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Sample records for flexible armored blanket

  1. Natural flexible dermal armor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Chen, Irene H; Gludovatz, Bernd; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Ritchie, Robert O; Meyers, Marc A

    2013-01-04

    Fish, reptiles, and mammals can possess flexible dermal armor for protection. Here we seek to find the means by which Nature derives its protection by examining the scales from several fish (Atractosteus spatula, Arapaima gigas, Polypterus senegalus, Morone saxatilis, Cyprinius carpio), and osteoderms from armadillos, alligators, and leatherback turtles. Dermal armor has clearly been developed by convergent evolution in these different species. In general, it has a hierarchical structure with collagen fibers joining more rigid units (scales or osteoderms), thereby increasing flexibility without significantly sacrificing strength, in contrast to rigid monolithic mineral composites. These dermal structures are also multifunctional, with hydrodynamic drag (in fish), coloration for camouflage or intraspecies recognition, temperature and fluid regulation being other important functions. The understanding of such flexible dermal armor is important as it may provide a basis for new synthetic, yet bioinspired, armor materials. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Composite flexible blanket insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A. (Inventor); Lowe, David M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An improved composite flexible blanket insulation is presented comprising top silicon carbide having an interlock design, wherein the reflective shield is composed of single or double aluminized polyimide and wherein the polyimide film has a honeycomb pattern.

  3. Flexible Dermal Armor in Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wen; Chen, Irene H.; Mckittrick, Joanna; Meyers, Marc A.

    2012-04-01

    Many animals possess dermal armor, which acts primarily as protection against predators. We illustrate this through examples from both our research and the literature: alligator, fish (alligator gar, arapaima, and Senegal bichir), armadillo, leatherback turtle, and a lizard, the Gila monster. The dermal armor in these animals is flexible and has a hierarchical structure with collagen fibers joining mineralized units (scales, tiles, or plates). This combination significantly increases the strength and flexibility in comparison with a simple monolithic mineral composite or rigid dermal armor. This dermal armor is being studied for future bioinspired armor applications providing increased mobility.

  4. Composite Flexible Blanket Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A. (Inventor); Pitts, William C. (Inventor); Goldstein, Howard E. (Inventor); Sawko, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Composite flexible multilayer insulation systems (MLI) were evaluated for thermal performance and compared with the currently used fibrous silica (baseline) insulation system. The systems described are multilayer insulations consisting of alternating layers of metal foil and scrim ceramic cloth or vacuum metallized polymeric films quilted together using ceramic thread. A silicon carbide thread for use in the quilting and the method of making it are also described. These systems are useful in providing lightweight insulation for a variety of uses, particularly on the surface of aerospace vehicles subject to very high temperatures during flight.

  5. Lightweight IMM PV Flexible Blanket Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Deployable Space Systems (DSS) has developed an inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) photovoltaic (PV) integrated modular blanket assembly (IMBA) that can be rolled or z-folded. This IMM PV IMBA technology enables a revolutionary flexible PV blanket assembly that provides high specific power, exceptional stowed packaging efficiency, and high-voltage operation capability. DSS's technology also accommodates standard third-generation triple junction (ZTJ) PV device technologies to provide significantly improved performance over the current state of the art. This SBIR project demonstrated prototype, flight-like IMM PV IMBA panel assemblies specifically developed, designed, and optimized for NASA's high-voltage solar array missions.

  6. Flexibility and protection by design: imbricated hybrid microstructures of bio-inspired armor.

    PubMed

    Rudykh, Stephan; Ortiz, Christine; Boyce, Mary C

    2015-04-07

    Inspired by the imbricated scale-tissue flexible armor of elasmoid fish, we design hybrid stiff plate/soft matrix material architectures and reveal their ability to provide protection against penetration while preserving flexibility. Indentation and bending tests on bio-inspired 3D-printed prototype materials show that both protection and flexibility are highly tunable by geometrical parameters of the microstructure (plate inclination angle and volume fraction). We show that penetration resistance can be amplified by a factor of 40, while flexibility decreases in less than 5 times. Different deformation resistance mechanisms are found to govern flexibility (inter-plate matrix shear) versus penetration resistance (localized plate bending) for this microstructural architecture which, in turn, enables separation of these functional requirements in the material design. These experiments identify the tradeoffs between these typically conflicting properties as well as the ability to design the most protective material architecture for a required flexibility, providing new design guidelines for enhanced flexible armor systems.

  7. Fabrication, testing and modeling of a new flexible armor inspired from natural fish scales and osteoderms.

    PubMed

    Chintapalli, Ravi Kiran; Mirkhalaf, Mohammad; Dastjerdi, Ahmad Khayer; Barthelat, Francois

    2014-09-01

    Crocodiles, armadillo, turtles, fish and many other animal species have evolved flexible armored skins in the form of hard scales or osteoderms, which can be described as hard plates of finite size embedded in softer tissues. The individual hard segments provide protection from predators, while the relative motion of these segments provides the flexibility required for efficient locomotion. In this work, we duplicated these broad concepts in a bio-inspired segmented armor. Hexagonal segments of well-defined size and shape were carved within a thin glass plate using laser engraving. The engraved plate was then placed on a soft substrate which simulated soft tissues, and then punctured with a sharp needle mounted on a miniature loading stage. The resistance of our segmented armor was significantly higher when smaller hexagons were used, and our bio-inspired segmented glass displayed an increase in puncture resistance of up to 70% compared to a continuous plate of glass of the same thickness. Detailed structural analyses aided by finite elements revealed that this extraordinary improvement is due to the reduced span of individual segments, which decreases flexural stresses and delays fracture. This effect can however only be achieved if the plates are at least 1000 stiffer than the underlying substrate, which is the case for natural armor systems. Our bio-inspired system also displayed many of the attributes of natural armors: flexible, robust with 'multi-hit' capabilities. This new segmented glass therefore suggests interesting bio-inspired strategies and mechanisms which could be systematically exploited in high-performance flexible armors. This study also provides new insights and a better understanding of the mechanics of natural armors such as scales and osteoderms.

  8. Stretch-and-release fabrication, testing and optimization of a flexible ceramic armor inspired from fish scales.

    PubMed

    Martini, Roberto; Barthelat, Francois

    2016-10-13

    Protective systems that are simultaneously hard to puncture and compliant in flexion are desirable, but difficult to achieve because hard materials are usually stiff. However, we can overcome this conflicting design requirement by combining plates of a hard material with a softer substrate, and a strategy which is widely found in natural armors such as fish scales or osteoderms. Man-made segmented armors have a long history, but their systematic implementation in a modern and a protective system is still hampered by a limited understanding of the mechanics and the design of optimization guidelines, and by challenges in cost-efficient manufacturing. This study addresses these limitations with a flexible bioinspired armor based on overlapping ceramic scales. The fabrication combines laser engraving and a stretch-and-release method which allows for fine tuning of the size and overlap of the scales, and which is suitable for large scale fabrication. Compared to a continuous layer of uniform ceramic, our fish-scale like armor is not only more flexible, but it is also more resistant to puncture and more damage tolerant. The proposed armor is also about ten times more puncture resistant than soft elastomers, making it a very attractive alternative to traditional protective equipment.

  9. Thermal Performance of Composite Flexible Blanket Insulations for Hypersonic Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the thermal performance of a Composite Flexible Blanket Insulation (C.F.B.I.) considered for potential use as a thermal protection system or thermal insulation for future hypersonic vehicles such as the National Aerospace Plane (N.A.S.P.). Thermophysical properties for these insulations were also measured including the thermal conductivity at various temperatures and pressures and the emissivity of the fabrics used in the flexible insulations. The thermal response of these materials subjected to aeroconvective heating from a plasma arc is also described. Materials tested included two surface variations of the insulations, and similar insulations coated with a Protective Ceramic Coating (P.C.C.). Surface and backface temperatures were measured in the flexible insulations and on Fibrous Refractory Composite Insulation (F.R.C.I.) used as a calibration model. The uncoated flexible insulations exhibited good thermal performance up to 35 W/sq cm. The use of a P.C.C. to protect these insulations at higher heating rates is described. The results from a computerized thermal analysis model describing thermal response of those materials subjected to the plasma arc conditions are included. Thermal and optical properties were determined including thermal conductivity for the rigid and flexible insulations and emissivity for the insulation fabrics. These properties were utilized to calculate the thermal performance of the rigid and flexible insulations at the maximum heating rate.

  10. Terra Flexible Blanket Solar Array Deployment, On-Orbit Performance and Future Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurland, Richard; Schurig, Hans; Rosenfeld, Mark; Herriage, Michael; Gaddy, Edward; Keys, Denney; Faust, Carl; Andiario, William; Kurtz, Michelle; Moyer, Eric; hide

    2000-01-01

    The Terra spacecraft (formerly identified as EOS AM1) is the flagship in a planned series of NASA/GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) Earth observing system satellites designed to provide information on the health of the Earth's land, oceans, air, ice, and life as a total ecological global system. It has been successfully performing its mission since a late-December 1999 launch into a 705 km polar orbit. The spacecraft is powered by a single wing, flexible blanket array using single junction (SJ) gallium arsenide/germanium (GaAs/Ge) solar cells sized to provide five year end-of-life (EOL) power of greater than 5000 watts at 127 volts. It is currently the highest voltage and power operational flexible blanket array with GaAs/Ge cells. This paper briefly describes the wing design as a basis for discussing the operation of the electronics and mechanisms used to achieve successful on-orbit deployment. Its orbital electrical performance to date will be presented and compared to analytical predictions based on ground qualification testing. The paper concludes with a brief section on future applications and performance trends using advanced multi-junction cells and weight-efficient mechanical components.

  11. Terra Flexible Blanket Solar Array Deployment, On-Orbit Performance and Future Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurland, Richard; Schurig, Hans; Rosenfeld, Mark; Herriage, Michael; Gaddy, Edward; Keys, Denney; Faust, Carl; Andiario, William; Kurtz, Michelle; Moyer, Eric; hide

    2000-01-01

    The Terra spacecraft (formerly identified as EOS AM1) is the flagship in a planned series of NASA/GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) Earth observing system satellites designed to provide information on the health of the Earth's land, oceans, air, ice, and life as a total ecological global system. It has been successfully performing its mission since a late-December 1999 launch into a 705 km polar orbit. The spacecraft is powered by a single wing, flexible blanket array using single junction (SJ) gallium arsenide/germanium (GaAs/Ge) solar cells sized to provide five year end-of-life (EOL) power of greater than 5000 watts at 127 volts. It is currently the highest voltage and power operational flexible blanket array with GaAs/Ge cells. This paper briefly describes the wing design as a basis for discussing the operation of the electronics and mechanisms used to achieve successful on-orbit deployment. Its orbital electrical performance to date will be presented and compared to analytical predictions based on ground qualification testing. The paper concludes with a brief section on future applications and performance trends using advanced multi-junction cells and weight-efficient mechanical components. A viewgraph presentation is attached that outlines the same information as the paper and includes more images of the Terra Spacecraft and its components.

  12. EOS AM-1 GaAs/Ge flexible blanket solar array verification test program results

    SciTech Connect

    Herriage, M.J.; Kurland, R.M.; Faust, C.D.; Gaddy, E.M.; Keys, D.J.

    1997-12-31

    Under subcontract to Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space (LMMS), TRW Space and Electronics Group is developing the first operational flexible blanket solar array to use thin gallium arsenide on germanium (GaAs/Ge) solar cells and to produce power at high voltage. This single wing array will be integrated to the EOS AM-1 spacecraft which is the first in a series of Goddard Space Flight Center remote sensing spacecraft. Spacecraft system level design issues dealing with package volume, attitude control, weight and array size dictated that a low aspect ratio (2:1), flexible blanket wing with GaAs/Ge cells be used. The array program is in its last phase of protoflight verification testing with delivery of the wing to LMMS in mid-1997 for launch into orbit in mid-1998. This paper continues the status reporting of the solar array development that was first presented at the 31st IECEC in Washington, DC. In the first paper (Herriage, et al, 1996) the focus was on the design requirements and evolving design details. This paper provides a brief review of the wing configuration and design as a point of reference for the ensuing principal discussion of the protoflight verification test program and key results.

  13. Development of a Meso-Scale Material Model for Ballistic Fabric and Its Use in Flexible-Armor Protection Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujicic, M.; Bell, W. C.; Arakere, G.; He, T.; Xie, X.; Cheeseman, B. A.

    2010-02-01

    A meso-scale ballistic material model for a prototypical plain-woven single-ply flexible armor is developed and implemented in a material user subroutine for the use in commercial explicit finite element programs. The main intent of the model is to attain computational efficiency when calculating the mechanical response of the multi-ply fabric-based flexible-armor material during its impact with various projectiles without significantly sacrificing the key physical aspects of the fabric microstructure, architecture, and behavior. To validate the new model, a comparative finite element method analysis is carried out in which: (a) the plain-woven single-ply fabric is modeled using conventional shell elements and weaving is done in an explicit manner by snaking the yarns through the fabric and (b) the fabric is treated as a planar continuum surface composed of conventional shell elements to which the new meso-scale unit-cell based material model is assigned. The results obtained show that the material model provides a reasonably good description for the fabric deformation and fracture behavior under different combinations of fixed and free boundary conditions. Finally, the model is used in an investigation of the ability of a multi-ply soft-body armor vest to protect the wearer from impact by a 9-mm round nose projectile. The effects of inter-ply friction, projectile/yarn friction, and the far-field boundary conditions are revealed and the results explained using simple wave mechanics principles, high-deformation rate material behavior, and the role of various energy-absorbing mechanisms in the fabric-based armor systems.

  14. Pierced Armor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettigrew, Thomas F.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    A rebuttal of a negative evaluation of busing programs published by David Armor, which focuses on the methodological shortcomings of an investigation of a voluntary busing program in metropolitan Boston called METCO done by Armor. (JM)

  15. Spaced Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1950-11-20

    less resistance to the penetration of a projectile than does the midsection of the plate. This is so because the front and rear surfaces of the armor ...Front -7idsectio " Aberdeen Proving Ground Report .AD-943, "Ballistic Test of Spaced Armor Arrangements which can be used for Increasing the Protection of... Ground . The target was to be a 100 • thick cast armor plate which can be quite easily penetrated by this carbide cored projectile at O0 obliquity

  16. Tailorable Advanced Blanket Insulation (TABI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, Paul M.; Goldstein, Howard E.

    1987-01-01

    Single layer and multilayer insulating blankets for high-temperature service fabricated without sewing. TABI woven fabric made of aluminoborosilicate. Triangular-cross-section flutes of core filled with silica batting. Flexible blanket formed into curved shapes, providing high-temperature and high-heat-flux insulation.

  17. The Role of Shear-Thickening Fluids (STFs) in Ballistic and Stab-Resistance Improvement of Flexible Armor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasanzadeh, M.; Mottaghitalab, V.

    2014-04-01

    This paper provides a detailed review on relevant literature related to rheological properties of STFs with particular emphasis on efforts to improve their impact resistance. The review has concisely demonstrated that there are many factors affecting shear-thickening behavior of colloidal suspensions. Nanoparticle characteristics such as shape, size, distribution, solid volume fraction, and interaction with other particles as well as properties related to suspending phase and also flow field could affect the rheological properties of STFs. Recent studies on application of STFs to textile fabrics, preparation techniques, and the factors determining the performance of STF/fabric composites are summarized. Particular emphasis is laid on researches that explore the ballistic, stab, and puncture protective properties of STF-based materials and body armors.

  18. Composite armor, armor system and vehicle including armor system

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry S.; Jones, Warren F.; Lacy, Jeffrey M.; Thinnes, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Composite armor panels are disclosed. Each panel comprises a plurality of functional layers comprising at least an outermost layer, an intermediate layer and a base layer. An armor system incorporating armor panels is also disclosed. Armor panels are mounted on carriages movably secured to adjacent rails of a rail system. Each panel may be moved on its associated rail and into partially overlapping relationship with another panel on an adjacent rail for protection against incoming ordnance from various directions. The rail system may be configured as at least a part of a ring, and be disposed about a hatch on a vehicle. Vehicles including an armor system are also disclosed.

  19. Shock destruction armor system

    SciTech Connect

    Froeschner, K.E.

    1993-05-25

    A shock destruction armor system mounted in a vertical relationship on an external surface of a vehicle for destroying the force of impact of an incoming projectile having a length, L, equal to an aspect ratio, m, times its diameter, D, said armor system is described comprising: armor plate means, comprising a plurality of substantially vertical super-imposed armor plates secured at only one edge thereof to said vehicle, each of said armor plates having a predetermined thickness and separated one-from another by a predetermined distance, said thickness of each of said armor plates progressively increasing from a frontal armor plate, adapted to receive the force of impact of an incoming projectile, to a last armor plate thereof, said distance between said armor plates progressively increasing from a first distance between said frontal armor plate and its next-following armor plate through a last distance between said last armor plate and its next-preceding armor plate, for hydrodynamically and sequentially at least substantially destroying an incoming projectile impacting a first of said armor plates, and for inducing debris generated from the explosion on an area of impact on the first armor plate to egress from such area prior to impact of such an incoming projectile on the next-following armor plate.

  20. Armor structures

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry Shiu-Hung [Idaho Falls, ID; Lacy, Jeffrey M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-04-01

    An armor structure includes first and second layers individually containing a plurality of i-beams. Individual i-beams have a pair of longitudinal flanges interconnected by a longitudinal crosspiece and defining opposing longitudinal channels between the pair of flanges. The i-beams within individual of the first and second layers run parallel. The laterally outermost faces of the flanges of adjacent i-beams face one another. One of the longitudinal channels in each of the first and second layers faces one of the longitudinal channels in the other of the first and second layers. The channels of the first layer run parallel with the channels of the second layer. The flanges of the first and second layers overlap with the crosspieces of the other of the first and second layers, and portions of said flanges are received within the facing channels of the i-beams of the other of the first and second layers.

  1. Joining Steel Armor - Intermix

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    TARADCOM a d ki Lk A el B~ 0el RWET0 TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 12311 JOINING STEEL ARMOR - INTERMIX March 1979 U U * S* ’ "U .by B. . A.SCEV * U...authorized documents. O "if TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 12311 JOINING STEEL ARMOR - INTERMIX BY B. A. SCHEVO March 1979 AMS: 3197..6D.4329 TARADCOM ARMOR AND...Intermix Process ...... ........ 3 Test Procedures - Intermix Armor ........ ......... 4 Mock Hull ................. ..................... 5 Results

  2. US solid breeder blanket design for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Attaya, H.; Billone, M.; Lin, C.; Johnson, C.; Majumdar, S.; Smith, D. ); Goranson, P.; Nelson, B.; Williamson, D.; Baker, C. ); Raffray, A.; Badawi, A.; Gorbis, Z.; Ying, A.; Abdou, M. ); Sviatoslavsky, I.; Blanchard, J.; Mogahed, E.; Sawan, M.; Kulcinski, G. )

    1990-09-01

    The US blanket design activity has focused on the developments and the analyses of a solid breeder blanket concept for ITER. The main function of this blanket is to produce the necessary tritium required for the ITER operation and the test program. Safety, power reactor relevance, low tritium inventory, and design flexibility are the main reasons for the blanket selection. The blanket is designed to operate satisfactorily in the physics and the technology phases of ITER without the need for hardware changes. Mechanical simplicity, predictability, performance, minimum cost, and minimum R D requirements are the other criteria used to guide the design process. The design aspects of the blanket are summarized in this paper. 2 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Shock destruction armor system

    DOEpatents

    Froeschner, Kenneth E.

    1993-01-01

    A shock destruction armor system is constructed and arranged to destroy the force of impact of a projectile by shock hydrodynamics. The armor system is designed to comprise a plurality of superimposed armor plates each preferably having a thickness less than five times the projectile's diameter and are preferably separated one-from-another by a distance at least equal to one-half of the projectile's diameter. The armor plates are effective to hydrodynamically and sequentially destroy the projectile. The armor system is particularly adapted for use on various military vehicles, such as tanks, aircraft and ships.

  4. Imaging body armor.

    PubMed

    Harcke, H Theodore; Schauer, David A; Harris, Robert M; Campman, Steven C; Lonergan, Gael J

    2002-04-01

    This study examined the feasibility of performing radiographic studies on patients wearing standard-issue body armor. The Kevlar helmet, fragmentation vest, demining suit sleeve, and armor plate were studied with plain film and computed tomography in a simulated casualty situation. We found that the military helmet contains metal screws and metal clips in the headband, but diagnostic computed tomographic images can be obtained. Kevlar, the principal component of soft armor, has favorable photon attenuation characteristics. Plate armor of composite material also did not limit radiographic studies. Therefore, when medically advantageous, patients can be examined radiographically while wearing standard military body armor. Civilian emergency rooms should be aware of these observations because law enforcement officers wear similar protective armor.

  5. M113: Armored Rescuer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The space shuttle required a unique rescue vehicle, one strong enough to bull its way into a launch pad and carry a flight crew and firefighters to safety. The answer is a group of M113 armored per...

  6. Field Expedient Armor Modifications to US Armored Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    field expedient modifications to armored vehicles. Second, the armored systems employed by US forces during operations Desert Shield -Desert Storm...fire. Crews quickly realized that the spare track, when mounted in critical locations, provided some measure against enemy kinetic armor piercing...Army Field Forces, 7 April 1952): Appendix G, p. 5. 5William P. Withers, “Report From Korea,” Armor 60, no. 2 (1951): 23. 59 6Harry H. Shields Jr

  7. Laminate armor and related methods

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Henry S; Lillo, Thomas M; Zagula, Thomas M

    2013-02-26

    Laminate armor and methods of manufacturing laminate armor. Specifically, laminate armor plates comprising a commercially pure titanium layer and a titanium alloy layer bonded to the commercially pure titanium outer layer are disclosed, wherein an average thickness of the titanium alloy inner layer is about four times an average thickness of the commercially pure titanium outer layer. In use, the titanium alloy layer is positioned facing an area to be protected. Additionally, roll-bonding methods for manufacturing laminate armor plates are disclosed.

  8. Ballistic Testing of Armor Weldments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-02

    and properties of armor plate b. Electrode used in weld c. Measured thickness of welded area and plate d. Temperature of plate during firing e...of different thicknesses. Armored vehicle structures of simu- lated sections of armored vehicles are tested for resistance to shock as described...following: a. Ambient temperature at time of testing b. For each round: (1) Type, thickness, and properties of armor (2) Measured location of impact

  9. Fragment Penetration Tests of Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-15

    Identify by block numbhr) Provides techniques for evaluating armor resistance to attack by HE projectile fragments. Includes static detonations of shell...DISTRIBUTION D. REFERENCES * . . . ........ . ........... D-1 1. SCOPE. This TOP describes the available techniques for testing armor for resistance to attack by...Projectiles Against Armor Plates ("Yankee Stadium" Test-). 4.1.1 hCjective. The objective is to determine the resistance to penetration of various armor

  10. Armor Plate Surface Roughness Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    Armor Plate Surface Roughness Measurements by Brian Stanton, William Coburn, and Thomas J. Pizzillo ARL-TR-3498 April 2005... Armor Plate Surface Roughness Measurements Brian Stanton, William Coburn and Thomas J. Pizzillo Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate...October 2004 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Armor Plate Surface Roughness Measurements 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  11. The armored warriors of kaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Yangjin

    1995-01-01

    Due to the custom of burying the dead with their weapons, battle armor, and other luxury goods, Korean archaeologists have discovered many examples of iron armor produced and used in Kaya Based on these rick data, a relatively clear picture of the evolution of Kaya iron body armor and helmets from the fourth century to the sixth century has Been developed.

  12. Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, L. Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Flexibility is an important aspect of all sports and recreational activities. Flexibility can be developed and maintained by stretching exercises. Exercises designed to develop flexibility in ankle joints, knees, hips, and the lower back are presented. (JN)

  13. Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, L. Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Flexibility is an important aspect of all sports and recreational activities. Flexibility can be developed and maintained by stretching exercises. Exercises designed to develop flexibility in ankle joints, knees, hips, and the lower back are presented. (JN)

  14. Armor in Vietnam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-01

    commander of 3/22 Infantry said, "it was a real 10 o’clock movie ending. The ඀cavalry came to the rescue." Master Sergeant Andrew Hunter was even more...VC/NVA fa-rces in ,63 6agaffts Louis C., Colonel, Letter to Headquar- 2th ters, U.S. Ar•y Armor Sohool, Foit Knox, Xl, 30 August 1973, Patton Museum...KY, 16 March 1976. McIntosh, Andrew K., LTC, Fourth Royal Tank Regiment, British Exchange Officer, U.S. Army Armor School. Personal interview. U.S

  15. Ejecta Blanket on Vesta

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-13

    This image from NASA Dawn spacecraft shows an ejecta blanket mantling the surface and obscuring older caters. The bright crater rim, seen in the middle right edge, is one of a group of craters which are the source of this ejecta blanket.

  16. Embedded-monolith armor

    DOEpatents

    McElfresh, Michael W.; Groves, Scott E; Moffet, Mitchell L.; Martin, Louis P.

    2016-07-19

    A lightweight armor system utilizing a face section having a multiplicity of monoliths embedded in a matrix supported on low density foam. The face section is supported with a strong stiff backing plate. The backing plate is mounted on a spall plate.

  17. Advanced Ceramic Armor Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-11

    materials, toughened alumina, fiber -reinforced glass matrix composites, and multilayer-gradient materials for ballistic testing. Fabrication and...material systems: Multilayer advanced armor materials consisting of a hard ceramic faceplate bonded to a graphite fiber -reinforced glass matrix...toughened alumina, and fiber - applied studies of advanced reinforced ceramic matrix glass and glass -ceramic composites for ballistic testing. technologies

  18. Insulation Blankets for High-Temperature Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, H.; Leiser, D.; Sawko, P. M.; Larson, H. K.; Estrella, C.; Smith, M.; Pitoniak, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    Insulating blanket resists temperatures up to 1,500 degrees F (815 degrees C). Useful where high-temperature resistance, flexibility, and ease of installation are important - for example, insulation for odd-shaped furnaces and high-temperature ducts, curtains for furnace openings and fire control, and conveyor belts in hot processes. Blanket is quilted composite consisting of two face sheets: outer one of silica, inner one of silica or other glass cloth with center filling of pure silica glass felt sewn together with silica glass threads.

  19. Neutronics Experiments Using Small Partial Mockups of the ITER Test Blanket Module with a Solid Breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Satoshi; Verzilov, Yury; Nakao, Makoto; Ochiai, Kentaro; Wada, Masayuki; Nishitani, Takeo

    2005-05-15

    In order to evaluate the impacts of the incident neutron spectrum and the tungsten armor on the tritium production, integral experiments have been performed with small partial mockups relevant to the ITER test blanket module using DT neutrons at FNS of JAERI. The Monte Carlo calculation results for the integrated tritium productions agree well with the experimental data within 2 and 11 % for the mockups without the armor in the experiments without and with the neutron reflector, respectively. It is clarified that the tritium production can be very accurately predicted in the experiment without the reflector. In the mockups with the 12.6 and 25.2 mm thick tungsten armors, it is experimentally clarified that the integrated tritium productions are reduced by 3 and 6 % relative to the case without the armor, respectively.

  20. AC-130H Gunship Armor Upgrade Project

    SciTech Connect

    Shell, T.E.; Landingham, R.L.

    1990-09-19

    This report covers the test methods and equipment for testing aircraft armor both hard and soft. The hard armor are the typical ceramic type while the soft armor are various types of layered composite materials. 10 figs. (JEF)

  1. An assessment of the base blanket for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Raffray, A.R.; Abdou, M.A.; Ying, A.

    1991-12-31

    Ideally, the ITER base blanket would provide the necessary tritium for the reactor to be self-sufficient during operation, while having minimal impact on the overall reactor cost, reliability and safety. A solid breeder blanket has been developed in CDA phase in an attempt to achieve such objectives. The reference solid breeder base blanket configurations at the end of the CDA phase has many attractive features such as a tritium breeding ratio (TBR) of 0.8--0.9 and a reasonably low tritium inventory. However, some concerns regarding the risk, cost and benefit of the base blanket have been raised. These include uncertainties associated with the solid breeder thermal control and the potentially high cost of the amount of Be used to achieve high TBR and to provide the necessary thermal barrier between the high temperature solid breeder and low temperature coolant. This work addresses these concerns. The basis for the selection of a breeding blanket is first discussed in light of the incremental risk, cost and benefits relative to a non-breeding blanket. Key issues associated with the CDA breeding blanket configurations are then analyzed. Finally, alternative schemes that could enhance the attractiveness and flexibility of a breeding blanket are explored.

  2. An assessment of the base blanket for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Raffray, A.R.; Abdou, M.A.; Ying, A.

    1991-01-01

    Ideally, the ITER base blanket would provide the necessary tritium for the reactor to be self-sufficient during operation, while having minimal impact on the overall reactor cost, reliability and safety. A solid breeder blanket has been developed in CDA phase in an attempt to achieve such objectives. The reference solid breeder base blanket configurations at the end of the CDA phase has many attractive features such as a tritium breeding ratio (TBR) of 0.8--0.9 and a reasonably low tritium inventory. However, some concerns regarding the risk, cost and benefit of the base blanket have been raised. These include uncertainties associated with the solid breeder thermal control and the potentially high cost of the amount of Be used to achieve high TBR and to provide the necessary thermal barrier between the high temperature solid breeder and low temperature coolant. This work addresses these concerns. The basis for the selection of a breeding blanket is first discussed in light of the incremental risk, cost and benefits relative to a non-breeding blanket. Key issues associated with the CDA breeding blanket configurations are then analyzed. Finally, alternative schemes that could enhance the attractiveness and flexibility of a breeding blanket are explored.

  3. ITER shielding blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Strebkov, Y.; Blinov, Y.; Avsjannikov, A.

    1994-12-31

    A version of ITER shielding blanket design is presented. Main features of this proposal are: Cu based alloy as structure material of the first wall - integrated in the blanket segment box structure and 316L SS as material of both back/side walls of the box and the shield structure elements; water of medium pressure (up to 4 MPa) as coolant with toroidal direction of flow; two variants of beryllium protection tiles joining (either permanent joints by mince of solid diffusion bonding or demountable attachment with compliant layer; for last versions designs options of tiles attachment units are given). Problems of manufacturing of such blanket segment including its assembly sequence are considered in details. Results of stress problem analysis for thermal, pressure, and electromagnetic loads will be given in this report also.

  4. ITER breeding blanket design

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Cardella, A.; Ioki, K.; Lousteau, D.; Mohri, K.; Raffray, R.; Zolti, E.

    1995-12-31

    A breeding blanket design has been developed for ITER to provide the necessary tritium fuel to achieve the technical objectives of the Enhanced Performance Phase. It uses a ceramic breeder and water coolant for compatibility with the ITER machine design of the Basic Performance Phase. Lithium zirconate and lithium oxide am the selected ceramic breeders based on the current data base. Enriched lithium and beryllium neutron multiplier are used for both breeders. Both forms of beryllium material, blocks and pebbles are used at different blanket locations based on thermo-mechanical considerations and beryllium thickness requirements. Type 316LN austenitic steel is used as structural material similar to the shielding blanket. Design issues and required R&D data are identified during the development of the design.

  5. Armor in Battle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    in explosise ability. I then ordered that empty sand bags be brought and four hand grenades to be placed in "them, with one grenade tied near the top...like rain upon the gun-shield and kicking up spurts of sand in the shallow pit. Calistan, who all this time had been keeping them in his sight with... white cross somewhere in Europe. This is a very useful piece of firsthand advice to armor K platoon leaders. The author learned after many months of

  6. Armored garment for protecting

    DOEpatents

    Purvis, James W [Albuquerque, NM; Jones, II, Jack F.; Whinery, Larry D [Albuquerque, NM; Brazfield, Richard [Albuquerque, NM; Lawrie, Catherine [Tijeras, NM; Lawrie, David [Tijeras, NM; Preece, Dale S [Watkins, CO

    2009-08-11

    A lightweight, armored protective garment for protecting an arm or leg from blast superheated gases, blast overpressure shock, shrapnel, and spall from a explosive device, such as a Rocket Propelled Grenade (RPG) or a roadside Improvised Explosive Device (IED). The garment has a ballistic sleeve made of a ballistic fabric, such as an aramid fiber (e.g., KEVLAR.RTM.) cloth, that prevents thermal burns from the blast superheated gases, while providing some protection from fragments. Additionally, the garment has two or more rigid armor inserts that cover the upper and lower arm and protect against high-velocity projectiles, shrapnel and spall. The rigid inserts can be made of multiple plies of a carbon/epoxy composite laminate. The combination of 6 layers of KEVLAR.RTM. fabric and 28 plies of carbon/epoxy laminate inserts (with the inserts being sandwiched in-between the KEVLAR.RTM. layers), can meet the level IIIA fragmentation minimum V.sub.50 requirements for the US Interceptor Outer Tactical Vest.

  7. Glass matrix armor

    DOEpatents

    Calkins, Noel C.

    1991-01-01

    An armor system which utilizes glass. A plurality of constraint cells are mounted on a surface of a substrate, which is metal armor plate or a similar tough material, such that the cells almost completely cover the surface of the substrate. Each constraint cell has a projectile-receiving wall parallel to the substrate surface and has sides which are perpendicular to and surround the perimeter of the receiving wall. The cells are mounted such that, in one embodiment, the substrate surface serves as a sixth side or closure for each cell. Each cell has inside of it a plate, termed the front plate, which is parallel to and in contact with substantially all of the inside surface of the receiving wall. The balance of each cell is completely filled with a projectile-abrading material consisting of glass and a ceramic material and, in certain embodiments, a polymeric material. The glass may be in monolithic form or particles of ceramic may be dispersed in a glass matrix. The ceramic material may be in monolithic form or may be in the form of particles dispersed in glass or dispersed in said polymer.

  8. Gauge Measures Thicknesses Of Blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagen, George R.; Yoshino, Stanley Y.

    1991-01-01

    Tool makes highly repeatable measurements of thickness of penetrable blanket insulation. Includes commercial holder for replaceable knife blades, which holds needle instead of knife. Needle penetrates blanket to establish reference plane. Ballasted slider applies fixed preload to blanket. Technician reads thickness value on scale.

  9. Thermal insulation blanket material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusch, R. H.

    1982-06-01

    A study was conducted to provide a tailorable advanced blanket insulation based on a woven design having an integrally woven core structure. A highly pure quartz yarn was selected for weaving and the cells formed were filled with a microquartz felt insulation.

  10. Thermal insulation blanket material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusch, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    A study was conducted to provide a tailorable advanced blanket insulation based on a woven design having an integrally woven core structure. A highly pure quartz yarn was selected for weaving and the cells formed were filled with a microquartz felt insulation.

  11. Ballistic Testing of Armor Weldments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-21

    Distribution unlimited %1 , A E S K T 5A •+ T K .4/ ¢ C+’ •; T . . .. This TOP describes ballistic tests to evaluate armor weldments for resistance to shock and...C-I 1. SCOPE. This TOP describes ballistic tests to evaluate armor weldments for resistance to shock and penetration...Operations Procedure (TOP) 2-2-711 Ballistic Testing of Armor Weldments WU A268445 6+ AuT I`S’•,+ r:’ 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) ANU; ADDRCSSI’t

  12. Stability Thresholds and Performance Standards for Flexible Lining Materials in Channel and Slope Restoration Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    erosion control products in this technical note. Full Term Abbreviation Brief Overview Source Erosion control blanket or temporary RECP ECB Temporary...riprap, concrete), soft or light armoring (e.g., erosion control blankets, ECBs , an early type of so-called rolled erosion control product, reinforced...temporary (includes ECBs ) and so-called “permanent” (includes TRMs). Erosion Control Blanket ( ECB ) - in erosion control, n. - a temporary degradable Rolled

  13. Performance of uncoated AFRSI blankets during multiple Space Shuttle flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawko, Paul M.; Goldstein, Howard E.

    1992-04-01

    Uncoated Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) blankets were successfully flown on seven consecutive flights of the Space Shuttle Orbiter OV-099 (Challenger). In six of the eight locations monitored (forward windshield, forward canopy, mid-fuselage, upper wing, rudder/speed brake, and vertical tail) the AFRSI blankets performed well during the ascent and reentry exposure to the thermal and aeroacoustic environments. Several of the uncoated AFRSI blankets that sustained minor damage, such as fraying or broken threads, could be repaired by sewing or by patching with a surface coating called C-9. The chief reasons for replacing or completely coating a blanket were fabric embrittlement and fabric abrasion caused by wind erosion. This occurred in the orbiter maneuvering system (OMS) pod sidewall and the forward mid-fuselage locations.

  14. Performance of uncoated AFRSI blankets during multiple Space Shuttle flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, Paul M.; Goldstein, Howard E.

    1992-01-01

    Uncoated Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) blankets were successfully flown on seven consecutive flights of the Space Shuttle Orbiter OV-099 (Challenger). In six of the eight locations monitored (forward windshield, forward canopy, mid-fuselage, upper wing, rudder/speed brake, and vertical tail) the AFRSI blankets performed well during the ascent and reentry exposure to the thermal and aeroacoustic environments. Several of the uncoated AFRSI blankets that sustained minor damage, such as fraying or broken threads, could be repaired by sewing or by patching with a surface coating called C-9. The chief reasons for replacing or completely coating a blanket were fabric embrittlement and fabric abrasion caused by wind erosion. This occurred in the orbiter maneuvering system (OMS) pod sidewall and the forward mid-fuselage locations.

  15. Ballistic Tests of Armor Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-07

    pass through the plate. Test samples can be in the form of flat plates (either rolled, cast, or welded), forgings, extrusions , castings, angular...welded joints, spaced armor arrangement, or composites. The materials currently being used or developed for armor ap- plications include steel, aluminum ...Quarter-scale mine test facility Described in para 5.7.2 Witness plates: steel Indicated in para 5.5.2 aluminum alloy Described in Appendix A para 𔃼c

  16. User s Manual for Armor Stone Evaluation Model (ARMOR): Great Lakes Armor Stone Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    5 2.1 Degradation model using mill abrasion data ............................................................... 5...27 4.3 Mill Abrasion Data...Figures Figure 1. Typical abrasion mill test results for a specific type of armor stone (after Latham 1991

  17. Highly deformable bones: unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse armor.

    PubMed

    Porter, Michael M; Novitskaya, Ekaterina; Castro-Ceseña, Ana Bertha; Meyers, Marc A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2013-06-01

    Multifunctional materials and devices found in nature serve as inspiration for advanced synthetic materials, structures and robotics. Here, we elucidate the architecture and unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse tails that provide prehension as well as protection against predators. The seahorse tail is composed of subdermal bony plates arranged in articulating ring-like segments that overlap for controlled ventral bending and twisting. The bony plates are highly deformable materials designed to slide past one another and buckle when compressed. This complex plate and segment motion, along with the unique hardness distribution and structural hierarchy of each plate, provide seahorses with joint flexibility while shielding them against impact and crushing. Mimicking seahorse armor may lead to novel bio-inspired technologies, such as flexible armor, fracture-resistant structures or prehensile robotics.

  18. Ballistic Testing of Personnel Armor Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-06

    Identity by block number) 7e)scribes methods for evaluating the resistance of personnel armor material. to perforation by attacking projectile fragments... armor vests, face shields , torso shield , leg armor , and protective suits. It is relatively light in weight, usually between 1/4 and 4 pounds per square...quantitative measures of the ability of body armor materials to completely stop or reduce the velocity (therefore lethality) of attacking fragments of various

  19. Armor and Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    MacLeish, Kenneth T.

    2013-01-01

    For many civilians, the high-tech weapons, armor, and military medicine with which U.S. soldiers are equipped present an image of lethal capacity and physical invulnerability. But, as this article explores, soldiers themselves just as often associate the life-sustaining technology of modern warfare with feelings that range from a pragmatic ambivalence about exposure to harm all the way to profoundly unsettling vulnerability. This article, based on fieldwork among soldiers and military families at the U.S. Army’s Ft. Hood, examines sensory and affective dimensions of soldiers’ intimate bodily relationships with the technologies that alternately or even simultaneously keep them alive and expose them to harm. I argue that modern military discipline and technology conspire to cultivate soldiers as highly durable, capable, unfeeling, interchangeable bodies, or what might be called, after Susan Buck-Morss (1992), anesthetic subjects. But for soldiers themselves, their training, combat environment, protective gear, and weapons are a rich font of both emotional and bodily feeling that exists in complex tension with the also deeply felt military imperative to carry on in the face of extreme discomfort and danger. PMID:22574391

  20. High temperature - low mass solar blanket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mesch, H. G.

    1979-01-01

    Interconnect materials and designs for use with ultrathin silicon solar cells are discussed, as well as the results of an investigation of the applicability of parallel-gap resistance welding for interconnecting these cells. Data relating contact pull strength and cell electrical degradation to variations in welding parameters such as time, voltage and pressure are presented. Methods for bonding ultrathin cells to flexible substances and for bonding thin (75 micrometers) covers to these cells are described. Also, factors influencing fabrication yield and approaches for increasing yield are discussed. The results of vacuum thermal cycling and thermal soak tests on prototype ultrathin cell test coupons and one solar module blanket are presented.

  1. Typical Reactive Armor Safety Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-02

    way. etc.). c. Penetration measurements into the backup armor of the dynamic or static rounds (i.e., partial or comple e penetration, depth of...ZP Oe) Alberdeen Prc~ving Ground , MD 21005-5059 Aberdeen Proving Ground , HD 21005-5055 as NAVE 0ýu- TLD,%G 57ON5ORNG 16 (VEif N8 9...OPFJPATIONS PROCEDURE AMSTE-RP-702-10 Test Operatiuns Procedure (TOP) 2-2-623 AD No. 2 April 1993 TYPICAL REACTIVE ARMOR SAFETY TESTS Paragraph 1

  2. Transient sheath overvoltages in armored power cables

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavsen, B.; Sletbak, J.

    1996-07-01

    This paper is concerned with methods of limiting the build-up of transient voltages between sheath and armor in long armored power cables. Calculations by a frequency dependent cable model demonstrate that this voltage can be efficiently limited to an acceptable level by introducing sheath-armor bondings at regular intervals, or by using a semiconductive sheath-armor interlayer. The paper investigates the required minimum length between bondings, as well as the required conductivity of the sheath-armor interlayer if the use of bondings is to be avoided.

  3. Thermal insulating conformal blanket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barney, Andrea (Inventor); Whittington, Charles A (Inventor); Eilertson, Bryan (Inventor); Siminski, Zenon (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The conformal thermal insulating blanket may have generally rigid batting material covered by an outer insulating layer formed of a high temperature resistant woven ceramic material and an inner insulating layer formed of a woven ceramic fiber material. The batting and insulating layers may be fastened together by sewing or stitching using an outer mold layer thread fabricated of a high temperature resistant material and an inner mold layer thread of a ceramic fiber material. The batting may be formed to a composite structure that may have a firmness factor sufficient to inhibit a pillowing effect after the stitching to not more than 0.03 inch. The outer insulating layer and an upper portion of the batting adjacent the outer insulating layer may be impregnated with a ceramic coating material.

  4. Research and Development on Armor, National Defense and Research Committee, Watertown Arsenal Laboratory - Armor Section, 1942-1945.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: Alloy Conservation Program; Brittle Fracture in Ballistic Tests at Low Temperature; Nonballistic Tests; Fibre Fracture Test; Fracture Test for Steel Soundness; Notched Bar Tensile Impact Test; Notched Bar Tensile Test and Static Tensile Test ; Notched Bar Impact Test; Cast Armor Development Program; Temper Brittleness in Armor; Aircraft Armor; Examination of Domestic Armor; Helmet Programs; and Body Armor Programs.

  5. Blanket comparison and selection study. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-10-01

    This volume contains extensive data for the following chapters: (1) solid breeder tritium recovery, (2) solid breeder blanket designs, (3) alternate blanket concept screening, and (4) safety analysis. The following appendices are also included: (1) blanket design guidelines, (2) power conversion systems, (3) helium-cooled, vanadium alloy structure blanket design, (4) high wall loading study, and (5) molten salt safety studies. (MOW)

  6. Sonically-Welded Thermal Blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bettini, R.; Citrin, F.

    1985-01-01

    Insulating layers joined by seams. Sonic welding saves time and reduces weight. Layers of blanket built up from alternating layers of polyester sheet and polyester net. Paper pattern showing lines along which layers are joined together placed over top layer.

  7. The Age of Armor from the Higgins Armory Museum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses an art exhibit, "The Age of Armor," presented by the Higgins Armory Museum (Worcester, Massachusetts). Includes the itinerary for the exhibit. Provides background information on armor as an artform and examples of armor. (CMK)

  8. BASELINE UT MEASUREMENTS FOR ARMOR INSPECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Margetan, Frank J.; Richter, Nate; Barnard, Dan; Hsu, David; Gray, Tim; Brasche, Lisa; Bruce Thompson, R.

    2010-02-22

    Some prototype armor panels are fabricated from several layers of dissimilar material bonded together. These may include ceramics, graphite composites, fiberglass composites and rubber. The ultrasonic properties of these layers influence inspections for armor defects. In this paper we describe measurements of ultrasonic velocity, attenuation, sound beam distortion and signal fluctuations for the individual layers comprising one armor prototype. We then discuss how knowledge of these properties can be used when choosing an optimum frequency for an ultrasonic pitch/catch immersion inspection. In our case an effective inspection frequency near 1.5 MHz affords: (1) adequate strength of through-transmitted signals in unflawed armor; (2) adequate lateral resolution for detecting small disbonds at interfaces; and (3) low levels of UT signal fluctuations due to the natural inhomogeneity of certain armor layers. The utility of this approach is demonstrated using armor panels containing artificial disbonds at selected interfaces.

  9. Progress on DCLL Blanket Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Clement; Abdou, M.; Katoh, Yutai; Kurtz, Richard J.; Lumsdaine, A.; Marriott, Edward P.; Merrill, Brad; Morley, Neil; Pint, Bruce A.; Sawan, M.; Smolentsev, S.; Williams, Brian; Willms, Scott; Youssef, M.

    2013-09-01

    Under the US Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology Development program, we have selected the Dual Coolant Lead Lithium concept (DCLL) as a reference blanket, which has the potential to be a high performance DEMO blanket design with a projected thermal efficiency of >40%. Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAF/M) steel is used as the structural material. The self-cooled breeder PbLi is circulated for power conversion and for tritium breeding. A SiC-based flow channel insert (FCI) is used as a means for magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop reduction from the circulating liquid PbLi and as a thermal insulator to separate the high-temperature PbLi (~700°C) from the helium-cooled RAF/M steel structure. We are making progress on related R&D needs to address critical Fusion Nuclear Science and Facility (FNSF) and DEMO blanket development issues. When performing the function as the Interface Coordinator for the DCLL blanket concept, we had been developing the mechanical design and performing neutronics, structural and thermal hydraulics analyses of the DCLL TBM module. We had estimated the necessary ancillary equipment that will be needed at the ITER site and a detailed safety impact report has been prepared. This provided additional understanding of the DCLL blanket concept in preparation for the FNSF and DEMO. This paper will be a summary report on the progress of the DCLL TBM design and R&Ds for the DCLL blanket concept.

  10. Patterned Armor Performance Evaluation for Multiple Impacts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    return it to the originator. Army Research Laboratory Aberdeen Proving Ground , MD 21005-5069 ARL-TR-3038 August 2003 Patterned Armor ...patterned armor performance against multiple impacts. This performance measure can then be compared to a well-posed multiple-hit criterion to assess...Aberdeen Proving Ground , MD, September 2002. de Rosset, W. S. Reactive Armor Model Sensitivity Studies; ARL-TR-1849; U.S. Army Research Laboratory

  11. US Army History and Role of Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-04-01

    Army armor mobile ground warfare, primarily offensive in units to achieve success in later battles. From character, by a self-sustaining unit of great... Armored was rain, and stubborn enemy resistance caused on a 6-hour alert. When the opportunity pre- the VI Corps to go over to the defensive on sented...were slow, War II were the major ground reconnaissance support-type actions without the spectacular units in our Army. They were lightly armored success

  12. Sensor Enhanced Armor Non Destructive Evaluation Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-11

    multiple layers) Phased Array Ultrasonic Scanning in H20 Handheld Prototype Testing Device Embedded sensors Unclassified X-ray and mm wave image of...NDT/ NDE Laboratory Unclassified Vehicle Display Views – Healthy Armor Unclassified NDE of Transparent Materials Phased Array Ultrasound Image...Provide ultrasonic , x-ray and mmwave imaging for armor damage analysis. • Explore various NDE options to support all armor recipies Objective: • Provide

  13. Does V50 Depend on Armor Mass?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-30

    150mm square samples of A36 sheet steel with a thickness of 6.35 mm for 3 bullets, the M80, the M193, and the M855 . The armor samples were placed in...150mm x 150mm square samples of A36 sheet steel with a thickness of 6.35 mm for 3 bullets, the M80, the M193, and the M855 . The armor samples were...standard metric for quantifying armor performance, is the velocity at which a projectile penetrates a given armor type 50% of the time. Final acceptance

  14. First wall and blanket module safety enhancement by material selection and design decision

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    A thermal/mechanical study has been performed which illustrates the behavior of a fusion reactor first wall and blanket module during a loss of coolant flow event. The relative safety advantages of various material and design options were determined. A generalized first wall-blanket concept was developed to provide the flexibility to vary the structural material (stainless steel vs titanium), coolant (helium vs water), and breeder material (liquid lithium vs solid lithium aluminate). In addition, independent vs common first wall-blanket cooling and coupled adjacent module cooling design options were included in the study. The comparative analyses were performed using a modified thermal analysis code to handle phase change problems.

  15. Foreign Blanket Orders: Precedent and practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedgeworth, Robert

    1970-01-01

    This investigation based upon a survey of 26 American and West European booksellers attemts to provide some basic information about foreign blanket orders. The characteristics of foreign blanket orders as well as the attitudes of the booksellers are summarized. (Author)

  16. 47 CFR 22.353 - Blanketing interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... are not required to resolve blanketing interference to mobile receivers or non-RF devices or... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES... Public Mobile Services stations are responsible for resolving cases of blanketing interference...

  17. Procurement Policy for Armored Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-27

    AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11 . SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT...Specifically, DoD awarded 11 sole-source contracts, valued at $416.7 million, to Force Protection, Inc., for armored vehicles and 4 sole-source contracts...Shaw Air Force Base was the contracting activity for the AHI contract with the Air Force. DoD Contracts With FPI. DoD awarded 11 contracts to FPI

  18. Enhanced stab resistance of armor composites with functionalized silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahfuz, Hassan; Clements, Floria; Rangari, Vijaya; Dhanak, Vinod; Beamson, Graham

    2009-03-01

    Traditionally shear thickening fluid (STF) reinforced with Kevlar has been used to develop flexible armor. At the core of the STF-Kevlar composites is a mixture of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and silica particles. This mixture is often known as STF and is consisted of approximately 45 wt % PEG and 55 wt % silica. During rheological tests, STF shows instantaneous spike in viscosity above a critical shear rate. Fabrication of STF-Kevlar composites requires preparation of STF, dilution with ethanol, and then impregnation with Kevlar. In the current approach, nanoscale silica particles were dispersed directly into a mixture of PEG and ethanol through a sonic cavitation process. Two types of silica nanoparticles were used in the investigation: 30 nm crystalline silica and 7 nm amorphous silica. The admixture was then reinforced with Kevlar fabric to produce flexible armor composites. In the next step, silica particles are functionalized with a silane coupling agent to enhance bonding between silica and PEG. The performance of the resulting armor composites improved significantly. As evidenced by National Institute of Justice spike tests, the energy required for zero-layer penetration (i.e., no penetration) jumped twofold: from 12 to 25 J cm2/g. The source of this improvement has been traced to the formation of siloxane (Si-O-Si) bonds between silica and PEG and superior coating of Kevlar filaments with particles. Fourier transform infrared, x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy studies were performed to examine chemical bonds, elemental composition, and particle dispersion responsible for such improvement. In summary, our experiments have demonstrated that functionalization of silica particles followed by direct dispersion into PEG resulted in superior Kevlar composites having much higher spike resistance.

  19. Ceramic Breeder Blanket for ARIES-CS

    SciTech Connect

    Raffray, A.R.; Malang, S.; El-Guebaly, L.; Wang, X.

    2005-05-15

    This paper describes the conceptual design of a ceramic breeder blanket considered as one of the candidate blankets in the first phase of the ARIES-CS study. The blanket is coupled to a Brayton power cycle to avoid the safety concern associated with the possibility of Be/steam reaction in case of accident.

  20. U.S. Army Armor in Limited War: Armor Employment Techniques in Korea and Vietnam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-29

    destroyed in battle.2 But a point had been made: armor could be employed effectively in Korea. Fifteen years later, American ground units deployed for the...Cavalry units, however, largely fought with the M113 Armored Personnel Carrier (APC) which they modified by attaching gun shields for its .50-caliber... ground operations in both wars, for the purposes of comparison, will be considered in three categories - offensive operations; armor or mounted units

  1. Fit Evaluation of Female Body Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    AAM1oRL-TR7-06 %lC JLL~ J FIT EVALUATION OF FEMALE BODY ARMOR (U) AD-A 188 721 - GREGORY E ZEHNER ARMSTRONG AEROSPACE MEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY CAY...Security Classification) Fit Evaluation of Female Body Armor (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Zehner, Gregory F.*; Ervin, Cay; Robinette, Kathleen M.*; and...Continue on reverse If necessary and Identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Female body armor Fit/protection Vests Fit testing 19. ABSTRACT

  2. Armored spring-core superconducting cable and method of construction

    DOEpatents

    McIntyre, Peter M.; Soika, Rainer H.

    2002-01-01

    An armored spring-core superconducting cable (12) is provided. The armored spring-core superconducting cable (12) may include a spring-core (20), at least one superconducting strand (24) wound onto the spring-core (20), and an armored shell (22) that encases the superconducting strands (24). The spring-core (20) is generally a perforated tube that allows purge gases and cryogenic liquids to be circulated through the armored superconducting cable (12), as well as managing the internal stresses within the armored spring-core superconducting cable (12). The armored shell (22) manages the external stresses of the armored spring-core superconducting cable (12) to protect the fragile superconducting strands (24). The armored spring-core superconducting cable (12) may also include a conductive jacket (34) formed outwardly of the armored shell (22).

  3. Conformable Self-Healing Ballistic Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-28

    armor piercing projectiles even from military rifles rep- which initiates a crack , the ceramic material will undergo continuous cracking or crazing ...part of ballistic protective armor systems is well-known because of the light weight of these materials as compared to steel and other solid...aUoy steel which provides protection against most heavy and explosive particles. Such 10 vehicles or vessels are frequently capable of selectively

  4. NDE of hybrid armor structures using acoustography

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, Jaswinder S.; Pergantis, Charles G.

    2011-06-23

    The US Army is investigating the use of composite materials to deliver lightweight and more effective armor protection systems to soldiers and other army assets. However, widespread use of such hybrid armor will require a reliable but fast NDE methodology to ensure integrity of these components during manufacturing and while in service. Traditional ultrasonic inspection of such hybrid armor structures may prove to be very effective, but point-by-point ultrasonic scanning is inherently time-consuming and manufacturing slowdowns could develop in high-volume production of such armor systems. In this paper, we report on the application of acoustography for the NDE of hybrid armor structures. Acoustography differs from conventional ultrasonic testing in that test objects are inspected in full field, analogously to real time x-ray imaging. The approach uses a novel, super high resolution large area acousto-optic (AO) sensor, which allows image formation through simple ultrasound shadow casting, analogous to x-ray image formation. This NDE approach offers significant inspection speed advantage over conventional point-by-point ultrasonic scanning procedures and is well-suited for high volume production. We will report initial results on a number of hybrid armor plate specimens employing composite materials that are being investigated by the US Army. Acoustography NDE results will also be verified using other complimentary NDE methods.

  5. Composite structural armor for combat vehicle applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskell, William E., III; Alesi, A. L.; Parsons, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Several projects that have demonstrated the advantages of using thick composite armor technology for structural applications in armored combat vehicles are discussed. The first involved composite cargo doors for the Marine Corps LVTP-7 amphibious landing vehicle. Another was a demonstration composite turret that offered a weight reduction of 15.5 percent. The advantages of this composite armor compared to metallic armors used for combat vehicle hull and turret applications are reduced weight at equal ballistic protection; reduced back armor spall; excellent corrosion resistance; reduced production costs by parts consolidation; and inherent thermal and acoustic insulative properties. Based on the encouraging results of these past programs, the Demonstration Composite Hull Program was started in September 1986. To demonstrate this composite armor technology, the Army's newest infantry fighting vehicle, the Bradley Fighting Vehicle (BFV), was selected as a model. A composite infantry fighting vehicle, designated the CIFV for this program, has been designed and fabricated and is currently undergoing a 6000 mile field endurance test. The CIFV demonstration vehicle uses the BFV engine, transmission, suspension, track and other equipment.

  6. Thermomechanical analysis of the ITER breeding blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, S.; Gruhn, H.; Gohar, Y.; Giegerich, M.

    1997-03-01

    Thermomechanical performance of the ITER breeding blanket is an important design issue because it requires first, that the thermal expansion mismatch between the blanket structure and the blankets internals (such as, beryllium multiplier and tritium breeders) can be accommodated without creating high stresses, and second, that the thermomechanical deformation of various interfaces within the blanket does not create high resistance to heat flow and consequent unacceptably high temperatures in the blanket materials. Thermomechanical analysis of a single beryllium block sandwiched between two stainless steel plates was carried out using the finite element code ABAQUS to illustrate the importance of elastic deformation on the temperature distributions. Such an analysis for the whole ITER blanket needs to be conducted in the future. Uncertainties in the thermomechanical contact analysis can be reduced by bonding the beryllium blocks to the stainless steel plates by a thin soft interfacial layer.

  7. Packed fluidized bed blanket for fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Chi, John W. H.

    1984-01-01

    A packed fluidized bed blanket for a fusion reactor providing for efficient radiation absorption for energy recovery, efficient neutron absorption for nuclear transformations, ease of blanket removal, processing and replacement, and on-line fueling/refueling. The blanket of the reactor contains a bed of stationary particles during reactor operation, cooled by a radial flow of coolant. During fueling/refueling, an axial flow is introduced into the bed in stages at various axial locations to fluidize the bed. When desired, the fluidization flow can be used to remove particles from the blanket.

  8. Toughened Thermal Blanket for MMOD Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Lear, Dana M.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal blankets are used extensively on spacecraft to provide passive thermal control of spacecraft hardware from thermal extremes encountered in space. Toughened thermal blankets have been developed that greatly improve protection from hypervelocity micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts. These blankets can be outfitted if so desired with a reliable means to determine the location, depth and extent of MMOD impact damage by incorporating an impact sensitive piezoelectric film. Improved MMOD protection of thermal blankets was obtained by adding selective materials at various locations within the thermal blanket. As given in Figure 1, three types of materials were added to the thermal blanket to enhance its MMOD performance: (1) disrupter layers, near the outside of the blanket to improve breakup of the projectile, (2) standoff layers, in the middle of the blanket to provide an area or gap that the broken-up projectile can expand, and (3) stopper layers, near the back of the blanket where the projectile debris is captured and stopped. The best suited materials for these different layers vary. Density and thickness is important for the disrupter layer (higher densities generally result in better projectile breakup), whereas a highstrength to weight ratio is useful for the stopper layer, to improve the slowing and capture of debris particles.

  9. Stability of hard plates on soft substrates and application to the design of bioinspired segmented armor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, R.; Barthelat, F.

    2016-07-01

    Flexible natural armors from fish, alligators or armadillo are attracting an increasing amount of attention from their unique and attractive combinations of hardness, flexibility and light weight. In particular, the extreme contrast of stiffness between hard plates and surrounding soft tissues give rise to unusual and attractive mechanisms, which now serve as model for the design of bio-inspired armors. Despite a growing interest in bio-inspired flexible protection, there is little guidelines as to the choice of materials, optimum thickness, size, shape and arrangement for the protective plates. In this work, we focus on a failure mode we recently observed on natural and bio-inspired scaled armors: the unstable tilting of individual scales subjected to off-centered point forces. We first present a series of experiments on this system, followed by a model based on contact mechanics and friction. We condense the result into a single stability diagram which capture the key parameters that govern the onset of plate tilting from a localized force. We found that the stability of individual plates is governed by the location of the point force on the plate, by the friction at the surface of the plate, by the size of the plate and by the stiffness of the substrate. We finally discuss how some of these parameters can be optimized at the design stage to produce bio-inspired protective systems with desired combination of surface hardness, stability and flexural compliance.

  10. Armored Battle Groups in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-31

    ARMORED BATTLE GROUPS IN THE 21ST CENTURY BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL WENDELL D. KOT )STIRUMtN STATE9M A: Approved fer public releft. distribution is izulatated...RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (’ Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED ARMORED BATTLE GROUPS IN THE 21ST CENTURY i Individual Study Project 6...alternative to today’s heavy division force structure - Armored Battle Groups is examined. The Armored Battle Group organization devel- oped in the paper

  11. Enhanced plasma current collection from weakly conducting solar array blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillard, G. Barry

    1993-01-01

    Among the solar cell technologies to be tested in space as part of the Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE) will be the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA). Several prototype twelve cell coupons were built for NASA using different blanket materials and mounting techniques. The first conforms to the baseline design for APSA which calls for the cells to be mounted on a carbon loaded Kapton blanket to control charging in GEO. When deployed, this design has a flexible blanket supported around the edges. A second coupon was built with the cells mounted on Kapton-H, which was in turn cemented to a solid aluminum substrate. A final coupon was identical to the latter but used germanium coated Kapton to control atomic oxygen attack in LEO. Ground testing of these coupons in a plasma chamber showed considerable differences in plasma current collection. The Kapton-H coupon demonstrated current collection consistent with exposed interconnects and some degree of cell snapover. The other two coupons experienced anomalously large collection currents. This behavior is believed to be a consequence of enhanced plasma sheaths supported by the weakly conducting carbon and germanium used in these coupons. The results reported here are the first experimental evidence that the use of such materials can result in power losses to high voltage space power systems.

  12. Capillary breakup of armored liquid filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jun; Lin, Fangye; Ji, Chen

    2017-06-01

    An armored liquid filament is a liquid column wherein particles reside on the liquid-air interface rather than in the bulk of the filament, as is true of a suspension filament. Herein, the capillary breakup of armored liquid filaments is studied using a high-speed camera, where the thinning process can be divided into three stages: the armored liquid stage, the transition stage, and the liquid stage. At the armored liquid stage, the thinning is approximately uniform along the filament. In the transition stage, local deformation occurs and thinning is accelerated owing to the large curvature along the filament. Finally, at the liquid stage, the thinning behavior is similar to that of particle-free filaments. The main focus in the present work is on the armored liquid stage, wherein the volume density of particles in the liquid filament remains nearly constant. In addition, the relative distances between particles in the axial direction on the filament do not change at this stage. By defining an effective surface tension γeff, a model is established to estimate the neck thinning process at this stage.

  13. Roughness of stable, armored gravel beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Basil

    1993-11-01

    The grain roughness of stable armored beds that formed in a laboratory flume under a range of steady flow conditions on rounded, flat and angular gravel is analyzed. Gravel roughness geometry is determined from bed surface profiles and vertical photographs. These techniques have been employed in field situations. Thus the methodology is potentially applicable to the analysis of grain roughness in natural gravel bed channels. The description of representative roughness geometry is also analogous to that used to characterize artificial roughness arrays. Armor roughness increases with increasing flow. Armored surfaces composed of angular gravel are roughest, and surfaces formed of flat gravel offer least resistance to the flow. Stable armored beds may exhibit a tendency to maximize the ratio of the shear due to drag on representative roughness elements to total shear. Roughness concentration is strongly correlated with the energy slope, and there is a linear increase in equivalent roughness height with increasing roughness concentration. The friction factor for an armored surface varies in a linear manner with representative roughness geometry. The equation defining this relation is probably similar to that used to characterize variations in the friction factor with artificial roughness geometry at low roughness concentrations. However, to reconcile the relations for artificial and natural roughness completely, it may be necessary to explicitly consider the contribution to flow resistance made by roughness shape, background roughness, and blocking in shallow flows.

  14. Psychosomatic effects of blanketing in nursing care.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Namiji; Fukai, Kiyoko

    2017-04-01

    Blanketing, which involves covering patients with a blanket in order to maintain their body temperature and privacy and help alleviate the stress that is associated with medical procedures, is a fundamental skill in nursing care. However, the actual therapeutic effects of blanketing have not been adequately investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the psychosomatic effects of blanketing in nursing care by observing autonomic nervous activity. This single-cohort, intra-participant, comparative cross-over study included 30 healthy female adolescents. Two of the 30 participants were excluded from the analysis. After splitting the participants into blanketing and non-blanketing groups, the stress and anxiety that patients undergo during nursing care was simulated and the responses were analyzed by using psychological and physiological indicators. The parametric data were analyzed by using a paired t-test or one-way ANOVA and the non-parametric data were analyzed by using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The significance level was <5%. No significant difference was seen between the two groups in vital signs, salivary alpha-amylase activity, respiratory movement or skin surface temperature. However, the postintervention scores for "Tension-Anxiety" in the Profile of Mood States - Brief Form were significantly lower for the blanketed than the non-blanketed arm, "sense of ease" and "feeling protected" were significantly higher for the blanketed arm, and in the middle intervention segment, the parasympathetic nervous activity and sympathetic nervous activity were significantly higher and lower, respectively, for the blanketed arm. These results suggest that blanketing is effective in relieving psychological stress and promoting a sense of ease among patients who are receiving nursing care. © 2016 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  15. Armor: Metallurgical Examination of Cast Gun Shield Armor Four to Six Inches in Thickness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1943-05-17

    thick cast armor plates to Aberdeen Proving Ground for ballistic testin?. Thesp plates represent sections of gun shield castings. Sev^rpl of ths...1+6 UNCLASSIFIED May 17. 19^3 ABhOR Metallurgical Exajnination of Cast Gun Shield Armor Four to Six Inches in Thickness •le. ■ ■ r/^OBJECT 1...T^TTT 1 ::t^’*jom ATiEIALS ülT3 TEST PROCEM] Cast Armor Sections Sections cut from 10 test plates representing gun shield castings were examined

  16. Ballistic armor and method of producing same

    SciTech Connect

    Vanark, V.C.; Ford, T.M. Sonmino, C.B.

    1993-08-17

    A method is described of producing ballistic armor comprising the steps of: liquifying ballistic metal alloy; transferring said metal alloy in a liquid state to a tundish; supplying a controlled stream of said liquid metal alloy from said tundish to a gas atomizer having a pressurized inert gas feed; impacting said stream by a high velocity jet of inert gas to produce a stream of metal alloy particles; spraying said metal alloy particles onto a collector to form a dense ballistic armor preform; cooling of the metal alloy particles during said spraying at a rate of 10[sup 5] C/second to 10[sup 3] C/second, and mechanically working said preform to finish said preform into a desired ballistic armor shaped for fuse in military applications.

  17. Thermal modeling of W rod armor.

    SciTech Connect

    Nygren, Richard Einar

    2004-09-01

    Sandia has developed and tested mockups armored with W rods over the last decade and pioneered the initial development of W rod armor for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) in the 1990's. We have also developed 2D and 3D thermal and stress models of W rod-armored plasma facing components (PFCs) and test mockups and are applying the models to both short pulses, i.e. edge localized modes (ELMs), and thermal performance in steady state for applications in C-MOD, DiMES testing and ITER. This paper briefly describes the 2D and 3D models and their applications with emphasis on modeling for an ongoing test program that simulates repeated heat loads from ITER ELMs.

  18. Resonance and streaming of armored microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spelman, Tamsin; Bertin, Nicolas; Stephen, Olivier; Marmottant, Philippe; Lauga, Eric

    2015-11-01

    A new experimental technique involves building a hollow capsule which partially encompasses a microbubble, creating an ``armored microbubble'' with long lifespan. Under acoustic actuation, such bubble produces net streaming flows. In order to theoretically model the induced flow, we first extend classical models of free bubbles to describe the streaming flow around a spherical body for any known axisymmetric shape oscillation. A potential flow model is then employed to determine the resonance modes of the armored microbubble. We finally use a more detailed viscous model to calculate the surface shape oscillations at the experimental driving frequency, and from this we predict the generated streaming flows.

  19. GCFR radial blanket and shield experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Muckenthaler, F.J.; Hull, J.L.; Manning, J.J.

    1980-12-01

    This report presents integral neutron flux, energy spectra, and gamma-ray heating measurements made for the Radial Blanket and Shield Experiment at the ORNL Tower Shielding Facility as part of a continuing Gas Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor program. The experimental configurations were divided into four basic segments: a spectrum modifier inserted into the Tower Shielding Reactor II beam; blanket slabs consisting of either ThO/sub 2/ or UO/sub 2/ placed directly behind the spectrum modifier; an inner radial shield behind the blankets; and an outer radial shield to complete the mockup. The segments were added in sequence, with selected measurements made within and beyond each segment. The integral experiment was performed to provide verification of calculational methods and nuclear data used in designing a radial shield for the GCFR and determining the effectiveness of the design. The ThO/sub 2/ blanket measurements were needed to bracket the uncertainties in the nuclear cross sections for calculating both the neutron transmission through the blanket and the gamma-ray heating rates within the blanket. Measurements with a UO/sub 2/ blanket were included both as a reference for the ThO/sub 2/ analysis, neutron transmission through UO/sub 2/ having been successfully calculated in previous experiments, and to provide comparison information for other breeder reactor designs.

  20. ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect

    WONG, CPC; MALANG, S; NISHIO, S; RAFFRAY, R; SAGARA, S

    2002-04-01

    OAK A271 ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS. First wall and blanket (FW/blanket) design is a crucial element in the performance and acceptance of a fusion power plant. High temperature structural and breeding materials are needed for high thermal performance. A suitable combination of structural design with the selected materials is necessary for D-T fuel sufficiency. Whenever possible, low afterheat, low chemical reactivity and low activation materials are desired to achieve passive safety and minimize the amount of high-level waste. Of course the selected fusion FW/blanket design will have to match the operational scenarios of high performance plasma. The key characteristics of eight advanced high performance FW/blanket concepts are presented in this paper. Design configurations, performance characteristics, unique advantages and issues are summarized. All reviewed designs can satisfy most of the necessary design goals. For further development, in concert with the advancement in plasma control and scrape off layer physics, additional emphasis will be needed in the areas of first wall coating material selection, design of plasma stabilization coils, consideration of reactor startup and transient events. To validate the projected performance of the advanced FW/blanket concepts the critical element is the need for 14 MeV neutron irradiation facilities for the generation of necessary engineering design data and the prediction of FW/blanket components lifetime and availability.

  1. Lightweight Integrally Armored Floor (LIAF) Ballistic Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    UHMWPE ), and a mini-core sandwich structure which serves as the walking surface of the floor system (Figure 1). Specimen details are covered in...SIDE Strike Face Backing Plate (walking surface) Ballistic Material ( UHMWPE ) Projectile Lightweight Integrally Armored Floor (LIAF

  2. Promoting Improved Ballistic Resistance of Transparent Armor

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, Andrew A; Patel, P; Templeton, D W

    2011-01-01

    Transparent armor is a material or system of materials designed to be optically transparent, yet protect from fragmentation or ballistic impacts. Although engineered to defeat specific threats, or a range of threats, there are general requirements common to all of these designs. The primary requirement for a transparent armor system is to not only defeat the designated threat but also provide a multi-hit capability with minimized distortion of surrounding areas. Ground platforms have several parameters that must be optimized, such as weight, space efficiency, and cost versus performance. Glass exhibits tensile failure stress that is very much dependent on the amount of material being stressed, the side being tensile-stressed (i.e., air-versus tin-side if a float glass), and where it is being tensile stressed (i.e., in the middle or near an edge). An axiom arising from those effects is a greater amount of allowable deflection (i.e., higher failure stress) of a ballistically impacted transparent armor will result in improved ballistic resistance. Therefore, the interpretation and management of those tensile-failure-stress dependencies shall ultimately improve ballistic resistance and its predictability of transparent armor. Each of those three dependencies (size, side, and location) in a soda-lime silicate glass is described.

  3. Joining of Tungsten Armor Using Functional Gradients

    SciTech Connect

    John Scott O'Dell

    2006-12-31

    The joining of low thermal expansion armor materials such as tungsten to high thermal expansion heat sink materials has been a major problem in plasma facing component (PFC) development. Conventional planar bonding techniques have been unable to withstand the high thermal induced stresses resulting from fabrication and high heat flux testing. During this investigation, innovative functional gradient joints produced using vacuum plasma spray forming techniques have been developed for joining tungsten armor to copper alloy heat sinks. A model was developed to select the optimum gradient architecture. Based on the modeling effort, a 2mm copper rich gradient was selected. Vacuum plasma pray parameters and procedures were then developed to produce the functional gradient joint. Using these techniques, dual cooling channel, medium scale mockups (32mm wide x 400mm length) were produced with vacuum plasma spray formed tungsten armor. The thickness of the tungsten armor was up to 5mm thick. No evidence of debonding at the interface between the heat sink and the vacuum plasma sprayed material was observed.

  4. Analysis of behind the armor ballistic trauma.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yaoke; Xu, Cheng; Wang, Shu; Batra, R C

    2015-05-01

    The impact response of body armor composed of a ceramic plate with an ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber-reinforced composite and layers of UHMWPE fibers shielding a block of ballistic gelatin has been experimentally and numerically analyzed. It is a surrogate model for studying injuries to human torso caused by a bullet striking body protection armor placed on a person. Photographs taken with a high speed camera are used to determine deformations of the armor and the gelatin. The maximum depth of the temporary cavity formed in the ballistic gelatin and the peak pressure 40mm behind the center of the gelatin front face contacting the armor are found to be, respectively, ~34mm and ~15MPa. The Johnson-Holmquist material model has been used to simulate deformations and failure of the ceramic. The UHMWPE fiber-reinforced composite and the UHMWPE fiber layers are modeled as linear elastic orthotropic materials. The gelatin is modeled as a strain-rate dependent hyperelastic material. Values of material parameters are taken from the open literature. The computed evolution of the temporary cavity formed in the gelatin is found to qualitatively agree with that seen in experiments. Furthermore, the computed time histories of the average pressure at four points in the gelatin agree with the corresponding experimentally measured ones. The maximum pressure at a point and the depth of the temporary cavity formed in the gelatin can be taken as measures of the severity of the bodily injury caused by the impact; e.g. see the United States National Institute of Justice standard 0101.06-Ballistic Resistance of Body Armor.

  5. Task-specific effects of modular body armor.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Brianna; Netto, Kevin; Aisbett, Brad

    2014-04-01

    Eleven recreationally active males performed 11 circuits of military work, wearing torso armor on one occasion, and full armor on another. Performance was measured by the time taken to complete individual tasks, and the overall time to completion (TTC) for each circuit. Heart rate, intestinal temperature, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and thermal sensation were recorded after each circuit. Participants' circuit TTC was no different between conditions; however, specific tasks were differentially impeded by the two armor configurations. Vaulting and crawling were significantly slower (0.28 ± 0.06 and 0.55 ± 0.26 seconds) in full armor; however, box lifting and shooting were significantly slower (0.36 ± 0.18 and 0.86 ± 0.23 seconds) when wearing torso armor. Heart rate and core temperature were significantly higher during the full armor trial (5 ± 1 beats · min(-1) and 0.22 ± 0.03 °C). Similarly, RPE and thermal sensation were significantly higher (1 ± 0 and 0.5 ± 0.0) during the full armor condition. Military tasks were differentially impaired by the armor configurations used, which suggests a need to explore role-specific armor for military personnel. Physiological and perceptual responses were elevated in full armor, which could be exacerbated during longer periods of work or in hot conditions.

  6. Method of fabricating a multilayer insulation blanket

    DOEpatents

    Gonczy, J.D.; Niemann, R.C.; Boroski, W.N.

    1993-07-06

    An improved multilayer insulation blanket for insulating cryogenic structures operating at very low temperatures is disclosed. An apparatus and method for fabricating the improved blanket are also disclosed. In the improved blanket, each successive layer of insulating material is greater in length and width than the preceding layer so as to accommodate thermal contraction of the layers closest to the cryogenic structure. The fabricating apparatus has a rotatable cylindrical mandrel having an outer surface of fixed radius that is substantially arcuate, preferably convex, in cross-section. The method of fabricating the improved blanket comprises (a) winding a continuous sheet of thermally reflective material around the circumference of the mandrel to form multiple layers, (b) binding the layers along two lines substantially parallel to the edges of the circumference of the mandrel, (c) cutting the layers along a line parallel to the axle of the mandrel, and (d) removing the bound layers from the mandrel.

  7. Method of fabricating a multilayer insulation blanket

    DOEpatents

    Gonczy, John D.; Niemann, Ralph C.; Boroski, William N.

    1993-01-01

    An improved multilayer insulation blanket for insulating cryogenic structures operating at very low temperatures is disclosed. An apparatus and method for fabricating the improved blanket are also disclosed. In the improved blanket, each successive layer of insulating material is greater in length and width than the preceding layer so as to accommodate thermal contraction of the layers closest to the cryogenic structure. The fabricating apparatus has a rotatable cylindrical mandrel having an outer surface of fixed radius that is substantially arcuate, preferably convex, in cross-section. The method of fabricating the improved blanket comprises (a) winding a continuous sheet of thermally reflective material around the circumference of the mandrel to form multiple layers, (b) binding the layers along two lines substantially parallel to the edges of the circumference of the mandrel, (c) cutting the layers along a line parallel to the axle of the mandrel, and (d) removing the bound layers from the mandrel.

  8. Multilayer insulation blanket, fabricating apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Gonczy, J.D.; Niemann, R.C.; Boroski, W.N.

    1992-09-01

    An improved multilayer insulation blanket for insulating cryogenic structures operating at very low temperatures is disclosed. An apparatus and method for fabricating the improved blanket are also disclosed. In the improved blanket, each successive layer of insulating material is greater in length and width than the preceding layer so as to accommodate thermal contraction of the layers closest to the cryogenic structure. The fabricating apparatus has a rotatable cylindrical mandrel having an outer surface of fixed radius that is substantially arcuate, preferably convex, in cross-section. The method of fabricating the improved blanket comprises (a) winding a continuous sheet of thermally reflective material around the circumference of the mandrel to form multiple layers, (b) binding the layers along two lines substantially parallel to the edges of the circumference of the mandrel, (c) cutting the layers along a line parallel to the axle of the mandrel, and (d) removing the bound layers from the mandrel. 7 figs.

  9. Multilayer insulation blanket, fabricating apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Gonczy, John D.; Niemann, Ralph C.; Boroski, William N.

    1992-01-01

    An improved multilayer insulation blanket for insulating cryogenic structures operating at very low temperatures is disclosed. An apparatus and method for fabricating the improved blanket are also disclosed. In the improved blanket, each successive layer of insulating material is greater in length and width than the preceding layer so as to accommodate thermal contraction of the layers closest to the cryogenic structure. The fabricating apparatus has a rotatable cylindrical mandrel having an outer surface of fixed radius that is substantially arcuate, preferably convex, in cross-section. The method of fabricating the improved blanket comprises (a) winding a continuous sheet of thermally reflective material around the circumference of the mandrel to form multiple layers, (b) binding the layers along two lines substantially parallel to the edges of the circumference of the mandrel, (c) cutting the layers along a line parallel to the axle of the mandrel, and (d) removing the bound layers from the mandrel.

  10. APT target-blanket fabrication development

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.L.

    1997-06-13

    Concepts for producing tritium in an accelerator were translated into hardware for engineering studies of tritium generation, heat transfer, and effects of proton-neutron flux on materials. Small-scale target- blanket assemblies were fabricated and material samples prepared for these performance tests. Blanket assemblies utilize composite aluminum-lead modules, the two primary materials of the blanket. Several approaches are being investigated to produce large-scale assemblies, developing fabrication and assembly methods for their commercial manufacture. Small-scale target-blanket assemblies, designed and fabricated at the Savannah River Site, were place in Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) for irradiation. They were subjected to neutron flux for nine months during 1996-97. Coincident with this test was the development of production methods for large- scale modules. Increasing module size presented challenges that required new methods to be developed for fabrication and assembly. After development, these methods were demonstrated by fabricating and assembling two production-scale modules.

  11. Multifractal Framework Based on Blanket Method

    PubMed Central

    Paskaš, Milorad P.; Reljin, Irini S.; Reljin, Branimir D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes two local multifractal measures motivated by blanket method for calculation of fractal dimension. They cover both fractal approaches familiar in image processing. The first two measures (proposed Methods 1 and 3) support model of image with embedded dimension three, while the other supports model of image embedded in space of dimension three (proposed Method 2). While the classical blanket method provides only one value for an image (fractal dimension) multifractal spectrum obtained by any of the proposed measures gives a whole range of dimensional values. This means that proposed multifractal blanket model generalizes classical (monofractal) blanket method and other versions of this monofractal approach implemented locally. Proposed measures are validated on Brodatz image database through texture classification. All proposed methods give similar classification results, while average computation time of Method 3 is substantially longer. PMID:24578664

  12. 49 CFR 366.5 - Blanket designations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FMCSA a list of process agents for each State and DC (blanket agent), motor carriers, brokers and... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DESIGNATION OF PROCESS...

  13. Silver Teflon blanket: LDEF tray C-08

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crutcher, E. Russ; Nishimura, L. S.; Warner, K. J.; Wascher, W. W.

    1992-01-01

    A study of the Teflon blanket surface at the edge of tray C-08 illustrates the complexity of the microenvironments on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The distribution of particulate contaminants varied dramatically over a distance of half a centimeter (quarter of an inch) near the edge of the blanket. The geometry and optical effects of the atomic oxygen erosion varied significantly over the few centimeters where the blanket folded over the edge of the tray resulting in a variety of orientations to the atomic oxygen flux. A very complex region of combined mechanical and atomic oxygen damage occurred where the blanket contacted the edge of the tray. A brown film deposit apparently fixed by ultraviolet light traveling by reflection through the Teflon film was conspicuous beyond the tray contract zone. Chemical and structural analysis of the surface of the brown film and beyond toward the protected edge of the blanket indicated some penetration of energetic atomic oxygen at least five millimeters past the blanket-tray contact interface.

  14. Morphometric structural diversity of a natural armor assembly investigated by 2D continuum strain analysis.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Swati; Song, Juha; Li, Yaning; Boyce, Mary C; Ortiz, Christine

    2015-12-01

    Many armored fish scale assemblies use geometric heterogeneity of subunits as a design parameter to provide tailored biomechanical flexibility while maintaining protection from external penetrative threats. This study analyzes the spatially varying shape of individual ganoid scales as a structural element in a biological system, the exoskeleton of the armored fish Polypterus senegalus (bichir). X-ray microcomputed tomography is used to generate digital 3D reconstructions of the mineralized scales. Landmark-based geometric morphometrics is used to measure the geometric variation among scales and to define a set of geometric parameters to describe shape variation. A formalism using continuum mechanical strain analysis is developed to quantify the spatial geometry change of the scales and illustrate the mechanisms of shape morphing between scales. Five scale geometry variants are defined (average, anterior, tail, ventral, and pectoral fin) and their functional implications are discussed in terms of the interscale mobility mechanisms that enable flexibility within the exoskeleton. The results suggest that shape variation in materials design, inspired by structural biological materials, can allow for tunable behavior in flexible composites made of segmented scale assemblies to achieve enhanced user mobility, custom fit, and flexibility around joints for a variety of protective applications. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Interface Defeat of Long-Rod Projectiles by Ceramic Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Interface Defeat of Long-Rod Projectiles by Ceramic Armor by George E. Hauver, Edward J. Rapacki, Jr., Paul H. Netherwood, and Ralph F. Benck...21005-5066 ARL-TR-3590 September 2005 Interface Defeat of Long-Rod Projectiles by Ceramic Armor George E. Hauver, Edward J. Rapacki, Jr...NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Interface Defeat of Long-Rod Projectiles by Ceramic Armor 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  16. Embedded Non-Destructive Evaluation for Glass Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-05

    Unclassified In House NDE and Electromagnetic Compatibility Capabilities Millimeter wave Scanning Imager Phased Array Ultrasound Immersion Tank Low...DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Embedded NDE for Glass Armor Sensor Enhanced Armor- Non-Destructive...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Unclassified Armor Solutions Tested with Ultrasonics NDT/E leading to Sensor Enhanced

  17. Constrained ceramic-filled polymer armor

    DOEpatents

    Sandstrom, Donald J.; Calkins, Noel C.; Gac, Frank D.

    1990-01-01

    An armor system in which a plurality of constraint cells are mounted on a surface of a substrate, which is metal armor plate or a similar tough material, such that the cells almost completely cover the surface of the substrate. Each constraint cell has a projectile-receiving wall parallel to the substrate surface and has sides which are perpendicular to and surround the perimeter of the receiving wall. The cells are mounted such that, in one embodiment, the substrate surface serves as a sixth side or closure for each cell. Each cell has inside of it a plate, termed the front plate, which is parallel to and in contact with substantially all of the inside surface of the receiving wall. The balance of each cell is completely filled with a projectile-abrading material, which is a ceramic material in particulate form dispersed in a polymeric matrix.

  18. Constrained ceramic-filled polymer armor

    DOEpatents

    Sandstrom, D.J.; Calkins, N.C.; Gac, F.D.

    1990-11-13

    An armor system is disclosed in which a plurality of constraint cells are mounted on a surface of a substrate, which is metal armor plate or a similar tough material, such that the cells almost completely cover the surface of the substrate. Each constraint cell has a projectile-receiving wall parallel to the substrate surface and has sides which are perpendicular to and surround the perimeter of the receiving wall. The cells are mounted such that, in one embodiment, the substrate surface serves as a sixth side or closure for each cell. Each cell has inside of it a plate, termed the front plate, which is parallel to and in contact with substantially all of the inside surface of the receiving wall. The balance of each cell is completely filled with a projectile-abrading material, which is a ceramic material in particulate form dispersed in a polymeric matrix. 5 figs.

  19. Armor breakup and reformation in a degradational laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orrú, Clara; Blom, Astrid; Uijttewaal, Wim S. J.

    2016-06-01

    Armor breakup and reformation was studied in a laboratory experiment using a trimodal mixture composed of a 1 mm sand fraction and two gravel fractions (6 and 10 mm). The initial bed was characterized by a stepwise downstream fining pattern (trimodal reach) and a downstream sand reach, and the experiment was conducted under conditions without sediment supply. In the initial stage of the experiment an armor formed over the trimodal reach. The formation of the armor under partial transport conditions led to an abrupt spatial transition in the bed slope and in the mean grain size of the bed surface, as such showing similar results to a previous laboratory experiment conducted with a bimodal mixture. The focus of the current analysis is to study the mechanisms of armor breakup. After an increase in flow rate the armor broke up and a new coarser armor quickly formed. The breakup initially induced a bed surface fining due to the exposure of the finer substrate, which was accompanied by a sudden increase in the sediment transport rate, followed by the formation of an armor that was coarser than the initial one. The reformation of the armor was enabled by the supply of coarse material from the upstream degrading reach and the presence of gravel in the original substrate sediment. Here armor breakup and reformation enabled slope adjustment such that the new steady state was closer to normal flow conditions.

  20. A Crashworthy Armored Pilot Seat for Helicopters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-01-18

    Configuration 14 III Resoons, of F/A &Mmbars 17 IV Summay of Drop Tests 29 V Summary of Horizontal Sled Test 32 VI AcmY Armored E/A Cram=n Swot , Test Results...and 3. !st Conditions: 3 hours of vibration, resonance search, dwell and cycling in each of three (3) axes, 5 to 500 Hz maxi - mum of +2.5 g. ;sults: No

  1. Composite treatment of ceramic tile armor

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, James G. R. [Oak Ridge, TN; Frame, Barbara J [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-12-14

    An improved ceramic tile armor has a core of boron nitride and a polymer matrix composite (PMC) facing of carbon fibers fused directly to the impact face of the tile. A polyethylene fiber composite backing and spall cover are preferred. The carbon fiber layers are cured directly onto the tile, not adhered using a separate adhesive so that they are integral with the tile, not a separate layer.

  2. Composite treatment of ceramic tile armor

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, James G. R. [Oak Ridge, TN; Frame, Barbara J [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-01-02

    An improved ceramic tile armor has a core of boron nitride and a polymer matrix composite (PMC) facing of carbon fibers fused directly to the impact face of the tile. A polyethylene fiber composite backing and spall cover are preferred. The carbon fiber layers are cured directly onto the tile, not adhered using a separate adhesive so that they are integral with the tile, not a separate layer.

  3. Embedded Health Monitoring for Glass Like Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-13

    container is then encased in a steel container. The circuit board needs to fit in the space between the glass plates and the plastic box...sides of the cube. Each circuit board is aligned with the glass plates so that it has four LED’s and four phototransistors used for detection per layer...of armor protection for vehicles which consists of several layers of glass plates . The plates are inserted in a plastic box and epoxy material is

  4. Development of Diagnostics for Electromagnetic Armor Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    with plate voltage as measured by a standard resistance voltage-divider. It was thought that having the back plane insulated from the ground plate...elucidate the defeat mechanisms. In one possible EM armor design, an outer hull would serve as the electrical ground plate, while an inner, insulated...the run, the relay is closed, placing the dump resistor directly across the hot plate and ground . 2.4 Current Measurements Techniques. The circuit

  5. Armored Combat Vehicles Science and Technology Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    analysis0 SS 94 GHz TRANSMITTER/RECEIVER MODULE Provide low cost transciever modules for pulsed, FMCW or FSK radars at 35-100 Gfz. STAC!LTZATTOU...prepared by TACOM. 3 !. ... Ill11111iilIl 0 1 lPI IPIt’IlA BEST AVAILABLE.COPY The Armored Combat Vehicle Science and Technology Base Development program...classes of Army Systems including Radar , E-O, AD. Communications, Missiles and EW. NETWORK MANAGEMENT INTEGRATION - BATTLEFIELD INFORMATION

  6. Improved High Strength Armor Steel through Texturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    80 I 14 02w INTRODUCTION During metal manufacturing processing, such as rolling of sheet and plate, the polycrystalline aggregate of the material...of the quenched martensite has been documented by previous investigators including Kula and Dhosi who ob- served that thermomechanical processing can...textured armor steel exhibits improved ballistic resistance to conventionally uncontrolled rolled steels of equal hardness at normal obliquity. This

  7. Armoring confined bubbles in concentrated colloidal suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yingxian; Khodaparast, Sepideh; Stone, Howard

    2016-11-01

    Encapsulation of a bubble with microparticles is known to significantly improve the stability of the bubble. This phenomenon has recently gained increasing attention due to its application in a variety of technologies such as foam stabilization, drug encapsulation and colloidosomes. Nevertheless, the production of such colloidal armored bubble with controlled size and particle coverage ratio is still a great challenge industrially. We study the coating process of a long air bubble by microparticles in a circular tube filled with a concentrated microparticles colloidal suspension. As the bubble proceeds in the suspension of particles, a monolayer of micro-particles forms on the interface of the bubble, which eventually results in a fully armored bubble. We investigate the phenomenon that triggers and controls the evolution of the particle accumulation on the bubble interface. Moreover, we examine the effects of the mean flow velocity, the size of the colloids and concentration of the suspension on the dynamics of the armored bubble. The results of this study can potentially be applied to production of particle-encapsulated bubbles, surface-cleaning techniques, and gas-assisted injection molding.

  8. The application of PA/CF in stab resistance body armor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, M. Q.; Liu, Y.; Gong, Z.; Qian, X. M.

    2017-06-01

    Stab resistance body armor (SRBA) is an essential defensive equipment to protect human body against injuries from stabbing. The conventional SRBAs shared low wearing frequency since they are heavy and poor in flexibility. This paper designed a structured stab-resistance plate using the model of crocodile armor and manufactured using 3D printing technology-laser sintering (LS). CF(Carbon fiber) was applied to enhance the stab resistance properties of SRBA. The effects of the material and structure were analysed through the stab resistance property tests based on the national standard GA68-2008. It is found that the stab resistance property of flat plates sintered by PA powder and PA/CF are both weaker than that of the structured plate. The penetrating depth of PA/CF structured plate is significantly 2-mm-less than the pure PA structured plate. The SEM observations confirmed the conclusion that addition of the CF largely improved the plate stab resistance property. Moreover, using PA/CF structured plate to produce the stab resistance body armor would result in a weight reduction by about 30-40% as compared to the existing SRBA that was made up of metal plates, which could largely reduce the wearer physical burden and improve the wearing frequency.

  9. Performance of silvered Teflon (trademark) thermal control blankets on spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, Gary; Stuckey, Wayne; Hemminger, Carol

    1993-01-01

    Silverized Teflon (Ag/FEP) is a widely used passive thermal control material for space applications. The material has a very low alpha/e ratio (less than 0.1) for low operating temperatures and is fabricated with various FEP thicknesses (as the Teflon thickness increases, the emittance increases). It is low outgassing and, because of its flexibility, can be applied around complex, curved shapes. Ag/FEP has achieved multiyear lifetimes under a variety of exposure conditions. This has been demonstrated by the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), Solar Max, Spacecraft Charging at High Altitudes (SCATHA), and other flight experiments. Ag/FEP material has been held in place on spacecraft by a variety of methods: mechanical clamping, direct adhesive bonding of tapes and sheets, and by Velcro(TM) tape adhesively bonded to back surfaces. On LDEF, for example, 5-mil blankets held by Velcro(TM) and clamping were used for thermal control over 3- by 4-ft areas on each of 17 trays. Adhesively bonded 2- and 5-mil sheets were used on other LDEF experiments, both for thermal control and as tape to hold other thermal control blankets in place. Performance data over extended time periods are available from a number of flights. The observed effects on optical properties, mechanical properties, and surface chemistry will be summarized in this paper. This leads to a discussion of performance life estimates and other design lessons for Ag/FEP thermal control material.

  10. Space or rescue blanket--a bluff?

    PubMed

    Renström, B

    1992-10-01

    A product which has been heavily promoted for a number of years is an aluminized plastic foil designed to reflect 80% of body heat. However, a large body of experience points to the following: 1. A minimal amount of heat is radiated by a clothed body. This can easily be demonstrated with a thermocamera. 2. The plastic foils is impermeable to both water and water vapour. Thus condensation is formed on the blanket's interior. This virtually eliminates the reflective properties of the aluminum foil, often after only 15-20 minutes. 3. The blanket usually works best when the wind velocity is less than 9 m/s, otherwise the wind tears it into pieces. The greater the wind velocity and amount of clothing worn, the less the effect of the blanket. 4. Water accumulation on the clothing inside the blanket rapidly conducts heat from the skin. The blanket and the aluminum then take over and conduct heat 9,300 times faster than air. 5. It is supposed to reflect radar waves. Theoretically yes, but practical tests made in lifeboats at sea have showed that it gives no help. 6. The plastic film is inflammable.

  11. Annular seed-blanket thorium fuel core concepts for heavy water moderated reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, B.P.; Hyland, B.

    2013-07-01

    New reactor concepts to implement thorium-based fuel cycles have been explored to achieve maximum resource utilization. Pressure tube heavy water reactors (PT-HWR) are highly advantageous for implementing the use of thorium-based fuels because of their high neutron economy and on-line re-fuelling capability. The use of heterogeneous seed-blanket core concepts in a PT-HWR where higher-fissile-content seed fuel bundles are physically separate from lower-fissile-content blanket bundles allows more flexibility and control in fuel management to maximize the fissile utilization and conversion of fertile fuel. The lattice concept chosen is a 35-element bundle made with a homogeneous mixture of reactor grade Pu and Th, and with a central zirconia rod to help reduce coolant void reactivity. Several annular heterogeneous seed-blanket core concepts with plutonium-thorium-based fuels in a 700-MWe-class PT-HWR were analyzed, using a once-through thorium (OTT) cycle. Different combinations of seed and blanket fuel were tested to determine the impact on core-average burnup, fissile utilization, power distributions, and other performance parameters. It was found that the various core concepts can achieve a fissile utilization that is up to 30% higher than is currently achieved in a PT-HWR using conventional natural uranium fuel bundles. Up to 67% of the Pu is consumed; up to 43% of the energy is produced from thorium, and up to 363 kg/year of U-233 is produced. Seed-blanket cores with ∼50% content of low-power blanket bundles may require power de-rating (∼58% to 65%) to avoid exceeding maximum limits for peak channel power, bundle power and linear element ratings. (authors)

  12. Thermally distinct ejecta blankets from Martian craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, B. H.; Murray, B. C.

    1993-06-01

    A study of Martian ejecta blankets is carried out using the high-resolution thermal IR/visible data from the Termoskan instrument aboard Phobos '88 mission. It is found that approximately 100 craters within the Termoskan data have an ejecta blanket distinct in the thermal infrared (EDITH). These features are examined by (1) a systematic examination of all Termoskan data using high-resolution image processing; (2) a study of the systematics of the data by compiling and analyzing a data base consisting of geographic, geologic, and mormphologic parameters for a significant fraction of the EDITH and nearby non-EDITH; and (3) qualitative and quantitative analyses of localized regions of interest. It is noted that thermally distinct ejecta blankets are excellent locations for future landers and remote sensing because of relatively dust-free surface exposures of material excavated from depth.

  13. First Wall, Blanket, Shield Engineering Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Nygren, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Technology Program sponsored by the Office of Fusion Energy of DOE has the overall objective of providing engineering data that will define performance parameters for nuclear systems in advanced fusion reactors. The program comprises testing and the development of computational tools in four areas: (1) thermomechanical and thermal-hydraulic performance of first-wall component facsimiles with emphasis on surface heat loads; (2) thermomechanical and thermal-hydraulic performance of blanket and shield component facsimiles with emphasis on bulk heating; (3) electromagnetic effects in first wall, blanket, and shield component facsimiles with emphasis on transient field penetration and eddy-current effects; (4) assembly, maintenance and repair with emphasis on remote-handling techniques. This paper will focus on elements 2 and 4 above and, in keeping with the conference participation from both fusion and fission programs, will emphasize potential interfaces between fusion technology and experience in the fission industry.

  14. The requirements for processing tritium recovered from liquid lithium blankets: The blanket interface

    SciTech Connect

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Greenwood, L.R.; Grimm, T.L.; Sze, D.K.; Bartlit, J.R.; Anderson, J.L.; Yoshida, H.; Naruse

    1988-03-01

    We have initiated a study to define a blanket processing mockup for Tritium Systems Test Assembly. Initial evaluation of the requirements of the blanket processing system have been started. The first step of the work is to define the condition of the gaseous tritium stream from the blanket tritium recovery system. This report summarizes this part of the work for one particular blanket concept, i.e., a self-cooled lithium blanket. The total gas throughput, the hydrogen to tritium ratio, the corrosive chemicals, and the radionuclides are defined. The key discoveries are: the throughput of the blanket gas stream (including the helium carrier gas) is about two orders of magnitude higher than the plasma exhaust stream;the protium to tritium ratio is about 1, the deuterium to tritium ratio is about 0.003;the corrosion chemicals are dominated by halides;the radionuclides are dominated by C-14, P-32, and S-35;their is high level of nitrogen contamination in the blanket stream. 77 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs.

  15. Pre-clinic study of uniformity of light blanket for intraoperative photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yida; Wang, Ken; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2015-01-01

    A large-size blanket composed of the parallel catheters and silica core side glowing fiber is designed to substitute the hand-held point source in the photodynamic therapy treatment (PDT) of the malignant pleural or intraperitoneal diseases. It produces a reasonably uniform field for effective light coverage and is flexible to conform to anatomic structures in intraoperative PDT. The size of the blanket is 30cm×20cm. The light blanket composed of several PVC layers and a series of parallel catheters attached on both sides of the intralipid layer of 0.2% concentration. On one side of the intralipid layer, the parallel fiber catheters were attached using thermal sealing technique. On the other side, the parallel detect catheters were attached along the perpendicular direction. 0.1mm aluminum foil was used to construct the reflection layer to enhance the efficiency of light delivery. The long single side-glowing fiber goes through the fiber catheters according to the specific fiber pattern design. Compared with the prototype of the first generation, the new design is more cost-efficient and more applicable for clinical applications. The light distribution of the blanket was characterized by scanning experiments which were performed in flatness and on the curved surface of tissue body phantom. The fluence rate generated by the blanket can meet requirements for the light delivery in pleural or intraperitoneal (IP) PDT. Taking the advantage of large coverage and flexible conformity, it has great value to increase the reliability and consistency of PDT. PMID:25995532

  16. Future Armor Tiles MIL-STD-166O Tests.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC), Validation Engineering Division, was tasked by DAC to conduct MIL- STD -1660 tests on armor tile...containers on a wooden pallet. This report contains test results with the armor tile containers on a wooden pallet meeting MIL- STD -1660, Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads, requirements.

  17. 76 FR 70165 - Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor Standard Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor Standard Workshop AGENCY: National Institute of..., Ballistic Resistance of Body Armor, and the discussion is directed toward manufacturers, certification...

  18. Armor Procedural Skills: Learning and Retention. Technical Report 621.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knerr, C. Mazie; And Others

    Research investigated learning and retention of eight armor tasks selected to represent tasks varying in length, complexity, and extent of practice in operational units. Performance data were collected from soldiers in operational units and from soldiers attending One Station Unit Training (OSUT) in Armor Military Occupational Specialty (19E).…

  19. Some new ideas for Tandem Mirror blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Neef, W.S. Jr.

    1981-10-12

    The Tandem Mirror Reactor, with its cylindrical central cell, has led to numerous blanket designs taking advantage of the simple geometry. Also many new applications for fusion neutrons are now being considered. To the pure fusion electricity producers and hybrids producing fissile fuel, we are adding studies of synthetic fuel producers and fission-suppressed hybrids. The three blanket concepts presented are new ideas and should be considered illustrative of the breadth of Livermore's application studies. They are not meant to imply fully analyzed designs.

  20. Flute stabilization by a cold line-tied blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, D.; Wickham, M.; Rynn, N.

    1982-09-01

    The curvature-driven flute instability in an axisymmetric mirror was stabilized by an annular line-tied plasma blanket. A significant temperature difference was maintained between core and blanket. Theoretical calculations support the experimental observations.

  1. 48 CFR 1313.303 - Blanket Purchase Agreements (BPAs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket Purchase Agreements (BPAs). 1313.303 Section 1313.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE....303 Blanket Purchase Agreements (BPAs). ...

  2. 48 CFR 13.303 - Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). 13.303 Section 13.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Methods 13.303 Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). ...

  3. 48 CFR 613.303 - Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). 613.303 Section 613.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE....303 Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). ...

  4. Effectiveness of eye armor during blast loading.

    PubMed

    Bailoor, Shantanu; Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Nguyen, Thao D

    2015-11-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the most common types of combat injuries resulting from the interaction of military personnel with improvised explosive devices. Ocular blast injury mechanisms are complex, and trauma may occur through various injury mechanisms. However, primary blast injuries (PBI) are an important cause of ocular trauma that may go unnoticed and result in significant damage to internal ocular tissues and visual impairment. Further, the effectiveness of commonly employed eye armor, designed for ballistic and laser protection, in lessening the severity of adverse blast overpressures (BOP) is unknown. In this paper, we employed a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction computational model for assessing effectiveness of the eye armor during blast loading on human eyes and validated results against free field blast measurements by Bentz and Grimm (2013). Numerical simulations show that the blast waves focused on the ocular region because of reflections from surrounding facial features and resulted in considerable increase in BOP. We evaluated the effectiveness of spectacles and goggles in mitigating the pressure loading using the computational model. Our results corroborate experimental measurements showing that the goggles were more effective than spectacles in mitigating BOP loading on the eye. Numerical results confirmed that the goggles significantly reduced blast wave penetration in the space between the armor and the eyes and provided larger clearance space for blast wave expansion after penetration than the spectacles. The spectacles as well as the goggles were more effective in reducing reflected BOP at higher charge mass because of the larger decrease in dynamic pressures after the impact. The goggles provided greater benefit of reducing the peak pressure than the spectacles for lower charge mass. However, the goggles resulted in moderate, sustained elevated pressure loading on the eye, that became 50-100% larger than the pressure loading

  5. Shaft mines can get power without armor

    SciTech Connect

    Brezovec, D.

    1984-02-01

    A Pennsylvania coal operator has been able to install neoprene jacketed mine power feeder (MPF) cable in an airshaft without the use of expensive armored power cables. Armored cables traditionally have been favored in applications where the cable is dropped vertically because their galvanized metal shielding protects the cable as it is dragged across rough ground and stretched by its own weight as it is lowered into the hole. But armored cable poses some problems. It is as much as $20 per foot more expensive than MPF cable. Also, sinking armored cables is particularly difficult when space is limited because the cable must be laid out on the ground before it is lowered into the hole. The technique that allowed Pennsylvania Mines Corp. to install two 750-ft-long, 15-kv cables at is 400,000-tpy Tunnelton mine, near New Alexandria, Pa., was devised by J.H. Service Co.'s Indianola, Pa., branch office. The method involves feeding MPF cable from a spool on a truck equipped with special braking devices, over a steel drum that acts as a sheave, directly into a mine shaft or borehole. Robert C. Kadyk, a sales manager with J.H. Service, says that while this is not the first time standard MPF cable has been used in a borehole or shaft, the cables are not usually used in these cases because there were no dependable methods for holding the cable steady as it was lowered into the hole to keep it from abrading against the sides of the borehole or shaft. Also, dragging MPF cable through the woods invariably damages it. With its cable sinking method, J.H. Service vulcanizes stainless steel kellems grips into the cable about every 100 ft. The interval varies with the weight and diameter of the cable, depth of the hole, and length of the kellems grip. One twisted steel messenger wire is attached to each kellems grip to displace the weight of the cable as it takes its trip to the mine floor.

  6. Research Investigation of Armor Plate Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1942-02-20

    location at which the ballistic limits were determined. Ballistic limits and average hardness values from the 16 duplicate plates are given in Table 10 ...OF ARMOR PLATE STEELS Plate Nuzuber %C %.Mn %Si %Ni. %Cr %Mo %cu *7111 .46 1.58 .20 . 10 /.20 7276 .50 1.07 .3o 7277 .39 .35 .23 7278 .47 .91 .26 7279...26 2.3/2.7 7328 .34 .89 .20 1.3/1.7 .35/.46 * 7329 .34 .88 .25 1.3/1.7 10 /.20 7330 .46 .86 .24 .25/.35 : 10 /.20 734 .46 .84 .29 W 5. 35 7341 .34 .94

  7. 75 FR 51482 - Woven Electric Blankets From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... COMMISSION Woven Electric Blankets From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... United States is materially injured by reason of imports from China of woven electric blankets, provided... woven electric blankets from China were being sold at LTFV within the meaning of section 733(b) of the...

  8. Effects of Blanket Roller Deformation on Printing Qualities in Gravure-Offset Printing Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwangsoo; Kim, Chung Hwan; Kim, Heon-Yeoung; Kim, Dong-Soo

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, the deformation of the blanket roller when using the gravure-offset printing method for printed electronics, as well as the effect of this deformation on the quality of the printing, is examined. The mechanical properties of the blanket roller, which is made of silicone rubber compounds, are measured using a rubber tester. Mooney-Rivlin material parameters are obtained for the nonlinear elastic properties by conducting uniaxial and biaxial tests. The commercial finite element method (FEM), which is a numerical tool for solving partial differential equations (PDEs), is used to analyze the deformation of the blanket roller. In the FEM model, we consider the large-scale deformation of rubber showing nonlinear elastic behavior, and introduce a contact condition between flexible and rigid bodies. The parametric study shows that in the gravure-offset printing process, the distortions of the printed pattern, as well as changes in gain and changes in the position of the patterns caused by nip deformation of the rubber blanket, is significantly affected by printing loading and friction. Moreover, non-uniform friction condition due to partly patterned zone also makes a local pattern distortion.

  9. Pangolin armor: Overlapping, structure, and mechanical properties of the keratinous scales.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Yang, Wen; Sherman, Vincent R; Meyers, Marc A

    2016-09-01

    The pangolin has a flexible dermal armor consisting of overlapping keratinous scales. Although they show potential for bioinspired flexible armor, the design principles of pangolin armor are barely known. Here we report on the overlapping organization, hierarchical structure (from the nano to the mesolevel), and mechanical response of scales from ground (Chinese) and arboreal (African tree) pangolins. Both scales exhibit the same overlapping organization, with each scale at the center of neighboring scales arranged in a hexagonal pattern. The scales have a cuticle of several layers of loosely attached flattened keratinized cells, while the interior structure exhibits three regions distinguished by the geometry and orientations of the keratinized cells, which form densely packed lamellae; each one corresponds to one layer of cells. Unlike most other keratinous materials, the scales show a crossed-lamellar structure (∼5μm) and crossed fibers (∼50μm). A nano-scale suture structure, observed for the first time, outlines cell membranes and leads to an interlocking interface between lamellae, thus enhancing the bonding and shear resistance. The tensile response of the scales shows an elastic limit followed by a short plateau prior to failure, with Young's modulus ∼1 GPa and tensile strength 60-100MPa. The mechanical response is transversely isotropic, a result of the cross lamellar structure. The strain rate sensitivity in the range of 10(-5)-10(-1)s(-1) region is found to be equal to 0.07-0.08, typical of other keratins and polymers. The mechanical response is highly dependent on the degree of hydration, a characteristic of keratins. Although many fish and reptiles have protective scales and carapaces, mammals are characteristically fast and light. The pangolin is one of the few mammal possessing a flexible dermal armor for protection from predators, such as lions. Here we study the arrangement of the scales as well as their hierarchical structure from the nano

  10. Aerogel Blanket Insulation Materials for Cryogenic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffman, B. E.; Fesmire, J. E.; White, S.; Gould, G.; Augustynowicz, S.

    2009-01-01

    Aerogel blanket materials for use in thermal insulation systems are now commercially available and implemented by industry. Prototype aerogel blanket materials were presented at the Cryogenic Engineering Conference in 1997 and by 2004 had progressed to full commercial production by Aspen Aerogels. Today, this new technology material is providing superior energy efficiencies and enabling new design approaches for more cost effective cryogenic systems. Aerogel processing technology and methods are continuing to improve, offering a tailor-able array of product formulations for many different thermal and environmental requirements. Many different varieties and combinations of aerogel blankets have been characterized using insulation test cryostats at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. Detailed thermal conductivity data for a select group of materials are presented for engineering use. Heat transfer evaluations for the entire vacuum pressure range, including ambient conditions, are given. Examples of current cryogenic applications of aerogel blanket insulation are also given. KEYWORDS: Cryogenic tanks, thermal insulation, composite materials, aerogel, thermal conductivity, liquid nitrogen boil-off

  11. Drugs: blanket ban or harm reduction?

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2015-06-29

    As the commercial success of electronic cigarettes offers the opportunity to study harm reduction by replacement therapy, the UK government steers in the opposite direction and plans to expand the 'war on drugs' with a blanket ban on all psychoactive substances. Michael Gross reports.

  12. The climatic impact of supervolcanic ash blankets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Morgan T.; Sparks, R. Stephen J.; Valdes, Paul J.

    2007-11-01

    Supervolcanoes are large caldera systems that can expel vast quantities of ash, volcanic gases in a single eruption, far larger than any recorded in recent history. These super-eruptions have been suggested as possible catalysts for long-term climate change and may be responsible for bottlenecks in human and animal populations. Here, we consider the previously neglected climatic effects of a continent-sized ash deposit with a high albedo and show that a decadal climate forcing is expected. We use a coupled atmosphere-ocean General Circulation Model (GCM) to simulate the effect of an ash blanket from Yellowstone volcano, USA, covering much of North America. Reflectivity measurements of dry volcanic ash show albedo values as high as snow, implying that the effects of an ash blanket would be severe. The modeling results indicate major disturbances to the climate, particularly to oscillatory patterns such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Atmospheric disruptions would continue for decades after the eruption due to extended ash blanket longevity. The climatic response to an ash blanket is not significant enough to instigate a change to stadial periods at present day boundary conditions, though this is one of several impacts associated with a super-eruption which may induce long-term climatic change.

  13. 27 CFR 40.67 - Blanket bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Where a manufacturer of tobacco products operates more than one factory in the same region he may, in... provisions of § 40.134, for any or all of the factories in the same region. The total amount of any blanket... factory covered by the bond. (72 Stat. 1421; 26 U.S.C. 5711) ...

  14. 18 CFR 157.203 - Blanket certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blanket certification. 157.203 Section 157.203 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... AND NECESSITY AND FOR ORDERS PERMITTING AND APPROVING ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS...

  15. 18 CFR 157.203 - Blanket certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blanket certification. 157.203 Section 157.203 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... AND NECESSITY AND FOR ORDERS PERMITTING AND APPROVING ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS...

  16. The climatic impact of supervolcanic ash blankets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. T.; Sparks, S. J.; Valdes, P. J.

    2006-12-01

    Supervolcanoes are capable of ejecting 1000's of cubic kilometres of magmatic material in a single eruption, far surpassing anything recorded in human history. It has been postulated that these eruptions have acted as catalysts for long-term climate change and are responsible for bottlenecks in human and animal populations. Tephra deposits from a super-eruption are capable of covering an area the size of USA (~10,000,000 sq. km) with ash, destroying vegetation and considerably raising the surface albedo. Ecological responses to smaller eruptions show that recovery of flora takes over 15 years, while previous studies of ash blankets demonstrate sustained surface residence times. This suggests that a supervolcanic ash blanket would instigate a decadal climate response that would dominate in the aftermath of the effects of aerosols in the stratosphere. We use a coupled atmosphere-ocean General Circulation Model (GCM) to simulate the effect of an ash blanket from Yellowstone volcano, USA, and show that it causes major disruptions to the climate, particularly to oscillatory systems such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The regional disturbance instigates a global response, with significant variations in surface temperatures, pressures and precipitation patterns. The ocean remains largely unaffected, though a marked increase in sea ice is seen in the North Atlantic. While the response to a supervolcanic ash blanket is predicted to be severe, the isolated effects of the disturbance are not significant enough to instigate long-term climate change at present day boundary conditions.

  17. In plain sight: the Chesapeake Bay crater ejecta blanket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griscom, D. L.

    2012-02-01

    idealized calculation of the CBIS ejecta-blanket elevation profile minutes after the impact was carried out founded on well established rules for explosion and impact-generated craters. This profile is shown here to match the volume of the upland deposits ≥170 km from the crater center. Closer to the crater, much of the "postdicted" ejecta blanket has clearly been removed by erosion. Nevertheless the Shirley and fossil-free Bacons Castle Formations, located between the upland deposits and the CBIS interior and veneering the present day surface with units ∼10-20 m deep, are respectively identified as curtain- and excavation-phase ejecta. The neritic-fossil-bearing Calvert Formation external to the crater is deduced to be of Eocene age (as opposed to early Miocene as currently believed), preserved by the armoring effects of the overlying CBIS ejecta composed of the (distal) upland deposits and the (proximal) Bacons Castle Formation. The lithofacies of the in-crater Calvert Formation can only have resulted from inward mass wasting of the postdicted ejecta blanket, vestiges of which (i.e. the Bacons Castle and Shirley Formations) still overlap the crater rim and sag into its interior, consistent with this expectation. Because there appear to be a total of ∼10 000 km2 of CBIS ejecta lying on the present-day surface, future research should center the stratigraphic, lithologic, and petrologic properties of these ejecta versus both radial distance from the crater center (to identify ejecta from different ejection stages) and circumferentially at fixed radial distances (to detect possible anisotropies relating the impact angle and direction of approach of the impactor). The geological units described here may comprise the best preserved, and certainly the most accessible, ejecta blanket of a major crater on the Earth's surface and therefore promise to be a boon to the field of impact geology. As a corollary, a major revision of the current stratigraphic column of the M

  18. A blanket design, apparatus, and fabrication techniques for the mass production of multilayer insulation blankets for the Superconducting Super Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Gonczy, J.D.; Boroski, W.N.; Niemann, R.C.; Otavka, J.G.; Ruschman, M.K.; Schoo, C.J.

    1989-09-01

    The multilayer insulation (MLI) system for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) consists of full cryostat length assemblies of aluminized polyester film fabricated in the form of blankets and installed as blankets to the 4.5K cold mass and the 20K and 80K thermal radiation shields. Approximately 40,000 MLI blankets will be required in the 10,000 cryogenic devices comprising the SSC accelerator. Each blanket is nearly 17 meters long and 1.8 meters wide. This paper reports the blanket design, an apparatus, and the fabrication method used to mass produce pre-fabricated MLI blankets. Incorporated in the blanket design are techniques which automate quality control during installation of the MLI blankets in the SSC cryostat. The apparatus and blanket fabrication method insure consistency in the mass produced blankets by providing positive control of the dimensional parameters which contribute to the thermal performance of the MLI blanket. By virtue of the fabrication process, the MLI blankets have inherent features of dimensional stability three-dimensional uniformity, controlled layer density, layer-to-layer registration, interlayer cleanliness, and interlayer material to accommodate thermal contraction differences. 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Character shifts in the defensive armor of sympatric sticklebacks.

    PubMed

    Vamosi, Steven M; Schluter, Dolph

    2004-02-01

    Natural enemies may contribute to the morphological divergence of sympatric species, yet their role has received little attention to date. We tested for character shifts in defensive armor of sympatric threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus complex) previously shown to exhibit ecological character displacement in traits related to resource use. We scored five defensive armor traits in sympatric benthic and limnetic stickleback species from southwestern British Columbia and compared them with the same traits in nearby allopatric populations in the presence of the same predatory fish (Oncorhynchus sp.). This approach is analogous to tests of ecological character displacement that compare trophic traits of sympatric and allopatric species in the presence of the same community of resource types. Three patterns consistent with character displacement in defensive armor were found. First, limnetics in different lakes had consistently more armor than sympatric benthics. Second, the average amount of armor, averaged over both species, was reduced in sympatry compared to allopatric populations. This reduction was almost entirely the result of shifts by benthic species, whereas armor in limnetics was more similar to that in allopatric populations. Third, differences between sympatric benthics and limnetics in total armor were greater than expected from comparisons with allopatric populations. We interpret these patterns as the result of differences in habitat-specific predation regimes accompanying ecological character displacement and indirect interactions between sympatric stickleback species mediated by their top predators. These results suggest that predation may facilitate, rather than hinder, the process of divergence in sympatry.

  20. ALT-II armor tile design for upgraded TEXTOR operation

    SciTech Connect

    Newberry, B.L.; McGrath, R.T.; Watson, R.D.; Kohlhaas, W.; Finken, K.H.; Noda, N.

    1994-08-01

    The upgrade of the TEXTOR tokamak at KFA Juelich was recently completed. This upgrade extended the TEXTOR pulse length from 5 seconds to 10 seconds. The auxiliary heating was increased to a total of 8.0 MW through a combination of neutral beam injection and radio frequency heating. Originally, the inertially cooled armor tiles of the full toroidal belt Advanced Limiter Test -- II (ALT-II) were designed for a 5-second operation with total heating of 6.0 MW. The upgrade of TEXTOR will increase the energy deposited per pulse onto the ALT-II by about 300%. Consequently, the graphite armor tiles for the ALT-II had to be redesigned to avoid excessively high graphite armor surface temperatures that would lead to unacceptable contamination of the plasma. This redesign took the form of two major changes in the ALT-II armor tile geometry. The first design change was an increase of the armor tile thermal mass, primarily by increasing the radial thickness of each tile from 17 mm to 20 mm. This increase in the radial tile dimension reduces the overall pumping efficiency of the ALT-II pump limiter by about 30%. The reduction in exhaust efficiency is unfortunate, but could be avoided only by active cooling of the ALT-II armor tiles. The active cooling option was too complicated and expensive to be considered at this time. The second design change involved redefining the plasma facing surface of each armor tile in order to fully utilize the entire surface area. The incident charged particle heat flux was distributed uniformly over the armor tile surfaces by carefully matching the radial, poloidal and toroidal curvature of each tile to the plasma flow in the TEXTOR boundary layer. This geometry redefinition complicates the manufacturing of the armor tiles, but results in significant thermal performance gains. In addition to these geometry upgrades, several material options were analyzed and evaluated.

  1. Negligible heat strain in armored vehicle officers wearing personal body armor

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the heat strain experienced by armored vehicle officers (AVOs) wearing personal body armor (PBA) in a sub-tropical climate. Methods Twelve male AVOs, aged 35-58 years, undertook an eight hour shift while wearing PBA. Heart rate and core temperature were monitored continuously. Urine specific gravity (USG) was measured before and after, and with any urination during the shift. Results Heart rate indicated an intermittent and low-intensity nature of the work. USG revealed six AVOs were dehydrated from pre through post shift, and two others became dehydrated. Core temperature averaged 37.4 ± 0.3°C, with maximum's of 37.7 ± 0.2°C. Conclusions Despite increased age, body mass, and poor hydration practices, and Wet-Bulb Globe Temperatures in excess of 30°C; the intermittent nature and low intensity of the work prevented excessive heat strain from developing. PMID:21801453

  2. Checkerboard seed-blanket thorium fuel core concepts for heavy water moderated reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, B.P.; Hyland, B.

    2013-07-01

    New reactor concepts to implement thorium-based fuel cycles have been explored to achieve maximum resource utilization. Pressure tube heavy water reactors (PT-HWR) are highly advantageous for implementing the use of thorium-based fuels because of their high neutron economy and on-line re-fuelling capability. The use of heterogeneous seed-blanket core concepts in a PT-HWR where higher-fissile-content seed fuel bundles are physically separate from lower-fissile-content blanket bundles allows more flexibility and control in fuel management to maximize the fissile utilization and conversion of fertile fuel. The lattice concept chosen was a 35-element bundle made with a homogeneous mixture of reactor grade Pu (about 67 wt% fissile) and Th, and with a central zirconia rod to help reduce coolant void reactivity. Several checkerboard heterogeneous seed-blanket core concepts with plutonium-thorium-based fuels in a 700-MWe-class PT-HWR were analyzed, using a once-through thorium (OTT) cycle. Different combinations of seed and blanket fuel were tested to determine the impact on core-average burnup, fissile utilization, power distributions, and other performance parameters. It was found that various checkerboard core concepts can achieve a fissile utilization that is up to 26% higher than that achieved in a PT-HWR using more conventional natural uranium fuel bundles. Up to 60% of the Pu is consumed; up to 43% of the energy is produced from thorium, and up to 303 kg/year of Pa-233/U-233/U-235 are produced. Checkerboard cores with about 50% of low-power blanket bundles may require power de-rating (65% to 74%) to avoid exceeding maximum limits for channel and bundle powers and linear element ratings. (authors)

  3. A Precambrian proximal ejecta blanket from Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amor, Kenneth; Hesselbo, Stephen P.; Porcelli, Don; Thackrey, Scott; Parnell, John

    2008-04-01

    Ejecta blankets around impact craters are rarely preserved onEarth. Although impact craters are ubiquitous on solid bodiesthroughout the solar system, on Earth they are rapidly effaced,and few records exist of the processes that occur during emplacementof ejecta. The Stac Fada Member of the Precambrian Stoer Groupin Scotland has previously been described as volcanic in origin.However, shocked quartz and biotite provide evidence for high-pressureshock metamorphism, while chromium isotope values and elevatedabundances of platinum group metals and siderophile elementsindicate addition of meteoritic material. Thus, the unit isreinterpreted here as having an impact origin. The ejecta blanketreaches >20 m in thickness and contains abundant dark green,vesicular, devitrified glass fragments. Field observations suggestthat the deposit was emplaced as a single fluidized flow thatformed as a result of an impact into water-saturated sedimentarystrata. The continental geological setting and presence of groundwatermake this deposit an analogue for Martian fluidized ejecta blankets.

  4. OPTIMIZING TRANSPARENT ARMOR DESIGN SUBJECT TO PROJECTILE IMPACT CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xin; Lai, Canhai; Gorsich, Tara; Templeton, Douglas W.

    2009-03-01

    Design and manufacturing of transparent armor have been historically carried out using experimental approaches. In this study, we use advanced computational modeling tools to perform virtual design evaluations of transparent armor systems under different projectile impact conditions. AHPCRC developed modeling software EPIC’06 [1] is used in predicting the penetration resistance of transparent armor systems. LaGrangian-based finite element analyses combined with particle dynamics are used to simulate the damage initiation and propagation process for the armor system under impact conditions. It is found that a 1-parameter single state model can be used to predict the impact penetration depth with relatively good accuracy, suggesting that the finely comminuted glass particles follow the behavior similar to a viscous fluid. Even though the intact strength of borosilicate and soda lime glass are different, the same fractured strength can be used for both glasses to capture the penetration depth.

  5. 75 FR 25208 - Announcement of Body Armor Research Needs Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... the examination of such issues as material longevity, new materials, and improved testing.... Presentations on today's challenges in body armor and material longevity research will be given. Among the..., Director, Physics Laboratory. BILLING CODE 3510-13-P ...

  6. Design of armor for protection against blast and impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimzadeh, Tanaz; Arruda, Ellen M.; Thouless, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    The features of blast and impact that can damage a delicate target supported by a structure include both the peak pressure and the impulse delivered to the structure. This study examines how layers of elastic and visco-elastic materials may be assembled to mitigate these features. The impedance mismatch between two elastic layers is known to reduce the pressure, but dissipation is required to mitigate the transmitted impulse in light-weight armor. A novel design concept called impact or blast tuning is introduced in which a multi-layered armor is used to tune the stress waves resulting from an impact or blast to specific frequencies that match the damping frequencies of visco-elastic layers. The material and geometrical parameters controlling the viscous dissipation of the energy within the armor are identified for a simplified one-dimensional system, to provide insight into how the optimal design of multi-use armor might be based on this concept.

  7. 12. Photocopy of lithograph (source unknown) The Armor Lithograph Company, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy of lithograph (source unknown) The Armor Lithograph Company, Ltd., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, ca. 1888 COURTHOUSE AND JAIL, FROM THE WEST - Allegheny County Courthouse & Jail, 436 Grant Street (Courthouse), 420 Ross Street (Jail), Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  8. Adaptive and robust methods of reconstruction (ARMOR) for thermoacoustic tomography.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yao; Guo, Bin; Li, Jian; Ku, Geng; Wang, Lihong V

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we present new adaptive and robust methods of reconstruction (ARMOR) for thermoacoustic tomography (TAT), and study their performances for breast cancer detection. TAT is an emerging medical imaging technique that combines the merits of high contrast due to electromagnetic or laser stimulation and high resolution offered by thermal acoustic imaging. The current image reconstruction methods used for TAT, such as the delay-and-sum (DAS) approach, are data-independent and suffer from low-resolution, high sidelobe levels, and poor interference rejection capabilities. The data-adaptive ARMOR can have much better resolution and much better interference rejection capabilities than their data-independent counterparts. By allowing certain uncertainties, ARMOR can be used to mitigate the amplitude and phase distortion problems encountered in TAT. The excellent performance of ARMOR is demonstrated using both simulated and experimentally measured data.

  9. Armor systems including coated core materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Henry S; Lillo, Thomas M; McHugh, Kevin M

    2013-10-08

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  10. Armor systems including coated core materials

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry S [Idaho Falls, ID; Lillo, Thomas M [Idaho Falls, ID; McHugh, Kevin M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-07-31

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  11. Recent designs for advanced fusion reactor blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, D.K.

    1994-11-01

    A series of reactor design studies based on the Tokamak configuration have been carried out under the direction of Professor Robert Conn of UCLA. They are called ARIES-I through IV. The key mission of these studies is to evaluate the attractiveness of fusion assuming different degrees of advancement in either physics or engineering development. This paper discusses the directions and conclusions of the blanket and related engineering systems for those design studies. ARIES-1 investigated the use of SiC composite as the structural material to increase the blanket temperature and reduce the blanket activation. Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} was used as the breeding material due to its high temperature stability and good tritium recovery characteristics. The ARIES-IV is a modification of ARIES-1. The plasma was in the second stability regime. Li{sub 2}O was used as the breeding material to remove Zr. A gaseous divertor was used to replace the conventional divertor so that high Z divertor target is not required. The physics of ARIES-II was the same as ARIES-IV. The engineering design of the ARIES-II was based on a self-cooled lithium blanket with a V-alloy as the structural material. Even though it was assumed that the plasma was in the second stability regime, the plasma beta was still rather low (3.4%). The ARIES-III is an advanced fuel (D-{sup 3}He) tokamak reactor. The reactor design assumed major advancement on the physics, with a plasma beta of 23.9%. A conventional structural material is acceptable due to the low neutron wall loading. From the radiation damage point of view, the first wall can last the life of the reactor, which is expected to be a major advantage from the engineering design and waste disposal point of view.

  12. Detection of Breeding Blankets Using Antineutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogswell, Bernadette; Huber, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    The Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement between the United States and Russia makes arrangements for the disposal of 34 metric tons of excess weapon-grade plutonium. Under this agreement Russia plans to dispose of its excess stocks by processing the plutonium into fuel for fast breeder reactors. To meet the disposition requirements this fuel would be burned while the fast reactors are run as burners, i.e., without a natural uranium blanket that can be used to breed plutonium surrounding the core. This talk discusses the potential application of antineutrino monitoring to the verification of the presence or absence of a breeding blanket. It is found that a 36 kg antineutrino detector, exploiting coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering and made of silicon, could determine the presence of a breeding blanket at a liquid sodium cooled fast reactor at the 95% confidence level within 90 days. Such a detector would be a novel non-intrusive verification tool and could present a first application of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering to a real-world challenge.

  13. Ceramic pebble bed development for fusion blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Gierszewski, P.; Kawamura, H.; Donne, M.D.

    1994-12-31

    Research on lithium ceramic breeders has been intensive since the late 1970`s. The bulk material properties of several candidate lithium ceramics are generally available, although there is still much work to be done on properties under irradiation and on overall behavior in blanket modules. Based on these results, lithium ceramic breeders have been selected in many fusion design studies. These lithium ceramics are incorporated into blankets typically as monolithic pellets of packed pebble beds. There is substantial industrial experience with pebble beds made from other ceramics, notably in chemical processes as catalyst supports and grinding media, and in advanced fission reactor fuels. In fusion blankets, the pebble bed form offers several attractive features, including simpler assembly into complex geometry, uniform pore network, and low sensitivity to cracking or irradiation damage. Ceramic breeder pebbles have been a focus for several research groups. In general, the database is similar to that of monolithic pellets for the materials studied: basic production and material property data are available, but the irradiation and engineering database remains sparse.

  14. Design of the APT Target/Blanket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappiello, M. W.

    1998-04-01

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium Target/Blanket system is composed of a separated tungsten spallation target surrounded by a lead moderator, as well as attendant heat removal systems. The system is housed in a building located at the end of a 1.3 km long linear accelerator, which can produce a 100 mA proton beam up to 1700 MeV (170MW). The beam is expanded by a rastering system to a 0.19m x 190.m shape before passing through an Inconel window and impacting the heavy-water cooled tungsten target. Neutrons produced in the tungsten by the spallation process are further multiplied and moderated in a surrounding light-water cooled lead blanket. Neutron capture in tubes of Helium-3 gas inserted in the blanket produce tritium which is removed on a continual basis in an adjacent Tritium Separation Facility (TSF). The APT T/B is a robust design based on existing technology. Where possible, proven materials and component designs are used. To accommodate uncertainties in predicted lifetimes, the design is modularized to allow for a straightforward replacement of spent components. The thermal hydraulic design is well within allowable limits and due to the low temperature and pressure systems, offers additional safety and reliability benefits. The safety by design process has incorporated passive design features, redundancy, and defense in depth to provide adequate protection of both the worker and the public.

  15. Peace Operations: Is There a Need for Wheeled Armored Vehicles?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Application of Peace Enforcement Operations at Brigade and Battalion," 6. 54. "Tracked and Wheeled Light Armor Vehicles," 34. 55. Sean M. Maloney ...13-14. Hereafter referred to as "U.S_ Army MPs About to Net Wheeled Armored Security Vehicles." 87. Timothy M. Laur and Steven L. Llanso...York: United Nations, 1978. Laur, Timothy M. and Lianso, Steven L. Encyclopedia of Modern U.S. Military Weapons. New York: The Army Times Publishing

  16. Human Factors Assessment: M9 Armored Combat Earthmover (ACE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    Occasionally, M9s over- heated during continued road marches with armor units. Additional radiator water was needed. Food During the FTX the M9s...traveled with armored units and ahead of engineer support units. Operators were not supplied with hot or cold food . Five gal. cans of hydraulic During...brake on the winch. 2. The winch had to be inoving in order to shift gears. 3. The winch capacity is only 30,000 lbs, while the vehicle weighs

  17. Locating and quantifying ceramic body armor impact forces on a compliant torso using acceleration mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardi, Adam A.; Adams, Douglas E.; Walsh, Shawn

    2006-03-01

    This research experimentally implements a new method to identify the location and magnitude of a single impulsive excitation to ceramic body armor, which is supported on a compliant torso. The method could easily be extended to other flexibly supported components that undergo rigid body dynamics. Impact loads are identified in two steps. First, the location of the impact force is determined from time domain acceleration responses by comparing them to an array of reference acceleration time histories. Then based on the estimated location, reference frequency response functions are used to reconstruct the input force in the frequency domain through a least squares inverse problem. Experimental results demonstrate the validity of this method at both low energy excitations, which are produced by a medium modally-tuned impact hammer, and at high energy excitations, which are produced by dropping rods with masses up to 0.6 kilograms from a height of 2 meters. The maximum error in the estimated location or magnitude for the low energy excitations on the 10 cm square ceramic body armor was 7.07 mm with an average error of 1.09 mm. In comparing the estimated force for the low energy excitations to the force recorded by the transducer in the modal impact hammer, the maximum error in the predicted force amplitude was 6.78 percent and the maximum error in the predicted impulse was 6.44 percent. For the high energy excitations, which produced accelerations at the measurement locations up to 50 times greater than that of the low energy excitations, the maximum error in the predicted location of the input force was 15 mm with an average error of 6.64 mm. There was no force transducer to capture the input force on the body armor from the rod, but from non-energy-dissipative projectile motion equations the validity of the solutions was confirmed by comparing the impulses.

  18. Cost and performance projections for SPS photovoltaic blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott-Monck, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    An estimate, based on optimistic projections of current technology, is given for the specific power of photovoltaic blankets which might be achieved if the SPS concept was to be implemented. A simultaneous consideration of cost and technical requirements is used to identify key blanket technologies which must be developed for this reference system. The terrestrial photovoltaic experience coupled with new technology is used to develop cost estimates for the blanket, assuming an annual demand of 5 GW and a manufacturing industry dedicated to blanket production. The results indicate that blanket specific power goals may be exceeded, but there is little prospect that the cost goals can be met. This argues for a reconsideration of the photovoltaic option based on more expensive but higher performance blankets.

  19. Numerical modelling of dynamic sludge blanket behaviour in secondary clarifiers.

    PubMed

    Armbruster, M; Krebs, P; Rodi, W

    2001-01-01

    New developments in numerical modelling of turbulent and density-affected flow in secondary clarifiers are reported. The sludge blanket is included in the computation domain which allows us to account for sedimentation and resuspension of sludge as well as the growth and diminution of the sludge blanket and at the same time respecting mass conservation. It is shown how strongly the prediction of the sludge-blanket height depends on the approaches to describe the settling behaviour of the sludge and the rheological properties within the sludge blanket. Further, an example of dynamic simulation is presented and discussed. This demonstrates how the sludge blanket behaves during load variation and that instabilities may occur at the interface of sludge blanket and supernatant, potentially resulting in sludge wash-off during transient phases, which is not only during load increase but also during load decrease.

  20. Neutronic optimization of solid breeder blankets for STARFIRE design

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Abdou, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Extensive neutronic tradeoff studies were carried out to define and optimize the neutronic performance of the different solid breeder options for the STARFIRE blanket design. A set of criteria were employed to select the potential blanket materials. The basic criteria include the neutronic performance, tritium-release characteristics, material compatibility, and chemical stability. Three blanket options were analyzed. The first option is based on separate zones for each basic blanket function where the neutron multiplier is kept in a separate zone. The second option is a heterogeneous blanket type with two tritium breeder zones. In the first zone the tritium breeder is assembled in a neutron multiplier matrix behind the first wall while the second zone has a neutron moderator matrix instead of the neutron multiplier. The third blanket option is similar to the second concept except the tritium breeder and the neutron multiplier form a homogeneous mixture.

  1. High power density self-cooled lithium-vanadium blanket.

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Majumdar, S.; Smith, D.

    1999-07-01

    A self-cooled lithium-vanadium blanket concept capable of operating with 2 MW/m{sup 2} surface heat flux and 10 MW/m{sup 2} neutron wall loading has been developed. The blanket has liquid lithium as the tritium breeder and the coolant to alleviate issues of coolant breeder compatibility and reactivity. Vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti) is used as the structural material because it can accommodate high heat loads. Also, it has good mechanical properties at high temperatures, high neutron fluence capability, low degradation under neutron irradiation, good compatibility with the blanket materials, low decay heat, low waste disposal rating, and adequate strength to accommodate the electromagnetic loads during plasma disruption events. Self-healing electrical insulator (CaO) is utilized to reduce the MHD pressure drop. A poloidal coolant flow with high velocity at the first wall is used to reduce the peak temperature of the vanadium structure and to accommodate high surface heat flux. The blanket has a simple blanket configuration and low coolant pressure to reduce the fabrication cost, to improve the blanket reliability, and to increase confidence in the blanket performance. Spectral shifter, moderator, and reflector are utilized to improve the blanket shielding capability and energy multiplication, and to reduce the radial blanket thickness. Natural lithium is used to avoid extra cost related to the lithium enrichment process.

  2. Structure and mechanical behaviors of protective armored pangolin scales and effects of hydration and orientation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Q; Jiao, D; Weng, Z Y; Zhang, Z F

    2016-03-01

    As natural flexible dermal armor, pangolin scales provide effective protection against predatory threats and possess other notable properties such as anti-adhesion and wear-resistance. In this study, the structure, mechanical properties, deformation and damage behaviors of pangolin scales were systematically investigated with the effects of hydration and orientation evaluated. The scales are divided into three macro-layers constituted by overlapping keratin tiles with distinct lamellar arrangements which are further composed of lower-ordered lamellae. Both hardness and strength are significantly decreased by hydration; while the plasticity is markedly improved concomitantly, and as such, the mechanical damages are mitigated. The tensile strength invariably approximates to one third of hardness in value. The tensile deformation is dominated by lamellae stretching and pulling out under wet condition, which is distinct from the trans-lamellar fracture in dry samples. The compressive behaviors are featured by pronounced plasticity in both dry and wet scales; and notable strain-hardening capacity is introduced by hydration, especially along the thickness direction wherein kinking occurs. Inter-lamellar cracking is effectively alleviated in wet samples compared with the dry ones and both of them deform by macroscopic buckling. This study may help stimulate possible inspiration for the design of high-performance synthetic armor materials by mimicking pangolin scales.

  3. The natural armors of fish: A comparison of the lamination pattern and structure of scales.

    PubMed

    Murcia, Sandra; Lavoie, Ellen; Linley, Tim; Devaraj, Arun; Ossa, E Alex; Arola, D

    2017-09-01

    Fish scales exhibit a unique balance of flexibility, strength and toughness, which is essential to provide protection without encumbering locomotion. Although the mechanical behavior and structure of this natural armor are of recent interest, a comparison of these qualities from scales of different fish species has not been reported. In this investigation the armor of fish with different locomotion, size and protection needs were analyzed. Scales from the Arapaima gigas, the tarpon (Megalops atlanticus) and the carp (Cyprinus carpio) were compared in terms of the stacking sequence of individual plies and their microstructure. The scales were also compared with respect to anatomical position to distinguish site-specific functional differences. Results show that the lamination sequence of plies for the carp and tarpon exhibit a Bouligand structure with relative rotation of 75° between consecutive plies. The arapaima scales exhibit a cross-ply structure, with 90° rotation between adjacent plies. In addition, results indicate that the volume fraction of reinforcement, the number of plies and the variations in thickness with anatomical position are unique amongst the three fish. These characteristics should be considered in evaluations focused on the mechanical behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. ITER solid breeder blanket materials database

    SciTech Connect

    Billone, M.C.; Dienst, W.; Flament, T.; Lorenzetto, P.; Noda, K.; Roux, N.

    1993-11-01

    The databases for solid breeder ceramics (Li{sub 2},O, Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} and LiAlO{sub 2}) and beryllium multiplier material are critically reviewed and evaluated. Emphasis is placed on physical, thermal, mechanical, chemical stability/compatibility, tritium, and radiation stability properties which are needed to assess the performance of these materials in a fusion reactor environment. Correlations are selected for design analysis and compared to the database. Areas for future research and development in blanket materials technology are highlighted and prioritized.

  5. Recent designs for advanced fusion reactor blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, D.K.

    1994-06-01

    A series of reactor design studies based on the Tokamak configuration have been carried out under the direction of Professor Robert Conn of UCLA. They are called ARIES-1 through 4 and PULSAR 1 and 2. The key mission of these studies is to evaluate the attractiveness of fusion assuming different degrees of advancement in either physics or engineering development. Also, the requirements of engineering and physics systems for a pulsed reactor were evaluated by the PULSAR design studies. This paper discusses the directions and conclusions of the blanket and related engineering systems for those design studies.

  6. Isotope production in fast reactor blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Zvonarev, A.V.; Koloskov, B.V.; Kochetkov, L.A.

    1993-12-31

    At the BR-10 research reactor radioactive isotopes are produced that are required for the production of radiopharmaceuticals and phosphor 32 used for the synthesis of biochemical labelled compounds. A procedure has been developed of uranium target irradiation followed by radiochemical processing aimed at isotope isolation of molybdenum 99, xenon 133 and iodine 131,132,and 133 isotopes mixture. Irradiation is carried out in a special channel of the radial blanket. The production of cobalt 60 at the BN-600 reactor and facilities are also described.

  7. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Armored Scales (Insects: Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proper identification of armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare armored scales specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collect...

  8. Systematic methodology for estimating direct capital costs for blanket tritium processing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology developed for estimating the relative capital costs of blanket processing systems. The capital costs of the nine blanket concepts selected in the Blanket Comparison and Selection Study are presented and compared.

  9. Design Institutional and Unit Sustainment Training Programs for XM1 Armor Crewmen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    f Research Product 81-12 DESIGN INSTITUTIONAL AND UNIT SUSTAINMENT TRAINING PROGRAMS FOR Xlii ARMOR CREWMAN ARI FIELD UNIT AT FORT KNOX, KENTUCKY... Armor Crewmen 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER RP-MTRD-(KY) -81-7 7. AUTHOR(a) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) Charlotte H. Campbell MDA 903-80-C-0223...are presented: 1. Capabilities analyses for XMl armor crewman training devices. ’k2. Recommended training program for XMIi armor crewman

  10. Nondestructive characterization of UHMWPE armor materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiou, Chien-Ping; Margetan, Frank J.; Barnard, Daniel J.; Hsu, David K.; Jensen, Terrence; Eisenmann, David

    2012-05-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a material increasingly used for fabricating helmet and body armor. In this work, plate specimens consolidated from thin fiber sheets in series 3124 and 3130 were examined with ultrasound, X-ray and terahertz radiation. Ultrasonic through-transmission scans using both air-coupled and immersion modes revealed that the 3130 series material generally had much lower attenuation than the 3124 series, and that certain 3124 plates had extremely high attenuation. Due to the relatively low inspection frequencies used, pulse-echo immersion ultrasonic testing could not detect distinct flaw echoes from the interior. To characterize the nature of the defective condition that was responsible for the high ultrasonic attenuation, terahertz radiation in the time-domain spectroscopy mode were used to image the flaws. Terahertz scan images obtained on the high attenuation samples clearly showed a distribution of a large number of defects, possibly small planar delaminations, throughout the volume of the interior. Their precise nature and morphology are to be verified by optical microscopy of the sectioned surface.

  11. Nondestructive characterization of UHMWPE armor materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chiou, Chien-Ping; Margetan, Frank J.; Barnard, Daniel J.; Hsu, David K.; Jensen, Terrence; Eisenmann, David

    2012-05-17

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a material increasingly used for fabricating helmet and body armor. In this work, plate specimens consolidated from thin fiber sheets in series 3124 and 3130 were examined with ultrasound, X-ray and terahertz radiation. Ultrasonic through-transmission scans using both air-coupled and immersion modes revealed that the 3130 series material generally had much lower attenuation than the 3124 series, and that certain 3124 plates had extremely high attenuation. Due to the relatively low inspection frequencies used, pulse-echo immersion ultrasonic testing could not detect distinct flaw echoes from the interior. To characterize the nature of the defective condition that was responsible for the high ultrasonic attenuation, terahertz radiation in the time-domain spectroscopy mode were used to image the flaws. Terahertz scan images obtained on the high attenuation samples clearly showed a distribution of a large number of defects, possibly small planar delaminations, throughout the volume of the interior. Their precise nature and morphology are to be verified by optical microscopy of the sectioned surface.

  12. Toroidal midplane neutral beam armor and plasma limiter

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, Henry W.; Hand, Jr, Samuel W.; Ksayian, Haig

    1986-01-01

    For use in a tokamak fusion reactor having a midplane magnetic coil on the inner wall of an evacuated toriodal chamber within which a neutral beam heated, fusing plasma is magnetically confined, a neutral beam armor shield and plasma limiter is provided on the inner wall of the toroidal chamber to shield the midplane coil from neutral beam shine-thru and plasma deposition. The armor shield/plasma limiter forms a semicircular enclosure around the midplane coil with the outer surface of the armor shield/plasma limiter shaped to match, as closely as practical, the inner limiting magnetic flux surface of the toroidally confined, indented, bean-shaped plasma. The armor shield/plasma limiter includes a plurality of semicircular graphite plates each having a pair of coupled upper and lower sections with each plate positioned in intimate contact with an adjacent plate on each side thereof so as to form a closed, planar structure around the entire outer periphery of the circular midplane coil. The upper and lower plate sections are adapted for coupling to heat sensing thermocouples and to a circulating water conduit system for cooling the armor shield/plasma limiter.The inner center portion of each graphite plate is adapted to receive and enclose a section of a circular diagnostic magnetic flux loop so as to minimize the power from the plasma confinement chamber incident upon the flux loop.

  13. Toroidal midplane neutral beam armor and plasma limiter

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, Henry W.; Hand Jr, Samuel W.; Ksayian, Haig

    1986-02-04

    For use in a tokamak fusion reactor having a midplane magnetic coil on the inner wall of an evacuated toriodal chamber within which a neutral beam heated, fusing plasma is magnetically confined, a neutral beam armor shield and plasma limiter is provided on the inner wall of the toroidal chamber to shield the midplane coil from neutral beam shine-thru and plasma deposition. The armor shield/plasma limiter forms a semicircular enclosure around the midplane coil with the outer surface of the armor shield/plasma limiter shaped to match, as closely as practical, the inner limiting magnetic flux surface of the toroidally confined, indented, bean-shaped plasma. The armor shield/plasma limiter includes a plurality of semicircular graphite plates each having a pair of coupled upper and lower sections with each plate positioned in intimate contact with an adjacent plate on each side thereof so as to form a closed, planar structure around the entire outer periphery of the circular midplane coil. The upper and lower plate sections are adapted for coupling to heat sensing thermocouples and to a circulating water conduit system for cooling the armor shield/plasma limiter.The inner center portion of each graphite plate is adapted to receive and enclose a section of a circular diagnostic magnetic flux loop so as to minimize the power from the plasma confinement chamber incident upon the flux loop.

  14. Cardiopulmonary signal sensing from subject wearing body armor.

    PubMed

    Park, Byung-Kwon; Lubecke, Victor; Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Host-Madsen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Continuous wave (CW) Doppler motion sensing radar can detect human physiological signal such as respiration or heart signals at a distance and through barriers. It has been shown that heart rate can be extracted with good accuracy for normally clothed subjects. Such technique could potentially be used to search for survivors in battlefield triage applications. To assess the feasibility of such applications, we investigated Doppler radar of cardiopulmonary signal sensing from subjects wearing body armor vests. This paper presents measurement results of heart signals obtained using CW Doppler radar from a subject wearing body armor vest. Since armor plate reflects most of the RF signal, received signal after reflected from a subject is phase modulated with motion of an armor plate induced by chest motion, rather than directly with chest motion due to cardiopulmonary motion. Two different cases, including supine and seated positions, are chosen for this study, and good sensitivity was obtained in both cases. To the best of author's knowledge, this is the first published result of cardiopulmonary signal detection from a subject wearing a body armor vest.

  15. Large-area ALON windows for reconnaissance and armor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Lee M.; Twedt, Richard; Foti, Robyn; Smith, Mark; Sastri, Suri A.

    2009-05-01

    The demand for large ALON® windows has continued to increase since the material transitioned to Surmet Corporation for commercialization. Two applications which represent opposite ends of the requirements spectrum in terms of required optical performance and cost sensitivity are Reconnaissance windows and transparent armor. Consequently, the approaches to producing large area windows for both applications are quite different. While Recce applications require windows of the highest possible optical quality and stringent refractive index homogeneity across the large aperture sizes of Recce sensors, the optical requirements for transparent armor windows are substantially looser. Furthermore, optical performance is paramount for Recce applications while transparent armor applications are more strongly driven by cost considerations. Surmet has developed processes for producing large (i.e., up to ~17x30-in) ALON® window blanks of extremely high optical quality and refractive index homogeneity, for Recce applications. This material has been optically fabricated into finished windows and characterized for transmitted wavefront and homogeneity. Recent results will be presented. Large area transparent armor windows have been produced using a tiling approach. Since transparent armor laminates consist of multiple layers (i.e., ALON/Glass/Polycarbonate) Smaller ALON® tiles can be face bonded onto the underlying glass and polycarbonate layers to produce very large windows. Excellent ballistic results have been obtained using a tiled configuration. Recent results will be presented.

  16. Numerical simulation of armor capability of AI2O3 and SiC armor tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, T.; Aleem, M. A.; Akbar, S.; Rauf, A.; Shuaib, M.

    2016-08-01

    Alumina and Silicon Carbide armor plates have been tested numerically against 7.62x51 (mm x mm) armor piercing (AP) projectiles. A 2-D problem with axial symmetry has been designedand the simulations were carried out using commercial software ANSYS AUTODYN. Experiments were modeled for Alumina (99.5%), Alumina (99.7%) and SiC with a range of tile thicknesses (5, 10, 15 and 20 mm). The projectile was chosen as 7.62 x 51AP bullet (initial velocity 810 m/sec)with two different core materials Steel 4340 and WC, however, casing material was copper for both cores. SiC showed better defense against AP bullet as compared to Al2O3. The residual velocity and momentum of the bullet were found to decrease with increasing tile thickness. SiC tiles with thickness 15mm and 20 mm successfully sustained penetration against steel 4340 and WC core bullets, respectively. However none of the Alumina targets succeeded in stopping the bullet.

  17. Evaluating the Stability of a Metric for Determining the Health of Armor Plates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-13

    premise: The amplitudes and locations of the major vibrational modes of an undamaged armor plate constitute a basic signature of the armor plate...Damaging the armor plate should cause changes to both the amplitude and position of the significant vibrational modes . A metric has been developed to

  18. Evaluating the Stability of a Metric for Determining the Health of Armor Plates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-04

    premise: The amplitudes and locations of the major vibrational modes of an undamaged armor plate constitute a basic ?signature? of the armor plate...Damaging the armor plate should cause changes to both the amplitude and position of the significant vibrational modes . A metric has been developed to

  19. 46 CFR 111.05-7 - Armored and metallic sheathed cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Armored and metallic sheathed cable. 111.05-7 Section 111.05-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING... Armored and metallic sheathed cable. When installed, the metallic armor or sheath must meet the...

  20. 46 CFR 111.05-7 - Armored and metallic sheathed cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Armored and metallic sheathed cable. 111.05-7 Section 111.05-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING... Armored and metallic sheathed cable. When installed, the metallic armor or sheath must meet the...

  1. 46 CFR 111.05-7 - Armored and metallic sheathed cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Armored and metallic sheathed cable. 111.05-7 Section 111.05-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING... Armored and metallic sheathed cable. When installed, the metallic armor or sheath must meet the...

  2. 46 CFR 111.05-7 - Armored and metallic sheathed cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Armored and metallic sheathed cable. 111.05-7 Section 111.05-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING... Armored and metallic sheathed cable. When installed, the metallic armor or sheath must meet the...

  3. 46 CFR 111.05-7 - Armored and metallic sheathed cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Armored and metallic sheathed cable. 111.05-7 Section 111.05-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING... Armored and metallic sheathed cable. When installed, the metallic armor or sheath must meet the...

  4. 7 CFR 1755.406 - Shield or armor ground resistance measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.406 Shield or armor ground resistance measurements. (a) Shield or armor ground resistance measurements shall be made on completed lengths of copper cable and wire... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shield or armor ground resistance measurements. 1755...

  5. 7 CFR 1755.406 - Shield or armor ground resistance measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.406 Shield or armor ground resistance measurements. (a) Shield or armor ground resistance measurements shall be made on completed lengths of copper cable and wire... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shield or armor ground resistance measurements. 1755...

  6. Modeling the Biodynamical Response of the Human Thorax with Body Armor from a Bullet Impact

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    Boron Carbide Armor with Stiffness of Figure 51. Sternum Acceleration (Kevlar and Boron Carbide Armor with Young’s Modulus of Pericardium Decreased by...a Factor of 10). After Ref. [13] ......... 61 Figure 52. Spinal Acceleration (Kevlar and Boron Carbide Armor with Young’s Modulus of Pericardium ...Modulus of Pericardium Decreased by a Factor of 10). After Ref. [13

  7. 48 CFR 252.225-7030 - Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. 252.225-7030 Section 252.225-7030 Federal Acquisition... Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. As prescribed in 225.7011-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate (DEC 2006) (a) Carbon, alloy, and...

  8. 48 CFR 252.225-7030 - Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. 252.225-7030 Section 252.225-7030 Federal Acquisition... Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. As prescribed in 225.7011-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate (DEC 2006) (a) Carbon, alloy, and...

  9. 48 CFR 252.225-7030 - Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. 252.225-7030 Section 252.225-7030 Federal Acquisition... Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. As prescribed in 225.7011-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate (DEC 2006) (a) Carbon, alloy, and...

  10. 48 CFR 252.225-7030 - Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. 252.225-7030 Section 252.225-7030 Federal Acquisition... Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. As prescribed in 225.7011-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate (DEC 2006) (a) Carbon, alloy, and...

  11. 48 CFR 252.225-7030 - Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. 252.225-7030 Section 252.225-7030 Federal Acquisition... Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. As prescribed in 225.7011-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate (DEC 2006) (a) Carbon, alloy, and...

  12. 27 CFR 478.148 - Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Armor piercing ammunition... AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.148 Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes. The Director may exempt certain armor piercing...

  13. 27 CFR 478.37 - Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and sale of armor piercing ammunition. 478.37 Section 478.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms..., importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition. No person shall manufacture or import, and no manufacturer or importer shall sell or deliver, armor piercing ammunition, except: (a) The manufacture or...

  14. 30 CFR 75.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and... Grounding § 75.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. All metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors shall be electrically continuous throughout and...

  15. 27 CFR 478.37 - Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and sale of armor piercing ammunition. 478.37 Section 478.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms..., importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition. No person shall manufacture or import, and no manufacturer or importer shall sell or deliver, armor piercing ammunition, except: (a) The manufacture or...

  16. 27 CFR 478.148 - Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Armor piercing ammunition... AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.148 Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes. The Director may exempt certain armor piercing...

  17. 30 CFR 77.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. Metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power...

  18. 30 CFR 77.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. Metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power...

  19. 27 CFR 478.148 - Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Armor piercing ammunition... AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.148 Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes. The Director may exempt certain armor piercing...

  20. 30 CFR 75.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and... Grounding § 75.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. All metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors shall be electrically continuous throughout and...

  1. 27 CFR 478.37 - Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and sale of armor piercing ammunition. 478.37 Section 478.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms..., importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition. No person shall manufacture or import, and no manufacturer or importer shall sell or deliver, armor piercing ammunition, except: (a) The manufacture or...

  2. 30 CFR 75.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and... Grounding § 75.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. All metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors shall be electrically continuous throughout and...

  3. 27 CFR 478.148 - Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Armor piercing ammunition... AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.148 Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes. The Director may exempt certain armor piercing...

  4. 30 CFR 77.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. Metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power...

  5. 27 CFR 478.37 - Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and sale of armor piercing ammunition. 478.37 Section 478.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms..., importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition. No person shall manufacture or import, and no manufacturer or importer shall sell or deliver, armor piercing ammunition, except: (a) The manufacture or...

  6. 30 CFR 75.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and... Grounding § 75.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. All metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors shall be electrically continuous throughout and...

  7. 30 CFR 77.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. Metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power...

  8. 27 CFR 478.148 - Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Armor piercing ammunition... AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.148 Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes. The Director may exempt certain armor piercing...

  9. 27 CFR 478.37 - Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and sale of armor piercing ammunition. 478.37 Section 478.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms..., importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition. No person shall manufacture or import, and no manufacturer or importer shall sell or deliver, armor piercing ammunition, except: (a) The manufacture or...

  10. Development of blanket box structure fabrication technology

    SciTech Connect

    Mohri, K.; Sata, S.; Kawaguchi, I.

    1994-12-31

    Fabrication studies have been performed for first wall and blanket box structure in the Fusion Experimental Reactor designed in Japan. The first wall must have internal cooling channels to remove volumetric heat loading by neutron wall load and surface heat loading from the plasma. The blanket which is higher than 10 m and 1 m wide withstands enormous electromagnetic load (about 10 MN/m). And a fabrication accuracy is required in the order of 10 mm from the machine configuration and remote assembling standpoints. To make cooling channels inside the first wall and to reduce the deformation during fabrication, the authors adopted advance techniques Hot Isostatic Pressing method (HIP) and Electron Beam Welding (EBW) respectively. Evaluation studies for the bondability of the HIP bonding joint have been performed. To evaluate the bondability, the mechanical properties such as tensile strength, impact value, low cycle fatigue strength and creep strength of the bonded part were investigated using HIP bonded test specimens. And the detectability of ultrasonic detection tests were also studied on them.

  11. 18 CFR 284.402 - Blanket marketing certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blanket marketing certificates. 284.402 Section 284.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Sales for Resale by Non-interstate Pipelines § 284.402 Blanket marketing...

  12. 18 CFR 284.402 - Blanket marketing certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blanket marketing certificates. 284.402 Section 284.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Sales for Resale by Non-interstate Pipelines § 284.402 Blanket marketing...

  13. 75 FR 11557 - Woven Electric Blankets From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... COMMISSION Woven Electric Blankets From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... of woven electric blankets, provided for in subheading 6301.10.00 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule... has defined the subject merchandise as finished, semi- finished, and unassembled woven electric...

  14. Security Blanket or Mother: Which Benefits Linus during Pediatric Examinations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ybarra, Gabriel; Passman, Richard H.; Eisenberg, Carl S. L.

    This study compared the degree to which young children were placated during a standard medical evaluation by the presence of their mother, blanket, mother plus blanket, or no supportive agent. Participating were 64 three-year-olds who underwent 4 routine medical procedures. Children were rated by their mothers as attached or nonattached to…

  15. US blanket technology programs. [Directory of current research

    SciTech Connect

    Nygren, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental research in US programs related to blanket technology is described through brief summaries of the objectives, facilities, recent experimental results and principal investigators for the Blanket Technology Program, TRIO-1 Experiment, TSTA, Fusion Hybrid Program and selected activities in the Fusion Materials and Fusion Safety Programs in neutronics research.

  16. Conceptual design of a self-cooled Flibe blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, D.K.; Jung, J.; Cheng, E.T.; Piet, S.; Klein, A.

    1986-06-01

    A self-cooled Flibe blanket concept has been developed. The problems associated with tritium breeding, tritium containment, and corrosion have been investigated and potential solutions developed. A highly efficient and compact blanket and power conversion system has been incorporated. The resulting system is low pressure with high thermal efficiency and is inherently safe.

  17. 18 CFR 284.402 - Blanket marketing certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blanket marketing certificates. 284.402 Section 284.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Sales for Resale by Non-interstate Pipelines § 284.402 Blanket...

  18. 18 CFR 284.402 - Blanket marketing certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blanket marketing certificates. 284.402 Section 284.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Sales for Resale by Non-interstate Pipelines § 284.402 Blanket...

  19. 48 CFR 213.303 - Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). 213.303 Section 213.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisition Methods 213.303 Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). ...

  20. 18 CFR 284.402 - Blanket marketing certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blanket marketing certificates. 284.402 Section 284.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Sales for Resale by Non-interstate Pipelines § 284.402 Blanket...

  1. MIT LMFBR blanket research project. Final summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, M.J.

    1983-08-01

    This is a final summary report on an experimental and analytical program for the investigation of LMFBR blanket characteristics carried out at MIT in the period 1969 to 1983. During this span of time, work was carried out on a wide range of subtasks, ranging from neutronic and photonic measurements in mockups of blankets using the Blanket Test Facility at the MIT Research Reactor, to analytic/numerical investigations of blanket design and economics. The main function of this report is to serve as a resource document which will permit ready reference to the more detailed topical reports and theses issued over the years on the various aspects of project activities. In addition, one aspect of work completed during the final year of the project, on doubly-heterogeneous blanket configurations, is documented for the record.

  2. Fullerene Type Multilayer Insulation Blanket on a Spherical Cold Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmori, T.; Shinozaki, T.; Kaneko, H.

    2010-04-01

    Fullerene type multilayer insulation blanket is proposed for the insulation around a spherical cold surface, and has been applied to a 10 liter spherical tank of liquid nitrogen. As fullerene has 32 faces with 90 edges, 32 polygons of stacked insulation sheets must be connected each other to fabricate such a MLI blanket. The MLI blanket has 90 slots at connecting part between the polygons where thermal radiation heat transfer should be reduced. The size of the polygon made by the insulation films must be chosen so as to avoid excess compressive pressure between stacked insulation sheets. The design principle and the method to fabricate the blanket were studied, and the experimental results obtained by the fullerene type MLI blanket applied to the 10 liter spherical tank were measured.

  3. Fabrication of compound nonwoven materials for soft body armor.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Chang; Lin, Jia-Horng; Chang, Chun-Cheng

    2011-09-01

    The primary objective of body armor research is the development of low-cost, lightweight, wearable garments that effectively resist ballistic impact. This study introduces a material intended to reduce nonpenetration trauma by absorbing energy from ballistic impacts. Layers of web were made by low-melting point polyester (LMPET) on unaligned fibers of high-strength polyamide 6 (HSPA6). A compound nonwoven fabric was made by laying high-strength Vectran filaments between two layers of HSPA6-LMPET web. The new fabric underwent needle punching and thermal bonding to form a composite sandwich structure. The new fabric was subjected to a falling weight impact test and a ballistic impact test. The results indicated that the material with the new design reduced maximum indentation depth by 8%. Furthermore, soft body armor made from the material with the new design would cost less to produce and would weigh 22.5% less than conventional soft body armor.

  4. Contemporary body armor: technical data, injuries, and limits.

    PubMed

    Prat, N; Rongieras, F; Sarron, J-C; Miras, A; Voiglio, E

    2012-04-01

    The introduction of firearms in the fifteenth century led to the continuous development of bulletproof personal protection. Due to recent industrial progress and the emergence of a new generation of ballistic fibers in the 1960s, the ability of individual ballistic protections to stop projectiles greatly increased. While protective equipment is able to stop increasingly powerful missiles, deformation during the impact can cause potentially lethal nonpenetrating injuries that are grouped under the generic term of behind armor blunt trauma, and the scope and consequences of these are still unclear. This review first summarizes current technical data for modern bulletproof vests, the materials used in them, and the stopping mechanisms they employ. Then it describes recent research into the specific ballistic injury patterns of soldiers wearing body armor, focusing on behind-armor blunt trauma.

  5. Remote handling system development of armor tile replacement for FER

    SciTech Connect

    Adachi, J.; Yoshizawa, S.; Nakano, Y.

    1994-12-31

    A number of armor tiles are attached to the first wall of the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) in order to protect the first wall against severe heat/particle loads from plasma during its operation. Although the armor tiles are made of heat-resisting materials such as graphite, they are eroded and damaged due to the loads and thus they are categorized into scheduled maintenance component. A remote handling system is required to replace a large number of tiles rapidly in the highly activated circumstance and has to be capable for adjusting a manipulator`s motion taking into account a thermal deformation of the first wall and/or a positioning error of a manipulator for the remote handling system. For this purpose, a remote handling system of the armor tile replacement with a visual feedback control has been fabricated and this paper describes an experimental system and the performance test results.

  6. Performance of the PDX neutral beam wall armor

    SciTech Connect

    Kugel, H.W.; Eubank, H.P.; Kozub, T.A.; Williams, M.D.

    1985-02-01

    The PDX wall armor was designed to function as an inner wall thermal armor, a neutral beam diagnostic, and a large area inner toroidal plasma limiter. In this paper we discuss its thermal performance as wall armor during two years of PDX neutral beam heating experiments. During this period it provided sufficient inner wall protection to permit perpendicular heating injections into normal and disruptive plasmas as well as injections in the absence of plasma involving special experiments, calibrations, and tests important for the optimization and development of the PDX neutral beam injection system. Many of the design constraints and performance issues encountered in this work are relevant to the design of larger fusion devices.

  7. ALT-II armor tile design for upgraded TEXTOR operation

    SciTech Connect

    Newberry, B.L.; McGrath, R.T.; Watson, R.D.

    1994-12-31

    The upgrade of the TEXTOR tokamak at KFA Julich will be completed in the spring of 1994. The upgrade will extend the TEXTOR pulse length from 5 seconds to 10 seconds. The auxiliary heating systems are also scheduled to be upgraded so that eventually a total of 8.0 MW auxiliary heating will be available through a combination of neutral beam injection and radio frequency heating. Originally, the inertially cooled armor tiles on the full toroidal belt Advanced Limiter Test - II (ALT-II) were designed for 5-second operation with a total heating power of 6.0 MW. The upgrade of TEXTOR will increase the energy deposited per pulse onto ALT-II by more than 300%. Consequently, the graphite armor tiles for ALT-II had to be redesigned in order to increase their thermal inertia and, thereby, avoid excessively high graphite armor surface temperatures that would lead to unacceptable contamination of the plasma. The armor tile thermal inertia had been increase primarily by expanding the radial thickness of the tiles from 17 mm to 20 mm. This increase in radial tile dimension will reduce the overall pumping efficiency of the ALT-II pump limiter by about 30%. The final armor tile design was a compromise between increasing the power handling capability and reducing the particle exhaust efficiency of ALT-II. The reduction in exhaust efficiency is unfortunate, but could only be avoided by active cooling of the ALT-II armor tiles. The active cooling option was too complicated and expensive to be considered at this time.

  8. Fuzzy Modeling of Armor Plate Bending by Blast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    Ishibuchi, "Identification of Possibilistic Linear Systems by Quadratic Membership Functions of Fuzzy Parameters", Proc. 3rd IFSA Congress, Seattle 1989, pp...TIC -ILE Copy TECHNICAL REPORT BRL-TR-3130 BRL co 00 FUZZY MODELING OF ARMOR PLATE BENDING BY BLAST < DTIC eDETIC AIVARS K.R. CELMI1 SEP 13 1990 U...SUBTMTE L. PUNDWDIG NUMBERS Fuzzy Modeling of Armor Plate Bending by Blast Aivars K. R. Celmins 7. P EFORMING ORGANIZATION NAM E(S) AND A ORSS ES

  9. Aerosol Blanket Likely Thinned During 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Each day, a blanket of tiny particles drifting through the Earth's atmosphere filters out some of the sunlight headed for the planet's surface. These aerosols, including dust, smoke, and human-produced pollution, can reflect incoming light or absorb it, directly affecting the Earth's energy balance and climate. Aerosols also influence the climate indirectly, by affecting the brightness and amount of clouds. Research by NASA scientists on global aerosol patterns since the 1990s indicate the global aerosol blanket has likely thinned, allowing more sunlight to reach the Earth's surface over the past decade. The thinning of the blanket is shown by this trio of images based on satellite observations of aerosol optical thickness, a measurement that scientists use to describe how much the aerosols filter the incoming sunlight. Higher optical thickness (orange and red) means more sunlight blocking. The globes show average aerosol optical thickness for 1988-1991 (top), 2002-2005 (middle), and the change between the two time periods (bottom). Overall, the 1988-1991 image appears redder, a sign that aerosols were blocking more incoming sunlight; the 2002-2005 image has more light yellow areas. In the bottom image, small pockets of red (increased aerosol optical thickness), mostly near land masses in the Northern Hemisphere, are far outnumbered by blue areas (decreased aerosol optical thickness). Because they block incoming sunlight from reaching Earth's surface, aerosols may counterbalance greenhouse gas warming. The decline in the dimming power of aerosols over the past decade may have made the greenhouse warming trend more evident in the past decade than in previous decades. The scientists describe their results as a 'likely' trend because the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellite sensors they used in their analysis were not specifically designed to observe aerosols, and may contain some errors. However, specific, major aerosol events, such as large

  10. Pulsed activation analyses of the ITER blanket design options considered in the blanket trade-off study

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.; Henderson, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project began a new design phase called the Engineering Design Activity (EDA) which started in July 1992. A variety of blanket designs options were analyzed as a part of the U.S. ITER home team blanket option trade-off study (BOTS) which began in May 1993. The options considered were a self-cooled Li/V blanket, a helium cooled Li/V blanket and a water cooled 316 SS nonbreeding shield option. Detailed activation, dose rate and waste disposal rating calculations have been performed for these different ITER blanket design options based on a fluence of 3.0 MWa/m{sup 2} and an average neutron wall loading of 2.0 MW/m{sup 2}. A continuous operation assumption was utilized in the analysis. The results of this work are presented in this conference.

  11. U.S. technical report for the ITER blanket/shield: A. blanket: Topical report, July 1990--November 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    Three solid-breeder water-cooled blanket concepts have been developed for ITER based on a multilayer configuration. The primary difference among the concepts is in the fabricated form of breeder and multiplier. All the concepts have beryllium for neutron multiplication and solid-breeder temperature control. The blanket design does not use helium gaps or insulator material to control the solid breeder temperature. Lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O) and lithium zirconate (Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}) are the primary and the backup breeder materials, respectively. The lithium-6 enrichment is 95%. The use of high lithium-6 enrichment reduces the solid breeder volume required in the blanket and consequently the total tritium inventory in the solid breeder material. Also, it increases the blanket capability to accommodate power variation. The multilayer blanket configuration can accommodate up to a factor of two change in the neutron wall loading without violating the different design guidelines. The blanket material forms are sintered products and packed bed of small pebbles. The first concept has a sintered product material (blocks) for both the beryllium multiplier and the solid breeder. The second concept, the common ITER blanket, uses a packed bed breeder and beryllium blocks. The last concept is similar to the first except for the first and the last beryllium zones. Two small layers of beryllium pebbles are located behind the first wall and the back of the last beryllium zone to reduce the total inventory of the beryllium material and to improve the blanket performance. The design philosophy adopted for the blanket is to produce the necessary tritium required for the ITER operation and to operate at power reactor conditions as much as possible. Also, the reliability and the safety aspects of the blanket are enhanced by using low-pressure water coolant and the separation of the tritium purge flow from the coolant system by several barriers.

  12. Methods of producing armor systems, and armor systems produced using such methods

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry S; Lillo, Thomas M; McHugh, Kevin M

    2013-02-19

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  13. Miniaturized hand held microwave interference scanning system for NDE of dielectric armor and armor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Karl F.; Little, Jack R.; Ellingson, William A.; Meitzler, Thomas J.; Green, William

    2011-06-23

    Inspection of ceramic-based armor has advanced through development of a microwave-based, portable, non-contact NDE system. Recently, this system was miniaturized and made wireless for maximum utility in field applications. The electronic components and functionality of the laboratory system are retained, with alternative means of position input for creation of scan images. Validation of the detection capability was recently demonstrated using specially fabricated surrogates and ballistic impact-damaged specimens. The microwave data results have been compared to data from laboratory-based microwave interferometry systems and digital x-ray imaging. The microwave interference scanning has been shown to reliably detect cracks, laminar features and material property variations. The authors present details of the system operation, descriptions of the test samples used and recent results obtained.

  14. Effects of gender and body adiposity on physiological responses to physical work while wearing body armor.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Richard; Deuster, Patricia A; Talbot, Laura A

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of gender and body adiposity on physiological responses to the stress of wearing body armor. Using a within-subject, repeated-measures design, 37 military personnel volunteered to undergo two experimental conditions, with body armor and without body armor. Female and male subjects with body armor, compared to those without body armor, had no significant differences in percentage increases in aerobic capacity, heart rate, or respiratory rate while walking at slow or moderate pace. However, women, as compared to men, had a significantly increased difference in the rating of perceived physical exertion between wearing and not wearing body armor at a slow pace. Fourteen subjects were not able to complete treadmill testing while wearing body armor because of volitional fatigue and/or limiting dyspnea. Body fat was the best single predictor of treadmill test completion.

  15. Overview of EU activities on DEMO liquid metal breeder blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Giancarli, L.; Proust, E.

    1994-12-31

    The European test-blanket development programme, started in 1988, is aiming at the selection by 1995 of two DEMO-relevant blanket lines to be tested in ITER. At present, four lines of blanket are under development, two of them using solid and the other two liquid breeder materials. As far as liquid breeders are concerned, two lines of blankets have been selected within the European Union, the water-cooled lithium-lead (the eutectic Pb-17Li) blankets and the dual-coolant Pb-17Li blankets. Designs have been developed considering an agreed set of DEMO specifications, such as, for instance, a fusion power of 2,200 MW, a neutron wall-loading of 2MW/m{sup 2}, a life-time of 20,000 hours, and the use of martensitic steel as a structural material. Moreover, an experimental program has been set up in order to address the main critical issues for each line. The present paper gives an overview of both design and experimental activities within the European Union concerning these two lines of liquid breeder blankets.

  16. Spacecraft thermal blanket cleaning: Vacuum bake of gaseous flow purging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John J.

    1990-01-01

    The mass losses and the outgassing rates per unit area of three thermal blankets consisting of various combinations of Mylar and Kapton, with interposed Dacron nets, were measured with a microbalance using two methods. The blankets at 25 deg C were either outgassed in vacuum for 20 hours, or were purged with a dry nitrogen flow of 3 cu. ft. per hour at 25 deg C for 20 hours. The two methods were compared for their effectiveness in cleaning the blankets for their use in space applications. The measurements were carried out using blanket strips and rolled-up blanket samples fitting the microbalance cylindrical plenum. Also, temperature scanning tests were carried out to indicate the optimum temperature for purging and vacuum cleaning. The data indicate that the purging for 20 hours with the above N2 flow can accomplish the same level of cleaning provided by the vacuum with the blankets at 25 deg C for 20 hours, In both cases, the rate of outgassing after 20 hours is reduced by 3 orders of magnitude, and the weight losses are in the range of 10E-4 gr/sq cm. Equivalent mass loss time constants, regained mass in air as a function of time, and other parameters were obtained for those blankets.

  17. Spacecraft thermal blanket cleaning - Vacuum baking or gaseous flow purging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John J.

    1992-01-01

    The mass losses and the outgassing rates per unit area of three thermal blankets consisting of various combinations of Mylar and Kapton, with interposed Dacron nets, were measured with a microbalance using two methods. The blankets at 25 deg C were either outgassed in vacuum for 20 hours, or were purged with a dry nitrogen flow of 3 cu. ft. per hour at 25 deg C for 20 hours. The two methods were compared for their effectiveness in cleaning the blankets for their use in space applications. The measurements were carried out using blanket strips and rolled-up blanket samples fitting the microbalance cylindrical plenum. Also, temperature scanning tests were carried out to indicate the optimum temperature for purging and vacuum cleaning. The data indicate that the purging for 20 hours with the above N2 flow can accomplish the same level of cleaning provided by the vacuum with the blankets at 25 deg C for 20 hours. In both cases, the rate of outgassing after 20 hours is reduced by 3 orders of magnitude, and the weight losses are in the range of 10E-4 gr/sq cm. Equivalent mass loss time constants, regained mass in air as a function of time, and other parameters were obtained for those blankets.

  18. Solid breeder blanket option for the ITER conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Attaya, H.; Billone, M.C.; Finn, P.; Majumdar, S.; Turner, L.R.; Baker, C.C.; Nelson, B.E.; Raffray, R.; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN; California Univ., Los Angeles, CA )

    1989-10-01

    A solid-breeder water-cooled blanket option was developed for ITER based on a multilayer configuration. The blanket uses beryllium for neutron multiplication and lithium oxide for tritium breeding. The material forms are sintered products for both material with 0.8 density factor. The lithium-6 enrichment is 90%. This blanket has the capability to accommodate a factor of two change in the neutron wall loading without violating the different design guidelines. The design philosophy adopted for the blanket is to produce the necessary tritium required for the ITER operation and to operate at power reactor conditions as much as possible. At the same time, the reliability and the safety aspects of the blanket are enhanced by the use of a low-pressure coolant and the separation of the tritium purge lines from the coolant system. The blanket modules are made by hot vacuum forming and diffusion bonding a double wall structure with integral cooling channels. The different aspects of the blanket design including tritium breeding, nuclear heat deposition, activation analyses, thermal-hydraulics, tritium inventory, structural analyses, and water coolant conditions are summarized in this paper. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Spacecraft thermal blanket cleaning - Vacuum baking or gaseous flow purging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John J.

    1992-01-01

    The mass losses and the outgassing rates per unit area of three thermal blankets consisting of various combinations of Mylar and Kapton, with interposed Dacron nets, were measured with a microbalance using two methods. The blankets at 25 deg C were either outgassed in vacuum for 20 hours, or were purged with a dry nitrogen flow of 3 cu. ft. per hour at 25 deg C for 20 hours. The two methods were compared for their effectiveness in cleaning the blankets for their use in space applications. The measurements were carried out using blanket strips and rolled-up blanket samples fitting the microbalance cylindrical plenum. Also, temperature scanning tests were carried out to indicate the optimum temperature for purging and vacuum cleaning. The data indicate that the purging for 20 hours with the above N2 flow can accomplish the same level of cleaning provided by the vacuum with the blankets at 25 deg C for 20 hours. In both cases, the rate of outgassing after 20 hours is reduced by 3 orders of magnitude, and the weight losses are in the range of 10E-4 gr/sq cm. Equivalent mass loss time constants, regained mass in air as a function of time, and other parameters were obtained for those blankets.

  20. Hubble Space Telescope Thermal Blanket Repair Design and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ousley, Wes; Skladany, Joseph; Dell, Lawrence

    2000-01-01

    Substantial damage to the outer layer of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) thermal blankets was observed during the February 1997 servicing mission. After six years in LEO, many areas of the aluminized Teflon(R) outer blanket layer had significant cracks, and some material was peeled away to expose inner layers to solar flux. After the mission, the failure mechanism was determined, and repair materials and priorities were selected for follow-on missions. This paper focuses on the thermal, mechanical, and EVA design requirements for the blanket repair, the creative solutions developed for these unique problems, hardware development, and testing.

  1. Crack Detection in Armor Plates Using Ultrasonic Techniques (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    A method of using piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers to characterize the vibrational modes of Vehicle Body Armor Support System...VBASS) plates and its preliminary results are presented. The amplitude of the vibrational modes of undamaged plates are compared to the vibrational

  2. Crack Detection in Armor Plates Using Ultrasonic Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    A method of using piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers to characterize the vibrational modes of ceramic Vehicle Body Armor Support...System (VBASS) plates for the purpose of crack detection is presented. The amplitudes of the vibrational modes undamaged plates are compared to the

  3. Multifunctionality of chiton biomineralized armor with an integrated visual system

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Ling; Connors, Matthew; Kolle, Mathias; ...

    2015-11-20

    Nature provides a multitude of examples of multifunctional structural materials. There are often trade-offs in these materials because few of them are equally well suited for multiple tasks. One such example is the biomineralized armor of the chiton Acanthopleura granulata, which incorporates an integrated sensory system that includes hundreds of eyes with aragonite-based lens. Here, we used optical experiments to demonstrate directly, for the first time, that these microscopic, mineralized lenses are able to form images. Furthermore, our experiments revealed that the optical performance of these polycrystalline lenses is enhanced by the reduction of spherical aberration through the shape ofmore » the lens and that birefringence scattering is minimized by the use of relatively large, co-aligned grains (~10 μm as compared to ~1 μm in the non-eye regions). Additionally, we used multi-scale mechanical testing techniques to show that A. granulata’s lenses are an integral component of its biomineralized armor, but that both the intrinsic and overall mechanical properties of the lenses are compromised as compared to the primary solid regions of the armor plates. Our results demonstrate that as the size, complexity, and functionality of the integrated sensory elements increases, the local mechanical performance of the armor decreases. But, A. granulata has evolved several strategies to compensate for its local mechanical vulnerabilities to form a multifunctional system with co-optimized overall optical and structural functions.« less

  4. Multifunctionality of chiton biomineralized armor with an integrated visual system

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ling; Connors, Matthew; Kolle, Mathias; England, Grant; Speiser, Daniel; Xiao, Xianghui; Aizenberg, Joanna; Ortiz, Christine

    2015-11-20

    Nature provides a multitude of examples of multifunctional structural materials. There are often trade-offs in these materials because few of them are equally well suited for multiple tasks. One such example is the biomineralized armor of the chiton Acanthopleura granulata, which incorporates an integrated sensory system that includes hundreds of eyes with aragonite-based lens. Here, we used optical experiments to demonstrate directly, for the first time, that these microscopic, mineralized lenses are able to form images. Furthermore, our experiments revealed that the optical performance of these polycrystalline lenses is enhanced by the reduction of spherical aberration through the shape of the lens and that birefringence scattering is minimized by the use of relatively large, co-aligned grains (~10 μm as compared to ~1 μm in the non-eye regions). Additionally, we used multi-scale mechanical testing techniques to show that A. granulata’s lenses are an integral component of its biomineralized armor, but that both the intrinsic and overall mechanical properties of the lenses are compromised as compared to the primary solid regions of the armor plates. Our results demonstrate that as the size, complexity, and functionality of the integrated sensory elements increases, the local mechanical performance of the armor decreases. But, A. granulata has evolved several strategies to compensate for its local mechanical vulnerabilities to form a multifunctional system with co-optimized overall optical and structural functions.

  5. Natural Curaua Fiber-Reinforced Composites in Multilayered Ballistic Armor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Louro, Luis Henrique Leme; Trindade, Willian; Elias, Carlos Nelson; Ferreira, Carlos Luiz; de Sousa Lima, Eduardo; Weber, Ricardo Pondé; Miguez Suarez, João Carlos; da Silva Figueiredo, André Ben-Hur; Pinheiro, Wagner Anacleto; da Silva, Luis Carlos; Lima, Édio Pereira

    2015-10-01

    The performance of a novel multilayered armor in which the commonly used plies of aramid fabric layer were replaced by an equal thickness layer of distinct curaua fiber-reinforced composites with epoxy or polyester matrices was assessed. The investigated armor, in addition to its polymeric layer (aramid fabric or curaua composite), was also composed of a front Al2O3 ceramic tile and backed by an aluminum alloy sheet. Ballistic impact tests were performed with actual 7.62 caliber ammunitions. Indentation in a clay witness, simulating human body behind the back layer, attested the efficacy of the curaua-reinforced composite as an armor component. The conventional aramid fabric display a similar indentation as the curaua/polyester composite but was less efficient (deeper indentation) than the curaua/epoxy composite. This advantage is shown to be significant, especially in favor of the lighter and cheaper epoxy composite reinforced with 30 vol pct of curaua fiber, as possible substitute for aramid fabric in multilayered ballistic armor for individual protection. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the mechanism associated with the curaua composite ballistic performance.

  6. Magnesium Technology and Manufacturing for Ultra Lightweight Armored Ground Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    2.3 Corrosion Behavior Several factors that heavily influence the corrosion performance of Mg alloys ( Godard et al., 1967) are alloy chemistry...Based Structural Armor (U), ARL-RP-56, U.S. Army Research Laboratory. Godard , H.P., Jepson, W.P., Bothwell, M.R., and Kane, R.L., Ed., 1967: The

  7. The Light Armored Cavalry Regiment -- Reconnaissance Force of the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    appli- que armor made this possible. The Bradely Scout Vehicle, armed with a 25 mm cannon and a wire guided missile system, could now engage and destroy...University Press. 1986 Palmer, David Richard, Summons of the Trumpet. Novato. CA. Presidio Press. 1978. Palmer, Bruce Jr., The 25 Year War. America’s Military

  8. Armor of cermet with metal therein increasing with depth

    DOEpatents

    Wilkins, M.L.; Holt, A.C.; Cline, C.F.; Foreschner, K.E.

    1973-07-01

    The system described consists of a ceramic matrix having a gradient of fine ductile metallic particles dispersed therein in an amount of from 0.0%, commencing at the front or impact surface of the armor, to about 2 to 15% by volume along the interface to the back of the system. (auth)

  9. Trauma attenuating backing improves protection against behind armor blunt trauma.

    PubMed

    Sondén, Anders; Rocksén, David; Riddez, Louis; Davidsson, Johan; Persson, Jonas K; Gryth, Dan; Bursell, Jenny; Arborelius, Ulf P

    2009-12-01

    Body armor is used by military personnel, police officers, and security guards to protect them from fatal gunshot injuries to the thorax. The protection against high-velocity weapons may, however, be insufficient. Complementary trauma attenuating backings (TAB) have been suggested to prevent morbidity and mortality in high-velocity weapon trauma. Twenty-four Swedish landrace pigs, protected by a ceramid/aramid body armor without (n = 12) or with TAB (n = 12) were shot with a standard 7.62-mm assault rifle. Morphologic injuries, cardiorespiratory, and electroencephalogram changes as well as physical parameters were registered. The bullet impact caused a reproducible behind armor blunt trauma (BABT) in both the groups. The TAB significantly decreased size of the lung contusion and prevented hemoptysis. The postimpact apnea, desaturation, hypotension, and rise in pulmonary artery pressure were significantly attenuated in the TAB group. Moreover, TAB reduced transient peak pressures in thorax by 91%. Our results indicate that ordinary body armor should be complemented by a TAB to prevent thoracic injuries when the threat is high-velocity weapons.

  10. Armored Force: The Rapid Development of a Uniquely American Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-19

    speed at which the Americans were able to adapt to modern combat, the Germans had high praise for the U.S. forces. Field Marshall Erwin Rommel ...from the Allies and its own experience in North Africa in preparation for combat in Western Europe. The Armored Force that landed in Normandy was... AFRICA .......................................... 13 OTHER TANK FORCES IN WESTERN EUROPE ................................. 20 A UNIQUELY AMERICAN

  11. Lightcurve Analsyis of 774 Armor and 3161 Beadell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oey, Julian; Han, Xianming L.; Gipson, Kevin

    2013-04-01

    Photometric studies of the asteroids 774 Armor and 3161 Beadell and were carried out by observers from Australia and USA. The data were combined and the following periods were obtained: 774 Amor, 25.107 ± 0.005 h; 3161 Beadell, 36.253 ± 0.004 h.

  12. The Impact of Armor on the Design, Utilization and Survivability of Ground Vehicles: The History of Armor Development and Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    28 Figure 21. Summary of Threats Faced by an Armored Vehicle (From a Abrams Tank System Survivability Briefing in Jan 2012...Figure 32. Comparison of Tracked (Left) (From Cooke 2008) and Wheeled (Right) (From Cooke 2009) Propulsion Systems ...59 Figure 44. Vertical Threat Envelope (From a Abrams Tank System Survivability Briefing in Jan 2012

  13. Testing needs and experiments for solid breeder blankets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierszewski, P.; Puigh, R.

    1986-11-01

    Most of the critical issues for solid breeder blankets are related to the tritium and thermomechanical behavior of the solid breeder and multiplier. A major contributor to this uncertainty is the lack of definition of a preferred material, microstructure and form. Material selection and development is particularly cost-effective at present since much of the important blanket behavior is driven by local conditions rather than the overall blanket design, and since the choice of material affects the nature of the later and larger experiments. This stage of testing is also the most appropriate time to consider basic material choices such as sphere-pac or sintered pellet, and the incorporation of multiplier material into the blanket. The major testing needs and experiments are characterized here.

  14. Blanket options for high-efficiency fusion power

    SciTech Connect

    Usher, J L; Lazareth, O W; Fillo, J A; Horn, F L; Powell, J R

    1980-01-01

    The efficiencies of blankets for fusion reactors are usually in the range of 30 to 40%, limited by the operating temperatures (500/sup 0/C) of conventional structural materials such as stainless steels. In this project two-zone blankets are proposed; these blankets consist of a low-temperature shell surrounding a high-temperature interior zone. A survey of nucleonics and thermal hydraulic parameters has led to a reference blanket design consisting of a water-cooled stainless steel shell around a BeO, ZrO/sub 2/ interior (cooled by argon) utilizing Li/sub 2/O for tritium breeding. In this design, approximately 60% of the fusion energy is deposited in the high-temperature interior. The maximum argon temperature is 2230/sup 0/C leading to an overall efficiency estimate of 55 to 60% for this reference case.

  15. Fusion blanket for high-efficiency power cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Usher, J.L.; Powell, J.R.; Fillo, J.A.; Horn, F.L.; Lazareth, O.W.; Taussig, R.

    1980-01-01

    The efficiencies of blankets for fusion reactors are usually in the range of 30 to 40%, limited by the operating temperature (500/sup 0/C) of conventional structural materials such as stainless steels. In this project two-zone blankets are proposed; these blankets consist of a low-temperature shell surrounding a high-temperature interior zone. A survey of nucleonics and thermal hydraulic parameters has led to a reference blanket design consisting of a water-cooled stainless steel shell around a BeO, ZrO/sub 2/ interior (cooled by Ar) utilizing Li/sub 2/O for tritium breeding. In this design, approx. 60% of the fusion energy is deposited in the high-temperature interior. The maximum Ar temperature is 2230/sup 0/C leading to an overall efficiency estimate of 55 to 60% for this reference case.

  16. Young Stars in Their Baby Blanket of Dust

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-02-11

    Newborn stars peek out from beneath their natal blanket of dust in this dynamic image of the Rho Ophiuchi dark cloud from NASA Spitzer Space Telescope. This nebula is about 407 light years away from Earth.

  17. Cassini/Titan-4 Acoustic Blanket Development and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Anne M.

    1996-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center recently led a multi-organizational effort to develop and test verify new acoustic blankets. These blankets support NASA's goal in reducing the Titan-4 payload fairing internal acoustic environment to allowable levels for the Cassini spacecraft. To accomplish this goal a two phase acoustic test program was utilized. Phase One consisted of testing numerous blanket designs in a flat panel configuration. Phase Two consisted of testing the most promising designs out of Phase One in a full scale cylindrical payload fairing. This paper will summarize this highly successful test program by providing the rationale and results for each test phase, the impacts of this testing on the Cassini mission, as well as providing some general information on blanket designs.

  18. The life-saving effectiveness of body armor for police officers.

    PubMed

    LaTourrette, Tom

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of protective body armor on a police officer's risk of being killed and estimate the benefits and costs of outfitting police with body armor. In the United States, for police shot in the torso from 2004 to 2007 (n = 262), we calculate the relative risk of death from a gunshot without and with body armor. We estimate the benefit of body armor using the willingness-to-pay approach and compare it with the cost of supplying armor to police not currently wearing armor. The results show that the relative risk of dying without armor is = 3.4 (95% CI: 2.4 to 4.6). Outfitting all police with armor would save at least 8.5 lives per year, resulting in a benefit that is nearly twice the cost, or a net benefit of approximately $100/officer. Body armor more than triples the likelihood that a police officer will survive a shooting to the torso. Outfitting all police with armor yields a positive net benefit and is strongly justified economically.

  19. Multiscale impacts of armoring on Salish Sea shorelines: Evidence for cumulative and threshold effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethier, Megan N.; Raymond, Wendel W.; McBride, Aundrea N.; Toft, Jason D.; Cordell, Jeffery R.; Ogston, Andrea S.; Heerhartz, Sarah M.; Berry, Helen D.

    2016-06-01

    Shoreline armoring is widespread in many parts of the protected inland waters of the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A, but impacts on physical and biological features of local nearshore ecosystems have only recently begun to be documented. Armoring marine shorelines can alter natural processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales; some, such as starving the beach of sediments by blocking input from upland bluffs may take decades to become visible, while others such as placement loss of armoring construction are immediate. We quantified a range of geomorphic and biological parameters at paired, nearby armored and unarmored beaches throughout the inland waters of Washington State to test what conditions and parameters are associated with armoring. We gathered identical datasets at a total of 65 pairs of beaches: 6 in South Puget Sound, 23 in Central Puget Sound, and 36 pairs North of Puget Sound proper. At this broad scale, demonstrating differences attributable to armoring is challenging given the high natural variability in measured parameters among beaches and regions. However, we found that armoring was consistently associated with reductions in beach width, riparian vegetation, numbers of accumulated logs, and amounts and types of beach wrack and associated invertebrates. Armoring-related patterns at lower beach elevations (further vertically from armoring) were progressively harder to detect. For some parameters, such as accumulated logs, there was a distinct threshold in armoring elevation that was associated with increased impacts. This large dataset for the first time allowed us to identify cumulative impacts that appear when increasing proportions of shorelines are armored. At large spatial and temporal scales, armoring much of a sediment drift cell may result in reduction of the finer grain-size fractions on beaches, including those used by spawning forage fish. Overall we have shown that local impacts of shoreline armoring can scale-up to have cumulative and

  20. Applications of the Aqueous Self-Cooled Blanket concept

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, D.; Embrechts, M.J.; Varsamis, G.; Wrisley, K.; Deutch, L.; Gierszewski, P.

    1986-11-01

    In this paper a novel water-cooled blanket concept is examined. This concept, designated the Aqueous Self-Cooled Blanket (ASCB), employs water with small amounts of dissolved fertile compounds as both the coolant and the breeding medium. The ASCB concept is reviewed and its application in three different contexts is examined: (1) power reactors; (2) near-term devices such as NET; and (3) fusion-fission hybrids.

  1. Evaluation of organic moderator/coolants for fusion breeder blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, J.B.

    1980-03-01

    Organic coolants have several attractive features for fusion breeder blanket design. Their apparent compatibility with lithium and their ideal physical and nuclear properties allows straight-forward, high performance designs. Radiolytic damage can be reduced to about the same order as comparable fission systems by using multiplier/stripper blanket designs. Tritium recovery from the organic should be straightforward, but additional data is needed to make a better assessment of the economics of the process.

  2. Thin Thermal-Insulation Blankets for Very High Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2003-01-01

    Thermal-insulation blankets of a proposed type would be exceptionally thin and would endure temperatures up to 2,100 C. These blankets were originally intended to protect components of the NASA Solar Probe spacecraft against radiant heating at its planned closest approach to the Sun (a distance of 4 solar radii). These blankets could also be used on Earth to provide thermal protection in special applications (especially in vacuum chambers) for which conventional thermal-insulation blankets would be too thick or would not perform adequately. A blanket according to the proposal (see figure) would be made of molybdenum, titanium nitride, and carbon- carbon composite mesh, which melt at temperatures of 2,610, 2,930, and 2,130 C, respectively. The emittance of molybdenum is 0.24, while that of titanium nitride is 0.03. Carbon-carbon composite mesh is a thermal insulator. Typically, the blanket would include 0.25-mil (.0.00635-mm)-thick hot-side and cold-side cover layers of molybdenum. Titanium nitride would be vapor-deposited on both surfaces of each cover layer. Between the cover layers there would be 10 inner layers of 0.15-mil (.0.0038-mm)-thick molybdenum with vapor-deposited titanium nitride on both sides of each layer. The thickness of each titanium nitride coat would be about 1,000 A. The cover and inner layers would be interspersed with 0.25-mil (0.00635-mm)-thick layers of carbon-carbon composite mesh. The blanket would have total thickness of 4.75 mils (approximately equal to 0.121 mm) and an areal mass density of 0.7 kilograms per square meter. One could, of course, increase the thermal- insulation capability of the blanket by increasing number of inner layers (thereby unavoidably increasing the total thickness and mass density).

  3. Flow characteristics of the Cascade granular blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, J.H.; Walton, O.R.

    1985-07-01

    Analysis of a single granule on a rotating cone shows that for the 35/sup 0/ half-angle, double-cone-shaped Cascade chamber, blanket granules will stay against the chamber wall if the rotational speed is 50 rpm or greater. The granules move axially down the wall with a slight (5-mm or less) sinusoidal oscillation in the circumferential direction. Granule chute-flow experiments confirm that two-layered flow can be obtained when the chute is inclined slightly above the granular material angle of repose. The top surface layer is thin and fast moving (supercritical flow). A thick bottom layer moves more slowly (subcritical flow controlled at the exit) with a velocity that increases with distance from the bottom of the chute. This is a desirable velocity profile because in the Cascade chamber about one-third of the fusion energy is deposited in the form of x rays and fusion-fuel-pellet debris in the top surface (inner-radius) layer.

  4. Flow characteristics of the Cascade granular blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, J.H.; Walton, O.R.

    1985-04-15

    Analysis of a single granule on a rotating cone shows that for the 35/sup 0/ half-angle, double-cone-shaped Cascade chamber, blanket granules will stay against the chamber wall if the rotational speed is 50 rpm or greater. The granules move axially down the wall with a slight (5-mm or less) sinusoidal oscillation in the circumferential direction. Granule chute-flow experiments confirm that two-layered flow can be obtained when the chute is inclined slightly above the granular material angle of repose. The top surface layer is thin and fast moving (supercritical flow). A thick bottom layer moves more slowly (subcritical flow controlled at the exit) with a velocity that increases with distance from the bottom of the chute. This is a desirable velocity profile because in the Cascade chamber about one-third of the fusion energy is deposited in the form of x rays and fusion-fuel-pellet debris in the top surface (inner-radius) layer.

  5. Blanket of Snow Covers Salt Lake City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On December 23, 2001, less than two months before the start of the 2002 Winter Olympics, snow blankets Salt Lake City and the surrounding area. The Great Salt Lake, on the left hand side of the image above, often contributes to the region's snowfall through the 'lake-effect.' As cold air passes over a large body of water it both warms and absorbs moisture. The warm air then rises (like a hot air balloon) and cools again. As it cools, the water vapor condenses out, resulting in snowfall. Just to the east (right) of the Great Salt Lake the mountains of the Wasatch Range lift air from the lake even higher, enhancing the lake-effect, resulting in an average snowfall of 64 inches a year in Salt Lake City and 140 inches in Park City, which is located at the foot of the Wasatch Front. For more information about the lake-effect, read Lake-Effect Snowfalls. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  6. Blanket of Snow Covers Salt Lake City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On December 23, 2001, less than two months before the start of the 2002 Winter Olympics, snow blankets Salt Lake City and the surrounding area. The Great Salt Lake, on the left hand side of the image above, often contributes to the region's snowfall through the 'lake-effect.' As cold air passes over a large body of water it both warms and absorbs moisture. The warm air then rises (like a hot air balloon) and cools again. As it cools, the water vapor condenses out, resulting in snowfall. Just to the east (right) of the Great Salt Lake the mountains of the Wasatch Range lift air from the lake even higher, enhancing the lake-effect, resulting in an average snowfall of 64 inches a year in Salt Lake City and 140 inches in Park City, which is located at the foot of the Wasatch Front. For more information about the lake-effect, read Lake-Effect Snowfalls. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  7. Coflexip installs flexible water line in Adriatic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    This paper reports on the design, manufacture, transport and installation of a submarine pipe line network. The network would transport potable water from Yugoslavia's Dubroynil and Peljesac peninsula to the islands of Elafiti and Mljet, popular resort areas in the Adriatic Sea. The pipe line network consists of five separate 8-in. ID flexible lines, each 10 mi long. The pipe is made of thermoplastic tubing, a steel carcass and double crossword armor. The tubing is suitable for potable water service.

  8. APT Blanket System Loss-of-Helium-Gas Accident Based on Initial Conceptual Design - Helium Supply Rupture into Blanket Module

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    The model results are used to determine if beam power shutdown is necessary (or not) as a result of the LOHGA accident to maintain the blanket system well below any of the thermal-hydraulic constraints imposed on the design. The results also provide boundary conditions to the detailed bin model to study the detailed temperature response of the hot blanket module structure. The results for these two cases are documented in the report.

  9. Long-term survivability of riprap for armoring uranium-mill tailings and covers: a literature review. [203 references

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, C.G.; Long, L.W.; Begej, C.W.

    1982-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating the use of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of an earthen radon suppression cover applied to uranium mill tailings. Because the radon suppression cover and the tailings must remain intact for up to 1000 years or longer, the riprap must withstand natural weathering forces. This report is a review of information on rock weathering and riprap durability. Chemical and physical weathering processes, rock characteristics related to durability, climatic conditions affecting the degree and rate of weathering, and testing procedures used to measure weathering susceptibilities have been reviewed. Sampling and testing techniques, as well as analyses of physical and chemical weathering susceptibilities, are necessary to evaluate rock durability. Many potential riprap materials may not be able to survive 1000 years of weathering. Available techniques for durability testing cannot adequately predict rock durability for the 1000-year period because they do not consider the issue of time (i.e., how long must riprap remain stable). This report includes an Appendix, which discusses rock weathering, written by Dr. Richard Jahns of Stanford University.

  10. Case study: a novel biomechanical approach for evaluating extended body armor systems.

    PubMed

    Selinger, Jessica C; Gooyers, Chad E; Stevenson, Joan M; Costigan, Patrick A; Chafe, Gabrielle S

    2010-11-01

    To combat the devastating effects of improvised explosive devices (IEDs), body armor that provides extended coverage has been developed. However, this extended coverage increases the armor's weight and may restrict movement. Throughout this case study, a novel technique to assess several armor systems was investigated. Four soldiers performed shoulder and trunk movements while wearing each of the six different armor inserts. Electromyography (EMG) was used to quantify muscular activity and inertial motion sensors were used to determine joint range of motion (ROM). Outcome measures included maximum ROM, integrated EMG, and the soldiers' subjective rankings. For the shoulder tasks, objective ROM and EMG measures were related to each other as well as to subjective rankings and armor material properties. Conversely, little agreement was found between measures for the trunk tasks. Results of this preliminary investigation indicate that combining shoulder ROM and EMG measures has the potential to provide an objective assessment of body armor systems.

  11. The effect of body armor on saving officers' lives: An analysis using LEOKA data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiwei; Taylor, Bruce

    2017-02-01

    Using the Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted (LEOKA; 2002-2011) database, we examined the life-saving effectiveness of body armor while adjusting for a range of confounders not assessed in previous studies. Among the 637 officers who were shot by a firearm at the torso, those who wore body armor were 76% less likely to be killed than those who did not wear armor, controlling for an array of individual and incident characteristics. A number of factors influenced officers' armor wearing behavior include age, BMI, rank, geographic region, and type of assignment. Results will inform law enforcement agencies in assessing gaps in their current policy and help focus limited resources to encourage armor wearing. The investigation of other factors that influence police officers' chance of surviving a gun shooting (while controlling for body armor) will also have important implications for policies related to sending backup officers to police shootings, emergency response, and other critical areas.

  12. Thin, Flexible IMM Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walmsley, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    NASA needs solar arrays that are thin, flexible, and highly efficient; package compactly for launch; and deploy into large, structurally stable high-power generators. Inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) solar cells can enable these arrays, but integration of this thin crystalline cell technology presents certain challenges. The Thin Hybrid Interconnected Solar Array (THINS) technology allows robust and reliable integration of IMM cells into a flexible blanket comprising standardized modules engineered for easy production. The modules support the IMM cell by using multifunctional materials for structural stability, shielding, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) stress relief, and integrated thermal and electrical functions. The design approach includes total encapsulation, which benefits high voltage as well as electrostatic performance.

  13. Wheels for the Future: Should the U.S. Army Adopt an Armored Wheeled System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-05

    firepower, maneuver, and protection. These three measurements of combat power are more defined in six inherent capabilities of armored wheeled systems...AD-A234 372 Wheuls for the Future: Should the U.S. Army Adopt ar, Armored Wheeled System? A MonograpL by Major Glenn Davis Infantry School of...TITLE (nudScutClassification) Wheels For the ýFuture-- Should the US Army Adopt an Armored Wncc led Sybtem?, 2, PERSONAL AUTHCOI S ’ATIA Glenn W, Davis

  14. Development and Verification of Body Armor Target Geometry Created Using Computed Tomography Scans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-07-13

    ARL-MR-0957 ● JULY 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Development and Verification of Body Armor Target Geometry Created Using...Army Research Laboratory Development and Verification of Body Armor Target Geometry Created Using Computed Tomography Scans by Autumn R Kulaga... Development and Verification of Body Armor Target Geometry Created Using Computed Tomography Scans 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  15. Hypervelocity Impacts into Stainless-Steel Tubes Armored with Reinforced Beryllium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-08-01

    INTO STAINLESS-STEEL TUBES ARMORED WITH REINFORCED BERYLLIUM) by A. R. McMillan General Motors Corporation James tk. Diedrich and Nestor Clough k Lewis...STAINLESS-STEEL TUBES ARMORED WITH REINFORCED BERYLLIUM By A. R. McMillan ɝi- General Motors Corporation -Defense Research Laboratories Santa Barbara...TUBES ARMORED WITH REINFORCED BERYLLIUM by A.R. McMilIan General Motors Corporation Defense Research Laboratories Santa Barbara, California James H

  16. Shell-armored wood cobbles as a potential criterion for detrital coal deposits

    SciTech Connect

    DiMarco, M.J.; Nummedal, D.

    1986-01-01

    Shell-armored wood cobbles occur on detrital-peat beaches along the seaward edge of the Mississippi Delta. Shell material consists exclusively of Mulinia lateralis, a dwarf surf clam. Soft, heavy, waterlogged wood fragments are abraded and become armored by hard shells in response to wave activity on the beach. Although their preservation potential is suspect, fossilized shell-armored wood clasts would probably be recognized as a type of coal ball and might indicate an allochthonous origin for the host coal.

  17. Report to the Attorney General on Body Armor Safety Initiative Testing and Activities. Supplement 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-27

    directed the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) to initiate an examination of Zylon ®-based bullet-resistant armor1 (both new and used), to analyze...upgrade kits2 provided by manufacturers to retrofit Zylon ®- based bullet-resistant armors, and to review the existing process by which bullet-resistant...development, standards and testing, and also reviewed information about NIJ’s preliminary evaluation of Zylon ®- based armor. NIJ continues to conduct

  18. Report to the Attorney General on Body Armor Safety Initiative Testing and Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-11

    4 V. Tests to Determine Zylon Degradation in Used Armor ....................................... 6 A. Phase I: “Worst...Dyneema® produced by DSM, and Zylon ®1 produced by Toyobo. The NIJ body armor testing program has evaluated armor designs that include one specific...The most recent standard is NIJ Standard–0101.04, Revision A, issued in 1 Zylon ® (PBO fiber – Poly-p

  19. Armor corrosion monitoring of a submarine AC cable

    SciTech Connect

    Genesca, J.; Perez, T.; Lara, C.

    1997-12-01

    After the hurricane Gilberto flattened (devastated) Cancun in September 1988, the submarine cables which supplied electricity to Isla Mjueres Island remained very damaged, and it was decided to install the new ones. In 1989, four new submarine cables were installed from Punta Sam, Cancun to Isla Mujeres. Such cables, of nominal tension 34.5 KV, were manufactures with a galvanized steel armor coated with asphalt, and began operation during 1990. The object of this communication is to present the experimental procedure that gave place to the armor corrosion monitoring procedure carried out in this particular case and to compare the results with those obtained on the field. Results of the cathodic protection system applied are also presented.

  20. Armoring a droplet: soft jamming of a dense granular interface.

    PubMed

    Lagubeau, Guillaume; Rescaglio, Antonella; Melo, Francisco

    2014-09-01

    Droplets and bubbles protected by armors of particles have found vast applications in encapsulation, stabilization of emulsions and foams, or flotation processes. The liquid phase stores capillary energy, while concurrently the solid contacts of the granular network induce friction and energy dissipation, leading to hybrid interfaces of combined properties. By means of nonintrusive tensiometric methods and structural measurements, we distinguish three surface phases of increasing rigidity during the evaporation of armored droplets. The emergence of surface rigidity is reminiscent of jamming of granular matter, but it occurs differently since it is marked by a step by step hardening under surface compression. These results show that the concept of the effective surface tension remains useful only below the first jamming transition. Beyond this point, the surface stresses become anisotropic.

  1. Armoring a droplet: Soft jamming of a dense granular interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagubeau, Guillaume; Rescaglio, Antonella; Melo, Francisco

    2014-09-01

    Droplets and bubbles protected by armors of particles have found vast applications in encapsulation, stabilization of emulsions and foams, or flotation processes. The liquid phase stores capillary energy, while concurrently the solid contacts of the granular network induce friction and energy dissipation, leading to hybrid interfaces of combined properties. By means of nonintrusive tensiometric methods and structural measurements, we distinguish three surface phases of increasing rigidity during the evaporation of armored droplets. The emergence of surface rigidity is reminiscent of jamming of granular matter, but it occurs differently since it is marked by a step by step hardening under surface compression. These results show that the concept of the effective surface tension remains useful only below the first jamming transition. Beyond this point, the surface stresses become anisotropic.

  2. Multifunctionality of chiton biomineralized armor with an integrated visual system.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Connors, Matthew J; Kolle, Mathias; England, Grant T; Speiser, Daniel I; Xiao, Xianghui; Aizenberg, Joanna; Ortiz, Christine

    2015-11-20

    Nature provides a multitude of examples of multifunctional structural materials in which trade-offs are imposed by conflicting functional requirements. One such example is the biomineralized armor of the chiton Acanthopleura granulata, which incorporates an integrated sensory system that includes hundreds of eyes with aragonite-based lenses. We use optical experiments to demonstrate that these microscopic lenses are able to form images. Light scattering by the polycrystalline lenses is minimized by the use of relatively large, crystallographically aligned grains. Multiscale mechanical testing reveals that as the size, complexity, and functionality of the integrated sensory elements increase, the local mechanical performance of the armor decreases. However, A. granulata has evolved several strategies to compensate for its mechanical vulnerabilities to form a multipurpose system with co-optimized optical and structural functions. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Armoring and vertical sorting in aeolian dune fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin; Narteau, Clément; Rozier, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Unlike ripples, there are only few numerical studies on grain-size segregation at the scale of dunes in aeolian environments. Here we use a cellular automaton model to analyze vertical sorting in granular mixtures under steady unidirectional flow conditions. We investigate the feedbacks between dune growth and the segregation mechanisms by varying the size of coarse grains and their proportion within the bed. We systematically observe the development of a horizontal layer of coarse grains at the top of which sorted bed forms may grow by amalgamation. The formation of such an armor layer controls the overall sediment transport and availability. The emergence of dunes and the transition from barchan to transverse dune fields depend only on the grain size distribution of the initial sediment layer. As confirmed by observation, this result indicates that armor layers should be present in most arid deserts, where they are likely to control dune morphodynamics.

  4. Modeling of Bullet Penetration in Explosively Welded Composite Armor Plate

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Vasant S.; Carney, Theodore C.

    2006-07-28

    Normal impact of high-speed armor piercing bullet on titanium-steel composite has been investigated using smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code. The objective is to understand the effects of impact during the ballistic testing of explosively welded armor plates. These plates have significant microstructural differences within the weld region, heat-affected zone and the base metal. The variances result in substantial ductility, hardness and strength differences, important criteria in determining the failure mode, specifically whether it occurs at the joint or within the virgin base metal. Several configurations of composite plates with different material combinations were modeled. The results were used to modify the heat treatment process of explosively welded plates, making them more likely to survive impact.

  5. Considerations on stress triaxiality variation for 2P armor steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zichil, V.; Coseru, A.; Nedeff, F.; Tomozei, C.

    2017-05-01

    Stress triaxiality is considered an invariant of stress, defined as the ratio of hydrostatic stress (hydrostatic pressure by other authors) and the equivalent stress (usually calculated using von Mises criterion). If the values of the main three stresses have comparable sizes, stress triaxiality can be also calculated using the first invariant of the stress tensor. Despite that the stress triaxiality is an invariant, the authors have determined experimentally and analytically its variation with the force at the tensile test, but also with the radius of notches caused in the specimen. 2P armor steel being used in lightweight armor, these notches occur after shocks with foreign objects. Furthermore, the authors have revealed the stress triaxiality variation function of the test type. The tests were performed on tensile specimens loaded for tensile test, pure torsion test, 25% tensile - 75% torsion test, 50% tensile - 50% torsion test, 75% tensile - 25% torsion test. The mathematical model used was designed by Xue.

  6. Plastic deformation enabled energy dissipation in a bionanowire structured armor.

    PubMed

    Li, Haoze; Yue, Yonghai; Han, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaodong

    2014-05-14

    It has been challenging to simultaneously achieve high strength and toughness in engineered materials because of the trade-off relation between the two distinct properties. Nature, however, has elegantly solved this problem. Seashells, commonly referred to as nature's armors, exhibit an unusual resilience against predatory attacks. In this letter, we report an unexpected phenomenon in a bionanowire structured armor-conch shell where the shell's basic building blocks, i.e., the third-order lamellae, exhibit an exceptional plasticity with a maximum strain of 0.7% upon mechanical loading. We attribute such a plastic deformation behavior to the lamella's unique nanoparticle-biopolymer architecture, in which the biopolymer mediates the rotation of aragonite nanoparticles in response to external attacks. We also found that electron beam irradiation facilitates the lamella's plasticity. These findings advance our understanding of seashell's energy dissipating strategy and provide new design guidelines for developing high performance bioinspired materials and sensors.

  7. Mars and the Amazing Technicolor Ejecta Blanket

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-12

    This image from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows the exposed bedrock of an ejecta blanket of an unnamed crater in the Mare Serpentis region of Mars. Ejecta, when exposed, are truly an eye-opening feature, as they reveal the sometimes exotic subsurface, and materials created by impacts (close-up view). This ejecta shares similarities to others found elsewhere on Mars, which are of particular scientific interest for the extent of exposure and diverse colors. (For example, the Hargraves Crater ejecta, in the Nili Fossae trough region, was once considered as a candidate landing site for the next NASA Mars rover 2020.) The colors observed in this picture represent different rocks and minerals, now exposed on the surface. Blue in HiRISE infrared color images generally depicts iron-rich minerals, like olivine and pyroxene. Lighter colors, such as yellow, indicate the presence of altered rocks. The possible sources of the ejecta is most likely from two unnamed craters. How do we determine which crater deposited the ejecta? A full-scale image shows numerous linear features that are observed trending in an east-west direction. These linear features indicate the flow direction of the ejecta from its unnamed host crater. Therefore, if we follow them, we find that they emanate from the bottom of the two unnamed craters. If the ejecta had originated from the top crater, then we would expect the linear features at the location of our picture to trend northwest to southeast. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21782

  8. Aircraft Armor - Ballistic Characteristics of a Magnesium Alloy, Dowmetal (Type FS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1943-10-22

    v 710/265 entitled, "Aircraft Armor - Balisetic ChnrLctariotics of a 1.:agneium Alloy, Doumata2. (Type iPS) ? dated 22 October 1943. Prcui.so...Ballistic Chare~oterietica of a kn4;nea1ljm Alloy, Iowmetcil (Typo IS) h.O.DJZCT T3 Inveatigat., the feasibility of --Ang Dow-mtal as armor in...qualitY non-m&gnetiao steel armor . neve~rtheless exhibits sevzrt t=-&&ecieo toward %palling which do not juntify its use as aircraft armor . 2. The

  9. Effect of Spot and Stud Welding on ESR 4340 Steel Armor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-02-01

    ESR ) 4340 steel armor. MATERIALS The armor used in this program was commercially produced ESR 4340 steeL in thicknesses of...N — AO—AO5k 025 ARMY MATERIALS AND MECHANICS RESEARCH CENTER WATERTO——ETC F/S 13/5 EFFECT OF SPOT AND STUD WELDING ON ESR 14314 0 STEEL ARMOR. (U...5 lAD I ~ EFFECT OF SPOT~AND STUD WELDING ON ESR 434O~ STEEL ARMOR~ ~~ - /, ‘ , ~ . ~~~ — ~ — ~~~ — , ~~~~~~ ——-...—- ( -~~/ ~~~ - ‘~/ ~~~ ‘ .

  10. [Search for optimal combinations of the hygienic and protective characteristics of body armors].

    PubMed

    Logatkin, S M

    2008-01-01

    The protective composition of a body armor is generally characterized by two major parameters--the area and level of protection, i.e. resistance to bullets and fragments. These characteristics directly depend on the mass of a body armor and the sizes of the body's screening. The positive protective characteristics simultaneously have a negative impact on the most important hygienic indices of a body armor, such as convenience and easiness-to-use. The optimum combination of protective and performance characteristics of body armors makes a compromise between their mass and the level of protection.

  11. Survivability Analysis for the Evaluation of Personnel in Body Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    system survivability/lethality/vulnerability ( SLV ) analyses using a software package called MUVES-S2. MUVES-S2 is an Army developed and maintained SLV ...methodology, highlighting improved capabilities and new techniques for performing SLV analyses of personnel wearing various body armor configurations. We...combat system survivability/lethality/vulnerability ( SLV ) analyses using a software package called MUVES-S2. MUVES-S2 is an Army developed and

  12. Lightweight armor system and process for producing the same

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry S.; Bruck, H. Alan; Strempek, Gary C.; Varacalle, Jr., Dominic J.

    2004-01-20

    A lightweight armor system may comprise a substrate having a graded metal matrix composite layer formed thereon by thermal spray deposition. The graded metal matrix composite layer comprises an increasing volume fraction of ceramic particles imbedded in a decreasing volume fraction of a metal matrix as a function of a thickness of the graded metal matrix composite layer. A ceramic impact layer is affixed to the graded metal matrix composite layer.

  13. DoD Testing Requirements for Body Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-29

    Arlington, VA 22202-4704 Acronyms and Abbreviations BFD Back Face Deformation COPD Contract Purchase Description COTR...established in the Contract Purchase Description ( COPD ) or performance specification. Those parameters include the acceptable number of complete and...determined by shooting the piece of armor several times, with the same type of threat, across a broad range of velocities. The COPD contains the V50

  14. Low Cost Sintering of Titanium Diboride for Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    V. . . . ri + 1 Ii l ’ I I List of Tables Table Nuba Title I List of Pcwder Lot Numbers and Quantities of ’iB2 Powder Produced for MTL...February 03. -13- Table I List of Powder Lot Numbers and Quantities of TiB2 Powder Produced for MTL Armor Contract (DAAL04-86.C.0041) "Lot Original

  15. Selective Dissolution and Recovery of Depleted Uranium from Armor Plate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-05

    targets used in testing high density armor-piercing ammunition containing depleted uranium (DU) are subject to disposal as low level radioactive waste...radioactive material. Decontamination testing on targets characterized as containing residual entrained penetrator fragments is necessary to...depleted uranium from the ac4.d solvent. A conceptual flow I sheet, based on preliminar:" test data, suggested that uranium could be I extracted from

  16. Mechanisms of stability of armored bubbles: FY 1996 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rossen, W.R.; Kam, S.I.

    1996-11-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies examine how a coating, or {open_quotes}armor,{close_quotes} of partially wetted solid particles can stabilize tiny bubbles against diffusion of gas into the surrounding liquid, in spite of the high capillary pressures normally associated with such bubbles. Experiments with polymethylmethacrylate (PNMA) beads and carbonated water demonstrate that armored bubbles can persist for weeks in liquid unsaturated with respect to the gas in the bubbles. This question is of concern regarding gas discharges from waste tanks at the Hanford reservation. The stresses on the solid-solid contacts between particles in such cases is large and could drive sintering of the particles into a rigid framework. Stability analysis suggests that a slightly shrunken bubble would not expel a solid particle from its armor to relieve stress and allow the bubble to shrink further. Expulsion of particles from more stressed bubbles at zero capillary pressure is energetically favored in some cases. It is not clear, however, whether this expulsion would proceed spontaneously from a small perturbation or require a large initial disturbance of the bubble. In some cases, it appears that a bubble would expel some particles and shrink, but the bubble would approach a final, stable size rather than disappear completely. This simplified analysis leaves out several factors. For instance, only one perturbation toward expelling a solid from the armor is considered; perhaps other perturbations would be more energetically favored than that tested. Other considerations (particle deformation, surface roughness, contact-angle hysteresis, and adhesion or physical bonding between adjacent particles) would make expelling solids more difficult than indicated by this theoretical study.

  17. Designing an Innovative Composite Armor System for Affordable Ballistic Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    arbitrary body contour to a vehicle. To verify the concept design, numerical simulations have been conducted using LS- Dyna3D . (a...commercial software packages, including Epic, Autodyn, and LS- Dyna3D . This model is widely used in armor simulation and design, and many reports can...be found in the literature. (e.g. Holmquist and Johnson, 2002; Cronin et al., 2003; Yen, 2002; Zaera et al. 2000) LS- Dyna3D is selected as the

  18. Fractographic Analysis of Long Rod Penetrator-Armor Ceramic Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    a 97 wcight-pcrccnt tungsten (97 W) long-rod penietrator with an aspect ratio of’ 10 (L/D = 10) and a laminate armor package consisting of steel ESR ...carefully moved so as not to disturb the comminuted material. The ESR 4340 back plate was removed from the target and the comminuted ceramic was... steel particles were included in the ceramic powder.\\ The steel was present from thrce sources: front plate penetration, back plate splash, and

  19. Precursor Warhead Attachment for an Anti-Armor Rocket

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-15

    which employ explosive reactive armor. In particular, the SMAW HEAA 20 warheads effectiveness can be greatly degraded by the addition of explosive...Purpose Assault Weapon ( SMAW ). Summary of the Invention It is an object of the invention to provide a precursor warhead for attachment to an anti...fuses are representative only and are not the actual configuration. The crush switch was removed from the SMAW HEAA round and the precursor was

  20. Summary report for ITER task - T68: MHD facility preparation for Li/V blanket option

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, C.B.; Haglund, R.C.; Miller, M.E.

    1995-08-01

    A key feasibility issue for the ITER Vanadium/Lithium breeding blanket is the question of insulator coatings. Design calculations show that an electrically insulating layer is necessary to maintain an acceptably low MHD pressure drop. To enable experimental investigations of the MHD performance of candidate insulator materials and the technology for putting them in place, the room-temperature ALEX (Argonne`s Liquid Metal EXperiment) NaK facility was upgraded to a 300{degrees}C lithium system. The objective of this upgrade was to modify the existing facility to the minimum extent necessary, consistent with providing a safe, flexible, and easy to operate MHD test facility which uses lithium at ITER-relevant temperatures, Hartmann numbers, and interaction parameters. The facility was designed to produce MHD pressure drop data, test section voltage distributions, and heat transfer data for mid-scale test sections and blanket mockups. The system design description for this lithium upgrade of the ALEX facility is given in this document.

  1. Toroidal midplane neutral beam armor and plasma limiter

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, H.W.; Hand, S.W. Jr.; Ksayian, H.

    1985-05-31

    This invention contemplates an armor shield/plasma limiter positioned upon the inner wall of a toroidal vacuum chamber within which is magnetically confined an energetic plasma in a tokamak nuclear fusion reactor. The armor shield/plasma limiter is thus of a general semi-toroidal shape and is comprised of a plurality of adjacent graphite plates positioned immediately adjacent to each other so as to form a continuous ring upon and around the toroidal chamber's inner wall and the reactor's midplane coil. Each plate has a generally semi-circular outer circumference and a recessed inner portion and is comprised of upper and lower half sections positioned immediately adjacent to one another along the midplane of the plate. With the upper and lower half sections thus joined, a channel or duct is provided within the midplane of the plate in which a magnetic flux loop is positioned. The magnetic flux loop is thus positioned immediately adjacent to the fusing toroidal plasma and serves as a diagnostic sensor with the armor shield/plasma limiter minimizing the amount of power from the energetic plasma as well as from the neutral particle beams heating the plasma incident upon the flux loop.

  2. A clothing modeling framework for uniform and armor system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, Xiaolin; Swan, Colby C.; Rahmatalla, Salam

    2006-05-01

    In the analysis and design of military uniforms and body armor systems it is helpful to quantify the effects of the clothing/armor system on a wearer's physical performance capabilities. Toward this end, a clothing modeling framework for quantifying the mechanical interactions between a given uniform or body armor system design and a specific wearer performing defined physical tasks is proposed. The modeling framework consists of three interacting modules: (1) a macroscale fabric mechanics/dynamics model; (2) a collision detection and contact correction module; and (3) a human motion module. In the proposed framework, the macroscopic fabric model is based on a rigorous large deformation continuum-degenerated shell theory representation. The collision and contact module enforces non-penetration constraints between the fabric and human body and computes the associated contact forces between the two. The human body is represented in the current framework, as an assemblage of overlapping ellipsoids that undergo rigid body motions consistent with human motions while performing actions such as walking, running, or jumping. The transient rigid body motions of each ellipsoidal body segment in time are determined using motion capture technology. The integrated modeling framework is then exercised to quantify the resistance that the clothing exerts on the wearer during the specific activities under consideration. Current results from the framework are presented and its intended applications are discussed along with some of the key challenges remaining in clothing system modeling.

  3. Profiles of Law Enforcement Agency Body Armor Policies-A Latent Class Analysis of the LEMAS 2013 Data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiwei; Taylor, Bruce

    2017-06-28

    The life-saving benefits of body armor have been well-documented, and law enforcement agency (LEA) body armor wear requirements have been cited by police officers as one of the most important reasons for them to wear body armor. However, research on LEAs' policies and practices regarding body armor is scarce. This study examined whether there are different agency-level profiles of various body armor related policies, and related these body armor policy profiles to agency characteristics, size, location, etc. U.S. LEAs fell into four distinct profiles based on their body armor policies. Close to half of the LEAs had comprehensive coverage of body armor policies in all aspects. However, nearly one in five LEAs had very weak body armor policies in all aspects. The rest of the LEAs split into two groups, each with different strengths and weaknesses on selection, training, fitting, wearing and inspection policies. Sheriff's offices and smaller LEAs were found to have weaker policies. In contrast, LEAs with a community policing emphasis and those with body armor grants were found to have stronger body armor polices, especially when it comes to mandatory wearing polices. Findings from the study provide a portrait of the current state of LEA body armor policies, and provide guidance for improving LEAs' body armor policies and practices.

  4. Assessment of alkali metal coolants for the ITER blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Reed, C.B.; Mattas, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    The blanket system is one of the most important components of a fusion reactor because it has a major impact on both the economics and safety of fusion energy. The primary functions of the blanket in a deuterium/tritium-fueled fusion reactor are to convert the fusion energy into sensible heat and to breed tritium for the fuel cycle. The Blanket Comparison and Selection Study, conducted earlier, described the overall comparative performance of different blanket concepts, including liquid metal, molten salt, water, and helium. This paper will discuss the ITER requirements for a self-cooled blanket concept with liquid lithium and for indirectly cooled concepts that use other alkali metals such as NaK. The paper will address the thermodynamics of interactions between the liquid metals (i.e., lithium and NaK) and structural materials (e.g., V-base alloys), together with associated corrosion/compatibility issues. Available experimental data will be used to assess the long-term performance of the first wall in a liquid metal environment.

  5. Nuclear Analyses of Indian LLCB Test Blanket System in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swami, H. L.; Shaw, A. K.; Danani, C.; Chaudhuri, Paritosh

    2017-04-01

    Heading towards the Nuclear Fusion Reactor Program, India is developing Lead Lithium Ceramic Breeder (LLCB) tritium breeding blanket for its future fusion Reactor. A mock-up of the LLCB blanket is proposed to be tested in ITER equatorial port no.2, to ensure the overall performance of blanket in reactor relevant nuclear fusion environment. Nuclear analyses play an important role in LLCB Test Blanket System design & development. It is required for tritium breeding estimation, thermal-hydraulic design, coolants process design, radioactive waste management, equipment maintenance & replacement strategies and nuclear safety. The nuclear behaviour of LLCB test blanket module in ITER is predicated in terms of nuclear responses such as tritium production, nuclear heating, neutron fluxes and radiation damages. Radiation shielding capability of LLCB TBS inside and outside bio-shield was also assessed to fulfill ITER shielding requirements. In order to supports the rad-waste and safety assessment, nuclear activation analyses were carried out and radioactivity data were generated for LLCB TBS components. Nuclear analyses of LLCB TBS are performed using ITER recommended nuclear analyses codes (i.e. MCNP, EASY), nuclear cross section data libraries (i.e. FENDL 2.1, EAF) and neutronic model (ITER C-lite v.l). The paper describes a comprehensive nuclear performance of LLCB TBS in ITER.

  6. Thin blanket designs for the Elongated Tokamak Commercial Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, C.P.C.; Bourque, R.F.; Cheng, E.T.; Creedon, R.L.; Schultz, K.R.

    1986-11-01

    The Elongated Tokamak (ET)* is an innovative concept that uses as highly elongated plasma (plasma height-to-width ratio of 6-10) to allow high plasma current and high toroidal betas. ET has the potential for the development of small-size, high-power density, low-cost fusion reactors using normal conducting coils. The elongated plasma shape is achieved by use of a continuous stack of PF coils parallel to the plasma surface on both inbound and outbound sides. To achieve plasma stability, these coil stacks must be located no further than one plasma minor radius from the plasma edge, greatly restricting the space available for blankets. In order to assess the potential of a small reactor, the authors evaluated and designed blankets 30 to 40 cm thick. Three different thin blanket designs were found to be acceptable: FLiBe self-cooled, helium-cooled lithium, and helium-cooled 17Li83Pb blanket designs. A lithium-cooled integrated blanket-coil design (BLITZ-coil) was also found to be suitable for the ET commercial reactors.

  7. Characterizing the interaction among bullet, body armor, and human and surrogate targets.

    PubMed

    Shen, Weixin; Niu, Yuqing; Bykanova, Lucy; Laurence, Peter; Link, Norman

    2010-12-01

    This study used a combined experimental and modeling approach to characterize and quantify the interaction among bullet, body armor, and human surrogate targets during the 10-1000 μs range that is crucial to evaluating the protective effectiveness of body armor against blunt injuries. Ballistic tests incorporating high-speed flash X-ray measurements were performed to acquire the deformations of bullets and body armor samples placed against ballistic clay and gelatin targets with images taken between 10 μs and 1 ms of the initial impact. Finite element models (FEMs) of bullet, armor, and gelatin and clay targets were developed with material parameters selected to best fit model calculations to the test measurements. FEMs of bullet and armor interactions were then assembled with a FEM of a human torso and FEMs of clay and gelatin blocks in the shape of a human torso to examine the effects of target material and geometry on the interaction. Test and simulation results revealed three distinct loading phases during the interaction. In the first phase, the bullet was significantly slowed in about 60 μs as it transferred a major portion of its energy into the body armor. In the second phase, fibers inside the armor were pulled toward the point of impact and kept on absorbing energy until about 100 μs after the initial impact when energy absorption reached its peak. In the third phase, the deformation on the armor's back face continued to grow and energies inside both armor and targets redistributed through wave propagation. The results indicated that armor deformation and energy absorption in the second and third phases were significantly affected by the material properties (density and stiffness) and geometrical characteristics (curvature and gap at the armor-target interface) of the targets. Valid surrogate targets for testing the ballistic resistance of the armor need to account for these factors and produce the same armor deformation and energy absorption as on a

  8. Flexible Ablators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackpoole, Margaret M. (Inventor); Ghandehari, Ehson M. (Inventor); Thornton, Jeremy J. (Inventor); Covington, Melmoth Alan (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A low-density article comprising a flexible substrate and a pyrolizable material impregnated therein, methods of preparing, and devices using the article are disclosed. The pyrolizable material pyrolizes above 350 C and does not flow at temperatures below the pyrolysis temperature. The low-density article remains flexible after impregnation and continues to remain flexible when the pyrolizable material is fully pyrolized.

  9. Direct Lit Electrolysis In A Metallic Lithium Fusion Blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Colon-Mercado, H.; Babineau, D.; Elvington, M.; Garcia-Diaz, B.; Teprovich, J.; Vaquer, A.

    2015-10-13

    A process that simplifies the extraction of tritium from molten lithium based breeding blankets was developed.  The process is based on the direct electrolysis of lithium tritide using a ceramic Li ion conductor that replaces the molten salt extraction step. Extraction of tritium in the form of lithium tritide in the blankets/targets of fission/fusion reactors is critical in order to maintained low concentrations.  This is needed to decrease the potential tritium permeation to the surroundings and large releases from unforeseen accident scenarios. Because of the high affinity of tritium for the blanket, extraction is complicated at the required low levels. This work identified, developed and tested the use of ceramic lithium ion conductors capable of recovering the hydrogen and deuterium thru an electrolysis step at high temperatures. 

  10. Direct LiT Electrolysis in a Metallic Fusion Blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Luke

    2016-09-30

    A process that simplifies the extraction of tritium from molten lithium-based breeding blankets was developed. The process is based on the direct electrolysis of lithium tritide using a ceramic Li ion conductor that replaces the molten salt extraction step. Extraction of tritium in the form of lithium tritide in the blankets/targets of fusion/fission reactors is critical in order to maintain low concentrations. This is needed to decrease the potential tritium permeation to the surroundings and large releases from unforeseen accident scenarios. Extraction is complicated due to required low tritium concentration limits and because of the high affinity of tritium for the blanket. This work identified, developed and tested the use of ceramic lithium ion conductors capable of recovering hydrogen and deuterium through an electrolysis step at high temperatures.

  11. Development of fusion blanket technology for the DEMO reactor.

    PubMed

    Colling, B R; Monk, S D

    2012-07-01

    The viability of various materials and blanket designs for use in nuclear fusion reactors can be tested using computer simulations and as parts of the test blanket modules within the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) facility. The work presented here focuses on blanket model simulations using the Monte Carlo simulation package MCNPX (Computational Physics Division Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2010) and FISPACT (Forrest, 2007) to evaluate the tritium breeding capability of a number of solid and liquid breeding materials. The liquid/molten salt breeders are found to have the higher tritium breeding ratio (TBR) and are to be considered for further analysis of the self sufficiency timing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental impacts into Teflon targets and LDEF thermal blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoerz, F.; Cintala, M. J.; Zolensky, M. E.; Bernhard, R. P.; See, T. H.

    1994-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) exposed approximately 20 sq m of identical thermal protective blankets, predominantly on the Ultra-Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE). Approximately 700 penetration holes greater than 300 micron in diameter were individually documented, while thousands of smaller penetrations and craters occurred in these blankets. As a result of their 5.7 year exposure and because they pointed into a variety of different directions relative to the orbital motion of the nonspinning LDEF platform, these blankets can reveal important dynamic aspects of the hypervelocity particle environment in near-earth orbit. The blankets were composed of an outer teflon layer (approximately 125 micron thick), followed by a vapor-deposited rear mirror of silver (less than 1000 A thick) that was backed with an organic binder and a thermal protective paint (approximately 50 to 75 micron thick), resulting in a cumulative thickness (T) of approximately 175 to 200 microns for the entire blanket. Many penetrations resulted in highly variable delaminations of the teflon/metal or metal/organic binder interfaces that manifest themselves as 'dark' halos or rings, because of subsequent oxidation of the exposed silver mirror. The variety of these dark albedo features is bewildering, ranging from totally absent, to broad halos, to sharp single or multiple rings. Over the past year experiments were conducted over a wide range of velocities (i.e., 1 to 7 km/s) to address velocity dependent aspects of cratering and penetrations of teflon targets. In addition, experiments were performed with real LDEF thermal blankets to duplicate the LDEF delaminations and to investigate a possible relationship of initial impact conditions on the wide variety of dark halo and ring features.

  13. Study of Automated Module Fabrication for Lightweight Solar Blanket Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, C. E.

    1979-01-01

    Cost-effective automated techniques for accomplishing the titled purpose; based on existing in-house capability are described. As a measure of the considered automation, the production of a 50 kilowatt solar array blanket, exclusive of support and deployment structure, within an eight-month fabrication period was used. Solar cells considered for this blanket were 2 x 4 x .02 cm wrap-around cells, 2 x 2 x .005 cm and 3 x 3 x .005 cm standard bar contact thin cells, all welded contacts. Existing fabrication processes are described, the rationale for each process is discussed, and the capability for further automation is discussed.

  14. 75 FR 78268 - Draft NIJ Selection and Application Guide to Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor for Law Enforcement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... of Justice Programs Draft NIJ Selection and Application Guide to Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor for... of Draft NIJ Selection and Application Guide to Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor for Law Enforcement... the general public the draft ``NIJ Selection and Application Guide to Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor...

  15. 27 CFR 478.149 - Armor piercing ammunition manufactured or imported for the purpose of testing or experimentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Armor piercing ammunition... Armor piercing ammunition manufactured or imported for the purpose of testing or experimentation. The provisions of §§ 478.37 and 478.99(d) with respect to the manufacture or importation of armor piercing...

  16. 27 CFR 478.149 - Armor piercing ammunition manufactured or imported for the purpose of testing or experimentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Armor piercing ammunition... Armor piercing ammunition manufactured or imported for the purpose of testing or experimentation. The provisions of §§ 478.37 and 478.99(d) with respect to the manufacture or importation of armor piercing...

  17. 27 CFR 478.149 - Armor piercing ammunition manufactured or imported for the purpose of testing or experimentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Armor piercing ammunition... Armor piercing ammunition manufactured or imported for the purpose of testing or experimentation. The provisions of §§ 478.37 and 478.99(d) with respect to the manufacture or importation of armor piercing...

  18. 27 CFR 478.149 - Armor piercing ammunition manufactured or imported for the purpose of testing or experimentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Armor piercing ammunition... Armor piercing ammunition manufactured or imported for the purpose of testing or experimentation. The provisions of §§ 478.37 and 478.99(d) with respect to the manufacture or importation of armor piercing...

  19. 27 CFR 478.149 - Armor piercing ammunition manufactured or imported for the purpose of testing or experimentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Armor piercing ammunition... Armor piercing ammunition manufactured or imported for the purpose of testing or experimentation. The provisions of §§ 478.37 and 478.99(d) with respect to the manufacture or importation of armor piercing...

  20. 77 FR 12281 - Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 15, 2012, Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company (Williston Basin), 1250 West Century Avenue, Bismarck, North Dakota 58503, pursuant to its blanket...

  1. Spray-on technique simplifies fabrication of complex thermal insulation blanket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, W. E. G.; Raymond, R.

    1966-01-01

    Spray-on process constructs molds used in forming sections of thermal insulation blankets. The process simplifies the fabrication of blankets by eliminating much of the equipment formerly required and decreasing the time involved.

  2. Development, Field Test, and Refinement of Performance Training Programs in Armor Advanced Individual Training. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Douglas L.; Taylor, John E.

    Performance-oriented instruction was developed, field tested, and refined in two Advanced Individual Training (AIT) programs--Armor Reconnaissance Specialist (MOS 11D) and Armor Crewman (MOS 11E). Tasks for both MOS (Military Occupational Specialty) were inventoried and the inventories were reduced by eliminating those tasks which are not required…

  3. Dynamic Material Properties of Orthotropic Polymer and Molybdenum for Use in Next Generation Composite Armor Concept?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    defeating Tantalum projectile while armor grade steel (right) failed This numerical model used for these simulations was developed using the Autodyn ...simulation using the hydro code AUTODYNE ® was performed to further verify the validity of the layered armor concept. 8 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT

  4. Identifying Opportunities in the Development of Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Materials for Armor Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    Materials for Armor Applications by Jeffrey J Swab and Emil J Sandoz-Rosado Approved for public release...2017 US Army Research Laboratory Identifying Opportunities in the Development of Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Materials for Armor...Applications by Jeffrey J Swab and Emil J Sandoz-Rosado Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Approved for public

  5. 30 CFR 75.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conduits enclosing power conductors. 75.700 Section 75.700 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Grounding § 75.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. All metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors shall be electrically continuous throughout...

  6. 76 FR 22920 - Stab Resistance of Personal Body Armor (2000) Standard Special Technical Committee Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Stab Resistance of Personal Body Armor (2000) Standard Special Technical... Institute of Justice (NIJ) is in the process of revising its Stab Resistance of Personal Body Armor...

  7. 48 CFR 225.7011 - Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate. 225.7011 Section 225.7011 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate....

  8. 48 CFR 225.7011 - Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate. 225.7011 Section 225.7011 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate....

  9. 48 CFR 225.7011 - Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate. 225.7011 Section 225.7011 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate....

  10. 48 CFR 225.7011 - Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate. 225.7011 Section 225.7011 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate....

  11. 48 CFR 225.7011 - Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate. 225.7011 Section 225.7011 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate....

  12. Body armor, performance, and physiology during repeated high-intensity work tasks.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Brianna; Netto, Kevin; Skovli, Daniel; Vincs, Kim; Vu, Sarah; Aisbett, Brad

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the effect of body armor during repeated, intermittent high-intensity simulated military work. Twelve males performed 11 repetitions of a military style circuit, wearing no armor on one occasion and full armor (approximately 17 kg) on another. Performance was measured by the time to complete individual work tasks plus overall circuit time to completion. Heart rate, intestinal temperature, and rating of perceived exertion were recorded after each circuit. Participants' circuit time to completion was 7.3 +/- 1.0 seconds slower (p <0.01) when wearing armor. Shooting, vaulting, and crawling were also slower (0.8 +/- 0.2, 0.4 +/- 0.2, and 1.0 +/- 0.4 seconds, respectively; all p < or = 0.05). No differences were observed for box lifting. Higher core temperatures were reported for the armor condition for circuit's 7 to 11 (p = 0.01-0.05). Rating of perceived exertion was higher (1 +/- 0; p = 0.03) when wearing armor. No differences were observed for heart rate. Wearing armor impairs repeated high-intensity military task performance. In the relatively short work time utilized, this decrement did not accrue over time. The impairment may, then, be related to the armor load, rather than accumulating fatigue.

  13. Inspecting Composite Ceramic Armor Using Advanced Signal Processing Together with Phased Array Ultrasound

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-08

    processing techniques have been developed to help improve phased array ultrasonic inspection and analysis of multi-layered ceramic armor panels. The...INSPECTING COMPOSITE CERAMIC ARMOR USING ADVANCED SIGNAL PROCESSING TOGETHER WITH PHASED ARRAY ULTRASOUND J. S. Steckenrider Illinois College...immersion phased array ultrasound system. Some of these specimens had intentional design defects inserted interior to the specimens. Because of the very

  14. Parallel genetic basis for repeated evolution of armor loss in Alaskan threespine stickleback populations.

    PubMed

    Cresko, William A; Amores, Angel; Wilson, Catherine; Murphy, Joy; Currey, Mark; Phillips, Patrick; Bell, Michael A; Kimmel, Charles B; Postlethwait, John H

    2004-04-20

    Most adaptation is thought to occur through the fixation of numerous alleles at many different loci. Consequently, the independent evolution of similar phenotypes is predicted to occur through different genetic mechanisms. The genetic basis of adaptation is still largely unknown, however, and it is unclear whether adaptation to new environments utilizes ubiquitous small-effect polygenic variation or large-effect alleles at a small number of loci. To address this question, we examined the genetic basis of bony armor loss in three freshwater populations of Alaskan threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, that evolved from fully armored anadromous populations in the last 14,000 years. Crosses between complete-armor and low-armor populations revealed that a single Mendelian factor governed the formation of all but the most anterior lateral plates, and another independently segregating factor largely determined pelvic armor. Genetic mapping localized the Mendelian genes to different chromosomal regions, and crosses among these same three widely separated populations showed that both bony plates and pelvic armor failed to fully complement, implicating the same Mendelian armor reduction genes. Thus, rapid and repeated armor loss in Alaskan stickleback populations appears to be occurring through the fixation of large-effect variants in the same genes.

  15. Parallel genetic basis for repeated evolution of armor loss in Alaskan threespine stickleback populations

    PubMed Central

    Cresko, William A.; Amores, Angel; Wilson, Catherine; Murphy, Joy; Currey, Mark; Phillips, Patrick; Bell, Michael A.; Kimmel, Charles B.; Postlethwait, John H.

    2004-01-01

    Most adaptation is thought to occur through the fixation of numerous alleles at many different loci. Consequently, the independent evolution of similar phenotypes is predicted to occur through different genetic mechanisms. The genetic basis of adaptation is still largely unknown, however, and it is unclear whether adaptation to new environments utilizes ubiquitous small-effect polygenic variation or large-effect alleles at a small number of loci. To address this question, we examined the genetic basis of bony armor loss in three freshwater populations of Alaskan threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, that evolved from fully armored anadromous populations in the last 14,000 years. Crosses between complete-armor and low-armor populations revealed that a single Mendelian factor governed the formation of all but the most anterior lateral plates, and another independently segregating factor largely determined pelvic armor. Genetic mapping localized the Mendelian genes to different chromosomal regions, and crosses among these same three widely separated populations showed that both bony plates and pelvic armor failed to fully complement, implicating the same Mendelian armor reduction genes. Thus, rapid and repeated armor loss in Alaskan stickleback populations appears to be occurring through the fixation of large-effect variants in the same genes. PMID:15069186

  16. Genitourinary trauma at a combat support hospital during Operation Iraqi Freedom: the impact of body armor.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Edmond L

    2007-06-01

    This report details the occurrences of genitourinary trauma experienced during Operation Iraqi Freedom at a United States Army Combat Support Hospital, and determines if wearing body armor decreases the frequency of genitourinary and specifically kidney trauma. The Joint Theater Trauma Registry was used to conduct a retrospective study of 2,712 trauma admissions to a United States Army Combat Support Hospital in Baghdad, Iraq from April 1, 2005 to February 28, 2006. There were 1,216 casualties who were wearing body armor and 1,496 casualties not wearing body armor. Of the 2,712 trauma admissions 76 (2.8%) had 1 or more genitourinary injuries for a total of 98 genitourinary injuries. Of the 29 kidney injuries 2 (6.9%) were explored without any treatment, 7 (24.1%) were observed, 1 (3.4%) was repaired and 19 (65.5%) casualties required nephrectomy. Casualties wearing body armor had a 2.1% rate of genitourinary injury versus 3.4% not wearing body armor (p = 0.037). Casualties wearing body armor had a 0.5% rate of kidney injury compared to 1.4% not wearing body armor (p = 0.017). The percentage of casualties with genitourinary injuries and the distribution of these injuries appear similar to previous conflicts. The percentage of casualties undergoing nephrectomy appears to be greater than that observed in other recent conflicts. There was a significant reduction in overall genitourinary injuries and specifically kidney injuries in those casualties wearing body armor.

  17. A methodology for accident analysis of fusion breeder blankets and its application to helium-cooled lead–lithium blanket

    DOE PAGES

    Panayotov, Dobromir; Poitevin, Yves; Grief, Andrew; ...

    2016-09-23

    'Fusion for Energy' (F4E) is designing, developing, and implementing the European Helium-Cooled Lead-Lithium (HCLL) and Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed (HCPB) Test Blanket Systems (TBSs) for ITER (Nuclear Facility INB-174). Safety demonstration is an essential element for the integration of these TBSs into ITER and accident analysis is one of its critical components. A systematic approach to accident analysis has been developed under the F4E contract on TBS safety analyses. F4E technical requirements, together with Amec Foster Wheeler and INL efforts, have resulted in a comprehensive methodology for fusion breeding blanket accident analysis that addresses the specificity of the breeding blanket designs, materials,more » and phenomena while remaining consistent with the approach already applied to ITER accident analyses. Furthermore, the methodology phases are illustrated in the paper by its application to the EU HCLL TBS using both MELCOR and RELAP5 codes.« less

  18. A methodology for accident analysis of fusion breeder blankets and its application to helium-cooled lead–lithium blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Panayotov, Dobromir; Poitevin, Yves; Grief, Andrew; Trow, Martin; Dillistone, Michael; Murgatroyd, Julian T.; Owen, Simon; Peers, Karen; Lyons, Alex; Heaton, Adam; Scott, Richard; Merrill, Brad J.; Humrickhouse, Paul

    2016-09-23

    'Fusion for Energy' (F4E) is designing, developing, and implementing the European Helium-Cooled Lead-Lithium (HCLL) and Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed (HCPB) Test Blanket Systems (TBSs) for ITER (Nuclear Facility INB-174). Safety demonstration is an essential element for the integration of these TBSs into ITER and accident analysis is one of its critical components. A systematic approach to accident analysis has been developed under the F4E contract on TBS safety analyses. F4E technical requirements, together with Amec Foster Wheeler and INL efforts, have resulted in a comprehensive methodology for fusion breeding blanket accident analysis that addresses the specificity of the breeding blanket designs, materials, and phenomena while remaining consistent with the approach already applied to ITER accident analyses. Furthermore, the methodology phases are illustrated in the paper by its application to the EU HCLL TBS using both MELCOR and RELAP5 codes.

  19. Double layered tailorable advanced blanket insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falstrup, D.

    1983-01-01

    An advanced flexible reusable surface insulation material for future space shuttle flights was investigated. A conventional fly shuttle loom with special modifications to weave an integral double layer triangular core fabric from quartz yarn was used. Two types of insulating material were inserted into the cells of the fabric, and a procedure to accomplish this was developed. The program is follow up of a program in which single layer rectangular cell core fabrics are woven and a single type of insulating material was inserted into the cells.

  20. Functional trade-off between strength and thermal capacity of dermal armor: Insights from girdled lizards.

    PubMed

    Broeckhoven, Chris; du Plessis, Anton; Hui, Cang

    2017-10-01

    The presence of dermal armor is often unambiguously considered the result of an evolutionary predator-prey arms-race. Recent studies focusing predominantly on osteoderms - mineralized elements embedded in the dermis layer of various extant and extinct vertebrates - have instead proposed that dermal armor might exhibit additional functionalities besides protection. Multiple divergent functionalities could impose conflicting demands on a phenotype, yet, functional trade-offs in dermal armor have rarely been investigated. Here, we use high-resolution micro-computed tomography and voxel-based simulations to test for a trade-off between the strength and thermal capacity of osteoderms using two armored cordylid lizards as model organisms. We demonstrate that high vascularization, associated with improved thermal capacity might limit the strength of osteoderms. These results call for a holistic, cautionary future approach to studies investigating dermal armor, especially those aiming to inspire artificial protective materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Computational model for armor penetration. Annual report No. 2, October 1979-October 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Erlich, D.C.; Seaman, L.; Curran, D.R.; Shockey, D.A.; Caligiuri, R.D.

    1987-10-01

    Results are reported from the second year of a three-year BRL/AMMRC/SRI program to develop a computational capability for predicting the behind-the-armor fragment environment for spaced armor attacked by long-rod penetrators. The baseline materials chosen were rolled homogenous steel armor (RHA) and depleted uranium (DU) for the penetrator. Phenomenological studies involving both quarter and full-scale ballistics tests at velocities up to 1.5 km/s and obliquities from 0 to 70 clearly revealed shear banding to be the principal phenomenon controlling both penetrator erosion and armor failure. A detailed, phenomenological scenario for oblique armor penetration is given . Contained fragmenting cylinder (CFC) experiments were performed to characterize the resistance of RHA to shear banding; a significant anisotropy was observed. The SHEAR3 computational model for shear banding was refined and calibrated with respect to previously obtained data from CFC experiments using 4340 steel (Rc40).

  2. Origin of the 44-mm behind-armor blunt trauma standard.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Erin; Gillich, Patrick

    2012-03-01

    A number of armed assaults on public officials occurred in the early 1970s, which prompted the Lightweight Soft Body Armor Program to develop modern, concealable, soft body armor. Methodology needed to be developed to (1) determine the effectiveness of the soft body armor to stop bullet penetration and (2) assess the potential injury from nonpenetrating blunt impacts to the body. Extensive research was performed under the program to develop methodologies to assess soft body armor, including behind-armor blunt trauma (BABT) evaluation. This methodology is still used today, and it has been applied extensively beyond the original intent. However, the origin of this methodology is not well understood by many researchers in the various fields in which it is being applied because the original documentation is difficult to obtain. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the BABT to offer researchers information about its history and limitations.

  3. 75 FR 50991 - Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Woven Electric Blankets From the People's Republic of China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... accommodate either the electric blanket's wiring or a subassembly containing the electric blanket's wiring (e... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Woven Electric Blankets From the People's...

  4. Ballistic Performance of Alimina/S-2 Glass-Reinforced Polymer-Matrix Composite Hybrid Lightweight Armor Against Armor Piercing (AP) and Non-AP Projectiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Armor Piercing Projectile, Fragment Simulating Projectile, Ceramic/Composite Hybrid Armor, AUTODYN NOMENCLATURE A - Material Specific Constant...Phenomena All the calculations carried out in the present work are done using AUTODYN , a general purpose non-linear dynamics modeling and simulation...software [8]. AUTODYN falls into a group of computer programs known as “hydrocodes”, which are particularly suited for modeling explosion, blast, impact

  5. On the Probability of Penetration of Armor Plate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1941-06-12

    bullet type, method of measuring ve l ocity, type of plate ,und so forth, is known, the ballistic limit of o. similar plate for si milar conditions can...34lT, ~BE CANCt! . n~GS b’l.U~ It is knmvn that , if a number of r e fired with velociti~s in the neighborhood of the ballistic limit of a plate ot...deduce from these results how many shot s are !’"equired to measure with a prescribed accuracy the ballistic limit of a given armor f or a given

  6. HIGH FREQUENCY ULTRASOUND OF ARMOR-GRADE ALUMINA CERAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Bottiglieri, S.; Haber, R. A.

    2009-03-03

    Different lots of high density, commercial, armor-grade alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were tested using high frequency ultrasound in order to determine any correlation between measured properties and ballistic performance. C-scan images were taken using a 15 MHz ultrasonic transducer in order to form attenuation coefficient and elastic property maps. These samples were further characterized by using quantitative analysis. The results indicate that attenuation coefficient values appear to have the strongest correlation, of every property measured, to ballistic classifications.

  7. Ballistic Resistance of Body Armor. NIJ Standard-0101.06

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    Fahrenheit lbf pound force rf radio frequency diam diameter lbf⋅in pound force inch rh relative humidity emf electromotive force lm lumen s second...the surface that should face the incoming ballistic threat. Also, the side of the armor opposite the wear face (see 3.51 Wear Face). 3.47 Test Series ...sequence and before each 12 shot BL test sequence. During P-BFS testing, a post-test drop series shall also be performed immediately following the last

  8. Simulation of armor penetration by tungsten rods: ALEGRA validation report

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, D.E.; Hertel, E.S. Jr.; Trucano, T.G.

    1997-11-01

    Results from simulations of the impact and penetration of tungsten alloy rods into thick rolled armor plates are presented. The calculations were performed with the CTH and ALEGRA computer codes using the DOE massively parallel TFLOPS computer co-developed by Sandia National Laboratory and Intel Corporation. Comparisons with experimental results are presented. Agreement of the two codes with each other and with the empirical results for penetration channel depth and radius is very close. Other shock physics and penetration features are also compared to simulation results.

  9. The Army Needs a Strategic Armored Gun System--Now

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-05

    the AGS ROC. IVECO- Fiat, The Italian firm o4 IVECO- Fiat has proposed three variants as candidates for the AGS! - The Centauro 9x8 wheeled light...armored vehicle with OTO Melana, i05mm turret. - The Centauro SxO with the Cadillac-Gage 105mm turret mounting the Royal Ordnance L-7 105mm gun. - The... Centauro 6x6 with the LAV-i10mm turret and EX-35 gun. The three systems cannot meet many of the AGE requirements# primarily weightp since the heaviest

  10. First-wall/blanket materials selection for STARFIRE tokamak reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Mattas, R.F.; Clemmer, R.G.; Davis, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The development of the reference STARFIRE first-wall/blanket design involved numerous trade-offs in the materials selection process for the breeding material, coolant structure, neutron multiplier, and reflector. The major parameters and properties that impact materials selection and design criteria are reviewed.

  11. Nitrogen sparging and blanketing of water storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Jonas, O.

    2000-04-01

    In many industrial processes, including most utility and industrial steam systems, good deaerated makeup and condensate water is stored in open-to-air storage tanks where it is contaminated by oxygen, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and dirt before it is used. This contamination can be prevented by nitrogen sparging and blanketing of storage tanks.

  12. Unified first wall - blanket structure for plasma device applications

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.

    A plasma device is described for use in controlling nuclear reactions within the plasma including a first wall and blanket formed in a one-piece structure composed of a solid solution containing copper and lithium and melting above about 500/sup 0/C.

  13. Summary of the target-blanket breakout group

    SciTech Connect

    Capiello, M.; Bell, C.; Barthold, W.

    1995-10-01

    This breakout group discussed a number of topics and issues pertaining to target and blanket concepts for accelerator-driven systems. This major component area is one marked by a broad spectrum of technical approaches. It is therefore less defined than other major component areas such as the accelerator and is at an earlier stage of technical needs and task specification. The working group did reach a number of general conclusions and recommendations that are summarized. The Conference and the Target/Blanket Breakout Group provided a first opportunity for people working on a variety of missions and concepts to get together and exchange information. A number of subcritical systems applicable for a spectrum of missions were proposed at the Conference and discussed in the Breakout Group. Missions included plutonium disposition, energy production, waste destruction, isotope production, and neutron scattering. The Target/Blanket Breakout Group also defined areas where parameters and data should be addressed as target/blanket design activities become more detailed and sophisticated.

  14. Measuring High Temperatures In Ceramic-Fiber Blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.

    1996-01-01

    Thermocouple assemblies devised specifically for measuring temperatures at fixed locations within insulating blankets made of such ceramic fibers as alumina, silicon carbide, and/or aluminoborosilicate. Thermocouples measure temperatures from 100 to 3,200 degrees F in oxidizing atmospheres. Wires enclosed in alumina sheath for protection against hot oxidation and mechanical damage.

  15. 48 CFR 313.303 - Blanket purchase agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements. 313.303 Section 313.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisition Methods...

  16. Warm Ocean Temperatures Blanket the Far-Western Pacific

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-28

    Data taken during a 10-day collection cycle ending March 9, 2001, show that above-normal sea-surface heights and warmer ocean temp. red and white areas still blanket the far-western tropical Pacific and much of the north and south mid-Pacific.

  17. Technical issues for beryllium use in fusion blanket applications

    SciTech Connect

    McCarville, T.J.; Berwald, D.H.; Wolfer, W.; Fulton, F.J.; Lee, J.D.; Maninger, R.C.; Moir, R.W.; Beeston, J.M.; Miller, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    Beryllium is an excellent non-fissioning neutron multiplier for fusion breeder and fusion electric blanket applications. This report is a compilation of information related to the use of beryllium with primary emphasis on the fusion breeder application. Beryllium resources, production, fabrication, properties, radiation damage and activation are discussed. A new theoretical model for beryllium swelling is presented.

  18. Unified first wall-blanket structure for plasma device applications

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    1987-01-01

    A plasma device for use in controlling nuclear reactions within the plasma including a first wall and blanket formed in a one-piece structure composed of a solid solution containing copper and lithium and melting above about 500.degree. C.

  19. 18 CFR 284.303 - OCS blanket certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... open-access, nondiscriminatory transportation service pursuant to a blanket transportation certificate... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978...

  20. 18 CFR 152.1 - Exemption applications and blanket certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exemption applications and blanket certificates. 152.1 Section 152.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... certificates of public convenience and necessity are issued pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act to...

  1. 18 CFR 152.1 - Exemption applications and blanket certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exemption applications and blanket certificates. 152.1 Section 152.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... certificates of public convenience and necessity are issued pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act to...

  2. 18 CFR 152.1 - Exemption applications and blanket certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATION FOR EXEMPTION FROM THE PROVISIONS OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT PURSUANT TO SECTION 1(C) THEREOF AND ISSUANCE OF BLANKET...) Application for exemption from the provisions of the Natural Gas Act and the rules and regulations of...

  3. SEAL Studies of Variant Blanket Concepts and Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, I.; Taylor, N. P.; Forty, C. B. A.; Han, W. E.

    1997-09-01

    Within the European SEAL ( Safety and Environmental Assessment of fusion power, Long-term) program, safety and environmental assessments have been performed which extend the results of the earlier SEAFP (Safety and Environmental Assessment of Fusion Power) program to a wider range of blanket designs and material choices. The four blanket designs analysed were those which had been developed within the Blanket program of the European Fusion Programme. All four are based on martensitic steel as structural material, and otherwise may be summarized as: water-cooled lithium-lead; dual-cooled lithium-lead; helium-cooled lithium silicate (BOT geometry); helium-cooled lithium aluminate (or zirconate) (BIT geometry). The results reveal that all the blankets show the favorable S&E characteristics of fusion, though there are interesting and significant differences between them. The key results are described. Assessments have also been performed of a wider range of materials than was considered in SEAFP. These were: an alternative vanadium alloy, an alternative low-activation martensitic steel, titanium-aluminum intermetallic, and SiC composite. Assessed impurities were included in the compositions, and these had very important effects upon some of the results. Key results impacting upon accident characteristics, recycling, and waste management are described.

  4. Structure and fracture resistance of alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula) armored fish scales.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Gludovatz, Bernd; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Bale, Hrishikesh A; Ritchie, Robert O; Meyers, Marc A

    2013-04-01

    The alligator gar is a large fish with flexible armor consisting of ganoid scales. These scales contain a thin layer of ganoine (microhardness ~2.5 GPa) and a bony body (microhardness ~400 MPa), with jagged edges that provide effective protection against predators. We describe here the structure of both ganoine and bony foundation and characterize the mechanical properties and fracture mechanisms. The bony foundation is characterized by two components: a mineralized matrix and parallel arrays of tubules, most of which contain collagen fibers. The spacing of the empty tubules is ~60 μm; the spacing of those filled with collagen fibers is ~7 μm. Using micromechanical testing of such scales in a variable-pressure scanning electron microscope, we identify interactions between propagating cracks and the microstructure, and show that the toughness of the scales increases with crack extension in a classical resistance-curve response from the activation of extrinsic toughening mechanisms. We demonstrate how mechanical damage evolves in these structures, and further identify that the reinforcement of the mineral by the network of collagen fibers is the principal toughening mechanism resisting such damage. Additionally, we define the anisotropy of the toughness of the scales and relate this to the collagen fiber orientation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The turtle carapace as an optimized multi-scale biological composite armor - A review.

    PubMed

    Achrai, Ben; Wagner, H Daniel

    2017-09-01

    The turtle carapace, the top dorsal part of the shell, is a remarkable multi-scale dermal armor that has evolved to withstand various types of high-stress events encountered in nature. This keratin-covered boney exoskeleton exhibits a number of structural motifs, including alternating rigid and flexible components, layering and functionally graded elements, designed to protect the reptile during predatory attacks, and smashing events. Here we review the multi-scale structural hierarchy of the turtle carapace and its corresponding mechanical properties. We show how the microscopic features of the carapace govern its various macroscopic mechanical responses relevant to protective functioning, including dynamic (impact and cyclic) compression and bending loading situations. In addition, the effect of hydration, a crucial factor for proper physiological-mechanical behavior of biological materials, is illustrated throughout. We also discuss carapace-inspired designs that could be advantageous over the traditional strategies adopted in impact-resistant materials, and could bring new mechanistic insights. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of alkali metal coolants for the ITER blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Reed, C.B.; Mattas, R.F.

    1994-06-01

    The blanket system is one of the most important components of a fusion reactor because it has a major impact on both the economics and safety of fusion energy. The primary functions of the blanket in a deuterium/tritium-fueled fusion reactor are to convert the fusion energy into sensible heat and to breed tritium for the fuel cycle. The Blanket Comparison and Selection Study, conducted earlier, described the overall comparative performance of different blanket concepts, including liquid metal, molten salt, water and helium. This paper will discuss the ITER requirements for a self-cooled blanket concept with liquid lithium and for indirectly cooled concepts that use other alkali metals such as NaK. The paper addresses the thermodynamics of interactions between the liquid metals (e.g., lithium and NaK) and structural materials (e.g., V-base alloys), together with associated corrosion/compatibility issues. Available experimental data are used to assess the long-term performance of the first wall in a liquid metal environment. Other key issues include development of electrical insulator coatings on the first-wall structural material to MHD pressure drop, and tritium permeation/inventory in self-cooled and indirectly cooled concepts. Acceptable types of coatings (based on their chemical compatibility and physical properties) are identified, and surface-modification avenues to achieve these coatings on the first wall are discussed. The assessment examines the extent of our knowledge on structural materials performance in liquid metals and identifies needed research and development in several of the areas in order to establish performance envelopes for the first wall in a liquid-metal environment.

  7. Ceramic/polymer functionally graded material (FGM) lightweight armor system

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Functionally graded material is an enabling technology for lightweight body armor improvements. The objective was to demonstrate the ability to produce functionally graded ceramic-polymer and ceramic-metal lightweight armor materials. This objective involved two aspects. The first and key aspect was the development of graded-porosity boron-carbide ceramic microstructures. The second aspect was the development of techniques for liquid infiltration of lightweight metals and polymers into the graded-porosity ceramic. The authors were successful in synthesizing boron-carbide ceramic microstructures with graded porosity. These graded-porosity boron-carbide hot-pressed pieces were then successfully liquid-infiltrated in vacuum with molten aluminum at 1,300 C, and with liquid polymers at room temperature. Thus, they were able to demonstrate the feasibility of producing boron carbide-aluminum and boron carbide-polymer functionally graded materials.

  8. Numerical simulation of armored vehicles subjected to undercarriage landmine blasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdik, A.; Kilic, S. A.; Kilic, N.; Bedir, S.

    2016-07-01

    Landmine threats play a crucial role in the design of armored personnel carriers. Therefore, a reliable blast simulation methodology is valuable to the vehicle design development process. The first part of this study presents a parametric approach for the quantification of the important factors such as the incident overpressure, the reflected overpressure, the incident impulse, and the reflected impulse for the blast simulations that employ the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation. The effects of mesh resolution, mesh topology, and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) parameters are discussed. The simulation results are compared with the calculations of the more established CONventional WEaPons (CONWEP) approach based on the available experimental data. The initial findings show that the spherical topology provides advantages over the Cartesian mesh domains. Furthermore, the FSI parameters play an important role when coarse Lagrangian finite elements are coupled with fine Eulerian elements at the interface. The optimum mesh topology and the mesh resolution of the parametric study are then used in the landmine blast simulation. The second part of the study presents the experimental blast response of an armored vehicle subjected to a landmine explosion under the front left wheel in accordance with the NATO AEP-55 Standard. The results of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental measurements.

  9. Superelement Analysis of Tile-Reinforced Composite Armor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.

    1998-01-01

    Super-elements can greatly improve the computational efficiency of analyses of tile-reinforced structures such as the hull of the Composite Armored Vehicle. By taking advantage of the periodicity in this type of construction, super-elements can be used to simplify the task of modeling, to virtually eliminate the time required to assemble the stiffness matrices, and to reduce significantly the analysis solution time. Furthermore, super-elements are fully transferable between analyses and analysts, so that they provide a consistent method to share information and reduce duplication. This paper describes a methodology that was developed to model and analyze large upper hull components of the Composite Armored Vehicle. The analyses are based on two types of superelement models. The first type is based on element-layering, which consists of modeling a laminate by using several layers of shell elements constrained together with compatibility equations. Element layering is used to ensure the proper transverse shear deformation in the laminate rubber layer. The second type of model uses three-dimensional elements. Since no graphical pre-processor currently supports super-elements, a special technique based on master-elements was developed. Master-elements are representations of super-elements that are used in conjunction with a custom translator to write the superelement connectivities as input decks for ABAQUS.

  10. ARMOR Dual-Polarimetric Radar Observations of Tornadic Debris Signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, W. A,; Carey, L. D.; Knupp, K. R.; Schultz, C.; Johnson, E.

    2008-01-01

    During the Super-Tuesday tornado outbreak of 5-6 February 2008, two EF-4 tornadoes occurred in Northern Alabama within 75 km range of the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR, C-band dual-polarimetric). This study will present an analysis of ARMOR radar-indicated dual-polarimetric tornadic debris signatures. The debris signatures were associated with spatially-confined large decreases in the copolar correlation coefficient (rho(hv)hv) that were embedded within broader mesocyclone "hook" signatures. These debris signatures were most obviously manifest during the F-3 to F-4 intensity stages of the tornado(s) and extended to altitudes of approximately 3 km. The rho(hv) signatures of the tornadic debris were the most easily distinguished relative to other polarimetric and radial velocity parameters (e.g., associated with large hail and/or the incipient mesocyclone). Based on our analysis, and consistent with the small number of studies found in the literature, we conclude that dual-polarimetric radar data offer at least the possibility for enhancing specificity and confidence in the process of issuing tornado warnings based only on radar detection of threatening circulation features.

  11. Superelement Analysis of Tile-Reinforced Composite Armor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.

    1998-01-01

    Super-elements can greatly improve the computational efficiency of analyses of tile-reinforced structures such as the hull of the Composite Armored Vehicle. By taking advantage of the periodicity in this type of construction, super-elements can be used to simplify the task of modeling, to virtually eliminate the time required to assemble the stiffness matrices, and to reduce significantly the analysis solution time. Furthermore, super-elements are fully transferable between analyses and analysts, so that they provide a consistent method to share information and reduce duplication. This paper describes a methodology that was developed to model and analyze large upper hull components of the Composite Armored Vehicle. The analyses are based on two types of superelement models. The first type is based on element-layering, which consists of modeling a laminate by using several layers of shell elements constrained together with compatibility equations. Element layering is used to ensure the proper transverse shear deformation in the laminate rubber layer. The second type of model uses three-dimensional elements. Since no graphical pre-processor currently supports super-elements, a special technique based on master-elements was developed. Master-elements are representations of super-elements that are used in conjunction with a custom translator to write the superelement connectivities as input decks for ABAQUS.

  12. Flexibility Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    These brief guidelines for a muscular flexibility program state that the purpose of such a program is to increase the range of motion in order to avoid injuries and eliminate awkwardness in physical activities. A flexibility program is described as an extension of the warm-up period and should be an ongoing, permanent effort to lengthen muscles. A…

  13. Flexible Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Harold S.; Bechard, Joseph E.

    A flexible schedule allows teachers to change group size, group composition, and class length according to the purpose of the lesson. This pamphlet presents various "master" schedules for flexible scheduling: (1) Simple block schedules, (2) back-to-back schedules, (3) interdisciplinary schedules, (4) school-wide block schedules, (5) open-lab…

  14. Computational model for armor penetration. Annual report No. 3, October 1980-April 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Erlich, D.C.; Seaman, L.; Cooper, T.; Caligiuri, R.D.; Curran, D.R.

    1987-10-01

    This is the first volume of a two-volume series comprising the third annual report for the program Computational Model for Armor Penetration. The objective of the program was to develop a phenomenologically sound material-disintegration model for computationally simulating armor penetration by projectile impact. The model would provide the capability to predict the ballistic limit and downrange fragment size and velocity distributions and would eventually be used by the DoD for armor and penetrator design. The materials studied in the program were 4340 steel and depleted uranium alloy, (DU) for the penetrators, and rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) for the target. This Volume reports on the experimental and analytical work performed during the third year to conclude the development of a computational model, SHEAR3, that describes the dominant material failure and fragmentation process (adiabatic shear banding) responsible for long-rod penetrator erosion and thick armor plate plugging and fragmentation. Volume 1 also describes application of SHEAR3 with the Lagrangian wave propagation code C-HEMP to computationally simulate penetration of armor plate by normally impacting long rods both near the ballistic limit and at higher velocities sufficient to produce significant back-of-the-armor fragmentation.

  15. The effects of exercise and body armor on cognitive function in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Aaron P J; Cole, Jon C

    2013-05-01

    Police officers routinely wear body armor to protect themselves against the threat posed by firearms and edged weapons, yet little is known of the cognitive effects of doing so. Two studies investigated the effects of exercise and body armor on working memory function in healthy volunteers. In study 1, male undergraduates were assigned to one of four groups: (i) brief exercise, (ii) brief exercise wearing body armor, (iii) extended exercise, and (iv) extended exercise wearing body armor. In study 2, university gym members were assigned to one of two groups: (i) wearing body armor and (ii) not wearing body armor. In both studies, heart rate and oral temperature were measured before, immediately after, and 5 minutes after exercise. The phonemic verbal fluency task and digits backward test were administered at the same time points. In both studies, a mixed analysis of variance revealed statistically significant changes to the cognitive functioning of participants. A change in cognitive strategy was observed, reflected by a decrease in executive function (switches) and an increase in nonexecutive function (cluster size). These data suggest that the cognitive effects of exercise and body armor may have profound implications for police officers' ability to make tactical decisions. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  16. APT target/blanket design and thermal hydraulics

    SciTech Connect

    Cappiello, M.; Pitcher, E.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.

    1999-04-01

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Target/Blanket (T/B) system is comprised of an assembly of tritium producing modules supported by control, heat removal, shielding and retargeting systems. The T/B assembly produces tritium using a high-energy proton beam, a tungsten/lead spallation neutron source and {sup 3}He gas as the tritium producing feedstock. For the nominal production mode, protons are accelerated to an energy of 1030 MeV at a current of 100 mA and are directed onto the T/B assembly. The protons are expanded using a raster/expansion system to illuminate a 0.19m by 1.9m beam spot on the front face of a centrally located tungsten neutron source. A surrounding lead blanket produces additional neutrons from scattered high-energy particles. The tungsten neutron source consists of nested, Inconel-718 clad tungsten cylinders assembled in horizontal Inconel-718 tubes. Each tube contains up to 6 cylinders with annular flow channel gaps of 0.102 cm. These horizontal tubes are manifolded into larger diameter vertical inlet and outlet pipes, which provide coolant. The horizontal and vertical tubes make up a structure similar to that of rungs on a ladder. The entire tungsten neutron source consists of 11 such ladders separated into two modules, one containing five ladders and the other six. Ladders are separated by a 0.3 m void region to increase nucleon leakage. The peak thermal-hydraulic conditions in the tungsten neutron source occur in the second ladder from the front. Because tungsten neutron source design has a significant number of parallel flow channels, the limiting thermal-hydraulic parameter is the onset of significant void (OSV) rather than critical heat flux (CHF). A blanket region surrounds the tungsten neutron source. The lateral blanket region is approximately 120 cm thick and 400 cm high. Blanket material consists of lead, {sup 3}He gas, aluminum, and light-water coolant. The blanket region is subdivided into rows based on the local power

  17. Historical Review of the Correlation of Ballistic and Metallurgical Characteristics of Domestic Armor at Watertown Arsenal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-12-07

    Blaw - Knox Company. A. Hurlich. 136. 1 A~ugust. Report No. B710/532. Armor--Development of a Yracture Test to Indicate the Degree of Hardening of Armor...Report No. M710/61, Metallurgical Examination of Section from 6" Experimental M4A3k2 Assault Turret Manufactured by Unien Steel Castings Div. of Blaw ... Knox Co. P. V. Riffin. 197. 24 July. Report No, E710/611. Armor Plate--Rolled, Investigation of Experimental Heat Treatments of 3/S Inch Thick

  18. Analysis of Tile-Reinforced Composite Armor. Part 1; Advanced Modeling and Strength Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, C. G.; Chen, Tzi-Kang; Baker, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    The results of an analytical and experimental study of the structural response and strength of tile-reinforced components of the Composite Armored Vehicle are presented. The analyses are based on specialized finite element techniques that properly account for the effects of the interaction between the armor tiles, the surrounding elastomers, and the glass-epoxy sublaminates. To validate the analytical predictions, tests were conducted with panels subjected to three-point bending loads. The sequence of progressive failure events for the laminates is described. This paper describes the results of Part 1 of a study of the response and strength of tile-reinforced composite armor.

  19. US Army Armor Reference Data in Three Volumes. Volume III. Division 86 Organizations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    AD-AIIS 857 ARMY ARMOR SCHOOL FORT KNOX KY F/G 19/ 3 US ARMY ARMOR REFERENCE DATA IN THREE VOLUMES. VOLUME 11. DrVi--ETC(U) 1981UNCLASSIFIED ST-17-1...VOL- 3 S@I-AOD-250 004 NL3illlllllllll mlllllllllllll mIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIIIhI IIIIIIIIIIIhI IIIIIIIIIIIhI ST 17-1 -1 US ARMY ,~ ARMOR REFERENCE...DCUMNTATON AGEREAD INSTRUCTIONSREPRT OCUENATIN PGEBEFORE COMPLETING FORM 1. REPORT NUMBER 2. GOVT ACCESSION No. 3 . RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE

  20. Pretest Predictions of Long-Rod Interactions with Armor Technology Targets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    July 2 (1993). I 39. Y. Partom, "Ceramic Armor Resistance to Long-Rod Penetration (R.) and its Dependence on Projectile Velocity," Report No. IAT.R...I * AD - A281 384I Jllllll I PRETEST PREDICTIONS OF LONG-ROD INTERACTIONS WITH ARMOR TECHNOLOGY TARGETS DTIC I ELECTE Charles E. Anderson, Jr. JUL... Armor Technology Targets 6. AUTHR(S) j A 9-~-O Charles E. Anderson, Jr. DAvid L. Littlefield 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8

  1. Analysis of Tile-Reinforced Composite Armor. Part 1; Advanced Modeling and Strength Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, C. G.; Chen, Tzi-Kang; Baker, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    The results of an analytical and experimental study of the structural response and strength of tile-reinforced components of the Composite Armored Vehicle are presented. The analyses are based on specialized finite element techniques that properly account for the effects of the interaction between the armor tiles, the surrounding elastomers, and the glass-epoxy sublaminates. To validate the analytical predictions, tests were conducted with panels subjected to three-point bending loads. The sequence of progressive failure events for the laminates is described. This paper describes the results of Part 1 of a study of the response and strength of tile-reinforced composite armor.

  2. Neutronic design of the APT Target/Blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Pitcher, E.J.; Russell, G.J.; Kidman, R.B.; Ferguson, P.D.

    1997-12-01

    The primary function of the Accelerator Production of Tritium Target/Blanket assembly is the safe and efficient production of tritium. The T/B accepts a 1.7-GeV, 100-mA proton beam and produces neutrons via the spallation process. These neutrons then react with {sup 3}He to produce tritium. Neutronic optimization of the T/B is achieved by efficiently using the proton beam to produce neutrons and then, once produced, assuring that they are captured mostly by {sup 3}He. This optimization must occur within the constraints imposed by engineering considerations such as heat flux limits, structural integrity, fabricability, and safe and reliable operation. The target/blanket achieves these goals with a neutron production rate that is 75% of that achievable with an ideal target, and a neutronic efficiency of 84%, leading to an overall tritium production rate that is 63% of the theoretical maximum.

  3. APT {sup 3}He target/blanket. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The {sup 3}He target/blanket (T/B) preconceptual design for the 3/8-Goal facility is based on a 1000-MeV, 200-mA accelerator to produce a high-intensity proton beam that is expanded and then strikes one of two T/B modules. Each module consists of a centralized neutron source made of tungsten and lead, a proton beam backstop region made of zirconium and lead, and a moderator made of D{sub 2}O. Helium-3 gas is circulated through the neutron source region and the blanket to create tritium through neutron capture. The gas is continually processed to extract the tritium with an online separation process.

  4. Thermal creep of granular breeder materials in fusion blankets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bühler, L.; Reimann, J.

    2002-12-01

    Continuum models for granular materials in fusion blankets are efficient tools for modeling of the nonlinear elastic behavior of pebble beds, granular particle flow caused by shear, volume compaction and hardening. The present paper describes how the material models used in finite element analyses can be extended in order to account additionally for thermally activated creep. The derived material model gives results which are in reasonable accordance with experimental data for pebble beds.

  5. Helium-3 blankets for tritium breeding in fusion reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiner, Don; Embrechts, Mark; Varsamis, Georgios; Vesey, Roger; Gierszewski, Paul

    1988-01-01

    It is concluded that He-3 blankets offers considerable promise for tritium breeding in fusion reactors: good breeding potential, low operational risk, and attractive safety features. The availability of He-3 resources is the key issue for this concept. There is sufficient He-3 from decay of military stockpiles to meet the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor needs. Extraterrestrial sources of He-3 would be required for a fusion power economy.

  6. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-01

    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li/sub 2/O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N/sub 2/) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concept are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li/sub 2/O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concepts are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue.

  7. Heat Loads Due to Small Penetrations in Multilayer Insulation Blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. L.; Heckle, K. W.; Fesmire, J. E.

    2017-01-01

    The main penetrations (supports and piping) through multilayer insulation systems for cryogenic tanks have been previously addressed by heat flow measurements. Smaller penetrations due to fasteners and attachments are now experimentally investigated. The use of small pins or plastic garment tag fasteners to each the handling and construction of multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets goes back many years. While it has long been understood that penetrations and other discontinuities degrade the performance of the MLI blanket, quantification of this degradation has generally been lumped into gross performance multipliers (often called degradation factors or scale factors). Small penetrations contribute both solid conduction and radiation heat transfer paths through the blanket. The conduction is down the stem of the structural element itself while the radiation is through the hole formed during installation of the pin or fastener. Analytical models were developed in conjunction with MLI perforation theory and Fouriers Law. Results of the analytical models are compared to experimental testing performed on a 10 layer MLI blanket with approximately 50 small plastic pins penetrating the test specimen. The pins were installed at 76-mm spacing inches in both directions to minimize the compounding of thermal effects due to localized compression or lateral heat transfer. The testing was performed using a liquid nitrogen boil-off calorimeter (Cryostat-100) with the standard boundary temperatures of 293 K and 78 K. Results show that the added radiation through the holes is much more significant than the conduction down the fastener. The results are shown to be in agreement with radiation theory for perforated films.

  8. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-01

    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li/sub 2/O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N/sub 2/) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concepts are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li/sub 2/O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concept are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue.

  9. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-01

    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li/sub 2/O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N/sub 2/) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concept are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li/sub 2/O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concept are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue.

  10. Flexible Sigmoidoscopy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force (USPSTF). Most doctors recommend colonoscopy to screen for colon cancer because colonoscopy shows the entire colon and can remove colon polyps. However, preparing for and performing a flexible sigmoidoscopy may take less time and you may ...

  11. Flexible Straws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentice, Gerard

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the use of flexible straws for teaching properties of figures and families of shapes. Describes a way to make various two- or three-dimensional geometric shapes. Lists eight advantages of the method. (YP)

  12. Efficacy of the blizzard blanket or blizzard blanket plus thermal angel in preventing hypothermia in a hemorrhagic shock victim (Sus scrofa) under operational conditions.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Elizabeth; Schmelz, Joseph; Evers, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The prevention of hypothermia in military casualties under field conditions is challenging. The efficacy of a baffled reflective Blanket (Blizzard Blanket), a portable intravenous fluid warmer (Thermal Angel), and wool Blankets (control) in preventing hypothermia was tested under military field conditions in a swine hemorrhagic shock model. Fifteen pigs were bled at 10 degrees C. After 45 minutes, Hextend was administered (groups 1 and 3, at 10 degrees C; group 2, via Thermal Angel); groups 2 and 3 were encircled with a Blizzard Blanket. After 120 minutes, the pigs were moved to 21 degrees C to simulate a field hospital; group 1 was covered with Blankets. Blood was administered (groups 1 and 3, at 4 degrees C; group 2, via Thermal Angel) with 180 minutes of monitoring. The core temperature was <35 degrees C in five of five control pigs, four of five Blizzard-only pigs, and one of five Thermal Angel plus Blizzard Blanket pigs. The Blizzard Blanket limited but did not prevent hypothermia. The Thermal Angel plus Blizzard Blanket combination prevented hypothermia. The Thermal Angel is useful for bolus administration when electricity is limited; its military field use is constrained by battery weight and battery life.

  13. Flexible Parsing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-22

    grammaticality. The primary objective of this project Is to develop flexible computer q parsing techniques which can deal with the various kinds of...0143 6. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT . TASK Computer Science Department Carnegie-Nellon University PE61102F; 2304...spontaneously, the, often do not adhere strictly to commonly accepted standards of grammaticalitf. The primary objective of this proJect is to develop flexible

  14. NOEL: a no-leak fusion blanket concept

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J R; Yu, W S; Fillo, J A; Horn, F L; Makowitz, H

    1980-01-01

    Analysis and tests of a no-leak fusion blanket concept (NOEL-NO External Leak) are described. Coolant cannot leak into the plasma chamber even if large through-cracks develop in the first wall. Blanket modules contain a two-phase material, A, that is solid (several cm thick) on the inside of the module shell, and liquid in the interior. The solid layer is maintained by imbedded tubes carrying a coolant, B, below the freezing point of A. Most of the 14-MeV neutron energy is deposited as heat in the module interior. The thermal energy flow from the module interior to the shell keeps the interior liquid. Pressure on the liquid A interior is greater than the pressure on B, so that B cannot leak out if failures occur in coolant tubes. Liquid A cannot leak into the plasma chamber through first wall cracks because of the intervening frozen layer. The thermal hydraulics and neutronics of NOEL blankets have been investigated for various metallic (e.g., Li, Pb/sub 2/, LiPb, Pb) and fused salt choices for material A.

  15. Space environment durability of beta cloth in LDEF thermal blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linton, Roger C.; Whitaker, Ann F.; Finckenor, Miria M.

    1993-01-01

    Beta cloth performance for use on long-term space vehicles such as Space Station Freedom (S.S. Freedom) requires resistance to the degrading effects of the space environment. The major issues are retention of thermal insulating properties through maintaining optical properties, preserving mechanical integrity, and generating minimal particulates for contamination-sensitive spacecraft surfaces and payloads. The longest in-flight test of beta cloth's durability was on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), where it was exposed to the space environment for 68 months. The LDEF contained 57 experiments which further defined the space environment and its effects on spacecraft materials. It was deployed into low-Earth orbit (LEO) in Apr. 1984 and retrieved Jan. 1990 by the space shuttle. Among the 10,000 plus material constituents and samples onboard were thermal control blankets of multilayer insulation with a beta cloth outer cover and Velcro attachments. These blankets were exposed to hard vacuum, thermal cycling, charged particles, meteoroid/debris impacts, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and atomic oxygen (AO). Of these space environmental exposure elements, AO appears to have had the greatest effect on the beta cloth. The beta cloth analyzed in this report came from the MSFC Experiment S1005 (Transverse Flat-Plate Heat Pipe) tray oriented approximately 22 deg from the leading edge vector of the LDEF satellite. The location of the tray on LDEF and the placement of the beta cloth thermal blankets are shown. The specific space environment exposure conditions for this material are listed.

  16. Low cost, high yield IFE reactors: Revisiting Velikhov's vaporizing blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.

    1992-03-06

    The performance (efficiency and cost) of IFE reactors using MHD conversion is explored for target blanket shells of various materials vaporized and ionized by high fusion yields (5 to 500 GJ). A magnetized, prestressed reactor chamber concept is modeled together with previously developed models for the Compact Fusion Advanced Rankine II (CFARII) MHD Balance-of-Plant (BoP). Using conservative 1-D neutronics models, high fusion yields (20 to 80 GJ) are found necessary to heat Flibe, lithium, and lead-lithium blankets to MHD plasma temperatures, at initial solid thicknesses sufficient to capture most of the fusion yield. Advanced drivers/targets would need to be developed to achieve a Bang per Buck'' figure-of-merit {approx gt} 20 to 40 joules yield per driver $ for this scheme to be competitive with these blanket materials. Alternatively, more realistic neutronics models and better materials such as lithium hydride may lower the minimum required yields substantially. The very low CFARII BoP costs (contributing only 3 mills/kWehr to CoE) allows this type of reactor, given sufficient advances that non-driver costs dominate, to ultimately produce electricity at a much lower cost than any current nuclear plant.

  17. Compartment A125; view forward of barbette, an armored cylinder for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-125; view forward of barbette, an armored cylinder for supporting and protecting the forward 8" gun turret above. Anchor windlass is in left background. (033) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. 30 CFR 77.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors... conductors shall be electrically continuous throughout and shall be grounded by methods approved by...

  19. A Discrete Element Model of Armor Glass Fragmentation and Comminution Failure Under Compression

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Wei; Sun, Xin

    2016-02-15

    Because of its exceptional compressive resistance and crystal-clear appearance, lightweight glass has been traditionally used in transparent armor applications. However, due to its brittle nature, glass fails differently from ductile materials in the sense that glass fragmentation occurs instantly ahead of the projectile tip upon penetration. The effective residual strength of the armor glass then inevitably relies on the damaged glass strength within such comminuted zones with confinement from the surrounding intact materials. Physical understanding of damaged glass strength therefore becomes highly critical to the further development of armor designs. In the present study, a discrete element based modeling framework has been developed to understand and predict the evolution of compressive damages and residual strength of armor glasses. With the characteristic fragmentation and comminution failures explicitly resolved, their influences on the mechanical degradation of the loaded glass materials have been evaluated. The effects of essential loading conditions and material properties have also been investigated.

  20. The effect of body armor on performance, thermal stress, and exertion: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Brianna; Netto, Kevin; Aisbett, Brad

    2011-11-01

    Armed forces worldwide utilize some form of body armor as part of their personal protective system. This is particularly essential in recent times because of the increased sophistication of weapons employed during modern warfare and the advent of unconventional combat methods (such as the increased use of improvised explosive devices). There is some evidence to show, however, that the usage of military body armor impairs physical performance. This review of the literature will focus on the effect of body armor on the performance of, and physiological and subjective responses during, military-style physical tasks. Because of the paucity of research investigating body armor, this review will also draw upon more generalized personal protective clothing and equipment literature from a range of physically demanding occupations (i.e., firefighting and other emergency services). The review will conclude with suggested directions for future research in this area.

  1. Use of body armor protection with fighting load impacts soldier performance and kinematics.

    PubMed

    Loverro, Kari L; Brown, Tyler N; Coyne, Megan E; Schiffman, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this evaluation was to examine how increasing body armor protection with and without a fighting load impacted soldiers' performance and mobility. Thirteen male soldiers performed one performance (repeated 30-m rushing) and three mobility tasks (walk, walk over and walk under) with three different body armor configurations and an anterior fighting load. Increasing body armor protection, decreased soldier performance, as individual and total 30-m rush times were significantly longer with greater protection. While increasing body armor protection had no impact on mobility, i.e. significant effect on trunk and lower limb biomechanics, during the walk and walk over tasks, greater protection did significantly decrease maximum trunk flexion during the walk under task. Adding fighting load may negatively impact soldier mobility, as greater maximum trunk extension was evident during the walk and walk over tasks, and decreased maximum trunk flexion exhibited during the walk under task with the fighting load.

  2. Shock imprint and rolling direction influence upon the breaking tenacity for 2P armor steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zichil, V.; Coseru, A.; Schnakovszky, C.; Herghelegiu, E.; Radu, C.

    2016-08-01

    The state of art in present literature shows that the breaking tenacity of a material is influenced by the integrity of the structure. Since armors used in aviation and to protect military vehicles are frequently impact loaded, through the contact between armor sheet and projectiles, or other foreign bodies, the authors have proposed to study the dependence between the breaking tenacity of 2P armor steel depending on the direction of the rolling of the armor plate, of the geometry (spherical imprint, pyramidal and linear imprint) and the depth of the deformation that results after impact. Tests were conducted upon CT (ASTM E- 399) specimen type, using the critical factor of stress intensity during the state of planar strain.

  3. Coated armor system and process for making the same

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry S.; Lillo, Thomas M.; McHugh, Kevin M.

    2010-11-23

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  4. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 crew member Nikolai Budarin stands ready for a practice drive in an M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the pad, one of the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities in preparation for launch. The TCDT also includes a simulated launch countdown. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  5. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-113 Pilot Paul Lockhart test drives an M-113 armored personnel carrier, part of emergency egress training during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. He is accompanied by several other crew members, seen at left, Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria and Commander James Wetherbee. The crew is preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Also onboard Space Shuttle Endeavour will be the Expedition 6 crew who will replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months.

  6. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-113 Pilot Paul Lockhart stands inside an M-113 armored personnel carrier he is about to drive, part of emergency egress training during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. He and the rest of the crew are preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Also onboard Space Shuttle Endeavour will be the Expedition 6 crew who will replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months.

  7. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 crew member Donald Pettit stands ready for a practice drive in an M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the pad, one of the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities in preparation for launch. The TCDT also includes a simulated launch countdown. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  8. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 crew member Nikolai Budarin takes his turn driving an M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the pad. The crew is preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, by taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown.. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  9. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-113 Mission Specialist John Herrington stands inside an M-113 armored personnel carrier that he is about to drive as part of emergency egress training during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. He and the rest of the crew are preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Also onboard Space Shuttle Endeavour will be the Expedition 6 crew who will replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months.

  10. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-113 Mission Specialist John Herrington is at the wheel of an M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the pad. He is accompanied by (left) Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria and Commander James Wetherbee. The crew is preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, by taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown.. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Also onboard Space Shuttle Endeavour will be the Expedition 6 crew who will replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months.

  11. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox stands ready for a practice drive in an M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the pad, one of the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities in preparation for launch. The TCDT also includes a simulated launch countdown. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  12. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-113 Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria concentrates on driving an M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the pad. He is accompanied by (far left) Mission Specialist John Herrington and Commander James Wetherbee. Behind Lopez-Alegria is Pilot Paul Lockhart. The crew is preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, by taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown.. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Also onboard Space Shuttle Endeavour will be the Expedition 6 crew who will replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months.

  13. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The Expedition 6 crew pauses for a photo after emergency egress training at the pad, which included driving the M-113 armored personnel carrier behind them. The crew is preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, by taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown.. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  14. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- During emergency egress training at the pad, Expedition 6 crew member Donald Pettit stands inside an M-113 armored personnel carrier before his practice drive. The training is part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities in preparation for launch. The TCDT also includes a simulated launch countdown. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  15. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 crew member Donald Pettit concentrates on driving an M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the pad. The crew is preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, by taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown.. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  16. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-113 Mission Commander James Wetherbee practices driving an M-113 armored personnel carrier, part of emergency egress training during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. He and the rest of the crew are preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10. The TCDT includes a launch countdown. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Also onboard Space Shuttle Endeavour will be the Expedition 6 crew who will replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months.

  17. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - STS-113 Mission Commander James Wetherbee gets ready to drive an M-113 armored personnel carrier, part of emergency egress training during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. He and the rest of the crew are preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10. The TCDT includes a launch countdown. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Also onboard Space Shuttle Endeavour will be the Expedition 6 crew who will replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months.

  18. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - STS-113 Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria is ready to begin a test drive behind the wheel of an M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the pad. He and the rest of the crew are preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, by taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Also onboard Space Shuttle Endeavour will be the Expedition 6 crew who will replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months.

  19. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The STS-113 crew pause for a photo after test drives in the M-113 armored personnel carrier behind them. From left are Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria, Pilot Paul Lockhart, Commander James Wetherbee and Mission Specialist John Herrington. Driving the M-113 is part of emergency egress training at the pad, one of the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities in preparation for launch. The TCDT also includes a simulated launch countdown. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Also onboard Space Shuttle Endeavour will be the Expedition 6 crew who will replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months.

  20. Polythioether Particles Armored with Modifiable Graphene Oxide Nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Rodier, Bradley J; Mosher, Eric P; Burton, Spencer T; Matthews, Rachael; Pentzer, Emily

    2016-06-01

    Facile and scalable fabrication methods are attractive to prepare materials for diverse applications. Herein, a method is presented to prepare cross-linked polymeric nanoparticles with graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets covalently attached to the surface. Alkene-modified GO serves as a surfactant in a miniemulsion polymerization, and the alkene functionalities of GO exposed to the oil-phase are incorporated into the polymer particle through thiol-ene reactions, leaving the unreacted alkene functional groups of the other face of GO available for further functionalization. The surface of GO-armored polymer particles is then modified with a small molecule fluorophore or carboxylic acid functional groups that bind to Fe2 O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles. This methodology provides a facile route to preparing complex hybrid composite materials.

  1. Modeling gunshot bruises in soft body armor with an adaptive fuzzy system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ian; Kosko, Bart; Anderson, W French

    2005-12-01

    Gunshots produce bruise patterns on persons who wear soft body armor when shot even though the armor stops the bullets. An adaptive fuzzy system modeled these bruise patterns based on the depth and width of the deformed armor given a projectile's mass and momentum. The fuzzy system used rules with sinc-shaped if-part fuzzy sets and was robust against random rule pruning: Median and mean test errors remained low even after removing up to one fifth of the rules. Handguns shot different caliber bullets at armor that had a 10%-ordnance gelatin backing. The gelatin blocks were tissue simulants. The gunshot data tuned the additive fuzzy function approximator. The fuzzy system's conditional variance V[Y/X = x] described the second-order uncertainty of the function approximation. Handguns with different barrel lengths shot bullets over a fixed distance at armor-clad gelatin blocks that we made with Type 250 A Ordnance Gelatin. The bullet-armor experiments found that a bullet's weight and momentum correlated with the depth of its impact on armor-clad gelatin (R2 = 0.881 and p-value < 0.001 for the null hypothesis that the regression line had zero slope). Related experiments on plumber's putty showed that highspeed baseball impacts compared well to bullet-armor impacts for large-caliber handguns. A baseball's momentum correlated with its impact depth in putty (R2 = 0.93 and p-value < 0.001). A bullet's momentum similarly correlated with its armor-impact in putty (R2 = 0.97 and p-value < 0.001). A Gujarati-Chow test showed that the two putty-impact regression lines had statistically indistinguishable slopes for p-value = 0.396. Baseball impact depths were comparable to bullet-armor impact depths: Getting shot with a .22 caliber bullet when wearing soft body armor resembles getting hit in the chest with a 40-mph baseball. Getting shot with a .45 caliber bullet resembles getting hit with a 90-mph baseball.

  2. Estimated radiactive and shock loading of fusion reactor armor

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, D C

    2008-11-25

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is of interest as a source of neutrons for proliferation-resistant and high burn-up fission reactor designs. ICF is a transient process, each implosion leading to energy release over a short period, with a continuous series of ICF operations needed to drive the fission reactor. ICF yields energy in the form of MeV-range neutrons and ions, and thermal x-rays. These radiations, particularly the thermal x-rays, can deposit a pulse of energy in the wall of the ICF chamber, inducing loading by isochoric heating (i.e. at constant volume before the material can expand) or by ablation of material from the surface. The explosion of the hot ICF system, and the compression of any fill material in the chamber, may also result in direct mechanical loading by a blast wave (decaying shock) reaching the chamber wall. The chamber wall must be able to survive the repetitive loading events for long enough for the reactor to operate economically. It is thus necessary to understand the loading induced by ICF systems in possible chamber wall designs, and to predict the response and life time of the wall. Estimates are given for the loading induced in the wall armor of the fusion chamber caused by ablative thermal radiation from the fusion plasma and by the hydrodynamic shock. Taking a version of the LIFE design as an example, the ablation pressure was estimated to be {approx}0.6 GPa with an approximately exponential decay with time constant {approx}0.6 ns. Radiation hydrodynamics simulations suggested that ablation of the W armor should be negligible.

  3. Methodology for accident analyses of fusion breeder blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Dobromir Panayotov; Andrew Grief; Brad J. Merrill; Julian T. Murgatroyd; Paul Humrickhouse; Yves Poitevin; Simon Owen; Markus Iseli

    2015-06-01

    'Fusion for Energy' (F4E) develops designs and implements the European Test Blanket Systems (TBS) in ITER - Helium-Cooled Lithium-Lead (HCLL) and Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed (HCPB). Safety demonstration is an essential element for the integration of TBS in ITER and accident analyses are one of its critical segments. A systematic approach to the accident analyses had been acquired under the F4E contract on TBS safety analyses. F4E technical requirements and AMEC and INL efforts resulted in the development of a comprehensive methodology for fusion breeding blanket accident analyses. It addresses the specificity of the breeding blankets design, materials and phenomena and at the same time is consistent with the one already applied to ITER accident analyses. Methodology consists of several phases. At first the reference scenarios are selected on the base of FMEA studies. In the second place elaboration of the accident analyses specifications we use phenomena identification and ranking tables to identify the requirements to be met by the code(s) and TBS models. Thus the limitations of the codes are identified and possible solutions to be built into the models are proposed. These include among others the loose coupling of different codes or code versions in order to simulate multi-fluid flows and phenomena. The code selection and issue of the accident analyses specifications conclude this second step. Furthermore the breeding blanket and ancillary systems models are built on. In this work challenges met and solutions used in the development of both MELCOR and RELAP5 codes models of HCLL and HCPB TBSs will be shared. To continue the developed models are qualified by comparison with finite elements analyses, by code to code comparison and sensitivity studies. Finally, the qualified models are used for the execution of the accident analyses of specific scenario. When possible the methodology phases will be illustrated in the paper by limited number of tables and figures

  4. The Combat System Design and Test Criteria for Iguana TM Armored Vehicles.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    stabilization, improved ride and agility, and reduced acoustic/IR signatures. The Iguana (trademark), a tracked vehicle concept based on a recently patented...hybrid armored vehicle drive systems. This thesis presents a combat system integration process for an Iguana (trademark) based armored vehicle. It lays...for night vision sensors. The U.S. Army Night Vision & Electronic Sensors Directorate’s ELIR92 and ACQUIRE computer programs are used to establish feasible Iguana (trademark) thermal night vision device performance requirements.

  5. The Army’s Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-14

    development of an air-transportable, armored multi-purpose vehicle family intended to provide a lightweight, amphibious armored personnel carrier...AMPV) is the proposed United States Army program for replacement of the M-113 Family of Vehicles (FOV) to mitigate current and future capability...Fiscal Year (FY) 2017, February 2016, p. 16. 22 U.S. Army Europe Fact Sheet: “U.S. Army European Activity Set,” http://www.eur.army.mil/jmtc/ exercises

  6. A Review and Annotated Bibliography of Literature Relevant to Armor Skill Retention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    AD-A263 407 DTIC ELECTE APR 27 1993 Research Product 93-03 C A Review and Annotated Bibliography of Literature Relevant to Armor Skill Retention...TYPE AND DATES COVERED 1993, February Final Jan 92 - Nov 92 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS A Review and Annotated Bibliography of Literature ...has also been made available to armor unit trainers. EDGAR M. JOHNSON Acting Director v A REVIEW AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF LITERATURE RELEVANT TO

  7. 106-17 Telemetry Standards. Annex A.4. Asynchronous Recorder Multiplexer Output Re-Constructor (ARMOR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-07-01

    Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17 Annex A.4, July 2017 ANNEX A.4 Asynchronous Recorder Multiplexer Output Re-Constructor (ARMOR...A.4-10 Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17 Annex A.4, July 2017 A.4-ii This page...intentionally left blank. Telemetry Standards, RCC Standard 106-17 Annex A.4, July 2017 A.4-iii Acronyms ARMOR Asynchronous Recorder

  8. Evaluation of the Combat Vehicle Command and Control System: Operational Effectiveness of an Armor Battalion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    Armor Officer Advance 22 46.8 27 56.3 Course ( AOAC ) Armor Officer Basic 46 97.9 48 100 Course (AOBC) NCO!Enl isted Advanced NCO Course 3 3.3 17 17.7...Tank-Automotive Command (TACOM), Subject: Combat Vehicle Command and Control (CVCC) Programs, 22 March 1989. The CVCC research program investigates...18 Support Personnel ................... 19 Test Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 22 Training and Test

  9. AVVAM-1 (Armored Vehicle Vulnerability Analysis Model) and Tank Vulnerability Sensitivity Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-01-01

    Ground , Maryland 0 Introduction I AVVAM-I ( Armored Vehicle Vulnerability Analysis Model -first version) is a conceptuil model-and associateS digital... measure of the ballistic shielding provided by a tank component. *The higher this value the harder it is for a spall fragment to perforate the component...in vulnerability to ballistic damage from behind-the- armor frag- ments and in the ability of noncritical components to provide ballistic shielding for

  10. Advancements in Steel for Weight Reduction of P900 Armor Plate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    were investigated as alternatives to MIL-PRF- 32269 steel alloys for application in P900 perforated armor currently used for Army ground combat...ADVANCEMENTS IN STEEL FOR WEIGHT REDUCTION OF P900 ARMOR PLATE R. A. Howell*, J. S. Montgomery Survivability Materials Branch Army Research Lab...Aberdeen Proving Grounds , MD 21001 D.C. Van Aken Missouri University for Science and Technology Rolla, MO 65401 ABSTRACT Ballistic tests

  11. SiC Armor Tiles via Magnetic Compaction and Pressureless Sintering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-27

    Ceramatec, ORNL ,ARMY and UDRI Unclassified 7Cocoa Beach 2008 What is Dynamic Magnetic Compaction? Dynamic Kinetic process High compaction pressure for sub...1Cocoa Beach 2008 SiC Armor Tiles via Magnetic Compaction and Pressureless Sintering B. Chelluri, and E. A. Knoth, IAP Research, Inc. L. P. Franks...TITLE AND SUBTITLE SiC Armor Tiles via Magnetic Compaction and Pressureless Sintering 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  12. MM&T Manufacturing Methods for Gradient Furnace Processing of Ceramic Armor and Structural Ceramics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    designated by other authorized documents. Mention of any trade names or manufacturers in this report shall not be construed as advertising nor as an...single crystal materials opens up many possi- bilities for new applications of ceramics, such as in the case of trans- parent armor, lasers, and...possibilities for new applications of ceramics such as in the case of transparent armor, lasers, and laser windows. With the increase in size of single

  13. Improvement of Armor Stone Performance for Protection of Great Lakes Coastal Navigation Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakikhani, M.; Harrelson, D. W.

    2008-12-01

    Evaluating long-term performance and deterioration of armor stones are essential for maritime structures to protect harbors or navigable areas. Armor rocks are impacted by the natural elements such as seasonal weather, and repeated cycles of temperature (e.g., flowing water, wetting and drying, wave action, freeze and thaw, etc.). The rock's behavior in the field may vary greatly from the laboratory test results. The design process for the determination of armor stone sizes is complex and various factors must be considered in order to fully understand how the design parameters have an indirect effect on stone performance. Numerous investigators have studied to develop relationships for the minimum stable weight of a rubble-mound armor unit for given wave conditions. The main objective of this study has been to evaluate major factors affecting the armor stone durability. The effects of scaling on the test results of various samples of rock types used in Great Lakes coastal projects have been investigated. To consider the combined effects of environmental stresses on armor stone, testing have been done to evaluate the performance of stone subjected to both freezing and thawing and wetting and drying. The stone quarries and sites were evaluated and sampled to determine the stone sources, and their surrounding environments. Long-term performance or deterioration of armor stones have been quantitatively monitored and characterized by the changes in dimensions measured. A degradation numerical model has been developed that relates the laboratory test results to the modification of the mass distribution and reduction at the project site. The paper presentation will describe and illustrate the latest results and developed tools for the armor stone evaluations. We will introduce new approaches that may be used to evaluate the quality and durability with reference to breakage and integrity.

  14. Expanding the Availability of Lightweight Aluminum Alloy Armor Plate Procured from Detailed Military Specifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Kevin; Squillacioti, Richard; Cheeseman, Bryan; Placzankis, Brian; Gallardy, Denver

    For many years, the range of aluminum alloys for armor plate applications obtainable in accordance with detailed military specifications was very limited. However, the development of improved aluminum alloys for aerospace and other applications has provided an opportunity to modernize the Army portfolio for ground vehicle armor applications. While the benefits of offering additional alloy choices to vehicle designers is obvious, the process of creating detailed military specifications for armor plate applications is not trivial. A significant amount of material and testing is required to develop the details required by an armor plate specification. Due to the vast number of material programs that require standardization and with a limited amount of manpower and funds as a result of Standardization Reform in 1995, one typically requires a need statement from a vehicle program office to justify and sponsor the work. This presentation will focus on recent aluminum alloy armor plate specifications that have added capability to vehicle designers' selection of armor materials that offer possible benefits such as lower cost, higher strength, better ballistic and corrosion resistance, improved weldability, etc.

  15. Predation's role in repeated phenotypic and genetic divergence of armor in threespine stickleback.

    PubMed

    Marchinko, Kerry B

    2009-01-01

    Predator-driven divergent selection may cause differentiation in defensive armor in threespine stickleback: (1) predatory fish and birds favor robust armor, whereas (2) predaceous aquatic insects favor armor reduction. Although (1) is well established, no direct experimental evidence exists for (2). I examined the phenotypic and genetic consequences of insect predation using F(2) families from crosses between freshwater and marine stickleback populations. I measured selection on body size, and size-adjusted spine (dorsal and pelvic) and pelvic girdle length, by splitting juvenile F(2) families between control and insect predation treatments, set in pond enclosures. I also examined the effect of insect predation on Ectodysplasin (Eda), a gene physically linked to quantitative trait loci for lateral plate number, spine length, and body shape. Insect predation resulted in: (1) significant selection for larger juvenile size, and shorter dorsal spine and pelvic girdle length, (2) higher mortality of individuals missing the pelvic girdle, and (3) selection in favor of the low armor Eda allele. Predatory insects favor less stickleback armor, likely contributing to the widespread reduction of armor in freshwater populations. Because size strongly influences mate choice, predator-driven divergent selection on size may play a substantial role in byproduct reproductive isolation and speciation in threespine stickleback.

  16. [ARMOR: an electromechanical robot for upper limb training following stroke. A prospective randomised controlled pilot study].

    PubMed

    Mayr, A; Kofler, M; Saltuari, L

    2008-02-01

    Due to the complexity of the upper motor neuron syndrome, functional improvement in the paretic upper limb after stroke continues to be a challenge in neurorehabilitation. Robot-assisted training has been shown to be useful in relearning gait. In order to achieve similar results in the upper limb, an electromechanical arm robot (ARMOR), capable of moving all joints through complex patterns, has been developed. Eight patients following stroke of different etiologies were included in a clinical AB-BA cross-over study comparing ARMOR training with EMG-triggered neuromuscular electrical stimulation (EMG-NMES). Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment, modified Ashworth Scale, goniometry (Neutral-0-Method), dynamometry and Functional Dexterity Test served as outcome measures. ARMOR training resulted in more improvement of muscle tone (p = 0.004), range of movement (ROM) (p = 0.005) and dexterity, but less improvement of strength, than EMG-NMES. Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment showed improvement of at least one point in shoulder pain and arm and hand activity during ARMOR training, while these values did not change with EMG-NMS. Better results of ARMOR training were achieved in the earlier phase (A1) than in the later phase (A2). This study demonstrates the positive effect of automatised training with a new electromechanical arm robot (ARMOR), and documents its clinical applicability in the rehabilitation of the paretic upper extremity in stroke patients.

  17. Continuous fine pattern formation by screen-offset printing using a silicone blanket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Ken-ichi; Kusaka, Yasuyuki; Ushijima, Hirobumi; Nagase, Kazuro; Ikedo, Hiroaki; Mitsui, Ryosuke; Takahashi, Seiya; Nakajima, Shin-ichiro; Iwata, Shiro

    2014-09-01

    Screen-offset printing combines screen-printing on a silicone blanket with transference of the print from the blanket to a substrate. The blanket absorbs organic solvents in the ink, and therefore, the ink does not disperse through the material. This prevents blurring and allows fine patterns with widths of a few tens of micrometres to be produced. However, continuous printing deteriorates the pattern’s shape, which may be a result of decay in the absorption abilities of the blanket. Thus, we have developed a new technique for refreshing the blanket by substituting high-boiling-point solvents present on the blanket surface with low-boiling-point solvents. We analyse the efficacy of this technique, and demonstrate continuous fine pattern formation for 100 screen-offset printing processes.

  18. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 806b - DoD ‘Blanket Routine Uses’

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false DoD âBlanket Routine Usesâ C Appendix C to Part... PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Pt. 806b, App. C Appendix C to Part 806b—DoD ‘Blanket Routine Uses’ Certain DoD “blanket routine uses” have been established that are applicable to every record system maintained by the...

  19. 32 CFR 701.112 - “Blanket routine uses.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âBlanket routine uses.â 701.112 Section 701.112... THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.112 “Blanket routine uses.” In the interest of simplicity, economy, and to avoid redundancy, DOD has established “DOD Blanket Routine Uses...

  20. 32 CFR 701.112 - “Blanket routine uses.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âBlanket routine uses.â 701.112 Section 701.112... THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.112 “Blanket routine uses.” In the interest of simplicity, economy, and to avoid redundancy, DOD has established “DOD Blanket Routine Uses...

  1. 32 CFR 701.112 - “Blanket routine uses.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âBlanket routine uses.â 701.112 Section 701.112... THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.112 “Blanket routine uses.” In the interest of simplicity, economy, and to avoid redundancy, DOD has established “DOD Blanket Routine Uses...

  2. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 806b - DoD ‘Blanket Routine Uses’

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false DoD âBlanket Routine Usesâ C Appendix C to Part... PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Pt. 806b, App. C Appendix C to Part 806b—DoD ‘Blanket Routine Uses’ Certain DoD “blanket routine uses” have been established that are applicable to every record system maintained by the...

  3. 32 CFR 701.112 - “Blanket routine uses.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âBlanket routine uses.â 701.112 Section 701.112... THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.112 “Blanket routine uses.” In the interest of simplicity, economy, and to avoid redundancy, DOD has established “DOD Blanket Routine Uses...

  4. 32 CFR 701.112 - “Blanket routine uses.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âBlanket routine uses.â 701.112 Section 701.112... THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.112 “Blanket routine uses.” In the interest of simplicity, economy, and to avoid redundancy, DOD has established “DOD Blanket Routine Uses...

  5. Prevalence of enterobiasis and its incidence after blanket chemotherapy in a male orphanage.

    PubMed

    Sirivichayakul, C; Pojjaroen-anant, C; Wisetsing, P; Lalitphiphat, A; Chanthavanich, P; Kabkaew, K

    2000-03-01

    A prospective observational study was conducted in a male orphanage to find out the prevalence of enterobiasis and its incidence after blanket chemotherapy using mebendazole. We found that the prevalence of enterobiasis was 28.9%. The incidence density of enterobiasis after blanket chemotherapy was 379.82 per 1,000 person-years which was quite high. We suggest that blanket chemotherapy should be repeated at every 6 months interval to control enterobiasis in orphanages.

  6. Surge current and electron swarm tunnel tests of thermal blanket and ground strap materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffmaster, D. K.; Inouye, G. T.; Sellen, J. M., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The results are described of a series of current conduction tests with a thermal control blanket to which grounding straps have been attached. The material and the ground strap attachment procedure are described. The current conduction tests consisted of a surge current examination of the ground strap and a dilute flow, energetic electron deposition and transport through the bulk of the insulating film of this thermal blanket material. Both of these test procedures were used previously with thermal control blanket materials.

  7. Ballistic-Failure Mechanisms in Gas Metal Arc Welds of MIL A46100 Armor-Grade Steel: A Computational Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-12

    distribution is unlimited. Ballistic-Failure Mechanisms in Gas Metal Arc Welds of Mil A46100 Armor- Grade Steel : A Computational Investigation The views...Welds of Mil A46100 Armor- Grade Steel : A Computational Investigation Report Title In our recent work, a multi-physics computational model for the...utility of the upgraded GMAW process model, it is next applied to the case of butt-welding of a prototypical high-hardness armor- grade martensitic steel

  8. Screen-printed flexible MRI receive coils

    PubMed Central

    Corea, Joseph R.; Flynn, Anita M.; Lechêne, Balthazar; Scott, Greig; Reed, Galen D.; Shin, Peter J.; Lustig, Michael; Arias, Ana C.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is an inherently signal-to-noise-starved technique that limits the spatial resolution, diagnostic image quality and results in typically long acquisition times that are prone to motion artefacts. This limitation is exacerbated when receive coils have poor fit due to lack of flexibility or need for padding for patient comfort. Here, we report a new approach that uses printing for fabricating receive coils. Our approach enables highly flexible, extremely lightweight conforming devices. We show that these devices exhibit similar to higher signal-to-noise ratio than conventional ones, in clinical scenarios when coils could be displaced more than 18 mm away from the body. In addition, we provide detailed material properties and components performance analysis. Prototype arrays are incorporated within infant blankets for in vivo studies. This work presents the first fully functional, printed coils for 1.5- and 3-T clinical scanners. PMID:26961073

  9. Screen-printed flexible MRI receive coils.

    PubMed

    Corea, Joseph R; Flynn, Anita M; Lechêne, Balthazar; Scott, Greig; Reed, Galen D; Shin, Peter J; Lustig, Michael; Arias, Ana C

    2016-03-10

    Magnetic resonance imaging is an inherently signal-to-noise-starved technique that limits the spatial resolution, diagnostic image quality and results in typically long acquisition times that are prone to motion artefacts. This limitation is exacerbated when receive coils have poor fit due to lack of flexibility or need for padding for patient comfort. Here, we report a new approach that uses printing for fabricating receive coils. Our approach enables highly flexible, extremely lightweight conforming devices. We show that these devices exhibit similar to higher signal-to-noise ratio than conventional ones, in clinical scenarios when coils could be displaced more than 18 mm away from the body. In addition, we provide detailed material properties and components performance analysis. Prototype arrays are incorporated within infant blankets for in vivo studies. This work presents the first fully functional, printed coils for 1.5- and 3-T clinical scanners.

  10. Flexible radiator thermal vacuum test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oren, J. A.; Hixon, C. W.

    1982-01-01

    Two flexible, deployable/retraction radiators were designed and fabricated. The two radiator panels are distinguishable by their mission life design. One panel is designed with a 90 percent probability of withstanding the micrometeoroid environment of a low earth orbit for 30 days. This panel is designated the soft tube radiator after the PFA Teflon tubes which distribute the transport fluid over the panel. The second panel is designed with armored flow tubes to withstand the same micrometeoroid environment for 5 years. It is designated the hard tube radiator after its stainless steel flow tubes. The thermal performance of the radiators was tested under anticipated environmental conditions. The two deployment systems of the radiators were evaluated in a thermal vacuum environment.

  11. Flexible flatfoot

    PubMed Central

    Atik, Aziz; Ozyurek, Selahattin

    2014-01-01

    While being one of the most frequent parental complained deformities, flatfoot does not have a universally accepted description. The reasons of flexible flatfoot are still on debate, but they must be differentiated from rigid flatfoot which occurs secondary to other pathologies. These children are commonly brought up to a physician without any complaint. It should be kept in mind that the etiology may vary from general soft tissue laxities to intrinsic foot pathologies. Every flexible flatfoot does not require radiological examination or treatment if there is no complaint. Otherwise further investigation and conservative or surgical treatment may necessitate. PMID:28058304

  12. Piping Flexibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A NASA computer program aids Hudson Engineering Corporation, Houston, Texas, in the design and construction of huge petrochemical processing plants like the one shown, which is located at Ju'aymah, Saudi Arabia. The pipes handling the flow of chemicals are subject to a variety of stresses, such as weight and variations in pressure and temperature. Hudson Engineering uses a COSMIC piping flexibility analysis computer program to analyze stresses and unsure the necessary strength and flexibility of the pipes. This program helps the company realize substantial savings in reduced engineering time.

  13. Helium-cooled, FLiBe-breeder, beryllium-multiplier blanket for MINIMARS

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.

    1986-06-01

    We adapted the helium-cooled, FLiBe-breeder blanket to the commercial tandem-mirror fusion-reactor design, MINIMARS. Vanadium was used to achieve high performance from the high-energy-release neutron-capture reactions and from the high-temperature operation permitted by the refractory property of the material, which increases the conversion efficiency and decreases the helium-pumping power. Although this blanket had the highest performance among the MINIMARS blankets designs, measured by Mn/sub th/ (blanket energy multiplication times thermal conversion efficiency), it had a cost of electricity (COE) 18% higher than the University of Wisconsin (UW) blanket design (42.5 vs 35.9 mills/kW.h). This increased cost was due to using higher-cost blanket materials (beryllium and vanadium) and a thicker blanket, which resulted in higher-cost central-cell magnets and the need for more blanket materials. Apparently, the high efficiency does not substantially affect the COE. Therefore, in the future, we recommend lowering the helium temperature so that ferritic steel can be used. This will result in a lower-cost blanket, which may compensate for the lower performance resulting from lower efficiency.

  14. Impact of prescribed burning on blanket peat hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Joseph; Palmer, Sheila M.; Johnston, Kerrylyn; Wearing, Catherine; Irvine, Brian; Brown, Lee E.

    2015-08-01

    Fire is known to impact soil properties and hydrological flow paths. However, the impact of prescribed vegetation burning on blanket peatland hydrology is poorly understood. We studied 10 blanket peat headwater catchments. Five were subject to prescribed burning, while five were unburnt controls. Within the burnt catchments, we studied plots where the last burn occurred ˜2 (B2), 4 (B4), 7 (B7), or greater than 10 years (B10+) prior to the start of measurements. These were compared with plots at similar topographic wetness index locations in the control catchments. Plots subject to prescribed vegetation burning had significantly deeper water tables (difference in means = 5.3 cm) and greater water table variability than unburnt plots. Water table depths were significantly different between burn age classes (B2 > B4 > B7 > B10+) while B10+ water tables were not significantly different to the unburnt controls. Overland flow was less common on burnt peat than on unburnt peat, recorded in 9% and 17% of all runoff trap visits, respectively. Storm lag times and hydrograph recession limb periods were significantly greater (by ˜1 and 13 h on average, respectively) in the burnt catchments overall, but for the largest 20% of storms sampled, there was no significant difference in storm lag times between burnt and unburnt catchments. For the largest 20% of storms, the hydrograph intensity of burnt catchments was significantly greater than those of unburnt catchments (means of 4.2 × 10-5 and 3.4 × 10-5 s-1, respectively), thereby indicating a nonlinear streamflow response to prescribed burning. Together, these results from plots to whole river catchments indicate that prescribed vegetation burning has important effects on blanket peatland hydrology at a range of spatial scales.

  15. Recovery of tritium from a liquid lithium blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Talbot, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    The sorption of tritium on yttrium from liquid lithium and the subsequent release of tritium from yttrium by thermal regeneration of the metal sorbent were investigated to study such a tritium-recovery process for a fusion reactor blanket of liquid lithium. Recent static sorption experiments have shown the effects of lithium temperature and possible impurities on the sorption of tritium. Diffusivity data, obtained from previous tritium recovery experiments, were evaluated to show the importance of the yttrium surface condition in controlling the release of tritium.

  16. ORFEUS-SPAS MAIN TELESCOPE THERMAL BLANKETS ARE INSTALLED

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    German technicians in the Multi-Payload Processing Facility at KSC are installing thermal blankets on the main telescope of the Orbiting and Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph-Shuttle Pallet Satellite (ORFEUS- SPAS) II, mounted atop the Astronomy Shuttle Pallet Satellite (ASTRO-SPAS) platform. The main telescope houses two spectrographs, the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph (EUV) and the Far Ultraviolet Spectrograph (FUV), which will gather data about the life cycle of stars during the flight of ORFEUS-SPAS II on Space Shuttle Mission STS-80 this fall. A third spectrograph, the Interstellar Medium Profile Spectrometer (IMAPS), will be installed on the side of the ASTRO-SPAS platform.

  17. Structural properties of mobile armors formed at different flow strengths in gravel-bed rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, D. Mark; Ockelford, Annie; Rice, Stephen P.; Hillier, John K.; Nguyen, Thao; Reid, Ian; Tate, Nicholas J.; Ackerley, David

    2016-08-01

    Differences in the structure of mobile armors formed at three different flow strengths have been investigated in a laboratory flume. The temporal evolution of the bed surfaces and the properties of the final beds were compared using metrics of surface grain size, microtopography, and bed organization at both grain and mesoscales. Measurements of the bed condition were obtained on nine occasions during each experiment to describe the temporal evolution of the beds. Structured mobile armors formed quickly in each experiment. At the grain scale (1-45 mm; 9 ≤ Ds50 ≤ 17 mm where Ds50 is the median surface particle size), surface complexity decreased and bed roughness increased in response to surface coarsening and the development of the mobile armor. Particles comprising the armor also became flow aligned and developed imbrication. At a larger scale (100-200 mm), the surface developed a mesoscale topography through the development of bed patches with lower and higher elevations. Metrics of mobile armor structure showed remarkable consistency over prolonged periods of near-constant transport, demonstrating for the first time that actively transporting surfaces maintain an equilibrium bed structure. Bed structuring was least developed in the experiments conducted at the lowest flow strength. However, little difference was observed in the structural metrics of the mobile armors generated at higher flows. Although the range of transport rates studied was limited, the results suggest that the structure of mobile armors is insensitive to the formative transport rate except when rates are low (τ* ≈ 0.03 where τ* is the dimensionless shear stress).

  18. Reflective inserts to reduce heat strain in body armor: tests with and without irradiance.

    PubMed

    Cadarette, Bruce S; Santee, William R; Robinson, Scott B; Sawka, Michael N

    2007-08-01

    This study evaluated adding reflective thermal inserts (RTI) to reduce the physiological strain during exercise-heat stress with a radiant load. RTI were used with a U.S. Army desert battle dress uniform, body armor, and helmet. Four male volunteers attempted four trials (10 min rest followed by 100 min walking at 1.56 m x s(-1)). All trials were at 40.0 degrees C dry bulb (Tdb), 12.4 degrees C dew point (Tdp), 20% RH, and 1.0 m x s(-1) wind speed. On 2 d, there was supplementary irradiance (+1) with globe temperature (Tbg) = 56.5 degrees C and on 2 d there was no supplementary irradiance (-I) with Tbg approximately Tdb. Trial conditions were: 1) RTI and armor with supplementary irradiance (RA+I); 2) plain armor with supplementary irradiance (PA+I); 3) RTI and armor with no supplementary irradiance (RA-I); and 4) plain armor with no supplementary irradiance (PA-I). Endurance times were not significantly different among trials. With one exception, armor and helmet interior and exterior surface temperatures were not significantly different between either RA+I and PA+I or RA-I and PA-I. Temperature on the inside of the helmet in RA+I (47.1 +/- 1.4 degrees C) was significantly lower than in PA+I (49.5 +/- 2.6 degrees C). There were no differences for any physiological measure (core temperature, heart rate, mean weighted skin temperature, forehead skin temperature, sweating rate, evaporative cooling, rate of heat storage) between either RA+I and PA+L or RA-I and PA-I. Results showed no evidence that wearing RTI with body armor and helmet reduces physiological strain during exercise-heat stress with either high or low irradiance.

  19. Comparison of Biophysical Characteristics and Predicted Thermophysiological Responses of Three Prototype Body Armor Systems Versus Baseline U.S. Army Body Armor Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-19

    Research and Materiel Command, Fort Detrick, MD 21702 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited modeling; thermal limits; thermoregulation ... thermoregulation ; thermal limits Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified 18 Adam W. Potter 508-233-4735 Reset iii TABLE OF CONTENTS...of regional ensemble changes that may impact human thermoregulation , e.g., evaluating the use and positioning of body armor plates on thermal strain

  20. Inhibition of Frying Oil Oxidation by Carbon Dioxide Blanketing.

    PubMed

    Totani, Nagao; Inoue, Ryota; Yawata, Miho

    2016-06-01

    The oxidation of oil starts, in general, from the penetration of atmospheric oxygen into oil. Inhibition of the vigorous oxidation of oil at deep-frying temperature under carbon dioxide flow, by disrupting the contact between oil and air, was first demonstrated using oil in a round bottom flask. Next, the minimum carbon dioxide flow rate necessary to blanket 4 L of frying oil in an electric fryer (surface area 690 cm(2)) installed with nonwoven fabric cover, was found to be 40 L/h. Then deep-frying of potato was done accordingly; immediately after deep-frying, an aluminum cover was placed on top of the nonwoven fabric cover to prevent the loss of carbon dioxide and the carbon dioxide flow was shut off. In conclusion, the oxidation of oil both at deep-frying temperature and during standing was remarkably inhibited by carbon dioxide blanketing at a practical flow rate and volume. Under the deep-frying conditions employed in this study, the increase in polar compound content was reduced to half of that of the control.

  1. Forced-air patient warming blankets disrupt unidirectional airflow.

    PubMed

    Legg, A J; Hamer, A J

    2013-03-01

    We have recently shown that waste heat from forced-air warming blankets can increase the temperature and concentration of airborne particles over the surgical site. The mechanism for the increased concentration of particles and their site of origin remained unclear. We therefore attempted to visualise the airflow in theatre over a simulated total knee replacement using neutral-buoyancy helium bubbles. Particles were created using a Rocket PS23 smoke machine positioned below the operating table, a potential area of contamination. The same theatre set-up, warming devices and controls were used as in our previous study. This demonstrated that waste heat from the poorly insulated forced-air warming blanket increased the air temperature on the surgical side of the drape by > 5°C. This created convection currents that rose against the downward unidirectional airflow, causing turbulence over the patient. The convection currents increased the particle concentration 1000-fold (2 174 000 particles/m(3) for forced-air warming vs 1000 particles/m(3) for radiant warming and 2000 particles/m(3) for the control) by drawing potentially contaminated particles from below the operating table into the surgical site. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:407-10.

  2. Axially staggered seed-blanket reactor fuel module construction

    DOEpatents

    Cowell, Gary K.; DiGuiseppe, Carl P.

    1985-01-01

    A heterogeneous nuclear reactor of the seed-blanket type is provided wher the fissile (seed) and fertile (blanket) nuclear fuels are segregated axially within each fuel element such that fissile and fertile regions occur in an alternating pattern along the length of the fuel element. Further, different axial stacking patterns are used for the fuel elements of at least two module types such that when modules of different types are positioned adjacent to one another, the fertile regions of the modules are offset or staggered. Thus, when a module of one type is surrounded by modules of the second type the fertile regions thereof will be surrounded on all sides by fissile material. This provides enhanced neutron communication both radially and axially, thereby resulting in greater power oscillation stability than other axial arrangements. The arrangements of the fissile and fertile regions in an alternating axial manner minimizes the radial power peaking factors and provides a more optional thermal-hydraulic design than is afforded by radial arrangements.

  3. Reverse Evolution of Armor Plates in the Threespine Stickleback

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitano, J.; Bolnick, D.I.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Mazur, M.M.; Mori, S.; Nakano, T.; Peichel, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    Faced with sudden environmental changes, animals must either adapt to novel environments or go extinct. Thus, study of the mechanisms underlying rapid adaptation is crucial not??only for the understanding of natural evolutionary processes but also for the understanding of human-induced evolutionary change, which is an increasingly important problem [1-8]. In the present study, we demonstrate that the frequency of completely plated threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has increased in an urban freshwater lake (Lake Washington, Seattle, Washington) within the last 40 years. This is a dramatic example of "reverse evolution," [9] because the general evolutionary trajectory is toward armor-plate reduction in freshwater sticklebacks [10]. On the basis of our genetic studies and simulations, we propose that the most likely cause of reverse evolution is increased selection for the completely plated morph, which we suggest could result from higher levels of trout predation after a sudden increase in water transparency during the early 1970s. Rapid evolution was facilitated by the existence of standing allelic variation in Ectodysplasin (Eda), the gene that underlies the major plate-morph locus [11]. The Lake Washington stickleback thus provides a novel example of reverse evolution, which is probably caused by a change in allele frequency at the major plate locus in response to a changing predation regime. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Armored kinorhynch-like scalidophoran animals from the early Cambrian

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huaqiao; Xiao, Shuhai; Liu, Yunhuan; Yuan, Xunlai; Wan, Bin; Muscente, A. D.; Shao, Tiequan; Gong, Hao; Cao, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Morphology-based phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of the Scalidophora (Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Priapulida) and Nematoida (Nematoda, Nematomorpha), together constituting the monophyletic Cycloneuralia that is the sister group of the Panarthropoda. Kinorhynchs are unique among living cycloneuralians in having a segmented body with repeated cuticular plates, longitudinal muscles, dorsoventral muscles, and ganglia. Molecular clock estimates suggest that kinorhynchs may have diverged in the Ediacaran Period. Remarkably, no kinorhynch fossils have been discovered, in sharp contrast to priapulids and loriciferans that are represented by numerous Cambrian fossils. Here we describe several early Cambrian (~535 million years old) kinorhynch-like fossils, including the new species Eokinorhynchus rarus and two unnamed but related forms. E. rarus has characteristic scalidophoran features, including an introvert with pentaradially arranged hollow scalids. Its trunk bears at least 20 annuli each consisting of numerous small rectangular plates, and is armored with five pairs of large and bilaterally placed sclerites. Its trunk annuli are reminiscent of the epidermis segments of kinorhynchs. A phylogenetic analysis resolves E. rarus as a stem-group kinorhynch. Thus, the fossil record confirms that all three scalidophoran phyla diverged no later than the Cambrian Period. PMID:26610151

  5. Armored kinorhynch-like scalidophoran animals from the early Cambrian.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huaqiao; Xiao, Shuhai; Liu, Yunhuan; Yuan, Xunlai; Wan, Bin; Muscente, A D; Shao, Tiequan; Gong, Hao; Cao, Guohua

    2015-11-26

    Morphology-based phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of the Scalidophora (Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Priapulida) and Nematoida (Nematoda, Nematomorpha), together constituting the monophyletic Cycloneuralia that is the sister group of the Panarthropoda. Kinorhynchs are unique among living cycloneuralians in having a segmented body with repeated cuticular plates, longitudinal muscles, dorsoventral muscles, and ganglia. Molecular clock estimates suggest that kinorhynchs may have diverged in the Ediacaran Period. Remarkably, no kinorhynch fossils have been discovered, in sharp contrast to priapulids and loriciferans that are represented by numerous Cambrian fossils. Here we describe several early Cambrian (~535 million years old) kinorhynch-like fossils, including the new species Eokinorhynchus rarus and two unnamed but related forms. E. rarus has characteristic scalidophoran features, including an introvert with pentaradially arranged hollow scalids. Its trunk bears at least 20 annuli each consisting of numerous small rectangular plates, and is armored with five pairs of large and bilaterally placed sclerites. Its trunk annuli are reminiscent of the epidermis segments of kinorhynchs. A phylogenetic analysis resolves E. rarus as a stem-group kinorhynch. Thus, the fossil record confirms that all three scalidophoran phyla diverged no later than the Cambrian Period.

  6. Defensive aids suite prototype for light armored vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantin, Andre; Fortin, Jean; Venter, Johan; Philip, Brian G.; Hagen, Russell; Krieger, Dietmar; Greenley, Mike

    2001-09-01

    The Defence Research Establishment Valcartier has initiated in 1998 R&D work to investigate and to demonstrate key technologies required for future Defensive Aid Suite to protect Light Armoured Vehicles. A basic Defensive Aid Suite demonstrator (Phase I) was built and integrated into the LAV vetronics by Litton Systems Canada and his consortium. The Defensive Aid Suite consisted of a 2-band HARLIDTM-based laser detection head, a processor capable to control and deploy countermeasures and a DAS touch-screen display all integrated in a Light Armored Vehicle. The crew was able to select the operation mode for direct fire or smoke deployment by pushing one of the pair of buttons available at the bottom of the display. This system was successfully demonstrated in October 1999 during an international trial. This article gives an overview of the results obtained in the field as well as some of the lessons learnt. It also describes laboratory and field measurements made on the Laser Warning Receiver unit itself. The results of the DAS tactical use and of Human factor evaluation will illustrate its performance within typical laser threat scenarios. This work will serve as the basis for the recommendation of a future DAS demonstrator (Phase II) integrating more sensors and countermeasures.

  7. Viscoelastic shock wave in ballistic gelatin behind soft body armor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Fan, Yurun; Li, Wei

    2014-06-01

    Ballistic gelatins are widely used as a surrogate of biological tissue in blunt trauma tests. Non-penetration impact tests of handgun bullets on the 10wt% ballistic gelatin block behind soft armor were carried out in which a high-speed camera recorded the crater׳s movement and pressure sensors imbedded in the gelatin block recorded the pressure waves at different locations. The observed shock wave attenuation indicates the necessity of considering the gelatin׳s viscoelasticity. A three-element viscoelastic constitutive model was adopted, in which the relevant parameters were obtained via fitting the damping free oscillations at the beginning of the creep-mode of rheological measurement, and by examining the data of published split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) experiments. The viscoelastic model is determined by a retardation time of 5.5×10(-5)s for high oscillation frequencies and a stress relaxation time of 2.0-4.5×10(-7)s for shock wave attenuation. Using the characteristic-line method and the spherical wave assumption, the propagation of impact pressure wave front and the subsequent unloading profile can be simulated using the experimental velocity boundary condition. The established viscoelastic model considerably improves the prediction of shock wave attenuation in the ballistic gelatin.

  8. Armor and anesthesia: exposure, feeling, and the soldier's body.

    PubMed

    MacLeish, Kenneth T

    2012-03-01

    For many civilians, the high-tech weapons, armor, and military medicine with which U.S. soldiers are equipped present an image of lethal capacity and physical invulnerability. But, as this article explores, soldiers themselves just as often associate the life-sustaining technology of modern warfare with feelings that range from a pragmatic ambivalence about exposure to harm all the way to profoundly unsettling vulnerability. This article, based on fieldwork among soldiers and military families at the U.S. Army's Ft. Hood, examines sensory and affective dimensions of soldiers' intimate bodily relationships with the technologies that alternately or even simultaneously keep them alive and expose them to harm. I argue that modern military discipline and technology conspire to cultivate soldiers as highly durable, capable, unfeeling, interchangeable bodies, or what might be called, after Susan Buck-Morss (1992), anesthetic subjects. But for soldiers themselves, their training, combat environment, protective gear, and weapons are a rich font of both emotional and bodily feeling that exists in complex tension with the also deeply felt military imperative to carry on in the face of extreme discomfort and danger.

  9. 78 FR 30911 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Prior Notice Activity Under Blanket Certificate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Prior Notice Activity Under Blanket Certificate On May 8, 2013, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), filed a prior notice request... Act, and Texas Eastern's blanket certificate issued in Docket No. CP82-535-000. Texas Eastern seeks...

  10. 77 FR 38622 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on June 4, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700...) regulations under the Natural Gas Act as amended and Southern Star's blanket certificate issued in Docket No...

  11. Heat-pipe liquid-pool-blanket concept for the Tandem Mirror Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, M.A.; Werner, R.W.; Johnson, G.L.

    1981-10-01

    The blanket concept for the tandem mirror reactor described in this paper was developed to produce the medium temperature heat (approx. 850 to 950 K) for the General Atomic sulfur-iodine thermochemical process for producing hydrogen. This medium temperature heat from the blanket constitutes about 81% of the total power output of the fusion reactor.

  12. 77 FR 31004 - Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ...] Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on May 9, 2012, Southern Natural Gas Company (Southern), 569 Brookwood Village, Suite 501, Birmingham, Alabama 35209, filed... Commission's regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA), and Southern's blanket certificate issued in Docket...

  13. 75 FR 60095 - Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY..., by Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC (Sempra), requesting blanket authorization to export up to a total of..., Louisiana. Sempra is engaged in the business of purchasing and marketing supplies of LNG. Sempra is a...

  14. 77 FR 52713 - PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on August 17, 2012, PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC (PetroLogistics... Iberville Parish, Louisiana, under PetroLogistics' blanket certificate issued in Docket No. CP07-427-000, et...

  15. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 327 - DeCA Blanket Routine Uses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false DeCA Blanket Routine Uses C Appendix C to Part... Blanket Routine Uses (a) Routine Use—Law Enforcement. If a system of records maintained by a DoD Component... issued pursuant thereto, the relevant records in the system of records may be referred, as a routine use...

  16. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 327 - DeCA Blanket Routine Uses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false DeCA Blanket Routine Uses C Appendix C to Part... Blanket Routine Uses (a) Routine Use—Law Enforcement. If a system of records maintained by a DoD Component... issued pursuant thereto, the relevant records in the system of records may be referred, as a routine use...

  17. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart A of... - Memorandum of Understanding and Blanket Commodity Lien Waiver

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Memorandum of Understanding and Blanket Commodity Lien...—Memorandum of Understanding and Blanket Commodity Lien Waiver The Farmers Home Administration or its... without unnecessarily impairing or undermining the respective security interests of FmHA or its successor...

  18. 78 FR 13663 - Equitrans, L.P. Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Equitrans, L.P. Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 12, 2013, Equitrans, L.P. (Equitrans), pursuant to the blanket certificate... open to public inspection. \\1\\ Equitrans, L.P., 85 FERC ] 61,089 (1998). Equitrans proposes to...

  19. 78 FR 36770 - ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take that on May 31, 2013, ANR Pipeline Company (ANR), 717 Texas Street, Houston, Texas 77002-2761, filed in... Commission's Regulations under the Natural Gas Act, and ANR's blanket certificate issued in Docket No....

  20. 18 CFR 284.284 - Blanket certificates for unbundled sales services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blanket certificates for unbundled sales services. 284.284 Section 284.284 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... granted a blanket certificate of public convenience and necessity pursuant to section 7 of the Natural Gas...