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Sample records for flexible armored blanket

  1. Natural flexible dermal armor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Chen, Irene H; Gludovatz, Bernd; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Ritchie, Robert O; Meyers, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Fish, reptiles, and mammals can possess flexible dermal armor for protection. Here we seek to find the means by which Nature derives its protection by examining the scales from several fish (Atractosteus spatula, Arapaima gigas, Polypterus senegalus, Morone saxatilis, Cyprinius carpio), and osteoderms from armadillos, alligators, and leatherback turtles. Dermal armor has clearly been developed by convergent evolution in these different species. In general, it has a hierarchical structure with collagen fibers joining more rigid units (scales or osteoderms), thereby increasing flexibility without significantly sacrificing strength, in contrast to rigid monolithic mineral composites. These dermal structures are also multifunctional, with hydrodynamic drag (in fish), coloration for camouflage or intraspecies recognition, temperature and fluid regulation being other important functions. The understanding of such flexible dermal armor is important as it may provide a basis for new synthetic, yet bioinspired, armor materials. PMID:23161399

  2. Flexible Dermal Armor in Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wen; Chen, Irene H.; Mckittrick, Joanna; Meyers, Marc A.

    2012-04-01

    Many animals possess dermal armor, which acts primarily as protection against predators. We illustrate this through examples from both our research and the literature: alligator, fish (alligator gar, arapaima, and Senegal bichir), armadillo, leatherback turtle, and a lizard, the Gila monster. The dermal armor in these animals is flexible and has a hierarchical structure with collagen fibers joining mineralized units (scales, tiles, or plates). This combination significantly increases the strength and flexibility in comparison with a simple monolithic mineral composite or rigid dermal armor. This dermal armor is being studied for future bioinspired armor applications providing increased mobility.

  3. Composite flexible blanket insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A. (Inventor); Lowe, David M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An improved composite flexible blanket insulation is presented comprising top silicon carbide having an interlock design, wherein the reflective shield is composed of single or double aluminized polyimide and wherein the polyimide film has a honeycomb pattern.

  4. Composite Flexible Blanket Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A. (Inventor); Pitts, William C. (Inventor); Goldstein, Howard E. (Inventor); Sawko, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Composite flexible multilayer insulation systems (MLI) were evaluated for thermal performance and compared with the currently used fibrous silica (baseline) insulation system. The systems described are multilayer insulations consisting of alternating layers of metal foil and scrim ceramic cloth or vacuum metallized polymeric films quilted together using ceramic thread. A silicon carbide thread for use in the quilting and the method of making it are also described. These systems are useful in providing lightweight insulation for a variety of uses, particularly on the surface of aerospace vehicles subject to very high temperatures during flight.

  5. Lightweight IMM PV Flexible Blanket Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Deployable Space Systems (DSS) has developed an inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) photovoltaic (PV) integrated modular blanket assembly (IMBA) that can be rolled or z-folded. This IMM PV IMBA technology enables a revolutionary flexible PV blanket assembly that provides high specific power, exceptional stowed packaging efficiency, and high-voltage operation capability. DSS's technology also accommodates standard third-generation triple junction (ZTJ) PV device technologies to provide significantly improved performance over the current state of the art. This SBIR project demonstrated prototype, flight-like IMM PV IMBA panel assemblies specifically developed, designed, and optimized for NASA's high-voltage solar array missions.

  6. Fabrication, testing and modeling of a new flexible armor inspired from natural fish scales and osteoderms.

    PubMed

    Chintapalli, Ravi Kiran; Mirkhalaf, Mohammad; Dastjerdi, Ahmad Khayer; Barthelat, Francois

    2014-09-01

    Crocodiles, armadillo, turtles, fish and many other animal species have evolved flexible armored skins in the form of hard scales or osteoderms, which can be described as hard plates of finite size embedded in softer tissues. The individual hard segments provide protection from predators, while the relative motion of these segments provides the flexibility required for efficient locomotion. In this work, we duplicated these broad concepts in a bio-inspired segmented armor. Hexagonal segments of well-defined size and shape were carved within a thin glass plate using laser engraving. The engraved plate was then placed on a soft substrate which simulated soft tissues, and then punctured with a sharp needle mounted on a miniature loading stage. The resistance of our segmented armor was significantly higher when smaller hexagons were used, and our bio-inspired segmented glass displayed an increase in puncture resistance of up to 70% compared to a continuous plate of glass of the same thickness. Detailed structural analyses aided by finite elements revealed that this extraordinary improvement is due to the reduced span of individual segments, which decreases flexural stresses and delays fracture. This effect can however only be achieved if the plates are at least 1000 stiffer than the underlying substrate, which is the case for natural armor systems. Our bio-inspired system also displayed many of the attributes of natural armors: flexible, robust with 'multi-hit' capabilities. This new segmented glass therefore suggests interesting bio-inspired strategies and mechanisms which could be systematically exploited in high-performance flexible armors. This study also provides new insights and a better understanding of the mechanics of natural armors such as scales and osteoderms. PMID:24613857

  7. Calculation of stresses and slips in flexible armor layers with layers interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Feret, J.; Leroy, J.M.; Estrier, P.

    1995-12-31

    This paper deals with stress and displacement calculation in dynamically bent unbonded flexible pipes. The presented method is original in that movements and stresses of both armor layers are coupled. Good correlations between strain measurements and the theory have been found, as shown in the paper.

  8. Flexible, Thin-Film Solar-Cell Blanket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, Paul M.

    1992-01-01

    Much of available area used to absorb solar energy. Proposed blanket of solar photovoltaic cells mounted on exterior surface of equipment it powers. Readily conforms to irregular shapes. Does not require separate supporting structure and saves space. Not added on to equipment but constitutes an integral part of it. Interconnection wiring deposited on sheet photolithographically or by other suitable masking/fabrication methods. Complete blanket, including cells and interconnections, fabricated as rigid unit directly on, and supported by, nonplanar surface to be covered.

  9. Thermal Performance of Composite Flexible Blanket Insulations for Hypersonic Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the thermal performance of a Composite Flexible Blanket Insulation (C.F.B.I.) considered for potential use as a thermal protection system or thermal insulation for future hypersonic vehicles such as the National Aerospace Plane (N.A.S.P.). Thermophysical properties for these insulations were also measured including the thermal conductivity at various temperatures and pressures and the emissivity of the fabrics used in the flexible insulations. The thermal response of these materials subjected to aeroconvective heating from a plasma arc is also described. Materials tested included two surface variations of the insulations, and similar insulations coated with a Protective Ceramic Coating (P.C.C.). Surface and backface temperatures were measured in the flexible insulations and on Fibrous Refractory Composite Insulation (F.R.C.I.) used as a calibration model. The uncoated flexible insulations exhibited good thermal performance up to 35 W/sq cm. The use of a P.C.C. to protect these insulations at higher heating rates is described. The results from a computerized thermal analysis model describing thermal response of those materials subjected to the plasma arc conditions are included. Thermal and optical properties were determined including thermal conductivity for the rigid and flexible insulations and emissivity for the insulation fabrics. These properties were utilized to calculate the thermal performance of the rigid and flexible insulations at the maximum heating rate.

  10. Terra Flexible Blanket Solar Array Deployment, On-Orbit Performance and Future Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurland, Richard; Schurig, Hans; Rosenfeld, Mark; Herriage, Michael; Gaddy, Edward; Keys, Denney; Faust, Carl; Andiario, William; Kurtz, Michelle; Moyer, Eric; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Terra spacecraft (formerly identified as EOS AM1) is the flagship in a planned series of NASA/GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) Earth observing system satellites designed to provide information on the health of the Earth's land, oceans, air, ice, and life as a total ecological global system. It has been successfully performing its mission since a late-December 1999 launch into a 705 km polar orbit. The spacecraft is powered by a single wing, flexible blanket array using single junction (SJ) gallium arsenide/germanium (GaAs/Ge) solar cells sized to provide five year end-of-life (EOL) power of greater than 5000 watts at 127 volts. It is currently the highest voltage and power operational flexible blanket array with GaAs/Ge cells. This paper briefly describes the wing design as a basis for discussing the operation of the electronics and mechanisms used to achieve successful on-orbit deployment. Its orbital electrical performance to date will be presented and compared to analytical predictions based on ground qualification testing. The paper concludes with a brief section on future applications and performance trends using advanced multi-junction cells and weight-efficient mechanical components. A viewgraph presentation is attached that outlines the same information as the paper and includes more images of the Terra Spacecraft and its components.

  11. Terra Flexible Blanket Solar Array Deployment, On-Orbit Performance and Future Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurland, Richard; Schurig, Hans; Rosenfeld, Mark; Herriage, Michael; Gaddy, Edward; Keys, Denney; Faust, Carl; Andiario, William; Kurtz, Michelle; Moyer, Eric; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Terra spacecraft (formerly identified as EOS AM1) is the flagship in a planned series of NASA/GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) Earth observing system satellites designed to provide information on the health of the Earth's land, oceans, air, ice, and life as a total ecological global system. It has been successfully performing its mission since a late-December 1999 launch into a 705 km polar orbit. The spacecraft is powered by a single wing, flexible blanket array using single junction (SJ) gallium arsenide/germanium (GaAs/Ge) solar cells sized to provide five year end-of-life (EOL) power of greater than 5000 watts at 127 volts. It is currently the highest voltage and power operational flexible blanket array with GaAs/Ge cells. This paper briefly describes the wing design as a basis for discussing the operation of the electronics and mechanisms used to achieve successful on-orbit deployment. Its orbital electrical performance to date will be presented and compared to analytical predictions based on ground qualification testing. The paper concludes with a brief section on future applications and performance trends using advanced multi-junction cells and weight-efficient mechanical components.

  12. Composite armor, armor system and vehicle including armor system

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry S.; Jones, Warren F.; Lacy, Jeffrey M.; Thinnes, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Composite armor panels are disclosed. Each panel comprises a plurality of functional layers comprising at least an outermost layer, an intermediate layer and a base layer. An armor system incorporating armor panels is also disclosed. Armor panels are mounted on carriages movably secured to adjacent rails of a rail system. Each panel may be moved on its associated rail and into partially overlapping relationship with another panel on an adjacent rail for protection against incoming ordnance from various directions. The rail system may be configured as at least a part of a ring, and be disposed about a hatch on a vehicle. Vehicles including an armor system are also disclosed.

  13. Armor structures

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry Shiu-Hung [Idaho Falls, ID; Lacy, Jeffrey M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-04-01

    An armor structure includes first and second layers individually containing a plurality of i-beams. Individual i-beams have a pair of longitudinal flanges interconnected by a longitudinal crosspiece and defining opposing longitudinal channels between the pair of flanges. The i-beams within individual of the first and second layers run parallel. The laterally outermost faces of the flanges of adjacent i-beams face one another. One of the longitudinal channels in each of the first and second layers faces one of the longitudinal channels in the other of the first and second layers. The channels of the first layer run parallel with the channels of the second layer. The flanges of the first and second layers overlap with the crosspieces of the other of the first and second layers, and portions of said flanges are received within the facing channels of the i-beams of the other of the first and second layers.

  14. Shock destruction armor system

    DOEpatents

    Froeschner, Kenneth E.

    1993-01-01

    A shock destruction armor system is constructed and arranged to destroy the force of impact of a projectile by shock hydrodynamics. The armor system is designed to comprise a plurality of superimposed armor plates each preferably having a thickness less than five times the projectile's diameter and are preferably separated one-from-another by a distance at least equal to one-half of the projectile's diameter. The armor plates are effective to hydrodynamically and sequentially destroy the projectile. The armor system is particularly adapted for use on various military vehicles, such as tanks, aircraft and ships.

  15. Tailorable Advanced Blanket Insulation (TABI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, Paul M.; Goldstein, Howard E.

    1987-01-01

    Single layer and multilayer insulating blankets for high-temperature service fabricated without sewing. TABI woven fabric made of aluminoborosilicate. Triangular-cross-section flutes of core filled with silica batting. Flexible blanket formed into curved shapes, providing high-temperature and high-heat-flux insulation.

  16. Imaging body armor.

    PubMed

    Harcke, H Theodore; Schauer, David A; Harris, Robert M; Campman, Steven C; Lonergan, Gael J

    2002-04-01

    This study examined the feasibility of performing radiographic studies on patients wearing standard-issue body armor. The Kevlar helmet, fragmentation vest, demining suit sleeve, and armor plate were studied with plain film and computed tomography in a simulated casualty situation. We found that the military helmet contains metal screws and metal clips in the headband, but diagnostic computed tomographic images can be obtained. Kevlar, the principal component of soft armor, has favorable photon attenuation characteristics. Plate armor of composite material also did not limit radiographic studies. Therefore, when medically advantageous, patients can be examined radiographically while wearing standard military body armor. Civilian emergency rooms should be aware of these observations because law enforcement officers wear similar protective armor. PMID:11977874

  17. M113: Armored Rescuer

    NASA Video Gallery

    The space shuttle required a unique rescue vehicle, one strong enough to bull its way into a launch pad and carry a flight crew and firefighters to safety. The answer is a group of M113 armored per...

  18. Laminate armor and related methods

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Henry S; Lillo, Thomas M; Zagula, Thomas M

    2013-02-26

    Laminate armor and methods of manufacturing laminate armor. Specifically, laminate armor plates comprising a commercially pure titanium layer and a titanium alloy layer bonded to the commercially pure titanium outer layer are disclosed, wherein an average thickness of the titanium alloy inner layer is about four times an average thickness of the commercially pure titanium outer layer. In use, the titanium alloy layer is positioned facing an area to be protected. Additionally, roll-bonding methods for manufacturing laminate armor plates are disclosed.

  19. Embedded-monolith armor

    DOEpatents

    McElfresh, Michael W.; Groves, Scott E; Moffet, Mitchell L.; Martin, Louis P.

    2016-07-19

    A lightweight armor system utilizing a face section having a multiplicity of monoliths embedded in a matrix supported on low density foam. The face section is supported with a strong stiff backing plate. The backing plate is mounted on a spall plate.

  20. Glass matrix armor

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, N.C.

    1991-09-03

    This patent describes an armor system which utilizes glass. A plurality of constraint cells are mounted on a surface of a substrate, which is metal armor plate or a similar tough material, such that the cells almost completely cover the surface of the substrate. Each constraint cell has a projectile receiving wall parallel to the substrate surface and has sides which are perpendicular to and surround the perimeter of the receiving wall. The cells are mounted such that, in one embodiment, the substrate surface serves as a sixth side or closure for each cell. Each cell has inside of it a plate, termed the front plate, which is parallel to and in contact with substantially all of the insides surface of the receiving wall. The balance of each cell is completely filled with a projectile-abrading material consisting of glass and a ceramic material and, in certain embodiments, a polymeric material.

  1. AC-130H Gunship Armor Upgrade Project

    SciTech Connect

    Shell, T.E.; Landingham, R.L.

    1990-09-19

    This report covers the test methods and equipment for testing aircraft armor both hard and soft. The hard armor are the typical ceramic type while the soft armor are various types of layered composite materials. 10 figs. (JEF)

  2. Glass matrix armor

    DOEpatents

    Calkins, Noel C.

    1991-01-01

    An armor system which utilizes glass. A plurality of constraint cells are mounted on a surface of a substrate, which is metal armor plate or a similar tough material, such that the cells almost completely cover the surface of the substrate. Each constraint cell has a projectile-receiving wall parallel to the substrate surface and has sides which are perpendicular to and surround the perimeter of the receiving wall. The cells are mounted such that, in one embodiment, the substrate surface serves as a sixth side or closure for each cell. Each cell has inside of it a plate, termed the front plate, which is parallel to and in contact with substantially all of the inside surface of the receiving wall. The balance of each cell is completely filled with a projectile-abrading material consisting of glass and a ceramic material and, in certain embodiments, a polymeric material. The glass may be in monolithic form or particles of ceramic may be dispersed in a glass matrix. The ceramic material may be in monolithic form or may be in the form of particles dispersed in glass or dispersed in said polymer.

  3. Armored garment for protecting

    DOEpatents

    Purvis, James W.; Jones, II, Jack F.; Whinery, Larry D.; Brazfield, Richard; Lawrie, Catherine; Lawrie, David; Preece, Dale S.

    2009-08-11

    A lightweight, armored protective garment for protecting an arm or leg from blast superheated gases, blast overpressure shock, shrapnel, and spall from a explosive device, such as a Rocket Propelled Grenade (RPG) or a roadside Improvised Explosive Device (IED). The garment has a ballistic sleeve made of a ballistic fabric, such as an aramid fiber (e.g., KEVLAR.RTM.) cloth, that prevents thermal burns from the blast superheated gases, while providing some protection from fragments. Additionally, the garment has two or more rigid armor inserts that cover the upper and lower arm and protect against high-velocity projectiles, shrapnel and spall. The rigid inserts can be made of multiple plies of a carbon/epoxy composite laminate. The combination of 6 layers of KEVLAR.RTM. fabric and 28 plies of carbon/epoxy laminate inserts (with the inserts being sandwiched in-between the KEVLAR.RTM. layers), can meet the level IIIA fragmentation minimum V.sub.50 requirements for the US Interceptor Outer Tactical Vest.

  4. Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, L. Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Flexibility is an important aspect of all sports and recreational activities. Flexibility can be developed and maintained by stretching exercises. Exercises designed to develop flexibility in ankle joints, knees, hips, and the lower back are presented. (JN)

  5. ITER convertible blanket evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, C.P.C.; Cheng, E.

    1995-09-01

    Proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) convertible blankets were reviewed. Key design difficulties were identified. A new particle filter concept is introduced and key performance parameters estimated. Results show that this particle filter concept can satisfy all of the convertible blanket design requirements except the generic issue of Be blanket lifetime. If the convertible blanket is an acceptable approach for ITER operation, this particle filter option should be a strong candidate.

  6. Armor and Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    MacLeish, Kenneth T.

    2013-01-01

    For many civilians, the high-tech weapons, armor, and military medicine with which U.S. soldiers are equipped present an image of lethal capacity and physical invulnerability. But, as this article explores, soldiers themselves just as often associate the life-sustaining technology of modern warfare with feelings that range from a pragmatic ambivalence about exposure to harm all the way to profoundly unsettling vulnerability. This article, based on fieldwork among soldiers and military families at the U.S. Army’s Ft. Hood, examines sensory and affective dimensions of soldiers’ intimate bodily relationships with the technologies that alternately or even simultaneously keep them alive and expose them to harm. I argue that modern military discipline and technology conspire to cultivate soldiers as highly durable, capable, unfeeling, interchangeable bodies, or what might be called, after Susan Buck-Morss (1992), anesthetic subjects. But for soldiers themselves, their training, combat environment, protective gear, and weapons are a rich font of both emotional and bodily feeling that exists in complex tension with the also deeply felt military imperative to carry on in the face of extreme discomfort and danger. PMID:22574391

  7. Materials for breeding blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Mattas, R.F.; Billone, M.C.

    1995-09-01

    There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as Primary Blanket Materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and Secondary Blanket Materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified.

  8. Highly deformable bones: unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse armor.

    PubMed

    Porter, Michael M; Novitskaya, Ekaterina; Castro-Ceseña, Ana Bertha; Meyers, Marc A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2013-06-01

    Multifunctional materials and devices found in nature serve as inspiration for advanced synthetic materials, structures and robotics. Here, we elucidate the architecture and unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse tails that provide prehension as well as protection against predators. The seahorse tail is composed of subdermal bony plates arranged in articulating ring-like segments that overlap for controlled ventral bending and twisting. The bony plates are highly deformable materials designed to slide past one another and buckle when compressed. This complex plate and segment motion, along with the unique hardness distribution and structural hierarchy of each plate, provide seahorses with joint flexibility while shielding them against impact and crushing. Mimicking seahorse armor may lead to novel bio-inspired technologies, such as flexible armor, fracture-resistant structures or prehensile robotics.

  9. BASELINE UT MEASUREMENTS FOR ARMOR INSPECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Margetan, Frank J.; Richter, Nate; Barnard, Dan; Hsu, David; Gray, Tim; Brasche, Lisa; Bruce Thompson, R.

    2010-02-22

    Some prototype armor panels are fabricated from several layers of dissimilar material bonded together. These may include ceramics, graphite composites, fiberglass composites and rubber. The ultrasonic properties of these layers influence inspections for armor defects. In this paper we describe measurements of ultrasonic velocity, attenuation, sound beam distortion and signal fluctuations for the individual layers comprising one armor prototype. We then discuss how knowledge of these properties can be used when choosing an optimum frequency for an ultrasonic pitch/catch immersion inspection. In our case an effective inspection frequency near 1.5 MHz affords: (1) adequate strength of through-transmitted signals in unflawed armor; (2) adequate lateral resolution for detecting small disbonds at interfaces; and (3) low levels of UT signal fluctuations due to the natural inhomogeneity of certain armor layers. The utility of this approach is demonstrated using armor panels containing artificial disbonds at selected interfaces.

  10. Fusion blanket inherent safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, D.K.; Jung, J.; Cheng, E.T.

    1986-01-01

    The inherent safety aspect of TPSS reactor blankets has been investigated. The idea is to design the blanket so safe that cost savings can be realized such as through non-nuclear grading construction. If the blanket materials are carefully selected, inherent safety is feasible for fusion reactor blankets up to 5 to 10 MW/m/sup 2/ neutron wall loading.

  11. Macrocomposite mechanical design, modeling, and behavior of physical models of bioinspired fish armor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, Ashley; Ortiz, Christine; Boyce, Mary C.

    2012-02-01

    The macrocomposite design of flexible biological exoskeletons, consisting of overlapping mineralized armor units embedded in a compliant tissue, is a key determinant of their mechanical function (e.g penetration resistance and biomechanical flexibility). Here, we investigate the role of macrocomposite structure, composition, geometric orientation, and spatial distribution in a flexible model natural armor system present in the majority of teleost fish species. Physical multi-material composite models are fabricated using a combination of 3-D printing and molding methods. Mechanical experiments using digital image correlation enable measurement of both the macroscopic response and underlying deformation mechanisms during various loading scenarios. Finite element-based mechanical models yield detailed insights into the roles and the tradeoffs of the composite structure providing constraint, shear, and bending mechanisms to impart protection and flexibility.

  12. Thermal insulation blanket material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusch, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    A study was conducted to provide a tailorable advanced blanket insulation based on a woven design having an integrally woven core structure. A highly pure quartz yarn was selected for weaving and the cells formed were filled with a microquartz felt insulation.

  13. The Haida Button Blanket.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Vesta

    In the Haida nation, there are two phratries, Eagle and Raven, divided into a number of clans sharing one or more emblems. These emblems, inherited from the mother's line, adorn the button blankets which are the traditional ceremonial robes that serve to identify the family of the wearer. Written instructions and diagrams guide students in…

  14. Composite structural armor for combat vehicle applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskell, William E., III; Alesi, A. L.; Parsons, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Several projects that have demonstrated the advantages of using thick composite armor technology for structural applications in armored combat vehicles are discussed. The first involved composite cargo doors for the Marine Corps LVTP-7 amphibious landing vehicle. Another was a demonstration composite turret that offered a weight reduction of 15.5 percent. The advantages of this composite armor compared to metallic armors used for combat vehicle hull and turret applications are reduced weight at equal ballistic protection; reduced back armor spall; excellent corrosion resistance; reduced production costs by parts consolidation; and inherent thermal and acoustic insulative properties. Based on the encouraging results of these past programs, the Demonstration Composite Hull Program was started in September 1986. To demonstrate this composite armor technology, the Army's newest infantry fighting vehicle, the Bradley Fighting Vehicle (BFV), was selected as a model. A composite infantry fighting vehicle, designated the CIFV for this program, has been designed and fabricated and is currently undergoing a 6000 mile field endurance test. The CIFV demonstration vehicle uses the BFV engine, transmission, suspension, track and other equipment.

  15. NDE of hybrid armor structures using acoustography

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, Jaswinder S.; Pergantis, Charles G.

    2011-06-23

    The US Army is investigating the use of composite materials to deliver lightweight and more effective armor protection systems to soldiers and other army assets. However, widespread use of such hybrid armor will require a reliable but fast NDE methodology to ensure integrity of these components during manufacturing and while in service. Traditional ultrasonic inspection of such hybrid armor structures may prove to be very effective, but point-by-point ultrasonic scanning is inherently time-consuming and manufacturing slowdowns could develop in high-volume production of such armor systems. In this paper, we report on the application of acoustography for the NDE of hybrid armor structures. Acoustography differs from conventional ultrasonic testing in that test objects are inspected in full field, analogously to real time x-ray imaging. The approach uses a novel, super high resolution large area acousto-optic (AO) sensor, which allows image formation through simple ultrasound shadow casting, analogous to x-ray image formation. This NDE approach offers significant inspection speed advantage over conventional point-by-point ultrasonic scanning procedures and is well-suited for high volume production. We will report initial results on a number of hybrid armor plate specimens employing composite materials that are being investigated by the US Army. Acoustography NDE results will also be verified using other complimentary NDE methods.

  16. Armored spring-core superconducting cable and method of construction

    DOEpatents

    McIntyre, Peter M.; Soika, Rainer H.

    2002-01-01

    An armored spring-core superconducting cable (12) is provided. The armored spring-core superconducting cable (12) may include a spring-core (20), at least one superconducting strand (24) wound onto the spring-core (20), and an armored shell (22) that encases the superconducting strands (24). The spring-core (20) is generally a perforated tube that allows purge gases and cryogenic liquids to be circulated through the armored superconducting cable (12), as well as managing the internal stresses within the armored spring-core superconducting cable (12). The armored shell (22) manages the external stresses of the armored spring-core superconducting cable (12) to protect the fragile superconducting strands (24). The armored spring-core superconducting cable (12) may also include a conductive jacket (34) formed outwardly of the armored shell (22).

  17. Fusion Blanket Development in FDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C. P. C.; Smith, J. P.; Stambaugh, R. D.

    2008-11-01

    To satisfy the electricity and tritium self-sufficiency missions of a Fusion Development Facility (FDF), suitable blanket designs will need to be evaluated, selected and developed. To demonstrate closure of the fusion fuel cycle, 2-3 main tritium breeding blankets will be used to cover most of the available chamber surface area in order to reach the project goal of achieving a tritium breeding ratio, TBR > 1. To demonstrate the feasibility of electricity and tritium production for subsequent devices such as the fusion demonstration power reactor (DEMO), several advanced test blankets will need to be selected and tested on the FDF to demonstrate high coolant outlet temperature necessary for efficient electricity production. Since the design goals for the main and test blankets are different, the design criteria of these blankets will also be different. The considerations in performing the evaluation of blanket and structural material options in concert with the maintenance approach for the FDF will be reported in this paper.

  18. High temperature - low mass solar blanket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mesch, H. G.

    1979-01-01

    Interconnect materials and designs for use with ultrathin silicon solar cells are discussed, as well as the results of an investigation of the applicability of parallel-gap resistance welding for interconnecting these cells. Data relating contact pull strength and cell electrical degradation to variations in welding parameters such as time, voltage and pressure are presented. Methods for bonding ultrathin cells to flexible substances and for bonding thin (75 micrometers) covers to these cells are described. Also, factors influencing fabrication yield and approaches for increasing yield are discussed. The results of vacuum thermal cycling and thermal soak tests on prototype ultrathin cell test coupons and one solar module blanket are presented.

  19. A light blanket for intraoperative photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yida; Wang, Ken; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2009-06-01

    A novel light source - light blanket composed of a series of parallel cylindrical diffusing fibers (CDF) is designed to substitute the hand-held point source in the PDT treatment of the malignant pleural or intraperitoneal diseases. It achieves more uniform light delivery and less operation time in operating room. The preliminary experiment was performed for a 9cmx9cm light blanket composed of 8 9-cm CDFs. The linear diffusers were placed in parallel fingerlike pockets. The blanket is filled with 0.2 % intralipid scattering medium to improve the uniformity of light distribution. 0.3-mm aluminum foil is used to shield and reflect the light transmission. The full width of the profile of light distribution at half maximum along the perpendicular direction is 7.9cm and 8.1cm with no intralipid and with intralipid. The peak value of the light fluence rate profiles per input power is 11.7mW/cm2/W and 8.6mW/cm2/W respectively. The distribution of light field is scanned using the isotropic detector and the motorized platform. The average fluence rate per input power is 8.6 mW/cm2/W and the standard deviation is 1.6 mW/cm2/W for the scan in air, 7.4 mW/cm2/W and 1.1 mW/cm2/W for the scan with the intralipid layer. The average fluence rate per input power and the standard deviation are 20.0 mW/cm2/W and 2.6 mW/cm2/W respectively in the tissue mimic phantom test. The light blanket design produces a reasonably uniform field for effective light coverage and is flexible to confirm to anatomic structures in intraoperative PDT. It also has great potential value for superficial PDT treatment in clinical application.

  20. Stability of hard plates on soft substrates and application to the design of bioinspired segmented armor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, R.; Barthelat, F.

    2016-07-01

    Flexible natural armors from fish, alligators or armadillo are attracting an increasing amount of attention from their unique and attractive combinations of hardness, flexibility and light weight. In particular, the extreme contrast of stiffness between hard plates and surrounding soft tissues give rise to unusual and attractive mechanisms, which now serve as model for the design of bio-inspired armors. Despite a growing interest in bio-inspired flexible protection, there is little guidelines as to the choice of materials, optimum thickness, size, shape and arrangement for the protective plates. In this work, we focus on a failure mode we recently observed on natural and bio-inspired scaled armors: the unstable tilting of individual scales subjected to off-centered point forces. We first present a series of experiments on this system, followed by a model based on contact mechanics and friction. We condense the result into a single stability diagram which capture the key parameters that govern the onset of plate tilting from a localized force. We found that the stability of individual plates is governed by the location of the point force on the plate, by the friction at the surface of the plate, by the size of the plate and by the stiffness of the substrate. We finally discuss how some of these parameters can be optimized at the design stage to produce bio-inspired protective systems with desired combination of surface hardness, stability and flexural compliance.

  1. Joining of Tungsten Armor Using Functional Gradients

    SciTech Connect

    John Scott O'Dell

    2006-12-31

    The joining of low thermal expansion armor materials such as tungsten to high thermal expansion heat sink materials has been a major problem in plasma facing component (PFC) development. Conventional planar bonding techniques have been unable to withstand the high thermal induced stresses resulting from fabrication and high heat flux testing. During this investigation, innovative functional gradient joints produced using vacuum plasma spray forming techniques have been developed for joining tungsten armor to copper alloy heat sinks. A model was developed to select the optimum gradient architecture. Based on the modeling effort, a 2mm copper rich gradient was selected. Vacuum plasma pray parameters and procedures were then developed to produce the functional gradient joint. Using these techniques, dual cooling channel, medium scale mockups (32mm wide x 400mm length) were produced with vacuum plasma spray formed tungsten armor. The thickness of the tungsten armor was up to 5mm thick. No evidence of debonding at the interface between the heat sink and the vacuum plasma sprayed material was observed.

  2. Promoting Improved Ballistic Resistance of Transparent Armor

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, Andrew A; Patel, P; Templeton, D W

    2011-01-01

    Transparent armor is a material or system of materials designed to be optically transparent, yet protect from fragmentation or ballistic impacts. Although engineered to defeat specific threats, or a range of threats, there are general requirements common to all of these designs. The primary requirement for a transparent armor system is to not only defeat the designated threat but also provide a multi-hit capability with minimized distortion of surrounding areas. Ground platforms have several parameters that must be optimized, such as weight, space efficiency, and cost versus performance. Glass exhibits tensile failure stress that is very much dependent on the amount of material being stressed, the side being tensile-stressed (i.e., air-versus tin-side if a float glass), and where it is being tensile stressed (i.e., in the middle or near an edge). An axiom arising from those effects is a greater amount of allowable deflection (i.e., higher failure stress) of a ballistically impacted transparent armor will result in improved ballistic resistance. Therefore, the interpretation and management of those tensile-failure-stress dependencies shall ultimately improve ballistic resistance and its predictability of transparent armor. Each of those three dependencies (size, side, and location) in a soda-lime silicate glass is described.

  3. Analysis of behind the armor ballistic trauma.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yaoke; Xu, Cheng; Wang, Shu; Batra, R C

    2015-05-01

    The impact response of body armor composed of a ceramic plate with an ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber-reinforced composite and layers of UHMWPE fibers shielding a block of ballistic gelatin has been experimentally and numerically analyzed. It is a surrogate model for studying injuries to human torso caused by a bullet striking body protection armor placed on a person. Photographs taken with a high speed camera are used to determine deformations of the armor and the gelatin. The maximum depth of the temporary cavity formed in the ballistic gelatin and the peak pressure 40mm behind the center of the gelatin front face contacting the armor are found to be, respectively, ~34mm and ~15MPa. The Johnson-Holmquist material model has been used to simulate deformations and failure of the ceramic. The UHMWPE fiber-reinforced composite and the UHMWPE fiber layers are modeled as linear elastic orthotropic materials. The gelatin is modeled as a strain-rate dependent hyperelastic material. Values of material parameters are taken from the open literature. The computed evolution of the temporary cavity formed in the gelatin is found to qualitatively agree with that seen in experiments. Furthermore, the computed time histories of the average pressure at four points in the gelatin agree with the corresponding experimentally measured ones. The maximum pressure at a point and the depth of the temporary cavity formed in the gelatin can be taken as measures of the severity of the bodily injury caused by the impact; e.g. see the United States National Institute of Justice standard 0101.06-Ballistic Resistance of Body Armor. PMID:25676500

  4. Blanket comparison and selection study. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-10-01

    This volume contains extensive data for the following chapters: (1) solid breeder tritium recovery, (2) solid breeder blanket designs, (3) alternate blanket concept screening, and (4) safety analysis. The following appendices are also included: (1) blanket design guidelines, (2) power conversion systems, (3) helium-cooled, vanadium alloy structure blanket design, (4) high wall loading study, and (5) molten salt safety studies. (MOW)

  5. Blanket optimization studies for Cascade

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.; Morse, E.C.

    1985-02-28

    A nonlinear, multivariable, blanket optimization technique is applied to the Cascade inertial confinement fusion reactor concept. The thickness of a two-zone blanket, which consists of a BeO multiplier region followed by a LiAlO/sub 2/ breeding region, is minimized subject to constraints on the tritium breeding ratio, neutron leakage, and heat generation rate in Al/SiC tendons that support the chamber wall.

  6. Neutronics and thermal design analyses of US solid breeder blanket for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Billone, M.; Attaya, H. ); Sawan, M. )

    1990-09-01

    The US Solid Breeder Blanket is designed to produce the necessary tritium required for the ITER operation and to operate at power reactor conditions as much as possible. Safety, low tritium inventory, reliability, flexibility cost, and minimum R D requirements are the other design criteria. To satisfy these criteria, the produced tritium is recovered continuously during operation and the blanket coolant operates at low pressure. Beryllium multiplier material is used to control the solid-breeder temperature. Neutronics and thermal design analyses were performed in an integrated manner to define the blanket configuration. The reference parameters of ITER including the operating scenarios, the neutron wall loading distribution and the copper stabilizer are included in the design analyses. Several analyses were performed to study the impact of the reactor parameters, blanket dimensions, material characteristics, and heat transfer coefficient at the material interfaces on the blanket performance. The design analyses and the results from the different studies are summarized. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Progress on DCLL Blanket Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Clement; Abdou, M.; Katoh, Yutai; Kurtz, Richard J.; Lumsdaine, A.; Marriott, Edward P.; Merrill, Brad; Morley, Neil; Pint, Bruce A.; Sawan, M.; Smolentsev, S.; Williams, Brian; Willms, Scott; Youssef, M.

    2013-09-01

    Under the US Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology Development program, we have selected the Dual Coolant Lead Lithium concept (DCLL) as a reference blanket, which has the potential to be a high performance DEMO blanket design with a projected thermal efficiency of >40%. Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAF/M) steel is used as the structural material. The self-cooled breeder PbLi is circulated for power conversion and for tritium breeding. A SiC-based flow channel insert (FCI) is used as a means for magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop reduction from the circulating liquid PbLi and as a thermal insulator to separate the high-temperature PbLi (~700°C) from the helium-cooled RAF/M steel structure. We are making progress on related R&D needs to address critical Fusion Nuclear Science and Facility (FNSF) and DEMO blanket development issues. When performing the function as the Interface Coordinator for the DCLL blanket concept, we had been developing the mechanical design and performing neutronics, structural and thermal hydraulics analyses of the DCLL TBM module. We had estimated the necessary ancillary equipment that will be needed at the ITER site and a detailed safety impact report has been prepared. This provided additional understanding of the DCLL blanket concept in preparation for the FNSF and DEMO. This paper will be a summary report on the progress of the DCLL TBM design and R&Ds for the DCLL blanket concept.

  8. Constrained ceramic-filled polymer armor

    DOEpatents

    Sandstrom, Donald J.; Calkins, Noel C.; Gac, Frank D.

    1990-01-01

    An armor system in which a plurality of constraint cells are mounted on a surface of a substrate, which is metal armor plate or a similar tough material, such that the cells almost completely cover the surface of the substrate. Each constraint cell has a projectile-receiving wall parallel to the substrate surface and has sides which are perpendicular to and surround the perimeter of the receiving wall. The cells are mounted such that, in one embodiment, the substrate surface serves as a sixth side or closure for each cell. Each cell has inside of it a plate, termed the front plate, which is parallel to and in contact with substantially all of the inside surface of the receiving wall. The balance of each cell is completely filled with a projectile-abrading material, which is a ceramic material in particulate form dispersed in a polymeric matrix.

  9. CD28z CARs and Armored CARs

    PubMed Central

    Pegram, Hollie J.; Park, Jae H.; Brentjens, Renier J.

    2015-01-01

    CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells are currently being tested in the clinic with very promising outcomes. However, limitations to CAR T cell therapy exist. These include lack of efficacy against some tumors, specific targeting of tumor cells without affecting normal tissue and retaining activity within the suppressive tumor microenvironment. Whilst promising clinical trials are in progress, preclinical development is focused on optimizing CAR design, to generate “armored CAR T cells” which are protected from the inhibitory tumor microenvironment. Studies investigating the expression of cytokine transgenes, combination therapy with small molecule inhibitors or monoclonal antibodies are aimed at improving the anti-tumor efficacy of CAR T cell therapy. Other strategies aimed at improving CAR T cell therapy include utilizing dual CARs and chemokine receptors to more specifically target tumor cells. This review will describe the current clinical data and some novel “armored CAR T cell” approaches for improving anti-tumor efficacy therapy. PMID:24667958

  10. Constrained ceramic-filled polymer armor

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstrom, D.J.; Calkins, N.C.; Gac, F.D.

    1990-11-13

    An armor system is disclosed in which a plurality of constraint cells are mounted on a surface of a substrate, which is metal armor plate or a similar tough material, such that the cells almost completely cover the surface of the substrate. Each constraint cell has a projectile-receiving wall parallel to the substrate surface and has sides which are perpendicular to and surround the perimeter of the receiving wall. The cells are mounted such that, in one embodiment, the substrate surface serves as a sixth side or closure for each cell. Each cell has inside of it a plate, termed the front plate, which is parallel to and in contact with substantially all of the inside surface of the receiving wall. The balance of each cell is completely filled with a projectile-abrading material, which is a ceramic material in particulate form dispersed in a polymeric matrix. 5 figs.

  11. Composite treatment of ceramic tile armor

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, James G. R.; Frame, Barbara J.

    2012-01-02

    An improved ceramic tile armor has a core of boron nitride and a polymer matrix composite (PMC) facing of carbon fibers fused directly to the impact face of the tile. A polyethylene fiber composite backing and spall cover are preferred. The carbon fiber layers are cured directly onto the tile, not adhered using a separate adhesive so that they are integral with the tile, not a separate layer.

  12. Composite treatment of ceramic tile armor

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, James G. R. [Oak Ridge, TN; Frame, Barbara J [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-12-14

    An improved ceramic tile armor has a core of boron nitride and a polymer matrix composite (PMC) facing of carbon fibers fused directly to the impact face of the tile. A polyethylene fiber composite backing and spall cover are preferred. The carbon fiber layers are cured directly onto the tile, not adhered using a separate adhesive so that they are integral with the tile, not a separate layer.

  13. First wall and blanket module safety enhancement by material selection and design decision

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    A thermal/mechanical study has been performed which illustrates the behavior of a fusion reactor first wall and blanket module during a loss of coolant flow event. The relative safety advantages of various material and design options were determined. A generalized first wall-blanket concept was developed to provide the flexibility to vary the structural material (stainless steel vs titanium), coolant (helium vs water), and breeder material (liquid lithium vs solid lithium aluminate). In addition, independent vs common first wall-blanket cooling and coupled adjacent module cooling design options were included in the study. The comparative analyses were performed using a modified thermal analysis code to handle phase change problems.

  14. Armor breakup and reformation in a degradational laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orrú, Clara; Blom, Astrid; Uijttewaal, Wim S. J.

    2016-06-01

    Armor breakup and reformation was studied in a laboratory experiment using a trimodal mixture composed of a 1 mm sand fraction and two gravel fractions (6 and 10 mm). The initial bed was characterized by a stepwise downstream fining pattern (trimodal reach) and a downstream sand reach, and the experiment was conducted under conditions without sediment supply. In the initial stage of the experiment an armor formed over the trimodal reach. The formation of the armor under partial transport conditions led to an abrupt spatial transition in the bed slope and in the mean grain size of the bed surface, as such showing similar results to a previous laboratory experiment conducted with a bimodal mixture. The focus of the current analysis is to study the mechanisms of armor breakup. After an increase in flow rate the armor broke up and a new coarser armor quickly formed. The breakup initially induced a bed surface fining due to the exposure of the finer substrate, which was accompanied by a sudden increase in the sediment transport rate, followed by the formation of an armor that was coarser than the initial one. The reformation of the armor was enabled by the supply of coarse material from the upstream degrading reach and the presence of gravel in the original substrate sediment. Here armor breakup and reformation enabled slope adjustment such that the new steady state was closer to normal flow conditions.

  15. Heater blanket for in-situ soil heating

    SciTech Connect

    Marsden, A.R. Jr.; Otermat, A.L.; Weingaertner, D.A.; Johnson, P.C.; Dicks, L.W.R.; Wilde, H.B.

    1993-06-22

    A heater blanket for use in in-situ treatment of contaminated soil is described comprising: a plurality of flexible electric heaters; an insulating blanket covering said plurality of heaters; a rigid support frame resting on said blanket; a plurality of pins slidingly inserted through said heaters, said blanket and said support frame, said pins being terminated at each end, when in place, by a head which prevents removal of said pin while said heads remain in place; an impermeable canopy over said support frame, the sides of said canopy resting on said blanket when in place; a plurality of attachment lugs rigidly connected to said support frame and said canopy, respectively, said lugs having holes therein, selected ones of said support frame and said canopy lug holes being in alignment when said canopy is in place; a connecting rod inserted through selected ones of said aligned holes, said rods being inserted through a plurality of access holes in the side of said canopy; a second and third layer of insulation located between said support frame and said canopy; a skirt sealingly attached to the periphery of said canopy, said canopy and said skirt, when in place, covering said contaminated soil; a vapor collection port extending through said canopy to said contaminated soil; a vapor collection system connected to said vapor collection port at the surface of said contaminated soil; heater heads connected to said heaters, said heater leads extending along the top of said insulation; electrical feeds-through in said canopy for connecting said heater leads through said canopy; rigid attachment points located on said canopy for lifting said heater blanket for placement thereof, and power supply means for supplying electric power to said feed-through terminals.

  16. Effectiveness of eye armor during blast loading.

    PubMed

    Bailoor, Shantanu; Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Nguyen, Thao D

    2015-11-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the most common types of combat injuries resulting from the interaction of military personnel with improvised explosive devices. Ocular blast injury mechanisms are complex, and trauma may occur through various injury mechanisms. However, primary blast injuries (PBI) are an important cause of ocular trauma that may go unnoticed and result in significant damage to internal ocular tissues and visual impairment. Further, the effectiveness of commonly employed eye armor, designed for ballistic and laser protection, in lessening the severity of adverse blast overpressures (BOP) is unknown. In this paper, we employed a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction computational model for assessing effectiveness of the eye armor during blast loading on human eyes and validated results against free field blast measurements by Bentz and Grimm (2013). Numerical simulations show that the blast waves focused on the ocular region because of reflections from surrounding facial features and resulted in considerable increase in BOP. We evaluated the effectiveness of spectacles and goggles in mitigating the pressure loading using the computational model. Our results corroborate experimental measurements showing that the goggles were more effective than spectacles in mitigating BOP loading on the eye. Numerical results confirmed that the goggles significantly reduced blast wave penetration in the space between the armor and the eyes and provided larger clearance space for blast wave expansion after penetration than the spectacles. The spectacles as well as the goggles were more effective in reducing reflected BOP at higher charge mass because of the larger decrease in dynamic pressures after the impact. The goggles provided greater benefit of reducing the peak pressure than the spectacles for lower charge mass. However, the goggles resulted in moderate, sustained elevated pressure loading on the eye, that became 50-100% larger than the pressure loading

  17. Effectiveness of eye armor during blast loading.

    PubMed

    Bailoor, Shantanu; Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Nguyen, Thao D

    2015-11-01

    Ocular trauma is one of the most common types of combat injuries resulting from the interaction of military personnel with improvised explosive devices. Ocular blast injury mechanisms are complex, and trauma may occur through various injury mechanisms. However, primary blast injuries (PBI) are an important cause of ocular trauma that may go unnoticed and result in significant damage to internal ocular tissues and visual impairment. Further, the effectiveness of commonly employed eye armor, designed for ballistic and laser protection, in lessening the severity of adverse blast overpressures (BOP) is unknown. In this paper, we employed a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction computational model for assessing effectiveness of the eye armor during blast loading on human eyes and validated results against free field blast measurements by Bentz and Grimm (2013). Numerical simulations show that the blast waves focused on the ocular region because of reflections from surrounding facial features and resulted in considerable increase in BOP. We evaluated the effectiveness of spectacles and goggles in mitigating the pressure loading using the computational model. Our results corroborate experimental measurements showing that the goggles were more effective than spectacles in mitigating BOP loading on the eye. Numerical results confirmed that the goggles significantly reduced blast wave penetration in the space between the armor and the eyes and provided larger clearance space for blast wave expansion after penetration than the spectacles. The spectacles as well as the goggles were more effective in reducing reflected BOP at higher charge mass because of the larger decrease in dynamic pressures after the impact. The goggles provided greater benefit of reducing the peak pressure than the spectacles for lower charge mass. However, the goggles resulted in moderate, sustained elevated pressure loading on the eye, that became 50-100% larger than the pressure loading

  18. Light armored vehicle reconnaissance and surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbeau, Nicolas R.

    1994-10-01

    The Canadian Department of National Defence (DND) has established a requirement for a fleet of reconnaissance vehicles equipped with a modern surveillance system to be used in a wide variety of scenarios. This includes conventional operations within NATO, contingency operations in troubled areas as well as UN peacekeeping missions. As such, the Light Armored Vehicles Reconnaissance and Surveillance System will be the first 24 hour all- weather reconnaissance system integrated into a combat vehicle. This paper intends to describe how the operational requirements defined by DND were translated into sensor and system requirements. After a summary of the current configuration, it focuses on product pre-planned improvements and future needs.

  19. 77 FR 22345 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Body Armor in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Body Armor in Correctional... approval of collection. (2) Title of Form/Collection: Body Armor in Correctional Institutions Survey. The collections include the forms Body Armor Administrative Agency-Level Survey and Body Armor...

  20. Armor systems including coated core materials

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry S.; Lillo, Thomas M.; McHugh, Kevin M.

    2012-07-31

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  1. Armor systems including coated core materials

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry S; Lillo, Thomas M; McHugh, Kevin M

    2013-10-08

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  2. Composite armored vehicle advanced technology demonstator

    SciTech Connect

    Ostberg, D.T.; Dunfee, R.S.; Thomas, G.E.

    1996-12-31

    Composite structures are a key technology needed to develop future lightweight combat vehicles that are both deployable and survivable. The Composite Armored Vehicle Advanced Technology Demonstrator Program that started in fiscal year 1994 will continue through 1998 to verily that composite structures are a viable solution for ground combat vehicles. Testing thus far includes material characterization, structural component tests and full scale quarter section tests. Material and manufacturing considerations, tests, results and changes, and the status of the program will be described. The structural component tests have been completed successfully, and quarter section testing is in progress. Upon completion of the critical design review, the vehicle demonstrator will be Fabricated and undergo government testing.

  3. Design of armor for protection against blast and impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimzadeh, Tanaz; Arruda, Ellen M.; Thouless, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    The features of blast and impact that can damage a delicate target supported by a structure include both the peak pressure and the impulse delivered to the structure. This study examines how layers of elastic and visco-elastic materials may be assembled to mitigate these features. The impedance mismatch between two elastic layers is known to reduce the pressure, but dissipation is required to mitigate the transmitted impulse in light-weight armor. A novel design concept called impact or blast tuning is introduced in which a multi-layered armor is used to tune the stress waves resulting from an impact or blast to specific frequencies that match the damping frequencies of visco-elastic layers. The material and geometrical parameters controlling the viscous dissipation of the energy within the armor are identified for a simplified one-dimensional system, to provide insight into how the optimal design of multi-use armor might be based on this concept.

  4. 75 FR 25208 - Announcement of Body Armor Research Needs Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... the examination of such issues as material longevity, new materials, and improved testing... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Announcement of Body Armor Research Needs Meeting...

  5. OPTIMIZING TRANSPARENT ARMOR DESIGN SUBJECT TO PROJECTILE IMPACT CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xin; Lai, Canhai; Gorsich, Tara; Templeton, Douglas W.

    2009-03-01

    Design and manufacturing of transparent armor have been historically carried out using experimental approaches. In this study, we use advanced computational modeling tools to perform virtual design evaluations of transparent armor systems under different projectile impact conditions. AHPCRC developed modeling software EPIC’06 [1] is used in predicting the penetration resistance of transparent armor systems. LaGrangian-based finite element analyses combined with particle dynamics are used to simulate the damage initiation and propagation process for the armor system under impact conditions. It is found that a 1-parameter single state model can be used to predict the impact penetration depth with relatively good accuracy, suggesting that the finely comminuted glass particles follow the behavior similar to a viscous fluid. Even though the intact strength of borosilicate and soda lime glass are different, the same fractured strength can be used for both glasses to capture the penetration depth.

  6. Packed fluidized bed blanket for fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Chi, John W. H.

    1984-01-01

    A packed fluidized bed blanket for a fusion reactor providing for efficient radiation absorption for energy recovery, efficient neutron absorption for nuclear transformations, ease of blanket removal, processing and replacement, and on-line fueling/refueling. The blanket of the reactor contains a bed of stationary particles during reactor operation, cooled by a radial flow of coolant. During fueling/refueling, an axial flow is introduced into the bed in stages at various axial locations to fluidize the bed. When desired, the fluidization flow can be used to remove particles from the blanket.

  7. Enhanced plasma current collection from weakly conducting solar array blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillard, G. Barry

    1993-01-01

    Among the solar cell technologies to be tested in space as part of the Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE) will be the Advanced Photovoltaic Solar Array (APSA). Several prototype twelve cell coupons were built for NASA using different blanket materials and mounting techniques. The first conforms to the baseline design for APSA which calls for the cells to be mounted on a carbon loaded Kapton blanket to control charging in GEO. When deployed, this design has a flexible blanket supported around the edges. A second coupon was built with the cells mounted on Kapton-H, which was in turn cemented to a solid aluminum substrate. A final coupon was identical to the latter but used germanium coated Kapton to control atomic oxygen attack in LEO. Ground testing of these coupons in a plasma chamber showed considerable differences in plasma current collection. The Kapton-H coupon demonstrated current collection consistent with exposed interconnects and some degree of cell snapover. The other two coupons experienced anomalously large collection currents. This behavior is believed to be a consequence of enhanced plasma sheaths supported by the weakly conducting carbon and germanium used in these coupons. The results reported here are the first experimental evidence that the use of such materials can result in power losses to high voltage space power systems.

  8. Numerical simulation of armor capability of AI2O3 and SiC armor tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, T.; Aleem, M. A.; Akbar, S.; Rauf, A.; Shuaib, M.

    2016-08-01

    Alumina and Silicon Carbide armor plates have been tested numerically against 7.62x51 (mm x mm) armor piercing (AP) projectiles. A 2-D problem with axial symmetry has been designedand the simulations were carried out using commercial software ANSYS AUTODYN. Experiments were modeled for Alumina (99.5%), Alumina (99.7%) and SiC with a range of tile thicknesses (5, 10, 15 and 20 mm). The projectile was chosen as 7.62 x 51AP bullet (initial velocity 810 m/sec)with two different core materials Steel 4340 and WC, however, casing material was copper for both cores. SiC showed better defense against AP bullet as compared to Al2O3. The residual velocity and momentum of the bullet were found to decrease with increasing tile thickness. SiC tiles with thickness 15mm and 20 mm successfully sustained penetration against steel 4340 and WC core bullets, respectively. However none of the Alumina targets succeeded in stopping the bullet.

  9. Toroidal midplane neutral beam armor and plasma limiter

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, Henry W.; Hand Jr, Samuel W.; Ksayian, Haig

    1986-02-04

    For use in a tokamak fusion reactor having a midplane magnetic coil on the inner wall of an evacuated toriodal chamber within which a neutral beam heated, fusing plasma is magnetically confined, a neutral beam armor shield and plasma limiter is provided on the inner wall of the toroidal chamber to shield the midplane coil from neutral beam shine-thru and plasma deposition. The armor shield/plasma limiter forms a semicircular enclosure around the midplane coil with the outer surface of the armor shield/plasma limiter shaped to match, as closely as practical, the inner limiting magnetic flux surface of the toroidally confined, indented, bean-shaped plasma. The armor shield/plasma limiter includes a plurality of semicircular graphite plates each having a pair of coupled upper and lower sections with each plate positioned in intimate contact with an adjacent plate on each side thereof so as to form a closed, planar structure around the entire outer periphery of the circular midplane coil. The upper and lower plate sections are adapted for coupling to heat sensing thermocouples and to a circulating water conduit system for cooling the armor shield/plasma limiter.The inner center portion of each graphite plate is adapted to receive and enclose a section of a circular diagnostic magnetic flux loop so as to minimize the power from the plasma confinement chamber incident upon the flux loop.

  10. Toroidal midplane neutral beam armor and plasma limiter

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, Henry W.; Hand, Jr, Samuel W.; Ksayian, Haig

    1986-01-01

    For use in a tokamak fusion reactor having a midplane magnetic coil on the inner wall of an evacuated toriodal chamber within which a neutral beam heated, fusing plasma is magnetically confined, a neutral beam armor shield and plasma limiter is provided on the inner wall of the toroidal chamber to shield the midplane coil from neutral beam shine-thru and plasma deposition. The armor shield/plasma limiter forms a semicircular enclosure around the midplane coil with the outer surface of the armor shield/plasma limiter shaped to match, as closely as practical, the inner limiting magnetic flux surface of the toroidally confined, indented, bean-shaped plasma. The armor shield/plasma limiter includes a plurality of semicircular graphite plates each having a pair of coupled upper and lower sections with each plate positioned in intimate contact with an adjacent plate on each side thereof so as to form a closed, planar structure around the entire outer periphery of the circular midplane coil. The upper and lower plate sections are adapted for coupling to heat sensing thermocouples and to a circulating water conduit system for cooling the armor shield/plasma limiter.The inner center portion of each graphite plate is adapted to receive and enclose a section of a circular diagnostic magnetic flux loop so as to minimize the power from the plasma confinement chamber incident upon the flux loop.

  11. Structure and mechanical behaviors of protective armored pangolin scales and effects of hydration and orientation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Q; Jiao, D; Weng, Z Y; Zhang, Z F

    2016-03-01

    As natural flexible dermal armor, pangolin scales provide effective protection against predatory threats and possess other notable properties such as anti-adhesion and wear-resistance. In this study, the structure, mechanical properties, deformation and damage behaviors of pangolin scales were systematically investigated with the effects of hydration and orientation evaluated. The scales are divided into three macro-layers constituted by overlapping keratin tiles with distinct lamellar arrangements which are further composed of lower-ordered lamellae. Both hardness and strength are significantly decreased by hydration; while the plasticity is markedly improved concomitantly, and as such, the mechanical damages are mitigated. The tensile strength invariably approximates to one third of hardness in value. The tensile deformation is dominated by lamellae stretching and pulling out under wet condition, which is distinct from the trans-lamellar fracture in dry samples. The compressive behaviors are featured by pronounced plasticity in both dry and wet scales; and notable strain-hardening capacity is introduced by hydration, especially along the thickness direction wherein kinking occurs. Inter-lamellar cracking is effectively alleviated in wet samples compared with the dry ones and both of them deform by macroscopic buckling. This study may help stimulate possible inspiration for the design of high-performance synthetic armor materials by mimicking pangolin scales. PMID:26703230

  12. Structure and mechanical behaviors of protective armored pangolin scales and effects of hydration and orientation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Q; Jiao, D; Weng, Z Y; Zhang, Z F

    2016-03-01

    As natural flexible dermal armor, pangolin scales provide effective protection against predatory threats and possess other notable properties such as anti-adhesion and wear-resistance. In this study, the structure, mechanical properties, deformation and damage behaviors of pangolin scales were systematically investigated with the effects of hydration and orientation evaluated. The scales are divided into three macro-layers constituted by overlapping keratin tiles with distinct lamellar arrangements which are further composed of lower-ordered lamellae. Both hardness and strength are significantly decreased by hydration; while the plasticity is markedly improved concomitantly, and as such, the mechanical damages are mitigated. The tensile strength invariably approximates to one third of hardness in value. The tensile deformation is dominated by lamellae stretching and pulling out under wet condition, which is distinct from the trans-lamellar fracture in dry samples. The compressive behaviors are featured by pronounced plasticity in both dry and wet scales; and notable strain-hardening capacity is introduced by hydration, especially along the thickness direction wherein kinking occurs. Inter-lamellar cracking is effectively alleviated in wet samples compared with the dry ones and both of them deform by macroscopic buckling. This study may help stimulate possible inspiration for the design of high-performance synthetic armor materials by mimicking pangolin scales.

  13. Training incidents in armored vehicles in the Singapore Armed Forces.

    PubMed

    Seng, Kok-Yong; Ng, Yih-Yng; Ying, Meng-Fai

    2003-02-01

    Training in armored vehicles presents occupational hazards. Since the inception of armored units in the Singapore Armed Forces in 1969, there has been no scientific study of the demographics of the trauma patterns. A review of existing literature also indicated a paucity of data on this subject. This article qualified and quantified the proportion of trauma during peacetime armored vehicle training during a 5-year period. Most of the 100 documented incidences of injuries occurred on the head and body limbs. Many injuries were caused by minor lacerations, abrasions, and crush injuries. Although fractures accounted for 24%, 65% of the total injury count could be classified as "minor." A diurnal pattern of injuries was noted in the study. The injury patterns could be used to analyze morbidity and mortality trends and facilitate subsequent evaluation of efficacy of affirmative action. New challenges facing further research in training injuries were also discussed. PMID:12636148

  14. Performance of the PDX neutral beam wall armor

    SciTech Connect

    Kugel, H.W.; Eubank, H.P.; Kozub, T.A.; Williams, M.D.

    1985-02-01

    The PDX wall armor was designed to function as an inner wall thermal armor, a neutral beam diagnostic, and a large area inner toroidal plasma limiter. In this paper we discuss its thermal performance as wall armor during two years of PDX neutral beam heating experiments. During this period it provided sufficient inner wall protection to permit perpendicular heating injections into normal and disruptive plasmas as well as injections in the absence of plasma involving special experiments, calibrations, and tests important for the optimization and development of the PDX neutral beam injection system. Many of the design constraints and performance issues encountered in this work are relevant to the design of larger fusion devices.

  15. Multivariable optimization of fusion reactor blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.

    1984-04-01

    The optimization problem consists of four key elements: a figure of merit for the reactor, a technique for estimating the neutronic performance of the blanket as a function of the design variables, constraints on the design variables and neutronic performance, and a method for optimizing the figure of merit subject to the constraints. The first reactor concept investigated uses a liquid lithium blanket for breeding tritium and a steel blanket to increase the fusion energy multiplication factor. The capital cost per unit of net electric power produced is minimized subject to constraints on the tritium breeding ratio and radiation damage rate. The optimal design has a 91-cm-thick lithium blanket denatured to 0.1% /sup 6/Li. The second reactor concept investigated uses a BeO neutron multiplier and a LiAlO/sub 2/ breeding blanket. The total blanket thickness is minimized subject to constraints on the tritium breeding ratio, the total neutron leakage, and the heat generation rate in aluminum support tendons. The optimal design consists of a 4.2-cm-thick BeO multiplier and 42-cm-thick LiAlO/sub 2/ breeding blanket enriched to 34% /sup 6/Li.

  16. ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect

    WONG, CPC; MALANG, S; NISHIO, S; RAFFRAY, R; SAGARA, S

    2002-04-01

    OAK A271 ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE SOLID WALL BLANKET CONCEPTS. First wall and blanket (FW/blanket) design is a crucial element in the performance and acceptance of a fusion power plant. High temperature structural and breeding materials are needed for high thermal performance. A suitable combination of structural design with the selected materials is necessary for D-T fuel sufficiency. Whenever possible, low afterheat, low chemical reactivity and low activation materials are desired to achieve passive safety and minimize the amount of high-level waste. Of course the selected fusion FW/blanket design will have to match the operational scenarios of high performance plasma. The key characteristics of eight advanced high performance FW/blanket concepts are presented in this paper. Design configurations, performance characteristics, unique advantages and issues are summarized. All reviewed designs can satisfy most of the necessary design goals. For further development, in concert with the advancement in plasma control and scrape off layer physics, additional emphasis will be needed in the areas of first wall coating material selection, design of plasma stabilization coils, consideration of reactor startup and transient events. To validate the projected performance of the advanced FW/blanket concepts the critical element is the need for 14 MeV neutron irradiation facilities for the generation of necessary engineering design data and the prediction of FW/blanket components lifetime and availability.

  17. 46 CFR 111.05-7 - Armored and metallic sheathed cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Armored and metallic sheathed cable. When installed, the metallic armor or sheath must meet the installation requirements of Section 25 of IEEE 45-2002 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1). ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Armored and metallic sheathed cable. 111.05-7...

  18. 48 CFR 252.225-7030 - Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. 252.225-7030 Section 252.225-7030 Federal Acquisition... Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. As prescribed in 225.7011-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate (DEC 2006) (a) Carbon, alloy, and...

  19. 48 CFR 252.225-7030 - Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. 252.225-7030 Section 252.225-7030 Federal Acquisition... Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. As prescribed in 225.7011-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate (DEC 2006) (a) Carbon, alloy, and...

  20. 48 CFR 252.225-7030 - Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. 252.225-7030 Section 252.225-7030 Federal Acquisition... Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. As prescribed in 225.7011-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate (DEC 2006) (a) Carbon, alloy, and...

  1. 48 CFR 252.225-7030 - Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. 252.225-7030 Section 252.225-7030 Federal Acquisition... Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. As prescribed in 225.7011-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate (DEC 2006) (a) Carbon, alloy, and...

  2. 48 CFR 252.225-7030 - Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. 252.225-7030 Section 252.225-7030 Federal Acquisition... Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate. As prescribed in 225.7011-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Carbon, Alloy, and Armor Steel Plate (DEC 2006) (a) Carbon, alloy, and...

  3. Methods of producing armor systems, and armor systems produced using such methods

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry S; Lillo, Thomas M; McHugh, Kevin M

    2013-02-19

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  4. Miniaturized hand held microwave interference scanning system for NDE of dielectric armor and armor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Karl F.; Little, Jack R.; Ellingson, William A.; Meitzler, Thomas J.; Green, William

    2011-06-23

    Inspection of ceramic-based armor has advanced through development of a microwave-based, portable, non-contact NDE system. Recently, this system was miniaturized and made wireless for maximum utility in field applications. The electronic components and functionality of the laboratory system are retained, with alternative means of position input for creation of scan images. Validation of the detection capability was recently demonstrated using specially fabricated surrogates and ballistic impact-damaged specimens. The microwave data results have been compared to data from laboratory-based microwave interferometry systems and digital x-ray imaging. The microwave interference scanning has been shown to reliably detect cracks, laminar features and material property variations. The authors present details of the system operation, descriptions of the test samples used and recent results obtained.

  5. APT target-blanket fabrication development

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.L.

    1997-06-13

    Concepts for producing tritium in an accelerator were translated into hardware for engineering studies of tritium generation, heat transfer, and effects of proton-neutron flux on materials. Small-scale target- blanket assemblies were fabricated and material samples prepared for these performance tests. Blanket assemblies utilize composite aluminum-lead modules, the two primary materials of the blanket. Several approaches are being investigated to produce large-scale assemblies, developing fabrication and assembly methods for their commercial manufacture. Small-scale target-blanket assemblies, designed and fabricated at the Savannah River Site, were place in Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) for irradiation. They were subjected to neutron flux for nine months during 1996-97. Coincident with this test was the development of production methods for large- scale modules. Increasing module size presented challenges that required new methods to be developed for fabrication and assembly. After development, these methods were demonstrated by fabricating and assembling two production-scale modules.

  6. Multifractal Framework Based on Blanket Method

    PubMed Central

    Paskaš, Milorad P.; Reljin, Irini S.; Reljin, Branimir D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes two local multifractal measures motivated by blanket method for calculation of fractal dimension. They cover both fractal approaches familiar in image processing. The first two measures (proposed Methods 1 and 3) support model of image with embedded dimension three, while the other supports model of image embedded in space of dimension three (proposed Method 2). While the classical blanket method provides only one value for an image (fractal dimension) multifractal spectrum obtained by any of the proposed measures gives a whole range of dimensional values. This means that proposed multifractal blanket model generalizes classical (monofractal) blanket method and other versions of this monofractal approach implemented locally. Proposed measures are validated on Brodatz image database through texture classification. All proposed methods give similar classification results, while average computation time of Method 3 is substantially longer. PMID:24578664

  7. Aerogel Blanket Insulation Materials for Cryogenic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffman, B. E.; Fesmire, J. E.; White, S.; Gould, G.; Augustynowicz, S.

    2010-04-01

    Aerogel blanket materials for use in thermal insulation systems are now commercially available and implemented by industry. Prototype aerogel blanket materials were presented at the Cryogenic Engineering Conference in 1997 and by 2004 had progressed to full commercial production by Aspen Aerogels. Today, this new technology material is providing superior energy efficiencies and enabling new design approaches for more cost-effective cryogenic systems. Aerogel processing technology and methods are continuing to improve, offering a tailorable array of product formulations for many different thermal and environmental requirements. Many different varieties and combinations of aerogel blankets have been characterized using insulation test cryostats at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. Detailed thermal conductivity data for a select group of materials are presented for engineering use. Heat transfer evaluations for the entire vacuum pressure range, including ambient conditions, are given. Examples of current cryogenic applications of aerogel blanket insulation are also given.

  8. Method of fabricating a multilayer insulation blanket

    DOEpatents

    Gonczy, John D.; Niemann, Ralph C.; Boroski, William N.

    1993-01-01

    An improved multilayer insulation blanket for insulating cryogenic structures operating at very low temperatures is disclosed. An apparatus and method for fabricating the improved blanket are also disclosed. In the improved blanket, each successive layer of insulating material is greater in length and width than the preceding layer so as to accommodate thermal contraction of the layers closest to the cryogenic structure. The fabricating apparatus has a rotatable cylindrical mandrel having an outer surface of fixed radius that is substantially arcuate, preferably convex, in cross-section. The method of fabricating the improved blanket comprises (a) winding a continuous sheet of thermally reflective material around the circumference of the mandrel to form multiple layers, (b) binding the layers along two lines substantially parallel to the edges of the circumference of the mandrel, (c) cutting the layers along a line parallel to the axle of the mandrel, and (d) removing the bound layers from the mandrel.

  9. Multilayer insulation blanket, fabricating apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Gonczy, John D.; Niemann, Ralph C.; Boroski, William N.

    1992-01-01

    An improved multilayer insulation blanket for insulating cryogenic structures operating at very low temperatures is disclosed. An apparatus and method for fabricating the improved blanket are also disclosed. In the improved blanket, each successive layer of insulating material is greater in length and width than the preceding layer so as to accommodate thermal contraction of the layers closest to the cryogenic structure. The fabricating apparatus has a rotatable cylindrical mandrel having an outer surface of fixed radius that is substantially arcuate, preferably convex, in cross-section. The method of fabricating the improved blanket comprises (a) winding a continuous sheet of thermally reflective material around the circumference of the mandrel to form multiple layers, (b) binding the layers along two lines substantially parallel to the edges of the circumference of the mandrel, (c) cutting the layers along a line parallel to the axle of the mandrel, and (d) removing the bound layers from the mandrel.

  10. Multilayer insulation blanket, fabricating apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Gonczy, J.D.; Niemann, R.C.; Boroski, W.N.

    1992-09-01

    An improved multilayer insulation blanket for insulating cryogenic structures operating at very low temperatures is disclosed. An apparatus and method for fabricating the improved blanket are also disclosed. In the improved blanket, each successive layer of insulating material is greater in length and width than the preceding layer so as to accommodate thermal contraction of the layers closest to the cryogenic structure. The fabricating apparatus has a rotatable cylindrical mandrel having an outer surface of fixed radius that is substantially arcuate, preferably convex, in cross-section. The method of fabricating the improved blanket comprises (a) winding a continuous sheet of thermally reflective material around the circumference of the mandrel to form multiple layers, (b) binding the layers along two lines substantially parallel to the edges of the circumference of the mandrel, (c) cutting the layers along a line parallel to the axle of the mandrel, and (d) removing the bound layers from the mandrel. 7 figs.

  11. Method of fabricating a multilayer insulation blanket

    DOEpatents

    Gonczy, J.D.; Niemann, R.C.; Boroski, W.N.

    1993-07-06

    An improved multilayer insulation blanket for insulating cryogenic structures operating at very low temperatures is disclosed. An apparatus and method for fabricating the improved blanket are also disclosed. In the improved blanket, each successive layer of insulating material is greater in length and width than the preceding layer so as to accommodate thermal contraction of the layers closest to the cryogenic structure. The fabricating apparatus has a rotatable cylindrical mandrel having an outer surface of fixed radius that is substantially arcuate, preferably convex, in cross-section. The method of fabricating the improved blanket comprises (a) winding a continuous sheet of thermally reflective material around the circumference of the mandrel to form multiple layers, (b) binding the layers along two lines substantially parallel to the edges of the circumference of the mandrel, (c) cutting the layers along a line parallel to the axle of the mandrel, and (d) removing the bound layers from the mandrel.

  12. Multifunctionality of chiton biomineralized armor with an integrated visual system

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Ling; Connors, Matthew; Kolle, Mathias; England, Grant; Speiser, Daniel; Xiao, Xianghui; Aizenberg, Joanna; Ortiz, Christine

    2015-11-20

    Nature provides a multitude of examples of multifunctional structural materials. There are often trade-offs in these materials because few of them are equally well suited for multiple tasks. One such example is the biomineralized armor of the chiton Acanthopleura granulata, which incorporates an integrated sensory system that includes hundreds of eyes with aragonite-based lens. Here, we used optical experiments to demonstrate directly, for the first time, that these microscopic, mineralized lenses are able to form images. Furthermore, our experiments revealed that the optical performance of these polycrystalline lenses is enhanced by the reduction of spherical aberration through the shape ofmore » the lens and that birefringence scattering is minimized by the use of relatively large, co-aligned grains (~10 μm as compared to ~1 μm in the non-eye regions). Additionally, we used multi-scale mechanical testing techniques to show that A. granulata’s lenses are an integral component of its biomineralized armor, but that both the intrinsic and overall mechanical properties of the lenses are compromised as compared to the primary solid regions of the armor plates. Our results demonstrate that as the size, complexity, and functionality of the integrated sensory elements increases, the local mechanical performance of the armor decreases. But, A. granulata has evolved several strategies to compensate for its local mechanical vulnerabilities to form a multifunctional system with co-optimized overall optical and structural functions.« less

  13. 75 FR 25884 - NIJ Body Armor Compliance Testing Program Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs NIJ Body Armor Compliance Testing Program Workshop AGENCY: National Institute of Justice. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is hosting a...

  14. Lightcurve Analsyis of 774 Armor and 3161 Beadell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oey, Julian; Han, Xianming L.; Gipson, Kevin

    2013-04-01

    Photometric studies of the asteroids 774 Armor and 3161 Beadell and were carried out by observers from Australia and USA. The data were combined and the following periods were obtained: 774 Amor, 25.107 ± 0.005 h; 3161 Beadell, 36.253 ± 0.004 h.

  15. Multifunctionality of chiton biomineralized armor with an integrated visual system

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ling; Connors, Matthew; Kolle, Mathias; England, Grant; Speiser, Daniel; Xiao, Xianghui; Aizenberg, Joanna; Ortiz, Christine

    2015-11-20

    Nature provides a multitude of examples of multifunctional structural materials. There are often trade-offs in these materials because few of them are equally well suited for multiple tasks. One such example is the biomineralized armor of the chiton Acanthopleura granulata, which incorporates an integrated sensory system that includes hundreds of eyes with aragonite-based lens. Here, we used optical experiments to demonstrate directly, for the first time, that these microscopic, mineralized lenses are able to form images. Furthermore, our experiments revealed that the optical performance of these polycrystalline lenses is enhanced by the reduction of spherical aberration through the shape of the lens and that birefringence scattering is minimized by the use of relatively large, co-aligned grains (~10 μm as compared to ~1 μm in the non-eye regions). Additionally, we used multi-scale mechanical testing techniques to show that A. granulata’s lenses are an integral component of its biomineralized armor, but that both the intrinsic and overall mechanical properties of the lenses are compromised as compared to the primary solid regions of the armor plates. Our results demonstrate that as the size, complexity, and functionality of the integrated sensory elements increases, the local mechanical performance of the armor decreases. But, A. granulata has evolved several strategies to compensate for its local mechanical vulnerabilities to form a multifunctional system with co-optimized overall optical and structural functions.

  16. Natural Curaua Fiber-Reinforced Composites in Multilayered Ballistic Armor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Louro, Luis Henrique Leme; Trindade, Willian; Elias, Carlos Nelson; Ferreira, Carlos Luiz; de Sousa Lima, Eduardo; Weber, Ricardo Pondé; Miguez Suarez, João Carlos; da Silva Figueiredo, André Ben-Hur; Pinheiro, Wagner Anacleto; da Silva, Luis Carlos; Lima, Édio Pereira

    2015-10-01

    The performance of a novel multilayered armor in which the commonly used plies of aramid fabric layer were replaced by an equal thickness layer of distinct curaua fiber-reinforced composites with epoxy or polyester matrices was assessed. The investigated armor, in addition to its polymeric layer (aramid fabric or curaua composite), was also composed of a front Al2O3 ceramic tile and backed by an aluminum alloy sheet. Ballistic impact tests were performed with actual 7.62 caliber ammunitions. Indentation in a clay witness, simulating human body behind the back layer, attested the efficacy of the curaua-reinforced composite as an armor component. The conventional aramid fabric display a similar indentation as the curaua/polyester composite but was less efficient (deeper indentation) than the curaua/epoxy composite. This advantage is shown to be significant, especially in favor of the lighter and cheaper epoxy composite reinforced with 30 vol pct of curaua fiber, as possible substitute for aramid fabric in multilayered ballistic armor for individual protection. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the mechanism associated with the curaua composite ballistic performance.

  17. Performance of silvered Teflon (trademark) thermal control blankets on spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, Gary; Stuckey, Wayne; Hemminger, Carol

    1993-01-01

    Silverized Teflon (Ag/FEP) is a widely used passive thermal control material for space applications. The material has a very low alpha/e ratio (less than 0.1) for low operating temperatures and is fabricated with various FEP thicknesses (as the Teflon thickness increases, the emittance increases). It is low outgassing and, because of its flexibility, can be applied around complex, curved shapes. Ag/FEP has achieved multiyear lifetimes under a variety of exposure conditions. This has been demonstrated by the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), Solar Max, Spacecraft Charging at High Altitudes (SCATHA), and other flight experiments. Ag/FEP material has been held in place on spacecraft by a variety of methods: mechanical clamping, direct adhesive bonding of tapes and sheets, and by Velcro(TM) tape adhesively bonded to back surfaces. On LDEF, for example, 5-mil blankets held by Velcro(TM) and clamping were used for thermal control over 3- by 4-ft areas on each of 17 trays. Adhesively bonded 2- and 5-mil sheets were used on other LDEF experiments, both for thermal control and as tape to hold other thermal control blankets in place. Performance data over extended time periods are available from a number of flights. The observed effects on optical properties, mechanical properties, and surface chemistry will be summarized in this paper. This leads to a discussion of performance life estimates and other design lessons for Ag/FEP thermal control material.

  18. Annular seed-blanket thorium fuel core concepts for heavy water moderated reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, B.P.; Hyland, B.

    2013-07-01

    New reactor concepts to implement thorium-based fuel cycles have been explored to achieve maximum resource utilization. Pressure tube heavy water reactors (PT-HWR) are highly advantageous for implementing the use of thorium-based fuels because of their high neutron economy and on-line re-fuelling capability. The use of heterogeneous seed-blanket core concepts in a PT-HWR where higher-fissile-content seed fuel bundles are physically separate from lower-fissile-content blanket bundles allows more flexibility and control in fuel management to maximize the fissile utilization and conversion of fertile fuel. The lattice concept chosen is a 35-element bundle made with a homogeneous mixture of reactor grade Pu and Th, and with a central zirconia rod to help reduce coolant void reactivity. Several annular heterogeneous seed-blanket core concepts with plutonium-thorium-based fuels in a 700-MWe-class PT-HWR were analyzed, using a once-through thorium (OTT) cycle. Different combinations of seed and blanket fuel were tested to determine the impact on core-average burnup, fissile utilization, power distributions, and other performance parameters. It was found that the various core concepts can achieve a fissile utilization that is up to 30% higher than is currently achieved in a PT-HWR using conventional natural uranium fuel bundles. Up to 67% of the Pu is consumed; up to 43% of the energy is produced from thorium, and up to 363 kg/year of U-233 is produced. Seed-blanket cores with ∼50% content of low-power blanket bundles may require power de-rating (∼58% to 65%) to avoid exceeding maximum limits for peak channel power, bundle power and linear element ratings. (authors)

  19. Multiscale impacts of armoring on Salish Sea shorelines: Evidence for cumulative and threshold effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethier, Megan N.; Raymond, Wendel W.; McBride, Aundrea N.; Toft, Jason D.; Cordell, Jeffery R.; Ogston, Andrea S.; Heerhartz, Sarah M.; Berry, Helen D.

    2016-06-01

    Shoreline armoring is widespread in many parts of the protected inland waters of the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A, but impacts on physical and biological features of local nearshore ecosystems have only recently begun to be documented. Armoring marine shorelines can alter natural processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales; some, such as starving the beach of sediments by blocking input from upland bluffs may take decades to become visible, while others such as placement loss of armoring construction are immediate. We quantified a range of geomorphic and biological parameters at paired, nearby armored and unarmored beaches throughout the inland waters of Washington State to test what conditions and parameters are associated with armoring. We gathered identical datasets at a total of 65 pairs of beaches: 6 in South Puget Sound, 23 in Central Puget Sound, and 36 pairs North of Puget Sound proper. At this broad scale, demonstrating differences attributable to armoring is challenging given the high natural variability in measured parameters among beaches and regions. However, we found that armoring was consistently associated with reductions in beach width, riparian vegetation, numbers of accumulated logs, and amounts and types of beach wrack and associated invertebrates. Armoring-related patterns at lower beach elevations (further vertically from armoring) were progressively harder to detect. For some parameters, such as accumulated logs, there was a distinct threshold in armoring elevation that was associated with increased impacts. This large dataset for the first time allowed us to identify cumulative impacts that appear when increasing proportions of shorelines are armored. At large spatial and temporal scales, armoring much of a sediment drift cell may result in reduction of the finer grain-size fractions on beaches, including those used by spawning forage fish. Overall we have shown that local impacts of shoreline armoring can scale-up to have cumulative and

  20. Neutronic implications of lead-lithium blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.

    1982-08-01

    Lead-lithium alloys have been proposed for use in several conceptual blanket designs for both inertial and magnetic confinement fusion reactors. In most cases, Pb/sub 83/Li/sub 17/, a eutectic with a melting point of 235/sup 0/C, is the chosen composition. The primary reasons for using Pb/sub 83/Li/sub 17/ instead of Li as the tritium breeding material are the perceived safety advantages, low tritium solubility, and favorable neutronic characteristics. This paper describes the neutronic characteristics of Pb/sub 83/Li/sub 17/ blankets with emphasis on the enhanced neutron leakage through chamber ports and the degradation in blanket performance parameters that occurs as a result of the enhanced leakage.

  1. Thermally distinct ejecta blankets from Martian craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, B. H.; Murray, B. C.

    1993-06-01

    A study of Martian ejecta blankets is carried out using the high-resolution thermal IR/visible data from the Termoskan instrument aboard Phobos '88 mission. It is found that approximately 100 craters within the Termoskan data have an ejecta blanket distinct in the thermal infrared (EDITH). These features are examined by (1) a systematic examination of all Termoskan data using high-resolution image processing; (2) a study of the systematics of the data by compiling and analyzing a data base consisting of geographic, geologic, and mormphologic parameters for a significant fraction of the EDITH and nearby non-EDITH; and (3) qualitative and quantitative analyses of localized regions of interest. It is noted that thermally distinct ejecta blankets are excellent locations for future landers and remote sensing because of relatively dust-free surface exposures of material excavated from depth.

  2. Armoring a droplet: soft jamming of a dense granular interface.

    PubMed

    Lagubeau, Guillaume; Rescaglio, Antonella; Melo, Francisco

    2014-09-01

    Droplets and bubbles protected by armors of particles have found vast applications in encapsulation, stabilization of emulsions and foams, or flotation processes. The liquid phase stores capillary energy, while concurrently the solid contacts of the granular network induce friction and energy dissipation, leading to hybrid interfaces of combined properties. By means of nonintrusive tensiometric methods and structural measurements, we distinguish three surface phases of increasing rigidity during the evaporation of armored droplets. The emergence of surface rigidity is reminiscent of jamming of granular matter, but it occurs differently since it is marked by a step by step hardening under surface compression. These results show that the concept of the effective surface tension remains useful only below the first jamming transition. Beyond this point, the surface stresses become anisotropic.

  3. Armor corrosion monitoring of a submarine AC cable

    SciTech Connect

    Genesca, J.; Perez, T.; Lara, C.

    1997-12-01

    After the hurricane Gilberto flattened (devastated) Cancun in September 1988, the submarine cables which supplied electricity to Isla Mjueres Island remained very damaged, and it was decided to install the new ones. In 1989, four new submarine cables were installed from Punta Sam, Cancun to Isla Mujeres. Such cables, of nominal tension 34.5 KV, were manufactures with a galvanized steel armor coated with asphalt, and began operation during 1990. The object of this communication is to present the experimental procedure that gave place to the armor corrosion monitoring procedure carried out in this particular case and to compare the results with those obtained on the field. Results of the cathodic protection system applied are also presented.

  4. Multifunctionality of chiton biomineralized armor with an integrated visual system.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Connors, Matthew J; Kolle, Mathias; England, Grant T; Speiser, Daniel I; Xiao, Xianghui; Aizenberg, Joanna; Ortiz, Christine

    2015-11-20

    Nature provides a multitude of examples of multifunctional structural materials in which trade-offs are imposed by conflicting functional requirements. One such example is the biomineralized armor of the chiton Acanthopleura granulata, which incorporates an integrated sensory system that includes hundreds of eyes with aragonite-based lenses. We use optical experiments to demonstrate that these microscopic lenses are able to form images. Light scattering by the polycrystalline lenses is minimized by the use of relatively large, crystallographically aligned grains. Multiscale mechanical testing reveals that as the size, complexity, and functionality of the integrated sensory elements increase, the local mechanical performance of the armor decreases. However, A. granulata has evolved several strategies to compensate for its mechanical vulnerabilities to form a multipurpose system with co-optimized optical and structural functions.

  5. Armoring and vertical sorting in aeolian dune fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin; Narteau, Clément; Rozier, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Unlike ripples, there are only few numerical studies on grain-size segregation at the scale of dunes in aeolian environments. Here we use a cellular automaton model to analyze vertical sorting in granular mixtures under steady unidirectional flow conditions. We investigate the feedbacks between dune growth and the segregation mechanisms by varying the size of coarse grains and their proportion within the bed. We systematically observe the development of a horizontal layer of coarse grains at the top of which sorted bed forms may grow by amalgamation. The formation of such an armor layer controls the overall sediment transport and availability. The emergence of dunes and the transition from barchan to transverse dune fields depend only on the grain size distribution of the initial sediment layer. As confirmed by observation, this result indicates that armor layers should be present in most arid deserts, where they are likely to control dune morphodynamics.

  6. Plastic deformation enabled energy dissipation in a bionanowire structured armor.

    PubMed

    Li, Haoze; Yue, Yonghai; Han, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaodong

    2014-05-14

    It has been challenging to simultaneously achieve high strength and toughness in engineered materials because of the trade-off relation between the two distinct properties. Nature, however, has elegantly solved this problem. Seashells, commonly referred to as nature's armors, exhibit an unusual resilience against predatory attacks. In this letter, we report an unexpected phenomenon in a bionanowire structured armor-conch shell where the shell's basic building blocks, i.e., the third-order lamellae, exhibit an exceptional plasticity with a maximum strain of 0.7% upon mechanical loading. We attribute such a plastic deformation behavior to the lamella's unique nanoparticle-biopolymer architecture, in which the biopolymer mediates the rotation of aragonite nanoparticles in response to external attacks. We also found that electron beam irradiation facilitates the lamella's plasticity. These findings advance our understanding of seashell's energy dissipating strategy and provide new design guidelines for developing high performance bioinspired materials and sensors.

  7. Multifunctionality of chiton biomineralized armor with an integrated visual system.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Connors, Matthew J; Kolle, Mathias; England, Grant T; Speiser, Daniel I; Xiao, Xianghui; Aizenberg, Joanna; Ortiz, Christine

    2015-11-20

    Nature provides a multitude of examples of multifunctional structural materials in which trade-offs are imposed by conflicting functional requirements. One such example is the biomineralized armor of the chiton Acanthopleura granulata, which incorporates an integrated sensory system that includes hundreds of eyes with aragonite-based lenses. We use optical experiments to demonstrate that these microscopic lenses are able to form images. Light scattering by the polycrystalline lenses is minimized by the use of relatively large, crystallographically aligned grains. Multiscale mechanical testing reveals that as the size, complexity, and functionality of the integrated sensory elements increase, the local mechanical performance of the armor decreases. However, A. granulata has evolved several strategies to compensate for its mechanical vulnerabilities to form a multipurpose system with co-optimized optical and structural functions. PMID:26586760

  8. Plastic deformation enabled energy dissipation in a bionanowire structured armor.

    PubMed

    Li, Haoze; Yue, Yonghai; Han, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaodong

    2014-05-14

    It has been challenging to simultaneously achieve high strength and toughness in engineered materials because of the trade-off relation between the two distinct properties. Nature, however, has elegantly solved this problem. Seashells, commonly referred to as nature's armors, exhibit an unusual resilience against predatory attacks. In this letter, we report an unexpected phenomenon in a bionanowire structured armor-conch shell where the shell's basic building blocks, i.e., the third-order lamellae, exhibit an exceptional plasticity with a maximum strain of 0.7% upon mechanical loading. We attribute such a plastic deformation behavior to the lamella's unique nanoparticle-biopolymer architecture, in which the biopolymer mediates the rotation of aragonite nanoparticles in response to external attacks. We also found that electron beam irradiation facilitates the lamella's plasticity. These findings advance our understanding of seashell's energy dissipating strategy and provide new design guidelines for developing high performance bioinspired materials and sensors. PMID:24745628

  9. Lightweight armor system and process for producing the same

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Henry S.; Bruck, H. Alan; Strempek, Gary C.; Varacalle, Jr., Dominic J.

    2004-01-20

    A lightweight armor system may comprise a substrate having a graded metal matrix composite layer formed thereon by thermal spray deposition. The graded metal matrix composite layer comprises an increasing volume fraction of ceramic particles imbedded in a decreasing volume fraction of a metal matrix as a function of a thickness of the graded metal matrix composite layer. A ceramic impact layer is affixed to the graded metal matrix composite layer.

  10. Mechanisms of stability of armored bubbles: FY 1996 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rossen, W.R.; Kam, S.I.

    1996-11-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies examine how a coating, or {open_quotes}armor,{close_quotes} of partially wetted solid particles can stabilize tiny bubbles against diffusion of gas into the surrounding liquid, in spite of the high capillary pressures normally associated with such bubbles. Experiments with polymethylmethacrylate (PNMA) beads and carbonated water demonstrate that armored bubbles can persist for weeks in liquid unsaturated with respect to the gas in the bubbles. This question is of concern regarding gas discharges from waste tanks at the Hanford reservation. The stresses on the solid-solid contacts between particles in such cases is large and could drive sintering of the particles into a rigid framework. Stability analysis suggests that a slightly shrunken bubble would not expel a solid particle from its armor to relieve stress and allow the bubble to shrink further. Expulsion of particles from more stressed bubbles at zero capillary pressure is energetically favored in some cases. It is not clear, however, whether this expulsion would proceed spontaneously from a small perturbation or require a large initial disturbance of the bubble. In some cases, it appears that a bubble would expel some particles and shrink, but the bubble would approach a final, stable size rather than disappear completely. This simplified analysis leaves out several factors. For instance, only one perturbation toward expelling a solid from the armor is considered; perhaps other perturbations would be more energetically favored than that tested. Other considerations (particle deformation, surface roughness, contact-angle hysteresis, and adhesion or physical bonding between adjacent particles) would make expelling solids more difficult than indicated by this theoretical study.

  11. Novel method for sludge blanket measurements.

    PubMed

    Schewerda, J; Förster, G; Heinrichmeier, J

    2014-01-01

    The most widely used methods for sludge blanket measurements are based on acoustic or optic principles. In operation, both methods are expensive and often maintenance-intensive. Therefore a novel, reliable and simple method for sludge blanket measurement is proposed. It is based on the differential pressure measurement in the sludge zone compared with the differential pressure in the clear water zone, so that it is possible to measure the upper and the lower sludge level in a tank. Full-scale tests of this method were done in the secondary clarifier at the waste water treatment plant in Hecklingen, Germany. The result shows a good approximation of the manually measured sludge level.

  12. 48 CFR 613.303 - Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). 613.303 Section 613.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE....303 Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs)....

  13. 48 CFR 1313.303 - Blanket Purchase Agreements (BPAs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket Purchase Agreements (BPAs). 1313.303 Section 1313.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE....303 Blanket Purchase Agreements (BPAs)....

  14. 48 CFR 313.303 - Blanket purchase agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements. 313.303 Section 313.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....303 Blanket purchase agreements....

  15. 48 CFR 13.303 - Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). 13.303 Section 13.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Methods 13.303 Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs)....

  16. Flute stabilization by a cold line-tied blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, D.; Wickham, M.; Rynn, N.

    1982-09-01

    The curvature-driven flute instability in an axisymmetric mirror was stabilized by an annular line-tied plasma blanket. A significant temperature difference was maintained between core and blanket. Theoretical calculations support the experimental observations.

  17. 48 CFR 313.303 - Blanket purchase agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements. 313.303 Section 313.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....303 Blanket purchase agreements....

  18. 48 CFR 613.303 - Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). 613.303 Section 613.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE....303 Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs)....

  19. 48 CFR 13.303 - Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). 13.303 Section 13.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Methods 13.303 Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs)....

  20. 48 CFR 1313.303 - Blanket Purchase Agreements (BPAs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Blanket Purchase Agreements (BPAs). 1313.303 Section 1313.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE....303 Blanket Purchase Agreements (BPAs)....

  1. Toroidal midplane neutral beam armor and plasma limiter

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, H.W.; Hand, S.W. Jr.; Ksayian, H.

    1985-05-31

    This invention contemplates an armor shield/plasma limiter positioned upon the inner wall of a toroidal vacuum chamber within which is magnetically confined an energetic plasma in a tokamak nuclear fusion reactor. The armor shield/plasma limiter is thus of a general semi-toroidal shape and is comprised of a plurality of adjacent graphite plates positioned immediately adjacent to each other so as to form a continuous ring upon and around the toroidal chamber's inner wall and the reactor's midplane coil. Each plate has a generally semi-circular outer circumference and a recessed inner portion and is comprised of upper and lower half sections positioned immediately adjacent to one another along the midplane of the plate. With the upper and lower half sections thus joined, a channel or duct is provided within the midplane of the plate in which a magnetic flux loop is positioned. The magnetic flux loop is thus positioned immediately adjacent to the fusing toroidal plasma and serves as a diagnostic sensor with the armor shield/plasma limiter minimizing the amount of power from the energetic plasma as well as from the neutral particle beams heating the plasma incident upon the flux loop.

  2. Transparent ceramics for armor and EM window applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Parimal J.; Gilde, Gary A.; Dehmer, Peter G.; McCauley, James W.

    2000-10-01

    Recently, the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has focused increased attention on the development of transparent armor material systems for a variety of applications. Future combat and non-combat environments will require lightweight, threat adjustable, multifunctional, and affordable armor. Current glass/polycarbonate technologies are not expected to meet the increased requirements. Results over the past few years indicate that the use of transparent crystalline ceramics greatly improve the performance of a system. These results coupled with recent processing and manufacturing advances have revitalized the interest in using transparent ceramics for armor systems. The materials currently under investigation at ARL are magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4), aluminum oxynitride spinel (AlON), single crystal sapphire (Al2O3), glasses, and glass-ceramics. The polymers under investigation are polycarbonate (PC) and polyurethane (PU). An overview of current ARL efforts in these areas, including the motivation for using transparent ceramics, the requirements, the potential applications, and the ongoing processing research will be reviewed.

  3. In plain sight: the Chesapeake Bay crater ejecta blanket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griscom, D. L.

    2012-02-01

    idealized calculation of the CBIS ejecta-blanket elevation profile minutes after the impact was carried out founded on well established rules for explosion and impact-generated craters. This profile is shown here to match the volume of the upland deposits ≥170 km from the crater center. Closer to the crater, much of the "postdicted" ejecta blanket has clearly been removed by erosion. Nevertheless the Shirley and fossil-free Bacons Castle Formations, located between the upland deposits and the CBIS interior and veneering the present day surface with units ∼10-20 m deep, are respectively identified as curtain- and excavation-phase ejecta. The neritic-fossil-bearing Calvert Formation external to the crater is deduced to be of Eocene age (as opposed to early Miocene as currently believed), preserved by the armoring effects of the overlying CBIS ejecta composed of the (distal) upland deposits and the (proximal) Bacons Castle Formation. The lithofacies of the in-crater Calvert Formation can only have resulted from inward mass wasting of the postdicted ejecta blanket, vestiges of which (i.e. the Bacons Castle and Shirley Formations) still overlap the crater rim and sag into its interior, consistent with this expectation. Because there appear to be a total of ∼10 000 km2 of CBIS ejecta lying on the present-day surface, future research should center the stratigraphic, lithologic, and petrologic properties of these ejecta versus both radial distance from the crater center (to identify ejecta from different ejection stages) and circumferentially at fixed radial distances (to detect possible anisotropies relating the impact angle and direction of approach of the impactor). The geological units described here may comprise the best preserved, and certainly the most accessible, ejecta blanket of a major crater on the Earth's surface and therefore promise to be a boon to the field of impact geology. As a corollary, a major revision of the current stratigraphic column of the M

  4. Shell-armored wood cobbles as a potential criterion for detrital coal deposits

    SciTech Connect

    DiMarco, M.J.; Nummedal, D.

    1986-01-01

    Shell-armored wood cobbles occur on detrital-peat beaches along the seaward edge of the Mississippi Delta. Shell material consists exclusively of Mulinia lateralis, a dwarf surf clam. Soft, heavy, waterlogged wood fragments are abraded and become armored by hard shells in response to wave activity on the beach. Although their preservation potential is suspect, fossilized shell-armored wood clasts would probably be recognized as a type of coal ball and might indicate an allochthonous origin for the host coal.

  5. [Search for optimal combinations of the hygienic and protective characteristics of body armors].

    PubMed

    Logatkin, S M

    2008-01-01

    The protective composition of a body armor is generally characterized by two major parameters--the area and level of protection, i.e. resistance to bullets and fragments. These characteristics directly depend on the mass of a body armor and the sizes of the body's screening. The positive protective characteristics simultaneously have a negative impact on the most important hygienic indices of a body armor, such as convenience and easiness-to-use. The optimum combination of protective and performance characteristics of body armors makes a compromise between their mass and the level of protection.

  6. Fidget Blankets: A Sensory Stimulation Outreach Program.

    PubMed

    Kroustos, Kelly Reilly; Trautwein, Heidi; Kerns, Rachel; Sobota, Kristen Finley

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) include behaviors such as aberrant motor behavior, agitation, anxiety, apathy, delusions, depression, disinhibition, elation, hallucinations, irritability, and sleep or appetite changes. A student-led project to provide sensory stimulation in the form of "fidget blankets" developed into a community outreach program. The goal was to decrease the use of antipsychotics used for BPSD. PMID:27250073

  7. Aerogel Blanket Insulation Materials for Cryogenic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffman, B. E.; Fesmire, J. E.; White, S.; Gould, G.; Augustynowicz, S.

    2009-01-01

    Aerogel blanket materials for use in thermal insulation systems are now commercially available and implemented by industry. Prototype aerogel blanket materials were presented at the Cryogenic Engineering Conference in 1997 and by 2004 had progressed to full commercial production by Aspen Aerogels. Today, this new technology material is providing superior energy efficiencies and enabling new design approaches for more cost effective cryogenic systems. Aerogel processing technology and methods are continuing to improve, offering a tailor-able array of product formulations for many different thermal and environmental requirements. Many different varieties and combinations of aerogel blankets have been characterized using insulation test cryostats at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. Detailed thermal conductivity data for a select group of materials are presented for engineering use. Heat transfer evaluations for the entire vacuum pressure range, including ambient conditions, are given. Examples of current cryogenic applications of aerogel blanket insulation are also given. KEYWORDS: Cryogenic tanks, thermal insulation, composite materials, aerogel, thermal conductivity, liquid nitrogen boil-off

  8. Blanket peat biome endangered by climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego-Sala, Angela V.; Colin Prentice, I.

    2013-02-01

    Blanket bog is a highly distinctive biome restricted to disjunct hyperoceanic regions. It is characterized by a landscape covering of peat broken only by the steepest slopes. Plant and microbial life are adapted to anoxia, low pH and low nutrient availability. Plant productivity exceeds soil organic matter decomposition, so carbon is sequestered over time. Unique climatic requirements, including high year-round rainfall and low summer temperatures, make this biome amenable to bioclimatic modelling. However, projections of the fate of peatlands in general, and blanket bogs in particular, under climate change have been contradictory. Here we use a simple, well-founded global bioclimatic model, with climate-change projections from seven climate models, to indicate this biome's fate. We show marked shrinkage of its present bioclimatic space with only a few, restricted areas of persistence. Many blanket bog regions are thus at risk of progressive peat erosion and vegetation changes as a direct consequence of climate change. New areas suitable for blanket bog are also projected, but these are often disjunct from present areas and their location is inconsistently predicted by different climate models.

  9. Advanced Polymer For Multilayer Insulating Blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haghighat, R. Ross; Shepp, Allan

    1996-01-01

    Polymer resisting degradation by monatomic oxygen undergoing commercial development under trade name "Aorimide" ("atomic-oxygen-resistant imidazole"). Intended for use in thermal blankets for spacecraft in low orbit, useful on Earth in outdoor applications in which sunlight and ozone degrades other plastics. Also used, for example, to make threads and to make films coated with metals for reflectivity.

  10. Fidget Blankets: A Sensory Stimulation Outreach Program.

    PubMed

    Kroustos, Kelly Reilly; Trautwein, Heidi; Kerns, Rachel; Sobota, Kristen Finley

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) include behaviors such as aberrant motor behavior, agitation, anxiety, apathy, delusions, depression, disinhibition, elation, hallucinations, irritability, and sleep or appetite changes. A student-led project to provide sensory stimulation in the form of "fidget blankets" developed into a community outreach program. The goal was to decrease the use of antipsychotics used for BPSD.

  11. Long-term survivability of riprap for armoring uranium-mill tailings and covers: a literature review. [203 references

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, C.G.; Long, L.W.; Begej, C.W.

    1982-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating the use of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of an earthen radon suppression cover applied to uranium mill tailings. Because the radon suppression cover and the tailings must remain intact for up to 1000 years or longer, the riprap must withstand natural weathering forces. This report is a review of information on rock weathering and riprap durability. Chemical and physical weathering processes, rock characteristics related to durability, climatic conditions affecting the degree and rate of weathering, and testing procedures used to measure weathering susceptibilities have been reviewed. Sampling and testing techniques, as well as analyses of physical and chemical weathering susceptibilities, are necessary to evaluate rock durability. Many potential riprap materials may not be able to survive 1000 years of weathering. Available techniques for durability testing cannot adequately predict rock durability for the 1000-year period because they do not consider the issue of time (i.e., how long must riprap remain stable). This report includes an Appendix, which discusses rock weathering, written by Dr. Richard Jahns of Stanford University.

  12. Characterizing the interaction among bullet, body armor, and human and surrogate targets.

    PubMed

    Shen, Weixin; Niu, Yuqing; Bykanova, Lucy; Laurence, Peter; Link, Norman

    2010-12-01

    This study used a combined experimental and modeling approach to characterize and quantify the interaction among bullet, body armor, and human surrogate targets during the 10-1000 μs range that is crucial to evaluating the protective effectiveness of body armor against blunt injuries. Ballistic tests incorporating high-speed flash X-ray measurements were performed to acquire the deformations of bullets and body armor samples placed against ballistic clay and gelatin targets with images taken between 10 μs and 1 ms of the initial impact. Finite element models (FEMs) of bullet, armor, and gelatin and clay targets were developed with material parameters selected to best fit model calculations to the test measurements. FEMs of bullet and armor interactions were then assembled with a FEM of a human torso and FEMs of clay and gelatin blocks in the shape of a human torso to examine the effects of target material and geometry on the interaction. Test and simulation results revealed three distinct loading phases during the interaction. In the first phase, the bullet was significantly slowed in about 60 μs as it transferred a major portion of its energy into the body armor. In the second phase, fibers inside the armor were pulled toward the point of impact and kept on absorbing energy until about 100 μs after the initial impact when energy absorption reached its peak. In the third phase, the deformation on the armor's back face continued to grow and energies inside both armor and targets redistributed through wave propagation. The results indicated that armor deformation and energy absorption in the second and third phases were significantly affected by the material properties (density and stiffness) and geometrical characteristics (curvature and gap at the armor-target interface) of the targets. Valid surrogate targets for testing the ballistic resistance of the armor need to account for these factors and produce the same armor deformation and energy absorption as on a

  13. Characterizing the interaction among bullet, body armor, and human and surrogate targets.

    PubMed

    Shen, Weixin; Niu, Yuqing; Bykanova, Lucy; Laurence, Peter; Link, Norman

    2010-12-01

    This study used a combined experimental and modeling approach to characterize and quantify the interaction among bullet, body armor, and human surrogate targets during the 10-1000 μs range that is crucial to evaluating the protective effectiveness of body armor against blunt injuries. Ballistic tests incorporating high-speed flash X-ray measurements were performed to acquire the deformations of bullets and body armor samples placed against ballistic clay and gelatin targets with images taken between 10 μs and 1 ms of the initial impact. Finite element models (FEMs) of bullet, armor, and gelatin and clay targets were developed with material parameters selected to best fit model calculations to the test measurements. FEMs of bullet and armor interactions were then assembled with a FEM of a human torso and FEMs of clay and gelatin blocks in the shape of a human torso to examine the effects of target material and geometry on the interaction. Test and simulation results revealed three distinct loading phases during the interaction. In the first phase, the bullet was significantly slowed in about 60 μs as it transferred a major portion of its energy into the body armor. In the second phase, fibers inside the armor were pulled toward the point of impact and kept on absorbing energy until about 100 μs after the initial impact when energy absorption reached its peak. In the third phase, the deformation on the armor's back face continued to grow and energies inside both armor and targets redistributed through wave propagation. The results indicated that armor deformation and energy absorption in the second and third phases were significantly affected by the material properties (density and stiffness) and geometrical characteristics (curvature and gap at the armor-target interface) of the targets. Valid surrogate targets for testing the ballistic resistance of the armor need to account for these factors and produce the same armor deformation and energy absorption as on a

  14. Checkerboard seed-blanket thorium fuel core concepts for heavy water moderated reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, B.P.; Hyland, B.

    2013-07-01

    New reactor concepts to implement thorium-based fuel cycles have been explored to achieve maximum resource utilization. Pressure tube heavy water reactors (PT-HWR) are highly advantageous for implementing the use of thorium-based fuels because of their high neutron economy and on-line re-fuelling capability. The use of heterogeneous seed-blanket core concepts in a PT-HWR where higher-fissile-content seed fuel bundles are physically separate from lower-fissile-content blanket bundles allows more flexibility and control in fuel management to maximize the fissile utilization and conversion of fertile fuel. The lattice concept chosen was a 35-element bundle made with a homogeneous mixture of reactor grade Pu (about 67 wt% fissile) and Th, and with a central zirconia rod to help reduce coolant void reactivity. Several checkerboard heterogeneous seed-blanket core concepts with plutonium-thorium-based fuels in a 700-MWe-class PT-HWR were analyzed, using a once-through thorium (OTT) cycle. Different combinations of seed and blanket fuel were tested to determine the impact on core-average burnup, fissile utilization, power distributions, and other performance parameters. It was found that various checkerboard core concepts can achieve a fissile utilization that is up to 26% higher than that achieved in a PT-HWR using more conventional natural uranium fuel bundles. Up to 60% of the Pu is consumed; up to 43% of the energy is produced from thorium, and up to 303 kg/year of Pa-233/U-233/U-235 are produced. Checkerboard cores with about 50% of low-power blanket bundles may require power de-rating (65% to 74%) to avoid exceeding maximum limits for channel and bundle powers and linear element ratings. (authors)

  15. 76 FR 35024 - National Institute of Justice Stab-Resistant Body Armor Standard Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs National Institute of Justice Stab-Resistant Body Armor Standard Workshop AGENCY: National Institute of Justice, DOJ. ACTION: Notice of Meeting of the Stab-Resistant Body Armor...

  16. 48 CFR 225.7011 - Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate. 225.7011 Section 225.7011 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate....

  17. 48 CFR 225.7011 - Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate. 225.7011 Section 225.7011 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate....

  18. 48 CFR 225.7011 - Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate. 225.7011 Section 225.7011 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate....

  19. 48 CFR 225.7011 - Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate. 225.7011 Section 225.7011 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate....

  20. 48 CFR 225.7011 - Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restriction on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate. 225.7011 Section 225.7011 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... on carbon, alloy, and armor steel plate....

  1. HIGH FREQUENCY ULTRASOUND OF ARMOR-GRADE ALUMINA CERAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Bottiglieri, S.; Haber, R. A.

    2009-03-03

    Different lots of high density, commercial, armor-grade alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were tested using high frequency ultrasound in order to determine any correlation between measured properties and ballistic performance. C-scan images were taken using a 15 MHz ultrasonic transducer in order to form attenuation coefficient and elastic property maps. These samples were further characterized by using quantitative analysis. The results indicate that attenuation coefficient values appear to have the strongest correlation, of every property measured, to ballistic classifications.

  2. Simulation of armor penetration by tungsten rods: ALEGRA validation report

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, D.E.; Hertel, E.S. Jr.; Trucano, T.G.

    1997-11-01

    Results from simulations of the impact and penetration of tungsten alloy rods into thick rolled armor plates are presented. The calculations were performed with the CTH and ALEGRA computer codes using the DOE massively parallel TFLOPS computer co-developed by Sandia National Laboratory and Intel Corporation. Comparisons with experimental results are presented. Agreement of the two codes with each other and with the empirical results for penetration channel depth and radius is very close. Other shock physics and penetration features are also compared to simulation results.

  3. Laser-induced micro-jetting from armored droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marston, J. O.; Thoroddsen, S. T.

    2015-07-01

    We present findings from an experimental study of laser-induced cavitation within a liquid drop coated with a granular material, commonly referred to as "armored droplets" or "liquid marbles." The cavitation event follows the formation of plasma after a nanosecond laser pulse. Using ultra-high-speed imaging up to 320,610 fps, we investigate the extremely rapid dynamics following the cavitation, which manifests itself in the form of a plethora of micro-jets emanating simultaneously from the spaces between particles on the surface of the drop. These fine jets break up into droplets with a relatively narrow diameter range, on the order of 10 μm.

  4. A Precambrian proximal ejecta blanket from Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amor, Kenneth; Hesselbo, Stephen P.; Porcelli, Don; Thackrey, Scott; Parnell, John

    2008-04-01

    Ejecta blankets around impact craters are rarely preserved onEarth. Although impact craters are ubiquitous on solid bodiesthroughout the solar system, on Earth they are rapidly effaced,and few records exist of the processes that occur during emplacementof ejecta. The Stac Fada Member of the Precambrian Stoer Groupin Scotland has previously been described as volcanic in origin.However, shocked quartz and biotite provide evidence for high-pressureshock metamorphism, while chromium isotope values and elevatedabundances of platinum group metals and siderophile elementsindicate addition of meteoritic material. Thus, the unit isreinterpreted here as having an impact origin. The ejecta blanketreaches >20 m in thickness and contains abundant dark green,vesicular, devitrified glass fragments. Field observations suggestthat the deposit was emplaced as a single fluidized flow thatformed as a result of an impact into water-saturated sedimentarystrata. The continental geological setting and presence of groundwatermake this deposit an analogue for Martian fluidized ejecta blankets.

  5. Origin of the 44-mm behind-armor blunt trauma standard.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Erin; Gillich, Patrick

    2012-03-01

    A number of armed assaults on public officials occurred in the early 1970s, which prompted the Lightweight Soft Body Armor Program to develop modern, concealable, soft body armor. Methodology needed to be developed to (1) determine the effectiveness of the soft body armor to stop bullet penetration and (2) assess the potential injury from nonpenetrating blunt impacts to the body. Extensive research was performed under the program to develop methodologies to assess soft body armor, including behind-armor blunt trauma (BABT) evaluation. This methodology is still used today, and it has been applied extensively beyond the original intent. However, the origin of this methodology is not well understood by many researchers in the various fields in which it is being applied because the original documentation is difficult to obtain. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the BABT to offer researchers information about its history and limitations.

  6. Nuclear Analysis of an ITER Blanket Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiovaro, P.; Di Maio, P. A.; Parrinello, V.

    2013-08-01

    ITER blanket system is the reactor's plasma-facing component, it is mainly devoted to provide the thermal and nuclear shielding of the Vacuum Vessel and external ITER components, being intended also to act as plasma limiter. It consists of 440 individual modules which are located in the inboard, upper and outboard regions of the reactor. In this paper attention has been focused on to a single outboard blanket module located in the equatorial zone, whose nuclear response under irradiation has been investigated following a numerical approach based on the Monte Carlo method and adopting the MCNP5 code. The main features of this blanket module nuclear behaviour have been determined, paying particular attention to energy and spatial distribution of the neutron flux and deposited nuclear power together with the spatial distribution of its volumetric density. Moreover, the neutronic damage of the structural material has also been investigated through the evaluation of displacement per atom and helium and hydrogen production rates. Finally, an activation analysis has been performed with FISPACT inventory code using, as input, the evaluated neutron spectrum to assess the module specific activity and contact dose rate after irradiation under a specific operating scenario.

  7. Detection of Breeding Blankets Using Antineutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogswell, Bernadette; Huber, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    The Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement between the United States and Russia makes arrangements for the disposal of 34 metric tons of excess weapon-grade plutonium. Under this agreement Russia plans to dispose of its excess stocks by processing the plutonium into fuel for fast breeder reactors. To meet the disposition requirements this fuel would be burned while the fast reactors are run as burners, i.e., without a natural uranium blanket that can be used to breed plutonium surrounding the core. This talk discusses the potential application of antineutrino monitoring to the verification of the presence or absence of a breeding blanket. It is found that a 36 kg antineutrino detector, exploiting coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering and made of silicon, could determine the presence of a breeding blanket at a liquid sodium cooled fast reactor at the 95% confidence level within 90 days. Such a detector would be a novel non-intrusive verification tool and could present a first application of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering to a real-world challenge.

  8. Superelement Analysis of Tile-Reinforced Composite Armor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.

    1998-01-01

    Super-elements can greatly improve the computational efficiency of analyses of tile-reinforced structures such as the hull of the Composite Armored Vehicle. By taking advantage of the periodicity in this type of construction, super-elements can be used to simplify the task of modeling, to virtually eliminate the time required to assemble the stiffness matrices, and to reduce significantly the analysis solution time. Furthermore, super-elements are fully transferable between analyses and analysts, so that they provide a consistent method to share information and reduce duplication. This paper describes a methodology that was developed to model and analyze large upper hull components of the Composite Armored Vehicle. The analyses are based on two types of superelement models. The first type is based on element-layering, which consists of modeling a laminate by using several layers of shell elements constrained together with compatibility equations. Element layering is used to ensure the proper transverse shear deformation in the laminate rubber layer. The second type of model uses three-dimensional elements. Since no graphical pre-processor currently supports super-elements, a special technique based on master-elements was developed. Master-elements are representations of super-elements that are used in conjunction with a custom translator to write the superelement connectivities as input decks for ABAQUS.

  9. Ceramic/polymer functionally graded material (FGM) lightweight armor system

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Functionally graded material is an enabling technology for lightweight body armor improvements. The objective was to demonstrate the ability to produce functionally graded ceramic-polymer and ceramic-metal lightweight armor materials. This objective involved two aspects. The first and key aspect was the development of graded-porosity boron-carbide ceramic microstructures. The second aspect was the development of techniques for liquid infiltration of lightweight metals and polymers into the graded-porosity ceramic. The authors were successful in synthesizing boron-carbide ceramic microstructures with graded porosity. These graded-porosity boron-carbide hot-pressed pieces were then successfully liquid-infiltrated in vacuum with molten aluminum at 1,300 C, and with liquid polymers at room temperature. Thus, they were able to demonstrate the feasibility of producing boron carbide-aluminum and boron carbide-polymer functionally graded materials.

  10. Numerical simulation of armored vehicles subjected to undercarriage landmine blasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdik, A.; Kilic, S. A.; Kilic, N.; Bedir, S.

    2016-07-01

    Landmine threats play a crucial role in the design of armored personnel carriers. Therefore, a reliable blast simulation methodology is valuable to the vehicle design development process. The first part of this study presents a parametric approach for the quantification of the important factors such as the incident overpressure, the reflected overpressure, the incident impulse, and the reflected impulse for the blast simulations that employ the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation. The effects of mesh resolution, mesh topology, and fluid-structure interaction (FSI) parameters are discussed. The simulation results are compared with the calculations of the more established CONventional WEaPons (CONWEP) approach based on the available experimental data. The initial findings show that the spherical topology provides advantages over the Cartesian mesh domains. Furthermore, the FSI parameters play an important role when coarse Lagrangian finite elements are coupled with fine Eulerian elements at the interface. The optimum mesh topology and the mesh resolution of the parametric study are then used in the landmine blast simulation. The second part of the study presents the experimental blast response of an armored vehicle subjected to a landmine explosion under the front left wheel in accordance with the NATO AEP-55 Standard. The results of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental measurements.

  11. Structure and fracture resistance of alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula) armored fish scales.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Gludovatz, Bernd; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Bale, Hrishikesh A; Ritchie, Robert O; Meyers, Marc A

    2013-04-01

    The alligator gar is a large fish with flexible armor consisting of ganoid scales. These scales contain a thin layer of ganoine (microhardness ~2.5 GPa) and a bony body (microhardness ~400 MPa), with jagged edges that provide effective protection against predators. We describe here the structure of both ganoine and bony foundation and characterize the mechanical properties and fracture mechanisms. The bony foundation is characterized by two components: a mineralized matrix and parallel arrays of tubules, most of which contain collagen fibers. The spacing of the empty tubules is ~60 μm; the spacing of those filled with collagen fibers is ~7 μm. Using micromechanical testing of such scales in a variable-pressure scanning electron microscope, we identify interactions between propagating cracks and the microstructure, and show that the toughness of the scales increases with crack extension in a classical resistance-curve response from the activation of extrinsic toughening mechanisms. We demonstrate how mechanical damage evolves in these structures, and further identify that the reinforcement of the mineral by the network of collagen fibers is the principal toughening mechanism resisting such damage. Additionally, we define the anisotropy of the toughness of the scales and relate this to the collagen fiber orientation. PMID:23274521

  12. Structure and fracture resistance of alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula) armored fish scales.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Gludovatz, Bernd; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Bale, Hrishikesh A; Ritchie, Robert O; Meyers, Marc A

    2013-04-01

    The alligator gar is a large fish with flexible armor consisting of ganoid scales. These scales contain a thin layer of ganoine (microhardness ~2.5 GPa) and a bony body (microhardness ~400 MPa), with jagged edges that provide effective protection against predators. We describe here the structure of both ganoine and bony foundation and characterize the mechanical properties and fracture mechanisms. The bony foundation is characterized by two components: a mineralized matrix and parallel arrays of tubules, most of which contain collagen fibers. The spacing of the empty tubules is ~60 μm; the spacing of those filled with collagen fibers is ~7 μm. Using micromechanical testing of such scales in a variable-pressure scanning electron microscope, we identify interactions between propagating cracks and the microstructure, and show that the toughness of the scales increases with crack extension in a classical resistance-curve response from the activation of extrinsic toughening mechanisms. We demonstrate how mechanical damage evolves in these structures, and further identify that the reinforcement of the mineral by the network of collagen fibers is the principal toughening mechanism resisting such damage. Additionally, we define the anisotropy of the toughness of the scales and relate this to the collagen fiber orientation.

  13. Coflexip installs flexible water line in Adriatic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    This paper reports on the design, manufacture, transport and installation of a submarine pipe line network. The network would transport potable water from Yugoslavia's Dubroynil and Peljesac peninsula to the islands of Elafiti and Mljet, popular resort areas in the Adriatic Sea. The pipe line network consists of five separate 8-in. ID flexible lines, each 10 mi long. The pipe is made of thermoplastic tubing, a steel carcass and double crossword armor. The tubing is suitable for potable water service.

  14. High power density self-cooled lithium-vanadium blanket.

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Majumdar, S.; Smith, D.

    1999-07-01

    A self-cooled lithium-vanadium blanket concept capable of operating with 2 MW/m{sup 2} surface heat flux and 10 MW/m{sup 2} neutron wall loading has been developed. The blanket has liquid lithium as the tritium breeder and the coolant to alleviate issues of coolant breeder compatibility and reactivity. Vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti) is used as the structural material because it can accommodate high heat loads. Also, it has good mechanical properties at high temperatures, high neutron fluence capability, low degradation under neutron irradiation, good compatibility with the blanket materials, low decay heat, low waste disposal rating, and adequate strength to accommodate the electromagnetic loads during plasma disruption events. Self-healing electrical insulator (CaO) is utilized to reduce the MHD pressure drop. A poloidal coolant flow with high velocity at the first wall is used to reduce the peak temperature of the vanadium structure and to accommodate high surface heat flux. The blanket has a simple blanket configuration and low coolant pressure to reduce the fabrication cost, to improve the blanket reliability, and to increase confidence in the blanket performance. Spectral shifter, moderator, and reflector are utilized to improve the blanket shielding capability and energy multiplication, and to reduce the radial blanket thickness. Natural lithium is used to avoid extra cost related to the lithium enrichment process.

  15. Computational model for armor penetration. Annual report No. 3, October 1980-April 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Erlich, D.C.; Seaman, L.; Cooper, T.; Caligiuri, R.D.; Curran, D.R.

    1987-10-01

    This is the first volume of a two-volume series comprising the third annual report for the program Computational Model for Armor Penetration. The objective of the program was to develop a phenomenologically sound material-disintegration model for computationally simulating armor penetration by projectile impact. The model would provide the capability to predict the ballistic limit and downrange fragment size and velocity distributions and would eventually be used by the DoD for armor and penetrator design. The materials studied in the program were 4340 steel and depleted uranium alloy, (DU) for the penetrators, and rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) for the target. This Volume reports on the experimental and analytical work performed during the third year to conclude the development of a computational model, SHEAR3, that describes the dominant material failure and fragmentation process (adiabatic shear banding) responsible for long-rod penetrator erosion and thick armor plate plugging and fragmentation. Volume 1 also describes application of SHEAR3 with the Lagrangian wave propagation code C-HEMP to computationally simulate penetration of armor plate by normally impacting long rods both near the ballistic limit and at higher velocities sufficient to produce significant back-of-the-armor fragmentation.

  16. The effects of exercise and body armor on cognitive function in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Aaron P J; Cole, Jon C

    2013-05-01

    Police officers routinely wear body armor to protect themselves against the threat posed by firearms and edged weapons, yet little is known of the cognitive effects of doing so. Two studies investigated the effects of exercise and body armor on working memory function in healthy volunteers. In study 1, male undergraduates were assigned to one of four groups: (i) brief exercise, (ii) brief exercise wearing body armor, (iii) extended exercise, and (iv) extended exercise wearing body armor. In study 2, university gym members were assigned to one of two groups: (i) wearing body armor and (ii) not wearing body armor. In both studies, heart rate and oral temperature were measured before, immediately after, and 5 minutes after exercise. The phonemic verbal fluency task and digits backward test were administered at the same time points. In both studies, a mixed analysis of variance revealed statistically significant changes to the cognitive functioning of participants. A change in cognitive strategy was observed, reflected by a decrease in executive function (switches) and an increase in nonexecutive function (cluster size). These data suggest that the cognitive effects of exercise and body armor may have profound implications for police officers' ability to make tactical decisions. PMID:23756004

  17. Analysis of Tile-Reinforced Composite Armor. Part 1; Advanced Modeling and Strength Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, C. G.; Chen, Tzi-Kang; Baker, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    The results of an analytical and experimental study of the structural response and strength of tile-reinforced components of the Composite Armored Vehicle are presented. The analyses are based on specialized finite element techniques that properly account for the effects of the interaction between the armor tiles, the surrounding elastomers, and the glass-epoxy sublaminates. To validate the analytical predictions, tests were conducted with panels subjected to three-point bending loads. The sequence of progressive failure events for the laminates is described. This paper describes the results of Part 1 of a study of the response and strength of tile-reinforced composite armor.

  18. [To the hygienic standardization of the stroke of shock elements through the armored clothes].

    PubMed

    Logatkin, S M

    2008-01-01

    The author considers major criteria for assessing the armored clothes by the armored dynamic force in the impenetrability of shocking elements. The used material simulators and the methods of studies are critically analyzed. The analysis has led to the conclusion that deformity depth of human soft tissue stimulators (clay, plasticine, gelatin blocks), used to evaluate the quality of armored clothes) may not be an indicator for the hygienic standardization of the stroke of shock elements through a barrier if the time of interaction is not taken into account. PMID:18368708

  19. Development of advanced blanket materials for a solid breeder blanket of a fusion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, H.; Ishitsuka, E.; Tsuchiya, K.; Nakamichi, M.; Uchida, M.; Yamada, H.; Nakamura, K.; Ito, H.; Nakazawa, T.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, S.; Yoshida, N.; Kato, S.; Ito, Y.

    2003-08-01

    The design of an advanced solid breeding blanket in a DEMO reactor requires a tritium breeder and a neutron multiplier that can withstand high temperatures and high neutron fluences, and the development of such advanced blanket materials has been carried out by collaboration between JAERI, universities and industries in Japan. The Li2TiO3 pebble fabricated by a wet process is a reference material as a tritium breeder, but its stability at high temperatures has to be improved for its application in a DEMO blanket. One of these improved materials, TiO2-doped Li2TiO3 pebbles, was successfully fabricated and studied. For the advanced neutron multiplier, beryllides that have a high melting point and good chemical stability have been studied. Some characterization of Be12Ti was conducted, and it became clear that it had lower swelling and tritium inventory than beryllium metal. Pebble fabrication study for Be12Ti was also performed and Be12Ti pebbles were successfully fabricated. These activities have shown that there is a bright prospect in realizing a DEMO blanket by the application of TiO2-doped Li2TiO3 and beryllides.

  20. ITER solid breeder blanket materials database

    SciTech Connect

    Billone, M.C.; Dienst, W.; Flament, T.; Lorenzetto, P.; Noda, K.; Roux, N.

    1993-11-01

    The databases for solid breeder ceramics (Li{sub 2},O, Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} and LiAlO{sub 2}) and beryllium multiplier material are critically reviewed and evaluated. Emphasis is placed on physical, thermal, mechanical, chemical stability/compatibility, tritium, and radiation stability properties which are needed to assess the performance of these materials in a fusion reactor environment. Correlations are selected for design analysis and compared to the database. Areas for future research and development in blanket materials technology are highlighted and prioritized.

  1. Specific welds for test blanket modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieth, Michael; Rey, Jörg

    2009-04-01

    Fabrication and assembling test blanket modules needs a variety of different welding techniques. Therefore, an evaluation of plate joining for breeder units by tungsten-inert-gas, laser, and electron beam welding was performed by qualification of relevant mechanical properties like hardness, charpy, and creep strength. The focus was laid on the study of post-weld heat treatments at lowest possible temperatures and for maximum recovery of the joints. The most important result is that thin EUROFER plates may be welded by EB or laser techniques without the necessity of post-welding heat treatments that include an austenitization step.

  2. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-113 Mission Commander James Wetherbee practices driving an M-113 armored personnel carrier, part of emergency egress training during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. He and the rest of the crew are preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10. The TCDT includes a launch countdown. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Also onboard Space Shuttle Endeavour will be the Expedition 6 crew who will replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months.

  3. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 crew member Donald Pettit concentrates on driving an M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the pad. The crew is preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, by taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown.. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  4. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The Expedition 6 crew pauses for a photo after emergency egress training at the pad, which included driving the M-113 armored personnel carrier behind them. The crew is preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, by taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown.. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  5. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Expedition 6 crew member Nikolai Budarin takes his turn driving an M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the pad. The crew is preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, by taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown.. The Expedition 6 crew will travel on Space Shuttle Endeavour to the International Space Station to replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Launch is scheduled for Nov. 10, 2002.

  6. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The STS-113 crew pause for a photo after test drives in the M-113 armored personnel carrier behind them. From left are Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria, Pilot Paul Lockhart, Commander James Wetherbee and Mission Specialist John Herrington. Driving the M-113 is part of emergency egress training at the pad, one of the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities in preparation for launch. The TCDT also includes a simulated launch countdown. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Also onboard Space Shuttle Endeavour will be the Expedition 6 crew who will replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months.

  7. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - STS-113 Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria is ready to begin a test drive behind the wheel of an M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the pad. He and the rest of the crew are preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, by taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Also onboard Space Shuttle Endeavour will be the Expedition 6 crew who will replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months.

  8. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-113 Pilot Paul Lockhart test drives an M-113 armored personnel carrier, part of emergency egress training during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. He is accompanied by several other crew members, seen at left, Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria and Commander James Wetherbee. The crew is preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Also onboard Space Shuttle Endeavour will be the Expedition 6 crew who will replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months.

  9. STS-113 crew during M-113 armored personnel carrier training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-113 Mission Specialist Michael Lopez-Alegria concentrates on driving an M-113 armored personnel carrier during emergency egress training at the pad. He is accompanied by (far left) Mission Specialist John Herrington and Commander James Wetherbee. Behind Lopez-Alegria is Pilot Paul Lockhart. The crew is preparing for the mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, which is scheduled to launch Nov. 10, by taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. The TCDT includes a simulated launch countdown.. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1 in 2003 when it will be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the Space Station. Also onboard Space Shuttle Endeavour will be the Expedition 6 crew who will replace Expedition 5, returning to Earth after 4 months.

  10. Coated armor system and process for making the same

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Henry S.; Lillo, Thomas M.; McHugh, Kevin M.

    2010-11-23

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  11. Estimated radiactive and shock loading of fusion reactor armor

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, D C

    2008-11-25

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is of interest as a source of neutrons for proliferation-resistant and high burn-up fission reactor designs. ICF is a transient process, each implosion leading to energy release over a short period, with a continuous series of ICF operations needed to drive the fission reactor. ICF yields energy in the form of MeV-range neutrons and ions, and thermal x-rays. These radiations, particularly the thermal x-rays, can deposit a pulse of energy in the wall of the ICF chamber, inducing loading by isochoric heating (i.e. at constant volume before the material can expand) or by ablation of material from the surface. The explosion of the hot ICF system, and the compression of any fill material in the chamber, may also result in direct mechanical loading by a blast wave (decaying shock) reaching the chamber wall. The chamber wall must be able to survive the repetitive loading events for long enough for the reactor to operate economically. It is thus necessary to understand the loading induced by ICF systems in possible chamber wall designs, and to predict the response and life time of the wall. Estimates are given for the loading induced in the wall armor of the fusion chamber caused by ablative thermal radiation from the fusion plasma and by the hydrodynamic shock. Taking a version of the LIFE design as an example, the ablation pressure was estimated to be {approx}0.6 GPa with an approximately exponential decay with time constant {approx}0.6 ns. Radiation hydrodynamics simulations suggested that ablation of the W armor should be negligible.

  12. Development of blanket box structure fabrication technology

    SciTech Connect

    Mohri, K.; Sata, S.; Kawaguchi, I.

    1994-12-31

    Fabrication studies have been performed for first wall and blanket box structure in the Fusion Experimental Reactor designed in Japan. The first wall must have internal cooling channels to remove volumetric heat loading by neutron wall load and surface heat loading from the plasma. The blanket which is higher than 10 m and 1 m wide withstands enormous electromagnetic load (about 10 MN/m). And a fabrication accuracy is required in the order of 10 mm from the machine configuration and remote assembling standpoints. To make cooling channels inside the first wall and to reduce the deformation during fabrication, the authors adopted advance techniques Hot Isostatic Pressing method (HIP) and Electron Beam Welding (EBW) respectively. Evaluation studies for the bondability of the HIP bonding joint have been performed. To evaluate the bondability, the mechanical properties such as tensile strength, impact value, low cycle fatigue strength and creep strength of the bonded part were investigated using HIP bonded test specimens. And the detectability of ultrasonic detection tests were also studied on them.

  13. Diffusive heat blanketing envelopes of neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beznogov, M. V.; Potekhin, A. Y.; Yakovlev, D. G.

    2016-06-01

    We construct new models of outer heat blanketing envelopes of neutron stars composed of binary ion mixtures (H-He, He-C, C-Fe) in and out of diffusive equilibrium. To this aim, we generalize our previous work on diffusion of ions in isothermal gaseous or Coulomb liquid plasmas to handle non-isothermal systems. We calculate the relations between the effective surface temperature Ts and the temperature Tb at the bottom of heat blanketing envelopes (at a density ρb ˜ 108 - 1010 g cm-3) for diffusively equilibrated and non-equilibrated distributions of ion species at different masses ΔM of lighter ions in the envelope. Our principal result is that the Ts-Tb relations are fairly insensitive to detailed distribution of ion fractions over the envelope (diffusively equilibrated or not) and depend almost solely on ΔM. The obtained relations are approximated by analytic expressions which are convenient for modelling the evolution of neutron stars.

  14. 48 CFR 213.303 - Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). 213.303 Section 213.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisition Methods 213.303 Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs)....

  15. 75 FR 51482 - Woven Electric Blankets From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of March 11, 2010 (75 FR 11557). The hearing was held in... COMMISSION Woven Electric Blankets From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... United States is materially injured by reason of imports from China of woven electric blankets,...

  16. 18 CFR 284.402 - Blanket marketing certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blanket marketing certificates. 284.402 Section 284.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Sales for Resale by Non-interstate Pipelines § 284.402 Blanket...

  17. 18 CFR 284.402 - Blanket marketing certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blanket marketing certificates. 284.402 Section 284.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Sales for Resale by Non-interstate Pipelines § 284.402 Blanket...

  18. Security Blanket or Mother: Which Benefits Linus during Pediatric Examinations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ybarra, Gabriel; Passman, Richard H.; Eisenberg, Carl S. L.

    This study compared the degree to which young children were placated during a standard medical evaluation by the presence of their mother, blanket, mother plus blanket, or no supportive agent. Participating were 64 three-year-olds who underwent 4 routine medical procedures. Children were rated by their mothers as attached or nonattached to…

  19. 48 CFR 3413.303 - Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). 3413.303 Section 3413.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Acquisition Methods 3413.303 Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs)....

  20. 48 CFR 213.303 - Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). 213.303 Section 213.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisition Methods 213.303 Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs)....

  1. 18 CFR 284.402 - Blanket marketing certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blanket marketing certificates. 284.402 Section 284.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Sales for Resale by Non-interstate Pipelines § 284.402 Blanket...

  2. 18 CFR 284.402 - Blanket marketing certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blanket marketing certificates. 284.402 Section 284.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Sales for Resale by Non-interstate Pipelines § 284.402 Blanket...

  3. 18 CFR 284.402 - Blanket marketing certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blanket marketing certificates. 284.402 Section 284.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Sales for Resale by Non-interstate Pipelines § 284.402 Blanket...

  4. Use of body armor protection with fighting load impacts soldier performance and kinematics.

    PubMed

    Loverro, Kari L; Brown, Tyler N; Coyne, Megan E; Schiffman, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this evaluation was to examine how increasing body armor protection with and without a fighting load impacted soldiers' performance and mobility. Thirteen male soldiers performed one performance (repeated 30-m rushing) and three mobility tasks (walk, walk over and walk under) with three different body armor configurations and an anterior fighting load. Increasing body armor protection, decreased soldier performance, as individual and total 30-m rush times were significantly longer with greater protection. While increasing body armor protection had no impact on mobility, i.e. significant effect on trunk and lower limb biomechanics, during the walk and walk over tasks, greater protection did significantly decrease maximum trunk flexion during the walk under task. Adding fighting load may negatively impact soldier mobility, as greater maximum trunk extension was evident during the walk and walk over tasks, and decreased maximum trunk flexion exhibited during the walk under task with the fighting load.

  5. 76 FR 22920 - Stab Resistance of Personal Body Armor (2000) Standard Special Technical Committee Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Stab Resistance of Personal Body Armor (2000) Standard Special Technical... Justice, DOJ. ACTION: Request for Proposals for Certification and Testing Expertise. SUMMARY: The...

  6. Shock imprint and rolling direction influence upon the breaking tenacity for 2P armor steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zichil, V.; Coseru, A.; Schnakovszky, C.; Herghelegiu, E.; Radu, C.

    2016-08-01

    The state of art in present literature shows that the breaking tenacity of a material is influenced by the integrity of the structure. Since armors used in aviation and to protect military vehicles are frequently impact loaded, through the contact between armor sheet and projectiles, or other foreign bodies, the authors have proposed to study the dependence between the breaking tenacity of 2P armor steel depending on the direction of the rolling of the armor plate, of the geometry (spherical imprint, pyramidal and linear imprint) and the depth of the deformation that results after impact. Tests were conducted upon CT (ASTM E- 399) specimen type, using the critical factor of stress intensity during the state of planar strain.

  7. Modeling gunshot bruises in soft body armor with an adaptive fuzzy system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ian; Kosko, Bart; Anderson, W French

    2005-12-01

    Gunshots produce bruise patterns on persons who wear soft body armor when shot even though the armor stops the bullets. An adaptive fuzzy system modeled these bruise patterns based on the depth and width of the deformed armor given a projectile's mass and momentum. The fuzzy system used rules with sinc-shaped if-part fuzzy sets and was robust against random rule pruning: Median and mean test errors remained low even after removing up to one fifth of the rules. Handguns shot different caliber bullets at armor that had a 10%-ordnance gelatin backing. The gelatin blocks were tissue simulants. The gunshot data tuned the additive fuzzy function approximator. The fuzzy system's conditional variance V[Y/X = x] described the second-order uncertainty of the function approximation. Handguns with different barrel lengths shot bullets over a fixed distance at armor-clad gelatin blocks that we made with Type 250 A Ordnance Gelatin. The bullet-armor experiments found that a bullet's weight and momentum correlated with the depth of its impact on armor-clad gelatin (R2 = 0.881 and p-value < 0.001 for the null hypothesis that the regression line had zero slope). Related experiments on plumber's putty showed that highspeed baseball impacts compared well to bullet-armor impacts for large-caliber handguns. A baseball's momentum correlated with its impact depth in putty (R2 = 0.93 and p-value < 0.001). A bullet's momentum similarly correlated with its armor-impact in putty (R2 = 0.97 and p-value < 0.001). A Gujarati-Chow test showed that the two putty-impact regression lines had statistically indistinguishable slopes for p-value = 0.396. Baseball impact depths were comparable to bullet-armor impact depths: Getting shot with a .22 caliber bullet when wearing soft body armor resembles getting hit in the chest with a 40-mph baseball. Getting shot with a .45 caliber bullet resembles getting hit with a 90-mph baseball.

  8. Modeling gunshot bruises in soft body armor with an adaptive fuzzy system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ian; Kosko, Bart; Anderson, W French

    2005-12-01

    Gunshots produce bruise patterns on persons who wear soft body armor when shot even though the armor stops the bullets. An adaptive fuzzy system modeled these bruise patterns based on the depth and width of the deformed armor given a projectile's mass and momentum. The fuzzy system used rules with sinc-shaped if-part fuzzy sets and was robust against random rule pruning: Median and mean test errors remained low even after removing up to one fifth of the rules. Handguns shot different caliber bullets at armor that had a 10%-ordnance gelatin backing. The gelatin blocks were tissue simulants. The gunshot data tuned the additive fuzzy function approximator. The fuzzy system's conditional variance V[Y/X = x] described the second-order uncertainty of the function approximation. Handguns with different barrel lengths shot bullets over a fixed distance at armor-clad gelatin blocks that we made with Type 250 A Ordnance Gelatin. The bullet-armor experiments found that a bullet's weight and momentum correlated with the depth of its impact on armor-clad gelatin (R2 = 0.881 and p-value < 0.001 for the null hypothesis that the regression line had zero slope). Related experiments on plumber's putty showed that highspeed baseball impacts compared well to bullet-armor impacts for large-caliber handguns. A baseball's momentum correlated with its impact depth in putty (R2 = 0.93 and p-value < 0.001). A bullet's momentum similarly correlated with its armor-impact in putty (R2 = 0.97 and p-value < 0.001). A Gujarati-Chow test showed that the two putty-impact regression lines had statistically indistinguishable slopes for p-value = 0.396. Baseball impact depths were comparable to bullet-armor impact depths: Getting shot with a .22 caliber bullet when wearing soft body armor resembles getting hit in the chest with a 40-mph baseball. Getting shot with a .45 caliber bullet resembles getting hit with a 90-mph baseball. PMID:16366262

  9. Thin, Flexible IMM Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walmsley, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    NASA needs solar arrays that are thin, flexible, and highly efficient; package compactly for launch; and deploy into large, structurally stable high-power generators. Inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) solar cells can enable these arrays, but integration of this thin crystalline cell technology presents certain challenges. The Thin Hybrid Interconnected Solar Array (THINS) technology allows robust and reliable integration of IMM cells into a flexible blanket comprising standardized modules engineered for easy production. The modules support the IMM cell by using multifunctional materials for structural stability, shielding, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) stress relief, and integrated thermal and electrical functions. The design approach includes total encapsulation, which benefits high voltage as well as electrostatic performance.

  10. U.S. technical report for the ITER blanket/shield: A. blanket: Topical report, July 1990--November 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    Three solid-breeder water-cooled blanket concepts have been developed for ITER based on a multilayer configuration. The primary difference among the concepts is in the fabricated form of breeder and multiplier. All the concepts have beryllium for neutron multiplication and solid-breeder temperature control. The blanket design does not use helium gaps or insulator material to control the solid breeder temperature. Lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O) and lithium zirconate (Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}) are the primary and the backup breeder materials, respectively. The lithium-6 enrichment is 95%. The use of high lithium-6 enrichment reduces the solid breeder volume required in the blanket and consequently the total tritium inventory in the solid breeder material. Also, it increases the blanket capability to accommodate power variation. The multilayer blanket configuration can accommodate up to a factor of two change in the neutron wall loading without violating the different design guidelines. The blanket material forms are sintered products and packed bed of small pebbles. The first concept has a sintered product material (blocks) for both the beryllium multiplier and the solid breeder. The second concept, the common ITER blanket, uses a packed bed breeder and beryllium blocks. The last concept is similar to the first except for the first and the last beryllium zones. Two small layers of beryllium pebbles are located behind the first wall and the back of the last beryllium zone to reduce the total inventory of the beryllium material and to improve the blanket performance. The design philosophy adopted for the blanket is to produce the necessary tritium required for the ITER operation and to operate at power reactor conditions as much as possible. Also, the reliability and the safety aspects of the blanket are enhanced by using low-pressure water coolant and the separation of the tritium purge flow from the coolant system by several barriers.

  11. Bedload Transport Processes in Armored, Gravel-bed Channels: Impacts of Hydrograph Form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenworthy, M.; Yager, E.; Yarnell, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Accurately predicting bed load transport rates remains challenging, with many influential factors still poorly understood, including unsteady flows and stream bed armoring. Nearly all natural channels experience unsteady flows, and hydrograph form varies significantly from gradually (i.e. snowmelt) to rapidly changing flows (i.e. rain driven or many regulated flows). However, most predictive methods neglect hydrograph impacts, and nearly all bedload transport experiments use steady flows. Stream bed armoring likely influences bedload transport rates as well, with the coarser surface limiting the availability of the finer, more mobile grain sizes in the subsurface. It remains uncertain whether armor persists, breaks up, or exchanges particles with bedload during high flow events. Coupled effects of hydrograph form and armor may also be significant, and previous work indicates that more gradual changes in flow promote more significant armoring compared to rapid changes in flow. To better understand the impacts of hydrograph form and armoring on bedload transport processes in gravel-bed rivers, flume experiments were conducted at the University of Idaho's Stream Lab. An armored, equilibrium bed was established as the initial condition for all experiments, which included steady-state discharges and a variety of hydrograph forms from gradually to rapidly changing. Steady-state runs allowed for comparison of bedload transport for a given discharge run singularly and in the context of various hydrographs. Though hydrograph form varied, minimum and peak flow rates and the total estimated transport capacity were held constant between runs. Armor ratios were estimated before and after runs by sampling the surface and subsurface separately. Armor behavior during runs was tracked by spray-painting the bed surface in three cross-sections that were repeatedly photographed then excavated after runs. Additional data collection during runs included photos for bed grain size

  12. Spacecraft thermal blanket cleaning: Vacuum bake of gaseous flow purging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John J.

    1990-01-01

    The mass losses and the outgassing rates per unit area of three thermal blankets consisting of various combinations of Mylar and Kapton, with interposed Dacron nets, were measured with a microbalance using two methods. The blankets at 25 deg C were either outgassed in vacuum for 20 hours, or were purged with a dry nitrogen flow of 3 cu. ft. per hour at 25 deg C for 20 hours. The two methods were compared for their effectiveness in cleaning the blankets for their use in space applications. The measurements were carried out using blanket strips and rolled-up blanket samples fitting the microbalance cylindrical plenum. Also, temperature scanning tests were carried out to indicate the optimum temperature for purging and vacuum cleaning. The data indicate that the purging for 20 hours with the above N2 flow can accomplish the same level of cleaning provided by the vacuum with the blankets at 25 deg C for 20 hours, In both cases, the rate of outgassing after 20 hours is reduced by 3 orders of magnitude, and the weight losses are in the range of 10E-4 gr/sq cm. Equivalent mass loss time constants, regained mass in air as a function of time, and other parameters were obtained for those blankets.

  13. Spacecraft thermal blanket cleaning - Vacuum baking or gaseous flow purging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John J.

    1992-01-01

    The mass losses and the outgassing rates per unit area of three thermal blankets consisting of various combinations of Mylar and Kapton, with interposed Dacron nets, were measured with a microbalance using two methods. The blankets at 25 deg C were either outgassed in vacuum for 20 hours, or were purged with a dry nitrogen flow of 3 cu. ft. per hour at 25 deg C for 20 hours. The two methods were compared for their effectiveness in cleaning the blankets for their use in space applications. The measurements were carried out using blanket strips and rolled-up blanket samples fitting the microbalance cylindrical plenum. Also, temperature scanning tests were carried out to indicate the optimum temperature for purging and vacuum cleaning. The data indicate that the purging for 20 hours with the above N2 flow can accomplish the same level of cleaning provided by the vacuum with the blankets at 25 deg C for 20 hours. In both cases, the rate of outgassing after 20 hours is reduced by 3 orders of magnitude, and the weight losses are in the range of 10E-4 gr/sq cm. Equivalent mass loss time constants, regained mass in air as a function of time, and other parameters were obtained for those blankets.

  14. Overview of EU activities on DEMO liquid metal breeder blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Giancarli, L.; Proust, E.

    1994-12-31

    The European test-blanket development programme, started in 1988, is aiming at the selection by 1995 of two DEMO-relevant blanket lines to be tested in ITER. At present, four lines of blanket are under development, two of them using solid and the other two liquid breeder materials. As far as liquid breeders are concerned, two lines of blankets have been selected within the European Union, the water-cooled lithium-lead (the eutectic Pb-17Li) blankets and the dual-coolant Pb-17Li blankets. Designs have been developed considering an agreed set of DEMO specifications, such as, for instance, a fusion power of 2,200 MW, a neutron wall-loading of 2MW/m{sup 2}, a life-time of 20,000 hours, and the use of martensitic steel as a structural material. Moreover, an experimental program has been set up in order to address the main critical issues for each line. The present paper gives an overview of both design and experimental activities within the European Union concerning these two lines of liquid breeder blankets.

  15. The excitation of plasma lines in blanketing sporadic E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, W. E.; Carlson, H. C.

    1976-01-01

    Enhanced plasma lines in blanketing sporadic E have been excited by a powerful HF radio wave illuminating the E region over the Arecibo Observatory. The plasma lines are observed by the incoherent scatter radar at the observatory. They originate in the sporadic E layer when the blanketing frequency exceeds the exciting frequency, a result which confirms that the plasma is overdense for the exciting frequency. Around the time when the blanketing frequency falls through the exciting frequency, large fluctuations in the plasma line intensities are observed, and thus the possibility of overdense patches drifting through the sampled volume is suggested.

  16. Hubble Space Telescope Thermal Blanket Repair Design and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ousley, Wes; Skladany, Joseph; Dell, Lawrence

    2000-01-01

    Substantial damage to the outer layer of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) thermal blankets was observed during the February 1997 servicing mission. After six years in LEO, many areas of the aluminized Teflon(R) outer blanket layer had significant cracks, and some material was peeled away to expose inner layers to solar flux. After the mission, the failure mechanism was determined, and repair materials and priorities were selected for follow-on missions. This paper focuses on the thermal, mechanical, and EVA design requirements for the blanket repair, the creative solutions developed for these unique problems, hardware development, and testing.

  17. Development of fusion blanket technology for the DEMO reactor.

    PubMed

    Colling, B R; Monk, S D

    2012-07-01

    The viability of various materials and blanket designs for use in nuclear fusion reactors can be tested using computer simulations and as parts of the test blanket modules within the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) facility. The work presented here focuses on blanket model simulations using the Monte Carlo simulation package MCNPX (Computational Physics Division Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2010) and FISPACT (Forrest, 2007) to evaluate the tritium breeding capability of a number of solid and liquid breeding materials. The liquid/molten salt breeders are found to have the higher tritium breeding ratio (TBR) and are to be considered for further analysis of the self sufficiency timing.

  18. Fission-suppressed blankets for fissile fuel breeding fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. D.; Moir, R. W.

    1981-07-01

    Two blanket concepts for deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion reactors are presented which maximize fissile fuel production while at the same time suppress fission reactions. By suppressing fission reactions, the reactor will be less hazardous, and therefore easier to design, develop, and license. A fusion breeder operating a given nuclear power level can produce much more fissile fuel by suppressing fission reactions. The two blankets described use beryllium for neutron multiplication. One blanket uses two separate circulating molten salts: one salt for tritium breeding and the other salt for U-233 breeding. The other uses separate solid forms of lithium and thorium for breeding and helium for cooling.

  19. Development of fusion blanket technology for the DEMO reactor.

    PubMed

    Colling, B R; Monk, S D

    2012-07-01

    The viability of various materials and blanket designs for use in nuclear fusion reactors can be tested using computer simulations and as parts of the test blanket modules within the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) facility. The work presented here focuses on blanket model simulations using the Monte Carlo simulation package MCNPX (Computational Physics Division Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2010) and FISPACT (Forrest, 2007) to evaluate the tritium breeding capability of a number of solid and liquid breeding materials. The liquid/molten salt breeders are found to have the higher tritium breeding ratio (TBR) and are to be considered for further analysis of the self sufficiency timing. PMID:22112596

  20. Armored kinorhynch-like scalidophoran animals from the early Cambrian.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huaqiao; Xiao, Shuhai; Liu, Yunhuan; Yuan, Xunlai; Wan, Bin; Muscente, A D; Shao, Tiequan; Gong, Hao; Cao, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Morphology-based phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of the Scalidophora (Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Priapulida) and Nematoida (Nematoda, Nematomorpha), together constituting the monophyletic Cycloneuralia that is the sister group of the Panarthropoda. Kinorhynchs are unique among living cycloneuralians in having a segmented body with repeated cuticular plates, longitudinal muscles, dorsoventral muscles, and ganglia. Molecular clock estimates suggest that kinorhynchs may have diverged in the Ediacaran Period. Remarkably, no kinorhynch fossils have been discovered, in sharp contrast to priapulids and loriciferans that are represented by numerous Cambrian fossils. Here we describe several early Cambrian (~535 million years old) kinorhynch-like fossils, including the new species Eokinorhynchus rarus and two unnamed but related forms. E. rarus has characteristic scalidophoran features, including an introvert with pentaradially arranged hollow scalids. Its trunk bears at least 20 annuli each consisting of numerous small rectangular plates, and is armored with five pairs of large and bilaterally placed sclerites. Its trunk annuli are reminiscent of the epidermis segments of kinorhynchs. A phylogenetic analysis resolves E. rarus as a stem-group kinorhynch. Thus, the fossil record confirms that all three scalidophoran phyla diverged no later than the Cambrian Period. PMID:26610151

  1. Reverse evolution of armor plates in the threespine stickleback.

    PubMed

    Kitano, Jun; Bolnick, Daniel I; Beauchamp, David A; Mazur, Michael M; Mori, Seiichi; Nakano, Takanori; Peichel, Catherine L

    2008-05-20

    Faced with sudden environmental changes, animals must either adapt to novel environments or go extinct. Thus, study of the mechanisms underlying rapid adaptation is crucial not only for the understanding of natural evolutionary processes but also for the understanding of human-induced evolutionary change, which is an increasingly important problem [1-8]. In the present study, we demonstrate that the frequency of completely plated threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has increased in an urban freshwater lake (Lake Washington, Seattle, Washington) within the last 40 years. This is a dramatic example of "reverse evolution,"[9] because the general evolutionary trajectory is toward armor-plate reduction in freshwater sticklebacks [10]. On the basis of our genetic studies and simulations, we propose that the most likely cause of reverse evolution is increased selection for the completely plated morph, which we suggest could result from higher levels of trout predation after a sudden increase in water transparency during the early 1970s. Rapid evolution was facilitated by the existence of standing allelic variation in Ectodysplasin (Eda), the gene that underlies the major plate-morph locus [11]. The Lake Washington stickleback thus provides a novel example of reverse evolution, which is probably caused by a change in allele frequency at the major plate locus in response to a changing predation regime. PMID:18485710

  2. Armored kinorhynch-like scalidophoran animals from the early Cambrian.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huaqiao; Xiao, Shuhai; Liu, Yunhuan; Yuan, Xunlai; Wan, Bin; Muscente, A D; Shao, Tiequan; Gong, Hao; Cao, Guohua

    2015-11-26

    Morphology-based phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of the Scalidophora (Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Priapulida) and Nematoida (Nematoda, Nematomorpha), together constituting the monophyletic Cycloneuralia that is the sister group of the Panarthropoda. Kinorhynchs are unique among living cycloneuralians in having a segmented body with repeated cuticular plates, longitudinal muscles, dorsoventral muscles, and ganglia. Molecular clock estimates suggest that kinorhynchs may have diverged in the Ediacaran Period. Remarkably, no kinorhynch fossils have been discovered, in sharp contrast to priapulids and loriciferans that are represented by numerous Cambrian fossils. Here we describe several early Cambrian (~535 million years old) kinorhynch-like fossils, including the new species Eokinorhynchus rarus and two unnamed but related forms. E. rarus has characteristic scalidophoran features, including an introvert with pentaradially arranged hollow scalids. Its trunk bears at least 20 annuli each consisting of numerous small rectangular plates, and is armored with five pairs of large and bilaterally placed sclerites. Its trunk annuli are reminiscent of the epidermis segments of kinorhynchs. A phylogenetic analysis resolves E. rarus as a stem-group kinorhynch. Thus, the fossil record confirms that all three scalidophoran phyla diverged no later than the Cambrian Period.

  3. Viscoelastic shock wave in ballistic gelatin behind soft body armor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Fan, Yurun; Li, Wei

    2014-06-01

    Ballistic gelatins are widely used as a surrogate of biological tissue in blunt trauma tests. Non-penetration impact tests of handgun bullets on the 10wt% ballistic gelatin block behind soft armor were carried out in which a high-speed camera recorded the crater׳s movement and pressure sensors imbedded in the gelatin block recorded the pressure waves at different locations. The observed shock wave attenuation indicates the necessity of considering the gelatin׳s viscoelasticity. A three-element viscoelastic constitutive model was adopted, in which the relevant parameters were obtained via fitting the damping free oscillations at the beginning of the creep-mode of rheological measurement, and by examining the data of published split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) experiments. The viscoelastic model is determined by a retardation time of 5.5×10(-5)s for high oscillation frequencies and a stress relaxation time of 2.0-4.5×10(-7)s for shock wave attenuation. Using the characteristic-line method and the spherical wave assumption, the propagation of impact pressure wave front and the subsequent unloading profile can be simulated using the experimental velocity boundary condition. The established viscoelastic model considerably improves the prediction of shock wave attenuation in the ballistic gelatin. PMID:24607758

  4. Reverse Evolution of Armor Plates in the Threespine Stickleback

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitano, J.; Bolnick, D.I.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Mazur, M.M.; Mori, S.; Nakano, T.; Peichel, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    Faced with sudden environmental changes, animals must either adapt to novel environments or go extinct. Thus, study of the mechanisms underlying rapid adaptation is crucial not??only for the understanding of natural evolutionary processes but also for the understanding of human-induced evolutionary change, which is an increasingly important problem [1-8]. In the present study, we demonstrate that the frequency of completely plated threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has increased in an urban freshwater lake (Lake Washington, Seattle, Washington) within the last 40 years. This is a dramatic example of "reverse evolution," [9] because the general evolutionary trajectory is toward armor-plate reduction in freshwater sticklebacks [10]. On the basis of our genetic studies and simulations, we propose that the most likely cause of reverse evolution is increased selection for the completely plated morph, which we suggest could result from higher levels of trout predation after a sudden increase in water transparency during the early 1970s. Rapid evolution was facilitated by the existence of standing allelic variation in Ectodysplasin (Eda), the gene that underlies the major plate-morph locus [11]. The Lake Washington stickleback thus provides a novel example of reverse evolution, which is probably caused by a change in allele frequency at the major plate locus in response to a changing predation regime. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Defensive aids suite prototype for light armored vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantin, Andre; Fortin, Jean; Venter, Johan; Philip, Brian G.; Hagen, Russell; Krieger, Dietmar; Greenley, Mike

    2001-09-01

    The Defence Research Establishment Valcartier has initiated in 1998 R&D work to investigate and to demonstrate key technologies required for future Defensive Aid Suite to protect Light Armoured Vehicles. A basic Defensive Aid Suite demonstrator (Phase I) was built and integrated into the LAV vetronics by Litton Systems Canada and his consortium. The Defensive Aid Suite consisted of a 2-band HARLIDTM-based laser detection head, a processor capable to control and deploy countermeasures and a DAS touch-screen display all integrated in a Light Armored Vehicle. The crew was able to select the operation mode for direct fire or smoke deployment by pushing one of the pair of buttons available at the bottom of the display. This system was successfully demonstrated in October 1999 during an international trial. This article gives an overview of the results obtained in the field as well as some of the lessons learnt. It also describes laboratory and field measurements made on the Laser Warning Receiver unit itself. The results of the DAS tactical use and of Human factor evaluation will illustrate its performance within typical laser threat scenarios. This work will serve as the basis for the recommendation of a future DAS demonstrator (Phase II) integrating more sensors and countermeasures.

  6. Armored kinorhynch-like scalidophoran animals from the early Cambrian

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huaqiao; Xiao, Shuhai; Liu, Yunhuan; Yuan, Xunlai; Wan, Bin; Muscente, A. D.; Shao, Tiequan; Gong, Hao; Cao, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Morphology-based phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of the Scalidophora (Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Priapulida) and Nematoida (Nematoda, Nematomorpha), together constituting the monophyletic Cycloneuralia that is the sister group of the Panarthropoda. Kinorhynchs are unique among living cycloneuralians in having a segmented body with repeated cuticular plates, longitudinal muscles, dorsoventral muscles, and ganglia. Molecular clock estimates suggest that kinorhynchs may have diverged in the Ediacaran Period. Remarkably, no kinorhynch fossils have been discovered, in sharp contrast to priapulids and loriciferans that are represented by numerous Cambrian fossils. Here we describe several early Cambrian (~535 million years old) kinorhynch-like fossils, including the new species Eokinorhynchus rarus and two unnamed but related forms. E. rarus has characteristic scalidophoran features, including an introvert with pentaradially arranged hollow scalids. Its trunk bears at least 20 annuli each consisting of numerous small rectangular plates, and is armored with five pairs of large and bilaterally placed sclerites. Its trunk annuli are reminiscent of the epidermis segments of kinorhynchs. A phylogenetic analysis resolves E. rarus as a stem-group kinorhynch. Thus, the fossil record confirms that all three scalidophoran phyla diverged no later than the Cambrian Period. PMID:26610151

  7. Viscoelastic shock wave in ballistic gelatin behind soft body armor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Fan, Yurun; Li, Wei

    2014-06-01

    Ballistic gelatins are widely used as a surrogate of biological tissue in blunt trauma tests. Non-penetration impact tests of handgun bullets on the 10wt% ballistic gelatin block behind soft armor were carried out in which a high-speed camera recorded the crater׳s movement and pressure sensors imbedded in the gelatin block recorded the pressure waves at different locations. The observed shock wave attenuation indicates the necessity of considering the gelatin׳s viscoelasticity. A three-element viscoelastic constitutive model was adopted, in which the relevant parameters were obtained via fitting the damping free oscillations at the beginning of the creep-mode of rheological measurement, and by examining the data of published split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) experiments. The viscoelastic model is determined by a retardation time of 5.5×10(-5)s for high oscillation frequencies and a stress relaxation time of 2.0-4.5×10(-7)s for shock wave attenuation. Using the characteristic-line method and the spherical wave assumption, the propagation of impact pressure wave front and the subsequent unloading profile can be simulated using the experimental velocity boundary condition. The established viscoelastic model considerably improves the prediction of shock wave attenuation in the ballistic gelatin.

  8. Unlocking Function of Aramid Fibers in Multilayered Ballistic Armor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Sergio N.; Lima, Édio P.; Louro, Luis Henrique L.; da Silva, Luis Carlos; Drelich, Jaroslaw W.

    2015-01-01

    Aramid fabric plies were ballistic tested using high impact 7.62 × 51 mm ammunition in two distinct conditions: (1) as a common multilayered armor system (MAS) component backing a front Al2O3-based tile, and (2) with the same plies thickness, as a single target. Single targets of the ceramic tile and the aluminum sheet (MAS third layer) were also tested. In the MAS, the aramid dissipated more than 36 pct of the impact energy during the test compared with only ~2 pct when separated from the MAS. Microscopic examination of aramid fabric revealed many ceramic fragments with a size of a few micrometers that coated surfaces of fibers. It is shown for the first time that, in addition to already reported fabric rupture, debonding, and stretching, a massive incrustation of ceramic fragments onto the fabric fibers might be responsible for the comparatively high aramid ballistic performance as the MAS component. Besides the mechanical incrustation and van der Waals forces on the harder ceramic fragments, it is proposed that short-living surface static charges generated on the aramid fibers could contribute to the capturing process.

  9. Structural properties of mobile armors formed at different flow strengths in gravel-bed rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, D. Mark; Ockelford, Annie; Rice, Stephen P.; Hillier, John K.; Nguyen, Thao; Reid, Ian; Tate, Nicholas J.; Ackerley, David

    2016-08-01

    Differences in the structure of mobile armors formed at three different flow strengths have been investigated in a laboratory flume. The temporal evolution of the bed surfaces and the properties of the final beds were compared using metrics of surface grain size, microtopography, and bed organization at both grain and mesoscales. Measurements of the bed condition were obtained on nine occasions during each experiment to describe the temporal evolution of the beds. Structured mobile armors formed quickly in each experiment. At the grain scale (1-45 mm; 9 ≤ Ds50 ≤ 17 mm where Ds50 is the median surface particle size), surface complexity decreased and bed roughness increased in response to surface coarsening and the development of the mobile armor. Particles comprising the armor also became flow aligned and developed imbrication. At a larger scale (100-200 mm), the surface developed a mesoscale topography through the development of bed patches with lower and higher elevations. Metrics of mobile armor structure showed remarkable consistency over prolonged periods of near-constant transport, demonstrating for the first time that actively transporting surfaces maintain an equilibrium bed structure. Bed structuring was least developed in the experiments conducted at the lowest flow strength. However, little difference was observed in the structural metrics of the mobile armors generated at higher flows. Although the range of transport rates studied was limited, the results suggest that the structure of mobile armors is insensitive to the formative transport rate except when rates are low (τ* ≈ 0.03 where τ* is the dimensionless shear stress).

  10. Blanket options for high-efficiency fusion power

    SciTech Connect

    Usher, J L; Lazareth, O W; Fillo, J A; Horn, F L; Powell, J R

    1980-01-01

    The efficiencies of blankets for fusion reactors are usually in the range of 30 to 40%, limited by the operating temperatures (500/sup 0/C) of conventional structural materials such as stainless steels. In this project two-zone blankets are proposed; these blankets consist of a low-temperature shell surrounding a high-temperature interior zone. A survey of nucleonics and thermal hydraulic parameters has led to a reference blanket design consisting of a water-cooled stainless steel shell around a BeO, ZrO/sub 2/ interior (cooled by argon) utilizing Li/sub 2/O for tritium breeding. In this design, approximately 60% of the fusion energy is deposited in the high-temperature interior. The maximum argon temperature is 2230/sup 0/C leading to an overall efficiency estimate of 55 to 60% for this reference case.

  11. Cassini/Titan-4 Acoustic Blanket Development and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Anne M.

    1996-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center recently led a multi-organizational effort to develop and test verify new acoustic blankets. These blankets support NASA's goal in reducing the Titan-4 payload fairing internal acoustic environment to allowable levels for the Cassini spacecraft. To accomplish this goal a two phase acoustic test program was utilized. Phase One consisted of testing numerous blanket designs in a flat panel configuration. Phase Two consisted of testing the most promising designs out of Phase One in a full scale cylindrical payload fairing. This paper will summarize this highly successful test program by providing the rationale and results for each test phase, the impacts of this testing on the Cassini mission, as well as providing some general information on blanket designs.

  12. The addition of body armor diminishes dynamic postural stability in military soldiers.

    PubMed

    Sell, Timothy C; Pederson, Jonathan J; Abt, John P; Nagai, Takashi; Deluzio, Jennifer; Wirt, Michael D; McCord, Larry J; Lephart, Scott M

    2013-01-01

    Poor postural stability has been identified as a risk factor for lower extremity musculoskeletal injury. The additional weight of body armor carried by Soldiers alters static postural stability and may predispose Soldiers to lower extremity musculoskeletal injuries. However, static postural stability tasks poorly replicate the dynamic military environment, which places considerable stress on the postural control system during tactical training and combat. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of body armor on dynamic postural stability during single-leg jump landings. Thirty-six 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) Soldiers performed single-leg jump landings in the anterior direction with and without wearing body armor. The dynamic postural stability index and the individual stability indices (medial-lateral stability index, anterior-posterior stability index, and vertical stability index) were calculated for each condition. Paired sample t-tests were performed to determine differences between conditions. Significant differences existed for the medial-lateral stability index, anterior-posterior stability index, vertical stability index, and dynamic postural stability index (p < 0.05). The addition of body armor resulted in diminished dynamic postural stability, which may result in increased lower extremity injuries. Training programs should address the altered dynamic postural stability while wearing body armor in attempts to promote adaptations that will result in safer performance during dynamic tasks.

  13. ALON optical ceramic transparencies for window, dome, and transparent armor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Lee M.; Twedt, Rich; Balasubramanian, Sreeram; Sastri, Suri

    2011-06-01

    Surmet continues to invest in and expand its manufacturing capability for ALON® Optical Ceramic, as the market demand for this material increases. The biggest demand and opportunity continues to be in the area of transparent armor, however, the market for sensor domes and windows, made from ALON, continues to grow at an impressive rate as well. ALON® Transparent Armor's unsurpassed ballistic performance, combined with the robustness of ALON's manufacturing process and reproducibly high material quality make ALON the leading candidate for many future armor systems. Recent results for ALON armor windows will be presented. Advances being made in Surmet's production capability to support the very large quantities of material required by the transparent armor market also benefit the sensor market. Improvements in quality, quantity and manufacturability of ALON material, combined with improvements being made in optical quality, ensure a robust supply of high quality material for high volume window and dome applications. Recent advancement in ALON® window and dome blanks, as well as in optical fabrication will be presented.

  14. Evaluation of organic moderator/coolants for fusion breeder blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, J.B.

    1980-03-01

    Organic coolants have several attractive features for fusion breeder blanket design. Their apparent compatibility with lithium and their ideal physical and nuclear properties allows straight-forward, high performance designs. Radiolytic damage can be reduced to about the same order as comparable fission systems by using multiplier/stripper blanket designs. Tritium recovery from the organic should be straightforward, but additional data is needed to make a better assessment of the economics of the process.

  15. Thin Thermal-Insulation Blankets for Very High Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2003-01-01

    Thermal-insulation blankets of a proposed type would be exceptionally thin and would endure temperatures up to 2,100 C. These blankets were originally intended to protect components of the NASA Solar Probe spacecraft against radiant heating at its planned closest approach to the Sun (a distance of 4 solar radii). These blankets could also be used on Earth to provide thermal protection in special applications (especially in vacuum chambers) for which conventional thermal-insulation blankets would be too thick or would not perform adequately. A blanket according to the proposal (see figure) would be made of molybdenum, titanium nitride, and carbon- carbon composite mesh, which melt at temperatures of 2,610, 2,930, and 2,130 C, respectively. The emittance of molybdenum is 0.24, while that of titanium nitride is 0.03. Carbon-carbon composite mesh is a thermal insulator. Typically, the blanket would include 0.25-mil (.0.00635-mm)-thick hot-side and cold-side cover layers of molybdenum. Titanium nitride would be vapor-deposited on both surfaces of each cover layer. Between the cover layers there would be 10 inner layers of 0.15-mil (.0.0038-mm)-thick molybdenum with vapor-deposited titanium nitride on both sides of each layer. The thickness of each titanium nitride coat would be about 1,000 A. The cover and inner layers would be interspersed with 0.25-mil (0.00635-mm)-thick layers of carbon-carbon composite mesh. The blanket would have total thickness of 4.75 mils (approximately equal to 0.121 mm) and an areal mass density of 0.7 kilograms per square meter. One could, of course, increase the thermal- insulation capability of the blanket by increasing number of inner layers (thereby unavoidably increasing the total thickness and mass density).

  16. Identification of fundamental deformation and failure mechanisms in armor ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Andrea Marie

    Indentation of a surface with a hard sphere can be used to examine micromechanical response of a wide range of materials and has been shown to generate loading conditions resembling early stages of ballistic impact events. Cracking morphologies also show similarities, particularly with formation of cone cracks at the contact site. The approach in this thesis is to use this indentation technique to characterize contact damage and deformation processes in armor ceramics, as well as identify the role of cone cracking and inelastic behavior. To accomplish these objectives, an instrumented indentation system was designed and fabricated, extending depth-sensing capabilities originally developed for nano-indentation to higher forces. This system is also equipped with an acoustic emission system to detect onset of cone cracking and subsequent failure. Once calibrated and verified the system was used to evaluate elastic modulus and cone crack initiation forces of two commercial float glasses. As-received air and tin surfaces of soda-lime-silica and borosilicate float glass were tested to determine differences in elastic and fracture behavior. Information obtained from load--displacement curves and visual inspection of indentation sites were used to determine elastic modulus, and conditions for onset of cone cracking as a function of surface roughness. No difference in reduced modulus or cone cracking loads on as-received air and tin surfaces were observed. Abraded surfaces showed the tin surface to be slightly more resistant to cone cracking. A study focusing on the transition from elastic to inelastic deformation in two transparent fine-grained polycrystalline spinels with different grain sizes was then conducted. Congruent experiments included observations on evolution of damage, examinations of sub-surface damage and inspection of remnant surface profiles. Indentation stress--strain behavior obtained from load--displacement curves revealed a small difference in yielding

  17. Biophysical Assessment and Predicted Thermophysiologic Effects of Body Armor

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Adam W.; Gonzalez, Julio A.; Karis, Anthony J.; Xu, Xiaojiang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Military personnel are often required to wear ballistic protection in order to defend against enemies. However, this added protection increases mass carried and imposes additional thermal burden on the individual. Body armor (BA) is known to reduce combat casualties, but the effects of BA mass and insulation on the physical performance of soldiers are less well documented. Until recently, the emphasis has been increasing personal protection, with little consideration of the adverse impacts on human performance. Objective The purpose of this work was to use sweating thermal manikin and mathematical modeling techniques to quantify the tradeoff between increased BA protection, the accompanying mass, and thermal effects on human performance. Methods Using a sweating thermal manikin, total insulation (IT, clo) and vapor permeability indexes (im) were measured for a baseline clothing ensemble with and without one of seven increasingly protective U.S. Army BA configurations. Using mathematical modeling, predictions were made of thermal impact on humans wearing each configuration while working in hot/dry (desert), hot/humid (jungle), and temperate environmental conditions. Results In nearly still air (0.4 m/s), IT ranged from 1.57 to 1.63 clo and im from 0.35 to 0.42 for the seven BA conditions, compared to IT and im values of 1.37 clo and 0.45 respectively, for the baseline condition (no BA). Conclusion Biophysical assessments and predictive modeling show a quantifiable relationship exists among increased protection and increased thermal burden and decreased work capacity. This approach enables quantitative analysis of the tradeoffs between ballistic protection, thermal-work strain, and physical work performance. PMID:26200906

  18. Blanket of Snow Covers Salt Lake City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On December 23, 2001, less than two months before the start of the 2002 Winter Olympics, snow blankets Salt Lake City and the surrounding area. The Great Salt Lake, on the left hand side of the image above, often contributes to the region's snowfall through the 'lake-effect.' As cold air passes over a large body of water it both warms and absorbs moisture. The warm air then rises (like a hot air balloon) and cools again. As it cools, the water vapor condenses out, resulting in snowfall. Just to the east (right) of the Great Salt Lake the mountains of the Wasatch Range lift air from the lake even higher, enhancing the lake-effect, resulting in an average snowfall of 64 inches a year in Salt Lake City and 140 inches in Park City, which is located at the foot of the Wasatch Front. For more information about the lake-effect, read Lake-Effect Snowfalls. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  19. Snowstorm Blankets Midwestern U.S.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    An early blast of wintry weather swept across the midwestern United States on November 27-28, 2001, leaving a wide swath of snow and ice on the ground extending from northern Texas up into the Dakotas and as far east as Michigan. Two inches of snow accumulated in the Texas panhandle while sleet and freezing rain glazed bridges and roads as far south as the Dallas-Fort Worth area. Meanwhile, more than 2 feet (0.61 meters) of snow fell in parts of the Dakotas, Wisconsin and Michigan. The town of Willmar, Minnesota, recorded an accumulation of 29 inches (74 cm) of snow. By December 1, the clouds had cleared enough to afford the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) this true-color view of the midwest. The wide swath of white snow, contrasted with the brownish colors of the bare surface, reveals the extent of the region affected by the snowstorm. This scene spans from Ontario, Canada, and Minnesota (upper right) westward across the Dakotas and Montana (upper left). Moving southward, we see the storm blanketed half of Nebraska and the northeast corner of Colorado (lower left). The Missouri River can be seen clearly winding its way southeastward through South Dakota. The Missouri also defines the border between Nebraska and Iowa. The Minnesota River can also be seen in southwestern Minnesota. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  20. APT Blanket System Loss-of-Helium-Gas Accident Based on Initial Conceptual Design - Helium Supply Rupture into Blanket Module

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    The model results are used to determine if beam power shutdown is necessary (or not) as a result of the LOHGA accident to maintain the blanket system well below any of the thermal-hydraulic constraints imposed on the design. The results also provide boundary conditions to the detailed bin model to study the detailed temperature response of the hot blanket module structure. The results for these two cases are documented in the report.

  1. 75 FR 78268 - Draft NIJ Selection and Application Guide to Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor for Law Enforcement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... of Justice Programs Draft NIJ Selection and Application Guide to Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor for... of Draft NIJ Selection and Application Guide to Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor for Law Enforcement... the general public the draft ``NIJ Selection and Application Guide to Ballistic-Resistant Body...

  2. MESA 3-D calculations of armor penetration by projectiles with combined obliquity and yaw

    SciTech Connect

    Cagliostro, D.J.; Mandell, D.A.; Schwalbe, L.A.; Adams, T.F.; Chapyak, E.J. )

    1989-01-01

    We introduce and briefly describe MESA, a new 3-D hydrodynamic code, developed specifically for simulations of armor and anti-armor systems. The code's current capabilities an its planned model improvements and additions are discussed. An Eulerian code using state-of-the-art numerical methods, MESA runs faster and is less affected by spurious numerical diffusion than older codes. It models hydrodynamic flow and the dynamic deformation of solid materials. It uses simple elastic-perfectly plastic material strength models as well as models with strain and strainrate hardening and thermal softening. Future versions will incorporate advanced fracture models. It treats detonations in explosives using a programmed burn. The code's current capabilities are illustrated with simulations of experiments on yawed rods obliquely impacting armor plates at 1.29 km/s. 12 refs., 14 figs.

  3. Porosity Detection in Ceramic Armor Tiles via Ultrasonic Time-Of

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margetan, Frank J.; Richter, Nathaniel; Jensen, Terrence

    2011-06-01

    Some multilayer armor panels contain ceramic tiles as one constituent, and porosity in the tiles can affect armor performance. It is well known that porosity in ceramic materials leads to a decrease in ultrasonic velocity. We report on a feasibility study exploring the use of ultrasonic time-of-flight (TOF) to locate and characterize porous regions in armor tiles. The tiles in question typically have well-controlled thickness, thus simplifying the translation of TOF data into velocity data. By combining UT velocity measurements and X-ray absorption measurements on selected specimens, one can construct a calibration curve relating velocity to porosity. That relationship can then be used to translate typical ultrasonic C-scans of TOF-versus-position into C-scans of porosity-versus-position. This procedure is demonstrated for pulse/echo, focused-transducer inspections of silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic tiles.

  4. Porosity detection in ceramic armor tiles via ultrasonic time-of-flight

    SciTech Connect

    Margetan, Frank J.; Richter, Nathaniel; Jensen, Terrence

    2011-06-23

    Some multilayer armor panels contain ceramic tiles as one constituent, and porosity in the tiles can affect armor performance. It is well known that porosity in ceramic materials leads to a decrease in ultrasonic velocity. We report on a feasibility study exploring the use of ultrasonic time-of-flight (TOF) to locate and characterize porous regions in armor tiles. The tiles in question typically have well-controlled thickness, thus simplifying the translation of TOF data into velocity data. By combining UT velocity measurements and X-ray absorption measurements on selected specimens, one can construct a calibration curve relating velocity to porosity. That relationship can then be used to translate typical ultrasonic C-scans of TOF-versus-position into C-scans of porosity-versus-position. This procedure is demonstrated for pulse/echo, focused-transducer inspections of silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic tiles.

  5. Flexible Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Harold S.; Bechard, Joseph E.

    A flexible schedule allows teachers to change group size, group composition, and class length according to the purpose of the lesson. This pamphlet presents various "master" schedules for flexible scheduling: (1) Simple block schedules, (2) back-to-back schedules, (3) interdisciplinary schedules, (4) school-wide block schedules, (5) open-lab…

  6. Flexibility Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    These brief guidelines for a muscular flexibility program state that the purpose of such a program is to increase the range of motion in order to avoid injuries and eliminate awkwardness in physical activities. A flexibility program is described as an extension of the warm-up period and should be an ongoing, permanent effort to lengthen muscles. A…

  7. Manufacturing process scale-up of optical grade transparent spinel ceramic at ArmorLine Corporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilman, Joseph; Voyles, John; Nick, Joseph; Shaffer, Lawrence

    2013-06-01

    While transparent Spinel ceramic's mechanical and optical characteristics are ideal for many Ultraviolet (UV), visible, Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR), Mid-Wave Infrared (MWIR), and multispectral sensor window applications, commercial adoption of the material has been hampered because the material has historically been available in relatively small sizes (one square foot per window or less), low volumes, unreliable supply, and with unreliable quality. Recent efforts, most notably by Technology Assessment and Transfer (TA and T), have scaled-up manufacturing processes and demonstrated the capability to produce larger windows on the order of two square feet, but with limited output not suitable for production type programs. ArmorLine Corporation licensed the hot-pressed Spinel manufacturing know-how of TA and T in 2009 with the goal of building the world's first dedicated full-scale Spinel production facility, enabling the supply of a reliable and sufficient volume of large Transparent Armor and Optical Grade Spinel plates. With over $20 million of private investment by J.F. Lehman and Company, ArmorLine has installed and commissioned the largest vacuum hot press in the world, the largest high-temperature/high-pressure hot isostatic press in the world, and supporting manufacturing processes within 75,000 square feet of manufacturing space. ArmorLine's equipment is capable of producing window blanks as large as 50" x 30" and the facility is capable of producing substantial volumes of material with its Lean configuration and 24/7 operation. Initial production capability was achieved in 2012. ArmorLine will discuss the challenges that were encountered during scale-up of the manufacturing processes, ArmorLine Optical Grade Spinel optical performance, and provide an overview of the facility and its capabilities.

  8. Investigation on Ballistic Performance of Armor Ceramics against Long-Rod Penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Feng-Lei; Zhang, Lian-Sheng

    2007-12-01

    A series of depth-of-penetration (DOF) tests are carried out to investigate the ballistic performance of armor ceramics. Based on the experimental results, an improved differential efficiency factor (DEF) is presented, which demonstrates that the general ballistic efficiency index is independent of the ceramic thickness. It is also shown that the density, internal friction, and compression strength of ceramics are crucial factors that affect the ballistic performance of ceramics significantly through the interaction between the long-rod projectiles and thick-tile armor.

  9. From surface to subsurface and back again: the contribution of subsurface particle motion to surface armoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdowsi, B.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Ortiz, C. P.; Houssais, M.

    2015-12-01

    Armoring is the development of a coarse surface layer of sediments on a river bed, which overlies a smaller and typically more heterogeneous substrate. All existing models for this phenomenon are predicated on the idea that armoring develops due to size-selective transport and kinetic sieving at the surface of the granular bed. Here examine the development of armoring in the absence of size-selective surface transport, and demonstrate that subsurface particle movement can create an armored surface layer. We first conduct experiments in a laminar and annular flume, over a range of Shields stresses, with bimodal and refractive index-matched spherical sediments; this allows us to image the internal motion of the granular bed that is sheared from above by a viscous oil. Fluid-driven particle motion of the surface layer results in granular shear, that drives motion deep into the bed. This subsurface motion causes an upward migration of coarser particles, at a rate that is proportional to the granular shear rate. Comparison of experimental results to an existing continuum-granular flow model suggest that armoring in our bed-load exeriments is entirely consistent with shear-induced segregation in dry avalanches - but is slower. There is no size-selective transport at the surface in the experiments, as the annular flume is mass conserving and all particles move as bed load; this was confirmed by observation. To probe the granular physics of armor development further, we perform numerical simulations using a discrete element model (DEM) of granular flow, with and without damping. Simulations reproduce salient features of the experiments, and indicate that armoring is robust but that the rate of segregation is related to the degree of viscous damping. We posit that subsurface granular flow is an important and perhaps dominant contributor to surface armoring in rivers. More generally, this work shows how information is transferred from the surface to the subsurface and back

  10. Ballistic Resistance of Armored Passenger Vehicles: Test Protocols and Quality Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey M. Lacy; Robert E. Polk

    2005-07-01

    This guide establishes a test methodology for determining the overall ballistic resistance of the passenger compartment of assembled nontactical armored passenger vehicles (APVs). Because ballistic testing of every piece of every component of an armored vehicle is impractical, if not impossible, this guide describes a testing scheme based on statistical sampling of exposed component surface areas. Results from the test of the sampled points are combined to form a test score that reflects the probability of ballistic penetration into the passenger compartment of the vehicle.

  11. Summary report for ITER task - T68: MHD facility preparation for Li/V blanket option

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, C.B.; Haglund, R.C.; Miller, M.E.

    1995-08-01

    A key feasibility issue for the ITER Vanadium/Lithium breeding blanket is the question of insulator coatings. Design calculations show that an electrically insulating layer is necessary to maintain an acceptably low MHD pressure drop. To enable experimental investigations of the MHD performance of candidate insulator materials and the technology for putting them in place, the room-temperature ALEX (Argonne`s Liquid Metal EXperiment) NaK facility was upgraded to a 300{degrees}C lithium system. The objective of this upgrade was to modify the existing facility to the minimum extent necessary, consistent with providing a safe, flexible, and easy to operate MHD test facility which uses lithium at ITER-relevant temperatures, Hartmann numbers, and interaction parameters. The facility was designed to produce MHD pressure drop data, test section voltage distributions, and heat transfer data for mid-scale test sections and blanket mockups. The system design description for this lithium upgrade of the ALEX facility is given in this document.

  12. Water-assisted self-healing and property recovery in a natural dermal armor of pangolin scales.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Q; Jiao, D; Weng, Z Y; Zhang, Z F

    2016-03-01

    Self-healing capacity, of which the inspiration comes from biological systems, is significant for restoring the mechanical properties of materials by autonomically repairing damages. Clarifying the naturally occurring self-healing behaviors and mechanisms may provide valuable inspiration for designing synthetic self-healing materials. In this study, water-assisted self-healing behavior was revealed in a natural dermal armor of pangolin scales. The indentation damages which imitate the injury caused by predatory attack can be continuously mitigated through hydration. The healing kinetics was characterized according to the variations of indentation crater dimension and quantitatively described in terms of the viscoelastic behavior of biopolymer. The mechanical properties of original, damaged, and recovered scales in both dry and wet states were systematically evaluated by three-point bending and compared through statistical analysis. The hydration effects and mechanisms were explored by examining the dynamic mechanical properties and thermal behaviors. The promoted self-healing process can be attributed to the improved flexibility of macromolecules in the biopolymer. This study may stimulate useful self-healing strategies in bio-inspired design and aid in developing high-performance synthetic self-healing materials. PMID:26651064

  13. Water-assisted self-healing and property recovery in a natural dermal armor of pangolin scales.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Q; Jiao, D; Weng, Z Y; Zhang, Z F

    2016-03-01

    Self-healing capacity, of which the inspiration comes from biological systems, is significant for restoring the mechanical properties of materials by autonomically repairing damages. Clarifying the naturally occurring self-healing behaviors and mechanisms may provide valuable inspiration for designing synthetic self-healing materials. In this study, water-assisted self-healing behavior was revealed in a natural dermal armor of pangolin scales. The indentation damages which imitate the injury caused by predatory attack can be continuously mitigated through hydration. The healing kinetics was characterized according to the variations of indentation crater dimension and quantitatively described in terms of the viscoelastic behavior of biopolymer. The mechanical properties of original, damaged, and recovered scales in both dry and wet states were systematically evaluated by three-point bending and compared through statistical analysis. The hydration effects and mechanisms were explored by examining the dynamic mechanical properties and thermal behaviors. The promoted self-healing process can be attributed to the improved flexibility of macromolecules in the biopolymer. This study may stimulate useful self-healing strategies in bio-inspired design and aid in developing high-performance synthetic self-healing materials.

  14. 7 CFR 1755.406 - Shield or armor ground resistance measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... plant and fiber optic cable plant. (b) Method of measurement. (1) The shield or armor ground resistance measurement shall be made between the copper cable and wire shield and ground and between the fiber optic... instructions. (d) Applicable results. (1) For all new copper cable and wire facilities and all new fiber...

  15. 27 CFR 478.148 - Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... intended for sporting or industrial purposes. 478.148 Section 478.148 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and... ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes. The Director may exempt certain armor piercing... for any such ammunition which is primarily intended for sporting purposes or intended for...

  16. 27 CFR 478.148 - Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... intended for sporting or industrial purposes. 478.148 Section 478.148 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and... ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes. The Director may exempt certain armor piercing... for any such ammunition which is primarily intended for sporting purposes or intended for...

  17. 27 CFR 478.148 - Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... intended for sporting or industrial purposes. 478.148 Section 478.148 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and... ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes. The Director may exempt certain armor piercing... for any such ammunition which is primarily intended for sporting purposes or intended for...

  18. 27 CFR 478.148 - Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... intended for sporting or industrial purposes. 478.148 Section 478.148 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and... ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes. The Director may exempt certain armor piercing... for any such ammunition which is primarily intended for sporting purposes or intended for...

  19. 27 CFR 478.148 - Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... intended for sporting or industrial purposes. 478.148 Section 478.148 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and... ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes. The Director may exempt certain armor piercing... for any such ammunition which is primarily intended for sporting purposes or intended for...

  20. 27 CFR 478.92 - How must licensed manufacturers and licensed importers identify firearms, armor piercing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 CFR part 134. (2) Firearm frames or receivers. A firearm frame or receiver that is not a component... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true How must licensed manufacturers and licensed importers identify firearms, armor piercing ammunition, and large capacity...

  1. Further testing and development of simulation models for UT inspections of armor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margetan, Frank J.; Richter, Nathaniel; Thompson, R. Bruce

    2012-05-01

    In previous work we introduced an approach for simulating ultrasonic pulse/echo immersion inspections of multi-layer armor panels. Model inputs include the thickness, density, velocity and attenuation of each armor layer, the focal properties of the transducer, and a measured calibration signal. The basic model output is a response-versus-time waveform (ultrasonic A-scan) which includes echoes from all interfaces including those arising from reverberations within layers. Such A-scans can be predicted both for unflawed panels and panels containing a large disbond at any given interface. In this paper we continue our testing of the simulation software, applying it now to an armor panel consisting of SiC ceramic tiles fully embedded in a titanium-alloy matrix. An interesting specimen of such armor became available in which some tile/metal interfaces appear to be well bonded, while others have disbonded areas of various sizes. We compare measured and predicted A-scans for UT inspections, and also demonstrate an extension of the model to predict ultrasonic C-scans over regions containing a small, isolated disbond.

  2. 7 CFR 1755.406 - Shield or armor ground resistance measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... plant and fiber optic cable plant. (b) Method of measurement. (1) The shield or armor ground resistance measurement shall be made between the copper cable and wire shield and ground and between the fiber optic... instructions. (d) Applicable results. (1) For all new copper cable and wire facilities and all new fiber...

  3. 7 CFR 1755.406 - Shield or armor ground resistance measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... plant and fiber optic cable plant. (b) Method of measurement. (1) The shield or armor ground resistance measurement shall be made between the copper cable and wire shield and ground and between the fiber optic... instructions. (d) Applicable results. (1) For all new copper cable and wire facilities and all new fiber...

  4. 7 CFR 1755.406 - Shield or armor ground resistance measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... plant and fiber optic cable plant. (b) Method of measurement. (1) The shield or armor ground resistance measurement shall be made between the copper cable and wire shield and ground and between the fiber optic... instructions. (d) Applicable results. (1) For all new copper cable and wire facilities and all new fiber...

  5. 7 CFR 1755.406 - Shield or armor ground resistance measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... plant and fiber optic cable plant. (b) Method of measurement. (1) The shield or armor ground resistance measurement shall be made between the copper cable and wire shield and ground and between the fiber optic... instructions. (d) Applicable results. (1) For all new copper cable and wire facilities and all new fiber...

  6. 27 CFR 478.37 - Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Manufacture, importation... COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.37 Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition. No person shall manufacture or import, and no...

  7. 27 CFR 478.37 - Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manufacture, importation... COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.37 Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition. No person shall manufacture or import, and no...

  8. 27 CFR 478.37 - Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Manufacture, importation... COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.37 Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition. No person shall manufacture or import, and no...

  9. 27 CFR 478.37 - Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture, importation... COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.37 Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition. No person shall manufacture or import, and no...

  10. 27 CFR 478.37 - Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manufacture, importation... COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.37 Manufacture, importation and sale of armor piercing ammunition. No person shall manufacture or import, and no...

  11. 77 FR 39259 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Body Armor in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... the proportion who have body armor, the rate of use, the decision-making factors which inform use, and... Management Division, Policy and Planning Staff, Two Constitution Square, 145 N Street NE., Room 2E-508...), will be submitting the following information collection request to the Office of Management and...

  12. The evolution of US helium-cooled blankets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C. P. C.; Cheng, E. T.; Schultz, K. R.

    1991-08-01

    This paper reviews and compares four helium-cooled fusion reactor blanket designs. These designs represent generic configurations of using helium to cool fusion reactor blankets that were studied over the past 20 years in the United States of America. These configurations are the pressurized module design, the pressurized tube design, the solid particulate and gas mixture design, and the nested shell design. Among these four designs, the nested shell design, which was invented for the ARIES study, is the simplest in configuration and has the least number of critical issues. Both metallic and ceramic-composite structural materials can be used for this design. It is believed that the nested shell design can be the most suitable blanket confirmation for helium-cooled fusion power and experimental reactors.

  13. Direct Lit Electrolysis In A Metallic Lithium Fusion Blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Colon-Mercado, H.; Babineau, D.; Elvington, M.; Garcia-Diaz, B.; Teprovich, J.; Vaquer, A.

    2015-10-13

    A process that simplifies the extraction of tritium from molten lithium based breeding blankets was developed.  The process is based on the direct electrolysis of lithium tritide using a ceramic Li ion conductor that replaces the molten salt extraction step. Extraction of tritium in the form of lithium tritide in the blankets/targets of fission/fusion reactors is critical in order to maintained low concentrations.  This is needed to decrease the potential tritium permeation to the surroundings and large releases from unforeseen accident scenarios. Because of the high affinity of tritium for the blanket, extraction is complicated at the required low levels. This work identified, developed and tested the use of ceramic lithium ion conductors capable of recovering the hydrogen and deuterium thru an electrolysis step at high temperatures. 

  14. Skeletal histology of the dermal armor of Placodontia: the occurrence of 'postcranial fibro-cartilaginous bone' and its developmental implications.

    PubMed

    Scheyer, Torsten M

    2007-12-01

    Placodontia (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) is a group of enigmatic armored marine reptiles restricted to the Triassic time period. Only a single row of osteoderms dorsal to the spine is present in the basal placodontoid Placodus gigas, whereas derived cyamodontoids superficially resemble turtles in enclosing their body in an armor shell. Despite the extensive occurrence of the dermal armor in the derived cyamodontoid group, little research has focused on its bone histology and development. Here, I present an overview of the bone microstructures that reveals the unique presence of cartilaginous tissue in the postcranial armor plates. Placodont armor plates stand in contrast to osteoderms of other tetrapods that develop intramembraneously or through metaplastic ossification without cartilaginous preformation. The different developmental pathways leading to this 'postcranial fibro-cartilaginous bone' tissue found in placodont plates compared to the dermal bone tissues of most other tetrapod osteoderms indicate the non-homology of these structures. A resulting morphogenetic model of histogenesis is given to exemplify how the derived armor morphologies (i.e. spiked, flat polygonal and hexagonal, and rhomboidal shapes) together with the peculiar bone histologies could have developed through differential growth. In accordance with the pachyostotic limb bones of placodonts, the presence of the compact 'postcranial fibro-cartilaginous bone' is interpreted as an osteosclerotic trend in the armor plates which aids in buoyancy control and affects maneuverability and swimming speed.

  15. Skeletal histology of the dermal armor of Placodontia: the occurrence of 'postcranial fibro-cartilaginous bone' and its developmental implications.

    PubMed

    Scheyer, Torsten M

    2007-12-01

    Placodontia (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) is a group of enigmatic armored marine reptiles restricted to the Triassic time period. Only a single row of osteoderms dorsal to the spine is present in the basal placodontoid Placodus gigas, whereas derived cyamodontoids superficially resemble turtles in enclosing their body in an armor shell. Despite the extensive occurrence of the dermal armor in the derived cyamodontoid group, little research has focused on its bone histology and development. Here, I present an overview of the bone microstructures that reveals the unique presence of cartilaginous tissue in the postcranial armor plates. Placodont armor plates stand in contrast to osteoderms of other tetrapods that develop intramembraneously or through metaplastic ossification without cartilaginous preformation. The different developmental pathways leading to this 'postcranial fibro-cartilaginous bone' tissue found in placodont plates compared to the dermal bone tissues of most other tetrapod osteoderms indicate the non-homology of these structures. A resulting morphogenetic model of histogenesis is given to exemplify how the derived armor morphologies (i.e. spiked, flat polygonal and hexagonal, and rhomboidal shapes) together with the peculiar bone histologies could have developed through differential growth. In accordance with the pachyostotic limb bones of placodonts, the presence of the compact 'postcranial fibro-cartilaginous bone' is interpreted as an osteosclerotic trend in the armor plates which aids in buoyancy control and affects maneuverability and swimming speed. PMID:17944862

  16. Experimental impacts into Teflon targets and LDEF thermal blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoerz, F.; Cintala, M. J.; Zolensky, M. E.; Bernhard, R. P.; See, T. H.

    1994-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) exposed approximately 20 sq m of identical thermal protective blankets, predominantly on the Ultra-Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE). Approximately 700 penetration holes greater than 300 micron in diameter were individually documented, while thousands of smaller penetrations and craters occurred in these blankets. As a result of their 5.7 year exposure and because they pointed into a variety of different directions relative to the orbital motion of the nonspinning LDEF platform, these blankets can reveal important dynamic aspects of the hypervelocity particle environment in near-earth orbit. The blankets were composed of an outer teflon layer (approximately 125 micron thick), followed by a vapor-deposited rear mirror of silver (less than 1000 A thick) that was backed with an organic binder and a thermal protective paint (approximately 50 to 75 micron thick), resulting in a cumulative thickness (T) of approximately 175 to 200 microns for the entire blanket. Many penetrations resulted in highly variable delaminations of the teflon/metal or metal/organic binder interfaces that manifest themselves as 'dark' halos or rings, because of subsequent oxidation of the exposed silver mirror. The variety of these dark albedo features is bewildering, ranging from totally absent, to broad halos, to sharp single or multiple rings. Over the past year experiments were conducted over a wide range of velocities (i.e., 1 to 7 km/s) to address velocity dependent aspects of cratering and penetrations of teflon targets. In addition, experiments were performed with real LDEF thermal blankets to duplicate the LDEF delaminations and to investigate a possible relationship of initial impact conditions on the wide variety of dark halo and ring features.

  17. Flexible radiator thermal vacuum test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oren, J. A.; Hixon, C. W.

    1982-01-01

    Two flexible, deployable/retraction radiators were designed and fabricated. The two radiator panels are distinguishable by their mission life design. One panel is designed with a 90 percent probability of withstanding the micrometeoroid environment of a low earth orbit for 30 days. This panel is designated the soft tube radiator after the PFA Teflon tubes which distribute the transport fluid over the panel. The second panel is designed with armored flow tubes to withstand the same micrometeoroid environment for 5 years. It is designated the hard tube radiator after its stainless steel flow tubes. The thermal performance of the radiators was tested under anticipated environmental conditions. The two deployment systems of the radiators were evaluated in a thermal vacuum environment.

  18. Double layered tailorable advanced blanket insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falstrup, D.

    1983-01-01

    An advanced flexible reusable surface insulation material for future space shuttle flights was investigated. A conventional fly shuttle loom with special modifications to weave an integral double layer triangular core fabric from quartz yarn was used. Two types of insulating material were inserted into the cells of the fabric, and a procedure to accomplish this was developed. The program is follow up of a program in which single layer rectangular cell core fabrics are woven and a single type of insulating material was inserted into the cells.

  19. 77 FR 12281 - Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 15, 2012, Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company (Williston Basin), 1250 West Century Avenue, Bismarck, North Dakota 58503, pursuant to its blanket...

  20. Nitrogen sparging and blanketing of water storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Jonas, O.

    2000-04-01

    In many industrial processes, including most utility and industrial steam systems, good deaerated makeup and condensate water is stored in open-to-air storage tanks where it is contaminated by oxygen, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and dirt before it is used. This contamination can be prevented by nitrogen sparging and blanketing of storage tanks.

  1. Measuring High Temperatures In Ceramic-Fiber Blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.

    1996-01-01

    Thermocouple assemblies devised specifically for measuring temperatures at fixed locations within insulating blankets made of such ceramic fibers as alumina, silicon carbide, and/or aluminoborosilicate. Thermocouples measure temperatures from 100 to 3,200 degrees F in oxidizing atmospheres. Wires enclosed in alumina sheath for protection against hot oxidation and mechanical damage.

  2. 75 FR 11557 - Woven Electric Blankets From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... permitted by section 201.8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where... specified in II (C) of the Commission's Handbook on Electronic Filing Procedures, 67 FR 68168, 68173... COMMISSION Woven Electric Blankets From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission....

  3. First-wall/blanket materials selection for STARFIRE tokamak reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Mattas, R.F.; Clemmer, R.G.; Davis, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The development of the reference STARFIRE first-wall/blanket design involved numerous trade-offs in the materials selection process for the breeding material, coolant structure, neutron multiplier, and reflector. The major parameters and properties that impact materials selection and design criteria are reviewed.

  4. Unified first wall - blanket structure for plasma device applications

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, D.M.

    A plasma device is described for use in controlling nuclear reactions within the plasma including a first wall and blanket formed in a one-piece structure composed of a solid solution containing copper and lithium and melting above about 500/sup 0/C.

  5. Technical issues for beryllium use in fusion blanket applications

    SciTech Connect

    McCarville, T.J.; Berwald, D.H.; Wolfer, W.; Fulton, F.J.; Lee, J.D.; Maninger, R.C.; Moir, R.W.; Beeston, J.M.; Miller, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    Beryllium is an excellent non-fissioning neutron multiplier for fusion breeder and fusion electric blanket applications. This report is a compilation of information related to the use of beryllium with primary emphasis on the fusion breeder application. Beryllium resources, production, fabrication, properties, radiation damage and activation are discussed. A new theoretical model for beryllium swelling is presented.

  6. Probing the Mechanical Strength of an Armored Bubble and Its Implication to Particle-Stabilized Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taccoen, Nicolas; Lequeux, François; Gunes, Deniz Z.; Baroud, Charles N.

    2016-01-01

    Bubbles are dynamic objects that grow and rise or shrink and disappear, often on the scale of seconds. This conflicts with their uses in foams where they serve to modify the properties of the material in which they are embedded. Coating the bubble surface with solid particles has been demonstrated to strongly enhance the foam stability, although the mechanisms for such stabilization remain mysterious. In this paper, we reduce the problem of foam stability to the study of the behavior of a single spherical bubble coated with a monolayer of solid particles. The behavior of this armored bubble is monitored while the ambient pressure around it is varied, in order to simulate the dissolution stress resulting from the surrounding foam. We find that above a critical stress, localized dislocations appear on the armor and lead to a global loss of the mechanical stability. Once these dislocations appear, the armor is unable to prevent the dissolution of the gas into the surrounding liquid, which translates into a continued reduction of the bubble volume, even for a fixed overpressure. The observed route to the armor failure therefore begins from localized dislocations that lead to large-scale deformations of the shell until the bubble completely dissolves. The critical value of the ambient pressure that leads to the failure depends on the bubble radius, with a scaling of Δ Pcollapse∝R-1 , but does not depend on the particle diameter. These results disagree with the generally used elastic models to describe particle-covered interfaces. Instead, the experimental measurements are accounted for by an original theoretical description that equilibrates the energy gained from the gas dissolution with the capillary energy cost of displacing the individual particles. The model recovers the short-wavelength instability, the scaling of the collapse pressure with bubble radius, and the insensitivity to particle diameter. Finally, we use this new microscopic understanding to predict

  7. Assessment of alkali metal coolants for the ITER blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Reed, C.B.; Mattas, R.F.

    1994-06-01

    The blanket system is one of the most important components of a fusion reactor because it has a major impact on both the economics and safety of fusion energy. The primary functions of the blanket in a deuterium/tritium-fueled fusion reactor are to convert the fusion energy into sensible heat and to breed tritium for the fuel cycle. The Blanket Comparison and Selection Study, conducted earlier, described the overall comparative performance of different blanket concepts, including liquid metal, molten salt, water and helium. This paper will discuss the ITER requirements for a self-cooled blanket concept with liquid lithium and for indirectly cooled concepts that use other alkali metals such as NaK. The paper addresses the thermodynamics of interactions between the liquid metals (e.g., lithium and NaK) and structural materials (e.g., V-base alloys), together with associated corrosion/compatibility issues. Available experimental data are used to assess the long-term performance of the first wall in a liquid metal environment. Other key issues include development of electrical insulator coatings on the first-wall structural material to MHD pressure drop, and tritium permeation/inventory in self-cooled and indirectly cooled concepts. Acceptable types of coatings (based on their chemical compatibility and physical properties) are identified, and surface-modification avenues to achieve these coatings on the first wall are discussed. The assessment examines the extent of our knowledge on structural materials performance in liquid metals and identifies needed research and development in several of the areas in order to establish performance envelopes for the first wall in a liquid-metal environment.

  8. Evaluation of compost blankets for erosion control from disturbed lands.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Rabin; Kalita, Prasanta K; Yatsu, Shotaro; Howard, Heidi R; Svendsen, Niels G

    2011-03-01

    Soil erosion due to water and wind results in the loss of valuable top soil and causes land degradation and environmental quality problems. Site specific best management practices (BMP) are needed to curb erosion and sediment control and in turn, increase productivity of lands and sustain environmental quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of three different types of biodegradable erosion control blankets- fine compost, mulch, and 50-50 mixture of compost and mulch, for soil erosion control under field and laboratory-scale experiments. Quantitative analysis was conducted by comparing the sediment load in the runoff collected from sloped and tilled plots in the field and in the laboratory with the erosion control blankets. The field plots had an average slope of 3.5% and experiments were conducted under natural rainfall conditions, while the laboratory experiments were conducted at 4, 8 and 16% slopes under simulated rainfall conditions. Results obtained from the field experiments indicated that the 50-50 mixture of compost and mulch provides the best erosion control measures as compared to using either the compost or the mulch blanket alone. Laboratory results under simulated rains indicated that both mulch cover and the 50-50 mixture of mulch and compost cover provided better erosion control measures compared to using the compost alone. Although these results indicate that the 50-50 mixtures and the mulch in laboratory experiments are the best measures among the three erosion control blankets, all three types of blankets provide very effective erosion control measures from bare-soil surface. Results of this study can be used in controlling erosion and sediment from disturbed lands with compost mulch application. Testing different mixture ratios and types of mulch and composts, and their efficiencies in retaining various soil nutrients may provide more quantitative data for developing erosion control plans.

  9. Screen-printed flexible MRI receive coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corea, Joseph R.; Flynn, Anita M.; Lechêne, Balthazar; Scott, Greig; Reed, Galen D.; Shin, Peter J.; Lustig, Michael; Arias, Ana C.

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is an inherently signal-to-noise-starved technique that limits the spatial resolution, diagnostic image quality and results in typically long acquisition times that are prone to motion artefacts. This limitation is exacerbated when receive coils have poor fit due to lack of flexibility or need for padding for patient comfort. Here, we report a new approach that uses printing for fabricating receive coils. Our approach enables highly flexible, extremely lightweight conforming devices. We show that these devices exhibit similar to higher signal-to-noise ratio than conventional ones, in clinical scenarios when coils could be displaced more than 18 mm away from the body. In addition, we provide detailed material properties and components performance analysis. Prototype arrays are incorporated within infant blankets for in vivo studies. This work presents the first fully functional, printed coils for 1.5- and 3-T clinical scanners.

  10. Screen-printed flexible MRI receive coils.

    PubMed

    Corea, Joseph R; Flynn, Anita M; Lechêne, Balthazar; Scott, Greig; Reed, Galen D; Shin, Peter J; Lustig, Michael; Arias, Ana C

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is an inherently signal-to-noise-starved technique that limits the spatial resolution, diagnostic image quality and results in typically long acquisition times that are prone to motion artefacts. This limitation is exacerbated when receive coils have poor fit due to lack of flexibility or need for padding for patient comfort. Here, we report a new approach that uses printing for fabricating receive coils. Our approach enables highly flexible, extremely lightweight conforming devices. We show that these devices exhibit similar to higher signal-to-noise ratio than conventional ones, in clinical scenarios when coils could be displaced more than 18 mm away from the body. In addition, we provide detailed material properties and components performance analysis. Prototype arrays are incorporated within infant blankets for in vivo studies. This work presents the first fully functional, printed coils for 1.5- and 3-T clinical scanners. PMID:26961073

  11. Persistence of 10-year old Exxon Valdez oil on Gulf of Alaska beaches: The importance of boulder-armoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irvine, G.V.; Mann, D.H.; Short, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Oil stranded as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted for >10 years at study sites on Gulf of Alaska shores distant from the spill's origin. These sites were contaminated by "oil mousse", which persists in these settings due to armoring of underlying sediments and their included oil beneath boulders. The boulder-armored beaches that we resampled in 1999 showed continued contamination by subsurface oil, despite their exposure to moderate to high wave energies. Significant declines in surface oil cover occurred at all study sites. In contrast, mousse has persisted under boulders in amounts similar to what was present in 1994 and probably in 1989. Especially striking is the general lack of weathering of this subsurface oil over the last decade. Oil at five of the six armored-beach sites 10 years after the spill is compositionally similar to 11-day old Exxon Valdez oil. Analysis of movements in the boulder-armor that covers the study beaches reveals that only minor shifts have occurred since 1994, suggesting that over the last five, and probably over the last 10 years, boulder-armors have remained largely unmoved at the study sites. These findings emphasize the importance of particular geomorphic parameters in determining stranded oil persistence. Surface armoring, combined with stranding of oil mousse, results in the unexpectedly lengthy persistence of only lightly to moderately weathered oil within otherwise high-energy wave environments. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Persistence of 10-year old Exxon Valdez oil on Gulf of Alaska beaches: the importance of boulder-armoring.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Gail V; Mann, Daniel H; Short, Jeffrey W

    2006-09-01

    Oil stranded as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted for >10 years at study sites on Gulf of Alaska shores distant from the spill's origin. These sites were contaminated by "oil mousse", which persists in these settings due to armoring of underlying sediments and their included oil beneath boulders. The boulder-armored beaches that we resampled in 1999 showed continued contamination by subsurface oil, despite their exposure to moderate to high wave energies. Significant declines in surface oil cover occurred at all study sites. In contrast, mousse has persisted under boulders in amounts similar to what was present in 1994 and probably in 1989. Especially striking is the general lack of weathering of this subsurface oil over the last decade. Oil at five of the six armored-beach sites 10 years after the spill is compositionally similar to 11-day old Exxon Valdez oil. Analysis of movements in the boulder-armor that covers the study beaches reveals that only minor shifts have occurred since 1994, suggesting that over the last five, and probably over the last 10 years, boulder-armors have remained largely unmoved at the study sites. These findings emphasize the importance of particular geomorphic parameters in determining stranded oil persistence. Surface armoring, combined with stranding of oil mousse, results in the unexpectedly lengthy persistence of only lightly to moderately weathered oil within otherwise high-energy wave environments. PMID:16524600

  13. Persistence of 10-year old Exxon Valdez oil on Gulf of Alaska beaches: the importance of boulder-armoring.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Gail V; Mann, Daniel H; Short, Jeffrey W

    2006-09-01

    Oil stranded as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill has persisted for >10 years at study sites on Gulf of Alaska shores distant from the spill's origin. These sites were contaminated by "oil mousse", which persists in these settings due to armoring of underlying sediments and their included oil beneath boulders. The boulder-armored beaches that we resampled in 1999 showed continued contamination by subsurface oil, despite their exposure to moderate to high wave energies. Significant declines in surface oil cover occurred at all study sites. In contrast, mousse has persisted under boulders in amounts similar to what was present in 1994 and probably in 1989. Especially striking is the general lack of weathering of this subsurface oil over the last decade. Oil at five of the six armored-beach sites 10 years after the spill is compositionally similar to 11-day old Exxon Valdez oil. Analysis of movements in the boulder-armor that covers the study beaches reveals that only minor shifts have occurred since 1994, suggesting that over the last five, and probably over the last 10 years, boulder-armors have remained largely unmoved at the study sites. These findings emphasize the importance of particular geomorphic parameters in determining stranded oil persistence. Surface armoring, combined with stranding of oil mousse, results in the unexpectedly lengthy persistence of only lightly to moderately weathered oil within otherwise high-energy wave environments.

  14. Advanced Modeling Strategies for the Analysis of Tile-Reinforced Composite Armor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Chen, Tzi-Kang

    1999-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the deformation mechanisms in tile-reinforced armored components was conducted to develop the most efficient modeling strategies for the structural analysis of large components of the Composite Armored Vehicle. The limitations of conventional finite elements with respect to the analysis of tile-reinforced structures were examined, and two complementary optimal modeling strategies were developed. These strategies are element layering and the use of a tile-adhesive superelement. Element layering is a technique that uses stacks of shear deformable shell elements to obtain the proper transverse shear distributions through the thickness of the laminate. The tile-adhesive superelement consists of a statically condensed substructure model designed to take advantage of periodicity in tile placement patterns to eliminate numerical redundancies in the analysis. Both approaches can be used simultaneously to create unusually efficient models that accurately predict the global response by incorporating the correct local deformation mechanisms.

  15. Armor Development from Decapitated Flash Flood Bores in Supply-Limited Flume Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, K.; Rhodes, R.; Johnson, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    In rivers assumed to have quasi-normal flow, three main processes have been used to explain bed surface armoring: i) selective entrainment and transport of smaller grains, ii) limited supply of smaller grain sizes, and iii) equal mobility of grains of different sizes, which develops through natural feedbacks such that larger, less mobile grains are enriched on the surface relative to smaller grains. Flash flood-dominated river channels in arid environments often completely lack surface armoring, yet it is unclear whether increased sediment supply or transport of all grain sizes prevents armor development. In order to examine armor development in an end-member case of non-normal flow, we conducted a series of laboratory experiments using flash flood bores. The flume is 33.5 m long, 0.5 m wide, 0.8 m tall, and capable of creating reproducible flood bores by raising a high-speed computerized lift gate and releasing impounded water. For each experiment, the gate was quickly lowered as soon as the flood bore traveled the length of the flume, 'decapitating' the bore from subsequent flow, to better isolate the effects of the bore alone on entrainment and transport. Sediment was not fed into the upstream end of the flume and only sourced from the gravel bed (2 mm to 40 mm), resulting in supply-limited experimental conditions. In response to repeated flood bores, the surface grain size distribution rapidly coarsened. We interpret that kinetic sieving was the dominant cause of surface armoring in these experiments. LiDAR scans of the bed topography from before and after each bore show increased surface roughness due to grain size changes, but small surface elevation changes due to relatively limited erosion. Digital gravelometry from photographs taken after each bore show increased armoring, while sediment transported out the downstream end of the flume tended to be as coarse or coarser than the bed surface. Travel distances of three sizes of RFID-tagged tracer clasts show

  16. Protection mechanisms of the iron-plated armor of a deep-sea hydrothermal vent gastropod

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Haimin; Dao, Ming; Imholt, Timothy; Huang, Jamie; Wheeler, Kevin; Bonilla, Alejandro; Suresh, Subra; Ortiz, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Biological exoskeletons, in particular those with unusually robust and multifunctional properties, hold enormous potential for the development of improved load-bearing and protective engineering materials. Here, we report new materials and mechanical design principles of the iron-plated multilayered structure of the natural armor of Crysomallon squamiferum, a recently discovered gastropod mollusc from the Kairei Indian hydrothermal vent field, which is unlike any other known natural or synthetic engineered armor. We have determined through nanoscale experiments and computational simulations of a predatory attack that the specific combination of different materials, microstructures, interfacial geometries, gradation, and layering are advantageous for penetration resistance, energy dissipation, mitigation of fracture and crack arrest, reduction of back deflections, and resistance to bending and tensile loads. The structure-property-performance relationships described are expected to be of technological interest for a variety of civilian and defense applications. PMID:20133823

  17. A parametric design of ceramic faced composite armor subject to air weapon threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Y. N.; Sun, Q.

    2015-12-01

    By taking into consideration the two categories of military projectile threats to aircraft structures, an optimal layer configuration of ceramic faced composite armor was designed in this paper. Using numerical simulations and the same layer arrangement of ceramic, UHMWPE, and carbon fiber laminates, a parametric finite element model using LS-DYNA code was built. Several thickness combinations were analyzed in order to determine the final lightest configuration that is capable of supporting a high-speed impact load and HEI blast wave load, which implements a high anti-penetration design for aircraft armor. This configuration can be used to improve the anti-impact ability of aircraft structures as well as achieve a structure/function integration design that considers a lighter weight.

  18. Development of an automated fuzing station for the future armored resupply vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Chesser, J.B.; Jansen, J.F.; Lloyd, P.D.; Varma, V.K.

    1995-03-01

    The US Army is developing the Advanced Field Artillery System (SGSD), a next generation armored howitzer. The Future Armored Resupply Vehicle (FARV) will be its companion ammunition resupply vehicle. The FARV with automate the supply of ammunition and fuel to the AFAS which will increase capabilities over the current system. One of the functions being considered for automation is ammunition processing. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing equipment to demonstrate automated ammunition processing. One of the key operations to be automated is fuzing. The projectiles are initially unfuzed, and a fuze must be inserted and threaded into the projectile as part of the processing. A constraint on the design solution is that the ammunition cannot be modified to simplify automation. The problem was analyzed to determine the alignment requirements. Using the results of the analysis, ORNL designed, built, and tested a test stand to verify the selected design solution.

  19. The effect of ceramic/metal gradient armor's components characteristic on its impact-resistant characteristic

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Lisheng; Zhang Qingjie; Zhai Pengcheng; Cao Dongfeng

    2008-02-15

    The effect of ceramic/metal gradient armor's components characteristic on its impact-resistant characteristic has been investigated by a new modified Alekseevskii-Tate equation. The following researching work is done by the former model [1]: the effect of ceramic layer on the impact-resistant characteristic, the effect of gradient layer on the impact-resistant characteristic and the effect of metal layer on the impact-resistant characteristic.

  20. The performance of the poloidal divertor experiment neutral beam wall armor

    SciTech Connect

    Kugel, H.W.; Eubank, H.P.; Kozub, T.A.; Williams, M.D.; Ulrickson, M.

    1986-05-01

    During 2 yr of experimental operations, the Poloidal Divertor Experiment (PDX) inner wall neutral beam graphite armor provided protection for perpendicular heating injections into normal and disruptive plasmas as well as injection in the absence of plasma for special experiments, calibrations, and tests involving the optimization and development of the PDX neutral beam injection system. About 80 to 100 heating injections occurred per operating day, at a 360-s duty cycle, into plasmas of various densities, and typically approx. =5 to 50% of the injected neutral beam power was transmitted to the armor. More than 10/sup 3/ neutral beam pulses of 100- to 300-ms duration were injected in the absence of plasma at peak power densities of 1.5 to 3 kW/cm/sup 2/, yielding peak surface temperatures of 950 to 1550/sup 0/C. There was no significant impurity production attributable to beam heating of the armor, and no observed beam-induced, macroscopic surface damage. Many of the design constraints and performance issues encountered in this work are relevant to the design of larger fusion devices.

  1. Rapid molecular identification of armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) on Mexican 'Hass' avocado.

    PubMed

    Rugman-Jones, Paul F; Morse, Joseph G; Stouthamer, Richard

    2009-10-01

    'Hass' avocado, Persea americana Mill., fruit imported into California from Mexico are infested with high levels of armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), constituting several species. The paucity and delicate nature of morphological characters traditionally used to diagnose armored scales often require careful preparation of slide-mounted specimens and expert knowledge of the group, for their accurate identification. Here, we present a simple, quick, and accurate means to identify armored scales on Mexican avocados, based on amplification of the internal transcribed spacer two of ribosomal DNA, by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This region seems to show a high level of intraspecific conformity among scale specimens originating from different localities. A suite of species-specific reverse PCR primers are combined in a single reaction, with a universal forward primer, and produce a PCR product of a unique size, that after standard gel electrophoresis, allows the direct diagnosis of six diaspidid species: Abgrallaspis aguacatae Evans, Watson & Miller; Hemiberlesia lataniae (Signoret); Hemiberlesia sp. near latania; Hemiberlesia rapax (Comstock); Acutaspis albopicta (Cockerell); and Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley). Two additional species, Diaspis miranda (Cockerell) and Diaspis sp. near miranda, also are separated from the others by using this method and are subsequently diagnosed by secondary digestion of the PCR product with the restriction endonuclease smaI.

  2. New low-temperature processing for boron carbide/aluminum-based composite armor. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pyzik, A.J.; Williams, P.D.; McCombs, A.

    1990-06-01

    The developed Boron Carbide/Aluminum based materials are a promising alternative for the use in lightweight armor application. The advantage of B4C/A1 composite over the traditional metal armor is its ballistic limit of 80 to 90% of that for hot pressed B4C, thus similar to ceramics such as A1N or SiC. The advantage of B4C/A1 over monolithic ceramic armor is its higher toughness. The ballistic efficiency of B4C materials, relative to hot-pressed boron carbide, was found to be directly related to the initial boron carbide content, the B-C-A1 phases formed in situ, and their continuity. The highest improvement of ballistic efficiency was associated with increasing contents of B4C and A1B2 in the system. The Rapid Omnidirectional Compaction process is a suitable technique to produce nearly dense B4C/A1 cermet at the low temperature. Dense, but soft, cermets can be near-net shaped and then changed into hard, ceramic-like structure through heat-treatment. Mechanical properties of B4C/A1 cermet depend mostly on the concentration and continuity of the boron carbide phase. Colloidal processing and post densification heat-treatment can be used to further modify properties for the application at hand.

  3. Analytical and numerical models to predict the behavior of unbonded flexible risers under torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Shao-fei; Xue, Hong-xiang; Tang, Wen-yong

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents analytical and numerical models to predict the behavior of unbonded flexible risers under torsion. The analytical model takes local bending and torsion of tensile armor wires into consideration, and equilibrium equations of forces and displacements of layers are deduced. The numerical model includes lay angle, cross-sectional profiles of carcass, pressure armor layer and contact between layers. Abaqus/Explicit quasi-static simulation and mass scaling are adopted to avoid convergence problem and excessive computation time caused by geometric and contact nonlinearities. Results show that local bending and torsion of helical strips may have great influence on torsional stiffness, but stress related to bending and torsion is negligible; the presentation of anti-friction tapes may have great influence both on torsional stiffness and stress; hysteresis of torsion-twist relationship under cyclic loading is obtained by numerical model, which cannot be predicted by analytical model because of the ignorance of friction between layers.

  4. Unexpected behavior of a flexible solar array at retraction under microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, Ken; Natori, M. C.; Abe, Masato

    2002-06-01

    A reemergence experiment with flexible fold-up blankets of solar cell array panels folded back contrary to expectation at the retrieval phase in space has been actualized on the ground under a microgravity condition. A simple calculation of the total elastic energy stored in an analytical model of the fold-up blankets has shown that the reverse folding phenomenon is a kind of snap-through buckling in structural mechanics. It is made clear that the abnormal folding phenomenon occurs only in certain combinations of design parameters.

  5. Rapid thermal cycling of new technology solar array blanket coupons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheiman, David A.; Smith, Bryan K.; Kurland, Richard M.; Mesch, Hans G.

    1990-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center is conducting thermal cycle testing of a new solar array blanket technologies. These technologies include test coupons for Space Station Freedom (SSF) and the advanced photovoltaic solar array (APSA). The objective of this testing is to demonstrate the durability or operational lifetime of the solar array interconnect design and blanket technology within a low earth orbit (LEO) or geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) thermal cycling environment. Both the SSF and the APSA array survived all rapid thermal cycling with little or no degradation in peak performance. This testing includes an equivalent of 15 years in LEO for SSF test coupons and 30 years of GEO plus ten years of LEO for the APSA test coupon. It is concluded that both the parallel gap welding of the SSF interconnects and the soldering of the APSA interconnects are adequately designed to handle the thermal stresses of space environment temperature extremes.

  6. Nuclear waste actinides as fissile fuel in hybrid blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Sahin, S.; Al-Kusayer, T.A.

    1983-12-01

    The widespread use of the present LWRs produces substantial quantities of nuclear waste materials. Among those, actinide nuclear waste poses a serious problem of stockage because the associated half life times for actinides is measured in terms of geological time periods (several millions of years) so that no waste disposal guarantee over such time intervals can be given, except for space disposal. On the other hand, these nuclear waste actinides are very good fissionable materials for high energetic (D,T) fusion neutrons. It is therefore worthwhile to investigate their quality as potential nuclear fuel in hybrid blankets. The present study investigates the neutronic performance of hybrid blankets containing Np/sup 237/ and Cm/sup 244/ as fissile materials. The isotopic composition of Americium has been adjusted to the spent fuel isotope composition of a LWR. The geometrical design has been made, according to the AYMAN fussion-fission (hybrid) experimental facility, now in the very early phase of planning.

  7. APT {sup 3}He target/blanket. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The {sup 3}He target/blanket (T/B) preconceptual design for the 3/8-Goal facility is based on a 1000-MeV, 200-mA accelerator to produce a high-intensity proton beam that is expanded and then strikes one of two T/B modules. Each module consists of a centralized neutron source made of tungsten and lead, a proton beam backstop region made of zirconium and lead, and a moderator made of D{sub 2}O. Helium-3 gas is circulated through the neutron source region and the blanket to create tritium through neutron capture. The gas is continually processed to extract the tritium with an online separation process.

  8. Materials and design of the European DEMO blankets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccaccini, L. V.; Giancarli, L.; Janeschitz, G.; Hermsmeyer, S.; Poitevin, Y.; Cardella, A.; Diegele, E.

    2004-08-01

    The Helium Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) and the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) Blanket are the reference concepts in the European Breeding Blanket Programme for the DEMO design and for the related long term R&D. Recently, a similar design for both concepts has been developed, in particular both concepts use helium coolant and RAFM steel EUROFER as structural material. In this paper the interactions between the selected materials and the proposed DEMO designs are discussed. In particular the design features related to the tritium production, power extraction, material compatibility and fabrication processes are addressed. All these features contribute to the definition of DEMO concepts which are attractive for a future fusion power plant in terms of safety, availability and economics.

  9. Ambient air cooling for concealed soft body armor in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Greg A; Bishop, Stacy H; Herron, Robert L; Katica, Charles P; Elbon, Bre'anna L; Bosak, Andrew M; Bishop, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Concealed soft body armor inhibits convective and evaporative heat loss and increases heat storage, especially in hot environments. One option to potentially mitigate heat storage is to promote airflow under the soft body armor. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ambient air induction (∼100 liters per minute) on heat strain while wearing concealed soft body armor in a hot environment (wet bulb globe temperature = 30°C). A counter-balanced, repeated measures protocol was performed with nine healthy male volunteers. Participants were fitted with either a traditional or modified Level II concealed soft body armor. Participants performed cycles of 12 min of walking (1.25 liters per minute) and 3 min of arm curls (0.6 liters per minute) for a total of 60 min. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to assess the mean differences in physiological measures (rectal temperature, heart rate, micro-environment [temperature and relative humidity]). Post hoc Bonferroni analysis and paired samples t-tests (alpha = 0.01) were conducted on omnibus significant findings. Perceptual measures (perceived exertion, thermal comfort) were analyzed using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Tests. Modification led to an improvement in perceived exertion at 45 min (MOD: 10 ± 1; CON: 11 ± 2; p ≤ 0.001) and 60 min (MOD: 10 ± 2; CON: 12 ± 2; p ≤ 0.001) and a reduction in micro-environment temperature in MOD (1.0 ± 0.2°C, p = 0.03) compared to CON. Modification did not attenuate change in rectal temperature or heart rate (p < 0.01) during 60-min work bout. Change in rectal temperature approached significance between MOD and CON at the end of the work bout (MOD: 0.4 ± 0.2°C; CON: 0.7 ± 0.3°C; p = 0.048). The slope of rectal temperature was significantly greater (p = 0.04) under CON compared to MOD. These data suggest that air induction may provide small benefits while wearing concealed soft body armor, though improvements are needed to lessen physiological strain.

  10. Efficacy of the blizzard blanket or blizzard blanket plus thermal angel in preventing hypothermia in a hemorrhagic shock victim (Sus scrofa) under operational conditions.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Elizabeth; Schmelz, Joseph; Evers, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The prevention of hypothermia in military casualties under field conditions is challenging. The efficacy of a baffled reflective Blanket (Blizzard Blanket), a portable intravenous fluid warmer (Thermal Angel), and wool Blankets (control) in preventing hypothermia was tested under military field conditions in a swine hemorrhagic shock model. Fifteen pigs were bled at 10 degrees C. After 45 minutes, Hextend was administered (groups 1 and 3, at 10 degrees C; group 2, via Thermal Angel); groups 2 and 3 were encircled with a Blizzard Blanket. After 120 minutes, the pigs were moved to 21 degrees C to simulate a field hospital; group 1 was covered with Blankets. Blood was administered (groups 1 and 3, at 4 degrees C; group 2, via Thermal Angel) with 180 minutes of monitoring. The core temperature was <35 degrees C in five of five control pigs, four of five Blizzard-only pigs, and one of five Thermal Angel plus Blizzard Blanket pigs. The Blizzard Blanket limited but did not prevent hypothermia. The Thermal Angel plus Blizzard Blanket combination prevented hypothermia. The Thermal Angel is useful for bolus administration when electricity is limited; its military field use is constrained by battery weight and battery life. PMID:17274259

  11. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-01

    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li/sub 2/O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N/sub 2/) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concepts are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li/sub 2/O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concept are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue.

  12. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-01

    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li/sub 2/O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N/sub 2/) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concept are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li/sub 2/O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concept are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue.

  13. Evaluation of US demo helium-cooled blanket options

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, C.P.C.; McQuillan, B.W.; Schleicher, R.W.

    1995-10-01

    A He-V-Li blanket design was developed as a candidate for the U.S. fusion demonstration power plant. This paper presents an 18 MPa helium-cooled, lithium breeder, V-alloy design that can be coupled to the Brayton cycle with a gross efficiency of 46%. The critical issue of designing to high gas pressure and the compatibility between helium impurities and V-alloy are addressed.

  14. Helium-3 blankets for tritium breeding in fusion reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiner, Don; Embrechts, Mark; Varsamis, Georgios; Vesey, Roger; Gierszewski, Paul

    1988-01-01

    It is concluded that He-3 blankets offers considerable promise for tritium breeding in fusion reactors: good breeding potential, low operational risk, and attractive safety features. The availability of He-3 resources is the key issue for this concept. There is sufficient He-3 from decay of military stockpiles to meet the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor needs. Extraterrestrial sources of He-3 would be required for a fusion power economy.

  15. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-01

    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li/sub 2/O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N/sub 2/) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concept are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li/sub 2/O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concepts are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue.

  16. Space environment durability of beta cloth in LDEF thermal blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linton, Roger C.; Whitaker, Ann F.; Finckenor, Miria M.

    1993-01-01

    Beta cloth performance for use on long-term space vehicles such as Space Station Freedom (S.S. Freedom) requires resistance to the degrading effects of the space environment. The major issues are retention of thermal insulating properties through maintaining optical properties, preserving mechanical integrity, and generating minimal particulates for contamination-sensitive spacecraft surfaces and payloads. The longest in-flight test of beta cloth's durability was on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), where it was exposed to the space environment for 68 months. The LDEF contained 57 experiments which further defined the space environment and its effects on spacecraft materials. It was deployed into low-Earth orbit (LEO) in Apr. 1984 and retrieved Jan. 1990 by the space shuttle. Among the 10,000 plus material constituents and samples onboard were thermal control blankets of multilayer insulation with a beta cloth outer cover and Velcro attachments. These blankets were exposed to hard vacuum, thermal cycling, charged particles, meteoroid/debris impacts, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and atomic oxygen (AO). Of these space environmental exposure elements, AO appears to have had the greatest effect on the beta cloth. The beta cloth analyzed in this report came from the MSFC Experiment S1005 (Transverse Flat-Plate Heat Pipe) tray oriented approximately 22 deg from the leading edge vector of the LDEF satellite. The location of the tray on LDEF and the placement of the beta cloth thermal blankets are shown. The specific space environment exposure conditions for this material are listed.

  17. Puncture resistance of the scaled skin from striped bass: collective mechanisms and inspiration for new flexible armor designs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Deju; Szewciw, Lawrence; Vernerey, Franck; Barthelat, Francois

    2013-08-01

    The structure and mechanics of fish scales display unusual and attractive features which could inspire new protective materials and systems. This natural material is therefore attracting attention over the past few years, and recent work demonstrated the remarkable performance of individual fish scales. A puncture event as would occur from a predator's attack however involves more than one scale, and in this article we therefore investigate collective mechanisms occurring within the scaled skin of a fish in the event of a predator's attack. We first demonstrate that in striped bass (Morone saxatilis), the scales increase by four to five times the force required to puncture the skin. We show that individual scales from striped bass provide a remarkable barrier against sharp puncture, regardless of the stiffness of the substrate. The scalation pattern in striped bass is such that three scales overlap at any point on the surface of the fish, which we show effectively multiplies the puncture force by three. We determined that the friction between scales is negligible and therefore it does not contribute to increasing puncture force. Likewise, we found that the local arrangement of the scales had little effect on the puncture performance. Interestingly, because the scales are several orders of magnitude stiffer than the substrate, indenting a few isolated scales results in "sinking" of the scales into the substrate. The high local deflections and strain within the soft tissue may then result in blunt injury before the sharp indenter penetrates the scales. Stereo-imaging and image correlation performed around a puncture site in fish reveal that the surrounding scales collectively contribute to redistributing the puncture force over large volume, limiting local deflections and strains in the soft tissues. The structure and mechanisms of natural fish scales therefore offer an effective protection against several types of threat, and may inspire novel versatile protective systems with attractive flexural properties. PMID:23683758

  18. Puncture resistance of the scaled skin from striped bass: collective mechanisms and inspiration for new flexible armor designs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Deju; Szewciw, Lawrence; Vernerey, Franck; Barthelat, Francois

    2013-08-01

    The structure and mechanics of fish scales display unusual and attractive features which could inspire new protective materials and systems. This natural material is therefore attracting attention over the past few years, and recent work demonstrated the remarkable performance of individual fish scales. A puncture event as would occur from a predator's attack however involves more than one scale, and in this article we therefore investigate collective mechanisms occurring within the scaled skin of a fish in the event of a predator's attack. We first demonstrate that in striped bass (Morone saxatilis), the scales increase by four to five times the force required to puncture the skin. We show that individual scales from striped bass provide a remarkable barrier against sharp puncture, regardless of the stiffness of the substrate. The scalation pattern in striped bass is such that three scales overlap at any point on the surface of the fish, which we show effectively multiplies the puncture force by three. We determined that the friction between scales is negligible and therefore it does not contribute to increasing puncture force. Likewise, we found that the local arrangement of the scales had little effect on the puncture performance. Interestingly, because the scales are several orders of magnitude stiffer than the substrate, indenting a few isolated scales results in "sinking" of the scales into the substrate. The high local deflections and strain within the soft tissue may then result in blunt injury before the sharp indenter penetrates the scales. Stereo-imaging and image correlation performed around a puncture site in fish reveal that the surrounding scales collectively contribute to redistributing the puncture force over large volume, limiting local deflections and strains in the soft tissues. The structure and mechanisms of natural fish scales therefore offer an effective protection against several types of threat, and may inspire novel versatile protective systems with attractive flexural properties.

  19. FLEXIBLE COUPLING

    DOEpatents

    Babelay, E.F.

    1962-02-13

    A flexible shaft coupling for operation at speeds in excess of 14,000 rpm is designed which requires no lubrication. A driving sleeve member and a driven sleeve member are placed in concentric spaced relationship. A torque force is transmitted to the driven member from the driving member through a plurality of nylon balls symmetrically disposed between the spaced sleeves. The balls extend into races and recesses within the respective sleeve members. The sleeve members have a suitable clearance therebetween and the balls have a suitable radial clearance during operation of the coupling to provide a relatively loose coupling. These clearances accommodate for both parallel and/or angular misalignments and avoid metal-tometal contact between the sleeve members during operation. Thus, no lubrication is needed, and a minimum of vibrations is transmitted between the sleeve members. (AEC)

  20. Use of armored RNA as a standard to construct a calibration curve for real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Donia, D; Divizia, M; Pana', A

    2005-06-01

    Armored Enterovirus RNA was used to standardize a real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR for environmental testing. Armored technology is a system to produce a robust and stable RNA standard, trapped into phage proteins, to be used as internal control. The Armored Enterovirus RNA protected sequence includes 263 bp of highly conserved sequences in 5' UTR region. During these tests, Armored RNA has been used to produce a calibration curve, comparing three different fluorogenic chemistry: TaqMan system, Syber Green I and Lux-primers. The effective evaluation of three amplifying commercial reagent kits, in use to carry out real-time RT-PCR, and several extraction procedures of protected viral RNA have been carried out. The highest Armored RNA recovery was obtained by heat treatment while chemical extraction may decrease the quantity of RNA. The best sensitivity and specificity was obtained using the Syber Green I technique since it is a reproducible test, easy to use and the cheapest one. TaqMan and Lux-primer assays provide good RT-PCR efficiency in relationship to the several extraction methods used, since labelled probe or primer request in these chemistry strategies, increases the cost of testing.

  1. Hazard report update. ECRI Institute revises its recommendation for temperature limits on blanket warmers.

    PubMed

    2009-07-01

    ECRI Institute now recommends that temperature settings on blanket warming cabinets be limited to 130 degrees F (54 degrees C). We had previously recommended a limit of 110 degrees F (43 degrees C) because solutions were often being warmed in the same cabinets as blankets, and the lower temperature eliminated the serious burn risk presented by excessively heated solutions. With increasing recognition in the healthcare community that solutions should be kept at lower temperatures than--and therefore heated separately from--blankets, we believe that our recommendation for blankets can be made less stringent. We continue to recommend that solution warming cabinets be limited to 110 degrees F. PMID:20848953

  2. Development of refractory armored silicon carbide by infrared transient liquid phase processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinoki, Tatsuya; Snead, Lance L.; Blue, Craig A.

    2005-12-01

    Tungsten (W) and molybdenum (Mo) were coated on silicon carbide (SiC) for use as a refractory armor using a high power plasma arc lamp at powers up to 23.5 MW/m 2 in an argon flow environment. Both tungsten powder and molybdenum powder melted and formed coating layers on silicon carbide within a few seconds. The effect of substrate pre-treatment (vapor deposition of titanium (Ti) and tungsten, and annealing) and sample heating conditions on microstructure of the coating and coating/substrate interface were investigated. The microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy (OM). The mechanical properties of the coated materials were evaluated by four-point flexural tests. A strong tungsten coating was successfully applied to the silicon carbide substrate. Tungsten vapor deposition and pre-heating at 5.2 MW/m 2 made for a refractory layer containing no cracks propagating into the silicon carbide substrate. The tungsten coating was formed without the thick reaction layer. For this study, small tungsten carbide grains were observed adjacent to the interface in all conditions. In addition, relatively large, widely scattered tungsten carbide grains and a eutectic structure of tungsten and silicon were observed through the thickness in the coatings formed at lower powers and longer heating times. The strength of the silicon carbide substrate was somewhat decreased as a result of the processing. Vapor deposition of tungsten prior to powder coating helped prevent this degradation. In contrast, molybdenum coating was more challenging than tungsten coating due to the larger coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch as compared to tungsten and silicon carbide. From this work it is concluded that refractory armoring of silicon carbide by Infrared Transient Liquid Phase Processing is possible. The tungsten armored silicon carbide samples proved uniform, strong, and capable of withstanding thermal fatigue testing.

  3. An assessment of the cost of microwave sintering ceramic tiles for armor applications: Phase 2 report

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.; Curlee, T.R.

    1995-03-01

    This report documents the findings of the second phase of work to assess the costs of microwave sintering ceramic tiles for armor applications. In the first phase of work, the cost of microwave sintering and preliminary estimates of the total cost of microwave-sintered tiles under two microwave frequencies (i.e., 2.45 GHz and 28 GHz) for alumina and silicon carbide materials were reported. The second phase of work extends to the previous work to include all pre- and post-sintering manufacturing steps and considers process and cost variations in these steps that may result from the adoption of microwave sintering. Two separate models were developed for two different materials. As before, a process-cost approach was utilized within a spreadsheet environment. When compared to conventional sintering, the manufacturing of microwave-sintered alumina armor tiles will require an additional binder removal step prior to microwave sintering. The base-case cost of microwave-sintered alumina tiles is estimated to be $46.80/part and $50.50/part, given the use of 2.45 GHz and 28 GHz microwave power sources, respectively. In the case of microwave sintering of silicon carbide armor tiles, the material preparation step will be significantly different from conventional sintering. Instead of a binder removal step, there will be a green machining step. The base-case cost of microwave-sintered silicon carbide tiles is estimated to be $324.50/part and $327.50/part for 2.45 GHz and 28 GHz microwave power sources, respectively--compared to $235/part for conventionally-sintered tiles. Several sensitivity analyses of the impacts of variations in key economic and technical parameters on the costs of microwave-sintered tiles were conducted. Those analyses indicate that costs are quite sensitive to changes in the quantity of energy required during sintering.

  4. Preliminary In Vivo Evaluation of a Hybrid Armored Vascular Graft Combining Electrospinning and Additive Manufacturing Techniques.

    PubMed

    Spadaccio, Cristiano; Nappi, Francesco; De Marco, Federico; Sedati, Pietro; Sutherland, Fraser W H; Chello, Massimo; Trombetta, Marcella; Rainer, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we tested in vivo effectiveness of a previously developed poly-l-lactide/poly-ε-caprolactone armored vascular graft releasing heparin. This bioprosthesis was designed in order to overcome the main drawbacks of tissue-engineered vascular grafts, mainly concerning poor mechanical properties, thrombogenicity, and endothelialization. The bioprosthesis was successfully implanted in an aortic vascular reconstruction model in rabbits. All grafts implanted were patent at four weeks postoperatively and have been adequately populated by endogenous cells without signs of thrombosis or structural failure and with no need of antiplatelet therapy. The results of this preliminary study might warrant for further larger controlled in vivo studies to further confirm these findings.

  5. Determination of influence factors and accident rates for the Armored Tractor/Safe Secure Trailer

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.S.; Clauss, D.B.; Blower, D.F.

    1994-04-01

    Operating environments, such as road type, road location, and time of day, play an important role in the observed accident rates of heavy trucks used in general commerce. These same factors influence the accident rate of the Armored Tractor/Safe Secure Trailer (AT/SST) used by the Department of Energy to transport hazardous cargos within the continental United States. This report discusses the development of accident rate influence factors. These factors, based on heavy trucks used in general commerce, are used to modify the observed overall AT/SST accident rate to account for the different operating environments.

  6. Ultrasonic Characterization of Custom Engineered Armor Grade Alumina (Al2O3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottiglieri, S.; Haber, R. A.

    2010-02-01

    High frequency ultrasonic characterization was performed on a series of alumina samples of varying degrees of density. These samples were specifically fired to temperatures below and above what is considered to be appropriate for the sintering of alumina. Ultrasound attenuation coefficient and Young's modulus C-scan mapping and acoustic spectroscopy were employed in order to establish a baseline fingerprint for each temperature type. Characterization was performed using 20 MHz and 75 MHz planar transducers. This study showed the veracity of high frequency ultrasound as a diagnostic tool in characterizing the effect of densification on material properties for armor-grade alumina.

  7. Simple go/no-go test for subcritical damage in body armor panels

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Jason; Chimenti, D. E.

    2011-06-23

    The development of a simple test for subcritical damage in body armor panels using pressure-sensitive dye-indicator film has been performed and demonstrated effective. Measurements have shown that static indicator levels are accurately reproduced in dynamic loading events. Impacts from hard blunt impactors instrumented with an accelerometer and embedded force transducer were studied. Reliable correlations between the indicator film and instrumented impact force are shown for a range of impact energies. Force and acceleration waveforms with corresponding indicator film results are presented for impact events onto damaged and undamaged panels. We find that panel damage can occur at impact levels far below the National Institute of Justice acceptance test standard.

  8. Impact of prescribed burning on blanket peat hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holden, Joseph; Palmer, Sheila M.; Johnston, Kerrylyn; Wearing, Catherine; Irvine, Brian; Brown, Lee E.

    2015-08-01

    Fire is known to impact soil properties and hydrological flow paths. However, the impact of prescribed vegetation burning on blanket peatland hydrology is poorly understood. We studied 10 blanket peat headwater catchments. Five were subject to prescribed burning, while five were unburnt controls. Within the burnt catchments, we studied plots where the last burn occurred ˜2 (B2), 4 (B4), 7 (B7), or greater than 10 years (B10+) prior to the start of measurements. These were compared with plots at similar topographic wetness index locations in the control catchments. Plots subject to prescribed vegetation burning had significantly deeper water tables (difference in means = 5.3 cm) and greater water table variability than unburnt plots. Water table depths were significantly different between burn age classes (B2 > B4 > B7 > B10+) while B10+ water tables were not significantly different to the unburnt controls. Overland flow was less common on burnt peat than on unburnt peat, recorded in 9% and 17% of all runoff trap visits, respectively. Storm lag times and hydrograph recession limb periods were significantly greater (by ˜1 and 13 h on average, respectively) in the burnt catchments overall, but for the largest 20% of storms sampled, there was no significant difference in storm lag times between burnt and unburnt catchments. For the largest 20% of storms, the hydrograph intensity of burnt catchments was significantly greater than those of unburnt catchments (means of 4.2 × 10-5 and 3.4 × 10-5 s-1, respectively), thereby indicating a nonlinear streamflow response to prescribed burning. Together, these results from plots to whole river catchments indicate that prescribed vegetation burning has important effects on blanket peatland hydrology at a range of spatial scales.

  9. Thermal and mechanical design of WITAMIR-I blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, D.K.; Sviatoslavsky, I.N.

    1980-10-01

    The design philosophy of WITAMIR-I, a Wisconsin Tandem Mirror Reactor design study, uses the experience obtained from our previous tokamak studies and combines it with the unique features of the tandem mirror to obtain an attractive design of a TM power reactor. It is aimed at maximizing the strengths of the tandem mirror while mitigating its weaknesses. The end product should be a safe, reliable, maintainable and a relatively economic power reactor. The general description of the reactor, the plasma calculations, the magnet design, the neutronic calculations and the maintenance considerations are presented elsewhere. This paper presents the blanket design of this reactor study.

  10. Accelerator-driven molten-salt blankets: Physics issues

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, M.G.; Beard, C.A.; Buksa, J.J.; Davidson, J.W.; Durkee, J.W.; Perry, R.T.; Poston, D.I.

    1994-10-01

    A number of nuclear physics issues concerning the Los Alamos molten-salt accelerator-driven plutonium converter are discussed. General descriptions of several concepts using internal and external moderation are presented. Burnup and salt processing requirement calculations are presented for four concepts, indicating that both the high power density externally moderated concept and an internally moderated concept achieve total plutonium burnups approaching 90% at salt processing rates of less than 2 m{sup 3} per year. Beginning-of-life reactivity temperature coefficients and system kinetic response are also discussed. Future research should investigate the effect of changing blanket composition on operational and safety characteristics.

  11. Modular System for Neutronics Calculations of Fission Reactors, Fusion Blankets, and Other Systems.

    1999-07-23

    AUS is a neutronics code system which may be used for calculations of a wide range of fission reactors, fusion blankets and other neutron applications. The present version, AUS98, has a nuclear cross section library based on ENDF/B-VI and includes modules which provide for reactor lattice calculations, one-dimensional transport calculations, multi-dimensional diffusion calculations, cell and whole reactor burnup calculations, and flexible editing of results. Calculations of multi-region resonance shielding, coupled neutron and photon transport, energymore » deposition, fission product inventory and neutron diffusion are combined within the one code system. The major changes from the previous release, AUS87, are the inclusion of a cross-section library based on ENDF/B-VI, the addition of the POW3D multi-dimensional diffusion module, the addition of the MICBURN module for controlling whole reactor burnup calculations, and changes to the system as a consequence of moving from IBM mainframe computers to UNIX workstations.« less

  12. Evaluation of Thermal Control Coatings for Flexible Ceramic Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius; Carroll, Carol; Smith, Dane; Guzinski, Mike; Marschall, Jochen; Pallix, Joan; Ridge, Jerry; Tran, Duoc

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the evaluation and testing of high emissivity protective coatings applied to flexible insulations for the Reusable Launch Vehicle technology program. Ceramic coatings were evaluated for their thermal properties, durability, and potential for reuse. One of the major goals was to determine the mechanism by which these coated blanket surfaces become brittle and try to modify the coatings to reduce or eliminate embrittlement. Coatings were prepared from colloidal silica with a small percentage of either SiC or SiB6 as the emissivity agent. These coatings are referred to as gray C-9 and protective ceramic coating (PCC), respectively. The colloidal solutions were either brushed or sprayed onto advanced flexible reusable surface insulation blankets. The blankets were instrumented with thermocouples and exposed to reentry heating conditions in the Ames Aeroheating Arc Jet Facility. Post-test samples were then characterized through impact testing, emissivity measurements, chemical analysis, and observation of changes in surface morphology. The results show that both coatings performed well in arc jet tests with backface temperatures slightly lower for the PCC coating than with gray C-9. Impact testing showed that the least extensive surface destruction was experienced on blankets with lower areal density coatings.

  13. Fragmentation of armor piercing steel projectiles upon oblique perforation of steel plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, V.; Weiss, A.; Vizel, A.; Ran, E.; Aizik, F.

    2012-08-01

    In this study, a constitutive strength and failure model for a steel core of a14.5 mm API projectile was developed. Dynamic response of a projectile steel core was described by the Johnson-Cook constitutive model combined with principal tensile stress spall model. In order to obtain the parameters required for numerical description of projectile core material behavior, a series of planar impact experiments was done. The parameters of the Johnson-Cook constitutive model were extracted by matching simulated and experimental velocity profiles of planar impact. A series of oblique ballistic experiments with x-ray monitoring was carried out to study the effect of obliquity angle and armor steel plate thickness on shattering behavior of the 14.5 mm API projectile. According to analysis of x-ray images the fragmentation level increases with both steel plate thickness and angle of inclination. The numerical modeling of the ballistic experiments was done using commercial finite element code, LS-DYNA. Dynamic response of high hardness (HH) armor steel was described using a modified Johnson-Cook strength and failure model. A series of simulations with various values of maximal principal tensile stress was run in order to capture the overall fracture behavior of the projectile's core. Reasonable agreement between simulated and x-ray failure pattern of projectile core has been observed.

  14. Constitutive Modeling of Hot Deformation Behavior of High-Strength Armor Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobbili, Ravindranadh; Madhu, Vemuri

    2016-05-01

    The hot isothermal compression tests of high-strength armor steel under a wide range of deformation temperatures (1100-1250 °C) and strain rates of (0.001-1/s) were performed. Based on the experimental data, constitutive models were established using the original Johnson-Cook (JC) model, modified JC model, and strain-compensated Arrhenius model, respectively. The modified JC model considers the coupled effects of strain hardening, strain rate hardening, and thermal softening. Moreover, the prediction accuracy of these developed models was determined by estimating the correlation coefficient ( R) and average absolute relative error (AARE). The results demonstrate that the flow behavior of high-strength armor steel is considerably influenced by the strain rate and temperature. The original JC model is inadequate to provide good description on the flow stress at evaluated temperatures. The modified JC model and strain-compensated Arrhenius model significantly enhance the predictability. It is also observed from the microstructure study that at low strain rates (0.001-0.01/s) and high temperatures (1200-1250 °C), a typical dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurs.

  15. VUV spectroscopy of armor erosion from plasma gun disruption simulation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Rockett, P.D.; Hunter, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    Extensive simulations of Tokamak disruptions have provided a picture of material erosion that is limited by the transfer of energy from the incident plasma to the armor solid surface through a dense vapor shield. The authors have designed and utilized two transmission grating vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrographs to study the plasma-material interface in plasma gun simulation experiments. Target materials included POCO graphite, ATJ graphite, boron nitride, and plasma-sprayed tungsten. Detailed spectra were recorded with a spatial resolution of {approximately}0.7 mm resolution on VIKA at Efremov and on 2MK-200 at Troitsk. Time-resolved data with 40-200 ns resolution was then recorded along with the same spatial resolution on 2MK-200. The data from both plasma gun facilities demonstrated that the hottest plasma region was sitting several millimeters above the armor tile surface. This apparently constituted the absorption region, which confirmed past computer simulations. Spectra indicated both the species and ionization level that were being ablated from the target, demonstrating impurity content, and showing plasma ablation velocity. Graphite samples clearly showed C V lines as well as impurity lines from O V and O VI. The BN tiles produced textbook examples of B IV and B V, and extensive N IV, V, and VI lines. These are being compared to radiation-hydrodynamic calculations.

  16. ANALYSES OF VARIOUS DAMAGE MECHANISMS IN TRANSPARENT ARMOR SUBJECT TO PROJECTILE IMPACT

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Canhai; Sun, Xin; Templeton, Douglas W.

    2009-01-23

    Design and manufacturing of transparent armor have been historically carried out using experimental approaches. In this study, we use advanced computational modeling tools to study the various stress components during the impact event and to identify the different crack/damage driving mechanisms for the different cracking patterns. Experimentally observed damage patterns for a thick glass laminate under fragmentation simulation projectile (FSP) impact are used to compare with the modeling results. AHPCRC developed modeling software EPIC’06 [1] is used in predicting the penetration resistance of transparent armor systems. It is found that a 1-parameter single state model can be used to predict the impact penetration depth with relatively good accuracy. In addition, hoop stress and circumferential stresses are found to produce ripple cracks, needle cracks and radial cracks. It is also found that a region of high hoop stress and circumferential stress is produced by the impact at the back side of the target plate, causing the floret damage region possibly leading to higher penetration depth for thinner laminates or higher velocity impact.

  17. Inhibition of Frying Oil Oxidation by Carbon Dioxide Blanketing.

    PubMed

    Totani, Nagao; Inoue, Ryota; Yawata, Miho

    2016-06-01

    The oxidation of oil starts, in general, from the penetration of atmospheric oxygen into oil. Inhibition of the vigorous oxidation of oil at deep-frying temperature under carbon dioxide flow, by disrupting the contact between oil and air, was first demonstrated using oil in a round bottom flask. Next, the minimum carbon dioxide flow rate necessary to blanket 4 L of frying oil in an electric fryer (surface area 690 cm(2)) installed with nonwoven fabric cover, was found to be 40 L/h. Then deep-frying of potato was done accordingly; immediately after deep-frying, an aluminum cover was placed on top of the nonwoven fabric cover to prevent the loss of carbon dioxide and the carbon dioxide flow was shut off. In conclusion, the oxidation of oil both at deep-frying temperature and during standing was remarkably inhibited by carbon dioxide blanketing at a practical flow rate and volume. Under the deep-frying conditions employed in this study, the increase in polar compound content was reduced to half of that of the control. PMID:27181248

  18. Axially staggered seed-blanket reactor fuel module construction

    DOEpatents

    Cowell, Gary K.; DiGuiseppe, Carl P.

    1985-01-01

    A heterogeneous nuclear reactor of the seed-blanket type is provided wher the fissile (seed) and fertile (blanket) nuclear fuels are segregated axially within each fuel element such that fissile and fertile regions occur in an alternating pattern along the length of the fuel element. Further, different axial stacking patterns are used for the fuel elements of at least two module types such that when modules of different types are positioned adjacent to one another, the fertile regions of the modules are offset or staggered. Thus, when a module of one type is surrounded by modules of the second type the fertile regions thereof will be surrounded on all sides by fissile material. This provides enhanced neutron communication both radially and axially, thereby resulting in greater power oscillation stability than other axial arrangements. The arrangements of the fissile and fertile regions in an alternating axial manner minimizes the radial power peaking factors and provides a more optional thermal-hydraulic design than is afforded by radial arrangements.

  19. Inhibition of Frying Oil Oxidation by Carbon Dioxide Blanketing.

    PubMed

    Totani, Nagao; Inoue, Ryota; Yawata, Miho

    2016-06-01

    The oxidation of oil starts, in general, from the penetration of atmospheric oxygen into oil. Inhibition of the vigorous oxidation of oil at deep-frying temperature under carbon dioxide flow, by disrupting the contact between oil and air, was first demonstrated using oil in a round bottom flask. Next, the minimum carbon dioxide flow rate necessary to blanket 4 L of frying oil in an electric fryer (surface area 690 cm(2)) installed with nonwoven fabric cover, was found to be 40 L/h. Then deep-frying of potato was done accordingly; immediately after deep-frying, an aluminum cover was placed on top of the nonwoven fabric cover to prevent the loss of carbon dioxide and the carbon dioxide flow was shut off. In conclusion, the oxidation of oil both at deep-frying temperature and during standing was remarkably inhibited by carbon dioxide blanketing at a practical flow rate and volume. Under the deep-frying conditions employed in this study, the increase in polar compound content was reduced to half of that of the control.

  20. Elevator mode convection in liquid metal blankets for fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zikanov, Oleg; Liu, Li

    2015-11-01

    The work is motivated by the design of liquid-metal blankets for nuclear fusion reactors. Mixed convection in a downward flow in a vertical duct with strong contant-rate heating of one wall (the Grashof number up to 1012) and strong transverse magnetic field (the Hartmann number up to 104) is considered. It is found that in an infinitely long duct the flow is dominated by exponentially growing elevator modes having the form of a combination of ascending and descending jets. An analytical solution approximating the growth rate of the modes is derived. Analogous flows in finite-length pipes and ducts are analyzed using the high-resolution numerical simulations. The results of the recent experiments are reproduced and explained. It is found that the flow evolves in cycles consisting of periods of exponential growth and breakdowns of the jets. The resulting high-amplitude fluctuations of temperature is a feature potentially dangerous for operation of a reactor blanket. Financial support was provided by the US NSF (Grant CBET 1232851).

  1. Compatibility Issues for a High Temperature Dual Coolant Blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Pint, Bruce A

    2007-01-01

    One proposed U.S. test blanket module (TBM) for ITER uses ferritic-martensitic alloys with both eutectic Pb-Li and He coolants at {approx}475 C. In order for this blanket concept to operate at higher temperatures ({approx}750 C) for a DEMO-type reactor, several Pb-Li compatibility issues need to be addressed. A SiC/SiC composite flow channel insert is proposed to reduce the steel dissolution rate (and the magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop). Prior capsule testing examined dense, high-purity SiC in Pb-Li at 800-1200 C and found detectable levels of Si in the Pb-Li after 2,000h at 1100 C and 1,000h at 1200 C. Current capsule experiments are examining several different SiC/SiC composite materials at 1000 C. Another issue involves Pb-Li transport between the first wall and heat exchanger. Aluminide coatings on type 316 stainless steel and Al-containing alloys capable of forming an external alumina scale have been studied in capsule experiments at 700 and 800 C for 1,000h. Model aluminide coatings made by chemical vapor deposition reduced the dissolution rate for 316SS at 800 C by a factor of 50.

  2. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 310 - DoD Blanket Routine Uses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false DoD Blanket Routine Uses C Appendix C to Part 310 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Pt. 310, App. C Appendix C to Part 310—DoD Blanket Routine Uses...

  3. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 310 - DoD Blanket Routine Uses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false DoD Blanket Routine Uses C Appendix C to Part 310 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Pt. 310, App. C Appendix C to Part 310—DoD Blanket Routine Uses...

  4. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 310 - DoD Blanket Routine Uses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false DoD Blanket Routine Uses C Appendix C to Part 310 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Pt. 310, App. C Appendix C to Part 310—DoD Blanket Routine Uses...

  5. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 310 - DoD Blanket Routine Uses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false DoD Blanket Routine Uses C Appendix C to Part 310 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Pt. 310, App. C Appendix C to Part 310—DoD Blanket Routine Uses...

  6. 48 CFR 313.303-5 - Purchases under blanket purchase agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchases under blanket purchase agreements. 313.303-5 Section 313.303-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN... Methods 313.303-5 Purchases under blanket purchase agreements. (e)(5) HHS personnel that sign...

  7. 77 FR 38622 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on June 4, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700...) regulations under the Natural Gas Act as amended and Southern Star's blanket certificate issued in Docket...

  8. 78 FR 30911 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Prior Notice Activity Under Blanket Certificate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Prior Notice Activity Under Blanket Certificate On May 8, 2013, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), filed a prior notice request... Act, and Texas Eastern's blanket certificate issued in Docket No. CP82-535-000. Texas Eastern...

  9. Design analysis and optimization of self-cooled lithium blankets and shields

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.

    1988-02-01

    A study of self-cooled lithium blankets was carried out to define the performance of these blankets and to determine the potential to operate at the maximum possible values of the performance parameters. The main design parameters considered during the course of the study were the tritium breeding ratio, the blanket energy multiplication factor, the energy fraction lost to the shield, the total blanket thickness, the reflector material selection, and the compositions of the different blanket zones. Another study was carried out to determine materials, compositions, arrangements, and thickness of the shield zone for the reference blanket. Helium and water-cooled shields were optimized for the inboard and outboard sections of the reactor. Based on the above two studies, the reference blanket and shield configurations were developed for the ANL Tokamak Power Systems Study. The helium-cooled shield was selected for use with liquid metal blankets to reduce safety concerns related to lithium-water reactivity. This helium-cooled shield provides shielding characteristics similar to a conventional water-cooled shield. The analyses and results from these studies are the subject of this paper. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. 32 CFR 701.112 - “Blanket routine uses.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âBlanket routine uses.â 701.112 Section 701.112 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS... interest of simplicity, economy, and to avoid redundancy, DOD has established “DOD Blanket Routine...

  11. Heat-pipe liquid-pool-blanket concept for the Tandem Mirror Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, M.A.; Werner, R.W.; Johnson, G.L.

    1981-10-01

    The blanket concept for the tandem mirror reactor described in this paper was developed to produce the medium temperature heat (approx. 850 to 950 K) for the General Atomic sulfur-iodine thermochemical process for producing hydrogen. This medium temperature heat from the blanket constitutes about 81% of the total power output of the fusion reactor.

  12. Cotton-based hydromulches versus conventional hydromulches and blankets: Erosion and grass establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One commonly used means of reducing the impact of erosion from steep slopes while vegetation is being established is with erosion control products such as roll-out blankets and/or hydromulches. Roll-out blankets are commonly made of wheat straw, coconut husks, or fiberized wood, while the most preva...

  13. 48 CFR 313.303-5 - Purchases under blanket purchase agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purchases under blanket purchase agreements. 313.303-5 Section 313.303-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN... Methods 313.303-5 Purchases under blanket purchase agreements. (e)(5) HHS personnel that sign...

  14. 77 FR 52713 - PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on August 17, 2012, PetroLogistics Natural Gas Storage, LLC (PetroLogistics... Iberville Parish, Louisiana, under PetroLogistics' blanket certificate issued in Docket No. CP07-427-000,...

  15. Tailorable advanced blanket insulation using aluminoborosilicate and alumina batting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calamito, Dominic P.

    1989-01-01

    Two types of Tailorable Advanced Blanket Insulation (TABI) flat panels for Advanced Space Transportation Systems were produced. Both types consisted of integrally woven, 3-D fluted core having parallel faces and connecting ribs of Nicalon yarns. The triangular cross section flutes of one type was filled with mandrels of processed Ultrafiber (aluminoborosilicate) stitchbonded Nextel 440 fibrous felt, and the second type wall filled with Saffil alumina fibrous felt insulation. Weaving problems were minimal. Insertion of the fragile insulation mandrels into the fabric flutes was improved by using a special insertion tool. An attempt was made to weave fluted core fabrics from Nextel 440 yarns but was unsuccessful because of the yarn's fragility. A small sample was eventually produced by an unorthodox weaving process and then filled with Saffil insulation. The procedures for setting up and weaving the fabrics and preparing and inserting insulation mandrels are discussed. Characterizations of the panels produced are also presented.

  16. Experimental Investigation of Ternary Alloys for Fusion Breeding Blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, B. William; Chiu, Ing L.

    2015-10-26

    Future fusion power plants based on the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel cycle will be required to breed the T fuel via neutron reactions with lithium, which will be incorporated in a breeding blanket that surrounds the fusion source. Recent work by LLNL proposed the used of liquid Li as the breeder in an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. Subsequently, an LDRD was initiated to develop alternatives ternary alloy liquid metal breeders that have reduced chemical reactivity with water and air compared to pure Li. Part of the work plan was to experimentally investigate the phase diagrams of ternary alloys. Of particular interest was measurement of the melt temperature, which must be low enough to be compatible with the temperature limits of the steel used in the construction of the chamber and heat transfer system.

  17. Neutronic analysis of alternative structural materials for fusion reactor blankets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Raul dos

    1988-07-01

    The neutronic performance of the International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR) blanket was studied when several alternative structural materials were used instead of the INTOR reference structural material, type 316 stainless steel. The alternative structural materials included: ferritic-, vanadium-, titanium-, long range ordered-, manganese austenitic-, and nimonic-alloys. All were treated both with and without a first-wall coating of beryllium or graphite. The tritium breeding ratio, the nuclear heating, and the gas (hydrogen and helium) production rates in the structural materials were calculated for the possible combinations of structural material and first-wall coating. These parameters were compared with those obtained by using SS-316. The nimonic alloy was the only one with worse neutronic performance than the SS-316.

  18. Fusion Blanket Coolant Section Criteria, Methodology, and Results

    SciTech Connect

    DeMuth, J. A.; Meier, W. R.; Jolodosky, A.; Frantoni, M.; Reyes, S.

    2015-10-02

    The focus of this LDRD was to explore potential Li alloys that would meet the tritium breeding and blanket cooling requirements but with reduced chemical reactivity, while maintaining the other attractive features of pure Li breeder/coolant. In other fusion approaches (magnetic fusion energy or MFE), 17Li- 83Pb alloy is used leveraging Pb’s ability to maintain high TBR while lowering the levels of lithium in the system. Unfortunately this alloy has a number of potential draw-backs. Due to the high Pb content, this alloy suffers from very high average density, low tritium solubility, low system energy, and produces undesirable activation products in particular polonium. The criteria considered in the selection of a tritium breeding alloy are described in the following section.

  19. Heating performances of a IC in-blanket ring array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosia, G.; Ragona, R.

    2015-12-01

    An important limiting factor to the use of ICRF as candidate heating method in a commercial reactor is due to the evanescence of the fast wave in vacuum and in most of the SOL layer, imposing proximity of the launching structure to the plasma boundary and causing, at the highest power level, high RF standing and DC rectified voltages at the plasma periphery, with frequent voltage breakdowns and enhanced local wall loading. In a previous work [1] the concept for an Ion Cyclotron Heating & Current Drive array (and using a different wave guide technology, a Lower Hybrid array) based on the use of periodic ring structure, integrated in the reactor blanket first wall and operating at high input power and low power density, was introduced. Based on the above concept, the heating performance of such array operating on a commercial fusion reactor is estimated.

  20. Heating performances of a IC in-blanket ring array

    SciTech Connect

    Bosia, G.; Ragona, R.

    2015-12-10

    An important limiting factor to the use of ICRF as candidate heating method in a commercial reactor is due to the evanescence of the fast wave in vacuum and in most of the SOL layer, imposing proximity of the launching structure to the plasma boundary and causing, at the highest power level, high RF standing and DC rectified voltages at the plasma periphery, with frequent voltage breakdowns and enhanced local wall loading. In a previous work [1] the concept for an Ion Cyclotron Heating & Current Drive array (and using a different wave guide technology, a Lower Hybrid array) based on the use of periodic ring structure, integrated in the reactor blanket first wall and operating at high input power and low power density, was introduced. Based on the above concept, the heating performance of such array operating on a commercial fusion reactor is estimated.

  1. Cosmetic wastewater treatment by upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

    PubMed

    Puyol, D; Monsalvo, V M; Mohedano, A F; Sanz, J L; Rodriguez, J J

    2011-01-30

    Anaerobic treatment of pre-settled cosmetic wastewater in batch and continuous experiments has been investigated. Biodegradability tests showed high COD and solid removal efficiencies (about 70%), being the hydrolysis of solids the limiting step of the process. Continuous treatment was carried out in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. High COD and TSS removal efficiencies (up to 95% and 85%, respectively) were achieved over a wide range of organic load rate (from 1.8 to 9.2g TCODL(-1)day(-1)). Methanogenesis inhibition was observed in batch assays, which can be predicted by means of a Haldane-based inhibition model. Both COD and solid removal were modelled by Monod and pseudo-first order models, respectively.

  2. Probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis of APT blanket tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Barsell, A. W.; Kern, K. T.

    2001-01-01

    A probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) model that is specific to the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) helium tubes was developed. The model performs Monte Carlo analyses of potential failure modes caused by cyclic stresses generated by beam trips and depressurizations 60m normal operation, coupled with material aging due to irradiation. Dominant failure probabilities are due to crack through-growth while brittle fracture and ductile tearing have lower probability. Failure mechanisms of global plastic collapse and buckling or crack initiation mechanisms of fatigue or local fracture (upon loss of ductility) have negligible probability. For the population of (7,311) tubes in the APT blanket, the worst-case, annual probability of one tube failing is 3 percent. The probability of 2 or more failures is substantially lower; therefore, unavailability impacts are driven by single failure. The average annual loss of production (unavailability) is below about 0.2 percent. Helium outflow and water inflow rates were characterized for the failures.

  3. Neutronics experiments for DEMO blanket at JAERI/FNS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, S.; Ochiai, K.; Hori, J.; Verzilov, Y.; Klix, A.; Wada, M.; Terada, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Morimoto, Y.; Nishitani, T.

    2003-07-01

    In order to verify the accuracy of the tritium production rate (TPR), neutron irradiation experiments have been performed with a mockup relevant to the fusion DEMO blanket consisting of F82H blocks, Li2TiO3 blocks with a 6Li enrichment of 40% and 95%, and beryllium blocks. Sample pellets of Li2TiO3 were irradiated and the TPR was measured by a liquid scintillation counter. The TPR was also calculated using the Monte Carlo code MCNP-4B with the nuclear data library JENDL-3.2 and ENDF-B/VI. The results agreed with experimental values within the statistical error (10%) of the experiment. Accordingly, it was clarified that the TPR could be evaluated within 10% uncertainty by the calculation code and the nuclear data. In order to estimate the induced activity caused by sequential reactions in cooling water pipes in the DEMO blanket, neutron irradiation experiments have been performed using test specimens simulating the pipes. Sample metals of Fe, W, Ti, Pb, Cu, V and reduced activation ferritic steel F82H were irradiated as typical fusion materials. The effective cross-sections needed to calculate the formation of the radioactive nuclei (56Co, 184Re, 48V, 206Bi, 65Zn and 51Cr) due to sequential reactions were measured. From the experimental results, it was found that the effective cross-sections increased remarkably while coming closer to polyethylene board, which was a substitute for water. As a result of this present study, it has become clear that the sequential reaction rates are important factors in the accurate evaluation of induced activity in fusion reactor design.

  4. Armored brain in patients with hydrocephalus after shunt surgery: review of the literatures.

    PubMed

    Taha, Mahmoud M

    2012-01-01

    Armored brain or chronic calcified subdural hematoma is a rare complication of cerebrospinal fluid diversion with few cases reported in the literature. Seventeen patients with this pathology have been published. A complete review of the literatures regarding this topic has been collected and discussed. The author also presents a 12- year old boy with triventricular hydrocephalus who had undergone ventriculoperitoneal medium pressure shunt system since birth. The patient presented to our clinic with a 2-year history of seizures. The patient was conscious and without neurological deficits on examination. Computed tomography of the brain showed bilateral high density mass with surface calcification. X ray skull and MRI confirmed the calcified subdural hematoma bilaterally. We preferred conservative treatment and the patient continued his antiepileptic treatment. At one year follow up, the patient had the same neurological state. The case highlights the importance of frequent follow up CT brain after shunt surgery.

  5. Finite Element Modeling of the Behavior of Armor Materials Under High Strain Rates and Large Strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyzois, Ioannis

    For years high strength steels and alloys have been widely used by the military for making armor plates. Advances in technology have led to the development of materials with improved resistance to penetration and deformation. Until recently, the behavior of these materials under high strain rates and large strains has been primarily based on laboratory testing using the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus. With the advent of sophisticated computer programs, computer modeling and finite element simulations are being developed to predict the deformation behavior of these metals for a variety of conditions similar to those experienced during combat. In the present investigation, a modified direct impact Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus was modeled using the finite element software ABAQUS 6.8 for the purpose of simulating high strain rate compression of specimens of three armor materials: maraging steel 300, high hardness armor (HHA), and aluminum alloy 5083. These armor materials, provided by the Canadian Department of National Defence, were tested at the University of Manitoba by others. In this study, the empirical Johnson-Cook visco-plastic and damage models were used to simulate the deformation behavior obtained experimentally. A series of stress-time plots at various projectile impact momenta were produced and verified by comparison with experimental data. The impact momentum parameter was chosen rather than projectile velocity to normalize the initial conditions for each simulation. Phenomena such as the formation of adiabatic shear bands caused by deformation at high strains and strain rates were investigated through simulations. It was found that the Johnson-Cook model can accurately simulate the behavior of body-centered cubic (BCC) metals such as steels. The maximum shear stress was calculated for each simulation at various impact momenta. The finite element model showed that shear failure first occurred in the center of the cylindrical specimen and

  6. Carbide-Free Bainitic Weld Metal: A New Concept in Welding of Armor Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Murthy, N.; Janaki Ram, G. D.; Murty, B. S.; Reddy, G. M.; Rao, T. J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Carbide-free bainite, a fine mixture of bainitic ferrite and austenite, is a relatively recent development in steel microstructures. Apart from being very strong and tough, the microstructure is hydrogen-tolerant. These characteristics make it well-suited for weld metals. In the current work, an armor-grade quenched and tempered steel was welded such that the fusion zone developed a carbide-free bainitic microstructure. These welds showed very high joint efficiency and ballistic performance compared to those produced, as per the current industrial practice, using austenitic stainless steel fillers. Importantly, these welds showed no vulnerability to cold cracking, as verified using oblique Y-groove tests. The concept of carbide-free bainitic weld metal thus promises many useful new developments in welding of high-strength steels.

  7. Preliminary In Vivo Evaluation of a Hybrid Armored Vascular Graft Combining Electrospinning and Additive Manufacturing Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Spadaccio, Cristiano; Nappi, Francesco; De Marco, Federico; Sedati, Pietro; Sutherland, Fraser W.H.; Chello, Massimo; Trombetta, Marcella; Rainer, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we tested in vivo effectiveness of a previously developed poly-l-lactide/poly-ε-caprolactone armored vascular graft releasing heparin. This bioprosthesis was designed in order to overcome the main drawbacks of tissue-engineered vascular grafts, mainly concerning poor mechanical properties, thrombogenicity, and endothelialization. The bioprosthesis was successfully implanted in an aortic vascular reconstruction model in rabbits. All grafts implanted were patent at four weeks postoperatively and have been adequately populated by endogenous cells without signs of thrombosis or structural failure and with no need of antiplatelet therapy. The results of this preliminary study might warrant for further larger controlled in vivo studies to further confirm these findings. PMID:26949333

  8. DNA barcodes for two scale insect families, mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae).

    PubMed

    Park, D-S; Suh, S-J; Hebert, P D N; Oh, H-W; Hong, K-J

    2011-08-01

    Although DNA barcode coverage has grown rapidly for many insect orders, there are some groups, such as scale insects, where sequence recovery has been difficult. However, using a recently developed primer set, we recovered barcode records from 373 specimens, providing coverage for 75 species from 31 genera in two families. Overall success was >90% for mealybugs and >80% for armored scale species. The G·C content was very low in most species, averaging just 16.3%. Sequence divergences (K2P) between congeneric species averaged 10.7%, while intra-specific divergences averaged 0.97%. However, the latter value was inflated by high intra-specific divergence in nine taxa, cases that may indicate species overlooked by current taxonomic treatments. Our study establishes the feasibility of developing a comprehensive barcode library for scale insects and indicates that its construction will both create an effective system for identifying scale insects and reveal taxonomic situations worthy of deeper analysis.

  9. Surface damage in TiC coating layers on PDX wall armor tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotoh, Y.; Hoven, H.; Koizlik, K.; Linke, J.; Wallura, E.; Nickel, H.; Kugel, H.; Ulrickson, M.

    1987-02-01

    Surface damage and material redepositions are investigated on 17 graphite tile surface of the PDX wall armor exposed to more than 6500 shots of neutral beam injection (NBI) shine-through and more than 700 shots of direct NBI. Titanium deposition layers, from 0.1 to 7 μm in thickness, redeposited metal droplets, or micro-projections with diameters of less than 2-3 μm and a number density at around 10 8/cm 2, are observed on the tile front faces. Aligned wedge-shaped pits are observed at all micro-projections, which are likely due to shadowed Ti-deposition at redeposited metal droplets by Ti-getter evaporation. Blistering observed in both the TiC coating and Ti-deposition layers is due to plasma shine-through D 0 beam irradiations to a fluence of more than 2 × 10 19 at./cm 2.

  10. One Dimension Analytical Model of Normal Ballistic Impact on Ceramic/Metal Gradient Armor

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Lisheng; Zhang Qingjie; Zhai Pengcheng; Cao Dongfeng

    2008-02-15

    An analytical model of normal ballistic impact on the ceramic/metal gradient armor, which is based on modified Alekseevskii-Tate equations, has been developed. The process of gradient armour impacted by the long rod can be divided into four stages in this model. First stage is projectile's mass erosion or flowing phase, mushrooming phase and rigid phase; second one is the formation of comminuted ceramic conoid; third one is the penetration of gradient layer and last one is the penetration of metal back-up plate. The equations of third stage have been advanced by assuming the behavior of gradient layer as rigid-plastic and considering the effect of strain rate on the dynamic yield strength.

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of the armored catfish, Hypostomus plecostomus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Shikai; Zhang, Jiaren; Yao, Jun; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the armored catfish, Hypostomus plecostomus, was determined by next generation sequencing of genomic DNA without prior sample processing or primer design. Bioinformatics analysis resulted in the entire mitochondrial genome sequence with length of 16,523 bp. The H. plecostomus mitochondrial genome is consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 control region, showing typical circular molecule structure of mitochondrial genome as in other vertebrates. The whole genome base composition was estimated to be 31.8% A, 27.0% T, 14.6% G, and 26.6% C, with A/T bias of 58.8%. This work provided the H. plecostomus mitochondrial genome sequence which should be valuable for species identification, phylogenetic analysis and conservation genetics studies in catfishes.

  12. Advanced methods comparisons of reaction rates in the Purdue Fast Breeder Blanket Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R.N.; Ott, K.O.

    1988-01-01

    A review of worldwide results revealed that reaction rates in the blanket region are generally underpredicted with the discrepancy increasing with penetration; however, these results vary widely. Experiments in the large uniform Purdue Fast Breeder Blanket Facility (FBBF) blanket yield an accurate quantification of this discrepancy. Using standard production code methods (diffusion theory with 50 group cross sections), a consistent Calculated/Experimental (C/E) drop-off was observed for various reaction rates. A 50% increase in the calculated results at the outer edge of the blanket is necessary for agreement with experiments. The usefulness of refined group constant generation utilizing specialized weighting spectra and transport theory methods in correcting this discrepancy was analyzed. Refined group constants reduce the discrepancy to half that observed using the standard method. The surprising result was that transport methods had no effect on the blanket deviations; thus, transport theory considerations do not constitute or even contribute to an explanation of the blanket discrepancies. The residual blanket C/E drop-off (about half the standard drop-off) using advanced methods must be caused by some approximations which are applied in all current methods. 27 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. DNA diagnostics of three armored scale species on kiwifruit in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Robert; Carraher, Colm; Poulton, Joanne; Sandanayaka, Manoharie; Todd, Jacqui H; Dobson, Shirley; Mauchline, Nicola; Hill, Garry; McKenna, Cathy; Newcomb, Richard D

    2008-12-01

    Three species of armored scale (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) are found on kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) in New Zealand orchards: latania scale, Hemiberlesia lataniae (Signoret); greedy scale, Hemiberlesia rapax (Comstock); and oleander scale, Aspidiotus nerii (Bouché). Each of them is a quarantine pest in some of the markets to which New Zealand kiwifruit are exported. Adult females of the three species can be distinguished morphologically; however, the task is laborious when large numbers must be identified. Furthermore, it is not possible to distinguish among the immature stages. A DNA-based diagnostic using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method based on differences in the cytochrome oxidase I and II genes was developed to distinguish the three species. The test relies on the rapid isolation of amplifiable DNA by using a protease (prepGEM), followed by multiplex PCR using primers that distinguish the species at three or more nucleotide positions within cytochrome oxidase I and II, resulting in PCR products of characteristic size for each species. The test was validated in a double-blind experiment and then used to determine the relative distribution and abundance of the three species on leaves and fruit of 'Hayward' and 'Hortl6A' kiwifruit across the dominant growing regions throughout New Zealand during the 2007 season. In total, 3,418 scale insects were identified to species level: 1,904 (56%) were latania scale; 1,473 (43%) were greedy scale; and 41 (1%) were oleander scale. Since the last survey in 1988, latania scale has displaced greedy scale as the dominant species of armored scale on Hayward kiwifruit in the North Island and was found for the first time in the South Island. Only a single latania scale was found on Hortl6A fruit, consistent with previous reports of reduced rates of settlement on the fruit of this cultivar by latania scale compared with greedy scale. PMID:19133478

  14. APT Blanket Thermal Analysis of Cavity Flood Cooling with a Beam Window Break

    SciTech Connect

    Shadday, M.A.

    1999-11-19

    The cavity flood system is designed to be the primary safeguard for the integrity of the blanket modules and target assemblies during loss of coolant accidents, LOCA''s. In the unlikely event that the internal flow passages in a blanket module or a target assembly dryout, decay heat in the metal structures will be dissipated to the cavity flood system through the module or assembly walls. This study supplements the two previous studies by demonstrating that the cavity flood system can adequately cool the blanket modules when the cavity vessel beam window breaks.

  15. Predicted and observed directional dependence of meteoroid/debris impacts on LDEF thermal blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drolshagen, Gerhard

    1993-01-01

    The number of impacts from meteoroids and space debris particles to the various LDEF rows is calculated using ESABASE/DEBRIS, a 3-D numerical analysis tool. It is based on recent reference environment flux models and includes geometrical and directional effects. A comparison of model predictions and actual observations is made for penetrations of the thermal blankets which covered the UHCR experiment. The thermal blankets were located on all LDEF rows, except 3, 9, and 12. Because of their uniform composition and thickness, these blankets allow a direct analysis of the directional dependence of impacts and provide a test case for the latest meteoroid and debris flux models.

  16. A new species of armored scale, Mycetaspis ailynaomi (Hemiptera, Diaspididae, Aspidiotinae), associated with Mammea americana L. (Malpighiales, Calophyllaceae) from Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Dones, Ramón A.; Evans, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new species of armored scale, Mycetaspis ailynaomi Dones and Evans is described and illustrated from specimens collected on mamey (Mammea americana) from Puerto Rico. A key to the species of Mycetaspis is provided. PMID:21852924

  17. Flexible Shields for Protecting Spacecraft Against Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Crews, Jeanne Lee

    2004-01-01

    A report presents the concept of Flexshield a class of versatile, lightweight, flexible shields for protecting spacecraft against impacts by small meteors and orbiting debris. The Flexshield concept incorporates elements of, but goes beyond, prior spacecraft-shielding concepts, including those of Whipple shields and, more recently, multi-shock shields and multi-shock blankets. A shield of the Flexshield type includes multiple outer layers (called bumpers in the art) made, variously, of advanced ceramic and/or polymeric fibers spaced apart from each other by a lightweight foam. As in prior such shields, the bumpers serve to shock an impinging hypervelocity particle, causing it to disintegrate vaporize, and spread out over a larger area so that it can be stopped by an innermost layer (back sheet). The flexibility of the fabric layers and compressibility of the foam make it possible to compress and fold the shield for transport, then deploy the shield for use. The shield can be attached to a spacecraft by use of snaps, hook-and-pile patches, or other devices. The shield can also contain multilayer insulation material, so that it provides some thermal protection in addition to mechanical protection.

  18. Feasibility study of a fission supressed blanket for a tandem-mirror hybrid reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Barr, W.L.

    1981-10-05

    A study of fission suppressed blankets for the tandem mirror not only showed such blankets to be feasible but also to be safer than fissioning blankets. Such hybrids could produce enough fissile material to support up to 17 light water reactors of the same nuclear power rating. Beryllium was compared to /sup 7/Li for neutron multiplication; both were considered feasible but the blanket with Li produced 20% less fissile fuel per unit of nuclear power in the reactor. The beryllium resource, while possibly being too small for extensive pure fusion application, would be adequate (with carefully planned industrial expansion) for the hybrid because of the large support ratio, and hence few hybrids required. Radiation damage and coatings for beryllium remain issues to be resolved by further study and experimentation.

  19. Normal Operation (NO) of APT Blanket System and its Components Based on Initial Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    This report is one of a series of reports documenting accident scenario simulations for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) blanket heat removal systems. The simulations were performed in support of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) for the APT.

  20. Role of Fabrication on Materials Compatibility in APT Target/Blanket

    SciTech Connect

    Iyer, N.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.; Dunn, K.; Fisher, D.L.

    1998-09-01

    This paper summarizes several of the options associated with the fabrication of selected target/blanket components. In addition, the materials characterization technologies required to validate these components performance is presented.

  1. Fast Breeder Blanket Facility FBBF. Annual report, January 1, 1981-December 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Clikeman, F M

    1982-07-01

    This annual report contains a summmary of fission rate, spectra, and gamma-ray heating rate measurements made in the first blanket of the Purdue Fast Breeder Blanket Facility. The first blanket consisted of aluminum clad, natural UO/sub 2/ fuel rods with a secondary cladding of stainless steel or aluminum. The blanket was arranged in two concentric regions around the neutron source and converter regions. A neutron diffusion code, 2DB, and a Monte Carlo code, VIM, both using homogeneous cross section groups have been used to calculate the reaction rates. Calculated to experimental values for a number of important reactions are presented. A modified method of applying Bondarenko self-shielding factors to correct for the self shielding of resonance energy neutrons in aluminum, stainless steel and UO/sub 2/ has improved the agreement between the calculations and experiment, but does not account for all of the differences.

  2. An Analysis of Ripple and Error Fields Induced by a Blanket in the CFETR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Guanying; Liu, Xufeng; Liu, Songlin

    2016-10-01

    The Chinese Fusion Engineering Tokamak Reactor (CFETR) is an important intermediate device between ITER and DEMO. The Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder (WCCB) blanket whose structural material is mainly made of Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (RAFM) steel, is one of the candidate conceptual blanket design. An analysis of ripple and error field induced by RAFM steel in WCCB is evaluated with the method of static magnetic analysis in the ANSYS code. Significant additional magnetic field is produced by blanket and it leads to an increased ripple field. Maximum ripple along the separatrix line reaches 0.53% which is higher than 0.5% of the acceptable design value. Simultaneously, one blanket module is taken out for heating purpose and the resulting error field is calculated to be seriously against the requirement. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207) and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program of China (No. 2013GB108004)

  3. Properties of Ejecta Blanket Deposits Surrounding Morasko Meteorite Impact Craters (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szokaluk, M.; Muszyński, A.; Jagodziński, R.; Szczuciński, W.

    2016-08-01

    Morasko impact craters are a record of the fall of a meteorite into the soft sediments. The presented results illustrate the geological structure of the area around the crater as well as providing evidence of the occurrence of ejecta blanket.

  4. Climate-driven expansion of blanket bogs in Britain during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego-Sala, A. V.; Charman, D. J.; Harrison, S. P.; Li, G.; Prentice, I. C.

    2016-01-01

    Blanket bog occupies approximately 6 % of the area of the UK today. The Holocene expansion of this hyperoceanic biome has previously been explained as a consequence of Neolithic forest clearance. However, the present distribution of blanket bog in Great Britain can be predicted accurately with a simple model (PeatStash) based on summer temperature and moisture index thresholds, and the same model correctly predicts the highly disjunct distribution of blanket bog worldwide. This finding suggests that climate, rather than land-use history, controls blanket-bog distribution in the UK and everywhere else. We set out to test this hypothesis for blanket bogs in the UK using bioclimate envelope modelling compared with a database of peat initiation age estimates. We used both pollen-based reconstructions and climate model simulations of climate changes between the mid-Holocene (6000 yr BP, 6 ka) and modern climate to drive PeatStash and predict areas of blanket bog. We compiled data on the timing of blanket-bog initiation, based on 228 age determinations at sites where peat directly overlies mineral soil. The model predicts that large areas of northern Britain would have had blanket bog by 6000 yr BP, and the area suitable for peat growth extended to the south after this time. A similar pattern is shown by the basal peat ages and new blanket bog appeared over a larger area during the late Holocene, the greatest expansion being in Ireland, Wales, and southwest England, as the model predicts. The expansion was driven by a summer cooling of about 2 °C, shown by both pollen-based reconstructions and climate models. The data show early Holocene (pre-Neolithic) blanket-bog initiation at over half of the sites in the core areas of Scotland and northern England. The temporal patterns and concurrence of the bioclimate model predictions and initiation data suggest that climate change provides a parsimonious explanation for the early Holocene distribution and later expansion of

  5. Climate-driven expansion of blanket bogs in Britain during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego-Sala, A. V.; Charman, D. J.; Harrison, S. P.; Li, G.; Prentice, I. C.

    2015-10-01

    Blanket bog occupies approximately 6 % of the area of the UK today. The Holocene expansion of this hyperoceanic biome has previously been explained as a consequence of Neolithic forest clearance. However, the present distribution of blanket bog in Great Britain can be predicted accurately with a simple model (PeatStash) based on summer temperature and moisture index thresholds, and the same model correctly predicts the highly disjunct distribution of blanket bog worldwide. This finding suggests that climate, rather than land-use history, controls blanket-bog distribution in the UK and everywhere else. We set out to test this hypothesis for blanket bogs in the UK using bioclimate envelope modelling compared with a database of peat initiation age estimates. We used both pollen-based reconstructions and climate model simulations of climate changes between the mid-Holocene (6000 yr BP, 6 ka) and modern climate to drive PeatStash and predict areas of blanket bog. We compiled data on the timing of blanket-bog initiation, based on 228 age determinations at sites where peat directly overlies mineral soil. The model predicts large areas of northern Britain would have had blanket bog by 6000 yr BP, and the area suitable for peat growth extended to the south after this time. A similar pattern is shown by the basal peat ages and new blanket bog appeared over a larger area during the late Holocene, the greatest expansion being in Ireland, Wales and southwest England, as the model predicts. The expansion was driven by a summer cooling of about 2 °C, shown by both pollen-based reconstructions and climate models. The data show early Holocene (pre-Neolithic) blanket-bog initiation at over half of the sites in the core areas of Scotland, and northern England. The temporal patterns and concurrence of the bioclimate model predictions and initiation data suggest that climate change provides a parsimonious explanation for the early Holocene distribution and later expansion of blanket

  6. Flexibility and Muscular Strength.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell

    1988-01-01

    This definition of flexibility and muscular strength also explores their roles in overall physical fitness and focuses on how increased flexibility and muscular strength can help decrease or eliminate lower back pain. (CB)

  7. Thermal and structural design aspects of high-temperature blankets for fusion synfuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.R.; Fillo, J.A.; Reich, M.

    1981-01-01

    The most promising process, high temperature electrolysis (HTE) of steam at temperatures of greater than or equal to 1000/sup 0/C is examined. In HTE, a large fraction (up to approx. 50%) of the energy input to split water to hydrogen and oxygen comes from thermal energy. For the projected operating conditions achieved by high temperature fusion blankets, overall efficiencies for hydrogen production should be on the order of 60%. The design, thermal-hydraulics, and materials for such blankets are discussed.

  8. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US DCLL Test Blanket Module

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2007-08-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a small tritium-breeding test blanket module design for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data, and the failure events are binned into postulated initiating event families and frequency categories for safety assessment. An appendix to this report contains repair time data to support an occupational radiation exposure assessment for test blanket module maintenance.

  9. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US DCLL Test Blanket Module

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2010-06-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a small tritium-breeding test blanket module design for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data, and the failure events are binned into postulated initiating event families and frequency categories for safety assessment. An appendix to this report contains repair time data to support an occupational radiation exposure assessment for test blanket module maintenance.

  10. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 310 - DoD Blanket Routine Uses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DoD Blanket Routine Uses C Appendix C to Part...) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Pt. 310, App. C Appendix C to Part 310—DoD Blanket Routine Uses (See paragraph (c) of § 310.22 of subpart E) A. Routine Use—Law Enforcement If a system of records maintained...

  11. Controls on and effects of armoring and vertical sorting in aeolian dune fields: A numerical simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin; Narteau, Clément; Rozier, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    Unlike ripples, there are only few numerical studies on grain size segregation at the scale of dunes in aeolian environments. Here we use a cellular automaton model to analyze vertical sorting in granular mixtures under steady unidirectional flow conditions. We investigate the feedbacks between dune growth and the segregation mechanisms by varying the size of coarse grains and their proportion within the bed. We systematically observe the development of a horizontal layer of coarse grains at the top of which sorted bed forms may grow by amalgamation. The formation of such an armor layer controls the overall sediment transport and availability. The emergence of dunes and the transition from barchan to transverse dune fields depend only on the grain size distribution of the initial sediment layer. As confirmed by observation, this result indicates that armor layers should be present in most arid deserts, where they are likely to control dune morphodynamics.

  12. Multiplier, moderator, and reflector materials for lithium-vanadium fusion blankets.

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.; Smith, D. L.

    1999-10-07

    The self-cooled lithium-vanadium fusion blanket concept has several attractive operational and environmental features. In this concept, liquid lithium works as the tritium breeder and coolant to alleviate issues of coolant breeder compatibility and reactivity. Vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti) is used as the structural material because of its superior performance relative to other alloys for this application. However, this concept has poor attenuation characteristics and energy multiplication for the DT neutrons. An advanced self-cooled lithium-vanadium fusion blanket concept has been developed to eliminate these drawbacks while maintaining all the attractive features of the conventional concept. An electrical insulator coating for the coolant channels, spectral shifter (multiplier, and moderator) and reflector were utilized in the blanket design to enhance the blanket performance. In addition, the blanket was designed to have the capability to operate at high loading conditions of 2 MW/m{sup 2} surface heat flux and 10 MW/m{sup 2} neutron wall loading. This paper assesses the spectral shifter and the reflector materials and it defines the technological requirements of this advanced blanket concept.

  13. Steady-state humic-acid-containing blanket in upflow suspended bed.

    PubMed

    Sung, S S; Lee, D J; Huang, Chihpin

    2005-03-01

    We investigated the effects of turbidity and concentration of humic acid on the steady-state behavior of the blanket, which was coagulated using polyaluminum chloride (PACl) as coagulant. The three-dimensional solid-flux plot was constructed. Based on fixed PACl dosage, the iso-humic-acid solid-flux surfaces stacked that enveloped the feasible regime for the blanket bed. The steady-state point moved toward low solid flux and low solid fraction regime with decreasing initial raw water turbidity and/or increasing humic-acid concentration. Low water turbidity and high humic-acid concentration yielded a bulky blanket, with the former producing clean, and the latter turbid effluent. The presence of humic acid was thereby harmful to blanket strength, except for the case of low raw water turbidity. An optimal range of humic acid for blanket strength and clarification efficiency existed at 1 mg l(-1). Low level of humic acid is beneficial to blanket development with low-turbidity raw water. PMID:15743628

  14. Immobilization effect of air-injected blanket (AIB) for abdomen fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Young Eun; Suh, Yelin; Ahn, Seung Do; Lee, Sang-wook; Shin, Seong Soo; Kim, Jong Hoon; Choi, Eun Kyung; Yi, Byong Yong

    2005-11-15

    A new device for reducing the amplitude of breathing motion by pressing a patient's abdomen using an air-injected blanket (AIB) for external beam radiation treatments has been designed and tested. The blanket has two layers sealed in all four sides similar to an empty pillow made of urethane. The blanket is spread over the patient's abdomen with both ends of the blanket fixed to the sides of the treatment couch or a baseboard. The inner side, or patient side, of the blanket is thinner and expands more than the outer side. When inflated, the blanket balloons and effectively puts an even pressure on the patient's abdomen. Fluoroscopic observation was performed to verify the usefulness of AIB for patients with lung, breast cancer, or abdominal cancers. Internal organ movement due to breathing was monitored and measured with and without AIB. With the help of AIB, the average range of diaphragm motion was reduced from 2.6 to 0.7 cm in the anterior-to-posterior direction and from 2.7 to 1.3 cm in the superior-to-inferior direction. The motion range in the right-to-left direction was negligible, for it was less than 0.5 cm. These initial testing demonstrated that AIB is useful for reducing patients' breathing motion in the thoracic and abdominal regions comfortably and consistently.

  15. Liquid immersion blanket design for use in a compact modular fusion reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorbom, Brandon; Ball, Justin; Barnard, Harold; Haakonsen, Christian; Hartwig, Zachary; Olynyk, Geoffrey; Sierchio, Jennifer; Whyte, Dennis

    2012-10-01

    Traditional tritium breeding blankets in fusion reactor designs include a large amount of structural material. This results in complex engineering requirements, complicated sector maintenance, and marginal tritium breeding ratios (TBR). We present a conceptual design of a fully liquid blanket. To maximize tritium breeding volume, the vacuum vessel is completely immersed in a continuously recycled FLiBe blanket, with the exception of small support posts. FLiBe has a wide liquid temperature window (459 C to 1430 C), low electrical conductivity to minimize MHD effects, similar thermal/fluid characteristics to water, and is chemically inert. While tritium breeding with FLiBe in traditional blankets is poor, we use MCNP neutronics analysis to show that the immersion blanket design coupled with a beryllium neutron multiplier results in TBR > 1. FLiBe is shown to be a sufficient radiation shield for the toroidal field magnets and can be used as a coolant for the vacuum vessel and divertor, allowing for a simplified single-phase, low-pressure, single-fluid cooling scheme. When coupled with a high-field compact reactor design, the immersion blanket eliminates the need for complex sector maintenance, allows the vacuum vessel to be a replaceable component, and reduces financial cost.

  16. A checklist of Indian armored spiders (Araneae, Tetrablemmidae) with the description of a new species from the Western Ghats.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, Pradeep M; Sebastian, Pothalil A

    2016-01-01

    The Oriental armored spider genus Shearella Lehtinen, 1981 is recorded for the first time from India. Detailed description and illustrations of both sexes of Shearella alii sp. nov. are given. The geographic distribution of the genus is updated. Sinamma sanya (Lin & Li, 2010) is transferred back to Shearella, and Shearella browni (Shear, 1978) back to Monoblemma Gertsch, 1941. A checklist of all Indian tetrablemmid species currently known and a distribution map of all known Shearella spp. are presented. PMID:27394275

  17. High levels of exotic armored scales on imported avocados raise concerns regarding USDA-APHIS' phytosanitary risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Morse, J G; Rugman-Jones, P F; Watson, G W; Robinson, L J; Bi, J L; Stouthamer, R

    2009-06-01

    Between 1914 and 2007, a quarantine protected California avocado, Persea americana Mill., groves from pests that might be introduced into the state along with fresh, imported avocados. Soon after Mexican avocados were first allowed entry on 1 February 2007, live specimens of several species of armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) not believed to be present in California were detected on 'Hass' avocados entering the state from Mexico. Initially, the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) prevented avocados infested with these scales from entering the state or required that they be fumigated with an approved treatment such as methyl bromide. After a Science Advisory Panel meeting in May 2007, U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS) reaffirmed its position that armored scales on shipments of fruit for consumption (including avocados) pose a "low risk" for pest establishment. In compliance with APHIS protocols, as of 18 July 2007, CDFA altered its policy to allow shipments of scale-infested avocados into the state without treatment. Here, we report on sampling Mexican avocados over an 8-mo period, September 2007-April 2008. An estimated 67 million Mexican Hass avocados entered California over this period. Based on samples from 140 trucks containing approximately 15.6% of this volume of fruit, we estimate that approximately 47.6 million live, sessile armored scales and an additional 20.1 million live eggs and crawlers were imported. We found eight probable species of armored scales in the samples, seven of these are not believed to occur in California; 89.3% of the live scales were Abgrallaspis aguacatae Evans, Watson and Miller, a recently described species. In contrast to the USDA-APHIS opinion, we believe the volume of shipments and levels of live scales they contain present a significant risk to California's US$300 million avocado industry and to other crops that might become infested by one or more of

  18. Dark-rimmed Crater and Extensive Ejecta Blanket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 10 took this picture (FDS 166840) from a distance of 63,400 kilometers (39,300 miles) about an hour after it passed under the South Pole of Mercury. The dark-rimmed crater at upper left is 67 kilometers (42 miles) in diameter. It is surrounded by an extensive ejecta blanket and exhibits a bright ray pattern, which extends into and beyond the larger crater (120 kilometers, 75 miles) to its right and near the picture's center. The dark-rimmed crater is similar to crater Tycho on Earth's moon. The center of this picture is located 33 degrees S. Lat. 158 degrees W. Long. North is to the top.

    The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.

    Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Northwestern University

  19. Helium-Cooled Refractory Alloys First Wall and Blanket Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, C.P.C.; Nygren, R.E.; Baxi, C.B.; Fogarty, P.; Ghoniem, N.; Khater, H.; McCarthy, K.; Merrill, B.; Nelson, B.; Reis, E.E.; Sharafat, S.; Schleicher, R.; Sze, D.K.; Ulrickson, M.; Willms, S.; Youssef, M.; Zinkel, S.

    1999-08-01

    Under the APEX program the He-cooled system design task is to evaluate and recommend high power density refractory alloy first wall and blanket designs and to recommend and initiate tests to address critical issues. We completed the preliminary design of a helium-cooled, W-5Re alloy, lithium breeder design and the results are reported in this paper. Many areas of the design were assessed, including material selection, helium impurity control, and mechanical, nuclear and thermal hydraulics design, and waste disposal, tritium and safety design. System study results show that at a closed cycle gas turbine (CCGT) gross thermal efficiency of 57.5%, a superconducting coil tokamak reactor, with an aspect ratio of 4, and an output power of 2 GWe, can be projected to have a cost of electricity at 54.6 mill/kWh. Critical issues were identified and we plan to continue the design on some of the critical issues during the next phase of the APEX design study.

  20. Surface property variations in Venusian fluidized ejecta blanket craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Baker, Victor R.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive study of Magellan Cycles 1 and 2 radar data from Venus reveals surface roughness and dielectric variations associated with fluidized ejecta blanket (FEB) craters that help illuminate styles of flow ejecta emplacement. This study develops new procedures of digital unit mapping and polygon-filling algorithms using Magellan synthetic aperture radar (SAR), altimetry, and radiometry data. These techniques allow the extraction of radiophysical information for FEB crater materials, nearby plains, and lava flows. Backscatter curve slopes of the FEBs studied here are consistent with surface textures that are transitional between a'a and pahoehoe-like. Average surface property values of ejecta units are relatively similar for a given crater, but are discernibly different from other craters. Individual crater ejecta reflectivity and emissivity values are relatively similar to those for the surrounding plains, which may suggest a link between plains material and ejecta dielectric properties. Increasing FEB roughness downflow are interpreted to be associated with more lava-like flows, while decreasing roughness are more similar to trends typical of gravity (pyroclastic-like or debris-like) flows. Most commonly, FEB crater flow materials exhibit transitions from proximal, lava/melt-like flow styles to distal, gravity flow-like styles. Some FEBs show more complicated behavior, however, or appear to be more dominated by dielectric differences downflow, as inferred from correlations between the data sets. Such transitions may result from changes in local topography or from overlapping of flow lobes during FEB emplacement.

  1. Materials development for ITER shielding and test blanket in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. M.; Wu, J. H.; Liu, X.; Wang, P. H.; Wang, Z. H.; Li, Z. N.; Wang, X. S.; Zhang, P. C.; Zhang, N. M.; Fu, H. Y.; Liu, D. H.

    2011-10-01

    China is a member of the ITER program and is developing her own materials for its shielding and test blanket modules. The materials include vacuum-hot-pressing (VHP) Be, CuCrZr alloy, 316L(N) and China low activation ferritic/martensitic (CLF-1) steels. Joining technologies including Be/Cu hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and electron beam (EB) weldability of 316L(N) were investigated. Chinese VHP-Be showed good properties, with BeO content and ductility that satisfy the ITER requirements. Be/Cu mock-ups were fabricated for Be qualification tests at simulated ITER vertical displacement event (VDE) and heat flux cycling conditions. Fine microstructure and good mechanical strength of the CuCrZr alloy were achieved by a pre-forging treatment, while the weldability of 316L(N) by EB was demonstrated for welding depths varying from 5 to 80 mm. Fine microstructure, high strength, and good ductility were achieved in CLF-1 steel by an optimized normalizing, tempering and aging procedure.

  2. Progress and critical issues for IFE blanket and chamber research

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, M.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Latkowski, J.F.; Logan, B.G.; Meier, W.R.; Moir, R.W.; Nobile, A.; Peterson, P.F.; Petti, D.; Schultz, K.R.; Tillack, M.S.

    1999-06-23

    Advances in high gain target designs for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE), and the initiation of construction of large megajoule-class laser facilities in the U.S. (National Ignition Facility) and France (Laser-Megajoule) capable of testing the requirements for inertial fusion ignition and propagating burn, have improved the prospects for IFE. Accordingly, there have recently been modest increases in the US fusion research program related to the feasibility of IFE. These research areas include heavy-ion accelerators, Krypton-Fluoride (KrF) gas lasers, diode-pumped, solid-state (DPSSL) lasers, IFE target designs for higher gains, feasibility of low cost IFE target fabrication and accurate injection, and long-lasting IFE fusion chambers and final optics. Since several studies of conceptual IFE power plant and driver designs were completed in 1992-1996 [1-5], U.S. research in the IFE blanket, chamber, and target technology areas has focused on the critical issues relating to the feasibility of IFE concepts towards the goal of achieving economically-competitive and environmentally-attractive fusion energy. This paper discusses the critical issues in these areas, and the approaches taken to address these issues. The U.S. research in these areas, called IFE Chamber and Target Technologies, is coordinated through the Virtual Laboratory for Technology (VLT) formed by the Department of Energy in December 1998.

  3. Vacuum Permeator Analysis for Extraction of Tritium from DCLL Blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Humrickhouse, Paul Weston; Merrill, Brad Johnson

    2014-11-01

    It is envisioned that tritium will be extracted from DCLL blankets using a vacuum permeator. We derive here an analytical solution for the extraction efficiency of a permeator tube, which is a function of only two dimensionless numbers: one that indicates whether radial transport is limited in the PbLi or in the solid membrane, and another that is the ratio of axial and radial transport times in the PbLi. The permeator efficiency is maximized by decreasing the velocity and tube diameter, and increasing the tube length. This is true regardless of the mass transport correlation used; we review several here and find that they differ little, and the choice of correlation is not a source of significant uncertainty here. The PbLi solubility, on the other hand, is a large source of uncertainty, and we identify upper and lower bounds from the literature data. Under the most optimistic assumptions, we find that a ferritic steel permeator operating at 550 °C will need to be at least an order of magnitude larger in volume than previous conceptual designs using niobium and operating at higher temperatures.

  4. A recurrent regulatory change underlying altered expression and Wnt response of the stickleback armor plates gene EDA

    PubMed Central

    O'Brown, Natasha M; Summers, Brian R; Jones, Felicity C; Brady, Shannon D; Kingsley, David M

    2015-01-01

    Armor plate changes in sticklebacks are a classic example of repeated adaptive evolution. Previous studies identified ectodysplasin (EDA) gene as the major locus controlling recurrent plate loss in freshwater fish, though the causative DNA alterations were not known. Here we show that freshwater EDA alleles have cis-acting regulatory changes that reduce expression in developing plates and spines. An identical T → G base pair change is found in EDA enhancers of divergent low-plated fish. Recreation of the T → G change in a marine enhancer strongly reduces expression in posterior armor plates. Bead implantation and cell culture experiments show that Wnt signaling strongly activates the marine EDA enhancer, and the freshwater T → G change reduces Wnt responsiveness. Thus parallel evolution of low-plated sticklebacks has occurred through a shared DNA regulatory change, which reduces the sensitivity of an EDA enhancer to Wnt signaling, and alters expression in developing armor plates while preserving expression in other tissues. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05290.001 PMID:25629660

  5. Puget Sound Shorelines and the Impacts of Armoring-Proceedings of a State of the Science Workshop, May 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    : Shipman, Hugh; Dethier, Megan N.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Fresh, Kurt L.; Dinicola, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    The widespread extent and continued construction of seawalls and bulkheads on Puget Sound's beaches has emerged as a significant issue in shoreline management and coastal restoration in the region. Concerns about the impacts of shoreline armoring and managing the potential risks to coastal property are in many ways similar to those in other places, but Puget Sound also poses unique challenges related to its sheltered setting, glacially formed geology, rich estuarine ecology, and historical development pattern. The effects of armoring on shorelines are complex, involving both physical and biological science and requiring consideration of the cumulative impacts of small-scale activities over large scales of space and time. In addition, the issue is controversial, as it often places strongly held private interests in protecting shoreline property against broad public mandates to preserve shorelines for public uses and to protect environmental resources. Communities making difficult decisions about regulating shoreline activities and prioritizing restoration projects need to be informed by the best science available. To address these issues, a scientific workshop was convened in May 2009, specifically to bring local and national experts together to review the state of the science regarding the physical and biological impacts of armoring on sheltered shorelines such as those of Puget Sound.

  6. Radiator Heat Pipes with Carbon-Carbon Fins and Armor for Space Nuclear Reactor Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tournier, Jean-Michel; El-Genk, Mohamed

    2005-02-01

    Technologies for Space Reactor Power Systems are being developed to enable future NASA's missions early next decade to explore the farthest planets in the solar system. The choices of the energy conversion technology for these power systems require radiator temperatures that span a wide range, from 350 K to 800 K. Heat pipes with carbon-carbon fins and armor are the preferred choice for these radiators because of inherent redundancy and efficient spreading and rejection of waste heat into space at a relatively small mass penalty. The performance results and specific masses of radiator heat pipes with cesium, rubidium, and potassium working fluids are presented and compared in this paper. The heat pipes operate at 40% of the prevailing operation limit (a design margin of 60%), typically the sonic and/or capillary limit. The thickness of the carbon-carbon fins is 0.5 mm but the width is varied, and the evaporator and condenser sections are 0.15 and 1.35 m long, respectively. The 400-mesh wick and the heat pipe thin metal wall are titanium, and the carbon-carbon armor (~ 2 mm-thick) provides both structural strength and protection against meteoroids impacts. The cross-section area of the D-shaped radiator heat pipes is optimized for minimum mass. Because of the low vapor pressure of potassium and its very high Figure-Of-Merit (FOM), radiator potassium heat pipes are the best performers at temperatures above 800 K, where the sonic limit is no longer an issue. On the other hand, rubidium heat pipes are limited by the sonic limit below 762 K and by the capillary limit at higher temperature. The transition temperature between these two limits for the cesium heat pipes occurs at a lower temperature of 724 K, since cesium has lower FOM than rubidium. The present results show that with a design margin of 60%, the cesium heat pipes radiator is best at 680-720 K, the rubidium heat pipes radiator is best at 720-800 K, while the potassium heat pipes radiator is the best

  7. Radiator Heat Pipes with Carbon-Carbon Fins and Armor for Space Nuclear Reactor Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tournier, Jean-Michel; El-Genk, Mohamed

    2005-02-06

    Technologies for Space Reactor Power Systems are being developed to enable future NASA's missions early next decade to explore the farthest planets in the solar system. The choices of the energy conversion technology for these power systems require radiator temperatures that span a wide range, from 350 K to 800 K. Heat pipes with carbon-carbon fins and armor are the preferred choice for these radiators because of inherent redundancy and efficient spreading and rejection of waste heat into space at a relatively small mass penalty. The performance results and specific masses of radiator heat pipes with cesium, rubidium, and potassium working fluids are presented and compared in this paper. The heat pipes operate at 40% of the prevailing operation limit (a design margin of 60%), typically the sonic and/or capillary limit. The thickness of the carbon-carbon fins is 0.5 mm but the width is varied, and the evaporator and condenser sections are 0.15 and 1.35 m long, respectively. The 400-mesh wick and the heat pipe thin metal wall are titanium, and the carbon-carbon armor ({approx} 2 mm-thick) provides both structural strength and protection against meteoroids impacts. The cross-section area of the D-shaped radiator heat pipes is optimized for minimum mass. Because of the low vapor pressure of potassium and its very high Figure-Of-Merit (FOM), radiator potassium heat pipes are the best performers at temperatures above 800 K, where the sonic limit is no longer an issue. On the other hand, rubidium heat pipes are limited by the sonic limit below 762 K and by the capillary limit at higher temperature. The transition temperature between these two limits for the cesium heat pipes occurs at a lower temperature of 724 K, since cesium has lower FOM than rubidium. The present results show that with a design margin of 60%, the cesium heat pipes radiator is best at 680-720 K, the rubidium heat pipes radiator is best at 720-800 K, while the potassium heat pipes radiator is the best

  8. Grain velocity of bedload movement in an armored non-uniform mobile bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.

    2015-12-01

    The velocity of bedload particles, which directly reflects the interaction between flow and sediment, is one of the important parameters to predict sediment transport rate, is also one of the fundamental problems for sediment transport. Many excellent works have been accomplished in this filed. However, the existing researches are mostly based on the artificial fixed bed, few moveable bed studies are focus on uniform sediment bed, these boundary conditions are different from a real river. In this research, an experiment on non-uniform sediment with an armored, moveable bed were carried out in a flume, the range of bed material is from 0.2mm to 20mm. With a special hanging glass and illumination system, the motion particles in the bed were clearly shoot on top of the flume by a video camera, avoiding the interference of waves at the flow surface. The speed of the camera is 50 frames per second. About 7000 unique coordinates of moving particles were determined from 3000 frames of successive pictures, the particle velocity of longitudinal and crosswise directions were obtained from the coordinates. The results show that, the probability density distribution of grain velocities of both directions are similar to that in the uniform sediment, which have an exponent decay trend, whereas the value of cross velocity of particles is clearly greater than that in the uniform sediment condition. Negative particle velocity was recognized in the experiment, it is shown that these negative may occur at two conditions, one is the backflow of fine particles behind the coarser particles, and the other is a state of movement change, such as a particle from static state to motion or vice versa. Furthermore, the particle movement was strongly affected by the arrangement of local coarse particles. The influence of coarser particles to the movement of fine particles also identified by two opposite effects, one is the acceleration effects in a 'tunnel' between pair of series particles, the

  9. Influences on Bed Sorting and Armoring in an Upland Gravel-Cobble Bed River, Middle Fork John Day River, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    The Middle Fork is an unconfined to partly confined upland river with channel length of 34 km, drainage area of 250-850 km2, and channel gradients of 0.004 to 0.006 in the study area. Geology is dominated by Tertiary volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks that yield abundant coarse clasts. Surface and subsurface bed material was sampled volumetrically at twenty-five sites. The textural types range from gravelly cobbles to sandy cobbly gravels, sand content is low (2 to 13%), mud content is very low, and sorting is poor to very poor. Generally the surface layer is an open framework gravel or cobble, while the subsurface layer is a filled or partially filled framework gravel or cobble. Despite an armored appearance, only 20% of the sites are armored using the standard armor ratio (surface D50/subsurface D50). While surface layers are not coarser than their subsurface layers in terms of the median or coarse end of the distribution, they are coarser in terms of fines (ratios based on D25, D16, % sand), suggesting that alternatives to the D50armor ratio might be useful. Multivariate analysis of size fraction data reveals four distinct groups of samples, distinguished mainly by differences in proportions of coarse to fine gravels, and in abundance of sand. While one group comprises only surface samples and another subsurface samples, two of the groups are mixed. One goal of the project is to evaluate the effects of land use history on bed material characteristics and mobility. Sediment characteristics were examined in relation to distance downstream, geology, relation to debris-flow sources, land use history, and other potential influences. There are no geologic associations or downstream trends in fining or other grain size parameters. Differences in land use history, such as former dredged-mined reaches and reaches with recent restoration projects also do not explain patterns of armoring or other sediment characteristics. High variability within each reach suggests that

  10. Neutronics Evaluation of Lithium-Based Ternary Alloys in IFE Blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Jolodosky, A.; Fratoni, M.

    2015-09-22

    Lithium is often the preferred choice as breeder and coolant in fusion blankets as it offers excellent heat transfer and corrosion properties, and most importantly, it has a very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and exacerbates plant safety concerns. For this reason, over the years numerous blanket concepts have been proposed with the scope of reducing concerns associated with lithium. The European helium cooled pebble bed breeding blanket (HCPB) physically confines lithium within ceramic pebbles. The pebbles reside within a low activation martensitic ferritic steel structure and are cooled by helium. The blanket is composed of the tritium breeding lithium ceramic pebbles and neutron multiplying beryllium pebbles. Other blanket designs utilize lead to lower chemical reactivity; LiPb alone can serve as a breeder, coolant, neutron multiplier, and tritium carrier. Blankets employing LiPb coolants alongside silicon carbide structural components can achieve high plant efficiency, low afterheat, and low operation pressures. This alloy can also be used alongside of helium such as in the dual-coolant lead-lithium concept (DCLL); helium is utilized to cool the first wall and structural components made up of low-activation ferritic steel, whereas lithium-lead (LiPb) acts as a self-cooled breeder in the inner channels of the blanket. The helium-cooled steel and lead-lithium alloy are separated by flow channel inserts (usually made out of silicon carbide) which thermally insulate the self-cooled breeder region from the helium cooled steel walls. This creates a LiPb breeder with a much higher exit temperature than the steel which increases the power cycle efficiency and also lowers the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop [6]. Molten salt blankets with a mixture of lithium, beryllium, and fluorides (FLiBe) offer good tritium breeding

  11. SIRE (sight-integrated ranging equipment): an eyesafe laser rangefinder for armored vehicle fire control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeter, Howard S.; Gudmundson, Glen A.; Woodall, Milton A., II

    1991-04-01

    The Sight Integrated Ranging Equipment (SIRE) incorporates an eyesafe laser rangefinder into the M-36 periscope used in tactical armored vehicles, such as the Commando Stingray light tank. The SIRE unit provides crucial range data simultaneously to the gunner and fire control computer. This capability greatly reduces 'time-to-fire', improves first-round hit probability, and increases the overall effectiveness of the vehicle under actual and simulated battlefield conditions. The SIRE can provide target range up to 10-km, with an accuracy of 10-meters. The key advantage of the SIRE over similar laser rangefinder systems is that it uses erbium:glass as the active lasing medium. With a nominal output wavelength of 1.54-microns, the SIRE can produce sufficient peak power to penetrate long atmospheric paths (even in the presence of obscurants), while remaining completely eyesafe under all operating conditions. The SIRE is the first eyesafe vehicle-based system to combine this level of accuracy, maximum range capability, and fire control interface. It simultaneously improves the accuracy and confidence of the operator, and eliminates the ocular hazard issues typically encountered with laser rangefinder devices.

  12. Armoring, stability, and transport driven by fluid flow over a granular bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Benjamin; Kudrolli, Arshad

    2015-03-01

    We discuss experiments investigating the evolution of a granular bed by a fluid flow as a function of shear rate at the fluid-bed interface. This is a model system to investigate a variety of physical examples including wind blowing over sand, sediment transport in rivers, tidal flows interacting with beaches, flows in slurry pipelines, and sand proppants in hydraulic fracturing. In order to examine the onset and entrainment of the granular bed under steady state conditions, we have constructed a novel conical rheometer system which allows a variable amount of shear to be applied to the granular bed. The grain-fluid system is index matched so that we can visualize the grains away from the sides as well as visualize the fluid flow above and below the interface by using fluorescent tracer particles. We demonstrate that the onset of erosion arises as particles rotate out of their stable position highlighting the importance of torque balance to onset. We find significant armoring of the bed, as the bed is sheared by the fluid flow. Above onset, at least three distinct regions of bed mobility can be found. We will discuss the measured integrated granular flux as a function of shear rate and compare them with empirical laws found in the geophysical literature. Supported by NSF Grant Number CBET 1335928.

  13. Characterization of vibration and noise exposure in Canadian Forces armored vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Ann M.; Borland, Matthew J.; Abel, Sharon M.

    2005-09-01

    A study to characterize the vibration and noise exposure in several Canadian Forces (CF) armored vehicles is in progress. Measurements of whole-body vibration and ambient noise levels are being made in the LAV III, Bison, Coyote, and M113 vehicles at three different positions: driver, crew commander, and passenger bench (or navigator seat in the case of the Coyote). The measurements are being made while the vehicles are idling, driven over rough terrain, and driven at a high speed on paved highways. There are several standards that provide guidance on the measurement and assessment of whole-body vibration, but they are difficult to implement in practice, particularly in adverse environments. The whole-body vibration measurements in this study are particularly difficult to interpret in the case of the crew commander, who often stands on the seat, and the passenger, who is seated but unrestrained by a seatbelt. The preliminary results-suggest, that according to the International Organization for Standardization guidelines (ISO 2631-1:1997), there may be potential health risks for the driver and passenger after driving on rough terrain for less than 10 min. Noise levels were as high as 100 dBA during high-speed highway driving.

  14. Combat body armor and injuries to the head, face, and neck region: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tong, Darryl; Beirne, Ross

    2013-04-01

    There has been a reported increase in combat-related head, face, and neck (HFN) injuries among service personnel wearing combat body armor (CBA) that have deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan. Modern ceramic plate CBA has decreased the incidence of fatal-penetrating injuries to the torso but offers no protection to the limbs and face which remain exposed to gunshot wounds and fragments from explosive devices. The aim of this review was to systematically summarize the literature reporting on HFN injuries sustained by combat personnel wearing CBA and to highlight recommendations for increased protection to the facial region. Three major contributing factors were identified with this proportional increase in HFN injuries, namely the increased survivability of soldiers because of CBA, fragments injuries from explosive devices, and the lack of protection to the face and limbs. There appears to be no evidence to suggest that by virtue of wearing CBA the likelihood of sustaining an HFN injury increases as such, but a higher incidence of fragment injuries to the HFN region may be due to the more common use of improvised explosive devicess and other explosive devices. Further development of lightweight protection for the face is needed. PMID:23707828

  15. Challenges of Engineering Grain Boundaries in Boron-Based Armor Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Shawn P.; Hernandez-Rivera, Efrain; Behler, Kristopher D.; Synowczynski-Dunn, Jennifer; Tschopp, Mark A.

    2016-06-01

    Boron-based ceramics are appealing for lightweight applications in both vehicle and personnel protection, stemming from their combination of high hardness, high elastic modulus, and low density as compared to other ceramics and metal alloys. However, the performance of these ceramics and ceramic composites is lacking because of their inherent low fracture toughness and reduced strength under high-velocity threats. The objective of the present article is to briefly discuss both the challenges and the state of the art in experimental and computational approaches for engineering grain boundaries in boron-based armor ceramics, focusing mainly on boron carbide (B4C) and boron suboxide (B6O). The experimental challenges involve processing these ceramics at full density while trying to promote microstructure features such as intergranular films to improve toughness during shock. Many of the computational challenges for boron-based ceramics stem from their complex crystal structure which has hitherto complicated the exploration of grain boundaries and interfaces. However, bridging the gaps between experimental and computational studies at multiple scales to engineer grain boundaries in these boron-based ceramics may hold the key to maturing these material systems for lightweight defense applications.

  16. Environmental assessment of depleted uranium used in military armor-piercing rounds in terrestrial systems.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jacob K; Coleman, Jessica G; Brasfield, Sandra M; Bednar, Anthony J; Ang, Choo Y

    2014-06-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) from the military testing and use of armor-piercing kinetic energy penetrators has been shown to accumulate in soils; however, little is known about the toxicity of DU geochemical species created through corrosion or weathering. The purpose of the present study was to assess the toxic effects and bioaccumulation potential of field-collected DU oxides to the model terrestrial invertebrates Eisenia fetida (earthworm) and Porcellio scaber (isopod). Earthworm studies were acute (72 h) dermal exposures or 28-d spiked soil exposures that used noncontaminated field-collected soils from the US Army's Yuma and Aberdeen Proving Grounds. Endpoints assessed in earthworm testing included bioaccumulation, growth, reproduction, behavior (soil avoidance), and cellular stress (neutral red uptake in coelomocytes). Isopod testing used spiked food, and endpoints assessed included bioaccumulation, survival, and feeding behavior. Concentration-dependent bioaccumulation of DU in earthworms was observed with a maximum bioaccumulation factor of 0.35; however, no significant reductions in survival or impacts to cellular stress were observed. Reproduction lowest-observed-effect concentrations (LOEC) of 158 mg/kg and 96 mg/kg were observed in Yuma Proving Ground and a Mississippi reference soil (Karnac Ferry), respectively. Earthworm avoidance of contaminated soils was not observed in 48-h soil avoidance studies; however, isopods were shown to avoid food spiked with 12.7% by weight DU oxides through digital tracking studies. PMID:24549573

  17. A performance measure based on principal component analysis for ceramic armor integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollins, D. K., Sr.; Stiehl, C. K.; Kotz, K.; Beverlin, L.; Brasche, L.

    2012-05-01

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has been applied to thru-transmission ultrasound data taken on ceramic armor. PCA will help find and accentuate differences within the tile, making it easier to find differences. First, the thru-transmission ultrasound data was analyzed. As the ultrasound transducer moves along the surface of the tile, the signal from the sound wave is measured as it reaches the receiver, giving a time signal at each tile location. The information from this time signal is dissected into ten equal segments, and the maximum peak is measured within each segment, or gate. This gives ten measurements at each tile location that correspond to tile depth An image can be made for each of the ten gate measurements. PCA was applied to this data for all of the tile samples, and a performance measure was developed from the loading information. A performance measure was developed and tested on six samples from each of the panels. When these performance measures are compared to the results of the ballistics tests, it can be seen that the performance measure correlates well to the penetration velocities found from the ballistics tests.

  18. Combat body armor and injuries to the head, face, and neck region: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tong, Darryl; Beirne, Ross

    2013-04-01

    There has been a reported increase in combat-related head, face, and neck (HFN) injuries among service personnel wearing combat body armor (CBA) that have deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan. Modern ceramic plate CBA has decreased the incidence of fatal-penetrating injuries to the torso but offers no protection to the limbs and face which remain exposed to gunshot wounds and fragments from explosive devices. The aim of this review was to systematically summarize the literature reporting on HFN injuries sustained by combat personnel wearing CBA and to highlight recommendations for increased protection to the facial region. Three major contributing factors were identified with this proportional increase in HFN injuries, namely the increased survivability of soldiers because of CBA, fragments injuries from explosive devices, and the lack of protection to the face and limbs. There appears to be no evidence to suggest that by virtue of wearing CBA the likelihood of sustaining an HFN injury increases as such, but a higher incidence of fragment injuries to the HFN region may be due to the more common use of improvised explosive devicess and other explosive devices. Further development of lightweight protection for the face is needed.

  19. Design of the PDX Tokamak wall armor and inner limiter system

    SciTech Connect

    Kugel, H.W.; Ulrickson, M.

    1981-08-01

    The inner wall protective plates for the PDX Tokamak are designed to absorb 8 MW of neutral deuterium beam power at maximum power densities of 3 kW/cm/sup 2/ for pulse lengths of 0.5 sec. Preliminary studies indicate that the design could survive several pulses of 1 sec duration. The design consists of a tile and mounting plate structure. The mounting plates are water cooled to allow short duty cycles and beam calorimetry. The temperature and flow of the coolant is measured to obtain the injected power. A thermocouple array on the tiles provides beam position and power density profiles. Several material combinations for the tiles were subjected to thermal tests using both electron and neutral beams, and titanium carbide coated graphite was selected as the tile material. The heat transfer coefficient of the tile backing plate structure was measured to determine the maximum pulse rate allowable. The design of the armor system allows the structure to be used as a neutral beam power diagnostic and as an inner plasma limiter. The electrical and cooling systems external to the vacuum vessel are discussed.

  20. Environmental assessment of depleted uranium used in military armor-piercing rounds in terrestrial systems.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Jacob K; Coleman, Jessica G; Brasfield, Sandra M; Bednar, Anthony J; Ang, Choo Y

    2014-06-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) from the military testing and use of armor-piercing kinetic energy penetrators has been shown to accumulate in soils; however, little is known about the toxicity of DU geochemical species created through corrosion or weathering. The purpose of the present study was to assess the toxic effects and bioaccumulation potential of field-collected DU oxides to the model terrestrial invertebrates Eisenia fetida (earthworm) and Porcellio scaber (isopod). Earthworm studies were acute (72 h) dermal exposures or 28-d spiked soil exposures that used noncontaminated field-collected soils from the US Army's Yuma and Aberdeen Proving Grounds. Endpoints assessed in earthworm testing included bioaccumulation, growth, reproduction, behavior (soil avoidance), and cellular stress (neutral red uptake in coelomocytes). Isopod testing used spiked food, and endpoints assessed included bioaccumulation, survival, and feeding behavior. Concentration-dependent bioaccumulation of DU in earthworms was observed with a maximum bioaccumulation factor of 0.35; however, no significant reductions in survival or impacts to cellular stress were observed. Reproduction lowest-observed-effect concentrations (LOEC) of 158 mg/kg and 96 mg/kg were observed in Yuma Proving Ground and a Mississippi reference soil (Karnac Ferry), respectively. Earthworm avoidance of contaminated soils was not observed in 48-h soil avoidance studies; however, isopods were shown to avoid food spiked with 12.7% by weight DU oxides through digital tracking studies.

  1. Effect of armor and carrying load on body balance and leg muscle function.

    PubMed

    Park, Huiju; Branson, Donna; Kim, Seonyoung; Warren, Aric; Jacobson, Bert; Petrova, Adriana; Peksoz, Semra; Kamenidis, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of weight and weight distribution of body armor and load carriage on static body balance and leg muscle function. A series of human performance tests were conducted with seven male, healthy, right-handed military students in seven garment conditions with varying weight and weight distributions. Static body balance was assessed by analyzing the trajectory of center of plantar pressure and symmetry of weight bearing in the feet. Leg muscle functions were assessed by analyzing the peak electromyography amplitude of four selected leg muscles during walking. Results of this study showed that uneven weight distribution of garment and load beyond an additional 9 kg impaired static body balance as evidenced by increased sway of center of plantar pressure and asymmetry of weight bearing in the feet. Added weight on non-dominant side of the body created greater impediment to static balance. Increased garment weight also elevated peak EMG amplitude in the rectus femoris to maintain body balance and in the medial gastrocnemius to increase propulsive force. Negative impacts on balance and leg muscle function with increased carrying loads, particularly with an uneven weight distribution, should be stressed to soldiers, designers, and sports enthusiasts.

  2. Oxidation and Volatilization from Tungsten Brush High Heat Flux Armor During High Temperature Steam Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Smolik, Galen Richard; Pawelko, Robert James; Anderl, Robert Andrew; Petti, David Andrew

    2000-05-01

    Tungsten brush accommodates thermal stresses and high heat flux in fusion reactor components such as plasma facing surfaces or armor. However, inherently higher surface areas are introduced with the brush design. We have tested a specific design of tungsten brush in steam between 500 and 1100°C. Hydrogen generation and tungsten volatilization rates were determined to address fusion safety issues. The brush prepared from 3.2-mm diameter welding rods had a packing density of 85 percent. We found that both hydrogen generation and tungsten volatilization from brush, fixtured to represent a unit within a larger component, were less than projections based upon the total integrated surface area (TSA). Steam access and the escape of hydrogen and volatile oxide from void spaces within the brush are restricted compared to specimens with more direct diffusion pathways to the test environment. Hydrogen generation rates from restrained specimens based on normal surface area (NSA) remain about five times higher than rates based on total surface areas from specimens with direct steam access. Volatilization rates from restrained specimens based upon normal surface area (NSA) were only 50 percent higher than our historic cumulative maximum flux plot (CMFP) for tungsten. This study has shown that hydrogen generation and tungsten volatilization from brush do not scale according to predictions with previously determined rates, but in fact, with higher packing density could approach those from flat surfaces.

  3. Development of aluminum nitride: A new low-cost armor. Final report, August 1988-March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Rafaniello, W.

    1992-12-01

    High performance and low cost are the two essential requirements necessary for advanced ceramics to be considered for incorporation into future armor systems. This work involved a comprehensive program, focused on aluminum nitride based ceramics, which examined the critical ceramic processing parameters and studied the impact these modifications had on ballistic performance. The accomplished objective was to demonstrate that low-cost fabrication methods could be utilized to produce high performance AlN based ceramics. Using a spray-dry, dry-press, pressureless sintering process, thick tiles were produced with ballistic performance equivalent to hot-pressed AlN materials. While penetration resistance against the long rod penetrator (LRP) was the ultimate measure of performance, several other ballistic tests were also performed. Ballistic limits were obtained for ceramic targets with a .30 caliber AP simulant and penetration tests were performed against .50 caliber APDS and SLAP rounds. These tests were used as screening tools to guide AIN powder and sintering aid optimization.

  4. A passively-safe fusion reactor blanket with helium coolant and steel structure

    SciTech Connect

    Crosswait, K.M.

    1994-04-01

    Helium is attractive for use as a fusion blanket coolant for a number of reasons. It is neutronically and chemically inert, nonmagnetic, and will not change phase during any off-normal or accident condition. A significant disadvantage of helium, however, is its low density and volumetric heat capacity. This disadvantage manifests itself most clearly during undercooling accident conditions such as a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) or a loss of flow accident (LOFA). This thesis describes a new helium-cooled tritium breeding blanket concept which performs significantly better during such accidents than current designs. The proposed blanket uses reduced-activation ferritic steel as a structural material and is designed for neutron wall loads exceeding 4 MW/m{sup 2}. The proposed geometry is based on the nested-shell concept developed by Wong, but some novel features are used to reduce the severity of the first wall temperature excursion. These features include the following: (1) A ``beryllium-joint`` concept is introduced, which allows solid beryllium slabs to be used as a thermal conduction path from the first wall to the cooler portions of the blanket. The joint concept allows for significant swelling of the beryllium (10 percent or more) without developing large stresses in the blanket structure. (2) Natural circulation of the coolant in the water-cooled shield is used to maintain shield temperatures below 100 degrees C, thus maintaining a heat sink close to the blanket during the accident. This ensures the long-term passive safety of the blanket.

  5. ITER Test Blanket Module Error Field Simulation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, M. J.

    2010-11-01

    Recent experiments at DIII-D used an active-coil mock-up to investigate effects of magnetic error fields similar to those expected from two ferromagnetic Test Blanket Modules (TBMs) in one ITER equatorial port. The largest and most prevalent observed effect was plasma toroidal rotation slowing across the entire radial profile, up to 60% in H-mode when the mock-up local ripple at the plasma was ˜4 times the local ripple expected in front of ITER TBMs. Analysis showed the slowing to be consistent with non-resonant braking by the mock-up field. There was no evidence of strong electromagnetic braking by resonant harmonics. These results are consistent with the near absence of resonant helical harmonics in the TBM field. Global particle and energy confinement in H-mode decreased by <20% for the maximum mock-up ripple, but <5% at the local ripple expected in ITER. These confinement reductions may be linked with the large velocity reductions. TBM field effects were small in L-mode but increased with plasma beta. The L-H power threshold was unaffected within error bars. The mock-up field increased plasma sensitivity to mode locking by a known n=1 test field (n = toroidal harmonic number). In H-mode the increased locking sensitivity was from TBM torque slowing plasma rotation. At low beta, locked mode tolerance was fully recovered by re-optimizing the conventional DIII-D ``I-coils'' empirical compensation of n=1 errors in the presence of the TBM mock-up field. Empirical error compensation in H-mode should be addressed in future experiments. Global loss of injected neutral beam fast ions was within error bars, but 1 MeV fusion triton loss may have increased. The many DIII-D mock-up results provide important benchmarks for models needed to predict effects of TBMs in ITER.

  6. Ultra-low-mass flexible planar solar arrays using 50-micron-thick solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costogue, E. N.; Rayl, G.

    1978-01-01

    A conceptual design study has been completed which has shown the feasibility of ultra-low-mass planar solar arrays with specific power of 200 watts/kilogram. The beginning of life (BOL) power output of the array designs would be 10 kW at 1 astronomical unit (AU) and a 55C deg operating temperature. Two designs were studied: a retractable rollout design and a non-retractable fold-out. The designs employed a flexible low-mass blanket and low-mass structures. The blanket utilized 2 x 2 cm high-efficiency (13.5% at 28C deg AM0), ultra-thin (50 micron), silicon solar cells protected by thin (75 micron) plastic encapsulants. The structural design utilized the 'V'-stiffened approach which allows a lower mass boom to be used. In conjunction with the conceptual design, modules using the thin cells and plastic encapsulant were designed and fabricated.

  7. Design and technology development of solid breeder blanket cooled by supercritical water in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enoeda, M.; Kosaku, Y.; Hatano, T.; Kuroda, T.; Miki, N.; Honma, T.; Akiba, M.; Konishi, S.; Nakamura, H.; Kawamura, Y.; Sato, S.; Furuya, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Okano, K.

    2003-12-01

    This paper presents results of conceptual design activities and associated R&D of a solid breeder blanket system for demonstration of power generation fusion reactors (DEMO blanket) cooled by supercritical water. The Fusion Council of Japan developed the long-term research and development programme of the blanket in 1999. To make the fusion DEMO reactor more attractive, a higher thermal efficiency of more than 40% was strongly recommended. To meet this requirement, the design of the DEMO fusion reactor was carried out. In conjunction with the reactor design, a new concept of a solid breeder blanket cooled by supercritical water was proposed and design and technology development of a solid breeder blanket cooled by supercritical water was performed. By thermo-mechanical analyses of the first wall, the tresca stress was evaluated to be 428 MPa, which clears the 3Sm value of F82H. By thermal and nuclear analyses of the breeder layers, it was shown that a net TBR of more than 1.05 can be achieved. By thermal analysis of the supercritical water power plant, it was shown that a thermal efficiency of more than 41% is achievable. The design work included design of the coolant flow pattern for blanket modules, module structure design, thermo-mechanical analysis and neutronics analysis of the blanket module, and analyses of the tritium inventory and permeation. Preliminary integration of the design of a solid breeder blanket cooled by supercritical water was achieved in this study. In parallel with the design activities, engineering R&D was conducted covering all necessary issues, such as development of structural materials, tritium breeding materials, and neutron multiplier materials; neutronics experiments and analyses; and development of the blanket module fabrication technology. Upon developing the fabrication technology for the first wall and box structure, a hot isostatic pressing bonded F82H first wall mock-up with embedded rectangular cooling channels was

  8. Technical evaluation of major candidate blanket systems for fusion power reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tone, Tatsuzo; Seki, Masahiro; Minato, Akio

    1987-03-01

    The key functions required for tritium breeding blankets for a fusion power reactor are ; (1) self-sufficient tritium breeding, (2) in-situ tritium recovery and low tritium inventory, (3) high temperature cooling giving a high efficiency of electricity generation and (4) thermo-mechanical reliability and simplified remote maintenance to obtain high plant availability. Blanket performance is substantially governed by materials selection. Major options of structure/breeder/coolant/neutron multiplier materials considered for the present design study are PCA/Li/sub 2/O/H/sub 2/O/Be, Mo-alloy/Li/sub 2/O/He/Be, Mo-alloy/LiAlO/sub 2//He/Be, V-alloy/Li/Li/none, and Mo-alloy/Li/He/none. In addition, remote maintenance of blankets, tritium recovery system, heat transport and energy conversion have been investigated. In this report, technological problems and critical R and D issues for power reactor blanket development are identified and a comparison of major candidate blanket concepts is discussed in terms of the present materials data base, economic performance, prospects for future improvements, and engineering feasibility and difficulties based on the results obtained from individual design studies. improvements, and engineering feasibility and difficulties based on the results obtained from individual design studies.

  9. Initial effects of light armored vehicle use on grassland vegetation at Fort Lewis, Washington.

    PubMed

    Foster, Jeffrey R; Ayers, Paul D; Lombardi-Przybylowicz, Angela M; Simmons, Katie

    2006-12-01

    Sustainable use of military training lands requires understanding and prediction of the effects of military vehicles on vegetation. We examined the initial impacts of an 8-wheeled, light armored vehicle (LAV) on grassland vegetation at Fort Lewis, Washington. The LAV drove replicate spiral paths at two starting velocities, 10.3 and 5.1 m s(-1). The disturbed width (width of ground impacted by the tires) increased as turning radius decreased, but was unaffected by vehicle velocity. An inverse-exponential model predicted disturbed width (r(2)=0.68) at all turning radii for both velocities combined. In low-velocity spirals, and for straight tracking (turning radius>40 m) and moderate turns (radius 20-40 m) in high-velocity spirals, all vegetation damage was imprint (plants flattened by wheels). During sharp (radius <20 m), high-velocity turns, most or all of the disturbed width was scraped free of surface vegetation and soil, which was piled to the outside of each tire track. Total plant cover (all species) was not affected by track curvature in low-velocity spirals, but decreased in the order straight tracking>moderate turns>sharp turns in high-velocity spirals. In low-velocity spirals, post-tracking cover of several plant growth forms (non-native species, perennial species, sod-forming grasses) was similar to pre-tracking cover, but in high-velocity spirals, post-tracking cover of these growth forms decreased in the order straight > or =moderate=sharp. Cover of native species and forbs decreased more in high- than in low-velocity spirals, but was unaffected by curvature. Pre- and post-tracking cover of annual species, bunchgrasses, and shrubs was < or =3%. The most severe vegetation damage caused by operation of wheeled LAVs on grasslands is associated with sharp, high-velocity turns.

  10. Neutronics Analysis of Water-Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket for CFETR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qingjun; Li, Jia; Liu, Songlin

    2016-07-01

    In order to investigate the nuclear response to the water-cooled ceramic breeder blanket models for CFETR, a detailed 3D neutronics model with 22.5° torus sector was developed based on the integrated geometry of CFETR, including heterogeneous WCCB blanket models, shield, divertor, vacuum vessel, toroidal and poloidal magnets, and ports. Using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code MCNP5 and IAEA Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library FENDL2.1, the neutronics analyses were performed. The neutron wall loading, tritium breeding ratio, the nuclear heating, neutron-induced atomic displacement damage, and gas production were determined. The results indicate that the global TBR of no less than 1.2 will be a big challenge for the water-cooled ceramic breeder blanket for CFETR. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2014GB122000, and 2014GB119000), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  11. Tritium processing for the European test blanket systems: current status of the design and development strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Ricapito, I.; Calderoni, P.; Poitevin, Y.; Aiello, A.; Utili, M.; Demange, D.

    2015-03-15

    Tritium processing technologies of the two European Test Blanket Systems (TBS), HCLL (Helium Cooled Lithium Lead) and HCPB (Helium Cooled Pebble Bed), play an essential role in meeting the main objectives of the TBS experimental campaign in ITER. The compliancy with the ITER interface requirements, in terms of space availability, service fluids, limits on tritium release, constraints on maintenance, is driving the design of the TBS tritium processing systems. Other requirements come from the characteristics of the relevant test blanket module and the scientific programme that has to be developed and implemented. This paper identifies the main requirements for the design of the TBS tritium systems and equipment and, at the same time, provides an updated overview on the current design status, mainly focusing onto the tritium extractor from Pb-16Li and TBS tritium accountancy. Considerations are also given on the possible extrapolation to DEMO breeding blanket. (authors)

  12. Flexible Animation Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcup, Scott S.

    1990-01-01

    FLEXAN (Flexible Animation), computer program animating structural dynamics on Evans and Sutherland PS300-series graphics workstation with VAX/VMS host computer. Typical application is animation of spacecraft undergoing structural stresses caused by thermal and vibrational effects. Displays distortions in shape of spacecraft. Program displays single natural mode of vibration, mode history, or any general deformation of flexible structure. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  13. TOWARDS AN ECONOMICAL FLEXIBILITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUDILL, WILLIAM W.; RICHARDSON, L.S.

    AN ARCHITECT AND A SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS COLLABORATED ON THE DESIGN FOR A HIGH SCHOOL, WHICH STRESSED ECONOMY AND FLEXIBILITY. THEY CONSIDERED THREE ASPECTS OF FLEXIBILITY--(1) EXPANDABILITY, (2) CONVERTIBILITY, AND (3) VERSATILITY. EXPANDABILITY IS DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF SITE SELECTION AND PLANNING. CONVERTIBILITY FEATURES IDENTIFIED INCLUDE…

  14. Flexibility within Fidelity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Philip C.; Gosch, Elizabeth; Furr, Jami M.; Sood, Erica

    2008-01-01

    The authors address concerns regarding manual-based treatments, highlighting the role of flexibility and creativity. A cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety called the Coping Cat program demonstrates the flexible application of manuals and emphasizes the importance of a child-centered, personalized approach that involves the child in the…

  15. Flexibility, Is That All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renes, Wim M.

    This paper discusses the design of flexible and intelligent library buildings. The first section addresses how flexibility, as one of the requirements of a library building, that has high priority in the planning process. Intelligent libraries are considered in the second section, and functionality is stressed. The third section examines…

  16. Flexible Learning Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    One way for colleges to meet the demand for a wider range of learning opportunities for adults in Great Britain is to provide more flexibility within the further education system. The concept of flexible learning involves the modification of delivery systems, specific providing agencies, target populations, specific determinants such as geographic…

  17. Flexible ferroelectric organic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owczarek, Magdalena; Hujsak, Karl A.; Ferris, Daniel P.; Prokofjevs, Aleksandrs; Majerz, Irena; Szklarz, Przemysław; Zhang, Huacheng; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Jakubas, Ryszard; Hong, Seungbum; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2016-10-01

    Flexible organic materials possessing useful electrical properties, such as ferroelectricity, are of crucial importance in the engineering of electronic devices. Up until now, however, only ferroelectric polymers have intrinsically met this flexibility requirement, leaving small-molecule organic ferroelectrics with room for improvement. Since both flexibility and ferroelectricity are rare properties on their own, combining them in one crystalline organic material is challenging. Herein, we report that trisubstituted haloimidazoles not only display ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity--the properties that originate from their non-centrosymmetric crystal lattice--but also lend their crystalline mechanical properties to fine-tuning in a controllable manner by disrupting the weak halogen bonds between the molecules. This element of control makes it possible to deliver another unique and highly desirable property, namely crystal flexibility. Moreover, the electrical properties are maintained in the flexible crystals.

  18. Flexible ferroelectric organic crystals

    PubMed Central

    Owczarek, Magdalena; Hujsak, Karl A.; Ferris, Daniel P.; Prokofjevs, Aleksandrs; Majerz, Irena; Szklarz, Przemysław; Zhang, Huacheng; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Jakubas, Ryszard; Hong, Seungbum; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2016-01-01

    Flexible organic materials possessing useful electrical properties, such as ferroelectricity, are of crucial importance in the engineering of electronic devices. Up until now, however, only ferroelectric polymers have intrinsically met this flexibility requirement, leaving small-molecule organic ferroelectrics with room for improvement. Since both flexibility and ferroelectricity are rare properties on their own, combining them in one crystalline organic material is challenging. Herein, we report that trisubstituted haloimidazoles not only display ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity—the properties that originate from their non-centrosymmetric crystal lattice—but also lend their crystalline mechanical properties to fine-tuning in a controllable manner by disrupting the weak halogen bonds between the molecules. This element of control makes it possible to deliver another unique and highly desirable property, namely crystal flexibility. Moreover, the electrical properties are maintained in the flexible crystals. PMID:27734829

  19. Optimizing a basal bark spray of dinotefuran to manage armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) in Christmas tree plantations.

    PubMed

    Cowles, Richard S

    2010-10-01

    The armored scales Fiorinia externa Ferris and Aspidiotus cryptomeriae Kuwana (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) are increasingly damaging to Christmas tree plantings in southern New England. The systemic insecticide dinotefuran was investigated for selectively suppressing armored scale populations relative to their natural enemies in cooperating growers' fields in 2008 and 2009. Banded soil application of dinotefuran resulted in poor control. However, a dinotefuran spray applied to the basal 25 cm of trunk resulted in its absorption through the bark, translocation to the foliage, and good efficacy. The basal bark spray did not significantly impact the activity of predators Chilocorus stigma (Say) or Cybocephalus nipponicus Enrody-Younga and in 2009 showed a dosage-dependent improvement in the percentage of scales parasitized by Encarsia citrina Craw. A field dosage-response factorial experiment revealed that a 0.25% (vol:vol) addition of a surfactant with dinotefuran did not enhance insecticidal effect. Probit-transformed scale population reduction relative to the untreated check was subjected to linear regression analysis; reduction of scale populations was proportional to the log of insecticide dosage, whereas basal bark spray efficacy declined in proportion to the cube of tree height. The regression equation can be used to optimize dosage relative to tree height. Excellent efficacy resulted from basal bark spray application dates of 28 April (prebud break) to mid-June, but earlier spray timing within that treatment window had fewer crawlers discoloring new growth with their short-lived feeding. A basal bark spray of dinotefuran is well suited for integration with natural enemies to manage armored scales in Christmas tree plantations.

  20. River bed armoring in a local scour under no-supply conditions; experimental investigation and numerical model validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Török, Gergerly; Baranya, Sandor; Rüther, Nils

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to present a novel method for numerical modeling of morphological changes. The essence of the method doesn't mean the development of a new sediment transport formula, but the combined application of the existing, conditionally validated sediment transport models. Many bedload transport formulas can be found in the literature, which were developed based on different field and laboratory measurements. Thus, the most reliability of the models usually can be expected only for the given morphological and hydrological conditions connected to the base measurements. However, commonly in the analysed cases the morphological and hydrological features are more variable both in time and in space. Therefore, the hypothesis of this study is that, complex hydromorphological processes can't be modeled by one sediment transport formula. The authors present a solution based on laboratory experiments. Spatio-temporal developments of bed armoring, local scouring and local sediment deposition under no supply condition was monitored and analysed. The sediment transport model of Wilcock and Crowe (2003) was expected to calculate properly the local scouring and bed armoring processes, while the motion and aggradation of the finer materials were supposed to estimate reliably by the van Rijn formula (1984). The main challenge of the combining method is to find an appropriate criterion to decide which transport formula is activated in the given space and in the given time step. The result of the investigation showed that the most reliable criteria is based on the d50 value. As soon as the d50 grain size goes below a certain value, van Rijn is activated, otherwise the Wilcock and Crowe formula calculates the sorting and armoring processes. The results show that the combining method clearly improve the reliability of the morphological calculation. The benefit of the Wilcock and Crowe model is that it estimates quite well the sediment transport in mixed or armored

  1. APT Blanket Detailed Bin Model Based on Initial Plate-Type Design -3D FLOWTRAN-TF Model

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    This report provides background information for a series of reports documenting accident scenario simulations for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) blanket heat removal systems. The simulations were performed in support of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the APT. This report gives a brief description of the FLOWTRAN-TF code which was used for detailed blanket bin modeling.

  2. 76 FR 2093 - Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY... November 30, 2010, by Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC (Eni USA), requesting blanket authorization to export... purchasing and marketing supplies of natural gas and LNG. Eni USA is a customer of the Cameron Terminal...

  3. APT Blanket System Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) Based on Initial Conceptual Design - Case 1: External HR Break Near Inlet Header

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    The APT blanket system has about 57 MW of thermal energy deposited within the blanket region under normal operating conditions from the release of neutrons and the interaction of the High energy particles with the blanket materials. This corresponds to about 48 percent of total thermal energy deposited in the APT target/blanket system. The deposited thermal energy under normal operation conditions is an important input parameter used in the thermal-hydraulic design and accident analysis.

  4. Painful Flexible Flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Sheikh Taha, Abdel Majid; Feldman, David S

    2015-12-01

    Flatfoot is commonly encountered by pediatric orthopedic surgeons and pediatricians. A paucity of literature exists on how to define a flatfoot. The absence of the medial arch with a valgus hindfoot is the hallmark of this pathology. Flatfoot can be flexible or rigid. This review focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of the flexible flatfoot. Most flatfeet are flexible and clinically asymptomatic, and warrant little intervention. If feet are symptomatic, treatment is needed. Most patients who require treatment improve with foot orthotics and exercises. Only feet resistant to conservative modalities are deemed surgical candidates. The presence of a tight heel cord is often found in patients who fail conservative management.

  5. Rolling cuff flexible bellows

    DOEpatents

    Lambert, Donald R.

    1985-01-01

    A flexible connector apparatus used to join two stiff non-deformable members, such as piping. The apparatus is provided with one or more flexible sections or assemblies each utilizing a bellows of a rolling cuff type connected between two ridge members, with the bellows being supported by a back-up ring, such that only the curved end sections of the bellows are unsupported. Thus, the bellows can be considered as being of a tube-shaped configuration and thus have high pressure resistance. The components of the flexible apparatus are sealed or welded one to another such that it is fluid tight.

  6. Clothing adjustments for concealed soft body armor during moderate physical exertion.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Greg A; Bishop, Stacy H; Herron, Robert L; Katica, Charles P; Elbon, Bre'anna L; Bosak, Andrew M; Bishop, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has studied the impact of Level II concealed soft body armor (SBA) on the augmentation of heat storage in a hot environment simulating a typical summer day in the southeastern United States (wet bulb globe temperature [WBGT] = 30°C) and noted a significant difference between macro- and micro-WBGTs. The purpose of this study was to characterize the microclimate (micro-WBGT) under a concealed Level II SBA during 60 min of moderately intense work at two separate macro-WBGTs (26°C and 30°C), and to establish WBGT corrections to allow prediction of heat strain in an individual wearing a concealed Level II SBA. A single trial was performed with nine volunteers (27 ± 4 years) outfitted with a simulated standard law enforcement uniform and a traditional concealed Level II SBA, in a moderately warm environment (WBGT = 26°C). Each participant performed cycles of 12 min of walking (1.25 L · min(-1)) and 3 min of arm curls (14.3 kg, 0.6 L · min(-1)) with a 5 min rest after every other cycle, for a total of 60 minutes. This trial was compared to an identical previously completed 60-min work bout at 30°C. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA with Post hoc Bonferroni and paired samples t-test analysis was conducted. A greater difference between macro- micro-WBGTs existed at 26°C compared to the 30°C macro-WBGT. Under these conditions, a moderate work in Level II SBA requires a WBGT correction of 8.9°C and 6.2°C at macro-WBGTs of 26°C and 30°C, respectively. A modified simple linear regression prediction model was established for mean Micro-WBGT for each macro-WBGTs after the plateau point at the 30 min mark. The derivation regressions at 26°C (R(2) = 0.99), and 30°C (R(2) = 0.99) indicate that micro-WBGT could be predicted for each 15 minutes time at both macro-WBGTs tested for individuals doing moderate intensity (300 Kcals · hr(-1)) work wearing concealed Level II SBA. PMID:25437276

  7. Analysis of heat conduction in a drum brake system of the wheeled armored personnel carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puncioiu, A. M.; Truta, M.; Vedinas, I.; Marinescu, M.; Vinturis, V.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is an integrated study performed over the Braking System of the Wheeled Armored Personnel Carriers. It mainly aims to analyze the heat transfer process which is present in almost any industrial and natural process. The vehicle drum brake systems can generate extremely high temperatures under high but short duration braking loads or under relatively light but continuous braking. For the proper conduct of the special vehicles mission in rough terrain, we are talking about, on one hand, the importance of the possibility of immobilization and retaining position and, on the other hand, during the braking process, the importance movement stability and reversibility or reversibility, to an encounter with an obstacle. Heat transfer processes influence the performance of the braking system. In the braking phase, kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy resulting in intense heating and high temperature states of analyzed vehicle wheels. In the present work a finite element model for the temperature distribution in a brake drum is developed, by employing commercial finite element software, ANSYS. These structural and thermal FEA models will simulate entire braking event. The heat generated during braking causes distortion which modifies thermoelastic contact pressure distribution drum-shoe interface. In order to capture the effect of heat, a transient thermal analysis is performed in order to predict the temperature distribution transitional brake components. Drum brakes are checked both mechanical and thermal. These tests aim to establish their sustainability in terms of wear and the variation coefficient of friction between the friction surfaces with increasing temperature. Modeling using simulation programs led eventually to the establishment of actual thermal load of the mechanism of brake components. It was drawn the efficiency characteristic by plotting the coefficient of effectiveness relative to the coefficient of friction shoe-drum. Thus induced

  8. Sediment mobility and bed armoring in the St Clair River: insights from hydrodynamic modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Parker, Gary; Czuba, Jonathan A.; Oberg, Kevin; Mier, Jose M.; Best, James L.; Parsons, Daniel R.; Ashmore, Peter; Krishnappan, Bommanna G.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2012-01-01

    The lake levels in Lake Michigan-Huron have recently fallen to near historical lows, as has the elevation difference between Lake Michigan-Huron compared to Lake Erie. This decline in lake levels has the potential to cause detrimental impacts on the lake ecosystems, together with social and economic impacts on communities in the entire Great Lakes region. Results from past work suggest that morphological changes in the St Clair River, which is the only natural outlet for Lake Michigan-Huron, could be an appreciable factor in the recent trends of lake level decline. A key research question is whether bed erosion within the river has caused an increase in water conveyance, therefore, contributed to the falling lake level. In this paper, a numerical modeling approach with field data is used to investigate the possibility of sediment movement in the St Clair River and assess the likelihood of morphological change under the current flow regime. A two-dimensional numerical model was used to study flow structure, bed shear stress, and sediment mobility/armoring over a range of flow discharges. Boundary conditions for the numerical model were provided by detailed field measurements that included high-resolution bathymetry and three-dimensional flow velocities. The results indicate that, without considering other effects, under the current range of flow conditions, the shear stresses produced by the river flow are too low to transport most of the coarse bed sediment within the reach and are too low to cause substantial bed erosion or bed scour. However, the detailed maps of the bed show mobile bedforms in the upper St Clair River that are indicative of sediment transport. Relatively high shear stresses near a constriction at the upstream end of the river and at channel bends could cause local scour and deposition. Ship-induced propeller wake erosion also is a likely cause of sediment movement in the entire reach. Other factors that may promote sediment movement, such as ice

  9. Technical Institute Stresses Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Industrial Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    At the Waukesha County Technical Institute in Wisconsin students benefit from individualized instruction and open entry/open exit system. The key to this flexibility is a series of audio-visual modules to support lecture presentations and demonstrations. (HD)

  10. 78 FR 14531 - ANR Storage Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ANR Storage Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 21, 2013, ANR Storage Company (ANR Storage), 717 Texas Street, Suite 2400... 157.205 and 157.214 of the Commission's regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA). ANR Storage...

  11. 78 FR 63179 - Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization; Petal Gas Storage, LLC.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization; Petal Gas Storage, LLC. Take notice that on October 9, 2013, Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C. (Petal), 9 Greenway Plaza, Suite 2800, Houston... authorization to increase its maximum storage capacity in the Petal Salt Dome's Cavern 12A, located in...

  12. 77 FR 9233 - Southwest Gas Storage Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southwest Gas Storage Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on January 31, 2012, Southwest Gas Storage Company (Southwest), P.O. Box 4967... facilities at Southwest's Howell storage field in Livingston County, Michigan. Specifically,...

  13. 77 FR 50101 - Cadeville Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Cadeville Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization On July 27, 2012, Cadeville Gas Storage LLC (Cadeville) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory... to construct an additional natural gas storage and injection well at Cadeville's natural gas...

  14. 77 FR 73652 - Honeoye Storage Corporation: Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Honeoye Storage Corporation: Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on November 16, 2012, Honeoye Storage Corporation (Honeoye) as supplemented on... regulations under the Natural Gas Act for authorization to increase the maximum storage capacity and...

  15. Study on fission blanket fuel cycling of a fusion-fission hybrid energy generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z.; Yang, Y.; Xu, H.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study on neutron physics characteristics of a light water cooled fission blanket for a new type subcritical fusion-fission hybrid reactor aiming at electric power generation with low technical limits of fission fuel. The major objective is to study the fission fuel cycling performance in the blanket, which may possess significant impacts on the feasibility of the new concept of fusion-fission hybrid reactor with a high energy gain (M) and tritium breeding ratio (TBR). The COUPLE2 code developed by the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University is employed to simulate the neutronic behaviour in the blanket. COUPLE2 combines the particle transport code MCNPX with the fuel depletion code ORIGEN2. The code calculation results show that soft neutron spectrum can yield M > 20 while maintaining TBR >1.15 and the conversion ratio of fissile materials CR > 1 in a reasonably long refuelling cycle (>five years). The preliminary results also indicate that it is rather promising to design a high-performance light water cooled fission blanket of fusion-fission hybrid reactor for electric power generation by directly loading natural or depleted uranium if an ITER-scale tokamak fusion neutron source is achievable.

  16. A high converter concept for fuel management with blanket fuel assemblies in boiling water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Frances, N.; Timm, W.; Rossbach, D.

    2012-07-01

    Studies on the natural Uranium saving and waste reduction potential of a multiple-plant BWR system were performed. The BWR High Converter system should enable a multiple recycling of MOX fuel in current BWR plants by introducing blanket fuel assemblies and burning Uranium and MOX fuel separately. The feasibility of Uranium cores with blankets and full-MOX cores with Plutonium qualities as low as 40% were studied. The power concentration due to blanket insertion is manageable with modern fuel and acceptable values for the thermal limits and reactivity coefficients were obtained. While challenges remain, full-MOX cores also complied with the main design criteria. The combination of Uranium and Plutonium burners in appropriate proportions could enable obtaining as much as 40% more energy out of Uranium ore. Moreover, a proper adjustment of blanket average stay and Plutonium qualities could lead to a system with nearly no Plutonium left for final disposal. The achievement of such goals with current light water technology makes the BWR HC concept an attractive option to improve the fuel cycle until Gen-IV designs are mature. (authors)

  17. Security Blanket or Crutch? Crib Card Usage Depends on Students' Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Kathleen C.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether students use crib cards as a security blanket or a crutch by asking students to tally the number of times they used them during exams in a statistics class. There was a negative correlation between the number of times students used their crib cards and exam performance. High-achieving students did not utilize their…

  18. 76 FR 20659 - Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on April 1, 2011, Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company (Eastern Shore), 1110 Forrest... (DCRC), Eastern Shore proposes to construct, own, operate, and maintain about 0.7 miles of new...

  19. 75 FR 8329 - Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization February 17, 2010. Take notice that on February 2, 2010, Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company (Eastern Shore), 1110 Forrest Avenue, Dover, Delaware 19904, filed in Docket No. CP10-51-000, a...

  20. 78 FR 69848 - Questar Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Questar Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on November 7, 2013, Questar Pipeline Company (Questar), 333 South State Street, P. 45360... pipeline on the south side of Interstate 84 in Weber Canyon southeast of Ogden Utah. Questar proposes...

  1. 78 FR 76827 - Midwestern Gas Transmission Company; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Midwestern Gas Transmission Company; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate On December 4, 2013, Midwestern Gas Transmission Company (Midwestern) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...

  2. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reduces COD 75-85%, produces methane gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppel, W.; Biedron, M.; Thornton, B.; Swientek, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    The wastewater from a brewery at 3 million gallons/day is treated in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket process with a COD removal efficiency of 75% and the CH/sub 4/ gas content of the 400 cubic metres/day biogas produced 74%.

  3. Depth of Blanket. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arasmith, E. E.

    The determination of the thickness of a sludge blanket in primary and secondary clarifiers and in gravity thickness is important in making operational control decisions. Knowing the thickness and concentration will allow the operator to determine sludge volume and detention time. Designed for individuals who have completed National Pollutant…

  4. Study of the effects of corrugated wall structures due to blanket modules around ICRH antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Dumortier, Pierre; Louche, Fabrice; Messiaen, André; Vervier, Michel

    2014-02-12

    In future fusion reactors, and in ITER, the first wall will be covered by blanket modules. These blanket modules, whose dimensions are of the order of the ICRF wavelengths, together with the clearance gaps between them will constitute a corrugated structure which will interact with the electromagnetic waves launched by ICRF antennas. The conditions in which the grooves constituted by the clearance gaps between the blanket modules can become resonant are studied. Simple analytical models and numerical simulations show that mushroom type structures (with larger gaps at the back than at the front) can bring down the resonance frequencies, which could lead to large voltages in the gaps between the blanket modules and perturb the RF properties of the antenna if they are in the ICRF operating range. The effect on the wave propagation along the wall structure, which is acting as a spatially periodic (toroidally and poloidally) corrugated structure, and hence constitutes a slow wave structure modifying the wall boundary condition, is examined.

  5. 78 FR 9679 - National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate On January 24, 2013, National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation (National Fuel) filed with the Federal..., National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation, 6363 Main Street, Williamsville, New York 14221, or by calling...

  6. 78 FR 55251 - Southeast Supply Header, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southeast Supply Header, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on August 23, 2013, Southeast Supply Header, LLC (SESH), P.O. Box 1642, Houston, Texas... to public inspection. \\1\\ See Southeast Supply Header, LLC et al, 119 FERC ] 61,153 (2007)....

  7. 78 FR 53745 - National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on August 12, 2013, National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation (National Fuel),...

  8. 76 FR 51027 - National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Notice of Request Under Blanket... Gas Supply Corporation, 6363 Main Street, Williamsville, New York 14221-5887 at telephone (716)...

  9. 77 FR 48150 - Carolina Gas Transmission Corporation; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... existing standby 1,050 horsepower (HP) Solar Saturn turbine compressor units to base load service at the... convert three existing standby compressor units at its Grover Compressor Station in Cherokee County, South Carolina, to base load service under Carolina Gas' blanket certificate issued in Docket Nos. CP06-71-000...

  10. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 505 - Exemptions; Exceptions; and DoD Blanket Routine Uses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Exemptions; Exceptions; and DoD Blanket Routine Uses D Appendix D to Part 505 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Pt. 505, App. D Appendix D...

  11. Neutronics investigation of advanced self-cooled liquid blanket systems in the helical reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, T.; Sagara, A.; Muroga, T.; Youssef, M. Z.

    2008-03-01

    Neutronics investigations have been conducted in the design activity of the helical-type reactor Force Free Helical Reactor (FFHR2) adopting Flibe-cooled and Li-cooled advanced liquid blanket systems. In this study, comprehensive investigations and geometry modifications related to the tritium breeding ratios (TBRs), neutron shielding performance and neutron wall loading on the first walls in FFHR2 have been performed by improving the three-dimensional (3D) neutronics calculation system developed for non-axisymmetric helical designs. The total TBRs obtained after modifying the blanket dimensions indicated that all the advanced blanket systems proposed for FFHR2 would achieve adequate tritium self-sufficiency by dimension adjustment and optimization of structures in the breeder layers. However, it appeared that the most important neutronics issue in the present helical blanket configuration was suppression of neutron streaming through the divertor pumping areas and reflection from support structures for protection of poloidal and helical coils. Evaluation of neutron wall loading on the first walls indicated that the peaking factor would be moderated as low as 1.2 by the toroidal and helical effect of the helical-shaped plasma distribution in the helical reactor.

  12. 76 FR 64343 - Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... Interstate Pipeline Company, 1250 West Century Avenue, Bismark, North Dakota 58503, or call (701) 530-1560 or... Energy Regulatory Commission Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on October 3, 2011 Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company (Williston...

  13. 76 FR 25331 - Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... Basin Interstate Pipeline Company, 1250 West Century Avenue, Bismarck, North Dakota 58503, or telephone... Energy Regulatory Commission Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on April 15, 2011, Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company (Williston...

  14. 76 FR 48854 - Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Pipeline Company, 1250 West Century Avenue, Bismarck, North Dakota 58503, or telephone (701) 530-1560, or... Energy Regulatory Commission Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on July 26, 2011, Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company (Williston...

  15. 76 FR 31957 - Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Interstate Pipeline Company, 1250 West Century Avenue, Bismarck, North Dakota 58503, or telephone (701) 530... Energy Regulatory Commission Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on May 18, 2011, Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company (Williston...

  16. 76 FR 5586 - Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... Basin Interstate Pipeline Company, 1250 West Century Avenue, Bismarck, North Dakota 58503, (701) 530... Energy Regulatory Commission Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization January 24, 2011. Take notice that on January 19, 2011, Williston Basin Interstate...

  17. 77 FR 9916 - Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 6, 2012, Williston Basin Interstate Pipeline Company (Williston Basin), 1250 West Century Avenue, Bismarck, North Dakota 58503, filed in Docket No. CP12-57-000, an...

  18. 78 FR 4400 - Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... the United States from foreign sources in an amount up to the equivalent of 100 billion cubic feet... Marketing blanket authorization to import LNG up to the equivalent of 400 Bcf of natural gas from various international sources for a two year period beginning on May 12, 2012. On March 3, 2011, FE issued an...

  19. 77 FR 14517 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 21, 2012 Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star... City, Missouri. Specifically, Southern Star proposes to replace 3 miles of 12-inch diameter XT...

  20. 78 FR 13663 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 11, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star... is on file with the Commission and open for public inspection. Specifically, Southern Star...

  1. 75 FR 8053 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization February 16, 2010. Take notice that on January 29, 2010, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 State Highway 56, Owensboro, Kentucky 42301, filed in Docket No. CP10-48-000, a...

  2. 78 FR 68835 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on October 31, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star...). Southern Star seeks authorization to increase the Maximum Operating Pressure (MOP) of its Waynoka...

  3. 78 FR 25264 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on April 16, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700...) 208-3676 (toll free). For TTY, call (202) 502-8659. Specifically, Southern Star proposes to abandon...

  4. 78 FR 53746 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on August 13, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star..., Chautauqua and Montgomery Counties, Kansas. Southern Star's prior notice request is more fully set forth...

  5. 78 FR 66915 - Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization; Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization; Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. Take notice that on October 21, 2013 Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star... in Johnson and Pettis Counties, Missouri, under authorization issued to Southern Star in Docket...

  6. 18 CFR 284.284 - Blanket certificates for unbundled sales services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... date of the certificate. The obligation to sell at the cost-based rate expires one year after the... for unbundled sales services. 284.284 Section 284.284 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... Sales by Interstate Pipelines § 284.284 Blanket certificates for unbundled sales services....

  7. 76 FR 4651 - Venice Gathering System, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Venice Gathering System, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization January 19, 2010. Take notice that on January 7, 2011, Venice Gathering System, L.L.C....

  8. 75 FR 62533 - Destin Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Destin Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization October 1, 2010. Take notice that on September 20, 2010, Destin Pipeline Company, L.L.C....

  9. 78 FR 44558 - Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on July 3, 2013, Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Stingray), 1100 Louisiana... directed to Cynthia Hornstein Roney, Manager, Regulatory Compliance, Stingray Pipeline Company,...

  10. 77 FR 48149 - Columbia Gas Transmission, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Columbia Gas Transmission, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on July 24, 2012 Columbia Gas Transmission, L.L.C. (Columbia), P.O. Box 1273... directed to Fredric J. George, Senior Counsel, Columbia Gas Transmission, L.L.C., P.O. Box 1273,...

  11. 75 FR 17708 - Kinder Morgan Louisiana Pipeline LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Kinder Morgan Louisiana Pipeline LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization March 30, 2010. Take notice that on March 25, 2010, Kinder Morgan Louisiana Pipeline LLC (KMLP... directed to Norman Watson, Director, Business Development, Kinder Morgan Louisiana Pipeline LLC, 500...

  12. 76 FR 44903 - Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on June 30, 2011 Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission,...

  13. 75 FR 35019 - Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization June 11, 2010. Take notice that on June 3, 2009, Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas..., Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission LLC, P.O. Box 281304, Lakewood, Colorado 80228-8304, or...

  14. Thermal hydraulic study of the ESPRESSO blanket for a Tandem Mirror Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Raffray, A.R.; Hoffman, M.A.

    1986-02-01

    This paper deals primarily with the thermal-hydraulic design and some critical thermomechanical aspects of the proposed ESPRESSO blanket for the Tandem Mirror Fusion Reactor. This conceptual design was based on the same physics as used in the MARS study.

  15. 75 FR 21290 - Caledonia Energy Partners, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Caledonia Energy Partners, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization April 16, 2010. Take notice that on April 12, 2010, Caledonia Energy Partners, L.L.C....

  16. Copyright Center Will Let Colleges Pay Blanket Fees to Reuse Print Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Brock

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on an annual copyright license for colleges created by the Copyright Clearance Center, a nonprofit group that manages licenses for the reuse of published material, that will allow institutions to pay a blanket fee to use copyrighted material instead of securing the rights to such content on a case-by-case basis. The blanket…

  17. Acoustic contributions of a sound absorbing blanket placed in a double panel structure: absorption versus transmission.

    PubMed

    Doutres, Olivier; Atalla, Noureddine

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose a simple tool to estimate the absorption vs. transmission loss contributions of a multilayered blanket unbounded in a double panel structure and thus guide its optimization. The normal incidence airborne sound transmission loss of the double panel structure, without structure-borne connections, is written in terms of three main contributions; (i) sound transmission loss of the panels, (ii) sound transmission loss of the blanket and (iii) sound absorption due to multiple reflections inside the cavity. The method is applied to four different blankets frequently used in automotive and aeronautic applications: a non-symmetric multilayer made of a screen in sandwich between two porous layers and three symmetric porous layers having different pore geometries. It is shown that the absorption behavior of the blanket controls the acoustic behavior of the treatment at low and medium frequencies and its transmission loss at high frequencies. Acoustic treatment having poor sound absorption behavior can affect the performance of the double panel structure.

  18. Analysis of Time-Dependent Tritium Breeding Capability of Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket for CFETR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fangfang; Zhang, Xiaokang; Pu, Yong; Zhu, Qingjun; Liu, Songlin

    2016-08-01

    Attaining tritium self-sufficiency is an important mission for the Chinese Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor (CFETR) operating on a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) fuel cycle. It is necessary to study the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) and breeding tritium inventory variation with operation time so as to provide an accurate data for dynamic modeling and analysis of the tritium fuel cycle. A water cooled ceramic breeder (WCCB) blanket is one candidate of blanket concepts for the CFETR. Based on the detailed 3D neutronics model of CFETR with the WCCB blanket, the time-dependent TBR and tritium surplus were evaluated by a coupling calculation of the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) and the fusion activation code FISPACT-2007. The results indicated that the TBR and tritium surplus of the WCCB blanket were a function of operation time and fusion power due to the Li consumption in breeder and material activation. In addition, by comparison with the results calculated by using the 3D neutronics model and employing the transfer factor constant from 1D to 3D, it is noted that 1D analysis leads to an over-estimation for the time-dependent tritium breeding capability when fusion power is larger than 1000 MW. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2015GB108002, and 2014GB119000), and by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  19. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 327 - DeCA Blanket Routine Uses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DeCA Blanket Routine Uses C Appendix C to Part...) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE COMMISSARY AGENCY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Pt. 327, App. C Appendix C to Part 327—DeCA... letting of a contract, or the issuance of a license, grant, or other benefit. (c) Routine...

  20. 78 FR 79691 - Trunkline Gas Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Trunkline Gas Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on December 13, 2013, Trunkline Gas Company, LLC (Trunkline), PO Box 4967, Houston, Texas 77210-4967, filed in Docket No....

  1. European ceramic B.I.T. blanket for DEMO: Recent development for the zirconate version

    SciTech Connect

    Bielak, B.; Eid, M.; Fuetterer, M.

    1994-12-31

    Within the framework of the European test-blanket program, CEA and ENEA are jointly developing a DEMO-relevant, helium-cooled, Breeder-Inside-Tube (BIT) ceramic blanket. Two ceramics are possible breeder material candidate: LiAlO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}. Despite the design has been originally developed for aluminate, the CEA has recently focused its work on zirconate. This concept blanket segments are made by a directly-cooled vacuum-tight steel box which contains banana-shaped poloidal breeder modules arranged in rows (6 rows in an outboard segment and 4 rows in an inboard one). A breeder module consists of a pressure vessel containing a bundle of breeder rods surrounded by baffles. Each one of the rods is made-up of a steel tube containing a stack of annular pellets of sintered lithium-zirconate, through which flows helium (the tritium purge gas). The thermo-mechanical analysis has shown that the thermal gradient in the ceramics can be kept at acceptable levels despite the poorer out-of-pile thermo-mechanical properties of zirconate compared to aluminate. Moreover, the neutronic analysis has shown that, besides the maintained tritium-breeding self-sufficiency capability of this blanket, the lower lithium burn-up could be an indication that the zirconate characteristics remains more stable after long term irradiation (i.e., close to the end-of-life fluence of 5 MWa/m{sup 2}).

  2. 75 FR 32460 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Bruce H. Newsome, Vice President, Regulatory Products and Services, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of... Energy Regulatory Commission Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization May 28, 2010. Take notice that on May 20, 2010, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America...

  3. 75 FR 32460 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Products and Services, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC, 3250 Lacey Road, 7th Floor, Downers... Energy Regulatory Commission Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization May 28, 2010. Take notice that on May 14, 2010, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America...

  4. 75 FR 45111 - Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization July 26, 2010. Take notice that on July 20, 2010, Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas... facilities is $23,511,100. Any questions regarding the application should be directed to Robert F....

  5. 75 FR 31430 - Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization May 27, 2010. Take notice that on May 24, 2010, Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC... Pipe Line Company, LLC, Post Office Box 1396, Houston, Texas 77251 or via telephone at (713)...

  6. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 505 - Exemptions; Exceptions; and DoD Blanket Routine Uses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemptions; Exceptions; and DoD Blanket Routine Uses D Appendix D to Part 505 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Pt. 505, App. D Appendix D...

  7. 75 FR 33803 - Sabine Pipe Line LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pipe Line LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization June 8, 2010. Take notice that on June 1, 2010, Sabine Pipe Line LLC (Sabine), 4800 Fournace Place, Bellaire...-free, (866) 208-3676 or TTY, (202) 502-8659. Specifically, Sabine proposes to abandon, in place,...

  8. 77 FR 42302 - Texas Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on July 2, 2012 Texas Gas Transmission, LLC (Texas Gas), 3800 Frederica Street....205 and 157.208 of the Commission's Regulations under the Natural Gas Act for authorization to...

  9. 76 FR 18216 - Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on March 16, 2011, Southern Natural Gas Company (Southern), Post Office Box 2563... and 157.216 of the Commission's Regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA) as amended, to abandon...

  10. 77 FR 31004 - Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on May 9, 2012, Southern Natural Gas Company (Southern), 569 Brookwood Village, Suite....210 of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA),...

  11. 18 CFR 284.284 - Blanket certificates for unbundled sales services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Blanket Certificates Authorizing Certain Natural...

  12. 75 FR 13535 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization March 16, 2010. Take notice that on March 12, 2010, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South... External Affairs, Northern Natural Gas Company, 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124, at...

  13. 75 FR 3232 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization January 8, 2010. Take notice that on December 30, 2009, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111... sections 157.205 and 157.214 of the Commission's regulations under the Natural Gas Act for authorization...

  14. 18 CFR 284.284 - Blanket certificates for unbundled sales services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Blanket Certificates Authorizing Certain Natural...

  15. 76 FR 29745 - Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on May 5, 2011 Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC (Transco), Post Office... application, which is open to the public for inspection. The filing may also be viewed on the Web at...

  16. 77 FR 33213 - Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on May 17, 2012 Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC (Transco), Post... Commission and open to public inspection. The filing may also be viewed on the web at...

  17. 77 FR 39699 - Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on June 13, 2012, Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC (Transco), Post... set forth in the application which is on file with the Commission and open to public inspection....

  18. 75 FR 74713 - Panhandle Eastern Pipe Line Company, LP; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Panhandle Eastern Pipe Line Company, LP; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization November 23, 2010. Take notice that on November 12, 2010, Panhandle Eastern Pipe Line Company, LP..., Missouri. Panhandle states that a portion of the pipe underlying Boller Lane will be grouted while...

  19. 76 FR 36533 - Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on May 23, 2011 Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC (Transco), Post... in the application which is on file with the Commission and open to public inspection. The filing...

  20. 76 FR 44903 - Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on June 30, 2011, Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC (Transco), Post... Commission and open to public inspection. Specifically, the facilities at issue are three 1,600...