60min to 1966-MHz RF inside a transverse electromagnetic cell (TEM-cell) placed in an incubator. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was 5W·kg(-1). Conformation changes have been detected through fluorescent spectroscopy of flavin and tryptophan residues, and investigated through circular dichroism, dynamic light scattering and microelectrophoresis. These showed that CPR was narrowed. By using cytochrome C reductase activity to assess the electron flux through the CPR, the Michaelis Menten constant (Km) and the maximum initial velocity (Vmax) decreased by 22% as compared with controls. This change was due to small changes in the tertiary and secondary structures of the protein at 37°C. The relevance of these findings to an actual RF exposure scenario demands further biochemical and in-vivo confirmation.

  16. Modulation of the enzymatic efficiency of ferredoxin-NADP(H) reductase by the amino acid volume around the catalytic site.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Matías A; Arakaki, Adrián K; Rial, Daniela V; Catalano-Dupuy, Daniela L; Ceccarelli, Eduardo A

    2008-03-01

    Ferredoxin (flavodoxin)-NADP(H) reductases (FNRs) are ubiquitous flavoenzymes that deliver NADPH or low-potential one-electron donors (ferredoxin, flavodoxin, adrenodoxin) to redox-based metabolic reactions in plastids, mitochondria and bacteria. Plastidic FNRs are quite efficient reductases. In contrast, FNRs from organisms possessing a heterotrophic metabolism or anoxygenic photosynthesis display turnover numbers 20- to 100-fold lower than those of their plastidic and cyanobacterial counterparts. Several structural features of these enzymes have yet to be explained. The residue Y308 in pea FNR is stacked nearly parallel to the re-face of the flavin and is highly conserved amongst members of the family. By computing the relative free energy for the lumiflavin-phenol pair at different angles with the relative position found for Y308 in pea FNR, it can be concluded that this amino acid is constrained against the isoalloxazine. This effect is probably caused by amino acids C266 and L268, which face the other side of this tyrosine. Simple and double FNR mutants of these amino acids were obtained and characterized. It was observed that a decrease or increase in the amino acid volume resulted in a decrease in the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme without altering the protein structure. Our results provide experimental evidence that the volume of these amino acids participates in the fine-tuning of the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme.

  17. Identification and characterization of two families of F420H2-dependent reductases from Mycobacteria that catalyse aflatoxin degradation

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Matthew C; Jackson, Colin J; Tattersall, David B; French, Nigel; Peat, Thomas S; Newman, Janet; Briggs, Lyndall J; Lapalikar, Gauri V; Campbell, Peter M; Scott, Colin; Russell, Robyn J; Oakeshott, John G

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins are polyaromatic mycotoxins that contaminate a range of food crops as a result of fungal growth and contribute to serious health problems in the developing world because of their toxicity and mutagenicity. Although relatively resistant to biotic degradation, aflatoxins can be metabolized by certain species of Actinomycetales. However, the enzymatic basis for their breakdown has not been reported until now. We have identified nine Mycobacterium smegmatis enzymes that utilize the deazaflavin cofactor F420H2 to catalyse the reduction of the α,β-unsaturated ester moiety of aflatoxins, activating the molecules for spontaneous hydrolysis and detoxification. These enzymes belong to two previously uncharacterized F420H2 dependent reductase (FDR-A and -B) families that are distantly related to the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) dependent pyridoxamine 5′-phosphate oxidases (PNPOxs). We have solved crystal structures of an enzyme from each FDR family and show that they, like the PNPOxs, adopt a split barrel protein fold, although the FDRs also possess an extended and highly charged F420H2 binding groove. A general role for these enzymes in xenobiotic metabolism is discussed, including the observation that the nitro-reductase Rv3547 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis that is responsible for the activation of bicyclic nitroimidazole prodrugs belongs to the FDR-A family. PMID:20807200

  18. Effects of methodological variation on assessment of riboflavin status using the erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficient assay.

    PubMed

    Hill, Marilyn H E; Bradley, Angela; Mushtaq, Sohail; Williams, Elizabeth A; Powers, Hilary J

    2009-07-01

    Riboflavin status is usually measured as the in vitro stimulation with flavin adenine dinucleotide of the erythrocyte enzyme glutathione reductase, and expressed as an erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficient (EGRAC). This method is used for the National Diet and Nutrition Surveys (NDNS) of the UK. In the period between the 1990 and 2003 surveys of UK adults, the estimated prevalence of riboflavin deficiency, expressed as an EGRAC value > or = 1.30, increased from 2 to 46 % in males and from 1 to 34 % in females. We hypothesised that subtle but important differences in the detail of the methodology between the two NDNS accounted for this difference. We carried out an evaluation of the performance of the methods used in the two NDNS and compared against an 'in-house' method, using blood samples collected from a riboflavin intervention study. Results indicated that the method used for the 1990 NDNS gave a significantly lower mean EGRAC value than both the 2003 NDNS method and the 'in-house' method (P < 0.0001). The key differences between the methods relate to the concentration of FAD used in the assay and the duration of the period of incubation of FAD with enzyme. The details of the EGRAC method should be standardised for use in different laboratories and over time. Additionally, it is proposed that consideration be given to re-evaluating the basis of the EGRAC threshold for riboflavin deficiency.

  19. Proton transfer in the oxidative half-reaction of pentaerythritol tetranitrate reductase. Structure of the reduced enzyme-progesterone complex and the roles of residues Tyr186, His181, His184.

    PubMed

    Khan, Huma; Barna, Terez; Bruce, Neil C; Munro, Andrew W; Leys, David; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2005-09-01

    The roles of His181, His184 and Tyr186 in PETN reductase have been examined by mutagenesis, spectroscopic and stopped-flow kinetics, and by determination of crystallographic structures for the Y186F PETN reductase and reduced wild-type enzyme-progesterone complex. Residues His181 and His184 are important in the binding of coenzyme, steroids, nitroaromatic ligands and the substrate 2-cyclohexen-1-one. The H181A and H184A enzymes retain activity in reductive and oxidative half-reactions, and thus do not play an essential role in catalysis. Ligand binding and catalysis is not substantially impaired in Y186F PETN reductase, which contrasts with data for the equivalent mutation (Y196F) in Old Yellow Enzyme. The structure of Y186F PETN reductase is identical to wild-type enzyme, with the obvious exception of the mutation. We show in PETN reductase that Tyr186 is not a key proton donor in the reduction of alpha/beta unsaturated carbonyl compounds. The structure of two electron-reduced PETN reductase bound to the inhibitor progesterone mimics the catalytic enzyme-steroid substrate complex and is similar to the structure of the oxidized enzyme-inhibitor complex. The reactive C1-C2 unsaturated bond of the steroid is inappropriately orientated with the flavin N5 atom for hydride transfer. With steroid substrates, the productive conformation is achieved by orientating the steroid through flipping by 180 degrees , consistent with known geometries for hydride transfer in flavoenzymes. Our data highlight mechanistic differences between Old Yellow Enzyme and PETN reductase and indicate that catalysis requires a metastable enzyme-steroid complex and not the most stable complex observed in crystallographic studies.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: 5-alpha reductase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... About half of these individuals adopt a male gender role in adolescence or early adulthood. Related Information ... 1730-5. Citation on PubMed Cohen-Kettenis PT. Gender change in 46,XY persons with 5alpha-reductase- ...

  1. Directed evolution of bright mutants of an oxygen-independent flavin-binding fluorescent protein from Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fluorescent reporter proteins have revolutionized our understanding of cellular bioprocesses by enabling live cell imaging with exquisite spatio-temporal resolution. Existing fluorescent proteins are predominantly based on the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and related analogs. However, GFP-family proteins strictly require molecular oxygen for maturation of fluorescence, which precludes their application for investigating biological processes in low-oxygen environments. A new class of oxygen-independent fluorescent reporter proteins was recently reported based on flavin-binding photosensors from Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida. However, flavin-binding fluorescent proteins show very limited brightness, which restricts their utility as biological imaging probes. Results In this work, we report the discovery of bright mutants of a flavin-binding fluorescent protein from P. putida using directed evolution by site saturation mutagenesis. We discovered two mutations at a chromophore-proximal amino acid (F37S and F37T) that confer a twofold enhancement in brightness relative to the wild type fluorescent protein through improvements in quantum yield and holoprotein fraction. In addition, we observed that substitution with other aromatic amino acids at this residue (F37Y and F37W) severely diminishes fluorescence emission. Therefore, we identify F37 as a key amino acid residue in determining fluorescence. Conclusions To increase the scope and utility of flavin-binding fluorescent proteins as practical fluorescent reporters, there is a strong need for improved variants of the wild type protein. Our work reports on the application of site saturation mutagenesis to isolate brighter variants of a flavin-binding fluorescent protein, which is a first-of-its-kind approach. Overall, we anticipate that the improved variants will find pervasive use as fluorescent reporters for biological studies in low-oxygen environments. PMID:23095243

  2. Dynamics of flavin semiquinone protolysis in L-alpha-hydroxyacid-oxidizing flavoenzymes--a study using nanosecond laser flash photolysis.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, Lars; Apostol, Simona; El Hanine-Lmoumene, Chaibia; Lederer, Florence

    2010-02-01

    The reactions of the flavin semiquinone generated by laser-induced stepwise two-photon excitation of reduced flavin have been studied previously (El Hanine-Lmoumene C & Lindqvist L. (1997) Photochem Photobiol 66, 591-595) using time-resolved spectroscopy. In the present work, we have used the same experimental procedure to study the flavin semiquinone in rat kidney long-chain hydroxy acid oxidase and in the flavodehydrogenase domain of flavocytochrome b(2) FDH, two homologous flavoproteins belonging to the family of FMN-dependent L-2-hydroxy acid-oxidizing enzymes. For both proteins, pulsed laser irradiation at 355 nm of the reduced enzyme generated initially the neutral semiquinone, which has rarely been observed previously for these enzymes, and hydrated electron. The radical evolved with time to the anionic semiquinone that is known to be stabilized by these enzymes at physiological pH. The deprotonation kinetics were biphasic, with durations of 1-5 micros and tens of microseconds, respectively. The fast phase rate increased with pH and Tris buffer concentration. However, this increase was about 10-fold less pronounced than that reported for the neutral semiquinone free in aqueous solution. pK(a) values close to that of the free flavin semiquinone were obtained from the transient protolytic equilibrium at the end of the fast phase. The second slow deprotonation phase may reflect a conformational relaxation in the flavoprotein, from the fully reduced to the semiquinone state. The anionic semiquinone is known to be an intermediate in the flavocytochrome b(2) catalytic cycle. In light of published kinetic studies, our results indicate that deprotonation of the flavin radical is not rate-limiting for the intramolecular electron transfer processes in this protein.

  3. Swapping FAD binding motifs between plastidic and bacterial ferredoxin-NADP(H) reductases.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Matías A; Botti, Horacio; Buschiazzo, Alejandro; Ceccarelli, Eduardo A

    2011-03-29

    Plant-type ferredoxin-NADP(H) reductases (FNRs) are grouped in two classes, plastidic with an extended FAD conformation and high catalytic rates and bacterial with a folded flavin nucleotide and low turnover rates. The 112-123 β-hairpin from a plastidic FNR and the carboxy-terminal tryptophan of a bacterial FNR, suggested to be responsible for the FAD differential conformation, were mutually exchanged. The plastidic FNR lacking the β-hairpin was unable to fold properly. An extra tryptophan at the carboxy terminus, emulating the bacterial FNR, resulted in an enzyme with decreased affinity for FAD and reduced diaphorase and ferredoxin-dependent cytochrome c reductase activities. The insertion of the β-hairpin into the corresponding position of the bacterial FNR increased FAD affinity but did not affect its catalytic properties. The same insertion with simultaneous deletion of the carboxy-terminal tryptophan produced a bacterial chimera emulating the plastidic architecture with an increased k(cat) and an increased catalytic efficiency for the diaphorase activity and a decrease in the enzyme's ability to react with its substrates ferredoxin and flavodoxin. Crystallographic structures of the chimeras showed no significant changes in their overall structure, although alterations in the FAD conformations were observed. Plastidic and bacterial FNRs thus reveal differential effects of key structural elements. While the 112-123 β-hairpin modulates the catalytic efficiency of plastidic FNR, it seems not to affect the bacterial FNR behavior, which instead can be improved by the loss of the C-terminal tryptophan. This report highlights the role of the FAD moiety conformation and the structural determinants involved in stabilizing it, ultimately modulating the functional output of FNRs.

  4. Mycobacterial F420H2-Dependent Reductases Promiscuously Reduce Diverse Compounds through a Common Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Greening, Chris; Jirapanjawat, Thanavit; Afroze, Shahana; Ney, Blair; Scott, Colin; Pandey, Gunjan; Lee, Brendon M.; Russell, Robyn J.; Jackson, Colin J.; Oakeshott, John G.; Taylor, Matthew C.; Warden, Andrew C.

    2017-01-01

    An unusual aspect of actinobacterial metabolism is the use of the redox cofactor F420. Studies have shown that actinobacterial F420H2-dependent reductases promiscuously hydrogenate diverse organic compounds in biodegradative and biosynthetic processes. These enzymes therefore represent promising candidates for next-generation industrial biocatalysts. In this work, we undertook the first broad survey of these enzymes as potential industrial biocatalysts by exploring the extent, as well as mechanistic and structural bases, of their substrate promiscuity. We expressed and purified 11 enzymes from seven subgroups of the flavin/deazaflavin oxidoreductase (FDOR) superfamily (A1, A2, A3, B1, B2, B3, B4) from the model soil actinobacterium Mycobacterium smegmatis. These enzymes reduced compounds from six chemical classes, including fundamental monocycles such as a cyclohexenone, a dihydropyran, and pyrones, as well as more complex quinone, coumarin, and arylmethane compounds. Substrate range and reduction rates varied between the enzymes, with the A1, A3, and B1 groups exhibiting greatest promiscuity. Molecular docking studies suggested that structurally diverse compounds are accommodated in the large substrate-binding pocket of the most promiscuous FDOR through hydrophobic interactions with conserved aromatic residues and the isoalloxazine headgroup of F420H2. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of derivatized reaction products showed reduction occurred through a common mechanism involving hydride transfer from F420H- to the electron-deficient alkene groups of substrates. Reduction occurs when the hydride donor (C5 of F420H-) is proximal to the acceptor (electrophilic alkene of the substrate). These findings suggest that engineered actinobacterial F420H2-dependent reductases are promising novel biocatalysts for the facile transformation of a wide range of α,β-unsaturated compounds. PMID:28620367

  5. Protein complexing in a methanogen suggests electron bifurcation and electron delivery from formate to heterodisulfide reductase

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Kyle C.; Wong, Phoebe M.; Wang, Tiansong; Lie, Thomas J.; Dodsworth, Jeremy A.; Swanson, Ingrid; Burn, June A.; Hackett, Murray; Leigh, John A.

    2010-01-01

    In methanogenic Archaea, the final step of methanogenesis generates methane and a heterodisulfide of coenzyme M and coenzyme B (CoM-S-S-CoB). Reduction of this heterodisulfide by heterodisulfide reductase to regenerate HS-CoM and HS-CoB is an exergonic process. Thauer et al. [Thauer, et al. 2008 Nat Rev Microbiol 6:579–591] recently suggested that in hydrogenotrophic methanogens the energy of heterodisulfide reduction powers the most endergonic reaction in the pathway, catalyzed by the formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase, via flavin-based electron bifurcation. Here we present evidence that these two steps in methanogenesis are physically linked. We identify a protein complex from the hydrogenotrophic methanogen, Methanococcus maripaludis, that contains heterodisulfide reductase, formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase, F420-nonreducing hydrogenase, and formate dehydrogenase. In addition to establishing a physical basis for the electron-bifurcation model of energy conservation, the composition of the complex also suggests that either H2 or formate (two alternative electron donors for methanogenesis) can donate electrons to the heterodisulfide-H2 via F420-nonreducing hydrogenase or formate via formate dehydrogenase. Electron flow from formate to the heterodisulfide rather than the use of H2 as an intermediate represents a previously unknown path of electron flow in methanogenesis. We further tested whether this path occurs by constructing a mutant lacking F420-nonreducing hydrogenase. The mutant displayed growth equal to wild-type with formate but markedly slower growth with hydrogen. The results support the model of electron bifurcation and suggest that formate, like H2, is closely integrated into the methanogenic pathway. PMID:20534465

  6. A dissimilatory nitrite reductase in Paracoccus halodenitrificans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, M. A.; Hochstein, L. I.

    1984-01-01

    Paracoccus halodenitrificans produced a membrane-associated nitrite reductase. Spectrophotometric analysis showed it to be associated with a cd-cytochrome and located on the inner side of the cytoplasmic membrane. When supplied with nitrite, membrane preparations produced nitrous oxide and nitric oxide in different ratios depending on the electron donor employed. The nitrite reductase was maximally active at relatively low concentrations of sodium chloride and remained attached to the membranes at 100 mM sodium chloride.

  7. A dissimilatory nitrite reductase in Paracoccus halodenitrificans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, M. A.; Hochstein, L. I.

    1984-01-01

    Paracoccus halodenitrificans produced a membrane-associated nitrite reductase. Spectrophotometric analysis showed it to be associated with a cd-cytochrome and located on the inner side of the cytoplasmic membrane. When supplied with nitrite, membrane preparations produced nitrous oxide and nitric oxide in different ratios depending on the electron donor employed. The nitrite reductase was maximally active at relatively low concentrations of sodium chloride and remained attached to the membranes at 100 mM sodium chloride.

  8. An Unusual Flavin-Dependent Halogenase from the Metagenome of the Marine Sponge Theonella swinhoei WA.

    PubMed

    Smith, Duncan R M; Uria, Agustinus R; Helfrich, Eric J N; Milbredt, Daniela; van Pée, Karl-Heinz; Piel, Jörn; Goss, Rebecca J M

    2017-05-19

    Uncultured bacteria from sponges have been demonstrated to be responsible for the generation of many potent, bioactive natural products including halogenated metabolites.1 The identification of gene clusters from the metagenomes of such bacterial communities enables the discovery of enzymes that mediate new and useful chemistries and allows insight to be gained into the biogenesis of potentially pharmacologically important natural products. Here we report a new pathway to the keramamides (krm); the first functional evidence for the existence of a distinct producer in the Theonella swinhoei WA chemotype is revealed, and a key enzyme on the pathway, a unique flavin-dependent halogenase with a broad substrate specificity, with potential as a useful new biocatalytic tool, is described.

  9. Bacterial degradation of styrene involving a novel flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent styrene monooxygenase.

    PubMed Central

    Hartmans, S; van der Werf, M J; de Bont, J A

    1990-01-01

    By using styrene as the sole source of carbon and energy in concentrations of 10 to 500 microM, 14 strains of aerobic bacteria and two strains of fungi were isolated from various soil and water samples. In cell extracts of 11 of the bacterial isolates, a novel flavin adenine dinucleotide-requiring styrene monooxygenase activity that oxidized styrene to styrene oxide (phenyl oxirane) was detected. In one bacterial strain (S5), styrene metabolism was studied in more detail. In addition to styrene monooxygenase, cell extracts from strain S5 contained styrene oxide isomerase and phenylacetaldehyde dehydrogenase activities. A pathway for styrene degradation via styrene oxide and phenylacetaldehyde to phenylacetic acid is proposed. PMID:2339888

  10. A prebiotic role for 8-oxoguanosine as a flavin mimic in pyrimidine dimer photorepair.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Khiem Van; Burrows, Cynthia J

    2011-09-21

    Redox-active enzyme cofactors derived from ribonucleotides have been called "fossils of the RNA world," suggesting that early catalysts employed modified nucleobases to facilitate redox chemistry in primitive metabolism. Here, we show that the common oxidative damage product 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (OG), when incorporated into a DNA or RNA strand in proximity to a cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer, can mimic the function of a flavin in photorepair. The OG nucleotide acts catalytically in a mechanism consistent with that of photolyase in which the photoexcited state of the purine donates an electron to a pyrimidine dimer to initiate bond cleavage; subsequent back electron transfer regenerates OG. This unusual example of one form of DNA damage, oxidation, functioning to repair another, photodimerization, may provide insight into the origins of prebiotic redox processes.

  11. Overcoming co-product inhibition in the nicotinamide independent asymmetric bioreduction of activated C=C-bonds using flavin-dependent ene-reductases.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Christoph K; Clay, Dorina; van Heerden, Esta; Faber, Kurt

    2013-12-01

    Eleven flavoproteins from the old yellow enzyme family were found to catalyze the disproportionation ("dismutation") of conjugated enones. Incomplete conversions, which were attributed to enzyme inhibition by the co-product phenol could be circumvented via in situ co-product removal by scavenging the phenol using the polymeric adsorbent MP-carbonate. The optimized system allowed to reduce an alkene activated by ester groups in a "coupled-substrate" approach via nicotinamide-free hydrogen transfer with >90% conversion and complete stereoselectivity.

  12. Flavin binding to the deca-heme cytochrome MtrC: Insights from computational molecular simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Breuer, Marian; Rosso, Kevin  M.; Blumberger, Jochen

    2015-12-15

    Here, certain dissimilatory bacteria have the remarkable ability to use extracellular metal oxide minerals instead of oxygen as terminal electron sinks, using a process known as “extracellular respiration”. Specialized multiheme cytochromes located on the outer membrane of the microbe were shown to be crucial for electron transfer from the cell surface to the mineral. This process is facilitated by soluble, biogenic flavins secreted by the organism for the purpose of acting as an electron shuttle. However, their interactions with the outer-membrane cytochromes are not established on a molecular scale. Here, we study the interaction between the outer-membrane deca-heme cytochrome MtrCmore » from Shewanella oneidensis and flavin mononucleotide (FMN in fully oxidized quinone form) using computational docking. We find that interaction of FMN with MtrC is significantly weaker than with known FMN-binding proteins, but identify a mildly preferred interaction site close to heme 2 with a dissociation constant (Kd) = 490 μM, in good agreement with recent experimental estimates, Kd = 255 μM. The weak interaction with MtrC can be qualitatively explained by the smaller number of hydrogen bonds that the planar headgroup of FMN can form with this protein compared to FMN-binding proteins. Molecular dynamics simulation gives indications for a possible conformational switch upon cleavage of the disulphide bond of MtrC, but without concomitant increase in binding affinities according to this docking study. Overall, our results suggest that binding of FMN to MtrC is reversible and not highly specific, which may be consistent with a role as redox shuttle that facilitates extracellular respiration.« less

  13. Flavin Binding to the Deca-heme Cytochrome MtrC: Insights from Computational Molecular Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Breuer, Marian; Rosso, Kevin M.; Blumberger, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Certain dissimilatory bacteria have the remarkable ability to use extracellular metal oxide minerals instead of oxygen as terminal electron sinks, using a process known as “extracellular respiration”. Specialized multiheme cytochromes located on the outer membrane of the microbe were shown to be crucial for electron transfer from the cell surface to the mineral. This process is facilitated by soluble, biogenic flavins secreted by the organism for the purpose of acting as an electron shuttle. However, their interactions with the outer-membrane cytochromes are not established on a molecular scale. Here, we study the interaction between the outer-membrane deca-heme cytochrome MtrC from Shewanella oneidensis and flavin mononucleotide (FMN in fully oxidized quinone form) using computational docking. We find that interaction of FMN with MtrC is significantly weaker than with known FMN-binding proteins, but identify a mildly preferred interaction site close to heme 2 with a dissociation constant (Kd) = 490 μM, in good agreement with recent experimental estimates, Kd = 255 μM. The weak interaction with MtrC can be qualitatively explained by the smaller number of hydrogen bonds that the planar headgroup of FMN can form with this protein compared to FMN-binding proteins. Molecular dynamics simulation gives indications for a possible conformational switch upon cleavage of the disulphide bond of MtrC, but without concomitant increase in binding affinities according to this docking study. Overall, our results suggest that binding of FMN to MtrC is reversible and not highly specific, which may be consistent with a role as redox shuttle that facilitates extracellular respiration. PMID:26682818

  14. Initiation and duration of inhibition of flavin biosynthesis by adriamycin in rate skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Raiczyk, G.B.; Pinto, J.; Rivlin, R.S.

    1986-03-01

    The authors laboratory has previously shown that adriamycin (ADR) directly inhibits biosynthesis of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) in a dose-related fashion in rat skeletal and cardiac muscle, but not in liver and kidney at cumulative doses of 6-30 mg/kg BW. This study sought to determine when inhibition of FAD biosynthesis by ADR in skeletal muscle is first observed and how long it lasts. Two groups of adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given i.p. injections of ADR representing cumulative doses of 10-12 mg/kg BW. Age-matched and pair-fed control animals were given saline. One hour prior to sacrifice, all rats received a single s.c. injection of (/sup 14/C)riboflavin, 25 ..mu..Ci/kg body weight. Skeletal muscle surrounding the femur was excised, and aliquits of tissue were analyzed for the rate of (/sup 14/C)FAD formation using techniques of reverse isotope dilution and anion exchange column chromatography. (/sup 14/C)FAD formation in skeletal muscle within one day of ADR treatment (cumulative dose of 10 mg/kg) was reduced one-third from control levels (1768 +/- 155 vs. 1.151 +/- 174 dpm/ 100 mg tissue, mean +/- SEM, p < 0.001). This inhibitory effect of ADR persisted at least seven days after the third of 3 daily doses, which equals a cumulative dose of 12 mg/kg BW. At this time, rats treated with ADR exhibited diminished formation of FAD in skeletal muscle to 71% of control values (2038 +/- 342 vs. 1444 +/- 153, p < 0.05). This prolonged inhibitory effect on flavin metabolism underscores the need for continued nutritional management during anticancer drug therapy.

  15. Comprehensive Spectroscopic, Steady State, and Transient Kinetic Studies of a Representative Siderophore-associated Flavin Monooxygenase*

    PubMed Central

    Mayfield, Jeffery A.; Frederick, Rosanne E.; Streit, Bennett R.; Wencewicz, Timothy A.; Ballou, David P.; DuBois, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Many siderophores used for the uptake and intracellular storage of essential iron contain hydroxamate chelating groups. Their biosyntheses are typically initiated by hydroxylation of the primary amine side chains of l-ornithine or l-lysine. This reaction is catalyzed by members of a widespread family of FAD-dependent monooxygenases. Here the kinetic mechanism for a representative family member has been extensively characterized by steady state and transient kinetic methods, using heterologously expressed N5-l-ornithine monooxygenase from the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Spectroscopic data and kinetic analyses suggest a model in which a molecule of hydroxylatable substrate serves as an activator for the reaction of the reduced flavin and O2. The rate acceleration is only ∼5-fold, a mild effect of substrate on formation of the C4a-hydroperoxide that does not influence the overall rate of turnover. The effect is also observed with the bacterial ornithine monooxygenase PvdA. The C4a-hydroperoxide is stabilized in the absence of hydroxylatable substrate by the presence of bound NADP+ (t½ = 33 min, 25 °C, pH 8). NADP+ therefore is a likely regulator of O2 and substrate reactivity in the siderophore-associated monooxygenases. Aside from the activating effect of the hydroxylatable substrate, the siderophore-associated monooxygenases share a kinetic mechanism with the hepatic microsomal flavin monooxygenases and bacterial Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases, with which they share only moderate sequence homology and from which they are distinguished by their acute substrate specificity. The remarkable specificity of the N5-l-ornithine monooxygenase-catalyzed reaction suggests added means of reaction control beyond those documented in related well characterized flavoenzymes. PMID:20650894

  16. Fullerene-Assisted Photoinduced Charge Transfer of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes through a Flavin Helix.

    PubMed

    Mollahosseini, Mehdi; Karunaratne, Erandika; Gibson, George N; Gascón, Jose A; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios

    2016-05-11

    One of the greatest challenges with single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) photovoltaics and nanostructured devices is maintaining the nanotubes in their pristine state (i.e., devoid of aggregation and inhomogeneous doping) so that their unique spectroscopic and transport characteristics are preserved. To this effect, we report on the synthesis and self-assembly of a C60-functionalized flavin (FC60), composed of PCBM and isoalloxazine moieties attached on either ends of a linear, C-12 aliphatic spacer. Small amounts of FC60 (up to 3 molar %) were shown to coassembly with an organic soluble derivative of flavin (FC12) around SWNTs and impart effective dispersion and individualization. A key annealing step was necessary to perfect the isoalloxazine helix and expel the C60 moiety away from the nanotubes. Steady-state and transient absorption spectroscopy illustrate that 1% or higher incorporation of FC60 allows for an effective photoinduced charge transfer quenching of the encased SWNTs through the seamless helical encase. This is enabled via the direct π-π overlap between the graphene sidewalls, isoalloxazine helix, and the C60 cage that facilitates SWNT exciton dissociation and electron transfer to the PCBM moiety. Atomistic molecular simulations indicate that the stability of the complex originates from enhanced van der Waals interactions of the flexible spacer wrapped around the fullerene that brings the C60 in π-π overlap with the isoalloxazine helix. The remarkable spectral purity (in terms of narrow E(S)ii line widths) for the resulting ground-state complex signals a new class of highly organized supramolecular nanotube architecture with profound importance for advanced nanostructured devices.

  17. Flavin Binding to the Deca-heme Cytochrome MtrC: Insights from Computational Molecular Simulation.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Marian; Rosso, Kevin M; Blumberger, Jochen

    2015-12-15

    Certain dissimilatory bacteria have the remarkable ability to use extracellular metal oxide minerals instead of oxygen as terminal electron sinks, using a process known as "extracellular respiration". Specialized multiheme cytochromes located on the outer membrane of the microbe were shown to be crucial for electron transfer from the cell surface to the mineral. This process is facilitated by soluble, biogenic flavins secreted by the organism for the purpose of acting as an electron shuttle. However, their interactions with the outer-membrane cytochromes are not established on a molecular scale. Here, we study the interaction between the outer-membrane deca-heme cytochrome MtrC from Shewanella oneidensis and flavin mononucleotide (FMN in fully oxidized quinone form) using computational docking. We find that interaction of FMN with MtrC is significantly weaker than with known FMN-binding proteins, but identify a mildly preferred interaction site close to heme 2 with a dissociation constant (Kd) = 490 μM, in good agreement with recent experimental estimates, Kd = 255 μM. The weak interaction with MtrC can be qualitatively explained by the smaller number of hydrogen bonds that the planar headgroup of FMN can form with this protein compared to FMN-binding proteins. Molecular dynamics simulation gives indications for a possible conformational switch upon cleavage of the disulphide bond of MtrC, but without concomitant increase in binding affinities according to this docking study. Overall, our results suggest that binding of FMN to MtrC is reversible and not highly specific, which may be consistent with a role as redox shuttle that facilitates extracellular respiration.

  18. Characterization of thyroidal glutathione reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Raasch, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Glutathione levels were determined in bovine and rat thyroid tissue by enzymatic conjugation with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene using glutathione S-transferase. Bovine thyroid tissue contained 1.31 {+-} 0.04 mM reduced glutathione (GSH) and 0.14 {+-} 0.02 mM oxidized glutathione (GSSG). In the rat, the concentration of GSH was 2.50 {+-} 0.05 mM while GSSG was 0.21 {+-} 0.03 mM. Glutathione reductase (GR) was purified from bovine thyroid to electrophoretic homogeneity by ion exchange, affinity and molecular exclusion chromatography. A molecular weight range of 102-109 kDa and subunit size of 55 kDa were determined for GR. Thyroidal GR was shown to be a favoprotein with one FAD per subunit. The Michaelis constants of bovine thyroidal GR were determined to be 21.8 {mu}M for NADPH and 58.8 {mu}M for GSSG. The effect of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine (T{sub 4}) on in vivo levels of GR and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase were determined in rat thyroid homogenates. Both enzymes were stimulated by TSH treatment and markedly reduced following T{sub 4} treatment. Lysosomal hydrolysis of ({sup 125}I)-labeled and unlabeled thyroglobulin was examined using size exclusion HPLC.

  19. Thioredoxin Reductase and its Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Saccoccia, Fulvio; Angelucci, Francesco; Boumis, Giovanna; Carotti, Daniela; Desiato, Gianni; Miele, Adriana E; Bellelli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Thioredoxin plays a crucial role in a wide number of physiological processes, which span from reduction of nucleotides to deoxyriboucleotides to the detoxification from xenobiotics, oxidants and radicals. The redox function of Thioredoxin is critically dependent on the enzyme Thioredoxin NADPH Reductase (TrxR). In view of its indirect involvement in the above mentioned physio/pathological processes, inhibition of TrxR is an important clinical goal. As a general rule, the affinities and mechanisms of binding of TrxR inhibitors to the target enzyme are known with scarce precision and conflicting results abound in the literature. A relevant analysis of published results as well as the experimental procedures is therefore needed, also in view of the critical interest of TrxR inhibitors. We review the inhibitors of TrxR and related flavoreductases and the classical treatment of reversible, competitive, non competitive and uncompetitive inhibition with respect to TrxR, and in some cases we are able to reconcile contradictory results generated by oversimplified data analysis. PMID:24875642

  20. Activation of misonidazole by rat liver microsomes and purified NADPH-cytochrome c reductase.

    PubMed

    McManus, M E; Lang, M A; Stuart, K; Strong, J

    1982-02-15

    Rat liver microsomes and purified NADPH-cytochrome c reductase metabolized [14C]misonidazole anaerobically to a reactive intermediate that covalently binds to tissue macromolecules. Air strongly inhibited the binding whereas carbon monoxide had no effect, indicating that misonidazole is activated via reduction and not by cytochrome P-450-dependent oxidation. Both systems showed an absolute requirement for NADPH and were stimulated by flavine (FAD) and paraquat. The apparent Km for misonidazole binding to microsomal protein was 0.74 mM the apparent Vmax was 0.64 nmole 14C bound . mg-1 . min-1. At a single substrate concentration, nitrofurantoin, nitrofurazone and desmethylmisonidazole inhibited the covalent binding of misonidazole to microsomal protein by 47, 26, and 38% respectively. The effect of nitrofurantoin on the kinetics of misonidazole binding gave a complex interaction indicative of uncompetitive inhibition. Glutathione reduced the binding of misonidazole to microsomal protein below the level observed for boiled microsomes while ascorbic acid had no effect. Compared to nitrofurantoin and paraquat, misonidazole was a poor stimulator of superoxide production as measured by adrenochrome formation.

  1. Protein motifs involved in coenzyme interaction and enzymatic efficiency in anabaena ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase.

    PubMed

    Peregrina, José R; Herguedas, Beatriz; Hermoso, Juan A; Martínez-Júlvez, Marta; Medina, Milagros

    2009-04-14

    Ferredoxin-NADP+ reductases (FNRs) must determine the coenzyme specificity and allow the transient encounter between N5 of its flavin cofactor and C4 of the coenzyme nicotinamide for efficient hydride transfer. Combined site-directed replacements in different putative determinants of the FNR coenzyme specificity were simultaneously produced. The resulting variants were structurally and functionally analyzed for their binding and hydride transfer abilities to the FNR physiological coenzyme NADP+/H, as well as to NAD+/H. The previously studied Y303S mutation is the only one that significantly enhances specificity for NAD+. Combination of mutations from the pyrophosphate or 2'-phosphate regions, even including Y303S, does not improve activity with NAD+, despite structures of these FNRs show how particular coenzyme-binding regions resembled motifs found in NAD+/H-dependent enzymes of the FNR family. Therefore, the "rational approach" did not succeed well, and coenzyme specificity redesign in the FNR family will be more complex than that anticipated in other NADP+/NAD+ families.

  2. Enoate reductases from non conventional yeasts: bioconversion, cloning, and functional expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Raimondi, Stefano; Romano, Diego; Amaretti, Alberto; Molinari, Francesco; Rossi, Maddalena

    2011-12-20

    Old yellow enzymes (OYEs, EC 1.6.99.1) are flavin-dependent oxidoreductases that catalyze the stereoselective trans-hydrogenation of the double bond, representing a promising alternative to metal-based catalysis. Bioconversion of ketoisophorone (KIP) by 28 non-conventional yeasts belonging to 16 different species was investigated. Growing cells of most of the strains reduced KIP via OYE and showed high stereoselectivity, producing R-levodione as major product. Competition by carbonyl reductase (CR) activity was observed in several strains. The best performing yeasts belong to Candida castellii, Kazachstania spencerorum and Kluyveromyces marxianus exhibited yields of levodione ≥77% up to 95% e.e., and. Candida freyschussii, the sole strain lacking the OYE gene, reduced KIP only to unsaturated alcohols via CR. Nine unedited OYE genes were cloned, sequenced, and heterologously expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741ΔOye2, a mutant that showed negligible OYE and CR activities. Compared with the corresponding wild-type yeasts, growing cells of the recombinant strains bioconverted KIP with improved yields of OYE products, minor competition by CR activity, and lower enantioselectivity. In particular, resting cells of recombinant S. cerevisae presented the best performance in KIP bioconversion. Based on the results herein reported, selected strains of non-conventional yeasts and novel OYE genes can be profitably used as innovative biocatalysts in asymmetric reductions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Purification and properties of glutathione reductase from the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain 7119.

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, A; Rivas, J; Losada, M

    1984-01-01

    An NADPH-glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) has been purified 6,000-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity from the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain 7119. The purified enzyme exhibits a specific activity of 249 U/mg and is characterized by being a dimeric flavin adenine dinucleotide-containing protein with a ratio of absorbance at 280 nm to absorbance at 462 nm of 5.8, a native molecular weight of 104,000, a Stokes radius of 4.13 nm, and a pI of 4.02. The enzyme activity is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents and heavy-metal ions, especially in the presence of NADPH, with oxidized glutathione behaving as a protective agent. As is the case with the same enzyme from other sources, the kinetic data are consistent with a branched mechanism. Nevertheless, the cyanobacterial enzyme presents three distinctive features with respect to that isolated from non-photosynthetic organisms: (i) absolute specificity for NADPH, (ii) an alkaline optimum pH value of ca. 9.0, and (iii) strong acidic character of the protein, as estimated by column chromatofocusing. The kinetic parameters are very similar to those found for the chloroplast enzyme, but the molecular weight is lower, being comparable to that of non-photosynthetic microorganisms. A protective function, analogous to that assigned to the chloroplast enzyme, is suggested. Images PMID:6425264

  4. Association of C677T transition of the human methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene with male infertility.

    PubMed

    Karimian, Mohammad; Colagar, Abasalt Hosseinzadeh

    2016-04-01

    The human methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene encodes one of the key enzymes in folate metabolism. This gene is located on chromosome 1 (1p36.3), which has 12 exons. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible association of the two (C677T and A1298C) polymorphisms of this gene with male infertility. In a case-control study, 250 blood samples were collected from IVF centres in Sari and Babol (Iran): 118 samples were from oligospermic men and 132 were from controls. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms of the MTHFR genotype were detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. There was no association found between the A1298C variant and male infertility. However, carriers of the 677T allele (CT and TT genotypes) were at a higher risk of infertility than individuals with other genotypes (odds ratio 1.84; 95% confidence interval 1.11-3.04; P=0.0174). Structural analysis of human MTHFR flavoprotein showed that C677T transition played an important role in the change in affinity of the MTHFR-Flavin adenine dinucleotide binding site. Based on our results, we suggest that C677T transition in MTHFR may increase the risk of male infertility, and detection of the C677T polymorphism biomarker may be helpful in the screening of idiopathic male infertility.

  5. Biochemical characterization of an L-Xylulose reductase from Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Nair, Nikhil; Zhao, Huimin

    2007-03-01

    An l-xylulose reductase identified from the genome sequence of the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as a His(6) tag fusion protein, purified, and characterized. The enzyme may be used in the production of xylitol from the major pentose components of hemicellulosic waste, d-xylose and l-arabinose.

  6. The anaerobic ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase from Escherichia coli requires S-adenosylmethionine as a cofactor.

    PubMed Central

    Eliasson, R; Fontecave, M; Jörnvall, H; Krook, M; Pontis, E; Reichard, P

    1990-01-01

    Extracts from anaerobically grown Escherichia coli contain an oxygen-sensitive activity that reduces CTP to dCTP in the presence of NADPH, dithiothreitol, Mg2+ ions, and ATP, different from the aerobic ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase (2'-deoxyribonucleoside-diphosphate: oxidized-thioredoxin 2'-oxidoreductase, EC 1.17.4.1) present in aerobically grown E. coli. After fractionation, the activity required at least five components, two heat-labile protein fractions and several low molecular weight fractions. One protein fraction, suggested to represent the actual ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase was purified extensively and on denaturing gel electrophoresis gave rise to several defined protein bands, all of which were stained by a polyclonal antibody against one of the two subunits (protein B1) of the aerobic reductase but not by monoclonal anti-B1 antibodies. Peptide mapping and sequence analyses revealed partly common structures between two types of protein bands but also suggested the presence of an additional component. Obviously, the preparations are heterogeneous and the structure of the reductase is not yet established. The second, crude protein fraction is believed to contain several ancillary enzymes required for the reaction. One of the low molecular weight components is S-adenosylmethionine; a second component is a loosely bound metal. We propose that S-adenosylmethionine together with a metal participates in the generation of the radical required for the reduction of carbon 2' of the ribosyl moiety of CTP. Images PMID:2185465

  7. Purification and characterization of the reduced-nicotinamide-dependent 2,2'-dithiodiethanesulfonate reductase from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum delta H.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, S G; Rouvière, P E

    1990-01-01

    A novel reduced nicotinamide-dependent disulfide reductase, the 2,2'-dithiodiethanesulfonate [(S-CoM)2] reductase (CoMDSR) of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum was purified 405-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity. Both NADPH and NADH functioned as electron donors, although rates with NADPH were three times higher. Reduced factor F420, the deazaflavin electron carrier characteristic of methanogenic bacteria, was not a substrate for the enzyme. The enzyme was most active with (S-CoM)2 but could also reduce L-cystine at 23% the (S-CoM)2 rate. Results of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that the enzyme was monomeric with an Mr of about 64,000; spectral analysis showed that it was a flavoprotein with an estimated composition of one molecule of flavin per polypeptide. Maximal activity occurred at 64 degrees C, and the pH optimum was 8.5. The apparent Km for both NADPH and (S-CoM)2 was 80 microM. The enzyme was completely inactivated by oxygen in crude cell extracts but was oxygen stable in the homogeneous state. The low activity of the CoMDSR in cell extracts as well as its relatively low rate of reducing CoM-S-S-HTP (the heterodisulfide of the two thiol cofactors involved in the last step of methanogenesis) make it unlikely that it plays a role in the methylreductase system. It may be involved in the redox balance of the cell, such as the NADPH-dependent bis-gamma-glutamylcystine reductase with which it shows physical similarity in another archaebacterium, Halobacterium halobium (A. R. Sundquist and R. C. Fahey, J. Bacteriol. 170:3459-3467, 1988). The CoMDSR might also be involved in regenerating the coenzyme M trapped as its homodisulfide, a nonutilizable form of the cofactor. Images PMID:2228967

  8. The aldo-keto reductase superfamily homepage.

    PubMed

    Hyndman, David; Bauman, David R; Heredia, Vladi V; Penning, Trevor M

    2003-02-01

    The aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) are one of the three enzyme superfamilies that perform oxidoreduction on a wide variety of natural and foreign substrates. A systematic nomenclature for the AKR superfamily was adopted in 1996 and was updated in September 2000 (visit www.med.upenn.edu/akr). Investigators have been diligent in submitting sequences of functional proteins to the Web site. With the new additions, the superfamily contains 114 proteins expressed in prokaryotes and eukaryotes that are distributed over 14 families (AKR1-AKR14). The AKR1 family contains the aldose reductases, the aldehyde reductases, the hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and steroid 5beta-reductases, and is the largest. Other families of interest include AKR6, which includes potassium channel beta-subunits, and AKR7 the aflatoxin aldehyde reductases. Two new families include AKR13 (yeast aldose reductase) and AKR14 (Escherichia coli aldehyde reductase). Crystal structures of many AKRs and their complexes with ligands are available in the PDB and accessible through the Web site. Each structure has the characteristic (alpha/beta)(8)-barrel motif of the superfamily, a conserved cofactor binding site and a catalytic tetrad, and variable loop structures that define substrate specificity. Although the majority of AKRs are monomeric proteins of about 320 amino acids in length, the AKR2, AKR6 and AKR7 family may form multimers. To expand the nomenclature to accommodate multimers, we recommend that the composition and stoichiometry be listed. For example, AKR7A1:AKR7A4 (1:3) would designate a tetramer of the composition indicated. The current nomenclature is recognized by the Human Genome Project (HUGO) and the Web site provides a link to genomic information including chromosomal localization, gene boundaries, human ESTs and SNPs and much more.

  9. Partial glutathione reductase deficiency as a cause of diverse clinical manifestations in a family with unstable hemoglobin (Hemoglobin Haná, β63(E7) His-Asn).

    PubMed

    Mojzikova, Renata; Dolezel, Petr; Pavlicek, Jiri; Mlejnek, Petr; Pospisilova, Dagmar; Divoky, Vladimir

    2010-10-15

    Hemoglobin Haná [β63(E7) His-Asn] is an unstable hemoglobin variant that was described in a Czech proband and her sister with Heinz body hemolytic anemia. The mother bearing the same mutation was asymptomatic; nevertheless, all three carriers had the same proportion of the mutant globin chains. Assessment of several erythrocyte antioxidant parameters revealed that both symptomatic children, unlike their asymptomatic mother, had significantly decreased glutathione reductase (GR) activity. Their GR activities were restorable in vitro by flavin adenine dinucleotide. The riboflavin supplementation improved their glutathione metabolism and ameliorated their hemolysis. Pre- and post-treatment assessment of the B(2) vitamers indicated suboptimal pre-treatment vitamin B(2) status in both children. This study provides evidence that partial GR deficiency may alter the clinical manifestation of an unstable hemoglobinopathy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An enoate reductase Achr-OYE4 from Achromobacter sp. JA81: characterization and application in asymmetric bioreduction of C=C bonds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Bo; Pei, Xiao-Qiong; Wu, Zhong-Liu

    2014-01-01

    A putative enoate reductase, Achr-OYE4, was mined from the genome of Achromobacter sp. JA81, expressed in Escherichia coli, and was characterized. Sequence analysis and spectral properties indicated that Achr-OYE4 is a typical flavin mononucleotide-dependent protein; it preferred NADH over NADPH as a cofactor. The heterologously expressed protein displayed good activity and excellent stereoselectivity toward some activated alkenes in the presence of NADH, NADPH, or their recycling systems. The glucose dehydrogenase-based recycling system yielded the best results in most cases, with a product yield of up to 99 % and enantiopurity of >99 % ee. Achr-OYE4 is an important addition to the asymmetric reduction reservoir as an "old yellow enzyme" from Achromobacter.

  11. Conformational change in cytochrome P450 reductase adsorbed at a Au(110)—phosphate buffer interface induced by interaction with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C. I.; Convery, J. H.; Harrison, P.; Khara, B.; Scrutton, N. S.; Weightman, P.

    2014-08-01

    Changes observed in the reflection anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) profiles of monolayers of cytochrome P450 reductase adsorbed at Au(110)-electrolyte interfaces at 0.056 V following the addition of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+) are explained in terms of a simple model as arising from changes in the orientation of an isoalloxazine ring located in the flavin mononucleotide binding domain of the protein. The model also accounts for the changes observed in the RAS as the potential applied to the Au(110) surface is varied and suggests that differences in the dependence of the RAS profile of the adsorbed protein on the potential applied to the electrode in the absence and presence of NADP+ are explicable as arising from a competition between the applied potential acting to reduce the protein and the NADP+ to oxidize it.

  12. Chicken muscle aldose reductase: purification, properties and relationship to other chicken aldo/keto reductases.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D G; Davidson, W S

    1986-01-01

    An enzyme that catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a wide range of aromatic and hydroxy-aliphatic aldehydes was purified from chicken breast muscle. This enzyme shares many properties with mammalian aldose reductases including molecular weight, relative substrate specificity, Michaelis constants, an inhibitor specificity. Therefore, it seems appropriate to call this enzyme an aldose reductase (EC 1.1.1.21). Chicken muscle aldose reductase appears to be kinetically identical to an aldose reductase that has been purified from chicken kidney (Hara et al., Eur. J. Biochem. 133, 207-214) and to hen muscle L-glycol dehydrogenase (Bernado et al., Biochim. biophys. Acta 659, 189-198). The association of this aldose reductase with muscular dystrophy in the chick is discussed.

  13. Effects of soluble flavin on heterogeneous electron transfer between surface-exposed bacterial cytochromes and iron oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zheming; Shi, Zhi; Shi, Liang; White, Gaye F.; Richardson, David J.; Clarke, Thomas A.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.

    2015-08-01

    Dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria can utilize insoluble Fe(Mn)-oxides as a terminal electron acceptor under anaerobic conditions. For Shewanella species specifically, evidence suggests that iron reduction is associated with the secretion of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and riboflavin. However, the exact mechanism of flavin involvement is unclear; while some indicate that flavins mediate electron transfer (Marsili et al., 2008), others point to flavin serving as co-factors to outer membrane proteins (Okamoto et al., 2013). In this work, we used methyl viologen (MVrad +)-encapsulated, porin-cytochrome complex (MtrCAB) embedded liposomes (MELs) as a synthetic model of the Shewanella outer membrane to investigate the proposed mediating behavior of microbially produced flavins. The reduction kinetics of goethite, hematite and lepidocrocite (200 μM) by MELs ([MVrad +] ∼ 40 μM and MtrABC ⩽ 1 nM) were determined in the presence FMN at pH 7.0 in N2 atmosphere by monitoring the concentrations of MVrad + and FMN through their characteristic UV-visible absorption spectra. Experiments were performed where (i) FMN and Fe(III)-oxide were mixed and then reacted with the reduced MELs and (ii) FMN was reacted with the reduced MELs followed by addition of Fe(III)-oxide. The redox reactions proceeded in two steps: a fast step that was completed in a few seconds, and a slower one lasting over 400 s. For all three Fe(III)-oxides, the initial reaction rate in the presence of a low concentration of FMN (⩽1 μM) was at least a factor of five faster than those with MELs alone, and orders of magnitude faster than those by FMNH2, suggesting that FMN may serve as a co-factor that enhances electron transfer from outer-membrane c-cytochromes to Fe(III)-oxides. The rate and extent of the initial reaction followed the order of lepidocrocite > hematite > goethite, the same as their reduction potentials, implying thermodynamic control on reaction rate. For LEP, with the highest reduction

  14. The Assembly Factor SDHAF2 Is Dispensable for Flavination of the Catalytic Subunit of Mitochondrial Complex II in Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Bezawork-Geleta, Ayenachew; Dong, Lanfeng; Rohlena, Jakub; Neuzil, Jiri

    2016-10-07

    Mitochondrial complex II or succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is at the crossroads of oxidative phosphorylation and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. It has been shown that Sdh5 (SDHAF2/SDH5 in mammals) is required for flavination of the subunit Sdh1 (SDHA in human cells) in yeast. Here we demonstrate that in human breast cancer cells, SDHAF2/SDH5 is dispensable for SDHA flavination. In contrast to yeast, CRISPR-Cas9 nickase-mediated SDHAF2 KO breast cancer cells feature flavinated SDHA and retain fully assembled and functional complex II, as well as normal mitochondrial respiration. Our data show that SDHA flavination is independent of SDHAF2 in breast cancer cells, employing an alternative mechanism. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Co-purification of microsomal epoxide hydrolase with the warfarin-sensitive vitamin K1 oxide reductase of the vitamin K cycle.

    PubMed

    Guenthner, T M; Cai, D; Wallin, R

    1998-01-15

    Vitamin K1 oxide reductase activity has been partially purified from rat liver microsomes. A three-step procedure produced a preparation in which warfarin-sensitive vitamin K1 oxide reductase activity was 118-fold enriched over the activity in intact rat liver microsomes. A major component of the multi-protein mixture was identified as a 50 kDa protein that strongly cross-reacts with antiserum prepared against homogeneous rat liver microsomal epoxide hydrolase. The reductase preparation also had a high level or epoxide hydrolase activity against two xenobiotic epoxide substrates. The K(m) values for hydrolysis by the reductase preparation were similar to those for homogeneous microsomal epoxide hydrolase itself, and the specific hydrolase activities of the reductase preparation were 25-35% of the specific activities measured for the homogeneous hydrolase preparation. Antibodies prepared against homogeneous microsomal epoxide hydrolase inhibited up to 80% of reductase activity of the reductase preparation. Homogeneous microsomal epoxide hydrolase had no vitamin K1 oxide reductase activity. This evidence suggests that microsomal epoxide hydrolase, or a protein that is very similar to it, is a major functional component of a multi-protein complex that is responsible for vitamin K1 oxide reduction in rat liver microsomes.

  16. α-Glucosidase and aldose reductase inhibitory activities from the fruiting body of Phellinus merrillii.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guan-Jhong; Hsieh, Wen-Tsong; Chang, Heng-Yuan; Huang, Shyh-Shyun; Lin, Ying-Chih; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2011-05-25

    The inhibitory activity from the isolated component of the fruiting body Phellinus merrillii (PM) was evaluated against α-glucosidase and lens aldose reductase from Sprague-Dawley male rats and compared to the quercetin as an aldose reductase inhibitor and acarbose as an α-glucosidase inhibitor. The ethanol extracts of PM (EPM) showed the strong α-glucosidase and aldose reductase activities. α-Glucosidase and aldose reductase inhibitors were identified as hispidin (A), hispolon (B), and inotilone (C), which were isolated from EtOAc-soluble fractions of EPM. The above structures were elucidated by their spectra and comparison with the literatures. Among them, hispidin, hispolon, and inotilone exhibited potent against α-glucosidase inhibitor activity with IC(50) values of 297.06 ± 2.06, 12.38 ± 0.13, and 18.62 ± 0.23 μg/mL, respectively, and aldose reductase inhibitor activity with IC(50) values of 48.26 ± 2.48, 9.47 ± 0.52, and 15.37 ± 0.32 μg/mL, respectively. These findings demonstrated that PM may be a good source for lead compounds as alternatives for antidiabetic agents currently used. The importance of finding effective antidiabetic therapeutics led us to further investigate natural compounds.

  17. Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase from Pseudomonas fluorescens: substrate-like inhibitors both stimulate flavin reduction and stabilize the flavin-peroxo intermediate yet result in the production of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Crozier-Reabe, Karen R; Phillips, Robert S; Moran, Graham R

    2008-11-25

    Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) is a flavin-dependent hydroxylase that catalyzes the conversion of l-kynurenine (l-Kyn) to 3-hydroxykynurenine (3OHKyn) in the pathway for tryptophan catabolism. KMO inhibition has been widely suggested as an early treatment for stroke and other neurological disorders that involve ischemia. We have investigated the reductive and the oxidative half-reactions of a stable form of KMO from Pseudomonas fluorescens (KMO). The binding of l-Kyn by the enzyme is relatively slow and involves at least two reversible steps. The rate constant for reduction of the flavin cofactor by NADPH increases by a factor of approximately 2.5 x 10(3) when l-Kyn is bound. The rate of reduction of the KMO.l-Kyn complex is 160 s(-1), and the K(d) for the NADPH complex is 200 microM with charge-transfer absorption bands for the KMO(RED).l-Kyn.NADP(+) complex accumulating after reduction. The reduction potential of KMO is -188 mV and is unresponsive to the addition of l-Kyn or other inhibitory ligands. KMO inhibitors whose structures are reminiscent of l-Kyn such as m-nitrobenzoylalanine and benzoylalanine also stimulate reduction of flavin by NADPH and, in the presence of dioxygen, result in the stoichiometric liberation of hydrogen peroxide, diminishing the perceived therapeutic potential of inhibitors of this type. In the presence of the native substrate, the oxidative half-reaction exhibits triphasic absorbance data. A spectrum consistent with that of a peroxyflavin species accumulates and then decays to yield the oxidized enzyme. This species then undergoes minor spectral changes that, based on flavin difference spectra defined in the presence of 3OHKyn, can be correlated with product release. The oxidative half-reaction observed in the presence of saturating benzoylalanine or m-nitrobenzoylalanine also shows the accumulation of a peroxyflavin species that then decays to yield hydrogen peroxide without hydroxylation.

  18. The C-terminal extension of bacterial flavodoxin-reductases: involvement in the hydride transfer mechanism from the coenzyme.

    PubMed

    Bortolotti, Ana; Sánchez-Azqueta, Ana; Maya, Celia M; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Hermoso, Juan A; Medina, Milagros; Cortez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    To study the role of the mobile C-terminal extension present in bacterial class of plant type NADP(H):ferredoxin reductases during catalysis, we generated a series of mutants of the Rhodobacter capsulatus enzyme (RcFPR). Deletion of the six C-terminal amino acids beyond alanine 266 was combined with the replacement A266Y, emulating the structure present in plastidic versions of this flavoenzyme. Analysis of absorbance and fluorescence spectra suggests that deletion does not modify the general geometry of FAD itself, but increases exposure of the flavin to the solvent, prevents a productive geometry of FAD:NADP(H) complex and decreases the protein thermal stability. Although the replacement A266Y partially coats the isoalloxazine from solvent and slightly restores protein stability, this single change does not allow formation of active charge-transfer complexes commonly present in the wild-type FPR, probably due to restraints of C-terminus pliability. A proton exchange process is deduced from ITC measurements during coenzyme binding. All studied RcFPR variants display higher affinity for NADP(+) than wild-type, evidencing the contribution of the C-terminus in tempering a non-productive strong (rigid) interaction with the coenzyme. The decreased catalytic rate parameters confirm that the hydride transfer from NADPH to the flavin ring is considerably hampered in the mutants. Although the involvement of the C-terminal extension from bacterial FPRs in stabilizing overall folding and bent-FAD geometry has been stated, the most relevant contributions to catalysis are modulation of coenzyme entrance and affinity, promotion of the optimal geometry of an active complex and supply of a proton acceptor acting during coenzyme binding.

  19. Ascorbate-synthesizing system in rat liver microsomes. II. A peptide-bound flavin as the prosthetic group of L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, H; Asano, A; Sato, R

    1975-01-01

    L-Gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase [EC 1.1.3.8] was purified 80-fold from rat liver microsomes. In confirmation of our previous finding with a cruder preparation, the purified enzyme was shown to contain an L-gulono-gamma-lactone-reducible pigment as a prosthetic group. This pigment was not liberated from the protein by acid ammonium sulfate, 10% trichloroacetic acid or 2 M area, but was effectively released by proteolytic digestion. The pigment thus released showed a reduced-minus-oxidized difference spectrum characteristic of a flavin compound. The pigment was liberated from a trichloroacetic acid-treated preparation of the enzyme by pronase digestion and purified by Florisil column chromatography and paper chromatography. The absorption spectrum as well as the fluorescence emission and excitation spectra of the purified pigment indicated that it was actually a flavin peptide. It was, however, different not only from FMN but also from flavin peptides isolated from other sources such as succinate dehydrogenase [EC 1.3.99.1] and monoamine oxidase [EC 1.4.3.4] as regards the pH dependence of fluorescence intensity and the Rf value on thin-layer chromatography. A preliminary analysis showed that the purified flavin compound contained several amino acid residues. Alkaline photolysis of the purified flavin peptide suggested that the isoalloxazine ring of the flavin is involved in its binding to the peptide. The hypsochromic shift of the absorption peak in the near-ultraviolet region suggested further that the linkage between the flavin and the peptide may be mediated by the 8-methyl group of the isoalloxazine nucleus. It can be concluded that the prosthetic group of gulonolactone oxidase is a flavin which is covalently bound to the enzyme protein.

  20. Nucleotide sequence of the luxC gene encoding fatty acid reductase of the lux operon from Photobacterium leiognathi.

    PubMed

    Lin, J W; Chao, Y F; Weng, S F

    1993-02-26

    The nucleotide sequence of the luxC gene (EMBL Accession No. 65156) encoding fatty acid reductase (FAR) of the lux operon from Photobacterium leiognathi PL741 was determined and the encoded amino acid sequence deduced. The fatty acid reductase is a component of the fatty acid reductase complex. The complex is responsible for converting fatty acid to aldehyde which serves as the substrate in the luciferase-catalyzed bioluminescent reaction. The protein comprises 478 amino acid residues and has a calculated M(r) of 53,858. Alignment and comparison of the fatty acid reductase of P. leiognathi with that of Vibrio harveyi B392 and Vibrio fischeri ATCC 7744 shows that there is 70% and 59% amino acid residues identity, respectively.

  1. The crystal structure of NADPH:ferredoxin reductase from Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar Prasad, G.; Kresge, N.; Muhlberg, A. B.; Shaw, A.; Jung, Y. S.; Burgess, B. K.; Stout, C. D.

    1998-01-01

    NADPH:ferredoxin reductase (AvFPR) is involved in the response to oxidative stress in Azotobacter vinelandii. The crystal structure of AvFPR has been determined at 2.0 A resolution. The polypeptide fold is homologous with six other oxidoreductases whose structures have been solved including Escherichia coli flavodoxin reductase (EcFldR) and spinach, and Anabaena ferredoxin:NADP+ reductases (FNR). AvFPR is overall most homologous to EcFldR. The structure is comprised of a N-terminal six-stranded antiparallel beta-barrel domain, which binds FAD, and a C-terminal five-stranded parallel beta-sheet domain, which binds NADPH/NADP+ and has a classical nucleotide binding fold. The two domains associate to form a deep cleft where the NADPH and FAD binding sites are juxtaposed. The structure displays sequence conserved motifs in the region surrounding the two dinucleotide binding sites, which are characteristic of the homologous enzymes. The folded over conformation of FAD in AvFPR is similar to that in EcFldR due to stacking of Phe255 on the adenine ring of FAD, but it differs from that in the FNR enzymes, which lack a homologous aromatic residue. The structure of AvFPR displays three unique features in the environment of the bound FAD. Two features may affect the rate of reduction of FAD: the absence of an aromatic residue stacked on the isoalloxazine ring in the NADPH binding site; and the interaction of a carbonyl group with N10 of the flavin. Both of these features are due to the substitution of a conserved C-terminal tyrosine residue with alanine (Ala254) in AvFPR. An additional unique feature may affect the interaction of AvFPR with its redox partner ferredoxin I (FdI). This is the extension of the C-terminus by three residues relative to EcFldR and by four residues relative to FNR. The C-terminal residue, Lys258, interacts with the AMP phosphate of FAD. Consequently, both phosphate groups are paired with a basic group due to the simultaneous interaction of the FMN

  2. Heterotrimeric NADH-oxidizing methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase from the acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii.

    PubMed

    Bertsch, Johannes; Öppinger, Christian; Hess, Verena; Langer, Julian D; Müller, Volker

    2015-05-01

    The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) of acetogenic bacteria catalyzes the reduction of methylene-THF, which is highly exergonic with NADH as the reductant. Therefore, the enzyme was suggested to be involved in energy conservation by reducing ferredoxin via electron bifurcation, followed by Na(+) translocation by the Rnf complex. The enzyme was purified from Acetobacterium woodii and shown to have an unprecedented subunit composition containing the three subunits RnfC2, MetF, and MetV. The stable complex contained 2 flavin mononucleotides (FMN), 23.5 ± 1.2 Fe and 24.5 ± 1.5 S, which fits well to the predicted six [4Fe4S] clusters in MetV and RnfC2. The enzyme catalyzed NADH:methylviologen and NADH:ferricyanide oxidoreductase activity but also methylene-tetrahydrofolate (THF) reduction with NADH as the reductant. The NADH:methylene-THF reductase activity was high (248 U/mg) and not stimulated by ferredoxin. Furthermore, reduction of ferredoxin, alone or in the presence of methylene-THF and NADH, was never observed. MetF or MetVF was not able to catalyze the methylene-THF-dependent oxidation of NADH, but MetVF could reduce methylene-THF using methyl viologen as the electron donor. The purified MTHFR complex did not catalyze the reverse reaction, the endergonic oxidation of methyl-THF with NAD(+) as the acceptor, and this reaction could not be driven by reduced ferredoxin. However, addition of protein fractions made the oxidation of methyl-THF to methylene-THF coupled to NAD(+) reduction possible. Our data demonstrate that the MTHFR of A. woodii catalyzes methylene-THF reduction according to the following reaction: NADH + methylene-THF → methyl-THF + NAD(+). The differences in the subunit compositions of MTHFRs of bacteria are discussed in the light of their different functions. Energy conservation in the acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii involves ferredoxin reduction followed by a chemiosmotic mechanism involving Na(+)-translocating ferredoxin

  3. Heterotrimeric NADH-Oxidizing Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase from the Acetogenic Bacterium Acetobacterium woodii

    PubMed Central

    Bertsch, Johannes; Öppinger, Christian; Hess, Verena; Langer, Julian D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) of acetogenic bacteria catalyzes the reduction of methylene-THF, which is highly exergonic with NADH as the reductant. Therefore, the enzyme was suggested to be involved in energy conservation by reducing ferredoxin via electron bifurcation, followed by Na+ translocation by the Rnf complex. The enzyme was purified from Acetobacterium woodii and shown to have an unprecedented subunit composition containing the three subunits RnfC2, MetF, and MetV. The stable complex contained 2 flavin mononucleotides (FMN), 23.5 ± 1.2 Fe and 24.5 ± 1.5 S, which fits well to the predicted six [4Fe4S] clusters in MetV and RnfC2. The enzyme catalyzed NADH:methylviologen and NADH:ferricyanide oxidoreductase activity but also methylene-tetrahydrofolate (THF) reduction with NADH as the reductant. The NADH:methylene-THF reductase activity was high (248 U/mg) and not stimulated by ferredoxin. Furthermore, reduction of ferredoxin, alone or in the presence of methylene-THF and NADH, was never observed. MetF or MetVF was not able to catalyze the methylene-THF-dependent oxidation of NADH, but MetVF could reduce methylene-THF using methyl viologen as the electron donor. The purified MTHFR complex did not catalyze the reverse reaction, the endergonic oxidation of methyl-THF with NAD+ as the acceptor, and this reaction could not be driven by reduced ferredoxin. However, addition of protein fractions made the oxidation of methyl-THF to methylene-THF coupled to NAD+ reduction possible. Our data demonstrate that the MTHFR of A. woodii catalyzes methylene-THF reduction according to the following reaction: NADH + methylene-THF → methyl-THF + NAD+. The differences in the subunit compositions of MTHFRs of bacteria are discussed in the light of their different functions. IMPORTANCE Energy conservation in the acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii involves ferredoxin reduction followed by a chemiosmotic mechanism involving Na

  4. Flavin fluorescence lifetime imaging of living peripheral blood mononuclear cells on micro and nano-structured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teplicky, T.; Horilova, J.; Bruncko, J.; Gladine, C.; Lajdova, I.; Mateasik, A.; Chorvat, D.; Marcek Chorvatova, A.

    2015-03-01

    Fabricated micro- and nano-structured surfaces were evaluated for use with living cells. Metabolic state was tested by means of endogenous flavin fluorescence of living peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) positioned on a coverslip, non-covered, or covered with micro- or nano-structured surfaces (OrmoComp polymer structures produced by 2-photon photopolymerisation, or Zinc Oxide (ZnO) layer fabricated by pulsed laser deposition). Confocal microscopy and Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) were employed to gather flavin fluorescence lifetime images of living PBMC on structured surfaces. Gathered data are the first step towards monitoring of the live cell interaction with different micro/nano-structured surfaces and thus evaluate their potential applicability in the biomedical field.

  5. Investigations of blue light-induced reactive oxygen species from flavin mononucleotide on inactivation of E. coli.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ji-Yuan; Cheng, Chien-Wei; Yu, Chin-Hao; Chen, Liang-Yü

    2015-02-01

    The micronutrients in many cellular processes, riboflavin, flavin mononucleotide (FMN), and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are photo-sensitive to UV and visible light for generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). Produced from phosphorylation of riboflavin, FMN is more water-soluble and rapidly transformed into free riboflavin after ingestion. This study investigated the application of visible blue light with FMN to development of an effective antimicrobial treatment. The photosensitization of bacterial viability with FMN was investigated by light quality, intensity, time, and irradiation dosage. The blue light-induced photochemical reaction with FMN could inactivate Escherichiacoli by the generated ROS in damaging nucleic acids, which was validated. This novel photodynamic technique could be a safe practice for photo-induced inactivation of environmental microorganism to achieve hygienic requirements in food processing.

  6. A highly specialized flavin mononucleotide riboswitch responds differently to similar ligands and confers roseoflavin resistance to Streptomyces davawensis.

    PubMed

    Pedrolli, Danielle Biscaro; Matern, Andreas; Wang, Joy; Ester, Miriam; Siedler, Kathrin; Breaker, Ronald; Mack, Matthias

    2012-09-01

    Streptomyces davawensis is the only organism known to synthesize the antibiotic roseoflavin, a riboflavin (vitamin B2) analog. Roseoflavin is converted to roseoflavin mononucleotide (RoFMN) and roseoflavin adenine dinucleotide in the cytoplasm of target cells. (Ribo-)Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) riboswitches are genetic elements, which in many bacteria control genes responsible for the biosynthesis and transport of riboflavin. Streptomyces davawensis is roseoflavin resistant, and the closely related bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor is roseoflavin sensitive. The two bacteria served as models to investigate roseoflavin resistance of S. davawensis and to analyze the mode of action of roseoflavin in S. coelicolor. Our experiments demonstrate that the ribB FMN riboswitch of S. davawensis (in contrast to the corresponding riboswitch of S. coelicolor) is able to discriminate between the two very similar flavins FMN and RoFMN and shows opposite responses to the latter ligands.

  7. A highly specialized flavin mononucleotide riboswitch responds differently to similar ligands and confers roseoflavin resistance to Streptomyces davawensis

    PubMed Central

    Pedrolli, Danielle Biscaro; Matern, Andreas; Wang, Joy; Ester, Miriam; Siedler, Kathrin; Breaker, Ronald; Mack, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Streptomyces davawensis is the only organism known to synthesize the antibiotic roseoflavin, a riboflavin (vitamin B2) analog. Roseoflavin is converted to roseoflavin mononucleotide (RoFMN) and roseoflavin adenine dinucleotide in the cytoplasm of target cells. (Ribo-)Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) riboswitches are genetic elements, which in many bacteria control genes responsible for the biosynthesis and transport of riboflavin. Streptomyces davawensis is roseoflavin resistant, and the closely related bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor is roseoflavin sensitive. The two bacteria served as models to investigate roseoflavin resistance of S. davawensis and to analyze the mode of action of roseoflavin in S. coelicolor. Our experiments demonstrate that the ribB FMN riboswitch of S. davawensis (in contrast to the corresponding riboswitch of S. coelicolor) is able to discriminate between the two very similar flavins FMN and RoFMN and shows opposite responses to the latter ligands. PMID:22740651

  8. Flavin-induced photodecomposition of sulfur-containing amino acids is decisive in the formation of beer lightstruck flavor.

    PubMed

    Huvaere, Kevin; Andersen, Mogens L; Storme, Michael; Van Bocxlaer, Jan; Skibsted, Leif H; De Keukeleire, Denis

    2006-10-01

    Photooxidation of sulfur-containing amino acids and derivatives readily occurs upon visible-light irradiation in the presence of flavins. The sulfur moiety seems pivotal for interaction, as was determined from kinetic analyses using laser flash photolysis spectroscopy. After photooxidation, the resulting radical intermediates were characterized by addition to a spin trap, followed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and evaluation of the coupling constants. The presence of the proposed radical intermediates was strongly supported by the identification of the reaction products using mass spectrometry. Accordingly, feasible degradation pathways for various sulfur-containing amino acids and derivatives were proposed. It was finally proven that flavin-induced photoproduction of sulfhydryl radicals and recombination with a 3-methylbut-2-enyl radical, derived from the photodegradation of hop-derived isohumulones, are decisive in the formation of beer lightstruck flavor.

  9. An extended N-H bond, driven by a conserved second-order interaction, orients the flavin N5 orbital in cholesterol oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Emily; Yu, Li-Juan; Meilleur, Flora; Blakeley, Matthew P.; Duff, Anthony P.; Karton, Amir; Vrielink, Alice

    2017-01-01

    The protein microenvironment surrounding the flavin cofactor in flavoenzymes is key to the efficiency and diversity of reactions catalysed by this class of enzymes. X-ray diffraction structures of oxidoreductase flavoenzymes have revealed recurrent features which facilitate catalysis, such as a hydrogen bond between a main chain nitrogen atom and the flavin redox center (N5). A neutron diffraction study of cholesterol oxidase has revealed an unusual elongated main chain nitrogen to hydrogen bond distance positioning the hydrogen atom towards the flavin N5 reactive center. Investigation of the structural features which could cause such an unusual occurrence revealed a positively charged lysine side chain, conserved in other flavin mediated oxidoreductases, in a second shell away from the FAD cofactor acting to polarize the peptide bond through interaction with the carbonyl oxygen atom. Double-hybrid density functional theory calculations confirm that this electrostatic arrangement affects the N-H bond length in the region of the flavin reactive center. We propose a novel second-order partial-charge interaction network which enables the correct orientation of the hydride receiving orbital of N5. The implications of these observations for flavin mediated redox chemistry are discussed. PMID:28098177

  10. The TP0796 Lipoprotein of Treponema pallidum Is a Bimetal-dependent FAD Pyrophosphatase with a Potential Role in Flavin Homeostasis*

    PubMed Central

    Deka, Ranjit K.; Brautigam, Chad A.; Liu, Wei Z.; Tomchick, Diana R.; Norgard, Michael V.

    2013-01-01

    Treponema pallidum, an obligate parasite of humans and the causative agent of syphilis, has evolved the capacity to exploit host-derived metabolites for its survival. Flavin-containing compounds are essential cofactors that are required for metabolic processes in all living organisms, and riboflavin is a direct precursor of the cofactors FMN and FAD. Unlike many pathogenic bacteria, Treponema pallidum cannot synthesize riboflavin; we recently described a flavin-uptake mechanism composed of an ABC-type transporter. However, there is a paucity of information about flavin utilization in bacterial periplasms. Using a discovery-driven approach, we have identified the TP0796 lipoprotein as a previously uncharacterized Mg2+-dependent FAD pyrophosphatase within the ApbE superfamily. TP0796 probably plays a central role in flavin turnover by hydrolyzing exogenously acquired FAD, yielding AMP and FMN. Biochemical and structural investigations revealed that the enzyme has a unique bimetal Mg2+ catalytic center. Furthermore, the pyrophosphatase activity is product-inhibited by AMP, indicating a possible role for this molecule in modulating FMN and FAD levels in the treponemal periplasm. The ApbE superfamily was previously thought to be involved in thiamine biosynthesis, but our characterization of TP0796 prompts a renaming of this superfamily as a periplasmic flavin-trafficking protein (Ftp). TP0796 is the first structurally and biochemically characterized FAD pyrophosphate enzyme in bacteria. This new paradigm for a bacterial flavin utilization pathway may prove to be useful for future inhibitor design. PMID:23447540

  11. [1H NMR analysis of the complex formation of aromatic molecules of antibiotic and vitamin in aqueous solution: heteroassociation of actinomycin D and flavin mononucleotide].

    PubMed

    Veselkov, A N; Evstigneev, M P; Rozvadovskaia, A O; Mukhina, Iu V; Rybakova, K A

    2005-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of the combined action of antibiotic and vitamin was studied by NMR spectroscopy. The heteroassociation of the antitumor antibiotic actinomycin D and flavin mononucleotide was investigated as a function of concentration and temperature by 500 MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy. The equilibrium association constant, the thermodynamic parameters (deltaH, deltaS) of heteroassociation of actinomycin D with flavin mononucleotide, and the limiting values of proton chemical shifts in the heterocomplex were determined from the concentration and temperature dependences of proton chemical shifts of molecules. The most favorable structure of the 1:1 actinomycin D-flavin mononucleotide heteroassociation complex was determined using both the molecular mechanics methods (X-PLOR software) and the limiting values of proton chemical shifts of the molecules. In the calculated structure, the planes of the chromophores of actinomycin D and flavin mononucleotide molecules in the 1:1 heterocomplex are parallel and separated from each other by a distance of about 0.34 nm. At the same time, there is a probability of formation of intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the calculated structure of 1:1 actinomycin D-flavin mononucleotide complex. The analysis of the results obtained suggests that aromatic molecules of vitamins, e.g., flavin mononucleotide, can form energetically favorable heterocomplexes with aromatic antitumor antibiotics in aqueous solution, modulating thereby the efficacy of their medical and biological action.

  12. An extended N-H bond, driven by a conserved second-order interaction, orients the flavin N5 orbital in cholesterol oxidase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, Emily; Yu, Li-Juan; Meilleur, Flora; Blakeley, Matthew P.; Duff, Anthony P.; Karton, Amir; Vrielink, Alice

    2017-01-01

    The protein microenvironment surrounding the flavin cofactor in flavoenzymes is key to the efficiency and diversity of reactions catalysed by this class of enzymes. X-ray diffraction structures of oxidoreductase flavoenzymes have revealed recurrent features which facilitate catalysis, such as a hydrogen bond between a main chain nitrogen atom and the flavin redox center (N5). A neutron diffraction study of cholesterol oxidase has revealed an unusual elongated main chain nitrogen to hydrogen bond distance positioning the hydrogen atom towards the flavin N5 reactive center. Investigation of the structural features which could cause such an unusual occurrence revealed a positively charged lysine side chain, conserved in other flavin mediated oxidoreductases, in a second shell away from the FAD cofactor acting to polarize the peptide bond through interaction with the carbonyl oxygen atom. Double-hybrid density functional theory calculations confirm that this electrostatic arrangement affects the N-H bond length in the region of the flavin reactive center. We propose a novel second-order partial-charge interaction network which enables the correct orientation of the hydride receiving orbital of N5. The implications of these observations for flavin mediated redox chemistry are discussed.

  13. Respiratory arsenate reductase as a bidirectional enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Richey, Christine; Chovanec, Peter; Hoeft, Shelley E.; Oremland, Ronald S.; Basu, Partha; Stolz, John F.

    2009-05-01

    The haloalkaliphilic bacterium Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii is capable of anaerobic chemolithoautotrophic growth by coupling the oxidation of arsenite (As(III)) to the reduction of nitrate and carbon dioxide. Analysis of its complete genome indicates that it lacks a conventional arsenite oxidase (Aox), but instead possesses two operons that each encode a putative respiratory arsenate reductase (Arr). Here we show that one homolog is expressed under chemolithoautotrophic conditions and exhibits both arsenite oxidase and arsenate reductase activity. We also demonstrate that Arr from two arsenate respiring bacteria, Alkaliphilus oremlandii and Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3, is also biochemically reversible. Thus Arr can function as a reductase or oxidase. Its physiological role in a specific organism, however, may depend on the electron potentials of the molybdenum center and [Fe-S] clusters, additional subunits, or constitution of the electron transfer chain. This versatility further underscores the ubiquity and antiquity of microbial arsenic metabolism.

  14. Respiratory arsenate reductase as a bidirectional enzyme

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richey, C.; Chovanec, P.; Hoeft, S.E.; Oremland, R.S.; Basu, P.; Stolz, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    The haloalkaliphilic bacterium Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii is capable of anaerobic chemolithoautotrophic growth by coupling the oxidation of arsenite (As(III)) to the reduction of nitrate and carbon dioxide. Analysis of its complete genome indicates that it lacks a conventional arsenite oxidase (Aox), but instead possesses two operons that each encode a putative respiratory arsenate reductase (Arr). Here we show that one homolog is expressed under chemolithoautotrophic conditions and exhibits both arsenite oxidase and arsenate reductase activity. We also demonstrate that Arr from two arsenate respiring bacteria, Alkaliphilus oremlandii and Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3, is also biochemically reversible. Thus Arr can function as a reductase or oxidase. Its physiological role in a specific organism, however, may depend on the electron potentials of the molybdenum center and [Fe–S] clusters, additional subunits, or constitution of the electron transfer chain. This versatility further underscores the ubiquity and antiquity of microbial arsenic metabolism.

  15. Bound Flavin-Cytochrome Model of Extracellular Electron Transfer in Shewanella oneidensis: Analysis by Free Energy Molecular (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-06

    membrane (OM) cytochromes c. Free- shuttle and bound-redox cofactor mechanisms were proposed to explain this enhancement, but recent electrochemical...acceptors through outer-membrane (OM) cytochromes c. Free- shuttle and bound-redox cofactor mechanisms were proposed to explain this enhancement, but...with OmcA and MtrC, respectively, while a free-form model of soluble flavin shuttles was discussed by Marsili et al.24 NMR spectroscopy provided

  16. Arg279 is the key regulator of coenzyme selectivity in the flavin-dependent ornithine monooxygenase SidA.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Reeder; Franceschini, Stefano; Fedkenheuer, Michael; Rodriguez, Pedro J; Ellerbrock, Jacob; Romero, Elvira; Echandi, Maria Paulina; Martin Del Campo, Julia S; Sobrado, Pablo

    2014-04-01

    Siderophore A (SidA) is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase that catalyzes the NAD(P)H- and oxygen-dependent hydroxylation of ornithine in the biosynthesis of siderophores in Aspergillus fumigatus and is essential for virulence. SidA can utilize both NADPH or NADH for activity; however, the enzyme is selective for NADPH. Structural analysis shows that R279 interacts with the 2'-phosphate of NADPH. To probe the role of electrostatic interactions in coenzyme selectivity, R279 was mutated to both an alanine and a glutamate. The mutant proteins were active but highly uncoupled, oxidizing NADPH and producing hydrogen peroxide instead of hydroxylated ornithine. For wtSidA, the catalytic efficiency was 6-fold higher with NADPH as compared to NADH. For the R279A mutant the catalytic efficiency was the same with both coenyzmes, while for the R279E mutant the catalytic efficiency was 5-fold higher with NADH. The effects are mainly due to an increase in the KD values, as no major changes on the kcat or flavin reduction values were observed. Thus, the absence of a positive charge leads to no coenzyme selectivity while introduction of a negative charge leads to preference for NADH. Flavin fluorescence studies suggest altered interaction between the flavin and NADP⁺ in the mutant enzymes. The effects are caused by different binding modes of the coenzyme upon removal of the positive charge at position 279, as no major conformational changes were observed in the structure for R279A. The results indicate that the positive charge at position 279 is critical for tight binding of NADPH and efficient hydroxylation.

  17. Perchlorate Reductase Is Distinguished by Active Site Aromatic Gate Residues.

    PubMed

    Youngblut, Matthew D; Tsai, Chi-Lin; Clark, Iain C; Carlson, Hans K; Maglaqui, Adrian P; Gau-Pan, Phonchien S; Redford, Steven A; Wong, Alan; Tainer, John A; Coates, John D

    2016-04-22

    Perchlorate is an important ion on both Earth and Mars. Perchlorate reductase (PcrAB), a specialized member of the dimethylsulfoxide reductase superfamily, catalyzes the first step of microbial perchlorate respiration, but little is known about the biochemistry, specificity, structure, and mechanism of PcrAB. Here we characterize the biophysics and phylogeny of this enzyme and report the 1.86-Å resolution PcrAB complex crystal structure. Biochemical analysis revealed a relatively high perchlorate affinity (Km = 6 μm) and a characteristic substrate inhibition compared with the highly similar respiratory nitrate reductase NarGHI, which has a relatively much lower affinity for perchlorate (Km = 1.1 mm) and no substrate inhibition. Structural analysis of oxidized and reduced PcrAB with and without the substrate analog SeO3 (2-) bound to the active site identified key residues in the positively charged and funnel-shaped substrate access tunnel that gated substrate entrance and product release while trapping transiently produced chlorate. The structures suggest gating was associated with shifts of a Phe residue between open and closed conformations plus an Asp residue carboxylate shift between monodentate and bidentate coordination to the active site molybdenum atom. Taken together, structural and mutational analyses of gate residues suggest key roles of these gate residues for substrate entrance and product release. Our combined results provide the first detailed structural insight into the mechanism of biological perchlorate reduction, a critical component of the chlorine redox cycle on Earth. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. The tyrosyl free radical in ribonucleotide reductase.

    PubMed Central

    Gräslund, A; Sahlin, M; Sjöberg, B M

    1985-01-01

    The enzyme, ribonucleotide reductase, catalyses the formation of deoxyribonucleotides from ribonucleotides, a reaction essential for DNA synthesis in all living cells. The Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase, which is the prototype of all known eukaryotic and virus-coded enzymes, consists of two nonidentical subunits, proteins B1 and B2. The B2 subunit contains an antiferromagnetically coupled pair of ferric ions and a stable tyrosyl free radical. EPR studies show that the tyrosyl radical, formed by loss of ferric ions and a stable tyrosyl free radical. EPR studies show that the tyrosyl radical, formed by loss of an electron, has its unpaired spin density delocalized in the aromatic ring of tyrosine. Effects of iron-radical interaction indicate a relatively close proximity between the iron center and the radical. The EPR signal of the radical can be studied directly in frozen packed cells of E. coli or mammalian origin, if the cells are made to overproduce ribonucleotide reductase. The hypothetic role of the tyrosyl free radical in the enzymatic reaction is not yet elucidated, except in the reaction with the inhibiting substrate analogue 2'-azido-CDP. In this case, the normal tyrosyl radical is destroyed with concomitant appearance of a 2'-azido-CDP-localized radical intermediate. Attempts at spin trapping of radical reaction intermediates have turned out negative. In E. coli the activity of ribonucleotide reductase may be regulated by enzymatic activities that interconvert a nonradical containing form and the fully active protein B2. In synchronized mammalian cells, however, the cell cycle variation of ribonucleotide reductase, studied by EPR, was shown to be due to de novo protein synthesis. Inhibitors of ribonucleotide reductase are of medical interest because of their ability to control DNA synthesis. One example is hydroxyurea, used in cancer therapy, which selectively destroys the tyrosyl free radical. PMID:3007085

  19. Convenient microtiter plate-based, oxygen-independent activity assays for flavin-dependent oxidoreductases based on different redox dyes.

    PubMed

    Brugger, Dagmar; Krondorfer, Iris; Zahma, Kawah; Stoisser, Thomas; Bolivar, Juan M; Nidetzky, Bernd; Peterbauer, Clemens K; Haltrich, Dietmar

    2014-04-01

    Flavin-dependent oxidoreductases are increasingly recognized as important biocatalysts for various industrial applications. In order to identify novel activities and to improve these enzymes in engineering approaches, suitable screening methods are necessary. We developed novel microtiter-plate-based assays for flavin-dependent oxidases and dehydrogenases using redox dyes as electron acceptors for these enzymes. 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol, methylene green, and thionine show absorption changes between their oxidized and reduced forms in the visible range, making it easy to judge visually changes in activity. A sample set of enzymes containing both flavoprotein oxidases and dehydrogenases - pyranose 2-oxidase, pyranose dehydrogenase, cellobiose dehydrogenase, D-amino acid oxidase, and L-lactate oxidase - was selected. Assays for these enzymes are based on a direct enzymatic reduction of the redox dyes and not on the coupled detection of a reaction product as in the frequently used assays based on hydrogen peroxide formation. The different flavoproteins show low Michaelis constants with these electron acceptor substrates, and therefore these dyes need to be added in only low concentrations to assure substrate saturation. In conclusion, these electron acceptors are useful in selective, reliable and cheap MTP-based screening assays for a range of flavin-dependent oxidoreductases, and offer a robust method for library screening, which could find applications in enzyme engineering programs.

  20. Relevance of the flavin binding to the stability and folding of engineered cholesterol oxidase containing noncovalently bound FAD

    PubMed Central

    Caldinelli, Laura; Iametti, Stefania; Barbiroli, Alberto; Fessas, Dimitrios; Bonomi, Francesco; Piubelli, Luciano; Molla, Gianluca; Pollegioni, Loredano

    2008-01-01

    The flavoprotein cholesterol oxidase (CO) from Brevibacterium sterolicum is a monomeric flavoenzyme containing one molecule of FAD cofactor covalently linked to His69. The elimination of the covalent link following the His69Ala substitution was demonstrated to result in a significant decrease in activity, in the midpoint redox potential of the flavin, and in stability with respect to the wild-type enzyme, but does not modify the overall structure of the enzyme. We used CO as a model system to dissect the changes due to the elimination of the covalent link between the flavin and the protein (by comparing the wild-type and H69A CO holoproteins) with those due to the elimination of the cofactor (by comparing the holo- and apoprotein forms of H69A CO). The apoprotein of H69A CO lacks the characteristic tertiary structure of the holoprotein and displays larger hydrophobic surfaces; its urea-induced unfolding does not occur by a simple two-state mechanism and is largely nonreversible. Minor alterations in the flavin binding region are evident between the native and the refolded proteins, and are likely responsible for the low refolding yield observed. A model for the equilibrium unfolding of H69A CO that also takes into consideration the effects of cofactor binding and dissociation, and thus may be of general significance in terms of the relationships between cofactor uptake and folding in flavoproteins, is presented. PMID:18218720

  1. Convenient microtiter plate-based, oxygen-independent activity assays for flavin-dependent oxidoreductases based on different redox dyes

    PubMed Central

    Brugger, Dagmar; Krondorfer, Iris; Zahma, Kawah; Stoisser, Thomas; Bolivar, Juan M; Nidetzky, Bernd; Peterbauer, Clemens K; Haltrich, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    Flavin-dependent oxidoreductases are increasingly recognized as important biocatalysts for various industrial applications. In order to identify novel activities and to improve these enzymes in engineering approaches, suitable screening methods are necessary. We developed novel microtiter-plate-based assays for flavin-dependent oxidases and dehydrogenases using redox dyes as electron acceptors for these enzymes. 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol, methylene green, and thionine show absorption changes between their oxidized and reduced forms in the visible range, making it easy to judge visually changes in activity. A sample set of enzymes containing both flavoprotein oxidases and dehydrogenases – pyranose 2-oxidase, pyranose dehydrogenase, cellobiose dehydrogenase, d-amino acid oxidase, and l-lactate oxidase – was selected. Assays for these enzymes are based on a direct enzymatic reduction of the redox dyes and not on the coupled detection of a reaction product as in the frequently used assays based on hydrogen peroxide formation. The different flavoproteins show low Michaelis constants with these electron acceptor substrates, and therefore these dyes need to be added in only low concentrations to assure substrate saturation. In conclusion, these electron acceptors are useful in selective, reliable and cheap MTP-based screening assays for a range of flavin-dependent oxidoreductases, and offer a robust method for library screening, which could find applications in enzyme engineering programs. PMID:24376171

  2. Evaluation of nitrate reductase activity in Rhizobium japonicum

    SciTech Connect

    Streeter, J.G.; DeVine, P.J.

    1983-08-01

    Nitrate reductase activity was evaluated by four approaches, using four strains of Rhizobium japonicum and 11 chlorate-resistant mutants of the four strains. It was concluded that in vitro assays with bacteria or bacteroids provide the most simple and reliable assessment of the presence or absence of nitrate reductase. Nitrite reductase activity with methyl viologen and dithionite was found, but the enzyme activity does not confound the assay of nitrate reductase. 18 references

  3. CymA and Exogenous Flavins Improve Extracellular Electron Transfer and Couple It to Cell Growth in Mtr-Expressing Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Heather M.; TerAvest, Michaela A.; Kokish, Mark G.; Ajo-Franklin, Caroline M.

    2016-03-22

    Introducing extracellular electron transfer pathways into heterologous organisms offers the opportunity to explore fundamental biogeochemical processes and to biologically alter redox states of exogenous metals for various applications. While expression of the MtrCAB electron nanoconduit from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 permits extracellular electron transfer in Escherichia coli, the low electron flux and absence of growth in these cells limits their practicality for such applications. In this paper, we investigate how the rate of electron transfer to extracellular Fe(III) and cell survival in engineered E. coli are affected by mimicking different features of the S. oneidensis pathway: the number of electron nanoconduits, the link between the quinol pool and MtrA, and the presence of flavin-dependent electron transfer. While increasing the number of pathways does not significantly improve the extracellular electron transfer rate or cell survival, using the native inner membrane component, CymA, significantly improves the reduction rate of extracellular acceptors and increases cell viability. Strikingly, introducing both CymA and riboflavin to Mtr-expressing E. coli also allowed these cells to couple metal reduction to growth, which is the first time an increase in biomass of an engineered E. coli has been observed under Fe2O3 (s) reducing conditions. Overall and finally, this work provides engineered E. coli strains for modulating extracellular metal reduction and elucidates critical factors for engineering extracellular electron transfer in heterologous organisms.

  4. CymA and Exogenous Flavins Improve Extracellular Electron Transfer and Couple It to Cell Growth in Mtr-Expressing Escherichia coli

    DOE PAGES

    Jensen, Heather M.; TerAvest, Michaela A.; Kokish, Mark G.; ...

    2016-03-22

    Introducing extracellular electron transfer pathways into heterologous organisms offers the opportunity to explore fundamental biogeochemical processes and to biologically alter redox states of exogenous metals for various applications. While expression of the MtrCAB electron nanoconduit from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 permits extracellular electron transfer in Escherichia coli, the low electron flux and absence of growth in these cells limits their practicality for such applications. In this paper, we investigate how the rate of electron transfer to extracellular Fe(III) and cell survival in engineered E. coli are affected by mimicking different features of the S. oneidensis pathway: the number of electron nanoconduits,more » the link between the quinol pool and MtrA, and the presence of flavin-dependent electron transfer. While increasing the number of pathways does not significantly improve the extracellular electron transfer rate or cell survival, using the native inner membrane component, CymA, significantly improves the reduction rate of extracellular acceptors and increases cell viability. Strikingly, introducing both CymA and riboflavin to Mtr-expressing E. coli also allowed these cells to couple metal reduction to growth, which is the first time an increase in biomass of an engineered E. coli has been observed under Fe2O3 (s) reducing conditions. Overall and finally, this work provides engineered E. coli strains for modulating extracellular metal reduction and elucidates critical factors for engineering extracellular electron transfer in heterologous organisms.« less

  5. Expression in Escherichia coli of the flavin-containing monooxygenase D (form II) from adult human liver: determination of a distinct tertiary amine substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Lomri, N; Yang, Z; Cashman, J R

    1993-01-01

    The cDNA for a major component of the family of flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) present in adult human liver (i.e., HLFMO-D) has been cloned and expressed in a prokaryotic system. Escherichia coli strain NM522 was transformed with pTrcHLFMO-D, and the HLFMO-D cDNA was expressed under the control of the Trc promoter. A variety of tertiary amine substrates [i.e., chlorpromazine and 10-[(N,N-dimethylamino)alkyl]- 2-(trifluoromethyl)phenothiazines] were efficiently oxygenated by HLFMO-D cDNA expressed in E. coli or by adult human liver microsomes. Approximate dimensions of the substrate binding channel for both adult human liver microsomal FMO and cDNA-expressed HLFMO-D were apparent from an examination of the N-oxygenation of a series of 10-[(N,N-dimethylamino)alkyl]-2-(trifluoromethyl)phenothiazines. The substrate regioselectivity studies suggest that adult human liver FMO form D possesses a distinct substrate specificity compared with form A FMO from animal hepatic sources. It is likely that the substrate specificity observed for cDNA-expressed adult human liver FMO-D may have consequences for the metabolism and distribution of tertiary amines and phosphorus- and sulfur-containing drugs in humans and may provide insight into the physiologic substrate(s) for adult human liver FMO.

  6. Molecular phylogeny, long-term evolution, and functional divergence of flavin-containing monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Hao, Da Cheng; Chen, Shi Lin; Mu, Jun; Xiao, Pei Gen

    2009-11-01

    Flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) metabolize xenobiotic compounds, many of which are clinically important, as well as endogenous substrates as part of a discrete physiological process. The FMO gene family is conserved and ancient with representatives present in all phyla so far examined. However, there is a lack of information regarding the long-term evolution and functional divergence of these proteins. This study represents the first attempt to characterize the long-term evolution followed by the members of this family. Our analysis shows that there is extensive silent divergence at the nucleotide level suggesting that this family has been subject to strong purifying selection at the protein level. Invertebrate FMOs have a polyphyletic origin. The functional divergence of FMOs 1-5 started before the split between amphibians and mammals. The vertebrate FMO5 is more ancestral than other four FMOs. Moreover, the existence of higher levels of codon bias was detected at the N-terminal ends, which can be ascribed to the critical role played by the FAD binding motif in this region. Finally, critical amino acid residues for FMO functional divergence (type I & II) after gene duplication were detected and characterized.

  7. Redox linked flavin sites in extracellular decaheme proteins involved in microbe-mineral electron transfer.

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Marcus J.; White, Gaye F.; Norman, Michael; Tome-Fernandez, Alice; Ainsworth, Emma; Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David J.; Clarke, Thomas A.

    2015-07-01

    Extracellular microbe-mineral electron transfer is a major driving force for the oxidation of organic carbon in many subsurface environments. Extracellular multi-heme cytochromes of the Shewenella genus play a major role in this process but the mechanism of electron exchange at the interface between cytochrome and acceptor is widely debated. The 1.8 Å x-ray crystal structure of the decaheme MtrC revealed a highly conserved CX₈C disulfide that, when substituted for AX₈A, severely compromised the ability of S. oneidensis to grow under aerobic conditions. Reductive cleavage of the disulfide in the presence of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) resulted in the reversible formation of a stable flavocytochrome. Similar results were also observed with other decaheme cytochromes, OmcA, MtrF and UndA. The data suggest that these decaheme cytochromes can transition between highly reactive flavocytochromes or less reactive cytochromes, and that this transition is controlled by a redox active disulfide that responds to the presence of oxygen.

  8. C. elegans flavin-containing monooxygenase-4 is essential for osmoregulation in hypotonic stress

    PubMed Central

    Hirani, Nisha; Westenberg, Marcel; Seed, Paul T.; Petalcorin, Mark I. R.; Dolphin, Colin T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Studies in Caenorhabditis elegans have revealed osmoregulatory systems engaged when worms experience hypertonic conditions, but less is known about measures employed when faced with hypotonic stress. Inactivation of fmo-4, which encodes flavin-containing monooxygenase-4, results in dramatic hypoosmotic hypersensitivity; worms are unable to prevent overwhelming water influx and swell rapidly, finally rupturing due to high internal hydrostatic pressure. fmo-4 is expressed prominently in hypodermis, duct and pore cells but is excluded from the excretory cell. Thus, FMO-4 plays a crucial osmoregulatory role by promoting clearance of excess water that enters during hypotonicity, perhaps by synthesizing an osmolyte that acts to establish an osmotic gradient from excretory cell to duct and pore cells. C. elegans FMO-4 contains a C-terminal extension conserved in all nematode FMO-4s. The coincidently numbered human FMO4 also contains an extended C-terminus with features similar to those of FMO-4. Although these shared sequence characteristics suggest potential orthology, human FMO4 was unable to rescue the fmo-4 osmoregulatory defect. Intriguingly, however, mammalian FMO4 is expressed predominantly in the kidney – an appropriate site if it too is, or once was, involved in osmoregulation. PMID:27010030

  9. Flavin-containing monooxygenase, a new clue of pathological proteins in the rotenone model of parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Li, Boyu; Yuan, Yuhe; Zhang, Wanqing; He, Wenbin; Hu, Jinfeng; Chen, Naihong

    2014-04-30

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a major age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra par compacta (SNpc) and accumulation of aggregated alpha-synuclein in brain areas. Rotenone is a neurotoxin that is routinely used to model PD, thus to help us understand the mechanisms of neural death. Flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO), usually known as an important hepatic microsomal enzyme like cytochrome P450, was found to play a role in the brain recent years. In our study we aimed to find out the role that FMO might play in PD pathology. Thus we successfully generated rotenone model in primary midbrain dopaminergic neurons and identified the apoptosis of neurons caused by rotenone. We found that in rotenone model of Parkinsonism, the expression/protein level of parkin and FMO1 were decreased accompanied by the activation of caspase 3. Blocking FMO activity by FMO inhibitor methimazole directly caused activation of caspase 3, meanwhile parkin protein level was decreased. Our data indicated that FMO, whose dysfunction could be a reason for the apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons in rotenone model, might be a new clue of pathological proteins in rotenone model of parkinsonism. Meanwhile, it was suggested that parkin function was compromised in neuro-pathological states, thereby further adding to the cellular survival stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Localization of genes encoding three distinct flavin-containing monooxygenases to human chromosome 1q

    SciTech Connect

    Shephard, E.A.; Fox, M.F.; Povey, S. ); Dolphin, C.T.; Phillips, I.R.; Smith, R. )

    1993-04-01

    The authors have used the polymerase chain reaction to map the gene encoding human flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) form II (N. Lomri, Q. Gu, and J. R. Cashman, 1992, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89: 1685--1689) to chromosome 1. They propose the designation FMO3 for this gene as it is the third FMO gene to be mapped. The two other human FMO genes identified to date, FMO1 and FMO2, are also located on chromosome 1 (C. Dolphin, E. A. Shephard, S. Povey, C. N. A. Palmer, D. M. Ziegler, R. Ayesh, R. L. Smith, and 1. R. Phillips, 1991, J. Biol. Chem. 266: 12379--12385; C. Dolphin, E. A. Shephard, S. F. Povey, R. L. Smith, and I. R. Phillips, 1992, Biochem. J. 286: 261--267). The localization of FMO1, FMO2, and FMO3 has been refined to the long arm of chromosome 1. Analysis of human metaphase chromosomes by in situ hybridization confirmed the mapping of FMO1 and localized this gene more precisely to 1 q23-q25. 28 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Redox linked flavin sites in extracellular decaheme proteins involved in microbe-mineral electron transfer.

    DOE PAGES

    Edwards, Marcus J.; White, Gaye F.; Norman, Michael; ...

    2015-07-01

    Extracellular microbe-mineral electron transfer is a major driving force for the oxidation of organic carbon in many subsurface environments. Extracellular multi-heme cytochromes of the Shewenella genus play a major role in this process but the mechanism of electron exchange at the interface between cytochrome and acceptor is widely debated. The 1.8 Å x-ray crystal structure of the decaheme MtrC revealed a highly conserved CX₈C disulfide that, when substituted for AX₈A, severely compromised the ability of S. oneidensis to grow under aerobic conditions. Reductive cleavage of the disulfide in the presence of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) resulted in the reversible formation ofmore » a stable flavocytochrome. Similar results were also observed with other decaheme cytochromes, OmcA, MtrF and UndA. The data suggest that these decaheme cytochromes can transition between highly reactive flavocytochromes or less reactive cytochromes, and that this transition is controlled by a redox active disulfide that responds to the presence of oxygen.« less

  12. Emerging Roles of Flavin Monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) in Cholesterol Metabolism and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Schugar, Rebecca C.; Brown, J. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review Atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular disease (CVD) still remain the largest cause of mortality worldwide. Several recent studies have discovered that metabolism of common nutrients by gut microbes can produce a proatherogenic metabolite called trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). The goal of this review is to discuss emerging evidence that the hepatic enzyme that generates TMAO, flavin monooxygenase 3 (FMO3), plays a regulatory role in maintaining whole body cholesterol balance and atherosclerosis development. Recent Findings Several independent studies have recently uncovered a link between either FMO3 itself or its enzymatic product TMAO with atherosclerosis and hepatic insulin resistance. These recent studies show that inhibition of FMO3 stimulates macrophage reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and protects against atherosclerosis in mice. Summary A growing body of work demonstrates that nutrients present in high fat foods (phosphatidylcholine, choline, and L-carnitine) can be metabolized by the gut microbial enzymes to generate trimethylamine (TMA), which is then further metabolized by the host enzyme FMO3 to produce proatherogenic TMAO. Here we discuss emerging evidence that the TMAO producing enzyme FMO3 is centrally involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis by regulating cholesterol metabolism and insulin resistance, and how these new insights provide exciting new avenues for CVD therapies. PMID:26218418

  13. The Origin and Evolution of Baeyer—Villiger Monooxygenases (BVMOs): An Ancestral Family of Flavin Monooxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Mascotti, Maria Laura; Lapadula, Walter Jesús; Juri Ayub, Maximiliano

    2015-01-01

    The Baeyer—Villiger Monooxygenases (BVMOs) are enzymes belonging to the “Class B” of flavin monooxygenases and are capable of performing exquisite selective oxidations. These enzymes have been studied from a biotechnological perspective, but their physiological substrates and functional roles are widely unknown. Here, we investigated the origin, taxonomic distribution and evolutionary history of the BVMO genes. By using in silico approaches, 98 BVMO encoding genes were detected in the three domains of life: Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya. We found evidence for the presence of these genes in Metazoa (Hydra vulgaris, Oikopleura dioica and Adineta vaga) and Haptophyta (Emiliania huxleyi) for the first time. Furthermore, a search for other “Class B” monooxygenases (flavoprotein monooxygenases –FMOs – and N-hydroxylating monooxygenases – NMOs) was conducted. These sequences were also found in the three domains of life. Phylogenetic analyses of all “Class B” monooxygenases revealed that NMOs and BVMOs are monophyletic, whereas FMOs form a paraphyletic group. Based on these results, we propose that BVMO genes were already present in the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) and their current taxonomic distribution is the result of differential duplication and loss of paralogous genes. PMID:26161776

  14. Flavin containing monooxygenase 3 exerts broad effects on glucose and lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis[S

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Diana M.; Wang, Zeneng; Lee, Richard; Meng, Yonghong; Che, Nam; Charugundla, Sarada; Qi, Hannah; Wu, Judy; Pan, Calvin; Brown, J. Mark; Vallim, Thomas; Bennett, Brian J.; Graham, Mark; Hazen, Stanley L.; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2015-01-01

    We performed silencing and overexpression studies of flavin containing monooxygenase (FMO) 3 in hyperlipidemic mouse models to examine its effects on trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) levels and atherosclerosis. Knockdown of hepatic FMO3 in LDL receptor knockout mice using an antisense oligonucleotide resulted in decreased circulating TMAO levels and atherosclerosis. Surprisingly, we also observed significant decreases in hepatic lipids and in levels of plasma lipids, ketone bodies, glucose, and insulin. FMO3 overexpression in transgenic mice, on the other hand, increased hepatic and plasma lipids. Global gene expression analyses suggested that these effects of FMO3 on lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis may be mediated through the PPARα and Kruppel-like factor 15 pathways. In vivo and in vitro results were consistent with the concept that the effects were mediated directly by FMO3 rather than trimethylamine/TMAO; in particular, overexpression of FMO3 in the human hepatoma cell line, Hep3B, resulted in significantly increased glucose secretion and lipogenesis. Our results indicate a major role for FMO3 in modulating glucose and lipid homeostasis in vivo, and they suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of FMO3 to reduce TMAO levels would be confounded by metabolic interactions. PMID:25378658

  15. How can EPR spectroscopy help to unravel molecular mechanisms of flavin-dependent photoreceptors?

    PubMed Central

    Nohr, Daniel; Rodriguez, Ryan; Weber, Stefan; Schleicher, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is a well-established spectroscopic method for the examination of paramagnetic molecules. Proteins can contain paramagnetic moieties in form of stable cofactors, transiently formed intermediates, or spin labels artificially introduced to cysteine sites. The focus of this review is to evaluate potential scopes of application of EPR to the emerging field of optogenetics. The main objective for EPR spectroscopy in this context is to unravel the complex mechanisms of light-active proteins, from their primary photoreaction to downstream signal transduction. An overview of recent results from the family of flavin-containing, blue-light dependent photoreceptors is given. In detail, mechanistic similarities and differences are condensed from the three classes of flavoproteins, the cryptochromes, LOV (Light-oxygen-voltage), and BLUF (blue-light using FAD) domains. Additionally, a concept that includes spin-labeled proteins and examination using modern pulsed EPR is introduced, which allows for a precise mapping of light-induced conformational changes. PMID:26389123

  16. The non-enzymatic reduction of azo dyes by flavin and nicotinamide cofactors under varying conditions.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Jessica M; John, Gilbert H

    2013-10-01

    Azo dyes are ubiquitous in products and often become environmental pollutants due to their anthropogenic nature. Azoreductases are enzymes which are present within many bacteria and are capable of breaking down the azo dyes via reduction of the azo bond. Often, though, carcinogenic aromatic amines are formed as metabolites and are of concern to humans. Azoreductases function via an oxidation-reduction reaction and require cofactors (a nicotinamide cofactor and sometimes a flavin cofactor) to perform their function. Non-enzymatic reduction of azo dyes in the absence of an azoreductase enzyme has been suggested in previous studies, but has never been studied in detail in terms of varying cofactor combinations, different oxygen states or pHs, nor has the enzymatic reduction been compared to azoreduction in terms of dye reduction or metabolites produced, which was the aim of this study. Reduction of azo dyes by different cofactor combinations was found to occur under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions and under physiologically-relevant pHs to produce the same metabolites as an azoreductase. Our results show that, in some cases, the non-enzymatic reduction by the cofactors was found to be equal to that seen with the azoreductase, suggesting that all dye reduction in these cases is due to the cofactors themselves. This study details the importance of the use of a cofactor-only control when studying azoreductase enzymes.

  17. The Evolution and Functional Role of Flavin-based Prokaryotic Photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Losi, Aba; Mandalari, Carmen; Gärtner, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Flavin-based photoreceptor proteins of the LOV (light, oxygen and voltage) superfamily are ubiquitous and appear to be essential blue-light sensing systems not only in plants, algae and fungi, but also in prokaryotes, where they are represented in more than 10% of known species. Despite their broad occurrence, only in few cases LOV proteins have been correlated with important phenomena such as bacterial infectivity, selective growth patterns or/and stress responses; nevertheless these few known roles are helping us understand the multiple ways by which prokaryotes can exploit these soluble blue-light photoreceptors. Given the large number of sequences now deposited in databases, it becomes meaningful to define a signature for bona fide LOV domains, a procedure that facilitates identification of proteins with new properties and phylogenetic analysis. The latter clearly evidences that a class of LOV proteins from alpha-proteobacteria is the closest prokaryotic relative of eukaryotic LOV domains, whereas cyanobacterial sequences cluster with the archaeal and the other bacterial LOV domains. Distance trees built for LOV domains suggest complex evolutionary patterns, possibly involving multiple horizontal gene transfer events. Based on available data, the in vivo relevance and evolution of prokaryotic LOV is discussed.

  18. Oxygen-dependent photochemistry and photophysics of "miniSOG," a protein-encased flavin.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Frederico M; Jensen, Rasmus L; Breitenbach, Thomas; Etzerodt, Michael; Ogilby, Peter R

    2013-01-01

    Selected photochemical and photophysical parameters of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) have been examined under conditions in which FMN is (1) solvated in a buffered aqueous solution, and (2) encased in a protein likewise solvated in a buffered aqueous solution. The latter was achieved using the so-called "mini Singlet Oxygen Generator" (miniSOG), an FMN-containing flavoprotein engineered from Arabidopsis thaliana phototropin 2. Although FMN is a reasonably good singlet oxygen photosensitizer in bulk water (ϕΔ = 0.65 ± 0.04), enclosing FMN in this protein facilitates photoinitiated electron-transfer reactions (Type-I chemistry) at the expense of photosensitized singlet oxygen production (Type-II chemistry) and results in a comparatively poor yield of singlet oxygen (ϕΔ = 0.030 ± 0.002). This observation on the effect of the local environment surrounding FMN is supported by a host of spectroscopic and chemical trapping experiments. The results of this study not only elucidate the behavior of miniSOG but also provide useful information for the further development of well-characterized chromophores suitable for use as intracellular sensitizers in mechanistic studies of reactive oxygen species. © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

  19. The Origin and Evolution of Baeyer-Villiger Monooxygenases (BVMOs): An Ancestral Family of Flavin Monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Mascotti, Maria Laura; Lapadula, Walter Jesús; Juri Ayub, Maximiliano

    2015-01-01

    The Baeyer-Villiger Monooxygenases (BVMOs) are enzymes belonging to the "Class B" of flavin monooxygenases and are capable of performing exquisite selective oxidations. These enzymes have been studied from a biotechnological perspective, but their physiological substrates and functional roles are widely unknown. Here, we investigated the origin, taxonomic distribution and evolutionary history of the BVMO genes. By using in silico approaches, 98 BVMO encoding genes were detected in the three domains of life: Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya. We found evidence for the presence of these genes in Metazoa (Hydra vulgaris, Oikopleura dioica and Adineta vaga) and Haptophyta (Emiliania huxleyi) for the first time. Furthermore, a search for other "Class B" monooxygenases (flavoprotein monooxygenases--FMOs--and N-hydroxylating monooxygenases--NMOs) was conducted. These sequences were also found in the three domains of life. Phylogenetic analyses of all "Class B" monooxygenases revealed that NMOs and BVMOs are monophyletic, whereas FMOs form a paraphyletic group. Based on these results, we propose that BVMO genes were already present in the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) and their current taxonomic distribution is the result of differential duplication and loss of paralogous genes.

  20. A Regulatory Role of NAD Redox Status on Flavin Cofactor Homeostasis in S. cerevisiae Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Giancaspero, Teresa Anna; Barile, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) are two redox cofactors of pivotal importance for mitochondrial functionality and cellular redox balance. Despite their relevance, the mechanism by which intramitochondrial NAD(H) and FAD levels are maintained remains quite unclear in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We investigated here the ability of isolated mitochondria to degrade externally added FAD and NAD (in both its reduced and oxidized forms). A set of kinetic experiments demonstrated that mitochondrial FAD and NAD(H) destroying enzymes are different from each other and from the already characterized NUDIX hydrolases. We studied here, in some detail, FAD pyrophosphatase (EC 3.6.1.18), which is inhibited by NAD+ and NADH according to a noncompetitive inhibition, with Ki values that differ from each other by an order of magnitude. These findings, together with the ability of mitochondrial FAD pyrophosphatase to metabolize endogenous FAD, presumably deriving from mitochondrial holoflavoproteins destined to degradation, allow for proposing a novel possible role of mitochondrial NAD redox status in regulating FAD homeostasis and/or flavoprotein degradation in S. cerevisiae. PMID:24078860

  1. Redox Linked Flavin Sites in Extracellular Decaheme Proteins Involved in Microbe-Mineral Electron Transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Marcus J.; White, Gaye F.; Norman, Michael; Tome-Fernandez, Alice; Ainsworth, Emma; Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David J.; Clarke, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular microbe-mineral electron transfer is a major driving force for the oxidation of organic carbon in many subsurface environments. Extracellular multi-heme cytochromes of the Shewenella genus play a major role in this process but the mechanism of electron exchange at the interface between cytochrome and acceptor is widely debated. The 1.8 Å x-ray crystal structure of the decaheme MtrC revealed a highly conserved CX8C disulfide that, when substituted for AX8A, severely compromised the ability of S. oneidensis to grow under aerobic conditions. Reductive cleavage of the disulfide in the presence of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) resulted in the reversible formation of a stable flavocytochrome. Similar results were also observed with other decaheme cytochromes, OmcA, MtrF and UndA. The data suggest that these decaheme cytochromes can transition between highly reactive flavocytochromes or less reactive cytochromes, and that this transition is controlled by a redox active disulfide that responds to the presence of oxygen. PMID:26126857

  2. Flavin adenine dinucleotide as a chromophore of the Xenopus (6-4)photolyase.

    PubMed Central

    Todo, T; Kim, S T; Hitomi, K; Otoshi, E; Inui, T; Morioka, H; Kobayashi, H; Ohtsuka, E; Toh, H; Ikenaga, M

    1997-01-01

    Two types of enzyme utilizing light from the blue and near-UV spectral range (320-520 nm) are known to have related primary structures: DNA photolyase, which repairs UV-induced DNA damage in a light-dependent manner, and the blue light photoreceptor of plants, which mediates light-dependent regulation of seedling development. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts [(6-4)photoproducts] are the two major photoproducts produced in DNA by UV irradiation. Two types of photolyases have been identified, one specific for CPDs (CPD photolyase) and another specific for (6-4)photoproducts [(6-4)photolyase]. (6-4)Photolyase activity was first found in Drosophila melanogaster and to date this gene has been cloned only from this organism. The deduced amino acid sequence of the cloned gene shows that (6-4)photolyase is a member of the CPD photolyase/blue light photoreceptor family. Both CPD photolyase and blue light photoreceptor are flavoproteins and bound flavin adenine dinucleotides (FADs) are essential for their catalytic activity. Here we report isolation of a Xenopus laevis(6-4)photolyase gene and show that the (6-4)photolyase binds non- covalently to stoichiometric amounts of FAD. This is the first indication of FAD as the chromophore of (6-4)photolyase. PMID:9016626

  3. Molecular recognition of aromatic rings by flavin: electrostatics and dispersion determine ring positioning above isoalloxazine.

    PubMed

    Koziol, Lucas; Kumar, Neeraj; Wong, Sergio E; Lightstone, Felice C

    2013-12-05

    Aromatic stacking interactions between isoalloxazine (ISA) of flavin and three prototypical aromatics (benzene, pyridine, chlorobenzene) were investigated using electronic structure calculations with Monte Carlo simulated annealing. The Effective Fragment Potential (EFP) method was used to locate the low-energy equilibrium configurations for the three dimer systems. These structures were further characterized through DFT (M06-2X) and MP2 calculations. One equilibrium configuration exists for ISA-benzene; characterizing the stacked dimer surface revealed a steep, single-welled potential that funnels benzene directly between rings II and III, positioning a substituent hydrogen adjacent to the redox-active N5. ISA-pyridine and ISA-chlorobenzene minimum-energy structures contain the aromatic ring in very similar position to that in ISA-benzene. However, the added rotational degree of freedom leads to two distinct binding motifs, having approximately antiparallel or parallel dipole moment alignment with ISA. The existence of the latter binding configuration was unexpected but is explained by the shape of the ISA electrostatic potential. Dispersion is the primary noncovalent interaction driving the positioning of aromatic rings above ISA, while electrostatics determine the orientation in dipole-containing substituted benzenes. The interplay of these interactions can be used to tune molecular recognition properties of synthetic redox cofactors, including positioning desired functional groups adjacent to the redox-active N5.

  4. Subclade of Flavin-Monooxygenases Involved in Aliphatic Glucosinolate Biosynthesis1[W

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Hansen, Bjarne Gram; Ober, James A.; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2008-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) are amino acid-derived secondary metabolites with diverse biological activities dependent on chemical modifications of the side chain. We previously identified the flavin-monooxygenase FMOGS-OX1 as an enzyme in the biosynthesis of aliphatic GSLs in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that catalyzes the S-oxygenation of methylthioalkyl to methylsulfinylalkyl GSLs. Here, we report the fine mapping of a quantitative trait locus for the S-oxygenating activity in Arabidopsis. In this region, there are three FMOs that, together with FMOGS-OX1 and a fifth FMO, form what appears to be a crucifer-specific subclade. We report the identification of these four uncharacterized FMOs, designated FMOGS-OX2 to FMOGS-OX5. Biochemical characterization of the recombinant protein combined with the analysis of GSL content in knockout mutants and overexpression lines show that FMOGS-OX2, FMOGS-OX3, and FMOGS-OX4 have broad substrate specificity and catalyze the conversion from methylthioalkyl GSL to the corresponding methylsulfinylalkyl GSL independent of chain length. In contrast, FMOGS-OX5 shows substrate specificity toward the long-chain 8-methylthiooctyl GSL. Identification of the FMOGS-OX subclade will generate better understanding of the evolution of biosynthetic activities and specificities in secondary metabolism and provides an important tool for breeding plants with improved cancer prevention characteristics as provided by the methylsulfinylalkyl GSL. PMID:18799661

  5. Isolation, sequence identification and tissue expression profile of two novel soybean (glycine max) genes-vestitone reductase and chalcone reductase.

    PubMed

    Liu, G Y

    2009-09-01

    The complete mRNA sequences of two soybean (glycine max) genes-vestitone reductase and chalcone reductase, were amplified using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. The sequence analysis of these two genes revealed that soybean vestitone reductase gene encodes a protein of 327 amino acids which has high homology with the vestitone reductase of Medicago sativa (77%). The soybean chalcone reductase gene encodes a protein of 314 amino acids that has high homology with the chalcone reductase of kudzu vine (88%) and medicago sativa (83%). The expression profiles of the soybean vestitone reductase and chalcone reductase genes were studied and the results indicated that these two soybean genes were differentially expressed in detected soybean tissues including leaves, stems, roots, inflorescences, embryos and endosperm. Our experiment established the foundation for further research on these two soybean genes.

  6. Functional Characterization of the re-Face Loop Spanning Residues 536 to 541 and its Interactions with the Cofactor in the Flavin Mononucleotide-Binding Domain of the Flavocytochrome P450 from Bacillus megaterium†

    PubMed Central

    Kasim, Mumtaz; Chen, Huai-Chun; Swenson, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    Flavocytochrome P450BM-3, a bacterial monooxygenase, contains a flavin mononucleotide (FMN) binding domain bearing a strong structural homology to the bacterial flavodoxin. The FMN serves as the one-electron donor to the heme iron but, in contrast to the electron transfer mechanism of mammalian cytochrome P450 reductase, the FMN semiquinone state is not thermodynamically stable and appears transiently as the anionic rather than the neutral form. A unique loop region comprised of residues -536Y-N-G-H-P-P541-, which forms a Type I′ reverse turn, provides several interactions with the FMN isoalloxazine ring, was targeted in this study. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies support the presence of a strong hydrogen bond between the backbone amide of Asn537 and FMN N5, the anionic ionization state of the hydroquinone, and for a change in the hybridization state of the N5 upon reduction. Replacement of Tyr536, which flanks the flavin ring, by the basic residues histidine or arginine did not significantly influence the redox properties of the FMN or the accumulation of the anionic semiquinone. The central residues of the Type I′ turn (-Asn-Gly-) were replaced with various combinations of glycine and alanine as a means to alter the turn and its interactions. Gly538 was found to be crucial in maintaining the type I′ turn conformation of the loop and the strong H-bonding interaction at N5. The functional role of the tandem –Pro-Pro- sequence which anchors and possible “rigidifies” the loop was investigated through alanine replacements. Despite changes in stabilities of the oxidized and hydroquinone redox states of the FMN, none of the replacements studied significantly altered the two-electron midpoint potentials. Pro541 does contribute to some degree to the strength of the N5 interaction, the formation of the anionic semiquinone. Unlike the flavodoxin, it would appear that the conformation of the FMN rather than the loop changes in response to reduction in this

  7. Post-translational Regulation of Nitrate Reductase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nitrate reductase (NR) catalyzes the reduction of nitrate to nitrite, which is the first step in the nitrate assimilation pathway, but can also reduce nitrite to nitric oxide (NO), an important signaling molecule that is thought to mediate a wide array of of developmental and physiological processes...

  8. Synthesis of symmetric disulfides as potential alternative substrates for trypanothione reductase and glutathione reductase: Part 1.

    PubMed

    Jaouhari, R; Besheya, T; McKie, J H; Douglas, K T

    1995-12-01

    The synthesis of a series of symmetrical disulfides as potential substrates of trypanothione reductase and glutathione reductase was described. The key intermediate in the synthetic approach was the choice of S-(t)butylmercapto-L-cysteine (1). The spermidine ring in the native substrate, trypanothione disulfide (TSST), was replaced with 3-dimethyl-aminopropylamine (DMAPA), while theγ-Glu moiety was replaced by phenylalanyl or tryptophanyl residues. The same modifications in theγ-Glu moiety of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) were applied.

  9. Curcumin is a tight-binding inhibitor of the most efficient human daunorubicin reductase--Carbonyl reductase 1.

    PubMed

    Hintzpeter, Jan; Hornung, Jan; Ebert, Bettina; Martin, Hans-Jörg; Maser, Edmund

    2015-06-05

    Curcumin is a major component of the plant Curcuma longa L. It is traditionally used as a spice and coloring in foods and is an important ingredient in curry. Curcuminoids have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and gained increasing attention as potential neuroprotective and cancer preventive compounds. In the present study, we report that curcumin is a potent tight-binding inhibitor of human carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1, Ki=223 nM). Curcumin acts as a non-competitive inhibitor with respect to the substrate 2,3-hexandione as revealed by plotting IC50-values against various substrate concentrations and most likely as a competitive inhibitor with respect to NADPH. Molecular modeling supports the finding that curcumin occupies the cofactor binding site of CBR1. Interestingly, CBR1 is one of the most effective human reductases in converting the anthracycline anti-tumor drug daunorubicin to daunorubicinol. The secondary alcohol metabolite daunorubicinol has significantly reduced anti-tumor activity and shows increased cardiotoxicity, thereby limiting the clinical use of daunorubicin. Thus, inhibition of CBR1 may increase the efficacy of daunorubicin in cancer tissue and simultaneously decrease its cardiotoxicity. Western-blots demonstrated basal expression of CBR1 in several cell lines. Significantly less daunorubicin reduction was detected after incubating A549 cell lysates with increasing concentrations of curcumin (up to 60% less with 50 μM curcumin), suggesting a beneficial effect in the co-treatment of anthracycline anti-tumor drugs together with curcumin.

  10. Control of dihydrofolate reductase messenger ribonucleic acid production

    SciTech Connect

    Leys, E.J.; Kellems, R.E.

    1981-11-01

    The authors used methotrexate-resistant mouse cells in which dihydrofolate reductase levels are approximately 500 times normal to study the effect of growth stimulation on dihydrofolate reductase gene expression. As a result of growth stimulation, the relative rate of dihydrofolate reductase protein synthesis increased threefold, reaching a maximum between 25 and 30 h after stimulation. The relative rate of dihydrofolate reductase messenger ribonucleic acid production (i.e., the appearance of dihydrofolate reductase messenger ribonucleic acid in the cytoplasm) increased threefold after growth stimulation and was accompanied by a corresponding increase in the relative steady-state level of dihydrofolate reductase ribonucleic acid in the nucleus. However, the increase in the nuclear level of dihydrofolate reductase ribonucleic acid was not accompanied by a significant increase in the relative rate of transcription of the dihydrofolate reductase genes. These data indicated that the relative rate of appearance of dihydrofolate reductase messenger ribonucleic acid in the cytoplasm depends on the relative stability of the dihydrofolate reductase ribonucleic acid sequences in the nucleus and is not dependent on the relative rate of transcription of the dihydrofolate reductase genes.

  11. Augmentation of CFTR maturation by S-nitrosoglutathione reductase

    PubMed Central

    Sawczak, Victoria; Zaidi, Atiya; Butler, Maya; Bennett, Deric; Getsy, Paulina; Zeinomar, Maryam; Greenberg, Zivi; Forbes, Michael; Rehman, Shagufta; Jyothikumar, Vinod; DeRonde, Kim; Sattar, Abdus; Smith, Laura; Corey, Deborah; Straub, Adam; Sun, Fei; Palmer, Lisa; Periasamy, Ammasi; Randell, Scott; Kelley, Thomas J.; Lewis, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) reductase regulates novel endogenous S-nitrosothiol signaling pathways, and mice deficient in GSNO reductase are protected from airways hyperreactivity. S-nitrosothiols are present in the airway, and patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) tend to have low S-nitrosothiol levels that may be attributed to upregulation of GSNO reductase activity. The present study demonstrates that 1) GSNO reductase activity is increased in the cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial (CFBE41o−) cells expressing mutant F508del-cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) compared with the wild-type CFBE41o− cells, 2) GSNO reductase expression level is increased in the primary human bronchial epithelial cells expressing mutant F508del-CFTR compared with the wild-type cells, 3) GSNO reductase colocalizes with cochaperone Hsp70/Hsp90 organizing protein (Hop; Stip1) in human airway epithelial cells, 4) GSNO reductase knockdown with siRNA increases the expression and maturation of CFTR and decreases Stip1 expression in human airway epithelial cells, 5) increased levels of GSNO reductase cause a decrease in maturation of CFTR, and 6) a GSNO reductase inhibitor effectively reverses the effects of GSNO reductase on CFTR maturation. These studies provide a novel approach to define the subcellular location of the interactions between Stip1 and GSNO reductase and the role of S-nitrosothiols in these interactions. PMID:26637637

  12. Homology modeling of dissimilatory APS reductases (AprBA) of sulfur-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Birte; Kuever, Jan

    2008-01-30

    The dissimilatory adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase (cofactors flavin adenine dinucleotide, FAD, and two [4Fe-4S] centers) catalyzes the transformation of APS to sulfite and AMP in sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP); in sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) it has been suggested to operate in the reverse direction. Recently, the three-dimensional structure of the Archaeoglobus fulgidus enzyme has been determined in different catalytically relevant states providing insights into its reaction cycle. Full-length AprBA sequences from 20 phylogenetically distinct SRP and SOB species were used for homology modeling. In general, the average accuracy of the calculated models was sufficiently good to allow a structural and functional comparison between the beta- and alpha-subunit structures (78.8-99.3% and 89.5-96.8% of the AprB and AprA main chain atoms, respectively, had root mean square deviations below 1 A with respect to the template structures). Besides their overall conformity, the SRP- and SOB-derived models revealed the existence of individual adaptations at the electron-transferring AprB protein surface presumably resulting from docking to different electron donor/acceptor proteins. These structural alterations correlated with the protein phylogeny (three major phylogenetic lineages: (1) SRP including LGT-affected Archaeoglobi and SOB of Apr lineage II, (2) crenarchaeal SRP Caldivirga and Pyrobaculum, and (3) SOB of the distinct Apr lineage I) and the presence of potential APS reductase-interacting redox complexes. The almost identical protein matrices surrounding both [4Fe-4S] clusters, the FAD cofactor, the active site channel and center within the AprB/A models of SRP and SOB point to a highly similar catalytic process of APS reduction/sulfite oxidation independent of the metabolism type the APS reductase is involved in and the species it has been originated from. Based on the comparative models, there are no significant structural differences between

  13. Homology Modeling of Dissimilatory APS Reductases (AprBA) of Sulfur-Oxidizing and Sulfate-Reducing Prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Birte; Kuever, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Background The dissimilatory adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase (cofactors flavin adenine dinucleotide, FAD, and two [4Fe-4S] centers) catalyzes the transformation of APS to sulfite and AMP in sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP); in sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) it has been suggested to operate in the reverse direction. Recently, the three-dimensional structure of the Archaeoglobus fulgidus enzyme has been determined in different catalytically relevant states providing insights into its reaction cycle. Methodology/Principal Findings Full-length AprBA sequences from 20 phylogenetically distinct SRP and SOB species were used for homology modeling. In general, the average accuracy of the calculated models was sufficiently good to allow a structural and functional comparison between the beta- and alpha-subunit structures (78.8–99.3% and 89.5–96.8% of the AprB and AprA main chain atoms, respectively, had root mean square deviations below 1 Å with respect to the template structures). Besides their overall conformity, the SRP- and SOB-derived models revealed the existence of individual adaptations at the electron-transferring AprB protein surface presumably resulting from docking to different electron donor/acceptor proteins. These structural alterations correlated with the protein phylogeny (three major phylogenetic lineages: (1) SRP including LGT-affected Archaeoglobi and SOB of Apr lineage II, (2) crenarchaeal SRP Caldivirga and Pyrobaculum, and (3) SOB of the distinct Apr lineage I) and the presence of potential APS reductase-interacting redox complexes. The almost identical protein matrices surrounding both [4Fe-4S] clusters, the FAD cofactor, the active site channel and center within the AprB/A models of SRP and SOB point to a highly similar catalytic process of APS reduction/sulfite oxidation independent of the metabolism type the APS reductase is involved in and the species it has been originated from. Conclusions Based on the comparative models

  14. Photoinduced intramolecular charge transfer in an electronically modified flavin derivative: roseoflavin.

    PubMed

    Karasulu, Bora; Thiel, Walter

    2015-01-22

    The photophysical properties of a push-pull flavin derivative, roseoflavin (RoF), are investigated in different surroundings at the molecular level, with focus on intramolecular charge transfer (ICT). Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT, CAM-B3LYP functional) and DFT-based multireference configuration interaction (DFT/MRCI) are used to compute excited-state energies and one-electron properties of a truncated RoF model, roseolumiflavin (RoLF). Solvent effects are taken into account implicitly by the conductor-like polarizable continuum model and explicitly through a microsolvation scheme. In the gas phase, the calculations predict no crossing between the lowest locally excited (LE) and charge-transfer (CT) states upon twisting the dimethylamine donor group relative to the plane of the isoalloxazine acceptor moiety, whereas this crossing is found to be facile in solution (i.e., in water or benzene). Crossing of the LE and CT states facilitates ICT, which is the main cause of the fluorescence quenching and dual fluorescence character experimentally observed for roseoflavin in solution. The barrier for the ICT process is computed to be lower in water than in benzene, consistent with the enhanced ICT rates observed in more polar solvents. We present a detailed study of the molecular mechanism of the photoinduced ICT process in RoLF. For a typical donor-acceptor chromophore, three such mechanisms are discussed in the literature, which differ in the alignment of the donor and acceptor planes, namely, planar ICT (PICT), perpendicular-twisted ICT (TICT), and wagging ICT (WICT). Our theoretical results suggest that the TICT mechanism is favored in RoLF.

  15. Contribution of flavin covalent linkage with histidine 99 to the reaction catalyzed by choline oxidase.

    PubMed

    Quaye, Osbourne; Cowins, Sharonda; Gadda, Giovanni

    2009-06-19

    The FAD-dependent choline oxidase has a flavin cofactor covalently attached to the protein via histidine 99 through an 8alpha-N(3)-histidyl linkage. The enzyme catalyzes the four-electron oxidation of choline to glycine betaine, forming betaine aldehyde as an enzyme-bound intermediate. The variant form of choline oxidase in which the histidine residue has been replaced with asparagine was used to investigate the contribution of the 8alpha-N(3)-histidyl linkage of FAD to the protein toward the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme. Decreases of 10-fold and 30-fold in the k(cat)/K(m) and k(cat) values were observed as compared with wild-type choline oxidase at pH 10 and 25 degrees C, with no significant effect on k(cat)/K(O) using choline as substrate. Both the k(cat)/K(m) and k(cat) values increased with increasing pH to limiting values at high pH consistent with the participation of an unprotonated group in the reductive half-reaction and the overall turnover of the enzyme. The pH independence of both (D)(k(cat)/K(m)) and (D)k(cat), with average values of 9.2 +/- 3.3 and 7.4 +/- 0.5, respectively, is consistent with absence of external forward and reverse commitments to catalysis, and the chemical step of CH bond cleavage being rate-limiting for both the reductive half-reaction and the overall enzyme turnover. The temperature dependence of the (D)k(red) values suggests disruption of the preorganization in the asparagine variant enzyme. Altogether, the data presented in this study are consistent with the FAD-histidyl covalent linkage being important for the optimal positioning of the hydride ion donor and acceptor in the tunneling reaction catalyzed by choline oxidase.

  16. Flavin-containing monooxygenase S-oxygenation of a series of thioureas and thiones

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Marilyn C.; Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Krueger, Sharon K.; Stevens, J. Fred; Kedzie, Karen; Fang, Wenkui K.; Heidelbaugh, Todd; Nguyen, Phong; Chow, Ken; Garst, Michael; Gil, Daniel; Williams, David E.

    2014-07-15

    Mammalian flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) is active towards many drugs with a heteroatom having the properties of a soft nucleophile. Thiocarbamides and thiones are S-oxygenated to the sulfenic acid which can either react with glutathione and initiate a redox-cycle or be oxygenated a second time to the unstable sulfinic acid. In this study, we utilized LC–MS/MS to demonstrate that the oxygenation by hFMO of the thioureas under test terminated at the sulfenic acid. With thiones, hFMO catalyzed the second reaction and the sulfinic acid rapidly lost sulfite to form the corresponding imidazole. Thioureas are often pulmonary toxicants in mammals and, as previously reported by our laboratory, are excellent substrates for hFMO2. This isoform is expressed at high levels in the lung of most mammals, including non-human primates. Genotyping to date indicates that individuals of African (up to 49%) or Hispanic (2–7%) ancestry have at least one allele for functional hFMO2 in lung, but not Caucasians nor Asians. In this study the major metabolite formed by hFMO2 with thioureas from Allergan, Inc. was the sulfenic acid that reacted with glutathione. The majority of thiones were poor substrates for hFMO3, the major form in adult human liver. However, hFMO1, the major isoform expressed in infant and neonatal liver and adult kidney and intestine, readily S-oxygenated thiones under test, with K{sub m}s ranging from 7 to 160 μM and turnover numbers of 30–40 min{sup −1}. The product formed was identified by LC–MS/MS as the imidazole. The activities of the mouse and human FMO1 and FMO3 orthologs were in good agreement with the exception of some thiones for which activity was much greater with hFMO1 than mFMO1.

  17. Plant activation of aromatic amines mediated by cytochromes P450 and flavin-containing monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Chiapella, C; Radovan, R D; Moreno, J A; Casares, L; Barbé, J; Llagostera, M

    2000-10-31

    To know the mechanisms involved in the activation of promutagenic aromatic amines mediated by plants, we used Persea americana S117 system (S117) for the activation of 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) and m-phenylenediamine (m-PDA) in Ames assays. In these assays, the effect of the diphenylene iodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs), of the 1-aminobenzotriazole (1-ABT), an inhibitor of cytochromes P450 (cyt-P450s) and of the methimazole, a high-affinity substrate for FMOs, was studied. The efficacy of both inhibitors and of the methimazole was verified to find that they did partially inhibit the mutagenesis of both aromatic amines, activated with rat liver S9. Similarly, both inhibitors and methimazole did produce a significant decrease in 2-AF and m-PDA mutagenesis, when the activation system was S117, indicating that, similar to what occurs in mammalian systems, plant FMOs and cyt-P450s can metabolize aromatic amines to mutagenic product(s). However, the affinity of both FMOs and cyt-P450s of plant for 2-AF and m-PDA was different. Data obtained indicate that the activities of plant FMOs must be the main enzymatic system of m-PDA activation while, in 2-AF activation, plant cyt-P450s have the most relevant activities. In addition, peroxidases of the S117 system must contribute to 2-AF activation and some isoforms of FMOs and/or cyt-P450s of the S117 system, uninhibited by the inhibitors used, must be the responsible for a partial activation of m-PDA.

  18. Aggregation effects in visible-light flavin photocatalysts: synthesis, structure, and catalytic activity of 10-arylflavins.

    PubMed

    Daďová, Jitka; Kümmel, Susanne; Feldmeier, Christian; Cibulková, Jana; Pažout, Richard; Maixner, Jaroslav; Gschwind, Ruth M; König, Burkhard; Cibulka, Radek

    2013-01-14

    A series of 10-arylflavins (10-phenyl-, 10-(2',6'-dimethylphenyl)-, 10-(2',6'-diethylphenyl)-, 10-(2',6'-diisopropylphenyl)-, 10-(2'-tert-butylphenyl)-, and 10-(2',6'-dimethylphenyl)-3-methylisoalloxazine (2 a-f)) was prepared as potentially nonaggregating flavin photocatalysts. The investigation of their structures in the crystalline phase combined with (1)H-DOSY NMR spectroscopic experiments in CD(3)CN, CD(3)CN/D(2)O (1:1), and D(2)O confirm the decreased ability of 10-arylflavins 2 to form aggregates relative to tetra-O-acetyl riboflavin (1). 10-Arylflavins 2 a-d do not interact by π-π interactions, which are restricted by the 10-phenyl ring oriented perpendicularly to the isoalloxazine skeleton. On the other hand, N3-H⋅⋅⋅O hydrogen bonds were detected in their crystal structures. In the structure of 10-aryl-3-methylflavin (2 f) with a substituted N3 position, weak C-H⋅⋅⋅O bonds and weak π-π interactions were found. 10-Arylflavins 2 were tested as photoredox catalysts for the aerial oxidation of 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol to the corresponding aldehyde (model reaction), thus showing higher efficiency relative to 1. The quantum yields of 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol oxidation reactions mediated by arylflavins 2 were higher by almost one order of magnitude relative to values in the presence of 1. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Flavin-Dependent Monooxygenases as a Detoxification Mechanism in Insects: New Insights from the Arctiids (Lepidoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Langel, Dorothee; Heckel, David G.; Mohagheghi, Hoda; Petschenka, Georg; Ober, Dietrich

    2010-01-01

    Insects experience a wide array of chemical pressures from plant allelochemicals and pesticides and have developed several effective counterstrategies to cope with such toxins. Among these, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are crucial in plant-insect interactions. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs) seem not to play a central role in xenobiotic detoxification in insects, in contrast to mammals. However, the previously identified senecionine N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Tyria jacobaeae (Lepidoptera) indicates that FMOs have been recruited during the adaptation of this insect to plants that accumulate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Identification of related FMO-like sequences of various arctiids and other Lepidoptera and their combination with expressed sequence tag (EST) data and sequences emerging from the Bombyx mori genome project show that FMOs in Lepidoptera form a gene family with three members (FMO1 to FMO3). Phylogenetic analyses suggest that FMO3 is only distantly related to lepidopteran FMO1 and FMO2 that originated from a more recent gene duplication event. Within the FMO1 gene cluster, an additional gene duplication early in the arctiid lineage provided the basis for the evolution of the highly specific biochemical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations of these butterflies to pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-producing plants. The genes encoding pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-N-oxygenizing enzymes (PNOs) are transcribed in the fat body and the head of the larvae. An N-terminal signal peptide mediates the transport of the soluble proteins into the hemolymph where PNOs efficiently convert pro-toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids into their non-toxic N-oxide derivatives. Heterologous expression of a PNO of the generalist arctiid Grammia geneura produced an N-oxygenizing enzyme that shows noticeably expanded substrate specificity compared with the related enzyme of the specialist Tyria jacobaeae. The data about the evolution of FMOs within lepidopteran insects and the

  20. Flavin adenine dinucleotide chromophore charge controls the conformation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyase α-helices.

    PubMed

    Wijaya, I M Mahaputra; Iwata, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Junpei; Hitomi, Kenichi; Iwai, Shigenori; Getzoff, Elizabeth D; Kennis, John T M; Mathes, Tilo; Kandori, Hideki

    2014-09-23

    Observations of light-receptive enzyme complexes are usually complicated by simultaneous overlapping signals from the chromophore, apoprotein, and substrate, so that only the initial, ultrafast, photon-chromophore reaction and the final, slow, protein conformational change provide separate, nonoverlapping signals. Each provides its own advantages, whereas sometimes the overlapping signals from the intervening time scales still cannot be fully deconvoluted. We overcome the problem by using a novel method to selectively isotope-label the apoprotein but not the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor. This allowed the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) signals to be separated from the apoprotein, FAD cofactor, and DNA substrate. Consequently, a comprehensive structure-function study by FTIR spectroscopy of the Escherichia coli cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyase (CPD-PHR) DNA repair enzyme was possible. FTIR signals could be identified and assigned upon FAD photoactivation and DNA repair, which revealed protein dynamics for both processes beyond simple one-electron reduction and ejection, respectively. The FTIR data suggest that the synergistic cofactor-protein partnership in CPD-PHR linked to changes in the shape of FAD upon one-electron reduction may be coordinated with conformational changes in the apoprotein, allowing it to fit the DNA substrate. Activation of the CPD-PHR chromophore primes the apoprotein for subsequent DNA repair, suggesting that CPD-PHR is not simply an electron-ejecting structure. When FAD is activated, changes in its structure may trigger coordinated conformational changes in the apoprotein and thymine carbonyl of the substrate, highlighting the role of Glu275. In contrast, during DNA repair and release processes, primary conformational changes occur in the enzyme and DNA substrate, with little contribution from the FAD cofactor and surrounding amino acid residues.

  1. Two Novel Flavin-Containing Monooxygenases Involved in Biosynthesis of Aliphatic Glucosinolates

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Wenwen; Li, Jing; Yu, Qingyue; Cang, Wei; Xu, Rui; Wang, Yang; Ji, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Glucosinolates, a class of secondary metabolites from cruciferous plants, are derived from amino acids and have diverse biological activities, such as in biotic defense, depending on their side chain modification. The first structural modification step in the synthesis of aliphatic (methionine-derived) glucosinolates—S-oxygenation of methylthioalkyl glucosinolates to methylsulfinylalkyl glucosinolates—was found to be catalyzed by five flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs), FMOGS-OX1-5. Here, we report two additional FMOGS-OX enzymes, FMOGS-OX6, and FMOGS-OX7, encoded by At1g12130 and At1g12160, respectively. The overexpression of both FMOGS-OX6 and FMOGS-OX7 decreased the ratio of methylthioalkyl glucosinolates to the sum of methylthioalkyl and methylsulfinylalkyl glucosinolates, suggesting that the introduction of the two genes converted methylthioalkyl glucosinolates into methylsulfinylalkyl glucosinolates. Analysis of expression pattern revealed that the spatial expression of the two genes is quite similar and partially overlapped with the other FMOGS-OX genes, which are primarily expressed in vascular tissue. We further analyzed the responsive expression pattern of all the seven FMOGS-OX genes to exogenous treatment with abscisic acid, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and low and high temperatures. Although these genes showed same tendency toward the changing stimulus, the sensitivity of each gene was quite different. The variety in spatial expression among the FMOGS-OX genes while responding to environmental stimulus indicated a complex and finely tuned regulation of glucosinolates modifications. Identification of these two novel FMOGS-OX enzymes will enhance the understanding of glucosinolates modifications and the importance of evolution of these duplicated genes. PMID:27621741

  2. pH dependence on functional activity of human and mouse flavin-containing monooxygenase 5.

    PubMed

    Motika, Meike S; Zhang, Jun; Ralph, Erik C; Dwyer, Mary A; Cashman, John R

    2012-04-01

    Flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) 5 belongs to a family of enzymes that catalyze the oxygenation of nucleophilic N- and S-containing compounds. The FMO enzyme family consists of five forms (FMOs1-5) that share about 50-60% sequence identity to each other. A comparison of FMOs showed that the pH-dependence profile for functional activity of FMO5 differed significantly from that of other FMO enzymes. The objective of this study was to examine the pH-dependence of FMO5 to gain insight into the mechanism of action of FMO5. Recombinant mouse and human FMO5 (mFMO5 and hFMO5, respectively) were expressed as maltose-binding fusion proteins from Escherichia coli, purified with affinity chromatography, and examined for their N-oxygenation functional activity at different pH values. hFMO5 showed a broader range and greater functional activity from pH 6 to 11 compared to mFMO5. mFMO5 lost almost all functional activity at pH 6, while hFMO5 maintained almost normal enzyme activity. In order to identify the amino acid residues involved in the effects of pH on hFMO5 and mFMO5 functional enzyme activity, pH-studies in the range of pH 6-9 were done with chimeras of recombinant mouse and human FMO5 and variants of both. Results of these studies and molecular modeling showed that residues responsible for the differences in the pH profile between mFMO5 and hFMO5 were located at positions 227 and 228 of the enzyme. Further variants were made to investigate the role of these amino acids. The results of this study may help to explain the mechanism of FMO function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases as a detoxification mechanism in insects: new insights from the arctiids (lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Sehlmeyer, Sven; Wang, Linzhu; Langel, Dorothee; Heckel, David G; Mohagheghi, Hoda; Petschenka, Georg; Ober, Dietrich

    2010-05-03

    Insects experience a wide array of chemical pressures from plant allelochemicals and pesticides and have developed several effective counterstrategies to cope with such toxins. Among these, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are crucial in plant-insect interactions. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs) seem not to play a central role in xenobiotic detoxification in insects, in contrast to mammals. However, the previously identified senecionine N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Tyria jacobaeae (Lepidoptera) indicates that FMOs have been recruited during the adaptation of this insect to plants that accumulate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Identification of related FMO-like sequences of various arctiids and other Lepidoptera and their combination with expressed sequence tag (EST) data and sequences emerging from the Bombyx mori genome project show that FMOs in Lepidoptera form a gene family with three members (FMO1 to FMO3). Phylogenetic analyses suggest that FMO3 is only distantly related to lepidopteran FMO1 and FMO2 that originated from a more recent gene duplication event. Within the FMO1 gene cluster, an additional gene duplication early in the arctiid lineage provided the basis for the evolution of the highly specific biochemical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations of these butterflies to pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-producing plants. The genes encoding pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-N-oxygenizing enzymes (PNOs) are transcribed in the fat body and the head of the larvae. An N-terminal signal peptide mediates the transport of the soluble proteins into the hemolymph where PNOs efficiently convert pro-toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids into their non-toxic N-oxide derivatives. Heterologous expression of a PNO of the generalist arctiid Grammia geneura produced an N-oxygenizing enzyme that shows noticeably expanded substrate specificity compared with the related enzyme of the specialist Tyria jacobaeae. The data about the evolution of FMOs within lepidopteran insects and the

  4. Trimethylamine and Trimethylamine N-Oxide, a Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase 3 (FMO3)-Mediated Host-Microbiome Metabolic Axis Implicated in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fennema, Diede; Phillips, Ian R.

    2016-01-01

    Flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) is known primarily as an enzyme involved in the metabolism of therapeutic drugs. On a daily basis, however, we are exposed to one of the most abundant substrates of the enzyme trimethylamine (TMA), which is released from various dietary components by the action of gut bacteria. FMO3 converts the odorous TMA to nonodorous TMA N-oxide (TMAO), which is excreted in urine. Impaired FMO3 activity gives rise to the inherited disorder primary trimethylaminuria (TMAU). Affected individuals cannot produce TMAO and, consequently, excrete large amounts of TMA. A dysbiosis in gut bacteria can give rise to secondary TMAU. Recently, there has been much interest in FMO3 and its catalytic product, TMAO, because TMAO has been implicated in various conditions affecting health, including cardiovascular disease, reverse cholesterol transport, and glucose and lipid homeostasis. In this review, we consider the dietary components that can give rise to TMA, the gut bacteria involved in the production of TMA from dietary precursors, the metabolic reactions by which bacteria produce and use TMA, and the enzymes that catalyze the reactions. Also included is information on bacteria that produce TMA in the oral cavity and vagina, two key microbiome niches that can influence health. Finally, we discuss the importance of the TMA/TMAO microbiome-host axis in health and disease, considering factors that affect bacterial production and host metabolism of TMA, the involvement of TMAO and FMO3 in disease, and the implications of the host-microbiome axis for management of TMAU. PMID:27190056

  5. Redox Reactions of Reduced Flavin Mononucleotide (FMN), Riboflavin (RBF), and Anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) with Ferrihydrite and Lepidocrocite

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Zhi; Zachara, John M.; Shi, Liang; Wang, Zheming; Moore, Dean A.; Kennedy, David W.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2012-09-17

    Flavins are secreted by the dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella and can function as endogenous electron transfer mediators (ETM). In order to assess the potential importance of flavins in Fe(III) bioreduction, we investigated the redox reaction kinetics of reduced flavins (FMNH2 and RBFH2) with ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite. The organic reductants rapidly reduced and dissolved ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite in the pH range 4-8. The rate constant k for 2-line ferrihydrite reductive dissolution by FMNH2 was 87.5 ± 3.5 M-1∙s-1 at pH 7.0 in batch reactors, and the k was similar for RBFH2. For lepidocrocite, the k was 500 ± 61 M-1∙s-1 for FMNH2, and 236 ± 22 M-1∙s-1 for RBFH2. The surface area normalized initial reaction rates (ra) were between 0.08 and 77 μmoles∙m-2∙s-1 for various conditions in stopped-flow experiments. Initial rates (ro) were first-order with respect to Fe(III) oxide concentration, and ra increased with decreasing pH. Poorly crystalline 2-line ferrihydrite yielded the highest ra, followed by more crystalline 6-line ferrihydrite, and crystalline lepidocrocite. Compared to a previous whole-cell study with Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1, our findings suggest that ETM reduction by the Mtr pathway coupled to lactate oxidation are rate limiting, rather than heterogeneous electron transfer to the Fe(III) oxide.

  6. Immunoassays for riboflavin and flavin mononucleotide using antibodies specific to d-ribitol and d-ribitol-5-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Ravi, G; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2017-06-01

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2), a water-soluble vitamin, plays a key role in maintaining human health. Though, numerous methods have been reported for the determination of total riboflavin (TRF) content in foods and biological samples, very few methods are reported for quantifying riboflavin and its coenzymes [flavin mononucleotide (FMN); flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)] individually. Recently, we have demonstrated that antibodies specific to d-ribitol and d-ribitol-5-phosphate also recognize riboflavin and FMN, respectively, and not vice-versa. In this study, we have evaluated these two antibodies for the analysis of riboflavin and FMN by indirect competitive ELISA (icELISA) in selected foods and pharmaceuticals. Under the optimal assay conditions, 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) and limit of detection (LOD, IC10) were 3.41ng/mL and 0.02ng/mL for riboflavin, and 7.84ng/mL and 0.24ng/mL for FMN, respectively, with detectable concentration range between 0.1 and 100ng of analytes and <0.1% cross-reactivity with other water-soluble vitamins. The amounts of TRF in food samples, as analyzed by icELISA using ribitol antibody, were 90-95% of the reported values in the literature or label values. Quantification of individual flavins (riboflavin and FMN) from the same food samples showed variation in their values compared to TRF, and were in good agreement with values obtained from HPLC and AOAC methods. Further, spiking and recovery analysis of food samples and pharmaceuticals showed no significant matrix effects. The immunoassays were validated in terms of accuracy and precision using inter- and intra-assays. The immunoassays developed in this study are sensitive and appears feasible for screening a large number of samples in the quantification of riboflavin and FMN in various biological samples, pharmaceuticals and natural/processed foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Independent Recruitment of a Flavin-Dependent Monooxygenase for Safe Accumulation of Sequestered Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Grasshoppers and Moths

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Linzhu; Beuerle, Till; Timbilla, James; Ober, Dietrich

    2012-01-01

    Several insect lineages have developed diverse strategies to sequester toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids from food-plants for their own defense. Here, we show that in two highly divergent insect taxa, the hemimetabolous grasshoppers and the holometabolous butterflies, an almost identical strategy evolved independently for safe accumulation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. This strategy involves a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase that transfers the pyrrolizidine alkaloids to their respective N-oxide, enabling the insects to avoid high concentrations of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the hemolymph. We have identified a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase, which is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase, of the grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus. After heterologous expression in E. coli, this enzyme shows high specificity for pyrrolizidine alkaloids of various structural types and for the tropane alkaloid atropine as substrates, a property that has been described previously for a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Grammia geneura. Phylogenetic analyses of insect flavin-dependent monooxygenase sequences suggest that independent gene duplication events preceded the establishment of this specific enzyme in the lineages of the grasshoppers and of arctiid moths. Two further flavin-dependent monooxygenase sequences have been identified from Z. variegatus sharing amino acid identities of approximately 78% to the pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase. After heterologous expression, both enzymes are also able to catalyze the N-oxygenation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, albeit with a 400-fold lower specific activity. With respect to the high sequence identity between the three Z. variegatus sequences this ability to N-oxygenize pyrrolizidine alkaloids is interpreted as a relict of a former bifunctional ancestor gene of which one of the gene copies optimized this activity for the specific adaptation to pyrrolizidine alkaloid containing food plants. PMID:22363737

  8. Independent recruitment of a flavin-dependent monooxygenase for safe accumulation of sequestered pyrrolizidine alkaloids in grasshoppers and moths.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linzhu; Beuerle, Till; Timbilla, James; Ober, Dietrich

    2012-01-01

    Several insect lineages have developed diverse strategies to sequester toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids from food-plants for their own defense. Here, we show that in two highly divergent insect taxa, the hemimetabolous grasshoppers and the holometabolous butterflies, an almost identical strategy evolved independently for safe accumulation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. This strategy involves a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase that transfers the pyrrolizidine alkaloids to their respective N-oxide, enabling the insects to avoid high concentrations of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the hemolymph. We have identified a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase, which is a flavin-dependent monooxygenase, of the grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus. After heterologous expression in E. coli, this enzyme shows high specificity for pyrrolizidine alkaloids of various structural types and for the tropane alkaloid atropine as substrates, a property that has been described previously for a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Grammia geneura. Phylogenetic analyses of insect flavin-dependent monooxygenase sequences suggest that independent gene duplication events preceded the establishment of this specific enzyme in the lineages of the grasshoppers and of arctiid moths. Two further flavin-dependent monooxygenase sequences have been identified from Z. variegatus sharing amino acid identities of approximately 78% to the pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase. After heterologous expression, both enzymes are also able to catalyze the N-oxygenation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, albeit with a 400-fold lower specific activity. With respect to the high sequence identity between the three Z. variegatus sequences this ability to N-oxygenize pyrrolizidine alkaloids is interpreted as a relict of a former bifunctional ancestor gene of which one of the gene copies optimized this activity for the specific adaptation to pyrrolizidine alkaloid containing food plants.

  9. External loops at the ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase protein-partner binding cavity contribute to substrates allocation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Azqueta, Ana; Martínez-Júlvez, Marta; Hervás, Manuel; Navarro, José A; Medina, Milagros

    2014-02-01

    Ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase (FNR) is the structural prototype of a family of FAD-containing reductases that catalyze electron transfer between low potential proteins and NAD(P)(+)/H, and that display a two-domain arrangement with an open cavity at their interface. The inner part of this cavity accommodates the reacting atoms during catalysis. Loops at its edge are highly conserved among plastidic FNRs, suggesting that they might contribute to both flavin stabilization and competent disposition of substrates. Here we pay attention to two of these loops in Anabaena FNR. The first is a sheet-loop-sheet motif, loop102-114, that allocates the FAD adenosine. It was thought to determine the extended FAD conformation, and, indirectly, to modulate isoalloxazine electronic properties, partners binding, catalytic efficiency and even coenzyme specificity. The second, loop261-269, contains key residues for the allocation of partners and coenzyme, including two glutamates, Glu267 and Glu268, proposed as candidates to facilitate the key displacement of the C-terminal tyrosine (Tyr303) from its stacking against the isoalloxazine ring during the catalytic cycle. Our data indicate that the main function of loop102-114 is to provide the inter-domain cavity with flexibility to accommodate protein partners and to guide the coenzyme to the catalytic site, while the extended conformation of FAD must be induced by other protein determinants. Glu267 and Glu268 appear to assist the conformational changes that occur in the loop261-269 during productive coenzyme binding, but their contribution to Tyr303 displacement is minor than expected. Additionally, loop261-269 appears a determinant to ensure reversibility in photosynthetic FNRs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Domain motion in cytochrome P450 reductase: conformational equilibria revealed by NMR and small-angle x-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Jacqueline; Gutierrez, Aldo; Barsukov, Igor L; Huang, Wei-Cheng; Grossmann, J Günter; Roberts, Gordon C K

    2009-12-25

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR), a diflavin reductase, plays a key role in the mammalian P450 mono-oxygenase system. In its crystal structure, the two flavins are close together, positioned for interflavin electron transfer but not for electron transfer to cytochrome P450. A number of lines of evidence suggest that domain motion is important in the action of the enzyme. We report NMR and small-angle x-ray scattering experiments addressing directly the question of domain organization in human CPR. Comparison of the (1)H-(15)N heteronuclear single quantum correlation spectrum of CPR with that of the isolated FMN domain permitted identification of residues in the FMN domain whose environment differs in the two situations. These include several residues that are solvent-exposed in the CPR crystal structure, indicating the existence of a second conformation in which the FMN domain is involved in a different interdomain interface. Small-angle x-ray scattering experiments showed that oxidized and NADPH-reduced CPRs have different overall shapes. The scattering curve of the reduced enzyme can be adequately explained by the crystal structure, whereas analysis of the data for the oxidized enzyme indicates that it exists as a mixture of approximately equal amounts of two conformations, one consistent with the crystal structure and one a more extended structure consistent with that inferred from the NMR data. The correlation between the effects of adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate and NADPH on the scattering curve and their effects on the rate of interflavin electron transfer suggests that this conformational equilibrium is physiologically relevant.

  11. Evaluation of combinations of drugs that inhibit Ehrlich tumor cell ribonucleotide reductase.

    PubMed

    Sato, A; Cory, J G

    1981-05-01

    The nature of the inhibition of Ehrlich tumor cell ribonucleotide reductase by combinations of agents directed at the non-heme iron-containing component and the effector-binding component was studied with the use of isobolograms. From these studies, it was determined that the combinations of pyrazoloimidazole (IMPY) and dialdehyde of inosine, IMPY and deoxyguanosine triphosphate (dGTP), IMPY and deoxyadenosine triphosphate (dATP), and IMPY and deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) gave synergistic inhibition of cytidine diphosphate reductase. The combination of dATP and dGTP also gave synergistic inhibition. The combinations of hydroxyurea and IMPY, 4-methyl-5-aminoisoquinoline thiosemicarbazone (MAIQ) and IMPY, and dialdehyde of inosine and dialdehyde derivative of 5'-deoxyinosine gave antagonistic inhibition. Other combinations utilizing MAIQ and dATP, MAIQ and dGTP, MAIQ and dTTP, hydroxyurea and dGTP, and hydroxyurea and dTTP gave inhibition which was additive.

  12. Rhythms of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in brain of chick and their inhibition by light.

    PubMed

    Pablos, M I; Reiter, R J; Ortiz, G G; Guerrero, J M; Agapito, M T; Chuang, J I; Sewerynek, E

    1998-01-01

    Melatonin was recently shown to be a component of the antioxidative defense system of organisms due to its free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. Pharmacologically, melatonin stimulates the activity of the peroxide detoxifying enzyme glutathione peroxidase in rat brain and in several tissues of chicks. In this report, we studied the endogenous rhythm of two antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, in five regions (hippocampus, hypothalamus, striatum, cortex and cerebellum) of chick brain and correlated them with physiological blood melatonin concentrations. Glutathione peroxidase exhibited a marked 24 h rhythm with peak activity in each brain region which had acrophases about 8 h after lights off and about 4 h after the serum melatonin peak was detected. Glutathione reductase activity exhibited similar robust rhythms with the peaks occurring roughly 2 h after those of glutathione peroxidase. We suggest that neural glutathione peroxidase increases due to the rise of nocturnal melatonin levels while glutathione reductase activity rises slightly later possibly due to an increase of its substrate, oxidized glutathione. The exposure of chicks to constant light for 6 days eliminated the melatonin rhythm as well as the peaks in both glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities. These findings suggest that the melatonin rhythm may be related to the nighttime increases in the enzyme activities, although other explanations cannot be excluded.

  13. Type I and type II fatty acid biosynthesis in Eimeria tenella: enoyl reductase activity and structure.

    PubMed

    Lu, J Z; Muench, S P; Allary, M; Campbell, S; Roberts, C W; Mui, E; McLeod, R L; Rice, D W; Prigge, S T

    2007-12-01

    Apicomplexan parasites of the genus Eimeria are the major causative agent of avian coccidiosis, leading to high economic losses in the poultry industry. Recent results show that Eimeria tenella harbours an apicoplast organelle, and that a key biosynthetic enzyme, enoyl reductase, is located in this organelle. In related parasites, enoyl reductase is one component of a type II fatty acid synthase (FAS) and has proven to be an attractive target for antimicrobial compounds. We cloned and expressed the mature form of E. tenella enoyl reductase (EtENR) for biochemical and structural studies. Recombinant EtENR exhibits NADH-dependent enoyl reductase activity and is inhibited by triclosan with an IC50 value of 60 nm. The crystal structure of EtENR reveals overall similarity with other ENR enzymes; however, the active site of EtENR is unoccupied, a state rarely observed in other ENR structures. Furthermore, the position of the central beta-sheet appears to block NADH binding and would require significant movement to allow NADH binding, a feature not previously seen in the ENR family. We analysed the E. tenella genomic database for orthologues of well-characterized bacterial and apicomplexan FAS enzymes and identified 6 additional genes, suggesting that E. tenella contains a type II FAS capable of synthesizing saturated, but not unsaturated, fatty acids. Interestingly, we also identified sequences that appear to encode multifunctional type I FAS enzymes, a feature also observed in Toxoplasma gondii, highlighting the similarity between these apicomplexan parasites.

  14. FRUCTOSE-6-PHOSPHATE REDUCTASE FROM SALMONELLA GALLINARUM

    PubMed Central

    Zancan, Glaci T.; Bacila, Metry

    1964-01-01

    Zancan, Glaci T. (Universidade do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil), and Metry Bacila. Fructose-6-phosphate reductase from Salmonella gallinarum. J. Bacteriol. 87:614–618. 1964.—A fructose-6-phosphate reductase present in cell-free extracts of Salmonella gallinarum was purified approximately 42 times. The optimal pH for this enzyme is 8.0. The enzyme is specific for fructose-6-phosphate and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The dissociation constants are 1.78 × 10−4m for fructose-6-phosphate and 8.3 × 10−5m for NADH. The Q10, reaction order, and equilibrium constant were determined. The enzyme is sensitive to p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, but not to o-iodosobenzoic acid nor to N-ethylmaleimide. PMID:14127579

  15. Characterization of human platelet glutathione reductase.

    PubMed

    Moroff, G; Kosow, D P

    1978-12-08

    Glutathione reductase (NAD(P)h:oxidized glutathione oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.4.2) has been purified 1000-fold from the cytoplasmic fraction of human platelets. Salts, including the heretofore unreported effect of sodium citrate, activate the NADPH-dependent reduction of oxidized glutathione. Sodium citrate and monovalent salt activation appears to involve multiple sites having different binding affinities. At sub-saturating sodium phosphate, non-linear double reciprocal plots indicative of substrate activation by oxidized glutathione were observed. Initial velocity double reciprocal plots at sub-saturating and saturating concentrations of phosphate generate a family of converging lines. NADP+ is a partial inhibitor, indicating that the reduction of oxidized glutathione can proceed by more than one pathway. FMN, FAD, and riboflavin inhibit platelet glutathione reductase by influencing only the V while nitrofurantoin inhibition is associated with an increase Koxidized glutathione and a decreased V.

  16. Structure Determination and Functional Analysis of a Chromate Reductase from Gluconacetobacter hansenii

    PubMed Central

    Buchko, Garry W.; Varnum, Susan M.; Robinson, Howard; Squier, Thomas C.; Long, Philip E.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental protection through biological mechanisms that aid in the reductive immobilization of toxic metals (e.g., chromate and uranyl) has been identified to involve specific NADH-dependent flavoproteins that promote cell viability. To understand the enzyme mechanisms responsible for metal reduction, the enzyme kinetics of a putative chromate reductase from Gluconacetobacter hansenii (Gh-ChrR) was measured and the crystal structure of the protein determined at 2.25 Å resolution. Gh-ChrR catalyzes the NADH-dependent reduction of chromate, ferricyanide, and uranyl anions under aerobic conditions. Kinetic measurements indicate that NADH acts as a substrate inhibitor; catalysis requires chromate binding prior to NADH association. The crystal structure of Gh-ChrR shows the protein is a homotetramer with one bound flavin mononucleotide (FMN) per subunit. A bound anion is visualized proximal to the FMN at the interface between adjacent subunits within a cationic pocket, which is positioned at an optimal distance for hydride transfer. Site-directed substitutions of residues proposed to involve in both NADH and metal anion binding (N85A or R101A) result in 90–95% reductions in enzyme efficiencies for NADH-dependent chromate reduction. In comparison site-directed substitution of a residue (S118A) participating in the coordination of FMN in the active site results in only modest (50%) reductions in catalytic efficiencies, consistent with the presence of a multitude of side chains that position the FMN in the active site. The proposed proximity relationships between metal anion binding site and enzyme cofactors is discussed in terms of rational design principles for the use of enzymes in chromate and uranyl bioremediation. PMID:22879982

  17. Cytochrome P450 Reductase: A Harbinger of Diffusible Reduced Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Manoj, Kelath Murali; Gade, Sudeep Kumar; Mathew, Lazar

    2010-01-01

    The bi-enzymatic system of cytochrome P450 (CYP, a hemoprotein) and cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR, a diflavoenzyme) mediate the redox metabolism of diverse indigenous and xenobiotic molecules in various cellular and organ systems, using oxygen and NADPH. Curiously, when a 1∶1 ratio is seen to be optimal for metabolism, the ubiquitous CYP:CPR distribution ratio is 10 to 100∶1 or higher. Further, the NADPH equivalents consumed in these in vitro or in situ assemblies usually far exceeded the amount of substrate metabolized. We aimed to find the rationale to explain for these two oddities. We report here that CPR is capable of activating molecular oxygen on its own merit, generating diffusible reduced oxygen species (DROS). Also, in the first instance for a flavoprotein, CPR is shown to deplete peroxide via diffusible radical mediated process, thereby leading to the formation of water (but without significant evolution of oxygen). We also quantitatively demonstrate that the rate of oxygen activation and peroxide depletion by CPR accounts for the major reactivity in the CYP+CPR mixture. We show unambiguously that CPR is able to regulate the concentration of diffusible reduced oxygen species in the reaction milieu. These findings point out that CPR mediated processes are bound to be energetically ‘wasteful’ and potentially ‘hazardous’ owing to the unavoidable nature of the CPR to generate and deplete DROS. Hence, we can understand that CPR is distributed at low densities in cells. Some of the activities that were primarily attributed to the heme-center of CYP are now established to be a facet of the flavins of CPR. The current approach of modeling drugs to minimize “uncoupling” on the basis of erstwhile hypothesis stands questionable, considering the ideas brought forth in this work. PMID:20967245

  18. Differential Stress-Induced Regulation of Two Quinone Reductases in the Brown Rot Basidiomycete Gloeophyllum trabeum

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Roni; Suzuki, Melissa R.; Hammel, Kenneth E.

    2004-01-01

    Quinone reductases (QRDs) have two important functions in the basidiomycete Gloeophyllum trabeum, which causes brown rot of wood. First, a QRD is required to generate biodegradative hydroxyl radicals via redox cycling between two G. trabeum extracellular metabolites, 2,5-dimethoxyhydroquinone (2,5-DMHQ) and 2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (2,5-DMBQ). Second, because 2,5-DMBQ is cytotoxic and 2,5-DMHQ is not, a QRD is needed to maintain the intracellular pool of these metabolites in the reduced form. Given their importance in G. trabeum metabolism, QRDs could prove useful targets for new wood preservatives. We have identified two G. trabeum genes, each existing in two closely related, perhaps allelic variants, that encode QRDs in the flavodoxin family. Past work with QRD1 and heterologous expression of QRD2 in this study confirmed that both genes encode NADH-dependent, flavin-containing QRDs. Real-time reverse transcription PCR analyses of liquid- and wood-grown cultures showed that qrd1 expression was maximal during secondary metabolism, coincided with the production of 2,5-DMBQ, and was moderately up-regulated by chemical stressors such as quinones. By contrast, qrd2 expression was maximal during fungal growth when 2,5-DMBQ levels were low, yet was markedly up-regulated by chemical stress or heat shock. The total QRD activity in lysates of G. trabeum mycelium was significantly enhanced by induction beforehand with a cytotoxic quinone. The promoter of qrd2 contains likely antioxidant, xenobiotic, and heat shock elements, absent in qrd1, that probably explain the greater response of qrd2 transcription to stress. We conclude from these results that QRD1 is the enzyme G. trabeum routinely uses to detoxify quinones during incipient wood decay and that it could also drive the biodegradative quinone redox cycle. However, QRD2 assumes a more important role when the mycelium is stressed. PMID:14711659

  19. The nitrate reductase-encoding gene of Volvox carteri: map location, sequence and induction kinetics.

    PubMed

    Gruber, H; Goetinck, S D; Kirk, D L; Schmitt, R

    1992-10-12

    The nitrate reductase (NR) structural gene (nitA) of Volvox carteri has been cloned and characterized. There is a single copy of this gene in the genome, and RFLP (restriction-fragment length polymorphism) analysis assigns it to the previously defined nitA/chlR locus on linkage group IX, 20-30 cM from the two beta-tubulin-encoding loci. Determination of the 5871-nt sequence of the coding region of genomic clones, and comparisons to a cDNA sequence, revealed ten introns and eleven exons that encode a 864-aa polypeptide. Detailed comparisons with higher-plant and fungal NRs indicate that, whereas the aa sequence is strongly conserved within functional domains for the flavin adenine dinucleotide-, heme- and molybdenum-pterin cofactor-binding sites, substantial differences in the aa sequence occur in the N-terminal end and the two inter-domain regions. Two potential transcription start points 439 and 452 nt upstream from the start codon and a polyadenylation signal 355 nt downstream from the stop codon have been identified by primer-extension analysis and cDNA sequencing, respectively. Accumulation of the nitA transcript is both induced by nitrate and repressed by ammonium and urea: after the organism is transferred from ammonium to nitrate as the nitrogen source, a 3.6-kb NR transcript is readily detectable on Northern blots by 10 min, reaches maximum abundance by 30 min, and then rapidly declines to an intermediate level that is subsequently maintained. Substantial induction by nitrate is observed at the end of the dark portion of the daily light/dark cycle, but the inductive response peaks in the first hour of the light period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Structure of Coenzyme A-Disulfide Reductase from Staphylococcus aureus at 1.54 Angstrom Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Mallett,T.; Wallen, J.; Karplus, P.; Sakai, H.; Tsukihara, T.; Claiborne, A.

    2006-01-01

    Coenzyme A (CoASH) replaces glutathione as the major low molecular weight thiol in Staphylococcus aureus; it is maintained in the reduced state by coenzyme A-disulfide reductase (CoADR), a homodimeric enzyme similar to NADH peroxidase but containing a novel Cys43-SSCoA redox center. The crystal structure of S. aureus CoADR has been solved using multiwavelength anomalous dispersion data and refined at a resolution of 1.54 {angstrom}. The resulting electron density maps define the Cys43-SSCoA disulfide conformation, with Cys43-S{gamma} located at the flavin si face, 3.2 {angstrom} from FAD-C4aF, and the CoAS- moiety lying in an extended conformation within a cleft at the dimer interface. A well-ordered chloride ion is positioned adjacent to the Cys43-SSCoA disulfide and receives a hydrogen bond from Tyr361'-OH of the complementary subunit, suggesting a role for Tyr361' as an acid-base catalyst during the reduction of CoAS-disulfide. Tyr419'-OH is located 3.2 {angstrom} from Tyr361'-OH as well and, based on its conservation in known functional CoADRs, also appears to be important for activity. Identification of residues involved in recognition of the CoAS-disulfide substrate and in formation and stabilization of the Cys43-SSCoA redox center has allowed development of a CoAS-binding motif. Bioinformatics analyses indicate that CoADR enzymes are broadly distributed in both bacterial and archaeal kingdoms, suggesting an even broader significance for the CoASH/CoAS-disulfide redox system in prokaryotic thiol/disulfide homeostasis.

  1. Properties and Crystal Structure of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase from Thermus thermophilus HB8

    PubMed Central

    Igari, Sayaka; Ohtaki, Akashi; Yamanaka, Yasuaki; Sato, Yuichi; Yohda, Masafumi; Odaka, Masafumi; Noguchi, Keiichi; Yamada, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is one of the enzymes involved in homocysteine metabolism. Despite considerable genetic and clinical attention, the reaction mechanism and regulation of this enzyme are not fully understood because of difficult production and poor stability. While recombinant enzymes from thermophilic organisms are often stable and easy to prepare, properties of thermostable MTHFRs have not yet been reported. Methodology/Principal Findings MTHFR from Thermus thermophilus HB8, a homologue of Escherichia coli MetF, has been expressed in E. coli and purified. The purified MTHFR was chiefly obtained as a heterodimer of apo- and holo-subunits, that is, one flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) prosthetic group bound per dimer. The crystal structure of the holo-subunit was quite similar to the β8α8 barrel of E. coli MTHFR, while that of the apo-subunit was a previously unobserved closed form. In addition, the intersubunit interface of the dimer in the crystals was different from any of the subunit interfaces of the tetramer of E. coli MTHFR. Free FAD could be incorporated into the apo-subunit of the purified Thermus enzyme after purification, forming a homodimer of holo-subunits. Comparison of the crystal structures of the heterodimer and the homodimer revealed different intersubunit interfaces, indicating a large conformational change upon FAD binding. Most of the biochemical properties of the heterodimer and the homodimer were the same, except that the homodimer showed ≈50% activity per FAD-bound subunit in folate-dependent reactions. Conclusions/Significance The different intersubunit interfaces and rearrangement of subunits of Thermus MTHFR may be related to human enzyme properties, such as the allosteric regulation by S-adenosylmethionine and the enhanced instability of the Ala222Val mutant upon loss of FAD. Whereas E. coli MTHFR was the only structural model for human MTHFR to date, our findings suggest that Thermus MTHFR will

  2. Prediction of flavin mono-nucleotide binding sites using modified PSSM profile and ensemble support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Mi, Gang; Wang, Cuicui; Zhang, Yongqing; Li, Juan; Guo, Yanzhi; Pu, Xuemei; Li, Menglong

    2012-11-01

    Flavin mono-nucleotide (FMN) closely evolves in many biological processes. In this study, a computational method was proposed to identify FMN binding sites based on amino acid sequences of proteins only. A modified Position Specific Score Matrix was used to characterize the local environmental sequence information, and a visible improvement of performance was obtained. Also, the ensemble SVM was applied to solve the imbalanced data problem. Additionally, an independent dataset was built to evaluate the practical performance of the method, and a satisfactory accuracy of 87.87% was achieved. It demonstrates that the method is effective in predicting FMN-binding sites.

  3. Preparation of the lactate oxidase apoenzyme and studies on the binding of flavin mononucleotide to the apoenzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Choong, Y S; Shepherd, M G; Sullivan, P A

    1975-01-01

    1. Lactate oxidase from Mycobacterium smegmatis is completely resolved into free flavin and apoenzyme by treatment with acid (NH4)2SO4. 2. Reconstitution involves rapid binding of FMN, but the recovery of enzyme activity was slower and appeared to be biphasic. 3. The preparation of the holoenzyme obtained differs from the native enzyme in specific activity, extinction coefficients and mobility on disc-gel electrophoresis. 4. Dialysis of this reconstituted enzyme in 0.1 M-sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, at 0 degrees C for 1 week yields a preparation which closely resembles the native enzyme. PMID:1191251

  4. Characterization of erythrose reductases from filamentous fungi

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Proteins with putative erythrose reductase activity have been identified in the filamentous fungi Trichoderma reesei, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium graminearum by in silico analysis. The proteins found in T. reesei and A. niger had earlier been characterized as glycerol dehydrogenase and aldehyde reductase, respectively. Corresponding genes from all three fungi were cloned, heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified. Subsequently, they were used to establish optimal enzyme assay conditions. All three enzymes strictly require NADPH as cofactor, whereas with NADH no activity could be observed. The enzymatic characterization of the three enzymes using ten substrates revealed high substrate specificity and activity with D-erythrose and D-threose. The enzymes from T. reesei and A. niger herein showed comparable activities, whereas the one from F. graminearum reached only about a tenth of it for all tested substrates. In order to proof in vivo the proposed enzyme function, we overexpressed the erythrose reductase-encoding gene in T. reesei. An increased production of erythritol by the recombinant strain compared to the parental strain could be detected. PMID:23924507

  5. Purification and biochemical characterization of simplified eukaryotic nitrate reductase expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Guillaume G; Joshi, Rama C; Campbell, Ellen R; Campbell, Wilbur H

    2004-09-01

    NAD(P)H:nitrate reductase (NaR, EC 1.7.1.1-3) is a useful enzyme in biotechnological applications, but it is very complex in structure and contains three cofactors-flavin adenine dinucleotide, heme-Fe, and molybdenum-molybdopterin (Mo-MPT). A simplified nitrate reductase (S-NaR1) consisting of Mo-MPT-binding site and nitrate-reducing active site was engineered from yeast Pichia angusta NaR cDNA (YNaR1). S-NaR1 was cytosolically expressed in high-density fermenter culture of methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Total amount of S-NaR1 protein produced was approximately 0.5 g per 10 L fermenter run, and methanol phase productivity was 5 microg protein/g wet cell weight/h. Gene copy number in genomic DNA of different clones showed direct correlation with the expression level. S-NaR1 was purified to homogeneity in one step by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) and total amount of purified protein per run of fermentation was approximately 180 mg. Polypeptide size was approximately 55 kDa from electrophoretic analysis, and S-NaR1 was mainly homo-tetrameric in its active form, as shown by gel filtration. S-NaR1 accepted electrons efficiently from reduced bromphenol blue (kcat = 2081 s(-1)) and less so from reduced methyl viologen (kcat = 159 s(-1)). The nitrate KM for S-NaR1 was 30 +/- 3 microM, which is very similar to YNaR1. S-NaR1 is capable of specific nitrate reduction, and direct electric current, as shown by catalytic nitrate reduction using protein film cyclic voltammetry, can drive this reaction. Thus, S-NaR1 is an ideal form of this enzyme for commercial applications, such as an enzymatic nitrate biosensor formulated with S-NaR1 interfaced to an electrode system.

  6. Photoactivation of the flavin cofactor in Xenopus laevis (6 - 4) photolyase: Observation of a transient tyrosyl radical by time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Stefan; Kay, Christopher W. M.; Mögling, Heike; Möbius, Klaus; Hitomi, Kenichi; Todo, Takeshi

    2002-02-01

    The light-induced electron transfer reaction of flavin cofactor photoactivation in Xenopus laevis (6-4) photolyase has been studied by continuous-wave and time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. When the photoactivation is initiated from the fully oxidized form of the flavin, a neutral flavin radical is observed as a long-lived paramagnetic intermediate of two consecutive single-electron reductions under participation of redox-active amino acid residues. By time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance, a spin-polarized transient radical-pair signal was detected that shows remarkable differences to the signals observed in the related cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyase enzyme. In (6-4) photolyase, a neutral tyrosine radical has been identified as the final electron donor, on the basis of the characteristic line width, hyperfine splitting pattern, and resonance magnetic field position of the tyrosine resonances of the transient radical pair.

  7. A novel thiol-reductase activity of Arabidopsis YUC6 confers drought tolerance independently of auxin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Joon-Yung; Kim, Woe-Yeon; Kang, Sun Bin; Kim, Jeong Im; Baek, Dongwon; Jung, In Jung; Kim, Mi Ri; Li, Ning; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Asami, Tadao; Sabir, Jamal S. M.; Park, Hyeong Cheol; Lee, Sang Yeol; Bohnert, Hans J.; Bressan, Ray A.; Pardo, Jose M.; Yun, Dae-Jin

    2015-01-01

    YUCCA (YUC) proteins constitute a family of flavin monooxygenases (FMOs), with an important role in auxin (IAA) biosynthesis. Here we report that Arabidopsis plants overexpressing YUC6 display enhanced IAA-related phenotypes and exhibit improved drought stress tolerance, low rate of water loss and controlled ROS accumulation under drought and oxidative stresses. Co-overexpression of an IAA-conjugating enzyme reduces IAA levels but drought stress tolerance is unaffected, indicating that the stress-related phenotype is not based on IAA overproduction. YUC6 contains a previously unrecognized FAD- and NADPH-dependent thiol-reductase activity (TR) that overlaps with the FMO domain involved in IAA biosynthesis. Mutation of a conserved cysteine residue (Cys-85) preserves FMO but suppresses TR activity and stress tolerance, whereas mutating the FAD- and NADPH-binding sites, that are common to TR and FMO domains, abolishes all outputs. We provide a paradigm for a single protein playing a dual role, regulating plant development and conveying stress defence responses. PMID:26314500

  8. Red-cell GSH regeneration and glutathione reductase activity in G6PD variants in the Ferrara area.

    PubMed

    Anderson, B B; Carandina, G; Lucci, M; Perry, G M; Vullo, C

    1987-12-01

    Red-cell studies were carried out on three groups of G6PD-deficient subjects with different G6PD variants from the Ferrara area of Northern Italy. Red-cell GSH and activities of G6PD, glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured. A method was developed to measure red-cell GSH regeneration after oxidation of endogenous GSH in whole blood by diamide and only this clearly distinguished the variants from each other and from normal. Regeneration by 1 h was lowest in the Mediterranean variant, 0-10.2% in contrast to 93-98% in normal. A predisposition to a haemolytic crisis after ingestion of fava beans was not clearcut, but subjects appeared to be at risk if GSH regeneration at 1 h was less than 30% of the endogenous level, and red-cell FAD+ was very high indicated by high in vitro GR activity and inhibition by added FAD+. It is suggested that the most informative tests in G6PD deficiency are measurements of GSH regeneration in intact red cells plus GR activity and/or red-cell flavin compounds.

  9. Insights into severe 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency: molecular genetic and enzymatic characterization of 76 patients.

    PubMed

    Burda, Patricie; Schäfer, Alexandra; Suormala, Terttu; Rummel, Till; Bürer, Céline; Heuberger, Dorothea; Frapolli, Michele; Giunta, Cecilia; Sokolová, Jitka; Vlášková, Hana; Kožich, Viktor; Koch, Hans Georg; Fowler, Brian; Froese, D Sean; Baumgartner, Matthias R

    2015-06-01

    5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency is the most common inherited disorder of folate metabolism and causes severe hyperhomocysteinaemia. To better understand the relationship between mutation and function, we performed molecular genetic analysis of 76 MTHFR deficient patients, followed by extensive enzymatic characterization of fibroblasts from 72 of these. A deleterious mutation was detected on each of the 152 patient alleles, with one allele harboring two mutations. Sixty five different mutations (42 novel) were detected, including a common splicing mutation (c.1542G>A) found in 21 alleles. Using an enzyme assay in the physiological direction, we found residual activity (1.7%-42% of control) in 42 cell lines, of which 28 showed reduced affinity for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), one reduced affinity for methylenetetrahydrofolate, five flavin adenine dinucleotide-responsiveness, and 24 abnormal kinetics of S-adenosylmethionine inhibition. Missense mutations causing virtually absent activity were found exclusively in the N-terminal catalytic domain, whereas missense mutations in the C-terminal regulatory domain caused decreased NADPH binding and disturbed inhibition by S-adenosylmethionine. Characterization of patients in this way provides a basis for improved diagnosis using expanded enzymatic criteria, increases understanding of the molecular basis of MTHFR dysfunction, and points to the possible role of cofactor or substrate in the treatment of patients with specific mutations.

  10. Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of thioredoxin glutathione reductase from Schistosoma japonicum in complex with FAD

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongdong; Wu, Qunfeng; Peng, Yun; Huang, Fuyan; Li, Xun; Chen, Lin; Shi, Dashuang; Zhou, Xiaonong; Fan, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    Thioredoxin glutathione reductase from Schistosoma japonicum (SjTGR), a multifunctional enzyme, plays a vital role in antioxidant pathways and is considered to be a potential drug target for the development of antischistosomal chemotherapy. In this study, two constructs of a truncated form of SjTGR without the last two residues (Sec597–Gly598) were cloned, overexpressed and purified using wild-type and codon-optimized genes. Only SjTGR from the wild-type gene was found to form a complex with flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), which could be crystallized in the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 84.185, b = 86.47, c = 183.164 Å, at 295 K using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. One dimer was present in the crystallographic asymmetric unit and the calculated Matthews coefficient (V M) and solvent content were 2.6 Å3 Da−1 and 52.8%, respectively. Structural determination of SjTGR is in progress using the molecular-replacement method. PMID:24419626

  11. Methanogenic heterodisulfide reductase (HdrABC-MvhAGD) uses two noncubane [4Fe-4S] clusters for reduction.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Tristan; Koch, Jürgen; Ermler, Ulrich; Shima, Seigo

    2017-08-18

    In methanogenic archaea, the carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation and methane-forming steps are linked through the heterodisulfide reductase (HdrABC)-[NiFe]-hydrogenase (MvhAGD) complex that uses flavin-based electron bifurcation to reduce ferredoxin and the heterodisulfide of coenzymes M and B. Here, we present the structure of the native heterododecameric HdrABC-MvhAGD complex at 2.15-angstrom resolution. HdrB contains two noncubane [4Fe-4S] clusters composed of fused [3Fe-4S]-[2Fe-2S] units sharing 1 iron (Fe) and 1 sulfur (S), which were coordinated at the CCG motifs. Soaking experiments showed that the heterodisulfide is clamped between the two noncubane [4Fe-4S] clusters and homolytically cleaved, forming coenzyme M and B bound to each iron. Coenzymes are consecutively released upon one-by-one electron transfer. The HdrABC-MvhAGD atomic model serves as a structural template for numerous HdrABC homologs involved in diverse microbial metabolic pathways. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  12. Reduced Flavin: NMR investigation of N(5)-H exchange mechanism, estimation of ionisation constants and assessment of properties as biological catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Macheroux, Peter; Ghisla, Sandro; Sanner, Christoph; Rüterjans, Heinz; Müller, Franz

    2005-01-01

    Background The flavin in its FMN and FAD forms is a versatile cofactor that is involved in catalysis of most disparate types of biological reactions. These include redox reactions such as dehydrogenations, activation of dioxygen, electron transfer, bioluminescence, blue light reception, photobiochemistry (as in photolyases), redox signaling etc. Recently, hitherto unrecognized types of biological reactions have been uncovered that do not involve redox shuffles, and might involve the reduced form of the flavin as a catalyst. The present work addresses properties of reduced flavin relevant in this context. Results N(5)-H exchange reactions of the flavin reduced form and its pH dependence were studied using the 15N-NMR-signals of 15N-enriched, reduced flavin in the pH range from 5 to 12. The chemical shifts of the N(3) and N(5) resonances are not affected to a relevant extent in this pH range. This contrasts with the multiplicity of the N(5)-resonance, which strongly depends on pH. It is a doublet between pH 8.45 and 10.25 that coalesces into a singlet at lower and higher pH values. From the line width of the 15N(5) signal the pH-dependent rate of hydrogen exchange was deduced. The multiplicity of the 15N(5) signal and the proton exchange rates are little dependent on the buffer system used. Conclusion The exchange rates allow an estimation of the pKa value of N(5)-H deprotonation in reduced flavin to be ≥ 20. This value imposes specific constraints for mechanisms of flavoprotein catalysis based on this process. On the other hand the pK ≈ 4 for N(5)-H protonation (to form N(5)+-H2) would be consistent with a role of N(5)-H as a base. PMID:16309555

  13. A Ferredoxin Disulfide Reductase Delivers Electrons to the Methanosarcina barkeri Class III Ribonucleotide Reductase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Two subtypes of class III anaerobic ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) studied so far couple the reduction of ribonucleotides to the oxidation of formate, or the oxidation of NADPH via thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase. Certain methanogenic archaea contain a phylogenetically distinct third subtype of class III RNR, with distinct active-site residues. Here we report the cloning and recombinant expression of the Methanosarcina barkeri class III RNR and show that the electrons required for ribonucleotide reduction can be delivered by a [4Fe-4S] protein ferredoxin disulfide reductase, and a conserved thioredoxin-like protein NrdH present in the RNR operon. The diversity of class III RNRs reflects the diversity of electron carriers used in anaerobic metabolism. PMID:26536144

  14. Dihydrofolate reductase: low-resolution mass-spectrometric analysis of an elastase digest as a sequencing tool (Short Communication)

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Howard R.; Batley, Karen E.; Harding, Nigel G. L.; Bjur, Richard A.; Dann, John G.; King, Rodney W.

    1974-01-01

    An elastase digest of a protein of unknown structure, dihydrofolate reductase, was studied by mass spectrometry. This soluble digest contained a large number of small peptides in different yields, within the ideal molecular-weight range (200–1200) for mixture-analysis mass spectrometry. Sequences of the major component peptides in the digest are reported. PMID:4207389

  15. Oxidative Metabolism of Seleno-L-Methionine to L-Methionine Selenoxide by Flavin- Containing Monooxygenases

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Renee J.; Glocke, Steven C.; Sicuri, Anna Rita; Ripp, Sharon L.; Elfarra, Adnan A

    2008-01-01

    The roles of flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) in the oxidation of seleno-L-methionine (SeMet) to L-methionine selenoxide (MetSeO) were investigated using cDNA-expressed human FMOs, purified rat liver FMOs, and rat liver microsomes. MetSeO and the N-2,4-dinitrophenyl-derivatives of SeMet and MetSeO were synthesized and characterized by 1H-NMR and ESI/MS. These reference compounds were then used to develop a sensitive HPLC assay to monitor SeMet oxidation to MetSeO. Formation of MetSeO in rat liver microsomes was time-, protein concentration-, SeMet concentration-, and NADPH-dependent. The microsomal activity exhibited a SeMet Km value (mean ±S.D.; n=4) of 0.91 ± 0.29 mM and a Vmax value of 44 ± 8.0 nmol MetSeO/mg protein/min. Inclusion of 1-benzylimidazole, superoxide dismutase or deferoxamine caused no inhibition of the rat liver microsomal activity. Because these results suggested the involvement of FMOs in the oxidation of SeMet in rat liver microsomes, formation of MetSeO was also examined using cDNA-expressed human and purified rat FMOs. The results showed that both rat and human FMO1 and FMO3 but not FMO5 can catalyze the reaction. The SeMet kinetic constants were obtained with purified rat liver FMO3 (Km = 0.11 mM, Vmax = 280 nmol/mg protein/min) and rat liver FMO1 (Km = 7.8 mM, Vmax = 1200 nmol/mg protein/min). Because SeMet has anti-cancer, chemopreventive, and toxic properties, the kinetic results suggest FMO3 is likely to play a role in the biological activities of SeMet at low exposure conditions. PMID:17173378

  16. Induction of Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase in Mice by Oral Administration of Phellinus baumii (Agaricomycetes) Extract.

    PubMed

    Sainkhuu, Batbayar; Park, Beom Su; Kim, Ha Won

    2016-01-01

    Phellinus baumii is a yellow mushroom long used in alternative medicine in Korea and other central Asian countries. To identify genes affected by a single or 7-day oral administration of a water extract of Ph. Baumii, mouse liver tissue was analyzed using microarrays. The results showed that 8 and 23 genes were upregulated and 3 and 11 genes downregulated more than 3-fold by single and multiple oral administrations of 100 mg/kg PBE, respectively. Among the upregulated genes, the expression of 3 flavin-containing monooxygenase (Fmo) family genes, Fmo2-4, was upregulated in a concentration-dependent manner. The microarray analysis also showed that single and multiple administrations of PBE increased Fmo3 expression in the mouse liver by 5.1- and 17.6-fold, respectively. To validate the Fmo expression microarray data, polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm the induction of Fmo subclass genes. Mice were orally administered Ph. Baumii extract (PBE), Ph. Baumii water, or Ph. Baumii β-glucan fraction (PBG) for 7 days, and induction of the expression of the Fmo subclasses in the liver, lung, and kidney was investigated. Fmo2, Fmo3, and Fmo4 expression was induced by both PBE and PBG in the lung, liver, and kidney, respectively. However, no induction of Fmo1 and Fmo5 was detected. To investigate the metabolic acceleration of xenobiotic by PBE, carbendazim was orally administered to mice and its clearance from the blood analyzed. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed accelerated clearance of serum carbendazim by oral administration of PBE for 7 days, as evidenced by the reduced peak plasma concentration, time to r