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Sample records for flexible armored blanket

  1. Composite flexible blanket insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A. (Inventor); Lowe, David M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An improved composite flexible blanket insulation is presented comprising top silicon carbide having an interlock design, wherein the reflective shield is composed of single or double aluminized polyimide and wherein the polyimide film has a honeycomb pattern.

  2. Flexible Dermal Armor in Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wen; Chen, Irene H.; Mckittrick, Joanna; Meyers, Marc A.

    2012-04-01

    Many animals possess dermal armor, which acts primarily as protection against predators. We illustrate this through examples from both our research and the literature: alligator, fish (alligator gar, arapaima, and Senegal bichir), armadillo, leatherback turtle, and a lizard, the Gila monster. The dermal armor in these animals is flexible and has a hierarchical structure with collagen fibers joining mineralized units (scales, tiles, or plates). This combination significantly increases the strength and flexibility in comparison with a simple monolithic mineral composite or rigid dermal armor. This dermal armor is being studied for future bioinspired armor applications providing increased mobility.

  3. Composite Flexible Blanket Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A. (Inventor); Pitts, William C. (Inventor); Goldstein, Howard E. (Inventor); Sawko, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Composite flexible multilayer insulation systems (MLI) were evaluated for thermal performance and compared with the currently used fibrous silica (baseline) insulation system. The systems described are multilayer insulations consisting of alternating layers of metal foil and scrim ceramic cloth or vacuum metallized polymeric films quilted together using ceramic thread. A silicon carbide thread for use in the quilting and the method of making it are also described. These systems are useful in providing lightweight insulation for a variety of uses, particularly on the surface of aerospace vehicles subject to very high temperatures during flight.

  4. Lightweight IMM PV Flexible Blanket Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Deployable Space Systems (DSS) has developed an inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) photovoltaic (PV) integrated modular blanket assembly (IMBA) that can be rolled or z-folded. This IMM PV IMBA technology enables a revolutionary flexible PV blanket assembly that provides high specific power, exceptional stowed packaging efficiency, and high-voltage operation capability. DSS's technology also accommodates standard third-generation triple junction (ZTJ) PV device technologies to provide significantly improved performance over the current state of the art. This SBIR project demonstrated prototype, flight-like IMM PV IMBA panel assemblies specifically developed, designed, and optimized for NASA's high-voltage solar array missions.

  5. Flexibility and protection by design: imbricated hybrid microstructures of bio-inspired armor.

    PubMed

    Rudykh, Stephan; Ortiz, Christine; Boyce, Mary C

    2015-04-07

    Inspired by the imbricated scale-tissue flexible armor of elasmoid fish, we design hybrid stiff plate/soft matrix material architectures and reveal their ability to provide protection against penetration while preserving flexibility. Indentation and bending tests on bio-inspired 3D-printed prototype materials show that both protection and flexibility are highly tunable by geometrical parameters of the microstructure (plate inclination angle and volume fraction). We show that penetration resistance can be amplified by a factor of 40, while flexibility decreases in less than 5 times. Different deformation resistance mechanisms are found to govern flexibility (inter-plate matrix shear) versus penetration resistance (localized plate bending) for this microstructural architecture which, in turn, enables separation of these functional requirements in the material design. These experiments identify the tradeoffs between these typically conflicting properties as well as the ability to design the most protective material architecture for a required flexibility, providing new design guidelines for enhanced flexible armor systems.

  6. Thermal Performance of Composite Flexible Blanket Insulations for Hypersonic Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the thermal performance of a Composite Flexible Blanket Insulation (C.F.B.I.) considered for potential use as a thermal protection system or thermal insulation for future hypersonic vehicles such as the National Aerospace Plane (N.A.S.P.). Thermophysical properties for these insulations were also measured including the thermal conductivity at various temperatures and pressures and the emissivity of the fabrics used in the flexible insulations. The thermal response of these materials subjected to aeroconvective heating from a plasma arc is also described. Materials tested included two surface variations of the insulations, and similar insulations coated with a Protective Ceramic Coating (P.C.C.). Surface and backface temperatures were measured in the flexible insulations and on Fibrous Refractory Composite Insulation (F.R.C.I.) used as a calibration model. The uncoated flexible insulations exhibited good thermal performance up to 35 W/sq cm. The use of a P.C.C. to protect these insulations at higher heating rates is described. The results from a computerized thermal analysis model describing thermal response of those materials subjected to the plasma arc conditions are included. Thermal and optical properties were determined including thermal conductivity for the rigid and flexible insulations and emissivity for the insulation fabrics. These properties were utilized to calculate the thermal performance of the rigid and flexible insulations at the maximum heating rate.

  7. Terra Flexible Blanket Solar Array Deployment, On-Orbit Performance and Future Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurland, Richard; Schurig, Hans; Rosenfeld, Mark; Herriage, Michael; Gaddy, Edward; Keys, Denney; Faust, Carl; Andiario, William; Kurtz, Michelle; Moyer, Eric; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Terra spacecraft (formerly identified as EOS AM1) is the flagship in a planned series of NASA/GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) Earth observing system satellites designed to provide information on the health of the Earth's land, oceans, air, ice, and life as a total ecological global system. It has been successfully performing its mission since a late-December 1999 launch into a 705 km polar orbit. The spacecraft is powered by a single wing, flexible blanket array using single junction (SJ) gallium arsenide/germanium (GaAs/Ge) solar cells sized to provide five year end-of-life (EOL) power of greater than 5000 watts at 127 volts. It is currently the highest voltage and power operational flexible blanket array with GaAs/Ge cells. This paper briefly describes the wing design as a basis for discussing the operation of the electronics and mechanisms used to achieve successful on-orbit deployment. Its orbital electrical performance to date will be presented and compared to analytical predictions based on ground qualification testing. The paper concludes with a brief section on future applications and performance trends using advanced multi-junction cells and weight-efficient mechanical components.

  8. Terra Flexible Blanket Solar Array Deployment, On-Orbit Performance and Future Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurland, Richard; Schurig, Hans; Rosenfeld, Mark; Herriage, Michael; Gaddy, Edward; Keys, Denney; Faust, Carl; Andiario, William; Kurtz, Michelle; Moyer, Eric; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Terra spacecraft (formerly identified as EOS AM1) is the flagship in a planned series of NASA/GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) Earth observing system satellites designed to provide information on the health of the Earth's land, oceans, air, ice, and life as a total ecological global system. It has been successfully performing its mission since a late-December 1999 launch into a 705 km polar orbit. The spacecraft is powered by a single wing, flexible blanket array using single junction (SJ) gallium arsenide/germanium (GaAs/Ge) solar cells sized to provide five year end-of-life (EOL) power of greater than 5000 watts at 127 volts. It is currently the highest voltage and power operational flexible blanket array with GaAs/Ge cells. This paper briefly describes the wing design as a basis for discussing the operation of the electronics and mechanisms used to achieve successful on-orbit deployment. Its orbital electrical performance to date will be presented and compared to analytical predictions based on ground qualification testing. The paper concludes with a brief section on future applications and performance trends using advanced multi-junction cells and weight-efficient mechanical components. A viewgraph presentation is attached that outlines the same information as the paper and includes more images of the Terra Spacecraft and its components.

  9. EOS AM-1 GaAs/Ge flexible blanket solar array verification test program results

    SciTech Connect

    Herriage, M.J.; Kurland, R.M.; Faust, C.D.; Gaddy, E.M.; Keys, D.J.

    1997-12-31

    Under subcontract to Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space (LMMS), TRW Space and Electronics Group is developing the first operational flexible blanket solar array to use thin gallium arsenide on germanium (GaAs/Ge) solar cells and to produce power at high voltage. This single wing array will be integrated to the EOS AM-1 spacecraft which is the first in a series of Goddard Space Flight Center remote sensing spacecraft. Spacecraft system level design issues dealing with package volume, attitude control, weight and array size dictated that a low aspect ratio (2:1), flexible blanket wing with GaAs/Ge cells be used. The array program is in its last phase of protoflight verification testing with delivery of the wing to LMMS in mid-1997 for launch into orbit in mid-1998. This paper continues the status reporting of the solar array development that was first presented at the 31st IECEC in Washington, DC. In the first paper (Herriage, et al, 1996) the focus was on the design requirements and evolving design details. This paper provides a brief review of the wing configuration and design as a point of reference for the ensuing principal discussion of the protoflight verification test program and key results.

  10. Development of a Meso-Scale Material Model for Ballistic Fabric and Its Use in Flexible-Armor Protection Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujicic, M.; Bell, W. C.; Arakere, G.; He, T.; Xie, X.; Cheeseman, B. A.

    2010-02-01

    A meso-scale ballistic material model for a prototypical plain-woven single-ply flexible armor is developed and implemented in a material user subroutine for the use in commercial explicit finite element programs. The main intent of the model is to attain computational efficiency when calculating the mechanical response of the multi-ply fabric-based flexible-armor material during its impact with various projectiles without significantly sacrificing the key physical aspects of the fabric microstructure, architecture, and behavior. To validate the new model, a comparative finite element method analysis is carried out in which: (a) the plain-woven single-ply fabric is modeled using conventional shell elements and weaving is done in an explicit manner by snaking the yarns through the fabric and (b) the fabric is treated as a planar continuum surface composed of conventional shell elements to which the new meso-scale unit-cell based material model is assigned. The results obtained show that the material model provides a reasonably good description for the fabric deformation and fracture behavior under different combinations of fixed and free boundary conditions. Finally, the model is used in an investigation of the ability of a multi-ply soft-body armor vest to protect the wearer from impact by a 9-mm round nose projectile. The effects of inter-ply friction, projectile/yarn friction, and the far-field boundary conditions are revealed and the results explained using simple wave mechanics principles, high-deformation rate material behavior, and the role of various energy-absorbing mechanisms in the fabric-based armor systems.

  11. Spaced Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1950-11-20

    less resistance to the penetration of a projectile than does the midsection of the plate. This is so because the front and rear surfaces of the armor ...Front -7idsectio " Aberdeen Proving Ground Report .AD-943, "Ballistic Test of Spaced Armor Arrangements which can be used for Increasing the Protection of... Ground . The target was to be a 100 • thick cast armor plate which can be quite easily penetrated by this carbide cored projectile at O0 obliquity

  12. Tailorable Advanced Blanket Insulation (TABI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, Paul M.; Goldstein, Howard E.

    1987-01-01

    Single layer and multilayer insulating blankets for high-temperature service fabricated without sewing. TABI woven fabric made of aluminoborosilicate. Triangular-cross-section flutes of core filled with silica batting. Flexible blanket formed into curved shapes, providing high-temperature and high-heat-flux insulation.

  13. The Role of Shear-Thickening Fluids (STFs) in Ballistic and Stab-Resistance Improvement of Flexible Armor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasanzadeh, M.; Mottaghitalab, V.

    2014-04-01

    This paper provides a detailed review on relevant literature related to rheological properties of STFs with particular emphasis on efforts to improve their impact resistance. The review has concisely demonstrated that there are many factors affecting shear-thickening behavior of colloidal suspensions. Nanoparticle characteristics such as shape, size, distribution, solid volume fraction, and interaction with other particles as well as properties related to suspending phase and also flow field could affect the rheological properties of STFs. Recent studies on application of STFs to textile fabrics, preparation techniques, and the factors determining the performance of STF/fabric composites are summarized. Particular emphasis is laid on researches that explore the ballistic, stab, and puncture protective properties of STF-based materials and body armors.

  14. Composite armor, armor system and vehicle including armor system

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry S.; Jones, Warren F.; Lacy, Jeffrey M.; Thinnes, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Composite armor panels are disclosed. Each panel comprises a plurality of functional layers comprising at least an outermost layer, an intermediate layer and a base layer. An armor system incorporating armor panels is also disclosed. Armor panels are mounted on carriages movably secured to adjacent rails of a rail system. Each panel may be moved on its associated rail and into partially overlapping relationship with another panel on an adjacent rail for protection against incoming ordnance from various directions. The rail system may be configured as at least a part of a ring, and be disposed about a hatch on a vehicle. Vehicles including an armor system are also disclosed.

  15. Armor structures

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry Shiu-Hung [Idaho Falls, ID; Lacy, Jeffrey M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-04-01

    An armor structure includes first and second layers individually containing a plurality of i-beams. Individual i-beams have a pair of longitudinal flanges interconnected by a longitudinal crosspiece and defining opposing longitudinal channels between the pair of flanges. The i-beams within individual of the first and second layers run parallel. The laterally outermost faces of the flanges of adjacent i-beams face one another. One of the longitudinal channels in each of the first and second layers faces one of the longitudinal channels in the other of the first and second layers. The channels of the first layer run parallel with the channels of the second layer. The flanges of the first and second layers overlap with the crosspieces of the other of the first and second layers, and portions of said flanges are received within the facing channels of the i-beams of the other of the first and second layers.

  16. Joining Steel Armor - Intermix

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    TARADCOM a d ki Lk A el B~ 0el RWET0 TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 12311 JOINING STEEL ARMOR - INTERMIX March 1979 U U * S* ’ "U .by B. . A.SCEV * U...authorized documents. O "if TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 12311 JOINING STEEL ARMOR - INTERMIX BY B. A. SCHEVO March 1979 AMS: 3197..6D.4329 TARADCOM ARMOR AND...Intermix Process ...... ........ 3 Test Procedures - Intermix Armor ........ ......... 4 Mock Hull ................. ..................... 5 Results

  17. Shock destruction armor system

    DOEpatents

    Froeschner, Kenneth E.

    1993-01-01

    A shock destruction armor system is constructed and arranged to destroy the force of impact of a projectile by shock hydrodynamics. The armor system is designed to comprise a plurality of superimposed armor plates each preferably having a thickness less than five times the projectile's diameter and are preferably separated one-from-another by a distance at least equal to one-half of the projectile's diameter. The armor plates are effective to hydrodynamically and sequentially destroy the projectile. The armor system is particularly adapted for use on various military vehicles, such as tanks, aircraft and ships.

  18. Imaging body armor.

    PubMed

    Harcke, H Theodore; Schauer, David A; Harris, Robert M; Campman, Steven C; Lonergan, Gael J

    2002-04-01

    This study examined the feasibility of performing radiographic studies on patients wearing standard-issue body armor. The Kevlar helmet, fragmentation vest, demining suit sleeve, and armor plate were studied with plain film and computed tomography in a simulated casualty situation. We found that the military helmet contains metal screws and metal clips in the headband, but diagnostic computed tomographic images can be obtained. Kevlar, the principal component of soft armor, has favorable photon attenuation characteristics. Plate armor of composite material also did not limit radiographic studies. Therefore, when medically advantageous, patients can be examined radiographically while wearing standard military body armor. Civilian emergency rooms should be aware of these observations because law enforcement officers wear similar protective armor.

  19. M113: Armored Rescuer

    NASA Video Gallery

    The space shuttle required a unique rescue vehicle, one strong enough to bull its way into a launch pad and carry a flight crew and firefighters to safety. The answer is a group of M113 armored per...

  20. Field Expedient Armor Modifications to US Armored Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    field expedient modifications to armored vehicles. Second, the armored systems employed by US forces during operations Desert Shield -Desert Storm...fire. Crews quickly realized that the spare track, when mounted in critical locations, provided some measure against enemy kinetic armor piercing...Army Field Forces, 7 April 1952): Appendix G, p. 5. 5William P. Withers, “Report From Korea,” Armor 60, no. 2 (1951): 23. 59 6Harry H. Shields Jr

  1. Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, L. Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Flexibility is an important aspect of all sports and recreational activities. Flexibility can be developed and maintained by stretching exercises. Exercises designed to develop flexibility in ankle joints, knees, hips, and the lower back are presented. (JN)

  2. Ballistic Testing of Armor Weldments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-02

    and properties of armor plate b. Electrode used in weld c. Measured thickness of welded area and plate d. Temperature of plate during firing e...of different thicknesses. Armored vehicle structures of simu- lated sections of armored vehicles are tested for resistance to shock as described...following: a. Ambient temperature at time of testing b. For each round: (1) Type, thickness, and properties of armor (2) Measured location of impact

  3. Fragment Penetration Tests of Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-15

    Identify by block numbhr) Provides techniques for evaluating armor resistance to attack by HE projectile fragments. Includes static detonations of shell...DISTRIBUTION D. REFERENCES * . . . ........ . ........... D-1 1. SCOPE. This TOP describes the available techniques for testing armor for resistance to attack by...Projectiles Against Armor Plates ("Yankee Stadium" Test-). 4.1.1 hCjective. The objective is to determine the resistance to penetration of various armor

  4. Laminate armor and related methods

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Henry S; Lillo, Thomas M; Zagula, Thomas M

    2013-02-26

    Laminate armor and methods of manufacturing laminate armor. Specifically, laminate armor plates comprising a commercially pure titanium layer and a titanium alloy layer bonded to the commercially pure titanium outer layer are disclosed, wherein an average thickness of the titanium alloy inner layer is about four times an average thickness of the commercially pure titanium outer layer. In use, the titanium alloy layer is positioned facing an area to be protected. Additionally, roll-bonding methods for manufacturing laminate armor plates are disclosed.

  5. The armored warriors of kaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Yangjin

    1995-01-01

    Due to the custom of burying the dead with their weapons, battle armor, and other luxury goods, Korean archaeologists have discovered many examples of iron armor produced and used in Kaya Based on these rick data, a relatively clear picture of the evolution of Kaya iron body armor and helmets from the fourth century to the sixth century has Been developed.

  6. Armor Plate Surface Roughness Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    Armor Plate Surface Roughness Measurements by Brian Stanton, William Coburn, and Thomas J. Pizzillo ARL-TR-3498 April 2005... Armor Plate Surface Roughness Measurements Brian Stanton, William Coburn and Thomas J. Pizzillo Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate...October 2004 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Armor Plate Surface Roughness Measurements 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  7. Advanced Ceramic Armor Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-11

    materials, toughened alumina, fiber -reinforced glass matrix composites, and multilayer-gradient materials for ballistic testing. Fabrication and...material systems: Multilayer advanced armor materials consisting of a hard ceramic faceplate bonded to a graphite fiber -reinforced glass matrix...toughened alumina, and fiber - applied studies of advanced reinforced ceramic matrix glass and glass -ceramic composites for ballistic testing. technologies

  8. Embedded-monolith armor

    DOEpatents

    McElfresh, Michael W.; Groves, Scott E; Moffet, Mitchell L.; Martin, Louis P.

    2016-07-19

    A lightweight armor system utilizing a face section having a multiplicity of monoliths embedded in a matrix supported on low density foam. The face section is supported with a strong stiff backing plate. The backing plate is mounted on a spall plate.

  9. AC-130H Gunship Armor Upgrade Project

    SciTech Connect

    Shell, T.E.; Landingham, R.L.

    1990-09-19

    This report covers the test methods and equipment for testing aircraft armor both hard and soft. The hard armor are the typical ceramic type while the soft armor are various types of layered composite materials. 10 figs. (JEF)

  10. An assessment of the base blanket for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Raffray, A.R.; Abdou, M.A.; Ying, A.

    1991-12-31

    Ideally, the ITER base blanket would provide the necessary tritium for the reactor to be self-sufficient during operation, while having minimal impact on the overall reactor cost, reliability and safety. A solid breeder blanket has been developed in CDA phase in an attempt to achieve such objectives. The reference solid breeder base blanket configurations at the end of the CDA phase has many attractive features such as a tritium breeding ratio (TBR) of 0.8--0.9 and a reasonably low tritium inventory. However, some concerns regarding the risk, cost and benefit of the base blanket have been raised. These include uncertainties associated with the solid breeder thermal control and the potentially high cost of the amount of Be used to achieve high TBR and to provide the necessary thermal barrier between the high temperature solid breeder and low temperature coolant. This work addresses these concerns. The basis for the selection of a breeding blanket is first discussed in light of the incremental risk, cost and benefits relative to a non-breeding blanket. Key issues associated with the CDA breeding blanket configurations are then analyzed. Finally, alternative schemes that could enhance the attractiveness and flexibility of a breeding blanket are explored.

  11. An assessment of the base blanket for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Raffray, A.R.; Abdou, M.A.; Ying, A.

    1991-01-01

    Ideally, the ITER base blanket would provide the necessary tritium for the reactor to be self-sufficient during operation, while having minimal impact on the overall reactor cost, reliability and safety. A solid breeder blanket has been developed in CDA phase in an attempt to achieve such objectives. The reference solid breeder base blanket configurations at the end of the CDA phase has many attractive features such as a tritium breeding ratio (TBR) of 0.8--0.9 and a reasonably low tritium inventory. However, some concerns regarding the risk, cost and benefit of the base blanket have been raised. These include uncertainties associated with the solid breeder thermal control and the potentially high cost of the amount of Be used to achieve high TBR and to provide the necessary thermal barrier between the high temperature solid breeder and low temperature coolant. This work addresses these concerns. The basis for the selection of a breeding blanket is first discussed in light of the incremental risk, cost and benefits relative to a non-breeding blanket. Key issues associated with the CDA breeding blanket configurations are then analyzed. Finally, alternative schemes that could enhance the attractiveness and flexibility of a breeding blanket are explored.

  12. Armor in Vietnam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-01

    psychological atmosphere of conventional combat and recall the French experience of 1953 and 1954. It is not clear why creating an impression of...Season Going1 1 Corpr I CORPS . WET SEASON DANo " NO 0O, TK-APC O 50 100 KILOMETERG , .-... Wet Season Going, I Corps •[. FIGUIME 16, KEY: "GOTK-APC...version of the U.S. M48; first pro- 1duced in 1953 , the M48A3 was the primary weapon of U.S. tank battalions and armored cavalry units in Vietnam

  13. Gauge Measures Thicknesses Of Blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagen, George R.; Yoshino, Stanley Y.

    1991-01-01

    Tool makes highly repeatable measurements of thickness of penetrable blanket insulation. Includes commercial holder for replaceable knife blades, which holds needle instead of knife. Needle penetrates blanket to establish reference plane. Ballasted slider applies fixed preload to blanket. Technician reads thickness value on scale.

  14. Thermal insulation blanket material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusch, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    A study was conducted to provide a tailorable advanced blanket insulation based on a woven design having an integrally woven core structure. A highly pure quartz yarn was selected for weaving and the cells formed were filled with a microquartz felt insulation.

  15. Thermal insulation blanket material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusch, R. H.

    1982-06-01

    A study was conducted to provide a tailorable advanced blanket insulation based on a woven design having an integrally woven core structure. A highly pure quartz yarn was selected for weaving and the cells formed were filled with a microquartz felt insulation.

  16. Glass matrix armor

    DOEpatents

    Calkins, Noel C.

    1991-01-01

    An armor system which utilizes glass. A plurality of constraint cells are mounted on a surface of a substrate, which is metal armor plate or a similar tough material, such that the cells almost completely cover the surface of the substrate. Each constraint cell has a projectile-receiving wall parallel to the substrate surface and has sides which are perpendicular to and surround the perimeter of the receiving wall. The cells are mounted such that, in one embodiment, the substrate surface serves as a sixth side or closure for each cell. Each cell has inside of it a plate, termed the front plate, which is parallel to and in contact with substantially all of the inside surface of the receiving wall. The balance of each cell is completely filled with a projectile-abrading material consisting of glass and a ceramic material and, in certain embodiments, a polymeric material. The glass may be in monolithic form or particles of ceramic may be dispersed in a glass matrix. The ceramic material may be in monolithic form or may be in the form of particles dispersed in glass or dispersed in said polymer.

  17. Armored garment for protecting

    DOEpatents

    Purvis, James W.; Jones, II, Jack F.; Whinery, Larry D.; Brazfield, Richard; Lawrie, Catherine; Lawrie, David; Preece, Dale S.

    2009-08-11

    A lightweight, armored protective garment for protecting an arm or leg from blast superheated gases, blast overpressure shock, shrapnel, and spall from a explosive device, such as a Rocket Propelled Grenade (RPG) or a roadside Improvised Explosive Device (IED). The garment has a ballistic sleeve made of a ballistic fabric, such as an aramid fiber (e.g., KEVLAR.RTM.) cloth, that prevents thermal burns from the blast superheated gases, while providing some protection from fragments. Additionally, the garment has two or more rigid armor inserts that cover the upper and lower arm and protect against high-velocity projectiles, shrapnel and spall. The rigid inserts can be made of multiple plies of a carbon/epoxy composite laminate. The combination of 6 layers of KEVLAR.RTM. fabric and 28 plies of carbon/epoxy laminate inserts (with the inserts being sandwiched in-between the KEVLAR.RTM. layers), can meet the level IIIA fragmentation minimum V.sub.50 requirements for the US Interceptor Outer Tactical Vest.

  18. Ballistic Testing of Armor Weldments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-21

    Distribution unlimited %1 , A E S K T 5A •+ T K .4/ ¢ C+’ •; T . . .. This TOP describes ballistic tests to evaluate armor weldments for resistance to shock and...C-I 1. SCOPE. This TOP describes ballistic tests to evaluate armor weldments for resistance to shock and penetration...Operations Procedure (TOP) 2-2-711 Ballistic Testing of Armor Weldments WU A268445 6+ AuT I`S’•,+ r:’ 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) ANU; ADDRCSSI’t

  19. Performance of uncoated AFRSI blankets during multiple Space Shuttle flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawko, Paul M.; Goldstein, Howard E.

    1992-04-01

    Uncoated Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) blankets were successfully flown on seven consecutive flights of the Space Shuttle Orbiter OV-099 (Challenger). In six of the eight locations monitored (forward windshield, forward canopy, mid-fuselage, upper wing, rudder/speed brake, and vertical tail) the AFRSI blankets performed well during the ascent and reentry exposure to the thermal and aeroacoustic environments. Several of the uncoated AFRSI blankets that sustained minor damage, such as fraying or broken threads, could be repaired by sewing or by patching with a surface coating called C-9. The chief reasons for replacing or completely coating a blanket were fabric embrittlement and fabric abrasion caused by wind erosion. This occurred in the orbiter maneuvering system (OMS) pod sidewall and the forward mid-fuselage locations.

  20. Performance of uncoated AFRSI blankets during multiple Space Shuttle flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, Paul M.; Goldstein, Howard E.

    1992-01-01

    Uncoated Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) blankets were successfully flown on seven consecutive flights of the Space Shuttle Orbiter OV-099 (Challenger). In six of the eight locations monitored (forward windshield, forward canopy, mid-fuselage, upper wing, rudder/speed brake, and vertical tail) the AFRSI blankets performed well during the ascent and reentry exposure to the thermal and aeroacoustic environments. Several of the uncoated AFRSI blankets that sustained minor damage, such as fraying or broken threads, could be repaired by sewing or by patching with a surface coating called C-9. The chief reasons for replacing or completely coating a blanket were fabric embrittlement and fabric abrasion caused by wind erosion. This occurred in the orbiter maneuvering system (OMS) pod sidewall and the forward mid-fuselage locations.

  1. User s Manual for Armor Stone Evaluation Model (ARMOR): Great Lakes Armor Stone Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    MCNP) Program Great Lakes Armor Stone Rapid Deterioration work unit ERDC TR-15-6 ii Abstract Protecting entrances to navigation channels or...resources of CHL and the District and/or Division. 1.2 Purpose of the study Protecting entrances to navigation channels, harbors, or other coastal...used as an optimizing tool to determine how oversized an armor stone should initially be to still provide the desired level of protection after the

  2. Highly deformable bones: unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse armor.

    PubMed

    Porter, Michael M; Novitskaya, Ekaterina; Castro-Ceseña, Ana Bertha; Meyers, Marc A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2013-06-01

    Multifunctional materials and devices found in nature serve as inspiration for advanced synthetic materials, structures and robotics. Here, we elucidate the architecture and unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse tails that provide prehension as well as protection against predators. The seahorse tail is composed of subdermal bony plates arranged in articulating ring-like segments that overlap for controlled ventral bending and twisting. The bony plates are highly deformable materials designed to slide past one another and buckle when compressed. This complex plate and segment motion, along with the unique hardness distribution and structural hierarchy of each plate, provide seahorses with joint flexibility while shielding them against impact and crushing. Mimicking seahorse armor may lead to novel bio-inspired technologies, such as flexible armor, fracture-resistant structures or prehensile robotics.

  3. Ballistic Testing of Personnel Armor Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-06

    Identity by block number) 7e)scribes methods for evaluating the resistance of personnel armor material. to perforation by attacking projectile fragments... armor vests, face shields , torso shield , leg armor , and protective suits. It is relatively light in weight, usually between 1/4 and 4 pounds per square...quantitative measures of the ability of body armor materials to completely stop or reduce the velocity (therefore lethality) of attacking fragments of various

  4. High temperature - low mass solar blanket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mesch, H. G.

    1979-01-01

    Interconnect materials and designs for use with ultrathin silicon solar cells are discussed, as well as the results of an investigation of the applicability of parallel-gap resistance welding for interconnecting these cells. Data relating contact pull strength and cell electrical degradation to variations in welding parameters such as time, voltage and pressure are presented. Methods for bonding ultrathin cells to flexible substances and for bonding thin (75 micrometers) covers to these cells are described. Also, factors influencing fabrication yield and approaches for increasing yield are discussed. The results of vacuum thermal cycling and thermal soak tests on prototype ultrathin cell test coupons and one solar module blanket are presented.

  5. Armor and Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    MacLeish, Kenneth T.

    2013-01-01

    For many civilians, the high-tech weapons, armor, and military medicine with which U.S. soldiers are equipped present an image of lethal capacity and physical invulnerability. But, as this article explores, soldiers themselves just as often associate the life-sustaining technology of modern warfare with feelings that range from a pragmatic ambivalence about exposure to harm all the way to profoundly unsettling vulnerability. This article, based on fieldwork among soldiers and military families at the U.S. Army’s Ft. Hood, examines sensory and affective dimensions of soldiers’ intimate bodily relationships with the technologies that alternately or even simultaneously keep them alive and expose them to harm. I argue that modern military discipline and technology conspire to cultivate soldiers as highly durable, capable, unfeeling, interchangeable bodies, or what might be called, after Susan Buck-Morss (1992), anesthetic subjects. But for soldiers themselves, their training, combat environment, protective gear, and weapons are a rich font of both emotional and bodily feeling that exists in complex tension with the also deeply felt military imperative to carry on in the face of extreme discomfort and danger. PMID:22574391

  6. Typical Reactive Armor Safety Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-02

    way. etc.). c. Penetration measurements into the backup armor of the dynamic or static rounds (i.e., partial or comple e penetration, depth of...ZP Oe) Alberdeen Prc~ving Ground , MD 21005-5059 Aberdeen Proving Ground , HD 21005-5055 as NAVE 0ýu- TLD,%G 57ON5ORNG 16 (VEif N8 9...OPFJPATIONS PROCEDURE AMSTE-RP-702-10 Test Operatiuns Procedure (TOP) 2-2-623 AD No. 2 April 1993 TYPICAL REACTIVE ARMOR SAFETY TESTS Paragraph 1

  7. Blanket comparison and selection study. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-10-01

    This volume contains extensive data for the following chapters: (1) solid breeder tritium recovery, (2) solid breeder blanket designs, (3) alternate blanket concept screening, and (4) safety analysis. The following appendices are also included: (1) blanket design guidelines, (2) power conversion systems, (3) helium-cooled, vanadium alloy structure blanket design, (4) high wall loading study, and (5) molten salt safety studies. (MOW)

  8. BASELINE UT MEASUREMENTS FOR ARMOR INSPECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Margetan, Frank J.; Richter, Nate; Barnard, Dan; Hsu, David; Gray, Tim; Brasche, Lisa; Bruce Thompson, R.

    2010-02-22

    Some prototype armor panels are fabricated from several layers of dissimilar material bonded together. These may include ceramics, graphite composites, fiberglass composites and rubber. The ultrasonic properties of these layers influence inspections for armor defects. In this paper we describe measurements of ultrasonic velocity, attenuation, sound beam distortion and signal fluctuations for the individual layers comprising one armor prototype. We then discuss how knowledge of these properties can be used when choosing an optimum frequency for an ultrasonic pitch/catch immersion inspection. In our case an effective inspection frequency near 1.5 MHz affords: (1) adequate strength of through-transmitted signals in unflawed armor; (2) adequate lateral resolution for detecting small disbonds at interfaces; and (3) low levels of UT signal fluctuations due to the natural inhomogeneity of certain armor layers. The utility of this approach is demonstrated using armor panels containing artificial disbonds at selected interfaces.

  9. Patterned Armor Performance Evaluation for Multiple Impacts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    return it to the originator. Army Research Laboratory Aberdeen Proving Ground , MD 21005-5069 ARL-TR-3038 August 2003 Patterned Armor ...patterned armor performance against multiple impacts. This performance measure can then be compared to a well-posed multiple-hit criterion to assess...Aberdeen Proving Ground , MD, September 2002. de Rosset, W. S. Reactive Armor Model Sensitivity Studies; ARL-TR-1849; U.S. Army Research Laboratory

  10. US Army History and Role of Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-04-01

    Army armor mobile ground warfare, primarily offensive in units to achieve success in later battles. From character, by a self-sustaining unit of great... Armored was rain, and stubborn enemy resistance caused on a 6-hour alert. When the opportunity pre- the VI Corps to go over to the defensive on sented...were slow, War II were the major ground reconnaissance support-type actions without the spectacular units in our Army. They were lightly armored success

  11. Sensor Enhanced Armor Non Destructive Evaluation Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-11

    multiple layers) Phased Array Ultrasonic Scanning in H20 Handheld Prototype Testing Device Embedded sensors Unclassified X-ray and mm wave image of...NDT/ NDE Laboratory Unclassified Vehicle Display Views – Healthy Armor Unclassified NDE of Transparent Materials Phased Array Ultrasound Image...Provide ultrasonic , x-ray and mmwave imaging for armor damage analysis. • Explore various NDE options to support all armor recipies Objective: • Provide

  12. Armored Multi Purpose Vehicle (AMPV)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-471 Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense Acquisition...RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined TY - Then...RDT&E funding by $4M assigned to Program Management Growth. While this decrement will cause a slight re-prioritization of selected efforts in FY 2016

  13. Procurement Policy for Armored Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-27

    AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11 . SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT...Specifically, DoD awarded 11 sole-source contracts, valued at $416.7 million, to Force Protection, Inc., for armored vehicles and 4 sole-source contracts...Shaw Air Force Base was the contracting activity for the AHI contract with the Air Force. DoD Contracts With FPI. DoD awarded 11 contracts to FPI

  14. Enhanced stab resistance of armor composites with functionalized silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahfuz, Hassan; Clements, Floria; Rangari, Vijaya; Dhanak, Vinod; Beamson, Graham

    2009-03-01

    Traditionally shear thickening fluid (STF) reinforced with Kevlar has been used to develop flexible armor. At the core of the STF-Kevlar composites is a mixture of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and silica particles. This mixture is often known as STF and is consisted of approximately 45 wt % PEG and 55 wt % silica. During rheological tests, STF shows instantaneous spike in viscosity above a critical shear rate. Fabrication of STF-Kevlar composites requires preparation of STF, dilution with ethanol, and then impregnation with Kevlar. In the current approach, nanoscale silica particles were dispersed directly into a mixture of PEG and ethanol through a sonic cavitation process. Two types of silica nanoparticles were used in the investigation: 30 nm crystalline silica and 7 nm amorphous silica. The admixture was then reinforced with Kevlar fabric to produce flexible armor composites. In the next step, silica particles are functionalized with a silane coupling agent to enhance bonding between silica and PEG. The performance of the resulting armor composites improved significantly. As evidenced by National Institute of Justice spike tests, the energy required for zero-layer penetration (i.e., no penetration) jumped twofold: from 12 to 25 J cm2/g. The source of this improvement has been traced to the formation of siloxane (Si-O-Si) bonds between silica and PEG and superior coating of Kevlar filaments with particles. Fourier transform infrared, x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy studies were performed to examine chemical bonds, elemental composition, and particle dispersion responsible for such improvement. In summary, our experiments have demonstrated that functionalization of silica particles followed by direct dispersion into PEG resulted in superior Kevlar composites having much higher spike resistance.

  15. U.S. Army Armor in Limited War: Armor Employment Techniques in Korea and Vietnam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-29

    destroyed in battle.2 But a point had been made: armor could be employed effectively in Korea. Fifteen years later, American ground units deployed for the...Cavalry units, however, largely fought with the M113 Armored Personnel Carrier (APC) which they modified by attaching gun shields for its .50-caliber... ground operations in both wars, for the purposes of comparison, will be considered in three categories - offensive operations; armor or mounted units

  16. Fit Evaluation of Female Body Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    AAM1oRL-TR7-06 %lC JLL~ J FIT EVALUATION OF FEMALE BODY ARMOR (U) AD-A 188 721 - GREGORY E ZEHNER ARMSTRONG AEROSPACE MEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY CAY...Security Classification) Fit Evaluation of Female Body Armor (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Zehner, Gregory F.*; Ervin, Cay; Robinette, Kathleen M.*; and...Continue on reverse If necessary and Identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Female body armor Fit/protection Vests Fit testing 19. ABSTRACT

  17. Armored spring-core superconducting cable and method of construction

    DOEpatents

    McIntyre, Peter M.; Soika, Rainer H.

    2002-01-01

    An armored spring-core superconducting cable (12) is provided. The armored spring-core superconducting cable (12) may include a spring-core (20), at least one superconducting strand (24) wound onto the spring-core (20), and an armored shell (22) that encases the superconducting strands (24). The spring-core (20) is generally a perforated tube that allows purge gases and cryogenic liquids to be circulated through the armored superconducting cable (12), as well as managing the internal stresses within the armored spring-core superconducting cable (12). The armored shell (22) manages the external stresses of the armored spring-core superconducting cable (12) to protect the fragile superconducting strands (24). The armored spring-core superconducting cable (12) may also include a conductive jacket (34) formed outwardly of the armored shell (22).

  18. Conformable Self-Healing Ballistic Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-28

    armor piercing projectiles even from military rifles rep- which initiates a crack , the ceramic material will undergo continuous cracking or crazing ...part of ballistic protective armor systems is well-known because of the light weight of these materials as compared to steel and other solid...aUoy steel which provides protection against most heavy and explosive particles. Such 10 vehicles or vessels are frequently capable of selectively

  19. Packed fluidized bed blanket for fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Chi, John W. H.

    1984-01-01

    A packed fluidized bed blanket for a fusion reactor providing for efficient radiation absorption for energy recovery, efficient neutron absorption for nuclear transformations, ease of blanket removal, processing and replacement, and on-line fueling/refueling. The blanket of the reactor contains a bed of stationary particles during reactor operation, cooled by a radial flow of coolant. During fueling/refueling, an axial flow is introduced into the bed in stages at various axial locations to fluidize the bed. When desired, the fluidization flow can be used to remove particles from the blanket.

  20. Enhanced plasma current collection from weakly conducting solar array blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillard, G. Barry

    1993-01-01

    Among the solar cell technologies to be tested in space as part of the Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE) will be the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA). Several prototype twelve cell coupons were built for NASA using different blanket materials and mounting techniques. The first conforms to the baseline design for APSA which calls for the cells to be mounted on a carbon loaded Kapton blanket to control charging in GEO. When deployed, this design has a flexible blanket supported around the edges. A second coupon was built with the cells mounted on Kapton-H, which was in turn cemented to a solid aluminum substrate. A final coupon was identical to the latter but used germanium coated Kapton to control atomic oxygen attack in LEO. Ground testing of these coupons in a plasma chamber showed considerable differences in plasma current collection. The Kapton-H coupon demonstrated current collection consistent with exposed interconnects and some degree of cell snapover. The other two coupons experienced anomalously large collection currents. This behavior is believed to be a consequence of enhanced plasma sheaths supported by the weakly conducting carbon and germanium used in these coupons. The results reported here are the first experimental evidence that the use of such materials can result in power losses to high voltage space power systems.

  1. Stability of hard plates on soft substrates and application to the design of bioinspired segmented armor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, R.; Barthelat, F.

    2016-07-01

    Flexible natural armors from fish, alligators or armadillo are attracting an increasing amount of attention from their unique and attractive combinations of hardness, flexibility and light weight. In particular, the extreme contrast of stiffness between hard plates and surrounding soft tissues give rise to unusual and attractive mechanisms, which now serve as model for the design of bio-inspired armors. Despite a growing interest in bio-inspired flexible protection, there is little guidelines as to the choice of materials, optimum thickness, size, shape and arrangement for the protective plates. In this work, we focus on a failure mode we recently observed on natural and bio-inspired scaled armors: the unstable tilting of individual scales subjected to off-centered point forces. We first present a series of experiments on this system, followed by a model based on contact mechanics and friction. We condense the result into a single stability diagram which capture the key parameters that govern the onset of plate tilting from a localized force. We found that the stability of individual plates is governed by the location of the point force on the plate, by the friction at the surface of the plate, by the size of the plate and by the stiffness of the substrate. We finally discuss how some of these parameters can be optimized at the design stage to produce bio-inspired protective systems with desired combination of surface hardness, stability and flexural compliance.

  2. Armored Battle Groups in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-31

    ARMORED BATTLE GROUPS IN THE 21ST CENTURY BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL WENDELL D. KOT )STIRUMtN STATE9M A: Approved fer public releft. distribution is izulatated...RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (’ Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED ARMORED BATTLE GROUPS IN THE 21ST CENTURY i Individual Study Project 6...alternative to today’s heavy division force structure - Armored Battle Groups is examined. The Armored Battle Group organization devel- oped in the paper

  3. Armor: Metallurgical Examination of Cast Gun Shield Armor Four to Six Inches in Thickness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1943-05-17

    thick cast armor plates to Aberdeen Proving Ground for ballistic testin?. Thesp plates represent sections of gun shield castings. Sev^rpl of ths...1+6 UNCLASSIFIED May 17. 19^3 ABhOR Metallurgical Exajnination of Cast Gun Shield Armor Four to Six Inches in Thickness •le. ■ ■ r/^OBJECT 1...T^TTT 1 ::t^’*jom ATiEIALS ülT3 TEST PROCEM] Cast Armor Sections Sections cut from 10 test plates representing gun shield castings were examined

  4. Resonance and streaming of armored microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spelman, Tamsin; Bertin, Nicolas; Stephen, Olivier; Marmottant, Philippe; Lauga, Eric

    2015-11-01

    A new experimental technique involves building a hollow capsule which partially encompasses a microbubble, creating an ``armored microbubble'' with long lifespan. Under acoustic actuation, such bubble produces net streaming flows. In order to theoretically model the induced flow, we first extend classical models of free bubbles to describe the streaming flow around a spherical body for any known axisymmetric shape oscillation. A potential flow model is then employed to determine the resonance modes of the armored microbubble. We finally use a more detailed viscous model to calculate the surface shape oscillations at the experimental driving frequency, and from this we predict the generated streaming flows.

  5. GCFR radial blanket and shield experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Muckenthaler, F.J.; Hull, J.L.; Manning, J.J.

    1980-12-01

    This report presents integral neutron flux, energy spectra, and gamma-ray heating measurements made for the Radial Blanket and Shield Experiment at the ORNL Tower Shielding Facility as part of a continuing Gas Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor program. The experimental configurations were divided into four basic segments: a spectrum modifier inserted into the Tower Shielding Reactor II beam; blanket slabs consisting of either ThO/sub 2/ or UO/sub 2/ placed directly behind the spectrum modifier; an inner radial shield behind the blankets; and an outer radial shield to complete the mockup. The segments were added in sequence, with selected measurements made within and beyond each segment. The integral experiment was performed to provide verification of calculational methods and nuclear data used in designing a radial shield for the GCFR and determining the effectiveness of the design. The ThO/sub 2/ blanket measurements were needed to bracket the uncertainties in the nuclear cross sections for calculating both the neutron transmission through the blanket and the gamma-ray heating rates within the blanket. Measurements with a UO/sub 2/ blanket were included both as a reference for the ThO/sub 2/ analysis, neutron transmission through UO/sub 2/ having been successfully calculated in previous experiments, and to provide comparison information for other breeder reactor designs.

  6. ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect

    WONG, CPC; MALANG, S; NISHIO, S; RAFFRAY, R; SAGARA, S

    2002-04-01

    OAK A271 ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS. First wall and blanket (FW/blanket) design is a crucial element in the performance and acceptance of a fusion power plant. High temperature structural and breeding materials are needed for high thermal performance. A suitable combination of structural design with the selected materials is necessary for D-T fuel sufficiency. Whenever possible, low afterheat, low chemical reactivity and low activation materials are desired to achieve passive safety and minimize the amount of high-level waste. Of course the selected fusion FW/blanket design will have to match the operational scenarios of high performance plasma. The key characteristics of eight advanced high performance FW/blanket concepts are presented in this paper. Design configurations, performance characteristics, unique advantages and issues are summarized. All reviewed designs can satisfy most of the necessary design goals. For further development, in concert with the advancement in plasma control and scrape off layer physics, additional emphasis will be needed in the areas of first wall coating material selection, design of plasma stabilization coils, consideration of reactor startup and transient events. To validate the projected performance of the advanced FW/blanket concepts the critical element is the need for 14 MeV neutron irradiation facilities for the generation of necessary engineering design data and the prediction of FW/blanket components lifetime and availability.

  7. Promoting Improved Ballistic Resistance of Transparent Armor

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, Andrew A; Patel, P; Templeton, D W

    2011-01-01

    Transparent armor is a material or system of materials designed to be optically transparent, yet protect from fragmentation or ballistic impacts. Although engineered to defeat specific threats, or a range of threats, there are general requirements common to all of these designs. The primary requirement for a transparent armor system is to not only defeat the designated threat but also provide a multi-hit capability with minimized distortion of surrounding areas. Ground platforms have several parameters that must be optimized, such as weight, space efficiency, and cost versus performance. Glass exhibits tensile failure stress that is very much dependent on the amount of material being stressed, the side being tensile-stressed (i.e., air-versus tin-side if a float glass), and where it is being tensile stressed (i.e., in the middle or near an edge). An axiom arising from those effects is a greater amount of allowable deflection (i.e., higher failure stress) of a ballistically impacted transparent armor will result in improved ballistic resistance. Therefore, the interpretation and management of those tensile-failure-stress dependencies shall ultimately improve ballistic resistance and its predictability of transparent armor. Each of those three dependencies (size, side, and location) in a soda-lime silicate glass is described.

  8. Lightweight Integrally Armored Floor (LIAF) Ballistic Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    UHMWPE ), and a mini-core sandwich structure which serves as the walking surface of the floor system (Figure 1). Specimen details are covered in...SIDE Strike Face Backing Plate (walking surface) Ballistic Material ( UHMWPE ) Projectile Lightweight Integrally Armored Floor (LIAF

  9. Joining of Tungsten Armor Using Functional Gradients

    SciTech Connect

    John Scott O'Dell

    2006-12-31

    The joining of low thermal expansion armor materials such as tungsten to high thermal expansion heat sink materials has been a major problem in plasma facing component (PFC) development. Conventional planar bonding techniques have been unable to withstand the high thermal induced stresses resulting from fabrication and high heat flux testing. During this investigation, innovative functional gradient joints produced using vacuum plasma spray forming techniques have been developed for joining tungsten armor to copper alloy heat sinks. A model was developed to select the optimum gradient architecture. Based on the modeling effort, a 2mm copper rich gradient was selected. Vacuum plasma pray parameters and procedures were then developed to produce the functional gradient joint. Using these techniques, dual cooling channel, medium scale mockups (32mm wide x 400mm length) were produced with vacuum plasma spray formed tungsten armor. The thickness of the tungsten armor was up to 5mm thick. No evidence of debonding at the interface between the heat sink and the vacuum plasma sprayed material was observed.

  10. Analysis of behind the armor ballistic trauma.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yaoke; Xu, Cheng; Wang, Shu; Batra, R C

    2015-05-01

    The impact response of body armor composed of a ceramic plate with an ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber-reinforced composite and layers of UHMWPE fibers shielding a block of ballistic gelatin has been experimentally and numerically analyzed. It is a surrogate model for studying injuries to human torso caused by a bullet striking body protection armor placed on a person. Photographs taken with a high speed camera are used to determine deformations of the armor and the gelatin. The maximum depth of the temporary cavity formed in the ballistic gelatin and the peak pressure 40mm behind the center of the gelatin front face contacting the armor are found to be, respectively, ~34mm and ~15MPa. The Johnson-Holmquist material model has been used to simulate deformations and failure of the ceramic. The UHMWPE fiber-reinforced composite and the UHMWPE fiber layers are modeled as linear elastic orthotropic materials. The gelatin is modeled as a strain-rate dependent hyperelastic material. Values of material parameters are taken from the open literature. The computed evolution of the temporary cavity formed in the gelatin is found to qualitatively agree with that seen in experiments. Furthermore, the computed time histories of the average pressure at four points in the gelatin agree with the corresponding experimentally measured ones. The maximum pressure at a point and the depth of the temporary cavity formed in the gelatin can be taken as measures of the severity of the bodily injury caused by the impact; e.g. see the United States National Institute of Justice standard 0101.06-Ballistic Resistance of Body Armor.

  11. APT target-blanket fabrication development

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.L.

    1997-06-13

    Concepts for producing tritium in an accelerator were translated into hardware for engineering studies of tritium generation, heat transfer, and effects of proton-neutron flux on materials. Small-scale target- blanket assemblies were fabricated and material samples prepared for these performance tests. Blanket assemblies utilize composite aluminum-lead modules, the two primary materials of the blanket. Several approaches are being investigated to produce large-scale assemblies, developing fabrication and assembly methods for their commercial manufacture. Small-scale target-blanket assemblies, designed and fabricated at the Savannah River Site, were place in Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) for irradiation. They were subjected to neutron flux for nine months during 1996-97. Coincident with this test was the development of production methods for large- scale modules. Increasing module size presented challenges that required new methods to be developed for fabrication and assembly. After development, these methods were demonstrated by fabricating and assembling two production-scale modules.

  12. Multifractal Framework Based on Blanket Method

    PubMed Central

    Paskaš, Milorad P.; Reljin, Irini S.; Reljin, Branimir D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes two local multifractal measures motivated by blanket method for calculation of fractal dimension. They cover both fractal approaches familiar in image processing. The first two measures (proposed Methods 1 and 3) support model of image with embedded dimension three, while the other supports model of image embedded in space of dimension three (proposed Method 2). While the classical blanket method provides only one value for an image (fractal dimension) multifractal spectrum obtained by any of the proposed measures gives a whole range of dimensional values. This means that proposed multifractal blanket model generalizes classical (monofractal) blanket method and other versions of this monofractal approach implemented locally. Proposed measures are validated on Brodatz image database through texture classification. All proposed methods give similar classification results, while average computation time of Method 3 is substantially longer. PMID:24578664

  13. Method of fabricating a multilayer insulation blanket

    DOEpatents

    Gonczy, John D.; Niemann, Ralph C.; Boroski, William N.

    1993-01-01

    An improved multilayer insulation blanket for insulating cryogenic structures operating at very low temperatures is disclosed. An apparatus and method for fabricating the improved blanket are also disclosed. In the improved blanket, each successive layer of insulating material is greater in length and width than the preceding layer so as to accommodate thermal contraction of the layers closest to the cryogenic structure. The fabricating apparatus has a rotatable cylindrical mandrel having an outer surface of fixed radius that is substantially arcuate, preferably convex, in cross-section. The method of fabricating the improved blanket comprises (a) winding a continuous sheet of thermally reflective material around the circumference of the mandrel to form multiple layers, (b) binding the layers along two lines substantially parallel to the edges of the circumference of the mandrel, (c) cutting the layers along a line parallel to the axle of the mandrel, and (d) removing the bound layers from the mandrel.

  14. Multilayer insulation blanket, fabricating apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Gonczy, J.D.; Niemann, R.C.; Boroski, W.N.

    1992-09-01

    An improved multilayer insulation blanket for insulating cryogenic structures operating at very low temperatures is disclosed. An apparatus and method for fabricating the improved blanket are also disclosed. In the improved blanket, each successive layer of insulating material is greater in length and width than the preceding layer so as to accommodate thermal contraction of the layers closest to the cryogenic structure. The fabricating apparatus has a rotatable cylindrical mandrel having an outer surface of fixed radius that is substantially arcuate, preferably convex, in cross-section. The method of fabricating the improved blanket comprises (a) winding a continuous sheet of thermally reflective material around the circumference of the mandrel to form multiple layers, (b) binding the layers along two lines substantially parallel to the edges of the circumference of the mandrel, (c) cutting the layers along a line parallel to the axle of the mandrel, and (d) removing the bound layers from the mandrel. 7 figs.

  15. Method of fabricating a multilayer insulation blanket

    DOEpatents

    Gonczy, J.D.; Niemann, R.C.; Boroski, W.N.

    1993-07-06

    An improved multilayer insulation blanket for insulating cryogenic structures operating at very low temperatures is disclosed. An apparatus and method for fabricating the improved blanket are also disclosed. In the improved blanket, each successive layer of insulating material is greater in length and width than the preceding layer so as to accommodate thermal contraction of the layers closest to the cryogenic structure. The fabricating apparatus has a rotatable cylindrical mandrel having an outer surface of fixed radius that is substantially arcuate, preferably convex, in cross-section. The method of fabricating the improved blanket comprises (a) winding a continuous sheet of thermally reflective material around the circumference of the mandrel to form multiple layers, (b) binding the layers along two lines substantially parallel to the edges of the circumference of the mandrel, (c) cutting the layers along a line parallel to the axle of the mandrel, and (d) removing the bound layers from the mandrel.

  16. Multilayer insulation blanket, fabricating apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Gonczy, John D.; Niemann, Ralph C.; Boroski, William N.

    1992-01-01

    An improved multilayer insulation blanket for insulating cryogenic structures operating at very low temperatures is disclosed. An apparatus and method for fabricating the improved blanket are also disclosed. In the improved blanket, each successive layer of insulating material is greater in length and width than the preceding layer so as to accommodate thermal contraction of the layers closest to the cryogenic structure. The fabricating apparatus has a rotatable cylindrical mandrel having an outer surface of fixed radius that is substantially arcuate, preferably convex, in cross-section. The method of fabricating the improved blanket comprises (a) winding a continuous sheet of thermally reflective material around the circumference of the mandrel to form multiple layers, (b) binding the layers along two lines substantially parallel to the edges of the circumference of the mandrel, (c) cutting the layers along a line parallel to the axle of the mandrel, and (d) removing the bound layers from the mandrel.

  17. Task-specific effects of modular body armor.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Brianna; Netto, Kevin; Aisbett, Brad

    2014-04-01

    Eleven recreationally active males performed 11 circuits of military work, wearing torso armor on one occasion, and full armor on another. Performance was measured by the time taken to complete individual tasks, and the overall time to completion (TTC) for each circuit. Heart rate, intestinal temperature, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and thermal sensation were recorded after each circuit. Participants' circuit TTC was no different between conditions; however, specific tasks were differentially impeded by the two armor configurations. Vaulting and crawling were significantly slower (0.28 ± 0.06 and 0.55 ± 0.26 seconds) in full armor; however, box lifting and shooting were significantly slower (0.36 ± 0.18 and 0.86 ± 0.23 seconds) when wearing torso armor. Heart rate and core temperature were significantly higher during the full armor trial (5 ± 1 beats · min(-1) and 0.22 ± 0.03 °C). Similarly, RPE and thermal sensation were significantly higher (1 ± 0 and 0.5 ± 0.0) during the full armor condition. Military tasks were differentially impaired by the armor configurations used, which suggests a need to explore role-specific armor for military personnel. Physiological and perceptual responses were elevated in full armor, which could be exacerbated during longer periods of work or in hot conditions.

  18. Improved Low-Cost Multi-Hit Transparent Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    MD Aberdeen Proving Ground , MD 21005-5069 ABSTRACT Operation Iraqi Freedom has clearly demonstrated the criticality of transparent armor in...Motyka at ARL) A polymer backing acts as a spall shield and holds fractured armor in place. Interlayer between polycarbonate and ceramics is...Hsieh, Gary A. Gilde U.S. Army Research Laboratory Aberdeen Proving Ground , MD IMPROVED LOW-COST MULTI-HIT TRANSPARENT ARMOR Distribution A

  19. Soldier Performance Research Project: Armor Field and SIMNET Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    Event 5. The crew will react to an ATGM ambush. The TC must issue the contact report and fire command (both timed). The tank should take evasive ...Cammand’s (TEXO34) Armor and Engineer Board who conducted the Soldier Performance Research Project (SPRP) Armor tests: MC Royce Simson, Test Director CPI...the Soldier Performance Research Project (SPP), the Armor portion was conducted in two phases to provide a rigorous assessment of the cognitive skill

  20. Embedded Non-Destructive Evaluation for Glass Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-05

    Unclassified In House NDE and Electromagnetic Compatibility Capabilities Millimeter wave Scanning Imager Phased Array Ultrasound Immersion Tank Low...DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Embedded NDE for Glass Armor Sensor Enhanced Armor- Non-Destructive...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Unclassified Armor Solutions Tested with Ultrasonics NDT/E leading to Sensor Enhanced

  1. 75 FR 55313 - Record of Decision (ROD) for Conversion of the 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment (3rd ACR) to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... conversion, the 3rd ACR will provide the Army with a force structure that has the flexibility to respond... Infantry BCTs and Heavy Armor BCTs augmented with the protection and versatility of an additional SBCT. The... socioeconomic impacts that would be associated with the stationing of the different types of Army BCTs...

  2. Constrained ceramic-filled polymer armor

    DOEpatents

    Sandstrom, D.J.; Calkins, N.C.; Gac, F.D.

    1990-11-13

    An armor system is disclosed in which a plurality of constraint cells are mounted on a surface of a substrate, which is metal armor plate or a similar tough material, such that the cells almost completely cover the surface of the substrate. Each constraint cell has a projectile-receiving wall parallel to the substrate surface and has sides which are perpendicular to and surround the perimeter of the receiving wall. The cells are mounted such that, in one embodiment, the substrate surface serves as a sixth side or closure for each cell. Each cell has inside of it a plate, termed the front plate, which is parallel to and in contact with substantially all of the inside surface of the receiving wall. The balance of each cell is completely filled with a projectile-abrading material, which is a ceramic material in particulate form dispersed in a polymeric matrix. 5 figs.

  3. Constrained ceramic-filled polymer armor

    DOEpatents

    Sandstrom, Donald J.; Calkins, Noel C.; Gac, Frank D.

    1990-01-01

    An armor system in which a plurality of constraint cells are mounted on a surface of a substrate, which is metal armor plate or a similar tough material, such that the cells almost completely cover the surface of the substrate. Each constraint cell has a projectile-receiving wall parallel to the substrate surface and has sides which are perpendicular to and surround the perimeter of the receiving wall. The cells are mounted such that, in one embodiment, the substrate surface serves as a sixth side or closure for each cell. Each cell has inside of it a plate, termed the front plate, which is parallel to and in contact with substantially all of the inside surface of the receiving wall. The balance of each cell is completely filled with a projectile-abrading material, which is a ceramic material in particulate form dispersed in a polymeric matrix.

  4. Development of Diagnostics for Electromagnetic Armor Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    with plate voltage as measured by a standard resistance voltage-divider. It was thought that having the back plane insulated from the ground plate...elucidate the defeat mechanisms. In one possible EM armor design, an outer hull would serve as the electrical ground plate, while an inner, insulated...the run, the relay is closed, placing the dump resistor directly across the hot plate and ground . 2.4 Current Measurements Techniques. The circuit

  5. Composite treatment of ceramic tile armor

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, James G. R. [Oak Ridge, TN; Frame, Barbara J [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-12-14

    An improved ceramic tile armor has a core of boron nitride and a polymer matrix composite (PMC) facing of carbon fibers fused directly to the impact face of the tile. A polyethylene fiber composite backing and spall cover are preferred. The carbon fiber layers are cured directly onto the tile, not adhered using a separate adhesive so that they are integral with the tile, not a separate layer.

  6. Composite treatment of ceramic tile armor

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, James G. R. [Oak Ridge, TN; Frame, Barbara J [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-01-02

    An improved ceramic tile armor has a core of boron nitride and a polymer matrix composite (PMC) facing of carbon fibers fused directly to the impact face of the tile. A polyethylene fiber composite backing and spall cover are preferred. The carbon fiber layers are cured directly onto the tile, not adhered using a separate adhesive so that they are integral with the tile, not a separate layer.

  7. A Crashworthy Armored Pilot Seat for Helicopters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-01-18

    Configuration 14 III Resoons, of F/A &Mmbars 17 IV Summay of Drop Tests 29 V Summary of Horizontal Sled Test 32 VI AcmY Armored E/A Cram=n Swot , Test Results...and 3. !st Conditions: 3 hours of vibration, resonance search, dwell and cycling in each of three (3) axes, 5 to 500 Hz maxi - mum of +2.5 g. ;sults: No

  8. Armored Combat Vehicles Science and Technology Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    analysis0 SS 94 GHz TRANSMITTER/RECEIVER MODULE Provide low cost transciever modules for pulsed, FMCW or FSK radars at 35-100 Gfz. STAC!LTZATTOU...prepared by TACOM. 3 !. ... Ill11111iilIl 0 1 lPI IPIt’IlA BEST AVAILABLE.COPY The Armored Combat Vehicle Science and Technology Base Development program...classes of Army Systems including Radar , E-O, AD. Communications, Missiles and EW. NETWORK MANAGEMENT INTEGRATION - BATTLEFIELD INFORMATION

  9. Improved High Strength Armor Steel through Texturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    80 I 14 02w INTRODUCTION During metal manufacturing processing, such as rolling of sheet and plate, the polycrystalline aggregate of the material...of the quenched martensite has been documented by previous investigators including Kula and Dhosi who ob- served that thermomechanical processing can...textured armor steel exhibits improved ballistic resistance to conventionally uncontrolled rolled steels of equal hardness at normal obliquity. This

  10. Armoring confined bubbles in concentrated colloidal suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yingxian; Khodaparast, Sepideh; Stone, Howard

    2016-11-01

    Encapsulation of a bubble with microparticles is known to significantly improve the stability of the bubble. This phenomenon has recently gained increasing attention due to its application in a variety of technologies such as foam stabilization, drug encapsulation and colloidosomes. Nevertheless, the production of such colloidal armored bubble with controlled size and particle coverage ratio is still a great challenge industrially. We study the coating process of a long air bubble by microparticles in a circular tube filled with a concentrated microparticles colloidal suspension. As the bubble proceeds in the suspension of particles, a monolayer of micro-particles forms on the interface of the bubble, which eventually results in a fully armored bubble. We investigate the phenomenon that triggers and controls the evolution of the particle accumulation on the bubble interface. Moreover, we examine the effects of the mean flow velocity, the size of the colloids and concentration of the suspension on the dynamics of the armored bubble. The results of this study can potentially be applied to production of particle-encapsulated bubbles, surface-cleaning techniques, and gas-assisted injection molding.

  11. Space or rescue blanket--a bluff?

    PubMed

    Renström, B

    1992-10-01

    A product which has been heavily promoted for a number of years is an aluminized plastic foil designed to reflect 80% of body heat. However, a large body of experience points to the following: 1. A minimal amount of heat is radiated by a clothed body. This can easily be demonstrated with a thermocamera. 2. The plastic foils is impermeable to both water and water vapour. Thus condensation is formed on the blanket's interior. This virtually eliminates the reflective properties of the aluminum foil, often after only 15-20 minutes. 3. The blanket usually works best when the wind velocity is less than 9 m/s, otherwise the wind tears it into pieces. The greater the wind velocity and amount of clothing worn, the less the effect of the blanket. 4. Water accumulation on the clothing inside the blanket rapidly conducts heat from the skin. The blanket and the aluminum then take over and conduct heat 9,300 times faster than air. 5. It is supposed to reflect radar waves. Theoretically yes, but practical tests made in lifeboats at sea have showed that it gives no help. 6. The plastic film is inflammable.

  12. Annular seed-blanket thorium fuel core concepts for heavy water moderated reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, B.P.; Hyland, B.

    2013-07-01

    New reactor concepts to implement thorium-based fuel cycles have been explored to achieve maximum resource utilization. Pressure tube heavy water reactors (PT-HWR) are highly advantageous for implementing the use of thorium-based fuels because of their high neutron economy and on-line re-fuelling capability. The use of heterogeneous seed-blanket core concepts in a PT-HWR where higher-fissile-content seed fuel bundles are physically separate from lower-fissile-content blanket bundles allows more flexibility and control in fuel management to maximize the fissile utilization and conversion of fertile fuel. The lattice concept chosen is a 35-element bundle made with a homogeneous mixture of reactor grade Pu and Th, and with a central zirconia rod to help reduce coolant void reactivity. Several annular heterogeneous seed-blanket core concepts with plutonium-thorium-based fuels in a 700-MWe-class PT-HWR were analyzed, using a once-through thorium (OTT) cycle. Different combinations of seed and blanket fuel were tested to determine the impact on core-average burnup, fissile utilization, power distributions, and other performance parameters. It was found that the various core concepts can achieve a fissile utilization that is up to 30% higher than is currently achieved in a PT-HWR using conventional natural uranium fuel bundles. Up to 67% of the Pu is consumed; up to 43% of the energy is produced from thorium, and up to 363 kg/year of U-233 is produced. Seed-blanket cores with ∼50% content of low-power blanket bundles may require power de-rating (∼58% to 65%) to avoid exceeding maximum limits for peak channel power, bundle power and linear element ratings. (authors)

  13. Stability Thresholds and Performance Standards for Flexible Lining Materials in Channel and Slope Restoration Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    riprap, concrete ), soft or light armoring (e.g., erosion control blankets, ECBs, an early type of so-called rolled erosion control product, reinforced ...slope stabilization. In some applications, reinforced vegetative covers can be used in lieu of rock riprap, concrete paving, or articulated block or...produced in a roll, natural or synthetic, degradable or non-degradable, short- or long-term USEPA, ASTM, ECTC Turf reinforcement mat TRM A type of

  14. Thermally distinct ejecta blankets from Martian craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, B. H.; Murray, B. C.

    1993-06-01

    A study of Martian ejecta blankets is carried out using the high-resolution thermal IR/visible data from the Termoskan instrument aboard Phobos '88 mission. It is found that approximately 100 craters within the Termoskan data have an ejecta blanket distinct in the thermal infrared (EDITH). These features are examined by (1) a systematic examination of all Termoskan data using high-resolution image processing; (2) a study of the systematics of the data by compiling and analyzing a data base consisting of geographic, geologic, and mormphologic parameters for a significant fraction of the EDITH and nearby non-EDITH; and (3) qualitative and quantitative analyses of localized regions of interest. It is noted that thermally distinct ejecta blankets are excellent locations for future landers and remote sensing because of relatively dust-free surface exposures of material excavated from depth.

  15. The requirements for processing tritium recovered from liquid lithium blankets: The blanket interface

    SciTech Connect

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Greenwood, L.R.; Grimm, T.L.; Sze, D.K.; Bartlit, J.R.; Anderson, J.L.; Yoshida, H.; Naruse

    1988-03-01

    We have initiated a study to define a blanket processing mockup for Tritium Systems Test Assembly. Initial evaluation of the requirements of the blanket processing system have been started. The first step of the work is to define the condition of the gaseous tritium stream from the blanket tritium recovery system. This report summarizes this part of the work for one particular blanket concept, i.e., a self-cooled lithium blanket. The total gas throughput, the hydrogen to tritium ratio, the corrosive chemicals, and the radionuclides are defined. The key discoveries are: the throughput of the blanket gas stream (including the helium carrier gas) is about two orders of magnitude higher than the plasma exhaust stream;the protium to tritium ratio is about 1, the deuterium to tritium ratio is about 0.003;the corrosion chemicals are dominated by halides;the radionuclides are dominated by C-14, P-32, and S-35;their is high level of nitrogen contamination in the blanket stream. 77 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs.

  16. Flute stabilization by a cold line-tied blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, D.; Wickham, M.; Rynn, N.

    1982-09-01

    The curvature-driven flute instability in an axisymmetric mirror was stabilized by an annular line-tied plasma blanket. A significant temperature difference was maintained between core and blanket. Theoretical calculations support the experimental observations.

  17. Future Armor Tiles MIL-STD-166O Tests.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center (DAC), Validation Engineering Division, was tasked by DAC to conduct MIL- STD -1660 tests on armor tile...containers on a wooden pallet. This report contains test results with the armor tile containers on a wooden pallet meeting MIL- STD -1660, Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads, requirements.

  18. 75 FR 25208 - Announcement of Body Armor Research Needs Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ...-day High Strength Fiber and Body Armor Research Needs Meeting. The Meeting will provide a forum to... the examination of such issues as material longevity, new materials, and improved testing.... Presentations on today's challenges in body armor and material longevity research will be given. Among...

  19. 75 FR 51482 - Woven Electric Blankets From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... COMMISSION Woven Electric Blankets From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... United States is materially injured by reason of imports from China of woven electric blankets, provided... woven electric blankets from China were being sold at LTFV within the meaning of section 733(b) of...

  20. Drugs: blanket ban or harm reduction?

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2015-06-29

    As the commercial success of electronic cigarettes offers the opportunity to study harm reduction by replacement therapy, the UK government steers in the opposite direction and plans to expand the 'war on drugs' with a blanket ban on all psychoactive substances. Michael Gross reports.

  1. 18 CFR 157.203 - Blanket certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... issues a notice of the pipeline's filing. If you file a protest, you should include the docket number... ACT Interstate Pipeline Blanket Certificates and Authorization Under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act... 20426. A copy of the protest should be mailed to the pipeline at . If you have any questions...

  2. 18 CFR 157.203 - Blanket certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... issues a notice of the pipeline's filing. If you file a protest, you should include the docket number... ACT Interstate Pipeline Blanket Certificates and Authorization Under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act... 20426. A copy of the protest should be mailed to the pipeline at . If you have any questions...

  3. Aerogel Blanket Insulation Materials for Cryogenic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffman, B. E.; Fesmire, J. E.; White, S.; Gould, G.; Augustynowicz, S.

    2009-01-01

    Aerogel blanket materials for use in thermal insulation systems are now commercially available and implemented by industry. Prototype aerogel blanket materials were presented at the Cryogenic Engineering Conference in 1997 and by 2004 had progressed to full commercial production by Aspen Aerogels. Today, this new technology material is providing superior energy efficiencies and enabling new design approaches for more cost effective cryogenic systems. Aerogel processing technology and methods are continuing to improve, offering a tailor-able array of product formulations for many different thermal and environmental requirements. Many different varieties and combinations of aerogel blankets have been characterized using insulation test cryostats at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. Detailed thermal conductivity data for a select group of materials are presented for engineering use. Heat transfer evaluations for the entire vacuum pressure range, including ambient conditions, are given. Examples of current cryogenic applications of aerogel blanket insulation are also given. KEYWORDS: Cryogenic tanks, thermal insulation, composite materials, aerogel, thermal conductivity, liquid nitrogen boil-off

  4. 47 CFR 22.353 - Blanketing interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of responsibility is that area in the immediate vicinity of the transmitting antenna of stations... consideration of the antenna's vertical radiation pattern or height, must be used in the formula. (c) Licensees are not required to resolve blanketing interference to mobile receivers or non-RF devices...

  5. 47 CFR 22.353 - Blanketing interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of responsibility is that area in the immediate vicinity of the transmitting antenna of stations... consideration of the antenna's vertical radiation pattern or height, must be used in the formula. (c) Licensees are not required to resolve blanketing interference to mobile receivers or non-RF devices...

  6. 47 CFR 22.353 - Blanketing interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of responsibility is that area in the immediate vicinity of the transmitting antenna of stations... consideration of the antenna's vertical radiation pattern or height, must be used in the formula. (c) Licensees are not required to resolve blanketing interference to mobile receivers or non-RF devices...

  7. 47 CFR 22.353 - Blanketing interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of responsibility is that area in the immediate vicinity of the transmitting antenna of stations... consideration of the antenna's vertical radiation pattern or height, must be used in the formula. (c) Licensees are not required to resolve blanketing interference to mobile receivers or non-RF devices...

  8. 47 CFR 22.353 - Blanketing interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of responsibility is that area in the immediate vicinity of the transmitting antenna of stations... consideration of the antenna's vertical radiation pattern or height, must be used in the formula. (c) Licensees are not required to resolve blanketing interference to mobile receivers or non-RF devices...

  9. The climatic impact of supervolcanic ash blankets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. T.; Sparks, S. J.; Valdes, P. J.

    2006-12-01

    Supervolcanoes are capable of ejecting 1000's of cubic kilometres of magmatic material in a single eruption, far surpassing anything recorded in human history. It has been postulated that these eruptions have acted as catalysts for long-term climate change and are responsible for bottlenecks in human and animal populations. Tephra deposits from a super-eruption are capable of covering an area the size of USA (~10,000,000 sq. km) with ash, destroying vegetation and considerably raising the surface albedo. Ecological responses to smaller eruptions show that recovery of flora takes over 15 years, while previous studies of ash blankets demonstrate sustained surface residence times. This suggests that a supervolcanic ash blanket would instigate a decadal climate response that would dominate in the aftermath of the effects of aerosols in the stratosphere. We use a coupled atmosphere-ocean General Circulation Model (GCM) to simulate the effect of an ash blanket from Yellowstone volcano, USA, and show that it causes major disruptions to the climate, particularly to oscillatory systems such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The regional disturbance instigates a global response, with significant variations in surface temperatures, pressures and precipitation patterns. The ocean remains largely unaffected, though a marked increase in sea ice is seen in the North Atlantic. While the response to a supervolcanic ash blanket is predicted to be severe, the isolated effects of the disturbance are not significant enough to instigate long-term climate change at present day boundary conditions.

  10. In plain sight: the Chesapeake Bay crater ejecta blanket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griscom, D. L.

    2012-02-01

    idealized calculation of the CBIS ejecta-blanket elevation profile minutes after the impact was carried out founded on well established rules for explosion and impact-generated craters. This profile is shown here to match the volume of the upland deposits ≥170 km from the crater center. Closer to the crater, much of the "postdicted" ejecta blanket has clearly been removed by erosion. Nevertheless the Shirley and fossil-free Bacons Castle Formations, located between the upland deposits and the CBIS interior and veneering the present day surface with units ∼10-20 m deep, are respectively identified as curtain- and excavation-phase ejecta. The neritic-fossil-bearing Calvert Formation external to the crater is deduced to be of Eocene age (as opposed to early Miocene as currently believed), preserved by the armoring effects of the overlying CBIS ejecta composed of the (distal) upland deposits and the (proximal) Bacons Castle Formation. The lithofacies of the in-crater Calvert Formation can only have resulted from inward mass wasting of the postdicted ejecta blanket, vestiges of which (i.e. the Bacons Castle and Shirley Formations) still overlap the crater rim and sag into its interior, consistent with this expectation. Because there appear to be a total of ∼10 000 km2 of CBIS ejecta lying on the present-day surface, future research should center the stratigraphic, lithologic, and petrologic properties of these ejecta versus both radial distance from the crater center (to identify ejecta from different ejection stages) and circumferentially at fixed radial distances (to detect possible anisotropies relating the impact angle and direction of approach of the impactor). The geological units described here may comprise the best preserved, and certainly the most accessible, ejecta blanket of a major crater on the Earth's surface and therefore promise to be a boon to the field of impact geology. As a corollary, a major revision of the current stratigraphic column of the M

  11. Research Investigation of Armor Plate Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1942-02-20

    location at which the ballistic limits were determined. Ballistic limits and average hardness values from the 16 duplicate plates are given in Table 10 ...OF ARMOR PLATE STEELS Plate Nuzuber %C %.Mn %Si %Ni. %Cr %Mo %cu *7111 .46 1.58 .20 . 10 /.20 7276 .50 1.07 .3o 7277 .39 .35 .23 7278 .47 .91 .26 7279...26 2.3/2.7 7328 .34 .89 .20 1.3/1.7 .35/.46 * 7329 .34 .88 .25 1.3/1.7 10 /.20 7330 .46 .86 .24 .25/.35 : 10 /.20 734 .46 .84 .29 W 5. 35 7341 .34 .94

  12. Shaft mines can get power without armor

    SciTech Connect

    Brezovec, D.

    1984-02-01

    A Pennsylvania coal operator has been able to install neoprene jacketed mine power feeder (MPF) cable in an airshaft without the use of expensive armored power cables. Armored cables traditionally have been favored in applications where the cable is dropped vertically because their galvanized metal shielding protects the cable as it is dragged across rough ground and stretched by its own weight as it is lowered into the hole. But armored cable poses some problems. It is as much as $20 per foot more expensive than MPF cable. Also, sinking armored cables is particularly difficult when space is limited because the cable must be laid out on the ground before it is lowered into the hole. The technique that allowed Pennsylvania Mines Corp. to install two 750-ft-long, 15-kv cables at is 400,000-tpy Tunnelton mine, near New Alexandria, Pa., was devised by J.H. Service Co.'s Indianola, Pa., branch office. The method involves feeding MPF cable from a spool on a truck equipped with special braking devices, over a steel drum that acts as a sheave, directly into a mine shaft or borehole. Robert C. Kadyk, a sales manager with J.H. Service, says that while this is not the first time standard MPF cable has been used in a borehole or shaft, the cables are not usually used in these cases because there were no dependable methods for holding the cable steady as it was lowered into the hole to keep it from abrading against the sides of the borehole or shaft. Also, dragging MPF cable through the woods invariably damages it. With its cable sinking method, J.H. Service vulcanizes stainless steel kellems grips into the cable about every 100 ft. The interval varies with the weight and diameter of the cable, depth of the hole, and length of the kellems grip. One twisted steel messenger wire is attached to each kellems grip to displace the weight of the cable as it takes its trip to the mine floor.

  13. Effectiveness of eye armor during blast loading.

    PubMed

    Bailoor, Shantanu; Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Nguyen, Thao D

    2015-11-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the most common types of combat injuries resulting from the interaction of military personnel with improvised explosive devices. Ocular blast injury mechanisms are complex, and trauma may occur through various injury mechanisms. However, primary blast injuries (PBI) are an important cause of ocular trauma that may go unnoticed and result in significant damage to internal ocular tissues and visual impairment. Further, the effectiveness of commonly employed eye armor, designed for ballistic and laser protection, in lessening the severity of adverse blast overpressures (BOP) is unknown. In this paper, we employed a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction computational model for assessing effectiveness of the eye armor during blast loading on human eyes and validated results against free field blast measurements by Bentz and Grimm (2013). Numerical simulations show that the blast waves focused on the ocular region because of reflections from surrounding facial features and resulted in considerable increase in BOP. We evaluated the effectiveness of spectacles and goggles in mitigating the pressure loading using the computational model. Our results corroborate experimental measurements showing that the goggles were more effective than spectacles in mitigating BOP loading on the eye. Numerical results confirmed that the goggles significantly reduced blast wave penetration in the space between the armor and the eyes and provided larger clearance space for blast wave expansion after penetration than the spectacles. The spectacles as well as the goggles were more effective in reducing reflected BOP at higher charge mass because of the larger decrease in dynamic pressures after the impact. The goggles provided greater benefit of reducing the peak pressure than the spectacles for lower charge mass. However, the goggles resulted in moderate, sustained elevated pressure loading on the eye, that became 50-100% larger than the pressure loading

  14. A blanket design, apparatus, and fabrication techniques for the mass production of multilayer insulation blankets for the Superconducting Super Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Gonczy, J.D.; Boroski, W.N.; Niemann, R.C.; Otavka, J.G.; Ruschman, M.K.; Schoo, C.J.

    1989-09-01

    The multilayer insulation (MLI) system for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) consists of full cryostat length assemblies of aluminized polyester film fabricated in the form of blankets and installed as blankets to the 4.5K cold mass and the 20K and 80K thermal radiation shields. Approximately 40,000 MLI blankets will be required in the 10,000 cryogenic devices comprising the SSC accelerator. Each blanket is nearly 17 meters long and 1.8 meters wide. This paper reports the blanket design, an apparatus, and the fabrication method used to mass produce pre-fabricated MLI blankets. Incorporated in the blanket design are techniques which automate quality control during installation of the MLI blankets in the SSC cryostat. The apparatus and blanket fabrication method insure consistency in the mass produced blankets by providing positive control of the dimensional parameters which contribute to the thermal performance of the MLI blanket. By virtue of the fabrication process, the MLI blankets have inherent features of dimensional stability three-dimensional uniformity, controlled layer density, layer-to-layer registration, interlayer cleanliness, and interlayer material to accommodate thermal contraction differences. 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Character shifts in the defensive armor of sympatric sticklebacks.

    PubMed

    Vamosi, Steven M; Schluter, Dolph

    2004-02-01

    Natural enemies may contribute to the morphological divergence of sympatric species, yet their role has received little attention to date. We tested for character shifts in defensive armor of sympatric threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus complex) previously shown to exhibit ecological character displacement in traits related to resource use. We scored five defensive armor traits in sympatric benthic and limnetic stickleback species from southwestern British Columbia and compared them with the same traits in nearby allopatric populations in the presence of the same predatory fish (Oncorhynchus sp.). This approach is analogous to tests of ecological character displacement that compare trophic traits of sympatric and allopatric species in the presence of the same community of resource types. Three patterns consistent with character displacement in defensive armor were found. First, limnetics in different lakes had consistently more armor than sympatric benthics. Second, the average amount of armor, averaged over both species, was reduced in sympatry compared to allopatric populations. This reduction was almost entirely the result of shifts by benthic species, whereas armor in limnetics was more similar to that in allopatric populations. Third, differences between sympatric benthics and limnetics in total armor were greater than expected from comparisons with allopatric populations. We interpret these patterns as the result of differences in habitat-specific predation regimes accompanying ecological character displacement and indirect interactions between sympatric stickleback species mediated by their top predators. These results suggest that predation may facilitate, rather than hinder, the process of divergence in sympatry.

  16. Checkerboard seed-blanket thorium fuel core concepts for heavy water moderated reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, B.P.; Hyland, B.

    2013-07-01

    New reactor concepts to implement thorium-based fuel cycles have been explored to achieve maximum resource utilization. Pressure tube heavy water reactors (PT-HWR) are highly advantageous for implementing the use of thorium-based fuels because of their high neutron economy and on-line re-fuelling capability. The use of heterogeneous seed-blanket core concepts in a PT-HWR where higher-fissile-content seed fuel bundles are physically separate from lower-fissile-content blanket bundles allows more flexibility and control in fuel management to maximize the fissile utilization and conversion of fertile fuel. The lattice concept chosen was a 35-element bundle made with a homogeneous mixture of reactor grade Pu (about 67 wt% fissile) and Th, and with a central zirconia rod to help reduce coolant void reactivity. Several checkerboard heterogeneous seed-blanket core concepts with plutonium-thorium-based fuels in a 700-MWe-class PT-HWR were analyzed, using a once-through thorium (OTT) cycle. Different combinations of seed and blanket fuel were tested to determine the impact on core-average burnup, fissile utilization, power distributions, and other performance parameters. It was found that various checkerboard core concepts can achieve a fissile utilization that is up to 26% higher than that achieved in a PT-HWR using more conventional natural uranium fuel bundles. Up to 60% of the Pu is consumed; up to 43% of the energy is produced from thorium, and up to 303 kg/year of Pa-233/U-233/U-235 are produced. Checkerboard cores with about 50% of low-power blanket bundles may require power de-rating (65% to 74%) to avoid exceeding maximum limits for channel and bundle powers and linear element ratings. (authors)

  17. Detection of Breeding Blankets Using Antineutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogswell, Bernadette; Huber, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    The Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement between the United States and Russia makes arrangements for the disposal of 34 metric tons of excess weapon-grade plutonium. Under this agreement Russia plans to dispose of its excess stocks by processing the plutonium into fuel for fast breeder reactors. To meet the disposition requirements this fuel would be burned while the fast reactors are run as burners, i.e., without a natural uranium blanket that can be used to breed plutonium surrounding the core. This talk discusses the potential application of antineutrino monitoring to the verification of the presence or absence of a breeding blanket. It is found that a 36 kg antineutrino detector, exploiting coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering and made of silicon, could determine the presence of a breeding blanket at a liquid sodium cooled fast reactor at the 95% confidence level within 90 days. Such a detector would be a novel non-intrusive verification tool and could present a first application of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering to a real-world challenge.

  18. Ceramic pebble bed development for fusion blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Gierszewski, P.; Kawamura, H.; Donne, M.D.

    1994-12-31

    Research on lithium ceramic breeders has been intensive since the late 1970`s. The bulk material properties of several candidate lithium ceramics are generally available, although there is still much work to be done on properties under irradiation and on overall behavior in blanket modules. Based on these results, lithium ceramic breeders have been selected in many fusion design studies. These lithium ceramics are incorporated into blankets typically as monolithic pellets of packed pebble beds. There is substantial industrial experience with pebble beds made from other ceramics, notably in chemical processes as catalyst supports and grinding media, and in advanced fission reactor fuels. In fusion blankets, the pebble bed form offers several attractive features, including simpler assembly into complex geometry, uniform pore network, and low sensitivity to cracking or irradiation damage. Ceramic breeder pebbles have been a focus for several research groups. In general, the database is similar to that of monolithic pellets for the materials studied: basic production and material property data are available, but the irradiation and engineering database remains sparse.

  19. Design of the APT Target/Blanket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappiello, M. W.

    1998-04-01

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium Target/Blanket system is composed of a separated tungsten spallation target surrounded by a lead moderator, as well as attendant heat removal systems. The system is housed in a building located at the end of a 1.3 km long linear accelerator, which can produce a 100 mA proton beam up to 1700 MeV (170MW). The beam is expanded by a rastering system to a 0.19m x 190.m shape before passing through an Inconel window and impacting the heavy-water cooled tungsten target. Neutrons produced in the tungsten by the spallation process are further multiplied and moderated in a surrounding light-water cooled lead blanket. Neutron capture in tubes of Helium-3 gas inserted in the blanket produce tritium which is removed on a continual basis in an adjacent Tritium Separation Facility (TSF). The APT T/B is a robust design based on existing technology. Where possible, proven materials and component designs are used. To accommodate uncertainties in predicted lifetimes, the design is modularized to allow for a straightforward replacement of spent components. The thermal hydraulic design is well within allowable limits and due to the low temperature and pressure systems, offers additional safety and reliability benefits. The safety by design process has incorporated passive design features, redundancy, and defense in depth to provide adequate protection of both the worker and the public.

  20. Design of armor for protection against blast and impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimzadeh, Tanaz; Arruda, Ellen M.; Thouless, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    The features of blast and impact that can damage a delicate target supported by a structure include both the peak pressure and the impulse delivered to the structure. This study examines how layers of elastic and visco-elastic materials may be assembled to mitigate these features. The impedance mismatch between two elastic layers is known to reduce the pressure, but dissipation is required to mitigate the transmitted impulse in light-weight armor. A novel design concept called impact or blast tuning is introduced in which a multi-layered armor is used to tune the stress waves resulting from an impact or blast to specific frequencies that match the damping frequencies of visco-elastic layers. The material and geometrical parameters controlling the viscous dissipation of the energy within the armor are identified for a simplified one-dimensional system, to provide insight into how the optimal design of multi-use armor might be based on this concept.

  1. OPTIMIZING TRANSPARENT ARMOR DESIGN SUBJECT TO PROJECTILE IMPACT CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xin; Lai, Canhai; Gorsich, Tara; Templeton, Douglas W.

    2009-03-01

    Design and manufacturing of transparent armor have been historically carried out using experimental approaches. In this study, we use advanced computational modeling tools to perform virtual design evaluations of transparent armor systems under different projectile impact conditions. AHPCRC developed modeling software EPIC’06 [1] is used in predicting the penetration resistance of transparent armor systems. LaGrangian-based finite element analyses combined with particle dynamics are used to simulate the damage initiation and propagation process for the armor system under impact conditions. It is found that a 1-parameter single state model can be used to predict the impact penetration depth with relatively good accuracy, suggesting that the finely comminuted glass particles follow the behavior similar to a viscous fluid. Even though the intact strength of borosilicate and soda lime glass are different, the same fractured strength can be used for both glasses to capture the penetration depth.

  2. Armor systems including coated core materials

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry S [Idaho Falls, ID; Lillo, Thomas M [Idaho Falls, ID; McHugh, Kevin M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-07-31

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  3. Armor systems including coated core materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Henry S; Lillo, Thomas M; McHugh, Kevin M

    2013-10-08

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  4. Human Factors Assessment: M9 Armored Combat Earthmover (ACE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    Occasionally, M9s over- heated during continued road marches with armor units. Additional radiator water was needed. Food During the FTX the M9s...traveled with armored units and ahead of engineer support units. Operators were not supplied with hot or cold food . Five gal. cans of hydraulic During...brake on the winch. 2. The winch had to be inoving in order to shift gears. 3. The winch capacity is only 30,000 lbs, while the vehicle weighs

  5. Penetration Resistance of Armor Ceramics: Dimensional Analysis and Property Correlations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    validation experiments can be organized and compared. 15. SUBJECT TERMS ceramics, terminal ballistics, armor, dimensional analysis 16. SECURITY... Terminal ballistics Armor Dimensional analysis* Impact Physics RDRL-WMP-C, US Army Research L Ground, MD 21005-5066, USA. Tel.: þ1 410 278 6146 E-mail...shock properties of ce- ramics. Adv Appl Ceram 2010;109:446e66. [2] Rosenberg Z, Dekel E. Terminal ballistics. Berlin: Springer; 2012. [3] Kaufmann C

  6. Locating and quantifying ceramic body armor impact forces on a compliant torso using acceleration mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardi, Adam A.; Adams, Douglas E.; Walsh, Shawn

    2006-03-01

    This research experimentally implements a new method to identify the location and magnitude of a single impulsive excitation to ceramic body armor, which is supported on a compliant torso. The method could easily be extended to other flexibly supported components that undergo rigid body dynamics. Impact loads are identified in two steps. First, the location of the impact force is determined from time domain acceleration responses by comparing them to an array of reference acceleration time histories. Then based on the estimated location, reference frequency response functions are used to reconstruct the input force in the frequency domain through a least squares inverse problem. Experimental results demonstrate the validity of this method at both low energy excitations, which are produced by a medium modally-tuned impact hammer, and at high energy excitations, which are produced by dropping rods with masses up to 0.6 kilograms from a height of 2 meters. The maximum error in the estimated location or magnitude for the low energy excitations on the 10 cm square ceramic body armor was 7.07 mm with an average error of 1.09 mm. In comparing the estimated force for the low energy excitations to the force recorded by the transducer in the modal impact hammer, the maximum error in the predicted force amplitude was 6.78 percent and the maximum error in the predicted impulse was 6.44 percent. For the high energy excitations, which produced accelerations at the measurement locations up to 50 times greater than that of the low energy excitations, the maximum error in the predicted location of the input force was 15 mm with an average error of 6.64 mm. There was no force transducer to capture the input force on the body armor from the rod, but from non-energy-dissipative projectile motion equations the validity of the solutions was confirmed by comparing the impulses.

  7. High power density self-cooled lithium-vanadium blanket.

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Majumdar, S.; Smith, D.

    1999-07-01

    A self-cooled lithium-vanadium blanket concept capable of operating with 2 MW/m{sup 2} surface heat flux and 10 MW/m{sup 2} neutron wall loading has been developed. The blanket has liquid lithium as the tritium breeder and the coolant to alleviate issues of coolant breeder compatibility and reactivity. Vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti) is used as the structural material because it can accommodate high heat loads. Also, it has good mechanical properties at high temperatures, high neutron fluence capability, low degradation under neutron irradiation, good compatibility with the blanket materials, low decay heat, low waste disposal rating, and adequate strength to accommodate the electromagnetic loads during plasma disruption events. Self-healing electrical insulator (CaO) is utilized to reduce the MHD pressure drop. A poloidal coolant flow with high velocity at the first wall is used to reduce the peak temperature of the vanadium structure and to accommodate high surface heat flux. The blanket has a simple blanket configuration and low coolant pressure to reduce the fabrication cost, to improve the blanket reliability, and to increase confidence in the blanket performance. Spectral shifter, moderator, and reflector are utilized to improve the blanket shielding capability and energy multiplication, and to reduce the radial blanket thickness. Natural lithium is used to avoid extra cost related to the lithium enrichment process.

  8. Structure and mechanical behaviors of protective armored pangolin scales and effects of hydration and orientation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Q; Jiao, D; Weng, Z Y; Zhang, Z F

    2016-03-01

    As natural flexible dermal armor, pangolin scales provide effective protection against predatory threats and possess other notable properties such as anti-adhesion and wear-resistance. In this study, the structure, mechanical properties, deformation and damage behaviors of pangolin scales were systematically investigated with the effects of hydration and orientation evaluated. The scales are divided into three macro-layers constituted by overlapping keratin tiles with distinct lamellar arrangements which are further composed of lower-ordered lamellae. Both hardness and strength are significantly decreased by hydration; while the plasticity is markedly improved concomitantly, and as such, the mechanical damages are mitigated. The tensile strength invariably approximates to one third of hardness in value. The tensile deformation is dominated by lamellae stretching and pulling out under wet condition, which is distinct from the trans-lamellar fracture in dry samples. The compressive behaviors are featured by pronounced plasticity in both dry and wet scales; and notable strain-hardening capacity is introduced by hydration, especially along the thickness direction wherein kinking occurs. Inter-lamellar cracking is effectively alleviated in wet samples compared with the dry ones and both of them deform by macroscopic buckling. This study may help stimulate possible inspiration for the design of high-performance synthetic armor materials by mimicking pangolin scales.

  9. ITER solid breeder blanket materials database

    SciTech Connect

    Billone, M.C.; Dienst, W.; Flament, T.; Lorenzetto, P.; Noda, K.; Roux, N.

    1993-11-01

    The databases for solid breeder ceramics (Li{sub 2},O, Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} and LiAlO{sub 2}) and beryllium multiplier material are critically reviewed and evaluated. Emphasis is placed on physical, thermal, mechanical, chemical stability/compatibility, tritium, and radiation stability properties which are needed to assess the performance of these materials in a fusion reactor environment. Correlations are selected for design analysis and compared to the database. Areas for future research and development in blanket materials technology are highlighted and prioritized.

  10. Isotope production in fast reactor blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Zvonarev, A.V.; Koloskov, B.V.; Kochetkov, L.A.

    1993-12-31

    At the BR-10 research reactor radioactive isotopes are produced that are required for the production of radiopharmaceuticals and phosphor 32 used for the synthesis of biochemical labelled compounds. A procedure has been developed of uranium target irradiation followed by radiochemical processing aimed at isotope isolation of molybdenum 99, xenon 133 and iodine 131,132,and 133 isotopes mixture. Irradiation is carried out in a special channel of the radial blanket. The production of cobalt 60 at the BN-600 reactor and facilities are also described.

  11. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Armored Scales (Insects: Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper identification of armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare armored scales specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collect...

  12. The Army’s Armored Multi-Purpose Vehicle (AMPV): Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-24

    purpose vehicles, mortar carriers, and medical treatment and evacuation vehicles. An estimated 3,000 of these M-113 variants are currently in...transportable, armored multi-purpose vehicle family intended to provide a lightweight , amphibious armored personnel carrier for armor and mechanized infantry...a number of different variations of the M-113 were produced to fulfill such roles as a command and control vehicle, mortar carrier, and armored

  13. Development of blanket box structure fabrication technology

    SciTech Connect

    Mohri, K.; Sata, S.; Kawaguchi, I.

    1994-12-31

    Fabrication studies have been performed for first wall and blanket box structure in the Fusion Experimental Reactor designed in Japan. The first wall must have internal cooling channels to remove volumetric heat loading by neutron wall load and surface heat loading from the plasma. The blanket which is higher than 10 m and 1 m wide withstands enormous electromagnetic load (about 10 MN/m). And a fabrication accuracy is required in the order of 10 mm from the machine configuration and remote assembling standpoints. To make cooling channels inside the first wall and to reduce the deformation during fabrication, the authors adopted advance techniques Hot Isostatic Pressing method (HIP) and Electron Beam Welding (EBW) respectively. Evaluation studies for the bondability of the HIP bonding joint have been performed. To evaluate the bondability, the mechanical properties such as tensile strength, impact value, low cycle fatigue strength and creep strength of the bonded part were investigated using HIP bonded test specimens. And the detectability of ultrasonic detection tests were also studied on them.

  14. 75 FR 11557 - Woven Electric Blankets From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... COMMISSION Woven Electric Blankets From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... industry in the United States is materially retarded, by reason of less-than-fair-value imports from China... Commerce that imports of woven electric blankets from the People's Republic of China are being sold in...

  15. US blanket technology programs. [Directory of current research

    SciTech Connect

    Nygren, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental research in US programs related to blanket technology is described through brief summaries of the objectives, facilities, recent experimental results and principal investigators for the Blanket Technology Program, TRIO-1 Experiment, TSTA, Fusion Hybrid Program and selected activities in the Fusion Materials and Fusion Safety Programs in neutronics research.

  16. 18 CFR 284.402 - Blanket marketing certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blanket marketing certificates. 284.402 Section 284.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Sales for Resale by Non-interstate Pipelines § 284.402 Blanket...

  17. 18 CFR 284.402 - Blanket marketing certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blanket marketing certificates. 284.402 Section 284.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Sales for Resale by Non-interstate Pipelines § 284.402 Blanket...

  18. 18 CFR 284.402 - Blanket marketing certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blanket marketing certificates. 284.402 Section 284.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Sales for Resale by Non-interstate Pipelines § 284.402 Blanket...

  19. 18 CFR 284.402 - Blanket marketing certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blanket marketing certificates. 284.402 Section 284.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Sales for Resale by Non-interstate Pipelines § 284.402 Blanket...

  20. Security Blanket or Mother: Which Benefits Linus during Pediatric Examinations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ybarra, Gabriel; Passman, Richard H.; Eisenberg, Carl S. L.

    This study compared the degree to which young children were placated during a standard medical evaluation by the presence of their mother, blanket, mother plus blanket, or no supportive agent. Participating were 64 three-year-olds who underwent 4 routine medical procedures. Children were rated by their mothers as attached or nonattached to…

  1. 18 CFR 284.402 - Blanket marketing certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blanket marketing certificates. 284.402 Section 284.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Sales for Resale by Non-interstate Pipelines § 284.402 Blanket...

  2. Nondestructive characterization of UHMWPE armor materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiou, Chien-Ping; Margetan, Frank J.; Barnard, Daniel J.; Hsu, David K.; Jensen, Terrence; Eisenmann, David

    2012-05-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a material increasingly used for fabricating helmet and body armor. In this work, plate specimens consolidated from thin fiber sheets in series 3124 and 3130 were examined with ultrasound, X-ray and terahertz radiation. Ultrasonic through-transmission scans using both air-coupled and immersion modes revealed that the 3130 series material generally had much lower attenuation than the 3124 series, and that certain 3124 plates had extremely high attenuation. Due to the relatively low inspection frequencies used, pulse-echo immersion ultrasonic testing could not detect distinct flaw echoes from the interior. To characterize the nature of the defective condition that was responsible for the high ultrasonic attenuation, terahertz radiation in the time-domain spectroscopy mode were used to image the flaws. Terahertz scan images obtained on the high attenuation samples clearly showed a distribution of a large number of defects, possibly small planar delaminations, throughout the volume of the interior. Their precise nature and morphology are to be verified by optical microscopy of the sectioned surface.

  3. Nondestructive characterization of UHMWPE armor materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chiou, Chien-Ping; Margetan, Frank J.; Barnard, Daniel J.; Hsu, David K.; Jensen, Terrence; Eisenmann, David

    2012-05-17

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a material increasingly used for fabricating helmet and body armor. In this work, plate specimens consolidated from thin fiber sheets in series 3124 and 3130 were examined with ultrasound, X-ray and terahertz radiation. Ultrasonic through-transmission scans using both air-coupled and immersion modes revealed that the 3130 series material generally had much lower attenuation than the 3124 series, and that certain 3124 plates had extremely high attenuation. Due to the relatively low inspection frequencies used, pulse-echo immersion ultrasonic testing could not detect distinct flaw echoes from the interior. To characterize the nature of the defective condition that was responsible for the high ultrasonic attenuation, terahertz radiation in the time-domain spectroscopy mode were used to image the flaws. Terahertz scan images obtained on the high attenuation samples clearly showed a distribution of a large number of defects, possibly small planar delaminations, throughout the volume of the interior. Their precise nature and morphology are to be verified by optical microscopy of the sectioned surface.

  4. Cardiopulmonary signal sensing from subject wearing body armor.

    PubMed

    Park, Byung-Kwon; Lubecke, Victor; Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Host-Madsen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Continuous wave (CW) Doppler motion sensing radar can detect human physiological signal such as respiration or heart signals at a distance and through barriers. It has been shown that heart rate can be extracted with good accuracy for normally clothed subjects. Such technique could potentially be used to search for survivors in battlefield triage applications. To assess the feasibility of such applications, we investigated Doppler radar of cardiopulmonary signal sensing from subjects wearing body armor vests. This paper presents measurement results of heart signals obtained using CW Doppler radar from a subject wearing body armor vest. Since armor plate reflects most of the RF signal, received signal after reflected from a subject is phase modulated with motion of an armor plate induced by chest motion, rather than directly with chest motion due to cardiopulmonary motion. Two different cases, including supine and seated positions, are chosen for this study, and good sensitivity was obtained in both cases. To the best of author's knowledge, this is the first published result of cardiopulmonary signal detection from a subject wearing a body armor vest.

  5. Large-area ALON windows for reconnaissance and armor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Lee M.; Twedt, Richard; Foti, Robyn; Smith, Mark; Sastri, Suri A.

    2009-05-01

    The demand for large ALON® windows has continued to increase since the material transitioned to Surmet Corporation for commercialization. Two applications which represent opposite ends of the requirements spectrum in terms of required optical performance and cost sensitivity are Reconnaissance windows and transparent armor. Consequently, the approaches to producing large area windows for both applications are quite different. While Recce applications require windows of the highest possible optical quality and stringent refractive index homogeneity across the large aperture sizes of Recce sensors, the optical requirements for transparent armor windows are substantially looser. Furthermore, optical performance is paramount for Recce applications while transparent armor applications are more strongly driven by cost considerations. Surmet has developed processes for producing large (i.e., up to ~17x30-in) ALON® window blanks of extremely high optical quality and refractive index homogeneity, for Recce applications. This material has been optically fabricated into finished windows and characterized for transmitted wavefront and homogeneity. Recent results will be presented. Large area transparent armor windows have been produced using a tiling approach. Since transparent armor laminates consist of multiple layers (i.e., ALON/Glass/Polycarbonate) Smaller ALON® tiles can be face bonded onto the underlying glass and polycarbonate layers to produce very large windows. Excellent ballistic results have been obtained using a tiled configuration. Recent results will be presented.

  6. Toroidal midplane neutral beam armor and plasma limiter

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, Henry W.; Hand Jr, Samuel W.; Ksayian, Haig

    1986-02-04

    For use in a tokamak fusion reactor having a midplane magnetic coil on the inner wall of an evacuated toriodal chamber within which a neutral beam heated, fusing plasma is magnetically confined, a neutral beam armor shield and plasma limiter is provided on the inner wall of the toroidal chamber to shield the midplane coil from neutral beam shine-thru and plasma deposition. The armor shield/plasma limiter forms a semicircular enclosure around the midplane coil with the outer surface of the armor shield/plasma limiter shaped to match, as closely as practical, the inner limiting magnetic flux surface of the toroidally confined, indented, bean-shaped plasma. The armor shield/plasma limiter includes a plurality of semicircular graphite plates each having a pair of coupled upper and lower sections with each plate positioned in intimate contact with an adjacent plate on each side thereof so as to form a closed, planar structure around the entire outer periphery of the circular midplane coil. The upper and lower plate sections are adapted for coupling to heat sensing thermocouples and to a circulating water conduit system for cooling the armor shield/plasma limiter.The inner center portion of each graphite plate is adapted to receive and enclose a section of a circular diagnostic magnetic flux loop so as to minimize the power from the plasma confinement chamber incident upon the flux loop.

  7. Toroidal midplane neutral beam armor and plasma limiter

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, Henry W.; Hand, Jr, Samuel W.; Ksayian, Haig

    1986-01-01

    For use in a tokamak fusion reactor having a midplane magnetic coil on the inner wall of an evacuated toriodal chamber within which a neutral beam heated, fusing plasma is magnetically confined, a neutral beam armor shield and plasma limiter is provided on the inner wall of the toroidal chamber to shield the midplane coil from neutral beam shine-thru and plasma deposition. The armor shield/plasma limiter forms a semicircular enclosure around the midplane coil with the outer surface of the armor shield/plasma limiter shaped to match, as closely as practical, the inner limiting magnetic flux surface of the toroidally confined, indented, bean-shaped plasma. The armor shield/plasma limiter includes a plurality of semicircular graphite plates each having a pair of coupled upper and lower sections with each plate positioned in intimate contact with an adjacent plate on each side thereof so as to form a closed, planar structure around the entire outer periphery of the circular midplane coil. The upper and lower plate sections are adapted for coupling to heat sensing thermocouples and to a circulating water conduit system for cooling the armor shield/plasma limiter.The inner center portion of each graphite plate is adapted to receive and enclose a section of a circular diagnostic magnetic flux loop so as to minimize the power from the plasma confinement chamber incident upon the flux loop.

  8. Numerical simulation of armor capability of AI2O3 and SiC armor tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, T.; Aleem, M. A.; Akbar, S.; Rauf, A.; Shuaib, M.

    2016-08-01

    Alumina and Silicon Carbide armor plates have been tested numerically against 7.62x51 (mm x mm) armor piercing (AP) projectiles. A 2-D problem with axial symmetry has been designedand the simulations were carried out using commercial software ANSYS AUTODYN. Experiments were modeled for Alumina (99.5%), Alumina (99.7%) and SiC with a range of tile thicknesses (5, 10, 15 and 20 mm). The projectile was chosen as 7.62 x 51AP bullet (initial velocity 810 m/sec)with two different core materials Steel 4340 and WC, however, casing material was copper for both cores. SiC showed better defense against AP bullet as compared to Al2O3. The residual velocity and momentum of the bullet were found to decrease with increasing tile thickness. SiC tiles with thickness 15mm and 20 mm successfully sustained penetration against steel 4340 and WC core bullets, respectively. However none of the Alumina targets succeeded in stopping the bullet.

  9. 27 CFR 478.148 - Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Armor piercing ammunition... AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.148 Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes. The Director may exempt certain armor...

  10. 27 CFR 478.37 - Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and sale of armor piercing ammunition. 478.37 Section 478.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms..., importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition. No person shall manufacture or import, and no manufacturer or importer shall sell or deliver, armor piercing ammunition, except: (a) The manufacture...

  11. 27 CFR 478.37 - Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and sale of armor piercing ammunition. 478.37 Section 478.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms..., importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition. No person shall manufacture or import, and no manufacturer or importer shall sell or deliver, armor piercing ammunition, except: (a) The manufacture...

  12. 27 CFR 478.148 - Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Armor piercing ammunition... AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.148 Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes. The Director may exempt certain armor...

  13. 27 CFR 478.37 - Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and sale of armor piercing ammunition. 478.37 Section 478.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms..., importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition. No person shall manufacture or import, and no manufacturer or importer shall sell or deliver, armor piercing ammunition, except: (a) The manufacture...

  14. 27 CFR 478.148 - Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Armor piercing ammunition... AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.148 Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes. The Director may exempt certain armor...

  15. 27 CFR 478.148 - Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Armor piercing ammunition... AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.148 Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes. The Director may exempt certain armor...

  16. 27 CFR 478.37 - Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and sale of armor piercing ammunition. 478.37 Section 478.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms..., importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition. No person shall manufacture or import, and no manufacturer or importer shall sell or deliver, armor piercing ammunition, except: (a) The manufacture...

  17. 27 CFR 478.37 - Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and sale of armor piercing ammunition. 478.37 Section 478.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms..., importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition. No person shall manufacture or import, and no manufacturer or importer shall sell or deliver, armor piercing ammunition, except: (a) The manufacture...

  18. 27 CFR 478.148 - Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Armor piercing ammunition... AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.148 Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes. The Director may exempt certain armor...

  19. 48 CFR 252.225-7030 - Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. 252.225-7030 Section 252.225-7030 Federal Acquisition... Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. As prescribed in 225.7011-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate (DEC 2006) (a) Carbon, alloy, and...

  20. 48 CFR 252.225-7030 - Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. 252.225-7030 Section 252.225-7030 Federal Acquisition... Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. As prescribed in 225.7011-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate (DEC 2006) (a) Carbon, alloy, and...

  1. 48 CFR 252.225-7030 - Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. 252.225-7030 Section 252.225-7030 Federal Acquisition... Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. As prescribed in 225.7011-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate (DEC 2006) (a) Carbon, alloy, and...

  2. 48 CFR 252.225-7030 - Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. 252.225-7030 Section 252.225-7030 Federal Acquisition... Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. As prescribed in 225.7011-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate (DEC 2006) (a) Carbon, alloy, and...

  3. 48 CFR 252.225-7030 - Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. 252.225-7030 Section 252.225-7030 Federal Acquisition... Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. As prescribed in 225.7011-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate (DEC 2006) (a) Carbon, alloy, and...

  4. 7 CFR 1755.406 - Shield or armor ground resistance measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shield or armor ground resistance measurements. 1755... MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.406 Shield or armor ground resistance measurements. (a) Shield or armor ground resistance measurements shall be made on completed lengths of copper cable and...

  5. 7 CFR 1755.406 - Shield or armor ground resistance measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shield or armor ground resistance measurements. 1755... MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.406 Shield or armor ground resistance measurements. (a) Shield or armor ground resistance measurements shall be made on completed lengths of copper cable and...

  6. Evaluating the Stability of a Metric for Determining the Health of Armor Plates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-13

    premise: The amplitudes and locations of the major vibrational modes of an undamaged armor plate constitute a basic signature of the armor plate...Damaging the armor plate should cause changes to both the amplitude and position of the significant vibrational modes . A metric has been developed to

  7. Evaluating the Stability of a Metric for Determining the Health of Armor Plates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-04

    premise: The amplitudes and locations of the major vibrational modes of an undamaged armor plate constitute a basic ?signature? of the armor plate...Damaging the armor plate should cause changes to both the amplitude and position of the significant vibrational modes . A metric has been developed to

  8. Fullerene Type Multilayer Insulation Blanket on a Spherical Cold Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmori, T.; Shinozaki, T.; Kaneko, H.

    2010-04-01

    Fullerene type multilayer insulation blanket is proposed for the insulation around a spherical cold surface, and has been applied to a 10 liter spherical tank of liquid nitrogen. As fullerene has 32 faces with 90 edges, 32 polygons of stacked insulation sheets must be connected each other to fabricate such a MLI blanket. The MLI blanket has 90 slots at connecting part between the polygons where thermal radiation heat transfer should be reduced. The size of the polygon made by the insulation films must be chosen so as to avoid excess compressive pressure between stacked insulation sheets. The design principle and the method to fabricate the blanket were studied, and the experimental results obtained by the fullerene type MLI blanket applied to the 10 liter spherical tank were measured.

  9. MIT LMFBR blanket research project. Final summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, M.J.

    1983-08-01

    This is a final summary report on an experimental and analytical program for the investigation of LMFBR blanket characteristics carried out at MIT in the period 1969 to 1983. During this span of time, work was carried out on a wide range of subtasks, ranging from neutronic and photonic measurements in mockups of blankets using the Blanket Test Facility at the MIT Research Reactor, to analytic/numerical investigations of blanket design and economics. The main function of this report is to serve as a resource document which will permit ready reference to the more detailed topical reports and theses issued over the years on the various aspects of project activities. In addition, one aspect of work completed during the final year of the project, on doubly-heterogeneous blanket configurations, is documented for the record.

  10. Contemporary body armor: technical data, injuries, and limits.

    PubMed

    Prat, N; Rongieras, F; Sarron, J-C; Miras, A; Voiglio, E

    2012-04-01

    The introduction of firearms in the fifteenth century led to the continuous development of bulletproof personal protection. Due to recent industrial progress and the emergence of a new generation of ballistic fibers in the 1960s, the ability of individual ballistic protections to stop projectiles greatly increased. While protective equipment is able to stop increasingly powerful missiles, deformation during the impact can cause potentially lethal nonpenetrating injuries that are grouped under the generic term of behind armor blunt trauma, and the scope and consequences of these are still unclear. This review first summarizes current technical data for modern bulletproof vests, the materials used in them, and the stopping mechanisms they employ. Then it describes recent research into the specific ballistic injury patterns of soldiers wearing body armor, focusing on behind-armor blunt trauma.

  11. Fabrication of compound nonwoven materials for soft body armor.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Chang; Lin, Jia-Horng; Chang, Chun-Cheng

    2011-09-01

    The primary objective of body armor research is the development of low-cost, lightweight, wearable garments that effectively resist ballistic impact. This study introduces a material intended to reduce nonpenetration trauma by absorbing energy from ballistic impacts. Layers of web were made by low-melting point polyester (LMPET) on unaligned fibers of high-strength polyamide 6 (HSPA6). A compound nonwoven fabric was made by laying high-strength Vectran filaments between two layers of HSPA6-LMPET web. The new fabric underwent needle punching and thermal bonding to form a composite sandwich structure. The new fabric was subjected to a falling weight impact test and a ballistic impact test. The results indicated that the material with the new design reduced maximum indentation depth by 8%. Furthermore, soft body armor made from the material with the new design would cost less to produce and would weigh 22.5% less than conventional soft body armor.

  12. Performance of the PDX neutral beam wall armor

    SciTech Connect

    Kugel, H.W.; Eubank, H.P.; Kozub, T.A.; Williams, M.D.

    1985-02-01

    The PDX wall armor was designed to function as an inner wall thermal armor, a neutral beam diagnostic, and a large area inner toroidal plasma limiter. In this paper we discuss its thermal performance as wall armor during two years of PDX neutral beam heating experiments. During this period it provided sufficient inner wall protection to permit perpendicular heating injections into normal and disruptive plasmas as well as injections in the absence of plasma involving special experiments, calibrations, and tests important for the optimization and development of the PDX neutral beam injection system. Many of the design constraints and performance issues encountered in this work are relevant to the design of larger fusion devices.

  13. Pulsed activation analyses of the ITER blanket design options considered in the blanket trade-off study

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.; Henderson, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project began a new design phase called the Engineering Design Activity (EDA) which started in July 1992. A variety of blanket designs options were analyzed as a part of the U.S. ITER home team blanket option trade-off study (BOTS) which began in May 1993. The options considered were a self-cooled Li/V blanket, a helium cooled Li/V blanket and a water cooled 316 SS nonbreeding shield option. Detailed activation, dose rate and waste disposal rating calculations have been performed for these different ITER blanket design options based on a fluence of 3.0 MWa/m{sup 2} and an average neutron wall loading of 2.0 MW/m{sup 2}. A continuous operation assumption was utilized in the analysis. The results of this work are presented in this conference.

  14. Aerosol Blanket Likely Thinned During 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Each day, a blanket of tiny particles drifting through the Earth's atmosphere filters out some of the sunlight headed for the planet's surface. These aerosols, including dust, smoke, and human-produced pollution, can reflect incoming light or absorb it, directly affecting the Earth's energy balance and climate. Aerosols also influence the climate indirectly, by affecting the brightness and amount of clouds. Research by NASA scientists on global aerosol patterns since the 1990s indicate the global aerosol blanket has likely thinned, allowing more sunlight to reach the Earth's surface over the past decade. The thinning of the blanket is shown by this trio of images based on satellite observations of aerosol optical thickness, a measurement that scientists use to describe how much the aerosols filter the incoming sunlight. Higher optical thickness (orange and red) means more sunlight blocking. The globes show average aerosol optical thickness for 1988-1991 (top), 2002-2005 (middle), and the change between the two time periods (bottom). Overall, the 1988-1991 image appears redder, a sign that aerosols were blocking more incoming sunlight; the 2002-2005 image has more light yellow areas. In the bottom image, small pockets of red (increased aerosol optical thickness), mostly near land masses in the Northern Hemisphere, are far outnumbered by blue areas (decreased aerosol optical thickness). Because they block incoming sunlight from reaching Earth's surface, aerosols may counterbalance greenhouse gas warming. The decline in the dimming power of aerosols over the past decade may have made the greenhouse warming trend more evident in the past decade than in previous decades. The scientists describe their results as a 'likely' trend because the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellite sensors they used in their analysis were not specifically designed to observe aerosols, and may contain some errors. However, specific, major aerosol events, such as large

  15. U.S. technical report for the ITER blanket/shield: A. blanket: Topical report, July 1990--November 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    Three solid-breeder water-cooled blanket concepts have been developed for ITER based on a multilayer configuration. The primary difference among the concepts is in the fabricated form of breeder and multiplier. All the concepts have beryllium for neutron multiplication and solid-breeder temperature control. The blanket design does not use helium gaps or insulator material to control the solid breeder temperature. Lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O) and lithium zirconate (Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}) are the primary and the backup breeder materials, respectively. The lithium-6 enrichment is 95%. The use of high lithium-6 enrichment reduces the solid breeder volume required in the blanket and consequently the total tritium inventory in the solid breeder material. Also, it increases the blanket capability to accommodate power variation. The multilayer blanket configuration can accommodate up to a factor of two change in the neutron wall loading without violating the different design guidelines. The blanket material forms are sintered products and packed bed of small pebbles. The first concept has a sintered product material (blocks) for both the beryllium multiplier and the solid breeder. The second concept, the common ITER blanket, uses a packed bed breeder and beryllium blocks. The last concept is similar to the first except for the first and the last beryllium zones. Two small layers of beryllium pebbles are located behind the first wall and the back of the last beryllium zone to reduce the total inventory of the beryllium material and to improve the blanket performance. The design philosophy adopted for the blanket is to produce the necessary tritium required for the ITER operation and to operate at power reactor conditions as much as possible. Also, the reliability and the safety aspects of the blanket are enhanced by using low-pressure water coolant and the separation of the tritium purge flow from the coolant system by several barriers.

  16. Solid breeder blanket option for the ITER conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Attaya, H.; Billone, M.C.; Finn, P.; Majumdar, S.; Turner, L.R.; Baker, C.C.; Nelson, B.E.; Raffray, R.; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN; California Univ., Los Angeles, CA )

    1989-10-01

    A solid-breeder water-cooled blanket option was developed for ITER based on a multilayer configuration. The blanket uses beryllium for neutron multiplication and lithium oxide for tritium breeding. The material forms are sintered products for both material with 0.8 density factor. The lithium-6 enrichment is 90%. This blanket has the capability to accommodate a factor of two change in the neutron wall loading without violating the different design guidelines. The design philosophy adopted for the blanket is to produce the necessary tritium required for the ITER operation and to operate at power reactor conditions as much as possible. At the same time, the reliability and the safety aspects of the blanket are enhanced by the use of a low-pressure coolant and the separation of the tritium purge lines from the coolant system. The blanket modules are made by hot vacuum forming and diffusion bonding a double wall structure with integral cooling channels. The different aspects of the blanket design including tritium breeding, nuclear heat deposition, activation analyses, thermal-hydraulics, tritium inventory, structural analyses, and water coolant conditions are summarized in this paper. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Overview of EU activities on DEMO liquid metal breeder blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Giancarli, L.; Proust, E.

    1994-12-31

    The European test-blanket development programme, started in 1988, is aiming at the selection by 1995 of two DEMO-relevant blanket lines to be tested in ITER. At present, four lines of blanket are under development, two of them using solid and the other two liquid breeder materials. As far as liquid breeders are concerned, two lines of blankets have been selected within the European Union, the water-cooled lithium-lead (the eutectic Pb-17Li) blankets and the dual-coolant Pb-17Li blankets. Designs have been developed considering an agreed set of DEMO specifications, such as, for instance, a fusion power of 2,200 MW, a neutron wall-loading of 2MW/m{sup 2}, a life-time of 20,000 hours, and the use of martensitic steel as a structural material. Moreover, an experimental program has been set up in order to address the main critical issues for each line. The present paper gives an overview of both design and experimental activities within the European Union concerning these two lines of liquid breeder blankets.

  18. Spacecraft thermal blanket cleaning: Vacuum bake of gaseous flow purging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John J.

    1990-01-01

    The mass losses and the outgassing rates per unit area of three thermal blankets consisting of various combinations of Mylar and Kapton, with interposed Dacron nets, were measured with a microbalance using two methods. The blankets at 25 deg C were either outgassed in vacuum for 20 hours, or were purged with a dry nitrogen flow of 3 cu. ft. per hour at 25 deg C for 20 hours. The two methods were compared for their effectiveness in cleaning the blankets for their use in space applications. The measurements were carried out using blanket strips and rolled-up blanket samples fitting the microbalance cylindrical plenum. Also, temperature scanning tests were carried out to indicate the optimum temperature for purging and vacuum cleaning. The data indicate that the purging for 20 hours with the above N2 flow can accomplish the same level of cleaning provided by the vacuum with the blankets at 25 deg C for 20 hours, In both cases, the rate of outgassing after 20 hours is reduced by 3 orders of magnitude, and the weight losses are in the range of 10E-4 gr/sq cm. Equivalent mass loss time constants, regained mass in air as a function of time, and other parameters were obtained for those blankets.

  19. Spacecraft thermal blanket cleaning - Vacuum baking or gaseous flow purging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John J.

    1992-01-01

    The mass losses and the outgassing rates per unit area of three thermal blankets consisting of various combinations of Mylar and Kapton, with interposed Dacron nets, were measured with a microbalance using two methods. The blankets at 25 deg C were either outgassed in vacuum for 20 hours, or were purged with a dry nitrogen flow of 3 cu. ft. per hour at 25 deg C for 20 hours. The two methods were compared for their effectiveness in cleaning the blankets for their use in space applications. The measurements were carried out using blanket strips and rolled-up blanket samples fitting the microbalance cylindrical plenum. Also, temperature scanning tests were carried out to indicate the optimum temperature for purging and vacuum cleaning. The data indicate that the purging for 20 hours with the above N2 flow can accomplish the same level of cleaning provided by the vacuum with the blankets at 25 deg C for 20 hours. In both cases, the rate of outgassing after 20 hours is reduced by 3 orders of magnitude, and the weight losses are in the range of 10E-4 gr/sq cm. Equivalent mass loss time constants, regained mass in air as a function of time, and other parameters were obtained for those blankets.

  20. Effects of gender and body adiposity on physiological responses to physical work while wearing body armor.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Richard; Deuster, Patricia A; Talbot, Laura A

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of gender and body adiposity on physiological responses to the stress of wearing body armor. Using a within-subject, repeated-measures design, 37 military personnel volunteered to undergo two experimental conditions, with body armor and without body armor. Female and male subjects with body armor, compared to those without body armor, had no significant differences in percentage increases in aerobic capacity, heart rate, or respiratory rate while walking at slow or moderate pace. However, women, as compared to men, had a significantly increased difference in the rating of perceived physical exertion between wearing and not wearing body armor at a slow pace. Fourteen subjects were not able to complete treadmill testing while wearing body armor because of volitional fatigue and/or limiting dyspnea. Body fat was the best single predictor of treadmill test completion.

  1. Miniaturized hand held microwave interference scanning system for NDE of dielectric armor and armor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Karl F.; Little, Jack R.; Ellingson, William A.; Meitzler, Thomas J.; Green, William

    2011-06-23

    Inspection of ceramic-based armor has advanced through development of a microwave-based, portable, non-contact NDE system. Recently, this system was miniaturized and made wireless for maximum utility in field applications. The electronic components and functionality of the laboratory system are retained, with alternative means of position input for creation of scan images. Validation of the detection capability was recently demonstrated using specially fabricated surrogates and ballistic impact-damaged specimens. The microwave data results have been compared to data from laboratory-based microwave interferometry systems and digital x-ray imaging. The microwave interference scanning has been shown to reliably detect cracks, laminar features and material property variations. The authors present details of the system operation, descriptions of the test samples used and recent results obtained.

  2. Methods of producing armor systems, and armor systems produced using such methods

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry S; Lillo, Thomas M; McHugh, Kevin M

    2013-02-19

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  3. Hubble Space Telescope Thermal Blanket Repair Design and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ousley, Wes; Skladany, Joseph; Dell, Lawrence

    2000-01-01

    Substantial damage to the outer layer of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) thermal blankets was observed during the February 1997 servicing mission. After six years in LEO, many areas of the aluminized Teflon(R) outer blanket layer had significant cracks, and some material was peeled away to expose inner layers to solar flux. After the mission, the failure mechanism was determined, and repair materials and priorities were selected for follow-on missions. This paper focuses on the thermal, mechanical, and EVA design requirements for the blanket repair, the creative solutions developed for these unique problems, hardware development, and testing.

  4. Magnesium Technology and Manufacturing for Ultra Lightweight Armored Ground Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    2.3 Corrosion Behavior Several factors that heavily influence the corrosion performance of Mg alloys ( Godard et al., 1967) are alloy chemistry...Based Structural Armor (U), ARL-RP-56, U.S. Army Research Laboratory. Godard , H.P., Jepson, W.P., Bothwell, M.R., and Kane, R.L., Ed., 1967: The

  5. Multifunctionality of chiton biomineralized armor with an integrated visual system

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Ling; Connors, Matthew; Kolle, Mathias; ...

    2015-11-20

    Nature provides a multitude of examples of multifunctional structural materials. There are often trade-offs in these materials because few of them are equally well suited for multiple tasks. One such example is the biomineralized armor of the chiton Acanthopleura granulata, which incorporates an integrated sensory system that includes hundreds of eyes with aragonite-based lens. Here, we used optical experiments to demonstrate directly, for the first time, that these microscopic, mineralized lenses are able to form images. Furthermore, our experiments revealed that the optical performance of these polycrystalline lenses is enhanced by the reduction of spherical aberration through the shape ofmore » the lens and that birefringence scattering is minimized by the use of relatively large, co-aligned grains (~10 μm as compared to ~1 μm in the non-eye regions). Additionally, we used multi-scale mechanical testing techniques to show that A. granulata’s lenses are an integral component of its biomineralized armor, but that both the intrinsic and overall mechanical properties of the lenses are compromised as compared to the primary solid regions of the armor plates. Our results demonstrate that as the size, complexity, and functionality of the integrated sensory elements increases, the local mechanical performance of the armor decreases. But, A. granulata has evolved several strategies to compensate for its local mechanical vulnerabilities to form a multifunctional system with co-optimized overall optical and structural functions.« less

  6. Multifunctionality of chiton biomineralized armor with an integrated visual system

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ling; Connors, Matthew; Kolle, Mathias; England, Grant; Speiser, Daniel; Xiao, Xianghui; Aizenberg, Joanna; Ortiz, Christine

    2015-11-20

    Nature provides a multitude of examples of multifunctional structural materials. There are often trade-offs in these materials because few of them are equally well suited for multiple tasks. One such example is the biomineralized armor of the chiton Acanthopleura granulata, which incorporates an integrated sensory system that includes hundreds of eyes with aragonite-based lens. Here, we used optical experiments to demonstrate directly, for the first time, that these microscopic, mineralized lenses are able to form images. Furthermore, our experiments revealed that the optical performance of these polycrystalline lenses is enhanced by the reduction of spherical aberration through the shape of the lens and that birefringence scattering is minimized by the use of relatively large, co-aligned grains (~10 μm as compared to ~1 μm in the non-eye regions). Additionally, we used multi-scale mechanical testing techniques to show that A. granulata’s lenses are an integral component of its biomineralized armor, but that both the intrinsic and overall mechanical properties of the lenses are compromised as compared to the primary solid regions of the armor plates. Our results demonstrate that as the size, complexity, and functionality of the integrated sensory elements increases, the local mechanical performance of the armor decreases. But, A. granulata has evolved several strategies to compensate for its local mechanical vulnerabilities to form a multifunctional system with co-optimized overall optical and structural functions.

  7. The Light Armored Cavalry Regiment -- Reconnaissance Force of the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    appli- que armor made this possible. The Bradely Scout Vehicle, armed with a 25 mm cannon and a wire guided missile system, could now engage and destroy...University Press. 1986 Palmer, David Richard, Summons of the Trumpet. Novato. CA. Presidio Press. 1978. Palmer, Bruce Jr., The 25 Year War. America’s Military

  8. Natural Curaua Fiber-Reinforced Composites in Multilayered Ballistic Armor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Louro, Luis Henrique Leme; Trindade, Willian; Elias, Carlos Nelson; Ferreira, Carlos Luiz; de Sousa Lima, Eduardo; Weber, Ricardo Pondé; Miguez Suarez, João Carlos; da Silva Figueiredo, André Ben-Hur; Pinheiro, Wagner Anacleto; da Silva, Luis Carlos; Lima, Édio Pereira

    2015-10-01

    The performance of a novel multilayered armor in which the commonly used plies of aramid fabric layer were replaced by an equal thickness layer of distinct curaua fiber-reinforced composites with epoxy or polyester matrices was assessed. The investigated armor, in addition to its polymeric layer (aramid fabric or curaua composite), was also composed of a front Al2O3 ceramic tile and backed by an aluminum alloy sheet. Ballistic impact tests were performed with actual 7.62 caliber ammunitions. Indentation in a clay witness, simulating human body behind the back layer, attested the efficacy of the curaua-reinforced composite as an armor component. The conventional aramid fabric display a similar indentation as the curaua/polyester composite but was less efficient (deeper indentation) than the curaua/epoxy composite. This advantage is shown to be significant, especially in favor of the lighter and cheaper epoxy composite reinforced with 30 vol pct of curaua fiber, as possible substitute for aramid fabric in multilayered ballistic armor for individual protection. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the mechanism associated with the curaua composite ballistic performance.

  9. Lightcurve Analsyis of 774 Armor and 3161 Beadell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oey, Julian; Han, Xianming L.; Gipson, Kevin

    2013-04-01

    Photometric studies of the asteroids 774 Armor and 3161 Beadell and were carried out by observers from Australia and USA. The data were combined and the following periods were obtained: 774 Amor, 25.107 ± 0.005 h; 3161 Beadell, 36.253 ± 0.004 h.

  10. Crack Detection in Armor Plates Using Ultrasonic Techniques (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    A method of using piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers to characterize the vibrational modes of Vehicle Body Armor Support System...VBASS) plates and its preliminary results are presented. The amplitude of the vibrational modes of undamaged plates are compared to the vibrational

  11. Crack Detection in Armor Plates Using Ultrasonic Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    A method of using piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers to characterize the vibrational modes of ceramic Vehicle Body Armor Support...System (VBASS) plates for the purpose of crack detection is presented. The amplitudes of the vibrational modes undamaged plates are compared to the

  12. Cassini/Titan-4 Acoustic Blanket Development and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Anne M.

    1996-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center recently led a multi-organizational effort to develop and test verify new acoustic blankets. These blankets support NASA's goal in reducing the Titan-4 payload fairing internal acoustic environment to allowable levels for the Cassini spacecraft. To accomplish this goal a two phase acoustic test program was utilized. Phase One consisted of testing numerous blanket designs in a flat panel configuration. Phase Two consisted of testing the most promising designs out of Phase One in a full scale cylindrical payload fairing. This paper will summarize this highly successful test program by providing the rationale and results for each test phase, the impacts of this testing on the Cassini mission, as well as providing some general information on blanket designs.

  13. Testing needs and experiments for solid breeder blankets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierszewski, P.; Puigh, R.

    1986-11-01

    Most of the critical issues for solid breeder blankets are related to the tritium and thermomechanical behavior of the solid breeder and multiplier. A major contributor to this uncertainty is the lack of definition of a preferred material, microstructure and form. Material selection and development is particularly cost-effective at present since much of the important blanket behavior is driven by local conditions rather than the overall blanket design, and since the choice of material affects the nature of the later and larger experiments. This stage of testing is also the most appropriate time to consider basic material choices such as sphere-pac or sintered pellet, and the incorporation of multiplier material into the blanket. The major testing needs and experiments are characterized here.

  14. Applications of the Aqueous Self-Cooled Blanket concept

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, D.; Embrechts, M.J.; Varsamis, G.; Wrisley, K.; Deutch, L.; Gierszewski, P.

    1986-11-01

    In this paper a novel water-cooled blanket concept is examined. This concept, designated the Aqueous Self-Cooled Blanket (ASCB), employs water with small amounts of dissolved fertile compounds as both the coolant and the breeding medium. The ASCB concept is reviewed and its application in three different contexts is examined: (1) power reactors; (2) near-term devices such as NET; and (3) fusion-fission hybrids.

  15. Thin Thermal-Insulation Blankets for Very High Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2003-01-01

    Thermal-insulation blankets of a proposed type would be exceptionally thin and would endure temperatures up to 2,100 C. These blankets were originally intended to protect components of the NASA Solar Probe spacecraft against radiant heating at its planned closest approach to the Sun (a distance of 4 solar radii). These blankets could also be used on Earth to provide thermal protection in special applications (especially in vacuum chambers) for which conventional thermal-insulation blankets would be too thick or would not perform adequately. A blanket according to the proposal (see figure) would be made of molybdenum, titanium nitride, and carbon- carbon composite mesh, which melt at temperatures of 2,610, 2,930, and 2,130 C, respectively. The emittance of molybdenum is 0.24, while that of titanium nitride is 0.03. Carbon-carbon composite mesh is a thermal insulator. Typically, the blanket would include 0.25-mil (.0.00635-mm)-thick hot-side and cold-side cover layers of molybdenum. Titanium nitride would be vapor-deposited on both surfaces of each cover layer. Between the cover layers there would be 10 inner layers of 0.15-mil (.0.0038-mm)-thick molybdenum with vapor-deposited titanium nitride on both sides of each layer. The thickness of each titanium nitride coat would be about 1,000 A. The cover and inner layers would be interspersed with 0.25-mil (0.00635-mm)-thick layers of carbon-carbon composite mesh. The blanket would have total thickness of 4.75 mils (approximately equal to 0.121 mm) and an areal mass density of 0.7 kilograms per square meter. One could, of course, increase the thermal- insulation capability of the blanket by increasing number of inner layers (thereby unavoidably increasing the total thickness and mass density).

  16. Coflexip installs flexible water line in Adriatic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    This paper reports on the design, manufacture, transport and installation of a submarine pipe line network. The network would transport potable water from Yugoslavia's Dubroynil and Peljesac peninsula to the islands of Elafiti and Mljet, popular resort areas in the Adriatic Sea. The pipe line network consists of five separate 8-in. ID flexible lines, each 10 mi long. The pipe is made of thermoplastic tubing, a steel carcass and double crossword armor. The tubing is suitable for potable water service.

  17. The Impact of Armor on the Design, Utilization and Survivability of Ground Vehicles: The History of Armor Development and Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    28 Figure 21. Summary of Threats Faced by an Armored Vehicle (From a Abrams Tank System Survivability Briefing in Jan 2012...Figure 32. Comparison of Tracked (Left) (From Cooke 2008) and Wheeled (Right) (From Cooke 2009) Propulsion Systems ...59 Figure 44. Vertical Threat Envelope (From a Abrams Tank System Survivability Briefing in Jan 2012

  18. The life-saving effectiveness of body armor for police officers.

    PubMed

    LaTourrette, Tom

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of protective body armor on a police officer's risk of being killed and estimate the benefits and costs of outfitting police with body armor. In the United States, for police shot in the torso from 2004 to 2007 (n = 262), we calculate the relative risk of death from a gunshot without and with body armor. We estimate the benefit of body armor using the willingness-to-pay approach and compare it with the cost of supplying armor to police not currently wearing armor. The results show that the relative risk of dying without armor is = 3.4 (95% CI: 2.4 to 4.6). Outfitting all police with armor would save at least 8.5 lives per year, resulting in a benefit that is nearly twice the cost, or a net benefit of approximately $100/officer. Body armor more than triples the likelihood that a police officer will survive a shooting to the torso. Outfitting all police with armor yields a positive net benefit and is strongly justified economically.

  19. Multiscale impacts of armoring on Salish Sea shorelines: Evidence for cumulative and threshold effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethier, Megan N.; Raymond, Wendel W.; McBride, Aundrea N.; Toft, Jason D.; Cordell, Jeffery R.; Ogston, Andrea S.; Heerhartz, Sarah M.; Berry, Helen D.

    2016-06-01

    Shoreline armoring is widespread in many parts of the protected inland waters of the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A, but impacts on physical and biological features of local nearshore ecosystems have only recently begun to be documented. Armoring marine shorelines can alter natural processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales; some, such as starving the beach of sediments by blocking input from upland bluffs may take decades to become visible, while others such as placement loss of armoring construction are immediate. We quantified a range of geomorphic and biological parameters at paired, nearby armored and unarmored beaches throughout the inland waters of Washington State to test what conditions and parameters are associated with armoring. We gathered identical datasets at a total of 65 pairs of beaches: 6 in South Puget Sound, 23 in Central Puget Sound, and 36 pairs North of Puget Sound proper. At this broad scale, demonstrating differences attributable to armoring is challenging given the high natural variability in measured parameters among beaches and regions. However, we found that armoring was consistently associated with reductions in beach width, riparian vegetation, numbers of accumulated logs, and amounts and types of beach wrack and associated invertebrates. Armoring-related patterns at lower beach elevations (further vertically from armoring) were progressively harder to detect. For some parameters, such as accumulated logs, there was a distinct threshold in armoring elevation that was associated with increased impacts. This large dataset for the first time allowed us to identify cumulative impacts that appear when increasing proportions of shorelines are armored. At large spatial and temporal scales, armoring much of a sediment drift cell may result in reduction of the finer grain-size fractions on beaches, including those used by spawning forage fish. Overall we have shown that local impacts of shoreline armoring can scale-up to have cumulative and

  20. Thin, Flexible IMM Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walmsley, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    NASA needs solar arrays that are thin, flexible, and highly efficient; package compactly for launch; and deploy into large, structurally stable high-power generators. Inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) solar cells can enable these arrays, but integration of this thin crystalline cell technology presents certain challenges. The Thin Hybrid Interconnected Solar Array (THINS) technology allows robust and reliable integration of IMM cells into a flexible blanket comprising standardized modules engineered for easy production. The modules support the IMM cell by using multifunctional materials for structural stability, shielding, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) stress relief, and integrated thermal and electrical functions. The design approach includes total encapsulation, which benefits high voltage as well as electrostatic performance.

  1. Flow characteristics of the Cascade granular blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, J.H.; Walton, O.R.

    1985-07-01

    Analysis of a single granule on a rotating cone shows that for the 35/sup 0/ half-angle, double-cone-shaped Cascade chamber, blanket granules will stay against the chamber wall if the rotational speed is 50 rpm or greater. The granules move axially down the wall with a slight (5-mm or less) sinusoidal oscillation in the circumferential direction. Granule chute-flow experiments confirm that two-layered flow can be obtained when the chute is inclined slightly above the granular material angle of repose. The top surface layer is thin and fast moving (supercritical flow). A thick bottom layer moves more slowly (subcritical flow controlled at the exit) with a velocity that increases with distance from the bottom of the chute. This is a desirable velocity profile because in the Cascade chamber about one-third of the fusion energy is deposited in the form of x rays and fusion-fuel-pellet debris in the top surface (inner-radius) layer.

  2. Flow characteristics of the Cascade granular blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, J.H.; Walton, O.R.

    1985-04-15

    Analysis of a single granule on a rotating cone shows that for the 35/sup 0/ half-angle, double-cone-shaped Cascade chamber, blanket granules will stay against the chamber wall if the rotational speed is 50 rpm or greater. The granules move axially down the wall with a slight (5-mm or less) sinusoidal oscillation in the circumferential direction. Granule chute-flow experiments confirm that two-layered flow can be obtained when the chute is inclined slightly above the granular material angle of repose. The top surface layer is thin and fast moving (supercritical flow). A thick bottom layer moves more slowly (subcritical flow controlled at the exit) with a velocity that increases with distance from the bottom of the chute. This is a desirable velocity profile because in the Cascade chamber about one-third of the fusion energy is deposited in the form of x rays and fusion-fuel-pellet debris in the top surface (inner-radius) layer.

  3. Blanket of Snow Covers Salt Lake City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On December 23, 2001, less than two months before the start of the 2002 Winter Olympics, snow blankets Salt Lake City and the surrounding area. The Great Salt Lake, on the left hand side of the image above, often contributes to the region's snowfall through the 'lake-effect.' As cold air passes over a large body of water it both warms and absorbs moisture. The warm air then rises (like a hot air balloon) and cools again. As it cools, the water vapor condenses out, resulting in snowfall. Just to the east (right) of the Great Salt Lake the mountains of the Wasatch Range lift air from the lake even higher, enhancing the lake-effect, resulting in an average snowfall of 64 inches a year in Salt Lake City and 140 inches in Park City, which is located at the foot of the Wasatch Front. For more information about the lake-effect, read Lake-Effect Snowfalls. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  4. APT Blanket System Loss-of-Helium-Gas Accident Based on Initial Conceptual Design - Helium Supply Rupture into Blanket Module

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    The model results are used to determine if beam power shutdown is necessary (or not) as a result of the LOHGA accident to maintain the blanket system well below any of the thermal-hydraulic constraints imposed on the design. The results also provide boundary conditions to the detailed bin model to study the detailed temperature response of the hot blanket module structure. The results for these two cases are documented in the report.

  5. Long-term survivability of riprap for armoring uranium-mill tailings and covers: a literature review. [203 references

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, C.G.; Long, L.W.; Begej, C.W.

    1982-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating the use of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of an earthen radon suppression cover applied to uranium mill tailings. Because the radon suppression cover and the tailings must remain intact for up to 1000 years or longer, the riprap must withstand natural weathering forces. This report is a review of information on rock weathering and riprap durability. Chemical and physical weathering processes, rock characteristics related to durability, climatic conditions affecting the degree and rate of weathering, and testing procedures used to measure weathering susceptibilities have been reviewed. Sampling and testing techniques, as well as analyses of physical and chemical weathering susceptibilities, are necessary to evaluate rock durability. Many potential riprap materials may not be able to survive 1000 years of weathering. Available techniques for durability testing cannot adequately predict rock durability for the 1000-year period because they do not consider the issue of time (i.e., how long must riprap remain stable). This report includes an Appendix, which discusses rock weathering, written by Dr. Richard Jahns of Stanford University.

  6. Case study: a novel biomechanical approach for evaluating extended body armor systems.

    PubMed

    Selinger, Jessica C; Gooyers, Chad E; Stevenson, Joan M; Costigan, Patrick A; Chafe, Gabrielle S

    2010-11-01

    To combat the devastating effects of improvised explosive devices (IEDs), body armor that provides extended coverage has been developed. However, this extended coverage increases the armor's weight and may restrict movement. Throughout this case study, a novel technique to assess several armor systems was investigated. Four soldiers performed shoulder and trunk movements while wearing each of the six different armor inserts. Electromyography (EMG) was used to quantify muscular activity and inertial motion sensors were used to determine joint range of motion (ROM). Outcome measures included maximum ROM, integrated EMG, and the soldiers' subjective rankings. For the shoulder tasks, objective ROM and EMG measures were related to each other as well as to subjective rankings and armor material properties. Conversely, little agreement was found between measures for the trunk tasks. Results of this preliminary investigation indicate that combining shoulder ROM and EMG measures has the potential to provide an objective assessment of body armor systems.

  7. The effect of body armor on saving officers' lives: An analysis using LEOKA data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiwei; Taylor, Bruce

    2017-02-01

    Using the Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted (LEOKA; 2002-2011) database, we examined the life-saving effectiveness of body armor while adjusting for a range of confounders not assessed in previous studies. Among the 637 officers who were shot by a firearm at the torso, those who wore body armor were 76% less likely to be killed than those who did not wear armor, controlling for an array of individual and incident characteristics. A number of factors influenced officers' armor wearing behavior include age, BMI, rank, geographic region, and type of assignment. Results will inform law enforcement agencies in assessing gaps in their current policy and help focus limited resources to encourage armor wearing. The investigation of other factors that influence police officers' chance of surviving a gun shooting (while controlling for body armor) will also have important implications for policies related to sending backup officers to police shootings, emergency response, and other critical areas.

  8. Summary report for ITER task - T68: MHD facility preparation for Li/V blanket option

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, C.B.; Haglund, R.C.; Miller, M.E.

    1995-08-01

    A key feasibility issue for the ITER Vanadium/Lithium breeding blanket is the question of insulator coatings. Design calculations show that an electrically insulating layer is necessary to maintain an acceptably low MHD pressure drop. To enable experimental investigations of the MHD performance of candidate insulator materials and the technology for putting them in place, the room-temperature ALEX (Argonne`s Liquid Metal EXperiment) NaK facility was upgraded to a 300{degrees}C lithium system. The objective of this upgrade was to modify the existing facility to the minimum extent necessary, consistent with providing a safe, flexible, and easy to operate MHD test facility which uses lithium at ITER-relevant temperatures, Hartmann numbers, and interaction parameters. The facility was designed to produce MHD pressure drop data, test section voltage distributions, and heat transfer data for mid-scale test sections and blanket mockups. The system design description for this lithium upgrade of the ALEX facility is given in this document.

  9. Report to the Attorney General on Body Armor Safety Initiative Testing and Activities. Supplement 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-27

    directed the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) to initiate an examination of Zylon ®-based bullet-resistant armor1 (both new and used), to analyze...upgrade kits2 provided by manufacturers to retrofit Zylon ®- based bullet-resistant armors, and to review the existing process by which bullet-resistant...development, standards and testing, and also reviewed information about NIJ’s preliminary evaluation of Zylon ®- based armor. NIJ continues to conduct

  10. Report to the Attorney General on Body Armor Safety Initiative Testing and Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-11

    4 V. Tests to Determine Zylon Degradation in Used Armor ....................................... 6 A. Phase I: “Worst...Dyneema® produced by DSM, and Zylon ®1 produced by Toyobo. The NIJ body armor testing program has evaluated armor designs that include one specific...The most recent standard is NIJ Standard–0101.04, Revision A, issued in 1 Zylon ® (PBO fiber – Poly-p

  11. Wheels for the Future: Should the U.S. Army Adopt an Armored Wheeled System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-05

    firepower, maneuver, and protection. These three measurements of combat power are more defined in six inherent capabilities of armored wheeled systems...AD-A234 372 Wheuls for the Future: Should the U.S. Army Adopt ar, Armored Wheeled System? A MonograpL by Major Glenn Davis Infantry School of...TITLE (nudScutClassification) Wheels For the ýFuture-- Should the US Army Adopt an Armored Wncc led Sybtem?, 2, PERSONAL AUTHCOI S ’ATIA Glenn W, Davis

  12. Shell-armored wood cobbles as a potential criterion for detrital coal deposits

    SciTech Connect

    DiMarco, M.J.; Nummedal, D.

    1986-01-01

    Shell-armored wood cobbles occur on detrital-peat beaches along the seaward edge of the Mississippi Delta. Shell material consists exclusively of Mulinia lateralis, a dwarf surf clam. Soft, heavy, waterlogged wood fragments are abraded and become armored by hard shells in response to wave activity on the beach. Although their preservation potential is suspect, fossilized shell-armored wood clasts would probably be recognized as a type of coal ball and might indicate an allochthonous origin for the host coal.

  13. Friction Stir Weld Failure Mechanisms in Aluminum-Armor Structures Under Ballistic Impact Loading Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    FSW joints found in thick aluminum -armor weldments, the overall ballistic performance of 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13...welding ( FSW ) joints found in armor structures made of high-performance aluminum alloys (including solution-strengthened and age-hardenable aluminum alloy...grades). It is argued that due to the large width of FSW joints found in thick aluminum -armor weldments, the overall ballistic performance of the

  14. Armoring a droplet: Soft jamming of a dense granular interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagubeau, Guillaume; Rescaglio, Antonella; Melo, Francisco

    2014-09-01

    Droplets and bubbles protected by armors of particles have found vast applications in encapsulation, stabilization of emulsions and foams, or flotation processes. The liquid phase stores capillary energy, while concurrently the solid contacts of the granular network induce friction and energy dissipation, leading to hybrid interfaces of combined properties. By means of nonintrusive tensiometric methods and structural measurements, we distinguish three surface phases of increasing rigidity during the evaporation of armored droplets. The emergence of surface rigidity is reminiscent of jamming of granular matter, but it occurs differently since it is marked by a step by step hardening under surface compression. These results show that the concept of the effective surface tension remains useful only below the first jamming transition. Beyond this point, the surface stresses become anisotropic.

  15. Multifunctionality of chiton biomineralized armor with an integrated visual system.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Connors, Matthew J; Kolle, Mathias; England, Grant T; Speiser, Daniel I; Xiao, Xianghui; Aizenberg, Joanna; Ortiz, Christine

    2015-11-20

    Nature provides a multitude of examples of multifunctional structural materials in which trade-offs are imposed by conflicting functional requirements. One such example is the biomineralized armor of the chiton Acanthopleura granulata, which incorporates an integrated sensory system that includes hundreds of eyes with aragonite-based lenses. We use optical experiments to demonstrate that these microscopic lenses are able to form images. Light scattering by the polycrystalline lenses is minimized by the use of relatively large, crystallographically aligned grains. Multiscale mechanical testing reveals that as the size, complexity, and functionality of the integrated sensory elements increase, the local mechanical performance of the armor decreases. However, A. granulata has evolved several strategies to compensate for its mechanical vulnerabilities to form a multipurpose system with co-optimized optical and structural functions.

  16. Modeling of Bullet Penetration in Explosively Welded Composite Armor Plate

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Vasant S.; Carney, Theodore C.

    2006-07-28

    Normal impact of high-speed armor piercing bullet on titanium-steel composite has been investigated using smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code. The objective is to understand the effects of impact during the ballistic testing of explosively welded armor plates. These plates have significant microstructural differences within the weld region, heat-affected zone and the base metal. The variances result in substantial ductility, hardness and strength differences, important criteria in determining the failure mode, specifically whether it occurs at the joint or within the virgin base metal. Several configurations of composite plates with different material combinations were modeled. The results were used to modify the heat treatment process of explosively welded plates, making them more likely to survive impact.

  17. Armoring a droplet: soft jamming of a dense granular interface.

    PubMed

    Lagubeau, Guillaume; Rescaglio, Antonella; Melo, Francisco

    2014-09-01

    Droplets and bubbles protected by armors of particles have found vast applications in encapsulation, stabilization of emulsions and foams, or flotation processes. The liquid phase stores capillary energy, while concurrently the solid contacts of the granular network induce friction and energy dissipation, leading to hybrid interfaces of combined properties. By means of nonintrusive tensiometric methods and structural measurements, we distinguish three surface phases of increasing rigidity during the evaporation of armored droplets. The emergence of surface rigidity is reminiscent of jamming of granular matter, but it occurs differently since it is marked by a step by step hardening under surface compression. These results show that the concept of the effective surface tension remains useful only below the first jamming transition. Beyond this point, the surface stresses become anisotropic.

  18. Armoring and vertical sorting in aeolian dune fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin; Narteau, Clément; Rozier, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Unlike ripples, there are only few numerical studies on grain-size segregation at the scale of dunes in aeolian environments. Here we use a cellular automaton model to analyze vertical sorting in granular mixtures under steady unidirectional flow conditions. We investigate the feedbacks between dune growth and the segregation mechanisms by varying the size of coarse grains and their proportion within the bed. We systematically observe the development of a horizontal layer of coarse grains at the top of which sorted bed forms may grow by amalgamation. The formation of such an armor layer controls the overall sediment transport and availability. The emergence of dunes and the transition from barchan to transverse dune fields depend only on the grain size distribution of the initial sediment layer. As confirmed by observation, this result indicates that armor layers should be present in most arid deserts, where they are likely to control dune morphodynamics.

  19. Armor corrosion monitoring of a submarine AC cable

    SciTech Connect

    Genesca, J.; Perez, T.; Lara, C.

    1997-12-01

    After the hurricane Gilberto flattened (devastated) Cancun in September 1988, the submarine cables which supplied electricity to Isla Mjueres Island remained very damaged, and it was decided to install the new ones. In 1989, four new submarine cables were installed from Punta Sam, Cancun to Isla Mujeres. Such cables, of nominal tension 34.5 KV, were manufactures with a galvanized steel armor coated with asphalt, and began operation during 1990. The object of this communication is to present the experimental procedure that gave place to the armor corrosion monitoring procedure carried out in this particular case and to compare the results with those obtained on the field. Results of the cathodic protection system applied are also presented.

  20. [Search for optimal combinations of the hygienic and protective characteristics of body armors].

    PubMed

    Logatkin, S M

    2008-01-01

    The protective composition of a body armor is generally characterized by two major parameters--the area and level of protection, i.e. resistance to bullets and fragments. These characteristics directly depend on the mass of a body armor and the sizes of the body's screening. The positive protective characteristics simultaneously have a negative impact on the most important hygienic indices of a body armor, such as convenience and easiness-to-use. The optimum combination of protective and performance characteristics of body armors makes a compromise between their mass and the level of protection.

  1. Effect of Spot and Stud Welding on ESR 4340 Steel Armor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-02-01

    ESR ) 4340 steel armor. MATERIALS The armor used in this program was commercially produced ESR 4340 steeL in thicknesses of...N — AO—AO5k 025 ARMY MATERIALS AND MECHANICS RESEARCH CENTER WATERTO——ETC F/S 13/5 EFFECT OF SPOT AND STUD WELDING ON ESR 14314 0 STEEL ARMOR. (U...5 lAD I ~ EFFECT OF SPOT~AND STUD WELDING ON ESR 434O~ STEEL ARMOR~ ~~ - /, ‘ , ~ . ~~~ — ~ — ~~~ — , ~~~~~~ ——-...—- ( -~~/ ~~~ - ‘~/ ~~~ ‘ .

  2. Mechanisms of stability of armored bubbles: FY 1996 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rossen, W.R.; Kam, S.I.

    1996-11-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies examine how a coating, or {open_quotes}armor,{close_quotes} of partially wetted solid particles can stabilize tiny bubbles against diffusion of gas into the surrounding liquid, in spite of the high capillary pressures normally associated with such bubbles. Experiments with polymethylmethacrylate (PNMA) beads and carbonated water demonstrate that armored bubbles can persist for weeks in liquid unsaturated with respect to the gas in the bubbles. This question is of concern regarding gas discharges from waste tanks at the Hanford reservation. The stresses on the solid-solid contacts between particles in such cases is large and could drive sintering of the particles into a rigid framework. Stability analysis suggests that a slightly shrunken bubble would not expel a solid particle from its armor to relieve stress and allow the bubble to shrink further. Expulsion of particles from more stressed bubbles at zero capillary pressure is energetically favored in some cases. It is not clear, however, whether this expulsion would proceed spontaneously from a small perturbation or require a large initial disturbance of the bubble. In some cases, it appears that a bubble would expel some particles and shrink, but the bubble would approach a final, stable size rather than disappear completely. This simplified analysis leaves out several factors. For instance, only one perturbation toward expelling a solid from the armor is considered; perhaps other perturbations would be more energetically favored than that tested. Other considerations (particle deformation, surface roughness, contact-angle hysteresis, and adhesion or physical bonding between adjacent particles) would make expelling solids more difficult than indicated by this theoretical study.

  3. Fractographic Analysis of Long Rod Penetrator-Armor Ceramic Interactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    a 97 wcight-pcrccnt tungsten (97 W) long-rod penietrator with an aspect ratio of’ 10 (L/D = 10) and a laminate armor package consisting of steel ESR ...carefully moved so as not to disturb the comminuted material. The ESR 4340 back plate was removed from the target and the comminuted ceramic was... steel particles were included in the ceramic powder.\\ The steel was present from thrce sources: front plate penetration, back plate splash, and

  4. Multiscale Modeling of Armor Ceramics: Focus on AlON

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    2003: Multiple Material Marching Cubes Algorithm . Int. J. Numer . Meth. Eng., 58(2), 189–207. NO. OF COPIES ORGANIZATION 9 1 DEFENSE...Army Science Conference, Orlando, FL, 29 November–2 December 2010. 14. ABSTRACT The computational modeling linkage from the atomistic to the...controlled processing. This report will review results from an internal multiscale computational program in first-principles design of armor ceramics

  5. Lightweight armor system and process for producing the same

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry S.; Bruck, H. Alan; Strempek, Gary C.; Varacalle, Jr., Dominic J.

    2004-01-20

    A lightweight armor system may comprise a substrate having a graded metal matrix composite layer formed thereon by thermal spray deposition. The graded metal matrix composite layer comprises an increasing volume fraction of ceramic particles imbedded in a decreasing volume fraction of a metal matrix as a function of a thickness of the graded metal matrix composite layer. A ceramic impact layer is affixed to the graded metal matrix composite layer.

  6. Survivability Analysis for the Evaluation of Personnel in Body Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    system survivability/lethality/vulnerability ( SLV ) analyses using a software package called MUVES-S2. MUVES-S2 is an Army developed and maintained SLV ...methodology, highlighting improved capabilities and new techniques for performing SLV analyses of personnel wearing various body armor configurations. We...combat system survivability/lethality/vulnerability ( SLV ) analyses using a software package called MUVES-S2. MUVES-S2 is an Army developed and

  7. DoD Testing Requirements for Body Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-29

    Arlington, VA 22202-4704 Acronyms and Abbreviations BFD Back Face Deformation COPD Contract Purchase Description COTR...established in the Contract Purchase Description ( COPD ) or performance specification. Those parameters include the acceptable number of complete and...determined by shooting the piece of armor several times, with the same type of threat, across a broad range of velocities. The COPD contains the V50

  8. Low Cost Sintering of Titanium Diboride for Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    V. . . . ri + 1 Ii l ’ I I List of Tables Table Nuba Title I List of Pcwder Lot Numbers and Quantities of ’iB2 Powder Produced for MTL...February 03. -13- Table I List of Powder Lot Numbers and Quantities of TiB2 Powder Produced for MTL Armor Contract (DAAL04-86.C.0041) "Lot Original

  9. Flexible Ablators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackpoole, Margaret M. (Inventor); Ghandehari, Ehson M. (Inventor); Thornton, Jeremy J. (Inventor); Covington, Melmoth Alan (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A low-density article comprising a flexible substrate and a pyrolizable material impregnated therein, methods of preparing, and devices using the article are disclosed. The pyrolizable material pyrolizes above 350 C and does not flow at temperatures below the pyrolysis temperature. The low-density article remains flexible after impregnation and continues to remain flexible when the pyrolizable material is fully pyrolized.

  10. Thin blanket designs for the Elongated Tokamak Commercial Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, C.P.C.; Bourque, R.F.; Cheng, E.T.; Creedon, R.L.; Schultz, K.R.

    1986-11-01

    The Elongated Tokamak (ET)* is an innovative concept that uses as highly elongated plasma (plasma height-to-width ratio of 6-10) to allow high plasma current and high toroidal betas. ET has the potential for the development of small-size, high-power density, low-cost fusion reactors using normal conducting coils. The elongated plasma shape is achieved by use of a continuous stack of PF coils parallel to the plasma surface on both inbound and outbound sides. To achieve plasma stability, these coil stacks must be located no further than one plasma minor radius from the plasma edge, greatly restricting the space available for blankets. In order to assess the potential of a small reactor, the authors evaluated and designed blankets 30 to 40 cm thick. Three different thin blanket designs were found to be acceptable: FLiBe self-cooled, helium-cooled lithium, and helium-cooled 17Li83Pb blanket designs. A lithium-cooled integrated blanket-coil design (BLITZ-coil) was also found to be suitable for the ET commercial reactors.

  11. A clothing modeling framework for uniform and armor system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, Xiaolin; Swan, Colby C.; Rahmatalla, Salam

    2006-05-01

    In the analysis and design of military uniforms and body armor systems it is helpful to quantify the effects of the clothing/armor system on a wearer's physical performance capabilities. Toward this end, a clothing modeling framework for quantifying the mechanical interactions between a given uniform or body armor system design and a specific wearer performing defined physical tasks is proposed. The modeling framework consists of three interacting modules: (1) a macroscale fabric mechanics/dynamics model; (2) a collision detection and contact correction module; and (3) a human motion module. In the proposed framework, the macroscopic fabric model is based on a rigorous large deformation continuum-degenerated shell theory representation. The collision and contact module enforces non-penetration constraints between the fabric and human body and computes the associated contact forces between the two. The human body is represented in the current framework, as an assemblage of overlapping ellipsoids that undergo rigid body motions consistent with human motions while performing actions such as walking, running, or jumping. The transient rigid body motions of each ellipsoidal body segment in time are determined using motion capture technology. The integrated modeling framework is then exercised to quantify the resistance that the clothing exerts on the wearer during the specific activities under consideration. Current results from the framework are presented and its intended applications are discussed along with some of the key challenges remaining in clothing system modeling.

  12. Toroidal midplane neutral beam armor and plasma limiter

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, H.W.; Hand, S.W. Jr.; Ksayian, H.

    1985-05-31

    This invention contemplates an armor shield/plasma limiter positioned upon the inner wall of a toroidal vacuum chamber within which is magnetically confined an energetic plasma in a tokamak nuclear fusion reactor. The armor shield/plasma limiter is thus of a general semi-toroidal shape and is comprised of a plurality of adjacent graphite plates positioned immediately adjacent to each other so as to form a continuous ring upon and around the toroidal chamber's inner wall and the reactor's midplane coil. Each plate has a generally semi-circular outer circumference and a recessed inner portion and is comprised of upper and lower half sections positioned immediately adjacent to one another along the midplane of the plate. With the upper and lower half sections thus joined, a channel or duct is provided within the midplane of the plate in which a magnetic flux loop is positioned. The magnetic flux loop is thus positioned immediately adjacent to the fusing toroidal plasma and serves as a diagnostic sensor with the armor shield/plasma limiter minimizing the amount of power from the energetic plasma as well as from the neutral particle beams heating the plasma incident upon the flux loop.

  13. Direct LiT Electrolysis in a Metallic Fusion Blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Luke

    2016-09-30

    A process that simplifies the extraction of tritium from molten lithium-based breeding blankets was developed. The process is based on the direct electrolysis of lithium tritide using a ceramic Li ion conductor that replaces the molten salt extraction step. Extraction of tritium in the form of lithium tritide in the blankets/targets of fusion/fission reactors is critical in order to maintain low concentrations. This is needed to decrease the potential tritium permeation to the surroundings and large releases from unforeseen accident scenarios. Extraction is complicated due to required low tritium concentration limits and because of the high affinity of tritium for the blanket. This work identified, developed and tested the use of ceramic lithium ion conductors capable of recovering hydrogen and deuterium through an electrolysis step at high temperatures.

  14. Direct Lit Electrolysis In A Metallic Lithium Fusion Blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Colon-Mercado, H.; Babineau, D.; Elvington, M.; Garcia-Diaz, B.; Teprovich, J.; Vaquer, A.

    2015-10-13

    A process that simplifies the extraction of tritium from molten lithium based breeding blankets was developed.  The process is based on the direct electrolysis of lithium tritide using a ceramic Li ion conductor that replaces the molten salt extraction step. Extraction of tritium in the form of lithium tritide in the blankets/targets of fission/fusion reactors is critical in order to maintained low concentrations.  This is needed to decrease the potential tritium permeation to the surroundings and large releases from unforeseen accident scenarios. Because of the high affinity of tritium for the blanket, extraction is complicated at the required low levels. This work identified, developed and tested the use of ceramic lithium ion conductors capable of recovering the hydrogen and deuterium thru an electrolysis step at high temperatures. 

  15. Characterizing the interaction among bullet, body armor, and human and surrogate targets.

    PubMed

    Shen, Weixin; Niu, Yuqing; Bykanova, Lucy; Laurence, Peter; Link, Norman

    2010-12-01

    This study used a combined experimental and modeling approach to characterize and quantify the interaction among bullet, body armor, and human surrogate targets during the 10-1000 μs range that is crucial to evaluating the protective effectiveness of body armor against blunt injuries. Ballistic tests incorporating high-speed flash X-ray measurements were performed to acquire the deformations of bullets and body armor samples placed against ballistic clay and gelatin targets with images taken between 10 μs and 1 ms of the initial impact. Finite element models (FEMs) of bullet, armor, and gelatin and clay targets were developed with material parameters selected to best fit model calculations to the test measurements. FEMs of bullet and armor interactions were then assembled with a FEM of a human torso and FEMs of clay and gelatin blocks in the shape of a human torso to examine the effects of target material and geometry on the interaction. Test and simulation results revealed three distinct loading phases during the interaction. In the first phase, the bullet was significantly slowed in about 60 μs as it transferred a major portion of its energy into the body armor. In the second phase, fibers inside the armor were pulled toward the point of impact and kept on absorbing energy until about 100 μs after the initial impact when energy absorption reached its peak. In the third phase, the deformation on the armor's back face continued to grow and energies inside both armor and targets redistributed through wave propagation. The results indicated that armor deformation and energy absorption in the second and third phases were significantly affected by the material properties (density and stiffness) and geometrical characteristics (curvature and gap at the armor-target interface) of the targets. Valid surrogate targets for testing the ballistic resistance of the armor need to account for these factors and produce the same armor deformation and energy absorption as on a

  16. Experimental impacts into Teflon targets and LDEF thermal blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoerz, F.; Cintala, M. J.; Zolensky, M. E.; Bernhard, R. P.; See, T. H.

    1994-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) exposed approximately 20 sq m of identical thermal protective blankets, predominantly on the Ultra-Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE). Approximately 700 penetration holes greater than 300 micron in diameter were individually documented, while thousands of smaller penetrations and craters occurred in these blankets. As a result of their 5.7 year exposure and because they pointed into a variety of different directions relative to the orbital motion of the nonspinning LDEF platform, these blankets can reveal important dynamic aspects of the hypervelocity particle environment in near-earth orbit. The blankets were composed of an outer teflon layer (approximately 125 micron thick), followed by a vapor-deposited rear mirror of silver (less than 1000 A thick) that was backed with an organic binder and a thermal protective paint (approximately 50 to 75 micron thick), resulting in a cumulative thickness (T) of approximately 175 to 200 microns for the entire blanket. Many penetrations resulted in highly variable delaminations of the teflon/metal or metal/organic binder interfaces that manifest themselves as 'dark' halos or rings, because of subsequent oxidation of the exposed silver mirror. The variety of these dark albedo features is bewildering, ranging from totally absent, to broad halos, to sharp single or multiple rings. Over the past year experiments were conducted over a wide range of velocities (i.e., 1 to 7 km/s) to address velocity dependent aspects of cratering and penetrations of teflon targets. In addition, experiments were performed with real LDEF thermal blankets to duplicate the LDEF delaminations and to investigate a possible relationship of initial impact conditions on the wide variety of dark halo and ring features.

  17. Study of Automated Module Fabrication for Lightweight Solar Blanket Utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, C. E.

    1979-01-01

    Cost-effective automated techniques for accomplishing the titled purpose; based on existing in-house capability are described. As a measure of the considered automation, the production of a 50 kilowatt solar array blanket, exclusive of support and deployment structure, within an eight-month fabrication period was used. Solar cells considered for this blanket were 2 x 4 x .02 cm wrap-around cells, 2 x 2 x .005 cm and 3 x 3 x .005 cm standard bar contact thin cells, all welded contacts. Existing fabrication processes are described, the rationale for each process is discussed, and the capability for further automation is discussed.

  18. 77 FR 12281 - Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 15, 2012, Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company (Williston Basin), 1250 West Century Avenue, Bismarck, North Dakota 58503, pursuant to its blanket...

  19. Spray-on technique simplifies fabrication of complex thermal insulation blanket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, W. E. G.; Raymond, R.

    1966-01-01

    Spray-on process constructs molds used in forming sections of thermal insulation blankets. The process simplifies the fabrication of blankets by eliminating much of the equipment formerly required and decreasing the time involved.

  20. Double layered tailorable advanced blanket insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falstrup, D.

    1983-01-01

    An advanced flexible reusable surface insulation material for future space shuttle flights was investigated. A conventional fly shuttle loom with special modifications to weave an integral double layer triangular core fabric from quartz yarn was used. Two types of insulating material were inserted into the cells of the fabric, and a procedure to accomplish this was developed. The program is follow up of a program in which single layer rectangular cell core fabrics are woven and a single type of insulating material was inserted into the cells.

  1. 27 CFR 478.149 - Armor piercing ammunition manufactured or imported for the purpose of testing or experimentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Armor piercing ammunition... Armor piercing ammunition manufactured or imported for the purpose of testing or experimentation. The provisions of §§ 478.37 and 478.99(d) with respect to the manufacture or importation of armor...

  2. 27 CFR 478.149 - Armor piercing ammunition manufactured or imported for the purpose of testing or experimentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Armor piercing ammunition... Armor piercing ammunition manufactured or imported for the purpose of testing or experimentation. The provisions of §§ 478.37 and 478.99(d) with respect to the manufacture or importation of armor...

  3. 27 CFR 478.149 - Armor piercing ammunition manufactured or imported for the purpose of testing or experimentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Armor piercing ammunition... Armor piercing ammunition manufactured or imported for the purpose of testing or experimentation. The provisions of §§ 478.37 and 478.99(d) with respect to the manufacture or importation of armor...

  4. 27 CFR 478.149 - Armor piercing ammunition manufactured or imported for the purpose of testing or experimentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Armor piercing ammunition... Armor piercing ammunition manufactured or imported for the purpose of testing or experimentation. The provisions of §§ 478.37 and 478.99(d) with respect to the manufacture or importation of armor...

  5. 27 CFR 478.149 - Armor piercing ammunition manufactured or imported for the purpose of testing or experimentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Armor piercing ammunition... Armor piercing ammunition manufactured or imported for the purpose of testing or experimentation. The provisions of §§ 478.37 and 478.99(d) with respect to the manufacture or importation of armor...

  6. Development, Field Test, and Refinement of Performance Training Programs in Armor Advanced Individual Training. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Douglas L.; Taylor, John E.

    Performance-oriented instruction was developed, field tested, and refined in two Advanced Individual Training (AIT) programs--Armor Reconnaissance Specialist (MOS 11D) and Armor Crewman (MOS 11E). Tasks for both MOS (Military Occupational Specialty) were inventoried and the inventories were reduced by eliminating those tasks which are not required…

  7. Body armor, performance, and physiology during repeated high-intensity work tasks.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Brianna; Netto, Kevin; Skovli, Daniel; Vincs, Kim; Vu, Sarah; Aisbett, Brad

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the effect of body armor during repeated, intermittent high-intensity simulated military work. Twelve males performed 11 repetitions of a military style circuit, wearing no armor on one occasion and full armor (approximately 17 kg) on another. Performance was measured by the time to complete individual work tasks plus overall circuit time to completion. Heart rate, intestinal temperature, and rating of perceived exertion were recorded after each circuit. Participants' circuit time to completion was 7.3 +/- 1.0 seconds slower (p <0.01) when wearing armor. Shooting, vaulting, and crawling were also slower (0.8 +/- 0.2, 0.4 +/- 0.2, and 1.0 +/- 0.4 seconds, respectively; all p < or = 0.05). No differences were observed for box lifting. Higher core temperatures were reported for the armor condition for circuit's 7 to 11 (p = 0.01-0.05). Rating of perceived exertion was higher (1 +/- 0; p = 0.03) when wearing armor. No differences were observed for heart rate. Wearing armor impairs repeated high-intensity military task performance. In the relatively short work time utilized, this decrement did not accrue over time. The impairment may, then, be related to the armor load, rather than accumulating fatigue.

  8. Demonstrating Nonhexavelent Chrome Steel Conversion Coatings on Stryker High Hard Armor Steel Hatches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    protection against armor-piercing threats, these steels corrode rapidly without the use of a good corrosion protective coating ...stress corrosion cracking. • Provides a more robust process that will protect against deficiencies in the inorganic coating process. Advantages...of other systems provide good protection against armor-piercing threats. However, these steels corrode rapidly without good corrosion protective

  9. Inspecting Composite Ceramic Armor Using Advanced Signal Processing Together with Phased Array Ultrasound

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-08

    processing techniques have been developed to help improve phased array ultrasonic inspection and analysis of multi-layered ceramic armor panels. The...INSPECTING COMPOSITE CERAMIC ARMOR USING ADVANCED SIGNAL PROCESSING TOGETHER WITH PHASED ARRAY ULTRASOUND J. S. Steckenrider Illinois College...immersion phased array ultrasound system. Some of these specimens had intentional design defects inserted interior to the specimens. Because of the very

  10. Dynamic Material Properties of Orthotropic Polymer and Molybdenum for Use in Next Generation Composite Armor Concept?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    defeating Tantalum projectile while armor grade steel (right) failed This numerical model used for these simulations was developed using the Autodyn ...simulation using the hydro code AUTODYNE ® was performed to further verify the validity of the layered armor concept. 8 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT

  11. 48 CFR 225.7011 - Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate. 225.7011 Section 225.7011 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate....

  12. 48 CFR 225.7011 - Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate. 225.7011 Section 225.7011 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate....

  13. 48 CFR 225.7011 - Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate. 225.7011 Section 225.7011 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate....

  14. 48 CFR 225.7011 - Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate. 225.7011 Section 225.7011 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate....

  15. 48 CFR 225.7011 - Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate. 225.7011 Section 225.7011 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate....

  16. 76 FR 22920 - Stab Resistance of Personal Body Armor (2000) Standard Special Technical Committee Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Stab Resistance of Personal Body Armor (2000) Standard Special Technical... Institute of Justice (NIJ) is in the process of revising its Stab Resistance of Personal Body Armor...

  17. 30 CFR 75.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conduits enclosing power conductors. 75.700 Section 75.700 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Grounding § 75.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. All metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors shall be electrically continuous throughout...

  18. Origin of the 44-mm behind-armor blunt trauma standard.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Erin; Gillich, Patrick

    2012-03-01

    A number of armed assaults on public officials occurred in the early 1970s, which prompted the Lightweight Soft Body Armor Program to develop modern, concealable, soft body armor. Methodology needed to be developed to (1) determine the effectiveness of the soft body armor to stop bullet penetration and (2) assess the potential injury from nonpenetrating blunt impacts to the body. Extensive research was performed under the program to develop methodologies to assess soft body armor, including behind-armor blunt trauma (BABT) evaluation. This methodology is still used today, and it has been applied extensively beyond the original intent. However, the origin of this methodology is not well understood by many researchers in the various fields in which it is being applied because the original documentation is difficult to obtain. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the BABT to offer researchers information about its history and limitations.

  19. 18 CFR 33.1 - Applicability, definitions, and blanket authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 203 of the Federal Power Act (16 U.S.C. 824b). (1) Existing generation facility means a generation... electric power cooperative. (5) For purposes of this part, the term captive customers means any wholesale... an electric utility is granted a blanket authorization under section 203(a)(2) of the Federal...

  20. 18 CFR 33.1 - Applicability, definitions, and blanket authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 203 of the Federal Power Act (16 U.S.C. 824b). (1) Existing generation facility means a generation... electric power cooperative. (5) For purposes of this part, the term captive customers means any wholesale... an electric utility is granted a blanket authorization under section 203(a)(2) of the Federal...

  1. 48 CFR 313.303 - Blanket purchase agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements. 313.303 Section 313.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisition Methods...

  2. Unified first wall-blanket structure for plasma device applications

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    1987-01-01

    A plasma device for use in controlling nuclear reactions within the plasma including a first wall and blanket formed in a one-piece structure composed of a solid solution containing copper and lithium and melting above about 500.degree. C.

  3. Measuring High Temperatures In Ceramic-Fiber Blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.

    1996-01-01

    Thermocouple assemblies devised specifically for measuring temperatures at fixed locations within insulating blankets made of such ceramic fibers as alumina, silicon carbide, and/or aluminoborosilicate. Thermocouples measure temperatures from 100 to 3,200 degrees F in oxidizing atmospheres. Wires enclosed in alumina sheath for protection against hot oxidation and mechanical damage.

  4. 18 CFR 152.1 - Exemption applications and blanket certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATION FOR EXEMPTION FROM THE PROVISIONS OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT PURSUANT TO SECTION 1(C) THEREOF AND ISSUANCE OF BLANKET...) Application for exemption from the provisions of the Natural Gas Act and the rules and regulations of...

  5. Unified first wall - blanket structure for plasma device applications

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.

    A plasma device is described for use in controlling nuclear reactions within the plasma including a first wall and blanket formed in a one-piece structure composed of a solid solution containing copper and lithium and melting above about 500/sup 0/C.

  6. Technical issues for beryllium use in fusion blanket applications

    SciTech Connect

    McCarville, T.J.; Berwald, D.H.; Wolfer, W.; Fulton, F.J.; Lee, J.D.; Maninger, R.C.; Moir, R.W.; Beeston, J.M.; Miller, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    Beryllium is an excellent non-fissioning neutron multiplier for fusion breeder and fusion electric blanket applications. This report is a compilation of information related to the use of beryllium with primary emphasis on the fusion breeder application. Beryllium resources, production, fabrication, properties, radiation damage and activation are discussed. A new theoretical model for beryllium swelling is presented.

  7. 18 CFR 284.303 - OCS blanket certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... open-access, nondiscriminatory transportation service pursuant to a blanket transportation certificate... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978...

  8. SEAL Studies of Variant Blanket Concepts and Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, I.; Taylor, N. P.; Forty, C. B. A.; Han, W. E.

    1997-09-01

    Within the European SEAL ( Safety and Environmental Assessment of fusion power, Long-term) program, safety and environmental assessments have been performed which extend the results of the earlier SEAFP (Safety and Environmental Assessment of Fusion Power) program to a wider range of blanket designs and material choices. The four blanket designs analysed were those which had been developed within the Blanket program of the European Fusion Programme. All four are based on martensitic steel as structural material, and otherwise may be summarized as: water-cooled lithium-lead; dual-cooled lithium-lead; helium-cooled lithium silicate (BOT geometry); helium-cooled lithium aluminate (or zirconate) (BIT geometry). The results reveal that all the blankets show the favorable S&E characteristics of fusion, though there are interesting and significant differences between them. The key results are described. Assessments have also been performed of a wider range of materials than was considered in SEAFP. These were: an alternative vanadium alloy, an alternative low-activation martensitic steel, titanium-aluminum intermetallic, and SiC composite. Assessed impurities were included in the compositions, and these had very important effects upon some of the results. Key results impacting upon accident characteristics, recycling, and waste management are described.

  9. Ballistic Performance of Alimina/S-2 Glass-Reinforced Polymer-Matrix Composite Hybrid Lightweight Armor Against Armor Piercing (AP) and Non-AP Projectiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Armor Piercing Projectile, Fragment Simulating Projectile, Ceramic/Composite Hybrid Armor, AUTODYN NOMENCLATURE A - Material Specific Constant...Phenomena All the calculations carried out in the present work are done using AUTODYN , a general purpose non-linear dynamics modeling and simulation...software [8]. AUTODYN falls into a group of computer programs known as “hydrocodes”, which are particularly suited for modeling explosion, blast, impact

  10. Assessment of alkali metal coolants for the ITER blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Reed, C.B.; Mattas, R.F.

    1994-06-01

    The blanket system is one of the most important components of a fusion reactor because it has a major impact on both the economics and safety of fusion energy. The primary functions of the blanket in a deuterium/tritium-fueled fusion reactor are to convert the fusion energy into sensible heat and to breed tritium for the fuel cycle. The Blanket Comparison and Selection Study, conducted earlier, described the overall comparative performance of different blanket concepts, including liquid metal, molten salt, water and helium. This paper will discuss the ITER requirements for a self-cooled blanket concept with liquid lithium and for indirectly cooled concepts that use other alkali metals such as NaK. The paper addresses the thermodynamics of interactions between the liquid metals (e.g., lithium and NaK) and structural materials (e.g., V-base alloys), together with associated corrosion/compatibility issues. Available experimental data are used to assess the long-term performance of the first wall in a liquid metal environment. Other key issues include development of electrical insulator coatings on the first-wall structural material to MHD pressure drop, and tritium permeation/inventory in self-cooled and indirectly cooled concepts. Acceptable types of coatings (based on their chemical compatibility and physical properties) are identified, and surface-modification avenues to achieve these coatings on the first wall are discussed. The assessment examines the extent of our knowledge on structural materials performance in liquid metals and identifies needed research and development in several of the areas in order to establish performance envelopes for the first wall in a liquid-metal environment.

  11. Ballistic Resistance of Body Armor. NIJ Standard-0101.06

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    Fahrenheit lbf pound force rf radio frequency diam diameter lbf⋅in pound force inch rh relative humidity emf electromotive force lm lumen s second...the surface that should face the incoming ballistic threat. Also, the side of the armor opposite the wear face (see 3.51 Wear Face). 3.47 Test Series ...sequence and before each 12 shot BL test sequence. During P-BFS testing, a post-test drop series shall also be performed immediately following the last

  12. Simulation of armor penetration by tungsten rods: ALEGRA validation report

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, D.E.; Hertel, E.S. Jr.; Trucano, T.G.

    1997-11-01

    Results from simulations of the impact and penetration of tungsten alloy rods into thick rolled armor plates are presented. The calculations were performed with the CTH and ALEGRA computer codes using the DOE massively parallel TFLOPS computer co-developed by Sandia National Laboratory and Intel Corporation. Comparisons with experimental results are presented. Agreement of the two codes with each other and with the empirical results for penetration channel depth and radius is very close. Other shock physics and penetration features are also compared to simulation results.

  13. The Army Needs a Strategic Armored Gun System--Now

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-05

    the AGS ROC. IVECO- Fiat, The Italian firm o4 IVECO- Fiat has proposed three variants as candidates for the AGS! - The Centauro 9x8 wheeled light...armored vehicle with OTO Melana, i05mm turret. - The Centauro SxO with the Cadillac-Gage 105mm turret mounting the Royal Ordnance L-7 105mm gun. - The... Centauro 6x6 with the LAV-i10mm turret and EX-35 gun. The three systems cannot meet many of the AGE requirements# primarily weightp since the heaviest

  14. Numerical simulation of armored vehicles subjected to undercarriage landmine blasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdik, A.; Kilic, S. A.; Kilic, N.; Bedir, S.

    2016-07-01

    Landmine threats play a crucial role in the design of armored personnel carriers. Therefore, a reliable blast simulation methodology is valuable to the vehicle design development process. The first part of this study presents a parametric approach for the quantification of the important factors such as the incident overpressure, the reflected overpressure, the incident impulse, and the reflected impulse for the blast simulations that employ the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation. The effects of mesh resolution, mesh topology, and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) parameters are discussed. The simulation results are compared with the calculations of the more established CONventional WEaPons (CONWEP) approach based on the available experimental data. The initial findings show that the spherical topology provides advantages over the Cartesian mesh domains. Furthermore, the FSI parameters play an important role when coarse Lagrangian finite elements are coupled with fine Eulerian elements at the interface. The optimum mesh topology and the mesh resolution of the parametric study are then used in the landmine blast simulation. The second part of the study presents the experimental blast response of an armored vehicle subjected to a landmine explosion under the front left wheel in accordance with the NATO AEP-55 Standard. The results of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental measurements.

  15. Ceramic/polymer functionally graded material (FGM) lightweight armor system

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Functionally graded material is an enabling technology for lightweight body armor improvements. The objective was to demonstrate the ability to produce functionally graded ceramic-polymer and ceramic-metal lightweight armor materials. This objective involved two aspects. The first and key aspect was the development of graded-porosity boron-carbide ceramic microstructures. The second aspect was the development of techniques for liquid infiltration of lightweight metals and polymers into the graded-porosity ceramic. The authors were successful in synthesizing boron-carbide ceramic microstructures with graded porosity. These graded-porosity boron-carbide hot-pressed pieces were then successfully liquid-infiltrated in vacuum with molten aluminum at 1,300 C, and with liquid polymers at room temperature. Thus, they were able to demonstrate the feasibility of producing boron carbide-aluminum and boron carbide-polymer functionally graded materials.

  16. Superelement Analysis of Tile-Reinforced Composite Armor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.

    1998-01-01

    Super-elements can greatly improve the computational efficiency of analyses of tile-reinforced structures such as the hull of the Composite Armored Vehicle. By taking advantage of the periodicity in this type of construction, super-elements can be used to simplify the task of modeling, to virtually eliminate the time required to assemble the stiffness matrices, and to reduce significantly the analysis solution time. Furthermore, super-elements are fully transferable between analyses and analysts, so that they provide a consistent method to share information and reduce duplication. This paper describes a methodology that was developed to model and analyze large upper hull components of the Composite Armored Vehicle. The analyses are based on two types of superelement models. The first type is based on element-layering, which consists of modeling a laminate by using several layers of shell elements constrained together with compatibility equations. Element layering is used to ensure the proper transverse shear deformation in the laminate rubber layer. The second type of model uses three-dimensional elements. Since no graphical pre-processor currently supports super-elements, a special technique based on master-elements was developed. Master-elements are representations of super-elements that are used in conjunction with a custom translator to write the superelement connectivities as input decks for ABAQUS.

  17. Computational model for armor penetration. Annual report No. 3, October 1980-April 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Erlich, D.C.; Seaman, L.; Cooper, T.; Caligiuri, R.D.; Curran, D.R.

    1987-10-01

    This is the first volume of a two-volume series comprising the third annual report for the program Computational Model for Armor Penetration. The objective of the program was to develop a phenomenologically sound material-disintegration model for computationally simulating armor penetration by projectile impact. The model would provide the capability to predict the ballistic limit and downrange fragment size and velocity distributions and would eventually be used by the DoD for armor and penetrator design. The materials studied in the program were 4340 steel and depleted uranium alloy, (DU) for the penetrators, and rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) for the target. This Volume reports on the experimental and analytical work performed during the third year to conclude the development of a computational model, SHEAR3, that describes the dominant material failure and fragmentation process (adiabatic shear banding) responsible for long-rod penetrator erosion and thick armor plate plugging and fragmentation. Volume 1 also describes application of SHEAR3 with the Lagrangian wave propagation code C-HEMP to computationally simulate penetration of armor plate by normally impacting long rods both near the ballistic limit and at higher velocities sufficient to produce significant back-of-the-armor fragmentation.

  18. The effects of exercise and body armor on cognitive function in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Aaron P J; Cole, Jon C

    2013-05-01

    Police officers routinely wear body armor to protect themselves against the threat posed by firearms and edged weapons, yet little is known of the cognitive effects of doing so. Two studies investigated the effects of exercise and body armor on working memory function in healthy volunteers. In study 1, male undergraduates were assigned to one of four groups: (i) brief exercise, (ii) brief exercise wearing body armor, (iii) extended exercise, and (iv) extended exercise wearing body armor. In study 2, university gym members were assigned to one of two groups: (i) wearing body armor and (ii) not wearing body armor. In both studies, heart rate and oral temperature were measured before, immediately after, and 5 minutes after exercise. The phonemic verbal fluency task and digits backward test were administered at the same time points. In both studies, a mixed analysis of variance revealed statistically significant changes to the cognitive functioning of participants. A change in cognitive strategy was observed, reflected by a decrease in executive function (switches) and an increase in nonexecutive function (cluster size). These data suggest that the cognitive effects of exercise and body armor may have profound implications for police officers' ability to make tactical decisions.

  19. APT target/blanket design and thermal hydraulics

    SciTech Connect

    Cappiello, M.; Pitcher, E.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.

    1999-04-01

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Target/Blanket (T/B) system is comprised of an assembly of tritium producing modules supported by control, heat removal, shielding and retargeting systems. The T/B assembly produces tritium using a high-energy proton beam, a tungsten/lead spallation neutron source and {sup 3}He gas as the tritium producing feedstock. For the nominal production mode, protons are accelerated to an energy of 1030 MeV at a current of 100 mA and are directed onto the T/B assembly. The protons are expanded using a raster/expansion system to illuminate a 0.19m by 1.9m beam spot on the front face of a centrally located tungsten neutron source. A surrounding lead blanket produces additional neutrons from scattered high-energy particles. The tungsten neutron source consists of nested, Inconel-718 clad tungsten cylinders assembled in horizontal Inconel-718 tubes. Each tube contains up to 6 cylinders with annular flow channel gaps of 0.102 cm. These horizontal tubes are manifolded into larger diameter vertical inlet and outlet pipes, which provide coolant. The horizontal and vertical tubes make up a structure similar to that of rungs on a ladder. The entire tungsten neutron source consists of 11 such ladders separated into two modules, one containing five ladders and the other six. Ladders are separated by a 0.3 m void region to increase nucleon leakage. The peak thermal-hydraulic conditions in the tungsten neutron source occur in the second ladder from the front. Because tungsten neutron source design has a significant number of parallel flow channels, the limiting thermal-hydraulic parameter is the onset of significant void (OSV) rather than critical heat flux (CHF). A blanket region surrounds the tungsten neutron source. The lateral blanket region is approximately 120 cm thick and 400 cm high. Blanket material consists of lead, {sup 3}He gas, aluminum, and light-water coolant. The blanket region is subdivided into rows based on the local power

  20. Flexible Straws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentice, Gerard

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the use of flexible straws for teaching properties of figures and families of shapes. Describes a way to make various two- or three-dimensional geometric shapes. Lists eight advantages of the method. (YP)

  1. Pretest Predictions of Long-Rod Interactions with Armor Technology Targets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    July 2 (1993). I 39. Y. Partom, "Ceramic Armor Resistance to Long-Rod Penetration (R.) and its Dependence on Projectile Velocity," Report No. IAT.R...I * AD - A281 384I Jllllll I PRETEST PREDICTIONS OF LONG-ROD INTERACTIONS WITH ARMOR TECHNOLOGY TARGETS DTIC I ELECTE Charles E. Anderson, Jr. JUL... Armor Technology Targets 6. AUTHR(S) j A 9-~-O Charles E. Anderson, Jr. DAvid L. Littlefield 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8

  2. US Army Armor Reference Data in Three Volumes. Volume III. Division 86 Organizations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    AD-AIIS 857 ARMY ARMOR SCHOOL FORT KNOX KY F/G 19/ 3 US ARMY ARMOR REFERENCE DATA IN THREE VOLUMES. VOLUME 11. DrVi--ETC(U) 1981UNCLASSIFIED ST-17-1...VOL- 3 S@I-AOD-250 004 NL3illlllllllll mlllllllllllll mIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIIIIIIIIhI IIIIIIIIIIIhI IIIIIIIIIIIhI ST 17-1 -1 US ARMY ,~ ARMOR REFERENCE...DCUMNTATON AGEREAD INSTRUCTIONSREPRT OCUENATIN PGEBEFORE COMPLETING FORM 1. REPORT NUMBER 2. GOVT ACCESSION No. 3 . RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE

  3. Analysis of Tile-Reinforced Composite Armor. Part 1; Advanced Modeling and Strength Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, C. G.; Chen, Tzi-Kang; Baker, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    The results of an analytical and experimental study of the structural response and strength of tile-reinforced components of the Composite Armored Vehicle are presented. The analyses are based on specialized finite element techniques that properly account for the effects of the interaction between the armor tiles, the surrounding elastomers, and the glass-epoxy sublaminates. To validate the analytical predictions, tests were conducted with panels subjected to three-point bending loads. The sequence of progressive failure events for the laminates is described. This paper describes the results of Part 1 of a study of the response and strength of tile-reinforced composite armor.

  4. Historical Review of the Correlation of Ballistic and Metallurgical Characteristics of Domestic Armor at Watertown Arsenal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-12-07

    Blaw - Knox Company. A. Hurlich. 136. 1 A~ugust. Report No. B710/532. Armor--Development of a Yracture Test to Indicate the Degree of Hardening of Armor...Report No. M710/61, Metallurgical Examination of Section from 6" Experimental M4A3k2 Assault Turret Manufactured by Unien Steel Castings Div. of Blaw ... Knox Co. P. V. Riffin. 197. 24 July. Report No, E710/611. Armor Plate--Rolled, Investigation of Experimental Heat Treatments of 3/S Inch Thick

  5. Neutronic design of the APT Target/Blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Pitcher, E.J.; Russell, G.J.; Kidman, R.B.; Ferguson, P.D.

    1997-12-01

    The primary function of the Accelerator Production of Tritium Target/Blanket assembly is the safe and efficient production of tritium. The T/B accepts a 1.7-GeV, 100-mA proton beam and produces neutrons via the spallation process. These neutrons then react with {sup 3}He to produce tritium. Neutronic optimization of the T/B is achieved by efficiently using the proton beam to produce neutrons and then, once produced, assuring that they are captured mostly by {sup 3}He. This optimization must occur within the constraints imposed by engineering considerations such as heat flux limits, structural integrity, fabricability, and safe and reliable operation. The target/blanket achieves these goals with a neutron production rate that is 75% of that achievable with an ideal target, and a neutronic efficiency of 84%, leading to an overall tritium production rate that is 63% of the theoretical maximum.

  6. APT {sup 3}He target/blanket. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The {sup 3}He target/blanket (T/B) preconceptual design for the 3/8-Goal facility is based on a 1000-MeV, 200-mA accelerator to produce a high-intensity proton beam that is expanded and then strikes one of two T/B modules. Each module consists of a centralized neutron source made of tungsten and lead, a proton beam backstop region made of zirconium and lead, and a moderator made of D{sub 2}O. Helium-3 gas is circulated through the neutron source region and the blanket to create tritium through neutron capture. The gas is continually processed to extract the tritium with an online separation process.

  7. Efficacy of the blizzard blanket or blizzard blanket plus thermal angel in preventing hypothermia in a hemorrhagic shock victim (Sus scrofa) under operational conditions.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Elizabeth; Schmelz, Joseph; Evers, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The prevention of hypothermia in military casualties under field conditions is challenging. The efficacy of a baffled reflective Blanket (Blizzard Blanket), a portable intravenous fluid warmer (Thermal Angel), and wool Blankets (control) in preventing hypothermia was tested under military field conditions in a swine hemorrhagic shock model. Fifteen pigs were bled at 10 degrees C. After 45 minutes, Hextend was administered (groups 1 and 3, at 10 degrees C; group 2, via Thermal Angel); groups 2 and 3 were encircled with a Blizzard Blanket. After 120 minutes, the pigs were moved to 21 degrees C to simulate a field hospital; group 1 was covered with Blankets. Blood was administered (groups 1 and 3, at 4 degrees C; group 2, via Thermal Angel) with 180 minutes of monitoring. The core temperature was <35 degrees C in five of five control pigs, four of five Blizzard-only pigs, and one of five Thermal Angel plus Blizzard Blanket pigs. The Blizzard Blanket limited but did not prevent hypothermia. The Thermal Angel plus Blizzard Blanket combination prevented hypothermia. The Thermal Angel is useful for bolus administration when electricity is limited; its military field use is constrained by battery weight and battery life.

  8. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-01

    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li/sub 2/O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N/sub 2/) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concepts are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li/sub 2/O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concept are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue.

  9. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-01

    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li/sub 2/O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N/sub 2/) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concept are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li/sub 2/O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concepts are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue.

  10. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-01

    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li/sub 2/O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N/sub 2/) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concept are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li/sub 2/O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concept are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue.

  11. Thermal creep of granular breeder materials in fusion blankets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bühler, L.; Reimann, J.

    2002-12-01

    Continuum models for granular materials in fusion blankets are efficient tools for modeling of the nonlinear elastic behavior of pebble beds, granular particle flow caused by shear, volume compaction and hardening. The present paper describes how the material models used in finite element analyses can be extended in order to account additionally for thermally activated creep. The derived material model gives results which are in reasonable accordance with experimental data for pebble beds.

  12. Helium-3 blankets for tritium breeding in fusion reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiner, Don; Embrechts, Mark; Varsamis, Georgios; Vesey, Roger; Gierszewski, Paul

    1988-01-01

    It is concluded that He-3 blankets offers considerable promise for tritium breeding in fusion reactors: good breeding potential, low operational risk, and attractive safety features. The availability of He-3 resources is the key issue for this concept. There is sufficient He-3 from decay of military stockpiles to meet the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor needs. Extraterrestrial sources of He-3 would be required for a fusion power economy.

  13. Space environment durability of beta cloth in LDEF thermal blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linton, Roger C.; Whitaker, Ann F.; Finckenor, Miria M.

    1993-01-01

    Beta cloth performance for use on long-term space vehicles such as Space Station Freedom (S.S. Freedom) requires resistance to the degrading effects of the space environment. The major issues are retention of thermal insulating properties through maintaining optical properties, preserving mechanical integrity, and generating minimal particulates for contamination-sensitive spacecraft surfaces and payloads. The longest in-flight test of beta cloth's durability was on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), where it was exposed to the space environment for 68 months. The LDEF contained 57 experiments which further defined the space environment and its effects on spacecraft materials. It was deployed into low-Earth orbit (LEO) in Apr. 1984 and retrieved Jan. 1990 by the space shuttle. Among the 10,000 plus material constituents and samples onboard were thermal control blankets of multilayer insulation with a beta cloth outer cover and Velcro attachments. These blankets were exposed to hard vacuum, thermal cycling, charged particles, meteoroid/debris impacts, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and atomic oxygen (AO). Of these space environmental exposure elements, AO appears to have had the greatest effect on the beta cloth. The beta cloth analyzed in this report came from the MSFC Experiment S1005 (Transverse Flat-Plate Heat Pipe) tray oriented approximately 22 deg from the leading edge vector of the LDEF satellite. The location of the tray on LDEF and the placement of the beta cloth thermal blankets are shown. The specific space environment exposure conditions for this material are listed.

  14. Development of Flexible Extremities Protection utilizing Shear Thickening Fluid/Fabric Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-19

    of silica and the solution is evaporated to 1. REPORT DATE ( DD -MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 19-01-2012 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views, opinions...Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS STF, Flexible Armor, Kevlar, Spectra , Spike Test, Knife Test Mahesh Hosur...develop a bonding with PEG. This helped develop a Si-O-Si (siloxane) bond as evidenced in the FTIR spectra of silated silica. SEM pictures also showed

  15. The effect of body armor on performance, thermal stress, and exertion: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Brianna; Netto, Kevin; Aisbett, Brad

    2011-11-01

    Armed forces worldwide utilize some form of body armor as part of their personal protective system. This is particularly essential in recent times because of the increased sophistication of weapons employed during modern warfare and the advent of unconventional combat methods (such as the increased use of improvised explosive devices). There is some evidence to show, however, that the usage of military body armor impairs physical performance. This review of the literature will focus on the effect of body armor on the performance of, and physiological and subjective responses during, military-style physical tasks. Because of the paucity of research investigating body armor, this review will also draw upon more generalized personal protective clothing and equipment literature from a range of physically demanding occupations (i.e., firefighting and other emergency services). The review will conclude with suggested directions for future research in this area.

  16. Use of body armor protection with fighting load impacts soldier performance and kinematics.

    PubMed

    Loverro, Kari L; Brown, Tyler N; Coyne, Megan E; Schiffman, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this evaluation was to examine how increasing body armor protection with and without a fighting load impacted soldiers' performance and mobility. Thirteen male soldiers performed one performance (repeated 30-m rushing) and three mobility tasks (walk, walk over and walk under) with three different body armor configurations and an anterior fighting load. Increasing body armor protection, decreased soldier performance, as individual and total 30-m rush times were significantly longer with greater protection. While increasing body armor protection had no impact on mobility, i.e. significant effect on trunk and lower limb biomechanics, during the walk and walk over tasks, greater protection did significantly decrease maximum trunk flexion during the walk under task. Adding fighting load may negatively impact soldier mobility, as greater maximum trunk extension was evident during the walk and walk over tasks, and decreased maximum trunk flexion exhibited during the walk under task with the fighting load.

  17. Core Temperature and Surface Heat Flux During Exercise in Heat While Wearing Body Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-26

    20 Physiological Responses (general) .................................................................. 20 Metabolism...21 Specific Physiological and Performance Measurements .................................. 21...This report describes the physiological responses of soldiers wearing combat clothing and body armor (BA) while treadmill walking in a climatic

  18. 30 CFR 77.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 77.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors... conductors shall be electrically continuous throughout and shall be grounded by methods approved by...

  19. A Discrete Element Model of Armor Glass Fragmentation and Comminution Failure Under Compression

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Wei; Sun, Xin

    2016-02-15

    Because of its exceptional compressive resistance and crystal-clear appearance, lightweight glass has been traditionally used in transparent armor applications. However, due to its brittle nature, glass fails differently from ductile materials in the sense that glass fragmentation occurs instantly ahead of the projectile tip upon penetration. The effective residual strength of the armor glass then inevitably relies on the damaged glass strength within such comminuted zones with confinement from the surrounding intact materials. Physical understanding of damaged glass strength therefore becomes highly critical to the further development of armor designs. In the present study, a discrete element based modeling framework has been developed to understand and predict the evolution of compressive damages and residual strength of armor glasses. With the characteristic fragmentation and comminution failures explicitly resolved, their influences on the mechanical degradation of the loaded glass materials have been evaluated. The effects of essential loading conditions and material properties have also been investigated.

  20. Shock imprint and rolling direction influence upon the breaking tenacity for 2P armor steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zichil, V.; Coseru, A.; Schnakovszky, C.; Herghelegiu, E.; Radu, C.

    2016-08-01

    The state of art in present literature shows that the breaking tenacity of a material is influenced by the integrity of the structure. Since armors used in aviation and to protect military vehicles are frequently impact loaded, through the contact between armor sheet and projectiles, or other foreign bodies, the authors have proposed to study the dependence between the breaking tenacity of 2P armor steel depending on the direction of the rolling of the armor plate, of the geometry (spherical imprint, pyramidal and linear imprint) and the depth of the deformation that results after impact. Tests were conducted upon CT (ASTM E- 399) specimen type, using the critical factor of stress intensity during the state of planar strain.

  1. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 crew member Nikolai Budarin stands ready for a practice drive in an M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the pad, one of the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities in preparation for launch. The TCDT also includes a simulated launch countdown. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  2. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-113 Pilot Paul Lockhart test drives an M-113 armored personnel carrier, part of emergency egress training during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. He is accompanied by several other crew members, seen at left, Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria and Commander James Wetherbee. The crew is preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Also onboard Space Shuttle Endeavour will be the Expedition 6 crew who will replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months.

  3. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-113 Pilot Paul Lockhart stands inside an M-113 armored personnel carrier he is about to drive, part of emergency egress training during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. He and the rest of the crew are preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Also onboard Space Shuttle Endeavour will be the Expedition 6 crew who will replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months.

  4. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 crew member Donald Pettit stands ready for a practice drive in an M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the pad, one of the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities in preparation for launch. The TCDT also includes a simulated launch countdown. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  5. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 crew member Nikolai Budarin takes his turn driving an M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the pad. The crew is preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, by taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown.. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  6. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-113 Mission Specialist John Herrington stands inside an M-113 armored personnel carrier that he is about to drive as part of emergency egress training during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. He and the rest of the crew are preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Also onboard Space Shuttle Endeavour will be the Expedition 6 crew who will replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months.

  7. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-113 Mission Specialist John Herrington is at the wheel of an M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the pad. He is accompanied by (left) Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria and Commander James Wetherbee. The crew is preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, by taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown.. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Also onboard Space Shuttle Endeavour will be the Expedition 6 crew who will replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months.

  8. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 Commander Ken Bowersox stands ready for a practice drive in an M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the pad, one of the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities in preparation for launch. The TCDT also includes a simulated launch countdown. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  9. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-113 Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria concentrates on driving an M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the pad. He is accompanied by (far left) Mission Specialist John Herrington and Commander James Wetherbee. Behind Lopez-Alegria is Pilot Paul Lockhart. The crew is preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, by taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown.. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Also onboard Space Shuttle Endeavour will be the Expedition 6 crew who will replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months.

  10. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The Expedition 6 crew pauses for a photo after emergency egress training at the pad, which included driving the M-113 armored personnel carrier behind them. The crew is preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, by taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown.. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  11. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- During emergency egress training at the pad, Expedition 6 crew member Donald Pettit stands inside an M-113 armored personnel carrier before his practice drive. The training is part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities in preparation for launch. The TCDT also includes a simulated launch countdown. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  12. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 crew member Donald Pettit concentrates on driving an M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the pad. The crew is preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, by taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown.. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  13. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-113 Mission Commander James Wetherbee practices driving an M-113 armored personnel carrier, part of emergency egress training during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. He and the rest of the crew are preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10. The TCDT includes a launch countdown. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Also onboard Space Shuttle Endeavour will be the Expedition 6 crew who will replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months.

  14. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - STS-113 Mission Commander James Wetherbee gets ready to drive an M-113 armored personnel carrier, part of emergency egress training during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. He and the rest of the crew are preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10. The TCDT includes a launch countdown. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Also onboard Space Shuttle Endeavour will be the Expedition 6 crew who will replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months.

  15. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - STS-113 Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria is ready to begin a test drive behind the wheel of an M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the pad. He and the rest of the crew are preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, by taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Also onboard Space Shuttle Endeavour will be the Expedition 6 crew who will replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months.

  16. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The STS-113 crew pause for a photo after test drives in the M-113 armored personnel carrier behind them. From left are Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria, Pilot Paul Lockhart, Commander James Wetherbee and Mission Specialist John Herrington. Driving the M-113 is part of emergency egress training at the pad, one of the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities in preparation for launch. The TCDT also includes a simulated launch countdown. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Also onboard Space Shuttle Endeavour will be the Expedition 6 crew who will replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months.

  17. Polythioether Particles Armored with Modifiable Graphene Oxide Nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Rodier, Bradley J; Mosher, Eric P; Burton, Spencer T; Matthews, Rachael; Pentzer, Emily

    2016-06-01

    Facile and scalable fabrication methods are attractive to prepare materials for diverse applications. Herein, a method is presented to prepare cross-linked polymeric nanoparticles with graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets covalently attached to the surface. Alkene-modified GO serves as a surfactant in a miniemulsion polymerization, and the alkene functionalities of GO exposed to the oil-phase are incorporated into the polymer particle through thiol-ene reactions, leaving the unreacted alkene functional groups of the other face of GO available for further functionalization. The surface of GO-armored polymer particles is then modified with a small molecule fluorophore or carboxylic acid functional groups that bind to Fe2 O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles. This methodology provides a facile route to preparing complex hybrid composite materials.

  18. Coated armor system and process for making the same

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry S.; Lillo, Thomas M.; McHugh, Kevin M.

    2010-11-23

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  19. Screen-printed flexible MRI receive coils.

    PubMed

    Corea, Joseph R; Flynn, Anita M; Lechêne, Balthazar; Scott, Greig; Reed, Galen D; Shin, Peter J; Lustig, Michael; Arias, Ana C

    2016-03-10

    Magnetic resonance imaging is an inherently signal-to-noise-starved technique that limits the spatial resolution, diagnostic image quality and results in typically long acquisition times that are prone to motion artefacts. This limitation is exacerbated when receive coils have poor fit due to lack of flexibility or need for padding for patient comfort. Here, we report a new approach that uses printing for fabricating receive coils. Our approach enables highly flexible, extremely lightweight conforming devices. We show that these devices exhibit similar to higher signal-to-noise ratio than conventional ones, in clinical scenarios when coils could be displaced more than 18 mm away from the body. In addition, we provide detailed material properties and components performance analysis. Prototype arrays are incorporated within infant blankets for in vivo studies. This work presents the first fully functional, printed coils for 1.5- and 3-T clinical scanners.

  20. Modeling gunshot bruises in soft body armor with an adaptive fuzzy system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ian; Kosko, Bart; Anderson, W French

    2005-12-01

    Gunshots produce bruise patterns on persons who wear soft body armor when shot even though the armor stops the bullets. An adaptive fuzzy system modeled these bruise patterns based on the depth and width of the deformed armor given a projectile's mass and momentum. The fuzzy system used rules with sinc-shaped if-part fuzzy sets and was robust against random rule pruning: Median and mean test errors remained low even after removing up to one fifth of the rules. Handguns shot different caliber bullets at armor that had a 10%-ordnance gelatin backing. The gelatin blocks were tissue simulants. The gunshot data tuned the additive fuzzy function approximator. The fuzzy system's conditional variance V[Y/X = x] described the second-order uncertainty of the function approximation. Handguns with different barrel lengths shot bullets over a fixed distance at armor-clad gelatin blocks that we made with Type 250 A Ordnance Gelatin. The bullet-armor experiments found that a bullet's weight and momentum correlated with the depth of its impact on armor-clad gelatin (R2 = 0.881 and p-value < 0.001 for the null hypothesis that the regression line had zero slope). Related experiments on plumber's putty showed that highspeed baseball impacts compared well to bullet-armor impacts for large-caliber handguns. A baseball's momentum correlated with its impact depth in putty (R2 = 0.93 and p-value < 0.001). A bullet's momentum similarly correlated with its armor-impact in putty (R2 = 0.97 and p-value < 0.001). A Gujarati-Chow test showed that the two putty-impact regression lines had statistically indistinguishable slopes for p-value = 0.396. Baseball impact depths were comparable to bullet-armor impact depths: Getting shot with a .22 caliber bullet when wearing soft body armor resembles getting hit in the chest with a 40-mph baseball. Getting shot with a .45 caliber bullet resembles getting hit with a 90-mph baseball.

  1. Piping Flexibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A NASA computer program aids Hudson Engineering Corporation, Houston, Texas, in the design and construction of huge petrochemical processing plants like the one shown, which is located at Ju'aymah, Saudi Arabia. The pipes handling the flow of chemicals are subject to a variety of stresses, such as weight and variations in pressure and temperature. Hudson Engineering uses a COSMIC piping flexibility analysis computer program to analyze stresses and unsure the necessary strength and flexibility of the pipes. This program helps the company realize substantial savings in reduced engineering time.

  2. Flexible flatfoot

    PubMed Central

    Atik, Aziz; Ozyurek, Selahattin

    2014-01-01

    While being one of the most frequent parental complained deformities, flatfoot does not have a universally accepted description. The reasons of flexible flatfoot are still on debate, but they must be differentiated from rigid flatfoot which occurs secondary to other pathologies. These children are commonly brought up to a physician without any complaint. It should be kept in mind that the etiology may vary from general soft tissue laxities to intrinsic foot pathologies. Every flexible flatfoot does not require radiological examination or treatment if there is no complaint. Otherwise further investigation and conservative or surgical treatment may necessitate. PMID:28058304

  3. Continuous fine pattern formation by screen-offset printing using a silicone blanket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Ken-ichi; Kusaka, Yasuyuki; Ushijima, Hirobumi; Nagase, Kazuro; Ikedo, Hiroaki; Mitsui, Ryosuke; Takahashi, Seiya; Nakajima, Shin-ichiro; Iwata, Shiro

    2014-09-01

    Screen-offset printing combines screen-printing on a silicone blanket with transference of the print from the blanket to a substrate. The blanket absorbs organic solvents in the ink, and therefore, the ink does not disperse through the material. This prevents blurring and allows fine patterns with widths of a few tens of micrometres to be produced. However, continuous printing deteriorates the pattern’s shape, which may be a result of decay in the absorption abilities of the blanket. Thus, we have developed a new technique for refreshing the blanket by substituting high-boiling-point solvents present on the blanket surface with low-boiling-point solvents. We analyse the efficacy of this technique, and demonstrate continuous fine pattern formation for 100 screen-offset printing processes.

  4. Estimated radiactive and shock loading of fusion reactor armor

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, D C

    2008-11-25

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is of interest as a source of neutrons for proliferation-resistant and high burn-up fission reactor designs. ICF is a transient process, each implosion leading to energy release over a short period, with a continuous series of ICF operations needed to drive the fission reactor. ICF yields energy in the form of MeV-range neutrons and ions, and thermal x-rays. These radiations, particularly the thermal x-rays, can deposit a pulse of energy in the wall of the ICF chamber, inducing loading by isochoric heating (i.e. at constant volume before the material can expand) or by ablation of material from the surface. The explosion of the hot ICF system, and the compression of any fill material in the chamber, may also result in direct mechanical loading by a blast wave (decaying shock) reaching the chamber wall. The chamber wall must be able to survive the repetitive loading events for long enough for the reactor to operate economically. It is thus necessary to understand the loading induced by ICF systems in possible chamber wall designs, and to predict the response and life time of the wall. Estimates are given for the loading induced in the wall armor of the fusion chamber caused by ablative thermal radiation from the fusion plasma and by the hydrodynamic shock. Taking a version of the LIFE design as an example, the ablation pressure was estimated to be {approx}0.6 GPa with an approximately exponential decay with time constant {approx}0.6 ns. Radiation hydrodynamics simulations suggested that ablation of the W armor should be negligible.

  5. Dragon Skin - How It Changed Body Armor Testing in the United States Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA JOINT APPLIED PROJECT DRAGON SKIN—HOW IT CHANGED BODY ARMOR TESTING IN THE...AND DATES COVERED Joint applied project 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DRAGON SKIN—HOW IT CHANGED BODY ARMOR TESTING IN THE UNITED STATES ARMY 5...Std. 239-18 ii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK iii Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited DRAGON SKIN—HOW IT

  6. Finite Element Analysis of Functionally Graded Material to Reduce Crazing in Transparent Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    based target on the shockwaves generated from an impactor. Most armor systems are comprised of a single material or a composite layup of several...the shockwaves generated from an impactor. Most armor systems are comprised of a single material or a composite layup of several materials. The...varying microstructure and particle density breaks up a shockwave more effectively than a homogenous target. The particles appear to effectively break

  7. Quantifying Bulk Plasticity and Predicting Transition Velocities for Armor Ceramics Using Hardness Indentation Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    calculations for various alumina materials . ..............................11  Table 3. Details of plasticity/TV calculations for various ceramic and...1 1. Introduction Many studies have shown that hardness is a very important property for ceramics used in armor applications (1–7). In general...enough to be useful in guiding the development of new, improved armor materials . Some studies have suggested that the ability of a ceramic material to

  8. AVVAM-1 (Armored Vehicle Vulnerability Analysis Model) and Tank Vulnerability Sensitivity Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-01-01

    Ground , Maryland 0 Introduction I AVVAM-I ( Armored Vehicle Vulnerability Analysis Model -first version) is a conceptuil model-and associateS digital... measure of the ballistic shielding provided by a tank component. *The higher this value the harder it is for a spall fragment to perforate the component...in vulnerability to ballistic damage from behind-the- armor frag- ments and in the ability of noncritical components to provide ballistic shielding for

  9. Advancements in Steel for Weight Reduction of P900 Armor Plate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    were investigated as alternatives to MIL-PRF- 32269 steel alloys for application in P900 perforated armor currently used for Army ground combat...ADVANCEMENTS IN STEEL FOR WEIGHT REDUCTION OF P900 ARMOR PLATE R. A. Howell*, J. S. Montgomery Survivability Materials Branch Army Research Lab...Aberdeen Proving Grounds , MD 21001 D.C. Van Aken Missouri University for Science and Technology Rolla, MO 65401 ABSTRACT Ballistic tests

  10. SiC Armor Tiles via Magnetic Compaction and Pressureless Sintering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-27

    Ceramatec, ORNL ,ARMY and UDRI Unclassified 7Cocoa Beach 2008 What is Dynamic Magnetic Compaction? Dynamic Kinetic process High compaction pressure for sub...1Cocoa Beach 2008 SiC Armor Tiles via Magnetic Compaction and Pressureless Sintering B. Chelluri, and E. A. Knoth, IAP Research, Inc. L. P. Franks...TITLE AND SUBTITLE SiC Armor Tiles via Magnetic Compaction and Pressureless Sintering 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  11. MM&T Manufacturing Methods for Gradient Furnace Processing of Ceramic Armor and Structural Ceramics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    designated by other authorized documents. Mention of any trade names or manufacturers in this report shall not be construed as advertising nor as an...single crystal materials opens up many possi- bilities for new applications of ceramics, such as in the case of trans- parent armor, lasers, and...possibilities for new applications of ceramics such as in the case of transparent armor, lasers, and laser windows. With the increase in size of single

  12. Evaluation of the Combat Vehicle Command and Control System: Operational Effectiveness of an Armor Battalion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    Armor Officer Advance 22 46.8 27 56.3 Course ( AOAC ) Armor Officer Basic 46 97.9 48 100 Course (AOBC) NCO!Enl isted Advanced NCO Course 3 3.3 17 17.7...Tank-Automotive Command (TACOM), Subject: Combat Vehicle Command and Control (CVCC) Programs, 22 March 1989. The CVCC research program investigates...18 Support Personnel ................... 19 Test Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... 22 Training and Test

  13. The Combat System Design and Test Criteria for Iguana TM Armored Vehicles.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    stabilization, improved ride and agility, and reduced acoustic/IR signatures. The Iguana (trademark), a tracked vehicle concept based on a recently patented...hybrid armored vehicle drive systems. This thesis presents a combat system integration process for an Iguana (trademark) based armored vehicle. It lays...for night vision sensors. The U.S. Army Night Vision & Electronic Sensors Directorate’s ELIR92 and ACQUIRE computer programs are used to establish feasible Iguana (trademark) thermal night vision device performance requirements.

  14. A Review and Annotated Bibliography of Literature Relevant to Armor Skill Retention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    AD-A263 407 DTIC ELECTE APR 27 1993 Research Product 93-03 C A Review and Annotated Bibliography of Literature Relevant to Armor Skill Retention...TYPE AND DATES COVERED 1993, February Final Jan 92 - Nov 92 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS A Review and Annotated Bibliography of Literature ...has also been made available to armor unit trainers. EDGAR M. JOHNSON Acting Director v A REVIEW AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF LITERATURE RELEVANT TO

  15. Improvement of Armor Stone Performance for Protection of Great Lakes Coastal Navigation Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakikhani, M.; Harrelson, D. W.

    2008-12-01

    Evaluating long-term performance and deterioration of armor stones are essential for maritime structures to protect harbors or navigable areas. Armor rocks are impacted by the natural elements such as seasonal weather, and repeated cycles of temperature (e.g., flowing water, wetting and drying, wave action, freeze and thaw, etc.). The rock's behavior in the field may vary greatly from the laboratory test results. The design process for the determination of armor stone sizes is complex and various factors must be considered in order to fully understand how the design parameters have an indirect effect on stone performance. Numerous investigators have studied to develop relationships for the minimum stable weight of a rubble-mound armor unit for given wave conditions. The main objective of this study has been to evaluate major factors affecting the armor stone durability. The effects of scaling on the test results of various samples of rock types used in Great Lakes coastal projects have been investigated. To consider the combined effects of environmental stresses on armor stone, testing have been done to evaluate the performance of stone subjected to both freezing and thawing and wetting and drying. The stone quarries and sites were evaluated and sampled to determine the stone sources, and their surrounding environments. Long-term performance or deterioration of armor stones have been quantitatively monitored and characterized by the changes in dimensions measured. A degradation numerical model has been developed that relates the laboratory test results to the modification of the mass distribution and reduction at the project site. The paper presentation will describe and illustrate the latest results and developed tools for the armor stone evaluations. We will introduce new approaches that may be used to evaluate the quality and durability with reference to breakage and integrity.

  16. Flexible radiator thermal vacuum test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oren, J. A.; Hixon, C. W.

    1982-01-01

    Two flexible, deployable/retraction radiators were designed and fabricated. The two radiator panels are distinguishable by their mission life design. One panel is designed with a 90 percent probability of withstanding the micrometeoroid environment of a low earth orbit for 30 days. This panel is designated the soft tube radiator after the PFA Teflon tubes which distribute the transport fluid over the panel. The second panel is designed with armored flow tubes to withstand the same micrometeoroid environment for 5 years. It is designated the hard tube radiator after its stainless steel flow tubes. The thermal performance of the radiators was tested under anticipated environmental conditions. The two deployment systems of the radiators were evaluated in a thermal vacuum environment.

  17. Prevalence of enterobiasis and its incidence after blanket chemotherapy in a male orphanage.

    PubMed

    Sirivichayakul, C; Pojjaroen-anant, C; Wisetsing, P; Lalitphiphat, A; Chanthavanich, P; Kabkaew, K

    2000-03-01

    A prospective observational study was conducted in a male orphanage to find out the prevalence of enterobiasis and its incidence after blanket chemotherapy using mebendazole. We found that the prevalence of enterobiasis was 28.9%. The incidence density of enterobiasis after blanket chemotherapy was 379.82 per 1,000 person-years which was quite high. We suggest that blanket chemotherapy should be repeated at every 6 months interval to control enterobiasis in orphanages.

  18. Predation's role in repeated phenotypic and genetic divergence of armor in threespine stickleback.

    PubMed

    Marchinko, Kerry B

    2009-01-01

    Predator-driven divergent selection may cause differentiation in defensive armor in threespine stickleback: (1) predatory fish and birds favor robust armor, whereas (2) predaceous aquatic insects favor armor reduction. Although (1) is well established, no direct experimental evidence exists for (2). I examined the phenotypic and genetic consequences of insect predation using F(2) families from crosses between freshwater and marine stickleback populations. I measured selection on body size, and size-adjusted spine (dorsal and pelvic) and pelvic girdle length, by splitting juvenile F(2) families between control and insect predation treatments, set in pond enclosures. I also examined the effect of insect predation on Ectodysplasin (Eda), a gene physically linked to quantitative trait loci for lateral plate number, spine length, and body shape. Insect predation resulted in: (1) significant selection for larger juvenile size, and shorter dorsal spine and pelvic girdle length, (2) higher mortality of individuals missing the pelvic girdle, and (3) selection in favor of the low armor Eda allele. Predatory insects favor less stickleback armor, likely contributing to the widespread reduction of armor in freshwater populations. Because size strongly influences mate choice, predator-driven divergent selection on size may play a substantial role in byproduct reproductive isolation and speciation in threespine stickleback.

  19. Multiphysics Modeling and Simulations of Mil A46100 Armor-Grade Martensitic Steel Gas Metal Arc Welding Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    Multiphysics Modeling and Simulations of Mil A46100 Armor-Grade Martensitic Steel Gas Metal Arc Welding Process M. Grujicic, S. Ramaswami, J.S...hardness armor martensitic steel . The model consists of five distinct modules, each covering a specific aspect of the GMAW process, i.e., (a) dynamics...FZ, and the adjacent heat-affected zone, HAZ) of a prototypical high-hardness armor-grade martensitic steel MIL A46100 (Ref 1). It is hoped that the

  20. Ballistic-Failure Mechanisms in Gas Metal Arc Welds of MIL A46100 Armor-Grade Steel: A Computational Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-12

    distribution is unlimited. Ballistic-Failure Mechanisms in Gas Metal Arc Welds of Mil A46100 Armor- Grade Steel : A Computational Investigation The views...Welds of Mil A46100 Armor- Grade Steel : A Computational Investigation Report Title In our recent work, a multi-physics computational model for the...utility of the upgraded GMAW process model, it is next applied to the case of butt-welding of a prototypical high-hardness armor- grade martensitic steel

  1. Impact of prescribed burning on blanket peat hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Joseph; Palmer, Sheila M.; Johnston, Kerrylyn; Wearing, Catherine; Irvine, Brian; Brown, Lee E.

    2015-08-01

    Fire is known to impact soil properties and hydrological flow paths. However, the impact of prescribed vegetation burning on blanket peatland hydrology is poorly understood. We studied 10 blanket peat headwater catchments. Five were subject to prescribed burning, while five were unburnt controls. Within the burnt catchments, we studied plots where the last burn occurred ˜2 (B2), 4 (B4), 7 (B7), or greater than 10 years (B10+) prior to the start of measurements. These were compared with plots at similar topographic wetness index locations in the control catchments. Plots subject to prescribed vegetation burning had significantly deeper water tables (difference in means = 5.3 cm) and greater water table variability than unburnt plots. Water table depths were significantly different between burn age classes (B2 > B4 > B7 > B10+) while B10+ water tables were not significantly different to the unburnt controls. Overland flow was less common on burnt peat than on unburnt peat, recorded in 9% and 17% of all runoff trap visits, respectively. Storm lag times and hydrograph recession limb periods were significantly greater (by ˜1 and 13 h on average, respectively) in the burnt catchments overall, but for the largest 20% of storms sampled, there was no significant difference in storm lag times between burnt and unburnt catchments. For the largest 20% of storms, the hydrograph intensity of burnt catchments was significantly greater than those of unburnt catchments (means of 4.2 × 10-5 and 3.4 × 10-5 s-1, respectively), thereby indicating a nonlinear streamflow response to prescribed burning. Together, these results from plots to whole river catchments indicate that prescribed vegetation burning has important effects on blanket peatland hydrology at a range of spatial scales.

  2. Recovery of tritium from a liquid lithium blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Talbot, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    The sorption of tritium on yttrium from liquid lithium and the subsequent release of tritium from yttrium by thermal regeneration of the metal sorbent were investigated to study such a tritium-recovery process for a fusion reactor blanket of liquid lithium. Recent static sorption experiments have shown the effects of lithium temperature and possible impurities on the sorption of tritium. Diffusivity data, obtained from previous tritium recovery experiments, were evaluated to show the importance of the yttrium surface condition in controlling the release of tritium.

  3. Structural properties of mobile armors formed at different flow strengths in gravel-bed rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, D. Mark; Ockelford, Annie; Rice, Stephen P.; Hillier, John K.; Nguyen, Thao; Reid, Ian; Tate, Nicholas J.; Ackerley, David

    2016-08-01

    Differences in the structure of mobile armors formed at three different flow strengths have been investigated in a laboratory flume. The temporal evolution of the bed surfaces and the properties of the final beds were compared using metrics of surface grain size, microtopography, and bed organization at both grain and mesoscales. Measurements of the bed condition were obtained on nine occasions during each experiment to describe the temporal evolution of the beds. Structured mobile armors formed quickly in each experiment. At the grain scale (1-45 mm; 9 ≤ Ds50 ≤ 17 mm where Ds50 is the median surface particle size), surface complexity decreased and bed roughness increased in response to surface coarsening and the development of the mobile armor. Particles comprising the armor also became flow aligned and developed imbrication. At a larger scale (100-200 mm), the surface developed a mesoscale topography through the development of bed patches with lower and higher elevations. Metrics of mobile armor structure showed remarkable consistency over prolonged periods of near-constant transport, demonstrating for the first time that actively transporting surfaces maintain an equilibrium bed structure. Bed structuring was least developed in the experiments conducted at the lowest flow strength. However, little difference was observed in the structural metrics of the mobile armors generated at higher flows. Although the range of transport rates studied was limited, the results suggest that the structure of mobile armors is insensitive to the formative transport rate except when rates are low (τ* ≈ 0.03 where τ* is the dimensionless shear stress).

  4. Axially staggered seed-blanket reactor fuel module construction

    DOEpatents

    Cowell, Gary K.; DiGuiseppe, Carl P.

    1985-01-01

    A heterogeneous nuclear reactor of the seed-blanket type is provided wher the fissile (seed) and fertile (blanket) nuclear fuels are segregated axially within each fuel element such that fissile and fertile regions occur in an alternating pattern along the length of the fuel element. Further, different axial stacking patterns are used for the fuel elements of at least two module types such that when modules of different types are positioned adjacent to one another, the fertile regions of the modules are offset or staggered. Thus, when a module of one type is surrounded by modules of the second type the fertile regions thereof will be surrounded on all sides by fissile material. This provides enhanced neutron communication both radially and axially, thereby resulting in greater power oscillation stability than other axial arrangements. The arrangements of the fissile and fertile regions in an alternating axial manner minimizes the radial power peaking factors and provides a more optional thermal-hydraulic design than is afforded by radial arrangements.

  5. Inhibition of Frying Oil Oxidation by Carbon Dioxide Blanketing.

    PubMed

    Totani, Nagao; Inoue, Ryota; Yawata, Miho

    2016-06-01

    The oxidation of oil starts, in general, from the penetration of atmospheric oxygen into oil. Inhibition of the vigorous oxidation of oil at deep-frying temperature under carbon dioxide flow, by disrupting the contact between oil and air, was first demonstrated using oil in a round bottom flask. Next, the minimum carbon dioxide flow rate necessary to blanket 4 L of frying oil in an electric fryer (surface area 690 cm(2)) installed with nonwoven fabric cover, was found to be 40 L/h. Then deep-frying of potato was done accordingly; immediately after deep-frying, an aluminum cover was placed on top of the nonwoven fabric cover to prevent the loss of carbon dioxide and the carbon dioxide flow was shut off. In conclusion, the oxidation of oil both at deep-frying temperature and during standing was remarkably inhibited by carbon dioxide blanketing at a practical flow rate and volume. Under the deep-frying conditions employed in this study, the increase in polar compound content was reduced to half of that of the control.

  6. Forced-air patient warming blankets disrupt unidirectional airflow.

    PubMed

    Legg, A J; Hamer, A J

    2013-03-01

    We have recently shown that waste heat from forced-air warming blankets can increase the temperature and concentration of airborne particles over the surgical site. The mechanism for the increased concentration of particles and their site of origin remained unclear. We therefore attempted to visualise the airflow in theatre over a simulated total knee replacement using neutral-buoyancy helium bubbles. Particles were created using a Rocket PS23 smoke machine positioned below the operating table, a potential area of contamination. The same theatre set-up, warming devices and controls were used as in our previous study. This demonstrated that waste heat from the poorly insulated forced-air warming blanket increased the air temperature on the surgical side of the drape by > 5°C. This created convection currents that rose against the downward unidirectional airflow, causing turbulence over the patient. The convection currents increased the particle concentration 1000-fold (2 174 000 particles/m(3) for forced-air warming vs 1000 particles/m(3) for radiant warming and 2000 particles/m(3) for the control) by drawing potentially contaminated particles from below the operating table into the surgical site. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2013;95-B:407-10.

  7. 78 FR 13663 - Equitrans, L.P. Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Equitrans, L.P. Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 12, 2013, Equitrans, L.P. (Equitrans), pursuant to the blanket certificate... open to public inspection. \\1\\ Equitrans, L.P., 85 FERC ] 61,089 (1998). Equitrans proposes to...

  8. 78 FR 36770 - ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take that on May 31, 2013, ANR Pipeline Company (ANR), 717 Texas Street, Houston, Texas 77002-2761, filed in... Commission's Regulations under the Natural Gas Act, and ANR's blanket certificate issued in Docket No....

  9. 77 FR 52713 - PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on August 17, 2012, PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC (PetroLogistics... Iberville Parish, Louisiana, under PetroLogistics' blanket certificate issued in Docket No. CP07-427-000,...

  10. 75 FR 60095 - Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY..., by Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC (Sempra), requesting blanket authorization to export up to a total of..., Louisiana. Sempra is engaged in the business of purchasing and marketing supplies of LNG. Sempra is...

  11. 75 FR 19954 - Cheniere Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... Cheniere Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY... Cheniere Marketing, LLC (CMI), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) that... authorization was amended to reflect a name change from Cheniere Marketing, Inc to Cheniere Marketing,...

  12. 77 FR 38622 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on June 4, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700...) regulations under the Natural Gas Act as amended and Southern Star's blanket certificate issued in Docket...

  13. 78 FR 35263 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported... receipt of an application (Application), filed on April 19, 2013, by Freeport LNG Development, L.P. (Freeport LNG), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) that previously...

  14. 77 FR 76013 - Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported Liquefied... application (Application), filed on October 26, 2012, by Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC (Sempra LNG Marketing), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) that previously had been imported...

  15. 76 FR 58488 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Application for Blanket Authorization to Export Previously Imported...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Application for Blanket Authorization to Export Previously Imported Liquefied... (Application), filed on August 8, 2011, by Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP (DCP), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) that previously had been imported into the United States...

  16. 75 FR 38092 - The Dow Chemical Company; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Chemical Company; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of... The Dow Chemical Company (Dow), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG... equivalent of 390 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of natural gas on a short-term or spot market basis. The LNG...

  17. 77 FR 31004 - Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ...] Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on May 9, 2012, Southern Natural Gas Company (Southern), 569 Brookwood Village, Suite 501, Birmingham, Alabama 35209, filed... Commission's regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA), and Southern's blanket certificate issued in...

  18. Modelling of tritium transport in a pin-type solid breeder blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.; Ghoniem, N.M.

    1986-02-01

    This study supplements a larger study of a solid breeder blanket design featuring lithium ceramic pins. This aspect of the study looks at tritium transport, release, and inventory within this blanket design. Li/sub 2/O and ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/ are the two primary candidates for ceramic solid breeders. ..gamma..-LiAlO/sub 2/ was chosen for this blanket design due to its higher structural stability. Analysis of tritium behavior in solid breeder blankets is of great importance due to its impact on several critical issues: the generation of an adequate amount of fusion fuel, the safety-related issue of keeping radioactive blanket inventories as low as possible, and the release, purge, and economical processing of the bred tritium without undue contamination of the coolant and other reactor structures.

  19. Effective Thermal Conductivity of Lithium Ceramic Pebble Beds for Fusion Blankets: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Abou-Sena, A.; Ying, A.; Abdou, M.

    2005-05-15

    The use of lithium ceramic pebble beds has been considered in many blanket designs for the fusion reactors. Lithium ceramics have received a significant interest as tritium breeders for the fusion blankets during the last three decades. The thermal performance of the lithium ceramic pebble beds plays a key role for the fusion blankets. In order to study the heat transfer in the blanket, the effective thermal conductivity of the lithium ceramics pebble beds has to be well measured and characterized. The data of effective thermal conductivity of lithium ceramic pebble beds is important for the blanket design. Several studies have been dedicated to investigate the effective conductivity of the lithium ceramics pebble beds. The objective of this work is to review and compare the available data, presented by various studies, of effective conductivity of lithium ceramic pebble beds in order to address the current status of these data.

  20. Current Trends of Blanket Research and Deveopment in Japan 2.Roles and Requirements of the Blanket System of Fusion Power Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaoka, Yoshiyuki; Mohri, Kensuke; Hashizume, Hidetoshi; Tanaka, Satoru; Ueda, Yoshio

    Roles and requirements of the blanket system of the fusion power reactors are discussed from viewpoints of economics, fuel supply, generation system, maintenance, radioactive waste, and interaction with the plasma core. As the blanket system influences the cost of the fusion energy, the blanket system must be designed to minimize the fusion energy cost. Tritium breeding performance of the blanket is indispensable role to show the advantage of fusion energy on energy security. Material development for high temperature use under high neutron flux is one of the key issues of the generation system because the thermal efficiency depends on the coolant temperature of the blanket. Innovative maintenance technologies such as dividable superconducting coil system are very effective to make the fusion power reactor attractive. From viewpoints of natural resources and waste management, materials used in the fusion reactors should be recycled. Material selection is also of a large importance on the cost of radioactive waste disposal. Finally, it must be paid a careful attention that the design of the blanket system is inseparable from the achievement of a high performance plasma core.

  1. Viscoelastic shock wave in ballistic gelatin behind soft body armor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Fan, Yurun; Li, Wei

    2014-06-01

    Ballistic gelatins are widely used as a surrogate of biological tissue in blunt trauma tests. Non-penetration impact tests of handgun bullets on the 10wt% ballistic gelatin block behind soft armor were carried out in which a high-speed camera recorded the crater׳s movement and pressure sensors imbedded in the gelatin block recorded the pressure waves at different locations. The observed shock wave attenuation indicates the necessity of considering the gelatin׳s viscoelasticity. A three-element viscoelastic constitutive model was adopted, in which the relevant parameters were obtained via fitting the damping free oscillations at the beginning of the creep-mode of rheological measurement, and by examining the data of published split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) experiments. The viscoelastic model is determined by a retardation time of 5.5×10(-5)s for high oscillation frequencies and a stress relaxation time of 2.0-4.5×10(-7)s for shock wave attenuation. Using the characteristic-line method and the spherical wave assumption, the propagation of impact pressure wave front and the subsequent unloading profile can be simulated using the experimental velocity boundary condition. The established viscoelastic model considerably improves the prediction of shock wave attenuation in the ballistic gelatin.

  2. Armor and anesthesia: exposure, feeling, and the soldier's body.

    PubMed

    MacLeish, Kenneth T

    2012-03-01

    For many civilians, the high-tech weapons, armor, and military medicine with which U.S. soldiers are equipped present an image of lethal capacity and physical invulnerability. But, as this article explores, soldiers themselves just as often associate the life-sustaining technology of modern warfare with feelings that range from a pragmatic ambivalence about exposure to harm all the way to profoundly unsettling vulnerability. This article, based on fieldwork among soldiers and military families at the U.S. Army's Ft. Hood, examines sensory and affective dimensions of soldiers' intimate bodily relationships with the technologies that alternately or even simultaneously keep them alive and expose them to harm. I argue that modern military discipline and technology conspire to cultivate soldiers as highly durable, capable, unfeeling, interchangeable bodies, or what might be called, after Susan Buck-Morss (1992), anesthetic subjects. But for soldiers themselves, their training, combat environment, protective gear, and weapons are a rich font of both emotional and bodily feeling that exists in complex tension with the also deeply felt military imperative to carry on in the face of extreme discomfort and danger.

  3. Reverse Evolution of Armor Plates in the Threespine Stickleback

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitano, J.; Bolnick, D.I.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Mazur, M.M.; Mori, S.; Nakano, T.; Peichel, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    Faced with sudden environmental changes, animals must either adapt to novel environments or go extinct. Thus, study of the mechanisms underlying rapid adaptation is crucial not??only for the understanding of natural evolutionary processes but also for the understanding of human-induced evolutionary change, which is an increasingly important problem [1-8]. In the present study, we demonstrate that the frequency of completely plated threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has increased in an urban freshwater lake (Lake Washington, Seattle, Washington) within the last 40 years. This is a dramatic example of "reverse evolution," [9] because the general evolutionary trajectory is toward armor-plate reduction in freshwater sticklebacks [10]. On the basis of our genetic studies and simulations, we propose that the most likely cause of reverse evolution is increased selection for the completely plated morph, which we suggest could result from higher levels of trout predation after a sudden increase in water transparency during the early 1970s. Rapid evolution was facilitated by the existence of standing allelic variation in Ectodysplasin (Eda), the gene that underlies the major plate-morph locus [11]. The Lake Washington stickleback thus provides a novel example of reverse evolution, which is probably caused by a change in allele frequency at the major plate locus in response to a changing predation regime. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Defensive aids suite prototype for light armored vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantin, Andre; Fortin, Jean; Venter, Johan; Philip, Brian G.; Hagen, Russell; Krieger, Dietmar; Greenley, Mike

    2001-09-01

    The Defence Research Establishment Valcartier has initiated in 1998 R&D work to investigate and to demonstrate key technologies required for future Defensive Aid Suite to protect Light Armoured Vehicles. A basic Defensive Aid Suite demonstrator (Phase I) was built and integrated into the LAV vetronics by Litton Systems Canada and his consortium. The Defensive Aid Suite consisted of a 2-band HARLIDTM-based laser detection head, a processor capable to control and deploy countermeasures and a DAS touch-screen display all integrated in a Light Armored Vehicle. The crew was able to select the operation mode for direct fire or smoke deployment by pushing one of the pair of buttons available at the bottom of the display. This system was successfully demonstrated in October 1999 during an international trial. This article gives an overview of the results obtained in the field as well as some of the lessons learnt. It also describes laboratory and field measurements made on the Laser Warning Receiver unit itself. The results of the DAS tactical use and of Human factor evaluation will illustrate its performance within typical laser threat scenarios. This work will serve as the basis for the recommendation of a future DAS demonstrator (Phase II) integrating more sensors and countermeasures.

  5. Armored kinorhynch-like scalidophoran animals from the early Cambrian

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huaqiao; Xiao, Shuhai; Liu, Yunhuan; Yuan, Xunlai; Wan, Bin; Muscente, A. D.; Shao, Tiequan; Gong, Hao; Cao, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Morphology-based phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of the Scalidophora (Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Priapulida) and Nematoida (Nematoda, Nematomorpha), together constituting the monophyletic Cycloneuralia that is the sister group of the Panarthropoda. Kinorhynchs are unique among living cycloneuralians in having a segmented body with repeated cuticular plates, longitudinal muscles, dorsoventral muscles, and ganglia. Molecular clock estimates suggest that kinorhynchs may have diverged in the Ediacaran Period. Remarkably, no kinorhynch fossils have been discovered, in sharp contrast to priapulids and loriciferans that are represented by numerous Cambrian fossils. Here we describe several early Cambrian (~535 million years old) kinorhynch-like fossils, including the new species Eokinorhynchus rarus and two unnamed but related forms. E. rarus has characteristic scalidophoran features, including an introvert with pentaradially arranged hollow scalids. Its trunk bears at least 20 annuli each consisting of numerous small rectangular plates, and is armored with five pairs of large and bilaterally placed sclerites. Its trunk annuli are reminiscent of the epidermis segments of kinorhynchs. A phylogenetic analysis resolves E. rarus as a stem-group kinorhynch. Thus, the fossil record confirms that all three scalidophoran phyla diverged no later than the Cambrian Period. PMID:26610151

  6. Armored kinorhynch-like scalidophoran animals from the early Cambrian.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huaqiao; Xiao, Shuhai; Liu, Yunhuan; Yuan, Xunlai; Wan, Bin; Muscente, A D; Shao, Tiequan; Gong, Hao; Cao, Guohua

    2015-11-26

    Morphology-based phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of the Scalidophora (Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Priapulida) and Nematoida (Nematoda, Nematomorpha), together constituting the monophyletic Cycloneuralia that is the sister group of the Panarthropoda. Kinorhynchs are unique among living cycloneuralians in having a segmented body with repeated cuticular plates, longitudinal muscles, dorsoventral muscles, and ganglia. Molecular clock estimates suggest that kinorhynchs may have diverged in the Ediacaran Period. Remarkably, no kinorhynch fossils have been discovered, in sharp contrast to priapulids and loriciferans that are represented by numerous Cambrian fossils. Here we describe several early Cambrian (~535 million years old) kinorhynch-like fossils, including the new species Eokinorhynchus rarus and two unnamed but related forms. E. rarus has characteristic scalidophoran features, including an introvert with pentaradially arranged hollow scalids. Its trunk bears at least 20 annuli each consisting of numerous small rectangular plates, and is armored with five pairs of large and bilaterally placed sclerites. Its trunk annuli are reminiscent of the epidermis segments of kinorhynchs. A phylogenetic analysis resolves E. rarus as a stem-group kinorhynch. Thus, the fossil record confirms that all three scalidophoran phyla diverged no later than the Cambrian Period.

  7. Association between back, neck, and upper extremity musculoskeletal pain and the individual body armor.

    PubMed

    Konitzer, Lisa N; Fargo, Matthew V; Brininger, Teresa L; Lim Reed, Mary

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between back, neck, and upper extremity (UE) musculoskeletal pain and the wear of individual body armor, physical training (PT), and work tasks. We conducted a cross-sectional randomized-survey design in which 1,187 surveys were distributed to U.S. Soldiers in Iraq; 863 were completed. The survey was a three-page questionnaire covering demographics, body armor wear, PT, and reports of neck, back, and UE musculoskeletal pain before and during deployment. The results of the survey revealed a substantial increase in the incidence of back, neck, and UE pain during deployment, and approximately twice as many Soldiers attributed their musculoskeletal pain to wearing body armor than to job tasks and PT. In addition, there was a significant positive correlation between Soldiers who wore the body armor for four hours or more a day and self-reported musculoskeletal complaints. These results demonstrate a need to consider the potential adverse effects of individual body armor on combat Soldiers.

  8. Armor-piercing bullet: 3-T MRI findings and identification by a ferromagnetic detection system.

    PubMed

    Karacozoff, Alexandra M; Pekmezci, Murat; Shellock, Frank G

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) issues at 3 T for an armor-piercing bullet and to determine if this item could be identified using a ferromagnetic detection system. An armor-piercing bullet (.30 caliber, 7.62 × 39, copper-jacketed round, steel core; Norinco) underwent evaluation for magnetic field interactions, heating, and artifacts using standardized techniques. Heating was assessed with the bullet in a gelled-saline-filled phantom with MRI performed using a transmit/receive radio frequency body coil at a whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate of 2.9 W/kg for 15 minutes. Artifacts were characterized using T1-weighted spin echo and gradient echo pulse sequences. In addition, a special ferromagnetic detection system (Ferroguard Screener; Metrasens, Lisle, Illinois) was used in an attempt to identify this armor-piercing bullet. The findings indicated that the armor-piercing bullet showed substantial magnetic field interactions. Heating was not excessive. Artifacts were large and may create diagnostic problems if the area of interest is close to this bullet. The ferromagnetic detection system yielded a positive result. We concluded that this armor-piercing bullet is MR unsafe. Importantly, this ballistic item was identified using the particular ferromagnetic detection system utilized in this investigation, which has important implications for MRI screening and patient safety.

  9. The addition of body armor diminishes dynamic postural stability in military soldiers.

    PubMed

    Sell, Timothy C; Pederson, Jonathan J; Abt, John P; Nagai, Takashi; Deluzio, Jennifer; Wirt, Michael D; McCord, Larry J; Lephart, Scott M

    2013-01-01

    Poor postural stability has been identified as a risk factor for lower extremity musculoskeletal injury. The additional weight of body armor carried by Soldiers alters static postural stability and may predispose Soldiers to lower extremity musculoskeletal injuries. However, static postural stability tasks poorly replicate the dynamic military environment, which places considerable stress on the postural control system during tactical training and combat. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of body armor on dynamic postural stability during single-leg jump landings. Thirty-six 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) Soldiers performed single-leg jump landings in the anterior direction with and without wearing body armor. The dynamic postural stability index and the individual stability indices (medial-lateral stability index, anterior-posterior stability index, and vertical stability index) were calculated for each condition. Paired sample t-tests were performed to determine differences between conditions. Significant differences existed for the medial-lateral stability index, anterior-posterior stability index, vertical stability index, and dynamic postural stability index (p < 0.05). The addition of body armor resulted in diminished dynamic postural stability, which may result in increased lower extremity injuries. Training programs should address the altered dynamic postural stability while wearing body armor in attempts to promote adaptations that will result in safer performance during dynamic tasks.

  10. ALON optical ceramic transparencies for window, dome, and transparent armor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Lee M.; Twedt, Rich; Balasubramanian, Sreeram; Sastri, Suri

    2011-06-01

    Surmet continues to invest in and expand its manufacturing capability for ALON® Optical Ceramic, as the market demand for this material increases. The biggest demand and opportunity continues to be in the area of transparent armor, however, the market for sensor domes and windows, made from ALON, continues to grow at an impressive rate as well. ALON® Transparent Armor's unsurpassed ballistic performance, combined with the robustness of ALON's manufacturing process and reproducibly high material quality make ALON the leading candidate for many future armor systems. Recent results for ALON armor windows will be presented. Advances being made in Surmet's production capability to support the very large quantities of material required by the transparent armor market also benefit the sensor market. Improvements in quality, quantity and manufacturability of ALON material, combined with improvements being made in optical quality, ensure a robust supply of high quality material for high volume window and dome applications. Recent advancement in ALON® window and dome blanks, as well as in optical fabrication will be presented.

  11. [Intubation of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis with a 7.5-mm-ID armored endotracheal tube using a laryngeal mask airway].

    PubMed

    Mashio, H; Kojima, T; Goda, Y; Kawahigashi, H; Ito, Y; Kato, M

    1997-12-01

    A 71-year-old male patient with rheumatoid arthritis was scheduled for posterior fusion of the cervical spine. He showed limited cervical movement and atrophic mandible. Tracheal intubation was difficult in his last anesthetic management for the same surgery. This time, we planned a special procedure for predicted difficult tracheal intubation. After induction of general anesthesia, a size-4 laryngeal mask airway was inserted. Next, a flexible fiberscope sheathed with a 6.0-mm-ID cuffed endotracheal tube was inserted through a laryngeal mask airway into the trachea, and the fiberscope was withdrawn. Then, an endotracheal tube changer was inserted through the endotracheal tube. The laryngeal mask airway and the endotracheal tube were withdrawn simultaneously leaving the tube changer. Finally, a 7.5-mm-ID armored endotracheal tube was inserted through the tube changer. The procedure applied in this case is a safe and reliable intubating method in patients with difficult tracheal intubation.

  12. Analytical and numerical models to predict the behavior of unbonded flexible risers under torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Shao-fei; Xue, Hong-xiang; Tang, Wen-yong

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents analytical and numerical models to predict the behavior of unbonded flexible risers under torsion. The analytical model takes local bending and torsion of tensile armor wires into consideration, and equilibrium equations of forces and displacements of layers are deduced. The numerical model includes lay angle, cross-sectional profiles of carcass, pressure armor layer and contact between layers. Abaqus/Explicit quasi-static simulation and mass scaling are adopted to avoid convergence problem and excessive computation time caused by geometric and contact nonlinearities. Results show that local bending and torsion of helical strips may have great influence on torsional stiffness, but stress related to bending and torsion is negligible; the presentation of anti-friction tapes may have great influence both on torsional stiffness and stress; hysteresis of torsion-twist relationship under cyclic loading is obtained by numerical model, which cannot be predicted by analytical model because of the ignorance of friction between layers.

  13. Evaluation of Thermal Control Coatings for Flexible Ceramic Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius; Carroll, Carol; Smith, Dane; Guzinski, Mike; Marschall, Jochen; Pallix, Joan; Ridge, Jerry; Tran, Duoc

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the evaluation and testing of high emissivity protective coatings applied to flexible insulations for the Reusable Launch Vehicle technology program. Ceramic coatings were evaluated for their thermal properties, durability, and potential for reuse. One of the major goals was to determine the mechanism by which these coated blanket surfaces become brittle and try to modify the coatings to reduce or eliminate embrittlement. Coatings were prepared from colloidal silica with a small percentage of either SiC or SiB6 as the emissivity agent. These coatings are referred to as gray C-9 and protective ceramic coating (PCC), respectively. The colloidal solutions were either brushed or sprayed onto advanced flexible reusable surface insulation blankets. The blankets were instrumented with thermocouples and exposed to reentry heating conditions in the Ames Aeroheating Arc Jet Facility. Post-test samples were then characterized through impact testing, emissivity measurements, chemical analysis, and observation of changes in surface morphology. The results show that both coatings performed well in arc jet tests with backface temperatures slightly lower for the PCC coating than with gray C-9. Impact testing showed that the least extensive surface destruction was experienced on blankets with lower areal density coatings.

  14. Porosity detection in ceramic armor tiles via ultrasonic time-of-flight

    SciTech Connect

    Margetan, Frank J.; Richter, Nathaniel; Jensen, Terrence

    2011-06-23

    Some multilayer armor panels contain ceramic tiles as one constituent, and porosity in the tiles can affect armor performance. It is well known that porosity in ceramic materials leads to a decrease in ultrasonic velocity. We report on a feasibility study exploring the use of ultrasonic time-of-flight (TOF) to locate and characterize porous regions in armor tiles. The tiles in question typically have well-controlled thickness, thus simplifying the translation of TOF data into velocity data. By combining UT velocity measurements and X-ray absorption measurements on selected specimens, one can construct a calibration curve relating velocity to porosity. That relationship can then be used to translate typical ultrasonic C-scans of TOF-versus-position into C-scans of porosity-versus-position. This procedure is demonstrated for pulse/echo, focused-transducer inspections of silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic tiles.

  15. Nonlinear elastic behavior of sub-critically damaged body armor panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Jason T.; Chimenti, D. E.

    2012-05-01

    A simple go/no-go test for body armor panels using pressure-sensitive, dye-indicator film (PSF) has been shown to be statistically effective in revealing subcritical damage to body armor panels. Previous measurements have shown that static indicator levels are accurately reproduced in dynamic loading events. Further impact tests on armor worn by a human resuscitation dummy using instrumented masses with an attached accelerometer and embedded force transducer have been performed and analyzed. New impact tests have shown a reliable correlation between PSF indication (as digitized images) and impact force for a wide range of impactor energies and masses. Numerical evaluation of digital PSF images is presented and correlated with impact parameters. Relationships between impactor mass and energy, and corresponding measured force are shown. We will also report on comparisons between ballistic testing performed on panels damaged under various impact conditions and tests performed on undamaged panels.

  16. Effect of Multi-Shot X-Ray Exposures in IFE Armor Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Schmitt, R C; Bell, B K

    2004-12-10

    As part of the High Average Power Laser (HAPL) program the performance of tungsten as an armor material is being studied. While the armor would be exposed to neutrons, x-rays and ions within an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant, the thermomechanical effects are believed to dominate. Using a pulsed x-ray source, long-term exposures of tungsten have been completed at fluences that are of interest for the IFE application. Modeling is used in conjunction with experiments on the XAPPER x-ray damage facility in an effort to recreate the effects that would be expected in an operating IFE power plant. X-ray exposures have been completed for a variety of x-ray fluences and number of shots. Analysis of the samples suggests that surface roughening has a threshold that is very close to the fluences that reproduce the peak temperatures expected in an IFE armor material.

  17. FLEXIBLE COUPLING

    DOEpatents

    Babelay, E.F.

    1962-02-13

    A flexible shaft coupling for operation at speeds in excess of 14,000 rpm is designed which requires no lubrication. A driving sleeve member and a driven sleeve member are placed in concentric spaced relationship. A torque force is transmitted to the driven member from the driving member through a plurality of nylon balls symmetrically disposed between the spaced sleeves. The balls extend into races and recesses within the respective sleeve members. The sleeve members have a suitable clearance therebetween and the balls have a suitable radial clearance during operation of the coupling to provide a relatively loose coupling. These clearances accommodate for both parallel and/or angular misalignments and avoid metal-tometal contact between the sleeve members during operation. Thus, no lubrication is needed, and a minimum of vibrations is transmitted between the sleeve members. (AEC)

  18. Manufacturing process scale-up of optical grade transparent spinel ceramic at ArmorLine Corporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilman, Joseph; Voyles, John; Nick, Joseph; Shaffer, Lawrence

    2013-06-01

    While transparent Spinel ceramic's mechanical and optical characteristics are ideal for many Ultraviolet (UV), visible, Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR), Mid-Wave Infrared (MWIR), and multispectral sensor window applications, commercial adoption of the material has been hampered because the material has historically been available in relatively small sizes (one square foot per window or less), low volumes, unreliable supply, and with unreliable quality. Recent efforts, most notably by Technology Assessment and Transfer (TA and T), have scaled-up manufacturing processes and demonstrated the capability to produce larger windows on the order of two square feet, but with limited output not suitable for production type programs. ArmorLine Corporation licensed the hot-pressed Spinel manufacturing know-how of TA and T in 2009 with the goal of building the world's first dedicated full-scale Spinel production facility, enabling the supply of a reliable and sufficient volume of large Transparent Armor and Optical Grade Spinel plates. With over $20 million of private investment by J.F. Lehman and Company, ArmorLine has installed and commissioned the largest vacuum hot press in the world, the largest high-temperature/high-pressure hot isostatic press in the world, and supporting manufacturing processes within 75,000 square feet of manufacturing space. ArmorLine's equipment is capable of producing window blanks as large as 50" x 30" and the facility is capable of producing substantial volumes of material with its Lean configuration and 24/7 operation. Initial production capability was achieved in 2012. ArmorLine will discuss the challenges that were encountered during scale-up of the manufacturing processes, ArmorLine Optical Grade Spinel optical performance, and provide an overview of the facility and its capabilities.

  19. Experimental Investigation of Ternary Alloys for Fusion Breeding Blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, B. William; Chiu, Ing L.

    2015-10-26

    Future fusion power plants based on the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel cycle will be required to breed the T fuel via neutron reactions with lithium, which will be incorporated in a breeding blanket that surrounds the fusion source. Recent work by LLNL proposed the used of liquid Li as the breeder in an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. Subsequently, an LDRD was initiated to develop alternatives ternary alloy liquid metal breeders that have reduced chemical reactivity with water and air compared to pure Li. Part of the work plan was to experimentally investigate the phase diagrams of ternary alloys. Of particular interest was measurement of the melt temperature, which must be low enough to be compatible with the temperature limits of the steel used in the construction of the chamber and heat transfer system.

  20. Fusion Blanket Coolant Section Criteria, Methodology, and Results

    SciTech Connect

    DeMuth, J. A.; Meier, W. R.; Jolodosky, A.; Frantoni, M.; Reyes, S.

    2015-10-02

    The focus of this LDRD was to explore potential Li alloys that would meet the tritium breeding and blanket cooling requirements but with reduced chemical reactivity, while maintaining the other attractive features of pure Li breeder/coolant. In other fusion approaches (magnetic fusion energy or MFE), 17Li- 83Pb alloy is used leveraging Pb’s ability to maintain high TBR while lowering the levels of lithium in the system. Unfortunately this alloy has a number of potential draw-backs. Due to the high Pb content, this alloy suffers from very high average density, low tritium solubility, low system energy, and produces undesirable activation products in particular polonium. The criteria considered in the selection of a tritium breeding alloy are described in the following section.

  1. Heating performances of a IC in-blanket ring array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosia, G.; Ragona, R.

    2015-12-01

    An important limiting factor to the use of ICRF as candidate heating method in a commercial reactor is due to the evanescence of the fast wave in vacuum and in most of the SOL layer, imposing proximity of the launching structure to the plasma boundary and causing, at the highest power level, high RF standing and DC rectified voltages at the plasma periphery, with frequent voltage breakdowns and enhanced local wall loading. In a previous work [1] the concept for an Ion Cyclotron Heating & Current Drive array (and using a different wave guide technology, a Lower Hybrid array) based on the use of periodic ring structure, integrated in the reactor blanket first wall and operating at high input power and low power density, was introduced. Based on the above concept, the heating performance of such array operating on a commercial fusion reactor is estimated.

  2. Heating performances of a IC in-blanket ring array

    SciTech Connect

    Bosia, G.; Ragona, R.

    2015-12-10

    An important limiting factor to the use of ICRF as candidate heating method in a commercial reactor is due to the evanescence of the fast wave in vacuum and in most of the SOL layer, imposing proximity of the launching structure to the plasma boundary and causing, at the highest power level, high RF standing and DC rectified voltages at the plasma periphery, with frequent voltage breakdowns and enhanced local wall loading. In a previous work [1] the concept for an Ion Cyclotron Heating & Current Drive array (and using a different wave guide technology, a Lower Hybrid array) based on the use of periodic ring structure, integrated in the reactor blanket first wall and operating at high input power and low power density, was introduced. Based on the above concept, the heating performance of such array operating on a commercial fusion reactor is estimated.

  3. Tailorable advanced blanket insulation using aluminoborosilicate and alumina batting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calamito, Dominic P.

    1989-01-01

    Two types of Tailorable Advanced Blanket Insulation (TABI) flat panels for Advanced Space Transportation Systems were produced. Both types consisted of integrally woven, 3-D fluted core having parallel faces and connecting ribs of Nicalon yarns. The triangular cross section flutes of one type was filled with mandrels of processed Ultrafiber (aluminoborosilicate) stitchbonded Nextel 440 fibrous felt, and the second type wall filled with Saffil alumina fibrous felt insulation. Weaving problems were minimal. Insertion of the fragile insulation mandrels into the fabric flutes was improved by using a special insertion tool. An attempt was made to weave fluted core fabrics from Nextel 440 yarns but was unsuccessful because of the yarn's fragility. A small sample was eventually produced by an unorthodox weaving process and then filled with Saffil insulation. The procedures for setting up and weaving the fabrics and preparing and inserting insulation mandrels are discussed. Characterizations of the panels produced are also presented.

  4. Water-assisted self-healing and property recovery in a natural dermal armor of pangolin scales.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Q; Jiao, D; Weng, Z Y; Zhang, Z F

    2016-03-01

    Self-healing capacity, of which the inspiration comes from biological systems, is significant for restoring the mechanical properties of materials by autonomically repairing damages. Clarifying the naturally occurring self-healing behaviors and mechanisms may provide valuable inspiration for designing synthetic self-healing materials. In this study, water-assisted self-healing behavior was revealed in a natural dermal armor of pangolin scales. The indentation damages which imitate the injury caused by predatory attack can be continuously mitigated through hydration. The healing kinetics was characterized according to the variations of indentation crater dimension and quantitatively described in terms of the viscoelastic behavior of biopolymer. The mechanical properties of original, damaged, and recovered scales in both dry and wet states were systematically evaluated by three-point bending and compared through statistical analysis. The hydration effects and mechanisms were explored by examining the dynamic mechanical properties and thermal behaviors. The promoted self-healing process can be attributed to the improved flexibility of macromolecules in the biopolymer. This study may stimulate useful self-healing strategies in bio-inspired design and aid in developing high-performance synthetic self-healing materials.

  5. Advanced methods comparisons of reaction rates in the Purdue Fast Breeder Blanket Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R.N.; Ott, K.O.

    1988-01-01

    A review of worldwide results revealed that reaction rates in the blanket region are generally underpredicted with the discrepancy increasing with penetration; however, these results vary widely. Experiments in the large uniform Purdue Fast Breeder Blanket Facility (FBBF) blanket yield an accurate quantification of this discrepancy. Using standard production code methods (diffusion theory with 50 group cross sections), a consistent Calculated/Experimental (C/E) drop-off was observed for various reaction rates. A 50% increase in the calculated results at the outer edge of the blanket is necessary for agreement with experiments. The usefulness of refined group constant generation utilizing specialized weighting spectra and transport theory methods in correcting this discrepancy was analyzed. Refined group constants reduce the discrepancy to half that observed using the standard method. The surprising result was that transport methods had no effect on the blanket deviations; thus, transport theory considerations do not constitute or even contribute to an explanation of the blanket discrepancies. The residual blanket C/E drop-off (about half the standard drop-off) using advanced methods must be caused by some approximations which are applied in all current methods. 27 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Thermal-hydraulic design of the target/blanket for the accelerator production of tritium conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Willcutt, G.J.E. Jr.; Kapernick, R.J.

    1997-11-01

    A conceptual design was developed for the target/blanket system of an accelerator-based system to produce tritium. The target/blanket system uses clad tungsten rods for a spallation target and clad lead rods as a neutron multiplier in a blanket surrounding the target. The neutrons produce tritium in {sup 3}He, which is contained in aluminum tubes located in the decoupler and blanket regions. This paper presents the thermal-hydraulic design of the target, decoupler, and blanket developed for the conceptual design of the Accelerator Production of Tritium Project, and demonstrates there is adequate margin in the design at full power operation.

  7. Experimental investigation of the response of gelatine behind the soft body armor.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shaomin; Xu, Cheng; Chen, Aijun; Zhang, Xiaoyun

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the transient cavity formation and transient pressure in the behind armor blunt trauma (BABT) is of fundamental importance in various research fields. In this paper, the transient response of ballistic gelatine behind the soft body armor subjected to the impacting of pistol bullets was studied. The profiles of the transient cavity in real time were captured by a high-speed camera, while the transient pressures were simultaneously recorded by pressure gauges. We find the cavity expansion-contraction movement is self-similar and can be expressed as a semi-ellipse. The gauges-recorded pressures reveal that three peaks on the pressure-time curve.

  8. Acousto-ultrasonic system for the inspection of composite armored vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinez, Valery F.; Carlos, Mark F.; Delamere, Michael; Hoch, William; Fotopoulos, Christos; Dai, Weiming; Raju, Basavaraju B.

    2001-04-01

    In this paper the design and implementation of a unique acousto-ultrasonics system for the inspection of composite armored vehicles is discussed. The system includes a multi-sensor probe with a position-tracking device mounted on a computer controlled scanning bridge. The system also includes an arbitrary waveform generator with a multiplexer and a multi-channel acoustic emission board capable of simultaneously collecting and processing up to four acoustic signals in real time. C-scans of an armored vehicle panel with defects are presented.

  9. From surface to subsurface and back again: the contribution of subsurface particle motion to surface armoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdowsi, B.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Ortiz, C. P.; Houssais, M.

    2015-12-01

    Armoring is the development of a coarse surface layer of sediments on a river bed, which overlies a smaller and typically more heterogeneous substrate. All existing models for this phenomenon are predicated on the idea that armoring develops due to size-selective transport and kinetic sieving at the surface of the granular bed. Here examine the development of armoring in the absence of size-selective surface transport, and demonstrate that subsurface particle movement can create an armored surface layer. We first conduct experiments in a laminar and annular flume, over a range of Shields stresses, with bimodal and refractive index-matched spherical sediments; this allows us to image the internal motion of the granular bed that is sheared from above by a viscous oil. Fluid-driven particle motion of the surface layer results in granular shear, that drives motion deep into the bed. This subsurface motion causes an upward migration of coarser particles, at a rate that is proportional to the granular shear rate. Comparison of experimental results to an existing continuum-granular flow model suggest that armoring in our bed-load exeriments is entirely consistent with shear-induced segregation in dry avalanches - but is slower. There is no size-selective transport at the surface in the experiments, as the annular flume is mass conserving and all particles move as bed load; this was confirmed by observation. To probe the granular physics of armor development further, we perform numerical simulations using a discrete element model (DEM) of granular flow, with and without damping. Simulations reproduce salient features of the experiments, and indicate that armoring is robust but that the rate of segregation is related to the degree of viscous damping. We posit that subsurface granular flow is an important and perhaps dominant contributor to surface armoring in rivers. More generally, this work shows how information is transferred from the surface to the subsurface and back

  10. Ballistic Resistance of Armored Passenger Vehicles: Test Protocols and Quality Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey M. Lacy; Robert E. Polk

    2005-07-01

    This guide establishes a test methodology for determining the overall ballistic resistance of the passenger compartment of assembled nontactical armored passenger vehicles (APVs). Because ballistic testing of every piece of every component of an armored vehicle is impractical, if not impossible, this guide describes a testing scheme based on statistical sampling of exposed component surface areas. Results from the test of the sampled points are combined to form a test score that reflects the probability of ballistic penetration into the passenger compartment of the vehicle.

  11. Biophysical Assessment and Predicted Thermophysiologic Effects of Body Armor

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Adam W.; Gonzalez, Julio A.; Karis, Anthony J.; Xu, Xiaojiang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Military personnel are often required to wear ballistic protection in order to defend against enemies. However, this added protection increases mass carried and imposes additional thermal burden on the individual. Body armor (BA) is known to reduce combat casualties, but the effects of BA mass and insulation on the physical performance of soldiers are less well documented. Until recently, the emphasis has been increasing personal protection, with little consideration of the adverse impacts on human performance. Objective The purpose of this work was to use sweating thermal manikin and mathematical modeling techniques to quantify the tradeoff between increased BA protection, the accompanying mass, and thermal effects on human performance. Methods Using a sweating thermal manikin, total insulation (IT, clo) and vapor permeability indexes (im) were measured for a baseline clothing ensemble with and without one of seven increasingly protective U.S. Army BA configurations. Using mathematical modeling, predictions were made of thermal impact on humans wearing each configuration while working in hot/dry (desert), hot/humid (jungle), and temperate environmental conditions. Results In nearly still air (0.4 m/s), IT ranged from 1.57 to 1.63 clo and im from 0.35 to 0.42 for the seven BA conditions, compared to IT and im values of 1.37 clo and 0.45 respectively, for the baseline condition (no BA). Conclusion Biophysical assessments and predictive modeling show a quantifiable relationship exists among increased protection and increased thermal burden and decreased work capacity. This approach enables quantitative analysis of the tradeoffs between ballistic protection, thermal-work strain, and physical work performance. PMID:26200906

  12. Skeletal histology of the dermal armor of Placodontia: the occurrence of 'postcranial fibro-cartilaginous bone' and its developmental implications.

    PubMed

    Scheyer, Torsten M

    2007-12-01

    Placodontia (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) is a group of enigmatic armored marine reptiles restricted to the Triassic time period. Only a single row of osteoderms dorsal to the spine is present in the basal placodontoid Placodus gigas, whereas derived cyamodontoids superficially resemble turtles in enclosing their body in an armor shell. Despite the extensive occurrence of the dermal armor in the derived cyamodontoid group, little research has focused on its bone histology and development. Here, I present an overview of the bone microstructures that reveals the unique presence of cartilaginous tissue in the postcranial armor plates. Placodont armor plates stand in contrast to osteoderms of other tetrapods that develop intramembraneously or through metaplastic ossification without cartilaginous preformation. The different developmental pathways leading to this 'postcranial fibro-cartilaginous bone' tissue found in placodont plates compared to the dermal bone tissues of most other tetrapod osteoderms indicate the non-homology of these structures. A resulting morphogenetic model of histogenesis is given to exemplify how the derived armor morphologies (i.e. spiked, flat polygonal and hexagonal, and rhomboidal shapes) together with the peculiar bone histologies could have developed through differential growth. In accordance with the pachyostotic limb bones of placodonts, the presence of the compact 'postcranial fibro-cartilaginous bone' is interpreted as an osteosclerotic trend in the armor plates which aids in buoyancy control and affects maneuverability and swimming speed.

  13. An Analysis of Ripple and Error Fields Induced by a Blanket in the CFETR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Guanying; Liu, Xufeng; Liu, Songlin

    2016-10-01

    The Chinese Fusion Engineering Tokamak Reactor (CFETR) is an important intermediate device between ITER and DEMO. The Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder (WCCB) blanket whose structural material is mainly made of Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (RAFM) steel, is one of the candidate conceptual blanket design. An analysis of ripple and error field induced by RAFM steel in WCCB is evaluated with the method of static magnetic analysis in the ANSYS code. Significant additional magnetic field is produced by blanket and it leads to an increased ripple field. Maximum ripple along the separatrix line reaches 0.53% which is higher than 0.5% of the acceptable design value. Simultaneously, one blanket module is taken out for heating purpose and the resulting error field is calculated to be seriously against the requirement. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207) and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program of China (No. 2013GB108004)

  14. Normal Operation (NO) of APT Blanket System and its Components Based on Initial Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    This report is one of a series of reports documenting accident scenario simulations for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) blanket heat removal systems. The simulations were performed in support of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) for the APT.

  15. Properties of Ejecta Blanket Deposits Surrounding Morasko Meteorite Impact Craters (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szokaluk, M.; Muszyński, A.; Jagodziński, R.; Szczuciński, W.

    2016-08-01

    Morasko impact craters are a record of the fall of a meteorite into the soft sediments. The presented results illustrate the geological structure of the area around the crater as well as providing evidence of the occurrence of ejecta blanket.

  16. Nucleonics of a Be-Li-Th blanket for the fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.

    1983-03-28

    The nuclear performance of a candidate fission-suppressed, U233-producing blanket is assessed. It is predicted to have a breeding ratio (fusile + fissile) of 1.68 and produce U233 at a rate of 8030 kg/year from 3140 MW of DT fusion and a blanket coverage of 96%. Blanket energy multiplication is estimated to vary between 1.3 and 2.0 as the U233/Th232 ratio varies between 0 and 0.5%. Heterogeneous effects in the blanket's pebble-bed configuration were found to be important and more detailed analysis is needed to more accurately predict Li6 content required and U233 fission power versus U233 content.

  17. 7 CFR 1755.406 - Shield or armor ground resistance measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... plant and fiber optic cable plant. (b) Method of measurement. (1) The shield or armor ground resistance measurement shall be made between the copper cable and wire shield and ground and between the fiber optic... instructions. (d) Applicable results. (1) For all new copper cable and wire facilities and all new fiber...

  18. 7 CFR 1755.406 - Shield or armor ground resistance measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... plant and fiber optic cable plant. (b) Method of measurement. (1) The shield or armor ground resistance measurement shall be made between the copper cable and wire shield and ground and between the fiber optic... instructions. (d) Applicable results. (1) For all new copper cable and wire facilities and all new fiber...

  19. 7 CFR 1755.406 - Shield or armor ground resistance measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... plant and fiber optic cable plant. (b) Method of measurement. (1) The shield or armor ground resistance measurement shall be made between the copper cable and wire shield and ground and between the fiber optic... instructions. (d) Applicable results. (1) For all new copper cable and wire facilities and all new fiber...

  20. Report to the Attorney General on Body Armor Safety Initiative Testing and Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-24

    Analysis of Results by Percentage of Zylon ® in Armor ..................................................................12 C. Analysis of Results by...18 B. Comparative Analysis of Zylon ® from Different Sources ..............................................................19 C...Changes in Mechanical Properties of Zylon ® Yarn ........................................................................19 D. Chemical Changes in Zylon

  1. 77 FR 22345 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Body Armor in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... correctional officers to mitigate the risks associated with prison environments. There is little data on body... Federal and State prisons will be asked to select one administrator to respond. (b) For the Body Armor... prisons. (5) An estimate of the total number of respondents and the amount of time estimated for...

  2. 46 CFR 111.05-7 - Armored and metallic sheathed cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Armored and metallic sheathed cable. 111.05-7 Section 111.05-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Equipment Ground, Ground Detection, and Grounded Systems §...

  3. An Evaluation of Physical Readiness Training in Armor One Station Unit Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    behavior modification principles, had each soldier repeat a gradually increasing number of sets of pushups, with each set being 50% of his maximum...discussing the relative importance of the pushup, situp, and 2-mile run subtests in the APRT. Keywords: Armor; Army training; Behavior ; Modification ; Muscles; Performand (human); Physical fitness; Predictions; Training.

  4. Mitigation Systems for Confined Blast Loading - Crew Protection in Armored Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    reactants; this volume contains about 80 percent of the original reactants by weight. Sintered bronze barriers were found to be effective in...Effects of Tungsten Alloy Property Variations on Penetrator Performance for Spaced Armors.” Advances in Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials

  5. MEMS, Nanotechnology and Spintronics for Sensor Enhanced Armor, NDE and Army Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-16

    Crew Interface and Automation • Robotic Follower ATD • ARV Robotic Technologies Program SMART ARMOR Battery Pack w/ Integrated Heat Exchanger CONDITION...of MI, Prof. Wise ACTIVE STENTS : Wireless Readout of Intra-Arterial Pressure and Flow Suitable for the carotid arteries; not yet small enough for the

  6. General Tests of Personal Protective Equipment (Non-ballistic) - Soft Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-23

    Textured or Multifilament Nylon, 15 November 1996. c. MIL-W-17337F, Military Specification: Webbing, Textile , Woven Nylon, 22 January 1990. d...Equipment ( Non -ballistic) - Soft Armor 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHORS 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...Equipment Non -ballistic 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER OF

  7. Establishment of the armored scale, Rhizaspidiotus donacis, a biological control agent of Arundo donax

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The armored scale biological control agent, Rhizaspidiotus donacis (Leonardi) (Hemiptera; Diaspididae) has established populations on the invasive weed, Arundo donax L. (Poaceae; Arundinoideae) in Del Rio (Val Verde, Co.) and in field plots at the USDA-APHIS-PPQ-Moore Airbase, Edinburg (Hidalgo Co.)...

  8. Growth of Sapphire Single Crystals Transparent Armor by a Modified Verneuil Technique.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    modified Verneuil technique for transparent armor applications. Seeded single crystals of sapphire were grown with widths in excess of 2 1/2 inches, lengths...single crystals by the ’strip’ Verneuil technique is feasible. An engineering cost analysis indicated that 8 inch by 1/4 inch sapphire windows could

  9. Armor Solutions for Energetic and Non-Energetic Novel Defeat Mechanisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-28

    distribution unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Summary of prototyping efforts for next generation armor designs using advanced...configuration management, materials development, coatings technology, packaging technology and overall systems engineering. Prototype and integrated... Tooling Processes 100% 4 TASK 4A: Component design and fabrication 100% 5 TASK 5A: Produce Developmental Units 100% 6 Quarterly Technical and Business

  10. Climate-driven expansion of blanket bogs in Britain during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego-Sala, A. V.; Charman, D. J.; Harrison, S. P.; Li, G.; Prentice, I. C.

    2016-01-01

    Blanket bog occupies approximately 6 % of the area of the UK today. The Holocene expansion of this hyperoceanic biome has previously been explained as a consequence of Neolithic forest clearance. However, the present distribution of blanket bog in Great Britain can be predicted accurately with a simple model (PeatStash) based on summer temperature and moisture index thresholds, and the same model correctly predicts the highly disjunct distribution of blanket bog worldwide. This finding suggests that climate, rather than land-use history, controls blanket-bog distribution in the UK and everywhere else. We set out to test this hypothesis for blanket bogs in the UK using bioclimate envelope modelling compared with a database of peat initiation age estimates. We used both pollen-based reconstructions and climate model simulations of climate changes between the mid-Holocene (6000 yr BP, 6 ka) and modern climate to drive PeatStash and predict areas of blanket bog. We compiled data on the timing of blanket-bog initiation, based on 228 age determinations at sites where peat directly overlies mineral soil. The model predicts that large areas of northern Britain would have had blanket bog by 6000 yr BP, and the area suitable for peat growth extended to the south after this time. A similar pattern is shown by the basal peat ages and new blanket bog appeared over a larger area during the late Holocene, the greatest expansion being in Ireland, Wales, and southwest England, as the model predicts. The expansion was driven by a summer cooling of about 2 °C, shown by both pollen-based reconstructions and climate models. The data show early Holocene (pre-Neolithic) blanket-bog initiation at over half of the sites in the core areas of Scotland and northern England. The temporal patterns and concurrence of the bioclimate model predictions and initiation data suggest that climate change provides a parsimonious explanation for the early Holocene distribution and later expansion of

  11. Climate-driven expansion of blanket bogs in Britain during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego-Sala, A. V.; Charman, D. J.; Harrison, S. P.; Li, G.; Prentice, I. C.

    2015-10-01

    Blanket bog occupies approximately 6 % of the area of the UK today. The Holocene expansion of this hyperoceanic biome has previously been explained as a consequence of Neolithic forest clearance. However, the present distribution of blanket bog in Great Britain can be predicted accurately with a simple model (PeatStash) based on summer temperature and moisture index thresholds, and the same model correctly predicts the highly disjunct distribution of blanket bog worldwide. This finding suggests that climate, rather than land-use history, controls blanket-bog distribution in the UK and everywhere else. We set out to test this hypothesis for blanket bogs in the UK using bioclimate envelope modelling compared with a database of peat initiation age estimates. We used both pollen-based reconstructions and climate model simulations of climate changes between the mid-Holocene (6000 yr BP, 6 ka) and modern climate to drive PeatStash and predict areas of blanket bog. We compiled data on the timing of blanket-bog initiation, based on 228 age determinations at sites where peat directly overlies mineral soil. The model predicts large areas of northern Britain would have had blanket bog by 6000 yr BP, and the area suitable for peat growth extended to the south after this time. A similar pattern is shown by the basal peat ages and new blanket bog appeared over a larger area during the late Holocene, the greatest expansion being in Ireland, Wales and southwest England, as the model predicts. The expansion was driven by a summer cooling of about 2 °C, shown by both pollen-based reconstructions and climate models. The data show early Holocene (pre-Neolithic) blanket-bog initiation at over half of the sites in the core areas of Scotland, and northern England. The temporal patterns and concurrence of the bioclimate model predictions and initiation data suggest that climate change provides a parsimonious explanation for the early Holocene distribution and later expansion of blanket

  12. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US DCLL Test Blanket Module

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2007-08-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a small tritium-breeding test blanket module design for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data, and the failure events are binned into postulated initiating event families and frequency categories for safety assessment. An appendix to this report contains repair time data to support an occupational radiation exposure assessment for test blanket module maintenance.

  13. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US DCLL Test Blanket Module

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2010-06-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a small tritium-breeding test blanket module design for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data, and the failure events are binned into postulated initiating event families and frequency categories for safety assessment. An appendix to this report contains repair time data to support an occupational radiation exposure assessment for test blanket module maintenance.

  14. Immobilization effect of air-injected blanket (AIB) for abdomen fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Young Eun; Suh, Yelin; Ahn, Seung Do; Lee, Sang-wook; Shin, Seong Soo; Kim, Jong Hoon; Choi, Eun Kyung; Yi, Byong Yong

    2005-11-15

    A new device for reducing the amplitude of breathing motion by pressing a patient's abdomen using an air-injected blanket (AIB) for external beam radiation treatments has been designed and tested. The blanket has two layers sealed in all four sides similar to an empty pillow made of urethane. The blanket is spread over the patient's abdomen with both ends of the blanket fixed to the sides of the treatment couch or a baseboard. The inner side, or patient side, of the blanket is thinner and expands more than the outer side. When inflated, the blanket balloons and effectively puts an even pressure on the patient's abdomen. Fluoroscopic observation was performed to verify the usefulness of AIB for patients with lung, breast cancer, or abdominal cancers. Internal organ movement due to breathing was monitored and measured with and without AIB. With the help of AIB, the average range of diaphragm motion was reduced from 2.6 to 0.7 cm in the anterior-to-posterior direction and from 2.7 to 1.3 cm in the superior-to-inferior direction. The motion range in the right-to-left direction was negligible, for it was less than 0.5 cm. These initial testing demonstrated that AIB is useful for reducing patients' breathing motion in the thoracic and abdominal regions comfortably and consistently.

  15. Multiplier, moderator, and reflector materials for lithium-vanadium fusion blankets.

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Smith, D. L.

    1999-10-07

    The self-cooled lithium-vanadium fusion blanket concept has several attractive operational and environmental features. In this concept, liquid lithium works as the tritium breeder and coolant to alleviate issues of coolant breeder compatibility and reactivity. Vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti) is used as the structural material because of its superior performance relative to other alloys for this application. However, this concept has poor attenuation characteristics and energy multiplication for the DT neutrons. An advanced self-cooled lithium-vanadium fusion blanket concept has been developed to eliminate these drawbacks while maintaining all the attractive features of the conventional concept. An electrical insulator coating for the coolant channels, spectral shifter (multiplier, and moderator) and reflector were utilized in the blanket design to enhance the blanket performance. In addition, the blanket was designed to have the capability to operate at high loading conditions of 2 MW/m{sup 2} surface heat flux and 10 MW/m{sup 2} neutron wall loading. This paper assesses the spectral shifter and the reflector materials and it defines the technological requirements of this advanced blanket concept.

  16. Liquid immersion blanket design for use in a compact modular fusion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorbom, Brandon; Ball, Justin; Barnard, Harold; Haakonsen, Christian; Hartwig, Zachary; Olynyk, Geoffrey; Sierchio, Jennifer; Whyte, Dennis

    2012-10-01

    Traditional tritium breeding blankets in fusion reactor designs include a large amount of structural material. This results in complex engineering requirements, complicated sector maintenance, and marginal tritium breeding ratios (TBR). We present a conceptual design of a fully liquid blanket. To maximize tritium breeding volume, the vacuum vessel is completely immersed in a continuously recycled FLiBe blanket, with the exception of small support posts. FLiBe has a wide liquid temperature window (459 C to 1430 C), low electrical conductivity to minimize MHD effects, similar thermal/fluid characteristics to water, and is chemically inert. While tritium breeding with FLiBe in traditional blankets is poor, we use MCNP neutronics analysis to show that the immersion blanket design coupled with a beryllium neutron multiplier results in TBR > 1. FLiBe is shown to be a sufficient radiation shield for the toroidal field magnets and can be used as a coolant for the vacuum vessel and divertor, allowing for a simplified single-phase, low-pressure, single-fluid cooling scheme. When coupled with a high-field compact reactor design, the immersion blanket eliminates the need for complex sector maintenance, allows the vacuum vessel to be a replaceable component, and reduces financial cost.

  17. Optimization of armored spherical tanks for storage on the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, D. J.; Knight, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    A redundancy strategy for reducing micrometeroid armoring mass is investigated, with application to cryogenic reactant storage for a regenerative fuel cell (RFC) on the lunar surface. In that micrometeoroid environment, the cryogenic fuel must be protected from loss due to tank puncture. The tankage must have a sufficiently high probability of survival over the length of the mission so that the probability of system failure due to tank puncture is low compared to the other mission risk factors. Assuming that a single meteoroid penetration can cause a storage tank to lose its contents, two means are available to raise the probability of surviving micrometeoroid attack to the desired level. One can armor the tanks to a thickness sufficient to reduce probability of penetration of any tank to the desired level or add extra capacity in the form of spare tanks that results in survival of a given number out of the ensemble at the desired level. A combination of these strategies (armoring and redundancy) is investigated. The objective is to find the optimum combination which yields the lowest shielding mass per cubic meter of surviving fuel out of the original ensemble. The investigation found that, for the volumes of fuel associated with multikilowatt class cryo storage RFC's, and the armoring methodology and meteoroid models used, storage should be fragmented into small individual tanks. Larger installations (more fuel) pay less of a shielding penalty than small installations. For the same survival probability over the same time period, larger volumes will require less armoring mass per unit volume protected.

  18. Progress and critical issues for IFE blanket and chamber research

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, M.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Latkowski, J.F.; Logan, B.G.; Meier, W.R.; Moir, R.W.; Nobile, A.; Peterson, P.F.; Petti, D.; Schultz, K.R.; Tillack, M.S.

    1999-06-23

    Advances in high gain target designs for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE), and the initiation of construction of large megajoule-class laser facilities in the U.S. (National Ignition Facility) and France (Laser-Megajoule) capable of testing the requirements for inertial fusion ignition and propagating burn, have improved the prospects for IFE. Accordingly, there have recently been modest increases in the US fusion research program related to the feasibility of IFE. These research areas include heavy-ion accelerators, Krypton-Fluoride (KrF) gas lasers, diode-pumped, solid-state (DPSSL) lasers, IFE target designs for higher gains, feasibility of low cost IFE target fabrication and accurate injection, and long-lasting IFE fusion chambers and final optics. Since several studies of conceptual IFE power plant and driver designs were completed in 1992-1996 [1-5], U.S. research in the IFE blanket, chamber, and target technology areas has focused on the critical issues relating to the feasibility of IFE concepts towards the goal of achieving economically-competitive and environmentally-attractive fusion energy. This paper discusses the critical issues in these areas, and the approaches taken to address these issues. The U.S. research in these areas, called IFE Chamber and Target Technologies, is coordinated through the Virtual Laboratory for Technology (VLT) formed by the Department of Energy in December 1998.

  19. Helium-Cooled Refractory Alloys First Wall and Blanket Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, C.P.C.; Nygren, R.E.; Baxi, C.B.; Fogarty, P.; Ghoniem, N.; Khater, H.; McCarthy, K.; Merrill, B.; Nelson, B.; Reis, E.E.; Sharafat, S.; Schleicher, R.; Sze, D.K.; Ulrickson, M.; Willms, S.; Youssef, M.; Zinkel, S.

    1999-08-01

    Under the APEX program the He-cooled system design task is to evaluate and recommend high power density refractory alloy first wall and blanket designs and to recommend and initiate tests to address critical issues. We completed the preliminary design of a helium-cooled, W-5Re alloy, lithium breeder design and the results are reported in this paper. Many areas of the design were assessed, including material selection, helium impurity control, and mechanical, nuclear and thermal hydraulics design, and waste disposal, tritium and safety design. System study results show that at a closed cycle gas turbine (CCGT) gross thermal efficiency of 57.5%, a superconducting coil tokamak reactor, with an aspect ratio of 4, and an output power of 2 GWe, can be projected to have a cost of electricity at 54.6 mill/kWh. Critical issues were identified and we plan to continue the design on some of the critical issues during the next phase of the APEX design study.

  20. Vacuum Permeator Analysis for Extraction of Tritium from DCLL Blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Humrickhouse, Paul Weston; Merrill, Brad Johnson

    2014-11-01

    It is envisioned that tritium will be extracted from DCLL blankets using a vacuum permeator. We derive here an analytical solution for the extraction efficiency of a permeator tube, which is a function of only two dimensionless numbers: one that indicates whether radial transport is limited in the PbLi or in the solid membrane, and another that is the ratio of axial and radial transport times in the PbLi. The permeator efficiency is maximized by decreasing the velocity and tube diameter, and increasing the tube length. This is true regardless of the mass transport correlation used; we review several here and find that they differ little, and the choice of correlation is not a source of significant uncertainty here. The PbLi solubility, on the other hand, is a large source of uncertainty, and we identify upper and lower bounds from the literature data. Under the most optimistic assumptions, we find that a ferritic steel permeator operating at 550 °C will need to be at least an order of magnitude larger in volume than previous conceptual designs using niobium and operating at higher temperatures.

  1. Uncertainties Quantification of Effective Thermal Conductivity for Ceramic Fiber Blanket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shu-yuan; Li, Jian-jun; He, Xiao-dong

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, a probabilistic propagation model for assessing the uncertainty of the effective thermal conductivity was developed based on a combined conduction and radiation heat transfer model of a ceramic fiber blanket composite. The Monte Carlo technique was used to cope with the uncertainties in the material density, radiative properties, and boundary temperatures observed in experimental tests. The calculated effective thermal-conductivity distribution for the sample was compared with the experimental measurements performed on multiple samples, and the predicted mean values were in good agreement with the measured data. The result validates the thermal predictive model and demonstrates the suitability of the stochastic model containing statistical distributions in the input variables. Statistical information also indicates that the uncertainty effect can be enlarged at high temperatures. Response sensitivity analysis between the random inputs and the effective thermal conductivity demonstrates that the randomness in the hot-side temperature, the cold-side temperature, and extinction coefficient of the sample has a significant influence on the variability of thermal-conductivity properties. The extinction coefficient becomes more and more important with an increase of temperature due to the dominant radiative heat transfer contribution at high temperature. The analysis provides good insight into the scattering control in the experimental measurement and theoretical prediction of the effective thermal conductivity of a ceramic fiber composite.

  2. Smoke from Canadian Fires Blankets Eastern U.S.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Smoke from multiple large wildfires in Quebec is blanketing the southern portion of the Canadian province and extending southward over the Great Lakes and eastern United States. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite on July 7, 2002, and shows dozens of active fire detections (red dots) east of James Bay at upper left. The enormous smoke plume is almost 200 miles wide where it enters the United States over the New York and Vermont state lines. The thick pall is affecting air quality in places well to the south, including New York, Baltimore, and Washington, D.C. The image shows the smoke drifting out over the Atlantic Ocean, and then curling back in over North Carolina (bottom right). On Sunday, July 7, the Canadian Interagency Forest Fire Center reported 15 new fires in Quebec in the preceding 24 hours, bringing the total to more than 40 fires in the region, at least 7 which were burning out of control. Most of the fires are believed to have been caused by lightning, more of which is expected on Monday. According to news reports, several hundred people remain evacuated from their homes. Image by Jesse Allen, NASA Earth Observatory, based upon data provided by the MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  3. Reflections on Blended Distributed Learning: The Armor Captains Career Course

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    provided through e-mail, however, not directly in an electronic portfolio of work or in the student activity records within the learning management system . Despite...the learning management system needs to be more flexible and adaptable in regards to items missed on I gate examinations. Many of the above... management system (see Figure 1), instructors can determine the modules and components within particular modules where students are experiencing the most

  4. Neutronics Evaluation of Lithium-Based Ternary Alloys in IFE Blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Jolodosky, A.; Fratoni, M.

    2015-09-22

    Lithium is often the preferred choice as breeder and coolant in fusion blankets as it offers excellent heat transfer and corrosion properties, and most importantly, it has a very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and exacerbates plant safety concerns. For this reason, over the years numerous blanket concepts have been proposed with the scope of reducing concerns associated with lithium. The European helium cooled pebble bed breeding blanket (HCPB) physically confines lithium within ceramic pebbles. The pebbles reside within a low activation martensitic ferritic steel structure and are cooled by helium. The blanket is composed of the tritium breeding lithium ceramic pebbles and neutron multiplying beryllium pebbles. Other blanket designs utilize lead to lower chemical reactivity; LiPb alone can serve as a breeder, coolant, neutron multiplier, and tritium carrier. Blankets employing LiPb coolants alongside silicon carbide structural components can achieve high plant efficiency, low afterheat, and low operation pressures. This alloy can also be used alongside of helium such as in the dual-coolant lead-lithium concept (DCLL); helium is utilized to cool the first wall and structural components made up of low-activation ferritic steel, whereas lithium-lead (LiPb) acts as a self-cooled breeder in the inner channels of the blanket. The helium-cooled steel and lead-lithium alloy are separated by flow channel inserts (usually made out of silicon carbide) which thermally insulate the self-cooled breeder region from the helium cooled steel walls. This creates a LiPb breeder with a much higher exit temperature than the steel which increases the power cycle efficiency and also lowers the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop [6]. Molten salt blankets with a mixture of lithium, beryllium, and fluorides (FLiBe) offer good tritium breeding

  5. Ballistic and Corrosion Analysis of New Military-Grade Magnesium Alloys AMX602 and ZAXE1711 For Armor Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    Ultimate Tensile Strength (MPa) Tensile Yield Strength (MPa) Elongation to Failure (%) AZ31B 245 150 7 Proposed Mg alloy 400 350 20 In 2009...Ballistic and Corrosion Analysis of New Military-Grade Magnesium Alloys AMX602 and ZAXE1711 for Armor Applications by Tyrone L. Jones...Magnesium Alloys AMX602 and ZAXE1711 for Armor Applications Tyrone L. Jones, Joseph P. Labukas, and Brian E. Placzankis Weapons and Materials

  6. Gas Metal Arc Welding Process Modeling and Prediction of Weld Microstructure in MIL A46100 Armor-Grade Martensitic Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    most of the commercially available metallic materials, in particular steels (including stainless steels ), super alloys, aluminum alloys, etc., can...REPORT Gas Metal Arc Welding Process Modeling and Prediction of Weld Microstructure in MIL A46100 Armor-Grade Martensitic Steel 14. ABSTRACT 16...Welding Process Modeling and Prediction of Weld Microstructure in MIL A46100 Armor-Grade Martensitic Steel Report Title ABSTRACT A conventional gas metal

  7. A Historical Summary of the Armored Systems Modernization Program and the Lessons Learned from Its Interaction With the Acquisition Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    NO "VORK UNIT ACCESSION NO. 11 TITLE (Include Security Classification) A HISTORICl\\L SUMMARY OF THE ARMORED SYSTEMS IDDERNIZATION PRCGRAM AND·· THE...June 1992 iii DOWNGRADED APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE 9istribauon. is limited to U.S.. GOTlcrnmeftt .Ageneies and their ....·Contraet6fs...MANAGEMENT from the Author: Approved by: NAVAL·POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL June 1992 iii ABSTRACT The Armored Systems Modernization (ASM) Program’s acquisition

  8. Design criteria and mitigation options for thermal fatigue effects in ATW blankets.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, F. E.

    2000-12-07

    Thermal fatigue due to beam interruptions is an issue that must be addressed in the design of an ATW blanket. Two different approaches can be taken to address this issue. One approach is to analyze current ATW blanket designs in order to set interrupt frequency design limits for the accelerator. The other approach is to assume that accelerator reliability can not be guaranteed before design and construction of the blanket. In this approach the blanket must be designed so as to accommodate an accelerator with a beam interruption frequency significantly higher than current high power accelerators in order to provide a margin of error. Both approaches are considered in this paper. Both a sodium cooled blanket design and a lead-bismuth cooled blanket design are considered. Thermal hydraulic analysis of the blanket for beam interruption transients is carried out with the SASSYS-1 systems analysis code to obtain the time histories of the coolant temperatures in contact with structural components. These coolant temperatures are then used in a detailed structure temperature calculation to obtain structure surface and structure average temperatures. The difference between the average temperature and the surface temperature is used to obtain thermal strains. Low cycle fatigue curves from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code are used to determine the number of cycles that the structural components can endure, based on these strains. Calculations are made for base case designs and for a number of mitigation options. The mitigation options include using two separate accelerators to provide the beam, reducing the thickness of the above core load pads in the subassemblies, increasing the coolant flow rate or reducing power in order to reduce the core temperature rise, and reducing the superheat in the once-through steam generator.

  9. A passively-safe fusion reactor blanket with helium coolant and steel structure

    SciTech Connect

    Crosswait, Kenneth Mitchell

    1994-04-01

    Helium is attractive for use as a fusion blanket coolant for a number of reasons. It is neutronically and chemically inert, nonmagnetic, and will not change phase during any off-normal or accident condition. A significant disadvantage of helium, however, is its low density and volumetric heat capacity. This disadvantage manifests itself most clearly during undercooling accident conditions such as a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) or a loss of flow accident (LOFA). This thesis describes a new helium-cooled tritium breeding blanket concept which performs significantly better during such accidents than current designs. The proposed blanket uses reduced-activation ferritic steel as a structural material and is designed for neutron wall loads exceeding 4 MW/m{sup 2}. The proposed geometry is based on the nested-shell concept developed by Wong, but some novel features are used to reduce the severity of the first wall temperature excursion. These features include the following: (1) A ``beryllium-joint`` concept is introduced, which allows solid beryllium slabs to be used as a thermal conduction path from the first wall to the cooler portions of the blanket. The joint concept allows for significant swelling of the beryllium (10 percent or more) without developing large stresses in the blanket structure. (2) Natural circulation of the coolant in the water-cooled shield is used to maintain shield temperatures below 100 degrees C, thus maintaining a heat sink close to the blanket during the accident. This ensures the long-term passive safety of the blanket.

  10. Neutronics and shielding results of the U.S. ITER blanket trade-off study

    SciTech Connect

    Sawan, M.E.; El-Guebaly, L.A.

    1994-12-31

    The first formal phase of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project was the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) which was conducted from May 1988 until December 1990. The CDA blanket utilized Li{sub 2}O solid breeder, beryllium neutron multiplier, 316 SS structure and low temperature water coolant. The ITER project embarked on a new phase called the Engineering Design Activity (EDA) which started in July 1992. A variety of blanket design options have been considered since the start of the EDA. The US ITER home team started a blanket option trade-off-study (BOTS) in May 1993. The options considered included a self-cooled Li/V option, ferritic steel designs with helium cooled first wall and liquid metal (Li or LiPb) cooled blanket, the CDA design option, and a water cooled 316/SS nonbreeding shield option. Detailed neutronics and shielding analysis have been performed for the different ITER blanket design options considered in this study. The shielding performance was determined for these options and inboard shielding space requirements were compared. Peak first wall (FW) nuclear performance parameters were calculated in addition to power density distribution in the blanket required for the thermal hydraulics calculations. Peak vacuum vessel (VV) nuclear performance parameters have also been determined. The overall tritium breeding ratio (TBR) was determined for each of the design options. A double wall Inconel 625 VV is used with water cooled 316 SS balls. For the design options with liquid metal in the blanket, the use of tungsten carbide balls cooled by NaK is considered. The minimum total thickness of FW/B/S/W is maintained at 1 m in the inboard region.

  11. Probing the Mechanical Strength of an Armored Bubble and Its Implication to Particle-Stabilized Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taccoen, Nicolas; Lequeux, François; Gunes, Deniz Z.; Baroud, Charles N.

    2016-01-01

    Bubbles are dynamic objects that grow and rise or shrink and disappear, often on the scale of seconds. This conflicts with their uses in foams where they serve to modify the properties of the material in which they are embedded. Coating the bubble surface with solid particles has been demonstrated to strongly enhance the foam stability, although the mechanisms for such stabilization remain mysterious. In this paper, we reduce the problem of foam stability to the study of the behavior of a single spherical bubble coated with a monolayer of solid particles. The behavior of this armored bubble is monitored while the ambient pressure around it is varied, in order to simulate the dissolution stress resulting from the surrounding foam. We find that above a critical stress, localized dislocations appear on the armor and lead to a global loss of the mechanical stability. Once these dislocations appear, the armor is unable to prevent the dissolution of the gas into the surrounding liquid, which translates into a continued reduction of the bubble volume, even for a fixed overpressure. The observed route to the armor failure therefore begins from localized dislocations that lead to large-scale deformations of the shell until the bubble completely dissolves. The critical value of the ambient pressure that leads to the failure depends on the bubble radius, with a scaling of Δ Pcollapse∝R-1 , but does not depend on the particle diameter. These results disagree with the generally used elastic models to describe particle-covered interfaces. Instead, the experimental measurements are accounted for by an original theoretical description that equilibrates the energy gained from the gas dissolution with the capillary energy cost of displacing the individual particles. The model recovers the short-wavelength instability, the scaling of the collapse pressure with bubble radius, and the insensitivity to particle diameter. Finally, we use this new microscopic understanding to predict

  12. Persistence of 10-year old Exxon Valdez oil on Gulf of Alaska beaches: the importance of boulder-armoring.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Gail V; Mann, Daniel H; Short, Jeffrey W

    2006-09-01

    Oil stranded as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted for >10 years at study sites on Gulf of Alaska shores distant from the spill's origin. These sites were contaminated by "oil mousse", which persists in these settings due to armoring of underlying sediments and their included oil beneath boulders. The boulder-armored beaches that we resampled in 1999 showed continued contamination by subsurface oil, despite their exposure to moderate to high wave energies. Significant declines in surface oil cover occurred at all study sites. In contrast, mousse has persisted under boulders in amounts similar to what was present in 1994 and probably in 1989. Especially striking is the general lack of weathering of this subsurface oil over the last decade. Oil at five of the six armored-beach sites 10 years after the spill is compositionally similar to 11-day old Exxon Valdez oil. Analysis of movements in the boulder-armor that covers the study beaches reveals that only minor shifts have occurred since 1994, suggesting that over the last five, and probably over the last 10 years, boulder-armors have remained largely unmoved at the study sites. These findings emphasize the importance of particular geomorphic parameters in determining stranded oil persistence. Surface armoring, combined with stranding of oil mousse, results in the unexpectedly lengthy persistence of only lightly to moderately weathered oil within otherwise high-energy wave environments.

  13. Persistence of 10-year old Exxon Valdez oil on Gulf of Alaska beaches: The importance of boulder-armoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irvine, Gail V.; Mann, Daniel H.; Short, Jeffrey W.

    2006-01-01

    Oil stranded as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted for >10 years at study sites on Gulf of Alaska shores distant from the spill's origin. These sites were contaminated by "oil mousse", which persists in these settings due to armoring of underlying sediments and their included oil beneath boulders. The boulder-armored beaches that we resampled in 1999 showed continued contamination by subsurface oil, despite their exposure to moderate to high wave energies. Significant declines in surface oil cover occurred at all study sites. In contrast, mousse has persisted under boulders in amounts similar to what was present in 1994 and probably in 1989. Especially striking is the general lack of weathering of this subsurface oil over the last decade. Oil at five of the six armored-beach sites 10 years after the spill is compositionally similar to 11-day old Exxon Valdez oil. Analysis of movements in the boulder-armor that covers the study beaches reveals that only minor shifts have occurred since 1994, suggesting that over the last five, and probably over the last 10 years, boulder-armors have remained largely unmoved at the study sites. These findings emphasize the importance of particular geomorphic parameters in determining stranded oil persistence. Surface armoring, combined with stranding of oil mousse, results in the unexpectedly lengthy persistence of only lightly to moderately weathered oil within otherwise high-energy wave environments.

  14. Sensitivity of blanket peat vegetation and hydrochemistry to local disturbances.

    PubMed

    Robroek, Bjorn J M; Smart, Richard P; Holden, Joseph

    2010-10-01

    At the ecosystem scale, peatlands can be extremely resilient to perturbations. Yet, they are very sensitive to local disturbances, especially mechanical perturbations (e.g. trampling). The effects of these disturbances on vegetation, and potential effects on hydrochemical conditions along the peat surface, however, are largely unknown. We used three research tracks (paths researchers use to access their study sites) differing in time of abandonment to investigate the impact of local disturbance (trampling) on the vegetation and its short-term (< or = 2 year) recovery in a flagship research blanket peatland. Additionally, we examined the effects of local disturbance on fluvial runoff events and the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) in runoff water. Local disturbance heavily impacted peat vegetation, resulting in large areas of scarred and churned peat. Recovery of vascular plants along abandoned tracks was slow, but a functional Sphagnum layer re-established after just one year. The absence of vegetation elicited an increase in the number of runoff events along the tracks, by which POC runoff from the tracks increased. POC concentrations were highest in the surface water from the recently abandoned track, while they were low in the runoff water from the track abandoned longest and the undisturbed control track. We attribute this to the relatively fast recovery of the Sphagnum vegetation. DOC concentrations did not differ significantly either spatially or temporally in surface runoff or soil solution waters. While at an ecosystem scale local disturbances may be negligible in terms of carbon loss, our data points to the need for further research on the potential long-term effects of local disturbance on the vegetation, and significant effects on local scale carbon fluxes. Moreover, the effects of disturbances could be long-lasting and their role on ecosystem processes should not be underestimated.

  15. ITER Test Blanket Module Error Field Simulation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, M. J.

    2010-11-01

    Recent experiments at DIII-D used an active-coil mock-up to investigate effects of magnetic error fields similar to those expected from two ferromagnetic Test Blanket Modules (TBMs) in one ITER equatorial port. The largest and most prevalent observed effect was plasma toroidal rotation slowing across the entire radial profile, up to 60% in H-mode when the mock-up local ripple at the plasma was ˜4 times the local ripple expected in front of ITER TBMs. Analysis showed the slowing to be consistent with non-resonant braking by the mock-up field. There was no evidence of strong electromagnetic braking by resonant harmonics. These results are consistent with the near absence of resonant helical harmonics in the TBM field. Global particle and energy confinement in H-mode decreased by <20% for the maximum mock-up ripple, but <5% at the local ripple expected in ITER. These confinement reductions may be linked with the large velocity reductions. TBM field effects were small in L-mode but increased with plasma beta. The L-H power threshold was unaffected within error bars. The mock-up field increased plasma sensitivity to mode locking by a known n=1 test field (n = toroidal harmonic number). In H-mode the increased locking sensitivity was from TBM torque slowing plasma rotation. At low beta, locked mode tolerance was fully recovered by re-optimizing the conventional DIII-D ``I-coils'' empirical compensation of n=1 errors in the presence of the TBM mock-up field. Empirical error compensation in H-mode should be addressed in future experiments. Global loss of injected neutral beam fast ions was within error bars, but 1 MeV fusion triton loss may have increased. The many DIII-D mock-up results provide important benchmarks for models needed to predict effects of TBMs in ITER.

  16. Composite flexible insulation for thermal protection of space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.; Tran, Huy K.; Chiu, S. A.

    1992-01-01

    A composite flexible blanket insulation (CFBI) system considered for use as a thermal protection system for space vehicles is described. This flexible composite insulation system consists of an outer layer of silicon carbide fabric, followed by alumina mat insulation, and alternating layers of aluminized polyimide film and aluminoborosilicate scrim fabric. A potential application of this composite insulation would be as a thermal protection system for the aerobrake of the aeroassist space transfer vehicle (ASTV). It would also apply to other space vehicles subject to high convective and radiative heating during atmospheric entry. The thermal performance of this composite insulation as exposed to a simulated atmospheric entry environment in a plasma arc test facility is described. Other thermophysical properties which affect the thermal response of this composite insulation is included. It shows that this composite insulation is effective as a thermal protection system at total heating rates up to 30.6 W/sq cm.

  17. Composite flexible insulation for thermal protection of space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.; Tran, Huy K.; Chiu, S. Amanda

    1991-01-01

    A composite flexible blanket insulation (CFBI) system considered for use as a thermal protection system for space vehicles is described. This flexible composite insulation system consists of an outer layer of silicon carbide fabric, followed by alumina mat insulation, and alternating layers of aluminized polyimide film and aluminoborosilicate scrim fabric. A potential application of this composite insulation would be as a thermal protection system for the aerobrake of the aeroassist space transfer vehicle (ASTV). It would also apply to other space vehicles subject to high convective and radiative heating during atmospheric entry. The thermal performance of this composite insulation as exposed to a simulated atmospheric entry environment in a plasma arc test facility is described. Other thermophysical properties which affect the thermal response of this composite insulation is included. It shows that this composite insulation is effective as a thermal protection system at total heating rates up to 30.6 W/sq cm.

  18. Flexible Shields for Protecting Spacecraft Against Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Crews, Jeanne Lee

    2004-01-01

    A report presents the concept of Flexshield a class of versatile, lightweight, flexible shields for protecting spacecraft against impacts by small meteors and orbiting debris. The Flexshield concept incorporates elements of, but goes beyond, prior spacecraft-shielding concepts, including those of Whipple shields and, more recently, multi-shock shields and multi-shock blankets. A shield of the Flexshield type includes multiple outer layers (called bumpers in the art) made, variously, of advanced ceramic and/or polymeric fibers spaced apart from each other by a lightweight foam. As in prior such shields, the bumpers serve to shock an impinging hypervelocity particle, causing it to disintegrate vaporize, and spread out over a larger area so that it can be stopped by an innermost layer (back sheet). The flexibility of the fabric layers and compressibility of the foam make it possible to compress and fold the shield for transport, then deploy the shield for use. The shield can be attached to a spacecraft by use of snaps, hook-and-pile patches, or other devices. The shield can also contain multilayer insulation material, so that it provides some thermal protection in addition to mechanical protection.

  19. Thermal-hydraulics design comparisons for the tandem mirror hybrid reactor blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, C.P.C.; Yang, Y.S.; Schultz, K.R.

    1980-09-01

    The Tandem Mirror Hybrid Reactor (TMHR) is a cylindrical reactor, and the fertile materials and tritium breeding fuel elements can be arranged with radial or axial orientation in the blanket module. Thermal-hydraulics performance comparisons were made between plate, axial rod and radial rod fuel geometrices. The three configurations result in different coolant/void fractions and different clad/structure fractions. The higher void fraction in the two rod designs means that these blankets will have to be thicker than the plate design blanket in order to achieve the same level of nuclear interactions. Their higher structural fractions will degrade the uranium breeding ratio and energy multiplication factor of the design. One difficulty in the thermal-hydraulics analysis of the plate design was caused by the varying energy multiplication of the blanket during the lifetime of the plate which forced the use of designs that operated in the transition flow regime at some point during life. To account for this, an approach was adopted from Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) experience for the pressure drop calculation and the corresponding heat transfer coefficient that was used for the film drop thermal calculation. Because of the superior nuclear performance, the acceptable thermal-hydraulic characteristics and the mechanical design feasibility, the plate geometry concept was chosen for the reference gas-cooled TMHR blanket design.

  20. Electric blanket use and breast cancer in the Nurses' Health Study.

    PubMed

    Laden, F; Neas, L M; Tolbert, P E; Holmes, M D; Hankinson, S E; Spiegelman, D; Speizer, F E; Hunter, D J

    2000-07-01

    Electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) have been hypothesized to increase the risk of breast cancer, and electric blankets represent an important source of exposure to EMFs. The authors examined the relation between electric blanket use and invasive breast cancer in the Nurses' Health Study. On the biennial questionnaire in 1992, 87,497 women provided information on this exposure during three consecutive time periods. In a prospective analysis with 301,775 person-years of follow-up through 1996 (954 cases), the relative risk for any electric blanket use was not elevated (relative risk (RR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95, 1.24) after controlling for breast cancer risk factors. There was a weak association between breast cancer and electric blanket use at least 16 years before diagnosis and long-term use in age-adjusted analyses but not in multivariate models. In a retrospective analysis of 1,318,683 person-years of follow-up (2,426 cases), the multivariate relative risk associated with use before disease follow-up began was null (RR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.16). Similar results were obtained in analyses stratified by menopause and restricted to estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers. While 95% confidence intervals for these estimates did not exclude small risks, overall, results did not support an association between breast cancer risk and exposure to EMFs from electric blankets.

  1. Modeling and Simulation of the ITER First Wall/Blanket Primary Heat Transfer System

    SciTech Connect

    Ying, Alice; Popov, Emilian L

    2011-01-01

    ITER inductive power operation is modeled and simulated using a thermal-hydraulics system code (RELAP5) integrated with a 3-D CFD (SC-Tetra) code. The Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) functions are predicted together with the main parameters operational ranges. The control algorithm strategy and derivation are summarized as well. The First Wall and Blanket modules are the primary components of PHTS, used to remove the major part of the thermal heat from the plasma. The modules represent a set of flow channels in solid metal structure that serve to absorb the radiation heat and nuclear heating from the fusion reactions and to provide shield for the vacuum vessel. The blanket modules are water cooled. The cooling is forced convective with constant blanket inlet temperature and mass flow rate. Three independent water loops supply coolant to the three blanket sectors. The main equipment of each loop consists of a pump, a steam pressurizer and a heat exchanger. A major feature of ITER is the pulsed operation. The plasma does not burn continuously, but on intervals with large periods of no power between them. This specific feature causes design challenges to accommodate the thermal expansion of the coolant during the pulse period and requires active temperature control to maintain a constant blanket inlet temperature.

  2. Neutronics analyses of tritium breeding blanket performance in a spherical torus based volumetric neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Cerbone, R. J.; Cheng, E.T.; Peng, Yueng Kay Martin

    1998-01-01

    A spherical torus based volumetric neutron source (ST-VNS) concept has been developed in recent studies as a possible intermediate step to develop the necessary technology for reactor components of future fusion power plants. Such a VNS would complement ITER in testing, developing, and qualifying nuclear technology components. A recently developed design concept for a spherical torus based VNS permits the development capability to increase fusion power and wall loading. Results of neutronics calculations for such a ST-VNS with neutron wall loading ranging from 0.5 to 5 MW/m(2) have been competed. In this paper, we report the tritium breeding and neutronics performance of several power blanket compositions and configurations. These include, a helium cooled natural lithium in vanadium alloy structural material blanket; a helium cooled enriched lithium-lead, in a vanadium-alloy structure blanket; and a heterogeneous configured blanket consisting of a dual cooled blanket consisting of enriched lithium-lead enclosed in silicon carbide with ferritic steel for the structural material.

  3. Protection mechanisms of the iron-plated armor of a deep-sea hydrothermal vent gastropod

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Haimin; Dao, Ming; Imholt, Timothy; Huang, Jamie; Wheeler, Kevin; Bonilla, Alejandro; Suresh, Subra; Ortiz, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Biological exoskeletons, in particular those with unusually robust and multifunctional properties, hold enormous potential for the development of improved load-bearing and protective engineering materials. Here, we report new materials and mechanical design principles of the iron-plated multilayered structure of the natural armor of Crysomallon squamiferum, a recently discovered gastropod mollusc from the Kairei Indian hydrothermal vent field, which is unlike any other known natural or synthetic engineered armor. We have determined through nanoscale experiments and computational simulations of a predatory attack that the specific combination of different materials, microstructures, interfacial geometries, gradation, and layering are advantageous for penetration resistance, energy dissipation, mitigation of fracture and crack arrest, reduction of back deflections, and resistance to bending and tensile loads. The structure-property-performance relationships described are expected to be of technological interest for a variety of civilian and defense applications. PMID:20133823

  4. A parametric design of ceramic faced composite armor subject to air weapon threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Y. N.; Sun, Q.

    2015-12-01

    By taking into consideration the two categories of military projectile threats to aircraft structures, an optimal layer configuration of ceramic faced composite armor was designed in this paper. Using numerical simulations and the same layer arrangement of ceramic, UHMWPE, and carbon fiber laminates, a parametric finite element model using LS-DYNA code was built. Several thickness combinations were analyzed in order to determine the final lightest configuration that is capable of supporting a high-speed impact load and HEI blast wave load, which implements a high anti-penetration design for aircraft armor. This configuration can be used to improve the anti-impact ability of aircraft structures as well as achieve a structure/function integration design that considers a lighter weight.

  5. Armor Development from Decapitated Flash Flood Bores in Supply-Limited Flume Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, K.; Rhodes, R.; Johnson, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    In rivers assumed to have quasi-normal flow, three main processes have been used to explain bed surface armoring: i) selective entrainment and transport of smaller grains, ii) limited supply of smaller grain sizes, and iii) equal mobility of grains of different sizes, which develops through natural feedbacks such that larger, less mobile grains are enriched on the surface relative to smaller grains. Flash flood-dominated river channels in arid environments often completely lack surface armoring, yet it is unclear whether increased sediment supply or transport of all grain sizes prevents armor development. In order to examine armor development in an end-member case of non-normal flow, we conducted a series of laboratory experiments using flash flood bores. The flume is 33.5 m long, 0.5 m wide, 0.8 m tall, and capable of creating reproducible flood bores by raising a high-speed computerized lift gate and releasing impounded water. For each experiment, the gate was quickly lowered as soon as the flood bore traveled the length of the flume, 'decapitating' the bore from subsequent flow, to better isolate the effects of the bore alone on entrainment and transport. Sediment was not fed into the upstream end of the flume and only sourced from the gravel bed (2 mm to 40 mm), resulting in supply-limited experimental conditions. In response to repeated flood bores, the surface grain size distribution rapidly coarsened. We interpret that kinetic sieving was the dominant cause of surface armoring in these experiments. LiDAR scans of the bed topography from before and after each bore show increased surface roughness due to grain size changes, but small surface elevation changes due to relatively limited erosion. Digital gravelometry from photographs taken after each bore show increased armoring, while sediment transported out the downstream end of the flume tended to be as coarse or coarser than the bed surface. Travel distances of three sizes of RFID-tagged tracer clasts show

  6. Advanced Modeling Strategies for the Analysis of Tile-Reinforced Composite Armor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Chen, Tzi-Kang

    1999-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the deformation mechanisms in tile-reinforced armored components was conducted to develop the most efficient modeling strategies for the structural analysis of large components of the Composite Armored Vehicle. The limitations of conventional finite elements with respect to the analysis of tile-reinforced structures were examined, and two complementary optimal modeling strategies were developed. These strategies are element layering and the use of a tile-adhesive superelement. Element layering is a technique that uses stacks of shear deformable shell elements to obtain the proper transverse shear distributions through the thickness of the laminate. The tile-adhesive superelement consists of a statically condensed substructure model designed to take advantage of periodicity in tile placement patterns to eliminate numerical redundancies in the analysis. Both approaches can be used simultaneously to create unusually efficient models that accurately predict the global response by incorporating the correct local deformation mechanisms.

  7. Transient pressure wave in the behind armor blunt trauma: experimental and computational investigation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shaomin; Xu, Cheng; Wang, Shu; Wen, Yaoke

    2017-02-01

    In the last few decades, various researches focus on the transient pressure in the behind armor blunt trauma. This paper presented a investigation on the transient pressure in the ballistic gelatin behind a soft body armor subjected to the impacting from three ammunitions. Experimental results show that three peaks appear on the pressure-time curves without taking into account the ammunition type and the impact velocity. Furthermore, numerical models of the test were created to compare modelling results to the pressure from the pressure gauges buried in the gelatin block. The main features on the pressure-time cure were discussed to analyze the wave formation and propagation. With the verified model, the effect of the boundary was also investigated to explain the wave reflection which appeared after two peaks.

  8. Development of an automated fuzing station for the future armored resupply vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Chesser, J.B.; Jansen, J.F.; Lloyd, P.D.; Varma, V.K.

    1995-03-01

    The US Army is developing the Advanced Field Artillery System (SGSD), a next generation armored howitzer. The Future Armored Resupply Vehicle (FARV) will be its companion ammunition resupply vehicle. The FARV with automate the supply of ammunition and fuel to the AFAS which will increase capabilities over the current system. One of the functions being considered for automation is ammunition processing. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing equipment to demonstrate automated ammunition processing. One of the key operations to be automated is fuzing. The projectiles are initially unfuzed, and a fuze must be inserted and threaded into the projectile as part of the processing. A constraint on the design solution is that the ammunition cannot be modified to simplify automation. The problem was analyzed to determine the alignment requirements. Using the results of the analysis, ORNL designed, built, and tested a test stand to verify the selected design solution.

  9. Quasi-Static Tensile Stress Strain Curves--II, Rolled Homogeneous Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-11-01

    Aluminum Alloys, 2024-T3510, 5083-H131 and 7039-T64 as Measured by a Sonic Technique", Ballistic Research Laboratories, Abei-deen Proving Ground , MD. 6R...Hugoniot of Rolled Homogeneous Armor ", Ballistic Research Laboratories, Aberdeen Proving Ground , MD. 7 11. TEST PROCEDURES The material properties of...Gov’t. agencies only; Test and Evaluation; NOV 1976. Other requests shall be referred to Ballistic Research Laboratories, Aberdeen Proving Ground , MD

  10. Origin of the 44-mm Behind-Armor Blunt Trauma Standard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    soap ,35 and asse sing animal injury when the animal i wearing armor.5 Re earchers have also made attempts to quantify the level of injury and...1 DIRECTOR US ARMY RESEARCH LAB IMAL HRA 2800 POWDER MILL RD ADELPHI MD 20783-1197 1 DIRECTOR US ARMY RESEARCH LAB RDRL CIO LL...2800 POWDER MILL RD ADELPHI MD 20783-1197 NO. OF COPIES ORGANIZATION 1 USARL RDRL SLE R FLORES WSMR NM 88002-5513

  11. Identification of NDE Methods for Inspection Multi-Layer Ceramic Composite Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-08

    composite armor The NDE methods under evaluation include: 1)-immersion phased array ultrasonics , 2)- through- transmission, direct-digital x-ray imaging...results in very long data acquisition times as compare to phased array scans. 5. Air Coupled Ultrasonic methods The last NDE method...include: 1)-immersion phased array ultrasonics , 2)- through-transmission, direct-digital x-ray imaging, 3)-non-contact scanning microwaves, 4)-air

  12. Armored Family of Vehicles (AFV). Phase 1 Report. Book 3. Volumes 5 thru 8

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-31

    Purpose Fire Support Platoon (APFSP) 3. Armored Gun System O&O Concept 4. Comparison of Direct Fire Gun Systems (105mm VS 120mm) 5. Results of the...this phase, simulators should be identified which will support both the design effort, New Equipment Training ( NET ), fielding, and sustainment...Equipment Training. (1) The AFY management organization will maintain overall program responsibility for NET in coordination with AMC and TRADOC; however

  13. What is the Role of Heavy Armor in the Army of 2020?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-06

    the strategic environment and lead to situations that would represent a direct threat to the national security interests of the United States... Oklahoma Press, 2011), 44. 58 Aleksandr A. Svechin, Strategy, ed. Kent D. Lee; (Minneapolis, MN: East View Publications, 1992), 1-5. 59 Christopher Paul...DePuy’s work underlined the importance of providing a clearly defined vision for employing its armor forces.75 As the one of the leading developers of

  14. A Review and Annotated Bibliography of Armor Gunnery Training Device Effectiveness Literature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    performance for each TC/gunner pair was determined after the competition by both the platoon leader and platoon members’ reenactment on paper of each...a rear-projected movie that depicts armor targets moving across realistic terrain. Each TC-gunner pair engaged 27 targets, nine per film . The order...of presentation was counterbalanced so that each of three films was shown an equal number of occasions first, second, and third. d. Number of Different

  15. Defeat at Kasserine: American Armor Doctrine, Training, and Battle Command in Northwest Africa, World War II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    is the enemy of change.1 Edward L. Katzenbach Jr. The 1st Armored Division was activated on 15 July 1940 at Ft. Knox, Kentucky. It was the first of...experienced Axis force. 1Edward L. Katzenbach Jr., “The Horse Cavalry in the Twentieth Century,” Public...Joint Forces Quarterly 20 (autumn/winter 1998-99): 71-77. Katzenbach Jr., Edward L. “The Horse Cavalry in the Twentieth Century.” Public Policy 7

  16. Simulation Tools for Ultrasonic Inspections of Multi-Layer Armor Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Nathaniel; Margetan, Frank J.; Gray, Tim; Thompson, R. Bruce

    2011-06-01

    Some armor panels are fabricated from several layers of material including ceramics, graphite and/or glass composites, and rubber. This multi-layer makeup can complicate UT inspection, since many possible sound paths (including intra-layer reverberations) can contribute to observed UT signals. At last year's QNDE conference we reported on baseline property measurements (density, sound speed, attenuation, etc.) for the constituent layers of one prototype panel, and we discussed how that information was used to design an ultrasonic inspection to look for disbonding at interfaces. We now report on progress to develop better simulation tools for armor panel inspections. In particular we consider normal-incidence pulse/echo inspections and use a paraxial beam model to predict time-domain signals for unflawed panels and those containing large delaminations. The model uses the frequency-dependent baseline property data as inputs, and treats beam spread and focusing effects. We describe the modeling approach and present comparisons of model predictions to the experimental data gathered last year during inspections of five-layer armor panels.

  17. Optimization of armored spherical tanks for storage on the lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, D. J.; Knight, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    A redundancy strategy for reducing micrometeroid armoring mass is investigated, with application to cryogenic reactant storage for a regenerative fuel cell (RFC) on the lunar surface. In that micrometeoroid environment, the cryogenic fuel must be protected from loss due to tank puncture. The tankage must have a sufficiently high probability of survival over the length of the mission so that the probability of system failure due to tank puncture is low compared to the other mission risk factors. Assuming that a single meteoroid penetration can cause a storage tank to lose its contents, two means are available to raise the probability of surviving micrometeoroid attack to the desired level. One can armor the tanks to a thickness sufficient to reduce probability of penetration of any tank to the desired level or add extra capacity in the form of space tanks that results in survival of a given number out of the ensemble at the desired level. A combination of these strategies (armor and redundancy) is investigated.

  18. Warm Ocean Temperatures Blanket the Far-Western Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These data, taken during a 10-day collection cycle ending March 9, 2001, show that above-normal sea-surface heights and warmer ocean temperatures(indicated by the red and white areas) still blanket the far-western tropical Pacific and much of the north (and south) mid-Pacific. Red areas are about 10centimeters (4 inches) above normal; white areas show the sea-surface height is between 14 and 32 centimeters (6 to 13 inches) above normal.

    This build-up of heat dominating the Western Pacific was first noted by TOPEX/Poseidon oceanographers more than two years ago and has outlasted the El Nino and La Nina events of the past few years. See: http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/elnino/990127.html . This warmth contrasts with the Bering Sea, Gulf of Alaska and tropical Pacific where lower-than-normal sea levels and cool ocean temperatures continue (indicated by blue areas). The blue areas are between 5 and 13centimeters (2 and 5 inches) below normal, whereas the purple areas range from 14 to 18 centimeters (6 to 7 inches) below normal. Actually, the near-equatorial ocean cooled through the fall of 2000 and into mid-winter and continues almost La Nina-like.

    Looking at the entire Pacific basin, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation's warm horseshoe and cool wedge pattern still dominates this sea-level height image. Most recent National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) sea-surface temperature data also clearly illustrate the persistence of this basin-wide pattern. They are available at http://psbsgi1.nesdis.noaa.gov:8080/PSB/EPS/SST/climo.html

    The U.S.-French TOPEX/Poseidon mission is managed by JPL for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. For more information on the TOPEX/Poseidon project, see: http://topex-www.jpl.nasa.gov

  19. Tritium processing for the European test blanket systems: current status of the design and development strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Ricapito, I.; Calderoni, P.; Poitevin, Y.; Aiello, A.; Utili, M.; Demange, D.

    2015-03-15

    Tritium processing technologies of the two European Test Blanket Systems (TBS), HCLL (Helium Cooled Lithium Lead) and HCPB (Helium Cooled Pebble Bed), play an essential role in meeting the main objectives of the TBS experimental campaign in ITER. The compliancy with the ITER interface requirements, in terms of space availability, service fluids, limits on tritium release, constraints on maintenance, is driving the design of the TBS tritium processing systems. Other requirements come from the characteristics of the relevant test blanket module and the scientific programme that has to be developed and implemented. This paper identifies the main requirements for the design of the TBS tritium systems and equipment and, at the same time, provides an updated overview on the current design status, mainly focusing onto the tritium extractor from Pb-16Li and TBS tritium accountancy. Considerations are also given on the possible extrapolation to DEMO breeding blanket. (authors)

  20. First wall structural analysis of the aqueous self-cooled blanket concept

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, D.A.; Steiner, D.; Embrechts, M.J.; Deutch, L.; Gierszewski, P.

    1986-11-01

    A recently proposed blanket concept using water coolant with dissolved lithium compounds for breeding employs water cooled first walls. Water cooled first walls for blankets have also been proposed for some solid breeder blankets. Design options for water cooled first walls are examined in this paper. Four geometries and three materials are analyzed for water coolant at 300/sup 0/C and 13.8 MPa (2000 psi). Maximum neutron wall loads (with surface heat loads being 25% of neutron wall load) are determined for each geometry and material combination. Of the materials studied, only vanadium alloy is found to be capable of withstanding high wall loads (>10MW/m/sup 2/ neutron and >2.5 MW/m/sup 2/ heat).

  1. Puncture resistance of the scaled skin from striped bass: collective mechanisms and inspiration for new flexible armor designs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Deju; Szewciw, Lawrence; Vernerey, Franck; Barthelat, Francois

    2013-08-01

    The structure and mechanics of fish scales display unusual and attractive features which could inspire new protective materials and systems. This natural material is therefore attracting attention over the past few years, and recent work demonstrated the remarkable performance of individual fish scales. A puncture event as would occur from a predator's attack however involves more than one scale, and in this article we therefore investigate collective mechanisms occurring within the scaled skin of a fish in the event of a predator's attack. We first demonstrate that in striped bass (Morone saxatilis), the scales increase by four to five times the force required to puncture the skin. We show that individual scales from striped bass provide a remarkable barrier against sharp puncture, regardless of the stiffness of the substrate. The scalation pattern in striped bass is such that three scales overlap at any point on the surface of the fish, which we show effectively multiplies the puncture force by three. We determined that the friction between scales is negligible and therefore it does not contribute to increasing puncture force. Likewise, we found that the local arrangement of the scales had little effect on the puncture performance. Interestingly, because the scales are several orders of magnitude stiffer than the substrate, indenting a few isolated scales results in "sinking" of the scales into the substrate. The high local deflections and strain within the soft tissue may then result in blunt injury before the sharp indenter penetrates the scales. Stereo-imaging and image correlation performed around a puncture site in fish reveal that the surrounding scales collectively contribute to redistributing the puncture force over large volume, limiting local deflections and strains in the soft tissues. The structure and mechanisms of natural fish scales therefore offer an effective protection against several types of threat, and may inspire novel versatile protective systems with attractive flexural properties.

  2. A Meso-Scale Unit-Cell Based Material Model for the Single-Ply Flexible-Fabric Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    next implemented in the material user subrou- tine, VUMAT , of the commercial finite element program ABAQUS/ Explicit [24]. This subroutine is compiled... VUMAT Material User Subrou- tine at each time increment at each integration point of each element can be summarized as follows: (a) The corresponding...values of the mate- rial state variables at the end of the time increment are determined within the VUMAT and returned to the ABA- QUS/Explicit finite

  3. Development of a Meso-Scale Material Model for Ballistic Fabric and Its Use in Flexible-Armor Protection Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    analyses, the model is next implemented in the material user subroutine, VUMAT , of the commercial finite element program ABAQUS/Explicit (Ref 24). This...compromise between computational efficiency and accuracy. The coupling algorithm between the ABAQUS/Explicit finite element solver and the VUMAT Material...material state variables at the end of the time increment are determined within the VUMAT and returned to the ABAQUS/Explicit finite element solver. In

  4. Design of the helium cooled lithium lead breeding blanket in CEA: from TBM to DEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiello, G.; Aubert, J.; Forest, L.; Jaboulay, J.-C.; Li Puma, A.; Boccaccini, L. V.

    2017-04-01

    The helium cooled lithium lead (HCLL) blanket concept was originally developed in CEA at the beginning of 2000: it is one of the two European blanket concepts to be tested in ITER in the form of a test blanket module (TBM) and one of the four blanket concepts currently being considered for the DEMOnstration reactor that will follow ITER. The TBM is a highly optimized component for the ITER environment that will provide crucial information for the development of the DEMO blanket, but its design needs to be adapted to the DEMO reactor. With respect to the TBM design, reduction of the steel content in the breeding zone (BZ) is sought in order to maximize tritium breeding reactions. Different options are being studied, with the potential of reaching tritium breeding ratio (TBR) values up to 1.21. At the same time, the design of the back supporting structure (BSS), which is a DEMO specific component that has to support the blanket modules inside the vacuum vessel (VV), is ongoing with the aim of maximizing the shielding power and minimizing pumping power. This implies a re-engineering of the modules’ attachment system. Design changes however, will have an impact on the manufacturing and assembly sequences that are being developed for the HCLL-TBM. Due to the differences in joint configurations, thicknesses to be welded, heat dissipation and the various technical constraints related to the accessibility of the welding tools and implementation of non-destructive examination (NDE), the manufacturing procedure should be adapted and optimized for DEMO design. Laser welding instead of TIG could be an option to reduce distortions. The time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) technique is being investigated for NDE. Finally, essential information expected from the HCLL-TBM program that will be needed to finalize the DEMO design is discussed.

  5. Flexible thermal laminate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, F. S.; Sauers, D. G.

    1977-01-01

    Lightweight flexible laminate of interwoven conducting and insulating yarns, designed to provide localized controlled heating for propellant tanks on space vehicles, is useful for nonspace applications where weight, bulk, and flexibility are critical concerns.

  6. Flexibility and Muscular Strength.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell

    1988-01-01

    This definition of flexibility and muscular strength also explores their roles in overall physical fitness and focuses on how increased flexibility and muscular strength can help decrease or eliminate lower back pain. (CB)

  7. Ambient air cooling for concealed soft body armor in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Greg A; Bishop, Stacy H; Herron, Robert L; Katica, Charles P; Elbon, Bre'anna L; Bosak, Andrew M; Bishop, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Concealed soft body armor inhibits convective and evaporative heat loss and increases heat storage, especially in hot environments. One option to potentially mitigate heat storage is to promote airflow under the soft body armor. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ambient air induction (∼100 liters per minute) on heat strain while wearing concealed soft body armor in a hot environment (wet bulb globe temperature = 30°C). A counter-balanced, repeated measures protocol was performed with nine healthy male volunteers. Participants were fitted with either a traditional or modified Level II concealed soft body armor. Participants performed cycles of 12 min of walking (1.25 liters per minute) and 3 min of arm curls (0.6 liters per minute) for a total of 60 min. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to assess the mean differences in physiological measures (rectal temperature, heart rate, micro-environment [temperature and relative humidity]). Post hoc Bonferroni analysis and paired samples t-tests (alpha = 0.01) were conducted on omnibus significant findings. Perceptual measures (perceived exertion, thermal comfort) were analyzed using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Tests. Modification led to an improvement in perceived exertion at 45 min (MOD: 10 ± 1; CON: 11 ± 2; p ≤ 0.001) and 60 min (MOD: 10 ± 2; CON: 12 ± 2; p ≤ 0.001) and a reduction in micro-environment temperature in MOD (1.0 ± 0.2°C, p = 0.03) compared to CON. Modification did not attenuate change in rectal temperature or heart rate (p < 0.01) during 60-min work bout. Change in rectal temperature approached significance between MOD and CON at the end of the work bout (MOD: 0.4 ± 0.2°C; CON: 0.7 ± 0.3°C; p = 0.048). The slope of rectal temperature was significantly greater (p = 0.04) under CON compared to MOD. These data suggest that air induction may provide small benefits while wearing concealed soft body armor, though improvements are needed to lessen physiological strain.

  8. 75 FR 38093 - ConocoPhillips Alaska Natural Gas Corporation and Marathon Oil Company; Application for Blanket...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ...Phillips Alaska Natural Gas Corporation and Marathon Oil Company; Application for Blanket Authorization To... Marathon Oil Company (Marathon) (collectively Applicants), requesting blanket authorization to export a... publicly-traded Delaware corporation. Marathon is an Ohio corporation with its principal place of...

  9. 78 FR 2990 - Bear Creek Storage Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Bear Creek Storage Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on December 21, 2012, Bear Creek Storage Company, L.L.C. (Bear Creek), 569... the Natural Gas Act, and Bear Creek's blanket certificate issued in Docket No. CP10-28-000 on...

  10. 76 FR 2093 - Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY... November 30, 2010, by Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC (Eni USA), requesting blanket authorization to export... purchasing and marketing supplies of natural gas and LNG. Eni USA is a customer of the Cameron Terminal...

  11. 75 FR 13755 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application To Amend Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application To Amend Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas... application filed on March 4, 2010, by Freeport LNG Development, L.P. (Freeport LNG), requesting an amendment to its blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) granted by DOE/FE on May 28,...

  12. 76 FR 33746 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas..., 2011, by Freeport LNG Development, L.P. (Freeport LNG), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) that previously had been imported into the United States from foreign sources...

  13. 75 FR 62510 - Chevron U.S.A. Inc.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... U.S.A. Inc.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of..., 2010, by Chevron U.S.A. Inc. (Chevron), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural... up to the equivalent of 72 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of natural gas on a short-term or spot...

  14. Thinking about Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villa, Mario Diaz

    2009-01-01

    This article emphasizes the complexity of the term flexibility and discusses its meanings and political dimensions, along with its expressions or realizations within the field of higher education. It proposes a new principle of flexibility that overcomes an understanding of flexibility within higher education as the mere ability or versatility to…

  15. APT Blanket System Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) Based on Initial Conceptual Design - Case 1: External HR Break Near Inlet Header

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    The APT blanket system has about 57 MW of thermal energy deposited within the blanket region under normal operating conditions from the release of neutrons and the interaction of the High energy particles with the blanket materials. This corresponds to about 48 percent of total thermal energy deposited in the APT target/blanket system. The deposited thermal energy under normal operation conditions is an important input parameter used in the thermal-hydraulic design and accident analysis.

  16. 76 FR 48854 - Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Pipeline Company, 1250 West Century Avenue, Bismarck, North Dakota 58503, or telephone (701) 530-1560, or... Energy Regulatory Commission Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on July 26, 2011, Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company (Williston...

  17. 76 FR 25331 - Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... Basin Interstate Pipeline Company, 1250 West Century Avenue, Bismarck, North Dakota 58503, or telephone... Energy Regulatory Commission Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on April 15, 2011, Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company (Williston...

  18. 76 FR 64343 - Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... Interstate Pipeline Company, 1250 West Century Avenue, Bismark, North Dakota 58503, or call (701) 530-1560 or... Energy Regulatory Commission Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on October 3, 2011 Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company (Williston...

  19. 76 FR 31957 - Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Interstate Pipeline Company, 1250 West Century Avenue, Bismarck, North Dakota 58503, or telephone (701) 530... Energy Regulatory Commission Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on May 18, 2011, Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company (Williston...

  20. 76 FR 5586 - Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... Basin Interstate Pipeline Company, 1250 West Century Avenue, Bismarck, North Dakota 58503, (701) 530... Energy Regulatory Commission Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization January 24, 2011. Take notice that on January 19, 2011, Williston Basin Interstate...

  1. 77 FR 9916 - Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 6, 2012, Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company (Williston Basin), 1250 West Century Avenue, Bismarck, North Dakota 58503, filed in Docket No. CP12-57-000, an...

  2. 29 CFR 2580.412-10 - Individual or schedule or blanket form of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY BONDING RULES UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 TEMPORARY BONDING RULES Scope and Form of the Bond § 2580.412-10 Individual or schedule or blanket.... Bonding, to the extent required, of persons indirectly employed, or otherwise delegated, to...

  3. 75 FR 62533 - ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization October 4, 2010. Take notice that on September 23, 2010, ANR Pipeline Company (ANR), 717 Texas Street, Suite... of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and...

  4. 78 FR 14531 - ANR Storage Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ANR Storage Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 21, 2013, ANR Storage Company (ANR Storage), 717 Texas Street, Suite 2400... 157.205 and 157.214 of the Commission's regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA). ANR Storage...

  5. 78 FR 6319 - ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on January 18, 2013, ANR Pipeline Company (ANR), 717 Texas Street, Houston, Texas 77002-2761... 11,000 rated horsepower compressor unit and appurtenances, located on ] ANR's system at its...

  6. 76 FR 71014 - ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on November 1, 2011, ANR Pipeline Company (ANR), 717 Texas Street, Houston, Texas 77002... (CS1) storage field located in Kalkaska County, Michigan. Specifically, ANR proposes to increase...

  7. 76 FR 25686 - ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on April 18, 2011, ANR Pipeline Company (ANR), 717 Texas Street, Suite 2400, Houston, TX... portions of its 24-inch natural gas pipeline located in Federal waters, offshore Louisiana, under...

  8. 76 FR 28972 - Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ...\\ under Eastern Shore's maximum FT Zone One and Zone Two Tariff Rates on file with the Commission. Eastern... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on April 28, 2011, Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company (Eastern Shore),...

  9. 75 FR 21290 - Caledonia Energy Partners, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Caledonia Energy Partners, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization April 16, 2010. Take notice that on April 12, 2010, Caledonia Energy Partners, L.L.C....

  10. 78 FR 44558 - Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on July 3, 2013, Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Stingray), 1100 Louisiana... directed to Cynthia Hornstein Roney, Manager, Regulatory Compliance, Stingray Pipeline Company,...

  11. 76 FR 4651 - Venice Gathering System, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Venice Gathering System, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization January 19, 2010. Take notice that on January 7, 2011, Venice Gathering System, L.L.C....

  12. 75 FR 62533 - Destin Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Destin Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization October 1, 2010. Take notice that on September 20, 2010, Destin Pipeline Company, L.L.C....

  13. 77 FR 48149 - Columbia Gas Transmission, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on July 24, 2012 Columbia Gas Transmission, L.L.C. (Columbia), P.O. Box 1273... directed to Fredric J. George, Senior Counsel, Columbia Gas Transmission, L.L.C., P.O. Box 1273,...

  14. 48 CFR 313.303-5 - Purchases under blanket purchase agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... purchase agreements. 313.303-5 Section 313.303-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisition Methods 313.303-5 Purchases under blanket purchase agreements. (e)(5) HHS personnel that sign...

  15. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 505 - Exemptions; Exceptions; and DoD Blanket Routine Uses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemptions; Exceptions; and DoD Blanket Routine Uses D Appendix D to Part 505 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Pt. 505, App. D Appendix D...

  16. Study of the effects of corrugated wall structures due to blanket modules around ICRH antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Dumortier, Pierre; Louche, Fabrice; Messiaen, André; Vervier, Michel

    2014-02-12

    In future fusion reactors, and in ITER, the first wall will be covered by blanket modules. These blanket modules, whose dimensions are of the order of the ICRF wavelengths, together with the clearance gaps between them will constitute a corrugated structure which will interact with the electromagnetic waves launched by ICRF antennas. The conditions in which the grooves constituted by the clearance gaps between the blanket modules can become resonant are studied. Simple analytical models and numerical simulations show that mushroom type structures (with larger gaps at the back than at the front) can bring down the resonance frequencies, which could lead to large voltages in the gaps between the blanket modules and perturb the RF properties of the antenna if they are in the ICRF operating range. The effect on the wave propagation along the wall structure, which is acting as a spatially periodic (toroidally and poloidally) corrugated structure, and hence constitutes a slow wave structure modifying the wall boundary condition, is examined.

  17. 77 FR 37036 - Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ...] Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on June 4, 2012, Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company (Wiliston Basin), 1250 West Century Avenue, Bismark, North Dakota, 58503, filed in Docket No. CP12-472-000, an application pursuant...

  18. Non-LTE Line Blanketing in Stars With Extended Outflowing Atmospheres.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillier, D. J.; Miller, D. L.

    1995-05-01

    With continuing advances in radiative transfer techniques, increases in computing power, and the availability of at least some of the necessary atomic data, it is now possible to consider the computation of detailed non-LTE model atmospheres in which the full effects of non-LTE line blanketing are taken into account. We discuss our own implementation of non-LTE line blanketing in a spherical non-LTE code developed for the investigation of objects with extended outflows. A partial linearization technique is used to simultaneously solve the radiative transfer equation in conjunction with the equations of statistical equilibrium. Convergence properties are similar to that obtained with an ``Optimal'' Approximate-Lambda Operator. CNO line blanketing has been incorporated without major difficulty, while Fe blanketing is currently being installed. Comparisons of model spectra with recent HST observations of an LMC WC star will be presented. When completed we anticipate the code will be applicable to the study of a wide range of phenomena exhibiting outflows including Luminous-Blue variables, Supernovae, Wold-Rayet stars and Novae. Partial support for this work was provided by NASA through grant Nos GO-5460.01-93A and GO-4550.01-92A from the Space Science Institute which is operated under the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Support from NASA award NAGW-3828 is also gratefully acknowledged.

  19. 78 FR 76827 - Midwestern Gas Transmission Company; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Midwestern Gas Transmission Company; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate On December 4, 2013, Midwestern Gas Transmission Company (Midwestern) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...

  20. 78 FR 4400 - Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... USA Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported Liquefied... application (Application), filed on November 8, 2012, by Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC (Eni USA Gas Marketing... carrier and with which trade is not prohibited by U.S. law or policy. Eni USA Gas Marketing is...