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  1. Structural and biophysical analysis of interactions between cod and human uracil-DNA N-glycosylase (UNG) and UNG inhibitor (Ugi)

    SciTech Connect

    Assefa, Netsanet Gizaw; Niiranen, Laila; Johnson, Kenneth A.; Leiros, Hanna-Kirsti Schrøder; Smalås, Arne Oskar; Willassen, Nils Peder; Moe, Elin

    2014-08-01

    A structural and biophysical study of the interactions between cod and human uracil-DNA N-glycosylase (UNG) and their inhibitor Ugi is presented. The stronger interaction between cod UNG and Ugi can be explained by a greater positive electrostatic surface potential. Uracil-DNA N-glycosylase from Atlantic cod (cUNG) shows cold-adapted features such as high catalytic efficiency, a low temperature optimum for activity and reduced thermal stability compared with its mesophilic homologue human UNG (hUNG). In order to understand the role of the enzyme–substrate interaction related to the cold-adapted properties, the structure of cUNG in complex with a bacteriophage encoded natural UNG inhibitor (Ugi) has been determined. The interaction has also been analyzed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The crystal structure of cUNG–Ugi was determined to a resolution of 1.9 Å with eight complexes in the asymmetric unit related through noncrystallographic symmetry. A comparison of the cUNG–Ugi complex with previously determined structures of UNG–Ugi shows that they are very similar, and confirmed the nucleotide-mimicking properties of Ugi. Biophysically, the interaction between cUNG and Ugi is very strong and shows a binding constant (K{sub b}) which is one order of magnitude larger than that for hUNG–Ugi. The binding of both cUNG and hUNG to Ugi was shown to be favoured by both enthalpic and entropic forces; however, the binding of cUNG to Ugi is mainly dominated by enthalpy, while the entropic term is dominant for hUNG. The observed differences in the binding properties may be explained by an overall greater positive electrostatic surface potential in the protein–Ugi interface of cUNG and the slightly more hydrophobic surface of hUNG.

  2. Rev1 is essential in generating G to C transversions downstream of the Ung2 pathway but not the Msh2+Ung2 hybrid pathway.

    PubMed

    Krijger, Peter Hugo Lodewijk; Tsaalbi-Shtylik, Anastasia; Wit, Niek; van den Berk, Paul Cornelius Maria; de Wind, Niels; Jacobs, Heinz

    2013-10-01

    Somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes are initiated by the enzymatic deamination of cytosine (C) to uracil (U). Uracil-DNA-glycosylase (Ung2) converts uracils into apyrimidinic (AP) sites, which is essential for the generation of transversions (TVs) at G/C basepairs during SHM and for efficient DNA break formation during CSR. Besides Ung2, the mismatch repair protein Msh2 and the translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerase (Pol) Rev1 are implicated in SHM and CSR. To further unravel the role of Rev1, we studied WT, Rev1-deficient, Msh2-deficient, and Rev1, Msh2 double-deficient B cells. Loss of Rev1 only slightly reduced CSR. During SHM G/C to C/G TVs are generated in both Ung2- and Ung+Msh2-dependent fashions. We found that Rev1 is essential for the Msh2-independent generation of these TVs downstream of Ung2-induced AP sites. In the Ung+Msh2 hybrid pathway, Rev1 is not essential and can be substituted by an alternative TLS Pol, especially when Rev1 is lacking.

  3. Opinion: uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG) plays distinct and non-canonical roles in somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination.

    PubMed

    Yousif, Ashraf S; Stanlie, Andre; Begum, Nasim A; Honjo, Tasuku

    2014-10-01

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential to class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM). Uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG), a member of the base excision repair complex, is required for CSR. The role of UNG in CSR and SHM is extremely controversial. AID deficiency in mice abolishes both CSR and SHM, while UNG-deficient mice have drastically reduced CSR but augmented SHM raising a possibility of differential functions of UNG in CSR and SHM. Interestingly, UNG has been associated with a CSR-specific repair adapter protein Brd4, which interacts with acetyl histone 4, γH2AX and 53BP1 to promote non-homologous end joining during CSR. A non-canonical scaffold function of UNG, but not the catalytic activity, can be attributed to the recruitment of essential repair proteins associated with the error-free repair during SHM, and the end joining during CSR.

  4. [Over-expression of uracil DNA glycosylase 2 (UNG2) enhances the resistance to oxidative damage in HepG2 cells].

    PubMed

    Cao, Liyan; Cheng, Shan; Du, Juan; Guo, Yanhai; Huang, Xiaofeng

    2017-04-01

    Objective To investigate the uracil glycosidic enzyme activity of uracil DNA glycosylase 2 (UNG2) and study the role of UNG2 in the resistance of antioxidant stress of HepG2 cells. Methods The UNG2-expressing vector was built. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of UNG2. Immunofluorescence staining was performed to observe the cellular location of UNG2. Oligonucleotide was used as substrate for the determination of the UNG2 glycosidic enzyme activity. H2O2 toxicity assay was done to study the function of UNG2 in the antioxidant resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Results UNG2 was successfully over-expressed in HEK293FT cells, and UNG2 was found to be mainly located in nucleus. Enzyme activity assay showed that UNG2 had significant oligonucleotide dU glycosidic enzyme activity. H2O2 toxicity assay showed that over-expressed UNG2 could remarkably increase the survival of HepG2 cells after exposed to H2O2. Conclusion UNG2 possesses specific DNA glycosidic enzyme activity, and it can protect HepG2 cells against oxidative stress damage.

  5. The DDB1–DCAF1–Vpr–UNG2 crystal structure reveals how HIV-1 Vpr steers human UNG2 toward destruction

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ying; Zhou, Xiaohong; Barnes, Christopher O.; DeLucia, Maria; Cohen, Aina E.; Gronenborn, Angela M.; Ahn, Jinwoo; Calero, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    The HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr is required for efficient viral infection of macrophages and promotion of viral replication in T cells. Vpr’s biological activities are closely linked to the interaction with human DCAF1, a cellular substrate receptor of the Cullin4–RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL4) of the host ubiquitin–proteasome-mediated protein degradation pathway. The molecular details of how Vpr usurps the protein degradation pathway have not been delineated. Here we present the crystal structure of the DDB1–DCAF1–HIV-1–Vpr–uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG2) complex. The structure reveals how Vpr engages with DCAF1, creating a binding interface for UNG2 recruitment, in a manner distinct from the recruitment of SAMHD1 by Vpx protein for degradation by Vpx proteins. Vpr and Vpx use similar N-terminal and helical regions to bind the substrate receptor, whereas different regions target the specific cellular substrates. Furthermore, Vpr uses molecular mimicry of DNA by a variable loop for specific recruitment of the UNG2 substrate. PMID:27571178

  6. Uracil Accumulation and Mutagenesis Dominated by Cytosine Deamination in CpG Dinucleotides in Mice Lacking UNG and SMUG1

    DOE PAGES

    Alsøe, Lene; Sarno, Antonio; Carracedo, Sergio; ...

    2017-08-03

    Both a DNA lesion and an intermediate for antibody maturation, uracil is primarily processed by base excision repair (BER), either initiated by uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG) or by single-strand selective monofunctional uracil DNA glycosylase (SMUG1). The relative in vivo contributions of each glycosylase remain elusive. To assess the impact of SMUG1 deficiency, we measured uracil and 5-hydroxymethyluracil, another SMUG1 substrate, in Smug1-/- mice. Here, we found that 5-hydroxymethyluracil accumulated in Smug1-/- tissues and correlated with 5-hydroxymethylcytosine levels. The highest increase was found in brain, which contained about 26-fold higher genomic 5-hydroxymethyluracil levels than the wild type. Smug1-/- mice did not accumulatemore » uracil in their genome and Ung-/- mice showed slightly elevated uracil levels. Contrastingly, Ung-/-Smug1-/- mice showed a synergistic increase in uracil levels with up to 25-fold higher uracil levels than wild type. Whole genome sequencing of UNG/SMUG1-deficient tumours revealed that combined UNG and SMUG1 deficiency leads to the accumulation of mutations, primarily C to T transitions within CpG sequences. This unexpected sequence bias suggests that CpG dinucleotides are intrinsically more mutation prone. In conclusion, we showed that SMUG1 efficiently prevent genomic uracil accumulation, even in the presence of UNG, and identified mutational signatures associated with combined UNG and SMUG1 deficiency.« less

  7. Loss of Caenorhabditis elegans UNG-1 uracil-DNA glycosylase affects apoptosis in response to DNA damaging agents.

    PubMed

    Skjeldam, Hanne K; Kassahun, Henok; Fensgård, Oyvind; SenGupta, Tanima; Babaie, Eshrat; Lindvall, Jessica M; Arczewska, Katarzyna; Nilsen, Hilde

    2010-08-05

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been used extensively to study responses to DNA damage. In contrast, little is known about DNA repair in this organism. C. elegans is unusual in that it encodes few DNA glycosylases and the uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) encoded by the ung-1 gene is the only known UDG. C. elegans could therefore become a valuable model organism for studies of the genetic interaction networks involving base excision repair (BER). As a first step towards characterization of BER in C. elegans, we show that the UNG-1 protein is an active uracil-DNA glycosylase. We demonstrate that an ung-1 mutant has reduced ability to repair uracil-containing DNA but that an alternative Ugi-inhibited activity is present in ung-1 nuclear extracts. Finally, we demonstrate that ung-1 mutants show altered levels of apoptotic cell corpses formed in response to DNA damaging agents. Increased apoptosis in the ung-1 mutant in response to ionizing radiation (IR) suggests that UNG-1 contributes to repair of IR-induced DNA base damage in vivo. Following treatment with paraquat however, the apoptotic corpse-formation was reduced. Gene expression profiling suggests that this phenotype is a consequence of compensatory transcriptomic shifts that modulate oxidative stress responses in the mutant and not an effect of reduced DNA damage signaling. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Arabidopsis uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG) is required for base excision repair of uracil and increases plant sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Córdoba-Cañero, Dolores; Dubois, Emeline; Ariza, Rafael R; Doutriaux, Marie-Pascale; Roldán-Arjona, Teresa

    2010-03-05

    Uracil in DNA arises by misincorporation of dUMP during replication and by hydrolytic deamination of cytosine. This common lesion is actively removed through a base excision repair (BER) pathway initiated by a uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) activity that excises the damage as a free base. UDGs are classified into different families differentially distributed across eubacteria, archaea, yeast, and animals, but remain to be unambiguously identified in plants. We report here the molecular characterization of AtUNG (Arabidopsis thaliana uracil DNA glycosylase), a plant member of the Family-1 of UDGs typified by Escherichia coli Ung. AtUNG exhibits the narrow substrate specificity and single-stranded DNA preference that are characteristic of Ung homologues. Cell extracts from atung(-/-) mutants are devoid of UDG activity, and lack the capacity to initiate BER on uracil residues. AtUNG-deficient plants do not display any apparent phenotype, but show increased resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), a cytostatic drug that favors dUMP misincorporation into DNA. The resistance of atung(-/-) mutants to 5-FU is accompanied by the accumulation of uracil residues in DNA. These results suggest that AtUNG excises uracil in vivo but generates toxic AP sites when processing abundant U:A pairs in dTTP-depleted cells. Altogether, our findings point to AtUNG as the major UDG activity in Arabidopsis.

  9. Evaluation of NTHL1, NEIL1, NEIL2, MPG, TDG, UNG and SMUG1 genes in familial colorectal cancer predisposition.

    PubMed

    Broderick, Peter; Bagratuni, Tina; Vijayakrishnan, Jairam; Lubbe, Steven; Chandler, Ian; Houlston, Richard S

    2006-10-09

    The observation that germline mutations in the oxidative DNA damage repair gene MUTYH cause colorectal cancer (CRC) provides strong evidence that dysregulation of the base excision repair (BER) pathway influences disease susceptibility. It is conceivable that germline sequence variation in other BER pathway genes such as NTHL1, NEIL1, NEIL2, MPG, TDG, UNG and SMUG1 also contribute to CRC susceptibility. To evaluate whether sequence variants of NTHL1, NEIL1, NEIL2, MPG, TDG, UNG and SMUG1 genes might act as CRC susceptibility alleles, we screened the coding sequence and intron-exon boundaries of these genes in 94 familial CRC cases in which involvement of known genes had been excluded. Three novel missense variants were identified NEIL2 C367A, TDG3 A196G and UNG2 C262T in patients, which were not observed in 188 healthy control DNAs. We detected novel germline alterations in NEIL2, TDG and UNG patients with CRC. The results suggest a limited role for NTHL1, NEIL1, NEIL2, MPG, TDG, UNG and SMUG1 in development of CRC.

  10. B cells from hyper-IgM patients carrying UNG mutations lack ability to remove uracil from ssDNA and have elevated genomic uracil.

    PubMed

    Kavli, Bodil; Andersen, Sonja; Otterlei, Marit; Liabakk, Nina B; Imai, Kohsuke; Fischer, Alain; Durandy, Anne; Krokan, Hans E; Slupphaug, Geir

    2005-06-20

    The generation of high-affinity antibodies requires somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) at the immunoglobulin (Ig) locus. Both processes are triggered by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and require UNG-encoded uracil-DNA glycosylase. AID has been suggested to function as an mRNA editing deaminase or as a single-strand DNA deaminase. In the latter model, SHM may result from replicative incorporation of dAMP opposite U or from error-prone repair of U, whereas CSR may be triggered by strand breaks at abasic sites. Here, we demonstrate that extracts of UNG-proficient human B cell lines efficiently remove U from single-stranded DNA. In B cell lines from hyper-IgM patients carrying UNG mutations, the single-strand-specific uracil-DNA glycosylase, SMUG1, cannot complement this function. Moreover, the UNG mutations lead to increased accumulation of genomic uracil. One mutation results in an F251S substitution in the UNG catalytic domain. Although this UNG form was fully active and stable when expressed in Escherichia coli, it was mistargeted to mitochondria and degraded in mammalian cells. Our results may explain why SMUG1 cannot compensate the UNG2 deficiency in human B cells, and are fully consistent with the DNA deamination model that requires active nuclear UNG2. Based on our findings and recent information in the literature, we present an integrated model for the initiating steps in CSR.

  11. HIV-1 and HIV-2 exhibit divergent interactions with HLTF and UNG2 DNA repair proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hrecka, Kasia; Hao, Caili; Shun, Ming-Chieh; Kaur, Sarabpreet; Swanson, Selene K.; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P.; Skowronski, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    HIV replication in nondividing host cells occurs in the presence of high concentrations of noncanonical dUTP, apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing, enzyme-catalytic, polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) cytidine deaminases, and SAMHD1 (a cell cycle-regulated dNTP triphosphohydrolase) dNTPase, which maintains low concentrations of canonical dNTPs in these cells. These conditions favor the introduction of marks of DNA damage into viral cDNA, and thereby prime it for processing by DNA repair enzymes. Accessory protein Vpr, found in all primate lentiviruses, and its HIV-2/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) SIVsm paralogue Vpx, hijack the CRL4DCAF1 E3 ubiquitin ligase to alleviate some of these conditions, but the extent of their interactions with DNA repair proteins has not been thoroughly characterized. Here, we identify HLTF, a postreplication DNA repair helicase, as a common target of HIV-1/SIVcpz Vpr proteins. We show that HIV-1 Vpr reprograms CRL4DCAF1 E3 to direct HLTF for proteasome-dependent degradation independent from previously reported Vpr interactions with base excision repair enzyme uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG2) and crossover junction endonuclease MUS81, which Vpr also directs for degradation via CRL4DCAF1 E3. Thus, separate functions of HIV-1 Vpr usurp CRL4DCAF1 E3 to remove key enzymes in three DNA repair pathways. In contrast, we find that HIV-2 Vpr is unable to efficiently program HLTF or UNG2 for degradation. Our findings reveal complex interactions between HIV-1 and the DNA repair machinery, suggesting that DNA repair plays important roles in the HIV-1 life cycle. The divergent interactions of HIV-1 and HIV-2 with DNA repair enzymes and SAMHD1 imply that these viruses use different strategies to guard their genomes and facilitate their replication in the host. PMID:27335459

  12. Proximity to AGCT sequences dictates MMR-independent versus MMR-dependent mechanisms for AID-induced mutation via UNG2.

    PubMed

    Thientosapol, Eddy Sanchai; Sharbeen, George; Lau, K K Edwin; Bosnjak, Daniel; Durack, Timothy; Stevanovski, Igor; Weninger, Wolfgang; Jolly, Christopher J

    2016-12-29

    AID deaminates C to U in either strand of Ig genes, exclusively producing C:G/G:C to T:A/A:T transition mutations if U is left unrepaired. Error-prone processing by UNG2 or mismatch repair diversifies mutation, predominantly at C:G or A:T base pairs, respectively. Here, we show that transversions at C:G base pairs occur by two distinct processing pathways that are dictated by sequence context. Within and near AGCT mutation hotspots, transversion mutation at C:G was driven by UNG2 without requirement for mismatch repair. Deaminations in AGCT were refractive both to processing by UNG2 and to high-fidelity base excision repair (BER) downstream of UNG2, regardless of mismatch repair activity. We propose that AGCT sequences resist faithful BER because they bind BER-inhibitory protein(s) and/or because hemi-deaminated AGCT motifs innately form a BER-resistant DNA structure. Distal to AGCT sequences, transversions at G were largely co-dependent on UNG2 and mismatch repair. We propose that AGCT-distal transversions are produced when apyrimidinic sites are exposed in mismatch excision patches, because completion of mismatch repair would require bypass of these sites.

  13. Cell cycle regulation as a mechanism for functional separation of the apparently redundant uracil DNA glycosylases TDG and UNG2

    PubMed Central

    Hardeland, Ulrike; Kunz, Christophe; Focke, Frauke; Szadkowski, Marta; Schär, Primo

    2007-01-01

    Human Thymine-DNA Glycosylase (TDG) is a member of the uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) superfamily. It excises uracil, thymine and a number of chemical base lesions when mispaired with guanine in double-stranded DNA. These activities are not unique to TDG; at least three additional proteins with similar enzymatic properties are present in mammalian cells. The successful co-evolution of these enzymes implies the existence of non-redundant biological functions that must be coordinated. Here, we report cell cycle regulation as a mechanism for the functional separation of apparently redundant DNA glycosylases. We show that cells entering S-phase eliminate TDG through the ubiquitin–proteasome system and then maintain a TDG-free condition until G2. Incomplete degradation of ectopically expressed TDG impedes S-phase progression and cell proliferation. The mode of cell cycle regulation of TDG is strictly inverse to that of UNG2, which peaks in and throughout S-phase and then declines to undetectable levels until it appears again just before the next S-phase. Thus, TDG- and UNG2-dependent base excision repair alternates throughout the cell cycle, and the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway constitutes the underlying regulatory system. PMID:17526518

  14. Discovery of ATP-Competitive Inhibitors of tRNAIle Lysidine Synthetase (TilS) by High-Throughput Screening.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Adam B; Plant, Helen; Walsh, Jarrod; Sylvester, Mark; Hu, Jun; Gao, Ning; Livchak, Stephania; Tentarelli, Sharon; Thresher, Jason

    2014-09-01

    A novel, ultrahigh-throughput, fluorescence anisotropy-based assay was developed and used to screen a 1.4-million-sample library for compounds that compete with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for binding to Escherichia coli tRNA(Ile) lysidine synthetase (TilS), an essential, conserved, ATP-dependent, tRNA-modifying enzyme of bacterial pathogens. TilS modifies a cytidine base in the anticodon loop of Ile2 tRNA by attaching lysine, thereby altering codon recognition of the CAU anticodon from AUG (methionine) to AUA (isoleucine). A scintillation proximity assay for the incorporation of lysine into Ile2 tRNA was used to eliminate false positives in the initial screen resulting from detection artifacts as well as compounds competitive with the fluorescent label instead of ATP, and to measure inhibitor potencies against E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa TilS isozymes. The tRNA(Ile) substrate for P. aeruginosa TilS was identified for the first time to enable these measurements. ATP-competitive binding of inhibitors was confirmed by one-dimensional ligand-observe nuclear magnetic resonance. A preliminary structure-activity relationship is shown for two inhibitor series.

  15. Evaluation of TILS for use as the orbiter landing NAVAID

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tate, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of the tactical instrument landing systems (TILS) for use in the orbiter autoland system was made. It was found that with certain modifications, the TILS can satisfy orbiter autoland requirements. These modifications, include (1) addition of DME equipment, (2) expansion of elevation coverage from 0-10 deg to 0-30 deg, and (3) expansion to redundant systems with associated ground monitors. Additional modifications that are not necessary to meet the orbiter requirements, but that can enhance performance margin are (1) tightening of elevation antenna beam width from 1.3 deg to 0.5 deg and (2) split site configuration to provide azimuth and range coverage through rollout.

  16. Telltale Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TIL) in Oral, Head & Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Yu; Xie, Yuying; Tan, Yee Sun; Prince, Mark E.; Moyer, Jeffrey S.; Nör, Jacques; Wolf, Gregory T.

    2017-01-01

    Evidence gleaned from recent studies on the role of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) suggests that cancer is not only a genetic disease but also an immunologic disease. Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) has been a significant model to study cancer cell-immune cell interactions. First, immune cell infiltration is an important feature of these tumors. Second, HNSCC frequently develops resistance to immunogenic cytotoxicity, which provides a window to decipher how tumors engage the immune system to establish immune tolerance. Finally, chemoradiation therapy, as a central modality for HNSCC treatment, has been shown to elicit immune activation. The presence of effector immune cells in the tumor microenvironment is often associated with superior clinical response to adjuvant therapy. On the other hand, an activated immune system, in addition to limiting tumor initiation and progression, could also exert selective pressure to promote the growth of less immunogenic tumors, as a pivotal immunoediting process. But it remains unclear how cancer cell signaling regulates tumor immunogenicity and how to mitigate HNSCC-potentiated TIL suppression. In this review, we will revisit the prognostic role of TILs in HNSCC, and collectively discuss how cancer cell machinery impacts upon the plasticity of TILs. PMID:27553942

  17. Expressions of CD8+TILs, PD-L1 and Foxp3+TILs in stage I NSCLC guiding adjuvant chemotherapy decisions

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Feifei; Meng, Xiangjiao; Wang, Xin; Yuan, Jupeng; Liu, Sujing; Mu, Dianbin; Zhu, Hui; Kong, Li; Yu, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Currently, adjuvant chemotherapy is recommended for patients with high risk stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, identifying high risk patients remains a challenge. This study aims to identify the patient cohorts more likely to benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy based on the tumor micro-immune environment. Results CD8+TILs significantly associated with disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survial (OS) (p=0.002; 0.040). Patients with high risk factors may also predict shorter DFS (P=0.056). When compared together, patients with high-CD8+TILs showed better DFS than patients with low-CD8+TILs, no matter their risk factors status. There's no correlation between PD-L1 expressions and survival. PD-L1 was highly expressed in men, squamous and well differentiated carcinoma. In addition, Foxp3+TILs alone didn't show any prognostic effects, but low-Foxp3/high-CD8+TILs were associated with prolonged DFS (p=0.031). Methods A total of 126 patients with surgically resected stage I NSCLC were included to perform immunohistochemistry of CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), programmed death ligand-1(PD-L1) and forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)+TILs. Conclusion CD8+TILs are effective prognostic predictors. Patients with surgically resected stage I NSCLC showing low CD8+TILs could be considered for adjuvant chemotherapy, even if they have no high risk features. PMID:27602763

  18. Electrochemical discrimination of mints: The last Chinese emperors Kuang Hsü and Hsüan T'ung monetary unification.

    PubMed

    Doménech-Carbó, Antonio; Doménech-Carbó, María Teresa; Montagna, Elena; Álvarez-Romero, Carla; Lee, Yu

    2017-07-01

    An electrochemical methodology for discriminating monetary emissions, a recurrent problem in much archaeological studies, is introduced. The method is based on the record of voltammetric signatures of cuprite and tenorite corrosion products in the patina using a minimally invasive nanosampling following the voltammetry of immobilized particles methodology. A model for the depth variation of voltammetric electrochemical parameters characterizing the composition of the corrosion patinas is presented. This model permits to rationalize electrochemical data and discriminate different monetary emissions. The application of this technique, corroborated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and focusing ion beam-field emission scanning electron microscopy (FIB-FESEM-EDX), to a series of 10 cash copper coins produced around the Kuang Hsu and Hsüan T'ung last Chinese emperors permits to discern different provincial mints and reveals that the monetary unification developed in this period was not uniform. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative Effects of Ions, Molecular Crowding, and Bulk DNA on the Damage Search Mechanisms of hOGG1 and hUNG.

    PubMed

    Cravens, Shannen L; Stivers, James T

    2016-09-20

    The energetic nature of the interactions of DNA base excision repair glycosylases with undamaged and damaged DNA and the nuclear environment are expected to significantly impact the time it takes for these enzymes to search for damaged DNA bases. In particular, the high concentration of monovalent ions, macromolecule crowding, and densely packed DNA chains in the cell nucleus could alter the search mechanisms of these enzymes as compared to findings in dilute buffers typically used in in vitro experiments. Here we utilize an in vitro system where the concerted effects of monovalent ions, macromolecular crowding, and high concentrations of bulk DNA chains on the activity of two paradigm human DNA glycosylases can be determined. We find that the energetic nature of the observed binding free energies of human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (hOGG1) and human uracil DNA glycosylase (hUNG) for undamaged DNA are derived from different sources. Although hOGG1 uses primarily nonelectrostatic binding interactions with nonspecific DNA, hUNG uses a salt-dependent electrostatic binding mode. Both enzymes turn to a nonelectrostatic mode in their specific complexes with damaged bases in DNA, which enhances damage site specificity at physiological ion concentrations. Neither enzyme was capable of efficiently locating and removing their respective damaged bases in the combined presence of physiological ions and a bulk DNA chain density approximating that found in the nucleus. However, the addition of an inert crowding agent to mimic macromolecular crowding in the nucleus largely restored their ability to track DNA chains and locate damaged sites. These findings suggest how the concerted action of monovalent ions and crowding could contribute to efficient DNA damage recognition in cells.

  20. Hearing in Drosophila Requires TilB, a Conserved Protein Associated With Ciliary Motility

    PubMed Central

    Kavlie, Ryan G.; Kernan, Maurice J.; Eberl, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    Cilia were present in the earliest eukaryotic ancestor and underlie many biological processes ranging from cell motility and propulsion of extracellular fluids to sensory physiology. We investigated the contribution of the touch insensitive larva B (tilB) gene to cilia function in Drosophila melanogaster. Mutants of tilB exhibit dysfunction in sperm flagella and ciliated dendrites of chordotonal organs that mediate hearing and larval touch sensitivity. Mutant sperm axonemes as well as sensory neuron dendrites of Johnston's organ, the fly's auditory organ, lack dynein arms. Through deficiency mapping and sequencing candidate genes, we identified tilB mutations in the annotated gene CG14620. A genomic CG14620 transgene rescued deafness and male sterility of tilB mutants. TilB is a 395-amino-acid protein with a conserved N-terminal leucine-rich repeat region at residues 16–164 and a coiled-coil domain at residues 171–191. A tilB-Gal4 transgene driving fluorescently tagged TilB proteins elicits cytoplasmic expression in embryonic chordotonal organs, in Johnston's organ, and in sperm flagella. TilB does not appear to affect tubulin polyglutamylation or polyglycylation. The phenotypes and expression of tilB indicate function in cilia construction or maintenance, but not in intraflagellar transport. This is also consistent with phylogenetic association of tilB homologs with presence of genes encoding axonemal dynein arm components. Further elucidation of tilB functional mechanisms will provide greater understanding of cilia function and will facilitate understanding ciliary diseases. PMID:20215474

  1. The Educational Thought of Cornelius Van Til: Philosophical Foundations of the Contemporary Christian School Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maffet, Gregory J.; Dye, Charles M.

    This paper gives an account of the thoughts of Cornelius Van Til on the contemporary Christian school movement. An account of the historical development of Christian compromise is given, followed by a critique of the compromise among contemporary Christian educators. Van Til claims that any educational position which falls short of being founded…

  2. Expansion of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) from human pancreatic tumors.

    PubMed

    Hall, MacLean; Liu, Hao; Malafa, Mokenge; Centeno, Barbara; Hodul, Pamela J; Pimiento, José; Pilon-Thomas, Shari; Sarnaik, Amod A

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated whether tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) could be expanded from surgically resected tumors from pancreatic cancer patients. Tumors were resected from pancreatic cancer patients. Tumors were minced into fragments and cultured in media containing high dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) for up to 6 weeks. T cell phenotype, activation markers, and reactivity were measured. TIL expansion was measured in 19 patient samples. The majority of these TIL were CD4(+) T cells and were highly activated. Purified CD8(+) T cells produced IFN-γ in response to HLA-matched pancreatic tumor targets. PD-1 blockade and 4-1BB stimulation were demonstrated as effective strategies to improve effective TIL yield, including the production of tumor-reactive pancreatic TIL. TIL expanded from pancreatic tumors are functional and able to respond to pancreatic tumor associated antigens. PD-1 blockade, 41BB stimulation, and CD8(+) T cell enrichment are effective strategies to improve TIL yield and tumor reactivity. These results support the development of adoptive cell therapy strategies using TIL for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  3. SciTil Detector for the PANDA experiment at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Ken; Gruber, Lukas; Brunner, Stefan; Marton, Johann; Orth, Herbert; Schwarz, Carsten; Scitil/Panda Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The PANDA experiment at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is a fixed-target experiment installed in a antiproton storage ring (HESR) in the energy range of 1 GeV to 15 GeV. FAIR is being build on the area of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany. The universal PANDA detector together with the HESR enables to study fundamental questions of hadron and nuclear physics, e.g. gluonic excitations, the physics of strange and charm quarks and nucleon structure. The SciTil detector is a barrel time-of-flight detector and is a relatively new subcomponent to the system. The demand arose in order to provide a securer event tagging at the event rates of 20-100 MHz instantaneous event rate, to improve a particle identification capability of relatively low momentum particles, and to allow a faster track finding with pattern recognition. The beam test of the SciTil prototype detector in January 2014 showed a promising result. We report the status and outlook of the project.

  4. Adoptive TIL transfer in the adjuvant setting for melanoma: long-term patient survival.

    PubMed

    Khammari, Amir; Knol, Anne-Chantal; Nguyen, Jean-Michel; Bossard, Céline; Denis, Marc-Guillaume; Pandolfino, Marie-Christine; Quéreux, Gaëlle; Bercegeay, Sylvain; Dréno, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Two first analyses of our clinical trial on TIL as adjuvant therapy for melanoma were published in 2002 and 2007. We present here an update of the clinical results after a 17-year median followup. In this trial, disease-free patients were randomly assigned to receive either TIL/IL-2 or IL-2. The relapse-free survival (RFS) was the primary objective. Eighty-eight patients were enrolled. A new analysis performed in May 2013 did not show significant changes in RFS or OS duration. However, our first finding on the association between the number of invaded lymph nodes and TIL effectiveness was strengthened. The Cox model adjusted on this interaction showed for the first time a significant treatment effect when considering the overall population, both on the RFS and OS. Patients treated with TIL had a longer RFS (P = 0.023) or OS (P = 0.020). This study being with a very long followup (17 years), confirmed the association between TIL effectiveness and the number of invaded lymph nodes, indicating that a low tumor burden could be a crucial factor enhancing the curative effect of TIL in possible microscopic residual disease. Moreover, we confirmed that a prolonged survival was associated with the presence of specific TIL and a decrease in Foxp3 expression.

  5. Monitoring of the spatial and temporal dynamics of BER/SSBR pathway proteins, including MYH, UNG2, MPG, NTH1 and NEIL1-3, during DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Bj Rås, Karine Ø; Sousa, Mirta M L; Sharma, Animesh; Fonseca, Davi M; S Gaard, Caroline K; Bj Rås, Magnar; Otterlei, Marit

    2017-08-21

    Base lesions in DNA can stall the replication machinery or induce mutations if bypassed. Consequently, lesions must be repaired before replication or in a post-replicative process to maintain genomic stability. Base excision repair (BER) is the main pathway for repair of base lesions and is known to be associated with DNA replication, but how BER is organized during replication is unclear. Here we coupled the iPOND (isolation of proteins on nascent DNA) technique with targeted mass-spectrometry analysis, which enabled us to detect all proteins required for BER on nascent DNA and to monitor their spatiotemporal orchestration at replication forks. We demonstrate that XRCC1 and other BER/single-strand break repair (SSBR) proteins are enriched in replisomes in unstressed cells, supporting a cellular capacity of post-replicative BER/SSBR. Importantly, we identify for the first time the DNA glycosylases MYH, UNG2, MPG, NTH1, NEIL1, 2 and 3 on nascent DNA. Our findings suggest that a broad spectrum of DNA base lesions are recognized and repaired by BER in a post-replicative process. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Use of Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) to predict the treatment response to eribulin chemotherapy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kashiwagi, Shinichiro; Goto, Wataru; Takada, Koji; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Noda, Satoru; Takashima, Tsutomu; Onoda, Naoyoshi; Tomita, Shuhei; Ohsawa, Masahiko; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2017-01-01

    Background Eribulin mesylate (eribulin) is currently indicated for treatment of locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer (MBC). It is a cytotoxic agent with unique mechanisms that suppress epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells. On the other hand, Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), which are considered indicators of immune response monitoring, have been reported as prognostic factors and predictors of therapeutic efficacy. We thought that eribulin, which has an EMT-inhibiting mechanism, may produce an antitumor effect by improving the immune microenvironment, and in this study investigated the effects of breast cancer eribulin chemotherapy on the immune microenvironment with TILs as a marker. Methods TILs was evaluated in 52 patients with MBC who underwent chemotherapy with eribulin. The correlation between TILs evaluated according to the standard method, and prognosis, including the efficacy of eribulin chemotherapy, was investigated retrospectively. Results Of the 52 MBC patients, 29 (55.8%) were in the high TILs group and 23 (44.2%) were in the low TILs group. The high TILs group included significantly more triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) (p = 0.008) than the low TILs group. In an analysis of outcomes, TNBC patients in the high TILs group had significantly longer disease-free survival than TNBC patients in the low TILs group (p = 0.033, log-rank), but no significant differences were seen in all breast cancer patients (p = 0.489, log-rank) or in non-TNBC patients (p = 0.878, log-rank). In a multivariate analysis of recurrence in TNBC patients, being in the high TILs group was again an independent factor for a good outcome (p = 0.031, HR = 0.063). Conclusion The results of this study suggest that TILs may be useful as a predictive marker of the therapeutic effect of eribulin chemotherapy in TNBC. PMID:28166544

  7. Aircraft borne combined measurements of the Fukushima radionuclide Xe-133 and fossil fuel combustion generated pollutants in the TIL - Implications for Cyclone induced lift and TIL physical-chemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Frank; Schlager, Hans; Simgen, Hardy; Aufmhoff, Heinfried; Baumann, Robert; Lindemann, Sigfried; Rauch, Ludwig; Kaether, Frank; Pirjolla, Liisa; Schumann, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    The radionuclide Xe-133, released by the March 2011 nuclear disaster at Fukushima/Daiichi (hereafter FD), represents an ideal tracer for atmospheric transport. We report the, to our best knowledge, only aircraft borne measurements of FD Xe-133 in the Tropopause Inversion Layer (TIL), indicating rapid lift of Xe-133 rich planetary boundary layer air to the TIL. On the same research aircraft (FALCON), we have also conducted on-line measurements of fossil fuel combustion generated pollutant gases (SO2, NOx, HNO3,NOy), which were found to have increased concentrations in the TIL. In addition, we have conducted supporting model simulations of transport, chemical processes, and aerosol processes. Our investigations reveal a potentially important influence of East-Asian cyclone induced pollutants transport to the TIL, particularly influencing aerosol formation in the TIL.

  8. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) improve prognosis in patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC).

    PubMed

    Adams, Sylvia; Goldstein, Lori J; Sparano, Joseph A; Demaria, Sandra; Badve, Sunil S

    2015-09-01

    Upon analysis of archived primary tumors of 482 patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) enrolled in two randomized Phase III adjuvant chemotherapy trials, we have found that tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), as assessed and quantified by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining are a robust and independent predictor of disease-free survival (DFS), distant recurrence-free interval (DRFI) and overall survival (OS).(1) Our findings provide confirmation of results observed in TNBC in a European adjuvant chemotherapy dataset and therefore elevate TILs as prognostic biomarker for operable TNBC to level I evidence.

  9. [The life of Choe Ung-sok: with a focus on his design for and role in the health care system immediately after the liberation].

    PubMed

    Shin, Young-Joen; Kim, Jinhyouk

    2014-12-01

    Born in Pyongyang in 1914, Choe Ung-sok was a physician who lived through the Japanese colonial era (1910-1945), rule by the United States Army Military Government in Korea (USAMGIK; 1945-1948), and national division (1948). Influenced by socialism and social hygiene/social medicine during his studies in Japan, he played the role of representing the socialist camp in the discussions related to the construction of a heath care system immediately following the Liberation (1945). His key arguments were: first, the nationalization of the medical system and the implementation of nationwide programs to eradicate diseases; second, the provision of free medical services through the expansion of social insurance; third, the reeducation of the medical personnel; fourth, the provision of social sciences education to the medical personnel and the reorganization of medicine into preventive medicine; fifth, the nationalization of pharmaceutics; sixth, the laborers' establishment of autonomous medical organs (affordable clinics, medical consumers' unions through cooperatives); and seventh, the reduction of work hours to 6-8 hours, technical improvement, respite from research, and guarantee of economic life for the medical personnel. Influenced by the medical systems of the Soviet Union and Japan, such arguments stood in opposition to the right wing's plan for the construction of a relatively passive health care system at the time but, in the end, failed to be realized in southern part of Korea under the USAMGIK. Subsequently, he defected to northern part of Korea and came to participate in the task of constructing North Korea's health care system. Choe's life and design for a health care system provide examples through which one can confirm the nature of social hygiene/social medicine both during the Japanese colonial era and before and after the Liberation and the contents of the design related to a health care system as held by the socialist faction. In addition, they show that

  10. Better Clinical Efficiency of TILs for Malignant Pleural Effusion and Ascites than Cisplatin Through Intrapleural and Intraperitoneal Infusion.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hongjin; Du, Fengcai; Gong, Zhaohua; Lian, Peiwen; Wang, Zhixin; Li, Peng; Hu, Baohong; Chi, Cheng; Chen, Jian

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficiency of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) compared to cisplatin for malignant pleural effusion and ascites through intrapleural and intraperitoneal infusion. Thirteen patients with malignant pleural effusion and ascites were divided into a TIL-treated group and a cisplatin-treated group. Patients were given TILs or cisplatin, through intrapleural and intraperitoneal infusion respectively, after drainage of the malignant serous effusion by thoracentesis or abdominocentesis. The overall response rate and disease control rate of the TIL-treated group (33.33% and 83.33%) were higher than that of the cisplatin-treated group (28.57% and 71.43%). The progression-free survival for the TIL-treated group was significantly longer (p=0.002) and better than that of the cisplatin-treated group (66.67% vs. 28.57%). Quality of life apparently improved in the TIL-treated group and was clearly higher than that in the cisplatin-treated group. The use of TILs has a better clinical efficiency for malignant pleural effusion and ascites than cisplatin through intrapleural and intraperitoneal infusion without severe adverse effects. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  11. TIL 2.0: More effective and predictive T-cell products by enrichment for defined antigen specificities.

    PubMed

    Schober, Kilian; Busch, Dirk H

    2016-06-01

    Adoptive transfer of in vitro-expanded T cells derived from tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in melanoma patients started the era of tumor immunotherapy three decades ago. The approach has demonstrated remarkable clinical responses in several studies since. Reinfusion of TIL-derived T cells represents a highly personalized form of immunotherapy, taking into account the enormous interindividual tumor heterogeneity. However, despite its successes, TIL therapy does not lead to objective clinical responses in all cases. It is thus crucial to find out which tumor antigens are particularly valuable targets and to develop strategies to enhance the reactivity of T-cell products toward them. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Kelderman et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2016. 46: 1351-1360] present a platform for the generation of antigen-specific TIL therapy. Combining recently developed technologies for clinical identification and enrichment of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells, such as MHC Streptamers and UV-mediated peptide exchange, the authors could enrich T-cell populations with defined antigen specificities from melanoma-derived TILs. This T-cell product showed higher reactivity against autologous tumor cell lines than bulk TIL-derived T cells. The novel platform might enable the generation of more effective and predictable TIL-derived T-cell products for future clinical applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Efficiency of gate control in double-interdigitated (TIL) GTO thyristors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silard, A. P.

    1986-04-01

    The research reported in this work was focused on the efficiency of gate control during turn-off in the recently developed double-interdigitated (TIL) GTO thyristors. The 8 mm 2 area, TO-220 packaged, high voltage test devices were investigated under both current and voltage input conditions. The main monitored parameters were: the peak turn-off gain Koff(max), the components of the turn-off time and the gate pulse width tgr. During the tests the TIL GTOs were driven up to an anode current iT = 50 A, a value equal to the non-repetitive peak on-state current ( ITSM) of these thyristors. The performed investigations have shown that these novel GTO devices possess a good efficiency of gate control expressed by: 1) low power consumption by the gate under both current and voltage drive conditions; 2) extremely high turn-off gain Koff(max), which is an increasing function of the anode current in a wide range of gate signals amplitudes and durations; 3) fast turn-off of large amounts of anode current with relatively short gate pulse widths; 4) substantial reduction of the storage time ts and fall time tf through adequate current or voltage drive. Design/behavioral details are given, which are useful in the implementation of the TIL concept in GTOs and other power switching devices, such as the bipolar transistors.

  13. Temperature-induced lipocalin (TIL): a shield against stress-inducing environmental shocks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Berterame, Nadia Maria; Bertagnoli, Stefano; Codazzi, Vera; Porro, Danilo; Branduardi, Paola

    2017-09-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a well-established workhorse, either for recombinant or natural products, thanks to its natural traits and easily editable metabolism. However, during a bio-based industrial process it meets multiple stresses generated by operative conditions such as non-optimal temperature, pH, oxygenation and product accumulation. The development of tolerant strains is therefore indispensable for the improvement of production, yield and productivity of fermentative processes. In this regard, plants as resilient organisms are a generous source for fishing genes and/or metabolites that can help the cell factory to counteract environmental constraints. Plants possess proteins named temperature-induced lipocalins, TIL, whose levels in the cells correlates with the tolerance to sudden temperature changes and with the scavenging of reactive oxygen species. In this work, the gene encoding for the Arabidopsis thaliana TIL protein was for the first time expressed in S. cerevisiae. The recombinant strain was compared and analysed against the parental counterpart under heat shock, freezing, exposure to organic acid and oxidative agents. In all the tested conditions, TIL expression conferred a higher tolerance to the stress imposed, making this strain a promising candidate for the development of robust cell factories able to overtake the major impairments of industrial processes. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Evaluation of particulate filtering respirators using inward leakage (IL) or total inward leakage (TIL) testing--Korean experience.

    PubMed

    Han, Don-Hee; Lee, Jinheon

    2005-10-01

    Korean certification regulation for particulate filtering respirators requires inward leakage (IL) or total inward leakage (TIL) testing according to European Standard EN 13274-1, and the standard levels of compliance are similar to those of the European Standard. This study was conducted to evaluate particulate filtering respirators being commercially used in the Korean market using an IL or TIL test and the validity of standard level in Korea. Three half masks and 10 filtering facepieces (two top class, four 1st class and four 2nd class)-a total of 13 brand name respirators-were selected for the test with panels of 10 subjects. Each subject was classified with nine facial dimension grid squares in accordance with face length and lip length. IL or TIL testing was conducted at the laboratory of the 3M Innovation Center in which the experimental instruments and systems were established in compliance with European standards. The testing procedure followed EN 13274-1 (2001). As expected, leakages of half masks were less than those of filtering facepieces and the latter were significantly different among brands. TILs of the 1st class filtering facepieces were found to be much more than those of the 2nd class and the result may cause a wearer to get confused when selecting a mask. The main route leakage for filtering facepieces may not be the filter medium but the face seal. Therefore, it is necessary to develop well-fitting filtering facepieces for Koreans. Because leakages were significantly different for different facial dimensions, a defined test panel for IL or TIL testing according to country or race should be developed. A more precise method to demonstrate fit, for example, fit testing such as in the US regulations, will be needed before IL or TIL testing or when selecting a respirator. Another finding implies that geometric mean of five exercises for IL or TIL may be better than arithmetic mean to establish a standard individual subject mean.

  15. The 1-min Screening Test for Reading Problems in College Students: Psychometric Properties of the 1-min TIL.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Tânia; Araújo, Susana; Sucena, Ana; Reis, Alexandra; Castro, São Luís

    2017-02-01

    Reading is a central cognitive domain, but little research has been devoted to standardized tests for adults. We, thus, examined the psychometric properties of the 1-min version of Teste de Idade de Leitura (Reading Age Test; 1-min TIL), the Portuguese version of Lobrot L3 test, in three experiments with college students: typical readers in Experiment 1A and B, dyslexic readers and chronological age controls in Experiment 2. In Experiment 1A, test-retest reliability and convergent validity were evaluated in 185 students. Reliability was >.70, and phonological decoding underpinned 1-min TIL. In Experiment 1B, internal consistency was assessed by presenting two 45-s versions of the test to 19 students, and performance in these versions was significantly associated (r = .78). In Experiment 2, construct validity, criterion validity and clinical utility of 1-min TIL were investigated. A multiple regression analysis corroborated construct validity; both phonological decoding and listening comprehension were reliable predictors of 1-min TIL scores. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristics analyses revealed the high accuracy of this test in distinguishing dyslexic from typical readers. Therefore, the 1-min TIL, which assesses reading comprehension and potential reading difficulties in college students, has the necessary psychometric properties to become a useful screening instrument in neuropsychological assessment and research. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. TIL therapy broadens the tumor-reactive CD8(+) T cell compartment in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Kvistborg, Pia; Shu, Chengyi Jenny; Heemskerk, Bianca; Fankhauser, Manuel; Thrue, Charlotte Albæk; Toebes, Mireille; van Rooij, Nienke; Linnemann, Carsten; van Buuren, Marit M; Urbanus, Jos H M; Beltman, Joost B; Thor Straten, Per; Li, Yong F; Robbins, Paul F; Besser, Michal J; Schachter, Jacob; Kenter, Gemma G; Dudley, Mark E; Rosenberg, Steven A; Haanen, John B A G; Hadrup, Sine Reker; Schumacher, Ton N M

    2012-07-01

    There is strong evidence that both adoptive T cell transfer and T cell checkpoint blockade can lead to regression of human melanoma. However, little data are available on the effect of these cancer therapies on the tumor-reactive T cell compartment. To address this issue we have profiled therapy-induced T cell reactivity against a panel of 145 melanoma-associated CD8(+) T cell epitopes. Using this approach, we demonstrate that individual tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte cell products from melanoma patients contain unique patterns of reactivity against shared melanoma-associated antigens, and that the combined magnitude of these responses is surprisingly low. Importantly, TIL therapy increases the breadth of the tumor-reactive T cell compartment in vivo, and T cell reactivity observed post-therapy can almost in full be explained by the reactivity observed within the matched cell product. These results establish the value of high-throughput monitoring for the analysis of immuno-active therapeutics and suggest that the clinical efficacy of TIL therapy can be enhanced by the preparation of more defined tumor-reactive T cell products.

  17. TIL therapy broadens the tumor-reactive CD8+ T cell compartment in melanoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Kvistborg, Pia; Shu, Chengyi Jenny; Heemskerk, Bianca; Fankhauser, Manuel; Thrue, Charlotte Albæk; Toebes, Mireille; van Rooij, Nienke; Linnemann, Carsten; van Buuren, Marit M.; Urbanus, Jos H.M.; Beltman, Joost B.; thor Straten, Per; Li, Yong F.; Robbins, Paul F.; Besser, Michal J.; Schachter, Jacob; Kenter, Gemma G.; Dudley, Mark E.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Haanen, John B.A.G.; Hadrup, Sine Reker; Schumacher, Ton N.M.

    2012-01-01

    There is strong evidence that both adoptive T cell transfer and T cell checkpoint blockade can lead to regression of human melanoma. However, little data are available on the effect of these cancer therapies on the tumor-reactive T cell compartment. To address this issue we have profiled therapy-induced T cell reactivity against a panel of 145 melanoma-associated CD8+ T cell epitopes. Using this approach, we demonstrate that individual tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte cell products from melanoma patients contain unique patterns of reactivity against shared melanoma-associated antigens, and that the combined magnitude of these responses is surprisingly low. Importantly, TIL therapy increases the breadth of the tumor-reactive T cell compartment in vivo, and T cell reactivity observed post-therapy can almost in full be explained by the reactivity observed within the matched cell product. These results establish the value of high-throughput monitoring for the analysis of immuno-active therapeutics and suggest that the clinical efficacy of TIL therapy can be enhanced by the preparation of more defined tumor-reactive T cell products. PMID:22754759

  18. Gulf/RTR oil sands extraction process. [Gulf/Rio Tinto TIL Holding S. A

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, A.; Devenny, D.; Porcari, G.; Corti, A.

    1984-06-01

    The activities carried out and the results obtained from a 15 tons/hour oil sands extraction pilot plant operated in Fort McMurray in Northern Alberta are described. The process is the Rio Tinto TIL Holding S.A. (RTR)/Gulf Canada Lt. Oil Sands Extraction Process. It is a modified hot water extraction process. It is used to extract bitumen from Athabasca oil sands. The test ran from July to December 1981 through ambient conditions ranging from plus 38/sup 0/C to minus 30/sup 0/C (100/sup 0/F to -22/sup 0/F). The process, the on-site facilities, the test program, an analysis of plant performance, an appraisal of the process economics, and an evaluation of its potential application are described.

  19. IL-17A is produced by breast cancer TILs and promotes chemoresistance and proliferation through ERK1/2.

    PubMed

    Cochaud, Stéphanie; Giustiniani, Jérôme; Thomas, Clémence; Laprevotte, Emilie; Garbar, Christian; Savoye, Aude-Marie; Curé, Hervé; Mascaux, Corinne; Alberici, Gilles; Bonnefoy, Nathalie; Eliaou, Jean-François; Bensussan, Armand; Bastid, Jeremy

    2013-12-09

    The proinflammatory cytokine Interleukin 17A (hereafter named IL-17A) or IL-17A producing cells are elevated in breast tumors environment and correlate with poor prognosis. Increased IL-17A is associated with ER(-) or triple negative tumors and reduced Disease Free Survival. However, the pathophysiological role of IL-17A in breast cancer remains unclear although several studies suggested its involvement in cancer cell dissemination. Here we demonstrated that a subset of breast tumors is infiltrated with IL-17A-producing cells. Increased IL-17A seems mainly associated to ER(-) and triple negative/basal-like tumors. Isolation of tumor infiltrating T lymphocytes (TILs) from breast cancer biopsies revealed that these cells secreted significant amounts of IL-17A. We further established that recombinant IL-17A recruits the MAPK pathway by upregulating phosphorylated ERK1/2 in human breast cancer cell lines thereby promoting proliferation and resistance to conventional chemotherapeutic agents such as docetaxel. We also confirmed here that recombinant IL-17A stimulates migration and invasion of breast cancer cells as previously reported. Importantly, TILs also induced tumor cell proliferation, chemoresistance and migration and treatment with IL-17A-neutralizing antibodies abrogated these effects. Altogether these results demonstrated the pathophysiological role of IL-17A-producing cell infiltrate in a subset of breast cancers. Therefore, IL-17A appears as potential therapeutic target for breast cancer.

  20. Gene expression analysis of TIL rich HPV-driven head and neck tumors reveals a distinct B-cell signature when compared to HPV independent tumors

    PubMed Central

    Savelyeva, Natalia; McCann, Katy J.; Singh, Divya; Jones, Terry; Peel, Lailah; Breen, Michael S.; Ward, Matthew; Martin, Eva Garrido

    2016-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has a better prognosis than it's HPV negative (HPV(−)) counterpart. This may be due to the higher numbers of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in HPV positive (HPV(+)) tumors. RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) was used to evaluate whether the differences in clinical behaviour simply reflect a numerical difference in TILs or whether there is a fundamental behavioural difference between TILs in these two settings. Thirty-nine HNSCC tumors were scored for TIL density by immunohistochemistry. After the removal of 16 TILlow tumors, RNA-Seq analysis was performed on 23 TILhigh/med tumors (HPV(+) n=10 and HPV(−) n=13). Using EdgeR, differentially expressed genes (DEG) were identified. Immune subset analysis was performed using Functional Analysis of Individual RNA-Seq/ Microarray Expression (FAIME) and immune gene RNA transcript count analysis. In total, 1,634 DEGs were identified, with a dominant immune signature observed in HPV(+) tumors. After normalizing the expression profiles to account for differences in B- and T-cell number, 437 significantly DEGs remained. A B-cell associated signature distinguished HPV(+) from HPV(−) tumors, and included the DEGs CD200, GGA2, ADAM28, STAG3, SPIB, VCAM1, BCL2 and ICOSLG; the immune signal relative to T-cells was qualitatively similar between TILs of both tumor cohorts. Our findings were validated and confirmed in two independent cohorts using TCGA data and tumor-infiltrating B-cells from additional HPV(+) HNSCC patients. A B-cell associated signal segregated tumors relative to HPV status. Our data suggests that the role of B-cells in the adaptive immune response to HPV(+) HNSCC requires re-assessment. PMID:27462861

  1. Gene expression analysis of TIL rich HPV-driven head and neck tumors reveals a distinct B-cell signature when compared to HPV independent tumors.

    PubMed

    Wood, Oliver; Woo, Jeongmin; Seumois, Gregory; Savelyeva, Natalia; McCann, Katy J; Singh, Divya; Jones, Terry; Peel, Lailah; Breen, Michael S; Ward, Matthew; Garrido Martin, Eva; Sanchez-Elsner, Tilman; Thomas, Gareth; Vijayanand, Pandurangan; Woelk, Christopher H; King, Emma; Ottensmeier, Christian

    2016-08-30

    Human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has a better prognosis than it's HPV negative (HPV(-)) counterpart. This may be due to the higher numbers of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in HPV positive (HPV(+)) tumors. RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) was used to evaluate whether the differences in clinical behaviour simply reflect a numerical difference in TILs or whether there is a fundamental behavioural difference between TILs in these two settings. Thirty-nine HNSCC tumors were scored for TIL density by immunohistochemistry. After the removal of 16 TILlow tumors, RNA-Seq analysis was performed on 23 TILhigh/med tumors (HPV(+) n=10 and HPV(-) n=13). Using EdgeR, differentially expressed genes (DEG) were identified. Immune subset analysis was performed using Functional Analysis of Individual RNA-Seq/ Microarray Expression (FAIME) and immune gene RNA transcript count analysis. In total, 1,634 DEGs were identified, with a dominant immune signature observed in HPV(+) tumors. After normalizing the expression profiles to account for differences in B- and T-cell number, 437 significantly DEGs remained. A B-cell associated signature distinguished HPV(+) from HPV(-) tumors, and included the DEGs CD200, GGA2, ADAM28, STAG3, SPIB, VCAM1, BCL2 and ICOSLG; the immune signal relative to T-cells was qualitatively similar between TILs of both tumor cohorts. Our findings were validated and confirmed in two independent cohorts using TCGA data and tumor-infiltrating B-cells from additional HPV(+) HNSCC patients. A B-cell associated signal segregated tumors relative to HPV status. Our data suggests that the role of B-cells in the adaptive immune response to HPV(+) HNSCC requires re-assessment.

  2. Deep Sequencing of T-Cell Receptor DNA as a biomarker of clonally expanded TILs in breast cancer after immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Page, David B.; Yuan, Jianda; Redmond, David; Wen, Y Hanna; Durack, Jeremy C.; Emerson, Ryan; Solomon, Stephen; Dong, Zhiwan; Wong, Phillip; Comstock, Christopher; Diab, Adi; Sung, Janice; Maybody, Majid; Morris, Elizabeth; Brogi, Edi; Morrow, Monica; Sacchini, Virgilio; Elemento, Olivier; Robins, Harlan; Patil, Sujata; Allison, James P.; Wolchok, Jedd D.; Hudis, Clifford; Norton, Larry; McArthur, Heather

    2016-01-01

    In early stage breast cancer, the degree of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) predicts response to chemotherapy and overall survival. Combination immunotherapy with immune checkpoint antibody plus tumor cryoablation can induce lymphocytic infiltrates and improve survival in mice. We used T-cell receptor (TCR) DNA sequencing to evaluate both the effect of cryo-immunotherapy in humans and the feasibility of TCR sequencing in early-stage breast cancer. In a pilot clinical trial, 18 women with early-stage breast cancer were treated preoperatively with cryoablation, single-dose anti-CTLA-4 (ipilimumab), or cryoablation + ipilimumab. TCRs within serially collected peripheral blood and tumor tissue were sequenced. In baseline tumor tissues, T-cell density as measured by TCR sequencing correlated with TIL scores obtained by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. However, tumors with little or no lymphocytes by H&E contained up to 3.6 × 106 TCR DNA sequences, highlighting the sensitivity of the ImmunoSEQ platform. In this dataset, ipilimumab increased intratumoral T-cell density over time, whereas cryoablation ± ipilimumab diversified and remodeled the intratumoral T-cell clonal repertoire. Compared to monotherapy, cryoablation plus ipilimumab was associated with numerically greater numbers of peripheral blood and intratumoral T-cell clones expanding robustly following therapy. In conclusion, TCR sequencing correlates with H&E lymphocyte scoring, and provides additional information on clonal diversity. These findings support further study of the use of TCR sequencing as a biomarker for T cell responses to therapy and for the study of cryo-immunotherapy in early-stage breast cancer. PMID:27587469

  3. Deep Sequencing of T-cell Receptor DNA as a Biomarker of Clonally Expanded TILs in Breast Cancer after Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Page, David B; Yuan, Jianda; Redmond, David; Wen, Y Hanna; Durack, Jeremy C; Emerson, Ryan; Solomon, Stephen; Dong, Zhiwan; Wong, Phillip; Comstock, Christopher; Diab, Adi; Sung, Janice; Maybody, Majid; Morris, Elizabeth; Brogi, Edi; Morrow, Monica; Sacchini, Virgilio; Elemento, Olivier; Robins, Harlan; Patil, Sujata; Allison, James P; Wolchok, Jedd D; Hudis, Clifford; Norton, Larry; McArthur, Heather L

    2016-10-01

    In early-stage breast cancer, the degree of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) predicts response to chemotherapy and overall survival. Combination immunotherapy with immune checkpoint antibody plus tumor cryoablation can induce lymphocytic infiltrates and improve survival in mice. We used T-cell receptor (TCR) DNA sequencing to evaluate both the effect of cryoimmunotherapy in humans and the feasibility of TCR sequencing in early-stage breast cancer. In a pilot clinical trial, 18 women with early-stage breast cancer were treated preoperatively with cryoablation, single-dose anti-CTLA-4 (ipilimumab), or cryoablation + ipilimumab. TCRs within serially collected peripheral blood and tumor tissue were sequenced. In baseline tumor tissues, T-cell density as measured by TCR sequencing correlated with TIL scores obtained by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. However, tumors with little or no lymphocytes by H&E contained up to 3.6 × 10(6) TCR DNA sequences, highlighting the sensitivity of the ImmunoSEQ platform. In this dataset, ipilimumab increased intratumoral T-cell density over time, whereas cryoablation ± ipilimumab diversified and remodeled the intratumoral T-cell clonal repertoire. Compared with monotherapy, cryoablation plus ipilimumab was associated with numerically greater numbers of peripheral blood and intratumoral T-cell clones expanding robustly following therapy. In conclusion, TCR sequencing correlates with H&E lymphocyte scoring and provides additional information on clonal diversity. These findings support further study of the use of TCR sequencing as a biomarker for T-cell responses to therapy and for the study of cryoimmunotherapy in early-stage breast cancer. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(10); 835-44. ©2016 AACR.

  4. TIL-type protease inhibitors may be used as targeted resistance factors to enhance silkworm defenses against invasive fungi.

    PubMed

    Li, Youshan; Zhao, Ping; Liu, Huawei; Guo, Xiaomeng; He, Huawei; Zhu, Rui; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-02-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi penetrate the insect cuticle using their abundant hydrolases. These hydrolases, which include cuticle-degrading proteases and chitinases, are important virulence factors. Our recent findings suggest that many serine protease inhibitors, especially TIL-type protease inhibitors, are involved in insect resistance to pathogenic microorganisms. To clarify the molecular mechanism underlying this resistance to entomopathogenic fungi and identify novel genes to improve the silkworm antifungal capacity, we conducted an in-depth study of serine protease inhibitors. Here, we cloned and expressed a novel silkworm TIL-type protease inhibitor, BmSPI39. In activity assays, BmSPI39 potently inhibited the virulence protease CDEP-1 of Beauveria bassiana, suggesting that it might suppress the fungal penetration of the silkworm integument by inhibiting the cuticle-degrading proteases secreted by the fungus. Phenol oxidase activation studies showed that melanization is involved in the insect immune response to fungal invasion, and that fungus-induced excessive melanization is suppressed by BmSPI39 by inhibiting the fungal cuticle-degrading proteases. To better understand the mechanism involved in the inhibition of fungal virulence by protease inhibitors, their effects on the germination of B. bassiana conidia was examined. BmSPI38 and BmSPI39 significantly inhibited the germination of B. bassiana conidia. Survival assays showed that BmSPI38 and BmSPI39 markedly improved the survival rates of silkworms, and can therefore be used as targeted resistance proteins in the silkworm. These results provided new insight into the molecular mechanisms whereby insect protease inhibitors confer resistance against entomopathogenic fungi, suggesting their potential application in medicinal or agricultural fields.

  5. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are a powerful prognostic marker in patients with triple negative breast cancer enrolled in the IBCSG phase III randomized clinical trial 22-00

    PubMed Central

    Pruneri, Giancarlo; Gray, Kathryn P.; Vingiani, Andrea; Viale, Giuseppe; Curigliano, Giuseppe; Criscitiello, Carmen; Láng, István; Ruhstaller, Thomas; Gianni, Lorenzo; Goldhirsch, Aron; Kammler, Roswitha; Price, Karen N.; Cancello, Giuseppe; Munzone, Elisabetta; Gelber, Richard D.; Regan, Meredith M.; Colleoni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the prognostic and predictive value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in the triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cohort of the phase III IBCSG trial 22-00, comparing low-dose oral ‘metronomic’ cyclophosphamide-methotrexate maintenance chemotherapy (CM-maintenance) to no CM-maintenance (No-CM) in early breast cancer. Methods TILs were evaluated in full-face hematoxylin and eosin–stained sections of tumor samples confirmed centrally as TNBC (<1% of ER and PgR immunoreactivity and absence of HER2 overexpression or amplification). Mononuclear cells were evaluated in the stromal area within the borders of the invasive tumor. The primary endpoint was breast cancer-free interval (BCFI). Cox proportional hazards regression model assessed the association of BCFI and secondary endpoints with TILs score. Results In the 647 tumor samples, the median percentage of TILs was 18% (IQR=8%–40%), with 18% having TILs ≥50% (lymphocyte predominant breast cancer, LPBC). At a median follow-up of 6.9 years, TILs were associated with better prognosis. For every 10% increase of TILs, BCFI risk reduction was 13% (HR=0.87,95% CI:0.79–0.95,P=0.003). DFS, DRFI and OS risk reductions were 11% (P=0.005), 16% (P=0.003), and 17% (P<0.001), respectively. Multivariable analysis confirmed the independent prognostic value of TILs. No significant TILs-by-treatment interaction was observed (P=0.39) for associations of TILs with BCFI, although patients with LPBC receiving CM-maintenance had a greater breast cancer risk reduction (HR=0.64,95% CI:0.23–1.78), than those with non-LPBC (TILs <50%) (HR 0.96,95% CI:0.67–1.40). Conclusions TILs score is a potent prognostic factor in patients with TNBC. Low-dose chemotherapy confers a greater (not statistically significant) clinical benefit in patients with LPBC. PMID:27372069

  6. CD3+, CD4+ & CD8+ tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are predictors of favourable survival outcome in infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast

    PubMed Central

    Rathore, Ankita Singh; Kumar, Sandeep; Konwar, Rituraj; Makker, Annu; Negi, M.P.S.; Goel, Madhu Mati

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) represent the host immune response against cancer cells associated with good or bad prognosis in different tumour types. This study was undertaken to evaluate the significance of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ TILs in breast cancer tissues in relation to clinico-pathological variables and survival outcome. Methods: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed with antibodies against CD3, CD4 and CD8 antigens on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 150 breast cancer patients. Intratumoural and stromal TIL counting was performed semiquantitatively. Results: The higher CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ intratumoural and stromal counts showed independent and direct association with good prognosis. The prognostic predictor value of intratumoural counts was higher than stromal counts. The independent associations of intratumoural and stromal counts became more prominent when adjusted with stage and grade, respectively. Among intratumoural counts, the high (++/+++) CD4+ count (OR=3.85, 95% CI=3.28-16.71, P<0.001) showed the highest survival followed by CD3+ (OR=2.70, 95% CI=1.76-8.30, P=0.001) and CD8+ (OR=2.58, 95% CI=1.55-5.86, P=0.001) the least when compared to respective low (+) counts. In contrast, among stromal counts, the high CD8+ count (OR=3.13, 95% CI=2.20-9.57, P<0.001) showed the highest survival followed by CD4+ (OR=3.02, 95% CI=2.07-8.89, P<0.001) and CD3+ (OR=2.45, 95% CI=1.53-6.73, P=0.002) the least. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results suggest that intratumoural CD4+ and stromal CD8+ counts by immunohistochemistry may serve as an independent prognosticator for favourable outcome in breast cancer. PMID:25366203

  7. 'Til the Needle Breaks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, B. Denise

    2011-01-01

    After more than half a century, the music of Motown not only thrives, it transcends generations. The iconic sound of Motown has led a handful of scholars to write, teach, lecture and share the music, history and business of Motown on their campuses. In its golden age, from 1959 to 1972, the sound Berry Gordy pioneered at Motown Records in Detroit…

  8. Assessing Tumor-infiltrating Lymphocytes in Solid Tumors: A Practical Review for Pathologists and Proposal for a Standardized Method From the International Immunooncology Biomarkers Working Group: Part 1: Assessing the Host Immune Response, TILs in Invasive Breast Carcinoma and Ductal Carcinoma In Situ, Metastatic Tumor Deposits and Areas for Further Research.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Shona; Salgado, Roberto; Gevaert, Thomas; Russell, Prudence A; John, Tom; Thapa, Bibhusal; Christie, Michael; van de Vijver, Koen; Estrada, M V; Gonzalez-Ericsson, Paula I; Sanders, Melinda; Solomon, Benjamin; Solinas, Cinzia; Van den Eynden, Gert G G M; Allory, Yves; Preusser, Matthias; Hainfellner, Johannes; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Vingiani, Andrea; Demaria, Sandra; Symmans, Fraser; Nuciforo, Paolo; Comerma, Laura; Thompson, E A; Lakhani, Sunil; Kim, Seong-Rim; Schnitt, Stuart; Colpaert, Cecile; Sotiriou, Christos; Scherer, Stefan J; Ignatiadis, Michail; Badve, Sunil; Pierce, Robert H; Viale, Giuseppe; Sirtaine, Nicolas; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Sugie, Tomohagu; Fineberg, Susan; Paik, Soonmyung; Srinivasan, Ashok; Richardson, Andrea; Wang, Yihong; Chmielik, Ewa; Brock, Jane; Johnson, Douglas B; Balko, Justin; Wienert, Stephan; Bossuyt, Veerle; Michiels, Stefan; Ternes, Nils; Burchardi, Nicole; Luen, Stephen J; Savas, Peter; Klauschen, Frederick; Watson, Peter H; Nelson, Brad H; Criscitiello, Carmen; O'Toole, Sandra; Larsimont, Denis; de Wind, Roland; Curigliano, Giuseppe; André, Fabrice; Lacroix-Triki, Magali; van de Vijver, Mark; Rojo, Federico; Floris, Giuseppe; Bedri, Shahinaz; Sparano, Joseph; Rimm, David; Nielsen, Torsten; Kos, Zuzana; Hewitt, Stephen; Singh, Baljit; Farshid, Gelareh; Loibl, Sibylle; Allison, Kimberly H; Tung, Nadine; Adams, Sylvia; Willard-Gallo, Karen; Horlings, Hugo M; Gandhi, Leena; Moreira, Andre; Hirsch, Fred; Dieci, Maria V; Urbanowicz, Maria; Brcic, Iva; Korski, Konstanty; Gaire, Fabien; Koeppen, Hartmut; Lo, Amy; Giltnane, Jennifer; Rebelatto, Marlon C; Steele, Keith E; Zha, Jiping; Emancipator, Kenneth; Juco, Jonathan W; Denkert, Carsten; Reis-Filho, Jorge; Loi, Sherene; Fox, Stephen B

    2017-09-01

    Assessment of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in histopathologic specimens can provide important prognostic information in diverse solid tumor types, and may also be of value in predicting response to treatments. However, implementation as a routine clinical biomarker has not yet been achieved. As successful use of immune checkpoint inhibitors and other forms of immunotherapy become a clinical reality, the need for widely applicable, accessible, and reliable immunooncology biomarkers is clear. In part 1 of this review we briefly discuss the host immune response to tumors and different approaches to TIL assessment. We propose a standardized methodology to assess TILs in solid tumors on hematoxylin and eosin sections, in both primary and metastatic settings, based on the International Immuno-Oncology Biomarker Working Group guidelines for TIL assessment in invasive breast carcinoma. A review of the literature regarding the value of TIL assessment in different solid tumor types follows in part 2. The method we propose is reproducible, affordable, easily applied, and has demonstrated prognostic and predictive significance in invasive breast carcinoma. This standardized methodology may be used as a reference against which other methods are compared, and should be evaluated for clinical validity and utility. Standardization of TIL assessment will help to improve consistency and reproducibility in this field, enrich both the quality and quantity of comparable evidence, and help to thoroughly evaluate the utility of TILs assessment in this era of immunotherapy.

  9. Glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family-related receptor (GITR)-expression in tumor infiltrating leucocytes (TILs) is associated with the pathogenesis of esophageal adenocarcinomas with and without Barrett's mucosa.

    PubMed

    von Rahden, Burkhard H A; Kircher, S; Kafka, M; Stuermer, L; Reiber, C; Gattenlöhner, S; Germer, C T; Grimm, M

    2010-01-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinomas (EACs) arise due to gastroesophageal reflux, with Barrett's esophagus (BE) regarded as precancerous lesion. Glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family-related Receptor (GITR)-mediated inflammation of tumor infiltrating leucocytes (TILs) in the tumor microenvironment might play a role during the multistep carcinogenetic process as either tumor promoting factor according to an inflammatory microenvironment or as a feature of anti-tumor activity. Immunohistochemical analysis of GITR expression was analyzed in esophageal cancer (n=70: 41 EAC with BE, 19 EAC without BE, and n=10 esophageal squamous-cell carcinomas, ESCC), the adenocarcinoma cell line OE-33, and peripheral blood leucocytes (PBLs) of EAC patients, furthermore in biopsies of BE without intraepithelial neoplasia (IN) (n=18). Results were correlated with clinicopathological parameters and five-year survival rates. Immunohistochemical GITR expression results were confirmed on mRNA level (RT-PCR). Quantification showed a significant increase of 25% GITR positive TILs in EAC with BE (p< 0.05) compared to 13% in adjacent BE, 24% in EAC without BE, 14% in ESCC, and 1% in BE without IN. High GITR levels were not significantly associated with clinicopathologic features which may predict worse clinical outcome and had no impact on survival (p= 0.7878). Increased GITR expression of peripheral blood leucocytes (PBLs) in EAC patients was shown on protein level (32%) and confirmed by RT-PCR (3.7-fold difference compared to normal tissue). This study provides for the first time evidence that GITR expression of TILs is associated in the pathogenesis of Barrett's esophagus. Our findings suggest that GITR-expression of TILs is associated with cancer progression. Its role as either tumor promoting factor %according to an in the inflammatory microenvironment or as a feature of anti-tumor activity and promising target for molecular therapies needs to be substantiated in further investigations.

  10. TRAV gene expression in PBMCs and TILs in patients with breast cancer analyzed by a DNA melting curve (FQ-PCR) technique for TCR α chain CDR3 spectratyping.

    PubMed

    He, X Y; Yang, W M; Tang, W T; Ma, R; Sun, Y P; Wang, P; Yao, X S

    2012-01-01

    To explore the expression of the TRAV gene in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in the patients with breast cancer using a DNA melting curve (FQ-PCR) technique for T cell receptor (TCR) alpha chain CDR3 spectratyping. Peripheral blood samples and tissue samples were obtained from thirty breast cancer patients. Total RNA was extracted from PBMCs and tumor tissues and then reverse transcribed into cDNA. FQ-PCR was used to amplify the human TCR alpha chain CDR3 region with the primers to the TRAV and TRAC genes. TCR alpha chain CDR3 spectratyping and partial CDR3 sequencing were used to determine use of TRAV gene product in T cell responses. TCR alpha CDR3 spectratyping showed preferential usage of certain TRAV genes in the PBMCs and TILs of all patients with breast cancer. The frequencies of TRAV1.1, TRAV9, and TRAV29 exceeded 30% in PBMCs and the frequencies of TRAV1.1 and TRAV22 exceeded 30% in TILs. More than three quarters of the patients (23/30) overexpressed the same gene in both PBMCs and TILs; for example, patient-1 highly expressed TRAV9 in the PBMCs and TILs. Patients with positive or negative tumor markers of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), pS2, C-erbB-2, nm23, P53, and Ki-67 showed no significant common TRAV gene expression, but some TRAV gene preferential usage frequencies exceeded 20%. For example, five of seven patients positive for ER had high levels of expression of TRAV1.1 and TRAV3. Finally, the amino acid sequence of TCR CDR3 region showed some common motifs in some of the patients. TRAV gene expression was complex and diverse in the patients with breast cancer. The TRAV gene usage may be closely related to the diversity of breast tumor antigens and the differential immune responses observed in individual patients. Research into the immunological mechanism of T cells may provide guidance for individual T cell-directed therapy for breast cancer.

  11. Assessing Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Solid Tumors: A Practical Review for Pathologists and Proposal for a Standardized Method from the International Immuno-Oncology Biomarkers Working Group: Part 2: TILs in Melanoma, Gastrointestinal Tract Carcinomas, Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma and Mesothelioma, Endometrial and Ovarian Carcinomas, Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck, Genitourinary Carcinomas, and Primary Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Shona; Salgado, Roberto; Gevaert, Thomas; Russell, Prudence A; John, Tom; Thapa, Bibhusal; Christie, Michael; van de Vijver, Koen; Estrada, M V; Gonzalez-Ericsson, Paula I; Sanders, Melinda; Solomon, Benjamin; Solinas, Cinzia; Van den Eynden, Gert G G M; Allory, Yves; Preusser, Matthias; Hainfellner, Johannes; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Vingiani, Andrea; Demaria, Sandra; Symmans, Fraser; Nuciforo, Paolo; Comerma, Laura; Thompson, E A; Lakhani, Sunil; Kim, Seong-Rim; Schnitt, Stuart; Colpaert, Cecile; Sotiriou, Christos; Scherer, Stefan J; Ignatiadis, Michail; Badve, Sunil; Pierce, Robert H; Viale, Giuseppe; Sirtaine, Nicolas; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Sugie, Tomohagu; Fineberg, Susan; Paik, Soonmyung; Srinivasan, Ashok; Richardson, Andrea; Wang, Yihong; Chmielik, Ewa; Brock, Jane; Johnson, Douglas B; Balko, Justin; Wienert, Stephan; Bossuyt, Veerle; Michiels, Stefan; Ternes, Nils; Burchardi, Nicole; Luen, Stephen J; Savas, Peter; Klauschen, Frederick; Watson, Peter H; Nelson, Brad H; Criscitiello, Carmen; O'Toole, Sandra; Larsimont, Denis; de Wind, Roland; Curigliano, Giuseppe; André, Fabrice; Lacroix-Triki, Magali; van de Vijver, Mark; Rojo, Federico; Floris, Giuseppe; Bedri, Shahinaz; Sparano, Joseph; Rimm, David; Nielsen, Torsten; Kos, Zuzana; Hewitt, Stephen; Singh, Baljit; Farshid, Gelareh; Loibl, Sibylle; Allison, Kimberly H; Tung, Nadine; Adams, Sylvia; Willard-Gallo, Karen; Horlings, Hugo M; Gandhi, Leena; Moreira, Andre; Hirsch, Fred; Dieci, Maria V; Urbanowicz, Maria; Brcic, Iva; Korski, Konstanty; Gaire, Fabien; Koeppen, Hartmut; Lo, Amy; Giltnane, Jennifer; Rebelatto, Marlon C; Steele, Keith E; Zha, Jiping; Emancipator, Kenneth; Juco, Jonathan W; Denkert, Carsten; Reis-Filho, Jorge; Loi, Sherene; Fox, Stephen B

    2017-08-02

    Assessment of the immune response to tumors is growing in importance as the prognostic implications of this response are increasingly recognized, and as immunotherapies are evaluated and implemented in different tumor types. However, many different approaches can be used to assess and describe the immune response, which limits efforts at implementation as a routine clinical biomarker. In part 1 of this review, we have proposed a standardized methodology to assess tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in solid tumors, based on the International Immuno-Oncology Biomarkers Working Group guidelines for invasive breast carcinoma. In part 2 of this review, we discuss the available evidence for the prognostic and predictive value of TILs in common solid tumors, including carcinomas of the lung, gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary system, gynecologic system, and head and neck, as well as primary brain tumors, mesothelioma and melanoma. The particularities and different emphases in TIL assessment in different tumor types are discussed. The standardized methodology we propose can be adapted to different tumor types and may be used as a standard against which other approaches can be compared. Standardization of TIL assessment will help clinicians, researchers and pathologists to conclusively evaluate the utility of this simple biomarker in the current era of immunotherapy.

  12. Erschließung eines Marmorkarstvorkommens als mitteltiefer Erdwärmesondenspeicher im Tuxertal, Tirol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sass, Ingo; Heldmann, Claus-Dieter; Lehr, Clemens

    2016-06-01

    Borehole heat exchangers can be economically beneficial for meeting heating and cooling demands of houses or buildings. In karst aquifers development of thermal storage and exchange systems may be problematic in terms of groundwater protection and storage design, due to possibly high groundwater velocities. The new development of the Hochstegen marble unit in the Tux Valley (Zillertal, Austria) was designed in two stages for the requested cooling and heating demands. An enhanced geothermal response test was completed using optical frequency domain reflectometry in an exploration drillhole. Additional studies focussing on local geology and hydrology were also conducted. Geothermal parameters obtained at precise depths allowed differentiating between conductive and convective heat flow and were correlated with the lithostratigraphically-conditioned karst characteristics. The borehole heat exchanger field was developed with nine 400 m deep dual U-shaped tube probes in 2013 for 1 GWh/a extraction and 400 MWh/a induction. Along with borehole geophysics and geothermal response tests, the study has provided relevant geothermal data for improving storage design and exploration.

  13. William Van Til: The Last Progressive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beineke, John A.

    2010-01-01

    In 1999, the changing goals of American schools were explored in "Education Week" through the events, achievements, and personalities that had formed United States education in the 20th century. First a series of articles, the collection was later published in book form as "Lessons of a Century: A Nation's Schools Come of Age."…

  14. TIL: A Type-Directed Optimizing Compiler for ML.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-02-29

    Conference on Program - ming Language Design and Implementation, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, May 21-24, 1996. It is also published as Fox Memorandum...Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation, pages 85-94, Atlanta, Georgia, June 1988. ACM. [14] A. Demers, M. Weiser, B. Hayes, H...on Programming Language Design and Implementation, pages 273-282, San Francisco, CA, June 1992. ACM. [16] Amer Diwan, David Tarditi, and Eliot Moss

  15. Erkundung und Beweissicherung für eine geothermale Erschließung eines Alpinen Karstaquifers im Tuxertal, Österreich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sass, Ingo; Heldmann, Claus-Dieter; Schäffer, Rafael

    2016-06-01

    Karst aquifers may on one hand improve the efficiency of geothermal systems due to increased permeabilities, but on the other hand, high groundwater velocities can reduce the efficiency of the underground heat storage capacity. The marble karst aquifer of the Hochstegen formation was explored and developed for the first time as an intermediate-depth geothermal energy storage system at Finkenberg, Tux valley (Tyrol, Austria). Geological field studies and a spring monitoring program for the project revealed characteristic hydro-chemical signatures related to the catchments in specific tectonic units depending on their lithology. Observations showed that the catchment area of the Hochstegen formation karst aquifer extends up to 2650 m a.s.l. southwest of Finkenberg. In the boreholes, karstification was detected to 400 m below surface (Sass et al., 2016). A monitoring program involving seven springs downgradient of the boreholes has shown that the geothermal project has had no long-term impact on groundwater quality.

  16. Registration of TIL:383.13, TIL:625 and TIL:634, three long grain tropical Japonica Rice (Oryza sativa L.) germplasm lines containing novel Indica Alleles that increase tiller production and grain yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    These three breeding lines were from a set of 123 progeny lines that were released by the USDA-ARS in 2012 as a mapping population. Chromosomal regions containing genes for increased tiller number under greenhouse conditions were subsequently identified in this population. We used the molecular an...

  17. 'Til death parts us: women’s domestic partnerships in eighteenth-century Brittany.

    PubMed

    Locklin, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the legal provision for two adult, unmarried women to create a “perpetual society” with one another found in the customary code of 1725 for the French province of Brittany. This arrangement allowed women who shared a household to designate one another as primary heir and to protect their community property from the claims of others. Evidence of this arrangement demonstrates that single women in some places had options outside of marriage and the convent. The contracts filed by the women also reveal the extent to which this arrangement went beyond considerations of property to express both affection and loyalty. Available to siblings as well as to pairs of unrelated women, this union is likely not the equivalent of same-sex marriage. It does however broaden our knowledge of the meaning of marriage, partnership, and kin in early modern Europe.

  18. A qualitative study of Telehealth patient information leaflets (TILs): are we giving patients enough information?

    PubMed

    Kayyali, Reem; Hesso, Iman; Ejiko, Evelyn; Nabhani Gebara, Shereen

    2017-05-19

    The provision of patient information leaflets regarding telehealth has been perceived by potential consumers as a strategy to promote awareness and adoption of telehealth services. However, such leaflets need to be designed carefully if adoption and awareness among potential users is to be promoted. Therefore, the aims of this study were: first, to see how telehealth was portrayed in some of the existing telehealth leaflets (THLs). Second, to explore patients' perceptions of the existing THLs and their engagement with the concept and how THLs can be optimised. A two-step approach was employed to address the aims of this study. The first phase involved the use of discourse analysis to compare 12 electronically and publically available THLs, with the existing THL guidance "Involve Yorkshire and Humber". The second phase involved conducting 14 semi-structured interviews with potential telehealth users/patients to gauge their perception and engagement with the concept, using the two leaflets that were mostly matching with the guidance used. Six interviews were audio-recorded and eight had detailed jotted notes. The interviews were transcribed and thematically analysed to identify key themes. The discourse analysis showed certain gaps and variations within the screened leaflets when addressing the following aspects: cost of the telehealth service, confidentiality, patients' choices in addition to equipment use and technical support. Analysis of the interviews revealed patients' need for having clear and sufficient information about the telehealth service within the THLs; in addition to, patients' preference for the use of simpler terminologies for telehealth description and the provision of clear simple texts with pictorial presentations. The interviews also revealed certain limitations against adoption of telehealth by the participants, such as: lack of privacy and confidentiality of information, fear of technology breakdown and equipment failure, loss of face-to-face contact with healthcare professionals and being too dependent on the telehealth service. The current study showed a great variation among the screened THLs and highlighted certain gaps within the content and presentation of these leaflets. However, the study also highlighted certain key issues to be considered when designing THLs in the future to enhance telehealth uptake and use by patients.

  19. William Van Til and the Nashville Story: Curriculum, Supervision, and Civil Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlstein, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Massive white resistance to the Supreme Court's 1954 Brown decision encouraged educational administrators and leaders who supported school integration to ally themselves with progressive civic activists. Desegregation thus catalyzed the development of a new, more openly political vision of educational leadership. If schools of education were to…

  20. 'Keep complaining til someone listens': Exchanges of tacit healthcare knowledge in online illness communities.

    PubMed

    Foster, Drew

    2016-10-01

    This article examines online exchanges of advice and knowledge among patients. It draws a distinction between explicit healthcare knowledge (i.e., facts about symptoms and treatments) and tacit healthcare knowledge (i.e., know-how about navigating the healthcare system). Based on analysis of message board interactions at a prominent online illness community, I find that patients routinely encourage one another to exercise agency strategically in clinical encounters by honing specific interactional skills. I isolate three major techniques that are advocated within the community (affect regulation, information management, and treatment persistence) and frame them as discrete examples of tacit healthcare knowledge. I argue that tacit healthcare knowledge constitutes a potentially potent source of empowerment for patients that can help them to receive their desired form of care from the health system and to negotiate relationships with medical professionals and institutions. I conclude by discussing how the concept of tacit healthcare knowledge further clarifies the wide variety of lay knowledge exchanged among patients online. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Twist `til we tear the house down: How Clifford solved the universe in 1870

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beichler, James

    2010-02-01

    It is commonly believed that the first hyperspace theories in physics were developed in the early twentieth century - Kaluza's five-dimensional extension of relativity is the best known, but this is untrue. It is also commonly believed that W.K. Clifford `speculated' on a higher space in 1870, had no followers and never published his theory (if he even had one). Nothing could be further from the historical truth. As early as 1869, Clifford, his followers and students began to develop a physical theory of matter based on a three-dimensional space curved in four dimensions. Clifford began to publish his theory, but modern researchers have failed to recognize his theoretical work because they look for something like Einstein's theory even though Clifford developed an electromagnetic theory. Clifford may not have directly influenced Einstein's relativity, but he made plausible arguments for the reality of space curvature, rendering the rapid acceptance of Einstein's concept of curved space-time more plausible. Clifford's work is either largely ignored by historians, scientists and other scholars or considered irrelevant because the early work on hyperspaces has been associated with ether theories that were abandoned, utilized quaternion algebras that were replaced by vectors and tensors, and was unfortunately associated with spiritualism. )

  2. Clinical relevance of host immunity in breast cancer: from TILs to the clinic.

    PubMed

    Savas, Peter; Salgado, Roberto; Denkert, Carsten; Sotiriou, Christos; Darcy, Phillip K; Smyth, Mark J; Loi, Sherene

    2016-04-01

    The clinical relevance of the host immune system in breast cancer has long been unexplored. Studies developed over the past decade have highlighted the biological heterogeneity of breast cancer, prompting researchers to investigate whether the role of the immune system in this malignancy is similar across different molecular subtypes of the disease. The presence of high levels of lymphocytic infiltration has been consistently associated with a more-favourable prognosis in patients with early stage triple-negative and HER2-positive breast cancer. These infiltrates seem to reflect favourable host antitumour immune responses, suggesting that immune activation is important for improving survival outcomes. In this Review, we discuss the composition of the immune infiltrates observed in breast cancers, as well as data supporting the clinical relevance of host antitumour immunity, as represented by lymphocytic infiltration, and how this biomarker could be used in the clinical setting. We also discuss the rationale for enhancing immunity in breast cancer, including early data on the efficacy of T-cell checkpoint inhibition in this setting.

  3. The Repeal of Section 28: It Ain't over 'til It's over

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenland, Katy; Nunney, Rosalind

    2008-01-01

    Section 28 (part of the Local Government Act of 1988) was a notorious piece of legislation that sought to prevent local education authorities in the UK from "promoting homosexuality". The effect of Section 28 was to create uncertainty and fear among teachers as to what was (and what was not) permitted in schools. Over time practitioners…

  4. ''Fake It 'Til You Make It'': Why Community College Students' Aspirations ''Hold Steady''

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Sociologists of education have explored the relationship between students' postsecondary aspirations and their propensity to get "cooled out" in community colleges. However, researchers have directed little attention to students whose aspirations remain stable over long periods of time or to the different roles that college degree goals…

  5. The Repeal of Section 28: It Ain't over 'til It's over

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenland, Katy; Nunney, Rosalind

    2008-01-01

    Section 28 (part of the Local Government Act of 1988) was a notorious piece of legislation that sought to prevent local education authorities in the UK from "promoting homosexuality". The effect of Section 28 was to create uncertainty and fear among teachers as to what was (and what was not) permitted in schools. Over time practitioners…

  6. Medical treatment choices for patients affected by advanced NSCLC in routine clinical practice: results from the Italian observational "SUN" (Survey on the lUng cancer maNagement) study.

    PubMed

    Gridelli, Cesare; Ardizzoni, Andrea; Barni, Sandro; Crinò, Lucio; Caprioli, Alberto; Piazza, Elena; Lorusso, Vito; Barbera, Santi; Zilembo, Nicoletta; Gebbia, Vittorio; Adamo, Vincenzo; Pela, Riccardo; Marangolo, Maurizio; Morena, Raffaella; Filippelli, Gianfranco; Buscarino, Calogero; Alabiso, Oscar; Maione, Paolo; Venturino, Paola; De Marinis, Filippo

    2011-12-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world today, in terms of both incidence and mortality. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for about 85% of all lung cancers, and the majority of people diagnosed with NSCLC have locally advanced or metastatic disease. Treatment algorithms have rapidly changed in the last 10 years because of the introduction of new chemotherapeutic and targeted agents in clinical practice. SUN is a 1-year longitudinal observational multicenter study that has consecutively enrolled patients affected by stage IIIB or IV NSCLC with the aim to describe the pattern of care and evolving approaches in the treatment of advanced NSCLC. 987 consecutive NSCLC patients were enrolled between January 2007 and March 2008 at the 74 participating centers throughout Italy and a 12-month follow-up was performed. Cyto-histological diagnosis was performed mainly by broncoscopy with only 24% by CT-scan guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. 91.4% of the patients received a first-line medical treatment and 8.6% supportive care only. Median age of patients receiving first-line treatment was 66 years. First-line chemotherapy consisted of a single agent in 20% of patients and combination chemotherapy in 80%. The most frequently used chemotherapy regimens were cisplatin plus gemcitabine and carboplatin plus gemcitabine. Median survival of patients receiving first-line chemotherapy was 9.1 months. 32% percent of patients received a second-line treatment that consisted of chemotherapy in 71% of cases and erlotinib in 29%. Overall third-line treatment was given to 7.3% of patients. These results showed a pattern of care for advanced NSCLC that reflects the current clinical practice in Italy at the study time with a high adherence to the International guidelines by the Italian Oncologists.

  7. Monte Carlo and deterministic simulations of activation ratio experiments for 238U(n,f), 238U(n,g) and 238U(n,2n) in the Big Ten benchmark critical assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Descalle, M; Clouse, C; Pruet, J

    2009-07-28

    The authors have compared calculations of critical assembly activation ratios using 3 different Monte Carlo codes and one deterministic code. There is excellent agreement. Discrepancies between the different Monte Carlo codes are the 1-2% level. Notably, the deterministic calculations with 87 groups are also in good agreement with the continuous energy Monte Carlo results. The three codes underestimate the {sup 238}U(n,f) reaction, suggesting that there is room for improvement in the evaluation, or in the evaluations of other reactions influencing the spectrum in BigTen. Until statistical uncertainties are implemented in Mercury, they strongly advise long runs to guarantee sufficient convergence of the flux at high energies, and they strongly encourage comparing Mercury results to a well-developed and documented code such as MCNP5 and/or COG. It may be that ENDL2008 will be available for use in COG within a year. Finally, it may be worthwhile to add a 'standard' reaction rate tally similar to those implemented in COG and MCNP5, if the goal is to expand the central fission and activation ratios simulations to include isotopes that are not part of the specifications for the assembly material composition.

  8. Uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) activities in Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens: characterization of a new class of UDG with broad substrate specificity

    PubMed Central

    Chembazhi, Ullas Valiya; Patil, Vinod Vikas; Sah, Shivjee; Reeve, Wayne; Tiwari, Ravi P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Repair of uracils in DNA is initiated by uracil DNA glycosylases (UDGs). Family 1 UDGs (Ung) are the most efficient and ubiquitous proteins having an exquisite specificity for uracils in DNA. Ung are characterized by motifs A (GQDPY) and B (HPSPLS) sequences. We report a novel dimeric UDG, Blr0248 (BdiUng) from Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens. Although BdiUng contains the motif A (GQDPA), it has low sequence identity to known UDGs. BdiUng prefers single stranded DNA and excises uracil, 5-hydroxymethyl-uracil or xanthine from it. BdiUng is impervious to inhibition by AP DNA, and Ugi protein that specifically inhibits family 1 UDGs. Crystal structure of BdiUng shows similarity with the family 4 UDGs in its overall fold but with family 1 UDGs in key active site residues. However, instead of a classical motif B, BdiUng has a uniquely extended protrusion explaining the lack of Ugi inhibition. Structural and mutational analyses of BdiUng have revealed the basis for the accommodation of diverse substrates into its substrate binding pocket. Phylogenetically, BdiUng belongs to a new UDG family. Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens presents a unique scenario where the presence of at least four families of UDGs may compensate for the absence of an efficient family 1 homologue. PMID:28369586

  9. Physical and functional interaction of human nuclear uracil-DNA glycosylase with proliferating cell nuclear antigen☆

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Rinkei; Bennett, Samuel E.

    2011-01-01

    Uracil residues arise in DNA by the misincorporation of dUMP in place of dTMP during DNA replication or by the deamination of cytosine in DNA. Uracil-DNA glycosylase initiates DNA base excision repair of uracil residues by catalyzing the hydrolysis of the N-glycosylic bond linking the uracil base to deoxyribose. In human cells, the nuclear form of uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG2) contains a conserved PCNA-binding motif located at the N-terminus that has been implicated experimentally in binding PCNA. Here we use purified preparations of UNG2 and PCNA to demonstrate that UNG2 physically associates with PCNA. UNG2 co-eluted with PCNA during size exclusion chromatography and bound to a PCNA affinity column. Association of UNG2 with PCNA was abolished by the addition of 100 mM NaCl, and significantly decreased in the presence of 10 mM MgCl2. The functional significance of the UNG2·PCNA association was demonstrated by UNG2 activity assays. Addition of PCNA (30–810 pmol) to standard uracil-DNA glycosylase reactions containing linear [uracil-3H]DNA stimulated UNG2 catalytic activity up to 2.6-fold. UNG2 activity was also stimulated by 7.5 mM MgCl2. The stimulatory effect of PCNA was increased by the addition of MgCl2; however, the dependence on PCNA concentration was the same, indicating that the effects of MgCl2 and PCNA on UNG2 activity occurred by independent mechanisms. Loading of PCNA onto the DNA substrate was required for stimulation, as the activity of UNG2 on circular DNA substrates was not affected by the addition of PCNA. Addition of replication factor C and ATP to reactions containing 90 pmol of PCNA resulted in two-fold stimulation of UNG2 activity on circular DNA. PMID:16216562

  10. "Little Bit Afraid 'Til I Found How It Was'": Children's Subjective Early School Experiences in a Disadvantaged Community in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Claire; O'Farrelly, Christine; Booth, Ailbhe; Doyle, Orla

    2017-01-01

    Research shows that children facing socioeconomic risk often have poorer skills at school entry, greater difficulty adjusting to school, more negative school experiences, and lower scholastic achievement, relative to their peers. However, the promotion of positive early school experiences is constrained by a lack of insight into disadvantaged…

  11. Flavone acetic acid (FAA) with recombinant interleukin-2 (TIL-2) in advanced malignant melanoma. II: Induction of nitric oxide production.

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, L. L.; Baguley, B. C.; Rustin, G. J.; O'Reilly, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    Plasma samples were collected from 20 patients undergoing phase I clinical trial with flavone-8-acetic acid (FAA; 4.8 g m-2 per dose) in combination with recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2; 6-18 i.u. m-2 per day) for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Samples were analysed for nitrate content as an indication of the oxidation of L-arginine to nitric oxide. Pretreatment plasma nitrate levels (53 +/- 4 microM) were significantly above those of healthy volunteers (19 +/- 4 microM). The maximum plasma nitrate concentration obtained after treatment, 190 +/- 29 microM (range 49 to 655 microM), was comparable to that of mice treated with FAA. Most of the increases occurred 3-5 days after initiation of a 5 day infusion of rhIL-2, but three of the increases occurred within 2 days of a 1 h infusion of FAA alone. The maximum plasma nitrate concentrations of the three patients which underwent remission (two complete, one partial) following treatment (368 +/- 143 microM) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of patients with progressive disease. Hypotension was the major dose-limiting side effect, and there was no relationship between the degree of hypotension and the rise in plasma nitrate. The results provide evidence that treatment of patients with FAA and rhIL-2 induce the synthesis of nitric oxide, a physiological mediator and potential cytotoxic agent. PMID:1419615

  12. Keep Me Praising 'til the Break of Day: An Examination of the Worship Experiences of Churchgoers in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escott, Phillip

    2006-01-01

    Decline in church attendance in England is well documented, though explanations vary. One explanation is that worship services themselves may be unattractive; even when Christian belief (of some kind) continues, there is no perceived need to express this through worship. Religious experiences of former attenders are not easily accessible; here the…

  13. Fish gotta swim, Birds gotta fly, I gotta do Feynmann Graphs 'til I die: A continuum Theory of Flocking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toner, John; Tu, Yu-Hai

    2002-05-01

    We have developed a new continuum dynamical model for the collective motion of large "flocks" of biological organisms (e.g., flocks of birds, schools of fish, herds of wildebeest, hordes of bacteria, slime molds, etc.) . This model does for flocks what the Navier-Stokes equation does for fluids. The model predicts that, unlike simple fluids, flocks show huge fluctuation effects in spatial dimensions d < 4 that radically change their behavior. In d=2, it is only these effects that make it possible for the flock to move coherently at all. This explains why a million wildebeest can march together across the Serengeti plain, despite the fact that a million physicists gathered on the same plane could NOT all POINT in the same direction. Detailed quantitative predictions of this theory agree beautifully with computer simulations of flock motion.

  14. 75 FR 47662 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ..., SNDK, SPY, T, TBT, TZA, UAUA, UNG, USO, UYG, V, VALE, VZ, WYNN, X, XHB, XLF, XRX and YHOO] * These fees..., SNDK, SPY, T, TBT, TZA, UAUA, UNG, USO, UYG, V, VALE, VZ, WYNN, X, XHB, XLF, XRX and YHOO. \\5\\...

  15. 75 FR 36134 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    .... (``AIG''), American Express Company (``AXP''), Best Buy Company (``BBY''), Caterpillar, Inc. (``CAT..., IWM, XLF, AAPL, GE, JPM, INTC, GS, RIMM, T, VZ, UNG, FCX, CSCO, DIA, AMZN, X, AA, AIG, AXP, BBY, CAT..., IWM, XLF, AAPL, GE, JPM, INTC, GS, RIMM, T, VZ, UNG, FCX, CSCO, DIA, AMZN, X, AA, AIG, AXP, BBY,...

  16. Stream primary producers relate positively to watershed natural gas measures in north-central Arkansas streams.

    PubMed

    Austin, Bradley J; Hardgrave, Natalia; Inlander, Ethan; Gallipeau, Cory; Entrekin, Sally; Evans-White, Michelle A

    2015-10-01

    Construction of unconventional natural gas (UNG) infrastructure (e.g., well pads, pipelines) is an increasingly common anthropogenic stressor that increases potential sediment erosion. Increased sediment inputs into nearby streams may decrease autotrophic processes through burial and scour, or sediment bound nutrients could have a positive effect through alleviating potential nutrient limitations. Ten streams with varying catchment UNG well densities (0-3.6 wells/km(2)) were sampled during winter and spring of 2010 and 2011 to examine relationships between landscape scale disturbances associated with UNG activity and stream periphyton [chlorophyll a (Chl a)] and gross primary production (GPP). Local scale variables including light availability and water column physicochemical variables were measured for each study site. Correlation analyses examined the relationships of autotrophic processes and local scale variables with the landscape scale variables percent pasture land use and UNG metrics (well density and well pad inverse flow path length). Both GPP and Chl a were primarily positively associated with the UNG activity metrics during most sample periods; however, neither landscape variables nor response variables correlated well with local scale factors. These positive correlations do not confirm causation, but they do suggest that it is possible that UNG development can alleviate one or more limiting factors on autotrophic production within these streams. A secondary manipulative study was used to examine the link between nutrient limitation and algal growth across a gradient of streams impacted by natural gas activity. Nitrogen limitation was common among minimally impacted stream reaches and was alleviated in streams with high UNG activity. These data provide evidence that UNG may stimulate the primary production of Fayetteville shale streams via alleviation of N-limitation. Restricting UNG activities from the riparian zone along with better enforcement of

  17. Uracil DNA glycosylase interacts with the p32 subunit of the replication protein A complex to modulate HIV-1 reverse transcription for optimal virus dissemination.

    PubMed

    Herate, Cecile; Vigne, Clarisse; Guenzel, Carolin A; Lambele, Marie; Rouyez, Marie-Christine; Benichou, Serge

    2016-04-12

    Through incorporation into virus particles, the HIV-1 Vpr protein participates in the early steps of the virus life cycle by influencing the reverse transcription process. We previously showed that this positive impact on reverse transcription was related to Vpr binding to the uracil DNA glycosylase 2 enzyme (UNG2), leading to enhancement of virus infectivity in established CD4-positive cell lines via a nonenzymatic mechanism. We report here that Vpr can form a trimolecular complex with UNG2 and the p32 subunit (RPA32) of the replication protein A (RPA) complex and we explore how these cellular proteins can influence virus replication and dissemination in the primary target cells of HIV-1, which express low levels of both proteins. Virus infectivity and replication in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), as well as the efficiency of the viral DNA synthesis, were significantly reduced when viruses were produced from cells depleted of endogenous UNG2 or RPA32. Moreover, viruses produced in macrophages failed to replicate efficiently in UNG2- and RPA32-depleted T lymphocytes. Reciprocally, viruses produced in UNG2-depleted T cells did not replicate efficiently in MDMs confirming the positive role of UNG2 for virus dissemination. Our data show the positive effect of UNG2 and RPA32 on the reverse transcription process leading to optimal virus replication and dissemination between the primary target cells of HIV-1.

  18. Folate deficiency induces neurodegeneration and brain dysfunction in mice lacking uracil DNA glycosylase.

    PubMed

    Kronenberg, Golo; Harms, Christoph; Sobol, Robert W; Cardozo-Pelaez, Fernando; Linhart, Heinz; Winter, Benjamin; Balkaya, Mustafa; Gertz, Karen; Gay, Shanna B; Cox, David; Eckart, Sarah; Ahmadi, Michael; Juckel, Georg; Kempermann, Gerd; Hellweg, Rainer; Sohr, Reinhard; Hörtnagl, Heide; Wilson, Samuel H; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Endres, Matthias

    2008-07-09

    Folate deficiency and resultant increased homocysteine levels have been linked experimentally and epidemiologically with neurodegenerative conditions like stroke and dementia. Moreover, folate deficiency has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders, most notably depression. We hypothesized that the pathogenic mechanisms include uracil misincorporation and, therefore, analyzed the effects of folate deficiency in mice lacking uracil DNA glycosylase (Ung-/-) versus wild-type controls. Folate depletion increased nuclear mutation rates in Ung-/- embryonic fibroblasts, and conferred death of cultured Ung-/- hippocampal neurons. Feeding animals a folate-deficient diet (FD) for 3 months induced degeneration of CA3 pyramidal neurons in Ung-/- but not Ung+/+ mice along with decreased hippocampal expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein and decreased brain levels of antioxidant glutathione. Furthermore, FD induced cognitive deficits and mood alterations such as anxious and despair-like behaviors that were aggravated in Ung-/- mice. Independent of Ung genotype, FD increased plasma homocysteine levels, altered brain monoamine metabolism, and inhibited adult hippocampal neurogenesis. These results indicate that impaired uracil repair is involved in neurodegeneration and neuropsychiatric dysfunction induced by experimental folate deficiency.

  19. Analysis of the impact of a uracil DNA glycosylase attenuated in AP-DNA binding in maintenance of the genomic integrity in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Sanjay Kumar; Varshney, Umesh

    2010-01-01

    Uracil DNA glycosylase (Ung) initiates the uracil excision repair pathway. We have earlier characterized the Y66W and Y66H mutants of Ung and shown that they are compromised by ∼7- and ∼170-fold, respectively in their uracil excision activities. In this study, fluorescence anisotropy measurements show that compared with the wild-type, the Y66W protein is moderately compromised and attenuated in binding to AP-DNA. Allelic exchange of ung in Escherichia coli with ung::kan, ungY66H:amp or ungY66W:amp alleles showed ∼5-, ∼3.0- and ∼2.0-fold, respectively increase in mutation frequencies. Analysis of mutations in the rifampicin resistance determining region of rpoB revealed that the Y66W allele resulted in an increase in A to G (or T to C) mutations. However, the increase in A to G mutations was mitigated upon expression of wild-type Ung from a plasmid borne gene. Biochemical and computational analyses showed that the Y66W mutant maintains strict specificity for uracil excision from DNA. Interestingly, a strain deficient in AP-endonucleases also showed an increase in A to G mutations. We discuss these findings in the context of a proposal that the residency of DNA glycosylase(s) onto the AP-sites they generate shields them until recruitment of AP-endonucleases for further repair. PMID:20056657

  20. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr protein binds to the uracil DNA glycosylase DNA repair enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Bouhamdan, M; Benichou, S; Rey, F; Navarro, J M; Agostini, I; Spire, B; Camonis, J; Slupphaug, G; Vigne, R; Benarous, R; Sire, J

    1996-01-01

    The role of the accessory gene product Vpr during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection remains unclear. We have used the yeast two-hybrid system to identify cellular proteins that interact with Vpr and could be involved in its function. A cDNA clone which encodes the human uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG), a DNA repair enzyme involved in removal of uracil in DNA, has been isolated. Interaction between Vpr and UNG has been demonstrated by in vitro protein-protein binding assays using translated, radiolabeled Vpr and UNG recombinant proteins expressed as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein. Conversely, purified UNG has been demonstrated to interact with Vpr recombinant protein expressed as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that Vpr and UNG are associated within cells expressing Vpr. By using a panel of C- and N-terminally deleted Vpr mutants, we have determined that the core protein of Vpr, spanning amino acids 15 to 77, is involved in the interaction with UNG. We also demonstrate by in vitro experiments that the enzymatic activity of UNG is retained upon interaction with Vpr. PMID:8551605

  1. Breeding Value of the qSB9b and qSB12a QTLs in RiceBreeding Value of the qSB9b and qSB12a QTLs in Rice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sheath blight (SB) caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn is a serious rice disease worldwide. The results of 123 TeQing-into-Lemont (TILs) showed those with introgressions containing qSB9b and/or qSB12a were among the most SB resistant TILs. TIL:615, TIL:642 and TIL:567 have consistently appeared modera...

  2. 75 FR 56627 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ...: BAC, C, DXD, EMC, EWJ, F, FAX, FAZ, GE, INTC, MOT, MSFT, MU, NOK, Q, QID, S, SIRI, SKF, T, TWM, UNG... and review your comments more efficiently, please use only one method. The Commission will post...

  3. Elevated levels of plasma homocysteine, deficiencies in dietary folic acid and uracil-DNA glycosylase impair learning in a mouse model of vascular cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Jadavji, Nafisa M; Farr, Tracy D; Lips, Janet; Khalil, Ahmed A; Boehm-Sturm, Philipp; Foddis, Marco; Harms, Christoph; Füchtemeier, Martina; Dirnagl, Ulrich

    2015-04-15

    Dietary deficiencies in folic acid result in elevated levels of plasma homocysteine, which has been associated with the development of dementia and other neurodegenerative disorders. Previously, we have shown that elevated levels of plasma homocysteine in mice deficient for a DNA repair enzyme, uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG), result in neurodegeneration. The goal of this study was to evaluate how deficiencies in folic acid and UNG along with elevated levels of homocysteine affect vascular cognitive impairment, via chronic hypoperfursion in an animal model. Ung(+/+) and Ung(-/-) mice were placed on either control (CD) or folic acid deficient (FADD) diets. Six weeks later, the mice either underwent implantation of microcoils around both common carotid arteries. Post-operatively, behavioral tests began at 3-weeks, angiography was measured after 5-weeks using MRI to assess vasculature and at completion of study plasma and brain tissue was collected for analysis. Learning impairments in the Morris water maze (MWM) were observed only in hypoperfused Ung(-/-) FADD mice and these mice had significantly higher plasma homocysteine concentrations. Interestingly, Ung(+/+) FADD produced significant remodeling of the basilar artery and arterial vasculature. Increased expression of GFAP was observed in the dentate gyrus of Ung(-/-) hypoperfused and FADD sham mice. Chronic hypoperfusion resulted in increased cortical MMP-9 protein levels of FADD hypoperfused mice regardless of genotypes. These results suggest that elevated levels of homocysteine only, as a result of dietary folic acid deficiency, don't lead to memory impairments and neurobiochemical changes. Rather a combination of either chronic hypoperfusion or UNG deficiency is required.

  4. 'Faking til you make it': social capital accumulation of individuals on low incomes living in contrasting socio-economic neighbourhoods and its implications for health and wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Browne-Yung, Kathryn; Ziersch, Anna; Baum, Fran

    2013-05-01

    People on low-income living in low socio-economic neighbourhoods have poorer health in comparison with those living in advantaged neighbourhoods. To explore neighbourhood effects on health and social capital creation, the experiences of low-income people living in contrasting socio-economic neighbourhoods were compared, in order to examine how low-income status and differing levels of neighbourhood resources contributed to perceived health and wellbeing. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed: survey data from 601 individuals living in contrasting socio-economic areas and in-depth interviews with a new sample of 24 individuals on low-incomes. The study was guided by Bourdieu's theory of practice, which examines how social inequalities are created and reproduced through the relationship between individuals' varying resources of economic, social and cultural capital. This included an examination of individual life histories, cultural distinction and how social positions are reproduced. Participants' accounts of their early life experience showed how parental socio-economic position and socially patterned events taking place across the life course, created different opportunities for social network creation, choice of neighbourhood and levels of resources available throughout life, all of which can influence health and wellbeing. A definition of poverty by whether an individual or household has sufficient income at a particular point in time was an inadequate measure of disadvantage. This static measure of 'low income' as a category disguised a number of different ways in which disadvantage was experienced or, conversely, how life course events could mitigate the impact of low-income. This study found that the resources necessary to create social capital such as cultural capital and the ability to socially network, differed according to the socio-economic status of the neighbourhood, and that living in an advantaged area does not automatically guarantee access to potentially beneficial social networks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic and environmental effects in the TeQing-into-Lemont (TIL) population under flooded and alternating wet-dry conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over the last decade there has been growing concern regarding sustainability of US rice production due to multi-year droughts and depletion of ground water resources. There is a need for research to develop rice varieties that are optimized for production using less irrigation water. One rice produc...

  6. Don't Know What You've Got 'Til It's Gone? Skills-Led Qualifications, Secondary School Attainment and Policy Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Neil; James, David; Last, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    In the name of curriculum breadth and raising standards, recent government policy in England has removed a large number of non-academic qualifications from the list of those that secondary schools can count in league tables, discouraging their use. Most of these were vocational qualifications, but they also include skills-led qualifications. This…

  7. Don't Know What You've Got 'Til It's Gone? Skills-Led Qualifications, Secondary School Attainment and Policy Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Neil; James, David; Last, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    In the name of curriculum breadth and raising standards, recent government policy in England has removed a large number of non-academic qualifications from the list of those that secondary schools can count in league tables, discouraging their use. Most of these were vocational qualifications, but they also include skills-led qualifications. This…

  8. CD4(+)FOXP3(+) T regulatory cells decrease and CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells recruitment in TILs from melanoma metastases after electrochemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Di Gennaro, P; Gerlini, G; Urso, C; Sestini, S; Brandani, P; Pimpinelli, N; Borgognoni, L

    2016-12-01

    Electrochemotherapy (ECT) represents an effective local treatment for skin unresectable melanoma metastases with high overall objective response rate. ECT is based on the combination of anti-neoplastic drugs administration and cancer cells electroporation. Whether ECT can also activate the immune system is a matter of debate, however a significant recruitment of dendritic cells in melanoma treated metastases has been described. Herein we investigated immediate and late effects of ECT treatment on T cell subsets in ECT-treated lesions by fluorescent immunohistochemistry. Biopsies from melanoma patients (n = 10) were taken before ECT (t0), at d1 and d14 from treatment. At t0, CD3(+)CD4(+) T cells were the most represented T cells, well detected in the perilesional dermis, particularly at tumour margin, while CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells were less represented. CD4(+)FOXP3(+) T regulatory (Treg) cells were present in the perilesional dermis and within the lesion. ECT induced a significant decrease of CD4(+)FOXP3(+) Treg cells percentage in the perilesional dermis, observed at d1 and at d14 (p < 0.001). CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells frequency significantly increased at d14 from treatment in the perilesional dermis (p < 0.001). Furthermore calreticulin translocation to the plasma membrane, a hallmark of immunogenic cell death, was observed in metastatic cells after ECT. The data reported here confirm that ECT induces a local response, with a lymphoid infiltrate characterized by CD4(+)FOXP3(+) Treg cells decrease and CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells recruitment in the treated lesions. These results might contribute to design novel combinational therapeutic approaches with ECT and immunotherapy in order to generate a systemic long-lasting anti-melanoma immunity.

  9. Quantitative assessment of the effect of uracil-DNA glycosylase on amplicon DNA degradation and RNA amplification in reverse transcription-PCR.

    PubMed

    Kleiboeker, Steven B

    2005-04-11

    Although PCR and RT-PCR provided a valuable approach for detection of pathogens, the high level of sensitivity of these assays also makes them prone to false positive results. In addition to cross-contamination with true positive samples, false positive results are also possible due to "carry-over" contamination of samples with amplicon DNA generated by previous reactions. To reduce this source of false positives, amplicon generated by reactions in which dUTP was substituted for dTTP can be degraded by uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG). UNG does not degrade RNA but will cleave contaminating uracil-containing DNA while leaving thymine-containing DNA intact. The availability of heat-labile UNG makes use of this approach feasible for RT-PCR. In this study, real-time RT-PCR was used to quantify UNG degradation of amplicon DNA and the effect of UNG on RNA detection. Using the manufacturers' recommended conditions, complete degradation of DNA was not observed for samples containing 250 copies of amplicon DNA. Doubling the UNG concentration resulted in degradation of the two lowest concentrations of DNA tested, but also resulted in an increase of 1.94 cycles in the CT for RNA detection. To improve DNA degradation while minimizing the effect on RNA detection, a series of time, temperature and enzyme concentrations were evaluated. Optimal conditions were found to be 0.25 U UNG per 25 microl reaction with a 20 min, 30 degrees C incubation prior to RT-PCR. Under these conditions, high concentrations of amplicon DNA could be degraded while the CT for RNA detection was increased by 1.2 cycles.

  10. Impact of Marcellus Shale natural gas development in southwest Pennsylvania on volatile organic compound emissions and regional air quality.

    PubMed

    Swarthout, Robert F; Russo, Rachel S; Zhou, Yong; Miller, Brandon M; Mitchell, Brittney; Horsman, Emily; Lipsky, Eric; McCabe, David C; Baum, Ellen; Sive, Barkley C

    2015-03-03

    The Marcellus Shale is the largest natural gas deposit in the U.S. and rapid development of this resource has raised concerns about regional air pollution. A field campaign was conducted in the southwestern Pennsylvania region of the Marcellus Shale to investigate the impact of unconventional natural gas (UNG) production operations on regional air quality. Whole air samples were collected throughout an 8050 km(2) grid surrounding Pittsburgh and analyzed for methane, carbon dioxide, and C1-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Elevated mixing ratios of methane and C2-C8 alkanes were observed in areas with the highest density of UNG wells. Source apportionment was used to identify characteristic emission ratios for UNG sources, and results indicated that UNG emissions were responsible for the majority of mixing ratios of C2-C8 alkanes, but accounted for a small proportion of alkene and aromatic compounds. The VOC emissions from UNG operations accounted for 17 ± 19% of the regional kinetic hydroxyl radical reactivity of nonbiogenic VOCs suggesting that natural gas emissions may affect compliance with federal ozone standards. A first approximation of methane emissions from the study area of 10.0 ± 5.2 kg s(-1) provides a baseline for determining the efficacy of regulatory emission control efforts.

  11. Reduced nerve growth factor levels in stress-related brain regions of folate-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Eckart, S; Hörtnagl, H; Kronenberg, G; Gertz, K; Hörster, H; Endres, M; Hellweg, R

    2013-08-15

    Folate deficiency has been linked to neurodegenerative and stress-related diseases such as stroke, dementia and depression. The role of the neurotrophins nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) in stress-related disorders and neurodegeneration has garnered increasing attention in recent years. Uracil misincorporation is involved in the neuropsychiatric dysfunction induced by experimental folate deprivation. However, the effects of folate deficiency on the expression of NGF and NT-3 in brain tissue have not yet been investigated. In a 2×2 design, aged mice lacking uracil-DNA N-glycosylase (Ung(-/-)) versus wild-type (Ung(+/+)) controls were subjected to a folate-deficient diet versus a regular diet for three months. Independent of genotype, folate deficiency led to decreased NGF protein levels in the frontal cortex and amygdala. In the hippocampus, NGF levels were increased in UNG(-/-) mice on the normal diet, but not under folate deficiency, while in UNG(+/+) mice, folate deprivation did not affect hippocampal NGF content. NT-3 protein concentrations were neither affected by genotype nor by folate deficiency. Altogether, the results of our study show that folate deficiency affects NGF levels in the frontal cortex, amygdala and hippocampus. The decrease in NGF content in the hippocampus in response to folate deficiency in Ung(-/-) mice may contribute to their phenotype of enhanced anxiety and despair-like behavior as well as to selective hippocampal neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of the prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in triple-negative breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Tian; Ruan, Miao; Yang, Wentao; Shui, Ruohong

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) may be associated with clinical outcome in triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs). However, lacking of standardized methodologies in TILs evaluation has hindered its application in clinical practice. To evaluate the prognostic role of TILs scored by methods recommended by International TILs Working Group 2014, we performed a retrospective study of TILs in 425 primary invasive TNBCs in a Chinese population with a median follow-up of 4 years. Intratumoral TILs (iTILs) and stromal TILs (sTILs) were scored respectively. The associations between TILs and disease-free survival (DFS), distant disease-free survival (DDFS) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated with COX models. ITILs were not associated with prognosis. Higher sTILs were associated with better prognosis; for every 10% increase in sTILs, a 5% reduction of risk of recurrence or death (P < 0.001), 5% reduction of risk of distant recurrence (P < 0.001), and 4% reduction of risk of death (P = 0.002) were observed. Multivariate analysis confirmed sTILs to be an independent prognostic marker. 3.5% of TNBCs had more than 50% lymphocytes (lymphocyte-predominant breast cancer, LPBC), and associations between LPBC status and prognosis were observed but did not reach statistical significance. TNBCs with more than 20% sTILs had a significantly better prognosis than the patients with no more than 20% sTILs. In conclusion, our study indicated that sTILs scored by methods recommended by International TILs Working Group 2014 were associated with the prognosis of TNBCs. STILs could be an independent prognostic biomarker in TNBCs, increasing sTILs predicting better prognosis. PMID:27323808

  13. Uracil-DNA glycosylase-treated reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection of avian influenza virus preventing carry-over contamination.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Mi; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Kim, Ji-Jung; Shin, Yeun-Kyung; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Yeo, Sang-Geon; Park, Choi-Kyu

    2016-09-30

    Here, we describe a uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG)-treated reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (uRT-LAMP) for the visual detection of all subtypes of avian influenza A virus (AIV). The uRT-LAMP assay can prevent unwanted amplification by carryover contamination of the previously amplified DNA, although the detection limit of the uRT-LAMP assay is 10-fold lower than that of the RT-LAMP without a UNG treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first successful application of deoxyuridine triphosphate/UNG strategy in RT-LAMP for AIV detection, and the assay can be applied for the rapid, and reliable diagnosis of AIVs, even in contaminated samples.

  14. Uracil-DNA glycosylase-treated reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection of avian influenza virus preventing carry-over contamination

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Mi; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Kim, Ji-Jung; Shin, Yeun-Kyung; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Yeo, Sang-Geon

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe a uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG)-treated reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (uRT-LAMP) for the visual detection of all subtypes of avian influenza A virus (AIV). The uRT-LAMP assay can prevent unwanted amplification by carryover contamination of the previously amplified DNA, although the detection limit of the uRT-LAMP assay is 10-fold lower than that of the RT-LAMP without a UNG treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first successful application of deoxyuridine triphosphate/UNG strategy in RT-LAMP for AIV detection, and the assay can be applied for the rapid, and reliable diagnosis of AIVs, even in contaminated samples. PMID:26726027

  15. Cytosine deamination is a major cause of baseline noise in next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guoli; Mosier, Stacy; Gocke, Christopher D; Lin, Ming-Tseh; Eshleman, James R

    2014-10-01

    As next-generation sequencing (NGS) becomes a major sequencing platform in clinical diagnostic laboratories, it is critical to identify artifacts that constitute baseline noise and may interfere with detection of low-level gene mutations. This is especially critical for applications requiring ultrasensitive detection, such as molecular relapse of solid tumors and early detection of cancer. We recently observed a ~10-fold higher frequency of C:G > T:A mutations than the background noise level in both wild-type peripheral blood and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples. We hypothesized that these might represent cytosine deamination events, which have been seen using other platforms. To test this hypothesis, we pretreated samples with uracil N-glycosylase (UNG). Additionally, to test whether some of the cytosine deamination might be a laboratory artifact, we simulated the heat associated with polymerase chain reaction thermocycling by subjecting samples to thermocycling in the absence of polymerase. To test the safety of universal UNG pretreatment, we tested known positive samples treated with UNG. UNG pretreatment significantly reduced the frequencies of these mutations, consistent with a biologic source of cytosine deamination. The simulated thermocycling-heated samples demonstrated significantly increased frequencies of C:G > T:A mutations without other baseline base substitutions being affected. Samples with known mutations demonstrated no decrease in our ability to detect these after treatment with UNG. Baseline noise during NGS is mostly due to cytosine deamination, the source of which is likely to be both biologic and an artifact of thermocycling, and it can be reduced by UNG pretreatment.

  16. Increased uracil insertion in DNA is cytotoxic and increases the frequency of mutation, double strand break formation and VSG switching in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Acosta, Víctor M; Aguilar-Pereyra, Fernando; Bart, Jean-Mathieu; Navarro, Miguel; Ruiz-Pérez, Luis M; Vidal, Antonio E; González-Pacanowska, Dolores

    2012-12-01

    Deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate pyrophosphatase (dUTPase) and uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG) are key enzymes involved in the control of the presence of uracil in DNA. While dUTPase prevents uracil misincorporation by removing dUTP from the deoxynucleotide pool, UNG excises uracil from DNA as a first step of the base excision repair pathway (BER). Here, we report that strong down-regulation of dUTPase in UNG-deficient Trypanosoma brucei cells greatly impairs cell viability in both bloodstream and procyclic forms, underscoring the extreme sensitivity of trypanosomes to uracil in DNA. Depletion of dUTPase activity in the absence of UNG provoked cell cycle alterations, massive dUTP misincorporation into DNA and chromosomal fragmentation. Overall, trypanosomatid cells that lack dUTPase and UNG activities exhibited greater proliferation defects and DNA damage than cells deficient in only one of these activities. To determine the mutagenic consequences of uracil in DNA, mutation rates and spectra were analyzed in dUTPase-depleted cells in the presence of UNG activity. These cells displayed a spontaneous mutation rate 9-fold higher than the parental cell line. Base substitutions at A:T base pairs and deletion frequencies were both significantly enhanced which is consistent with the generation of mutagenic AP sites and DNA strand breaks. The increase in strand breaks conveyed a concomitant increase in VSG switching in vitro. The low tolerance of T. brucei to uracil in DNA emphasizes the importance of uracil removal and regulation of intracellular dUTP pool levels in cell viability and genetic stability and suggests potential strategies to compromise parasite survival.

  17. Human gene transfer: Characterization of human tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes as vehicles for retroviral-mediated gene transfer in man

    SciTech Connect

    Kasid, A.; Morecki, S.; Aebersold, P.; Cornetta, K.; Culver, K.; Freeman, S.; Director, E.; Lotze, M.T.; Blaese, R.M.; Anderson, W.F.; Rosenberg, S.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are cells generated from tumor suspensions cultured in interleukin 2 that can mediate cancer regression when adoptively transferred into mice or humans. Since TILs proliferate rapidly in vitro, recirculate, and preferentially localize at the tumor site in vivo, they provide an attractive model for delivery of exogenous genetic material into man. To determine whether efficient gene transfer into TILs is feasible. The authors transduced human TILs with the bacterial gene for neomycin-resistance (Neo{sup R}) using the retroviral vector N2. The transduced TIL populations were stable and polyclonal with respect to the intact Neo{sup R} gene integration and expressed high levels of neomycin phosphotransferase activity. The Neo{sup R} gene insertion did not alter the in vitro growth pattern and interleukin 2 dependence of the transduced TILs. Analyses of T-cell receptor gene rearrangement for {beta}- and {gamma}-chain genes revealed the oligoclonal nature of the TIL populations with no major change in the DNA rearrangement patterns or the levels of mRNA expression of the {beta} and {gamma} chains following transduction and selection of TILs in the neomycin analog G418. Human TILs expressed mRNA for tumor necrosis factors ({alpha} and {beta}) and interleukin 2 receptor P55. This pattern of cytokine-mRNA expression was not significantly altered following the transduction of TILs. The studies demonstrate the feasibility of TILs as suitable cellular vehicles for the introduction of therapeutic genes into patients receiving autologous TILs.

  18. Tumour infiltrating lymphocytes correlate with improved survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dongxian; Liu, Yalan; Wang, Hao; Wang, Haixing; Song, Qi; Sujie, Akesu; Huang, Jie; Xu, Yifan; Zeng, Haiying; Tan, Lijie; Hou, Yingyong; Xu, Chen

    2017-03-21

    We undertook a study of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in a large and relatively homogeneous group of patients with completely resected esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of 235 ESCC tumours were evaluated for density of TILs in intratumoural (iTIL) and stromal compartments (sTIL). Foxp3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells in tumoural and stromal areas were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Of the 235 tumours, high sTIL (>10%), and iTIL (>10%) were observed in 101 (43.0%) and 98 (41.7%), respectively. The median follow-up period was 36.0 months (95% CI 29.929-42.071). Univariate analysis revealed that sTIL (>10%), iTIL (>20%), vessels involvement, lymph node metastasis, and clinical stage were significantly associated with postoperative outcome. In multivariate analysis, high sTIL (HR: 0.664, P = 0.019 for Disease free survival; HR: 0.608, P = 0.005 for Overall survival) was identified as independent better prognostic factor. Further analysis, sTIL was identified as independently prognostic factor in Stage III-IVa disease, which was not found in Stage I-II disease. Our study demonstrated that sTIL was associated with better ESCC patients' survival, especially in Stage III-IVa disease. Assessment of sTIL could be useful to discriminate biological behavior for ESCC patients.

  19. Tumour infiltrating lymphocytes correlate with improved survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Dongxian; Liu, Yalan; Wang, Hao; Wang, Haixing; Song, Qi; Sujie, Akesu; Huang, Jie; Xu, Yifan; Zeng, Haiying; Tan, Lijie; Hou, Yingyong; Xu, Chen

    2017-01-01

    We undertook a study of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in a large and relatively homogeneous group of patients with completely resected esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Hematoxylin and eosin–stained sections of 235 ESCC tumours were evaluated for density of TILs in intratumoural (iTIL) and stromal compartments (sTIL). Foxp3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells in tumoural and stromal areas were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Of the 235 tumours, high sTIL (>10%), and iTIL (>10%) were observed in 101 (43.0%) and 98 (41.7%), respectively. The median follow-up period was 36.0 months (95% CI 29.929–42.071). Univariate analysis revealed that sTIL (>10%), iTIL (>20%), vessels involvement, lymph node metastasis, and clinical stage were significantly associated with postoperative outcome. In multivariate analysis, high sTIL (HR: 0.664, P = 0.019 for Disease free survival; HR: 0.608, P = 0.005 for Overall survival) was identified as independent better prognostic factor. Further analysis, sTIL was identified as independently prognostic factor in Stage III-IVa disease, which was not found in Stage I-II disease. Our study demonstrated that sTIL was associated with better ESCC patients’ survival, especially in Stage III-IVa disease. Assessment of sTIL could be useful to discriminate biological behavior for ESCC patients. PMID:28322245

  20. Efficient and reproducible generation of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes for renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Baldan, V; Griffiths, R; Hawkins, R E; Gilham, D E

    2015-04-28

    Tumour-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) therapy is showing great promise in the treatment of patients with advanced malignant melanoma. However, the translation of TIL therapy to non-melanoma tumours such as renal cell carcinoma has been less successful with a major constraint being the inability to reproducibly generate TILs from primary and metastatic tumour tissue. Primary and metastatic renal cell carcinoma biopsies were subjected to differential tumour disaggregation methods and procedures that stimulate the specific expansion of TILs tested to determine which reliably generated TIL maintained antitumour specificity. Enzymatic or combined enzymatic/mechanical disaggregation resulted in equivalent numbers of TILs being liberated from renal cell carcinoma biopsies. Following mitogenic activation of the isolated TILs with anti-CD3/anti-CD28-coated paramagnetic beads, successful TIL expansion was achieved in 90% of initiated cultures. The frequency of T-cell recognition of autologous tumours was enhanced when tumours were disaggregated using the GentleMACS enzymatic/mechanical system. TILs can be consistently produced from renal cell carcinoma biopsies maintaining autologous tumour recognition after expansion in vitro. While the method of disaggregation has little impact on the success of TIL growth, methods that preserve the cell surface architecture facilitate TIL recognition of an autologous tumour, which is important in terms of characterising the functionality of the expanded TIL population.

  1. Postsecondary Education Employment and Independent Living Outcomes of Persons with Autism and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Jeffrey; Marcell, Jamia; Williams, Paula; Carlson, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to report employment and independent living outcomes of 125 graduates from the Taft College Transition to Independent Living (TIL) program. The TIL program has served students with intellectual and developmental disabilities, including autism spectrum disorder, since 1995. The TIL program follows graduates from the time of…

  2. Increased CD4 and CD8-positive T cell infiltrate signifies good prognosis in a subset of triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hirofumi; Thike, Aye Aye; Li, Huihua; Yeong, Joe; Koo, Si-Lin; Dent, Rebecca Alexandra; Tan, Puay Hoon; Iqbal, Jabed

    2016-04-01

    Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) signify immune response to tumour in a variety of cancers including breast cancer. However, earlier studies examining the clinical significance of TILs in breast cancers have generated mixed results. There are only a few that address the relationship between TILs and clinical outcomes in triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC). The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of TILs that express CD4 + and CD8 + , in TNBC. Immunohistochemical staining of CD4 and CD8 was performed on tissue microarrays of 164 cases of TNBC. TILs were counted separately as intratumoral when within the cancer cell nests (iTILs) and as stromal when within cancer stroma (sTILs). High CD8 + iTILs and sTILs, and CD4 + iTILs correlated with histologic grade. On Kaplan-Meier analysis, a significantly better survival rate was observed in high CD8 + iTIL (disease-free survival, DFS: P = 0.004, overall survival, OS: P = 0.02) and both high CD4 + iTILs (DFS: P = 0.025, OS: P = 0.023) and sTILs (DFS: P = 0.01, OS: P = 0.002). In multivariate analysis, CD8 + iTILs (DFS: P = 0.0095), CD4 + sTILs (DFS: P = 0.0084; OS: P = 0.0118), and CD4 (high) CD8 (high) CD8 iTILs (DFS: P = 0.0121; OS: P = 0.0329) and sTILs (DFS: P = 0.0295) showed significantly better survival outcomes. These results suggest that high levels of both CD8 + iTILs and CD4 + sTILs as well as CD4 (high) CD8 (high) iTILs and sTILs are independent prognostic factors in TNBC.

  3. Prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes on residual disease after primary chemotherapy for triple-negative breast cancer: a retrospective multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Dieci, M. V.; Criscitiello, C.; Goubar, A.; Viale, G.; Conte, P.; Guarneri, V.; Ficarra, G.; Mathieu, M. C.; Delaloge, S.; Curigliano, G.; Andre, F.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a need to develop surrogates for treatment efficacy in the neoadjuvant setting to speed-up drug development and stratify patients according to outcome. Preclinical studies showed that chemotherapy induces an antitumor immune response. In order to develop new surrogates for drug efficacy, we assessed the prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) on residual disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Patients and methods Three hundred four TNBC patients with residual disease after NACT were retrospectively identified in three different hospitals. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides from surgical postchemotherapy specimens were evaluated for intratumoral (It-TIL) and stromal (Str-TIL) TIL. Cases were classified as High-TIL if It-TIL and/or Str-TIL >60%. Results TIL were assessable for 278 cases. Continuous It-TIL and Str-TIL variables were strong prognostic factors in the multivariate model, both for metastasis-free [hazard ratio (HR) 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77–0.96, P = 0.01 and HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.75–0.98, P = 0.02 for Str-TIL and It-TIL, respectively] and overall survival (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77–0.97, P = 0.01 and HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.75–0.99, P = 0.03 for Str-TIL and It-TIL, respectively). The 5-year overall survival rate was 91% (95% CI 68% to 97%) for High-TIL patients (n = 27) and 55% (95% CI 48% to 61%) for Low-TIL patients (HR 0.19, 95% CI 0.06–0.61, log-rank P = 0.0017). The major prognostic impact of TIL was seen for patients with large tumor burden following NACT (residual tumor >2 cm and/or node metastasis). In all but one High-TIL case, It-TIL and Str-TIL values were lower on the prechemotherapy sample. Conclusions The presence of TIL in residual disease after NACT is associated with better prognosis in TNBC patients. This parameter may represent a new surrogate of drug efficacy to test investigational agents in the neoadjuvant setting and a new

  4. Integrating the UAS in Undergraduate Teaching and Research - Opportunities and Challenges at University of North Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, J. B.; Hulsey, D.

    2014-11-01

    The University of North Georgia (UNG) has begun to evaluate both fixed and rotary UAS platforms across the departments to evaluate their potential for furthering both student learning experiences and undergraduate research. A research project of the Institute for Spatial Analysis (IESA) at UNG has acquired the fixed wing eBee UAS and is currently piloting its integration into the undergraduate geospatial science curriculum. Limited very low altitude, line of sight calibration runs within areas of our campus have help us understand the capabilities that this technology brings to learning and research opportunities at UNG. In our pilot area of study on the UNG Gainesville Campus, we will collect overlapping imagery and generate 3-D models. These models will be compared with models based on LiDAR data. Geographic Object Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) methods are essential to the analysis of voluminous high resolution UAS data and the associated computational and regulatory issues are discussed. Several future interdisciplinary projects are envisaged with the eBee UAS and this project helps establish their viability.

  5. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in uracil-processing genes, intake of one-carbon nutrients and breast cancer risk

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background/Objectives: The misincorporation of uracil into DNA leads to genomic instability. In a previous study, some of us identified four common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in uracil-processing genes (rs2029166 and rs7296239 in SMUG1, rs34259 in UNG and rs4775748 in DUT) that were asso...

  6. Telling Their Stories: Women Construct/Instruct through Survival Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meagher, Eileen M.

    Malika Oufkir of Morocco recounts her story in "Stolen Lives." Loung Ung of Cambodia relates her story in "First, They Killed My Father." Susan McDougal of Arkansas, USA, tells her story in the aptly named, "The Woman Who Wouldn't Talk." This paper looks at the struggles of these three very different women from very…

  7. Social Influence, Health Variables and Criminal Behaviours Associated with Substance Use among Rural Norwegian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordfjaern, Trond; Dahl, Hilde; Flemmen, Grete

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To investigate social influence, health, criminality and substance use in a sample of 1288 Norwegian rural adolescents. Relations between these factors and substance use were examined. Methods: Data were obtained from the "UngData" study. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among adolescents (n = 740) in nine…

  8. Mechanism of mutation by thymine starvation in Escherichia coli: clues from mutagenic specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Kunz, B A; Glickman, B W

    1985-01-01

    To probe the mechanisms of mutagenesis induced by thymine starvation, we examined the mutational specificity of this treatment in strains of Escherichia coli that are wild type (Ung+) or deficient in uracil-DNA-glycosylase (Ung-). An analysis of Ung+ his-4 (ochre) revertants revealed that the majority of induced DNA base substitution events were A:T----G:C transitions. However, characterization of lacI nonsense mutations induced by thymine starvation demonstrated that G:C----A:T transitions and all four possible transversions also occurred. In addition, thymineless episodes led to reversion of the trpE9777 frameshift allele. Although the defect in uracil-DNA-glycosylase did not appear to affect the frequency of total mutations induced in lacI by thymine deprivation, the frequency of nonsense mutations was reduced by 30%, and the spectrum of nonsense mutations was altered. Furthermore, the reversion of trpE9777 was decreased by 90% in the Ung- strain. These findings demonstrate that in E. coli, thymine starvation can induce frameshift mutations and all types of base substitutions. The analysis of mutational specificity indicates that more than a single mechanism is involved in the induction of mutation by thymine depletion. We suggest that deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate pool imbalances, the removal of uracil incorporated into DNA during thymine starvation, and the induction of recA-dependent DNA repair functions all may play a role in thymineless mutagenesis. PMID:3888966

  9. Potential public health hazards, exposures and health effects from unconventional natural gas development.

    PubMed

    Adgate, John L; Goldstein, Bernard D; McKenzie, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    The rapid increase in unconventional natural gas (UNG) development in the United States during the past decade has brought wells and related infrastructure closer to population centers. This review evaluates risks to public health from chemical and nonchemical stressors associated with UNG, describes likely exposure pathways and potential health effects, and identifies major uncertainties to address with future research. The most important occupational stressors include mortality, exposure to hazardous materials and increased risk of industrial accidents. For communities near development and production sites the major stressors are air pollutants, ground and surface water contamination, truck traffic and noise pollution, accidents and malfunctions, and psychosocial stress associated with community change. Despite broad public concern, no comprehensive population-based studies of the public health effects of UNG operations exist. Major uncertainties are the unknown frequency and duration of human exposure, future extent of development, potential emission control and mitigation strategies, and a paucity of baseline data to enable substantive before and after comparisons for affected populations and environmental media. Overall, the current literature suggests that research needs to address these uncertainties before we can reasonably quantify the likelihood of occurrence or magnitude of adverse health effects associated with UNG production in workers and communities.

  10. Combining H/D exchange mass spectroscopy and computational docking reveals extended DNA-binding surface on uracil-DNA glycosylase

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Victoria A.; Pique, Michael E.; Hsu, Simon; Li, Sheng; Slupphaug, Geir; Rambo, Robert P.; Jamison, Jonathan W.; Liu, Tong; Lee, Jun H.; Tainer, John A.; Ten Eyck, Lynn F.; Woods, Virgil L.

    2012-01-01

    X-ray crystallography provides excellent structural data on protein–DNA interfaces, but crystallographic complexes typically contain only small fragments of large DNA molecules. We present a new approach that can use longer DNA substrates and reveal new protein–DNA interactions even in extensively studied systems. Our approach combines rigid-body computational docking with hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (DXMS). DXMS identifies solvent-exposed protein surfaces; docking is used to create a 3-dimensional model of the protein–DNA interaction. We investigated the enzyme uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG), which detects and cleaves uracil from DNA. UNG was incubated with a 30 bp DNA fragment containing a single uracil, giving the complex with the abasic DNA product. Compared with free UNG, the UNG–DNA complex showed increased solvent protection at the UNG active site and at two regions outside the active site: residues 210–220 and 251–264. Computational docking also identified these two DNA-binding surfaces, but neither shows DNA contact in UNG–DNA crystallographic structures. Our results can be explained by separation of the two DNA strands on one side of the active site. These non-sequence-specific DNA-binding surfaces may aid local uracil search, contribute to binding the abasic DNA product and help present the DNA product to APE-1, the next enzyme on the DNA-repair pathway. PMID:22492624

  11. 75 FR 20413 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    .... Electronic executions in options overlying SPY, C, BAC, QQQQ, AAPL, IWM, XLF, GLD, EEM, GE, UNG, FAZ, DIA... credit above the stated Post Liquidity credit. This is consistent with similar billing treatment of... Market Maker Post Liquidity Incentive Credit that provided Market Makers with an additional $0.01...

  12. 76 FR 18274 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... credit above the stated post liquidity credit for electronic transactions in options overlying SPY, C, BAC, QQQQ, AAPL, IWM, XLF, GLD, EEM, GE, UNG, FAZ, DIA, GDX, and USO which are referred to as the... one method. The Commission will post all comments on the Commission's Internet Web site (...

  13. A Proposal for Improving Students' Mathematical Attitude Based on Mathematical Modelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falsetti, Marcela C.; Rodriguez, Mabel A.

    2005-01-01

    On the occasion of having to design an introductory course of mathematics for the University (UNGS, Buenos Aires, Argentina) we took into account the perspective of mathematical modelling. In this article we present the theoretical framework that we elaborated on to design our course. This framework allowed us to adapt the generic perspectives of…

  14. Relevance of underground natural gas storage to geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, Marcelo J.; Benson, Sally M.

    2002-07-01

    The practice of underground natural gas storage (UNGS), which started in the USA in 1916, provides useful insight into the geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide--the dominant anthropogenic greenhouse gas released into the atmosphere. In many ways, UNGS is directly relevant to geologic CO{sub 2} storage because, like CO{sub 2}, natural gas (essentially methane) is less dense than water. Consequently, it will tend to rise to the top of any subsurface storage structure located below the groundwater table. By the end of 2001 in the USA, about 142 million metric tons of natural gas were stored underground in depleted oil and gas reservoirs and brine aquifers. Based on their performance, UNGS projects have shown that there is a safe and effective way of storing large volumes of gases in the subsurface. In the small number of cases where failures did occur (i.e., leakage of the stored gas into neighboring permeable layers), they were mainly related to improper well design, construction, maintenance, and/or incorrect project operation. In spite of differences in the chemical and physical properties of the gases, the risk-assessment, risk-management, and risk-mitigation issues relevant to UNGS projects are also pertinent to geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  15. Research and Operational Support for the Study of Militarily Relevant Infectious Diseases of Interest to the United States Army and the Royal Thai Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    NAMRU-2) • Timothy H. Burgess, CDR, MD, MPH (NAMRU-2, Indonesia) • Thomas F. Wierzba, PhD (NAMRU-2/NIPH, Cambodia) • Ung Sam An, MD, MPH (National... Maloney SA. Phylogenetic relations between Bartonella strains identified in animals and humans from Thailand. American Society of Tropical Medicine and

  16. ANALYSIS OF UNCERTAINTIES IN DOSE RECONSTRUCTION FROM BIOMARKERS: IMPACT ON STUDY DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The absorbed dose is defined as the quantity which has passed through the barriers (skin, GI tract, The absorbed dose of a pesticide can be estimated from its established urinary biomarker. ungs). For an exposure study, there are several options for biomarker collection, each w...

  17. Installation Restoration Program. Phase 1. Records Search Wake Island Airfield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    METHODOLOGY FORM Pege I of 2 N4AM *( SITE LWAIC DAM ! CI 09RATION OR OCRZCZ C _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ csin WrSws BY z L RECEPTORS RatiUng ator...including fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine. HARDFILL : Disposal sites receiving construction debris, wood, miscel- laneous spoil material. HARM

  18. Social Influence, Health Variables and Criminal Behaviours Associated with Substance Use among Rural Norwegian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordfjaern, Trond; Dahl, Hilde; Flemmen, Grete

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To investigate social influence, health, criminality and substance use in a sample of 1288 Norwegian rural adolescents. Relations between these factors and substance use were examined. Methods: Data were obtained from the "UngData" study. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among adolescents (n = 740) in nine…

  19. Operation New Arrivals. Phase I - The Buildup, 27 April 1975 - 23 May 1975. Part I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    la nbvbg nba Ian bao chuyen-nghlep, na ohi la nhSng ngvicfl oo thlen« eh£, ohUng ehung tol üde-aong Dear Conpatrlote i Away fron our natlTe land...field, places for badmitten, basketball , and volleyball playing. (4) A newspaper in Vietnamese for the center is in production. Contributions of

  20. Effects of locally administered tiludronic acid on experimental periodontitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Furlaneto, Flávia A C; Nunes, Nara L T; Oliveira Filho, Ivan L; Frota, Nicolly P R; Yamamoto, Kely O; Lisboa, Mario R P; Ervolino, Edilson; Taba, Mario; Rêgo, Rodrigo Otávio; Messora, Michel R

    2014-09-01

    It appears there are no studies evaluating the influence of the bisphosphonate tiludronic acid (TIL) on periodontitis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate via microtomographic, histopathologic, histometric, and immunohistochemical analyses the effects of local administration of TIL on ligature-induced periodontitis in rats. Forty-eight rats were divided into six groups: C (control), EP (experimental periodontitis), EP-Saline, EP-TIL0.1, EP-TIL0.3, and EP-TIL1. In EP, a ligature was placed around maxillary second molars. In EP-TIL0.1, EP-TIL0.3, and EP-TIL1, TIL solutions of 0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg/kg body weight, respectively, were injected into the subperiosteal palatal area adjacent to maxillary second molars every other day. EP-Saline received 0.9% NaCl solution instead. Animals were euthanized at day 11. Bone changes were evaluated by microtomographic and histometric analyses. Histopathologic analysis and immunohistochemical detection of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) were also performed. Data were statistically analyzed (analysis of variance or Kruskal-Wallis, P <0.05). Histometric and microtomographic analyses (at buccal, interproximal, and furcation sites) demonstrated that EP-TIL1 presented less alveolar bone loss (ABL) than EP (P <0.05), whereas EP-TIL0.1 and EP-TIL0.3 did not demonstrate significant differences in alveolar bone level compared to EP (P >0.05). Also, EP-TIL1 showed significantly fewer TRAP-positive multinucleated osteoclasts than EP and EP-Saline (P <0.05). It can be concluded that locally administered TIL solution (1 mg/kg body weight) reduced alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis and the dosage of TIL may influence its anti-inflammatory and antiresorptive properties.

  1. Unconventional natural gas development did not result in detectable changes in water chemistry (within the South Fork Little Red River).

    PubMed

    Austin, Bradley J; Scott, Erin; Massey, Leslie; Evans-White, Michelle A; Entrekin, Sally; Haggard, Brian E

    2017-05-01

    The Fayetteville Shale within north central Arkansas is an area of extensive unconventional natural gas (UNG) production. Recently, the Scott Henderson Gulf Mountain Wildlife Management Area (GMWMA) was leased from the state of Arkansas for NG exploration, raising concerns about potential impacts on water resources. From November 2010 through November 2014, we monitored four reaches of the South Fork Little Red River (SFLRR), within the GMWMA, establishing baseline physico-chemical characteristics prior to UNG development and assessing trends in parameters during and after UNG development. Water samples were collected monthly during baseflow conditions and analyzed for conductivity, turbidity, ions, total organic carbon (TOC), and metals. All parameters were flow-adjusted and evaluated for monotonic changes over time. The concentrations of all constituents measured in the SFLRR were generally low (e.g., nitrate ranged from <0.005 to 0.268 mg/l across all sites and sample periods), suggesting the SFLRR is of high water quality. Flow-adjusted conductivity measurements and sodium concentrations increased at site 1, while magnesium decreased across all four sites, TOC decreased at sites 1 and 3, and iron decreased at site 1 over the duration of the study. With the exception of conductivity and sodium, the physico-chemical parameters either decreased or did not change over the 4-year duration, indicating that UNG activities within the GMWMA have had minimal or no detectable impact on water quality within the SFLRR. Our study provides essential baseline information that can be used to evaluate water quality within the SFLRR in the future should UNG activity within the GMWMA expand.

  2. Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocyte Grade in Primary Melanomas Is Independently Associated With Melanoma-Specific Survival in the Population-Based Genes, Environment and Melanoma Study

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Nancy E.; Busam, Klaus J.; From, Lynn; Kricker, Anne; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gruber, Stephen B.; Gallagher, Richard P.; Zanetti, Roberto; Rosso, Stefano; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Groben, Pamela A.; Hao, Honglin; Orlow, Irene; Reiner, Anne S.; Luo, Li; Paine, Susan; Ollila, David W.; Wilcox, Homer; Begg, Colin B.; Berwick, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Although most hospital-based studies suggest more favorable survival with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) present in primary melanomas, it is uncertain whether TILs provide prognostic information beyond existing melanoma staging definitions. We addressed the issue in an international population-based study of patients with single and multiple primary melanomas. Patients and Methods On the basis of the Genes, Environment and Melanoma (GEM) study, we conducted follow-up of 2,845 patients diagnosed from 1998 to 2003 with 3,330 invasive primary melanomas centrally reviewed for TIL grade (absent, nonbrisk, or brisk). The odds of TIL grades associated with clinicopathologic features and survival by TIL grade were examined. Results Independent predictors (P < .05) for nonbrisk TIL grade were site, histologic subtype, and Breslow thickness, and for brisk TIL grade, they were age, site, Breslow thickness, and radial growth phase. Nonbrisk and brisk TIL grades were each associated with lower American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor stage compared with TIL absence (Ptrend < .001). Death as a result of melanoma was 30% less with nonbrisk TIL grade (hazard ratio [HR], 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5 to 1.0) and 50% less with brisk TIL grade (HR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3 to 0.9) relative to TIL absence, adjusted for age, sex, site, and AJCC tumor stage. Conclusion At the population level, higher TIL grade of primary melanoma is associated with a lower risk of death as a result of melanoma independently of tumor characteristics currently used for AJCC tumor stage. We conclude that TIL grade deserves further prospective investigation to determine whether it should be included in future AJCC staging revisions. PMID:24127443

  3. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte grade in primary melanomas is independently associated with melanoma-specific survival in the population-based genes, environment and melanoma study.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Nancy E; Busam, Klaus J; From, Lynn; Kricker, Anne; Armstrong, Bruce K; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gruber, Stephen B; Gallagher, Richard P; Zanetti, Roberto; Rosso, Stefano; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison; Kanetsky, Peter A; Groben, Pamela A; Hao, Honglin; Orlow, Irene; Reiner, Anne S; Luo, Li; Paine, Susan; Ollila, David W; Wilcox, Homer; Begg, Colin B; Berwick, Marianne

    2013-11-20

    Although most hospital-based studies suggest more favorable survival with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) present in primary melanomas, it is uncertain whether TILs provide prognostic information beyond existing melanoma staging definitions. We addressed the issue in an international population-based study of patients with single and multiple primary melanomas. On the basis of the Genes, Environment and Melanoma (GEM) study, we conducted follow-up of 2,845 patients diagnosed from 1998 to 2003 with 3,330 invasive primary melanomas centrally reviewed for TIL grade (absent, nonbrisk, or brisk). The odds of TIL grades associated with clinicopathologic features and survival by TIL grade were examined. Independent predictors (P < .05) for nonbrisk TIL grade were site, histologic subtype, and Breslow thickness, and for brisk TIL grade, they were age, site, Breslow thickness, and radial growth phase. Nonbrisk and brisk TIL grades were each associated with lower American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor stage compared with TIL absence (P(trend) < .001). Death as a result of melanoma was 30% less with nonbrisk TIL grade (hazard ratio [HR], 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5 to 1.0) and 50% less with brisk TIL grade (HR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3 to 0.9) relative to TIL absence, adjusted for age, sex, site, and AJCC tumor stage. At the population level, higher TIL grade of primary melanoma is associated with a lower risk of death as a result of melanoma independently of tumor characteristics currently used for AJCC tumor stage. We conclude that TIL grade deserves further prospective investigation to determine whether it should be included in future AJCC staging revisions.

  4. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Santoiemma, Phillip P; Powell, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in ovarian cancer is prognostic for increased survival while increases in immunosuppressive regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are associated with poor outcomes. Approaches that bolster tumor-reactive TILs may limit tumor progression. However, identifying tumor-reactive TILs in ovarian cancer has been challenging, though adoptive TIL therapy in patients has been encouraging. Other forms of TIL immunomodulation remain under investigation including Treg depletion, antibody-based checkpoint modification, activation and amplification using dendritic cells, antigen presenting cells or IL-2 cytokine culture, adjuvant cytokine injections, and gene-engineered T-cells. Many approaches to TIL manipulation inhibit ovarian cancer progression in preclinical or clinical studies as monotherapy. Here, we review the impact of TILs in ovarian cancer and attempts to mobilize TILs to halt tumor progression. We conclude that effective TIL therapy for ovarian cancer is at the brink of translation and optimal TIL activity may require combined methodologies to deliver clinically-relevant treatment.

  5. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Santoiemma, Phillip P; Powell, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in ovarian cancer is prognostic for increased survival while increases in immunosuppressive regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are associated with poor outcomes. Approaches that bolster tumor-reactive TILs may limit tumor progression. However, identifying tumor-reactive TILs in ovarian cancer has been challenging, though adoptive TIL therapy in patients has been encouraging. Other forms of TIL immunomodulation remain under investigation including Treg depletion, antibody-based checkpoint modification, activation and amplification using dendritic cells, antigen presenting cells or IL-2 cytokine culture, adjuvant cytokine injections, and gene-engineered T-cells. Many approaches to TIL manipulation inhibit ovarian cancer progression in preclinical or clinical studies as monotherapy. Here, we review the impact of TILs in ovarian cancer and attempts to mobilize TILs to halt tumor progression. We conclude that effective TIL therapy for ovarian cancer is at the brink of translation and optimal TIL activity may require combined methodologies to deliver clinically-relevant treatment. PMID:25894333

  6. The emergence of non-cytolytic NK1.1+ T cells in the long-term culture of murine tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes: a possible role of transforming growth factor-beta.

    PubMed Central

    Tamada, K; Harada, M; Ito, O; Takenoyama, M; Mori, T; Matsuzaki, G; Nomoto, K

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism by which murine tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) decreased their anti-tumour activity during an in vitro culture with interleukin-2 (IL-2) was investigated. A phenotype analysis revealed that the TIL cultured for 7 days (TIL-d7) were exclusively NKI.1- CD4- CD8+ CD3+ cells and that this population was replaced by natural killer (NK)1.1+ CD4- CD8 CD3+ cells by day 27 (TIL-d27) during the culture of TIL. The TIL-d7 cells showed a cytolytic activity against B16 melanoma, whereas the TIL-d27 cells had lost this activity, suggesting that the decrease in the anti tumour effect of TIL during the culture with IL-2 was due to their populational change. Analysis on the characteristics of the TIL-d27 cells revealed that they expressed skewed T-cell receptor (TCR) V beta 5 and increased mRNA expression of V alpha 14. In addition, they expressed transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) mRNA. Interestingly, TGF-beta augmented the proliferation of TIL-d27 cells under the presence of IL-2, but suppressed that of TIL-d7 cells. Moreover, the proliferation of TIL-d27 cells was suppressed by anti-TGF-beta monoclonal antibody. Collectively, these results suggest that, in contrast to its suppressive effect on anti-tumour effector T cells. TGF-beta could be an autocrine growth factor for NKL1.1+ T cells and thereby induce non-cytolytic NK1.1+ T cells in the long-term culture of TIL. Images Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:9014832

  7. Similar lymphocytic infiltration pattern in primary breast cancer and their corresponding distant metastases

    PubMed Central

    Sobottka, Bettina; Pestalozzi, Bernhard; Fink, Daniel; Moch, Holger; Varga, Zsuzsanna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in primary breast cancer (TIL) are acknowledged measures of disease free survival (DFS) in adjuvant and neoadjuvant settings. Little is known about the biology of metastasis infiltrating lymphocytes (mTIL) although the local immunity of the metastatic site may critically influence the infiltrate composite. To address this question, we compared mTIL with their matched TIL in 87 breast cancer patients and their corresponding distant metastasis at four different anatomical locations. Sections of surgical specimen were immunohistochemically analyzed for CD4+, CD8+ and CD20+ lymphocytes in three different tumor compartments: intratumoral lymphocytes (iTIL) defined as lymphocytes in direct contact with breast cancer cells, stromal lymphocytes (sTIL) located within the intratumoral stromal tissue and invasive-margin lymphocytes (imTIL). Overall, we found fewer (p < 0.001) mTIL than TIL. Within the tumor compartments, imTIL were more frequent than sTIL and iTIL both within metastases and the matched primary tumors (PT) (p < 0.001). CD4+ T cells were more numerous than CD8+ T cells and CD20+ B cells (p < 0.001). There was a similar pattern in PT and their corresponding metastasis. Only patients with brain metastases differed from the others displaying less CD20+ B cells at the infiltrative margin of the PT (p < 0.05). In summary, mTIL were significantly reduced within metastases but still mirrored the infiltrate pattern of the PT, interestingly regardless of the metastatic anatomical locations investigated. Our results suggest that the PT assigns the infiltrating lymphocyte pattern resumed at the metastatic site. PMID:27471624

  8. Similar lymphocytic infiltration pattern in primary breast cancer and their corresponding distant metastases.

    PubMed

    Sobottka, Bettina; Pestalozzi, Bernhard; Fink, Daniel; Moch, Holger; Varga, Zsuzsanna

    2016-06-01

    Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in primary breast cancer (TIL) are acknowledged measures of disease free survival (DFS) in adjuvant and neoadjuvant settings. Little is known about the biology of metastasis infiltrating lymphocytes (mTIL) although the local immunity of the metastatic site may critically influence the infiltrate composite. To address this question, we compared mTIL with their matched TIL in 87 breast cancer patients and their corresponding distant metastasis at four different anatomical locations. Sections of surgical specimen were immunohistochemically analyzed for CD4(+), CD8(+) and CD20(+) lymphocytes in three different tumor compartments: intratumoral lymphocytes (iTIL) defined as lymphocytes in direct contact with breast cancer cells, stromal lymphocytes (sTIL) located within the intratumoral stromal tissue and invasive-margin lymphocytes (imTIL). Overall, we found fewer (p < 0.001) mTIL than TIL. Within the tumor compartments, imTIL were more frequent than sTIL and iTIL both within metastases and the matched primary tumors (PT) (p < 0.001). CD4(+) T cells were more numerous than CD8(+) T cells and CD20(+) B cells (p < 0.001). There was a similar pattern in PT and their corresponding metastasis. Only patients with brain metastases differed from the others displaying less CD20(+) B cells at the infiltrative margin of the PT (p < 0.05). In summary, mTIL were significantly reduced within metastases but still mirrored the infiltrate pattern of the PT, interestingly regardless of the metastatic anatomical locations investigated. Our results suggest that the PT assigns the infiltrating lymphocyte pattern resumed at the metastatic site.

  9. Reliability and Validity of the Therapy Intensity Level Scale: Analysis of Clinimetric Properties of a Novel Approach to Assess Management of Intracranial Pressure in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Zuercher, Patrick; Groen, Justus L; Aries, Marcel J H; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Maas, Andrew I R; Ercole, Ari; Menon, David K

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the Therapy Intensity Level scale (TIL) for intracranial pressure (ICP) management. We reviewed the medical records of 31 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in two European intensive care units (ICUs). The ICP TIL was derived over a 4-day period for 4-h (TIL4) and 24-h epochs (TIL24). TIL scores were compared with historical schemes for TIL measurement, with each other, and with clinical variables. TIL24 scores in ICU patients with TBI were compared with two control groups: patients with extracranial trauma necessitating intensive care (Trauma_ICU; n = 20) and patients with TBI not needing ICU care (TBI_WARD; n = 19), to further determine the discriminative validity of the TIL for ICP-related ICU interventions. Interrater and intraobserver agreement were excellent for TIL4 and TIL24 (Cohen κ: 0.98-0.99; intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.99-1; p < 0.0005). The mean + standard deviation (SD) TIL24 in the ICU TBI cohort was significantly higher than the Trauma_ICU patients and the TBI_WARD patients (8.2 ± 3.2 vs. 2.2 ± 0.9 and 0.1 ± 0.1, respectively; p < 0.005 for both comparisons). Correlations between the TIL scale scores and historical TIL scores, between TIL24 and the Glasgow Coma Scale, and between a range of TIL metrics and summary measures of ICP over the 4-day period, were all highly significant (p < 0.01). The results were consistent with the expected direction. A linear mixed effect analysis, accounting for within-subjects repeated measures, showed strong correlation between TIL4 and 4-h ICP (p < 0.0000005). The TIL scale is a reliable measurement instrument with a high degree of validity for assessing the therapeutic intensity level of ICP management in patients with TBI.

  10. Knowledge generating in expert systems as support of immunological investigations.

    PubMed

    Biljana, M; Jelena, M; Milorad, R; Branislav, J; Nebojsa, A

    1997-01-01

    One of the most important parameters in immunologic investigations linked with the analysis of TIL phenotypic characteristics is the ratio between particular populations and subpopulations of TIL. Values of exact parameter are not obtained with its direct measurement but with indirect measurement of values in its numerator and its denominator that represent mean values of absolute TIL figures. Exactness of estimate of specific parameter is obtained by determining the intervals of values where this parameter should lie. Determination of confidence intervals for relationship between particular populations and subpopulations of TIL was performed using Fieller's theorem which full filled requests from the nature and process of obtaining exact parameter. By analyzing the obtained confidence intervals informations can be obtained regarding TIL phenotypic characteristics of various histologic types of tumors and various types of intervals within, as well as changes in TIL content that are occurring in malignant tumors.

  11. Are tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes protagonists or background actors in patient selection for cancer immunotherapy?

    PubMed

    Zito Marino, Federica; Ascierto, Paolo Antonio; Rossi, Giulio; Staibano, Stefania; Montella, Marco; Russo, Daniela; Alfano, Roberto; Morabito, Alessandro; Botti, Gerardo; Franco, Renato

    2017-06-01

    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are frequently observed in several tumors, reflecting the dynamic process of '"cancer immunoediting"'. Prognostic and predictive values of TILs have been demonstrated in different cancers, proving their pivotal role in clinical outcome. In recent years, new therapies targeting immune checkpoint inhibitors, especially CTLA-4 and PD-1/PDL-1 pathways, have been introduced into clinical practice. In this context, TILs may even have a possible utility as a predictive biomarker for immunotherapy response. Areas covered: In this review, the authors summarize the most relevant knowledge related to TILs. This includes their prognostic and predictive significance in various types of tumour and the recent findings about their potential role in the cancer immunotherapy. Expert opinion: TILs evaluation could lead to a predictive biomarker for immunotherapy effectiveness in several cancer types. Furthermore, typing of TILs subpopulation could have clinical relevance in patient selection for treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors. However further studies are still needed.

  12. Context recognition for a hyperintensional inference machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duží, Marie; Fait, Michal; Menšík, Marek

    2017-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to introduce the algorithm of context recognition in the functional programming language TIL-Script, which is a necessary condition for the implementation of the TIL-Script inference machine. The TIL-Script language is an operationally isomorphic syntactic variant of Tichý's Transparent Intensional Logic (TIL). From the formal point of view, TIL is a hyperintensional, partial, typed λ-calculus with procedural semantics. Hyperintensional, because TIL λ-terms denote procedures (defined as TIL constructions) producing set-theoretic functions rather than the functions themselves; partial, because TIL is a logic of partial functions; and typed, because all the entities of TIL ontology, including constructions, receive a type within a ramified hierarchy of types. These features make it possible to distinguish three levels of abstraction at which TIL constructions operate. At the highest hyperintensional level the object to operate on is a construction (though a higher-order construction is needed to present this lower-order construction as an object of predication). At the middle intensional level the object to operate on is the function presented, or constructed, by a construction, while at the lowest extensional level the object to operate on is the value (if any) of the presented function. Thus a necessary condition for the development of an inference machine for the TIL-Script language is recognizing a context in which a construction occurs, namely extensional, intensional and hyperintensional context, in order to determine the type of an argument at which a given inference rule can be properly applied. As a result, our logic does not flout logical rules of extensional logic, which makes it possible to develop a hyperintensional inference machine for the TIL-Script language.

  13. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte composition, organization and PD-1/ PD-L1 expression are linked in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Garaud, Soizic; de Wind, Alexandre; Van den Eynden, Gert; Boisson, Anais; Gu-Trantien, Chunyan; Naveaux, Céline; Lodewyckx, Jean-Nicolas; Duvillier, Hugues; Craciun, Ligia; Veys, Isabelle; Larsimont, Denis; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine; Stagg, John; Sotiriou, Christos

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The clinical relevance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in breast cancer (BC) has been clearly established by their demonstrated correlation with long-term positive outcomes. Nevertheless, the relationship between protective immunity, observed in some patients, and critical features of the infiltrate remains unresolved. This study examined TIL density, composition and organization together with PD-1 and PD-L1 expression in freshly collected and paraffin-embedded tissues from 125 patients with invasive primary BC. Tumor and normal breast tissues were analyzed using both flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. TIL density distribution is a continuum with 25% of tumors identified as TIL-negative at a TIL density equivalent to normal breast tissues. TIL-positive tumors (75%) were equally divided into TIL-intermediate and TIL-high. Tumors had higher mean frequencies of CD4+ T cells and CD19+ B cells and a lower mean frequency of CD8+ T cells compare with normal tissues, increasing the CD4+/CD8+ T-cell ratio. Tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS), principally located in the peri-tumoral stroma, were detected in 60% of tumors and correlated with higher TIL infiltration. PD-1 and PD-L1 expression were also associated with higher TIL densities and TLS. TIL density, TLS and PD-L1 expression were correlated with more aggressive tumor characteristics, including higher proliferation and hormone receptor negativity. Our findings reveal an important relationship between PD-1/PD-L1 expression, increased CD4+ T and B-cell infiltration, TIL density and TLS, suggesting that evaluating not only the extent but also the nature and location of the immune infiltrate should be considered when evaluating antitumor immunity and the potential for benefit from immunotherapies. PMID:28197375

  14. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte composition, organization and PD-1/ PD-L1 expression are linked in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Buisseret, Laurence; Garaud, Soizic; de Wind, Alexandre; Van den Eynden, Gert; Boisson, Anais; Solinas, Cinzia; Gu-Trantien, Chunyan; Naveaux, Céline; Lodewyckx, Jean-Nicolas; Duvillier, Hugues; Craciun, Ligia; Veys, Isabelle; Larsimont, Denis; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine; Stagg, John; Sotiriou, Christos; Willard-Gallo, Karen

    2017-01-01

    The clinical relevance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in breast cancer (BC) has been clearly established by their demonstrated correlation with long-term positive outcomes. Nevertheless, the relationship between protective immunity, observed in some patients, and critical features of the infiltrate remains unresolved. This study examined TIL density, composition and organization together with PD-1 and PD-L1 expression in freshly collected and paraffin-embedded tissues from 125 patients with invasive primary BC. Tumor and normal breast tissues were analyzed using both flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. TIL density distribution is a continuum with 25% of tumors identified as TIL-negative at a TIL density equivalent to normal breast tissues. TIL-positive tumors (75%) were equally divided into TIL-intermediate and TIL-high. Tumors had higher mean frequencies of CD4(+) T cells and CD19(+) B cells and a lower mean frequency of CD8(+) T cells compare with normal tissues, increasing the CD4(+)/CD8(+) T-cell ratio. Tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS), principally located in the peri-tumoral stroma, were detected in 60% of tumors and correlated with higher TIL infiltration. PD-1 and PD-L1 expression were also associated with higher TIL densities and TLS. TIL density, TLS and PD-L1 expression were correlated with more aggressive tumor characteristics, including higher proliferation and hormone receptor negativity. Our findings reveal an important relationship between PD-1/PD-L1 expression, increased CD4(+) T and B-cell infiltration, TIL density and TLS, suggesting that evaluating not only the extent but also the nature and location of the immune infiltrate should be considered when evaluating antitumor immunity and the potential for benefit from immunotherapies.

  15. Prognostic Value of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Triple-Negative Breast Cancers From Two Phase III Randomized Adjuvant Breast Cancer Trials: ECOG 2197 and ECOG 1199

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Sylvia; Gray, Robert J.; Demaria, Sandra; Goldstein, Lori; Perez, Edith A.; Shulman, Lawrence N.; Martino, Silvana; Wang, Molin; Jones, Vicky E.; Saphner, Thomas J.; Wolff, Antonio C.; Wood, William C.; Davidson, Nancy E.; Sledge, George W.; Sparano, Joseph A.; Badve, Sunil S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies suggest that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are associated with disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in operable triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We seek to validate the prognostic impact of TILs in primary TNBCs in two adjuvant phase III trials conducted by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG). Patients and Methods Full-face hematoxylin and eosin–stained sections of 506 tumors from ECOG trials E2197 and E1199 were evaluated for density of TILs in intraepithelial (iTILs) and stromal compartments (sTILs). Patient cases of TNBC from E2197 and E1199 were randomly selected based on availability of sections. For the primary end point of DFS, association with TIL scores was determined by fitting proportional hazards models stratified on study. Secondary end points were OS and distant recurrence–free interval (DRFI). Reporting recommendations for tumor marker prognostic studies criteria were followed, and all analyses were prespecified. Results The majority of 481 evaluable cancers had TILs (sTILs, 80%; iTILs, 15%). With a median follow-up of 10.6 years, higher sTIL scores were associated with better prognosis; for every 10% increase in sTILs, a 14% reduction of risk of recurrence or death (P = .02), 18% reduction of risk of distant recurrence (P = .04), and 19% reduction of risk of death (P = .01) were observed. Multivariable analysis confirmed sTILs to be an independent prognostic marker of DFS, DRFI, and OS. Conclusion In two national randomized clinical trials using contemporary adjuvant chemotherapy, we confirm that stromal lymphocytic infiltration constitutes a robust prognostic factor in TNBCs. Studies assessing outcomes and therapeutic efficacies should consider stratification for this parameter. PMID:25071121

  16. DNA methylation-based immune response signature improves patient diagnosis in multiple cancers.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, Jana; Bizet, Martin; Desmedt, Christine; Calonne, Emilie; Dedeurwaerder, Sarah; Garaud, Soizic; Koch, Alexander; Larsimont, Denis; Salgado, Roberto; Van den Eynden, Gert; Willard Gallo, Karen; Bontempi, Gianluca; Defrance, Matthieu; Sotiriou, Christos; Fuks, François

    2017-08-01

    The tumor immune response is increasingly associated with better clinical outcomes in breast and other cancers. However, the evaluation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) relies on histopathological measurements with limited accuracy and reproducibility. Here, we profiled DNA methylation markers to identify a methylation of TIL (MeTIL) signature that recapitulates TIL evaluations and their prognostic value for long-term outcomes in breast cancer (BC). MeTIL signature scores were correlated with clinical endpoints reflecting overall or disease-free survival and a pathologic complete response to preoperative anthracycline therapy in 3 BC cohorts from the Jules Bordet Institute in Brussels and in other cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas. The MeTIL signature measured TIL distributions in a sensitive manner and predicted survival and response to chemotherapy in BC better than did histopathological assessment of TILs or gene expression-based immune markers, respectively. The MeTIL signature also improved the prediction of survival in other malignancies, including melanoma and lung cancer. Furthermore, the MeTIL signature predicted differences in survival for malignancies in which TILs were not known to have a prognostic value. Finally, we showed that MeTIL markers can be determined by bisulfite pyrosequencing of small amounts of DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue, supporting clinical applications for this methodology. This study highlights the power of DNA methylation to evaluate tumor immune responses and the potential of this approach to improve the diagnosis and treatment of breast and other cancers. This work was funded by the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS) and Télévie, the INNOVIRIS Brussels Region BRUBREAST Project, the IUAP P7/03 program, the Belgian "Foundation against Cancer," the Breast Cancer Research Foundation (BCRF), and the Fonds Gaston Ithier.

  17. Clinical relevance of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, PD-L1 expression and correlation with HPV/p16 in head and neck cancer treated with bio- or chemo-radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ou, Dan; Adam, Julien; Garberis, Ingrid; Blanchard, Pierre; Nguyen, France; Levy, Antonin; Casiraghi, Odile; Gorphe, Philippe; Breuskin, Ingrid; Janot, François; Temam, Stephane; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Deutsch, Eric; Tao, Yungan

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the prognostic value of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs: CD8+ and FoxP3+), and PD-L1 expression in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with radiotherapy combined with cisplatin (CRT) or cetuximab (BRT). Immunohistochemistry for CD8, FoxP3 was performed on pretreatment tissue samples of 77 HNSCC patients. PD-L1 results were evaluable in 38 patients. Cox regression analysis was used to analyze the correlations of these biomarkers expression with clinicopathological characteristics and treatment outcomes. High CD8+ TILs level was identified in multivariate analysis (MVA) as an independent prognostic factor for improved progression-free survival with a non-significant trend for better overall survival (OS). High FoxP3+ TILs and PD-L1+ correlated with a favorable OS in the uni-variate analysis, respectively, but not in the MVA. In subgroup analysis, CD8+TILs appear to play a pivotal role, p16+/high CD8+TILs patients had superior 5-year OS compared with p16+/low CD8+TILs, p16-/ high CD8+TILs, and p16-/ low CD8+TILs patients. p16+/PD-L1+ patients had improved 3-year OS compared with p16+/PD-L1-, p16-/ PD-L1+, and p16-/ PD-L1- patients. In low CD8+ TILs tumors, 5-year loco-regional control of patients treated with CRT was improved vs. those with BRT (p = 0.01) while no significant difference in high CD8+ TILs was observed. CD8+ TILs correlated with an improved clinical outcome in HNSCC patients independent of Human papillomavirus status. The immunobiomarkers may provide information for selecting suitable patients for cisplatin or cetuximab treatment. Additionally, the impact of TILs and PD-L1 of deciphering among the p16+ population a very favorable outcome population could be of interest for patients tailored approaches.

  18. Correlation Between MRI and the Level of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Patients With Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ku, You Jin; Kim, Hak Hee; Cha, Joo Hee; Shin, Hee Jung; Baek, Soo Heui; Lee, Hee Jin; Gong, Gyungyub

    2016-11-01

    Increased levels of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) positively correlate with the pathologic complete response rate and increased survival in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between TIL levels and MRI findings in patients with TNBC. From February 2006 through December 2014, a total of 112 women with TNBC were selected for inclusion in the study. All lesions were evaluated by radiologists in accordance with the BI-RADS lexicon. Lymph node involvement and multifocality were also assessed. Tumors were divided into two groups: those with a TIL level of less than 50% were included in the group with low TIL levels (hereafter referred to as the "low-TIL group"), and those with a TIL level of 50% or more were included in the group with high TIL levels (hereafter referred to as the "high-TIL group"). Associations between TIL levels and imaging features were evaluated. Tumors in the high-TIL group had a more round shape (46.0%), a circumscribed margin (76.0%), homogeneous enhancement (32.0%), and absence of multifocality (88.0%) (p < 0.005). Tumors in the low-TIL group had a more irregular shape (69.3%), no circumscribed margin (79.0%), heterogeneous enhancement (75.8%), and multifocality (70.9%) (p < 0.005). The well-known typical features of TNBC on MRI, including a round shape, a circumscribed margin, homogeneous enhancement, and lack of multifocality, are a major pattern of TNBC with high TIL levels. This information could provide added diagnostic benefit for the identification of tumors with a good prognosis, which could further assist in optimal pretreatment planning.

  19. Augmented lymphocyte expansion from solid tumors with engineered cells for costimulatory enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Kevin M; DeVillier, Laura E; Feldman, Steven A; Rosenberg, Steven A; Dudley, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of patients with adoptive T cell therapy requires expansion of unique tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) cultures from single cell suspensions processed from melanoma biopsies. Strategies which increase the expansion and reliability of TIL generation from tumor digests are necessary to improve access to TIL therapy. Prior work evaluated artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPCs) for their antigen-specific and costimulatory properties. We investigated engineered cells for co-stimulatory enhancement (ECCE) consisting of K562 cells which express 4-1BBL in the absence of artificial antigen stimulation. ECCE accelerated TIL expansion and significantly improved TIL numbers (p=0.001) from single cell melanoma suspensions. TIL generated with ECCE contain significantly more CD8+CD62L+ and CD8+CD27+ T cells then comparable IL-2-expanded TIL and maintained anti-tumor reactivity. Moreover, ECCE improved TIL expansion from non-melanoma cell suspensions similar to that seen with melanoma tumors. These data demonstrate that ECCE addition to TIL production will enable treatment of patients ineligible using current methods. PMID:21989413

  20. Augmented lymphocyte expansion from solid tumors with engineered cells for costimulatory enhancement.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Kevin M; Devillier, Laura E; Feldman, Steven A; Rosenberg, Steven A; Dudley, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of patients with adoptive T-cell therapy requires expansion of unique tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) cultures from single-cell suspensions processed from melanoma biopsies. Strategies which increase the expansion and reliability of TIL generation from tumor digests are necessary to improve access to TIL therapy. Previous studies have evaluated artificial antigen presenting cells for their antigen-specific and costimulatory properties. We investigated engineered cells for costimulatory enhancement (ECCE) consisting of K562 cells that express 4-1BBL in the absence of artificial antigen stimulation. ECCE accelerated TIL expansion and significantly improved TIL numbers (P=0.001) from single-cell melanoma suspensions. TIL generated with ECCE contain significantly more CD8CD62L and CD8CD27 T cells then comparable interleukin-2-expanded TIL and maintained antitumor reactivity. Moreover, ECCE improved TIL expansion from nonmelanoma-cell suspensions similar to that seen with melanoma tumors. These data demonstrate that the addition of ECCE to TIL production will enable the treatment of patients that are ineligible using current methods.

  1. T-cell receptor usage by melanoma-specific clonal and highly oligoclonal tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte lines.

    PubMed Central

    Shilyansky, J; Nishimura, M I; Yannelli, J R; Kawakami, Y; Jacknin, L S; Charmley, P; Rosenberg, S A

    1994-01-01

    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) obtained from human melanomas can specifically lyse autologous tumor in vitro and mediate tumor regression in vivo. To develop more effective therapeutic reagents and to further understand the T-cell response to tumors, the diversity of T-cell receptors (TCRs) involved in melanoma antigen recognition has been studied. The TCR variable (V) genes, joining (J) segments, and N diversity regions used by five clonal lines and one highly oligoclonal, melanoma-specific, CD8+ TIL line were examined utilizing PCR amplification with V gene subfamily-specific primers and anchor PCR. The TIL lysed multiple allogeneic melanomas expressing matched surface major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. TCR analysis confirmed the clonal nature of the TIL lines; however, the TCR repertoire was diverse. Even among the three HLA-A2 restricted TIL (TIL 1200, TIL F2-2, and TIL-5), no common V gene usage was found. Comparison of the third complementarity-determining regions of the TCRs from the HLA-A2 restricted TIL revealed no homology. Results presented here identify T-cell clonotypes that recognize epitopes on highly prevalent, shared melanoma tumor-associated antigens presented in the context of HLA-B55, HLA-A1, and HLA-A2. These T cells and the antigens they recognize represent important components for the design of new immunotherapies for patients with advanced melanoma. PMID:7511820

  2. An Investigation of the Damping in Pitch Characteristics of a Ten Degree Cone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    nm-ecure, levi grouna te Ung as currently -A.he m-c ract-lcal -way to obt-aIn aeroc vnar .2c data Teblitcrre hevnerveloclitv’ wind t unn _ie ar -he...Ballisitcs Research :ab., Aberdeen Proving Grounds, i4aryland, AIAA Paper -70, 197A 2 0 .. en,K. B., Sawyer, F. 1., Walchner, 0., "Stability Jer.vaives o.f

  3. Aerodynamics of Supersonic Lifting Bodies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    verso of front cover. 19 Y WOROS (Continue on rt.’,;erso side i recessary and identily by block number) Theoretical Aerodynamics Lifting Bodies Wind ...waverider solution, developed from the supersonic wedge flow solution, is then i Fused to fashion vertLcal stabilizer-likh control surfaces. Wind ...served as Project Engineers ror thE wind tunnel work. Important contributions were also made bv: Mr. iis±ung Miin; Lee, -M. Beom-Soo Kim, Mtr. Martin Weeks

  4. New Employe Orientation and Swearing-in

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-09

    New Employees A Kujaneck, B Baeza, S Cahill, J Carolino, D Chang, E Czech, A Davila, R Everroad, R Fisher, A Ging, J Haglage, B Hooey, K Kwan, C Fung, P Ung-Joon Lee, M Mahzari, L Martin, K McMillin, S Monheim, A Nguyen, B Nikaido, T Perez, V Salazar, K Sato, D Shaw, Irene Smith, Melanie Smith, Lindsay Sturre, E Uribe Jr. with Tom Edwards, Ames Deputy Director.

  5. Surface Fatigue Life of M50NiL and AISI 9310 Spur Gears and R C Bars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-26

    AD-A241 470 NASA AVSCOM Technical Memorandum 104496 Technical Report 91- C- 034 Surface Fatigue Life of M50NiL and AISI 9310 Spur Gears and R C Bars...AISI 9310 and M50NIL In rolUng-contact ilof AISI 9310 and MSON fatigue tester. Maximum Hertz stress, 4.83 GPaFigure 4.- Typical fatigue spail (70fkA

  6. Uracil DNA glycosylase initiates degradation of HIV-1 cDNA containing misincorporated dUTP and prevents viral integration

    PubMed Central

    Weil, Amy F.; Ghosh, Devlina; Zhou, Yan; Seiple, Lauren; McMahon, Moira A.; Spivak, Adam M.; Siliciano, Robert F.; Stivers, James T.

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 reverse transcriptase discriminates poorly between dUTP and dTTP, and accordingly, viral DNA products become heavily uracilated when viruses infect host cells that contain high ratios of dUTP:dTTP. Uracilation of invading retroviral DNA is thought to be an innate immunity barrier to retroviral infection, but the mechanistic features of this immune pathway and the cellular fate of uracilated retroviral DNA products is not known. Here we developed a model system in which the cellular dUTP:dTTP ratio can be pharmacologically increased to favor dUTP incorporation, allowing dissection of this innate immunity pathway. When the virus-infected cells contained elevated dUTP levels, reverse transcription was found to proceed unperturbed, but integration and viral protein expression were largely blocked. Furthermore, successfully integrated proviruses lacked detectable uracil, suggesting that only nonuracilated viral DNA products were integration competent. Integration of the uracilated proviruses was restored using an isogenic cell line that had no detectable human uracil DNA glycosylase (hUNG2) activity, establishing that hUNG2 is a host restriction factor in cells that contain high dUTP. Biochemical studies in primary cells established that this immune pathway is not operative in CD4+ T cells, because these cells have high dUTPase activity (low dUTP), and only modest levels of hUNG activity. Although monocyte-derived macrophages have high dUTP levels, these cells have low hUNG activity, which may diminish the effectiveness of this restriction pathway. These findings establish the essential elements of this pathway and reconcile diverse observations in the literature. PMID:23341616

  7. Interplay between Target Sequences and Repair Pathways Determines Distinct Outcomes of AID-Initiated Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhangguo; Eder, Maxwell D.; Elos, Mihret T.; Viboolsittiseri, Sawanee S.; Chen, Xiaomi

    2016-01-01

    Activation-induced deaminase (AID) functions by deaminating cytosines and causing U:G mismatches, a rate-limiting step of Ab gene diversification. However, precise mechanisms regulating AID deamination frequency remain incompletely understood. Moreover, it is not known whether different sequence contexts influence the preferential access of mismatch repair or uracil glycosylase (UNG) to AID-initiated U:G mismatches. In this study, we employed two knock-in models to directly compare the mutability of core Sμ and VDJ exon sequences and their ability to regulate AID deamination and subsequent repair process. We find that the switch (S) region is a much more efficient AID deamination target than the V region. Igh locus AID-initiated lesions are processed by error-free and error-prone repair. S region U:G mismatches are preferentially accessed by UNG, leading to more UNG-dependent deletions, enhanced by mismatch repair deficiency. V region mutation hotspots are largely determined by AID deamination. Recurrent and conserved S region motifs potentially function as spacers between AID deamination hotspots. We conclude that the pattern of mutation hotspots and DNA break generation is influenced by sequence-intrinsic properties, which regulate AID deamination and affect the preferential access of downstream repair. Our studies reveal an evolutionarily conserved role for substrate sequences in regulating Ab gene diversity and AID targeting specificity. PMID:26810227

  8. Cadmium(II) inhibition of human uracil-DNA glycosylase by catalytic water supplantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokey, Trevor; Hang, Bo; Guliaev, Anton B.

    2016-12-01

    Toxic metals are known to inhibit DNA repair but the underlying mechanisms of inhibition are still not fully understood. DNA repair enzymes such as human uracil-DNA glycosylase (hUNG) perform the initial step in the base excision repair (BER) pathway. In this work, we showed that cadmium [Cd(II)], a known human carcinogen, inhibited all activity of hUNG at 100 μM. Computational analyses based on 2 μs equilibrium, 1.6 μs steered molecular dynamics (SMD), and QM/MM MD determined that Cd(II) ions entered the enzyme active site and formed close contacts with both D145 and H148, effectively replacing the catalytic water normally found in this position. Geometry refinement by density functional theory (DFT) calculations showed that Cd(II) formed a tetrahedral structure with D145, P146, H148, and one water molecule. This work for the first time reports Cd(II) inhibition of hUNG which was due to replacement of the catalytic water by binding the active site D145 and H148 residues. Comparison of the proposed metal binding site to existing structural data showed that D145:H148 followed a general metal binding motif favored by Cd(II). The identified motif offered structural insights into metal inhibition of other DNA repair enzymes and glycosylases.

  9. Genomic structural variations for cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Nazarenko, Maria S.; Sleptcov, Aleksei A.; Lebedev, Igor N.; Skryabin, Nikolay A.; Markov, Anton V.; Golubenko, Maria V.; Koroleva, Iuliia A.; Kazancev, Anton N.; Barbarash, Olga L.; Puzyrev, Valery P.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify genes targeted by both copy number and copy-neutral changes in the right coronary arteries in the area of advanced atherosclerotic plaques and intact internal mammary arteries derived from the same individuals with comorbid coronary artery disease and metabolic syndrome. The artery samples from 10 patients were screened for genomic imbalances using array comparative genomic hybridization. Ninety high-confidence, identical copy number variations (CNVs) were detected. We also identified eight copy-neutral changes (cn-LOHs) > 1.5 Mb in paired arterial samples in 4 of 10 individuals. The frequencies of the two gains located in the 10q24.31 (ERLIN1) and 12q24.11 (UNG, ACACB) genomic regions were evaluated in 33 paired arteries and blood samples. Two patients contained the gain in 10q24.31 (ERLIN1) and one patient contained the gain in 12q24.11 (UNG, ACACB) that affected only the blood DNA. An additional two patients harboured these CNVs in both the arteries and blood. In conclusion, we discovered and confirmed a gain of the 10q24.31 (ERLIN1) and 12q24.11 (UNG, ACACB) genomic regions in patients with coronary artery disease and metabolic comorbidity. Analysis of DNA extracted from blood indicated a possible somatic origin for these CNVs. PMID:28120895

  10. Poxvirus uracil-DNA glycosylase-An unusual member of the family I uracil-DNA glycosylases: Poxvirus Uracil-DNA Glycosylase

    SciTech Connect

    Schormann, Norbert; Zhukovskaya, Natalia; Bedwell, Gregory; Nuth, Manunya; Gillilan, Richard; Prevelige, Peter E.; Ricciardi, Robert P.; Banerjee, Surajit; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2016-11-02

    We report that uracil-DNA glycosylases are ubiquitous enzymes, which play a key role repairing damages in DNA and in maintaining genomic integrity by catalyzing the first step in the base excision repair pathway. Within the superfamily of uracil-DNA glycosylases family I enzymes or UNGs are specific for recognizing and removing uracil from DNA. These enzymes feature conserved structural folds, active site residues and use common motifs for DNA binding, uracil recognition and catalysis. Within this family the enzymes of poxviruses are unique and most remarkable in terms of amino acid sequences, characteristic motifs and more importantly for their novel non-enzymatic function in DNA replication. UNG of vaccinia virus, also known as D4, is the most extensively characterized UNG of the poxvirus family. D4 forms an unusual heterodimeric processivity factor by attaching to a poxvirus-specific protein A20, which also binds to the DNA polymerase E9 and recruits other proteins necessary for replication. D4 is thus integrated in the DNA polymerase complex, and its DNA-binding and DNA scanning abilities couple DNA processivity and DNA base excision repair at the replication fork. In conclusion, the adaptations necessary for taking on the new function are reflected in the amino acid sequence and the three-dimensional structure of D4. We provide an overview of the current state of the knowledge on the structure-function relationship of D4.

  11. Impaired dynamics and function of mitochondria caused by mtDNA toxicity leads to heart failure.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, Knut H; Kleppa, Liv; Aronsen, Jan Magnus; Eide, Lars; Carlsen, Harald; Haugen, Øyvind P; Sjaastad, Ivar; Klungland, Arne; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Attramadal, Håvard; Storm-Mathisen, Jon; Bergersen, Linda H

    2015-08-01

    Cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in heart failure of diverse etiologies. Generalized mitochondrial disease also leads to cardiomyopathy with various clinical manifestations. Impaired mitochondrial homeostasis may over time, such as in the aging heart, lead to cardiac dysfunction. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), close to the electron transport chain and unprotected by histones, may be a primary pathogenetic site, but this is not known. Here, we test the hypothesis that cumulative damage of cardiomyocyte mtDNA leads to cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Transgenic mice with Tet-on inducible, cardiomyocyte-specific expression of a mutant uracil-DNA glycosylase 1 (mutUNG1) were generated. The mutUNG1 is known to remove thymine in addition to uracil from the mitochondrial genome, generating apyrimidinic sites, which obstruct mtDNA function. Following induction of mutUNG1 in cardiac myocytes by administering doxycycline, the mice developed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, leading to congestive heart failure and premature death after ∼2 mo. The heart showed reduced mtDNA replication, severely diminished mtDNA transcription, and suppressed mitochondrial respiration with increased Pgc-1α, mitochondrial mass, and antioxidative defense enzymes, and finally failing mitochondrial fission/fusion dynamics and deteriorating myocardial contractility as the mechanism of heart failure. The approach provides a model with induced cardiac-restricted mtDNA damage for investigation of mtDNA-based heart disease.

  12. Decreased somatic hypermutation induces an impaired peripheral B cell tolerance checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Cantaert, Tineke; Schickel, Jean-Nicolas; Bannock, Jason M; Ng, Yen-Shing; Massad, Christopher; Delmotte, Fabien R; Yamakawa, Natsuko; Glauzy, Salome; Chamberlain, Nicolas; Kinnunen, Tuure; Menard, Laurence; Lavoie, Aubert; Walter, Jolan E; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Bruneau, Julie; Al-Herz, Waleed; Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Ochs, Hans D; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; van der Burg, Mirjam; Kuijpers, Taco W; Kracker, Sven; Kaneko, Hideo; Sekinaka, Yujin; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Durandy, Anne; Meffre, Eric

    2016-11-01

    Patients with mutations in AICDA, which encodes activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), display an impaired peripheral B cell tolerance. AID mediates class-switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) in B cells, but the mechanism by which AID prevents the accumulation of autoreactive B cells in blood is unclear. Here, we analyzed B cell tolerance in AID-deficient patients, patients with autosomal dominant AID mutations (AD-AID), asymptomatic AICDA heterozygotes (AID+/-), and patients with uracil N-glycosylase (UNG) deficiency, which impairs CSR but not SHM. The low frequency of autoreactive mature naive B cells in UNG-deficient patients resembled that of healthy subjects, revealing that impaired CSR does not interfere with the peripheral B cell tolerance checkpoint. In contrast, we observed decreased frequencies of SHM in memory B cells from AD-AID patients and AID+/- subjects, who were unable to prevent the accumulation of autoreactive mature naive B cells. In addition, the individuals with AICDA mutations, but not UNG-deficient patients, displayed Tregs with defective suppressive capacity that correlated with increases in circulating T follicular helper cells and enhanced cytokine production. We conclude that SHM, but not CSR, regulates peripheral B cell tolerance through the production of mutated antibodies that clear antigens and prevent sustained interleukin secretions that interfere with Treg function.

  13. Carbon starvation increases endoglycosidase activities and production of "unconjugated N-glycans" in Silene alba cell-suspension cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Lhernould, S; Karamanos, Y; Priem, B; Morvan, H

    1994-01-01

    We previously reported the occurrence of oligomannosides and xylomannosides corresponding to unconjugated N-glycans (UNGs) in the medium of a white campion (Silene alba) cell suspension. Attention has been focused on these oligosaccharides since it was shown that they confer biological activities in plants. In an attempt to elucidate the origin of these oligosaccharides, we studied two endoglycosidase activities, putative enzymes involved in their formation. The previously described peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-glucosaminyl) asparagine amidase activity and the endo-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity described in this paper were both quantified in white campion cells during the culture cycle with variable initial concentrations of sucrose. The lower the sucrose supply, the higher the two activities. Furthermore, endoglycosidase activities were greatly enhanced after the disappearance of sugar from the medium. The production of UNGs in the culture medium rose correlatively. These data strongly suggest that the production of UNGs in our white campion cell-suspension system is due to the increase of these endoglycosidase activities, which reach their highest levels of activity during conditions of carbon starvation. PMID:7991689

  14. Uracil DNA glycosylase uses DNA hopping and short-range sliding to trap extrahelical uracils.

    PubMed

    Porecha, Rishi H; Stivers, James T

    2008-08-05

    The astonishingly efficient location and excision of damaged DNA bases by DNA repair glycosylases is an especially intriguing problem in biology. One example is the enzyme uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG), which captures and excises rare extrahelical uracil bases that have emerged from the DNA base stack by spontaneous base pair breathing motions. Here, we explore the efficiency and mechanism by which UNG executes intramolecular transfer and excision of two uracil sites embedded on the same or opposite DNA strands at increasing site spacings. The efficiency of intramolecular site transfer decreased from 41 to 0% as the base pair spacing between uracil sites on the same DNA strand increased from 20 to 800 bp. The mechanism of transfer is dominated by DNA hopping between landing sites of approximately 10 bp size, over which rapid 1D scanning likely occurs. Consistent with DNA hopping, site transfer at 20- and 56-bp spacings was unaffected by whether the uracils were placed on the same or opposite strands. Thus, UNG uses hopping and 3D diffusion through bulk solution as the principal pathways for efficient patrolling of long genomic DNA sequences for damage. Short-range sliding over the range of a helical turn allows for redundant inspection of very local DNA sequences and trapping of spontaneously emerging extrahelical uracils.

  15. Helix–hairpin–helix protein MJ1434 from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii and EndoIV homologue TTC0482 from Thermus thermophilus HB27 do not process DNA uracil residues

    PubMed Central

    Schomacher, Lars; Smolorz, Sabine; Ciirdaeva, Elena; Ber, Svetlana; Kramer, Wilfried; Fritz, Hans-Joachim

    2010-01-01

    The mutagenic threat of hydrolytic DNA cytosine deamination is met mostly by uracil DNA glycosylases (UDG) initiating base excision repair. However, several sequenced genomes of archaeal organisms are devoid of genes coding for homologues of the otherwise ubiquitous UDG superfamily of proteins. Previously, two possible solutions to this problem were offered by (i) a report of a newly discovered family of uracil DNA glycosylases exemplified by MJ1434, a protein found in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, and (ii) the description of TTC0482, an EndoIV homologue from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB27, as being able to excise uracil from DNA. Sequence homologues of both proteins can be found throughout the archaeal domain of life. Three proteins orthologous to MJ1434 and the family founder itself were tested for but failed to exhibit DNA uracil glycosylase activity when produced in an Ung-deficient Escherichia coli host. Likewise, no DNA uracil processing activity could be detected to be associated with TTC0482, while the protein was fully active as an AP endonuclease. We propose that the uracil processing activities formerly found were due to contaminations with Ung enzyme. Use of Δung-strains as hosts for production of putatively DNA-U processing enzymes provides a simple safeguard. PMID:20410075

  16. Decreased somatic hypermutation induces an impaired peripheral B cell tolerance checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Cantaert, Tineke; Schickel, Jean-Nicolas; Bannock, Jason M.; Ng, Yen-Shing; Massad, Christopher; Delmotte, Fabien R.; Yamakawa, Natsuko; Glauzy, Salome; Chamberlain, Nicolas; Kinnunen, Tuure; Menard, Laurence; Lavoie, Aubert; Walter, Jolan E.; Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Bruneau, Julie; Al-Herz, Waleed; Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Ochs, Hans D.; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Kracker, Sven; Kaneko, Hideo; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Durandy, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Patients with mutations in AICDA, which encodes activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), display an impaired peripheral B cell tolerance. AID mediates class-switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) in B cells, but the mechanism by which AID prevents the accumulation of autoreactive B cells in blood is unclear. Here, we analyzed B cell tolerance in AID-deficient patients, patients with autosomal dominant AID mutations (AD-AID), asymptomatic AICDA heterozygotes (AID+/–), and patients with uracil N-glycosylase (UNG) deficiency, which impairs CSR but not SHM. The low frequency of autoreactive mature naive B cells in UNG-deficient patients resembled that of healthy subjects, revealing that impaired CSR does not interfere with the peripheral B cell tolerance checkpoint. In contrast, we observed decreased frequencies of SHM in memory B cells from AD-AID patients and AID+/– subjects, who were unable to prevent the accumulation of autoreactive mature naive B cells. In addition, the individuals with AICDA mutations, but not UNG-deficient patients, displayed Tregs with defective suppressive capacity that correlated with increases in circulating T follicular helper cells and enhanced cytokine production. We conclude that SHM, but not CSR, regulates peripheral B cell tolerance through the production of mutated antibodies that clear antigens and prevent sustained interleukin secretions that interfere with Treg function. PMID:27701145

  17. Cadmium(II) inhibition of human uracil-DNA glycosylase by catalytic water supplantation

    PubMed Central

    Gokey, Trevor; Hang, Bo; Guliaev, Anton B.

    2016-01-01

    Toxic metals are known to inhibit DNA repair but the underlying mechanisms of inhibition are still not fully understood. DNA repair enzymes such as human uracil-DNA glycosylase (hUNG) perform the initial step in the base excision repair (BER) pathway. In this work, we showed that cadmium [Cd(II)], a known human carcinogen, inhibited all activity of hUNG at 100 μM. Computational analyses based on 2 μs equilibrium, 1.6 μs steered molecular dynamics (SMD), and QM/MM MD determined that Cd(II) ions entered the enzyme active site and formed close contacts with both D145 and H148, effectively replacing the catalytic water normally found in this position. Geometry refinement by density functional theory (DFT) calculations showed that Cd(II) formed a tetrahedral structure with D145, P146, H148, and one water molecule. This work for the first time reports Cd(II) inhibition of hUNG which was due to replacement of the catalytic water by binding the active site D145 and H148 residues. Comparison of the proposed metal binding site to existing structural data showed that D145:H148 followed a general metal binding motif favored by Cd(II). The identified motif offered structural insights into metal inhibition of other DNA repair enzymes and glycosylases. PMID:27974818

  18. The Influence of Marcellus Shale Extraction Emissions on Regionally Monitored Dry Reactive Nitrogen Deposition.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Justin G; Rose, Lucy A; Bain, Daniel J; Elliott, Emily M

    2017-03-09

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the United States (U.S.) from large stationary sources, such as electric generating units, have decreased since 1995, driving decreases in nitrogen deposition. However, increasing NOx emissions from emerging industries, such as unconventional natural gas (UNG) extraction, could offset stationary source emission reductions in shale gas producing regions of the U.S. The Marcellus Shale in the northeastern U.S. has seen dramatic increases in the number of wells and associated natural gas production during the past 10 years. In this study, we examine the potential impacts of shale gas development on regional NOx emission inventories and dry deposition fluxes to Clean Air Status and Trends (CASTNET) sites in Pennsylvania and New York. Our results demonstrate that the current distribution of CASTNET sites is ineffective for monitoring the influence of Marcellus well NOx emissions on regional nitrogen deposition. Despite the fact that existing CASTNET sites are not influenced by UNG extraction activity, NOx emissions densities from shale gas extraction are substantial and are estimated to reach up to 21 kg NOx ha(-1) year(-1) in some regions. If these emissions deposit locally, UNG extraction activity could contribute to critical nitrogen load exceedances in areas of high well density.

  19. Mechanism of translocation of uracil-DNA glycosylase from Escherichia coli between distributed lesions.

    PubMed

    Mechetin, Grigory V; Zharkov, Dmitry O

    2011-10-22

    Uracil-DNA glycosylase (Ung) is a DNA repair enzyme that excises uracil bases from DNA, where they appear through deamination of cytosine or incorporation from a cellular dUTP pool. DNA repair enzymes often use one-dimensional diffusion along DNA to accelerate target search; however, this mechanism remains poorly investigated mechanistically. We used oligonucleotide substrates containing two uracil residues in defined positions to characterize one-dimensional search of DNA by Escherichia coli Ung. Mg(2+) ions suppressed the search in double-stranded DNA to a higher extent than K(+) likely due to tight binding of Mg(2+) to DNA phosphates. Ung was able to efficiently overcome short single-stranded gaps within double-stranded DNA. Varying the distance between the lesions and fitting the data to a theoretical model of DNA random walk, we estimated the characteristic one-dimensional search distance of ~100 nucleotides and translocation rate constant of ~2×10(6) s(-1). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ugene, a newly identified protein that is commonly over-expressed in cancer, and that binds uracil DNA-glycosylase

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chunguang; Zhang, Xiaodong; Fink, Stephen P; Platzer, Petra; Wilson, Keith; Willson, James K. V.; Wang, Zhenghe; Markowitz, Sanford D

    2008-01-01

    Expression microarrays identified a novel transcript, designated as Ugene, whose expression is absent in normal colon and colon adenomas, but that is commonly induced in malignant colon cancers. These findings were validated by real-time PCR and Northern blot analysis in an independent panel of colon cancer cases. In addition, Ugene expression was found to be elevated in many other common cancer types, including, breast, lung, uterus, and ovary. Immunofluorescence of V5-tagged Ugene revealed it to have a nuclear localization. In a pull-down assay, uracil DNA-glycosylase 2 (UNG2), an important enzyme in the base excision repair pathway, was identified as a partner protein that binds to Ugene. Co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis confirmed the binding between the endogenous Ugene and UNG2 proteins. Using deletion constructs, we find that Ugene binds to the first 25 amino acids of the UNG2 NH2-terminus. We suggest Ugene induction in cancer may contribute to the cancer phenotype by interacting with the base excision repair pathway. PMID:18676834

  1. CD8+ enriched “young” tumor infiltrating lymphocytes can mediate regression of metastatic melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Mark E.; Gross, Colin A.; Langhan, Michelle M.; Garcia, Marcos R.; Sherry, Richard M.; Yang, James C.; Phan, Giao Q.; Kammula, Udai S.; Hughes, Marybeth S.; Citrin, Deborah E.; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Wunderlich, John; Prieto, Peter A.; Hong, Jenny J.; Langan, Russell C.; Zlott, Daniel A.; Morton, Kathleen E.; White, Donald E.; Laurencot, Carolyn; Rosenberg, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and interleukin (IL)-2 administered following lymphodepletion can cause the durable complete regression of bulky metastatic melanoma in patients refractory to approved treatments. However, the generation of a unique tumor-reactive TIL culture for each patient may be prohibitively difficult. We therefore investigated the clinical and immunological impact of unscreened, CD8+ enriched “young” TIL. Experimental Design Methods were developed for generating TIL that minimized the time in culture and eliminated the individualized tumor-reactivity screening step. Thirty-three patients were treated with these CD8+ enriched young TIL and IL-2 following non-myeloablative lymphodepletion (NMA). Twenty-three additional patients were treated with CD8+ enriched young TIL and IL-2 after lymphodepletion with NMA and 6Gy of total body irradiation (TBI). Results Young TIL cultures for therapy were successfully established from 83% of 122 consecutive melanoma patients. Nineteen of 33 patients (58%) treated with CD8+ enriched young TIL and NMA had an objective response (RECIST) including three complete responders. Eleven of 23 patients (48%) treated with TIL and 6Gy TBI had an objective response including two complete responders. At one month after TIL infusion the absolute CD8+ cell numbers in the periphery were highly correlated with response. Conclusion This study shows that a rapid and simplified method can be used to reliably generate CD8+ enriched young TIL for administration as an individualized therapy for advanced melanoma, and may allow this potentially effective treatment to be applied at other institutions and to reach additional patients. PMID:20668005

  2. Cloning of a new gene encoding an antigen recognized by melanoma-specific HLA-A24-restricted tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, P.F.; El-Gamil, M.; Li, Y.F.

    1995-06-01

    The role of tumor-specific T cells in mediating the regression of metastatic melanoma has been suggested by the clinical response of patients to treatment with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). A number of Ags recognized by class I-restricted melanoma-specific T cells have recently been isolated, raising the hope that this will lead to the development of improved therapies. In this study, we report the cloning of a tumor Ag recognized by T cells from melanoma patient 888. Previously, we reported that TIL 888, grown from the tumor of this patient, recognized tyrosinase in an HLA-A24 -restricted fashion. This line, when infused into the autologous patient, resulted in complete regression of multiple metastases. Three years later, a second TIL line, TIL 1290, was isolated from a recurrent pelvic tumor. Infusion of a mixture of TIL 888 and TIL 1290 cell lines into the patient resulted in complete regression of a residual abdominal mass and the patient remains disease-free 2 yr later. The TIL 1290 cell line, which recognized melanoma in an HLAA-A24-restricted manner, failed to recognize tyrosinase. TIL 1290 was then used to screen an 888 melanoma cDNA library, and an Ag was isolated that did not correspond to any found in sequence databases. This gene, termed p15, was found to be expressed in a variety of normal tissues, and a peptide epitope recognized by TIL 1290 was found to represent the product of an nonmutated gene. Screening of additional cDNA pools resulted in the isolation of a second clone which stimulated TIL 1290. This clone also appeared to represent a transcript of the p15 gene, indicating that this gene may encode the predominant Ag recognized by TIL 1290. 27 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. In vivo trafficking of adoptively transferred interleukin-2 expanded tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes. Results of a double gene marking trial.

    PubMed Central

    Economou, J S; Belldegrun, A S; Glaspy, J; Toloza, E M; Figlin, R; Hobbs, J; Meldon, N; Kaboo, R; Tso, C L; Miller, A; Lau, R; McBride, W; Moen, R C

    1996-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and IL-2 appears to produce dramatic regressions in patients with metastatic melanoma and renal cancer. However, the in vivo mechanism of TIL function is not known. We conducted an UCLA Human Subject Protection Committee, Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee, and FDA-approved clinical trial using genetically-marked TIL to test the hypothesis that these cells have unique, tumor-specific in vivo trafficking patterns. TIL and PBL (as a control effector cell population) were isolated and expanded in parallel in vitro in IL-2-containing medium for 4-6 wk. During the expansion, TIL and PBL were separately transduced with the amphotropic retroviral vectors LNL6 and G1Na. Transduced TIL and PBL were coinfused into patients and their respective numbers measured in tumor, peripheral blood, and normal tissues; integrated provirus could be quantitated and distinguished by DNA PCR. Nine patients were treated (six melanoma, three renal) and received between 4.5 x 10(8) and 1.24 x 10(10) total cells. Both "marked" TIL and PBL could be detected circulating in the peripheral blood, in some patients for up to 99 d after infusion. Marked TIL and/or PBL could be detected in tumor biopsies in six of nine patients as early as day 6 and as late as day 99 after infusion. No convincing pattern of preferential trafficking of TIL vs. PBL to tumor was noted. Moreover, concurrent biopsies of muscle, fat, and skin demonstrated the presence of TIL/PBL in comparable or greater numbers than in tumor in five patients. The results of this double gene marking trial provide interesting insights into the life span and trafficking of adoptively transferred lymphocytes, but do not support the hypothesis that TIL specifically traffic to tumor deposits. PMID:8567975

  4. Baroclinic mixing of potential vorticity as the principal sharpening mechanism for the extratropical Tropopause Inversion Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shu Meir; Geller, Marvin A.

    2016-09-01

    Previous works have shown that a dry, idealized general circulation model could produce many features of the extratropical Tropopause Inversion Layer (TIL). In particular, the following have been shown, but no explanations were given for these results. (1) A sharper extratropical TIL resulted more from increased horizontal resolution than from increased vertical resolution. (2) If the Equator-to-Pole temperature gradient was varied, the annual variation of the extratropical TIL found in observations could be reproduced. (3) The extratropical TIL altitude showed excellent correlation with the upper tropospheric relative vorticity, as had been previously proposed. (4) Increased horizontal model resolutions led to extratropical TILs that were at lower altitudes. We show that these conclusions follow from baroclinic mixing of high stratospheric potential vorticity into the troposphere being the principal sharpening mechanism for the extratropical TIL and the increased baroclinic activity occurring in higher horizontal resolution models. We furthermore suggest that the distance from the jet exerts a greater influence on the height and sharpness of the extratropical TIL than does the upper tropospheric relative vorticity, and this accounts for the annual behavior of the extratropical TIL found in observations and reproduced with a dry, mechanistic, global model.

  5. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, HELENA ANIMAL HEALTH ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... 'L.:AS ANU TIl'KS: Til ,·.mt"111 ~ lind !.kk~ in IIl1ld .... ... uf wlllt·r'. Thnrllughl~' sl,rll.\\' llrl'lIS whl'rl' tllI~s . frt'.,ul'l· & sl,.t'I" On lawns lind uth.·r np.·n lltt·lIS. ...

  6. 76 FR 55070 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ..., evaluate or commercialize gas permeable flasks for cell and gene therapy applications and multicenter... enable TIL therapy to become more GMP compliant and allow it to become more standardized for widespread... transfer therapy (immunotherapy) for a variety of human cancers. Growing TIL in gas permeable cultureware...

  7. Frequency Response Characteristics of Military Vehicles.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    series representation (Continued) DD W TI-ow OF INOV 6S IS OBSOLETE Ucasfe SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF TIlS PAGE (When Dots Enfared Unclassified sCUNlY...Fundamentals and Applica- tions," Creative Computing, pgs. 58-63, July 1980. 13. Liu, B., editor, Digital Filters and the Fast Fourier Transform, Halsted Press

  8. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, PYROCIDE FOGGING ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... rhn~Hi i H HiHiI! 'ur un . }U; nIl til ~ ,. Ii. • . f ~lh i;uHi:1 1I rll .:t ~ ll_o! , til; if.U L .!ff ~ tiff -c I J • • .. 't ... ~1Ii I · .• : -IF.: ... _ I 5 : ~ :: JI(' • Z ',Jt :: .• fill 'ill ...

  9. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, ALCIDE LD 4:1:1 - BASE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-21

    ... kill (1)' tIn L'},llhillg. h'l'dl" gnggle~, fiH .. 'l' ... hil'ld ,.,' 'If,,I'' gl" ... ,S. 11,1..,il til",'''ghl\\' \\,'til ""'I' :rnd \\,alL'I' 'Iftl'r h.llHllillg. Kt'I!hl\\"l' l..-l'llLlmin;Ilt-'d l]llthill..:. ...

  10. The combination of PD-L1 expression and decreased tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes is associated with a poor prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mori, Hitomi; Kubo, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Rin; Nishimura, Reiki; Osako, Tomofumi; Arima, Nobuyuki; Okumura, Yasuhiro; Okido, Masayuki; Yamada, Mai; Kai, Masaya; Kishimoto, Junji; Oda, Yoshinao; Nakamura, Masafumi

    2017-01-17

    This study included patients with primary triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) who underwent resection without neoadjuvant chemotherapy between January 2004 and December 2014. Among the 248 TNBCs studied, programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression was detected in 103 (41.5%) tumors, and high levels of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were present in 118 (47.6%) tumors. PD-L1 expression correlated with high levels of TILs, but was not a prognostic factor. Patients with TILs-high tumors had better overall survival than those with TILs-low tumors (P = 0.016). There was a strong interaction between PD-L1 expression and TILs that was associated with both recurrence-free survival (P = 0.0018) and overall survival (P = 0.015). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model analysis showed that PD-L1-positive/TILs-low was an independent negative prognostic factor for both recurrence-free survival and overall survival. Our findings suggest that PD-L1-positive/TILs-low tumors are associated with a poor prognosis in patients with TNBC, and that it is important to focus on the combination of PD-L1 expression on tumor cells and TILs present in the tumor microenvironment. These biomarkers may be useful for stratification of TNBCs and for predicting prognosis and developing novel cancer immunotherapies.

  11. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, AQUA GUARD STICKS, 10 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-21

    ... til 11 t tn til j <~ j- I.; I JJ ) ( It ( I, I <: r I fj i ~,; tIc' t ;',' r I !. ~ UI'll~] t1 ~;l.ll·~"lrt (1~' ... t(\\r Sl:jl'flh:nt a~~ nr;U)rl~(! 11;. )-- N<,tic" H:lL. 01 June 18, t~P~. ...

  12. A Novel Trypsin Inhibitor-Like Cysteine-Rich Peptide from the Frog Lepidobatrachus laevis Containing Proteinase-Inhibiting Activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Wei; Tan, Ji-Min; Du, Can-Wei; Luan, Ning; Yan, Xiu-Wen; Lai, Ren; Lu, Qiu-Min

    2015-08-01

    Various bio-active substances in amphibian skins play important roles in survival of the amphibians. Many protease inhibitor peptides have been identified from amphibian skins, which are supposed to negatively modulate the activity of proteases to avoid premature degradation or release of skin peptides, or to inhibit extracellular proteases produced by invading bacteria. However, there is no information on the proteinase inhibitors from the frog Lepidobatrachus laevis which is unique in South America. In this work, a cDNA encoding a novel trypsin inhibitor-like (TIL) cysteine-rich peptide was identified from the skin cDNA library of L. laevis. The 240-bp coding region encodes an 80-amino acid residue precursor protein containing 10 half-cysteines. By sequence comparison and signal peptide prediction, the precursor was predicted to release a 55-amino acid mature peptide with amino acid sequence, IRCPKDKIYKFCGSPCPPSCKDLTPNCIAVCKKGCFCRDGTVDNNHGKCVKKENC. The mature peptide was named LL-TIL. LL-TIL shares significant domain similarity with the peptides from the TIL supper family. Antimicrobial and trypsin-inhibitory abilities of recombinant LL-TIL were tested. Recombinant LL-TIL showed no antimicrobial activity, while it had trypsin-inhibiting activity with a Ki of 16.5178 μM. These results suggested there was TIL peptide with proteinase-inhibiting activity in the skin of frog L. laevis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of TIL peptide from frog skin.

  13. A New Approach to the Adoptive Immunotherapy of Cancer with Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Steven A.; Spiess, Paul; Lafreniere, Rene

    1986-09-01

    The adoptive transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) expanded in interleukin-2 (IL-2) to mice bearing micrometastases from various types of tumors showed that TIL are 50 to 100 times more effective in their therapeutic potency than are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. Therefore the use of TIL was explored for the treatment of mice with large pulmonary and hepatic metastatic tumors that do not respond to LAK cell therapy. Although treatment of animals with TIL alone or cyclophosphamide alone had little impact, these two modalities together mediated the elimination of large metastatic cancer deposits in the liver and lung. The combination of TIL and cyclophosphamide was further potentiated by the simultaneous administration of IL-2. With the combination of cyclophosphamide, TIL, and IL-2, 100% of mice (n = 12) bearing the MC-38 colon adenocarcinoma were cured of advanced hepatic metastases, and up to 50% of mice were cured of advanced pulmonary metastases. Techniques have been developed to isolate TIL from human tumors. These experiments provide a rationale for the use of TIL in the treatment of humans with advanced cancer.

  14. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, ALGRICIDE A-4, 07/18 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-21

    ... U!)I', ·'V!.h'III·, 111t, .. 1 til! dl:.lllt!(1 II, lI'flIlIV" .llq,,1 qlClWlh. ... d.III1,I'II·" ,1111111'" ·.luIIIIII til' pl,It.-1I III It ... ,'rp.)' I>. lflllill', fIJI ,,,,.po .. ,11 Sudl' .... hould ...

  15. Two interleukin-17C-like genes exist in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss that are differentially expressed and modulated.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiehui; Martin, Samuel A M; Secombes, Christopher J

    2010-05-01

    Interleukin (IL)-17 family members (IL-17A-F) are key players in adaptive immune responses and have a central role in coordinating innate and adaptive immunity. Here, we report on two novel IL-17 homologues in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, trout (t) IL-17C1 and tIL-17C2, that share 73.7% amino acid identity. The two tIL-17C-like molecules have relatively higher sequence identities to IL-17Cs from fish and mammals and the fish IL-17C-like molecules phylogenetically form a specific clade that groups with the mammalian IL-17C and IL-17E clades. However, the gene organisation of the fish IL-17C-like molecules is closer to mammalian IL-17Es than to IL-17Cs, and this taken together with other factors suggest the fish IL-17C-like genes may have arisen from an ancestral gene that gave rise to mammalian IL-17C and IL-17E. The expression of tIL-17Cs was detectable in all the eight tissues examined, with the expression of tIL-17 mainly contributed by tIL-17C1 in gills and skin, and by tIL-17C2 in spleen, head kidney and brain. The expression of tIL-17Cs was modulated by inflammatory stimulants, including IL-1beta, interferon-gamma, LPS and PolyIC, in a trout macrophage cell line (RTS-11). IL-1beta was the most potent inducer of tIL-17C2 but only had a minor effect on the expression of tIL-17C1. LPS and PolyIC were also potent inducers of tIL-17C2. The expression of tIL-17Cs was also up-regulated by bacterial infection, with the extent and increase more dramatic for tIL-17C2. The broad distribution of expression and differential modulation of tIL-17Cs by inflammatory stimulants and infection suggest important roles of the two tIL-17Cs in the salmonid immune system. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Current Issues and Clinical Evidence in Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sung Gwe; Jeong, Joon; Hong, SoonWon; Jung, Woo Hee

    2015-01-01

    With the advance in personalized therapeutic strategies in patients with breast cancer, there is an increasing need for biomarker-guided therapy. Although the immunogenicity of breast cancer has not been strongly considered in research or practice, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are emerging as biomarkers mediating tumor response to treatments. Earlier studies have provided evidence that the level of TILs has prognostic value and the potential for predictive value, particularly in triple-negative and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–positive breast cancer. Moreover, the level of TILs has been associated with treatment outcome in patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy. To date, no standardized methodology for measuring TILs has been established. In this article, we review current issues and clinical evidence for the use of TILs in breast cancer. PMID:26278518

  17. Verslag Van De 15e Conferentie Over Very Large Data Bases Van 22 t/m 25 Augustus 1989 Te Amsterdam (Report on the 15th Conference on Very Large Data Bases in Amsterdam from August 22 til August 25 1989)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-04

    8217Aunt Nellie Heuristic’ of ’Tante Nellie Methode’ (TNM): ’ Neem bet voorbeeld ter band. Ga ervan uit dat je bet voorbeeld over de telefoon moet...Un. Dortmund ’The LSD tree : spatial access to multidimensional point and non-point objects’ A. Henrich, H-W. Six and P. Widmayer; Fern Un., Hagen...USA ’Optimization and dataflow algorithms for nested tree queries’ M. Muralikrishna; DEC, Colorada Springs CO, USA ’Parallel processing of recursive

  18. Expansion of Tumor-Infiltrating CD8(+) T cells Expressing PD-1 Improves the Efficacy of Adoptive T-cell Therapy.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Poma, Sarita M; Salas-Benito, Diego; Lozano, Teresa; Casares, Noelia; Riezu-Boj, Jose-Ignacio; Mancheño, Uxua; Elizalde, Edurne; Alignani, Diego; Zubeldia, Natalia; Otano, Itziar; Conde, Enrique; Sarobe, Pablo; Lasarte, Juan Jose; Hervas-Stubbs, Sandra

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies have found that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) expressing PD-1 can recognize autologous tumor cells, suggesting that cells derived from PD-1(+) TILs can be used in adoptive T-cell therapy (ACT). However, no study thus far has evaluated the antitumor activity of PD-1-selected TILs in vivo In two mouse models of solid tumors, we show that PD-1 allows identification and isolation of tumor-specific TILs without previous knowledge of their antigen specificities. Importantly, despite the high proportion of tumor-reactive T cells present in bulk CD8 TILs before expansion, only T-cell products derived from sorted PD-1(+), but not from PD-1(-) or bulk CD8 TILs, specifically recognized tumor cells. The fold expansion of PD-1(+) CD8 TILs was 10 times lower than that of PD-1(-) cells, suggesting that outgrowth of PD-1(-) cells was the limiting factor in the tumor specificity of cells derived from bulk CD8 TILs. The highly differentiated state of PD-1(+) cells was likely the main cause hampering ex vivo expansion of this subset. Moreover, PD-1 precisely identified marrow-infiltrating, myeloma-specific T cells in a mouse model of multiple myeloma. In vivo, only cells expanded from PD-1(+) CD8 TILs contained tumor progression, and their efficacy was enhanced by PDL-1 blockade. Overall, our data provide a rationale for the use of PD-1-selected TILs in ACT. Cancer Res; 77(13); 3672-84. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Engineered artificial antigen presenting cells facilitate direct and efficient expansion of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Development of a standardized platform for the rapid expansion of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) with anti-tumor function from patients with limited TIL numbers or tumor tissues challenges their clinical application. Methods To facilitate adoptive immunotherapy, we applied genetically-engineered K562 cell-based artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPCs) for the direct and rapid expansion of TILs isolated from primary cancer specimens. Results TILs outgrown in IL-2 undergo rapid, CD28-independent expansion in response to aAPC stimulation that requires provision of exogenous IL-2 cytokine support. aAPCs induce numerical expansion of TILs that is statistically similar to an established rapid expansion method at a 100-fold lower feeder cell to TIL ratio, and greater than those achievable using anti-CD3/CD28 activation beads or extended IL-2 culture. aAPC-expanded TILs undergo numerical expansion of tumor antigen-specific cells, remain amenable to secondary aAPC-based expansion, and have low CD4/CD8 ratios and FOXP3+ CD4+ cell frequencies. TILs can also be expanded directly from fresh enzyme-digested tumor specimens when pulsed with aAPCs. These "young" TILs are tumor-reactive, positively skewed in CD8+ lymphocyte composition, CD28 and CD27 expression, and contain fewer FOXP3+ T cells compared to parallel IL-2 cultures. Conclusion Genetically-enhanced aAPCs represent a standardized, "off-the-shelf" platform for the direct ex vivo expansion of TILs of suitable number, phenotype and function for use in adoptive immunotherapy. PMID:21827675

  20. Stromal lymphocyte infiltration after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is associated with aggressive residual disease and lower disease-free survival in HER2-positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hamy, A-S; Pierga, J-Y; Sabaila, A; Laas, E; Bonsang-Kitzis, H; Laurent, C; Vincent-Salomon, A; Cottu, P; Lerebours, F; Rouzier, R; Lae, M; Reyal, F

    2017-09-01

    The role of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in breast cancer has been extensively studied over the last decade. High TILs levels have been associated with pathological response rate in the neoadjuvant setting and with better outcomes in the adjuvant setting. However, little attention has been paid to changes in TILs and residual TIL levels after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). We investigated TIL levels before, after chemotherapy, and their dynamics during treatment; and we assessed the correlation of these levels with response to NAC and prognosis. We identified 175 patients with primary HER2-positive breast cancers receiving NAC+/- trastuzumab between 2002 and 2011. Microbiopsy specimens and paired surgical samples were evaluated for stromal lymphocyte infiltration. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to assess the association of clinical and pathological factors with pathological complete response (pCR) and disease-free survival. Baseline TIL levels were not significantly associated with pCR. TIL levels decreased during treatment in 78% of the patients. The magnitude of the decrease was strongly associated with pCR. After chemotherapy, TIL levels were high in tumors displaying aggressive patterns (high residual cancer burden score, mitotic index >22, tumor cellularity >5%). In the population with residual disease, TIL levels >25% at the end of NAC were significantly associated with an adverse outcome (TILs >25%, HR = 7.98, P = 0.009) after multivariate analyses including BMI, post-NAC mitotic index and tumor grade. A decrease in TIL levels during chemotherapy was positively associated with response to treatment. In tumor failing to achieve pCR, post-NAC lymphocytic infiltration was associated with higher residual tumor burden and adverse clinical outcome. Further studies are required to characterize immune infiltration in residual disease to identify candidates who could benefit from second-line therapy trials including

  1. Synergistic protective role of mirazid (Commiphora molmol) and ascorbic acid against tilmicosin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Ghazy, Emad W; Fayez, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Tilmicosin (TIL) is a long-acting macrolide antibiotic approved for the treatment of cattle with Bovine Respiratory Disease. However, overdose of TIL has been reported to induce cardiotoxicity. The purpose of our experiment was to evaluate the protective effects of Commiphora molmol (mirazid (MRZ); myrrh) and (or) ascorbic acid (AA) against TIL-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. MRZ and AA were orally administered using stomach gavage, either alone or in combination for 5 consecutive days, followed with a single TIL overdose. TIL overdose induced a significant increase in serum levels of cardiac damage biomarkers (AST, LDH, CK, CK-MB, and cTnT), as well as cardiac lipid peroxidation, but cardiac levels of antioxidant biomarkers (GSH, SOD, CAT, and TAC) were decreased. Both MRZ and AA tended to normalize the elevated serum levels of cardiac injury biomarkers. Furthermore, MRZ and AA reduced TIL-induced lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress parameters. MRZ and AA combined produced a synergistic cardioprotective effect. We conclude that myrrh and (or) vitamin C administration minimizes the toxic effects of TIL through their free-radical-scavenging and potent antioxidant activities.

  2. Tumour infiltrating lymphocytes are predictors of lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Young; Kim, Chul Hwan; Lee, Youngseok; Lee, Jeong Hyeon; Chae, Yang-Seok

    2017-10-01

    Lymph node metastasis (LNM) is an important factor for predicting prognosis and selecting appropriate treatment in early gastric cancers (EGCs). We investigated the histopathological and microenvironmental predictors of LNM in EGCs. We retrieved 43 cases of EGC without LNM and 59 cases with LNM. Clinicopathological variables and tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), Crohn's-like lymphoid reaction (CLR), tumour stromal percentage (TSP), and FOXA1 expression were evaluated and correlated with LNM. Among the 102 cases, 68 cases (66.7%) had low TILs and 34 cases (33.3%) had high TILs. High TILs were significantly correlated with the absence of LNM (p<0.001), less extent of invasion (p=0.004), absence of LVI (p=0.035), conspicuous CLR (p<0.001), and the absence of TSP (p=0.009). Conspicuous CLR was observed in 47 cases (46.1%) and TSP was present in 17 cases (16.7%) and neither was correlated with LNM. High FOXA1 expression was significantly associated with presence of LNM, low TILs, and submucosal invasion. In multivariate analysis, low TILs (p=0.023), LVI (p=0.008), and submucosal invasion (p=0.001) were independent predictive factors for LNM in EGCs. Evaluation of TILs in biopsied or endoscopically resected EGC specimens may help to predict LNM and select subsequent proper treatment modalities and follow-up. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Endoplasmic reticulum stress induces secretion of high-mobility group proteins and is associated with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, In Ah; Heo, Sun-Hee; Song, In Hye; Kim, Young-Ae; Park, Hye Seon; Bang, Won Seon; Park, Suk Young; Jo, Jeong-Hyon; Lee, Hee Jin; Gong, Gyungyub

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the prognostic and predictive significance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) have been shown, the cause of the TIL influx is unclear. Here, we investigated whether extracellular secretion of HMGN1 is associated with TIL influx, as well as increased endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), in human TNBC. Methods We reviewed the slides of 767 patients with TNBC and evaluated the TIL levels. We also assessed the expression of HMGs and several ERS-associated molecules using immunohistochemical staining. Western blot analysis of human TNBC cell lines and pharmacological ERS inducers was used to determine if HMGN1 migrates from the nucleus to the extracellular space in response to ERS. Results On immunohistochemical staining, either higher nuclear or cytoplasmic expression of both HMGB1 and HMGN1 was significantly associated with ERS. TILs showed a positive correlation with the cytoplasmic expression of the HMGs. Western blot analysis of TNBC cell lines showed that ERS induction resulted in the secretion of HMG proteins. Conclusions This is the first study to elucidate the associations among ERS, secretion of HMGs, and degree of TILs in TNBCs. Understanding the mechanisms of TIL influx will help in the development of effective immunotherapeutic agents for TNBC. PMID:27494867

  4. TGF-β1-mediated Smad3 enhances PD-1 expression on antigen-specific T cells in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Benjamin V.; Freeman, Zachary T.; Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Chattergoon, Michael A.; Rutebemberwa, Alleluiah; Steigner, Jordana; Winter, Matthew E.; Huynh, Thanh V.; Sebald, Suzanne M.; Lee, Se-Jin; Pan, Fan; Pardoll, Drew M.; Cox, Andrea L.

    2017-01-01

    Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) is a co-inhibitory receptor that down-regulates the activity of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in cancer and of virus-specific T cells in chronic infection. The molecular mechanisms driving high PD-1 expression on TIL have not been fully investigated. We demonstrate that transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) directly enhances antigen-induced PD-1 expression through Smad3-dependent, Smad2-independent transcriptional activation in T cells in vitro and in TIL in vivo. The PD-1hi subset seen in CD8+ TIL is absent in Smad3-deficient tumor-specific CD8+ TIL, resulting in enhanced cytokine production by TIL and in draining lymph nodes and of anti-tumor activity. In addition to TGF-β1’s previously known effects on T cell function, our findings suggest that TGF-β1 mediates T cell suppression via PD-1 upregulation in the TME. They highlight bidirectional crosstalk between effector TIL and TGF-β-producing cells that upregulates multiple components of the PD-1 signaling pathway to inhibit anti-tumor immunity. PMID:27683557

  5. Modulating Effects of Spirulina platensis against Tilmicosin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Abdelaziz E.; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Objective Tilmicosin (TIL) is a long-acting macrolide antibiotic used to treat cattle for pathogens that cause bovine respiratory disease. However, overdoses of this medication have been reported to induce cardiac damage. Our experimental objective was to evaluate the protective effects of Spirulina platensis (SP) administration against TIL-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. Materials and Methods Our experimental in vivo animal study used 40 male albino mice that were divided into five groups of eight mice per group. The first group served as a control group and was injected with saline. The second group received SP at dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight for five days. The third group received a single dose of TIL (75 mg/kg, subcutaneously). Groups 4 and 5 were given SP at doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight for five consecutive days just before administration of TIL at the same dose and regimen used for group 3. Results TIL treated animals showed a significant increase in serum cardiac injury biomarkers as well as cardiac lipid peroxidation, however they had evidence of an inhibition in antioxidant biomarkers. SP normalized elevated serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), and CK-MB. Furthermore, SP reduced TIL-induced lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion Administration of SP minimized the toxic effects of TIL by its free radicalscavenging and potent antioxidant activity. PMID:25870843

  6. Clinical Validity and Utility of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Routine Clinical Practice for Breast Cancer Patients: Current and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Wein, Lironne; Savas, Peter; Luen, Stephen J.; Virassamy, Balaji; Salgado, Roberto; Loi, Sherene

    2017-01-01

    The interest in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) as a prognostic biomarker in breast cancer has grown in recent years. Biomarkers must undergo comprehensive evaluation in terms of analytical validity, clinical validity and clinical utility before they can be accepted as part of clinical practice. The International Immuno-Oncology Biomarker Working Group has developed a practice guideline on scoring TILs in breast cancer in order to standardize TIL assessment. The prognostic value of TILs as a biomarker in early-stage breast cancer has been established by assessing tumor samples in thousands of patients from large prospective clinical trials of adjuvant therapy. There is a strong linear relationship between increase in TILs and improved disease-free survival for triple-negative and HER2-positive disease. Higher levels of TILs have also been associated with increased rates of pathological complete response to neoadjuvant therapy. TILs have potential clinical utility in breast cancer in a number of areas. These include prediction of responders to immune checkpoint blockade, identification of primary HER2-positive and triple-negative patients who have excellent prognoses and may thus be appropriate for treatment de-escalation, and potentially incorporation into a neoadjuvant endpoint which may be a better surrogate maker for drug development. PMID:28824872

  7. Total inward leakage measurement of particulates for N95 filtering facepiece respirators--a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Rengasamy, Samy; Walbert, Gary F; Newcomb, William E; Faulkner, Kimberly; Rengasamy, Mathi M; Brannen, Jeremy J; Szalajda, Jonathan V

    2014-03-01

    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) certified particulate respirators need to be properly fit tested before use to ensure workers' respiratory protection. However, the effectiveness of American National Standards Institute-/Occupational Safety and Health Administration (ANSI-/OSHA)-accepted fit tests for particulate respirators in predicting actual workplace protection provided to workers is lacking. NIOSH addressed this issue by evaluating the fit of half-mask particulate filtering respirators as a component of a program designed to add total inward leakage (TIL) requirements for all respirators to Title 42 Code of Federal Regulations Part 84. Specifically, NIOSH undertook a validation study to evaluate the reproducibility of the TIL test procedure between two laboratories. A PortaCount® was used to measure the TIL of five N95 model filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) on test subjects in two different laboratories. Concurrently, filter efficiency for four of the five N95 FFR models was measured using laboratory aerosol as well as polydisperse NaCl aerosol employed for NIOSH particulate respirator certification. Results showed that two N95 models passed the TIL tests at a rate of ~80-85% and ~86-94% in the two laboratories, respectively. However, the TIL passing rate for the other three N95 models was 0-5.7% in both laboratories combined. Good agreement (≥83%) of the TIL data between the two laboratories was obtained. The three models that had relatively lower filter efficiency for laboratory aerosol as well as for NaCl aerosol showed relatively low TIL passing rates in both laboratories. Of the four models tested for penetration, one model with relatively higher efficiency showed a higher passing rate for TIL tests in both laboratories indicating that filter efficiency might influence TIL. Further studies are needed to better understand the implications of the data in the workplace.

  8. Mapping of electrophysiological response to transcranial infrared laser stimulation on the human brain in vivo measured by electroencephalography (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinlong; Reddy, Divya Dhandapani; Gonzalez-Lima, F.; Liu, Hanli

    2017-02-01

    Transcranial infrared laser stimulation (TILS) is a non-destructive and non-thermal photobiomodulation therapy or process on the human brain; TILS uses infrared light from lasers or LEDs and has gained increased recognition for its beneficial effects on a variety of neurological and psychological conditions. While the mechanism of TILS has been assumed to stem from cytochrome-c-oxidase (CCO), which is the last enzyme in the electron transportation chain and is the primary photoacceptor, no literature is found to report electrophysiological response to TILS. In this study, a 64-channel electroencephalography (EEG) system was employed to monitor electrophysiological activities from 15 healthy human participants before, during and after TILS. A placebo experimental protocol was also applied for rigorous comparison. After recording a 3-minute baseline, we applied a 1064-nm laser with a power of 3.5W on the right forehead of each human participant for 8 minutes, followed by a 5-minute recovery period. In 64-channel EEG data analysis, we utilized several methods (root mean square, principal component analysis followed by independent component analysis, permutation conditional mutual information, and time-frequency wavelet analysis) to reveal differences in electrophysiological response to TILS between the stimulated versus placebo group. The analyzed results were further investigated using general linear model and paired t-test to reveal statistically meaningful responses induced by TILS. Moreover, this study will provide spatial mapping of human electrophysiological and possibly neural network responses to TILS for first time, indicating the potential of EEG to be an effective method for monitoring neurological improvement induced by TILS.

  9. Antigen(s)-specific tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes from tumour induced by human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) DNA transfected NIH 3T3 transformants.

    PubMed Central

    Puri, R K; Leland, P; Razzaque, A

    1991-01-01

    Tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) have recently been shown to mediate potent therapeutic effects in certain malignancies in mice and in humans. To understand the mechanism of TIL immunotherapy it would be advantageous to generate tumour-specific TIL and to study a defined system of TIL and target cells in which the tumour epitope(s) recognized by TIL might be identified. We have established tumourigenic cell lines by transfection of NIH 3T3 cells with the entire genome of human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) and its small fragment (about 5% of the viral DNA sequence). Injection of these cells into nude mice produced tumours termed G-2T and 14-2T, respectively. Cell lines derived from these tumours when injected in NIH Swiss mice produced tumours, G-2TS and 14-2TS, respectively. We have generated TIL from G-2TS tumour that can kill G-2TS tumour cells in vitro but not other related tumours (14-2TS or MCA-106). These TIL can be expanded between 2-6.5 every 3-5 days. The TIL proliferated in tissue culture in response to recombinant interleukin-2 and interleukin-4 and maintained their tumor specificity for up to 6 months in vitro. Their phenotype was Thy 1.2+, Lyt-2+ and L3T4-. The availability of such tumour-specific stable TIL lines and specific viral-transformed targets will provide an opportunity to characterize the tumour-associated antigen critical for the specific cytotoxicity in this system and thereby to clarify the mechanism of this promising immunological approach to cancer therapy. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1703057

  10. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in breast cancer predict the response to chemotherapy and survival outcome: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke; Xu, Jianjun; Zhang, Tao; Xue, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) influence tumor prognosis and the chemotherapeutic response. Here, we quantified the clinical relevance of TILs, including the effect of TILs on lymphocyte subpopulations and assessed their consistency in breast cancer. We searched published literature from January 2000 to January 2016. The main parameters analyzed were pathological complete response (pCR) and survival outcome following chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer. Pooled odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR) values with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using random and fixed-effects models. Subgroup and heterogeneity analyses were also conducted. Twenty-three studies, which included 13,100 patients, met the inclusion criteria. The pooled results showed that TILs were associated with clinicopathological parameters of biologically aggressive phenotypes, such as high tumor grade or estrogen/progesterone receptor negativity, but they were not correlated with human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 expression. Moreover, a high TIL level was associated with a significantly improved pCR rate compared with a low TIL level (OR, 2.81; P < 0.001), particularly in the triple-negative breast cancer subtype (OR, 4.67; P < 0.001). An analysis of lymphocyte subpopulations showed that infiltration by CD8 lymphocytes, but not by CD4 lymphocytes and Foxp3 cells, was associated with a high pCR rate. Furthermore, a high TIL level was associated with significantly longer disease-free survival and overall survival. Our present meta-analysis indicates that an increased number of TILs predicted pCR to chemotherapy and improved survival. A high TIL level, characterized mainly by the infiltration of CD8 lymphocytes, is a strong predictive and prognostic factor. PMID:27329588

  11. Reliability of tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte and tertiary lymphoid structure assessment in human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Buisseret, Laurence; Desmedt, Christine; Garaud, Soizic; Fornili, Marco; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Van den Eyden, Gert; de Wind, Alexandre; Duquenne, Sebastien; Boisson, Anais; Naveaux, Celine; Rothé, Francoise; Rorive, Sandrine; Decaestecker, Christine; Larsimont, Denis; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine; Biganzoli, Elia; Sotiriou, Christos; Willard-Gallo, Karen

    2017-09-01

    The presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), reflecting host immune activity, is frequently correlated with better clinical outcomes, particularly in HER2-positive and triple-negative breast cancer. Recent findings suggest that organization of immune infiltrates in tertiary lymphoid structures also has a beneficial effect on survival. This study investigated inter- and intra-observer variation in TIL assessment using conventional hematoxylin-eosin versus immunohistochemical staining to identify immune cells. Global, intratumoral, and stromal TIL, as well as tertiary lymphoid structures were scored independently by experienced pathologists on full-face tumor sections (n=124). The fidelity of scoring infiltrates in core biopsies compared to surgical specimens, and pathological assessment compared to quantitative digital analysis was also evaluated. The inter-observer concordance correlation coefficient was 0.80 for global, 0.72 for intratumoral, and 0.71 for stromal TIL, while the intra-observer concordance correlation coefficient was 0.90 for global, 0.77 for intratumoral, and 0.89 for stromal TIL using immunohistochemical stains. Correlations were lower with hematoxylin-eosin stains, particularly for intratumoral TIL, while global scores had the highest concordance correlation coefficients. Our study concluded that tertiary lymphoid structures are accurately and consistently scored using immunohistochemical but not hematoxylin-eosin stains. A strong association was observed between TIL in core biopsies and surgical samples (R(2)=0.74) but this did not extend to tertiary lymphoid structures (R(2)=0.26). TIL scored by pathologists and digital analysis were correlated but our analysis reveals a constant bias between these methods. These data challenge current criteria for TIL and tertiary lymphoid structure assessment in breast cancer and recommend that how pathologists evaluate immune infiltrates be reexamined for future studies.

  12. Glutaminase expression is a poor prognostic factor in node-positive triple-negative breast cancer patients with a high level of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo Young; Heo, Sun-Hee; Choi, Seul Ki; Song, In Hye; Park, In Ah; Kim, Young-Ae; Park, Hye Seon; Park, Suk Young; Bang, Won Seon; Gong, Gyungyub; Lee, Hee Jin

    2017-04-01

    Glutamine metabolism is emerging as one aspect of dysregulated metabolism of tumors. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells are glutamine dependent, whereas luminal-type cells tend to be glutamine independent. Therefore, TNBC patients might benefit from therapies targeting glutamine metabolism. To investigate the clinical significance of glutamine metabolism, we examined expression and prognostic significance of glutaminase in tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in TNBC. We retrieved 658 surgically resected TNBCs and analyzed glutaminase expression in tumor cells and TILs by immunohistochemical staining. Glutaminase expression was observed in 237 cases (36.0%) in tumor cells and 104 cases (15.5%) in TILs. Although glutaminase expression in tumor cells was significantly associated with a low level of TILs (p = 0.018), glutaminase expression in TILs was significantly higher in cases with a high level of TILs (p = 0.031). Glutaminase expression in tumor cells was significantly associated with poor disease-free survival in patients with lymph node metastasis and high levels of TILs (p = 0.020). In addition, it was an independent poor prognostic factor (hazard ratio = 10.643, 95% confidence interval = 1.999-56.668; p = 0.006). Glutaminase expression in tumor cells was observed in a subset of TNBC patients. It was significantly associated with a low level of TILs and poor disease-free survival in TNBCs presenting with lymph node metastasis and high levels of TILs.

  13. Phenotype and function of T cells infiltrating visceral metastases from gastrointestinal cancers and melanoma: implications for adoptive cell transfer therapy.

    PubMed

    Turcotte, Simon; Gros, Alena; Hogan, Katherine; Tran, Eric; Hinrichs, Christian S; Wunderlich, John R; Dudley, Mark E; Rosenberg, Steven A

    2013-09-01

    Adoptive cell transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) can mediate cancer regression in patients with metastatic melanoma, but whether this approach can be applied to common epithelial malignancies remains unclear. In this study, we compared the phenotype and function of TILs derived from liver and lung metastases from patients with gastrointestinal (GI) cancers (n = 14) or melanoma (n = 42). Fewer CD3(+) T cells were found to infiltrate GI compared with melanoma metastases, but the proportions of CD8(+) cells, T cell differentiation stage, and expression of costimulatory molecules were similar for both tumor types. Clinical-scale expansion up to ~50 × 10(9) T cells on average was obtained for all patients with GI cancer and melanoma. From GI tumors, however, TIL outgrowth in high-dose IL-2 yielded 22 ± 1.4% CD3(+)CD8(+) cells compared with 63 ± 2.4% from melanoma (p < 0.001). IFN-γ ELISA demonstrated MHC class I-mediated reactivity of TIL against autologous tumor in 5 of 7 GI cancer patients tested (9% of 188 distinct TIL cultures) and in 9 of 10 melanoma patients (43% of 246 distinct TIL cultures). In these assays, MHC class I-mediated up-regulation of CD137 (4-1BB) expression on CD8(+) cells suggested that 0-3% of TILs expanded from GI cancer metastases were tumor-reactive. This study implies that the main challenge to the development of TIL adoptive cell transfer for metastatic GI cancers may not be the in vitro expansion of bulk TILs, but the ability to select and enrich for tumor-reactive T cells.

  14. Mathematical modeling of the effect of boosting tumor infiltrating lymphocyte in immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kartono, Agus; Subiyanto

    2013-10-15

    This study, we analyzed the effect of boosting tumor infiltrating lymphocyte in immunotherapy using mathematical modeling. In this model, tumor growth is described as a tumor cells population with immunotherapy. This model also describes the effect of Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TIL), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon alpha (INF-alpha) on dynamics of tumor cells. Numerical modeling of immunotherapy with or not boosted Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocyte (TIL) are presented in this study. We obtained that boosting Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocyte (TIL) in immunotherapy have a very significant role in killing of tumor cells.

  15. Wave modulation of the extratropical tropopause inversion layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilch Kedzierski, Robin; Matthes, Katja; Bumke, Karl

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to quantify how much of the observed strength and variability in the zonal-mean extratropical tropopause inversion layer (TIL) comes from the modulation of the temperature field and its gradients around the tropopause by planetary- and synoptic-scale waves. By analyzing high-resolution observations, it also puts other TIL enhancing mechanisms into context.Using gridded Global Positioning System radio occultation (GPS-RO) temperature profiles from the COSMIC mission (2007-2013), we are able to extract the extratropical wave signal by a simplified wavenumber-frequency domain filtering method and quantify the resulting TIL enhancement. By subtracting the extratropical wave signal, we show how much of the TIL is associated with other processes, at mid- and high latitudes, for both hemispheres and all seasons.The transient and reversible modulation by planetary- and synoptic-scale waves is almost entirely responsible for the TIL in midlatitudes. This means that wave-mean flow interactions, inertia-gravity waves and the residual circulation are of minor importance for the strength and variability in the midlatitude TIL.At polar regions, the extratropical wave modulation is dominant for the TIL strength as well, but there is also a clear fingerprint from sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) and final warmings in both hemispheres. Therefore, polar vortex breakups are partially responsible for the observed polar TIL strength in winter (if SSWs occur) and spring. Also, part of the polar summer TIL strength cannot be explained by extratropical wave modulation.We suggest that our wave modulation mechanism integrates several TIL enhancing mechanisms proposed in previous literature while robustly disclosing the overall outcome of the different processes involved. By analyzing observations only, our study identifies which mechanisms dominate the extratropical TIL strength and their relative contribution. It remains to be determined, however, which roles the

  16. Simplified Screening Approach Identifies Mutated Proteins Expressed in Patient Tumors | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Adoptive cell therapy using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is a very effective treatment for patients with metastatic melanoma. In phase 2 clinical trials, up to 70 percent of patients with melanoma who received autologous TILs had considerable regressions of metastatic lesions. Recently, in another trial, 40 percent of patients treated had complete regressions of all measurable lesions lasting more than five years after treatment. Identifying antigens associated with TIL-mediated tumor regression has been a difficult task due to the diversity of these large lymphocyte populations and the complexity of current screening approaches.

  17. The effects of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes from renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Steger, G. G.; Kaboo, R.; deKernion, J. B.; Figlin, R.; Belldegrun, A.

    1995-01-01

    It has been shown that granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) can induce specific and non-specific anti-tumour cytotoxicity and also stimulates the proliferation and function of peripheral lymphocytes and thymocytes. GM-CSF and interleukin 2 (IL-2) act synergistically on peripheral lymphocytes for the induction of a highly effective cytotoxic cell population. Thus, the goal of our investigation was to study the effects of GM-CSF upon expansion, proliferation and in vitro killing activity of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) from renal cell carcinoma (RCC). TILs from seven consecutive tumours were cultured with GM-CSF (500 or 1000 nmol ml-1) without IL-2 supplementation, with suboptimal doses of IL-2 (8 and 40 U ml-1) plus GM-CSF (1000 nmol ml-1), and with a dose of IL-2 (400 U ml-1) which sufficed alone to induce TIL development plus GM-CSF (500 or 1000 nmol ml-1). GM-CSF alone or together with suboptimal doses of IL-2 was not able to induce or facilitate TIL development in these cultures. When GM-CSF at both concentrations studied was added to optimal doses of IL-2 the resulting TIL populations proliferated significantly better and faster (+66%), resulting in a higher cell yield (+24%) at the time of maximal expansion of the TIL cultures. The length of the culture periods of TILs was not affected by GM-CSF when compared with the control cultures supplemented with IL-2 alone. In vitro killing activity of TIL populations stimulated with IL-2 and GM-CSF remained unspecific, but lysis of the autologous tumour targets as well as the allogeneic renal tumour targets was significantly enhanced (+138%) as compared with the corresponding control TILs stimulated with IL-2 alone. Lysis of the natural killer (NK)-sensitive control cell line K562 and the NK-resistant Daudi cell line remained unchanged even though FACS analysis of TILs cultured with IL-2 and 1000 nmol of GM-CSF demonstrated a significantly higher proportion of cells expressing the CD56

  18. Genomic evidence for interspecies acquisition of chromosomal DNA from Campylobacter jejuni by Campylobacter coli strains of a turkey-associated clonal group (cluster II).

    PubMed

    Chan, Kamfai; Elhanafi, Driss; Kathariou, Sophia

    2008-08-01

    Previous multilocus sequence typing studies of Campylobacter coli from meat animals identified an unusual cluster of strains, primarily from turkeys, termed "cluster II" and characterized by the presence of the C. jejuni aspA103 allele. To characterize the extent of genomic input from C. jejuni in the aspA region of cluster II C. coli, we sequenced the 6.1 kb genomic region upstream of and including aspA from two turkey-derived cluster II strains (C. coli 6979 and C. coli 7474, of ST-1150 and ST-1161, respectively), as well as from a turkey-derived multidrug-resistant strain (C. coli 6818) representing a major sequence type (ST-1101) outside of cluster II. A gene encoding a putative CRP-family transcriptional regulator (CCO0137) was present in C. coli 6818 and the reference strain C. coli RM2228, whose genome has been sequenced, but not in either cluster II strain evaluated. This gene was also absent from C. jejuni NCTC 11168 and C. jejuni RM1221. Moreover, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis revealed that in both cluster II strains, genes encoding subunit II of cytochrome d ubiquinol oxidase (cydB) and a putative aspartate racemase (Cj0085c) harbored numerous C. jejuni-specific SNPs. Interestingly, genes encoding subunit I of cytochrome d ubiquinol oxidase (cydA), uracil-DNA glycosylase (ung), and aspartate ammonia-lyase (aspA) harbored C. coli-specific SNPs in certain portions but C. jejuni-specific SNPs in others, suggesting that these were hybrid genes with C. jejuni-derived segments. Analysis of a ung mutant in C. coli 7474 indicated that the putative hybrid ung of this cluster II strain was functional. Our data suggest the occurrence of recombination events that resulted in genomic import of DNA from C. jejuni in the region between cydA and aspA in cluster II strains of C. coli.

  19. Caenorhabditis elegans EXO-3 contributes to longevity and reproduction: differential roles in somatic cells and germ cells.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yuichi; Moriwaki, Takahito; Funakoshi, Masafumi; Zhang-Akiyama, Qiu-Mei

    2015-02-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites are the major DNA damage generated continuously even under normal conditions, and inhibit DNA replication/transcription. AP endonucleases are ubiquitous enzymes required for the repair of AP sites and 3' blocking ends, but their physiological roles in multicellular organisms are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated how an AP endonuclease functions in a multicellular organism (Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans)). EXO-3 is one of the AP endonucleases in C. elegans. Using an exo-3 mutant worm, we found that deletion of the exo-3 gene caused shortened lifespan in an ung-1-dependent manner. UNG-1 is a uracil DNA glycosylase in C. elegans, and the present finding suggested that UNG-1 is the major producer of AP sites that affects lifespan, and EXO-3 contributes to longevity by completing the repair of uracil. Next we found that the exo-3 gene was abundantly expressed in the gonads, and AP sites in the gonad were efficiently repaired, suggesting that EXO-3 functioned particularly in the gonad. Deletion of the exo-3 gene resulted in a significant decrease in self-brood size. This was rescued by deficiency of NTH-1, which is a bifunctional DNA glycosylase in C. elegans that recognizes oxidative base damage. This result suggested that the major substrate of EXO-3 in the gonad was 3' blocking end generated by NTH-1, and that EXO-3 played an important role in reproduction. A contribution of EXO-3 to reproduction was also suggested by our finding here that the decrease of self-brood size of the exo-3 mutant became more marked when worms were treated with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and sodium bisulfite (NaHSO3). This study demonstrated differential roles of EXO-3 in somatic cells and germ cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pathophysiology of B-cell intrinsic immunoglobulin class switch recombination deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Durandy, Anne; Taubenheim, Nadine; Peron, Sophie; Fischer, Alain

    2007-01-01

    B-cell intrinsic immunoglobulin class switch recombination (Ig-CSR) deficiencies, previously termed hyper-IgM syndromes, are genetically determined conditions characterized by normal or elevated serum IgM levels and an absence or very low levels of IgG, IgA, and IgE. As a function of the molecular mechanism, the defective CSR is variably associated to a defect in the generation of somatic hypermutations (SHMs) in the Ig variable region. The study of Ig-CSR deficiencies contributed to a better delineation of the mechanisms underlying CSR and SHM, the major events of antigen-triggered antibody maturation. Four Ig-CSR deficiency phenotypes have been so far reported: the description of the activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) deficiency (Ig-CSR deficiency 1), caused by recessive mutations of AICDA gene, characterized by a defect in CSR and SHM, clearly established the role of AID in the induction of the Ig gene rearrangements underlying CSR and SHM. A CSR-specific function of AID has, however, been detected by the observation of a selective CSR defect caused by mutations affecting the C-terminus of AID. Ig-CSR deficiency 2 is the consequence of uracil-N-glycosylase (UNG) deficiency. Because UNG, a molecule of the base excision repair machinery, removes uracils from DNA and AID deaminates cytosines into uracils, that observation indicates that the AID-UNG pathway directly targets DNA of switch regions from the Ig heavy-chain locus to induce the CSR process. Ig-CSR deficiencies 3 and 4 are characterized by a selective CSR defect resulting from blocks at distinct steps of CSR. A further understanding of the CSR machinery is expected from their molecular definition.

  1. Uracil DNA Glycosylase BKRF3 Contributes to Epstein-Barr Virus DNA Replication through Physical Interactions with Proteins in Viral DNA Replication Complex

    PubMed Central

    Su, Mei-Tzu; Liu, I-Hua; Wu, Chia-Wei; Chang, Shu-Ming; Tsai, Ching-Hwa; Yang, Pei-Wen; Chuang, Yu-Chia; Lee, Chung-Pei

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BKRF3 shares sequence homology with members of the uracil-N-glycosylase (UNG) protein family and has DNA glycosylase activity. Here, we explored how BKRF3 participates in the DNA replication complex and contributes to viral DNA replication. Exogenously expressed Flag-BKRF3 was distributed mostly in the cytoplasm, whereas BKRF3 was translocated into the nucleus and colocalized with the EBV DNA polymerase BALF5 in the replication compartment during EBV lytic replication. The expression level of BKRF3 increased gradually during viral replication, coupled with a decrease of cellular UNG2, suggesting BKRF3 enzyme activity compensates for UNG2 and ensures the fidelity of viral DNA replication. In immunoprecipitation-Western blotting, BKRF3 was coimmunoprecipitated with BALF5, the polymerase processivity factor BMRF1, and the immediate-early transactivator Rta. Coexpression of BMRF1 appeared to facilitate the nuclear targeting of BKRF3 in immunofluorescence staining. Residues 164 to 255 of BKRF3 were required for interaction with Rta and BALF5, whereas residues 81 to 166 of BKRF3 were critical for BMRF1 interaction in glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown experiments. Viral DNA replication was defective in cells harboring BKRF3 knockout EBV bacmids. In complementation assays, the catalytic mutant BKRF3(Q90L,D91N) restored viral DNA replication, whereas the leucine loop mutant BKRF3(H213L) only partially rescued viral DNA replication, coupled with a reduced ability to interact with the viral DNA polymerase and Rta. Our data suggest that BKRF3 plays a critical role in viral DNA synthesis predominantly through its interactions with viral proteins in the DNA replication compartment, while its enzymatic activity may be supplementary for uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) function during virus replication. IMPORTANCE Catalytic activities of both cellular UDG UNG2 and viral UDGs contribute to herpesviral DNA replication. To ensure that the enzyme

  2. Brittle-Ductible Failure Mechanics of Concrete and Mortar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-14

    22c. OFF ICE SYMBOL (Include Arita Code, Dr. Spencer T. Wu ( 202) 767-6962 AFOSR/NA 00 FORM 1473, 83 APR EDITION OP I JAN 73 IS OBSOLETE. Ung...involves the analysis of discontinuities and is one of the 89 2 15 151 pressing issues of failure mechanics, see recent review by Bazant [I]. In the...29] Finney, J.L. (1979). "A Procedure for the Construction of Voronoi Polyhedra", J. Comp. Phyjsics, Vol. 32, pp. 137-143. [301 Bazant , Z.P., and

  3. Republication of: The redshift of extragalactic nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwicky, F.

    2009-01-01

    This English translation of the paper by F. Zwicky, "Die Rotverschieb ung von extragalaktischen Nebeln", Helv. Phys. Acta 6, 110-127 (1933), in which he concluded from the results of observations that the amount of non-luminous matter in the Universe must be greater than that of luminous matter -- thus becoming an early precursor of the dark matter idea, has been selected for publication in the Golden Oldies series of General Relativity and Gravitation. The paper is accompanied by an editorial note written by Jürgen Ehlers and by Zwicky's brief biography compiled by Andrzej Krasiński.

  4. The Rolling Resistance and Sinkage of Towed Dual Wheel Combination in Sand

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    Prell Ion of Pneumat 1 Tyres on San 1 AD-P004 263 Efferts of Slip on Rflergy Distribution between Tyre ani Soil AJ-P004 2f...Mo leli sat lo.i IPS I’,-US hors Routes et 1u Sol en Vue de 1’AmoUor.-t Ion " la Tra 11 on (MoielUng of Off-Roai Tyre « an... Tyre Performance AO-POO’« 261 The Rolling Resist n:v an’ Sinkage of Tow.-d Dual Wheel Combinations In Sril AD-POO’* 262 Performan

  5. JPRS Report, China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-16

    protein and diversified nutritional -component foods are going to be in sharp market demand. In addition, con- sumers are going to make higher...in recent years. Certain companies or enter- prises have employed the form of providing technology, seed stock, feed, or manufacturing for...people’s suffering. Hao Po-tsun’s law and order cabinet also is being attacked. Chia -i County’s Ts’ai T’ung-jung used "Hao Po-tsun’s downfall is in the

  6. Stress and Hair Loss: Are They Related?

    MedlinePlus

    ... hair. Trichotillomania. Trichotillomania (trik-o-til-o-MAY-nee-uh) is an irresistible urge to pull out ... Flavin, M.D. References Shapiro J, et al. Evaluation and diagnosis of hair loss. http://www.uptodate. ...

  7. Improved Personalized Cancer Immunotherapy: Rapid Selection of Tumor-Reactive T Cells based on Expression of Specific Cell Surface Markers | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute’s Surgery Branch seeks partners interested in collaborative research to co-develop adoptive transfer of tumor infiltrating leukocytes (TIL) for cancers other than melanoma.

  8. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in triple negative breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Castaneda, Carlos A; Mittendorf, Elizabeth; Casavilca, Sandro; Wu, Yun; Castillo, Miluska; Arboleda, Patricia; Nunez, Teresa; Guerra, Henry; Barrionuevo, Carlos; Dolores-Cerna, Ketty; Belmar-Lopez, Carolina; Abugattas, Julio; Calderon, Gabriela; De La Cruz, Miguel; Cotrina, Manuel; Dunstan, Jorge; Gomez, Henry L; Vidaurre, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine influence of neoadjuvant-chemotherapy (NAC) over tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes (TIL) in triple-negative-breast-cancer (TNBC). METHODS TILs were evaluated in 98 TNBC cases who came to Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplasicas from 2005 to 2010. Immunohistochemistry staining for CD3, CD4, CD8 and FOXP3 was performed in tissue microarrays (TMA) sections. Evaluation of H/E in full-face and immunohistochemistry in TMA sections was performed in pre and post-NAC samples. STATA software was used and P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS Higher TIL evaluated in full-face sections from pre-NAC tumors was associated to pathologic-complete-response (pCR) (P = 0.0251) and outcome (P = 0.0334). TIL evaluated in TMA sections showed low level of agreement with full-face sections (ICC = 0.017-0.20) and was not associated to pCR or outcome. TIL in post-NAC samples were not associated to response or outcome. Post-NAC lesions with pCR had similar TIL levels than those without pCR (P = 0.6331). NAC produced a TIL decrease in full-face sections (P < 0.0001). Percentage of TIL subpopulations was correlated with their absolute counts. Higher counts of CD3, CD4, CD8 and FOXP3 in pre-NAC samples had longer disease-free-survival (DFS). Higher counts of CD3 in pre-NAC samples had longer overall-survival. Higher ratio of CD8/CD4 counts in pre-NAC was associated with pCR. Higher ratio of CD4/FOXP3 counts in pre-NAC was associated with longer DFS. Higher counts of CD4 in post-NAC samples were associated with pCR. CONCLUSION TIL in pre-NAC full-face sections in TNBC are correlated to longer survival. TIL in full-face differ from TMA sections, absolute count and percentage analysis of TIL subpopulation closely related. PMID:27777881

  9. Targeting programmed cell death ligand 1 in osteosarcoma: an auto-commentary on therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jacson K; Cote, Gregory M; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J; Duan, Zhenfeng

    Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PDL1) expression was recently shown to correlate with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in a subset of osteosarcoma patients. Among clinical factors evaluated across human osteosarcoma samples, a pulmonary origin of metastases correlated with high PDL1 expression and prominent TILs. Considering that multiple agents targeting PD-1/PDL1 are under development, targeting this immune checkpoint may be a novel immunotherapeutic route for osteosarcoma in future clinical trials.

  10. Tumor-reactive CD8+ T cells in metastatic gastrointestinal cancer refractory to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Turcotte, Simon; Gros, Alena; Tran, Eric; Lee, Chyi-Chia R; Wunderlich, John R; Robbins, Paul F; Rosenberg, Steven A

    2014-01-15

    To evaluate whether patients with metastatic gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas refractory to chemotherapy harbor tumor-reactive cytotoxic T cells. Expansion of CD8(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and cancer cell lines was attempted from gastrointestinal cancer metastases in 16 consecutive patients for the study of antitumor immune recognition. Retroviral transduction of genes encoding T-cell receptors (TCR) was used to define HLA-restriction elements and specific reactivity. TIL were expanded from metastases in all patients, and new tumor cell lines were generated in 5 patients. Autologous tumor recognition without cross-reactivity against allogeneic HLA-matched gastrointestinal tumors was found in CD8(+) TIL from 3 of these 5 patients. In a patient with gastric cancer liver metastases, the repertoire of CD8(+) TIL was dominated by cytolytic sister clones reactive to 2 out of 4 autologous cancer cell lines restricted by HLA-C*0701. From the same patient, a rare CD8(+) TIL clone with a distinct TCR recognized all four cancer cell lines restricted by HLA-B*4901. In a patient with bile duct cancer, two distinct antitumor cytolytic clones were isolated from a highly polyclonal CD8(+) TIL repertoire. TCRs isolated from these clones recognized epitopes restricted by HLA-A*0201. In a third patient, CD8(+) TIL reactivity was progressively lost against an autologous colon cancer cell line that displayed loss of HLA haplotype. This study provides a basis for the development of immunotherapy for patients with advanced gastrointestinal malignancies by first establishing the presence of naturally occurring tumor-reactive CD8(+) TIL at the molecular level. ©2013 AACR.

  11. Development of tunable high pressure CO2 laser for lidar measurements of pollutants and wind velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, J. S.; Guerra, M.; Javan, A.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of laser energy extraction at a tunable monochromatic frequency from an energetic high pressure CO2 pulsed laser plasma, for application to remote sensing of atmospheric pollutants by Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) and of wind velocities by Doppler Lidar, was investigated. The energy extraction principle analyzed is based on transient injection locking (TIL) at a tunable frequency. Several critical experiments for high gain power amplification by TIL are presented.

  12. Identification by digital immunohistochemistry of intratumoral changes of immune infiltrates after vaccine in the absence of modifications of PBMC immune cell subsets.

    PubMed

    Farsaci, Benedetto; Jochems, Caroline; Grenga, Italia; Donahue, Renee N; Tucker, Jo A; Pinto, Peter A; Merino, Maria J; Heery, Christopher R; Madan, Ravi A; Gulley, James L; Schlom, Jeffrey

    2014-08-15

    Preclinical studies have demonstrated that the combination of systemic subcutaneous (s.c.) vaccination with intratumoral (i.t.) vaccination was superior in the induction of antitumor activity vs. vaccination with either route alone. A subsequent phase I study employing i.t.-s.c. vaccination was carried out in men with locally recurrent or progressive prostate cancer. rF-PSA-TRICOM (PROSTVAC) vaccine was administered intraprostatically and rV-PSA-TRICOM followed by rF-PSA-TRICOM vaccine was administered systemically. In that study no dose limiting toxicities were observed, 19/21 patients had stable or improved prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) increased in post- vs. pre-treatment tumor biopsies, analyzed employing conventional immunohistochemistry (IHC). In the studies reported here, 31 phenotypes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were analyzed prevaccination and postvaccination as well as the functions of PBMC regulatory T cells (Tregs) and natural killer cells. A trend was observed in decreases in serum PSA with the reduction of circulating Tregs postvaccination. Digital IHC was employed prevaccination and postvaccination to measure CD4 and CD8 TILs, as well as Treg TILs by conventional IHC. Few correlations were observed with CD4, CD8 or Treg in TILs vs. PBMCs. However, patients with lower levels of CD4 TILs prevaccination showed the greatest increases in CD4 TILs postvaccine, while Treg TILs decreased postvaccine. There was also a strong correlation between decreases in serum PSA and increases in CD8 TILs postvaccine. These studies provide additional rationale for the use of i.t.-s.c. vaccinations and demonstrate a noncoordinate expression of specific immune subsets in PBMCs vs. tumor.

  13. Prognostic value, localization and correlation of PD-1/PD-L1, CD8 and FOXP3 with the desmoplastic stroma in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Diana, Angela; Wang, Lai Mun; D'Costa, Zenobia; Allen, Paul; Azad, Abul; Silva, Michael A.; Soonawalla, Zahir; Liu, Stanley; McKenna, W. Gillies; Muschel, Ruth J.; Fokas, Emmanouil

    2016-01-01

    We examined the prognostic value of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1) together with CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and FOXP3+ Tregs in resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) samples treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Whole-mount FFPE tissue sections from 145 pancreatectomies were immunohistochemically stained for PD-1, PD-L1, CD8 and FOXP3. Their expression was correlated with clinicopathological characteristics, and overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), local progression-free survival (LPFS) and distant metastases free-survival (DMFS), in the context of stroma density (haematoxylin-eosin) and activity (alpha-smooth muscle actin) and in regard to intratumoral lymphoid aggregates. The median OS was 21 months after a mean follow-up of 20 months (range, 2-69 months). In multivariate analysis, high PD-1+ TILs expression was associated with better OS (p = 0.049), LPFS (p = 0.017) and DMFS (p = 0.021). Similar findings were observed for CD8+ TILs, whereas FOXP3 and PD-L1 lacked prognostic significance. Although TIL distribution was heterogeneous, tumors of high stroma density had higher infiltration of CD8+ TILs than loose density stroma and vice versa (p < 0.001), whereas no correlation was found with stromal activity. Sixty (41.4%) tumors contained lymphoid aggregates and the presence of PD-1+ TILs was associated with better OS (p = 0.030), LPFS (p = 0.025) and DMFS (p = 0.033), whereas CD8+ TILs only correlated with superior LPFS (p = 0.039). PD-1+ and CD8+ TILs constitute independent prognostic markers in patients with PDAC treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Our study provides important insight on the role of PD-1/PD-L1 in the context of desmoplastic stroma and could help guide future immunotherapies in PDAC. PMID:27329602

  14. Subverting the adaptive immune resistance mechanism to improve clinical responses to immune checkpoint blockade therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young J

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL)-expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and clinical responsiveness to the PD-1 blocking antibody nivolumab implicates adaptive immune evasion mechanisms in cancer. We review our findings that tumor cell PD-L1 expression is induced by interferon γ (IFNγ) producing TILs. We provide a mechanistic rationale for combining IFNγ+ T helper type 1 (Th1)-inducing cancer vaccines with PD-1 immune checkpoint blockade. PMID:25964860

  15. Relationship of the Breast Ductal Carcinoma In Situ Immune Microenvironment with Clinicopathological and Genetic Features.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Shona; Pang, Jia-Min B; Byrne, David J; Lakhani, Sunil R; Cummings, Margaret C; Campbell, Ian G; Mann, G Bruce; Gorringe, Kylie L; Fox, Stephen B

    2017-09-01

    Purpose: The immune microenvironment of breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) has yet to be fully explored, and the relationship of immune cells to genetic features of DCIS is unknown.Experimental Design: We quantified tumor associated lymphocytes (TIL) and evaluated PD-L1 protein levels by immunohistochemistry in a cohort of pure DCIS (138 and 79 cases, respectively), some of which had copy number (n = 55) and mutation data (n = 20).Results: TILs were identified in the stroma surrounding DCIS (119/138, 86%) and present at a median TIL score of 5% (range, 0%-90%). Most DCIS were negative for tumor cell PD-L1 staining (89%), but 25% of cases were positive for immune cell staining. We observed that, as in invasive breast cancer, TILs and PD-L1 positivity were significantly greater in high-grade (P = 0.002/0.035), ER-negative (P = 0.02/0.02), and ERBB2-amplified tumors (P < 0.001/0.048). Comedo necrosis was significantly positively associated with TILs (P < 0.0001) but not with PD-L1. The TILs score was significantly higher in cases with TP53 mutation (P = 0.03) but not with PIK3CA or GATA3 mutation. In the cases with copy number data, both the fraction of the genome altered and the number of telomeric imbalances were significantly positively correlated with TILs (both P < 0.001). This result strongly contrasted with invasive breast cancer data, where aneuploidy was not correlated to TIL levels.Conclusions: Although a small cohort, our data suggest a preliminary model by which the progression of DCIS to invasive carcinoma may involve an altered relationship of tumor copy number with the immune microenvironment, possibly by the immunoediting of the tumor. Clin Cancer Res; 23(17); 5210-7. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Adaptive resistance to anti-PD1 therapy by Tim-3 upregulation is mediated by the PI3K-Akt pathway in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Shayan, Gulidanna; Srivastava, Raghvendra; Li, Jing; Schmitt, Nicole; Kane, Lawrence P; Ferris, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    Programmed Death 1 (PD-1) and T cell Ig and mucin domain-3 protein (Tim-3) are immune checkpoint receptors that are expressed on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in tumor-bearing mice and humans. As anti-PD-1 single agent response rates are only <20% in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients, it is important to understand how multiple inhibitory checkpoint receptors maintain suppressed cellular immunity. One such receptor, Tim-3, activates downstream proliferative pathways through Akt/S6, and is highly expressed in dysfunctional TIL. We observed that PD-1 and Tim-3 co-expression was associated with a more exhausted phenotype, with the highest PD-1 levels on TIL co-expressing Tim-3. Dampened Akt/S6 phosphorylation in these PD-1(+)Tim-3(+) TIL, when the PD-1 pathway was ligated, suggested that signaling cross-talk could lead to escape through Tim-3 expression. Indeed, PD-1 blockade of human HNSCC TIL led to further Tim-3 upregulation, supporting a circuit of compensatory signaling and potentially permitting escape from anti-PD-1 blockade in the tumor microenvironment. Also, in a murine HNC tumor model that is partially responsive to anti-PD-1 therapy, Tim-3 was upregulated in TIL from persistently growing tumors. Significant antitumor activity was observed after sequential addition of anti-Tim-3 mAb to overcome adaptive resistance to anti-PD-1 mAb. This increased Tim-3-mediated escape of exhausted TIL from PD-1 inhibition that was mediated by phospho-inositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt complex downstream of TCR signaling but not cytokine-mediated pathways. Taken together, we conclude that during PD-1 blockade, TIL upregulate Tim-3 in a PI3K/Akt-dependent manner, providing further support for dual targeting of these molecules for more effective cancer immunotherapy.

  17. Frequency of MART-1/MelanA and gp100/PMel17-Specific T Cells in Tumor Metastases and Cultured Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Seiter, Simone; Monsurro, Vladia; Nielsen, Mai-Britt; Wang, Ena; Provenzano, Maurizio; Wunderlich, John R.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Marincola, Francesco M.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Melanoma differentiation antigens, such as MART-1/MelanA and gp100/PMel17, frequently are observed as targets of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) originated from HLA-A*0201-expressing patients with melanoma. Furthermore, particular clinical relevance was attributed to gp100/pMel17 based on the impression that the adoptive transfer of gp100-recognizing TIL was associated with clinical responses in a small group of patients. However, the actual frequency of specific T cells for these melanoma differentiation antigens has never been directly enumerated in ex vivo or in vitro expanded TIL cultures. Here, we enumerated melanoma differentiation antigen-specific T-cell precursor frequency in TIL using tetrameric HLA/epitope complexes, functionally characterizing their responsiveness to cognate epitope by cytokine release assay. T-cell precursor frequencies were enumerated in 11 fresh-tumor preparations and 17 TIL adoptively transferred into patients bearing HLA-A*0201. MART-1 or gp100-specific T cells could be detected respectively in 5 and 2 of the 11 fresh preparations and in 5 and 2 of the 17 adoptively transferred TIL. With one exception, melanoma differentiation antigen-specific T-cell precursor frequency in fresh material and TIL ranged between 5,000 to 21,000/106 CD8+ T cells. T-cell precursor frequency was not significantly higher in TIL whose administration was associated with clinical response. These data provide direct enumeration of MART-1/MelanA and gp100/pMel17 reactivity ex vivo and in vitro in the context of HLA-A*0201. PMID:12000867

  18. New Bedford, Appendix A: Chromatographic Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2012-04-22

    ... T1J' .•••t .••to •4 144 .T1T2 .till .MOO . T411 J2'll'*5'4 .•••I ... Til* tt ' si ">a * .11*1 • Mil • 2.2 IIT .Til* )I* §•» ' 5 .MOO .••00 • 2.15 I't .T105 t} *ll'»** ' 0 .•MO ...

  19. Specific lymphocyte subsets predict response to adoptive cell therapy using expanded autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in metastatic melanoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Radvanyi, Laszlo G.; Bernatchez, Chantale; Zhang, Minying; Fox, Patricia S.; Miller, Priscilla; Chacon, Jessica; Wu, Richard; Lizee, Gregory; Mahoney, Sandy; Alvarado, Gladys; Glass, Michelle; Johnson, Valen E.; McMannis, John D.; Shpall, Elizabeth; Prieto, Victor; Papadopoulos, Nicholas; Kim, Kevin; Homsi, Jade; Bedikian, Agop; Hwu, Wen-Jen; Patel, Sapna; Ross, Merrick I.; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Lucci, Anthony; Royal, Richard; Cormier, Janice N.; Davies, Michael A.; Mansaray, Rahmatu; Fulbright, Orenthial J.; Toth, Christopher; Ramachandran, Renjith; Wardell, Seth; Gonzalez, Audrey; Hwu, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) using autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) is a promising treatment for metastatic melanoma unresponsive to conventional therapies. We report here on the results of an ongoing Phase II clinical trial testing the efficacy of ACT using TIL in metastatic melanoma patients and the association of specific patient clinical characteristics and the phenotypic attributes of the infused TIL with clinical response. Experimental Design Altogether, 31 transiently lymphodepleted patients were treated with their expanded TIL followed by two cycles of high-dose (HD) IL-2 therapy. The effects of patient clinical features and the phenotypes of the T-cells infused on clinical response were determined. Results Overall, 15/31 (48.4%) patients had an objective clinical response using immune-related response criteria (irRC), with two patients (6.5%) having a complete response. Progression-free survival of >12 months was observed for 9/15 (60%) of the responding patients. Factors significantly associated with objective tumor regression included a higher number of TIL infused, a higher proportion of CD8+ T-cells in the infusion product, a more differentiated effector phenotype of the CD8+ population and a higher frequency of CD8+ T-cells co-expressing the negative costimulation molecule “B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator” (BTLA). No significant difference in telomere lengths of TIL between responders and non-responders was identified. Conclusion These results indicate that immunotherapy with expanded autologous TIL is capable of achieving durable clinical responses in metastatic melanoma patients and that CD8+ T-cells in the infused TIL, particularly differentiated effectors cells and cells expressing BTLA, are associated with tumor regression. PMID:23032743

  20. Co-stimulation through the CD137/4-1BB pathway protects human melanoma tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes from activation-induced cell death and enhances anti-tumor effector function

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Chacon, Jessica Ann; Li, Yufeng; Wu, Richard C.; Bernatchez, Chantale; Wang, Yijun; Weber, Jeffrey; Hwu, Patrick; Radvanyi, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    Adoptive T-cell therapy (ACT) using expanded tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) with high-dose IL-2 is a promising form of immunotherapy for Stage IV melanoma having clinical response rates of 50% or more. One of the major problems preventing further success of this therapy is that the current protocols used to highly expand TIL for infusion drive CD8+ T cells to differentiate into effector cells losing key co-stimulatory molecules such as CD28 and CD27. This has been associated with a lack of persistence in vivo for reasons not entirely clear. In this study, we demonstrate that while human melanoma CD8+ TIL lost CD27 and CD28 expression during the rapid expansion for ACT, they gained expression of the alternative co-stimulatory molecule CD137/4-1BB, and to a lesser extent CD134/OX40. Post-REP TIL were found to be highly sensitive to activation-induced cell death (AICD) when re-activated through the TCR with low levels of OKT3 antibody. However, co-ligation of 4-1BB using two different agonistic anti-4-1BB antibodies potently prevented AICD of post-REP CD8+ TIL, including those specific for MART-1, and facilitated even further cell expansion. This was correlated with increased levels of bcl-2 and bcl-xL together with decreased bim expression. 4-1BB-co-stimulated post-REP TIL also expressed increased levels of the cytolytic granule proteins and exhibited enhanced CTL activity against melanoma cells. Lastly, post-REP CD8+ TIL were protected from cell death by anti-4-1BB ligation when exposed to HLA-matched melanoma cells. Our results indicate that 4-1BB co-stimulation may significantly improve TIL survival during melanoma ACT and boost anti-tumor cytolytic activity. PMID:21389874

  1. Efficient identification of mutated cancer antigens recognized by T cells associated with durable tumor regressions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yong-Chen; Yao, Xin; Crystal, Jessica S; Li, Yong F; El-Gamil, Mona; Gross, Colin; Davis, Lindy; Dudley, Mark E; Yang, James C; Samuels, Yardena; Rosenberg, Steven A; Robbins, Paul F

    2014-07-01

    Cancer immunotherapy with adoptive transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) represents an effective treatment for patients with metastatic melanoma, with the objective regressions in up to 72% of patients in three clinical trials. However, the antigen targets recognized by these effective TILs remain largely unclear. Melanoma patients 2359 and 2591 both experienced durable complete regressions of metastases ongoing beyond five years following adoptive TIL transfer. Two conventional screening approaches were carried out to identify the antigens recognized by these clinically effective TILs. In addition, a novel approach was developed in this study to identify mutated T-cell antigens by screening a tandem minigene library, which comprised nonsynonymous mutation sequences identified by whole-exome sequencing of autologous tumors. Screening of an autologous melanoma cDNA library using a conventional approach led to the identification of previously undescribed nonmutated targets recognized by TIL 2359 or TIL 2591. In contrast, screening of tandem minigene libraries encoding tumor-specific mutations resulted in the identification of mutated kinesin family member 2C (KIF2C) antigen as a target of TIL 2359, and mutated DNA polymerase alpha subunit B (POLA2) antigen as a target of TIL 2591. Both KIF2C and POLA2 have been found to play important roles in cell proliferation. These findings suggest that the minigene screening approach can facilitate the antigen repertoire analysis of tumor reactive T cells, and lead to the development of new adoptive cell therapies with purified T cells that recognize candidate-mutated antigens derived from genes essential for the carcinogenesis. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Efficient identification of mutated cancer antigens recognized by T cells associated with durable tumor regressions

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yong-Chen; Yao, Xin; Crystal, Jessica S.; Li, Yong F.; El-Gamil, Mona; Gross, Colin; Davis, Lindy; Dudley, Mark E.; Yang, James C.; Samuels, Yardena; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Robbins, Paul F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Cancer immunotherapy with adoptive transfer of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) represents an effective treatment for patients with metastatic melanoma, with the objective regressions in up to 72% of patients in three clinical trials. However, the antigen targets recognized by these effective TILs remain largely unclear. Experimental Design Melanoma patients 2359 and 2591 both experienced durable complete regressions of metastases ongoing beyond five years following adoptive TIL transfer. Two conventional screening approaches were carried out to identify the antigens recognized by these clinically effective TILs. In addition, a novel approach was developed in this study to identify mutated T-cell antigens by screening a tandem minigene library, which comprised non-synonymous mutation sequences identified by whole-exome sequencing of autologous tumors. Results The autologous melanoma cDNA library screening led to the identification of previously undescribed non-mutated targets recognized by TIL 2359 or TIL 2591. On the other hand, the screening of tandem minigene libraries resulted in the identification of mutated kinesin family member 2C (KIF2C) antigen as a target of TIL 2359, and mutated DNA polymerase alpha subunit B (POLA2) antigen as a target of TIL 2591. Both KIF2C and POLA2 have been found to play important roles in cell proliferation. Conclusions These findings suggest that the minigene screening approach can facilitate the antigen repertoire analysis of tumor reactive T cells, and lead to the development of new adoptive cell therapies with purified T cells that recognize candidate mutated antigens derived from genes essential for the carcinogenesis. PMID:24987109

  3. Tumor-reactive CD8+ T cells in metastatic gastrointestinal cancer refractory to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Turcotte, S.; Gros, A.; Tran, E.; Lee, C.-C. R.; Wunderlich, J.R.; Robbins, P.F.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether patients with metastatic gastrointestinal (GI) adenocarcinomas refractory to chemotherapy harbor tumor-reactive cytotoxic T cells. Experimental design Expansion of CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and cancer cell lines was attempted from GI cancer metastases in 16 consecutive patients for the study of anti-tumor immune recognition. Retroviral transduction of genes encoding T-cell receptors (TCR) was used to define HLA-restriction elements and specific reactivity. Results TIL were expanded from metastases in all patients, and new tumor cell lines generated in five patients. Autologous tumor-recognition without cross-reactivity against allogeneic HLA-matched GI tumors was found in CD8+ TIL from three of these five patients. In a patient with gastric cancer liver metastases, the repertoire of CD8+ TIL was dominated by cytolytic sister clones reactive to 2 out of 4 autologous cancer cell lines restricted by HLA-C*0701. From the same patient, a rare CD8+ TIL clone with a distinct TCR recognized all four cancer cell lines restricted by HLA-B*4901. In a patient with bile duct cancer, two distinct anti-tumor cytolytic clones were isolated from a highly polyclonal CD8+ TIL repertoire. TCRs isolated from these clones recognized epitopes restricted by HLA-A*0201. In a third patient, CD8+ TIL reactivity was progressively lost against an autologous colon cancer cell line that displayed loss of HLA haplotype. Conclusions This study provides a basis for the development of immunotherapy for patients with advanced GI malignancies by first establishing the presence of naturally occurring tumor-reactive CD8+ TIL at the molecular level. PMID:24218514

  4. Up-regulation of cerebral cytochrome-c-oxidase and hemodynamics by transcranial infrared laser stimulation: A broadband near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinlong; Tian, Fenghua; Reddy, Divya D; Nalawade, Sahil S; Barrett, Douglas W; Gonzalez-Lima, Francisco; Liu, Hanli

    2017-01-01

    Transcranial infrared laser stimulation (TILS) is a noninvasive form of brain photobiomulation. Cytochrome-c-oxidase (CCO), the terminal enzyme in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, is hypothesized to be the primary intracellular photoacceptor. We hypothesized that TILS up-regulates cerebral CCO and causes hemodynamic changes. We delivered 1064-nm laser stimulation to the forehead of healthy participants ( n = 11), while broadband near-infrared spectroscopy was utilized to acquire light reflectance from the TILS-treated cortical region before, during, and after TILS. Placebo experiments were also performed for accurate comparison. Time course of spectroscopic readings were analyzed and fitted to the modified Beer-Lambert law. With respect to the placebo readings, we observed (1) significant increases in cerebral concentrations of oxidized CCO (Δ[CCO]; >0.08 µM; p < 0.01), oxygenated hemoglobin (Δ[HbO]; >0.8 µM; p < 0.01), and total hemoglobin (Δ[HbT]; >0.5 µM; p < 0.01) during and after TILS, and (2) linear interplays between Δ[CCO] versus Δ[HbO] and between Δ[CCO] versus Δ[HbT]. Ratios of Δ[CCO]/Δ[HbO] and Δ[CCO]/Δ[HbT] were introduced as TILS-induced metabolic-hemodynamic coupling indices to quantify the coupling strength between TILS-enhanced cerebral metabolism and blood oxygen supply. This study provides the first demonstration that TILS causes up-regulation of oxidized CCO in the human brain, and contributes important insight into the physiological mechanisms.

  5. The tropopause inversion layer in baroclinic life cycles over the North Atlantic: a pre-WISE case study and climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaluza, Thorsten; Hoor, Peter; Kunkel, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Studies of baroclinic life cycles recently revelead that the tropopause inversion layer (TIL) in the extratropics is significantly strengthened by diabatic processes related to moist tropospheric dynamics as well as by breaking of the baroclinic wave itself. However, these findings summarize the results from idealized model simulations and the contribution from processes related to baroclinic life cycles relative to other processes enhancing the lower stratospheric static stability (stratospheric dynamics, seasonal variation of radiative feedbacks) to the observed TIL at midlatitudes has yet to be assessed. Further the role of the TIL for stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) is currently still under debate. In preparation of the up-coming field campaign WISE (Wave driven isentropic exchange) we explore the state and variability of the TIL over the North Atlantic between August and October in analysis model data. We use high resolution operational analysis from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast to study the mesoscale structure of the TIL. The main focus is on case studies of the TIL in real baroclinic life cycles, in particular on small scale enhancements within the baroclinic disturbances and the relation to STE. Moreover, a summary is presented about the quasi climatological state of the tropopause location and sharpness over the North Atlantic over recent years.

  6. A distinct innate lymphoid cell population regulates tumor-associated T cells.

    PubMed

    Crome, Sarah Q; Nguyen, Linh T; Lopez-Verges, Sandra; Yang, S Y Cindy; Martin, Bernard; Yam, Jennifer Y; Johnson, Dylan J; Nie, Jessica; Pniak, Michael; Yen, Pei Hua; Milea, Anca; Sowamber, Ramlogan; Katz, Sarah Rachel; Bernardini, Marcus Q; Clarke, Blaise A; Shaw, Patricia A; Lang, Philipp A; Berman, Hal K; Pugh, Trevor J; Lanier, Lewis L; Ohashi, Pamela S

    2017-03-01

    Antitumor T cells are subject to multiple mechanisms of negative regulation. Recent findings that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) regulate adaptive T cell responses led us to examine the regulatory potential of ILCs in the context of cancer. We identified a unique ILC population that inhibits tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) from high-grade serous tumors, defined their suppressive capacity in vitro, and performed a comprehensive analysis of their phenotype. Notably, the presence of this CD56(+)CD3(-) population in TIL cultures was associated with reduced T cell numbers, and further functional studies demonstrated that this population suppressed TIL expansion and altered TIL cytokine production. Transcriptome analysis and phenotypic characterization determined that regulatory CD56(+)CD3(-) cells exhibit low cytotoxic activity, produce IL-22, and have an expression profile that overlaps with those of natural killer (NK) cells and other ILCs. NKp46 was highly expressed by these cells, and addition of anti-NKp46 antibodies to TIL cultures abrogated the ability of these regulatory ILCs to suppress T cell expansion. Notably, the presence of these regulatory ILCs in TIL cultures corresponded with a striking reduction in the time to disease recurrence. These studies demonstrate that a previously uncharacterized ILC population regulates the activity and expansion of tumor-associated T cells.

  7. Reprogramming of Melanoma Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Hidehito; Okita, Keisuke; Fusaki, Noemi; Sabel, Michael S.; Chang, Alfred E.; Ito, Fumito

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from somatic cells of patients hold great promise for autologous cell therapies. One of the possible applications of iPSCs is to use them as a cell source for producing autologous lymphocytes for cell-based therapy against cancer. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) that express programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) are tumor-reactive T cells, and adoptive cell therapy with autologous TILs has been found to achieve durable complete response in selected patients with metastatic melanoma. Here, we describe the derivation of human iPSCs from melanoma TILs expressing high level of PD-1 by Sendai virus-mediated transduction of the four transcription factors, OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC. TIL-derived iPSCs display embryonic stem cell-like morphology, have normal karyotype, express stem cell-specific surface antigens and pluripotency-associated transcription factors, and have the capacity to differentiate in vitro and in vivo. A wide variety of T cell receptor gene rearrangement patterns in TIL-derived iPSCs confirmed the heterogeneity of T cells infiltrating melanomas. The ability to reprogram TILs containing patient-specific tumor-reactive repertoire might allow the generation of patient- and tumor-specific polyclonal T cells for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27057178

  8. Clinical Scale Zinc Finger Nuclease-mediated Gene Editing of PD-1 in Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes for the Treatment of Metastatic Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Beane, Joal D; Lee, Gary; Zheng, Zhili; Mendel, Matthew; Abate-Daga, Daniel; Bharathan, Mini; Black, Mary; Gandhi, Nimisha; Yu, Zhiya; Chandran, Smita; Giedlin, Martin; Ando, Dale; Miller, Jeff; Paschon, David; Guschin, Dmitry; Rebar, Edward J; Reik, Andreas; Holmes, Michael C; Gregory, Philip D; Restifo, Nicholas P; Rosenberg, Steven A; Morgan, Richard A; Feldman, Steven A

    2015-01-01

    Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) is expressed on activated T cells and represents an attractive target for gene-editing of tumor targeted T cells prior to adoptive cell transfer (ACT). We used zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) directed against the gene encoding human PD-1 (PDCD-1) to gene-edit melanoma tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). We show that our clinical scale TIL production process yielded efficient modification of the PD-1 gene locus, with an average modification frequency of 74.8% (n = 3, range 69.9–84.1%) of the alleles in a bulk TIL population, which resulted in a 76% reduction in PD-1 surface-expression. Forty to 48% of PD-1 gene-edited cells had biallelic PD-1 modification. Importantly, the PD-1 gene-edited TIL product showed improved in vitro effector function and a significantly increased polyfunctional cytokine profile (TNFα, GM-CSF, and IFNγ) compared to unmodified TIL in two of the three donors tested. In addition, all donor cells displayed an effector memory phenotype and expanded approximately 500–2,000-fold in vitro. Thus, further study to determine the efficiency and safety of adoptive cell transfer using PD-1 gene-edited TIL for the treatment of metastatic melanoma is warranted. PMID:25939491

  9. Social support, psychological distress, and natural killer cell activity in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Lutgendorf, Susan K; Sood, Anil K; Anderson, Barrie; McGinn, Stephanie; Maiseri, Heena; Dao, Minh; Sorosky, Joel I; De Geest, Koen; Ritchie, Justine; Lubaroff, David M

    2005-10-01

    Psychosocial stress has been related to impaired immunity in cancer patients. However, the extent to which these relationships exist in immune cells in the tumor microenvironment in humans has not been explored. We examined relationships among distress, social support, and natural killer (NK) cell activity in ovarian cancer patients in peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), ascitic fluid, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). Patients awaiting surgery for a pelvic mass suspected of being ovarian cancer completed psychological questionnaires and gave a presurgical sample of peripheral blood. Samples of tumor and ascites were taken during surgery, lymphocytes were then isolated, and NK cytotoxicity and percentage were determined. The final sample, which was confirmed by surgical diagnosis, included 42 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer and 23 patients with benign masses. Peripheral NK cell activity was significantly lower among ovarian cancer patients than in patients with benign masses. Among ovarian cancer patients, NK cytotoxicity in TIL was significantly lower than in PBMC or ascitic fluid. Social support was related to higher NK cytotoxicity in PBMC and TIL, adjusting for stage. Distress was related to lower NK cytotoxicity in TIL. A multivariate model indicated independent associations of both distress and social support with NK cell activity in TIL. Psychosocial factors, such as social support and distress, are associated with changes in the cellular immune response, not only in peripheral blood, but also at the tumor level. These relationships were more robust in TIL. These findings support the presence of stress influences in the tumor microenvironment.

  10. CT halo sign as an imaging marker for response to adoptive cell therapy in metastatic melanoma with pulmonary metastases.

    PubMed

    Shrot, Shai; Schachter, Jacob; Shapira-Frommer, Ronnie; Besser, Michal J; Apter, Sara

    2014-06-01

    The halo sign refers to a zone of ground-glass attenuation surrounding a pulmonary nodule. Pulmonary metastatic nodules exhibiting a halo sign are seen mainly in hypervascular tumours. We describe the appearance of a halo sign following treatment of adoptive transfer of autologous tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) to melanoma patients with lung metastases. The study included 29 melanoma patients with pulmonary metastases who received TIL therapy. Pre- and post-treatment chest CTs were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of a halo sign and its correlation with therapeutic response. A pulmonary halo sign was not seen in any pre-treatment CT. It was observed in four of 12 patients who responded to the therapy but not in those who failed to respond. Significant differences were found between response ratio in patients in whom post-TIL halo sign appeared compared with those without the halo sign (p = 0.02). The appearance of a CT halo sign in melanoma with lung metastases following TIL therapy may indicate antitumoral effect and a good response to therapy. Our findings emphasize the importance of applying new assessment criteria for immunological anticancer therapies. Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in melanoma patients is a promising novel immunotherapy. Post-therapy pulmonary halo sign appeared in one-third of TIL responders . Pulmonary halo sign may serve as an imaging marker for antitumoral activity.

  11. Early T Cell Signalling Is Reversibly Altered in PD-1+ T Lymphocytes Infiltrating Human Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shu-Fang; Fouquet, Stéphane; Chapon, Maxime; Salmon, Hélène; Regnier, Fabienne; Labroquère, Karine; Badoual, Cécile; Damotte, Diane; Validire, Pierre; Maubec, Eve; Delongchamps, Nicolas B.; Cazes, Aurélie; Gibault, Laure; Garcette, Marylène; Dieu-Nosjean, Marie-Caroline; Zerbib, Marc; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Prévost-Blondel, Armelle; Randriamampita, Clotilde; Trautmann, Alain; Bercovici, Nadège

    2011-01-01

    To improve cancer immunotherapy, a better understanding of the weak efficiency of tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes (TIL) is necessary. We have analyzed the functional state of human TIL immediately after resection of three types of tumors (NSCLC, melanoma and RCC). Several signalling pathways (calcium, phosphorylation of ERK and Akt) and cytokine secretion are affected to different extents in TIL, and show a partial spontaneous recovery within a few hours in culture. The global result is an anergy that is quite distinct from clonal anergy induced in vitro, and closer to adaptive tolerance in mice. PD-1 (programmed death -1) is systematically expressed by TIL and may contribute to their anergy by its mere expression, and not only when it interacts with its ligands PD-L1 or PD-L2, which are not expressed by every tumor. Indeed, the TCR-induced calcium and ERK responses were reduced in peripheral blood T cells transfected with PD-1. Inhibition by sodium stibogluconate of the SHP-1 and SHP-2 phosphatases that associate with several inhibitory receptors including PD-1, relieves part of the anergy apparent in TIL or in PD-1-transfected T cells. This work highlights some of the molecular modifications contributing to functional defects of human TIL. PMID:21408177

  12. Early T cell signalling is reversibly altered in PD-1+ T lymphocytes infiltrating human tumors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-Fang; Fouquet, Stéphane; Chapon, Maxime; Salmon, Hélène; Regnier, Fabienne; Labroquère, Karine; Badoual, Cécile; Damotte, Diane; Validire, Pierre; Maubec, Eve; Delongchamps, Nicolas B; Cazes, Aurélie; Gibault, Laure; Garcette, Marylène; Dieu-Nosjean, Marie-Caroline; Zerbib, Marc; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Prévost-Blondel, Armelle; Randriamampita, Clotilde; Trautmann, Alain; Bercovici, Nadège

    2011-03-07

    To improve cancer immunotherapy, a better understanding of the weak efficiency of tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes (TIL) is necessary. We have analyzed the functional state of human TIL immediately after resection of three types of tumors (NSCLC, melanoma and RCC). Several signalling pathways (calcium, phosphorylation of ERK and Akt) and cytokine secretion are affected to different extents in TIL, and show a partial spontaneous recovery within a few hours in culture. The global result is an anergy that is quite distinct from clonal anergy induced in vitro, and closer to adaptive tolerance in mice. PD-1 (programmed death -1) is systematically expressed by TIL and may contribute to their anergy by its mere expression, and not only when it interacts with its ligands PD-L1 or PD-L2, which are not expressed by every tumor. Indeed, the TCR-induced calcium and ERK responses were reduced in peripheral blood T cells transfected with PD-1. Inhibition by sodium stibogluconate of the SHP-1 and SHP-2 phosphatases that associate with several inhibitory receptors including PD-1, relieves part of the anergy apparent in TIL or in PD-1-transfected T cells. This work highlights some of the molecular modifications contributing to functional defects of human TIL.

  13. BTLA marks a less-differentiated tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte subset in melanoma with enhanced survival properties

    PubMed Central

    Haymaker, Cara L; Wu, Richard C; Ritthipichai, Krit; Bernatchez, Chantale; Forget, Marie-Andrée; Chen, Jie Qing; Liu, Hui; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco; Hwu, Patrick; Radvanyi, Laszlo G

    2015-01-01

    In a recent adoptive cell therapy (ACT) clinical trial using autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in patients with metastatic melanoma, we found an association between CD8+ T cells expressing the inhibitory receptor B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) and clinical response. Here, we further characterized this CD8+BTLA+ TIL subset and their CD8+BTLA− counterparts. We found that the CD8+ BTLA+ TILs had an increased response to IL-2, were less-differentiated effector-memory (TEM) cells, and persisted longer in vivo after infusion. In contrast, CD8+BTLA− TILs failed to proliferate and expressed genes associated with T-cell deletion/tolerance. Paradoxically, activation of BTLA signaling by its ligand, herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM), inhibited T-cell division and cytokine production, but also activated the Akt/PKB pathway thus protecting CD8+BTLA+ TILs from apoptosis. Our results point to a new role of BTLA as a useful T-cell differentiation marker in ACT and a dual signaling molecule that curtails T-cell activation while also conferring a survival advantage for CD8+ T cells. These attributes may explain our previous observation that BTLA expression on CD8+ TILs correlates with clinical response to adoptive T-cell therapy in metastatic melanoma. PMID:26405566

  14. Kv1.3 channels mark functionally competent CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chimote, Ameet A.; Hajdu, Peter; Sfyris, Alexandros M.; Gleich, Brittany N.; Wise-Draper, Trisha; Casper, Keith A.; Conforti, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are potent mediators of an anti-tumor response. However, their function is attenuated in solid tumors. CD8+ T cell effector functions such as cytokine and granzyme production depend on cytoplasmic Ca2+, which is controlled by ion channels. In particular, Kv1.3 channels regulate the membrane potential and Ca2+ influx in human effector memory T (TEM) cells. In this study, we assessed the contribution of reduced Kv1.3 and Ca2+ flux on TIL effector function in head and neck cancer (HNC). We obtained tumor samples and matched peripheral blood from 14 patients with HNC. CD3+ TILs were comprised of 57% CD4+ (82% TEM and 20% Treg) and 36% CD8+ cells. Electrophysiology revealed a 70% reduction in functional Kv1.3 channels in TILs as compared to peripheral blood T cells from paired patients, which was accompanied by a decrease in Ca2+ influx. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that CD8+ TILs expressing high Kv1.3 preferentially localized in the stroma. Importantly, high expression of Kv1.3 correlated with high Ki67 and granzyme B expression. Overall, these data indicate that defective Kv1.3 channels and Ca2+ fluxes in TILs may contribute to reduced immune surveillance in HNC. PMID:27815390

  15. Clinical Scale Zinc Finger Nuclease-mediated Gene Editing of PD-1 in Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes for the Treatment of Metastatic Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Beane, Joal D; Lee, Gary; Zheng, Zhili; Mendel, Matthew; Abate-Daga, Daniel; Bharathan, Mini; Black, Mary; Gandhi, Nimisha; Yu, Zhiya; Chandran, Smita; Giedlin, Martin; Ando, Dale; Miller, Jeff; Paschon, David; Guschin, Dmitry; Rebar, Edward J; Reik, Andreas; Holmes, Michael C; Gregory, Philip D; Restifo, Nicholas P; Rosenberg, Steven A; Morgan, Richard A; Feldman, Steven A

    2015-08-01

    Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) is expressed on activated T cells and represents an attractive target for gene-editing of tumor targeted T cells prior to adoptive cell transfer (ACT). We used zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) directed against the gene encoding human PD-1 (PDCD-1) to gene-edit melanoma tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). We show that our clinical scale TIL production process yielded efficient modification of the PD-1 gene locus, with an average modification frequency of 74.8% (n = 3, range 69.9-84.1%) of the alleles in a bulk TIL population, which resulted in a 76% reduction in PD-1 surface-expression. Forty to 48% of PD-1 gene-edited cells had biallelic PD-1 modification. Importantly, the PD-1 gene-edited TIL product showed improved in vitro effector function and a significantly increased polyfunctional cytokine profile (TNFα, GM-CSF, and IFNγ) compared to unmodified TIL in two of the three donors tested. In addition, all donor cells displayed an effector memory phenotype and expanded approximately 500-2,000-fold in vitro. Thus, further study to determine the efficiency and safety of adoptive cell transfer using PD-1 gene-edited TIL for the treatment of metastatic melanoma is warranted.

  16. Sunitinib pretreatment improves tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte expansion by reduction in intratumoral content of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in human renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Guislain, Aurelie; Gadiot, Jules; Kaiser, Andrew; Jordanova, Ekaterina S; Broeks, Annegien; Sanders, Joyce; van Boven, Hester; de Gruijl, Tanja D; Haanen, John B A G; Bex, Axel; Blank, Christian U

    2015-10-01

    Targeted therapy with sunitinib, pazopanib or everolimus has improved treatment outcome for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients (RCC). However, despite considerable efforts in sequential or combined modalities, durable remissions are rare. Immunotherapy like cytokine therapy with interleukin-2, T cell checkpoint blockade or adoptive T cell therapies can achieve long-term benefit and even cure. This raises the question of whether combining targeted therapy with immunotherapy could also be an effective treatment option for RCC patients. Sunitinib, one of the most frequently administered therapeutics in RCC patients has been implicated in impairing T cell activation and proliferation in vitro. In this work, we addressed whether this notion holds true for expansion of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in sunitinib-treated patients. We compared resected primary RCC tumor material of patients pretreated with sunitinib with resection specimen from sunitinib-naïve patients. We found improved TIL expansion from sunitinib-pretreated tumor digests. These TIL products contained more PD-1 expressing TIL, while the regulatory T cell infiltration was not altered. The improved TIL expansion was associated with reduced intratumoral myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) content. Depletion of MDSCs from sunitinib-naïve RCC tissue-digest improved TIL expansion, proving the functional relevance of the MDSC alteration by sunitinib. Our in vivo results do not support previous in vitro observations of sunitinib inhibiting T cell function, but do provide a possible rationale for the combination of sunitinib with immunotherapy.

  17. The clinical significance of massive intratumoral lymphocytosis in squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Carlos A; Nilsson, Per J; Petersson, Fredrik; Höög, Ander; Blegen, Harald; Chetty, Runjan

    2008-01-01

    A recent report indicates that patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCAC) and intraepithelial lymphocytes have a poor prognosis. Against that background, histological sections from 277 consecutive SCCACs were reviewed searching for cases with massive tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs; >/= 50 lymphocytes /100 tumor cells). Of the 277 SCCACs, 8 (3%) had massive TILs. These 8 patients (all females) had both more advanced clinical stage than the remaining 269 control SCCAC patients. Follow-up studies revealed that the 8 patients with SCCACs having massive TILs had a much better 15 years survival rate than control SCCAC patients. It is concluded that despite SCCAC patients with massive TILs had a more advanced clinical stage than SCCAC controls, SCCAC with massive TILs patients had a longer survival rate (with no deaths after 5 years) than control cases. The search via proteomic methodology for the lymphocyte-attracting tumor protein might bring forward a novel co-adjuvant therapy, capable to increase prolonged survival time in patients having SCCAC without massive TILs.

  18. The Clinical Significance of Massive Intratumoral Lymphocytosis in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anus

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Carlos A; Nilsson, Per J; Petersson, Fredrik; Höög, Ander; Blegen, Harald; Chetty, Runjan

    2008-01-01

    A recent report indicates that patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCAC) and intraepithelial lymphocytes have a poor prognosis. Against that background, histological sections from 277 consecutive SCCACs were reviewed searching for cases with massive tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs; ≥ 50 lymphocytes /100 tumor cells). Of the 277 SCCACs, 8 (3%) had massive TILs. These 8 patients (all females) had both more advanced clinical stage than the remaining 269 control SCCAC patients. Follow-up studies revealed that the 8 patients with SCCACs having massive TILs had a much better 15 years survival rate than control SCCAC patients. It is concluded that despite SCCAC patients with massive TILs had a more advanced clinical stage than SCCAC controls, SCCAC with massive TILs patients had a longer survival rate (with no deaths after 5 years) than control cases. The search via proteomic methodology for the lymphocyte-attracting tumor protein might bring forward a novel co-adjuvant therapy, capable to increase prolonged survival time in patients having SCCAC without massive TILs. PMID:18787615

  19. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte activity is enhanced in tumors with low IL-10 production in HBV-induced hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Yang Song, Qingwei; Hu, Dianhe; Zhuang, Xiaohu; Yu, Shengcai

    2015-05-22

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and can be induced by chronic HBV infection. The role of HBV-specific immune responses in mediating tumorigenesis and HCC prognosis is debated. The effect of intratumoral microenvironment on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is also unclear. Here, we examined resected tumor tissue from 36 patients with HBV-induced HCC. We categorized study cohort based on ex vivo IL-10 secretion by tumor cells into high IL-10-secreting (Hi10) and low IL-10-secreting (Lo10) groups, and found that the Lo10 group was less sensitive to TLR ligand stimulation. TILs from the Lo10 group contained higher frequencies of HBV-specific IFN-g-producing cells and total IFN-g-producing cells, and possessed higher proliferative capacity. Moreover, the proliferative capacity of TILs from the Hi10 group was negatively correlated with IL-10 secretion from tumor cells. Together, our data demonstrated that low IL-10-producing capacity in HBV-induced HCC tumors is associated with enhanced TIL activity. - Highlights: • We examined intratumoral IL-10 production in HBV-induced HCC. • We grouped HCC tumors into Hi10 and Lo10 groups based on their IL-10 production. • Lo10 groups had better IFN-g response by TILs. • Lo10 groups had better TIL proliferative capacity. • Lo10 group tumor cells were refractory to TLR ligand stimulation.

  20. Silencing-associated and meiosis-specific small RNA pathways in Paramecium tetraurelia.

    PubMed

    Lepère, Gersende; Nowacki, Mariusz; Serrano, Vincent; Gout, Jean-François; Guglielmi, Gérard; Duharcourt, Sandra; Meyer, Eric

    2009-02-01

    Distinct small RNA pathways are involved in the two types of homology-dependent effects described in Paramecium tetraurelia, as shown by a functional analysis of Dicer and Dicer-like genes and by the sequencing of small RNAs. The siRNAs that mediate post-transcriptional gene silencing when cells are fed with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) were found to comprise two subclasses. DCR1-dependent cleavage of the inducing dsRNA generates approximately 23-nt primary siRNAs from both strands, while a different subclass of approximately 24-nt RNAs, characterized by a short untemplated poly-A tail, is strictly antisense to the targeted mRNA, suggestive of secondary siRNAs that depend on an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. An entirely distinct pathway is responsible for homology-dependent regulation of developmental genome rearrangements after sexual reproduction. During early meiosis, the DCL2 and DCL3 genes are required for the production of a highly complex population of approximately 25-nt scnRNAs from all types of germline sequences, including both strands of exons, introns, intergenic regions, transposons and Internal Eliminated Sequences. A prominent 5'-UNG signature, and a minor fraction showing the complementary signature at positions 21-23, indicate that scnRNAs are cleaved from dsRNA precursors as duplexes with 2-nt 3' overhangs at both ends, followed by preferential stabilization of the 5'-UNG strand.

  1. Silencing-associated and meiosis-specific small RNA pathways in Paramecium tetraurelia

    PubMed Central

    Lepère, Gersende; Nowacki, Mariusz; Serrano, Vincent; Gout, Jean-François; Guglielmi, Gérard; Duharcourt, Sandra; Meyer, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Distinct small RNA pathways are involved in the two types of homology-dependent effects described in Paramecium tetraurelia, as shown by a functional analysis of Dicer and Dicer-like genes and by the sequencing of small RNAs. The siRNAs that mediate post-transcriptional gene silencing when cells are fed with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) were found to comprise two subclasses. DCR1-dependent cleavage of the inducing dsRNA generates ∼23-nt primary siRNAs from both strands, while a different subclass of ∼24-nt RNAs, characterized by a short untemplated poly-A tail, is strictly antisense to the targeted mRNA, suggestive of secondary siRNAs that depend on an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. An entirely distinct pathway is responsible for homology-dependent regulation of developmental genome rearrangements after sexual reproduction. During early meiosis, the DCL2 and DCL3 genes are required for the production of a highly complex population of ∼25-nt scnRNAs from all types of germline sequences, including both strands of exons, introns, intergenic regions, transposons and Internal Eliminated Sequences. A prominent 5′-UNG signature, and a minor fraction showing the complementary signature at positions 21–23, indicate that scnRNAs are cleaved from dsRNA precursors as duplexes with 2-nt 3′ overhangs at both ends, followed by preferential stabilization of the 5′-UNG strand. PMID:19103667

  2. Enzymatic Capture of an Extrahelical Thymine in the Search for Uracil in DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Parker,J.; Bianchet, M.; Krosky, D.; Friedman, J.; Amzel, L.; Stivers, J.

    2007-01-01

    The enzyme uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG) excises unwanted uracil bases in the genome using an extrahelical base recognition mechanism. Efficient removal of uracil is essential for prevention of C-to-T transition mutations arising from cytosine deamination, cytotoxic U{single_bond}A pairs arising from incorporation of dUTP in DNA, and for increasing immunoglobulin gene diversity during the acquired immune response. A central event in all of these UNG-mediated processes is the singling out of rare U{single_bond}A or U{single_bond}G base pairs in a background of approximately 109 T{single_bond}A or C{single_bond}G base pairs in the human genome. Here we establish for the human and Escherichia coli enzymes that discrimination of thymine and uracil is initiated by thermally induced opening of T{single_bond}A and U{single_bond}A base pairs and not by active participation of the enzyme. Thus, base-pair dynamics has a critical role in the genome-wide search for uracil, and may be involved in initial damage recognition by other DNA repair glycosylases.

  3. Non-canonical uracil processing in DNA gives rise to double-strand breaks and deletions: relevance to class switch recombination

    PubMed Central

    Bregenhorn, Stephanie; Kallenberger, Lia; Artola-Borán, Mariela; Peña-Diaz, Javier; Jiricny, Josef

    2016-01-01

    During class switch recombination (CSR), antigen-stimulated B-cells rearrange their immunoglobulin constant heavy chain (CH) loci to generate antibodies with different effector functions. CSR is initiated by activation-induced deaminase (AID), which converts cytosines in switch (S) regions, repetitive sequences flanking the CH loci, to uracils. Although U/G mispairs arising in this way are generally efficiently repaired to C/Gs by uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG)-initiated base excision repair (BER), uracil processing in S-regions of activated B-cells occasionally gives rise to double strand breaks (DSBs), which trigger CSR. Surprisingly, genetic experiments revealed that CSR is dependent not only on AID and UNG, but also on mismatch repair (MMR). To elucidate the role of MMR in CSR, we studied the processing of uracil-containing DNA substrates in extracts of MMR-proficient and –deficient human cells, as well as in a system reconstituted from recombinant BER and MMR proteins. Here, we show that the interplay of these repair systems gives rise to DSBs in vitro and to genomic deletions and mutations in vivo, particularly in an S-region sequence. Our findings further suggest that MMR affects pathway choice in DSB repair. Given its amenability to manipulation, our system represents a powerful tool for the molecular dissection of CSR. PMID:26743004

  4. A ketogenic diet accelerates neurodegeneration in mice with induced mitochondrial DNA toxicity in the forebrain.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, Knut H; Hasan-Olive, Md Mahdi; Regnell, Christine E; Kleppa, Liv; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Gjedde, Albert; Klungland, Arne; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Storm-Mathisen, Jon; Bergersen, Linda H

    2016-12-01

    Mitochondrial genome maintenance plays a central role in preserving brain health. We previously demonstrated accumulation of mitochondrial DNA damage and severe neurodegeneration in transgenic mice inducibly expressing a mutated mitochondrial DNA repair enzyme (mutUNG1) selectively in forebrain neurons. Here, we examine whether severe neurodegeneration in mutUNG1-expressing mice could be rescued by feeding the mice a ketogenic diet, which is known to have beneficial effects in several neurological disorders. The diet increased the levels of superoxide dismutase 2, and mitochondrial mass, enzymes, and regulators such as SIRT1 and FIS1, and appeared to downregulate N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor subunits NR2A/B and upregulate γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptor subunits α1. However, unexpectedly, the ketogenic diet aggravated neurodegeneration and mitochondrial deterioration. Electron microscopy showed structurally impaired mitochondria accumulating in neuronal perikarya. We propose that aggravation is caused by increased mitochondrial biogenesis of generally dysfunctional mitochondria. This study thereby questions the dogma that a ketogenic diet is unambiguously beneficial in mitochondrial disorders.

  5. Mitochondrial DNA Toxicity in Forebrain Neurons Causes Apoptosis, Neurodegeneration, and Impaired Behavior ▿

    PubMed Central

    Lauritzen, Knut H.; Moldestad, Olve; Eide, Lars; Carlsen, Harald; Nesse, Gaute; Storm, Johan F.; Mansuy, Isabelle M.; Bergersen, Linda H.; Klungland, Arne

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction underlying changes in neurodegenerative diseases is often associated with apoptosis and a progressive loss of neurons, and damage to the mitochondrial genome is proposed to be involved in such pathologies. In the present study we designed a mouse model that allows us to specifically induce mitochondrial DNA toxicity in the forebrain neurons of adult mice. This is achieved by CaMKIIα-regulated inducible expression of a mutated version of the mitochondrial UNG DNA repair enzyme (mutUNG1). This enzyme is capable of removing thymine from the mitochondrial genome. We demonstrate that a continual generation of apyrimidinic sites causes apoptosis and neuronal death. These defects are associated with behavioral alterations characterized by increased locomotor activity, impaired cognitive abilities, and lack of anxietylike responses. In summary, whereas mitochondrial base substitution and deletions previously have been shown to correlate with premature and natural aging, respectively, we show that a high level of apyrimidinic sites lead to mitochondrial DNA cytotoxicity, which causes apoptosis, followed by neurodegeneration. PMID:20065039

  6. Interaktive Visualisierung von Abständen und Ausdehnungen anatomischer Strukturen für die Interventionsplanung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rössling, Ivo; Cyrus, Christian; Dornheim, Lars; Hahn, Peter; Preim, Bernhard; Boehm, Andreas

    Im Rahmen der Interventionsplanung muss der Chirurg therapierelevante Entscheidungen auf Basis räumlicher Relationen anatomischer Strukturen treffen. Interaktive 3D-Visualisierungen unterstützen diesen Prozess qualitativ. Quantitative Fragestellungen (Tumorausdehnung, Infiltrationstiefe, etc.) erfordern die Integration einer Bemaßung, deren Nutzen wesentlich von einer geeigneten Darstellung abhängt. In dieser Arbeit haben wir allgemeine Kriterien für die Eignung von Visualisierungen von Bemaßungen in interaktiven 3D-Szenen erarbeitet. Daran orientierend haben wir verschiedene Varianten der Darstellung von Abständen und Ausdehnungen anatomischer Strukturen betrachtet und ihr Erscheinungsbild hierzu zweckmäßig parametrisiert. Die Ausprägungen dieser Darstellungsparameter wurden in einer Studie auf ihre visuellen Wirkung hin an Chirurgen evaluiert. Es zeigte sich, dass die befragten Mediziner höchsten Wert auf Kohärenz und klare Zuordnung der Bemaßung setzten und überraschenderweise dafür sogar Abstriche in der direkten Lesbarkeit in Kauf nahmen.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA toxicity in forebrain neurons causes apoptosis, neurodegeneration, and impaired behavior.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, Knut H; Moldestad, Olve; Eide, Lars; Carlsen, Harald; Nesse, Gaute; Storm, Johan F; Mansuy, Isabelle M; Bergersen, Linda H; Klungland, Arne

    2010-03-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction underlying changes in neurodegenerative diseases is often associated with apoptosis and a progressive loss of neurons, and damage to the mitochondrial genome is proposed to be involved in such pathologies. In the present study we designed a mouse model that allows us to specifically induce mitochondrial DNA toxicity in the forebrain neurons of adult mice. This is achieved by CaMKIIalpha-regulated inducible expression of a mutated version of the mitochondrial UNG DNA repair enzyme (mutUNG1). This enzyme is capable of removing thymine from the mitochondrial genome. We demonstrate that a continual generation of apyrimidinic sites causes apoptosis and neuronal death. These defects are associated with behavioral alterations characterized by increased locomotor activity, impaired cognitive abilities, and lack of anxietylike responses. In summary, whereas mitochondrial base substitution and deletions previously have been shown to correlate with premature and natural aging, respectively, we show that a high level of apyrimidinic sites lead to mitochondrial DNA cytotoxicity, which causes apoptosis, followed by neurodegeneration.

  8. The Alfred Nobel rocket camera. An early aerial photography attempt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingemar Skoog, A.

    2010-02-01

    Alfred Nobel (1833-1896), mainly known for his invention of dynamite and the creation of the Nobel Prices, was an engineer and inventor active in many fields of science and engineering, e.g. chemistry, medicine, mechanics, metallurgy, optics, armoury and rocketry. Amongst his inventions in rocketry was the smokeless solid propellant ballistite (i.e. cordite) patented for the first time in 1887. As a very wealthy person he actively supported many Swedish inventors in their work. One of them was W.T. Unge, who was devoted to the development of rockets and their applications. Nobel and Unge had several rocket patents together and also jointly worked on various rocket applications. In mid-1896 Nobel applied for patents in England and France for "An Improved Mode of Obtaining Photographic Maps and Earth or Ground Measurements" using a photographic camera carried by a "…balloon, rocket or missile…". During the remaining of 1896 the mechanical design of the camera mechanism was pursued and cameras manufactured. In April 1897 (after the death of Alfred Nobel) the first aerial photos were taken by these cameras. These photos might be the first documented aerial photos taken by a rocket borne camera. Cameras and photos from 1897 have been preserved. Nobel did not only develop the rocket borne camera but also proposed methods on how to use the photographs taken for ground measurements and preparing maps.

  9. Chemopreventive Potential of Ethanolic Extracts of Luobuma Leaves (Apocynum venetum L.) in Androgen Insensitive Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Szu-Ping; Ho, Tzu-Ming; Yang, Chih-Wen; Chang, Ya-Ju; Chen, Jie-Fu; Shaw, Ning-Sing; Horng, Jia-Cherng; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Liao, Ming-Yuan; Wu, Li-Chen; Ho, Ja-An Annie

    2017-08-28

    Luobuma (Apocynum venetum L. (AVL)) is a popular beverage in Asia and has been reportedly to be associated with the bioactivities such as cardiotonic, diuretic, antioxidative, and antihypertensive. However, its biofunction as chemoprevention activity is seldom addressed. Herein, we aimed to characterize the anti-androgen-insensitive-prostate-cancer (anti-AIPC) bioactive compounds of Luobuma, and to investigate the associated molecular mechanisms. Activity-guided-fractionation (antioxidative activity and cell survivability) of Luobuma ethanolic extracts was performed to isolate and characterize the major bioactive compounds using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC), Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Plant sterols (lupeol, stigamasterol and β-sitosterol) and polyphenolics (isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin) were identified. Lupeol, a triterpene found in the fraction (F8) eluted by 10% ethyl acetate/90% hexane and accounted for 19.3% (w/w) of F8, inhibited the proliferation of PC3 cells. Both lupeol and F8 induced G2/M arrest, inhibition of β-catenin signaling, regulation of apoptotic signal molecules (cytochrome c, Bcl-2, P53, and caspase 3 and 8), and suppression DNA repair enzyme expression (Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG)). To our knowledge, our study is the first report that lupeol inhibited the expression of UNG to elicit the cytotoxicity against androgen-insensitive-prostate-cancer cells. Collectively, Luobuma, which contains several antitumor bioactive compounds, holds the potential to be a dietary chemopreventive agent for prostate cancer.

  10. Tumor infiltrating T lymphocytes expressing FoxP3, CCR7 or PD-1 predict the outcome of prostate cancer patients subjected to salvage radiotherapy after biochemical relapse.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Valerio; Botta, Cirino; Caraglia, Michele; Martino, Elodia Claudia; Ambrosio, Maria Raffaella; Carfagno, Tommaso; Tini, Paolo; Semeraro, Leonardo; Misso, Gabriella; Grimaldi, Anna; Boccellino, Mariarosaria; Facchini, Gaetano; Berretta, Massimiliano; Vischi, Gianluca; Rocca, Bruno Jim; Barone, Aurora; Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Del Vecchio, Maria Teresa; Pirtoli, Luigi; Correale, Pierpaolo

    2016-11-01

    Tumor immunologic microenvironment is strongly involved in tumor progression and the presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) with different phenotypes has been demonstrated to be of prognostic relevance in different malignancies. We investigated whether TIL infiltration of tumor tissues could also predict the outcome of prostate cancer patients. To this end, we carried out a retrospective analysis correlating the outcome of locally advanced prostate cancer patients undergone salvage radiotherapy upon relapse after radical surgery with the infiltration by different TIL populations. Twenty-two patients with resectable prostate cancer, with a mean age of 67 (+/-3.93) years, who received salvage radiotherapy with a mean of 69.66 (+/- 3.178) Gy in 8 weeks, between June 1999 and January 2009 and with a median follow up of 123 (+/- 55.82) months, were enrolled in this study. We evaluated, by immunohistochemistry, the intratumoral ((t)) and peripheral stroma ((p)) infiltration by CD45, CD3, CD4, CD8, CCR7, FoxP3 or PD-1-positive cells on tumor samples taken at the diagnosis ((d)) and relapse times ((R)). We correlated these variables with patients' biochemical progression free survival (bPFS), post-radiotherapy progression free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Substantial changes in the rate of TIL subsets were found between the first and the second biopsy with progressive increase in CD4, CCR7, FoxP3, PD-1(+) cells. Our analysis revealed that higher CD8(p,R+) and lower PD-1(R+) TIL scores correlated to a longer bPFS. Higher CD8(p,R+) and CCR7(t,R+) TIL scores and lower CD45(p,R+) and FoxP3(p,R+) TIL scores correlated to a prolonged PFS and OS. These results suggest that the immunological microenvironment of primary tumor is strictly correlated with patient outcome and provide the rationale for immunological treatment of prostate cancer.

  11. Correlation between class I antigen expression and the ability to generate tumour infiltrating lymphocytes from bladder tumour biopsies.

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, A. M.; dos Santos, A. V.; Crosby, D.; Oliver, R. T.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of tissue sections from transurethrally resected bladder tumours using anti-CD3 antibody showed the presence of T lymphocytes in intra-epithelial layers in eight of 12 cases investigated. In a larger group of patients, Tumour Infiltrating Lymphocyte (TIL) growth was established from six of 19 cases using Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and conditioned medium (CM) and resulted in the expansion of TILs up to 100-fold. TILs from these individuals were phenotyped with W6/32 (anti-HLA-A,B,C), HB55 (anti-DR) and anti-CD3 antibodies using FAC sorter. The mean +/- s.d. frequency of positive staining with these antibodies were 96.7 +/- 4.0%, 87.5 +/- 10.0% and 82.5 +/- 7.8% respectively, indicating the activated nature of these T cells. The cytotoxic activity of these TILs against Daudi (ie, LAK activity) cell line at 25/1 E/T ratios varied from 26.3 +/- 3.2 to 62.8 +/- 5.2%. In one case where TILs and autologous tumour cell line were established, cytotoxicity studies showed low level of cytotoxicity against the autologous tumour cells (15.8 +/- 1.6%) compared with 62.8 +/- 5.2% against Daudi. Staining of tumour sections from these 19 individuals with W6/32 and BBM.1 revealed positive staining in six of six that developed TILs but only six of 13 (46%) cases, whose tumour failed to grow TILs (P less than 0.02, Fisher exact test). These results are indicative of the presence of IL-2 passageable T cells in bladder cancer biopsy and demonstrate that the successful expansion of these cells correlates with the normal expression of class I antigens on the tumour cells. Images Figure 5 PMID:1764393

  12. Trans-cranial infrared laser stimulation induces hemodynamic and metabolic response measured by broadband near infrared spectroscopy in vivo on human forehead (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinlong; Nalawade, Sahil Sunil; Reddy, Divya Dhandapani; Tian, Fenghua; Gonzalez-Lima, F.; Liu, Hanli

    2017-02-01

    Transcranial infrared laser stimulation (TILS) uses infrared light (lasers or LEDs) for nondestructive and non-thermal photobiomodulation on the human brain. Although TILS has shown its beneficial effects to a variety of neurological and psychological conditions, its physiological mechanism remains unknown. Cytochrome-c-oxidase (CCO), the last enzyme in the electron transportation chain, is proposed to be the primary photoacceptor of this infrared laser. In this study, we wish to validate this proposed mechanism. We applied 8 minutes in vivo TILS on the right forehead of 11 human participants with a 1064-nm laser. Broad-band near infrared spectroscopy (bb-NIRS) from 740-900nm was also employed near the TILS site to monitor hemodynamic and metabolic responses during the stimulation and 5-minute recovery period. For rigorous comparison, we also performed similar 8-min bb-NIR measurements under placebo conditions. A multi-linear regression analysis based on the modified Beer-Lambert law was performed to estimate concentration changes of oxy-hemoglobin (Δ[HbO]), deoxy-hemoglobin (Δ[Hb]), and cytochrome-c-oxidase (Δ[CCO]). We found that TILS induced significant increases of [CCO], [HbO] and a decrease of [Hb] with dose-dependent manner as compared with placebo treatments. Furthermore, strong linear relationships or interplays between [CCO] versus [HbO] and [CCO] versus [Hb] induced by TILS were observed in vivo for the first time. These relationships have clearly revealed close coupling/relationship between the hemodynamic oxygen supply and blood volume versus up-regulation of CCO induced by photobiomodulation. Our results demonstrate the tremendous potential of bb-NIRS as a non-invasive in vivo means to study photobiomodulation mechanisms and perform treatment evaluations of TILS.

  13. Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes and the emerging role of immunotherapy in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Luen, Stephen J; Savas, Peter; Fox, Stephen B; Salgado, Roberto; Loi, Sherene

    2017-02-01

    Breast cancer has not previously been considered a highly immunogenic cancer. Observations of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in and around neoplastic cells in tumour samples, and associations with improved pathological complete response and clinical survival end points have changed our perspective on this. Lymphocytic infiltrates have long been observed in breast cancer; however, more recently, retrospective analysis of prospectively collected tissue samples from clinical trials has demonstrated the potential role of host immunosurveillance in influencing the biology of breast cancer. This association appears to be strongest in triple negative and HER2 positive breast cancer subtypes. Contrastingly, the association in luminal tumours is less clear, and is potentially limited by substantial tumoural heterogeneity. Several methodologies have been employed to quantify, and describe the composition of TILs, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. The results of these analyses have been generally consistent, and valuable efforts are currently underway to standardise the evaluation of TILs toward a universal approach. More technical methods of TIL characterisation remain important in the research setting. The evaluation of TILs becomes increasingly relevant with the emerging role of immunotherapy in breast cancer. Early phase trials of checkpoint blockade show promising results; however, it is likely that some patients will require combination treatments to maximise therapeutic benefits. Equally, some patients may not derive any benefit from immunotherapies. This underscores the importance of the development of relevant predictive biomarkers. As a key representative of the immune interaction between host and tumour, lymphocytic infiltrates are ideally placed for continued research into the determinants of immunogenicity, and response to immunotherapeutic approaches. In this review, we will discuss the current methodologies of evaluation, and the clinical

  14. Numerical studies on the performance of an aerosol respirator with faceseal leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaripov, S. K.; Mukhametzanov, I. T.; Grinshpun, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    We studied the efficiency of a facepiece filtering respirator (FFR) in presence of a measurable faceseal leakage using the previously developed model of a spherical sampler with porous layer. In our earlier study, the model was validated for a specific filter permeability value. In this follow-up study, we investigated the effect of permeability on the overall respirator performance accounting for the faceseal leakage. The Total Inward Leakage (TIL) was calculated as a function of the leakage-to-filter surface ratio and the particle diameter. A good correlation was found between the theoretical and experimental TIL values. The TIL value was shown to increase and the effect of particle size on TIL to decrease as the leakage-to- filter surface ratio grows. The model confirmed that within the most penetrating particle size range (∼50 nm) and at relatively low leakage-to-filter surface ratios, an FFR performs better (TIL is lower) when the filter has a lower permeability which should be anticipated as long as the flow through the filter represents the dominant particle penetration pathway. An increase in leak size causes the TIL to rise; furthermore, under certain leakage-to-filter surface ratios, TIL for ultrafine particles becomes essentially independent on the filter properties due to a greater contribution of the aerosol flow through the faceseal leakage. In contrast to the ultrafine fraction, the larger particles (e.g., 800 nm) entering a typical high- or medium-quality respirator filter are almost fully collected by the filter medium regardless of its permeability; at the same time, the fraction penetrated through the leakage appears to be permeability- dependent: higher permeability generally results in a lower pressure drop through the filter which increases the air flow through the filter at the expense of the leakage flow. The latter reduces the leakage effect thus improving the overall respiratory protection level. The findings of this study provide

  15. Adoptive cell therapy with autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and high-dose interleukin-2 for metastatic melanoma: The surgeon’s perspective

    PubMed Central

    ZIPPEL, DOUGLAS B.; BESSER, MICHAL; SHAPIRA, RONI; BEN-NUN, ALON; GOITEIN, DAVID; DAVIDSON, TIMA; TREVES, ABRAHAM J.; MARKEL, GAL; SCHACHTER, JACOB; PAPA, MOSHE Z.

    2012-01-01

    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are produced by resecting tumor tissue and growing and expanding ex vivo large quantities of autologous T cells. Once the TILs are ready for infusion, the patient undergoes a non-myeloablative lympho-depleting course of chemotherapy and subsequent TIL infusion with high-dose bolus IL-2. This study reviews the surgical experience of the TIL program at the Chaim Sheba Cancer Research Center in Israel. Eligible patients underwent surgical consultation to determine what tumorectomy would be beneficial for harvesting appropriate tissue. Factors involved in the decision included tumor mass size, location and morbidity of the procedure. Between January 2006 and May 2010, 44 patients underwent 47 procedures of adoptive transfer of TILs. Three patients underwent the procedure twice for recurrence after initial good responses, including an additional surgical procedure to produce fresh tumor. Thirty-seven excisions were with general anesthesia and 10 were with local anesthesia. Of the 37 general anesthesia procedures, 27 were open procedures involving a thoracotomy, a laparotomy or dissection of a major lymph node basin. Ten used minimally invasive techniques such as thorascopy or laparoscopy. Tumorectomy sites included 18 lymph node metastasis, 13 subcutaneous nodules, 11 lung specimens and 5 abdominal visceral metastasis including 2 liver lesions. Surgical mortality and major morbidity was 0%. Minor morbidity included only wound complications. Maximal number of TILs were derived from lymph node specimens, while liver metastasis procured the fewest TILs. Adoptive cell transfer technology affords a maximal tumor response with minimal surgical morbidity in metastatic patients. PMID:22969990

  16. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy of Ovarian Cancer Results in Three Patterns of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocyte Response with Distinct Implications for Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lo, Charlotte S; Sanii, Sanaz; Kroeger, David R; Milne, Katy; Talhouk, Aline; Chiu, Derek S; Rahimi, Kurosh; Shaw, Patricia A; Clarke, Blaise A; Nelson, Brad H

    2017-02-15

    Purpose: Some forms of chemotherapy can enhance antitumor immunity through immunogenic cell death, resulting in increased T-cell activation and tumor infiltration. Such effects could potentially sensitize tumors to immunotherapies, including checkpoint blockade. We investigated whether platinum- and taxane-based chemotherapy for ovarian cancer induces immunologic changes consistent with this possibility.Experimental Design: Matched pre- and post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy tumor samples from 26 high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) patients were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for a large panel of immune cells and associated factors. The prognostic significance of post-chemotherapy TIL patterns was assessed in an expanded cohort (n = 90).Results: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was associated with increased densities of CD3(+), CD8(+), CD8(+) TIA-1(+), PD-1(+) and CD20(+) TIL. Other immune subsets and factors were unchanged, including CD79a(+) CD138(+) plasma cells, CD68(+) macrophages, and MHC class I on tumor cells. Immunosuppressive cell types were also unchanged, including FoxP3(+) PD-1(+) cells (putative regulatory T cells), IDO-1(+) cells, and PD-L1(+) cells (both macrophages and tumor cells). Hierarchical clustering revealed three response patterns: (i) TIL(high) tumors showed increases in multiple immune markers after chemotherapy; (ii) TIL(low) tumors underwent similar increases, achieving patterns indistinguishable from the first group; and (iii) TIL(negative) cases generally remained negative. Despite the dramatic increases seen in the first two patterns, post-chemotherapy TIL showed limited prognostic significance.Conclusions: Chemotherapy augments pre-existing TIL responses but fails to relieve major immune-suppressive mechanisms or confer significant prognostic benefit. Our findings provide rationale for multipronged approaches to immunotherapy tailored to the baseline features of the tumor microenvironment. Clin Cancer Res; 23(4); 925-34. ©2016 AACR.

  17. Surface Proteome Analysis of a Natural Isolate of Lactococcus lactis Reveals the Presence of Pili Able to Bind Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Meyrand, Mickael; Guillot, Alain; Goin, Mélodie; Furlan, Sylviane; Armalyte, Julija; Kulakauskas, Saulius; Cortes-Perez, Naima G.; Thomas, Ginette; Chat, Sophie; Péchoux, Christine; Dupres, Vincent; Hols, Pascal; Dufrêne, Yves F.; Trugnan, Germain; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Surface proteins of Gram-positive bacteria play crucial roles in bacterial adhesion to host tissues. Regarding commensal or probiotic bacteria, adhesion to intestinal mucosa may promote their persistence in the gastro-intestinal tract and their beneficial effects to the host. In this study, seven Lactococcus lactis strains exhibiting variable surface physico-chemical properties were compared for their adhesion to Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. In this test, only one vegetal isolate TIL448 expressed a high-adhesion phenotype. A nonadhesive derivative was obtained by plasmid curing from TIL448, indicating that the adhesion determinants were plasmid-encoded. Surface-exposed proteins in TIL448 were analyzed by a proteomic approach consisting in shaving of the bacterial surface with trypsin and analysis of the released peptides by LC-MS/MS. As the TIL448 complete genome sequence was not available, the tryptic peptides were identified by a mass matching approach against a database including all Lactococcus protein sequences and the sequences deduced from partial DNA sequences of the TIL448 plasmids. Two surface proteins, encoded by plasmids in TIL448, were identified as candidate adhesins, the first one displaying pilin characteristics and the second one containing two mucus-binding domains. Inactivation of the pilin gene abolished adhesion to Caco-2 cells whereas inactivation of the mucus-binding protein gene had no effect on adhesion. The pilin gene is located inside a cluster of four genes encoding two other pilin-like proteins and one class-C sortase. Synthesis of pili was confirmed by immunoblotting detection of high molecular weight forms of pilins associated to the cell wall as well as by electron and atomic force microscopy observations. As a conclusion, surface proteome analysis allowed us to detect pilins at the surface of L. lactis TIL448. Moreover we showed that pili appendages are formed and involved in adhesion to Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells

  18. Characterization of an Immunogenic Mutation in a Patient with Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Assadipour, Yasmine; Zacharakis, Nikolaos; Crystal, Jessica S; Prickett, Todd D; Gartner, Jared J; Somerville, Robert P T; Xu, Hui; Black, Mary A; Jia, Li; Chinnasamy, Harshini; Kriley, Isaac; Lu, Lily; Wunderlich, John R; Zheng, Zhili; Lu, Yong-Chen; Robbins, Paul F; Rosenberg, Steven A; Goff, Stephanie L; Feldman, Steven A

    2017-08-01

    Purpose: The administration of autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) can mediate durable tumor regressions in patients with melanoma likely based on the recognition of immunogenic somatic mutations expressed by the cancer. There are limited data regarding the immunogenicity of mutations in breast cancer. We sought to identify immunogenic nonsynonymous mutations in a patient with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) to identify and isolate mutation-reactive TILs for possible use in adoptive cell transfer.Experimental Design: A TNBC metastasis was resected for TIL generation and whole-exome sequencing. Tandem minigenes or long 25-mer peptides encoding selected mutations were electroporated or pulsed onto autologous antigen-presenting cells, and reactivity of TIL was screened by upregulation of CD137 and IFNγ ELISPOT. The nature of the T-cell response against a unique nonsynonymous mutation was characterized.Results: We identified 72 nonsynonymous mutations from the tumor of a patient with TNBC. CD4(+) and HLA-DRB1*1501-restricted TILs isolated from this tumor recognized a single mutation in RBPJ (recombination signal binding protein for immunoglobulin kappa J region). Analysis of 16 metastatic sites revealed that the mutation was ubiquitously present in all samples.Conclusions: Breast cancers can express naturally processed and presented unique nonsynonymous mutations that are recognized by a patient's immune system. TILs recognizing these immunogenic mutations can be isolated from a patient's tumor, suggesting that adoptive cell transfer of mutation-reactive TILs could be a viable treatment option for patients with breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 23(15); 4347-53. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Beneficial neurocognitive effects of transcranial laser in older adults.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Enrique; Barrett, Douglas W; Saucedo, Celeste L; Huang, Li-Da; Abraham, Jacob A; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Haley, Andreana P; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2017-07-01

    Transcranial infrared laser stimulation (TILS) at 1064 nm, 250 mW/cm(2) has been proven safe and effective for increasing neurocognitive functions in young adults in controlled studies using photobiomodulation of the right prefrontal cortex. The objective of this pilot study was to determine whether there is any effect from TILS on neurocognitive function in older adults with subjective memory complaint at risk for cognitive decline (e.g., increased carotid artery intima-media thickness or mild traumatic brain injury). We investigated the cognitive effects of TILS in older adults (ages 49-90, n = 12) using prefrontal cortex measures of attention (psychomotor vigilance task (PVT)) and memory (delayed match to sample (DMS)), carotid artery intima-media thickness (measured by ultrasound), and evaluated the potential neural mechanisms mediating the cognitive effects of TILS using exploratory brain studies of electroencephalography (EEG, n = 6) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, n = 6). Cognitive performance, age, and carotid artery intima-media thickness were highly correlated, but all participants improved in all cognitive measures after TILS treatments. Baseline vs. chronic (five weekly sessions, 8 min each) comparisons of mean cognitive scores all showed improvements, significant for PVT reaction time (p < 0.001), PVT lapses (p < 0.001), and DMS correct responses (p < 0.05). The neural studies also showed for the first time that TILS increases resting-state EEG alpha, beta, and gamma power and promotes more efficient prefrontal blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD)-fMRI response. Importantly, no adverse effects were found. These preliminary findings support the use of TILS for larger randomized clinical trials with this non-invasive approach to augment neurocognitive function in older people to combat aging-related and vascular disease-related cognitive decline.

  20. Prognostic and predictive value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes for clinical therapeutic research in patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Dong-Qiang; Yu, Yun-Fang; Ou, Qi-Yun; Li, Xiao-Yin; Zhong, Ru-Zhi; Xie, Chuan-Miao; Hu, Qiu-Gen

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous preclinical and clinical studies have shown that levels of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) significantly correlated with prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and survival after therapy; however, this finding remains controversial. We performed a meta-analysis, to evaluate, systematically, the clinical utilization of TIL subtypes in patients with NSCLC. Methods The PubMed, ISI Web of Science, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched to identify relevant studies. We pooled estimates of treatment effects, and hazards were summarized using random or fixed effects models to evaluate survival outcomes. Results A total of 24 relevant studies involving 7,006 patients were eligible. The median percentage of lymph node positivity was 45.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37.1–56.4%). Pooled analysis shows that high levels of CD8+ TILs had a good prognostic effect on survival with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.91 (P = 0.013) for death and 0.74 (P = 0.001) for recurrence, as did high levels of CD3+ and CD4+ TILs, with HRs of 0.77 (P = 0.009) and 0.78 (P = 0.005) for death, respectively. By contrast, high levels of FoxP3+ regulatory TILs had a worse prognostic effect for overall and recurrence-free survival, with HRs of 1.69 (P = 0.042) and 1.79 (P = 0.001), respectively. No individual study affected the results, and no publication bias was found. Conclusions Our findings support the hypothesis that TILs could be a prognostic marker in NSCLC. High-quality randomized studies are needed to verify statistically the effect of TILs on prognosis in future research. PMID:26871598

  1. Impact of heat on metabolic and hemodynamic changes in transcranial infrared laser stimulation measured by broadband near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinlong; Reddy, Divya D; Nalawade, Sahil S; Pal, Suvra; Gonzalez-Lima, F; Liu, Hanli

    2018-01-01

    Transcranial infrared laser stimulation (TILS) has shown effectiveness in improving human cognition and was investigated using broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (bb-NIRS) in our previous study, but the effect of laser heating on the actual bb-NIRS measurements was not investigated. To address this potential confounding factor, 11 human participants were studied. First, we measured time-dependent temperature increases on forehead skin using clinical-grade thermometers following the TILS experimental protocol used in our previous study. Second, a subject-averaged, time-dependent temperature alteration curve was obtained, based on which a heat generator was controlled to induce the same temperature increase at the same forehead location that TILS was delivered on each participant. Third, the same bb-NIRS system was employed to monitor hemodynamic and metabolic changes of forehead tissue near the thermal stimulation site before, during, and after the heat stimulation. The results showed that cytochrome-c-oxidase of forehead tissue was not significantly modified by this heat stimulation. Significant differences in oxyhemoglobin, total hemoglobin, and differential hemoglobin concentrations were observed during the heat stimulation period versus the laser stimulation. The study demonstrated a transient hemodynamic effect of heat-based stimulation distinct to that of TILS. We concluded that the observed effects of TILS on cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism are not induced by heating the skin.

  2. Ex-vivo analysis of CD8+ T cells infiltrating colorectal tumors identifies a major effector-memory subset with low perforin content.

    PubMed

    Ye, Sheng-Wei; Wang, Yu; Valmori, Danila; Ayyoub, Maha; Han, Yan; Xu, Xiao-Lan; Zhao, Ai-Lian; Qu, Li; Gnjatic, Sacha; Ritter, Gerd; Old, Lloyd J; Gu, Jin

    2006-09-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the infiltration of CD8+ T cells in colorectal cancer is an independent predictor of increased survival but clinical observations have suggested that the cytotoxic function of CD8+ T cells infiltrating colorectal cancer may often be limited. In this study, we have assessed the phenotype of colorectal cancer CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) isolated ex vivo from tumor tissue, and assessed the perforin content of TIL with respect to their location using immunohistochemistry. We found that CD8+ T cells TILs isolated from colorectal cancer are mainly composed of antigen-experienced cells of effector memory type (TEM, CD45RA-CCR7-, and CD27+/CD28- or CD27-/CD28-), and contain only minor proportions of terminally differentiated CD8+ T cells (TEMRA, CD45RA+CCR7-). The perforin content of these TILs, however, is significantly lower than that of antigen-experienced T cells in PBMCs due to the much lower levels of perforin found in the CD27-CD28- subset in TILs compared with CD8+ T cells of similar phenotype in PBMCs.

  3. Boosting antitumor responses of T lymphocytes infiltrating human prostate cancers

    PubMed Central

    Bronte, Vincenzo; Kasic, Tihana; Gri, Giorgia; Gallana, Keti; Borsellino, Giovanna; Marigo, Ilaria; Battistini, Luca; Iafrate, Massimo; Prayer-Galetti, Tommaso; Pagano, Francesco; Viola, Antonella

    2005-01-01

    Immunotherapy may provide valid alternative therapy for patients with hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer. However, if the tumor environment exerts a suppressive action on antigen-specific tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), immunotherapy will achieve little, if any, success. In this study, we analyzed the modulation of TIL responses by the tumor environment using collagen gel matrix–supported organ cultures of human prostate carcinomas. Our results indicate that human prostatic adenocarcinomas are infiltrated by terminally differentiated cytotoxic T lymphocytes that are, however, in an unresponsive status. We demonstrate the presence of high levels of nitrotyrosines in prostatic TIL, suggesting a local production of peroxynitrites. By inhibiting the activity of arginase and nitric oxide synthase, key enzymes of L-arginine metabolism that are highly expressed in malignant but not in normal prostates, reduced tyrosine nitration and restoration of TIL responsiveness to tumor were achieved. The metabolic control exerted by the tumor on TIL function was confirmed in a transgenic mouse prostate model, which exhibits similarities with human prostate cancer. These results identify a novel and dominant mechanism by which cancers induce immunosuppression in situ and suggest novel strategies for tumor immunotherapy. PMID:15824085

  4. Boosting antitumor responses of T lymphocytes infiltrating human prostate cancers.

    PubMed

    Bronte, Vincenzo; Kasic, Tihana; Gri, Giorgia; Gallana, Keti; Borsellino, Giovanna; Marigo, Ilaria; Battistini, Luca; Iafrate, Massimo; Prayer-Galetti, Tommaso; Pagano, Francesco; Viola, Antonella

    2005-04-18

    Immunotherapy may provide valid alternative therapy for patients with hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer. However, if the tumor environment exerts a suppressive action on antigen-specific tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), immunotherapy will achieve little, if any, success. In this study, we analyzed the modulation of TIL responses by the tumor environment using collagen gel matrix-supported organ cultures of human prostate carcinomas. Our results indicate that human prostatic adenocarcinomas are infiltrated by terminally differentiated cytotoxic T lymphocytes that are, however, in an unresponsive status. We demonstrate the presence of high levels of nitrotyrosines in prostatic TIL, suggesting a local production of peroxynitrites. By inhibiting the activity of arginase and nitric oxide synthase, key enzymes of L-arginine metabolism that are highly expressed in malignant but not in normal prostates, reduced tyrosine nitration and restoration of TIL responsiveness to tumor were achieved. The metabolic control exerted by the tumor on TIL function was confirmed in a transgenic mouse prostate model, which exhibits similarities with human prostate cancer. These results identify a novel and dominant mechanism by which cancers induce immunosuppression in situ and suggest novel strategies for tumor immunotherapy.

  5. Akt inhibition enhances expansion of potent tumor-specific lymphocytes with memory cell characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Crompton, Joseph G.; Sukumar, Madhusudhanan; Roychoudhuri, Rahul; Clever, David; Gros, Alena; Eil, Robert; Tran, Eric; Hanada, Ken-ichi; Yu, Zhiya; Palmer, Douglas C.; Kerkar, Sid P.; Michalek, Ryan D.; Upham, Trevor; Leonardi, Anthony; Aquavella, Nicholas; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco M.; Gattinoni, Luca; Muranski, Pawel; Sundrud, Mark S.; Klebanoff, Christopher A.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Fearon, Douglas T.; Restifo, Nicholas P.

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) using autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) can result in complete regression of advanced cancer in some patients, but the efficacy of this potentially curative therapy might be limited by poor persistence of TIL after adoptive-transfer. Pharmacologic inhibition of the serine/threonine kinase Akt has recently been shown to promote immunologic memory in viral-specific murine models, but whether this approach may enhance features of memory (e.g. long-term persistence) in TIL which are characteristically exhausted and senescent is not established. Here we show that pharmacologic inhibition of Akt enables expansion of TIL with the transcriptional, metabolic and functional properties characteristic of memory T cells. Consequently, Akt inhibition results in enhanced persistence of TIL after adoptive transfer into an immunodeficient animal model and augments anti-tumor immunity of CD8 T cells in a mouse model of cell-based immunotherapy. Pharmacologic inhibition of Akt represents a novel immunometabolomic approach to enhance the persistence of anti-tumor T cells and improve the efficacy of cell-based immunotherapy for metastatic cancer. PMID:25432172

  6. A major secretory defect of tumour-infiltrating T lymphocytes due to galectin impairing LFA-1-mediated synapse completion

    PubMed Central

    Petit, Anne-Elisabeth; Demotte, Nathalie; Scheid, Benoît; Wildmann, Claude; Bigirimana, René; Gordon-Alonso, Monica; Carrasco, Javier; Valitutti, Salvatore; Godelaine, Danièle; van der Bruggen, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Surface galectin has been shown to contribute to dysfunctions of human tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). We show here that galectin-covered CD8 TILs produce normal amounts of intracellular cytokines, but fail to secrete them because of defective actin rearrangements at the synapse. The non-secreting TILs also display reduced adhesion to their targets, together with defective LFA-1 recruitment and activation at the synapse. These defects are relieved by releasing surface galectin. As mild LFA-1 blockade on normal blood T cells emulate the defects of galectin-covered TILs, we conclude that galectin prevents the formation of a functional secretory synapse by preventing optimal LFA-1 triggering. Our results highlight a major secretory defect of TILs that is not revealed by widely used intracellular cytokine immunomonitoring assays. They also provide additional insights into the T-cell response, by showing that different thresholds of LFA-1 triggering are required to promote the intracellular production of cytokines and their secretion. PMID:27447355

  7. CD103+ intraepithelial T cells in high-grade serous ovarian cancer are phenotypically diverse TCRαβ+ CD8αβ+ T cells that can be targeted for cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Workel, Hagma H.; Tijans, Aline M.; Terwindt, Anouk L.J.; Brunekreeft, Kim L.; Plat, Annechien; Klip, Harry G.; Eggink, Florine A.; Leffers, Ninke; Helfrich, Wijnand; Samplonius, Douwe F.; Bremer, Edwin; Wisman, G. Bea A.; Daemen, Toos; Duiker, Evelien W.; Hollema, Harry; Nijman, Hans W.; de Bruyn, Marco

    2016-01-01

    CD103+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) have been linked to specific epithelial infiltration and a prolonged survival in high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer (HGSC). However, whether these cells are induced as part of an ongoing anti-HGSC immune response or represent non-specifically expanded resident or mucosal lymphocytes remains largely unknown. In this study, we first confirmed that CD103+ TIL from HGSC were predominantly localized in the cancer epithelium and were strongly correlated with an improved prognosis. We further demonstrate that CD103+ TIL were almost exclusively CD3+ TCRαβ+ CD8αβ+ CD4- T cells, but heterogeneously expressed T cell memory and differentiation markers. Activation of peripheral T cells in the presence of HGSC was sufficient to trigger induction of CD103 in over 90% of all CD8+ cells in a T cell receptor (TCR)- and TGFβR1-dependent manner. Finally, CD103+ TIL isolated from primary HGSC showed signs of recent activation and dominantly co-expressed key immunotherapeutic targets PD-1 and CD27. Taken together, our data indicate CD103+ TIL in HGSC are formed as the result of an adaptive anti-tumor immune response that might be reactivated by (dual) checkpoint inhibition. PMID:27650547

  8. Identification and Functional Analysis of Interleukin-1β in the Chinese Soft-Shelled Turtle Pelodiscus sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Quan; Li, Weifen; Guo, Ningning; Tong, Chao; Zhou, Yingshan; Fang, Weihuan; Li, Xiaoliang

    2016-01-01

    Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) is commercially cultured in East and Southeast Asia for its nutritional and medicinal values. In this study, we identified interleukin-1β (IL-1β) from Chinese soft-shelled turtle. The full-length cDNA of Pelodiscus sinensis IL-1β (tIL-1β) consists of 1529 base pairs with an 831-base-pair open reading frame, encoding 277 amino acids. The guanine-cytosine (GC) content in the coding sequence and 3’ untranslated region of tIL-1β is considerably higher than that of other vertebrates. Its mRNA expression level increased significantly during Aeromonas hydrophila infection. The tIL-1β lacks the typical IL-1β-converting enzyme (ICE) cut site found in mammalian IL-1β, but still could be cleaved by turtle caspase-1. By mutating the potential cleavage sites, we identified aspartic acid (Asp/D) 130 as the ICE cut site in tIL-1β. The peptide truncated at D130 was expressed using the baculovirus expression system; its bioactivity is confirmed by the ability to induce cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and tIL-1β itself in peripheral blood monocytes. In conclusion, we characterized IL-1β from Chinese soft-shelled turtle and identified its D130 as a non-typical ICE cut size. PMID:27153094

  9. Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Triple Negative Breast Cancer: The Future of Immune Targeting.

    PubMed

    García-Teijido, Paula; Cabal, María Luque; Fernández, Ignacio Peláez; Pérez, Yolanda Fernández

    2016-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly heterogeneous tumor. There is increasing evidence of the role of tumor lymphocytic immune infiltrates in this subtype of breast cancer. Robust levels of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have been associated with improved disease-free and overall survival rates in TNBC patients with and without any treatment. Recent efforts have been made to develop a standardized methodology for evaluating TILs. The presence of TILs in the breast tumor microenvironment can also predict responses not only to neoadjuvant but also to adjuvant chemotherapy treatments. High numbers of TILs correlate with increased pathological complete responses (pCR) in TNBC. TILs are prognostic and predictive of response to standard therapies; thus, the immune system appears to play an active role in a subgroup of breast cancer. There is an increasing interest in directly targeting the immune system as part of breast cancer therapy, mainly in patients with TNBC. New immune modulatory agents, including immune checkpoints inhibitors, have shown promising activity in a subgroup of metastatic TNBC. Increased programmed cell death protein 1 ligand (PD-L1) expression on the surface of TNBC provides the rationale for implementing therapeutic strategies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis in TNBC. The programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor pembrolizumab, and the PD-L1 inhibitor atezolizumab have shown promising results in clinical trials.

  10. CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes predict favorable prognosis in malignant pleural mesothelioma after resection.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Noriyuki; Oizumi, Satoshi; Kikuchi, Eiki; Shinagawa, Naofumi; Konishi-Sakakibara, Jun; Ishimine, Atsushi; Aoe, Keisuke; Gemba, Kenichi; Kishimoto, Takumi; Torigoe, Toshihiko; Nishimura, Masaharu

    2010-10-01

    Defects in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I expression may allow tumor cells to escape immune recognition. T cell infiltration is associated with a good prognosis in many cancers. However, the role of HLA class I expression and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has not been fully analyzed. In the present study, we investigated the immune profiles and conducted outcome analyses of MPM patients. HLA class I expression and TILs (CD4(+), CD8(+), and NK cells) were detected by immunohistochemistry in a series of 44 MPM cases. To detect HLA class I expression, specimens were stained with the anti-pan HLA class I monoclonal antibody EMR8-5. The expression of HLA class I was positive in all patients. There was no case that showed negative HLA class I expression. The density of CD4(+) and CD8(+) TILs were strongly correlated (R = 0.76, p < 0.001). A high density of CD8(+) TILs was a significantly better prognostic factor for the survival of patients with extrapleural pneumonectomy (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that a high density of CD8(+) TILs is an independent prognostic factor for patients who underwent extrapleural pneumonectomy. The presence of intratumoral CD8(+) T cells was correlated with an improved clinical outcome, raising the possibility that CD8(+) T cells might play a pivotal role in the antitumor immune response against MPMs. Thus, the stimulation of CD8(+) lymphocytes might be an efficacious immunotherapy for MPM patients.

  11. Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Triple Negative Breast Cancer: The Future of Immune Targeting

    PubMed Central

    García-Teijido, Paula; Cabal, María Luque; Fernández, Ignacio Peláez; Pérez, Yolanda Fernández

    2016-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly heterogeneous tumor. There is increasing evidence of the role of tumor lymphocytic immune infiltrates in this subtype of breast cancer. Robust levels of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have been associated with improved disease-free and overall survival rates in TNBC patients with and without any treatment. Recent efforts have been made to develop a standardized methodology for evaluating TILs. The presence of TILs in the breast tumor microenvironment can also predict responses not only to neoadjuvant but also to adjuvant chemotherapy treatments. High numbers of TILs correlate with increased pathological complete responses (pCR) in TNBC. TILs are prognostic and predictive of response to standard therapies; thus, the immune system appears to play an active role in a subgroup of breast cancer. There is an increasing interest in directly targeting the immune system as part of breast cancer therapy, mainly in patients with TNBC. New immune modulatory agents, including immune checkpoints inhibitors, have shown promising activity in a subgroup of metastatic TNBC. Increased programmed cell death protein 1 ligand (PD-L1) expression on the surface of TNBC provides the rationale for implementing therapeutic strategies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis in TNBC. The programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor pembrolizumab, and the PD-L1 inhibitor atezolizumab have shown promising results in clinical trials. PMID:27081325

  12. Life without dUTPase

    PubMed Central

    Kerepesi, Csaba; Szabó, Judit E.; Papp-Kádár, Veronika; Dobay, Orsolya; Szabó, Dóra; Grolmusz, Vince; Vértessy, Beáta G.

    2016-01-01

    Fine-tuned regulation of the cellular nucleotide pools is indispensable for faithful replication of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA). The genetic information is also safeguarded by DNA damage recognition and repair processes. Uracil is one of the most frequently occurring erroneous bases in DNA; it can arise from cytosine deamination or thymine-replacing incorporation. Two enzyme activities are primarily involved in keeping DNA uracil-free: dUTPase (dUTP pyrophosphatase) activity that prevent thymine-replacing incorporation and uracil-DNA glycosylase activity that excise uracil from DNA and initiate uracil-excision repair. Both dUTPase and the most efficient uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG) is thought to be ubiquitous in free-living organisms. In the present work, we have systematically investigated the genotype of deposited fully sequenced bacterial and Archaeal genomes. We have performed bioinformatic searches in these genomes using the already well described dUTPase and UNG gene sequences. For dUTPases, we have included the trimeric all-beta and the dimeric all-alpha families and also, the bifunctional dCTP (deoxycytidine triphosphate) deaminase-dUTPase sequences. Surprisingly, we have found that in contrast to the generally held opinion, a wide number of bacterial and Archaeal species lack all of the previously described dUTPase gene(s). The dut– genotype is present in diverse bacterial phyla indicating that loss of this (or these) gene(s) has occurred multiple times during evolution. We discuss potential survival strategies in lack of dUTPases, such as simultaneous lack or inhibition of UNG and possession of exogenous or alternate metabolic enzymes involved in uracil-DNA metabolism. The potential that genes previously not associated with dUTPase activity may still encode enzymes capable of hydrolyzing dUTP is also discussed. Our data indicate that several unicellular microorganisms may efficiently cope with a dut– genotype lacking all of the previously described d

  13. Scaffold functions of 14-3-3 adaptors in B cell immunoglobulin class switch DNA recombination.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tonika; Thomas, Lisa M; White, Clayton A; Li, Guideng; Pone, Egest J; Xu, Zhenming; Casali, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Class switch DNA recombination (CSR) of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus crucially diversifies antibody biological effector functions. CSR involves the induction of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) expression and AID targeting to switch (S) regions by 14-3-3 adaptors. 14-3-3 adaptors specifically bind to 5'-AGCT-3' repeats, which make up for the core of all IgH locus S regions. They selectively target the upstream and downstream S regions that are set to undergo S-S DNA recombination. We hypothesized that 14-3-3 adaptors function as scaffolds to stabilize CSR enzymatic elements on S regions. Here we demonstrate that all seven 14-3-3β, 14-3-3ε, 14-3-3γ, 14-3-3η, 14-3-3σ, 14-3-3τ and 14-3-3ζ adaptors directly interacted with AID, PKA-Cα (catalytic subunit) and PKA-RIα (regulatory inhibitory subunit) and uracil DNA glycosylase (Ung). 14-3-3 adaptors, however, did not interact with AID C-terminal truncation mutant AIDΔ(180-198) or AIDF193A and AIDL196A point-mutants (which have been shown not to bind to S region DNA and fail to mediate CSR). 14-3-3 adaptors colocalized with AID and replication protein A (RPA) in B cells undergoing CSR. 14-3-3 and AID binding to S region DNA was disrupted by viral protein R (Vpr), an accessory protein of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), which inhibited CSR without altering AID expression or germline IH-CH transcription. Accordingly, we demonstrated that 14-3-3 directly interact with Vpr, which in turn, also interact with AID, PKA-Cα and Ung. Altogether, our findings suggest that 14-3-3 adaptors play important scaffold functions and nucleate the assembly of multiple CSR factors on S regions. They also show that such assembly can be disrupted by a viral protein, thereby allowing us to hypothesize that small molecule compounds that specifically block 14-3-3 interactions with AID, PKA and/or Ung can be used to inhibit unwanted CSR.

  14. Uracil-Containing DNA in Drosophila: Stability, Stage-Specific Accumulation, and Developmental Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Békési, Angéla; Pukáncsik, Mária; Hodoscsek, Barbara; Merényi, Gábor; Róna, Gergely; Batki, Júlia; Kiss, István; Jankovics, Ferenc; Vilmos, Péter; Erdélyi, Miklós; Vértessy, Beáta G.

    2012-01-01

    Base-excision repair and control of nucleotide pools safe-guard against permanent uracil accumulation in DNA relying on two key enzymes: uracil–DNA glycosylase and dUTPase. Lack of the major uracil–DNA glycosylase UNG gene from the fruit fly genome and dUTPase from fruit fly larvae prompted the hypotheses that i) uracil may accumulate in Drosophila genomic DNA where it may be well tolerated, and ii) this accumulation may affect development. Here we show that i) Drosophila melanogaster tolerates high levels of uracil in DNA; ii) such DNA is correctly interpreted in cell culture and embryo; and iii) under physiological spatio-temporal control, DNA from fruit fly larvae, pupae, and imago contain greatly elevated levels of uracil (200–2,000 uracil/million bases, quantified using a novel real-time PCR–based assay). Uracil is accumulated in genomic DNA of larval tissues during larval development, whereas DNA from imaginal tissues contains much less uracil. Upon pupation and metamorphosis, uracil content in DNA is significantly decreased. We propose that the observed developmental pattern of uracil–DNA is due to the lack of the key repair enzyme UNG from the Drosophila genome together with down-regulation of dUTPase in larval tissues. In agreement, we show that dUTPase silencing increases the uracil content in DNA of imaginal tissues and induces strong lethality at the early pupal stages, indicating that tolerance of highly uracil-substituted DNA is also stage-specific. Silencing of dUTPase perturbs the physiological pattern of uracil–DNA accumulation in Drosophila and leads to a strongly lethal phenotype in early pupal stages. These findings suggest a novel role of uracil-containing DNA in Drosophila development and metamorphosis and present a novel example for developmental effects of dUTPase silencing in multicellular eukaryotes. Importantly, we also show lack of the UNG gene in all available genomes of other Holometabola insects, indicating a potentially

  15. Adoptive Cell Therapy for Metastatic Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Merhavi-Shoham, Efrat; Itzhaki, Orit; Markel, Gal; Schachter, Jacob; Besser, Michal J

    Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is a powerful form of immunotherapy by inducing durable complete responses that significantly extend the survival of melanoma patients. Mutation-derived neoantigens were recently identified as key factors for tumor recognition and rejection by TILs. The isolation of T-cell receptor (TCR) genes directed against neoantigens and their retransduction into peripheral T cells may provide a new form of ACT.Genetic modifications of T cells with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have demonstrated remarkable clinical results in hematologic malignancies, but are so far less effective in solid tumors. Only very limited reports exist in melanoma. Progress in CAR T-cell engineering, including neutralization of inhibitory signals or additional safety switches, may open opportunities also in melanoma.We review clinical results and latest developments of adoptive therapies with TILs, T-cell receptor, and CAR-modified T cells and discuss future directions for the treatment of melanoma.

  16. Production in vitro of thyroglobulin autoantibody by obese strain (OS) chickens.

    PubMed Central

    Tempelis, C H; Schauenstein, K; Wick, G

    1987-01-01

    Thyroglobulin autoantibody (Tg-AAb) can be spontaneously produced in vitro with thyroid infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) collected from Obese strain chickens 3.5 and 4 weeks old. Attempts to enhance Tg-AAb synthesis with two known polyclonal stimulators of immunoglobulin synthesis in chickens, Staphylococcus aureus Cowan strain 1 and dextran sulphate, failed to increase Tg-AAb production in vitro. Spleen cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from the same chickens as the TIL and older chickens known to produce moderate to high levels of Tg-AAb in vivo did not produce autoantibody either spontaneously or in the presence of polyclonal Ig stimulators with one exception. With this single, exceptional chicken we obtained a small amount of Tg-AAb produced in vitro with spleen cells. This suggests that in the OS chicken TIL, and to a much lesser extent, the spleen, contribute to the total Tg-AAb produced in this model of autoimmune thyroiditis. PMID:2440629

  17. Ki67 and lymphocytes in the pretherapeutic core biopsy of primary invasive breast cancer: positive markers of therapy response prediction and superior survival.

    PubMed

    Schlotter, Claus M; Tietze, Lothar; Vogt, Ulf; Heinsen, Carlos Villena; Hahn, Antje

    2017-09-22

    Background Core needle biopsy plays a crucial role as diagnostic tool for BC. Both Ki67 and likely tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in the near future are determining the kind of systemic therapy. The role of TILs in BC is still an issue for clinical research, albeit preliminary results of neoadjuvant and adjuvant clinical studies already now highlight the crucial impact of TILs on therapy response and survival. Methods Evaluation of related publications (pubmed) and meeting abstracts (ASCO, SABCS). Results The monoclonal antibody Ki67 recognizing a nuclear antigene in proliferating cells is a positive marker of therapy response and superior survival. Endocrine responsive tumors of low proliferation (Ki67 < 14%/11%) respond to tamoxifen, in contrast postmenopausal tumors with higher proliferation respond better to aromatase-inhibitors. Pathological complete response (pCR)-rates increase in tumors with higher proliferation (Ki67 > 19%) vs. tumors with lower proliferation after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). pCR-rates of up to 60% can be seen in TNBC and HR-, HER2+BC, lower pCR-rates, however, in HR+, HER2- BC. Increased stromal TILs are found in 30% of TNBC and in 19% of HR-, HER2+BC. The percentage of TILs is a significant independent parameter for pCR after NAC. Lymphocyte-predominant BC (LPBC) respond with higher pCR-rates than non-LPBC or tumors without any TILs. Increased TILs in TN and HR-, HER2+ subtypes predict benefit from addition of carboplatin to NAC. TILs are also associated with improved DFS and OS among patients with TNBC and HR-, HER2+ BC. Conversly and interestingly increased TILs in patients with HR+, HER2-(luminal) BC are associated with a 10% higher risk of death per 10% increase of TILs. Interactions between immune system and cancer are complex. The cancer-immunity cycle characterizes these interactions. BC subtypes with higher number of mutations such as TNBC and HR-, HER2+BC are considered to provide a raising number of tumor

  18. Digital Correlation Tracker, Phase 1. Computer Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    til 5.30 5.27 5.365 231 •’^"’•^~ ’’’■: " ". ’ "• -s 5 ■< •iri-mi.-iiiirfffiiiai’A-’ft," ■■’■ P|P*<W»>..UJ»>UI1UPW...8217xersjrr^^i^.T^^ry^rrr:^’ ^r^.^cx^^.^^irÄ..^:,: :^.. ::,^. J Mdjiwnnim.i""w»,*""".""t,’,p"ii.» w.",-tt"«^J*^--. ’ i««lWi!WiP^PIIii« til ...1 <Jfi .S1«P •.1P7= -.ülü« • ,7ll)P IVT« . til ?? -.771? .’•7’,2 .ilC72 -.icrp -.7177 . *’ 1 7 fl .*?0*

  19. Human spontaneous labor without histologic chorioamnionitis is characterized by an acute inflammation gene expression signature

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Ramsi; Tromp, Gerard; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Kim, Yeon Mee; Mazor, Moshe; Romero, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to identify which biological processes may be involved in normal labor. STUDY DESIGN Transcriptional profiles for chorioamniotic membranes (n=24) and blood (n=20) were generated from patients at term with no labor (TNL) and in labor (TIL). RESULTS Expression of 197 transcripts (P≤0.02) differentiated TIL and TNL chorioamniotic membrane samples. Gene Ontology analysis indicated that TIL samples had increased expression of multiple chemokines and transcripts associated with neutrophil and monocyte recruitment. Microarray results were verified using quantitative real-time RT-PCR with independent samples. Transcriptional profiles from blood RNA revealed no Gene Ontology category enrichment of discriminant probe sets. CONCLUSION Labor induces gene expression changes consistent with localized inflammation, despite the absence of histologically detectable inflammation. PMID:16890549

  20. Local CD34-positive capillaries decrease in mouse models of kidney disease associating with the severity of glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions.

    PubMed

    Masum, Md Abdul; Ichii, Osamu; Elewa, Yaser Hosny Ali; Nakamura, Teppei; Kon, Yasuhiro

    2017-09-04

    The renal vasculature plays important roles in both homeostasis and pathology. In this study, we examined pathological changes in the renal microvascular in mouse models of kidney diseases. Glomerular lesions (GLs) in autoimmune disease-prone male BXSB/MpJ-Yaa (Yaa) mice and tubulointerstitial lesions (TILs) in male C57BL/6 mice subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) for 7 days were studied. Collected kidneys were examined using histopathological techniques. A nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test (P < 0.05) was performed to compare healthy controls and the experimental mice. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare three or more groups, and multiple comparisons were performed using Scheffe's method when significant differences were observed (P < 0.05). Yaa mice developed severe autoimmune glomerulonephritis, and the number of CD34(+) glomerular capillaries decreased significantly in GLs compared to that in control mice. However, UUO-treated mice showed severe TILs only, and CD34(+) tubulointerstitial capillaries were decreased significantly in TILs with the progression of tubulointerstitial fibrosis compared to those in untreated control kidneys. Infiltrations of B-cells, T-cells, and macrophages increased significantly in the respective lesions of both disease models (P < 0.05). In observations of vascular corrosion casts by scanning electron microscopy and of microfil rubber-perfused thick kidney sections by fluorescence microscopy, segmental absences of capillaries were observed in the GLs and TILs of Yaa and UUO-treated mice, respectively. Further, transmission electron microscopy revealed capillary endothelial injury in the respective lesions of both models. The numbers of CD34(+) glomerular and tubulointerstitial capillaries were negatively correlated with all examined parameters in GLs (P < 0.05) and TILs (P < 0.01), respectively. From the analysis of mouse models, we identified inverse pathological correlations between the number of

  1. Enthalpic and entropic contributions mediate the role of disulfide bonds on the conformational stability of Interleukin-4

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Daniela C.; Rodrigues, J. Rui; Sebald, Walter; Dobson, Christopher M.; Brito, Rui M.M.

    2006-01-01

    The role of disulfide bridges in the structure, stability, and folding pathways of proteins has been the subject of wide interest in the fields of protein design and engineering. However, the relative importance of entropic and enthalpic contributions for the stabilization of proteins provided by disulfides is not always clear. Here, we perform a detailed analysis of the role of disulfides in the conformational stability of human Interleukin-4 (IL4), a four-helix bundle protein. In order to evaluate the contribution of two out of the three disulfides to the structure and stability of IL4, two IL4 mutants, C3T-IL4 and C24T-IL4, were used. NMR and ANS binding experiments were compatible with altered dynamics and an increase of the nonpolar solvent-accessible surface area of the folded state of the mutant proteins. Chemical and thermal unfolding experiments followed by fluorescence and circular dichroism revealed that both mutant proteins have lower conformational stability than the wild-type protein. Transition temperatures of unfolding decreased 14°C for C3T-IL4 and 10°C for C24T-IL4, when compared to WT-IL4, and the conformational stability, at 25°C, decreased 4.9 kcal/mol for C3T-IL4 and 3.2 kcal/mol for C24T-IL4. Interestingly, both the enthalpy and the entropy of unfolding, at the transition temperature, decreased in the mutant proteins. Moreover, a smaller change in heat capacity of unfolding was also observed for the mutants. Thus, disulfide bridges in IL4 play a critical role in maintaining the thermodynamic stability and core packing of the helix bundle. PMID:16373475

  2. Small Bowel Carcinomas in Coeliac or Crohn's Disease: Clinico-pathological, Molecular, and Prognostic Features. A Study From the Small Bowel Cancer Italian Consortium.

    PubMed

    Vanoli, Alessandro; Di Sabatino, Antonio; Furlan, Daniela; Klersy, Catherine; Grillo, Federica; Fiocca, Roberto; Mescoli, Claudia; Rugge, Massimo; Nesi, Gabriella; Fociani, Paolo; Sampietro, Gianluca; Ardizzone, Sandro; Luinetti, Ombretta; Calabrò, Antonio; Tonelli, Francesco; Volta, Umberto; Santini, Donatella; Caio, Giacomo; Giuffrida, Paolo; Elli, Luca; Ferrero, Stefano; Latella, Giovanni; Ciardi, Antonio; Caronna, Roberto; Solina, Gaspare; Rizzo, Aroldo; Ciacci, Carolina; D'Armiento, Francesco P; Salemme, Marianna; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Cannizzaro, Renato; Canzonieri, Vincenzo; Reggiani Bonetti, Luca; Biancone, Livia; Monteleone, Giovanni; Orlandi, Augusto; Santeusanio, Giuseppe; Macciomei, Maria C; D'Incà, Renata; Perfetti, Vittorio; Sandri, Giancarlo; Silano, Marco; Florena, Ada M; Giannone, Antonino G; Papi, Claudio; Coppola, Luigi; Usai, Paolo; Maccioni, Antonio; Astegiano, Marco; Migliora, Paola; Manca, Rachele; Martino, Michele; Trapani, Davide; Cerutti, Roberta; Alberizzi, Paola; Riboni, Roberta; Sessa, Fausto; Paulli, Marco; Solcia, Enrico; Corazza, Gino R

    2017-08-01

    An increased risk of small bowel carcinoma [SBC] has been reported in coeliac disease [CD] and Crohn's disease [CrD]. We explored clinico-pathological, molecular, and prognostic features of CD-associated SBC [CD-SBC] and CrD-associated SBC [CrD-SBC] in comparison with sporadic SBC [spo-SBC]. A total of 76 patients undergoing surgical resection for non-familial SBC [26 CD-SBC, 25 CrD-SBC, 25 spo-SBC] were retrospectively enrolled to investigate patients' survival and histological and molecular features including microsatellite instability [MSI] and KRAS/NRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, TP53, HER2 gene alterations. CD-SBC showed a significantly better sex-, age-, and stage-adjusted overall and cancer-specific survival than CrD-SBC, whereas no significant difference was found between spo-SBC and either CD-SBC or CrD-SBC. CD-SBC exhibited a significantly higher rate of MSI and median tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes [TIL] than CrD-SBC and spo-SBC. Among the whole SBC series, both MSI─which was the result of MLH1 promoter methylation in all but one cases─and high TIL density were associated with improved survival at univariable and stage-inclusive multivariable analysis. However, only TILs retained prognostic power when clinical subgroups were added to the multivariable model. KRAS mutation and HER2 amplification were detected in 30% and 7% of cases, respectively, without prognostic implications. In comparison with CrD-SBC, CD-SBC patients harbour MSI and high TILs more frequently and show better outcome. This seems mainly due to their higher TIL density, which at multivariable analysis showed an independent prognostic value. MSI/TIL status, KRAS mutations and HER2 amplification might help in stratifying patients for targeted anti-cancer therapy.

  3. Immunomodulation by MYB is associated with tumor relapse in patients with early stage colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Millen, Rosemary; Malaterre, Jordane; Cross, Ryan S.; Carpinteri, Sandra; Desai, Jayesh; Tran, Ben; Darcy, Phillip; Gibbs, Peter; Sieber, Oliver; Zeps, Nikolajs; Waring, Paul; Fox, Stephen; Pereira, Lloyd; Ramsay, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The presence of tumor immune infiltrating cells (TILs), particularly CD8+ T-cells, is a robust predictor of outcome in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). We revisited TIL abundance specifically in patients with microsatellite stable (MSS) CRC without evidence of lymph node or metastatic spread. Examination of the density of CD8+ T-cells in primary tumors in the context of other pro-oncogenic markers was performed to investigate potential regulators of TILs. Two independent cohorts of patients with MSS T2-4N0M0 CRC, enriched for cases with atypical relapse, were investigated. We quantified CD8+ and CD45RO+ -TILs, inflammatory markers, NFkBp65, pStat3, Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX2) and GRP78 as well as transcription factors (TF), β-catenin and MYB. High CD8+ TILs correlated with a better relapse-free survival in both cohorts (p = 0.002) with MYB and its target gene, GRP78 being higher in the relapse group (p = 0.001); no difference in pSTAT3 and p65 was observed. A mouse CRC (CT26) model was employed to evaluate the effect of MYB on GRP78 expression as well as T-cell infiltration. MYB over-expressing in CT26 cells increased GRP78 expression and the analysis of tumor-draining lymph nodes adjacent to tumors showed reduced T-cell activation. Furthermore, MYB over-expression reduced the efficacy of anti-PD-1 to modulate CT26 tumor growth. This high MYB and GRP78 show a reciprocal relationship with CD8+ TILs which may be useful refining the prediction of patient outcome. These data reveal a new immunomodulatory function for MYB suggesting a basis for further development of anti-GRP78 and/or anti-MYB therapies. PMID:27622014

  4. How does breathing frequency affect the performance of an N95 filtering facepiece respirator and a surgical mask against surrogates of viral particles?

    PubMed

    He, Xinjian; Reponen, Tiina; McKay, Roy; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2014-01-01

    Breathing frequency (breaths/min) differs among individuals and levels of physical activity. Particles enter respirators through two principle penetration pathways: faceseal leakage and filter penetration. However, it is unknown how breathing frequency affects the overall performance of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) and surgical masks (SMs) against viral particles, as well as other health-relevant submicrometer particles. A FFR and SM were tested on a breathing manikin at four mean inspiratory flows (MIFs) (15, 30, 55, and 85 L/min) and five breathing frequencies (10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 breaths/min). Filter penetration (Pfilter) and total inward leakage (TIL) were determined for the tested respiratory protection devices against sodium chloride (NaCl) aerosol particles in the size range of 20 to 500 nm. "Faceseal leakage-to-filter" (FLTF) penetration ratios were calculated. Both MIF and breathing frequency showed significant effects (p < 0.05) on Pfilter and TIL. Increasing breathing frequency increased TIL for the N95 FFR whereas no clear trends were observed for the SM. Increasing MIF increased Pfilter and decreased TIL resulting in decreasing FLTF ratio. Most of FLTF ratios were >1, suggesting that the faceseal leakage was the primary particle penetration pathway at various breathing frequencies. Breathing frequency is another factor (besides MIF) that can significantly affect the performance of N95 FFRs, with higher breathing frequencies increasing TIL. No consistent trend of increase or decrease of TIL with either MIF or breathing frequency was observed for the tested SM. To potentially extend these findings beyond the manikin/breathing system used, future studies are needed to fully understand the mechanism causing the breathing frequency effect on the performance of respiratory protection devices on human subjects.

  5. Multifaceted role of BTLA in the control of CD8+ T cell fate after antigen encounter.

    PubMed

    Ritthipichai, Krit; Haymaker, Cara; Martinez-Paniagua, Melisa; Aschenbrenner, Andrew; Yi, Xiaohui; Zhang, Minying; Kale, Charuta; Hailemichael, Yared; Overwijk, Willem W; Vence, Luis; Roszik, Jason; Varadarajan, Navin; Nurieva, Roza; Radvanyi, Laszlo G; Hwu, Patrick; Bernatchez, Chantale

    2017-07-28

    Adoptive T-cell therapy using autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) has shown an overall clinical response rate 40-50% in metastatic melanoma patients. BTLA (B-and-T lymphocyte attenuator) expression on transferred CD8(+) TIL was associated with better clinical outcome. The suppressive function of the ITIM and ITSM motifs of BTLA is well described. Here, we sought to determine the functional characteristics of the CD8(+)BTLA(+)TIL subset and define the contribution of the Grb2 motif of BTLA in T cell co-stimulation. 

    Experimental Design: We determined the functional role and downstream signal of BTLA in both human CD8(+) TIL and mouse CD8(+) T cells. Functional assays were used including single cell analysis, Reverse Phase Protein Array (RPPA), antigen-specific vaccination models with adoptively transferred TCR-transgenic T cells as well as Patient-Derived Xenograft (PDX) model using Immunodeficient NOD-scid IL2Rgamma(null) (NSG) tumor-bearing mice treated with autologous TIL.

    Results: CD8(+)BTLA(-) TIL could not control tumor growth in vivo as well as their BTLA(+) counterpart and antigen-specific CD8(+)BTLA(-) T cells had impaired recall response to a vaccine. However CD8(+)BTLA(+) TIL displayed improved survival following the killing of a tumor target and heightened "serial killing" capacity. Using mutants of BTLA signaling motifs we uncovered a costimulatory function mediated by Grb2 through enhancing the secretion of IL-2 and the activation of Src after TCR stimulation. 

    Conclusions:Our data portrays BTLA as a molecule with the singular ability to provide both co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory signals to activated CD8(+) T cells, resulting in extended survival, improved tumor control and the development of a functional recall response. Copyright ©2017, American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Blockade of Programmed Death 1 Augments the Ability of Human T Cells Engineered to Target NY-ESO-1 to Control Tumor Growth after Adoptive Transfer.

    PubMed

    Moon, Edmund K; Ranganathan, Raghuveer; Eruslanov, Evgeniy; Kim, Soyeon; Newick, Kheng; O'Brien, Shaun; Lo, Albert; Liu, Xiaojun; Zhao, Yangbing; Albelda, Steven M

    2016-01-15

    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) become hypofunctional, although the mechanisms are not clear. Our goal was to generate a model of human tumor-induced TIL hypofunction to study mechanisms and to test anti-human therapeutics. We transduced human T cells with a published, optimized T-cell receptor (TCR) that is directed to a peptide within the cancer testis antigen, NY-ESO-1. After demonstrating antigen-specific in vitro activity, these cells were used to target a human lung cancer line that expressed NY-ESO-1 in the appropriate HLA context growing in immunodeficient mice. The ability of anti-PD1 antibody to augment efficacy was tested. Injection of transgenic T cells had some antitumor activity, but did not eliminate the tumors. The injected T cells became profoundly hypofunctional accompanied by upregulation of PD1, Tim3, and Lag3 with coexpression of multiple inhibitory receptors in a high percentage of cells. This model allowed us to test reagents targeted specifically to human T cells. We found that injections of an anti-PD1 antibody in combination with T cells led to decreased TIL hypofunction and augmented the efficacy of the adoptively transferred T cells. This model offers a platform for preclinical testing of adjuvant immunotherapeutics targeted to human T cells prior to transition to the bedside. Because the model employs engineering of human T cells with a TCR clone instead of a CAR, it allows for study of the biology of tumor-reactive TILs that signal through an endogenous TCR. The lessons learned from TCR-engineered TILs can thus be applied to tumor-reactive TILs. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Prognostic Significance of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Patients With Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Treated With Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Nejati, Reza; Goldstein, Jennifer B; Halperin, Daniel M; Wang, Hua; Hejazi, Nazila; Rashid, Asif; Katz, Matthew H; Lee, Jeffrey E; Fleming, Jason B; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Blando, Jorge; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Maitra, Anirban; Wolff, Robert A; Varadhachary, Gauri R; Wang, Huamin

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and their prognostic value in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) after neoadjuvant therapy. Intratumoral CD4, CD8, and FOXP3 lymphocytes were examined by immunohistochemistry using a computer-assisted quantitative analysis in 136 PDAC patients who received neoadjuvant therapy and pancreaticoduodenectomy. The results were correlated with clinicopathological parameters and survival. High CD4 TILs in treated PDAC were associated with high CD8 TILs (P = 0.003), differentiation (P = 0.04), and a lower frequency of recurrence (P = 0.02). Patients with high CD4 TILs had longer disease-free survival and overall survival (OS) than did patients with low CD4 TILs (P < 0.01). The median OS of patients with a high CD8/FOXP3 lymphocyte ratio (39.5 [standard deviation, 6.1] months) was longer than that of patients with a low CD8/FOXP3 lymphocyte ratio (28.3 [standard deviation, 2.3] months; P = 0.01). In multivariate analysis, high CD4 TILs were an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.30-0.81; P = 0.005) and OS (hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.89; P = 0.02). High level of CD4 lymphocytes is associated with tumor differentiation and lower recurrence and is an independent prognostic factor for survival in PDAC patients treated with neoadjuvant therapy.

  8. A novel human truncated IL12rβ1-Fc fusion protein ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis via specific binding of p40 to inhibit Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Luo, Cheng; Yu, Dongmei; Wang, Yuheng; Chen, Yucong; Lei, Wen; Gao, Xiangdong; Yao, Wenbing

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23 respectively driving polarization of T helper (Th) 1 and Th17 cells has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of both multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In this study, we first constructed, expressed and purified a novel human truncated IL12rβ1-Fc fusion protein (tIL12rβ1/Fc) binding multiple forms of the p40 subunit of human IL-12 and IL-23. tIL12rβ1/Fc was found to effectively ameliorate MOG35–55-induced EAE through reducing the production of Th1- and Th17-polarized pro-inflammatory cytokines and suppressing inflammation and demyelination in the focused parts. Moreover, tIL12rβ1/Fc suppressed Th1 (IFN-γ+ alone) and IFN-γ+ IL-17+ as well as the population of classic Th17 (IL-17+ alone) cells in vivo. Furthermore, tIL12rβ1/Fc ameliorated EAE at the peak of disease via the inhibition of STAT pathway, thereby causing a prominent reduction of RORγt (Th17) and T-bet (Th1) expression. Notably, tIL12rβ1/Fc could increase the relative number of CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. These findings indicates that tIL12rβ1/Fc is a novel fusion protein for specific binding multiple forms of p40 subunit to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects and provides a valuable approach for the treatment of MS and other autoimmune diseases. PMID:26384304

  9. PD-1 identifies the patient-specific CD8⁺ tumor-reactive repertoire infiltrating human tumors.

    PubMed

    Gros, Alena; Robbins, Paul F; Yao, Xin; Li, Yong F; Turcotte, Simon; Tran, Eric; Wunderlich, John R; Mixon, Arnold; Farid, Shawn; Dudley, Mark E; Hanada, Ken-Ichi; Almeida, Jorge R; Darko, Sam; Douek, Daniel C; Yang, James C; Rosenberg, Steven A

    2014-05-01

    Adoptive transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) can mediate regression of metastatic melanoma; however, TILs are a heterogeneous population, and there are no effective markers to specifically identify and select the repertoire of tumor-reactive and mutation-specific CD8⁺ lymphocytes. The lack of biomarkers limits the ability to study these cells and develop strategies to enhance clinical efficacy and extend this therapy to other malignancies. Here, we evaluated unique phenotypic traits of CD8⁺ TILs and TCR β chain (TCRβ) clonotypic frequency in melanoma tumors to identify patient-specific repertoires of tumor-reactive CD8⁺ lymphocytes. In all 6 tumors studied, expression of the inhibitory receptors programmed cell death 1 (PD-1; also known as CD279), lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG-3; also known as CD223), and T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (TIM-3) on CD8⁺ TILs identified the autologous tumor-reactive repertoire, including mutated neoantigen-specific CD8⁺ lymphocytes, whereas only a fraction of the tumor-reactive population expressed the costimulatory receptor 4-1BB (also known as CD137). TCRβ deep sequencing revealed oligoclonal expansion of specific TCRβ clonotypes in CD8⁺PD-1⁺ compared with CD8⁺PD-1- TIL populations. Furthermore, the most highly expanded TCRβ clonotypes in the CD8⁺ and the CD8⁺PD-1⁺ populations recognized the autologous tumor and included clonotypes targeting mutated antigens. Thus, in addition to the well-documented negative regulatory role of PD-1 in T cells, our findings demonstrate that PD-1 expression on CD8⁺ TILs also accurately identifies the repertoire of clonally expanded tumor-reactive cells and reveal a dual importance of PD-1 expression in the tumor microenvironment.

  10. The expressions of MIF and CXCR4 protein in tumor microenvironment are adverse prognostic factors in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tumor-derived cytokines and their receptors usually take important roles in the disease progression and prognosis of cancer patients. In this survey, we aimed to detect the expression levels of MIF and CXCR4 in different cell populations of tumor microenvironments and their association with survivals of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methods MIF and CXCR4 levels were measured by immunochemistry in tumor specimens from 136 resected ESCC. Correlation analyses and independent prognostic outcomes were determined using Pearson’s chi-square test and Cox regression analysis. Results The expression of CXCR4 in tumor cells was positively associated with tumor status (P = 0.045) and clinical stage (P = 0.044); whereas the expression of CXCR4 in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and the expression of MIF in tumor cells and in TILs were not associated with clinical parameters of ESCC patients. High MIF expression in tumor cells or in TILs or high CXCR4 expression in tumor cells was significantly related to poor survival of ESCC patients (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the expression of MIF or CXCR4 in tumor cells and the expression of MIF in TILs were adverse independent factors for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in the whole cohort of patients (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the expression of MIF and CXCR4 in tumor cells were independent factors for reduced DFS and OS in metastatic/recurrent ESCC patients (P < 0.05). Interestingly, the expressions of MIF and CXCR4 in tumor cells and in TILs were significantly positively correlated (P < 0.05), and the combined MIF and CXCR4 expression in tumor cells was an independent adverse predictive factor for DFS and OS (P < 0.05). Conclusion The expressions of MIF and CXCR4 proteins in tumor cells and TILs have different clinically predictive values in ESCC. PMID:23497377

  11. PD-1, PD-L1 Protein Expression in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Their Relationship with Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    He, Yayi; Rozeboom, Leslie; Rivard, Christopher J.; Ellison, Kim; Dziadziuszko, Rafał; Yu, Hui; Zhou, Caicun; Hirsch, Fred R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Immunotherapy targeting the programmed death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) checkpoint has shown the good outcomes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We investigated PD-1 and PD-L1 protein expression and their correlation with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), and association with survival in NSCLC. Material/Methods The expression of PD-1 (NAT105, Cell Marque) and PD-L1 (28-8, Dako) protein was assessed in 55 NSCLC cell lines by immunohistochemistry (IHC). PD-1 (NAT105, Cell Marque) and PD-L1 (22C3, Dako) protein expression was evaluated by IHC, and TIL percentage was scored, in 139 surgically resected specimens from patients with NSCLC. Results PD-1 was not expressed on NSCLC cell lines. PD-L1 was expressed on 20 NSCLC cell lines (36.4%). A total of 60 patient samples (43.2%) were positive for PD-1 on the TILs, and 25 (18.0%) were positive for PD-L1 on tumor cells. High expression of PD-1 on tumor cells was significantly correlated with higher expression of PD-L1 (P=0.026) and a higher percentage of TILs (P<0.001). In the Cox regression model, the odds ratio for PD-1 was 2.828 (95% CI: 1.325–11.165; P=0.013) and 8.579 (95% CI: 4.148–22.676; P<0.001) when PD-L1 and TILs were positive. Patients whose tumor cells were PD-L1 negative had a tendency for longer relapse-free survival (RFS) than patients who were PD-L1 positive (1.85 years, 95% CI: 0.77–2.93 vs. 0.97 years, 95% CI: 0.71–1.23; P=0.054). Conclusions PD-1 was expressed on TILs in tumor tissues in NSCLC patients. PD-L1 was expressed on both TILs and tumor tissues. PD-1 expression was correlated with PD-L1 on tumor cells and TILs. Patients who were PD-L1 positive tended to experience progression after surgery. PMID:28275222

  12. Phenotypic and functional analysis of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes compared with tumor-associated lymphocytes from ascitic fluid and peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with advanced ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Santin, A D; Hermonat, P L; Ravaggi, A; Bellone, S; Roman, J J; Smith, C V; Pecorelli, S; Radominska-Pandya, A; Cannon, M J; Parham, G P

    2001-01-01

    To investigate and compare the phenotype and function of lymphocytes collected from patients harboring advanced ovarian cancer, leukocytes from peripheral blood (n = 18), ascitic fluid (n = 13) and tumor tissues (n = 13) were evaluated for the relative proportions of lymphocyte subsets, including CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD19+, CD56 and the early (CD25) and late (HLA-DR) activation markers on CD3+ T cells. The ability to synthesize type 1 cytokines (IFN-gamma and IL-2) and a type 2 cytokine (IL-4) was assessed by flow cytometry. In all patients, T cells (CD3+) were the major leukocyte population detected in each tissue, with CD4+ T cells being dominant in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and tumor-associated lymphocytes (TAL) but not in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) (CD4:CD8 ratios: 3.0 vs. 2.0 vs. 1.0, respectively). CD19+ lymphocytes (B cells) and CD56+ lymphocytes (NK cells) were significantly higher in PBL compared to TAL and TIL (p < 0.05). TAL and TIL had a higher proportion of T cells expressing the late activation marker HLA-DR compared to PBL. In contrast, no significant differences were detected in PBL, TAL and TIL in the expression of the early activation marker CD25. Type 1 cytokines were the dominant type produced by in vitro stimulated T cells for each population, with a greater proportion of IFN-gamma+ T cells in TAL and TIL compared to PBL (p < 0.01), and a higher proportion of IL-2+ T cells in PBL compared with TAL and TIL (p < 0.05). Low percentages of IL-4+ T cells (i.e. Th2) were detected in each tissue. Taken together, these data demonstrate the recruitment and accumulation of high concentrations of antigen-experienced T lymphocytes in TAL and TIL compared to PBL. However, low surface expression of IL-2 receptor (i.e. CD25), as well as depressed intracellular IL-2 production in chronically stimulated TAL and TIL suggests that the impaired antitumor function commonly detected in these lymphocyte populations may be secondary to an acquired

  13. Research in Electronic/Electrical Engineering at British Universities,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-30

    1CLASSIFIED UCUPITY CLASSIICATION Op TilS PAGE (Ml be _---§-.,. •4 UNCLASSIFIED ,LURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGEr(Who Deta eg nlo4) programs. Some...headed by Prof. A.L. Cullen, FRS), the Physical Ilectronice Group ( PEG , headed by Prof. E.A. Ash, FRS), and the Systems GroUp (SG, headed by Prof...to 1 km had been achieved at the time of my visit to UCL (Sept. 1978). The activities of PEG have continued to be numerous: acoustic imaging, signal

  14. Guidelines and Data to Support Plans for Reallocating Food during Crisis Relocation. Regional Appendix. FEMA Region IV,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    distri- butors serving the region, arid a list of counties served by each distributor is included for reference. U TOP TEN FOOD DISTRIBUTORSco D SERVING...SUPER VALU STORES INC XENIA Oil 122,750 28 4,:84 HOPKINS MN 10,000 1 10,000 SUPER VALU STORES HOPKINS MN 5,000 1 5,000 r p p C-3 LIST OF COUNTIES SERVED...BY EACH DISTRIBUTOR IN FEMA REGION IV 𔃻. 9 COUNTY SUPPLIERS TOTAL 500K- 1-2 2-4 4-8 6+ EST ACV STORES I MIL tIL MIL MIL tIL ($1000) REGION 041! STATE

  15. Forging Norwegian Special Operation Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    mest viktig og ŗ" for minst viktig. Ikke gi samme verdi to ganger) - Ansatte må ha muligheten til å styre sitt eget arbeid - Vi trenger å jobbe...viktig og ŗ" for minst viktig. Ikke gi samme verdi to ganger) - Personell i din avdeling deler de samme verdiene - Personell i din avdeling trenger å...deg. (Bruk ŕ" for mest viktig og ŗ" for minst viktig. Ikke gi samme verdi to ganger) - Din avdeling trenger å tilpasse seg hurtig til endringer i

  16. Computer-assisted stereology and automated image analysis for quantification of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Ann C; Andersen, Johnnie B; Kristensson, Martin; dePont Christensen, René; Hansen, Torben F; Kjær-Frifeldt, Sanne; Sørensen, Flemming B

    2017-08-29

    Precise prognostic and predictive variables allowing improved post-operative treatment stratification are missing in patients treated for stage II colon cancer (CC). Investigation of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) may be rewarding, but the lack of a standardized analytic technique is a major concern. Manual stereological counting is considered the gold standard, but digital pathology with image analysis is preferred due to time efficiency. The purpose of this study was to compare manual stereological estimates of TILs with automatic counts obtained by image analysis, and at the same time investigate the heterogeneity of TILs. From 43 patients treated for stage II CC in 2002 three paraffin embedded, tumor containing tissue blocks were selected one of them representing the deepest invasive tumor front. Serial sections from each of the 129 blocks were immunohistochemically stained for CD3 and CD8, and the slides were scanned. Stereological estimates of the numerical density and area fraction of TILs were obtained using the computer-assisted newCAST stereology system. For the image analysis approach an app-based algorithm was developed using Visiopharm Integrator System software. For both methods the tumor areas of interest (invasive front and central area) were manually delineated by the observer. Based on all sections, the Spearman's correlation coefficients for density estimates varied from 0.9457 to 0.9638 (p < 0.0001), whereas the coefficients for area fraction estimates ranged from 0.9400 to 0.9603 (P < 0.0001). Regarding heterogeneity, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) for CD3+ TILs varied from 0.615 to 0.746 in the central area, and from 0.686 to 0.746 in the invasive area. ICC for CD8+ TILs varied from 0.724 to 0.775 in the central area, and from 0.746 to 0.765 in the invasive area. Exact objective and time efficient estimates of numerical densities and area fractions of CD3+ and CD8+ TILs in stage II colon cancer can be obtained by image

  17. Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes and Associations With Pathological Complete Response and Event-Free Survival in HER2-Positive Early-Stage Breast Cancer Treated With Lapatinib and Trastuzumab

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Roberto; Denkert, Carsten; Campbell, Christine; Savas, Peter; Nuciforo, Paolo; Aura, Claudia; de Azambuja, Evandro; Eidtmann, Holger; Ellis, Catherine E.; Baselga, Jose; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine J.; Michiels, Stefan; Bradbury, Ian; Sotiriou, Christos; Loi, Sherene

    2017-01-01

    Importance The presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is associated with improved outcomes in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive early breast cancer treated with adjuvant trastuzumab and chemotherapy. The prognostic associations in the neoadjuvant setting of other anti-HER2 agents and combinations are unknown. Objective To determine associations between presence of TILs, pathological complete response (pCR), and event-free survival (EFS) end points in patients with early breast cancer treated with trastuzumab, lapatinib, or the combination. Design, Setting, and Participants The NeoALTTO trial (Neoadjuvant Lapatinib and/or Trastuzumab Treatment Optimization) randomly assigned 455 women with HER2-positive early-stage breast cancer between January 5, 2008, and May 27, 2010, to 1 of 3 neoadjuvant treatment arms: trastuzumab, lapatinib, or the combination for 6 weeks followed by the addition of weekly paclitaxel for 12 weeks, followed by 3 cycles of fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide after surgery. The primary end point used in this study was pCR in the breast and lymph nodes, with a secondary end point of EFS. We evaluated levels of percentage of TILs using hematoxylin-eosin–stained core biopsy sections taken at diagnosis (prior to treatment) in a prospectively defined retrospective analysis. Main Outcomes and Measures Levels of TILs were examined for their associations with efficacy end points adjusted for prognostic clinicopathological factors including PIK3CA genotype. Results Of the 455 patients, 387 (85.1%) tumor samples were used for the present analysis. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) level of TILs was 12.5% (5.0%-30.0%), with levels lower in hormone receptor–positive (10.0% [5.0%-22.5%]) vs hormone receptor–negative (12.5% [3.0%-35.0%]) samples (P = .02). For the pCR end point, levels of TILs greater than 5% were associated with higher pCR rates independent of treatment group (adjusted odds ratio, 2

  18. Predictive and prognostic impact of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes in triple-negative breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Vicent, Carmen; Guerrero, Angel; Gavilá, Joaquin; Gozalbo, Francisco; Hernández, Abraham; Sandiego, Sergio; Algarra, Maria Asunción; Calatrava, Ana; Guillem-Porta, Vicente; Ruiz-Simón, Amparo

    2017-01-01

    In locally and locally advanced triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) only induces a pCR in 30-35% of patients. Clinical and pathological factors are not enough to distinguish the patients who have no chance of a pCR or not. The tumour microenvironment is critical for cancer and tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). Moreover, the NAC scenario is the perfect setting to study possible changes in TIL levels. Using our prospective maintained breast cancer (BC) database, we identified 164 TNBC patients treated with NAC between 1998 and 2015 with enough samples of diagnostic biopsy and after surgery. Evaluation of TILs before and after NAC followed a standardised methodology for visual assessment on haematoxylin-eosin sections and the amounts of TILs were quantitated in deciles. We categorised lymphocyte-predominant breast cancer cutoff according to a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. We categorised LPBC as involving > 40% lymphocytic infiltration tumour stroma. The primary end point was predictive value of TILs to NAC, and the secondary end point was disease-free survival (DFS). DFS was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method and the groups were compared with a long-rank test. Univariate and multivariate Cox models were used to generate hazard ratios for determining associations between variables such as TIL after NAC and DFS. A total of 164 TNBC patients were treated with NAC and surgery. The main patients' characteristics are listed in Table 1. We identify different pathological complete response to anthracycline and taxane-based NAC; LPBC subgroup 51 from 58 patients (88%) pCR versus non- lymphocyte-predominant breast cancer (LPBC) subgroup 10 from 106 (9%) pCR, p = 0.001. At a median follow-up of 78 months, LPBC was associated with better DFS; the three-year Kaplan-Meier estimates for DFS were 2% and 30 % for patients with LPBC and non-LPBC, respectively, p = 0.01. Univariate and multivariate analysis confirmed TIL to

  19. [Educational competence of parents with children participating in youth welfare measures].

    PubMed

    Rücker, Stefan; Büttner, Peter; Petermann, Ulrike; Petermann, Franz

    2013-07-01

    Fragestellung: In der vorliegenden Studie wird der Einfluss ausgewählter Risiken auf das Erziehungsverhalten von Eltern am Beginn einer Jugendhilfe-Maßnahme analysiert. Methodik: Familiäre Belastungen sowie Erziehungsdimensionen wurden anhand standardisierter Erhebungsverfahren bei N = 74 Eltern erfasst. Ergebnisse: In Abhängigkeit des Belastungsausmaßes konnten drei Gruppen gebildet werden. Die Befragungsergebnisse wurden im Querschnitt varianzanalytisch ausgewertet. Familien mit spezifischen Risiken, wie materielle Belastungen, psychisch erkrankte Elternteile oder einen Alleinerziehendenstatus weisen signifikant ungünstigere Werte bei Erziehungsmerkmalen auf. In negativen Erziehungsmerkmalen kann der Einfluss spezifischer Risiken statistisch nicht abgesichert werden. Schlussfolgerungen: Spezifisch belastete Eltern in Jugendhilfe-Maßnahmen benötigen eventuell ein spezielles Training zur Steigerung ihrer Erziehungskompetenz. Dies gilt vor allem dann, wenn Prä-Post-Vergleiche am Ende der Maßnahme ein geringeres Erziehungs-Outcome in der spezifisch belasteten Gruppe offenbaren.

  20. Campus Single Sign-On und hochschulübergreifendes Identity Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommel, Wolfgang

    Das im Rahmen von IntegraTUM für die TUM geschaffene Identity & Access Management System setzt das Paradigma unified login um, d. h. ein Benutzer kann alle für ihn relevanten Dienste innerhalb der Hochschule mit derselben Loginname-/Passwortkombination nutzen. Dieser Artikel zeigt, wie auf Basis der Software Shibboleth und der deutschlandweiten Hochschulföderation DFN-AAI als weitere Mehrwerte das campusweite web single sign-on und die nahtlose Nutzung zahlreicher externer Web-Anwendungen erreicht werden. Als Beispiel für die Abläufe bei der Erschließung neuer Dienste für die hochschulübergreifende Nutzung wird die Anbindung von Learning Management Systemen auf Basis des DFN-AAI E-Learning-Profils diskutiert. Den umfassenden Vorteilen werden schließlich die aktuellen technischen Grenzen bei der Umsetzung des hochschulübergreifenden Identity Management gegenübergestellt.

  1. Base Excision Repair

    PubMed Central

    Krokan, Hans E.; Bjørås, Magnar

    2013-01-01

    Base excision repair (BER) corrects DNA damage from oxidation, deamination and alkylation. Such base lesions cause little distortion to the DNA helix structure. BER is initiated by a DNA glycosylase that recognizes and removes the damaged base, leaving an abasic site that is further processed by short-patch repair or long-patch repair that largely uses different proteins to complete BER. At least 11 distinct mammalian DNA glycosylases are known, each recognizing a few related lesions, frequently with some overlap in specificities. Impressively, the damaged bases are rapidly identified in a vast excess of normal bases, without a supply of energy. BER protects against cancer, aging, and neurodegeneration and takes place both in nuclei and mitochondria. More recently, an important role of uracil-DNA glycosylase UNG2 in adaptive immunity was revealed. Furthermore, other DNA glycosylases may have important roles in epigenetics, thus expanding the repertoire of BER proteins. PMID:23545420

  2. National Dam Safety Program. Alexander Lake Dam (Inventory Number N.Y. 936), Susquehanna River Basin, Tioga County, New York. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    sasi xwmwv*Aa "a onomwvf -t 4,tLft "S蓸 0 doll?1 wi #m$rooa w WOW I -stm * r &4 gwff t(IU 14640" asa.u a4 . n.vunu .3 NOWc M f IANO V" 4’IV w- domin C...81 L D ANDERSEN DACWSI-81-C-O01D UNCLASSIFIED NL *NNnnnnnlInSIhhhhhIEE BlIIIIIIIIIIIl I IIIIhhhhhhh 111111-0 13 1w 111140 MICROCO~PY R [SOLUION IS...NEW YORK DISTRICT CORPS OF ENGINEERS__J JULY 1981 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELE.’ I DISTR!BUTION UNgM.rED 0 19 82052 St 7 e r (:&. A f 136olf T N1 S ft

  3. [Acanthamoeba keratitis after use of soft contact lenses--case report].

    PubMed

    Ziak, P; Ondriska, F; Mrva, M

    2003-09-01

    The case history of a 39-year patient suffering from a deep inflammation of cornea and not responding to conventional antibiotic treatment is presented. The patient was using soft contact lenses during the period of initial symptoms; moreover, he was bathing in thermal bathing pool. A cultivation examination of smears from the area of corneal defect revealed the presence of Acanthamoeba lugdunensis in combination with bacterial infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The available data indicate that it is the first case of acanthamoeba karatitis (AK) after the application of contact lenses in Slovakia. A long-term local treatment with propamidin isethionate (Brolene gtt, ung.) resulted in healing up. The subsequent vision after 16 months since the initial symptoms proved to be 6/12 (0.5). The healing of the centrally localized defect changed the curvature of cornea with consequent hypermetropic shift. The defect completely corrected the patient's myopia (-8.5). The paper describes present possibilities of AK therapy.

  4. Shrapnel Protection Testing in Support of the Proposed Site 300 Contained Firing Facility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    Plate #2 All Plates 36" 112 " Mild Steel Perforations in plate #A V.025’ 025𔃺.5- 0.5.0.75 0.75’-1.V Max. hole - - 114" x 318" 0 1 0 0 - Numerous...1Slb. Fragment Velocity Fragment wt. (max) 73 b. Fragment Matl’ Copper 112 " Mild Steel Plate #I 5 Bolts 1" - 8 UNG -2 1/2" 5 Bolts 0 36...34 \\ I" - 0 UNC - 2 112 " 118" Washers 250 ftAb torque 0 0 shet 4" I.D. 4’ Tall .4" Wall Thickness 8.314" 0.54.75 0.75’-l.V Max. hole Perforations

  5. A Regulatory Role for NBS1 in Strand-Specific Mutagenesis during Somatic Hypermutation

    PubMed Central

    Du, Likun; Dunn-Walters, Deborah K.; Chrzanowska, Krystyna H.; Stankovic, Tanja; Kotnis, Ashwin; Li, Xin; Lu, Jiayi; Eggertsen, Gösta; Brittain, Claire; Popov, Sergey W.; Gennery, Andrew R.; Taylor, A. Malcolm R.; Pan-Hammarström, Qiang

    2008-01-01

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is believed to initiate somatic hypermutation (SHM) by deamination of deoxycytidines to deoxyuridines within the immunoglobulin variable regions genes. The deaminated bases can subsequently be replicated over, processed by base excision repair or mismatch repair, leading to introduction of different types of point mutations (G/C transitions, G/C transversions and A/T mutations). It is evident that the base excision repair pathway is largely dependent on uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG) through its uracil excision activity. It is not known, however, which endonuclease acts in the step immediately downstream of UNG, i.e. that cleaves at the abasic sites generated by the latter. Two candidates have been proposed, an apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE) and the Mre11-Rad50-NBS1 complex. The latter is intriguing as this might explain how the mutagenic pathway is primed during SHM. We have investigated the latter possibility by studying the in vivo SHM pattern in B cells from ataxia-telangiectasia-like disorder (Mre11 deficient) and Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS1 deficient) patients. Our results show that, although the pattern of mutations in the variable heavy chain (VH) genes was altered in NBS1 deficient patients, with a significantly increased number of G (but not C) transversions occurring in the SHM and/or AID targeting hotspots, the general pattern of mutations in the VH genes in Mre11 deficient patients was only slightly altered, with an increased frequency of A to C transversions. The Mre11-Rad50-NBS1 complex is thus unlikely to be the major nuclease involved in cleavage of the abasic sites during SHM, whereas NBS1 might have a specific role in regulating the strand-biased repair during phase Ib mutagenesis. PMID:18575580

  6. Differential expression of APE1 and APE2 in germinal centers promotes error-prone repair and A:T mutations during somatic hypermutation.

    PubMed

    Stavnezer, Janet; Linehan, Erin K; Thompson, Mikayla R; Habboub, Ghaith; Ucher, Anna J; Kadungure, Tatenda; Tsuchimoto, Daisuke; Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Schrader, Carol E

    2014-06-24

    Somatic hypermutation (SHM) of antibody variable region genes is initiated in germinal center B cells during an immune response by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which converts cytosines to uracils. During accurate repair in nonmutating cells, uracil is excised by uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG), leaving abasic sites that are incised by AP endonuclease (APE) to create single-strand breaks, and the correct nucleotide is reinserted by DNA polymerase β. During SHM, for unknown reasons, repair is error prone. There are two APE homologs in mammals and, surprisingly, APE1, in contrast to its high expression in both resting and in vitro-activated splenic B cells, is expressed at very low levels in mouse germinal center B cells where SHM occurs, and APE1 haploinsufficiency has very little effect on SHM. In contrast, the less efficient homolog, APE2, is highly expressed and contributes not only to the frequency of mutations, but also to the generation of mutations at A:T base pair (bp), insertions, and deletions. In the absence of both UNG and APE2, mutations at A:T bp are dramatically reduced. Single-strand breaks generated by APE2 could provide entry points for exonuclease recruited by the mismatch repair proteins Msh2-Msh6, and the known association of APE2 with proliferating cell nuclear antigen could recruit translesion polymerases to create mutations at AID-induced lesions and also at A:T bp. Our data provide new insight into error-prone repair of AID-induced lesions, which we propose is facilitated by down-regulation of APE1 and up-regulation of APE2 expression in germinal center B cells.

  7. Unique DNA repair gene variations and potential associations with the primary antibody deficiency syndromes IgAD and CVID.

    PubMed

    Offer, Steven M; Pan-Hammarström, Qiang; Hammarström, Lennart; Harris, Reuben S

    2010-08-18

    Despite considerable effort, the genetic factors responsible for >90% of the antibody deficiency syndromes IgAD and CVID remain elusive. To produce a functionally diverse antibody repertoire B lymphocytes undergo class switch recombination. This process is initiated by AID-catalyzed deamination of cytidine to uridine in switch region DNA. Subsequently, these residues are recognized by the uracil excision enzyme UNG2 or the mismatch repair proteins MutSalpha (MSH2/MSH6) and MutLalpha (PMS2/MLH1). Further processing by ubiquitous DNA repair factors is thought to introduce DNA breaks, ultimately leading to class switch recombination and expression of a different antibody isotype. Defects in AID and UNG2 have been shown to result in the primary immunodeficiency hyper-IgM syndrome, leading us to hypothesize that additional, potentially more subtle, DNA repair gene variations may underlie the clinically related antibody deficiencies syndromes IgAD and CVID. In a survey of twenty-seven candidate DNA metabolism genes, markers in MSH2, RAD50, and RAD52 were associated with IgAD/CVID, prompting further investigation into these pathways. Resequencing identified four rare, non-synonymous alleles associated with IgAD/CVID, two in MLH1, one in RAD50, and one in NBS1. One IgAD patient carried heterozygous non-synonymous mutations in MLH1, MSH2, and NBS1. Functional studies revealed that one of the identified mutations, a premature RAD50 stop codon (Q372X), confers increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Our results are consistent with a class switch recombination model in which AID-catalyzed uridines are processed by multiple DNA repair pathways. Genetic defects in these DNA repair pathways may contribute to IgAD and CVID.

  8. Physicochemical compatibility of nebulizable drug mixtures containing dornase alfa and ipratropium and/or albuterol.

    PubMed

    Krämer, I; Schwabe, A; Lichtinghagen, R; Kamin, W

    2007-10-01

    Patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF) often need to inhale multiple doses of different nebulizable drugs per day. Patients attempt to shorten the time consuming administration procedure by mixing drug solutions/suspensions for simultaneous inhalation. The objective of this experimental study was to determine whether mixtures of Pulmozyme inhalation solution with Atrovent or Sultano are physicochemically compatible. Drug combinations were prepared in accordance with the product information and clinical practice by mixing the content of one respule Pulmozyme with 2 mL Atrovent LS and 0.5 mL Sultanol Inhalationslösung (inhalation solution) or with one respule of either Atrovent 500 microg/2 mL Fertiginhalat (unit dose formulation) or Sultanol forte Fertiginhalat. Test solutions were stored at room temperature and exposed to light. Dornase alfa activity was determined by a kinetic colorimetric DNase activity assay. Ipratropium bromide and albuterol concentrations were investigated by a stability-indicating HPLC assay with ultraviolet detection. Physical compatibility was determined by visual inspection and measurements of pH and osmolality. Ipratropium bromide and albuterol concentrations were not affected by mixing the drug products. Dornase alfa activity is affected by benzalkonium chloride, used as excipient in Atrovent"LS and Sultanol'Inhalationsl6öung, and disodium edetate used as an excipient in AtroventfLS. Patients should be advised not to mix Pulmozymelwith Atrovent1LS and/or Sultanol"Inhalationsldöung, because of the incompatibility reaction. Mixtures of Pulmozyme with Atrovent 500 microg/2 mL Fertiginhalat or Sultanol forte Fertiginhalat can be designated as compatible for a limited period of time.

  9. Iron Inhibits Activation-induced Cytidine Deaminase Enzymatic Activity and Modulates Immunoglobulin Class Switch DNA Recombination*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guideng; Pone, Egest J.; Tran, Daniel C.; Patel, Pina J.; Dao, Lisa; Xu, Zhenming; Casali, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch DNA recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) are critical for the maturation of the antibody response. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates CSR and SHM by deaminating deoxycytidines (dCs) in switch (S) and V(D)J region DNA, respectively, to generate deoxyuracils (dUs). Processing of dUs by uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG) yields abasic sites, which are excised by apurinic/apyrimidinic endonucleases, eventually generating double strand DNA breaks, the obligatory intermediates of CSR. Here, we found that the bivalent iron ion (Fe2+, ferrous) suppressed CSR, leading to decreased number of switched B cells, decreased postrecombination Iμ-CH transcripts, and reduced titers of secreted class-switched IgG1, IgG3, and IgA antibodies, without alterations in critical CSR factors, such as AID, 14-3-3γ, or PTIP, or in general germline IH-S-CH transcription. Fe2+ did not affect B cell proliferation or plasmacytoid differentiation. Rather, it inhibited AID-mediated dC deamination in a dose-dependent fashion. The inhibition of intrinsic AID enzymatic activity by Fe2+ was specific, as shown by lack of inhibition of AID-mediated dC deamination by other bivalent metal ions, such as Zn2+, Mn2+, Mg2+, or Ni2+, and the inability of Fe2+ to inhibit UNG-mediated dU excision. Overall, our findings have outlined a novel role of iron in modulating a B cell differentiation process that is critical to the generation of effective antibody responses to microbial pathogens and tumoral cells. They also suggest a possible role of iron in dampening AID-dependent autoimmunity and neoplastic transformation. PMID:22556412

  10. Molecular Characterization of Type-Specific Capsular Polysaccharide Biosynthesis Genes of Streptococcus agalactiae Type Ia

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Shin; Miyake, Katsuhide; Koike, Yoichi; Watanabe, Masaki; Machida, Yuichi; Ohta, Michio; Iijima, Shinji

    1999-01-01

    The type-specific capsular polysaccharide (CP) of a group B streptococcus, Streptococcus agalactiae type Ia, is a high-molecular-weight polymer consisting of the pentasaccharide repeating unit 4)-[α-d-NeupNAc-(2→3)-β-d-Galp-(1→4)-β-d-GlcpNAc-(1→3)]-β-d-Galp-(1→4)-β-d-Glcp-(1. Here, cloning, sequencing, and transcription of the type Ia-specific capsular polysaccharide synthesis (cps) genes and functional analysis of these gene products are described. A 26-kb DNA fragment containing 18 complete open reading frames (ORFs) was cloned. These ORFs were designated cpsIaA to cpsIaL, neu (neuraminic acid synthesis gene) A to D, orf1 and ung (uracil DNA glycosylase). The cps gene products of S. agalactiae type Ia were homologous to proteins involved in CP synthesis of S. agalactiae type III and S. pneumoniae serotype 14. Unlike the cps gene cluster of S. pneumoniae serotype 14, transcription of this operon may start from cpsIaA, cpsIaE, and orf1 because putative promoter sequences were found in front of these genes. Northern hybridization, reverse transcription-PCR, and primer extension analyses supported this hypothesis. DNA sequence analysis showed that there were two transcriptional terminators in the 3′ end of this operon (downstream of orf1 and ung). The functions of CpsIaE, CpsIaG, CpsIaI, and CpsIaJ were examined by glycosyltransferase assay by using the gene products expressed in Escherichia coli JM109 harboring plasmids containing various S. agalactiae type Ia cps gene fragments. Enzyme assays suggested that the gene products of cpsIaE, cpsIaG, cpsIaI, and cpsIaJ are putative glucosyltransferase, β-1,4-galactosyltransferase, β-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, and β-1,4-galactosyltransferase, respectively. PMID:10464185

  11. Adoptive T-cell Therapy Using Autologous Tumor-infiltrating Lymphocytes for Metastatic Melanoma: Current Status and Future Outlook

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Richard; Forget, Marie-Andree; Chacon, Jessica; Bernatchez, Chantale; Haymaker, Cara; Chen, Jie Qing; Hwu, Patrick; Radvanyi, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    Immunotherapy using autologous T-cells has emerged to be a powerful treatment option for patients with metastatic melanoma. These include the adoptive transfer of autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), T-cells transduced with high-affinity T-cell receptors (TCR) against major melanosomal tumor antigens, and T cells transduced with chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) composed of hybrid immunoglobulin light chains with endo-domains of T-cell signaling molecules. Among these and other options for T-cell therapy, TIL together with high-dose IL-2 has had the longest clinical history with multiple clinical trials in centers across the world consistently demonstrating durable clinical response rates near 50% or more. A distinct advantage of TIL therapy making it still the T-cell therapy of choice is the broad nature of the T-cell recognition against both defined as well as un-defined tumors antigens against all possible MHC, rather than the single specificity and limited MHC coverage of the newer TCR and CAR transduction technologies. In the past decade, significant inroads have been made in defining the phenotypes of T cells in TIL mediating tumor regression. CD8+ T cells are emerging to be critical, although the exact subset of CD8+ T cells exhibiting the highest clinical activity in terms of memory and effector markers is still controversial. We present a model in which both effector-memory and more differentiated effector T cells ultimately may need to cooperate to mediate long-term tumor control in responding patients. Although TIL therapy has shown great potential to treat metastatic melanoma, a number of issues have emerged that need to be addressed to bring it more into the mainstream of melanoma care. First, we have a reached the point where a pivotal phase II or phase III trials are needed in an attempt to gain regulatory approval of TIL as standard-of-care. Second, improvements in how we expand TIL for therapy are needed, that minimize the time the T

  12. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, METHYL BROMIDE 99.75% ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-21

    ... ",alt.. Ind .. "t'l l.balaM., with ,robabla r.COyary .ft.r • parlod of na •• ,.,vr.. Ilood lIrO-l4. 1 • .".ls ... l~ ·Do "ot r ..... Ie .... _til ttl. -art.. T ••• t .... , MI'It".ra ... a1 ...

  13. The Desire to Learn as a Kind of Love: Gardening, Cooking, and Passion in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wistoft, Karen

    2013-01-01

    "Gardens for Bellies" ["Haver til Maver"] is an organic school gardens project at Krogerup farm in Northern Sealand, Denmark, which provides children with first-hand experiences in a natural, outdoor environment. The general intention of the project is to expand children's competences and their knowledge of nature, farming and…

  14. SS versus Wehrmacht (1933-1945)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-01-01

    crimes in summer 1940. The leader of the IH&NAU-SS and .tilI anther local group leader of the PARTY in ’HAMU reBelved the am puniehment, A big part of...interls to create the iBpre^sion in ftore countrlies that the German people have prted with all standards of Wetern culture and civilization. If this

  15. A potential relation between stratosphere-troposphere exchange and the tropopause inversion layer in idealized baroclinic life cycle experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunkel, Daniel; Kaluza, Thorsten; Wirth, Volkmar; Hoor, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The tropopause inversion layer (TIL) as a well known feature of the lower stratosphere in the extratropics has often been suspected of impeding the exchange between stratospheric and tropospheric air masses (STE). However, it is still an open question whether a physical relation between STE and the TIL exists. We use a non-hydrostatic limited area model to simulate idealized baroclinic life cycles along with different diagnostics for STE such as Eulerian passive tracers and Lagrangian trajectories. Recent findings suggest a strenghtening of the TIL during such life cycles due to diabatic tropospheric processes as well as wave breaking. Moreover, STE also occurs frequently during such baroclinic life cycles, e.g., in the vicinity of tropopause folds, cut-off lows, or stratospheric streamers. Contradicting to current knowledge the analysis of static stability above the thermal tropopause and the identification of regions of STE show that a temporal and spatial co-location of a strong TIL and regions of transport from the troposphere into the stratosphere is possible. Evidence is further presented that such a co-location is related to tropospheric updrafts and small scale waves in the lower stratosphere. These findings are also supported by an analysis of baroclinic life cycles in high resolution operational analysis data from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF).

  16. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, ZOECON RF-198 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... ["octl •• " ~ . tilt '1 •• I.,. c1<'. 'til' .dult '1111_ ttel" rOlC~', ent,. ... 2.2-Dlcltlor .. ,.,1 dl_t.,1 ,..,,t ••••• O.O9l' _.I.ted C_d'.... ... t_ c ..... tI. nIf' .... ...

  17. Estimating soil organic carbon using aerial imagery and soil surveys

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Widespread implementation of precision agriculture practices requires low-cost, high-quality, georeferenced soil organic carbon (SOC) maps, but currently these maps require expensive sample collection and analysis. Widely available aerial imagery is a low-cost source of georeferenced data. After til...

  18. Deciphering the Adaptive Immune Response to Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    PMC3767041. 24. Warren RL, Freeman DJ, Pleasance S, Watson P, Moore RA, Cochrane K, Allen-Vercoe E, Holt RA. Co-occurrence of anaerobic bacteria in...study11, we found that CD8+ and CD20+ TIL often co-localized in lymphoid aggregates of various sizes and morphology . This is reminiscent of

  19. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in breast cancer according to tumor subtype: Current state of the art.

    PubMed

    Solinas, Cinzia; Carbognin, Luisa; De Silva, Pushpamali; Criscitiello, Carmen; Lambertini, Matteo

    2017-10-01

    The recent success of the immune checkpoint blockade in cancer immunotherapy has modified the treatment algorithms in a variety of aggressive neoplastic diseases. Nevertheless, optimal selection of ideal candidates to these drugs remains a challenge. The presence, location and composition of a pre-existing tumor immune infiltrate seem to impact on the benefit from these treatments. The association between the presence of baseline tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and patients' outcomes has been widely investigated in breast cancer, although immunotherapeutic strategies have historically been less successful with respect to other neoplastic diseases such as melanoma and kidney cancer. TIL extent varies and has different associations with outcomes in the various breast cancer subtypes. Furthermore, the presence of baseline high TIL has been associated with an increased benefit from some chemotherapeutic and targeted agents even though some conflicting results have been observed on this regard. This review aims to summarize the state of the art of TIL in breast cancer with a focus on their assessment, prevalence and clinical implications in the different subtypes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, TRI-CON 75/25, 09/07/1988

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-19

    ... of ..... til ''''' h •• d ... I" •• t .. OII .1'.t .. foll_I" .. clo ..... of ." .. toff •• 1 ... . 3. If t .... h t. I .. M"a .. t ... tl1' p .. n •• 10, the .h ..... t. the ..... 1 ttl. U.14 ..... ...

  1. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, BIOBAN-C, 01/18/1971

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-13

    ... HOB,\\1\\-S S'J(jiUfll PI'upi()natl' alld BI()BAl\\-C CalciLi:1 Pt'opiullate a 1'1' I •. , ( 'l' II l' II t asp I' I • S I' r vat ive ,.; tIl I' (' tar d ... Anti':lycl)tic al.!;l'llts als" "lJlJ ...

  2. Trichotillomania (Hair-Pulling Disorder)

    MedlinePlus

    Trichotillomania (hair-pulling disorder) Overview Trichotillomania (trik-o-til-o-MAY-nee-uh), also called hair-pulling disorder, is a mental disorder that involves recurrent, irresistible urges to pull out hair from your scalp, eyebrows or other areas of ...

  3. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, PCO LINDANE E-1 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-13

    ... '1. II ,11_ •• , 1.1 ..... 1"".1 "1~~lIh" .., hl"'''5 It hrM'. "') 1 ,·t ..... con •••• tolt~ ' ... 1.1,. 111M It I .... ' 1 n .. • ft •• ",1' ""til,.. " t ..... U_I .... , ...

  4. ASCD in Retrospect. Contributions to the History of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Til, William, Ed.

    Nine past presidents, the current president, and the executive director of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD) contributed a chapter each to this history of ASCD and the fields it has represented since its founding in 1943. The book's editor, William Van Til, provides an introductory overview of the organization's…

  5. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, METHYL BROMIDE 99.5% ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-21

    ... to I.Rl In.t.ruc:tlo ..... co"ta(;t YOUif st.te ' •• Uetn <;til' r;n ... lra,..".l Control ""' • . or th. ... ... I ••••• control. cov.r ,., .. dl.tl, .flth ••••• 11.ht 1.,.,.ul1n b, ...

  6. Integrated palmer amaranth management in glufosinate-resistant cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two separate three year field experiments were conducted to evaluate: 1) the role of soil-inversion, cover crops and herbicide regimes for Amaranthus palmeri between-row (BR) and within-row (WR) management in glufosinate-resistant cotton and 2) the role of soil inversion, cover crops and spring til...

  7. Effects of the 13-14 March 1989 geomagnetic storm on the E region Tidal Ion Layer structure at Arecibo during AIDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Yu T.; Mathews, J. D.

    1993-03-01

    The formation and vertical motion of intermediate layers and so-called sporadic-E layers (80-150 km altitude) are thought to be predominantly under tidal control at middle and low latitudes. We refer to these layers as Tidal Ion Layers (TILs). Study of the time-height trajectories of TILs, derived from Incoherent Scatter Radar data obtained during the Arecibo Initiative in Dynamics of the Atmosphere campaign, reveals that layer trajectories are greatly influenced by geomagnetic activity when the Kp index rises above about 6 for periods greater than 3 h during the night-time. In particular, the large geomagnetic storm of 13-14 March 1989 resulted in the complete disruption of the TIL structure in the entire 80-150 km altitude range. We hypothesize that the layer disruption is caused by an electric field with a magnitude sufficient to overwhelm the usual V x B ion convergence mechanism. Computer simulation of ion motion allows an estimate of the strength of the electric field for the observed disturbances. The model electric field strengths required to cause TIL disruption are in the range of 0.5-3 mV/m, perpendicular to the B field, and directed anywhere between eastward and southward.

  8. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, HIGH DETERGENT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-21

    ... ", , ,, t ,.,.' I , , ,,, r i , .. '-f· ?,2 MAY 1984 t ,"\\" I 1'1, .. 1 r· rl ,1; I ~', t(, tIl. f.Io-'1 ,.' , . j·..JIH ,1 I-, r. t: II. eI .~ ..• t) t- ("; n t I n('lc~t.lPq !,., t i !' f Y t ,. ! " ...

  9. Generation of Constructs for DNA-Directed RNA Interference of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Genes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    son utilisation potenuielle conine arme biologique pr ~;enu a penser qu’i] existe tin besoin dapprofondir ]a recherche dans le domaine sp~cifique des...Plans fulurs :Les \\ ctecurs decxpi ession de petils ARMi scront tesi ~s pour leur capacit a’ soumetie a1 effet de choc trois e:’nes EY essentick ci til

  10. Closing the Student Achievement Gap in California's Elementary Schools: A Lead Teachers' Perspective on Transformational Instructional Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Kelli

    2010-01-01

    This study has tackled the thorny problem of closing the Student Achievement Gap (SAG) in California's elementary schools. To address that problem, an "Integrated" form of educational leadership called Transformational Instructional Leadership (TIL), a form grounded in "best practices" of Transformational and Instructional…

  11. Changes in Therapeutic Intensity Level Following Airway Pressure Release Ventilation in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jeffrey J; Wilson, Thomas J; Rajajee, Venkatakrishna; Davidson, Scott B; Walsh, Jon C

    2016-09-20

    Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) utilizes high levels of airway pressure coupled with brief expiratory release to facilitate open lung ventilation. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of APRV-induced elevated airway pressure mean in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. This was a retrospective cohort study at a 424-bed Level I trauma center. Linear mixed effects models were developed to assess the difference in therapeutic intensity level (TIL), intracranial pressure (ICP), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) over time following the application of APRV. The study included 21 epochs of APRV in 21 patients. In the 6-hour epoch following the application of APRV, the TIL was significantly increased (P = .002) and the ICP significantly decreased (P = .041) compared to that before 6 hours. There was no significant change in CPP (P = .42) over time. The baseline static compliance and time interaction was not significant for TIL (χ(2) = 0.2 [df 1], P = .655), CPP (χ(2) = 0 [df 1], P = 1), or ICP (χ(2) = 0.1 [df 1], P = .752). Application of APRV in patients with severe traumatic brain injury was associated with significantly, but not clinically meaningful, increased TIL and decreased ICP. No significant change in CPP was observed. No difference was observed based on the baseline pulmonary static compliance. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Testability/Diagnostics Design Encyclopedia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    decision logic o Environmental effets filtering and Identification. Fractlon of Erroneous Fault Isolation Results (IPQI) FEFI Is the fraction of BIT or...CONCURRENHT SIMULATION OPflMC TIlT WIT4 LAN ACCELERATION VECTOR Serr VAT" OPTION STATGRAD6, THEN Use TISTORADE THESEUS VL8VK9 AFTIER EACH TEST

  13. The Desire to Learn as a Kind of Love: Gardening, Cooking, and Passion in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wistoft, Karen

    2013-01-01

    "Gardens for Bellies" ["Haver til Maver"] is an organic school gardens project at Krogerup farm in Northern Sealand, Denmark, which provides children with first-hand experiences in a natural, outdoor environment. The general intention of the project is to expand children's competences and their knowledge of nature, farming and…

  14. The Role and Values of Combat Leadership in Modern Warfare: Can Combat Leadership and Personal Leadership Skills be Replaced by Modern Technology?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-29

    level, where actions and counteractions are following each other.6 Command and control should give flexibility and energy in such an environment...enkjenning slar inn. Men, det koker ofte ned til; hva skal du oppmi? Hva er dine prim<Ere m~l, og hva er eventuelt dine sekund<Ere mill. I dagens

  15. Effector, Memory, and Dysfunctional CD8(+) T Cell Fates in the Antitumor Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Reiser, John; Banerjee, Arnob

    2016-01-01

    The adaptive immune system plays a pivotal role in the host's ability to mount an effective, antigen-specific immune response against tumors. CD8(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) mediate tumor rejection through recognition of tumor antigens and direct killing of transformed cells. In growing tumors, TILs are often functionally impaired as a result of interaction with, or signals from, transformed cells and the tumor microenvironment. These interactions and signals can lead to transcriptional, functional, and phenotypic changes in TILs that diminish the host's ability to eradicate the tumor. In addition to effector and memory CD8(+) T cells, populations described as exhausted, anergic, senescent, and regulatory CD8(+) T cells have been observed in clinical and basic studies of antitumor immune responses. In the context of antitumor immunity, these CD8(+) T cell subsets remain poorly characterized in terms of fate-specific biomarkers and transcription factor profiles. Here we discuss the current characterization of CD8(+) T cell fates in antitumor immune responses and discuss recent insights into how signals in the tumor microenvironment influence TIL transcriptional networks to promote CD8(+) T cell dysfunction.

  16. Phenotypic gain from introgression of two QTLs, qSB9-2 and qSB12-1, for rice sheath blight resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    F2:3 families from crosses between three indica introgression lines and their common japonica recurrent parent were used to evaluate two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for sheath blight (SB) resistance. Three selected ‘TeQing’-into-‘Lemont’ backcross introgression lines (TILs) were more resistant th...

  17. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, , 01/29/1996

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-21

    ... tbt 11 Ut 1 :-, !lilt d i(aL~(;n " [lot con.'--) L<-;~l'Il·._ \\,1 til tit.' t f'l11l-i I)f f~ ~~ It let' (,- , md .j) Ill; ; ~:, J 1. tillS \\',n.itH t_ rll\\" III' j)-~ In vjrddtl"r1 . ...

  18. Throw the Book at 'Em

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statler, Thomas S.

    1997-09-01

    Buchangst pervades college astronomy. Instructors fret that no textbook is quite right, authors and publishers get shot down when they try to innovate, students count the days 'til they can sell back their unfriendly tomes. But none of this is going to change unless we make it happen.

  19. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, MCI DISINFECTANT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-21

    ... ""HUlK UI:-f'o,,:\\! 1'l:::--1I'litt ":"k\\) ·.II\\I!~, li''\\-I\\:I,Iit! "". i iii • ~l " ' It{ t til \\111 " I ~ HI,"', '1 ~ ~,' 'j "Ii! ... r ... '. _____ '\\: I""""" 14.1 h'·I't'tll"IIt' .... 1'!IIl .... ...

  20. Remote sensing of soil tilage intensity in central Iowa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crop residues on the soil surface decrease soil erosion, increase soil organic matter, improve soil quality, and reduce the amount of nutrients and pesticides that reaches stream and rivers. Crop residue cover is often used to classify soil tillage intensity and assess the extent of conservation til...

  1. Registration of a rice gene-mapping population consisting of 'TeQing'-into-'Lemont' backcross introgression lines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new rice (Oryza sativa L.) mapping population consisting of 123 'TeQing'-into-'Lemont' backcross introgression lines (TILs) (Reg. No. MP-5, NSL 477436 MAP) was developed by the USDA-ARS Rice Research Unit at the Texas A&M University System AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Beaumont, TX, in...

  2. Manipulations of soil microbiota for C sequestration and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in managed systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil microbes dominate processes that regulate soil trace gas emissions and soil C and N dynamics. Intensive management in agroecosystems provides unique opportunities to assess the effectiveness of microbial manipulations to enhance soil C retention and reduce trace gas emissions. While reduced til...

  3. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, DUAL-CIDE, 08/09/1991

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... 'I f ~: ~ ~ IT, 1 !; ... illJw~ ... td, (j!lf·.·· ~ ... '_' c· S \\of til r.~ t', 1'0 KILL ~NTS: ~, 'I.' f 1 .J 1,',-= 2. ,-I :-. l": .. ~ I TO K lI..!. BEDBUGS: - J spot ,~[ .-1, __ :..: ~ ...

  4. Interlesional diversity of T cell receptors in melanoma with immune checkpoints enriched in tissue-resident memory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Boddupalli, Chandra Sekhar; Bar, Noffar; Kadaveru, Krishna; Krauthammer, Michael; Pornputtapong, Natopol; Ariyan, Stephan; Narayan, Deepak; Kluger, Harriet; Deng, Yanhong; Verma, Rakesh; Das, Rituparna; Bacchiocchi, Antonella; Halaban, Ruth; Sznol, Mario; Dhodapkar, Madhav V.; Dhodapkar, Kavita M.

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneity of tumor cells and their microenvironment can affect outcome in cancer. Blockade of immune checkpoints (ICPs) expressed only on a subset of immune cells leads to durable responses in advanced melanoma. Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells have recently emerged as a distinct subset of memory T cells in nonlymphoid tissues. Here, we show that functional properties and expression of ICPs within tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) differ from those of blood T cells. TILs secrete less IL-2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α compared with circulating counterparts, and expression of VEGF correlated with reduced TIL infiltration. Within tumors, ICPs are particularly enriched within T cells with phenotype and genomic features of TRM cells and the CD16+ subset of myeloid cells. Concurrent T cell receptor (TCR) and tumor exome sequencing of individual metastases in the same patient revealed that interlesional diversity of TCRs exceeded differences in mutation/neoantigen load in tumor cells. These findings suggest that the TRM subset of TILs may be the major target of ICP blockade and illustrate interlesional diversity of tissue-resident TCRs within individual metastases, which did not equilibrate between metastases and may differentially affect the outcome of immune therapy at each site. PMID:28018970

  5. Proceedings: Roles of Colleges and Universities in Volunteerism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubblefield, Harold W., Ed.; And Others

    The proceedings include sections on: keynote addresses (Paul A. Miller, Jon Van Til); who volunteers and why, the impact of volunteerism; evaluation, research design, and methodology; preparing volunteers and those who manage volunteers (evaluation of recruiting and training procedures, the effect of the student volunteer experience, effectiveness…

  6. Hydrogeological analysis of the upper Dupi Tila Aquifer, towards the implementation of a managed aquifer-recharge project in Dhaka City, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Wiegand, Bettina A.; Badruzzaman, A. B. M.; Ptak, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    A preliminary feasibility assessment of managed aquifer-recharge (MAR) techniques was undertaken for Dhaka City, Bangladesh. Considering the top impermeable-layer (TIL) thickness and the land-use classification, four primary MAR techniques have been suggested: (1) soil-aquifer treatment (SAT) for TIL thickness 0-8 m, (2) cascade-type recharge trenches/pits for TIL thickness 9-30 m, (3) aquifer storage, transfer and recovery (ASR/ASTR) for TIL thickness 31-52 m, and (4) use of natural wetlands to recharge water collected from open spaces. The study suggests that recharge trenches and pits will be the most appropriate MAR techniques, which can be implemented in most parts of the recharge area (ca. 277 km2). In case of a recharge trench, the lower parts (15-20 m) that are in direct contact with the aquifer can be backfilled with biosand filters with a reactive layer containing metallic iron (Fe0) to offer pre-treatment of the infiltrated water. In addition to the suggested four techniques, the regional groundwater flow direction, from the northwest and northeast towards Dhaka City, may allow use of the aquifer as a natural treatment and transport medium for groundwater, if spreading basins are installed in the greater Dhaka area.

  7. Molecular Cloning and Sequence Analysis of the Sta58 Major Antigen Gene of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi: Sequence homology and Antigenic Comparison of Sta58 to the 60-Kilodalton Family of Stress Proteins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    I’t" FILE COPY ( ... ’ ",, , 1w Til PACE I -N PAE Form Ap edAD -A 2 109 TR~yNATO PAGE OMB N07048 C Unclassified Ib. RESTRICTIVE MARKINGS...chemistry (2). Sequencing-gel electrophoresis was per- Bacterial strains, media , and passage and preparation of R. formed on 6% polyacrylamide-7 M urea

  8. Closing the Student Achievement Gap in California's Elementary Schools: A Lead Teachers' Perspective on Transformational Instructional Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Kelli

    2010-01-01

    This study has tackled the thorny problem of closing the Student Achievement Gap (SAG) in California's elementary schools. To address that problem, an "Integrated" form of educational leadership called Transformational Instructional Leadership (TIL), a form grounded in "best practices" of Transformational and Instructional…

  9. Preliminary Surveys of the Three Dimensional Boundary Layer on a Yawed, Spinning Body of Revolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    24 Oil Flow Pattern, (j) ■ 0 25 Oil Flow Pattern, ()) = 90 26 Oil Flow Pattern, $ = 180 27 pBBCfDUO ^^NOT til ** ■*-„:• wmm ■P i I...34Wind Tunnel Testing Faailities at the Ballietia Reeearch Laboratoriee," BRL Memorandum Report No. 1292 , U.S. Amy Ballietia Reeearoh Laboratories

  10. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, FERTI-LOME TOMATO ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... {i{'Hii,=-~~ til :Y4 ~! t :fff":> (i1"ffi ~ rro:JT~ • ~ ill 111' foi ' I .' ' .. J' I'L"I"~ln,!J' \\ .f ."l.:JIl":U ~.H: ~wr) ::J;I:i~1 ;1if:i,;\\l)iJlmJ1!}.I~:\\ij1(ih~' 1 , + J II , . ...

  11. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, SMCP SEVIN 10% DUST ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... PIHI,TTIO\\S FOJ{ "SF . . rt !-, ,l ·,jnlati(,rl (If" Fp(j,~t'al lin.; til liSP t " i " '" !tlf"Cln"-:.I'-->tf'nt ' .. Ith it~ 1ah"lifJ}!;. [J() nrd '\\I'P I': t hi""", fH'fHtlJ(' t I rl . h" t \\, ...

  12. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, DRAT KILLS RATS AND ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... ilo.ill Ie _billect with It..",. II"olld •• ionl .... indicOI.d 01 ill '''' co .. of .... orr ..... ... all onlicoog.lonl ch •• icol thaI reeI.eel til. clo"i ... ability 01 ,''' blood, olld. ...

  13. RAS/MAPK activation is associated with reduced tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in triple-negative breast cancer: therapeutic cooperation between MEK and PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Loi, Sherene; Dushyanthen, Sathana; Beavis, Paul A; Salgado, Roberto; Denkert, Carsten; Savas, Peter; Combs, Susan; Rimm, David L.; Giltnane, Jennifer M.; Estrada, Monica V.; Sánchez, Violeta; Sanders, Melinda E.; Cook, Rebecca S.; Pilkinton, Mark A.; Mallal, Simon A.; Wang, Kai; Miller, Vincent A.; Stephens, Phil J.; Yelensky, Roman; Doimi, Franco D.; Gómez, Henry; Ryzhov, Sergey V.; Darcy, Phillip K.; Arteaga, Carlos L.; Balko, Justin M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in the residual disease (RD) of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) are associated with improved survival, but insight into tumor cell-autonomous molecular pathways affecting these features are lacking. Experimental Design We analyzed TILs in the RD of clinically and molecularly characterized TNBCs after NAC and explored therapeutic strategies targeting combinations of MEK inhibitors with PD-1/PD-L1-targeted immunotherapy in mouse models of breast cancer. Results Presence of TILs in the RD was significantly associated with improved prognosis. Genetic or transcriptomic alterations in Ras/MAPK signaling were significantly correlated with lower TILs. MEK inhibition up-regulated cell-surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expression and PD-L1 in TNBC cells both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, combined MEK and PDL-1/PD-1 inhibition enhanced anti-tumor immune responses in mouse models of breast cancer. Conclusions These data suggest the possibility that Ras/MAPK pathway activation promotes immune-evasion in TNBC, and support clinical trials combining MEK- and PD-L1-targeted therapies. Furthermore, Ras/MAPK activation and MHC expression may be predictive biomarkers of response to immune checkpoint inhibitors. PMID:26515496

  14. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, RESID-A-CIDE, 06/14/1968

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-21

    ... fl_~,~~. t'~q·jitGt~~:_'.~?-S2:'.._~J!L ~-'_: .;_ . S \\~~.til~.- Outdoes: r""J::tdo,x !.l5e .:nly \\is ail did in I :f!t;::ing ;}lii~Oy\\;!l':i"~ fro;'";; these insecls. ...

  15. The tropopause inversion layer at midlatitudes: Formation processes and relation to stratosphere-troposphere exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunkel, D.; Hoor, P. M.; Wirth, V.

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies revealed the existence of a quasi-permanent layer of enhanced static stability above the thermal tropopause. This so-called tropopause inversion layer (TIL) is evident in adiabatic baroclinic life cycles suggesting that dry dynamics contribute to its formation. However, compared to observations the TIL in these life cycles is too weak, indicating that other contributions from diabatic processes are relevant. Such processes could be related to moisture or radiation, or other non-linear, subgrid-scale processes such as gravity wave breaking. Moreover, whether there is a causal relation between the occurrence of the TIL and stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) is still under debate. In this study various types of baroclinic life cycles are simulated using a non-hydrostatic model in an idealized mid-latitude channel configuration. A simulation using only the dynamical core of the model serves as base simulation, which is modified subsequently by adding different processes. First, these processes such as vertical turbulence, cloud microphysics, radiation as well as surface fluxes for heat and momentum are added individually. In a second set of simulations combinations of these processes are studied to assess the relative importance of the individual processes in the formation of the TIL. Finally, the static stability is analyzed in regions of STE. These regions are identified with the help of passive tracer as well as a Lagrangian trajectory analysis.

  16. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, SA-50 BRAND 5% ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... ALEA to IOlltYul f II"lS 7 d.,) ~ .part. I til (' pld, J nIl!, l.AROE;'I;JA to I·U"' ... ROSES lu. ... L \\l; I I()~: nil nt.t .lpp!\\" t(l \\, I \\. ~ Iltlll.l!' 'II v .. ".t1\\ .illl"1-"... Dil ...

  17. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, , 01/14/1994

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-21

    ... t. (.-}iP ' . 1 , " . " . _1. :.!J::·'lt }'.'f· (r)) Cd[)ic's uf your final l:rinl,·,l }'Ji'clin" : efl 1" '.'-0 t· 1.~~JS;· t}lf:~ pr'Jducl for shipmet"!t. :·'f~l.~r to til('~ l\\-· ...

  18. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, WESCODYNE GENERAL ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-13

    ... Introduction I \\ TilE I' -\\~T dl'llIlt,t'lall~' \\\\I'rt' lIlarkt'led ill good faith and t'hilI1~ fill' th('~t' di~ill redant,.. ... f ) t. g lS ts ... 0 0 lJ n SC "pnl av Iodine " " B 0 U () L ...

  19. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, , 12/27/1982

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... Y\\wtl, sa.M • Fl_:.r.. Y .... tM r!'IIs ",~UC'II:)f I" COIItrDl 0I,~ poftll U tl$lllo$."" til.., I'. 1o",,", 1'f~1I .... III,," list I "'::JW e~ "... fe S;U)f'IO pj"i;'¥>.lI (O'''!'IO; ... ...

  20. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, NALCO VISCO 1152, 11/27 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-19

    ... Sht. "did .. " E"i,,_It,1 ~.""I .... , tt "'D ..... Ma.h re,rtsnhi" ,t ~h .,re.t EN .. ,i.1I1 emet , .. "I ..... lET .. all.llIIIS: T,il tilll.l.,. ",1"lntl. llt •• "" 'Nct:I.~ " N'clt!IUnl ... " ...

  1. Auditory Pattern Memory: Mechanisms of Tonal Sequence Discrimination by Human Observers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-30

    The quality of the encoded representation is assumed to depend on the size of the auditory context. This model was applied to tasks in which a subject...between t.xper irients 1 anid 2 and exper iment 3 wcr,- (a) an increajtc ini the coumplexity and itumber of t:il requery pattern_- orid (h) tile

  2. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, , 09/13/1993

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-19

    ( 'I inUlI' t a .: !ill 'WIF >/I "lllll , II! '!!! In II I il ~fi~ ~ ,miut UU till li!hli " .. , ,I til" '" ! 1IIIIltii !Ill ;,1( ,.Ii'll tI. :li I' I,'hin :II-,!; lill'lf !ilj liHd If ~',l 1'1 .11 11111 ...

  3. Total copper, manganese, and zinc levels in a Cecil soil during ten years of poultry litter application

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heavy metals in poultry litter (PL) can cause environmental problems despite the cost-effectiveness of PL as source of plant nutrients. We compared total Cu, Mn, and Zn levels in a Cecil soil near Watkinsville, GA, in a 5-yr of cotton and 5-yr of corn study under conventional tillage (CT) and no-til...

  4. Programming for Adolescents with Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braaten, Sheldon, Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 17 papers from a 1982 national multidisciplinary conference on services for behaviorally disordered adolescents. The following papers are included: "Programming for Youth in Secondary Schools and the Community," (W. Van Til); "Who's Crazy? II" (C. Michael Nelson); "Correlates of Successful Adaptive Behavior: Comparative Studies…

  5. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, , 12/10/1986

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... (, I.; " " , e!',' ( fl II .~ \\~ . t .. te. ',!; I;!... t" .' t 1 i ., 'f. • :,1 t ; I'. I (., • I': l \\. , t ~ r 1 j. ,,-' tit '- I . l ti, l' j'(I..) .. I{l,!~!' c' ti:l !,. r{.;., t .. 1 • ...

  6. Results of the Second U.S. Manned Suborbital Space Flight, July 21, 1961

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1961-07-21

    SPACECRAFT AND FLIGHT PLAN FOR THE MERCURY -REDSTONE 4 FLIGHT .............................................................. 3 By Jercme B. Haammack... Mercury -Redstone Project Engineer, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center. 3. RESULTS OF TIlE MR-4 PREFLIGHT AND POSTFLIGHT MEDICAL EXAMI- NATION CONDUCTED ON... MERCURY -REDSTONF MISSIONS 3 AND 4 ................................................................... 23 By William K. Douglas, M.D., Astronaut Fi

  7. Algunos Resumenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-12-01

    EI "Palomar Observatory Sky Survey" es un medio auxiliar bien conocido y ütil para los astronomos. Todo el cielo dei hemisferio Norte esta captado en lotografias, cuyas reproducciones se encuentran archivadas en las bibliotecas de casi todos los observatorios importantes dei mundo.

  8. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, ACME GARDEN WEED ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-21

    ... til jI~ "f (I \\ ~) I ~ , .. i'" I' C"IIII,il'! 1'(~I'(~"t sill I 1'1' () I- Il , h. I II I ,. I 'I \\;

  9. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, TH 10% GRANULAR ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-13

    ... pl"I' HtTl'. FIJI pn-pla::til:g: lI:-'t', \\\\alt -:-11 day .... l'I't .!" plantillg, Fill" 1"'1\\\\ trt'a:IIIt.'t,t ... I:Y. l,n'IJialltl!I!.:, a: il':l!d;·. .! ill ',[pl:lI!tll,1.!. ,qli':" ;1I1,'11. ...

  10. Programming for Adolescents with Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braaten, Sheldon, Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 17 papers from a 1982 national multidisciplinary conference on services for behaviorally disordered adolescents. The following papers are included: "Programming for Youth in Secondary Schools and the Community," (W. Van Til); "Who's Crazy? II" (C. Michael Nelson); "Correlates of Successful Adaptive Behavior: Comparative Studies…

  11. Predictive and Prognostic Role of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes for Early Breast Cancer According to Disease Subtypes: Sensitivity Analysis of Randomized Trials in Adjuvant and Neoadjuvant Setting

    PubMed Central

    Carbognin, Luisa; Pilotto, Sara; Nortilli, Rolando; Brunelli, Matteo; Nottegar, Alessia; Sperduti, Isabella; Giannarelli, Diana; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2016-01-01

    Background. The role of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in breast cancer (BC) is still an issue for clinical research. Toward this end, a sensitivity analysis of neoadjuvant and adjuvant randomized clinical trials was performed according to disease subtypes. Methods. Pathological complete responses (pCRs) after neoadjuvant treatment according to the presence or absence of lymphocyte-predominant BC (LPBC) were extracted and cumulated as odds ratios (ORs) by adopting a random-effects model by subtype. Overall survival hazard ratios as a function of 10% incremental values of stromal TILs (sTILs) in adjuvant trials were extracted. The interaction test was adopted to determine the differential effect according to the subtype. Results. Eight trials (5,514 patients) were identified. With regard to neoadjuvant setting (4 studies), a significant interaction (p < .0001) according to LPBC was found. The presence of LPBC was associated with a 29.5% increase in pCR rate compared with non-LPBC (p < .0001). The pCR rate was significantly higher in patients with LPBC in triple-negative BC (TNBC) and HER2-positive BC settings, with an absolute difference of 15.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.9%–26.2%) and 33.3% (95% CI, 23.6%–42.7%), respectively. With respect to the adjuvant setting (4 studies), a significant interaction (p < .0001) according to sTILs was found. A survival benefit was more likely to be determined for HER2-positive BC (p = .025) and TNBC (p < .0001), with no statistically significant difference for estrogen receptor-positive/HER2-negative disease. Conclusion. Despite the retrospective nature of this analysis, the presence of TILs may represent a robust predictive and prognostic marker for BC, particularly for TNBC and HER2-positive disease. Implications for Practice: This sensitivity analysis of neoadjuvant and adjuvant randomized clinical trials in breast cancer explores the potential predictive and prognostic role of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes

  12. Impact of diabatic processes on the tropopause inversion layer formation in baroclinic life cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunkel, Daniel; Hoor, Peter; Wirth, Volkmar

    2015-04-01

    Observations of temperature profiles in the extratropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) show the presence of an inversion layer just above the thermal tropopause, i.e., the tropopause inversion layer (TIL). In recent studies both diabatic and adiabatic processes have been identified to contribute to the formation of this layer. In particular, adiabatic simulations indicate a TIL formation without the explicit simulation of diabatic, i.e. radiative or humidity related, processes after wave breaking during baroclinic life cycles. One goal of this study is to assess the additional contribution of diabatic processes to the formation and strength of the TIL in such life cycles. Moreover, since irreversible stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) is another inherent feature of baroclinic life cycles and a consequence of diabatic processes, we study whether there is a relationship between STE and TIL. We use the non-hydrostatic model COSMO in an idealized mid-latitude channel configuration to simulate baroclinic life cycles. In a first step contributions of individual diabatic processes from turbulence, radiation, and cloud microphysics to the formation of the TIL are analyzed. These results are compared to those from adiabatic simulations of baroclinic life cycles in which the TIL forms during the life cycle with the limitation of being less sharp than in observations. In a second step the combined effects of several diabatic processes are studied to further include interactions between these processes as well as to advance towards a more realistic model setup. The results suggest a much more vigorous development of the TIL due to microphysics and the release of latent heat. Moreover, radiative effects can foster an increase in static stability above the thermal tropopause when large gradients of either water vapor or cloud ice are present at the level of the tropopause. By additionally adding sub-grid scale turbulence, a co-location of high static

  13. Effects of TP53 and PIK3CA mutations in early breast cancer: a matter of co-mutation and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Kotoula, Vassiliki; Karavasilis, Vasilios; Zagouri, Flora; Kouvatseas, George; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Gogas, Helen; Lakis, Sotiris; Pentheroudakis, George; Bobos, Mattheos; Papadopoulou, Kyriaki; Tsolaki, Eleftheria; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Lazaridis, Georgios; Koutras, Angelos; Aravantinos, Gerasimos; Christodoulou, Christos; Papakostas, Pavlos; Markopoulos, Christos; Zografos, George; Papandreou, Christos; Fountzilas, George

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the outcome of breast cancer (BC) patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy is affected by co-mutated TP53 and PIK3CA according to stromal tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Paraffin tumors of all clinical subtypes from 1661 patients with operable breast cancer who were treated within 4 adjuvant trials with anthracycline-taxanes chemotherapy were informative for TP53 and PIK3CA mutation status (semiconductor sequencing genotyping) and for stromal TILs density. Disease-free survival (DFS) was examined. TP53 mutations were associated with higher (p < 0.001) and PIK3CA with lower (p = 0.004) TILs in an ER /PgR-specific manner (p < 0.001). Mutations did not affect the favorable DFS of patients with lymphocyte-predominant (LP) BC. Within non-LPBC, PIK3CA-only mutations conferred best, while TP53-PIK3CA co-mutations (6 % of all tumors) conferred worst DFS (HR 0.59; 95 % CI 0.44-0.79; p = 0.001 for PIK3CA-only). TP53-only mutations were unfavorable in patients with lower TILs, while patients with lower TILs performed worse if their tumors carried TP53-only mutations (interaction p = 0.046). Multivariate analysis revealed favorable PIK3CA-only mutations in non-LPBC (HR 0.64; 95 % CI 0.47-0.88; p = 0.007), and unfavorable TP53 mutations in ER/PgRpos/HER2neg (HR 1.55; 95 % CI 1.07-2.24; p = 0.021). Mutations did not interact with TILs in non-LP triple-negative and HER2-positive patients. TP53 and PIK3CA mutations appear to have diverse effects on the outcome of early BC patients, according to whether these genes are co-mutated or not, and for TP53 according to TILs density and ER/PgR-status. These findings need to be considered when evaluating the effect of these two most frequently mutated genes in the context of large clinical trials.

  14. Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas differentially express granzyme inhibitors.

    PubMed

    van Kempen, Pauline M W; Noorlag, Rob; Swartz, Justin E; Bovenschen, Niels; Braunius, Weibel W; Vermeulen, Jeroen F; Van Cann, Ellen M; Grolman, Wilko; Willems, Stefan M

    2016-05-01

    Patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs) have an improved prognosis compared to HPV-negative OPSCCs. Several theories have been proposed to explain this relatively good prognosis. One hypothesis is a difference in immune response. In this study, we compared tumor-infiltrating CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ T-cells, and granzyme inhibitors (SERPINB1, SERPINB4, and SERPINB9) between HPV-positive and HPV-negative tumors and the relation with survival. Protein expression of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) (CD3, CD4, and CD8) and granzyme inhibitors was analyzed in 262 OPSCCs by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Most patients (67%) received primary radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. Cox regression analysis was carried out to compare overall survival (OS) of patients with low and high TIL infiltration and expression of granzyme inhibitors. HPV-positive OPSCCs were significantly more heavily infiltrated by TILs (p < 0.001) compared to HPV-negative OPSCCs. A high level of CD3+ TILs was correlated with a favorable outcome in the total cohort and in HPV-positive OPSCCs, while it reached no significance in HPV-negative OPSCCs. There was expression of all three granzyme inhibitors in OPSCCs. No differences in expression were found between HPV-positive and HPV-negative OPSCCs. Within the group of HPV-positive tumors, a high expression of SERPINB1 was associated with a significantly worse overall survival. HPV-positive OPSCCs with a low count of CD3+ TILs or high expression of SERPINB1 have a worse OS, comparable with HPV-negative OPSCCs. This suggests that the immune system plays an important role in the carcinogenesis of the virally induced oropharynx tumors.

  15. A mechanism to explain the variations of tropopause and tropopause inversion layer in the Arctic region during a sudden stratospheric warming in 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui; Tomikawa, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Takuji; Huang, Kaiming; Zhang, Shaodong; Zhang, Yehui; Yang, Huigen; Hu, Hongqiao

    2016-10-01

    The mechanism to explain the variations of tropopause and tropopause inversion layer (TIL) in the Arctic region during a sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) in 2009 was studied with the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis data and GPS/Constellation Observing system for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) temperature data. During the prominent SSW in 2009, the cyclonic system changed to the anticyclonic system due to the planetary wave with wave number 2 (wave2). The GPS/COSMIC temperature data showed that during the SSW in 2009, the tropopause height in the Arctic decreased accompanied with the tropopause temperature increase and the TIL enhancement. The variations of the tropopause and TIL were larger in higher latitudes. A static stability analysis showed that the variations of the tropopause and TIL were associated with the variations of the residual circulation and the static stability due to the SSW. Larger static stability appeared in the upper stratosphere and moved downward to the narrow region just above the tropopause. The descent of strong downward flow was faster in higher latitudes. The static stability tendency analysis showed that the strong downward residual flow induced the static stability change in the stratosphere and around the tropopause. The strong downwelling in the stratosphere was mainly induced by wave2, which led to the tropopause height and temperature changes due to the adiabatic heating. Around the tropopause, a pair of downwelling above the tropopause and upwelling below the tropopause due to wave2 contributed to the enhancement of static stability in the TIL immediately after the SSW.

  16. High numbers of granzyme B/CD8-positive tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma biopsies predict rapid fatal outcome in patients treated with curative intent.

    PubMed

    Oudejans, Joost J; Harijadi, Hari; Kummer, J Alain; Tan, I Bing; Bloemena, Elizabeth; Middeldorp, Jaap M; Bladergroen, Belinda; Dukers, Danny F; Vos, Wim; Meijer, Chris J L M

    2002-12-01

    This study determined whether tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPCs) include activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and whether the numbers of activated CTLs in these biopsies are related to clinical outcome. Moreover, the study investigated whether the numbers of activated CTLs are associated with the expression of MHC class I proteins and the granzyme B antagonist PI-9 in the tumour cells. Forty-three Indonesian NPC patients (T(1-3), N(1-3), M(0)), who were treated with curative intent by radiotherapy only, were studied. Tumour-infiltrating activated CTLs were detected using antibodies against granzyme B, CD8, and CD56. Expression of MHC class I proteins and PI-9 was also determined by immunohistochemistry. Granzyme B-positive TILs were detected in all NPC biopsies. The presence of a high percentage (>25%) of granzyme B-positive TILs appeared to be a very strong predictor of a rapid fatal clinical outcome, independent of stage. Complete absence of MHC class I heavy chain expression in tumour cells was observed in 11 of 31 evaluable cases and low levels were observed in seven additional cases. No association between MHC class I expression and the numbers of granzyme B-positive TILs was observed. Expression of the granzyme B antagonist PI-9 in tumour cells was detected in three cases. It is concluded that the presence of many granzyme B-positive TILs in a selected group of Indonesian NPC patients is a strong and stage-independent marker for a rapid fatal clinical outcome.

  17. Predictive and Prognostic Role of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes for Early Breast Cancer According to Disease Subtypes: Sensitivity Analysis of Randomized Trials in Adjuvant and Neoadjuvant Setting.

    PubMed

    Carbognin, Luisa; Pilotto, Sara; Nortilli, Rolando; Brunelli, Matteo; Nottegar, Alessia; Sperduti, Isabella; Giannarelli, Diana; Bria, Emilio; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2016-03-01

    The role of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in breast cancer (BC) is still an issue for clinical research. Toward this end, a sensitivity analysis of neoadjuvant and adjuvant randomized clinical trials was performed according to disease subtypes. Pathological complete responses (pCRs) after neoadjuvant treatment according to the presence or absence of lymphocyte-predominant BC (LPBC) were extracted and cumulated as odds ratios (ORs) by adopting a random-effects model by subtype. Overall survival hazard ratios as a function of 10% incremental values of stromal TILs (sTILs) in adjuvant trials were extracted. The interaction test was adopted to determine the differential effect according to the subtype. Eight trials (5,514 patients) were identified. With regard to neoadjuvant setting (4 studies), a significant interaction (p < .0001) according to LPBC was found. The presence of LPBC was associated with a 29.5% increase in pCR rate compared with non-LPBC (p < .0001). The pCR rate was significantly higher in patients with LPBC in triple-negative BC (TNBC) and HER2-positive BC settings, with an absolute difference of 15.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.9%-26.2%) and 33.3% (95% CI, 23.6%-42.7%), respectively. With respect to the adjuvant setting (4 studies), a significant interaction (p < .0001) according to sTILs was found. A survival benefit was more likely to be determined for HER2-positive BC (p = .025) and TNBC (p < .0001), with no statistically significant difference for estrogen receptor-positive/HER2-negative disease. Despite the retrospective nature of this analysis, the presence of TILs may represent a robust predictive and prognostic marker for BC, particularly for TNBC and HER2-positive disease. ©AlphaMed Press.

  18. Impact of chemokine receptor CXCR3 on tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte recruitment associated with favorable prognosis in advanced gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Zhu, Zhengpeng; Luo, Jin; Fang, Jingyi; Zhou, Huanhuan; Hu, Min; Maskey, Ninu; Yang, Guifang

    2015-01-01

    Chemokine receptor CXCR3 has been proved to play an important role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression in many malignancies, but its precise efficacy on gastric cancer (GC) has not been evaluated yet. The present study was aimed to explore the correlation of chemokine receptor CXCR3 with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and prognosis in advanced gastric cancer (GC). Expression of CXCR3 and CD4+, CD8+ TILs was conducted in 192 advanced GC specimens and 48 corresponding paracancerous tissues by immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. CXCR3 expression in GC tissues was significantly higher than that in paracancerous tissues (P<0.001) and CD8+, CD4+ TILs infiltration increased with high CXCR3 expression (P=0.032 and P<0.001, respectively). Our study showed significantly lower CXCR3 expression in patients with greater tumor invasion depth and lymph node metastasis compared with patients with lesser tumor invasion depth and without lymph node metastasis (P=0.002 and P=0.001, respectively). Univariate analysis indicated that patients with high CXCR3 expression and high CD8+ TILs infiltration had longer overall survival (OS) (log-rank test, P<0.001 and P=0.002, respectively). Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that CXCR3 expression was an independent prognostic factor for OS (P=0.002). The present study suggested that CXCR3 expression was upregulated in advanced GC and was associated with increased CD4+, CD8+ TILs infiltration and improved OS. Therefore, CXCR3 overexpression is implicated as a favorable prognostic biomarker in human advanced GC.

  19. MSI-H colorectal cancers preferentially retain and expand intraepithelial lymphocytes rather than peripherally derived CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kristi; Foulkes, William D; Jass, Jeremy R

    2009-01-01

    The healthy colorectal mucosa contains many resident intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) consisting of partially activated yet hyporesponsive CD8(+) T cells. A predominant feature of colorectal cancers (CRCs) characterized by high levels of microsatellite instability (MSI-H) is heavy infiltration by an intraepithelial population of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (iTILs). While it has been assumed that these iTILs originate from tumor infiltration by peripheral CD8(+) effector T cells, their origin remains unknown. In light of the phenotypic and functional differences exhibited by IELs and peripheral T cells, elucidation of the precursor population of iTILs in MSI-H CRCs could clarify the role played by these lymphocytes in tumor progression. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether MSI-H CRCs interact differently with IEL- versus peripherally-derived CD8(+) T cells. Using a Transwell assay system to mimic basolateral infiltration of tumor cells by lymphocytes, T cell migration, retention, proliferation and phenotypic alterations were investigated. Results indicate that MSI-H CRCs preferentially retain and expand IEL-derived cells to a greater degree than their microsatellite stable (MSS) counterparts. While MSI-H CRCs also retained more peripherally derived T cells, this number was considerably less than that from the IEL population. While interaction of IELs with either CRC type led to baseline lymphocyte activation, MSS CRCs induced upregulation of additional activation markers on retained IELs compared to MSI-H CRCs. These results suggest that the abundant iTILs present in MSI-H CRCs result from expansion of the preexisting mucosal IEL population and imply a limited prognostic role for iTILs in MSI-H CRC.

  20. OX40, PD-1 and CTLA-4 are selectively expressed on tumor-infiltrating T cells in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Montler, Ryan; Bell, R Bryan; Thalhofer, Colin; Leidner, Rom; Feng, Zipei; Fox, Bernard A; Cheng, Allen C; Bui, Tuan G; Tucker, Christopher; Hoen, Helena; Weinberg, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) has been shown to be immune suppressive. Therefore, strategies aimed at overcoming this issue could have a positive therapeutic impact. Hence, we investigated the expression of the known immune-modulatory proteins OX40, programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) in SCCHN on different T-cell subsets of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) to ascertain whether these proteins could potentially be targeted alone or in combination for future clinical trials. T cells from peripheral blood (PBL) and tumor were analyzed for the expression of OX40, PD-1 and CTLA-4 in 29 patients undergoing surgery. These proteins were all expressed significantly higher in T-cell subsets isolated from tumors compared with PBL of the same patient. OX40 expression was significantly greater in the TIL regulatory T-cell (Treg) population relative to conventional CD4 and CD8 TIL or the Treg isolated from PBL. PD-1 expression was increased in all T-cell subsets relative to PBL. CTLA-4 was also increased in all TIL subsets relative to blood, and similar to OX40, its highest level of expression was observed in the Treg TIL. The highest frequency of PD-1, CTLA-4 and OX40 triple-positive cells were found in the Treg population isolated from the tumor. We analyzed both human papilloma virus-positive and -negative patients and found similar levels and expression patterns of these two patient populations for all three proteins. These data suggest that there may be therapeutic advantages of targeting these pathways independently or in combination for patients with this disease. PMID:27195113

  1. Gene Transfer of Tumor-Reactive TCR Confers Both High Avidity and Tumor Reactivity to Nonreactive Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes1

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Laura A.; Heemskerk, Bianca; Powell, Daniel J.; Cohen, Cyrille J.; Morgan, Richard A.; Dudley, Mark E.; Robbins, Paul F.; Rosenberg, Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    Cell-based antitumor immunity is driven by CD8+ cytotoxic T cells bearing TCR that recognize specific tumor-associated peptides bound to class I MHC molecules. Of several cellular proteins involved in T cell:target-cell interaction, the TCR determines specificity of binding; however, the relative amount of its contribution to cellular avidity remains unknown. To study the relationship between TCR affinity and cellular avidity, with the intent of identifying optimal TCR for gene therapy, we derived 24 MART-1:27–35 (MART-1) melanoma Ag-reactive tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) clones from the tumors of five patients. These MART-1-reactive clones displayed a wide variety of cellular avidities. α and β TCR genes were isolated from these clones, and TCR RNA was electroporated into the same non-MART-1-reactive allogeneic donor PBMC and TIL. TCR recipient cells gained the ability to recognize both MART-1 peptide and MART-1-expressing tumors in vitro, with avidities that closely corresponded to the original TCR clones (p = 0.018–0.0003). Clone DMF5, from a TIL infusion that mediated tumor regression clinically, showed the highest avidity against MART-1 expressing tumors in vitro, both endogenously in the TIL clone, and after RNA electroporation into donor T cells. Thus, we demonstrated that the TCR appeared to be the core determinant of MART-1 Ag-specific cellular avidity in these activated T cells and that nonreactive PBMC or TIL could be made tumor-reactive with a specific and predetermined avidity. We propose that inducing expression of this highly avid TCR in patient PBMC has the potential to induce tumor regression, as an “off-the-shelf” reagent for allogeneic melanoma patient gene therapy. PMID:17056587

  2. Regulatory T Cells Suppress Natural Killer Cell Immunity in Patients With Human Cervical Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Chun; Li, Chao-Hsu; Chu, Ling-Hui; Huang, Pei-Shen; Sheu, Bor-Ching; Huang, Su-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    To determine the functional attributes of CD4 CD25 regulatory T (Treg) cells by suppressing natural killer (NK) cell activity in human cervical cancer (CC). Triple-color flow cytometry was used to study the phenotypic expression of CD4 CD25 Treg cells and NK cells in the peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). In vitro coculture assays were performed to illustrate the cytokine immunoregulations between Treg cells and NK cells. Significantly lower expression ratio of NK cells and higher expression ratio of Treg cells in TILs than PBLs were found. The NK cells displayed significantly higher expression ratio of inhibitory NK receptors (CD158a, CD158b, and NKG2A) and lower expression ratio of activating NK receptors (NKG2D, NKp46, and NKp30) as well as perforin in TILs than PBLs, suggesting the suppressed cytotoxicity of the NK cells in the CC tumor milieu. The expression ratio of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) on Treg cells as well as TGF-βRII on Treg cells and NK cells was significantly higher in TILs than PBLs. Further functional in vitro assays demonstrated that NK cell function was suppressed by Treg cells, mimicking the inhibition of TGF-β on NK cells, and interleukin-2/interleukin-15 stimulation was able to restore the NK cell activity. These findings indicate that Treg cells in TILs may abrogate NK cell cytotoxicity through TGF-β pathway, and therefore, Treg cell elimination may enhance NK cell activity and be a novel therapeutic strategy for CC.

  3. Programmed death-1 ligand 1 and 2 are highly expressed in pleomorphic carcinomas of the lung: Comparison of sarcomatous and carcinomatous areas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sehui; Kim, Moon-Young; Koh, Jaemoon; Go, Heounjeong; Lee, Dong Soo; Jeon, Yoon Kyung; Chung, Doo Hyun

    2015-11-01

    Pleomorphic carcinoma (PC) of the lung is a rare type of poorly differentiated non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) that belongs to sarcomatoid carcinoma (SC). It exhibits aggressive behaviour and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recently, immunotherapy targeting the programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway has demonstrated favourable clinical outcomes in NSCLC. However, the expression patterns of PD-1-related molecules in pulmonary PC remain elusive. PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression was estimated in 41 cases of PC using immunohistochemistry. CD8(+) and PD-1(+) tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were also evaluated. PD-L1 and PD-L2 were highly expressed in pulmonary PCs (90.2% [37/41)]; 87.8% [36/41]). The amount of CD8(+) or PD-1(+) TILs and the ratio of PD-1(+)/CD8(+) TILs in PC were higher in males, smokers and older patients. PD-L1-positive PCs were infiltrated by higher numbers of CD8(+) TILs compared to PD-L1-negative cases (P=0.006). Of note, PD-L1 expression in pulmonary PCs was significantly higher in sarcomatous areas than in the carcinomatous portion (P=0.006). PC patients with a high ratio of PD-1(+)/CD8(+) TILs showed a shorter progression-free survival (P=0.036), whereas PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression had no prognostic implications. Our study demonstrates that pulmonary PCs very frequently express PD-L1 and PD-L2. Moreover, their expression is higher in sarcomatous cells than in carcinomatous areas. Thus, targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may represent a potential therapeutic candidate for this aggressive tumour.

  4. Association between Chemotherapy-Response Assays and Subsets of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Gastric Cancer: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jee Youn; Son, Taeil; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Hyung, Woo Jin; Noh, Sung Hoon; Kim, Choong-Bai; Park, Chung-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the association between adenosine triphosphate-based chemotherapy response assays (ATP-CRAs) and subsets of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in gastric cancer. Materials and Methods In total, 15 gastric cancer tissue samples were obtained from gastrectomies performed between February 2007 and January 2011. Chemotherapy response assays were performed on tumor cells from these samples using 11 chemotherapeutic agents, including etoposide, doxorubicin, epirubicin, mitomycin, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), oxaliplatin, irinotecan, docetaxel, paclitaxel, methotrexate, and cisplatin. TILs in the tissue samples were evaluated using antibodies specific for CD3, CD4, CD8, Foxp3, and Granzyme B. Results The highest cancer cell death rates were induced by etoposide (44.8%), 5-FU (43.1%), and mitomycin (39.9%). Samples from 10 patients who were treated with 5-FU were divided into 5-FU-sensitive and -insensitive groups according to median cell death rate. No difference was observed in survival between the two groups (P=0.216). Only two patients were treated with a chemotherapeutic agent determined by an ATP-CRA and there was no significant difference in overall survival compared with that of patients treated with their physician's choice of chemotherapeutic agent (P=0.105). However, a high number of CD3 TILs was a favorable prognostic factor (P=0.008). Pearson's correlation analyses showed no association between cancer cell death rates in response to chemotherapeutic agents and subsets of TILs. Conclusions Cancer cell death rates in response to specific chemotherapeutic agents were not significantly associated with the distribution of TIL subsets. PMID:26819801

  5. TIGIT and PD-1 impair tumor antigen–specific CD8+ T cells in melanoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Chauvin, Joe-Marc; Pagliano, Ornella; Fourcade, Julien; Sun, Zhaojun; Wang, Hong; Sander, Cindy; Kirkwood, John M.; Chen, Tseng-hui Timothy; Maurer, Mark; Korman, Alan J.; Zarour, Hassane M.

    2015-01-01

    T cell Ig and ITIM domain (TIGIT) is an inhibitory receptor expressed by activated T cells, Tregs, and NK cells. Here, we determined that TIGIT is upregulated on tumor antigen–specific (TA-specific) CD8+ T cells and CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) from patients with melanoma, and these TIGIT-expressing CD8+ T cells often coexpress the inhibitory receptor PD-1. Moreover, CD8+ TILs from patients exhibited downregulation of the costimulatory molecule CD226, which competes with TIGIT for the same ligand, supporting a TIGIT/CD226 imbalance in metastatic melanoma. TIGIT marked early T cell activation and was further upregulated by T cells upon PD-1 blockade and in dysfunctional PD-1+TIM-3+ TA-specific CD8+ T cells. PD-1+TIGIT+, PD-1–TIGIT+, and PD-1+TIGIT– CD8+ TILs had similar functional capacities ex vivo, suggesting that TIGIT alone, or together with PD-1, is not indicative of T cell dysfunction. However, in the presence of TIGIT ligand–expressing cells, TIGIT and PD-1 blockade additively increased proliferation, cytokine production, and degranulation of both TA-specific CD8+ T cells and CD8+ TILs. Collectively, our results show that TIGIT and PD-1 regulate the expansion and function of TA-specific CD8+ T cells and CD8+ TILs in melanoma patients and suggest that dual TIGIT and PD-1 blockade should be further explored to elicit potent antitumor CD8+ T cell responses in patients with advanced melanoma. PMID:25866972

  6. High endothelial venule-like vessels and lymphocyte recruitment in testicular seminoma.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Y; Hoshino, H; Kitazawa, R; Kobayashi, M

    2014-03-01

    Seminoma, the most common testicular malignant neoplasm, originates from germ cells and is characterized by the presence of numerous tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Although it is widely accepted that TILs function in surveillance and cytotoxicity in various tumours including seminoma, detailed mechanisms governing TIL recruitment are not fully understood. It has been shown that high endothelial venule (HEV)-like vessels are induced in inflamed and neoplastic tissues and contribute to lymphocyte recruitment in a manner similar to the way physiological lymphocyte homing occurs in secondary lymphoid organs. Here, we report that HEV-like vessels, which express MECA-79(+) 6-sulfo sialyl Lewis X-capped structures, are induced in TIL aggregates in seminoma, and that such vessels potentially recruit circulating lymphocytes, as an E-selectin•IgM chimera bound these vessels in a calcium-dependent manner. These HEV-like vessels express intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), but not vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) or mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 (MAdCAM-1), which likely contributes to lymphocyte firm attachment. We also found that the number of T cells attached to the luminal surface of HEV-like vessels was greater than the number of B cells (p < 0.0001). Interestingly, while CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) attached to the lumen of HEV-like vessels were scarcely detected, significant numbers of proliferative CTLs were observed outside vessels. These histological findings strongly suggest that TILs, particularly T cells, are recruited to seminoma tissues via HEV-like vessels, and that tumour-infiltrating CTLs then undergo proliferation after transmigration through HEV-like vessels in testicular seminoma. © 2014 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  7. TIGIT and PD-1 impair tumor antigen-specific CD8⁺ T cells in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Chauvin, Joe-Marc; Pagliano, Ornella; Fourcade, Julien; Sun, Zhaojun; Wang, Hong; Sander, Cindy; Kirkwood, John M; Chen, Tseng-hui Timothy; Maurer, Mark; Korman, Alan J; Zarour, Hassane M

    2015-05-01

    T cell Ig and ITIM domain (TIGIT) is an inhibitory receptor expressed by activated T cells, Tregs, and NK cells. Here, we determined that TIGIT is upregulated on tumor antigen-specific (TA-specific) CD8⁺ T cells and CD8⁺ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) from patients with melanoma, and these TIGIT-expressing CD8⁺ T cells often coexpress the inhibitory receptor PD-1. Moreover, CD8⁺ TILs from patients exhibited downregulation of the costimulatory molecule CD226, which competes with TIGIT for the same ligand, supporting a TIGIT/CD226 imbalance in metastatic melanoma. TIGIT marked early T cell activation and was further upregulated by T cells upon PD-1 blockade and in dysfunctional PD-1⁺TIM-3⁺ TA-specific CD8⁺ T cells. PD-1⁺TIGIT⁺, PD-1⁻TIGIT⁺, and PD-1⁺TIGIT⁻ CD8⁺ TILs had similar functional capacities ex vivo, suggesting that TIGIT alone, or together with PD-1, is not indicative of T cell dysfunction. However, in the presence of TIGIT ligand-expressing cells, TIGIT and PD-1 blockade additively increased proliferation, cytokine production, and degranulation of both TA-specific CD8⁺ T cells and CD8⁺ TILs. Collectively, our results show that TIGIT and PD-1 regulate the expansion and function of TA-specific CD8⁺ T cells and CD8⁺ TILs in melanoma patients and suggest that dual TIGIT and PD-1 blockade should be further explored to elicit potent antitumor CD8⁺ T cell responses in patients with advanced melanoma.

  8. The microenvironment in primary cutaneous melanoma with associated spontaneous tumor regression: evaluation for T-regulatory cells and the presence of an immunosuppressive microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Gray, Arielle; Grushchak, Solomiya; Mudaliar, Kumaran; Kliethermes, Stephanie; Carey, Kyle; Hutchens, Kelli A

    2017-04-01

    Spontaneous tumor regression, regression in the absence of therapeutic intervention, can be identified histologically in over 25% of primary cutaneous melanomas at initial diagnosis. A unique subset of T lymphocytes found in areas of regression can be histologically distinguished from tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes (TIL) found in areas of tumor progression. We call this unique subset of T lymphocytes regression-associated T lymphocytes (RATs). The aim of this study is to determine the phenotype of lymphocytes and the density of specific cell types linked to immunosuppression in areas of tumor progression compared with areas of tumor regression. These specific cell types include T-regulatory cells (Tregs) and S100A9 cells. A total of 14 primary cutaneous melanomas with areas of progression and regression were used. Immunohistochemistry staining was used to identify CD4 cells, CD8 cells, Tregs, and S100A9 cells. Two independent observers manually counted three high-powered ×40 fields. There was no predominance of CD4 or CD8 T lymphocytes in either RATs or TIL. We identified a lower density of Tregs in RATs compared with TIL when using the FOXP3/CD4 Treg marker (P=0.04) and a marginal difference when using our second, confirmatory Treg marker, FOXP3/CD25 (P=0.11). We observed a lower density of S100A9 cells in RATs compared with TIL (P=0.002). There was an observable difference in the tumor microenvironments of RATs and TIL, with RATs having a significantly lower density of Tregs and S100A9 cells. We deduce that the absence of immunosuppression in areas of regression allows for a more robust immune response and thus effective eradication of tumor cells.

  9. CD45RO+ Memory T Lymphocytes — a Candidate Marker for TNM-Immunoscore in Squamous Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer1

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Erna-Elise; Kilvaer, Thomas; Khanehkenari, Mehrdad Rakaee; Maurseth, Ramona Johansen; Al-Saad, Samer; Hald, Sigurd M.; Al-Shibli, Khalid; Andersen, Sigve; Richardsen, Elin; Busund, Lill-Tove; Bremnes, Roy; Donnem, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are vital in limiting cancer progression and may supplement the TNM classification. CD45RO+ memory TILs show major prognostic impact in various malignancies but have not been extensively explored in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we aimed to evaluate their potential in a NSCLC TNM-Immunoscore. Tissue microarrays were constructed from tumor tissue samples from two cohorts including in total 536 patients (University Hospital of North Norway, n = 285; Nordland Hospital, n = 251) with primary resected stage I to IIIA NSCLC. The density of CD45RO+ and CD8+ TILs in tumor epithelial and stromal compartments of the tumors was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. In univariate analyses, intraepithelial CD45RO+ TIL density (T-CD45RO) was a significant prognostic factor for disease-specific survival (P = .007), limited to the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) histology subgroup (P < .001), where it was significant in both cohorts (University Hospital of North Norway, P = .003; Nordland Hospital, P = .022). Combining T-CD45RO and stromal CD8+ TIL density (S-CD8) increased the prognostic impact in SCC (P < .001) and showed a significant impact within all pathological stages (I, P = .025; II, P < .001; III, P = .001). In the multivariate analysis, T-CD45RO was an independent positive prognostic factor for SCC (hazard ratio 2.65, 95% confidence interval 1.64-4.28, P < .001), and in combination with S-CD8, the prognostic impact increased vastly (high + high versus low + low: hazard ratio 6.50, 95% confidence interval 3.54-11.91, P < .001). In conclusion, T-CD45RO was an independent prognostic factor for SCC NSCLC. When combined with S-CD8, the prognostic impact increased and was significant within each pathological stage. We propose CD45RO as a candidate marker for TNM-Immunoscore in SCC NSCLC. PMID:26678911

  10. Prognostic impact of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in cancer cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in ovarian high grade serous carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kulbe, Hagen; Sehouli, Jalid; Wienert, Stephan; Lindner, Judith; Budczies, Jan; Bockmayr, Michael; Dietel, Manfred; Denkert, Carsten; Braicu, Ioana; Jöhrens, Korinna

    2016-01-01

    Aims Antibodies targeting the checkpoint molecules programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1 are emerging cancer therapeutics. We systematically investigated PD-1 and PD-L1 expression patterns in the poor-prognosis tumor entity high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. Methods PD-1 and PD-L1 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays from 215 primary cancers both in cancer cells and in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). mRNA expression was measured by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. An in silico validation of mRNA data was performed in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. Results PD-1 and PD-L1 expression in cancer cells, CD3+, PD-1+, and PD-L1+ TILs densities as well as PD-1 and PD-L1 mRNA levels were positive prognostic factors for progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS), with all factors being significant for PFS (p < 0.035 each), and most being significant for OS. Most factors also had prognostic value that was independent from age, stage, and residual tumor. Moreover, high PD-1+ TILs as well as PD-L1+ TILs densities added prognostic value to CD3+TILs (PD-1+: p = 0.002,; PD-L1+: p = 0.002). The significant positive prognostic impact of PD-1 and PD-L1 mRNA expression could be reproduced in the TCGA gene expression datasets (p = 0.02 and p < 0.0001, respectively). Conclusions Despite their reported immune-modulatory function, high PD-1 and PD-L1 levels are indicators of a favorable prognosis in ovarian cancer. Our data indicate that PD-1 and PD-L1 molecules are biologically relevant regulators of the immune response in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma, which is an argument for the evaluation of immune checkpoint inhibiting drugs in this tumor entity. PMID:26625204

  11. Immune response in breast cancer brain metastases and their microenvironment: the role of the PD-1/PD-L axis.

    PubMed

    Duchnowska, Renata; Pęksa, Rafał; Radecka, Barbara; Mandat, Tomasz; Trojanowski, Tomasz; Jarosz, Bożena; Czartoryska-Arłukowicz, Bogumiła; Olszewski, Wojciech P; Och, Waldemar; Kalinka-Warzocha, Ewa; Kozłowski, Wojciech; Kowalczyk, Anna; Loi, Sherene; Biernat, Wojciech; Jassem, Jacek

    2016-04-27

    A better understanding of immune response in breast cancer brain metastases (BCBM) may prompt new preventive and therapeutic strategies. Immunohistochemical expression of stromal tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs: CD4, CD8, CTLA4), macrophage/microglial cells (CD68), programmed cell death protein 1 receptor (PD-1), programmed cell death protein 1 receptor ligand (PD-L)1, PD-L2 and glial fibrillary acid protein was assessed in 84 BCBM and their microenvironment. Median survival after BCBM excision was 18.3 months (range 0-99). Median number of CD4+, CD8+ TILs and CD68+ was 49, 69 and 76 per 1 mm(2), respectively. PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression in BCBM was present in 53 % and 36 % of cases, and was not related to BCBM phenotype. PD-1 expression on TILs correlated positively with CD4+ and CD8+ TILs (r = 0.26 and 0.33), and so did CD68+ (r = 0.23 and 0.27, respectively). In the multivariate analysis, survival after BCBM excision positively correlated with PD-1 expression on TILs (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.3, P = 0.003), CD68+ infiltration (HR = 0.2, P < 0.001), brain radiotherapy (HR = 0.1, P < 0.001), endocrine therapy (HR = 0.1, P < 0.001), and negatively with hormone-receptor-negative/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive phenotype of primary tumor (HR = 2.6, P = 0.01), HER2 expression in BCBM (HR = 4.9, P = 0.01). PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression is a common occurrence in BCBM, irrespective of primary tumor and BCBM phenotype. Favorable prognostic impact of PD-1 expression on TILs suggests a beneficial effect of preexisting immunity and implies a potential therapeutic role of immune checkpoint inhibitors in BCBM.

  12. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes are prognostic in triple negative breast cancer and predictive for trastuzumab benefit in early breast cancer: results from the FinHER trial.

    PubMed

    Loi, S; Michiels, S; Salgado, R; Sirtaine, N; Jose, V; Fumagalli, D; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, P-L; Bono, P; Kataja, V; Desmedt, C; Piccart, M J; Loibl, S; Denkert, C; Smyth, M J; Joensuu, H; Sotiriou, C

    2014-08-01

    We have previously shown the prognostic importance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in newly diagnosed triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) using tumor samples from a large clinical trial cohort. In this study, we aimed to validate these findings and also investigate associations with trastuzumab benefit in HER2-overexpressing disease (HER2+). A prospective-retrospective study was conducted using samples from the FinHER adjuvant, phase III trial that enrolled 1010 early-stage BC patients, 778 of whom were HER2-nonamplified. Those with HER2+ disease (n = 232) were randomized to 9 weeks of trastuzumab or no trastuzumab in addition to chemotherapy. Two pathologists independently quantified stromal TILs in 935 (92.6%) available slides. The primary end point of distant disease-free survival (DDFS) and interactions with trastuzumab were studied in Cox regression models. Confirming our previous findings, in TNBC (n = 134) each 10% increase in TILs was significantly associated with decreased distant recurrence in TNBC; for DDFS the hazard ratio adjusted for clinicopathological factors: 0.77; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61-0.98, P = 0.02. In HER2+ BC (n = 209), each 10% increase in lymphocytic infiltration was significantly associated with decreased distant recurrence in patients randomized to the trastuzumab arm (DDFS P interaction = 0.025). Higher levels of TILs present at diagnosis were significantly associated with decreased distant recurrence rates in primary TNBC. These results confirm our previous data and further support that TILs should be considered as a robust prognostic factor in this BC subtype. We also report for the first time an association between higher levels of TILs and increased trastuzumab benefit in HER2+ disease. Further research into why some TN and HER2+ BCs can or cannot generate a host antitumor immune response and how trastuzumab can favorably alter the immune microenvironment is warranted. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford

  13. Endonuclease G plays a role in immunoglobulin class switch DNA recombination by introducing double-strand breaks in switch regions.

    PubMed

    Zan, Hong; Zhang, Jinsong; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed; Pone, Egest J; White, Clayton A; Lee, Derrik; Yel, Leman; Mai, Thach; Casali, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch DNA recombination (CSR) is the crucial mechanism diversifying the biological effector functions of antibodies. Generation of double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs), particularly staggered DSBs, in switch (S) regions of the upstream and downstream CH genes involved in the specific recombination process is an absolute requirement for CSR. Staggered DSBs would be generated through deamination of dCs on opposite DNA strands by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), subsequent dU deglycosylation by uracil DNA glycosylase (Ung) and abasic site nicking by apurinic/apyrimidic endonuclease. However, consistent with the findings that significant amounts of DSBs can be detected in the IgH locus in the absence of AID or Ung, we have shown in human and mouse B cells that AID generates staggered DSBs not only by cleaving intact double-strand DNA, but also by processing blunt DSB ends generated in an AID-independent fashion. How these AID-independent DSBs are generated is still unclear. It is possible that S region DNA may undergo AID-independent cleavage by structure-specific nucleases, such as endonuclease G (EndoG). EndoG is an abundant nuclease in eukaryotic cells. It cleaves single and double-strand DNA, primarily at dG/dC residues, the preferential sites of DSBs in S region DNA. We show here that EndoG can localize to the nucleus of B cells undergoing CSR and binds to S region DNA, as shown by specific chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Using knockout EndoG(-/-) mice and EndoG(-/-) B cells, we found that EndoG deficiency resulted in a two-fold reduction in CSR in vivo and in vitro, as demonstrated by reduced cell surface IgG1, IgG2a, IgG3 and IgA, reduced secreted IgG1, reduced circle Iγ1-Cμ, Iγ3-Cμ, Iɛ-Cμ, Iα-Cμ transcripts, post-recombination Iμ-Cγ1, Iμ-Cγ3, Iμ-Cɛ and Iμ-Cα transcripts. In addition to reduced CSR, EndoG(-/-) mice showed a significantly altered spectrum of mutations in IgH J(H)-iEμ DNA. Impaired CSR in

  14. Do biofilm communities respond to the chemical signatures of fracking? A test involving streams in North-central Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilson H; Douglas, Marlis R; Lewis, Jeffrey A; Stuecker, Tara N; Carbonero, Franck G; Austin, Bradley J; Evans-White, Michelle A; Entrekin, Sally A; Douglas, Michael E

    2017-02-03

    Unconventional natural gas (UNG) extraction (fracking) is ongoing in 29 North American shale basins (20 states), with ~6000 wells found within the Fayetteville shale (north-central Arkansas). If the chemical signature of fracking is detectable in streams, it can be employed to bookmark potential impacts. We evaluated benthic biofilm community composition as a proxy for stream chemistry so as to segregate anthropogenic signatures in eight Arkansas River catchments. In doing so, we tested the hypothesis that fracking characteristics in study streams are statistically distinguishable from those produced by agriculture or urbanization. Four tributary catchments had UNG-wells significantly more dense and near to our sampling sites and were grouped as 'potentially-impacted catchment zones' (PICZ). Four others were characterized by significantly larger forested area with greater slope and elevation but reduced pasture, and were classified as 'minimally-impacted' (MICZ). Overall, 46 bacterial phyla/141 classes were identified, with 24 phyla (52%) and 54 classes (38%) across all samples. PICZ-sites were ecologically more variable than MICZ-sites, with significantly greater nutrient levels (total nitrogen, total phosphorous), and elevated Cyanobacteria as bioindicators that tracked these conditions. PICZ-sites also exhibited elevated conductance (a correlate of increased ion concentration) and depressed salt-intolerant Spartobacteria, suggesting the presence of brine as a fracking effect. Biofilm communities at PICZ-sites were significantly less variable than those at MICZ-sites. Study streams differed by Group according to morphology, land use, and water chemistry but not in biofilm community structure. Those at PICZ-sites covaried according to anthropogenic impact, and were qualitatively similar to communities found at sites disturbed by fracking. The hypothesis that fracking signatures in study streams are distinguishable from those produced by other anthropogenic effects

  15. Cell Killing Mechanisms and Impact on Gene Expression by Gemcitabine and 212Pb-Trastuzumab Treatment in a Disseminated i.p. Tumor Model

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Kwon Joong; Milenic, Diane E.; Baidoo, Kwamena E.; Brechbiel, Martin W.

    2016-01-01

    In pre-clinical studies, combination therapy with gemcitabine and targeted radioimmunotherapy (RIT) using 212Pb-trastuzumab showed tremendous therapeutic potential in the LS-174T tumor xenograft model of disseminated intraperitoneal disease. To better understand the underlying molecular basis for the observed cell killing efficacy, gene expression profiling was performed after a 24 h exposure to 212Pb-trastuzumab upon gemcitabine (Gem) pre-treatment in this model. DNA damage response genes in tumors were quantified using a real time quantitative PCR array (qRT-PCR array) covering 84 genes. The combination of Gem with α-radiation resulted in the differential expression of apoptotic genes (BRCA1, CIDEA, GADD45α, GADD45γ, IP6K3, PCBP4, RAD21, and p73), cell cycle regulatory genes (BRCA1, CHK1, CHK2, FANCG, GADD45α, GTSE1, PCBP4, MAP2K6, NBN, PCBP4, and SESN1), and damaged DNA binding and repair genes (BRCA1, BTG2, DMC1, ERCC1, EXO1, FANCG, FEN1, MSH2, MSH3, NBN, NTHL1, OGG1, PRKDC, RAD18, RAD21, RAD51B, SEMA4G, p73, UNG, XPC, and XRCC2). Of these genes, the expression of CHK1, GTSE1, EXO1, FANCG, RAD18, UNG and XRCC2 were specific to Gem/212Pb-trastuzumab administration. In addition, the present study demonstrates that increased stressful growth arrest conditions induced by Gem/212Pb-trastuzumab could suppress cell proliferation possibly by up-regulating genes involved in apoptosis such as p73, by down-regulating genes involved in cell cycle check point such as CHK1, and in damaged DNA repair such as RAD51 paralogs. These events may be mediated by genes such as BRCA1/MSH2, a member of BARC (BRCA-associated genome surveillance complex). The data suggest that up-regulation of genes involved in apoptosis, perturbation of checkpoint genes, and a failure to correctly perform HR-mediated DSB repair and mismatch-mediated SSB repair may correlate with the previously observed inability to maintain the G2/M arrest, leading to cell death. PMID:27467592

  16. Endonuclease G plays a role in immunoglobulin class switch DNA recombination by introducing double-strand breaks in switch regions

    PubMed Central

    Zan, Hong; Zhang, Jinsong; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed; Pone, Egest J.; White, Clayton A.; Lee, Derrik; Yel, Leman; Mai, Thach; Casali, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch DNA recombination (CSR) is the crucial mechanism diversifying the biological effector functions of antibodies. Generation of double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs), particularly staggered DSBs, in switch (S) regions of the upstream and downstream CH genes involved in the specific recombination process is an absolute requirement for CSR. Staggered DSBs would be generated through deamination of dCs on opposite DNA strands by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), subsequent dU deglycosylation by uracil DNA glycosylase (Ung) and abasic site nicking by apurinic/apyrimidic endonuclease. However, consistent with the findings that significant amounts of DSBs can be detected in the IgH locus in the absence of AID or Ung, we have shown in human and mouse B cells that AID generates staggered DSBs not only by cleaving intact double-strand DNA, but also by processing blunt DSB ends generated in an AID-independent fashion. How these AID-independent DSBs are generated is still unclear. It is possible that S region DNA may undergo AID-independent cleavage by structure-specific nucleases, such as endonuclease G (EndoG). EndoG is an abundant nuclease in eukaryotic cells. It cleaves single- and double-strand DNA, primarily at dG/dC residues, the preferential sites of DSBs in S region DNA. We show here that EndoG can localize to the nucleus of B cells undergoing CSR and binds to S region DNA, as shown by specific chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Using knockout EndoG−/− mice and EndoG−/− B cells, we found that EndoG deficiency resulted in defective CSR in vivo and in vitro, as demonstrated by reduced cell surface IgG1, IgG2a, IgG3 and IgA, reduced secreted IgG1, reduced circle Iγ1-Cμ, Iγ3-Cμ, Iε-Cμ, Iα-Cμ transcripts, post-recombination Iμ-Cγ1, Iμ-Cγ3, Iμ-Cε and Iμ-Cα transcripts. In addition to reduced CSR, EndoG−/− mice showed a significantly altered spectrum of mutations in IgH JH-iEμ DNA. Impaired CSR in Endo

  17. Charge sensing and real-time electron counting in quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihn, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    The charge state of a Coulomb blockaded quantum dot can be sensed at the single-electron level using charge sensors integrated on-chip [1]. Quantum point contacts or quantum dots have proven to work as reliable charge sensors. Coupling between the quantum dot's charge state and the sensor is provided by Coulomb interactions between electrons in the two systems. The technique is therefore independent of the material of quantum dot and sensor, and works for diverse systems such as GaAs [1] and graphene [2]. Different materials, such as InAs and GaAs have even been combined. Time-resolved charge sensing is of fundamental interest for studying the statistical properties of charge flow, like the full counting statistics. Single-shot charge and spin read-out schemes are also needed for the measurement of qubits. Some of our recent work has focused on the exploration and optimization of the read-out bandwidth limits. Towards this goal, we learned how to influence the dot-detector coupling [3], and how to employ high-frequency techniques in the range of a few hundred megahertz [4], or even up to a few gigahertz for improved performance. New experiments using the slower conventional sensing schemes have allowed us to explore non-equilibrium statistics and the fluctuation theorem. In our measurements, rare events can be detected, where electrons flow against the applied source-drain bias direction thereby consuming entropy in agreement with theoretical predictions. [4pt] [1] T. Ihn, S. Gustavsson, U. Gasser, R. Leturcq, I. Shorubalko, and K. Ensslin, Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures 42, 803-808 (2010).[0pt] [2] J. G"uttinger, J. Seif, C. Stampfer, A. Capelli, K. Ensslin, and T. Ihn, Phys. Rev. B 83, 165445 (2011).[0pt] [3] C. R"ossler, B. K"ung, S. Dr"oscher, T. Choi, T. Ihn, K. Ensslin, and M. Beck, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 152109 (2010).[0pt] [4] T. M"uller, B. K"ung, S. Hellm"uller, P. Studerus, K. Ensslin, T. Ihn, M. Reinwald, and W. Wegscheider, Appl

  18. Target-in-the-loop remote sensing of laser beam and atmospheric turbulence characteristics.

    PubMed

    Vorontsov, Mikhail A; Lachinova, Svetlana L; Majumdar, Arun K

    2016-07-01

    A new target-in-the-loop (TIL) atmospheric sensing concept for in situ remote measurements of major laser beam characteristics and atmospheric turbulence parameters is proposed and analyzed numerically. The technique is based on utilization of an integral relationship between complex amplitudes of the counterpropagating optical waves known as overlapping integral or interference metric, whose value is preserved along the propagation path. It is shown that the interference metric can be directly measured using the proposed TIL sensing system composed of a single-mode fiber-based optical transceiver and a remotely located retro-target. The measured signal allows retrieval of key beam and atmospheric turbulence characteristics including scintillation index and the path-integrated refractive index structure parameter.

  19. Expression of immune checkpoints in T cells of esophageal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jinhua; Wang, Ji; Cheng, Shouliang; Zheng, Liangfeng; Ji, Feiyue; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Yan; Ji, Haoming

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of immune checkpoint proteins (checkpoints) has become a promising anti-esophageal cancer strategy. We here tested expressions of immune checkpoints in human esophageal cancers. Our results showed the expressions of many immune checkpoints, including CD28, CD27, CD137L, programmed death 1 (PD-1), T cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (TIM-3), T cell Ig and ITIM domain (TIGIT), CD160, cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), CD200, CD137 and CD158, were dysregulated in peripheral T cells of esophageal cancer patients. Further, the expressions of PD-1, TIM-3 and TIGIT were upregulated in tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), which might be associated with TILs exhaustion. Meanwhile, the expressions of PD-1 and TIM-3 on CD4+ T cells were closely associated with clinic pathological features of esophageal cancer patients. These results indicate that co-inhibitory receptors PD-1, TIM-3 and TIGIT may be potential therapeutic oncotargets for esophageal cancer. PMID:27577071

  20. Exploiting natural anti-tumor immunity for metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Katherine A; James, Britnie R; Guan, Yue; Torry, Donald S; Wilber, Andrew; Griffith, Thomas S

    2015-01-01

    Clinical observations of spontaneous disease regression in some renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients implicate a role for tumor immunity in controlling this disease. Puzzling, however, are findings that high levels of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) are common to RCC. Despite expression of activation markers by TILs, functional impairment of innate and adaptive immune cells has been consistently demonstrated contributing to the failure of the immune system to control RCC. Immunotherapy can overcome the immunosuppressive effects of the tumor and provide an opportunity for long-term disease free survival. Unfortunately, complete response rates remain sub-optimal indicating the effectiveness of immunotherapy remains limited by tumor-specific factors and/or cell types that inhibit antitumor immune responses. Here we discuss immunotherapies and the function of multiple immune system components to achieve an effective response. Understanding these complex interactions is essential to rationally develop novel therapies capable of renewing the immune system's ability to respond to these tumors.

  1. Documentation of Helicopter Aeroelastic Stability Analysis Computer Program (HASTA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-01

    01619 .1163 373000.0 816000.0 16600000.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 ..8627 44.0 •1.8396 .006486 .006488 •.15212 -.01619 . 1292 411000.0 894000.0 17600000.0 1.0 1.0...kl • • a ■ kl -J»- • J am •« 3 -O 4 _l >- a »o ooo o -• — M« i o ••• til MM ****** 4 • kikikikikiki Nt * kikikikikiki « o wklkiklWkl...ttQ, 0) GO Til (S IF (J.^U,1) GO TO 5 IF (J, £3. (NHSEC*!)) GO TO 5 3 SA(l,l)«Y(19) SA(l»2)aY(23) SA(l,5)a-Y

  2. Experimental demonstration of coherent beam combining over a 7 km propagation path.

    PubMed

    Weyrauch, Thomas; Vorontsov, Mikhail A; Carhart, Gary W; Beresnev, Leonid A; Rostov, Andrey P; Polnau, Ernst E; Liu, Jony Jiang

    2011-11-15

    We demonstrate coherent combining (phase locking) of seven laser beams emerging from an adaptive fiber-collimator array over a 7 km atmospheric propagation path using a target-in-the-loop (TIL) setting. Adaptive control of the piston and the tip and tilt wavefront phase at each fiber-collimator subaperture resulted in automatic focusing of the combined beam onto an unresolved retroreflector target (corner cube) with precompensation of quasi-static and atmospheric turbulence-induced phase aberrations. Both phase locking (piston) and tip-tilt control were performed by maximizing the target-return optical power using iterative stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) techniques. The performance of TIL coherent beam combining and atmospheric mitigation was significantly increased by using an SPGD control variation that accounts for the round-trip propagation delay (delayed SPGD).

  3. Exploiting natural anti-tumor immunity for metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Katherine A; James, Britnie R; Guan, Yue; Torry, Donald S; Wilber, Andrew; Griffith, Thomas S

    2015-01-01

    Clinical observations of spontaneous disease regression in some renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients implicate a role for tumor immunity in controlling this disease. Puzzling, however, are findings that high levels of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) are common to RCC. Despite expression of activation markers by TILs, functional impairment of innate and adaptive immune cells has been consistently demonstrated contributing to the failure of the immune system to control RCC. Immunotherapy can overcome the immunosuppressive effects of the tumor and provide an opportunity for long-term disease free survival. Unfortunately, complete response rates remain sub-optimal indicating the effectiveness of immunotherapy remains limited by tumor-specific factors and/or cell types that inhibit antitumor immune responses. Here we discuss immunotherapies and the function of multiple immune system components to achieve an effective response. Understanding these complex interactions is essential to rationally develop novel therapies capable of renewing the immune system's ability to respond to these tumors. PMID:25996049

  4. Habitat fragmentation influences gene structure and gene differentiation among the Loxoblemmus aomoriensis populations in the Thousand Island Lake.

    PubMed

    Lv, Kun; Zhou, Jing; Gu, Jian-Qiang; Zhou, Guo-Xing; Wang, Wei; Xu, Zhi-Hong

    2017-02-16

    Thousand Island Lake (TIL) is a fragmented landscape consisting of more than 1000 land-bridge islands isolated during reservoir formation. To evaluate the effects of fragmentation and island attributes on insect populations, we examined the genetic structure of Loxoblemmus aomoriensis, a species of cricket widely distributed in TIL, and compared genetic diversity between islands samples. Population genetic analyses was conducted based on mitochondrial DNA haplotype frequencies of 10 sample islands. By comparing three island attributes with population genetic diversity reveals that island area influenced population genetic diversity (r(2 )=( )0.5094, p = 0.00204). Using Pairwise Fst values, we also found that long-distance isolation increased the genetic differentiation, while short-distance isolation can be offset by dispersal. These results indicate that fragmentation can impact populations on a genetic level.

  5. LIGHT: A Novel Immunotherapy for Primary and Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    TILS due to the number of tumor cells and debris that masked the lymphoid markers. Therefore sensitivity of detecting surface markers from the minor...infiltration of NK cells , also known as cytotoxic lymphocytes of the innate immune system play an important role in tumor killing and immunological...antigens likely exist. We have provided the first evidence that LIGHT-induced T cells are specific for at least one relevant prostate expressed self

  6. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, , 05/23/1991

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... If /r~hMI [; f.'fllfJ'lI' tfl ffjo,h (111 If TIl:! t"'··:I,II,.· ," r1illhl'~: rl- ;t,',~~r' : II.j/.ld!)!., 1ll1'1:!I", I)il':;~! tJrt'dlhifl,' I', ddh( lilt gllJf' {In',."/rl Ci1ll d ~lli, i, :.1rJ ...

  7. Cost Effectiveness Study of Wastewater Management Systems for Selected U.S. Coast Guard Vessels. Volume 2. Effectiveness Assessment of Candidate Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-01

    wisLiILI 10 L 1.0" (ConLinued) AnAr•. IstAl . acf Anil. An,,. Effectiveness Attriute Data and Ratings for Viable Syst mVessel Combinations WMS GALLATIN...experience, iAnL til. Cow etc. Anal. An&L, (Cont’d.) Effectiveness Attribute Data and Ratings for Viable Systqm/Vessel Combnat ns WMS -GALLATIN

  8. Immunophenotyping of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma in peripheral blood and associated tumor tissue.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Martin; Feyen, Oliver; Hofmann, Heiko; Teriete, Peter; Biegner, Thorsten; Munz, Adelheid; Reinert, Siegmar

    2016-03-01

    The immune system is important for elimination of cancer cells. Tumors including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are capable of escaping detection by host immune cells through apoptotic depletion of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Circulating peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and corresponding TILs of tumor specimen were evaluated before and after curative tumor resection (n = 30) compared with PBLs of controls (n = 87). PBLs were characterized for the total number of T cells (CD3(+)), T helper cells (Th, CD3(+)/CD4(+)), regulatory T cells (Treg, CD4(+)/CD25(+)/CD127(low)), cytotoxic T cells (Tc, CD3(+)/CD8(+)), activated T cells (CD3(+)/HLA-DR(+)), and natural killer (NK) cells (CD3(-)/CD16(+)/CD56(+)). In tumor tissue, the prevalence of CD3(+), CD4(+), and CD8(+) TILs was assessed using immunohistochemistry, whereas the incidence of apoptosis was assessed using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridinetriphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. In PBLs of pretreated OSCC patients, a highly significant decrease in total number of T cells (p = 0.0001), Th cells (p < 0.0001), Treg cells (p < 0.0001), Tc cells (p < 0.0001), and NK cells (p = 0.0037) were found compared with controls. Decreased PBLs of OSCC patients were correlated with decreased numbers of corresponding TILs, which were associated with increased detection of apoptosis in the tumor tissue. Compared with the controls, the total number of T cells remained unchanged after surgery but the total number of NK cells significantly increased. Standardized immunophenotyping of OSCC may help to identify patients likely to benefit from cancer immunotherapy strategies and/or chemoradiation. Finally, future attempts to enhance an effective tumor-reactive immune response by immunotherapy or vaccination should be made by promoting tumor-specific Th and/or Tc cell/NK cell responses.

  9. Tumor-infiltrating Tim-3(+) T cells proliferate avidly except when PD-1 is co-expressed: Evidence for intracellular cross talk.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Shayan, Gulidanna; Avery, Lyndsay; Jie, Hyun-Bae; Gildener-Leapman, Neil; Schmitt, Nicole; Lu, Bin Feng; Kane, Lawrence P; Ferris, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    Programmed Death 1 (PD-1) and T cell Ig and mucin domain-3 protein (Tim-3) are immune checkpoint receptors highly expressed on tumor infiltrating T lymphocytes (TIL). PD-1 inhibits T cell activation and type-1 T cell responses, while Tim-3 is proposed to mark more extensively exhausted cells, although the mechanisms underlying Tim-3 function are not clear. Trials of anti-PD-1 therapy have identified a large subset of non-responder patients, likely due to expression of alternative checkpoint molecules like Tim-3. We investigated the phenotypic and functional characteristics of T cells with differential expression of PD-1 (high/low) and Tim-3 (positive/negative), using TIL directly isolated from head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Unexpectedly, we found that expression of Tim-3 alone does not necessarily mark TIL as dysfunctional/exhausted. In Tim-3-TIL, PD-1 levels correlate with T cell dysfunction, with a PD-1(low/intermed) phenotype identifying recently activated and still functional cells, whereas PD-1(hi)Tim-3(-) T cells are actually exhausted. Nonetheless, PD-1(intermed) cells are still potently suppressed by PD-L1. PD-1 expression was associated with reduced phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (pS6), whereas Tim-3 expression was associated with increased pS6. Using a novel mouse model for inducible Tim-3 expression, we confirmed that expression of Tim-3 does not necessarily render T cells refractory to further activation. These results suggest the existence of PD-1 and Tim-3 crosstalk in regulating antitumor T cell responses, with important implications for anti-PD-1 immunotherapy.

  10. A nonimmunogenic sarcoma transduced with the cDNA for interferon gamma elicits CD8+ T cells against the wild-type tumor: correlation with antigen presentation capability

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    To be recognized by CD8+ T lymphocytes, target cells must process and present peptide antigens in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. The nonimmunogenic, low class I- expressing, methylcholanthrene (MCA)-induced murine sarcoma cell line, MCA 101, is a poor presenter of endogenously generated viral antigens to specific CD8+ T lymphocytes and cannot be used to generate tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). Since interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) has been shown to upregulate three sets of molecules important for antigen processing and presentation, we retrovirally transduced wild-type MCA 101 (101.WT) tumor with the mIFN-gamma cDNA to create the 101.NAT cell line. Unlike 101.WT, some clones of retrovirally transduced 101.NAT tumor expressed high levels of class I, and could be used to generate CD8+ TIL. More importantly, these TIL were therapeutic in vivo against established pulmonary metastases from the wild-type tumor. Although not uniformly cytotoxic amongst several separate cultures, these TIL did specifically release cytokines (IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor- alpha) in response to 101.WT targets. 101.WT's antigen presentation deficit was also reversed by gene modification with mIFN-gamma cDNA. 101.NAT had a greatly improved capacity to present viral antigens to CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. These findings show that a nonimmunogenic tumor, incapable of generating a CD8+ T cell immune response, could be gene-modified to generate a therapeutically useful immune response against the wild-type tumor. This strategy may be useful in developing treatments for tumor histologies not thought to be susceptible to T cell-based immunotherapy. PMID:1588273

  11. Early Life Processes, Endocrine Mediators and Number of Susceptible Cells in Relation to Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    that is birth weight, has been positively correlated with subsequent risk of childhood cancer (Schüz and Forman, 2007) and, in adults, breast ( Michels ...64 Michels KB, Xue F (2006) Role of birth weight in the etiology of breast cancer. Int J Cancer 119: 2007 – 2025 Nilsen TIL, Romundstad PR, Troisi R...postmenopausal women: the Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Trial. JAMA 2003;289:3243–53. 19. Michels KB, Xue F. Role of birthweight in the

  12. Offutt AFB, Nebraska Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    category on the foi-ms are listed below: Thunderstorms - All reported occurrences of thunderstorm, tornado , end waterspout. Rain and/or drizzle - A-l...5 (Q. A) ,nHVIuS tIl11IS OF THIS FORM ARI OSSOtItl - - - T --7 41 ’T’IT T r .L’:AL CLIMA &TOLOGY !,,ANPCH C, LP,,E T AC SURFACE WINDS £ AIr. drATHER

  13. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, SCEPTER HERBICIDE, 07 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-13

    ... II tlw I!l i Il i JIll I !I! r .. iIlt .. 11 i~; Ilot IIll'l. t" seE I'T I·:J{ \\.Jhich 1)()S!;l'~;~; tolt·r.lIlCt' of rt·~;i~;l'-II]("(· ht·rhicidf"!; 111;1\\' hi' pltIl{' ~;prillf'. of ! \\w Y(': ...

  14. PD1 and PDL1 expression in primary central nervous system diffuse large B-cell lymphoma are frequent and expression of PD1 predicts poor survival.

    PubMed

    Four, Marion; Cacheux, Valère; Tempier, Ariane; Platero, Dolorès; Fabbro, Michel; Marin, Grégory; Leventoux, Nicolas; Rigau, Valérie; Costes-Martineau, Valérie; Szablewski, Vanessa

    2016-12-13

    Primary central nervous system diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PCNS-DLBCL) is a rare and aggressive type of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) whit poorly understood pathogenesis. Finding biomarkers associated with patient survival may be important for understanding its physiopathology and to develop new therapeutic approaches. We investigated 32 PCNS-DLBCL from immunocompetent patients for BCL2, CMYC, LMO2, and P53 expression and for cytogenetic aberrations of BCL2, BCL6, and MYC genes, all known for their prognostic value in systemic DLBCL (s-DLBCL). We analyzed PD1 and PDL1 protein expression in both tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and tumor cells. Finally, we searched for correlation between biological data and clinical course. The PCNS-DLBCL expressed BCL2, CMYC, LMO2, and P53 at similar frequency than s-DLBCL but without significant prognostic on survival. None cases harbored aberrations involving BCL2 and MYC gene whereas BCL6 abnormalities were present in 20.7% of cases but without value on survival. Expression of PD1 in TILs and PDL1 in tumor cells was observed at higher rates than in s-DLBCL (58% and 37%, respectively). The PD1 expression in TILs correlated with PDL1 expression in tumor cells (P = .001). Presence of PD1 positive TILs was associated with poorer overall survival (P = .011). Patients with PDL1 overexpression tended to better response to chemotherapy (P = .23). In conclusion PCNS-DLBCL pathogenesis differs from s-DLBCL without prognostic value of the phenotypic and cytogenetic parameters known for their pejorative impact in the latter. The PD1/PDL1 pathway plays a strong role in PCNS-DLBCL and represents an attractive target for this aggressive lymphoma.

  15. Programmed cell death ligand 1 expression in osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jacson K; Cote, Gregory M; Choy, Edwin; Yang, Pei; Harmon, David; Schwab, Joseph; Nielsen, G Petur; Chebib, Ivan; Ferrone, Soldano; Wang, Xinhui; Wang, Yangyang; Mankin, Henry; Hornicek, Francis J; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2014-07-01

    Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PDL1, also known as B7H1) is a cell-surface protein that suppresses the cytotoxic CD8(+) T-cell-mediated immune response. PDL1 expression and its clinical relevance in sarcomas are not well understood. Therefore, we sought to measure RNA expression levels for PDL1 in 38 clinically annotated osteosarcoma tumor samples and aimed to determine if PDL1 expression correlates with clinical features and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). Quantitative real-time RT-PCR for PDL1 was optimized in 18 cell lines, of which 5 were osteosarcoma derived. qRT-PCR results were validated via flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in select cell lines. Total RNA was isolated from 38 human osteosarcoma samples for qRT-PCR analysis. Clinical data were sorted, and significance was determined by the Student t test. TILs were examined in patient samples by tissue microarray hematoxylin-eosin staining. We confirmed the constitutive PDL1 mRNA expression in cell lines by qRT-PCR, flow cytometry, and IHC. Across human osteosarcoma samples, PDL1 mRNA gene expression ranged over 4 log (>5,000-fold difference). Relative expression levels were evaluated against clinical factors such as age/gender, metastasis, recurrence, chemotherapy, percentage of necrosis, and survival; no significant associations were identified. The presence of TILs was associated with high PDL1 expression (R(2) = 0.37; P = 0.01). In summary, we developed an RNA-based assay to determine PDL1 expression levels, and we show, for the first time, that high levels of PDL1 are expressed in a subset of osteosarcoma, and PDL1 expression is positively correlated with TILs. Multiple agents targeting PD1/PDL1 are in clinical development, and this may be a novel immunotherapeutic strategy for osteosarcoma clinical trials.

  16. Concordance of immune checkpoints within tumor immune contexture and their prognostic significance in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Dai, Congqi; Geng, Ruixuan; Wang, Chenchen; Wong, Angela; Qing, Min; Hu, Jianjun; Sun, Yu; Lo, A W I; Li, Jin

    2016-12-01

    Checkpoint blockade therapy has emerged as a novel approach for cancer immunotherapy in several malignancies. However, patient prognosis and disease progression relevant to immune checkpoints in gastric tumor microenvironment are not defined. This study aims to investigate the expression and prognostic significance of immune checkpoints within gastric cancer. In the study, a cohort of 398 cancer tissues from stage I to IV gastric cancer patients were assessed for programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) infiltration using immunohistochemistry to ascertain their survival correlation. The data revealed that higher TIL density correlated with less risk of disease progression, and exhibited survival benefits in gastric cancer patients, and PD-L1 positivity showed a significant association with the presence of high TIL infiltration. Furthermore, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect expression of multiple immune checkpoints with the relation to clinical outcome in 139 samples randomly selected from the same cohort, and higher messenger RNA levels of most immune checkpoints were associated with favorable outcome, while consistently showing a positive correlation with interferon gamma levels. In situ hybridization was used to determine the localization of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in 97 specimens, and showed EBV-positive gastric cancer samples correlated with PD-L1 expression and increased TIL density. These results suggest that induction of immune checkpoint within gastric cancer patients reflects a high immune infiltration density, especially in those with EBV-associated gastric cancer, which may direct patient selection for checkpoint blockade therapy.

  17. Patent Abstract Digest. Volume III.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    FOR TIlE MULTIPURPOSE 4.122,675 10/1978 Polyak ........................... 60/641 X UTILIZATION OF SOLAR ENERGY FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS 1761 Inventor...contained in Ohio 40"menf .of em W arat thot such use be fro* ffe Pivately owned riht. A 00300 AFSC ar*P7 79c R&LD RECORD (PatentI Abet...., lv PATENT

  18. Prevalence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and PD-L1 expression in the soft tissue sarcoma microenvironment.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Sandra P; Shoushtari, Alexander N; Agaram, Narasimhan P; Kuk, Deborah; Qin, Li-Xuan; Carvajal, Richard D; Dickson, Mark A; Gounder, Mrinal; Keohan, Mary Louise; Schwartz, Gary K; Tap, William D

    2015-03-01

    The prognostic and predictive implications of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is unknown in sarcoma. We sought to examine the immune milieu in sarcoma specimens. We evaluated PD-L1 expression by immunohistochemistry in sarcoma specimens and quantified tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). We correlated expression with clinical parameters and outcomes. Fifty sarcoma patients treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center were selected. Using the DAKO PD-L1 immunohistochemistry assay and archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens; PD-L1 expression was examined. Macrophage and lymphocyte PD-L1 status was determined qualitatively. TIL was quantified. Associations between PD-L1 expression in tumor, macrophages and lymphocytes, TIL and clinical-pathological characteristics were performed. The median age was 46 years (range, 22-76), and 66% of patients were men. Tumor, lymphocyte and macrophage PD-L1 expression was noted in 12%, 30% and 58%, respectively, with the highest prevalence in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (29%). Lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration was present in 98% and 90%, respectively. There was no association between clinical features, overall survival and PD-L1 expression in tumor or immune infiltrates. Lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration is common in sarcoma, but PD-L1 tumor expression is uncommon in sarcoma with the highest frequency observed in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. There was no association between PD-L1 expression, TIL and clinicopathological features and overall survival; however, this is limited by the heterogenous patient sample and minimal death events in the studied cohort. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tumor-Infiltrating γδ T Lymphocytes: Pathogenic Role, Clinical Significance, and Differential Programing in the Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Lo Presti, Elena; Dieli, Franceso; Meraviglia, Serena

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing clinical evidence indicating that the immune system may either promote or inhibit tumor progression. Several studies have demonstrated that tumors undergoing remission are largely infiltrated by T lymphocytes [tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs)], but on the other hand, several studies have shown that tumors may be infiltrated by TILs endowed with suppressive features, suggesting that TILs are rather associated with tumor progression and unfavorable prognosis. γδ T lymphocytes are an important component of TILs that may contribute to tumor immunosurveillance, as also suggested by promising reports from several small phase-I clinical trials. Typically, γδ T lymphocytes perform effector functions involved in anti-tumor immune responses (cytotoxicity, production of IFN-γ and TNF-α, and dendritic cell maturation), but under appropriate conditions they may divert from the typical Th1-like phenotype and polarize to Th2, Th17, and Treg cells thus acquiring the capability to inhibit anti-tumor immune responses and promote tumor growth. Recent studies have shown a high frequency of γδ T lymphocytes infiltrating different types of cancer, but the nature of this association and the exact mechanisms underlying it remain uncertain and whether or not the presence of tumor-infiltrating γδ T lymphocytes is a definite prognostic factor remains controversial. In this paper, we will review studies of tumor-infiltrating γδ T lymphocytes from patients with different types of cancer, and we will discuss their clinical relevance. Moreover, we will also discuss on the complex interplay between cancer, tumor stroma, and γδ T lymphocytes as a major determinant of the final outcome of the γδ T lymphocyte response. Finally, we propose that targeting γδ T lymphocyte polarization and skewing their phenotype to adapt to the microenvironment might hold great promise for the treatment of cancer.

  20. Unification of Larch and Z-Based Object Models to Support Algebraically-Based Design Refinement: The Larch Perspective.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    t’NIFI(ATION OF LARCH AND 7-13ASED OBJECT MODELS TO SUIPPORT ALGEBR \\I(’.LLY-IIASEI) DESIGN [EFINE •I E’NT: TIlE LARCH I[ERSPECTIVE FIIFSIS...Container(Int, C) includes Integer, PairwiseExtension(+, E, Int, C) implies (AssociativeC(E, C), Commutative (CE for o, C for T, C for Range)) 0.2 Graph

  1. Expression of inhibitory receptors on intratumoral T cells modulates the activity of a T cell-bispecific antibody targeting folate receptor.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, Jens; Thommen, Daniela S; Herzig, Petra; Bacac, Marina; Klein, Christian; Roller, Andreas; Belousov, Anton; Levitsky, Victor; Savic, Spasenija; Moersig, Wolfgang; Uhlenbrock, Franziska; Heinzelmann-Schwarz, Viola A; Umana, Pablo; Pisa, Pavel; von Bergwelt-Baildon, M; Lardinois, Didier; Müller, Philipp; Karanikas, Vaios; Zippelius, Alfred

    2016-02-01

    T-cell bispecific antibodies (TCBs) are a novel therapeutic tool designed to selectively recruit T-cells to tumor cells and simultaneously activate them. However, it is currently unknown whether the dysfunctional state of T-cells, embedded into the tumor microenvironment, imprints on the therapeutic activity of TCBs. We performed a comprehensive analysis of activation and effector functions of tumor-infiltrating T-cells (TILs) in different tumor types, upon stimulation by a TCB targeting folate receptor 1 and CD3 (FolR1-TCB). We observed a considerable heterogeneity in T-cell activation, cytokine production and tumor cell killing upon exposure to FolR1-TCB among different FolR1-expressing tumors. Of note, tumors presenting with a high frequency of PD-1(hi) TILs displayed significantly impaired tumor cell killing and T-cell function. Further characterization of additional T-cell inhibitory receptors revealed that PD-1(hi) TILs defined a T-cell subset with particularly high levels of multiple inhibitory receptors compared with PD-1(int) and PD-1(neg) T-cells. PD-1 blockade could restore cytokine secretion but not cytotoxicity of TILs in a subset of patients with scarce PD-1(hi) expressing cells; in contrast, patients with abundance of PD-1(hi) expressing T-cells did not benefit from PD-1 blockade. Our data highlight that FolR1-TCB is a promising novel immunotherapeutic treatment option which is capable of activating intratumoral T-cells in different carcinomas. However, its therapeutic efficacy may be substantially hampered by a pre-existing dysfunctional state of T-cells, reflected by abundance of intratumoral PD-1(hi) T-cells. These findings present a rationale for combinatorial approaches of TCBs with other therapeutic strategies targeting T-cell dysfunction.

  2. Serum ferritin level changes in children with sickle cell disease on chronic blood transfusion are nonlinear and are associated with iron load and liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Abboud, Miguel R.; Paley, Carole; Olivieri, Nancy; Kirby-Allen, Melanie; Vichinsky, Elliott; Casella, James F.; Alvarez, Ofelia A.; Barredo, Julio C.; Lee, Margaret T.; Iyer, Rathi V.; Kutlar, Abdullah; McKie, Kathleen M.; McKie, Virgil; Odo, Nadine; Gee, Beatrice; Kwiatkowski, Janet L.; Woods, Gerald M.; Coates, Thomas; Wang, Winfred; Adams, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic blood transfusion is increasingly indicated in patients with sickle cell disease. Measuring resulting iron overload remains a challenge. Children without viral hepatitis enrolled in 2 trials for stroke prevention were examined for iron overload (STOP and STOP2; n = 271). Most received desferrioxamine chelation. Serum ferritin (SF) changes appeared nonlinear compared with prechelation estimated transfusion iron load (TIL) or with liver iron concentrations (LICs). Averaged correlation coefficient between SF and TIL (patients/observations, 26 of 164) was r = 0.70; between SF and LIC (patients/observations, 33 of 47) was r = 0.55. In mixed models, SF was associated with LIC (P = .006), alanine transaminase (P = .025), and weight (P = .026). Most patients with SF between 750 and 1500 ng/mL had a TIL between 25 and 100 mg/kg (72.8% ± 5.9%; patients/observations, 24 of 50) or an LIC between 2.5 and 10 mg/g dry liver weight (75% ± 0%; patients/observations, 8 of 9). Most patients with SF of 3000 ng/mL or greater had a TIL of 100 mg/kg or greater (95.3% ± 6.7%; patients/observations, 7 of 16) or an LIC of 10 mg/g dry liver weight or greater (87.7% ± 4.3%; patients/observations, 11 of 18). Although SF changes are nonlinear, levels less than 1500 ng/mL indicated mostly acceptable iron overload; levels of 3000 ng/mL or greater were specific for significant iron overload and were associated with liver injury. However, to determine accurately iron overload in patients with intermediately elevated SF levels, other methods are required. These trials are registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00000592 and #NCT00006182. PMID:19721013

  3. Joint Services Electronics Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    radiators. 1. Complex Natural Resonances and Geometrical Procedures The K-pulse concept provides a means of relating surface waves on a structure to the...PACE ~- 4~~~ ~~ Til n Sbil Report Data JOINT SERVICES ELECTRONICS PROGRAMDembr18 7. Autor~s) . Performing Organization Rowi. No. ESL 710816-12 9...Patformng Organization Memo and Address 10. Project/Tash/Wof* Unit No, rhe Ohio State University ElectroScience Laboratory --,--- - 1 *Department of

  4. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, NOVA CONTACT SPRAY ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-21

    I , I " ! '.'f '( i .' l' \\. : ' t ' ~. :' I .1: t . ( . \\ J r )I i It, () I H'! J Il {f ve n t II d t (} f (, ''/ tIl! (l. S l' i! "I; t q ~ p r ; V"I)t" C(),'PI ,.Ii f(lt)d ild!llllll;tj :;\\11 1(1':"', diHi l'(),·1 ...

  5. Task Force Delay Study, Miami International Airport.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    13 . .Pe of Pepo., ond P.,iod Co-e,ed 12. Spo’s-: Agency No-.. and Ad. ness U.S. Department of Transportation Fejr ! Aviation Administration...W, 66 U : ~ Ssz tz - c~7j ~~nz Ll ss til-= - -j E E~ -- n -3 .)- m -Q - v c. ~c E c- ’Z -. E- --. It C. ,: -E mo ;. .- - -VC c-&-,J.tv --- -t -. be

  6. Potential Prognostic Markers for Human Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    such as proliferation, differentiation and assay [15]. TGF[3 may be produced by metastatic motility. Upregulation of growth factor synthesis or prostate...via mod- ronment include neuroendocrine cells. These cells ulation of tumor cell receptor expression. Control of can secrete bombesin, a gastrin ...controls, indicating that addition ofT015 accelerates tumor expansion. TIl15 synthesis triggered a dramatic increase in cell motility, boosting serum

  7. Energy Rating of Food Service Equipment Used in Army Dining Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    c <• raw PREif:t : \\ :; Is 1 >*_-_a til B3 TECHNICAL REPORT I NATICK/TR-81/006 O >- ENERGY RATING OF FOOD SERVICE EQUIPMENT USED IN...Entered) T. nv!Qiiy-flÜMBe.R f J REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE NATICK]|TR-8O/OO6 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) ENERGY RATING OF FOOD SERVICE EQUIPMENT... Food Systems Equipment Div., Food Engineering Lab US Army Natick Research & Development Command Natick, Massachusetts 01760 14. MONITORING

  8. Advanced Electronic Technology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-15

    vs7.czar7. Interferornetric Alignment I). C. Flanders Techniques for Multiple Mask N.T. Economou Registration ’. 1). fDeGraff 50061 High Resolution...F f-r old tils ope’rationial A.tepe during the L.ITl grouth A- piwpimu o)11as~.coldt c.clt. ’I’lln restults inialtit that it should lbe 77 . bas

  9. Surface Observation Climatic Summaries (SOCS) for Hanau AAF, Germany

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    oI L ...............- A V EtTIONH NAI6s mADAM AAF DL FIELD ELI’Y: 363 Fr LATITIUDE/LECSITUDEs 50 10 N 008 58 E STATIOC N C: 106420...r AVAILAULE FOR WMER REPO~nTil SITES. AIRIIEAR SEITIG. 3INCER OF CURY (80), TABLES GIVE Hk, W!nffARDA DEVIATIONS, AND SINTON VIOUM.YN IF INESS( MN CW

  10. T-lymphocytic infiltrate in canine mammary tumours: clinic and prognostic implications.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Maria Isabel; Pires, Isabel; Prada, Justina; Queiroga, Felisbina L

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, considerable progress has been made in understanding the role of the immune system in tumour progression. However, in canine mammary tumours (CMT), the prognostic value of T-lymphocytes is not established. The aims of the present study were to characterize T-lymphocytic infiltrate in 57 canine mammary tumours (21 benign and 36 malign), by immunohistochemical detection of CD3 antigen, and to determine its association with several clinicopathological parameters and overall survival. CD3+ positive cells were counted in 10 high-power fields within the tumour (i.e. The tumour-infiltrating T-lymphocytes, TIL), in the peripheral area of the tumour and in the adnexal non-tumoural mammary gland. CD3(+) TILs were significantly more frequent in benign than in malignant tumours (p<0.001). Conversely, peripheral CD3(+) TILs were significantly more frequent in malignant than in benign neoplasias (p<0.001). For CD3(+) T-lymphocytes in the adnexal non-tumoural mammary gland, there was no statistical difference in their frequency between benign and malignant tumours. On survival analysis, there was a tendency towards an association of a higher number of CD3(+) TILs and a shorter overall survival (p=0.08). Interestingly for CD3(+) T-lymphocytes in the adnexal non-tumoural mammary gland, a statistically significant relationship was observed, with a higher number of lymphocytes conferring a reduced overall survival (p=0.045). Further studies will be required to better understand the biological implications of the current findings.

  11. An HPV-E6/E7 immunotherapy plus PD-1 checkpoint inhibition results in tumor regression and reduction in PD-L1 expression.

    PubMed

    Rice, A E; Latchman, Y E; Balint, J P; Lee, J H; Gabitzsch, E S; Jones, F R

    2015-09-01

    We have investigated if immunotherapy against human papilloma virus (HPV) using a viral gene delivery platform to immunize against HPV 16 genes E6 and E7 (Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-E6/E7) combined with programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-1) blockade could increase therapeutic effect as compared to the vaccine alone. Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-E6/E7 as a single agent induced HPV-E6/E7 cell-mediated immunity. Immunotherapy using Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-E6/E7 resulted in clearance of small tumors and an overall survival benefit in mice with larger established tumors. When immunotherapy was combined with immune checkpoint blockade, an increased level of anti-tumor activity against large tumors was observed. Analysis of the tumor microenvironment in Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-E6/E7 treated mice revealed elevated CD8(+) tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs); however, we observed induction of suppressive mechanisms such as programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression on tumor cells and an increase in PD-1(+) TILs. When Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-E6/E7 immunotherapy was combined with anti-PD-1 antibody, we observed CD8(+) TILs at the same level but a reduction in tumor PD-L1 expression on tumor cells and reduced PD-1(+) TILs providing a mechanism by which combination therapy favors a tumor clearance state and a rationale for pairing antigen-specific vaccines with checkpoint inhibitors in future clinical trials.

  12. OPSATCOM Field Measurements. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    1-2 S2 FORMULATION OF TIlE EXPERIMENTAL MODEL ........ 2-i 3 EXPERIMENTAL METHODS AND APPARATUS ........... 3-I 3.1 Methods Utilized...lfactors for investigating the optical clharactcr ol’ the seab, For the earliest work, which dates back to 1885, only photographic methods were...I 2-3/2-4 blank I I SECTION 3 I EXPERIMENTAL METHODS AND APPARATUS 3.1 METHODS UTILIZED In general, the atmospheric radiance pattern of’ an underwater

  13. The plant Apolipoprotein D ortholog protects Arabidopsis against oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Charron, Jean-Benoit F; Ouellet, Francois; Houde, Mario; Sarhan, Fathey

    2008-01-01

    Background Lipocalins are a large and diverse family of small, mostly extracellular proteins implicated in many important functions. This family has been studied in bacteria, invertebrate and vertebrate animals but little is known about these proteins in plants. We recently reported the identification and molecular characterization of the first true lipocalins from plants, including the Apolipoprotein D ortholog AtTIL identified in the plant model Arabidopsis thaliana. This study aimed to determine its physiological role in planta. Results Our results demonstrate that the AtTIL lipocalin is involved in modulating tolerance to oxidative stress. AtTIL knock-out plants are very sensitive to sudden drops in temperature and paraquat treatment, and dark-grown plants die shortly after transfer to light. These plants accumulate a high level of hydrogen peroxide and other ROS, which causes an oxidative stress that is associated with a reduction in hypocotyl growth and sensitivity to light. Complementation of the knock-out plants with the AtTIL cDNA restores the normal phenotype. On the other hand, overexpression enhances tolerance to stress caused by freezing, paraquat and light. Moreover, this overexpression delays flowering and maintains leaf greenness. Microarray analyses identified several differentially-regulated genes encoding components of oxidative stress and energy balance. Conclusion This study provides the first functional evidence that a plant lipocalin is involved in modulating tolerance to oxidative stress. These findings are in agreement with recently published data showing that overexpression of ApoD enhances tolerance to oxidative stress and increases life span in mice and Drosophila. Together, the three papers strongly support a similar function of lipocalins in these evolutionary-distant species. PMID:18671872

  14. Mammary-tumor-educated B cells acquire LAP/TGF-β and PD-L1 expression and suppress anti-tumor immune responses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Morgan, Richard; Chen, Chuan; Cai, Yancheng; Clark, Emily; Khan, Wasif Noor; Shin, Seung-Uon; Cho, Hyun-Mi; Al Bayati, Ahmed; Pimentel, Augustin; Rosenblatt, Joseph D

    2016-09-01

    B lymphocytes play a role in inhibiting the immune response against certain tumors, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. EMT-6 mammary tumors grow well in wild-type (WT) mice but show reduced growth in B-cell-deficient μ(-/-) BALB/c mice (BCDM). WT mice demonstrate extensive B-cell infiltration into the tumor bed, reduced CD8(+) T cell and CD49(+) NK cell infiltration, and markedly reduced cytolytic T-cell response relative to BCDM. Expression of LAP/TGF-β1, CD80, CD86 and PD-L1 is significantly increased in tumor-infiltrating B cells (TIL-B) relative to splenic B cells. LAP/TGF-β1 expression on TIL-B progressively increased from 5.4±1.7% on day 8 to 43.1±6.1% by day 21 post tumor implantation. Co-culture of EMT-6 tumor cells with Naive-B cells ex vivo generated B cells (EMT6-B) with a similar immunophenotype to TIL-B. Purified TIL-B, or in-vitro-generated EMT6-B suppressed CD4(+), CD8(+) and CD4(+)CD25(-) T-cell proliferation, and Th1 cytokine secretion, and also suppressed purified NK-cell proliferation in response to IL-15, compared to naive splenic B cells. Acquired B regulatory function required direct tumor cell: B-cell contact, and was partially reversed by antibody to TGF-β or PD-L1, leading to tumor rejection in vivo B-cell acquisition of a suppressive phenotype following tumor infiltration may result in profound inhibition of T-cell anti-tumor responses. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, EMULSAMINE BK WOODY ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-13

    ... T ".., 11I1'Ih,l' ('I" tit' u'>f'd til a", I,""'f' 01 )"'d' lIt .. t fl'lp t">dSP vI d,' "It'",," Un!lI s,"a, Pdddlt"~ '" ,t1(olit>Cla l.j'l(l~"f'f;·"""dfit·Q'(·LJ·'~ 'It' li< .• , I .. ", ...

  16. A different representation of natural T cells and natural killer cells between tumor-infiltrating and periphery lymphocytes in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Feng; Dai, Dong; Song, Xiu-Yu; Liu, Jian-Jing; Zhu, Lei; Zhu, Xiang; Ma, Wenchao; Xu, Wengui

    2017-05-01

    Natural T cells [cluster of differentiation (CD) 3(+)CD56(+)] and natural killer (NK) cells (CD3(-)CD56(+)) are particularly abundant in the human liver and serve an important role in immune responses in the liver. The aim of the present study was to extensively determine the phenotypic and functional characteristics of natural T and NK cells in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Tumorous and non-tumorous tissue infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs and NILs, respectively) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were obtained to determine the frequency and phenotype of natural T/NK cells by a multicolor fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis. The abundance of natural T cells and NK cells was decreased in TILs vs. NILs (natural T cells, 6.315±1.002 vs. 17.16±1.804; NK cells, 6.324±1.559 vs. 14.52±2.336, respectively). However such results were not observed in PBMCs from HCC patients vs. that of healthy donors. Notably, a substantial fraction of the natural T cells (21.96±5.283) in TILs acquired forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) expression, and the FOXP3(+) natural T cells lost the expression of interferon-γ and perforin. Conversely, being similar to the conventional FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells, the FOXP3(+) natural T cells assumed a specific phenotype that was characteristic of CD25(+), CD45RO(+) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4(+). Consistent with the phenotypic conversion, the present functional results indicate that FOXP3 expression in natural T cells contributes to the acquisition of a potent immunosuppressive capability. In conclusion, the present study describes a different representation of natural T cells and NK cells in local tumor tissues and in the periphery blood of patients with HCC, and identified a new type of FOXP3-expressing natural T cell spontaneously arising in the TILs of HCC.

  17. Perceptual Factors in Workload: A Neuromagnetic Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-28

    0 417 NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION tIL OFFICE SYMBOL. 7. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION New York University (If pfic.aUo) Air Force Office of...Washington Place - New York, NY 10003 Boiling AFB, DC 20332-6448 b. NAME OP PUNOING/SPONSORING Gb. OFPICE SYMBOL B. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IOENTIPICATION...results with results obtained in a more conventional manner. A new method for obtaining graded levels of attention is described. A visual experi- (OVER 2C

  18. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, DETIAPHOS PELLETS, 03 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... Hld a nUI- i a (,~h noy'm.ll 0 l- I. <,ef: of til" i n,~ t ion) • ... wi :tl1-"LI 'tu I d"~~'atel", • 'lI'l: l oWll'd't 0 '-p', re····up·-o ... o!'! l~ in-e occa5 ions tl1f!-)' m.lY flash. ...

  19. Training and Familiarization with the Battle Command Sustainment Support System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-11

    Management Information Systems TCM Training and Doctrine Capabilities Manager TIL Tracked Items List TSC Theater Support Command UTO Unit Task...accurate real time commodity information. Unit Task Organization The Unit Task Organization ( UTO ) feature of the LRT ensures generated reports which...include data for specific units. Specifically the LRT facilitates the modification or creation of additional UTOs , a powerful capability in today‟s

  20. Targeting PD-1 and Tim-3 Pathways to Reverse CD8 T-Cell Exhaustion and Enhance Ex Vivo T-Cell Responses to Autologous Dendritic/Tumor Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingwei; Zhang, Shurong; Hu, Yuefeng; Yang, Zhaomin; Li, Jingpo; Liu, Xuesong; Deng, Lijuan; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Ting; Lu, Xu

    2016-05-01

    The paradoxical coexistence of spontaneous tumor antigen-specific immune response with progressive disease in cancer patients need to dissect the molecular pathways involved in tumor-induced T-cell dysfunction or exhaustion. Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) has been identified as a marker of exhausted T cells in chronic disease states, and blockade of PD-1-PD-L1 interactions has been shown to partially restore T-cell function. We have found that T-cell immunoglobulin mucin (Tim) 3 is expressed on CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) isolated from patients with colorectal cancer. All T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 3 (Tim-3+) TILs coexpress PD-1, and Tim-3+ PD-1+ CD8+ TILs represent the predominant fraction of Tcells infiltrating tumors. Tim-3+PD-1+ CD8+ TILs exhibit the most severe exhausted phenotype as defined by failure to produce cytokines, such as interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-2. We further find that combined targeting of the Tim-3 and PD-1 pathways increased the frequencies of not only interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α but also frequencies of proliferating tumor antigen-specific CD8+ T cells than targeting either pathway alone. A concomitant decrease in regulatory T cells and enhanced killing in a cytotoxicity assay was observed. Collectively, our findings support the use of Tim-3-Tim-3L blockade together with PD-1-PD-L1 blockade to reverse tumor-induced T-cell exhaustion/dysfunction in patients with colorectal cancer.

  1. Resonance Line Broadening of Alkali Metals in Pyrotechnic Flames

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-15

    atmosphere with the flare plume, thermochemical calculations were made with the admixture of air with the flare composition . Calculations were run in 10...as a function of depth in the flame for a typical sodium composition . , ’ II Page 17 TIlE FLARE FLAME MODEL Physic,. and Optical Bouncdaries To model...the combustion of a flare composition one must take into account several factors that are know.n to influence the flame both physically and

  2. Detection and Characterization of a Novel Subset of CD8+CD57+ T-cells in Metastatic Melanoma with an Incompletely-Differentiated Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Richard C.; Liu, Shujuan; Chacon, Jessica A.; Wu, Sheng; Li, Yufeng; Sukhumalchandra, Pariya; Murray, James L.; Molldrem, Jeffrey J.; Hwu, Patrick; Pircher, Hanspeter; Lizée, Gregory; Radvanyi, Laszlo G.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE Tumor-specific T-cells are frequently induced naturally in melanoma patients and infiltrate tumors. It is enigmatic why these patients fail to experience tumor regression. Given that CD8+ T cells mediate antigen-specific killing of tumor cells, the focus of this study was to identify alterations in the differentiation of CD8+ residing at the tumor site, with emphasis on a population expressing CD57, a marker for terminal differentiation. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN We performed flow cytometric analysis of CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) isolated from 44 resected melanoma metastases using known T-cell differentiation markers. For comparison, PBMC were isolated from matched melanoma patients. We sorted different CD8+ subsets found in TIL and determined their effector functions. In addition, we performed Vβ spectratyping of T-cell receptors to determine lineage relationship between the CD8+ TIL subsets. RESULTS The majority of CD8+ TIL were in the early effector-memory stage of differentiation. A significant population consisted of an oligoclonal subset of cells co-expressing early effector-memory markers and end-stage CTL marker, CD57, yet having low to absent perforin expression. These cells could be induced to proliferate, produce a high level of IFN-γ, and differentiate into CD27−CD57+, perforinhigh mature CTL in vitro. Addition of TGF-β1 prevented this further differentiation. CONCLUSIONS Our studies identified a novel subset of incompletely differentiated CD8+ CTL co-expressing early effector-memory and late CTL markers. This population resembles that found by in patients with uncontrolled chronic viral infections. TGF-β1, frequently produced by melanoma tumors, may be a key cytokine inhibiting the further maturation of this subset. PMID:22307139

  3. Design and Experimental Results for the S406 Airfoil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    Laminar Profiles for Gliders and Helicopters. TIL /T.4906, British Minist. Aviat., Mar. 1960. (Translated from Z. Flug- wissenschaften, Bd. 5, Heft 8...cl cd cm −4.054 −0.0428 0.009723 −0.06745 −3.035 .0541 .008415 −.06475 −2.526 .1029 .007843 −.06393 −2.273 .1161 .006670 −.06224 −2.019 . 1292 .005721

  4. Biochemical Changes in Tissues during Infectious Illness: Metabolic Consequences of Interactions between Infectious Illness and Forced Exercise.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    significance of carnosine in the infected tissues of rats and chicks .......... . . . 6 II. Uptake and metabolism of fructose during dietary loading of...SIGNIFICANCE OF CARNOSINE IN TIlE INFECTED TISSUES OF RATS AND CHICKS In a cooperative study with the Rutgers Nutrition Department, concentrations of...the imidazole-concaining compounds anserine, carnosine and free histidine were determined in the muscle tissue of male chicks inoculated with low and

  5. The Role of IgG Antibodies from Irradiated Cercaria-Immunized Rabbits in the Passive Transfer of Immunity to Schistosoma Mansoni-Infected Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    RABBITS IN TilE PASSIVE TRANSFER Of’ IMMUNITY TO SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI -INFECTI3D MICE BY Beverly L. Mangold and David A. Dean U.S. NAVAL MEDICAL RESEARCH...kilorads of gamma irradiation passively provided partial immunity against Schistosoma mansoni challenge in C57BI/6J mice. These mice exhibited...previously shown that par- compared with control rats. and naive rats re- tial immunity against Schistosoma mansoni in- ceiving serum from KLH-immunized

  6. Fusing MRI and Mechanical Imaging for Improved Prostate Cancer Diagnosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    find out if radiomic features extracted from CT images can identify patients with high and low TILs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0613 TITLE: Fusing MRI and Mechanical Imaging for Improved Prostate Cancer Diagnosis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fusing MRI and Mechanical Imaging for Improved Prostate Cancer Diagnosis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  7. Regulation of the Prostate Cancer Tumor Microenvironment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    infiltrating macrophage lineage in the absence of MyD88. We are in the process of understanding the activation of signaling pathways , local and...development, growth, and metastasis is unclear. We are interested in understanding the mechanisms for development of TILs and how they modulate prostate...chromatin component HMG-B1. Activation of these receptors leads to induction of multiple inflammatory pathways , including nuclear factor-kappa B (NF

  8. Analysis of the hippo transducers TAZ and YAP in cervical cancer and its microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Buglioni, Simonetta; Vici, Patrizia; Sergi, Domenico; Pizzuti, Laura; Di Lauro, Luigi; Antoniani, Barbara; Sperati, Francesca; Terrenato, Irene; Carosi, Mariantonia; Gamucci, Teresa; Vincenzoni, Cristina; Mariani, Luciano; Vizza, Enrico; Venuti, Aldo; Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Gadducci, Angiolo; Barba, Maddalena; Natoli, Clara; Vitale, Ilio; Mottolese, Marcella; De Maria, Ruggero; Maugeri-Saccà, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hippo is a tumor-suppressor pathway that negatively regulates the oncoproteins TAZ and YAP. Moreover, Hippo affects the biology of a variety of non-neoplastic cells in the tumor microenvironment, even including immune cells. We herein assessed the predictive role of TAZ and YAP, assessed by immunohistochemistry, in 50 cervical cancer patients prevalently treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Tumors were classified as positive or negative according to the percentage of tumor-expressing cells and cellular localization. TAZ/YAP were also evaluated in non-neoplastic cells, namely endothelial cells, non-lymphocytic stromal cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). TAZ expression in cancer cells (TAZpos) was associated with a reduced pathological complete response (pCR) rate (p = 0.041). Conversely, the expression of TAZ and YAP in TILs (TAZTIL+ and YAPTIL+) seemed to be associated with increased pCRs (p = 0.083 and p = 0.018, respectively). When testing the predictive significance of the concomitant expression of TAZ in cancer cells and its absence in TILs (TAZpos/TAZTIL-), patients with TAZpos/TAZTIL- showed lower pCR rate (p = 0.001), as confirmed in multivariate analysis (TAZpos/TAZTIL-: OR 8.67, 95% CI: 2.31–32.52, p = 0.001). Sensitivity analysis carried out in the 41 patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy yielded comparable results (TAZpos/TAZTIL-: OR 11.0, 95% CI: 2.42–49.91, p = 0.002). Internal validation carried out with two different procedures confirmed the robustness of this model. Overall, we found evidence on the association between TAZ expression in cervical cancer cells and reduced pCR rate. Conversely, the expression of the Hippo transducers in TILs may predict increased treatment efficacy, possibly mirroring the activation of a non-canonical Hippo/MST pathway necessary for T-cells activation and survival. PMID:27471633

  9. Multiple-Input Transfer Function Model of Heat Transfer from Square Slab Floors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    this study. Further work to develop a definition of the network parameters based on characteristic length could expand the use of the model to non...Validation 57 6 NETWORK PARAMETERS BASED ON CHARACTERISTIC LENGTH .... 78 7 UTILIZATION OF TIlE GTF MODEL FOR ENERGY ANALYSIS ....... 87 8 CONCLUSIONS...BASIC PROGRAM GTF 96 APPENDIX C: TRUBASIC PROGRAM QCALC 108 DISTRIBUTION vi LIST OF FIGURES Figure Number Page 1 7-Node Network Model

  10. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, , 03/23/1983

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... flor/eflll9 tn·fH., 1 dnd (>'."I'!'(J~f'L'''<' f(lund ~o be inf(,~t."d ,·:ith 1,(,,·t5 1i"t(·rj iii til" fr-ll',;Il'l t,Ll". lJi lute DIJRSEf,ti ~'):: Ii th I".! ((r dl'.wni Il'J to di fee. ...

  11. United States Air Force Statistical Digest 1948, Third Annual Edition, Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1948-12-31

    The attached material, described below, is forwarded for security and policy review in accordance with AFI 35-101, Chapter 15: TITLE: USAF Summaries...21 jail 2011 Office of the Secretary MEMORANDUM fOR AFIHO FROM: SAFIPA (Security and Policy Review) SUBJECT: Public Release Coordination (PAIRS...SAFJPA (Security and Policy Review) to objection _No objection, subject to recommendation DEV ALEE PRlDGEN-GA TIlSON Security Review Specialist

  12. An Analysis of Transmittances Measured through Battlefield Dust Clouds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    110 ’N I-000000000 ~~c 0 00 00 Best Available Copy .99 .99 Ř. U ""•i~ lt)Il*) • , -4 I * I 49 9,.99 ,*.t~*Il . .99. . , ,.,’, ., . . * ,t • , , ,j It...599,August 1978. 36.Ducan Lui D. "trtosheicWind Shear Coptdfrom Satellite Thermal SouderMeaureent,"ECOM .8800. September 1978. 37. Tayor F. P.MoanP

  13. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, , 09/27/1989

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... jlnJ;lir'~· urill" rsl Illhl ; til Hf I' J lsi I ~ I I iii 'I ij·1I II, 5 I~ I n'i'J 1 ~I .... III i. a I=: 1 f I 5 !,~I1I~: i J!~, thilil-} : i.llt 'irlll fh I J I . lfi.il j . ! ii,' In ! Ii) i D:lh . lu~UI ...

  14. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, MINTOL DETERGENT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-21

    ... 1(1' "u1t"I",~ IJtt1tt·". 11I0t ... •• 1I·,,'lOg hOfTIl-s. SCI'\\'OO\\~. 'UI"I V'Vtt'~~"'J 1,'f,··I\\ fll'll Ol"(!' In.hhlllflll' ~Itl'f" hO ... SJ"eep,n~ ~oi JI,n.\\; In'JIIIf.!t.lt'i.-l ...

  15. The prognostic value of systemic and local inflammation in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Wang, Shengzi; Song, Xinmao; Zeng, Wenjiao; Wang, Shuyi; Chen, Fu; Ding, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer-related systemic inflammation has been demonstrated to be associated with poor outcome in multiple types of cancers. Meanwhile, the local inflammation, which is characterized by dense intratumoral immune infiltrate, is a favorable predictor of survival outcome. Purpose To evaluate the role of systemic and local inflammation in predicting outcome in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Patients and methods In this retrospective study, 120 patients who had undergone postoperative radiotherapy were enrolled. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), as calculated from pretreatment whole blood counts, were used to indicate systemic inflammation. The optimal cutoff values of NLR and PLR were determined using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) density, as assessed by pathologist review of hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides, was used to represent local inflammation. Overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were assessed using the Kaplan–Meier method and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Results The best cutoff was 2.79 for NLR and 112 for PLR. Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed that high NLR, high PLR, and low TILs density were significantly correlated with inferior OS and RFS, respectively (all P<0.05). The Cox proportional multivariate hazard model showed that a high pretreatment PLR and a low TILs density were both independently correlated with poor OS and RFS, respectively (all P<0.05). Conclusion Markers of systemic and local inflammation, especially PLR and TILs density, are reliable prognostic factors in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:27920556

  16. A Literature Review - Problem Definition Studies on Selected Toxic Chemicals. Volume 4. Occupational Health and Safety Aspects of the Fog Oils SGF No. 1 and SGF No. 2 and Smoke Screens Generated from Them

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-04-01

    skin cancer epidemics, un- til, in the 1930’s, benzo(a)pyrene was extracted with sulfuric acid. More recent solvent refining techniques more or less...traumatized finger was numb at first, be- coming swollen and painful, with lymphangicis of the dorsal hand. Although the finger was incised for drainage ... bronchial tree, and the smallest droplets (under 5 p in diameter, alone succeed in penetrating to the alveoli. The largest droplets entering the alveoli

  17. Modular Machine Code Verification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    assembly level program verification is to design a type system for assembly language. Partly inspired by the Typed Intermediate Language (TIL) [57... designed to support direct verification of assembly programs with non-trivial 126 properties not expressible in traditional types. Besides the examples...provably sound tal for back-end opti- mization. In Proc. 2003 ACM Conference on Programming Language Design and Imple- mentation, pages 208–219. ACM

  18. Fully Reflexive Intensional Type Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Programming Language Design and Implementa- tion, pages 227–236. ACM Press, June 1993. [17] F. Pfenning and C. Paulin-Mohring. Inductively defined...compiler for Standard ML. In Proc. ACM SIGPLAN ’95 Conf. on Programming Language Design and Implementation, pages 116–129, New York, 1995. ACM Press...Lee. TIL: A type-directed optimizing compiler for ML. In Proc. ACM SIGPLAN ’96 Conf. on Programming Language Design and Imple- mentation, pages 181

  19. Sustainable Contingency Base Camp Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-17

    L , IJU;TAL 6:1 6>::’JI&O.’ID’ C unums - IVA’TU.Al.V.$ - -~ D Tli,Oil!’tJ Mi’(’(n ~p t::il A•ilt’UJI -~· G_jJ "’"n - AJO ?Solti’U.E - AtT""llq

  20. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, PLANTFUME 103 SMOKE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-21

    ... bl, moulh to mouU'I Gil ",!I:Iltll In,nhon 'F 01 SIll: Immed,.t,l ... I"'" Oil •• ,,, 11\\ • "(D1II.IlIf til Ih'l O~f p"l~n ~ ,u ... II .~ r'co",,,,IIl2r6 1~lt !'\\I ,t"!';.IO" 01 11'1, "OIlS. ...

  1. Physiochemical/Rheological Control of Nonmetallic Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    Temperature Tge Temperature at Gel T Glass Transition Temperature rl Viscosity t gel Time to Gel G’ Storage Modulus G" Loss Modulus til Enthalpy...standards were obtained and the amounts of the volatiles were determined by gas chromotography . Where applicable, the thermal and rheological properties...aluminum powder and the fillers. The filtrate , which contained th two epoxies and DICY, cured without any foaming. Attempts to separate the exact blowing

  2. US EPA, Pesticides, Label, GARRATT CALLAHAN FORMULA ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-13

    ... I' • •• ;11 ., Ii I fit li a II fO ~ ,I ~ ~I B i i IJ ~!I 1 Ii 1 ~I I .. 10 I dl ·f~1 Itf • i 11'1 11 !III Ii jl iw ,~ I llfl ,II (8 1ft 111151 I if J fits !,. til- fIJI) I II .. 3 I .. 3 'It I ... .. ...

  3. Fast Detection of Ciprofloxacin Resistance, Part I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    methicilline resistente Staphylococcus aureus, die tevens resistent waren tegen een reeks andere antibiotica ) geanalyseerd met een commerciele kit voor...45 2280 AA Rijswijk TNO report TNO-DV2 2005 A165 vwWtno til Fast detection ofei~profloxacin resistance , part I T +31 15 284 30 00 F +31 15 284 39 91...marcescens. Om de methode ook op een Gram-positieve bacterie te kunnen toepassen werd een niet- virulente stain van Bacillus anthracis . . resistent

  4. Lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio is associated with prognosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: correlation with CD163 positive M2 type tumor-associated macrophages, not PD-1 positive tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingxuan; Gao, Kun; Lei, Wanting; Dong, Lina; Xuan, Qijia; Feng, Meiyan; Wang, Jinlu; Ye, Xiangnan; Jin, Tuan; Zhang, Zhongbai; Zhang, Qingyuan

    2017-01-17

    The research aims to examine the prognostic value of the lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), neutrophil-to- lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The relation of these hematologic indicators to poor antitumor immunity and prognosis must be investigated. Clinicopathologic data and survival information of 355 patients with DLBCL was retrospectively analyzed. Univariate analysis revealed that lower LMR (<2.71), higher NLR (≥2.81), CD163+ M2 tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) content ≥9.5% and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) content < 4.5 cells per high power field(HPF) were significantly related to unfavorable overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS). When considering the prognostic indexes of IPI, multivariate analysis confirmed that LMR of <2.71 and CD163+ M2 TAM content ≥9.5% significantly affected the prognosis of DLBCL. Spearman correlation test showed LMR was negatively correlated with CD163+ M2 TAM content. However, there were no correlation was found between LMR and PD-1+ TIL as well as between NLR and PD-1+ TIL content. These results indicated that decreased LMR lead to a weak anti-tumor immunity and could be used as a bad prognosis biomarker of DLBCL.

  5. Lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio is associated with prognosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: correlation with CD163 positive M2 type tumor-associated macrophages, not PD-1 positive tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingxuan; Gao, Kun; Lei, Wanting; Dong, Lina; Xuan, Qijia; Feng, Meiyan; Wang, Jinlu; Ye, Xiangnan; Jin, Tuan; Zhang, Zhongbai; Zhang, Qingyuan

    2017-01-01

    The research aims to examine the prognostic value of the lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), neutrophil-to- lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The relation of these hematologic indicators to poor antitumor immunity and prognosis must be investigated. Clinicopathologic data and survival information of 355 patients with DLBCL was retrospectively analyzed. Univariate analysis revealed that lower LMR (<2.71), higher NLR (≥2.81), CD163+ M2 tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) content ≥9.5% and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) content < 4.5 cells per high power field(HPF) were significantly related to unfavorable overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS). When considering the prognostic indexes of IPI, multivariate analysis confirmed that LMR of <2.71 and CD163+ M2 TAM content ≥9.5% significantly affected the prognosis of DLBCL. Spearman correlation test showed LMR was negatively correlated with CD163+ M2 TAM content. However, there were no correlation was found between LMR and PD-1+ TIL as well as between NLR and PD-1+ TIL content. These results indicated that decreased LMR lead to a weak anti-tumor immunity and could be used as a bad prognosis biomarker of DLBCL. PMID:28036275

  6. High incidence of interleukin 10 mRNA but not interleukin 2 mRNA detected in human breast tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Venetsanakos, E.; Beckman, I.; Bradley, J.; Skinner, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    Despite the presence of a lymphocytic infiltrate in solid cancers, the failure for tumour growth to be contained suggests an inadequate immune response to the tumour. Poor cytotoxicity exerted by tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) against tumour cells in vitro, combined with continued tumour growth in vivo, suggests deficiencies in TIL function or numbers. Various theories have been postulated to explain how tumour cells may escape immunosurveillance and control. One of the many hypotheses is the failure of production of cytokines, which are necessary for T cells to mediate their function. Thus, the expression of cytokine mRNA in human breast tumour sections was investigated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with cytokine-specific primers. A relatively consistent finding was detection of interleukin (IL) 10 mRNA among the tumours. No IL-2 and little IL-4 mRNA was detected in the tumours. IL-6 and IL-10 mRNA was detected in only one and two of the normal breast tissues respectively. IL-2, IL-4 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha mRNA was not detected in any of the normal breast tissues. The reduced function of TILs may be related to IL-10, which has known inhibitory effects on T-cell activation. Images Figure 1 PMID:9192989

  7. Transport Mechanism of Nicotine in Primary Cultured Alveolar Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Takano, Mikihisa; Nagahiro, Machi; Yumoto, Ryoko

    2016-02-01

    Nicotine is absorbed from the lungs into the systemic circulation during cigarette smoking. However, there is little information concerning the transport mechanism of nicotine in alveolar epithelial cells. In this study, we characterized the uptake of nicotine in rat primary cultured type II (TII) and transdifferentiated type I-like (TIL) epithelial cells. In both TIL and TII cells, [(3)H]nicotine uptake was time and temperature-dependent, and showed saturation kinetics. [(3)H]Nicotine uptake in these cells was not affected by Na(+), but was sensitive to extracellular and intracellular pH, suggesting the involvement of a nicotine/proton antiport system. The uptake of [(3)H]nicotine in these cells was potently inhibited by organic cations such as clonidine, diphenhydramine, and pyrilamine, but was not affected by substrates and/or inhibitors of known organic cation transporters such as carnitine, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, and tetraethylammonium. In addition, the uptake of [(3)H]nicotine in TIL cells was stimulated by preloading the cells with unlabeled nicotine, pyrilamine, and diphenhydramine, but not with tetraethylammonium. These results suggest that a novel proton-coupled antiporter is involved in the uptake of nicotine in alveolar epithelial cells and its absorption from the lungs into the systemic circulation.

  8. Feature-based registration of historical aerial images by Area Minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarajan, Sudhagar; Schenk, Toni

    2016-06-01

    The registration of historical images plays a significant role in assessing changes in land topography over time. By comparing historical aerial images with recent data, geometric changes that have taken place over the years can be quantified. However, the lack of ground control information and precise camera parameters has limited scientists' ability to reliably incorporate historical images into change detection studies. Other limitations include the methods of determining identical points between recent and historical images, which has proven to be a cumbersome task due to continuous land cover changes. Our research demonstrates a method of registering historical images using Time Invariant Line (TIL) features. TIL features are different representations of the same line features in multi-temporal data without explicit point-to-point or straight line-to-straight line correspondence. We successfully determined the exterior orientation of historical images by minimizing the area formed between corresponding TIL features in recent and historical images. We then tested the feasibility of the approach with synthetic and real data and analyzed the results. Based on our analysis, this method shows promise for long-term 3D change detection studies.

  9. Lymphocyte imprinting with melanoma antigens acquired by trogocytosis facilitates identification of tumor-reactive T cells

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Galit; Uzana, Ronny; Pato, Aviad; Frankenburg, Shoshana; Merims, Sharon; Yefenof, Eitan; Ferrone, Soldano; Peretz, Tamar; Machlenkin, Arthur; Lotem, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Trogocytosis is a contact-dependent inter-cellular transfer of membrane fragments and associated molecules from antigen presenting cells to effector lymphocytes. We previously demonstrated that trogocytosis also occurs between tumor target and cognate melanoma antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTL). Here we show that, following trogocytosis, immune effector cells acquire molecular components of the tumor, including surface antigens, which are detectable by specific monoclonal antibodies. We demonstrate that CD8+ and CD4+ T cells from melanoma patients’ PBMC and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) capture melanoma antigens, enabling identification of trogocytosing lymphocytes by staining with antigen-specific antibodies. This finding circumvents the necessity of tumor pre-labeling, which in the past was mandatory to detect membrane-capturing T cells. Through the detection of melanoma antigens on TIL, we sorted trogocytosing T cells and verified their preferential reactivity and cytotoxicity. Furthermore, tumor-antigen imprinted T cells were detected at low frequency in fresh TIL cultures shortly after extraction from the tumor. Thus, T cell imprinting by tumor antigens may allow the enrichment of melanoma antigen-specific T cells for research and potentially even for the adoptive immunotherapy of patients with cancer. PMID:23626012

  10. Kupffer cells of cirrhotic rat livers sensitize colon cancer cells to Fas-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Song, E; Chen, J; Ouyang, N; Wang, M; Exton, M S; Heemann, U

    2001-05-04

    Metastasis of colorectal carcinomas rarely occurs in cirrhotic livers. Our study investigated the influence of activated Kupffer cells from cirrhotic rat livers on hepatic colonization and FasR-mediated apoptosis of colon cancer cells. A rat colon cancer cell line, RCN-9, was used to inoculate rat livers. Treatment with conditioned media of Kupffer cells isolated from CCl(4)-induced cirrhotic rat livers (cirrhotic KCM) significantly reduced the incidence of hepatic colonization of RCN-9 cells. In vitro cytotoxicity of Kupffer cells and tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) on RCN-9 cells was evaluated using [(3)H]-release assay. RCN-9 cells were resistant to cytotoxicity mediated by cirrhotic Kupffer cells, but were sensitized to TIL-mediated killing after treatment with cirrhotic KCM. The specific killing induced by TILs was FasR-mediated, as it was inhibited by ZB4, an antagonistic anti-FasR antibody. In agreement, cirrhotic KCM increased recombinant Fas ligand-induced apoptosis of RCN-9 cells, and up-regulated FasR expression on RCN-9 cells as evaluated by RT-PCR and flow cytometry. These findings suggest that Kupffer cells in cirrhotic livers sensitize metastatic colon cancer cells to FasR-mediated apoptosis by up-regulating the receptors, which thus prepare them to be eliminated by infiltrating lymphocytes.

  11. Tumor infiltrating lymphocyte therapy for ovarian cancer and renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Rikke; Donia, Marco; Westergaard, Marie Christine Wulff; Pedersen, Magnus; Hansen, Morten; Svane, Inge Marie

    2015-01-01

    Personalized cancer immunotherapy based on infusion of T cells holds the promise to specifically target a patient’s individual tumor. Accumulating evidence indicates that the T cells mediating these tumor regressions after cancer immunotherapies may primarily target patient-specific mutations expressed by the patients’ tumors and that the presence of these “neo-antigen” specific T-cells may be related to a high number of mutations in the tumor. In melanoma, treatment with autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) can mediate durable complete responses. Previous trials investigating TIL therapy in solid tumors other than melanoma have shown limited success, however none of these early trials used current preparative chemotherapy regimens, and the methods for in vitro lymphocyte expansion have changed considerably. New advances and understandings in T cell based immunotherapies have stimulated the interest in developing this approach for other indications. Here, we summarize the early clinical data in the field of adoptive cell transfer therapy (ACT) using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes for patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and ovarian cancer (OC). In addition we describe the major advances in the characterization and application of TIL therapy for patients with RCC and OC. PMID:26308285

  12. Diversity and divergence of the glioma-infiltrating T-cell receptor repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Jennifer S.; Grinshpun, Boris; Feng, Yaping; Ung, Timothy H.; Neira, Justin A.; Samanamud, Jorge L.; Canoll, Peter; Shen, Yufeng; Sims, Peter A.; Bruce, Jeffrey N.

    2016-01-01

    Although immune signaling has emerged as a defining feature of the glioma microenvironment, how the underlying structure of the glioma-infiltrating T-cell population differs from that of the blood from which it originates has been difficult to measure directly in patients. High-throughput sequencing of T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoires (TCRseq) provides a population-wide statistical description of how T cells respond to disease. We have defined immunophenotypes of whole repertoires based on TCRseq of the α- and β-chains from glioma tissue, nonneoplastic brain tissue, and peripheral blood from patients. Using information theory, we partitioned the diversity of these TCR repertoires into that from the distribution of VJ cassette combinations and diversity due to VJ-independent factors, such as selection due to antigen binding. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) possessed higher VJ-independent diversity than nonneoplastic tissue, stratifying patients according to tumor grade. We found that the VJ-independent components of tumor-associated repertoires diverge more from their corresponding peripheral repertoires than T-cell populations in nonneoplastic brain tissue, particularly for low-grade gliomas. Finally, we identified a “signature” set of TCRs whose use in peripheral blood is associated with patients exhibiting low TIL divergence and is depleted in patients with highly divergent TIL repertoires. This signature is detectable in peripheral blood, and therefore accessible noninvasively. We anticipate that these immunophenotypes will be foundational to monitoring and predicting response to antiglioma vaccines and immunotherapy. PMID:27261081

  13. PD-L1 expression on immune cells, but not on tumor cells, is a favorable prognostic factor for head and neck cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Ryun; Ha, Sang-Jun; Hong, Min Hee; Heo, Su Jin; Koh, Yoon Woo; Choi, Eun Chang; Kim, Eun Kyung; Pyo, Kyoung Ho; Jung, Inkyung; Seo, Daekwan; Choi, Jaewoo; Cho, Byoung Chul; Yoon, Sun Och

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and immune checkpoints and their prognostic value for resected head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). PD-L1 expression on tumor cells (TC) and tumor-infiltrating immune cells (IC), abundance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), and expression of the immune checkpoints were investigated in 402 HNSCC patients. PD-L1 expression on TC and IC was categorized into four groups according to the percentage of PD-L1-positive cells. PD-L1 positivity was defined as ≥5% of cells based on immunohistochemistry. High PD-L1 expression on IC, but not TC, was an independent favorable prognostic factor for RFS and OS adjusted for age, gender, smoking, stage, and HPV. High frequencies of CD3+ or CD8+ TILs, Foxp3+ Tregs, and PD-1+ TILs were strongly associated with favorable prognosis. PD-L1 was exclusively expressed on either TC or IC. Transcriptome analysis demonstrated that IC3 expressed higher levels of the effector T cell markers than TC3, suggesting that PD-L1 expression is regulated via an adaptive IFNγ-mediated mechanism. High PD-L1 expression on IC, but not TC, and high abundance of PD-1+ T cells and Foxp3+ Tregs are favorable prognostic factors for resected HNSCC. This study highlights the importance of comprehensive assessment of both TC and IC. PMID:27841362

  14. Strategies for clinical implementation of TNM-Immunoscore in resected nonsmall-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Donnem, T; Kilvaer, T K; Andersen, S; Richardsen, E; Paulsen, E E; Hald, S M; Al-Saad, S; Brustugun, O T; Helland, A; Lund-Iversen, M; Solberg, S; Gronberg, B H; Wahl, S G F; Helgeland, L; Fløtten, O; Pohl, M; Al-Shibli, K; Sandanger, T M; Pezzella, F; Busund, L T; Bremnes, R M

    2016-02-01

    Immunoscore is a prognostic tool defined to quantify in situ immune cell infiltrates and appears highly promising as a supplement to the tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification of various tumors. In colorectal cancer, an international task force has initiated prospective multicenter studies aiming to implement TNM-Immunoscore (TNM-I) in a routine clinical setting. In breast cancer, recommendations for the evaluation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have been proposed by an international working group. Regardless of promising results, there are potential obstacles related to implementing TNM-I into the clinic. Diverse methods may be needed for different malignancies and even within each cancer entity. Nevertheless, a uniform approach across malignancies would be advantageous. In nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), there are several previous reports indicating an apparent prognostic importance of TILs, but studies on TILs in a TNM-I setting are sparse and no general recommendations are made. However, recently published data is promising, evoking a realistic hope of a clinical useful NSCLC TNM-I. This review will focus on the TNM-I potential in NSCLC and propose strategies for clinical implementation of a TNM-I in resected NSCLC. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Very Late Antigen-1 Marks Functional Tumor-Resident CD8 T Cells and Correlates with Survival of Melanoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Timothy; Fuertes Marraco, Silvia A.; Baumgaertner, Petra; Bordry, Natacha; Cagnon, Laurène; Donda, Alena; Romero, Pedro; Verdeil, Grégory; Speiser, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    A major limiting factor in the success of immunotherapy is tumor infiltration by CD8+ T cells, a process that remains poorly understood. In the present study, we characterized homing receptors expressed by human melanoma-specific CD8+ T cells. Our data reveal that P-selectin binding and expression of the retention integrin, very late antigen (VLA)-1, by vaccine-induced T cells correlate with longer patient survival. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CD8+VLA-1+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are highly enriched in melanoma metastases in diverse tissues. VLA-1-expressing TIL frequently co-express CD69 and CD103, indicating tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM) differentiation. We employed a mouse model of melanoma to further characterize VLA-1-expressing TIL. Our data show that VLA-1+ TRM develop in murine tumors within 2 weeks, where they exhibit increased activation status, as well as superior effector functions. In addition, in vivo blockade of either VLA-1 or CD103 significantly impaired control of subcutaneous tumors. Together, our data indicate that VLA-1+ TRM develop in tumors and play an important role in tumor immunity, presenting novel targets for the optimization of cancer immunotherapy. PMID:28018343

  16. Immune-mediated antitumor effect by type 2 diabetes drug, metformin

    PubMed Central

    Eikawa, Shingo; Nishida, Mikako; Mizukami, Shusaku; Yamazaki, Chihiro; Nakayama, Eiichi; Udono, Heiichiro

    2015-01-01

    Metformin, a prescribed drug for type 2 diabetes, has been reported to have anti-cancer effects; however, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here we show that this mechanism may be immune-mediated. Metformin enabled normal but not T-cell–deficient SCID mice to reject solid tumors. In addition, it increased the number of CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and protected them from apoptosis and exhaustion characterized by decreased production of IL-2, TNFα, and IFNγ. CD8+ TILs capable of producing multiple cytokines were mainly PD-1−Tim-3+, an effector memory subset responsible for tumor rejection. Combined use of metformin and cancer vaccine improved CD8+ TIL multifunctionality. The adoptive transfer of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells treated with metformin concentrations as low as 10 μM showed efficient migration into tumors while maintaining multifunctionality in a manner sensitive to the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor compound C. Therefore, a direct effect of metformin on CD8+ T cells is critical for protection against the inevitable functional exhaustion in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:25624476

  17. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are dynamically desensitized to antigen but are maintained by homeostatic cytokine

    PubMed Central

    Boldajipour, Bijan; Nelson, Amanda; Krummel, Matthew F.

    2016-01-01

    T cells that enter tumors are largely tolerized, but how that process is choreographed and how the ensuing “dysfunctional” tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are maintained are poorly understood and are difficult to assess in spontaneous disease. We exploited an autochthonous model of breast cancer for high-resolution imaging of the early and later stages of tumor residence to understand the relationships between cellular behaviors and cellular phenotypes. “Dysfunctional” differentiation began within the first days of tumor residence with an initial phase in which T cells arrest, largely on tumor-associated macrophages. Within 10 days, cellular motility increased and resembled a random walk, suggesting a relative absence of TCR signaling. We then studied the concurrent and apparently contradictory phenomenon that many of these cells express molecular markers of activation and were visualized undergoing active cell division. We found that whereas proliferation did not require ongoing TCR/ZAP70 signaling, instead this is driven in part by intratumoral IL-15 cytokine. Thus, TILs undergo sequential reprogramming by the tumor microenvironment and are actively retained, even while being antigen insensitive. We conclude that this program effectively fills the niche with ineffective yet cytokine-dependent TILs, and we propose that these might compete with new clones, when they arise. PMID:27942588

  18. CD74 and intratumoral immune response in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Milne, Katy; Webb, John R; Watson, Peter H

    2016-04-06

    CD74 (invariant chain) plays a role in MHC class II antigen presentation. We assessed CD74 and MHCII expression in tumor cells, as well as CD8, CD4, and CD68 tumor infiltrating leucocyte (TIL) density by immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 492 breast cancer patients. CD74 expression was associated with poor prognostic markers including patient age, tumor grade, ER status, non-Luminal A subtypes, and with MHCII expression and higher TIL densities, particularly in the Basal-like subgroup. Univariate analysis showed a favorable prognostic effect of CD74 (Hazard ratio = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.26-0.89, p = 0.022) and for combined CD74/MHCII (Hazard ratio = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.17-0.81, p = 0.014) positive status for overall survival that was only manifested in the Basal-like subgroup. CD74 and MHCII expression is associated with patient survival in Basal-like breast cancer, and the association with TIL may reflect an effective intratumoral immune response.

  19. Identification of genes and pathways associated with cytotoxic T lymphocyte infiltration of serous ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Leffers, N; Fehrmann, R S N; Gooden, M J M; Schulze, U R J; ten Hoor, K A; Hollema, H; Boezen, H M; Daemen, T; de Jong, S; Nijman, H W; van der Zee, A G J

    2010-01-01

    Background: Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are predictors of disease-specific survival (DSS) in ovarian cancer. It is largely unknown what factors contribute to lymphocyte recruitment. Our aim was to evaluate genes and pathways contributing to infiltration of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in advanced-stage serous ovarian cancer. Methods: For this study global gene expression was compared between low TIL (n=25) and high TIL tumours (n=24). The differences in gene expression were evaluated using parametric T-testing. Selectively enriched biological pathways were identified with gene set enrichment analysis. Prognostic influence was validated in 157 late-stage serous ovarian cancer patients. Using immunohistochemistry, association of selected genes from identified pathways with CTL was validated. Results: The presence of CTL was associated with 320 genes and 23 pathways (P<0.05). In addition, 54 genes and 8 pathways were also associated with DSS in our validation cohort. Immunohistochemical evaluation showed strong correlations between MHC class I and II membrane expression, parts of the antigen processing and presentation pathway, and CTL recruitment. Conclusion: Gene expression profiling and pathway analyses are valuable tools to obtain more understanding of tumour characteristics influencing lymphocyte recruitment in advanced-stage serous ovarian cancer. Identified genes and pathways need to be further investigated for suitability as therapeutic targets. PMID:20664601

  20. Quantification of image quality using information theory.

    PubMed

    Niimi, Takanaga; Maeda, Hisatoshi; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Imai, Kuniharu

    2011-12-01

    Aims of present study were to examine usefulness of information theory in visual assessment of image quality. We applied first order approximation of the Shannon's information theory to compute information losses (IL). Images of a contrast-detail mammography (CDMAM) phantom were acquired with computed radiographies for various radiation doses. Information content was defined as the entropy Σp( i )log(1/p ( i )), in which detection probabilities p ( i ) were calculated from distribution of detection rate of the CDMAM. IL was defined as the difference between information content and information obtained. IL decreased with increases in the disk diameters (P < 0.0001, ANOVA) and in the radiation doses (P < 0.002, F-test). Sums of IL, which we call total information losses (TIL), were closely correlated with the image quality figures (r = 0.985). TIL was dependent on the distribution of image reading ability of each examinee, even when average reading ratio was the same in the group. TIL was shown to be sensitive to the observers' distribution of image readings and was expected to improve the evaluation of image quality.

  1. Effects of Short-Term Thermal Alteration on Organic Matter in Experimentally-Heated Tagish Lake Observed by Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Nakato, A.; Zolensky, M. E.; Nakamura, T.; Kebukawa, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites exhibit a wide range of aqueous and thermal alteration characteristics. Examples of the thermally metamorphosed carbonaceous chondrites (TMCCs) include the C2-ung/CM2TIVs Belgica (B)-7904 and Yamato (Y) 86720. The alteration extent is the most complete in these meteorites and thus they are considered typical end-members of TMCCs exhibiting complete dehydration of matrix phyllosilicates [1, 2]. The estimated heating conditions are 10 to 10(sup 3) days at 700 C to 1 to 100 hours at 890 C, i.e. short-term heating induced by impact and/or solar radiation [3]. The chemical and bulk oxygen isotopic compositions of the matrix of the carbonate (CO3)-poor lithology of the Tagish Lake (hereafter Tag) meteorite bears similarities to these TMCCs [4]. We investigated the experimentally-heated Tag with the use of Raman spectroscopy to understand how short-term heating affects the maturity of insoluble organic matter (IOM) in aqueously altered meteorites.

  2. Correlated Mutation in the Evolution of Catalysis in Uracil DNA Glycosylase Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Bo; Liu, Yinling; Guevara, Jose; Li, Jing; Jilich, Celeste; Yang, Ye; Wang, Liangjiang; Dominy, Brian N.; Cao, Weiguo

    2017-01-01

    Enzymes in Uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) superfamily are essential for the removal of uracil. Family 4 UDGa is a robust uracil DNA glycosylase that only acts on double-stranded and single-stranded uracil-containing DNA. Based on mutational, kinetic and modeling analyses, a catalytic mechanism involving leaving group stabilization by H155 in motif 2 and water coordination by N89 in motif 3 is proposed. Mutual Information analysis identifies a complexed correlated mutation network including a strong correlation in the EG doublet in motif 1 of family 4 UDGa and in the QD doublet in motif 1 of family 1 UNG. Conversion of EG doublet in family 4 Thermus thermophilus UDGa to QD doublet increases the catalytic efficiency by over one hundred-fold and seventeen-fold over the E41Q and G42D single mutation, respectively, rectifying the strong correlation in the doublet. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the correlated mutations in the doublet in motif 1 position the catalytic H155 in motif 2 to stabilize the leaving uracilate anion. The integrated approach has important implications in studying enzyme evolution and protein structure and function. PMID:28397787

  3. A multiplex assay based on encoded microbeads conjugated to DNA NanoBeacons to monitor base excision repair activities by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Gines, Guillaume; Saint-Pierre, Christine; Gasparutto, Didier

    2014-08-15

    We reported here a new assay to detect base excision repair activities from purified enzymes, as well as in cell-free extracts. The multiplex format rests upon the encoding of magnetic beads with the fluorophore Alexa 488, thanks to a fast and original procedure. Fluorescently encoded microbeads are subsequently functionalized by lesion-containing DNA NanoBeacons labeled with the fluorophore/quencher pair Cyanine 5/BHQ2. Probes cleavage, induced by targeted enzymes leads to Cyanine 5 signal enhancement, which is finally quantified by flow cytometry. The multiplex assay was applied to the detection of restriction enzymes activities as well as base excision repair processes. Each test requires only 500fmol of DNA substrate, which constitutes great sensitivity compared to other BER functional assays. The present biosensor is able to detect both uracil DNA N-glycosylase (UNG) and AP-endonuclease 1 (APE1) within few nanograms of nuclear extract. Additionally, we demonstrated that the corresponding assay has potential application in DNA repair inhibitor search. Finally, the current multiplexed tool shows several advantages in comparison to other functional BER assays with no need of electrophoretic separation, straightforward, easy and reproducible functionalization of encoded microbeads and a high stability of DNA probes in cell-free extracts.

  4. Replication fork collapse is a major cause of the high mutation frequency at three-base lesion clusters

    PubMed Central

    Sedletska, Yuliya; Radicella, J. Pablo; Sage, Evelyne

    2013-01-01

    Unresolved repair of clustered DNA lesions can lead to the formation of deleterious double strand breaks (DSB) or to mutation induction. Here, we investigated the outcome of clusters composed of base lesions for which base excision repair enzymes have different kinetics of excision/incision. We designed multiply damaged sites (MDS) composed of a rapidly excised uracil (U) and two oxidized bases, 5-hydroxyuracil (hU) and 8-oxoguanine (oG), excised more slowly. Plasmids harboring these U-oG/hU MDS-carrying duplexes were introduced into Escherichia coli cells either wild type or deficient for DNA n-glycosylases. Induction of DSB was estimated from plasmid survival and mutagenesis determined by sequencing of surviving clones. We show that a large majority of MDS is converted to DSB, whereas almost all surviving clones are mutated at hU. We demonstrate that mutagenesis at hU is correlated with excision of the U placed on the opposite strand. We propose that excision of U by Ung initiates the loss of U-oG-carrying strand, resulting in enhanced mutagenesis at the lesion present on the opposite strand. Our results highlight the importance of the kinetics of excision by base excision repair DNA n-glycosylases in the processing and fate of MDS and provide evidence for the role of strand loss/replication fork collapse during the processing of MDS on their mutational consequences. PMID:23945941

  5. Contribution of religiousness in the prediction and interpretation of mystical experiences in a sensory deprivation context: activation of religious schemas.

    PubMed

    Granqvist, Pehr; Larsson, Marcus

    2006-07-01

    M. A. Persinger (2002) claimed that transcranial magnetic stimulation with weak, complex magnetic fields evokes mystical experiences. However, in a double-blind experiment, P. Granqvist, M. Fredrikson, P. Unge, A. Hagenfeldt, S. Valind., et al. (2005) found no effects of field exposure on mystical experiences (N = 89), though a minority of participants reported spontaneous mystical experiences. Following the conclusion of null effects from magnetic field exposure, the setup of this experiment, including pre-experimental assessments of religiousness and sensory deprivation, can be viewed as a prime/setting for such experiences. The authors analyzed subsets of experimental data from P. Granqvist and colleagues with emphasis on the contribution of religiousness in the prediction and interpretation of mystical experiences. They found that a higher degree of religiousness predicted a higher occurrence of mystical experiences with a religious quality, but not of mystical experiences without such a quality. The authors discuss findings in terms of the experimental setup serving as a prime/setting activating the religious schemas of religious participants.

  6. Application of the Firefly and Luus-Jaakola algorithms in the calculation of a double reactive azeotrope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes Platt, Gustavo; Pinheiro Domingos, Roberto; Oliveira de Andrade, Matheus

    2014-01-01

    The calculation of reactive azeotropes is an important task in the preliminary design and simulation of reactive distillation columns. Classically, homogeneous nonreactive azeotropes are vapor-liquid coexistence conditions where phase compositions are equal. For homogeneous reactive azeotropes, simultaneous phase and chemical equilibria occur concomitantly with equality of compositions (in the Ung-Doherty transformed space). The modeling of reactive azeotrope calculation is represented by a nonlinear algebraic system with phase equilibrium, chemical equilibrium and azeotropy equations. This nonlinear system can exhibit more than one solution, corresponding to a double reactive azeotrope. In a previous paper (Platt et al 2013 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 410 012020), we investigated some numerical aspects of the calculation of reactive azeotropes in the isobutene + methanol + methyl-tert-butyl-ether (with two reactive azeotropes) system using two metaheuristics: the Luus-Jaakola adaptive random search and the Firefly algorithm. Here, we use a hybrid structure (stochastic + deterministic) in order to produce accurate results for both azeotropes. After identifying the neighborhood of the reactive azeotrope, the nonlinear algebraic system is solved using Newton's method. The results indicate that using metaheuristics and some techniques devoted to the calculation of multiple minima allows both azeotropic coordinates in this reactive system to be obtains. In this sense, we provide a comprehensive analysis of a useful framework devoted to solving nonlinear systems, particularly in phase equilibrium problems.

  7. DNA base excision repair of uracil residues in reconstituted nucleosome core particles

    PubMed Central

    Nilsen, Hilde; Lindahl, Tomas; Verreault, Alain

    2002-01-01

    The human base excision repair machinery must locate and repair DNA base damage present in chromatin, of which the nucleosome core particle is the basic repeating unit. Here, we have utilized fragments of the Lytechinus variegatus 5S rRNA gene containing site-specific U:A base pairs to investigate the base excision repair pathway in reconstituted nucleosome core particles in vitro. The human uracil-DNA glycosylases, UNG2 and SMUG1, were able to remove uracil from nucleosomes. Efficiency of uracil excision from nucleosomes was reduced 3- to 9-fold when compared with naked DNA, and was essentially uniform along the length of the DNA substrate irrespective of rotational position on the core particle. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the excision repair pathway of an abasic site can be reconstituted on core particles using the known repair enzymes, AP-endonuclease 1, DNA polymerase β and DNA ligase III. Thus, base excision repair can proceed in nucleosome core particles in vitro, but the repair efficiency is limited by the reduced activity of the uracil-DNA glycosylases and DNA polymerase β on nucleosome cores. PMID:12411511

  8. DNA Damage Responses Are Induced by tRNA Anticodon Nucleases and Hygromycin B.

    PubMed

    Wemhoff, Sabrina; Klassen, Roland; Beetz, Anja; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies revealed DNA damage to occur during the toxic action of PaT, a fungal anticodon ribonuclease (ACNase) targeting the translation machinery via tRNA cleavage. Here, we demonstrate that other translational stressors induce DNA damage-like responses in yeast as well: not only zymocin, another ACNase from the dairy yeast Kluyveromyces lactis, but also translational antibiotics, most pronouncedly hygromycin B (HygB). Specifically, DNA repair mechanisms BER (base excision repair), HR (homologous recombination) and PRR (post replication repair) provided protection, whereas NHEJ (non-homologous end-joining) aggravated toxicity of all translational inhibitors. Analysis of specific BER mutants disclosed a strong HygB, zymocin and PaT protective effect of the endonucleases acting on apurinic sites. In cells defective in AP endonucleases, inactivation of the DNA glycosylase Ung1 increased tolerance to ACNases and HygB. In addition, Mag1 specifically contributes to the repair of DNA lesions caused by HygB. Consistent with DNA damage provoked by translation inhibitors, mutation frequencies were elevated upon exposure to both fungal ACNases and HygB. Since polymerase ζ contributed to toxicity in all instances, error-prone lesion-bypass probably accounts for the mutagenic effects. The finding that differently acting inhibitors of protein biosynthesis induce alike cellular responses in DNA repair mutants is novel and suggests the dependency of genome stability on translational fidelity.

  9. HIV-1 Vpr degrades the HLTF DNA translocase in T cells and macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Lahouassa, Hichem; Blondot, Marie-Lise; Chauveau, Lise; Chougui, Ghina; Morel, Marina; Leduc, Marjorie; Guillonneau, François; Ramirez, Bertha Cecilia; Schwartz, Olivier; Margottin-Goguet, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Viruses often interfere with the DNA damage response to better replicate in their hosts. The human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) viral protein R (Vpr) protein has been reported to modulate the activity of the DNA repair structure-specific endonuclease subunit (SLX4) complex and to promote cell cycle arrest. Vpr also interferes with the base-excision repair pathway by antagonizing the uracil DNA glycosylase (Ung2) enzyme. Using an unbiased quantitative proteomic screen, we report that Vpr down-regulates helicase-like transcription factor (HLTF), a DNA translocase involved in the repair of damaged replication forks. Vpr subverts the DDB1–cullin4-associated-factor 1 (DCAF1) adaptor of the Cul4A ubiquitin ligase to trigger proteasomal degradation of HLTF. This event takes place rapidly after Vpr delivery to cells, before and independently of Vpr-mediated G2 arrest. HLTF is degraded in lymphocytic cells and macrophages infected with Vpr-expressing HIV-1. Our results reveal a previously unidentified strategy for HIV-1 to antagonize DNA repair in host cells. PMID:27114546

  10. Correlated Mutation in the Evolution of Catalysis in Uracil DNA Glycosylase Superfamily.

    PubMed

    Xia, Bo; Liu, Yinling; Guevara, Jose; Li, Jing; Jilich, Celeste; Yang, Ye; Wang, Liangjiang; Dominy, Brian N; Cao, Weiguo

    2017-04-11

    Enzymes in Uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) superfamily are essential for the removal of uracil. Family 4 UDGa is a robust uracil DNA glycosylase that only acts on double-stranded and single-stranded uracil-containing DNA. Based on mutational, kinetic and modeling analyses, a catalytic mechanism involving leaving group stabilization by H155 in motif 2 and water coordination by N89 in motif 3 is proposed. Mutual Information analysis identifies a complexed correlated mutation network including a strong correlation in the EG doublet in motif 1 of family 4 UDGa and in the QD doublet in motif 1 of family 1 UNG. Conversion of EG doublet in family 4 Thermus thermophilus UDGa to QD doublet increases the catalytic efficiency by over one hundred-fold and seventeen-fold over the E41Q and G42D single mutation, respectively, rectifying the strong correlation in the doublet. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the correlated mutations in the doublet in motif 1 position the catalytic H155 in motif 2 to stabilize the leaving uracilate anion. The integrated approach has important implications in studying enzyme evolution and protein structure and function.

  11. Modellgetriebene Softwareentwicklung für Robotiksysteme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steck, Andreas; Stampfer, Dennis; Schlegel, Christian

    Die Erschließung breiter Anwendungspotenziale für Serviceroboter erfordert den Schritt weg von manuell erstellten Einzelentwürfen hin zu baukastenartig zusammengesetzten Systemen. Grundlegend hierfür ist der Schritt weg von codezentrierten hin zu modellgetriebenen Systemen. In modellgetriebenen Ansätzen wird langlebiges Lösungswissen von kurzlebigen Implementierungstechnologien entkoppelt. Durch das Explizieren von Eigenschaften wie Ressourcenbedarf und Kommunikationsverhalten wird die Systemebene adressiert, so dass Zusammensetzbarkeit von ausgereiften Komponenten ebenso unterstützt werden kann wie der Nachweis von Systemeigenschaften. Die so möglichen ressourcenadäquaten Lösungen mit zugesicherten Eigenschaften und der Wiederverwendung ausgereifter Lösungen wird als grundlegend für die effiziente Umsetzung der geforderten Qualitätsmaßstäbe vieler zukünftiger Servicerobotikapplikationen gesehen. Diese Arbeit beschreibt die Umsetzung eines modellgetriebenen Softwareentwicklungsprozesses in OpenArchitectureWare auf der Basis eines Komponentenansatzes und eines Ausführungscontainers, der beispielsweise völlig unabhängig von der Middleware ist.

  12. Correlated Mutation in the Evolution of Catalysis in Uracil DNA Glycosylase Superfamily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Bo; Liu, Yinling; Guevara, Jose; Li, Jing; Jilich, Celeste; Yang, Ye; Wang, Liangjiang; Dominy, Brian N.; Cao, Weiguo

    2017-04-01

    Enzymes in Uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) superfamily are essential for the removal of uracil. Family 4 UDGa is a robust uracil DNA glycosylase that only acts on double-stranded and single-stranded uracil-containing DNA. Based on mutational, kinetic and modeling analyses, a catalytic mechanism involving leaving group stabilization by H155 in motif 2 and water coordination by N89 in motif 3 is proposed. Mutual Information analysis identifies a complexed correlated mutation network including a strong correlation in the EG doublet in motif 1 of family 4 UDGa and in the QD doublet in motif 1 of family 1 UNG. Conversion of EG doublet in family 4 Thermus thermophilus UDGa to QD doublet increases the catalytic efficiency by over one hundred-fold and seventeen-fold over the E41Q and G42D single mutation, respectively, rectifying the strong correlation in the doublet. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the correlated mutations in the doublet in motif 1 position the catalytic H155 in motif 2 to stabilize the leaving uracilate anion. The integrated approach has important implications in studying enzyme evolution and protein structure and function.

  13. Trace element analysis of extraterrestrial metal samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: the standard solutions and digesting acids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guiqin; Wu, Yangsiqian; Lin, Yangting

    2016-02-28

    Nearly 99% of the total content of extraterrestrial metals is composed of Fe and Ni, but with greatly variable trace element contents. The accuracy obtained in the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis of solutions of these samples can be significantly influenced by matrix contents, polyatomic ion interference, and the concentrations of external standard solutions. An ICP-MS instrument (X Series 2) was used to determine 30 standard solutions with different concentrations of trace elements, and different matrix contents. Based on these measurements, the matrix effects were determined. Three iron meteorites were dissolved separately in aqua regia and HNO3. Deviations due to variation of matrix contents in the external standard solutions were evaluated and the analysis results of the two digestion methods for iron meteorites were assessed. Our results show obvious deviations due to unmatched matrix contents in the external standard solutions. Furthermore, discrepancy in the measurement of some elements was found between the sample solutions prepared with aqua regia and HNO3, due to loss of chloride during sample preparation and/or incomplete digestion of highly siderophile elements in iron meteorites. An accurate ICP-MS analysis method for extraterrestrial metal samples has been established using external standard solutions with matched matrix contents and digesting the samples with HNO3 and aqua regia. Using the data from this work, the Mundrabilla iron meteorite previously classified as IAB-ung is reclassified as IAB-MG. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Preventing alcohol use with a universal school-based intervention: results from an effectiveness study.

    PubMed

    Strøm, Henriette Kyrrestad; Adolfsen, Frode; Handegård, Bjørn Helge; Natvig, Henrik; Eisemann, Martin; Martinussen, Monica; Koposov, Roman

    2015-04-09

    The effectiveness of the universal school-based alcohol prevention program "Unge & Rus" [Youth & Alcohol] was tested by an independent research group. The program aims to prevent alcohol use and to change adolescents' alcohol-related attitudes. The main outcome measure was frequency of monthly alcohol use, favorable alcohol attitudes, perceived behavioral control (PBC), positive alcohol expectancy and alcohol-related knowledge. Junior high school students (N = 2,020) with a mean age of 13.5 years participated in this longitudinal pre, post and one-year follow-up study with a quasi-experimental design, involving an intervention group and a comparison group recruited from 41 junior high schools in Norway. Multilevel analysis was used to account for the repeated observations (level 1) nested within students (level 2) who in turn were clustered within school classes (level 3). Results showed an increased level of alcohol-related knowledge in the intervention group (p < .005) as compared to the comparison group at one-year follow-up. However, no significant difference in change was found between the intervention group and the comparison group in frequency of monthly alcohol use, alcohol-related attitudes, PBC or alcohol expectancy at one-year follow-up. This study offers adequate data on the effectiveness of a school-based alcohol prevention program widely implemented in Norway. Under its current method of implementation, use of the program cannot be supported over the use of standard alcohol curriculum within schools.

  15. Strand-biased cytosine deamination at the replication fork causes cytosine to thymine mutations in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bhagwat, Ashok S; Hao, Weilong; Townes, Jesse P; Lee, Heewook; Tang, Haixu; Foster, Patricia L

    2016-02-23

    The rate of cytosine deamination is much higher in single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) than in double-stranded DNA, and copying the resulting uracils causes C to T mutations. To study this phenomenon, the catalytic domain of APOBEC3G (A3G-CTD), an ssDNA-specific cytosine deaminase, was expressed in an Escherichia coli strain defective in uracil repair (ung mutant), and the mutations that accumulated over thousands of generations were determined by whole-genome sequencing. C:G to T:A transitions dominated, with significantly more cytosines mutated to thymine in the lagging-strand template (LGST) than in the leading-strand template (LDST). This strand bias was present in both repair-defective and repair-proficient cells and was strongest and highly significant in cells expressing A3G-CTD. These results show that the LGST is accessible to cellular cytosine deaminating agents, explains the well-known GC skew in microbial genomes, and suggests the APOBEC3 family of mutators may target the LGST in the human genome.

  16. Measuring the global information society - explaining digital inequality by economic level and education standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ünver, H.

    2017-02-01

    A main focus of this research paper is to investigate on the explanation of the ‘digital inequality’ or ‘digital divide’ by economic level and education standard of about 150 countries worldwide. Inequality regarding GDP per capita, literacy and the so-called UN Education Index seem to be important factors affecting ICT usage, in particular Internet penetration, mobile phone usage and also mobile Internet services. Empirical methods and (multivariate) regression analysis with linear and non-linear functions are useful methods to measure some crucial factors of a country or culture towards becoming information and knowledge based society. Overall, the study concludes that the convergence regarding ICT usage proceeds worldwide faster than the convergence in terms of economic wealth and education in general. The results based on a large data analysis show that the digital divide is declining over more than a decade between 2000 and 2013, since more people worldwide use mobile phones and the Internet. But a high digital inequality explained to a significant extent by the functional relation between technology penetration rates, education level and average income still exists. Furthermore it supports the actions of countries at UN/G20/OECD level for providing ICT access to all people for a more balanced world in context of sustainable development by postulating that policymakers need to promote comprehensive education worldwide by means of using ICT.

  17. Posttraumatic responses to the July 22, 2011 Oslo Terror among Norwegian high school students.

    PubMed

    Nordanger, Dag Ø; Hysing, Mari; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Lundervold, Astri Johansen; Jakobsen, Reidar; Olff, Miranda; Stormark, Kjell Morten

    2013-12-01

    The July 22, 2011, Oslo Terror was defined as a national disaster. Former studies on terror attacks and mass shootings have shown elevated levels of posttraumatic complaints both in direct victims and in general populations. Little is known about how such extreme events in a generally safe society such as Norway would affect an adolescent population. This study examines posttraumatic stress reactions and changes in worldview in relationship to risk factors among 10,220 high school students using data from the ung@hordaland survey. One out of 5 respondents knew someone directly exposed, 55.7% experienced the events to some extent as threatening to their own or their close ones' lives, and 79.9% reported their worldview to be changed. For posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) DSM IV criteria, 0.8% reported substantial symptoms of reexperiencing (Criterion B), 4.9% of avoidance (Criterion C), and 1.1% of hyperarousal (Criterion D). Greater personal proximity to the events, higher levels of perceived life threat, and being a female or an immigrant predicted higher levels of PTSD symptom distress. Results indicate that the terror events made a deep impression on Norwegian adolescents, but without causing markedly elevated levels of PTSD symptomatology in the general young population.

  18. Putative modifier genes in mevalonate kinase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Marcuzzi, Annalisa; Vozzi, Diego; Girardelli, Martina; Tricarico, Paola Maura; Knowles, Alessandra; Crovella, Sergio; Vuch, Josef; Tommasini, Alberto; Piscianz, Elisa; Bianco, Anna Monica

    2016-04-01

    Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) is an autosomal recessive auto‑inflammatory disease, caused by impairment of the mevalonate pathway. Although the molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated, there is clinical evidence suggesting that other regulatory genes may be involved in determining the phenotype. The identification of novel target genes may explain non‑homogeneous genotype‑phenotype correlations, and provide evidence in support of the hypothesis that novel regulatory genes predispose or amplify deregulation of the mevalonate pathway in this orphan disease. In the present study, DNA samples were obtained from five patients with MKD, which were then analyzed using whole exome sequencing. A missense variation in the PEX11γ gene was observed in homozygosis in P2, possibly correlating with visual blurring. The UNG rare gene variant was detected in homozygosis in P5, without correlating with a specific clinical phenotype. A number of other variants were found in the five analyzed DNA samples from the MKD patients, however no correlation with the phenotype was established. The results of the presents study suggested that further analysis, using next generation sequencing approaches, is required on a larger sample size of patients with MKD, who share the same MVK mutations and exhibit 'extreme' clinical phenotypes. As MVK mutations may be associated with MKD, the identification of specific modifier genes may assist in providing an earlier diagnosis.

  19. Tumor-associated immune factors are associated with recurrence and metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yan, X; Jiao, S-C; Zhang, G-Q; Guan, Y; Wang, J-L

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic interaction between tumor cells and the microenvironment is critical for tumorigenesis, and cancer immunosurveillance plays an important role in the tumor evolution. In some tumors (such as esophageal cancer, pancreatic cancer and colorectal cancer), studies have shown that the number of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) has a significant relationship with the prognosis, but there is little research on the prognosis of TILs and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been performed. Therefore, it is necessary to discover the relationship between the TILs and cytokines with NSCLC prognosis and metastasis in patients. Tumor samples were carefully examined for tissue preservation and complete follow-up. A total of 107 tumor samples from NSCLC patients with radical surgical resection were enrolled for the analysis. All samples were subjected to immunohistochemistry for detection of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD28, forkhead box protein P3 (Foxp3), cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein-4, cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2), transforming growth factor β 1, interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6, interleukin-10, interleukin-12 receptor and hypoxia inducible factor 1a (HIF-1a). The number, function and location of the targets were analyzed to determine their correlation with disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Immunhistochemical results from 107 samples indicated that the FoxP3+ regulatory TIL (HR=1.336, P=0.031), IL-2 (HR=0.595, P=0.007) and HIF-1a (HR=1.510, P=0.002) levels in tumor cells closely correlated with DFS in a COX analysis model. FoxP3+ regulatory TILs (HR=1.566, P=0.002) significantly correlated with OS and tumor node metastasis staging. The patients were divided into two groups due to the coexpression pattern of the IL-2, FoxP3+ and HIF-1a. The high-risk group had an overall worse survival than those at low risk. We confirmed that Foxp3 expression in lymphocyte and IL-2 expression in tumor cells were associated with recurrence or transfer

  20. Th17-type cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α synergistically activate STAT3 and NF-kB to promote colorectal cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    De Simone, V; Franzè, E; Ronchetti, G; Colantoni, A; Fantini, M C; Di Fusco, D; Sica, G S; Sileri, P; MacDonald, T T; Pallone, F; Monteleone, G; Stolfi, C

    2015-07-01

    Colorectal cancers (CRCs) often show a dense infiltrate of cytokine-producing immune/inflammatory cells. The exact contribution of each immune cell subset and cytokine in the activation of the intracellular pathways sustaining CRC cell growth is not understood. Herein, we isolate tumor-infiltrating leukocytes (TILs) and lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) from the tumor area and the macroscopically unaffected, adjacent, colonic mucosa of patients who underwent resection for sporadic CRC and show that the culture supernatants of TILs, but not of LPMCs, potently enhance the growth of human CRC cell lines through the activation of the oncogenic transcription factors signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB). Characterization of immune cell complexity of TILs and LPMCs reveals no differences in the percentages of T cells, natural killer T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages and B cells. However, T cells from TILs show a functional switch compared with those from LPMCs to produce large amounts of T helper type 17 (Th17)-related cytokines (that is, interleukin-17A (IL-17A), IL-17F, IL-21 and IL-22), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-6. Individual neutralization of IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, TNF-α or IL-6 does not change TIL-derived supernatant-driven STAT3 and NF-kB activation, as well as their proproliferative effect in CRC cells. In contrast, simultaneous neutralization of both IL-17A and TNF-α, which abrogates NF-kB signaling, and IL-22 and IL-6, which abrogates STAT3 signaling, reduces the mitogenic effect of supernatants in CRC cells. IL-17A, IL-21, IL-22, TNF-α and IL-6 are also produced in excess in the early colonic lesions in a mouse model of sporadic CRC, associated with enhanced STAT3/NF-kB activation. Mice therapeutically given BP-1-102, an orally bioavailable compound targeting STAT3/NF-kB activation and cross-talk, exhibit reduced colon tumorigenesis and diminished expression of