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Sample records for flexible authentication technique

  1. Authentication techniques for smart cards

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.A.

    1994-02-01

    Smart card systems are most cost efficient when implemented as a distributed system, which is a system without central host interaction or a local database of card numbers for verifying transaction approval. A distributed system, as such, presents special card and user authentication problems. Fortunately, smart cards offer processing capabilities that provide solutions to authentication problems, provided the system is designed with proper data integrity measures. Smart card systems maintain data integrity through a security design that controls data sources and limits data changes. A good security design is usually a result of a system analysis that provides a thorough understanding of the application needs. Once designers understand the application, they may specify authentication techniques that mitigate the risk of system compromise or failure. Current authentication techniques include cryptography, passwords, challenge/response protocols, and biometrics. The security design includes these techniques to help prevent counterfeit cards, unauthorized use, or information compromise. This paper discusses card authentication and user identity techniques that enhance security for microprocessor card systems. It also describes the analysis process used for determining proper authentication techniques for a system.

  2. Genuine Onion: Simple, Fast, Flexible, and Cheap Website Authentication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    Genuine onion : Simple, Fast, Flexible, and Cheap Website Authentication Paul Syverson U.S. Naval Research Laboratory paul.syverson@nrl.navy.mil...access to Internet websites. Tor is also used to access sites on the . onion virtual domain. The focus of . onion use and discussion has traditionally... onion system can be used to provide an entirely separate benefit: basic website authentication. We also argue that not only can onionsites provide

  3. A digital technique for art authentication

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Siwei; Rockmore, Daniel; Farid, Hany

    2004-01-01

    We describe a computational technique for authenticating works of art, specifically paintings and drawings, from high-resolution digital scans of the original works. This approach builds a statistical model of an artist from the scans of a set of authenticated works against which new works then are compared. The statistical model consists of first- and higher-order wavelet statistics. We show preliminary results from our analysis of 13 drawings that at various times have been attributed to Pieter Bruegel the Elder; these results confirm expert authentications. We also apply these techniques to the problem of determining the number of artists that may have contributed to a painting attributed to Pietro Perugino and again achieve an analysis agreeing with expert opinion. PMID:15563599

  4. A digital technique for art authentication.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Siwei; Rockmore, Daniel; Farid, Hany

    2004-12-07

    We describe a computational technique for authenticating works of art, specifically paintings and drawings, from high-resolution digital scans of the original works. This approach builds a statistical model of an artist from the scans of a set of authenticated works against which new works then are compared. The statistical model consists of first- and higher-order wavelet statistics. We show preliminary results from our analysis of 13 drawings that at various times have been attributed to Pieter Bruegel the Elder; these results confirm expert authentications. We also apply these techniques to the problem of determining the number of artists that may have contributed to a painting attributed to Pietro Perugino and again achieve an analysis agreeing with expert opinion.

  5. Flexible and Transparent User Authentication for Mobile Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Nathan; Karatzouni, Sevasti; Furnell, Steven

    The mobile device has become a ubiquitous technology that is capable of supporting an increasingly large array of services, applications and information. Given their increasing importance, it is imperative to ensure that such devices are not misused or abused. Unfortunately, a key enabling control to prevent this, user authentication, has not kept up with the advances in device technology. This paper presents the outcomes of a 2 year study that proposes the use of transparent and continuous biometric authentication of the user: providing more comprehensive identity verification; minimizing user inconvenience; and providing security throughout the period of use. A Non-Intrusive and Continuous Authentication (NICA) system is described that maintains a continuous measure of confidence in the identity of the user, removing access to sensitive services and information with low confidence levels and providing automatic access with higher confidence levels. An evaluation of the framework is undertaken from an end-user perspective via a trial involving 27 participants. Whilst the findings raise concerns over education, privacy and intrusiveness, overall 92% of users felt the system offered a more secure environment when compared to existing forms of authentication.

  6. Flexible time domain averaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Lei, Yaguo; Wang, Xiufeng

    2013-09-01

    Time domain averaging(TDA) is essentially a comb filter, it cannot extract the specified harmonics which may be caused by some faults, such as gear eccentric. Meanwhile, TDA always suffers from period cutting error(PCE) to different extent. Several improved TDA methods have been proposed, however they cannot completely eliminate the waveform reconstruction error caused by PCE. In order to overcome the shortcomings of conventional methods, a flexible time domain averaging(FTDA) technique is established, which adapts to the analyzed signal through adjusting each harmonic of the comb filter. In this technique, the explicit form of FTDA is first constructed by frequency domain sampling. Subsequently, chirp Z-transform(CZT) is employed in the algorithm of FTDA, which can improve the calculating efficiency significantly. Since the signal is reconstructed in the continuous time domain, there is no PCE in the FTDA. To validate the effectiveness of FTDA in the signal de-noising, interpolation and harmonic reconstruction, a simulated multi-components periodic signal that corrupted by noise is processed by FTDA. The simulation results show that the FTDA is capable of recovering the periodic components from the background noise effectively. Moreover, it can improve the signal-to-noise ratio by 7.9 dB compared with conventional ones. Experiments are also carried out on gearbox test rigs with chipped tooth and eccentricity gear, respectively. It is shown that the FTDA can identify the direction and severity of the eccentricity gear, and further enhances the amplitudes of impulses by 35%. The proposed technique not only solves the problem of PCE, but also provides a useful tool for the fault symptom extraction of rotating machinery.

  7. PNF and Other Flexibility Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, William L.

    Effective flexibility procedures are one of the essential tools by which excellence can be attained. Although stretching exercises provide obvious benefits, negative outcomes can result unless effective stretching procedures are incoroporated. Characteristics of effective stretching include warmup before stretching, stretch before and after…

  8. PNF and Other Flexibility Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, William L.

    Effective flexibility procedures are one of the essential tools by which excellence can be attained. Although stretching exercises provide obvious benefits, negative outcomes can result unless effective stretching procedures are incoroporated. Characteristics of effective stretching include warmup before stretching, stretch before and after…

  9. Grid flexibility and patching techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, T. G.; Smith, L. W.; Yung, C. N.; Barthelson, S. H.; Dewitt, K. J.

    1984-01-01

    The numerical determination of combustor flowfields is of great value to the combustor designer. An a priori knowledge of the flow behavior can speed the combustor design process and reduce the number of experimental test rigs required to arrive at an optimal design. Even 2-D steady incompressible isothermal flow predictions are of use; many codes of this kind are available, each employing different techniques to surmount the difficulties arising from the nonlinearity of the governing equations and from typically irregular combustor geometries. Mapping techniques (algebraic and elliptic PDE), and adaptive grid methods (both multi-grid and grid embedding) as applied to axisymmetric combustors are discussed.

  10. Diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy and accessory techniques.

    PubMed

    Dionísio, J

    2012-01-01

    We reviewed the most important diagnostic procedures implemented by means of flexible bronchoscopy, including bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial brushing and biopsy, transbronchial lung biopsy and transbronchial needle aspiration. We reviewed the tools, techniques and potential complications of this examination. Copyright © 2011 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. A Review on Video/Image Authentication and Tamper Detection Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmar, Zarna; Upadhyay, Saurabh

    2013-02-01

    With the innovations and development in sophisticated video editing technology and a wide spread of video information and services in our society, it is becoming increasingly significant to assure the trustworthiness of video information. Therefore in surveillance, medical and various other fields, video contents must be protected against attempt to manipulate them. Such malicious alterations could affect the decisions based on these videos. A lot of techniques are proposed by various researchers in the literature that assure the authenticity of video information in their own way. In this paper we present a brief survey on video authentication techniques with their classification. These authentication techniques are generally classified into following categories: digital signature based techniques, watermark based techniques, and other authentication techniques.

  12. Analysis of Document Authentication Technique using Soft Magnetic Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Ayumi; Ikeda, Takashi; Yamada, Tsutomu; Takemura, Yasushi; Matsumoto, Tsutomu

    An artifact-metric system using magnetic fibers can be applied for authentications of stock certificate, bill, passport, plastic cards and other documents. Security of the system is guaranteed by its feature of difficulty in copy. This authentication system is based on randomly dispersed magnetic fibers embedded in documents. In this paper, a theoretical analysis was performed in order to evaluate this system. The position of the magnetic fibers was determined by a conventional function of random number generator. By measuring output waveforms by a magnetoresistance (MR) sensor, a false match rate (FMR) could be calculated. Optimizations of the density of the magnetic fibers and the dimension of the MR sensor were achieved.

  13. Evaluation of Data Processing Techniques for Unobtrusive Gait Authentication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    action to stop smartphone theft and ebb the increase in the black market smartphone trade [5]. In order to protect the data from potential...walk, types of footwear and clothing, terrain effects, and others leading to a deployable smartphone-based authentication system. We specifically

  14. Secure Oblivious Hiding, Authentication, Tamper Proofing, and Verification Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    information can be stored either in a separate file, in the image header, or embedded in the image itself utilizing the modern concepts of steganography ...have an object X represented in a discrete form using bits. For example, X could be a complex multimedia object, an audio file, a digitized hologram... steganography , steganalysis, image authentication, watermarking, and some unique special image tools. Figure 21 shows the interface of the SecureStego

  15. Active vibration control techniques for flexible space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Jayasuriya, Suhada

    1990-01-01

    Two proposed control system design techniques for active vibration control in flexible space structures are detailed. Control issues relevant only to flexible-body dynamics are addressed, whereas no attempt was made to integrate the flexible and rigid-body spacecraft dynamics. Both of the proposed approaches revealed encouraging results; however, further investigation of the interaction of the flexible and rigid-body dynamics is warranted.

  16. [Authentication of Trace Material Evidence in Forensic Science Field with Infrared Microscopic Technique].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhi-quan; Hu, Ke-liang

    2016-03-01

    In the field of forensic science, conventional infrared spectral analysis technique is usually unable to meet the detection requirements, because only very a few trace material evidence with diverse shapes and complex compositions, can be extracted from the crime scene. Infrared microscopic technique is developed based on a combination of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic technique and microscopic technique. Infrared microscopic technique has a lot of advantages over conventional infrared spectroscopic technique, such as high detection sensitivity, micro-area analysisand nondestructive examination. It has effectively solved the problem of authentication of trace material evidence in the field of forensic science. Additionally, almost no external interference is introduced during measurements by infrared microscopic technique. It can satisfy the special need that the trace material evidence must be reserved for witness in court. It is illustrated in detail through real case analysis in this experimental center that, infrared microscopic technique has advantages in authentication of trace material evidence in forensic science field. In this paper, the vibration features in infrared spectra of material evidences, including paints, plastics, rubbers, fibers, drugs and toxicants, can be comparatively analyzed by means of infrared microscopic technique, in an attempt to provide powerful spectroscopic evidence for qualitative diagnosis of various criminal and traffic accident cases. The experimental results clearly suggest that infrared microscopic technique has an incomparable advantage and it has become an effective method for authentication of trace material evidence in the field of forensic science.

  17. Color image authentication using a zone-corrected error-monitoring quantization-based watermarking technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Otum, Hazem Munawer

    2016-08-01

    This article presents a semifragile color image watermarking technique for content authentication. The proposed technique can be implemented with color images and embeds a watermarking sequence into the low-frequency coefficients of the approximation, horizontal, and vertical sub-bands of a modified two-leveled discrete wavelet transform. This is obtained by inserting a predefined value, collected from two of the three R, G, and B color layers, into the third color layer. This gives an ability to monitor modifications by observing the changes occurring in the color layer where the watermark is embedded. Here, two measures were developed to check the technique copyright and authentication performances. Experimental results have shown a high accuracy in detecting and localizing intentional attacks while exhibiting a high robustness against common image processing attacks.

  18. Cost averaging techniques for robust control of flexible structural systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagood, Nesbitt W.; Crawley, Edward F.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on cost averaging techniques for robust control of flexible structural systems are presented. Topics covered include: modeling of parameterized systems; average cost analysis; reduction of parameterized systems; and static and dynamic controller synthesis.

  19. Application of microscopic techniques in authentication of herbal tea--Ku-Ding-Cha.

    PubMed

    Tam, Chun-Fung; Peng, Yong; Liang, Zhi-Tao; He, Zhen-Dan; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen

    2006-11-01

    Ku-Ding-Cha, a kind of herbal tea, has been widely used in China for a long time to support cardiovascular health. Confusion arises because in different parts of China different plants are used to produce the commercial teas. It is important to determine the identity of the used species in order to authenticate genuine Ku-Ding-Cha. However, once the plants have been processed, it is difficult to identify them through macroscopic identification; other means are necessary. A comparative study was made on 24 samples of Ku-Ding-Cha, including five standard identified and authenticated plants and 19 commercial samples, by microscopic techniques. The results showed that the shapes of leaf blades, xylem cells, stone cells, and calcium oxalate crystals could be used for the identification of the plants from which the commercial products were made. The method was proven to be quick, handy, simple, and convenient. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. [Flexible bronchoscopy techniques: bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial biopsy and transbronchial biopsy].

    PubMed

    Escribano Montaner, A; Moreno Galdó, A

    2005-04-01

    This article completes previous recommendations of the Techniques Group of the Spanish Society of Pediatric Pulmonologists on the practice of flexible bronchoscopy in children. We review the most frequently performed diagnostic and therapeutic procedures applied through the flexible bronchoscope: bronchoalveolar lavage, bronchial biopsy and transbronchial biopsy. Recommendations are also provided on the practice of nonbronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage. We review the indications and contraindications of these techniques, the equipment required, and the preparation and monitoring of the patient before, during and after the procedure. The complications of these techniques are also discussed. These recommendations may be adopted, modified or rejected according to clinical needs and constraints.

  1. Flexible control techniques for a lunar base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraus, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    The fundamental elements found in every terrestrial control system can be employed in all lunar applications. These elements include sensors which measure physical properties, controllers which acquire sensor data and calculate a control response, and actuators which apply the control output to the process. The unique characteristics of the lunar environment will certainly require the development of new control system technology. However, weightlessness, harsh atmospheric conditions, temperature extremes, and radiation hazards will most significantly impact the design of sensors and actuators. The controller and associated control algorithms, which are the most complex element of any control system, can be derived in their entirety from existing technology. Lunar process control applications -- ranging from small-scale research projects to full-scale processing plants -- will benefit greatly from the controller advances being developed today. In particular, new software technology aimed at commercial process monitoring and control applications will almost completely eliminate the need for custom programs and the lengthy development and testing cycle they require. The applicability of existing industrial software to lunar applications has other significant advantages in addition to cost and quality. This software is designed to run on standard hardware platforms and takes advantage of existing LAN and telecommunications technology. Further, in order to exploit the existing commercial market, the software is being designed to be implemented by users of all skill levels -- typically users who are familiar with their process, but not necessarily with software or control theory. This means that specialized technical support personnel will not need to be on-hand, and the associated costs are eliminated. Finally, the latest industrial software designed for the commercial market is extremely flexible, in order to fit the requirements of many types of processing

  2. Verification of component mode techniques for flexible multibody systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiens, Gloria J.

    1990-01-01

    Investigations were conducted in the modeling aspects of flexible multibodies undergoing large angular displacements. Models were to be generated and analyzed through application of computer simulation packages employing the 'component mode synthesis' techniques. Multibody Modeling, Verification and Control Laboratory (MMVC) plan was implemented, which includes running experimental tests on flexible multibody test articles. From these tests, data was to be collected for later correlation and verification of the theoretical results predicted by the modeling and simulation process.

  3. Application of Structured Light System Technique for Authentication of Wooden Panel Paintings

    PubMed Central

    Buchón-Moragues, Fernando; Bravo, José María; Ferri, Marcelino; Redondo, Javier; Sánchez-Pérez, Juan Vicente

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new application of photogrammetric techniques for protecting cultural heritage. The accuracy of the method and the fact that it can be used to carry out different tests without contact between the sample and the instruments can make this technique very useful for authenticating and cataloging artworks. The application focuses on the field of pictorial artworks, and wooden panel paintings in particular. In these works, the orography formed by the brushstrokes can be easily digitalized using a photogrammetric technique, called Structured Light System, with submillimeter accuracy. Thus, some of the physical characteristics of the brushstrokes, like minimum and maximum heights or slopes become a fingerprint of the painting. We explain in detail the general principles of the Structured Light System Technique and the specific characteristics of the commercial set-up used in this work. Some experiments are carried out on a sample painted by us to check the accuracy limits of the technique and to propose some tests that can help to stablish a methodology for authentication purposes. Finally, some preliminary results obtained on a real pictorial artwork are presented, providing geometrical information of its metric features as an example of the possibilities of this application. PMID:27314353

  4. Application of Structured Light System Technique for Authentication of Wooden Panel Paintings.

    PubMed

    Buchón-Moragues, Fernando; Bravo, José María; Ferri, Marcelino; Redondo, Javier; Sánchez-Pérez, Juan Vicente

    2016-06-14

    This paper presents a new application of photogrammetric techniques for protecting cultural heritage. The accuracy of the method and the fact that it can be used to carry out different tests without contact between the sample and the instruments can make this technique very useful for authenticating and cataloging artworks. The application focuses on the field of pictorial artworks, and wooden panel paintings in particular. In these works, the orography formed by the brushstrokes can be easily digitalized using a photogrammetric technique, called Structured Light System, with submillimeter accuracy. Thus, some of the physical characteristics of the brushstrokes, like minimum and maximum heights or slopes become a fingerprint of the painting. We explain in detail the general principles of the Structured Light System Technique and the specific characteristics of the commercial set-up used in this work. Some experiments are carried out on a sample painted by us to check the accuracy limits of the technique and to propose some tests that can help to stablish a methodology for authentication purposes. Finally, some preliminary results obtained on a real pictorial artwork are presented, providing geometrical information of its metric features as an example of the possibilities of this application.

  5. New Quantization Technique in Semi-fragile Digital Watermarking for Image Authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantasala, Raghu; Prasad, Munaga V. N. K.

    The Internet has been widely used for the distribution, commercialization and transmission of digital files such as images, audio and video. The growth of network multimedia systems has magnified the need for image copyright protection. In this paper we proposed new method for semi-fragile digital watermarking scheme for image authentication. The watermark is embedded in the discrete wavelet domain of the image by quantizing the corresponding wavelet coefficients. Using the proposed method the image distortion is decreased compared to the other techniques and the quantization parameter is a small value. It also robust against attacks including EZW compression, JPEG compression and JPEG 2000 compression algorithms.

  6. Combined application of imaging techniques for the characterization and authentication of ancient weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvemini, Filomena; Grazzi, Francesco; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Wieder, Frank; Manke, Ingo; Edge, David; Williams, Alan; Zoppi, Marco

    2017-05-01

    Non-invasive experimental methods play an important role in the field of cultural heritage. Benefiting from the technical progress in recent years, neutron imaging has been demonstrated to complement effectively studies based on surface analysis, allowing for a non-invasive characterization of the whole three-dimensional volume. This study focuses on a kris and a kanjar, two weapons from ancient Asia, to show the potential of the combined use of X-ray and neutron imaging techniques for the characterisation of the manufacturing methods and the authentication of objects of cultural and historical interest.

  7. A flexible fast spin echo triple-echo Dixon technique.

    PubMed

    Son, Jong Bum; Hwang, Ken-Pin; Madewell, John E; Bayram, Ersin; Hazle, John D; Low, Russell N; Ma, Jingfei

    2017-03-01

    To develop a flexible fast spin echo (FSE) triple-echo Dixon (FTED) technique. An FSE pulse sequence was modified by replacing each readout gradient with three fast-switching bipolar readout gradients with minimal interecho dead time. The corresponding three echoes were used to generate three raw images with relative phase shifts of -θ, 0, and θ between water and fat signals. A region growing-based two-point Dixon phase correction algorithm was used to joint process two separate pairs of the three raw images, yielding a final set of water-only and fat-only images. The flexible FTED technique was implemented on 1.5T and 3.0T scanners and evaluated in five subjects for fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging and in one subject for post-contrast fat-suppressed T1-weighted imaging. The flexible FTED technique achieved a high data acquisition efficiency, comparable to that of FSE, and was flexible in scan protocols. The joint two-point Dixon phase correction algorithm helped to ensure consistency in the processing of the two separate pairs of raw images. Reliable and uniform separation of water and fat was achieved in all of the test cases. The flexible FTED technique incorporates the benefits of both FSE and Dixon imaging and provided more flexibility than the original FTED in applications such as fat-suppressed T2-weighted and T1-weighted imaging. Magn Reson Med 77:1049-1057, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. Mode Selection Techniques in Variable Mass Flexible Body Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiocho, Leslie J.; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Frenkel, David; Huynh, An

    2010-01-01

    In developing a flexible body spacecraft simulation for the Launch Abort System of the Orion vehicle, when a rapid mass depletion takes place, the dynamics problem with time varying eigenmodes had to be addressed. Three different techniques were implemented, with different trade-offs made between performance and fidelity. A number of technical issues had to be solved in the process. This paper covers the background of the variable mass flexibility problem, the three approaches to simulating it, and the technical issues that were solved in formulating and implementing them.

  9. An optical authentication system based on encryption technique and multimodal biometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Sheng; Zhang, Tong; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Xuemei; Liu, Mingtang

    2013-12-01

    A major concern nowadays for a biometric credential management system is its potential vulnerability to protect its information sources. To prevent a genuine user's templates from both internal and external threats, a novel and simple method combined optical encryption with multimodal biometric authentication technique is proposed. In this method, the standard biometric templates are generated real-timely by the verification keys owned by legal user so that they are unnecessary to be stored in a database. Compared with the traditional recognition algorithms, storage space and matching time are greatly saved. In addition, the verification keys are difficult to be forged due to the utilization of optical encryption technique. Although the verification keys are lost or stolen, they are useless for others in absence of the legal owner's biometric. A series of numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the feasibility and performance of this method.

  10. A special application of absolute value techniques in authentic problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stupel, Moshe

    2013-06-01

    There are at least five different equivalent definitions of the absolute value concept. In instances where the task is an equation or inequality with only one or two absolute value expressions, it is a worthy educational experience for learners to solve the task using each one of the definitions. On the other hand, if more than two absolute value expressions are involved, the definition that is most helpful is the one involving solving by intervals and evaluating critical points. In point of fact, application of this technique is one reason that the topic of absolute value is important in mathematics in general and in mathematics teaching in particular. We present here an authentic practical problem that is solved using absolute values and the 'intervals' method, after which the solution is generalized with surprising results. This authentic problem also lends itself to investigation using educational technological tools such as GeoGebra dynamic geometry software: mathematics teachers can allow their students to initially cope with the problem by working in an inductive environment in which they conduct virtual experiments until a solid conjecture has been reached, after which they should prove the conjecture deductively, using classic theoretical mathematical tools.

  11. eBiometrics: an enhanced multi-biometrics authentication technique for real-time remote applications on mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuseler, Torben; Lami, Ihsan; Jassim, Sabah; Sellahewa, Harin

    2010-04-01

    The use of mobile communication devices with advance sensors is growing rapidly. These sensors are enabling functions such as Image capture, Location applications, and Biometric authentication such as Fingerprint verification and Face & Handwritten signature recognition. Such ubiquitous devices are essential tools in today's global economic activities enabling anywhere-anytime financial and business transactions. Cryptographic functions and biometric-based authentication can enhance the security and confidentiality of mobile transactions. Using Biometric template security techniques in real-time biometric-based authentication are key factors for successful identity verification solutions, but are venerable to determined attacks by both fraudulent software and hardware. The EU-funded SecurePhone project has designed and implemented a multimodal biometric user authentication system on a prototype mobile communication device. However, various implementations of this project have resulted in long verification times or reduced accuracy and/or security. This paper proposes to use built-in-self-test techniques to ensure no tampering has taken place on the verification process prior to performing the actual biometric authentication. These techniques utilises the user personal identification number as a seed to generate a unique signature. This signature is then used to test the integrity of the verification process. Also, this study proposes the use of a combination of biometric modalities to provide application specific authentication in a secure environment, thus achieving optimum security level with effective processing time. I.e. to ensure that the necessary authentication steps and algorithms running on the mobile device application processor can not be undermined or modified by an imposter to get unauthorized access to the secure system.

  12. Experience with flexible stapling techniques in laparoscopic and conventional surgery.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Karl-Hermann; Breithaupt, Wolfram; Schulz, Thomas; Reinisch, Alexander

    2011-06-01

    Currently, advanced minimal-access surgery cannot be realized without the application of modern stapling devices. The introduction of stapling devices with a flexible shaft and computer-assisted steering abilities was followed by the technical basis to provide just these features. This study aimed to assess the clinical application of stapling devices connected to a flexible shaft supported by a computer-assisted drive for maneuvering the system and to study its feasibility, learning curve problems, and clinical safety criteria regarding morbidity of the patients. The experience with laparoscopic and open gastrointestinal and colorectal surgery was evaluated. Patients with esophageal, gastric, and colorectal diseases were selected. The stapling system consisted of a power console connected to a flexible shaft and a remote control unit. On the tip of the flexible shaft stapler, loading units could be attached and operated by the remote control. A circular loading unit, size 29 mm, was used for esophageal, gastric, and rectal anastomoses. The linear stapler (length, 55/75 mm) was applied for the gastric tube after esophageal resection, for the jejunal pouch after total gastrectomy, and for division and closure of small bowel. It also was used during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy or laparoscopic fundoplication with COLLIS-gastroplasty. All data from the procedures were prospectively assessed and documented. A literature analysis was performed to compare morbidity data and leak rates with those of the current study. During an 8-year period, 394 patients (253 men and 141 women) were included in this study, and laparoscopic technique was performed in 52% of the cases. The mean age of the patients was 63 years (range, 16-93 years), and 33% of the patients had an American Society of Anesthesia classification of 3 or 4. A total of 1,258 firings were performed. The procedures included 54 esophageal resections, 90 gastric operations, and 197 colorectal resections. In

  13. Modern analytical techniques in the assessment of the authenticity of Serbian honey.

    PubMed

    Milojković Opsenica, Dušanka; Lušić, Dražen; Tešić, Živoslav

    2015-12-01

    Food authenticity in a broader sense means fulfilling chemical and physical criteria prescribed by the proposed legislation. In the case of honey authenticity, two aspects are of major concern: the manufacturing process and the labelling of final products in terms of their geographical and botanical origin. A reliable assessment of honey authenticity has been a longterm preoccupation of chemists-analysts and it usually involves the use of several criteria and chemical markers, as well as a combination of analytical and statistical (chemometric) methods. This paper provides an overview of different criteria and modern methods for the assessment of honey authenticity in the case of a statistically significant number of authentic honey samples of several botanical types from various regions of Serbia.

  14. Techniques for controlling a two-link flexible arm

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, J.T.; Eisler, G.R.; Segalman, D.J.; Robinett, R.D. III; Morimoto, A.K.; Schoenwald, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    The long length and relatively small cross sectional area of the robotic arms envisioned for use inside of the underground nuclear waste storage tanks will require the control of flexible structures. This will become an important problem in the characterization and remediation of these tanks. We are developing control strategies to actively damp residual vibrations in flexible robotic arms caused by high speed motion and abrupt external forces. A planar, two-link flexible arm is currently being used to test these control strategies. In this paper, two methods of control are discussed. The first is a minimum-time control approach which utilizes a finite element model and and optimization program. These tools plan the motor torque profiles necessary for the tip of the arm to move along a straight line, in minimum time, within the motors' torque constraints, and end in a quiescent state. To account for modeling errors in the finite element model, errors in joint angles, velocities, and link curvatures are added to the optimal torque trajectory. Linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) regulatory design theory is used to determine the feedback gains. The second method of control is a teleoperated joystick controller which uses an input shaping technique to alter the commands of the joystick so as to reduce the residual vibration of the fundamental modes. Approximating the system as linear, the natural frequency and damping ratio are estimated on-line for the complete system, which includes the structure plus a lower level proportional derivative controller. An input shaping filter is determined from the estimated natural frequency, estimated damping ratio, and the desired transfer function of the system. 11 reps., 9 figs.

  15. An Authentication Protocol for Mobile IPTV Users Based on an RFID-USB Convergence Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Yoon-Su; Kim, Yong-Tae

    With the growing trend towards convergence in broadcast and communications media, Internet Protocol television (IPTV) that delivers real-time multimedia content over diverse types of communications networks (e.g., broadband Internet, cable TV, and satellite TV) has become a mainstream technology. Authenticating mobile IPTV subscribers who are continuously on the move is a challenge. A complex authentication process often impairs conditional access security or service quality as increasing illegal users and delaying service. This paper proposes an RFID-USB authentication protocol, for mobile IPTV users, combined with USIM-based personalized authentication and lightweight authentication that utilizes the RFID-USB technology with an implanted agent module (called an "agent tag") which temporarily enhanced user status information. The proposed authentication protocol adopts a plug-and-play security agent module that is placed in both an RFID tag and an RFID-USB. The implanted security agents cooperate in such a way that multiple RFID tags are connected seamlessly to an RFID-USB.

  16. Moire Ct technique and its application on laser flexible manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tianze; Hou, Luan; Jiang, Chuan; Zhang, Xia

    2010-10-01

    In the paper, the main properties of Moire fringe, such as average effect, amplification effect, corresponding relation are elaborated, and the principle of Moire Ct technique is represented. On the basis of main features of Moire fringe, multidirectional Moire Ct deflection system is designed using high accuracy Ccd, grating, filter, lens, planar mirror and optical splitter. The system has simple light path, and can be easily made into the one that has large caliber.It can analyze multidirectional records of the probe at the same time, and can obtain clear interference patterns.The iterative technique combined with computer chromatography algorithms is used to achieve inversion of multidirectional clear interference patterns so that the required parameters can be acquired. Moire Ct technique is applied to laser flexible manufacture. Produced parts are delaminated on the paper, and are stratified manufactured until they are connected to forming. Cad/Cam system is adopted to construct Spatial three-dimensional geometric model, and the data files are formed. Then by using the Small triangle plane, the inner and outer surfaces of the data files are discretized. Discretized parts model is made chromatography with mathematical methods using Cam software. A series of parallel horizontal intersecting planes are generated. The problems of filtering arrangement tangent points are solved by recombining the shape and structure relationship among the triangular mesh. Several conclusions are presented.

  17. Authentication of bee pollen grains in bright-field microscopy by combining one-class classification techniques and image processing.

    PubMed

    Chica, Manuel

    2012-11-01

    A novel method for authenticating pollen grains in bright-field microscopic images is presented in this work. The usage of this new method is clear in many application fields such as bee-keeping sector, where laboratory experts need to identify fraudulent bee pollen samples against local known pollen types. Our system is based on image processing and one-class classification to reject unknown pollen grain objects. The latter classification technique allows us to tackle the major difficulty of the problem, the existence of many possible fraudulent pollen types, and the impossibility of modeling all of them. Different one-class classification paradigms are compared to study the most suitable technique for solving the problem. In addition, feature selection algorithms are applied to reduce the complexity and increase the accuracy of the models. For each local pollen type, a one-class classifier is trained and aggregated into a multiclassifier model. This multiclassification scheme combines the output of all the one-class classifiers in a unique final response. The proposed method is validated by authenticating pollen grains belonging to different Spanish bee pollen types. The overall accuracy of the system on classifying fraudulent microscopic pollen grain objects is 92.3%. The system is able to rapidly reject pollen grains, which belong to nonlocal pollen types, reducing the laboratory work and effort. The number of possible applications of this authentication method in the microscopy research field is unlimited.

  18. Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, L. Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Flexibility is an important aspect of all sports and recreational activities. Flexibility can be developed and maintained by stretching exercises. Exercises designed to develop flexibility in ankle joints, knees, hips, and the lower back are presented. (JN)

  19. Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, L. Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Flexibility is an important aspect of all sports and recreational activities. Flexibility can be developed and maintained by stretching exercises. Exercises designed to develop flexibility in ankle joints, knees, hips, and the lower back are presented. (JN)

  20. Advances in Current Rating Techniques for Flexible Printed Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Twist Capsule Assemblies are power transfer devices commonly used in spacecraft mechanisms that require electrical signals to be passed across a rotating interface. Flexible printed circuits (flex tapes, see Figure 2) are used to carry the electrical signals in these devices. Determining the current rating for a given trace (conductor) size can be challenging. Because of the thermal conditions present in this environment the most appropriate approach is to assume that the only means by which heat is removed from the trace is thru the conductor itself, so that when the flex tape is long the temperature rise in the trace can be extreme. While this technique represents a worst-case thermal situation that yields conservative current ratings, this conservatism may lead to overly cautious designs when not all traces are used at their full rated capacity. A better understanding of how individual traces behave when they are not all in use is the goal of this research. In the testing done in support of this paper, a representative flex tape used for a flight Solar Array Drive Assembly (SADA) application was tested by energizing individual traces (conductors in the tape) in a vacuum chamber and the temperatures of the tape measured using both fine-gauge thermocouples and infrared thermographic imaging. We find that traditional derating schemes used for bundles of wires do not apply for the configuration tested. We also determine that single active traces located in the center of a flex tape operate at lower temperatures than those on the outside edges.

  1. Computer-Aided Drug-Discovery Techniques that Account for Receptor Flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Durrant, Jacob D.; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Protein flexibility plays a critical role in ligand binding to both orthosteric and allosteric sites. We here review some of the computer-aided drug-design techniques currently used to account for protein flexibility, ranging from methods that probe local receptor flexibility in the region of the protein immediately adjacent to the binding site, to those that account for general flexibility in all protein regions. PMID:20888294

  2. Computer-aided drug-discovery techniques that account for receptor flexibility.

    PubMed

    Durrant, Jacob D; McCammon, J Andrew

    2010-12-01

    Protein flexibility plays a critical role in ligand binding to both orthosteric and allosteric sites. We here review some of the computer-aided drug-design techniques currently used to account for protein flexibility, ranging from methods that probe local receptor flexibility in the region of the protein immediately adjacent to the binding site, to those that account for general flexibility in all protein regions.

  3. Laboratory two-dimensional X-ray microdiffraction technique: a support for authentication of an unknown Ghirlandaio painting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontempi, E.; Benedetti, D.; Massardi, A.; Zacco, A.; Borgese, L.; Depero, L. E.

    2008-07-01

    Europe has a very rich and diversified cultural heritage of art works, including buildings, monuments and objects of all sizes, involving a great variety of materials. The continuous discovery of new art works opens the problem of their authentication. Advanced analytical techniques can be fundamental to understand the way of life, the culture and the technical and intellectual know-how of the artists. Indeed, the authentication of an art work involves the identification of the used materials, their production techniques and procedures used for the work realization. It is possible to know the origin and provenance of materials, including the location of the natural sources. Advanced analytical techniques also help one to understand degradation processes, corrosion, weathering, and preservation-conservation protocols. In this paper we present a painting attributed to Domenico Ghirlandaio. Ghirlandaio is a well-known artist of fifteenth century who contributes to the apprenticeship of Michelangelo Buonarroti. The study of the pigments used in this painting, which belongs to a private collection, has been supported mainly by means of laboratory two-dimensional X-ray microdiffraction (μXRD2). The possibility to obtain information about not only the phase, but also microstructure allows one to extract interesting consideration and to obtain evidence of the painter’s style and intention.

  4. A flexible surface wetness sensor using a RFID technique.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-Hao; Chien, Jui-Hung; Wang, Bo-Yan; Chen, Ping-Hei; Lee, Da-Sheng

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a flexible wetness sensor whose detection signal, converted to a binary code, is transmitted through radio-frequency (RF) waves from a radio-frequency identification integrated circuit (RFID IC) to a remote reader. The flexible sensor, with a fixed operating frequency of 13.56 MHz, contains a RFID IC and a sensor circuit that is fabricated on a flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) using a Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) process. The sensor circuit contains a comb-shaped sensing area surrounded by an octagonal antenna with a width of 2.7 cm. The binary code transmitted from the RFIC to the reader changes if the surface conditions of the detector surface changes from dry to wet. This variation in the binary code can be observed on a digital oscilloscope connected to the reader.

  5. The effects of the Bowen technique on hamstring flexibility over time: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Marr, Michelle; Baker, Julian; Lambon, Nicky; Perry, Jo

    2011-07-01

    The hamstring muscles are regularly implicated in recurrent injuries, movement dysfunction and low back pain. Links between limited flexibility and development of neuromusculoskeletal symptoms are frequently reported. The Bowen Technique is used to treat many conditions including lack of flexibility. The study set out to investigate the effect of the Bowen Technique on hamstring flexibility over time. An assessor-blind, prospective, randomised controlled trial was performed on 120 asymptomatic volunteers. Participants were randomly allocated into a control group or Bowen group. Three flexibility measurements occurred over one week, using an active knee extension test. The intervention group received a single Bowen treatment. A repeated measures univariate analysis of variance, across both groups for the three time periods, revealed significant within-subject and between-subject differences for the Bowen group. Continuing increases in flexibility levels were observed over one week. No significant change over time was noted for the control group.

  6. Olive oil authentication: A comparative analysis of regulatory frameworks with especial emphasis on quality and authenticity indices, and recent analytical techniques developed for their assessment. A review.

    PubMed

    Bajoub, Aadil; Bendini, Alessandra; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría

    2016-09-22

    Over the last decades, olive oil quality and authenticity control has become an issue of great importance to consumers, suppliers, retailers, and regulators in both traditional and emerging olive oil producing countries, mainly due to the increasing worldwide popularity and the trade globalization of this product. Thus, in order to ensure olive oil authentication, various national and international laws and regulations have been adopted, although some of them are actually causing an enormous debate about the risk that they can represent for the harmonization of international olive oil trade standards. Within this context, this review was designed to provide a critical overview and comparative analysis of selected regulatory frameworks for olive oil authentication, with special emphasis on the quality and purity criteria considered by these regulation systems, their thresholds and the analytical methods employed for monitoring them. To complete the general overview, recent analytical advances to overcome drawbacks and limitations of the official methods to evaluate olive oil quality and to determine possible adulterations were reviewed. Furthermore, the latest trends on analytical approaches to assess the olive oil geographical and varietal origin traceability were also examined.

  7. Molecular authentication and quality control using a high performance liquid chromatography technique of Fructus Evodiae.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dan; Li, Shun Xiang; Cai, Guang Xian; Yue, Chun Hua; Wei, Li Jun; Zhang, Ping

    2008-02-01

    In present paper, the properties of molecular authentication combined with the fingerprints of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were validated by analyzing ten batches of Fructus Evodiae samples (the dried nearly ripe fruit of Evodia rutaecarpa (JUSS.) BENTH., Evodia rutaecarpa (JUSS.) BENTH. var. officinalis (DODE) HUANG or Evodia rutaecarpa (JUSS.) BENTH. var. bodinieri (DODE) HUANG). The results of this investigation show that the similarities of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were almost 100% in Evodia rutaecarpa (JUSS.) BENTH. var. bodinieri (DODE) HUANG, 97% in Evodia rutaecarpa (JUSS.) BENTH., and 96% in Evodia rutaecarpa (JUSS.) BENTH. var. officinalis (DODE) HUANG. The percentage of identity between the two groups of Evodia rutaecarpa (JUSS.) BENTH. var. bodinieri (DODE) HUANG and Evodia rutaecarpa (JUSS.) BENTH. var. officinalis (DODE) HUANG is almost 96%, but the identity among the group of these three species is only 73%. The results show that Fructus Evodiae comes from three species respectively. The fingerprints of HPLC show that Fructus Evodiae revealed 20 major common peaks. And the three species have almost the same chemical constituents. ITS sequence fingerprint combining the fingerprint of HPLC can not only be developed to identify and distinguish the three species in detail, but also can be used for optimizing location where Fructus Evodiae has much higher bioactive constituents and yield.

  8. Techniques for assessment of flexible space structure control performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowell, Lawrence F.

    1988-01-01

    Several multivariable concepts are presently applied to both the open-loop and closed-loop analysis of a wrap-rib antenna space structure. After evaluating the alternative placements of sensors and actuators by means of controllability, observability, and transmission-zero concepts, the linear quadratic gaussian/loop transfer recovery method is used to synthesize a control law for suppression of the transient vibrations that are typically encountered during maneuvers. The integration of these techniques and associated computer programs into a larger spacecraft design system is also discussed.

  9. Advances in parameter estimation techniques applied to flexible structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maben, Egbert; Zimmerman, David C.

    1994-01-01

    In this work, various parameter estimation techniques are investigated in the context of structural system identification utilizing distributed parameter models and 'measured' time-domain data. Distributed parameter models are formulated using the PDEMOD software developed by Taylor. Enhancements made to PDEMOD for this work include the following: (1) a Wittrick-Williams based root solving algorithm; (2) a time simulation capability; and (3) various parameter estimation algorithms. The parameter estimations schemes will be contrasted using the NASA Mini-Mast as the focus structure.

  10. Validation of attitude/deformation sensing techniques for space flexible manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasbarri, Paolo; Palmerini, Giovanni B.; Coppotelli, Giuliano; Toglia, Chiara

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach that makes use of two different techniques to sense and identify both the rigid attitude motion and the flexible dynamics of a manipulator. With the first technique, an accurate attitude motion determination, based on the use of a global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) signals, is performed. For this purpose, some antennas are placed on the manipulator in order to obtain the observable phase of the GNSS signal. The second technique, based on the use of accelerometer sensors, is used in order to identify the dynamic signature during the motion of the flexible link. Specifically, the modal parameters are estimated using data recorded from accelerometers, conveniently placed on the structure, by means of an output-only based approach. The developed algorithms used for both the attitude estimation and the output-only modal analysis are validated by experimental activities carried out on an in-house testbed representing a two flexible arm manipulator.

  11. Information authentication using an optical dielectric metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaogang; Mei, Shengtao

    2017-09-01

    Metasurfaces that consist of a monolayer of photonic artificial atoms are emerging as attractive materials for optical wavefront-shaping and polarization-control devices. By integrating nanophotonics with a phase-encoding technique, we demonstrate theoretically an information authentication method using dielectric metasurfaces that can be verified without information disclosure at visible wavelengths. The required secured diffraction pattern can be simply achieved by a metasurface hologram with a small number of pixels, which means increased efficiency and lower costs of production. Although the decrypted image is noisy, it can be authenticated by recognition algorithms where the primary image is used as a reference. The results show that the dielectric metasurface approach, providing great flexibility in the design of the wavefront of light and compatible with the CMOS technology, can be potentially applied in optical information security.

  12. Geospatial Authentication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyle, Stacey D.

    2009-01-01

    A software package that has been designed to allow authentication for determining if the rover(s) is/are within a set of boundaries or a specific area to access critical geospatial information by using GPS signal structures as a means to authenticate mobile devices into a network wirelessly and in real-time has been developed. The advantage lies in that the system only allows those with designated geospatial boundaries or areas into the server. The Geospatial Authentication software has two parts Server and Client. The server software is a virtual private network (VPN) developed in Linux operating system using Perl programming language. The server can be a stand-alone VPN server or can be combined with other applications and services. The client software is a GUI Windows CE software, or Mobile Graphical Software, that allows users to authenticate into a network. The purpose of the client software is to pass the needed satellite information to the server for authentication.

  13. Semidirect posterior composite restorations with a flexible die technique: A case series.

    PubMed

    Torres, Carlos Rocha Gomes; Zanatta, Rayssa Ferreira; Huhtala, Maria Filomena Rocha Lima; Borges, Alessandra Bühler

    2017-09-01

    Besides indirect use in the laboratory and direct use for restorations, composites can be used in semidirect procedures. The authors describe the semidirect composite restoration technique by using a flexible die for large lesions in posterior teeth. The authors present illustrations of the clinical steps and the outcomes immediately after the procedures. The authors placed chairside inlay, onlay, and overlay composite restorations. The final esthetic outcome, along with function and anatomic form recovery, demonstrated that this might be a viable cost-effective alternative technique to laboratory-fabricated indirect restorations. Clinicians can restore large preparations in posterior teeth successfully with semidirect composite restorations in a single appointment by using the flexible die technique, resulting in satisfactory function and esthetic outcome. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Operational modal analysis via image based technique of very flexible space structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, Marco; Gasbarri, Paolo; Palmerini, Giovanni B.; Monti, Riccardo

    2013-08-01

    Vibrations represent one of the most important topics of the engineering design relevant to flexible structures. The importance of this problem increases when a very flexible system is considered, and this is often the case of space structures. In order to identify the modal characteristics, in terms of natural frequencies and relevant modal parameters, ground tests are performed. However, these parameters could vary due to the operative conditions of the system. In order to continuously monitor the modal characteristics during the satellite lifetime, an operational modal analysis is mandatory. This kind of analysis is usually performed by using classical accelerometers or strain gauges and by properly analyzing the acquired output. In this paper a different approach for the vibrations data acquisition will be performed via image-based technique. In order to simulate a flexible satellite, a free flying platform is used; the problem is furthermore complicated by the fact that the overall system, constituted by a highly rigid bus and very flexible panels, must necessarily be modeled as a multibody system. In the experimental campaign, the camera, placed on the bus, will be used to identify the eigenfrequencies of the vibrating structure; in this case aluminum thin plates simulate very flexible solar panels. The structure is excited by a hammer or studied during a fast attitude maneuver. The results of the experimental activity will be investigated and compared with respect to the numerical simulation obtained via a FEM-multibody software and the relevant results will be proposed and discussed.

  15. New Ways in Using Authentic Materials in the Classroom. New Ways in TESOL Series II: Innovative Classroom Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larimer, Ruth E., Ed.; Schleicher, Leigh, Ed.

    Ideas and activities for using authentic materials in the English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classroom are collected here. Each activity centers on an audio, visual, or written text from an English language environment, including samples from many different genres: television, radio, and video; newspapers, magazines, and literature; maps, mail,…

  16. Controller design for flexible, distributed parameter mechanical arms via combined state space and frequency domain techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Book, W. J.; Majett, M.

    1982-01-01

    The potential benefits of the ability to control more flexible mechanical arms are discussed. A justification is made in terms of speed of movement. A new controller design procedure is then developed to provide this capability. It uses both a frequency domain representation and a state variable representation of the arm model. The frequency domain model is used to update the modal state variable model to insure decoupled states. The technique is applied to a simple example with encouraging results.

  17. Geospatial Authentication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyle, Stacey D.

    2009-01-01

    A software package that has been designed to allow authentication for determining if the rover(s) is/are within a set of boundaries or a specific area to access critical geospatial information by using GPS signal structures as a means to authenticate mobile devices into a network wirelessly and in real-time. The advantage lies in that the system only allows those with designated geospatial boundaries or areas into the server.

  18. Fusion of micro-metrology techniques for the flexible inspection of MEMS/MOEMS assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, R.; Pavim, A.

    2008-04-01

    Micro-technology plays an important role in everyday life, without being much perceived. Cell phones, for instance, are daily equipped with small electronic components, which must have their quality level assured. New micro-metrology techniques were developed in the last years for such purposes. They are usually only suited for measuring specific and individual object properties (e.g. geometry, roughness, contours). A multi-sensorial approach is needed to improve the inspection range and flexibility of a micro-production cell, so that the distinct features of different industrial parts may be inspected intelligently and independently of their surface properties. This work provides a basic review on some of the most important "non-contact" micro-metrology techniques (optical and non-optical), performing a comparison of these methods among their distinct capabilities and possible industrial applications/integration scenarios. Based on the already existent sensor fusion principles, the MEOND concept will be introduced to build up flexible inspection systems for small series production by combining sensors and data, focusing possible application scenarios of the micro-world. The fusion of micro-metrology techniques has not yet been far explored and is extremely important to assure flexibility, autonomy, accuracy and robustness for the assembly of MEMS/MOEMS systems.

  19. A Flexible Hierarchical Bayesian Modeling Technique for Risk Analysis of Major Accidents.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongyang; Khan, Faisal; Veitch, Brian

    2017-02-28

    Safety analysis of rare events with potentially catastrophic consequences is challenged by data scarcity and uncertainty. Traditional causation-based approaches, such as fault tree and event tree (used to model rare event), suffer from a number of weaknesses. These include the static structure of the event causation, lack of event occurrence data, and need for reliable prior information. In this study, a new hierarchical Bayesian modeling based technique is proposed to overcome these drawbacks. The proposed technique can be used as a flexible technique for risk analysis of major accidents. It enables both forward and backward analysis in quantitative reasoning and the treatment of interdependence among the model parameters. Source-to-source variability in data sources is also taken into account through a robust probabilistic safety analysis. The applicability of the proposed technique has been demonstrated through a case study in marine and offshore industry.

  20. Flexible global calibration technique for an arbitrarily arranged fringe projection profilometry system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Huimin; Zhao, Biyu; Wu, Yuxiang; Li, Mingyang

    2016-06-01

    Calibration is a crucial step in fringe projection profilometry, which establishes the relationship between unwrapped phase and (FPP) three-dimensional (3-D) shape data (X,Y,h). For an arbitrarily arranged FPP system, a simple geometrical model and mathematical descriptions of the relationships among phase, height distribution, and transverse coordinate are presented. Based on this, a flexible global calibration method is presented to reconstruct 3-D shape by just using a checkerboard with known separation and alternating white and blue. The calibration board is placed at several random positions to determine the relationship between phase and height, and the relationship between pixel position and X, Y coordinates. To get high accuracy, distortion for each pixel is considered. The validity, flexibility, and practicality of this system and calibration technique are verified by experiments.

  1. Closed-Loop Control Techniques for Active Vibration Suppression of a Flexible Mechanical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villaverde Huertas, Vladímir; Rohaľ-Ilkiv, Boris

    2012-12-01

    This paper investigates the problem of vibration attenuation of a lightly damped mechanical system using piezoelectric actuation. First of all, an explicit predictive controller will be designed using the Matlab multi-parametric toolbox. Then, we will explore the positive position feedback technique and test the discrete-time PPF controller using an xPC target real-time system. On the other hand, we will realize the modal analysis of the analyzed flexible system in order to determine the frequency corresponding to the first mode shape. This frequency will be utilized as PPF controller frequency. Moreover, the state-space model of the flexible mechanical system will be obtained using the Matlab system identification toolbox applying the subspace identification approach.

  2. Authentication Without Secrets

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, Lyndon G.; Robertson, Perry J.

    2015-11-01

    This work examines a new approach to authentication, which is the most fundamental security primitive that underpins all cyber security protections. Current Internet authentication techniques require the protection of one or more secret keys along with the integrity protection of the algorithms/computations designed to prove possession of the secret without actually revealing it. Protecting a secret requires physical barriers or encryption with yet another secret key. The reason to strive for "Authentication without Secret Keys" is that protecting secrets (even small ones only kept in a small corner of a component or device) is much harder than protecting the integrity of information that is not secret. Promising methods are examined for authentication of components, data, programs, network transactions, and/or individuals. The successful development of authentication without secret keys will enable far more tractable system security engineering for high exposure, high consequence systems by eliminating the need for brittle protection mechanisms to protect secret keys (such as are now protected in smart cards, etc.). This paper is a re-release of SAND2009-7032 with new figures numerous edits.

  3. Authentic leadership.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, Karlene

    2006-12-01

    There is leadership, and then there is authentic leadership. If you are not willing to engage from your heart, to passionately work to create a greater quality of work life for front-line staff every day, and to push yourself to the ultimate limit to make that happen, you might be a leader, but you will not be perceived as an authentic leader. Authentic leaders love, challenge people to do what they didn't believe was possible, and generate the energy to make the impossible possible by their passion for their people, their patients, and for doing the right thing. Thankfully, there are leaders who are willing to live on the edge, model their love, and inspire people to change the world. Will you be one of them?

  4. Authentic leadership.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, Karlene

    2006-10-01

    There is leadership, and then there is authentic leadership. If you are not willing to engage from your heart, to passionately work to create a greater quality of work life for front-line staff every day, and to push yourself to the ultimate limit to make that happen, you might be a leader, but you will not be perceived as an authentic leader. Authentic leaders love, challenge people to do what they didn't believe was possible, and generate the energy to make the impossible possible by their passion for their people, their patients, and for doing the right thing. Thankfully, there are leaders who are willing to live on the edge, model their love, and inspire people to change the world. Will you be one of them?

  5. Authenticating cache.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Tyler Barratt; Urrea, Jorge Mario

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the Authenticating Cache architecture is to ensure that machine instructions in a Read Only Memory (ROM) are legitimate from the time the ROM image is signed (immediately after compilation) to the time they are placed in the cache for the processor to consume. The proposed architecture allows the detection of ROM image modifications during distribution or when it is loaded into memory. It also ensures that modified instructions will not execute in the processor-as the cache will not be loaded with a page that fails an integrity check. The authenticity of the instruction stream can also be verified in this architecture. The combination of integrity and authenticity assurance greatly improves the security profile of a system.

  6. Transfer of microstructure pattern of CNTs onto flexible substrate using hot press technique for sensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Prabhash; Harsh

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Successfully transfer of microstructure patterned CNTs on PET substrate. • Demonstrate as resistor-based NH{sub 3} gas sensor in the sub-ppm range. • Excellent photodetector having instantaneous response and recovery characteristics. • An effective technique to grow and produce flexible electronic device. - Abstract: In this work, we report the successful and efficient transfer process of two- dimensional (2-D) vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by hot pressing method with an aim to develop flexible sensor devices. Carbon nanotubes are synthesized by cold wall thermal chemical vapor deposition using patterned SiO{sub 2} substrate under low pressure. The height of the pattern of CNTs is controlled by reaction time. The entire growth and transfer process is carried out within 30 min. Strong adhesion between the nanotube and polyethylene terephthalate substrate was observed in the post-transferred case. Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies are used to analyze the microstructure of carbon nanotube film before and after hot pressing. This technique shows great potential for the fabrication of flexible sensing devices. We report for the first time, the application of patterned microstructure developed by this technique in the development of gas sensor and optoelectronic device. Surface resistive mode is used for detection of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) gas in the sub-ppm range. An impressive photoconducting response is also observed in the visible wavelength. The reproducibility of the sample was checked and the results indicate the possibility of use of carbon nanotube as gas sensor, photodetector, CCDs etc.

  7. Tape-casting technique can prepare beta-TCP sheets with uniform thickness and flexibility.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, Yasuhiro; Hayakawa, Tohru; Nemoto, Kimiya

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this study is to propose a new fabrication technology for bone substitutes. In this study, a tape-casting method was used to prepare flexible beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) sheets. A beta-TCP slurry containing a binder and plasticizer was used in a doctor blade system. The beta-TCP sheet obtained by this tape-casting method was highly flexible, enabling twisting and free-form shaping. The beta-TCP sheet was approximately 0.21 mm thick. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry revealed that the structure of the beta-TCP component in the sheet is the same as that of the original beta-TCP powder. Observation by field-emission scanning electron microscopy showed that the beta-TCP sheet had a flat, microgranular surface. During the early stages, the tensile stress-strain curves of the beta-TCP sheet showed a nonlinear behavior until reaching the point of final fracture. This result was derived from the ductile property of the prepared beta-TCP sheet. In conclusion, a flexible beta-TCP sheet was easily prepared using a tape-casting technique. Fabrication using tape casting offers the advantages of enabling the preparation of ceramic sheets with precise thickness and not requiring expensive fabrication facilities.

  8. Application of Neutron Correlation Techniques to Warhead Authentication: Feasibility and Conceptual Requirements?Monte Carlo Simulations and Statistical Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, M I; Wolford, J K

    2004-08-05

    We explore the feasibility of using Feynman moments as attributes of fissile material in warhead authentication measurements. We present results of computer simulations of neutron correlation measurements to validate and inform the application of the method to measurements in an arms control scenario. We establish the robustness of the method for use in automated measuring equipment that protects classified or sensitive data using an information barrier. Drawing from our results, we define high-level requirements to govern the design process, and guide the construction of a prototype.

  9. Strengthening Authentication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Doug

    2007-01-01

    The basics of authentication are straightforward. One can prove his or her identity in three ways: (1) something one "has" (for example, a key or a birth certificate); (2) something one "knows" (such as a password); or (3) something one "is" (such as one's fingerprints, used in biometric technologies). In the world of computers and networks, the…

  10. Strengthening Authentication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Doug

    2007-01-01

    The basics of authentication are straightforward. One can prove his or her identity in three ways: (1) something one "has" (for example, a key or a birth certificate); (2) something one "knows" (such as a password); or (3) something one "is" (such as one's fingerprints, used in biometric technologies). In the world of computers and networks, the…

  11. Antireflux operations at flexible endoscopy using endoluminal stitching techniques: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Kadirkamanathan, S S; Evans, D F; Gong, F; Yazaki, E; Scott, M; Swain, C P

    1996-08-01

    Three antireflux operations-gastroplasty, fundoplication, and anterior gastropexy-were developed for performance at flexible endoscopy without laparotomy or laparoscopy. An endoscopic sewing machine mounted on a standard gastroscope, endoscopic knotting devices, overtube, and nylon thread were used to perform these operations in adult beagle dogs. Gastroplasty (n = 10) was accomplished by suturing the anterior and posterior wall of the stomach to create a gastric tube (neoesophagus) along the lesser curve. An anatomic arrangement similar to fundoplication (n = 6) was achieved by invaginating the esophagus and fixing it to the stomach 2 cm distal to the cardioesophageal junction. Anterior gastropexy (n = 6) was performed using a technique similar to that used in creating percutaneous gastrostomies. There was no mortality. Ninety percent of sutures were seen at repeat endoscopy at 4 to 8 week intervals. The gastroplasty group was selected for more extensive evaluation. Manometry using a three-channel perfused catheter system before and after the procedures showed an increase in the lower esophageal sphincter pressure (preoperative median 4.6 mm Hg; post-operative median 13.33 mm Hg, p = 0.008) and cardiac yield pressures (preoperative median 10 mm Hg; postoperative median 19 mm Hg, p = 0.007). This study demonstrates the feasibility of performing antireflux operations at flexible endoscopy, without laparoscopy or laparotomy, by use of endoluminal suturing techniques.

  12. System and method for authentication

    DOEpatents

    Duerksen, Gary L.; Miller, Seth A.

    2015-12-29

    Described are methods and systems for determining authenticity. For example, the method may include providing an object of authentication, capturing characteristic data from the object of authentication, deriving authentication data from the characteristic data of the object of authentication, and comparing the authentication data with an electronic database comprising reference authentication data to provide an authenticity score for the object of authentication. The reference authentication data may correspond to one or more reference objects of authentication other than the object of authentication.

  13. Techniques and efficacy of flexible endoscopic therapy of Zenker’s diverticulum

    PubMed Central

    Perbtani, Yaseen; Suarez, Alejandro; Wagh, Mihir S

    2015-01-01

    Zenker’s diverticulum (ZD) is an abnormal hypopharyngeal pouch often presenting with dysphagia. Treatment is often sought with invasive surgical management of the diverticulum being the only mode of definitive therapy. Primarily done by an open transcervical approach in the past, nowadays treatment is usually provided by otolaryngologists using a less invasive trans-oral technique with a rigid endoscope. When first described, this method grew into acceptance quickly due to its similar efficacy and vastly improved safety profile compared to the open transcervical approach. However, the main limitation with this approach is that it may not be suitable for all patients. Nonetheless, progress in the field of natural orifice endoscopic surgery over the last 10-20 years has led to the increase in utilization of the flexible endoscope in the treatment of ZD. Primarily performed by interventional gastroenterologists, this approach overcomes the prior limitation of its surgical counterpart and allows adequate visualization of the diverticulum independent of the patient’s body habitus. Additionally, it may be performed without the use of general anesthesia and in an outpatient setting, thus further increasing the utility of this modality, especially in elderly patients with other comorbidities. Today, results in more than 600 patients have been described in various published case series using different techniques and devices demonstrating a high percentage of clinical symptom resolution with low rates of adverse events. In this article, we present our experience with flexible endoscopic therapy of Zenker’s diverticulum and highlight the endoscopic technique, outcomes and adverse events related to this minimally invasive modality. PMID:25789090

  14. Low-bandwidth authentication.

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, Patrick Joseph; McIver, Lauren; Gaines, Brian R.; Anderson, Erik; Collins, Michael Joseph; Thomas,Kurt Adam; McDaniel, Austin

    2007-09-01

    Remotely-fielded unattended sensor networks generally must operate at very low power--in the milliwatt or microwatt range--and thus have extremely limited communications bandwidth. Such sensors might be asleep most of the time to conserve power, waking only occasionally to transmit a few bits. RFID tags for tracking or material control have similarly tight bandwidth constraints, and emerging nanotechnology devices will be even more limited. Since transmitted data is subject to spoofing, and since sensors might be located in uncontrolled environments vulnerable to physical tampering, the high-consequence data generated by such systems must be protected by cryptographically sound authentication mechanisms; but such mechanisms are often lacking in current sensor networks. One reason for this undesirable situation is that standard authentication methods become impractical or impossible when bandwidth is severely constrained; if messages are small, a standard digital signature or HMAC will be many times larger than the message itself, yet it might be possible to spare only a few extra bits per message for security. Furthermore, the authentication tags themselves are only one part of cryptographic overhead, as key management functions (distributing, changing, and revoking keys) consume still more bandwidth. To address this problem, we have developed algorithms that provide secure authentication while adding very little communication overhead. Such techniques will make it possible to add strong cryptographic guarantees of data integrity to a much wider range of systems.

  15. Endobronchial dental prosthesis retrieval by a snare technique using a flexible bronchoscope and fluoroscopy: Two case reports and technical tips.

    PubMed

    Ichimura, Hideo; Maeda, Michihiro; Kikuchi, Shinji; Ozawa, Yuichiro; Kanemoto, Koji; Kurishima, Koichi; Iijima, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Hiroichi; Sato, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    We describe two cases in each of which a dental prosthesis, presenting as an endobronchial foreign body (FB), was successfully retrieved using a snare technique employing a flexible bronchoscope and fluoroscopy that enabled us to avoid the need for rigid bronchoscope and thoracotomy. In one case, the FB was peripherally lodged and bronchoscopically invisible. In the other case, the FB was observed in the right intermediate bronchus, but the grasping basket and forceps were unable to retrieve it. The combination of a flexible bronchoscope and fluoroscopy extended the application of the snare technique to bronchoscopically invisible FBs and facilitated placement of an encircling loop around the FB. Since dental prostheses are rigid and irregular in shape, the snare loop technique can be used. For patients in a stable condition with a dental prosthesis FB, using the snare technique with a flexible bronchoscope and fluoroscopy is a good option. We provide technical tips based on our experiences.

  16. AB059. A novel technique of suctioning flexible ureteroscopy with automatic control of renal pelvic pressure

    PubMed Central

    Song, Le-Ming; Deng, Xiao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Flexible ureteroscopy is rapidly becoming a first line therapy for many patients with renal and ureteral calculi. Currently the medical infusion devices cannot monitor the renal pelvic pressure. We introduce a novel technique of flexible ureteroscopy with a suction system to treat upper urinary calculi and automatically control renal pelvic pressure. Methods We performed flexible URSs for patients with the help of a self-designed intelligent system including an irrigation and suctioning platform and a transparent ureteral access sheath (UAS) with a pressure-sensitive tip, which can precisely regulate the infusion flow and control the vacuum suctioning by computerized real-time recording and monitoring of RPP through pressure feedback, ensuring a stable RPP. The outer body diameter of the UAS was 15 F; the diameter of the working channel was 11.55 F; 
the length of the UAS was 20-45 cm. On the platform, RPP control value was set at −2 mmHg, RPP warning value was set at 20 mmHg, and RPP limit value was set at 30 mmHg. Intraoperatively, holmium laser was used to powderize the stone at 0.8 J/pulse with a frequency of 20 pulses/s (Lumenis, fiber diameter 200 um). In the process of powderizing lithotripsy using the laser, the scope body was moved back and forth slightly in an uninterrupted fashion in the sheath, with a distance of about 2-3 mm, to facilitate small gravel particles inside the sheath gap to be sucked out automatically. Gravel particles larger than sheath gap but less than UAS in diameter were sucked out by withdrawing the scope intermittently without a need of stone basketing. We retrospectively reviewed 37 patients with renal or ureteral calculus received the flexible URS from November 2014 to January 2015. Results The procedure was successfully performed in all patients with a clear operating field view. The mean stone size was 15.9±5.2 mm (rang: 8-35 mm). The mean operative time was 24.8±15.9 [13-49] min. The stone-free rates at

  17. Molecular authentication of the traditional medicinal plant Peucedanum praeruptorum and its substitutes and adulterants by DNA - barcoding technique

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jing; Wang, Wencai; Liu, Mengqi; Liu, Zhenwen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Peucedanum praeruptorum L., a traditional Chinese medicine known as Qian-hu, is commonly used for dispelling wind-heat and expectorant and loss of energy. However, due to similar morphological characters and high market demand, there are many substitutes and adulterants of P. praeruptorum. DNA barcoding is an approach to identify species based on sequences from a short, standardized DNA region. Objective: To authenticate P. praeruptorum from its substitutes and adulterants. Materials and Methods: The differential identification of P. praeruptorum and 13 regional substitutes and 23 adulterants was investigated by means of DNA sequence analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA), a bootstrap neighbor-joining (NJ) tree according to Kimura's 2-parameter method was also calculated. Results: The data showed that P. praeruptorum, its substitutes and adulterants could be easily distinguished at the DNA level, while almost all species were well resolved, and successfully identified on the NJ tree. Conclusion: The ITS sequence can be used for the identification of P. praeruptorum and to distinguish it from common substitutes and adulterants. PMID:25422535

  18. Authentic Teachers: Student Criteria Perceiving Authenticity of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruyckere, Pedro; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Authenticity is seen by many as a key for good learning and education. There is talk of authentic instruction, authentic learning, authentic problems, authentic assessment, authentic tools and authentic teachers. The problem is that while authenticity is an often-used adjective describing almost all aspects of teaching and learning, the concept…

  19. Graph State-Based Quantum Group Authentication Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Longxia; Peng, Xiaoqi; Shi, Jinjing; Guo, Ying

    2017-02-01

    Motivated by the elegant structure of the graph state, we design an ingenious quantum group authentication scheme, which is implemented by operating appropriate operations on the graph state and can solve the problem of multi-user authentication. Three entities, the group authentication server (GAS) as a verifier, multiple users as provers and the trusted third party Trent are included. GAS and Trent assist the multiple users in completing the authentication process, i.e., GAS is responsible for registering all the users while Trent prepares graph states. All the users, who request for authentication, encode their authentication keys on to the graph state by performing Pauli operators. It demonstrates that a novel authentication scheme can be achieved with the flexible use of graph state, which can synchronously authenticate a large number of users, meanwhile the provable security can be guaranteed definitely.

  20. Framework for media data and owner authentication based on cryptography, watermarking, and biometric authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittman, Jana; Steinebach, Martin; Croce Ferri, Lucilla; Vielhauer, Claus; Steinmetz, Ralf; Wohlmacher, Petra

    2001-11-01

    Protecting the media of the future - securing the future of the media is an essential task for our new century. Security is defined by security measures, e.g. confidentiality, integrity, authenticity, and non-repudiation. Most of these measures are using watermarking techniques and cryptographic mechanisms like cipher systems, digital signature schemes, and authentication protocols. The security of these mechanisms is mainly based on the authenticity of specific data like keys and attributes - both data must be dedicated to its owner in an authentic manner. Otherwise, the authenticity of data and of owners can not be guaranteed and subsequently, the security can not be assured. Therefore in our paper we want to focus on data and entity (owner) authentication. We introduce a general framework to protect media data by combining different existing techniques: cryptographic, watermarking and biometric approaches. As an example we describe general concepts for a content-fragile watermarking approach for digital images and a generic approach for biometric authentication.

  1. On-line scheduling of Automatics and flexible Manufacturing System using SARSA technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aissani, N.; Beldjilali, B.

    2008-06-01

    In this paper context, we will show what will be the best organization of decision entities in flexible manufacturing system, but also show our approach steps to achieve a manufacturing control system which is more reliable insofar as it has responding to queries in online. With this intention, we use a multi-agent system of which the decisions taken by the system are the result of those agents group work, these agents ensure in the same time manufacturing scheduling solution and a continuously improvement of their quality thanks to the reinforcement learning technique and particularly SARSA algorithm which was introduced to them. This technique of learning makes it possible the agents to be adaptive and to learn the best behavior in their various roles (answer the requests, self-organization, plan…) without attenuating the system on-line. A computer implementation and experimentation of this model are provided in this paper to demonstrate the contribution of our approach compared to a famous metaheuristic: tabu search, widely used for scheduling in complex manufacturing systems.

  2. A novel pattern transfer technique for mounting glassy carbon microelectrodes on polymeric flexible substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vomero, Maria; van Niekerk, Pieter; Nguyen, Vivian; Gong, Nick; Hirabayashi, Mieko; Cinopri, Alessio; Logan, Kyle; Moghadasi, Ali; Varma, Priya; Kassegne, Sam

    2016-02-01

    We present a novel technology for transferring glassy carbon microstructures, originally fabricated on a silicon wafer through a high-temperature process, to a polymeric flexible substrate such as polyimide. This new transfer technique addresses a major barrier in Carbon-MEMS technology whose widespread use so has been hampered by the high-temperature pyrolysis process (⩾900 °C), which limits selection of substrates. In the new approach presented, patterning and pyrolysis of polymer precursor on silicon substrate is carried out first, followed by coating with a polymer layer that forms a hydrogen bond with glassy carbon and then releasing the ensuing glassy carbon structure; hence, transferring it to a flexible substrate. This enables the fabrication of a unique set of glassy carbon microstructures critical in applications that demand substrates that conform to the shape of the stimulated/actuated or sensed surface. Our findings based on Fourier transform infared spectroscopy on the complete electrode set demonstrate—for the first time—that carbonyl groups on polyimide substrate form a strong hydrogen bond with hydroxyl groups on glassy carbon resulting in carboxylic acid dimers (peaks at 2660 and 2585 cm-1). This strong bond is further confirmed by a tensile test that demonstrated an almost perfect bond between these materials that behave as an ideal composite material. Further, mechanical characterization shows that ultimate strain for such a structure is as high as 15% with yield stress of ~20 MPa. We propose that this novel technology not only offers a compelling case for the widespread use of carbon-MEMS, but also helps move the field in new and exciting directions.

  3. Direct olive oil authentication: detection of adulteration of olive oil with hazelnut oil by direct coupling of headspace and mass spectrometry, and multivariate regression techniques.

    PubMed

    Peña, Fernando; Cárdenas, Soledad; Gallego, Mercedes; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2005-05-13

    Control of adulteration of olive oil, together with authentication and contamination, is one of the main aspects in the quality control of olive oil. Adulteration with hazelnut oil is one of the most difficult to detect due to the similar composition of hazelnut and olive oils; both virgin olive oil and olive oil are subjected to that kind of adulteration. The main objective of this work was to develop an analytical method able to detect adulteration of virgin olive oils and olive oils with hazelnut oil by means of its analysis by a headspace autosampler directly coupled to a mass spectrometer used as detector (ChemSensor). As no chromatographic separation of the individual components of the samples exists, a global signal of the sample is obtained and employed for its characterization by means of chemometric techniques. Four different crude hazelnut oils from Turkey were employed for the development of the method. Multivariate regression techniques (partial least squares and principal components analysis) were applied to generate adequate regression models. Good values were obtained in both techniques for the parameters employed (standard errors of prediction (SEP) and prediction residual error sum of squares (PRESS)) to evaluate its goodness. With the proposed method, minimum adulteration levels of 7 and 15% can be detected in refined and virgin olive oils, respectively. Once validated, the method was applied to the detection of such adulteration in commercial olive oil and virgin olive oil samples.

  4. A Study on User Authentication Methodology Using Numeric Password and Fingerprint Biometric Information

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Seung-hwan; Seo, Hee-suk; Han, Sung-hyu; Ryou, Jae-cheol

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of computers and the development of the Internet made us able to easily access information. As people are concerned about user information security, the interest of the user authentication method is growing. The most common computer authentication method is the use of alphanumerical usernames and passwords. The password authentication systems currently used are easy, but only if you know the password, as the user authentication is vulnerable. User authentication using fingerprints, only the user with the information that is specific to the authentication security is strong. But there are disadvantage such as the user cannot change the authentication key. In this study, we proposed authentication methodology that combines numeric-based password and biometric-based fingerprint authentication system. Use the information in the user's fingerprint, authentication keys to obtain security. Also, using numeric-based password can to easily change the password; the authentication keys were designed to provide flexibility. PMID:24151601

  5. A study on user authentication methodology using numeric password and fingerprint biometric information.

    PubMed

    Ju, Seung-hwan; Seo, Hee-suk; Han, Sung-hyu; Ryou, Jae-cheol; Kwak, Jin

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of computers and the development of the Internet made us able to easily access information. As people are concerned about user information security, the interest of the user authentication method is growing. The most common computer authentication method is the use of alphanumerical usernames and passwords. The password authentication systems currently used are easy, but only if you know the password, as the user authentication is vulnerable. User authentication using fingerprints, only the user with the information that is specific to the authentication security is strong. But there are disadvantage such as the user cannot change the authentication key. In this study, we proposed authentication methodology that combines numeric-based password and biometric-based fingerprint authentication system. Use the information in the user's fingerprint, authentication keys to obtain security. Also, using numeric-based password can to easily change the password; the authentication keys were designed to provide flexibility.

  6. Flexible reduced field of view magnetic resonance imaging based on single-shot spatiotemporally encoded technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Cai, Cong-Bo; Chen, Lin; Chen, Ying; Qu, Xiao-Bo; Cai, Shu-Hui

    2015-10-01

    In many ultrafast imaging applications, the reduced field-of-view (rFOV) technique is often used to enhance the spatial resolution and field inhomogeneity immunity of the images. The stationary-phase characteristic of the spatiotemporally-encoded (SPEN) method offers an inherent applicability to rFOV imaging. In this study, a flexible rFOV imaging method is presented and the superiority of the SPEN approach in rFOV imaging is demonstrated. The proposed method is validated with phantom and in vivo rat experiments, including cardiac imaging and contrast-enhanced perfusion imaging. For comparison, the echo planar imaging (EPI) experiments with orthogonal RF excitation are also performed. The results show that the signal-to-noise ratios of the images acquired by the proposed method can be higher than those obtained with the rFOV EPI. Moreover, the proposed method shows better performance in the cardiac imaging and perfusion imaging of rat kidney, and it can scan one or more regions of interest (ROIs) with high spatial resolution in a single shot. It might be a favorable solution to ultrafast imaging applications in cases with severe susceptibility heterogeneities, such as cardiac imaging and perfusion imaging. Furthermore, it might be promising in applications with separate ROIs, such as mammary and limb imaging. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474236, 81171331, and U1232212).

  7. Transumbilical flexible endoscopic cholecystectomy in humans: first feasibility study using a hybrid technique.

    PubMed

    Palanivelu, C; Rajan, P S; Rangarajan, M; Parthasarathi, R; Senthilnathan, P; Praveenraj, P

    2008-05-01

    Natural-orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) procedures have been tested using numerous approaches, mainly in animals. In humans, only cholecystectomy has been assessed, using a combined transvaginal and transumbilical approach. We present another variant of a hybrid technique for cholecystectomy, namely the combination of a flexible transumbilical double-channel endoscope and a 3-mm rigid transcutaneous trocar placed in the left hypochondrium for liver retraction. The procedure was attempted in 10 well-selected young patients (M : F = 4 : 6, mean age 29.5 years). Instruments used through the two working channels of the endoscope were either a grasping forceps or snare for grasping and pulling and a hot-biopsy forceps for cold and hot preparation and dissection. Endoclips were used for cystic duct and artery closure. Postoperative analgesia consisted of one intravenous dose of analgesic, followed by oral administration for one further day. Follow-up visits were scheduled at 7 days, 30 days, 90 days, and 6 months. In 4 of the 10 cases the operation had to be converted to conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to difficulty in dissection (in 2 cases) or uncontrollable hemorrhage (2 cases). The mean operating time was 148 minutes. Of the 6 cases in which the procedure was finished by the new approach, cystic artery bleeding occurred in 1 and was successfully clipped. One further patient had a postoperative cystic duct leak with a bilioma, successfully treated by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with stenting. Five of the six patients reported themselves as satisfied at 3- or 6-month follow-up. So far, our endoscope-based transumbilical cholecystectomy technique has not yielded satisfactory results in humans. Further instrument and accessory improvements may increase both success rate and acceptance. Scarless surgery without the inherent risks of a transluminal approach may then become feasible.

  8. Should Teachers Be Authentic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialystok, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Authenticity is often touted as an important virtue for teachers. But what do we mean when we say that a teacher ought to be "authentic"? Research shows that discussions of teacher authenticity frequently refer to other character traits or simply to teacher effectiveness, but authenticity is a unique concept with a long philosophical…

  9. Improving general flexibility with a mind-body approach: a randomized, controlled trial using neuro emotional Technique®.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Anne M; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Hall, Michael W

    2012-08-01

    General flexibility is a key component of health, well-being, and general physical conditioning. Reduced flexibility has both physical and mental/emotional etiologies and can lead to musculoskeletal injuries and athletic underperformance. Few studies have tested the effectiveness of a mind-body therapy on general flexibility. The aim of this study was to investigate if Neuro Emotional Technique® (NET), a mind-body technique shown to be effective in reducing stress, can also improve general flexibility. The sit-and-reach test (SR) score was used as a measure of general flexibility. Forty-five healthy participants were recruited from the general population and assessed for their initial SR score before being randomly allocated to receive (a) two 20-minute sessions of NET (experimental group); (b) two 20-minute sessions of stretching instruction (active control group); or (c) no intervention or instruction (passive control group). After intervention, the participants were reassessed in a similar manner by the same blind assessor. The participants also answered questions about demographics, usual water and caffeine consumption, and activity level, and they completed an anxiety/mood psychometric preintervention and postintervention. The mean (SD) change in the SR score was +3.1 cm (2.5) in the NET group, +1.2 cm (2.3) in the active control group and +1.0 cm (2.6) in the passive control group. Although all the 3 groups showed some improvement, the improvement in the NET group was statistically significant when compared with that of either the passive controls (p = 0.015) or the active controls (p = 0.021). This study suggests that NET could provide an effective treatment in improving general flexibility. A larger study is required to confirm these findings and also to assess longer term effectiveness of this therapy on general flexibility.

  10. Experimental Verification of Attitude Control Techniques for Flexible Spacecraft Slew Maneuvers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    motion of a flexible spacecraft consisting of a rigid central body and a flexible appendage connecting a reflector. The primary actuators are a reaction ... wheel and thrusters. Position information is obtained with a rotary variable differential transformer (RVDT) and rate information is obtained by a

  11. Authenticity and healing.

    PubMed

    McGee, Michael D

    2014-06-01

    Caring and compassion cannot be faked. These are not actions we perform mechanically but states of being that flow from within to make healing connection with others in need. To be authentically healing requires that we live authentic lives. This paper describes what it means to be authentic from a psychospiritual perspective, discusses the components of authentic caring and ends with an exploration of ways to cultivate the authenticity of our lives in general and in our efforts to heal others.

  12. Fabrication techniques and applications of flexible graphene-based electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luqi, Tao; Danyang, Wang; Song, Jiang; Ying, Liu; Qianyi, Xie; He, Tian; Ningqin, Deng; Xuefeng, Wang; Yi, Yang; Tian-Ling, Ren

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, flexible electronic devices have become a hot topic of scientific research. These flexible devices are the basis of flexible circuits, flexible batteries, flexible displays and electronic skins. Graphene-based materials are very promising for flexible electronic devices, due to their high mobility, high elasticity, a tunable band gap, quantum electronic transport and high mechanical strength. In this article, we review the recent progress of the fabrication process and the applications of graphene-based electronic devices, including thermal acoustic devices, thermal rectifiers, graphene-based nanogenerators, pressure sensors and graphene-based light-emitting diodes. In summary, although there are still a lot of challenges needing to be solved, graphene-based materials are very promising for various flexible device applications in the future. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 60936002, 61025021, 61434001, 61574083), the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (No. 2015CB352100), the National Key Project of Science and Technology (No. 2011ZX02403-002) and the Special Fund for Agroscientific Research in the Public Interest of China (No. 201303107). M.A.M is additionally supported by the Postdoctoral Fellowship (PDF) Program of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada and China's Postdoctoral Science Foundation (CPSF).

  13. Provably Secure Password-based Authentication in TLS

    SciTech Connect

    Abdalla, Michel; Emmanuel, Bresson; Chevassut, Olivier; Moeller,Bodo; Pointcheval, David

    2005-12-20

    In this paper, we show how to design an efficient, provably secure password-based authenticated key exchange mechanism specifically for the TLS (Transport Layer Security) protocol. The goal is to provide a technique that allows users to employ (short) passwords to securely identify themselves to servers. As our main contribution, we describe a new password-based technique for user authentication in TLS, called Simple Open Key Exchange (SOKE). Loosely speaking, the SOKE ciphersuites are unauthenticated Diffie-Hellman ciphersuites in which the client's Diffie-Hellman ephemeral public value is encrypted using a simple mask generation function. The mask is simply a constant value raised to the power of (a hash of) the password.The SOKE ciphersuites, in advantage over previous pass-word-based authentication ciphersuites for TLS, combine the following features. First, SOKE has formal security arguments; the proof of security based on the computational Diffie-Hellman assumption is in the random oracle model, and holds for concurrent executions and for arbitrarily large password dictionaries. Second, SOKE is computationally efficient; in particular, it only needs operations in a sufficiently large prime-order subgroup for its Diffie-Hellman computations (no safe primes). Third, SOKE provides good protocol flexibility because the user identity and password are only required once a SOKE ciphersuite has actually been negotiated, and after the server has sent a server identity.

  14. Comparison of tolerance and cost-effectiveness of two nasal anesthesia techniques for transnasal flexible laryngoscopy.

    PubMed

    Young, VyVy N; Smith, Libby J; Rosen, Clark A

    2014-04-01

    (1) Compare tolerance of aerosolized spray versus syringe administration of topical anesthesia for transnasal flexible laryngoscopy (TFL), (2) analyze cost-effectiveness of both techniques. Prospective, blinded, randomized trial. Tertiary academic laryngology practice. One hundred and eight patients underwent TFL over 3 months. Patients were randomized to receive equivalent dose 1:1 neosynephrine/4% plain lidocaine mixture via aerosolized spray ("spray") or application with 1-cc syringe ("syringe"). Patients and physicians independently rated comfort of TFL on 5-point scale (1 = not at all comfortable to 5 = very comfortable). Data were collected on patient and endoscopist experience with TFL and reasons for poor tolerance of laryngoscopy. Cost analyses of disposable spray tips and syringes were calculated. Both patients and physicians reported very high tolerance of TFL. Patient tolerance appears to be similar between spray- versus syringe-administered anesthesia, although study limitations preclude definitive analysis. Poor tolerance of laryngoscopy was reported in 6.5% with comparable distribution between anesthetic delivery methods. There was no impact of patient prior experience with TFL, and there was no difference between anesthetic methods for TFL performed by resident, fellow, or attending. The difference between costs of the disposable spray tip versus syringe was $1.32 per unit. Use of a 1-cc syringe is an effective method to provide topical nasal anesthesia for TFL and saves $1.32 per unit compared to disposable spray tips. In our practice, transition to syringe-administered nasal anesthesia is projected to save $1300 per 1000 patients, or an anticipated $1000 per year per physician, with excellent patient tolerance of TFL.

  15. Substrate and Passivation Techniques for Flexible Amorphous Silicon-Based X-ray Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Marrs, Michael A.; Raupp, Gregory B.

    2016-01-01

    Flexible active matrix display technology has been adapted to create new flexible photo-sensing electronic devices, including flexible X-ray detectors. Monolithic integration of amorphous silicon (a-Si) PIN photodiodes on a flexible substrate poses significant challenges associated with the intrinsic film stress of amorphous silicon. This paper examines how altering device structuring and diode passivation layers can greatly improve the electrical performance and the mechanical reliability of the device, thereby eliminating one of the major weaknesses of a-Si PIN diodes in comparison to alternative photodetector technology, such as organic bulk heterojunction photodiodes and amorphous selenium. A dark current of 0.5 pA/mm2 and photodiode quantum efficiency of 74% are possible with a pixelated diode structure with a silicon nitride/SU-8 bilayer passivation structure on a 20 µm-thick polyimide substrate. PMID:27472329

  16. Development and test of flexible film coupon strips for use as a sampling technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldridge, C.

    1969-01-01

    Film consisting of a gelatin base serves as a flexible, water soluble microbiological assay coupon for clean room use. It is nontoxic to microorganisms and capable of remaining unchanged during periods of storage.

  17. Substrate and Passivation Techniques for Flexible Amorphous Silicon-Based X-ray Detectors.

    PubMed

    Marrs, Michael A; Raupp, Gregory B

    2016-07-26

    Flexible active matrix display technology has been adapted to create new flexible photo-sensing electronic devices, including flexible X-ray detectors. Monolithic integration of amorphous silicon (a-Si) PIN photodiodes on a flexible substrate poses significant challenges associated with the intrinsic film stress of amorphous silicon. This paper examines how altering device structuring and diode passivation layers can greatly improve the electrical performance and the mechanical reliability of the device, thereby eliminating one of the major weaknesses of a-Si PIN diodes in comparison to alternative photodetector technology, such as organic bulk heterojunction photodiodes and amorphous selenium. A dark current of 0.5 pA/mm² and photodiode quantum efficiency of 74% are possible with a pixelated diode structure with a silicon nitride/SU-8 bilayer passivation structure on a 20 µm-thick polyimide substrate.

  18. Determination of phenolic compounds and authentication of PDO Lambrusco wines by HPLC-DAD and chemometric techniques.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Elisa; Cocchi, Marina; Marchetti, Andrea; Marini, Federico; de Juan, Anna

    2013-01-25

    This work proposes a fast and simple method for detection and quantification of phenolic compounds in PDO Lambrusco wines using HPLC-DAD and chemometric techniques. Samples belonging to three different varieties of Lambrusco (Grasparossa, Salamino and Sorbara) were analyzed to provide a methodology appropriate for routine analysis. Given the high complexity of the sample and the coelution among chromatographic peaks, the use of chemometric techniques to extract the information of the individual eluting compounds was needed. Multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) allowed the resolution of the chromatographic peaks obtained and the use of this information for the quantification of the phenolic analytes in the presence of interferences. Use of multiset analysis and local rank/selectivity information was proven to be crucial for the correct resolution and quantification of compounds. The quantitative data provided by MCR-ALS about the phenolic targets and additional compounds present in the samples analyzed provided wine composition profiles, which were afterwards used to distinguish among wine varieties. Principal component analysis applied to the wine profiles allowed characterizing the wines according to their varieties.

  19. Two-beam laser fabrication technique and the application for fabricating conductive silver nanowire on flexible substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Gui-Cang; Zheng, Mei-Ling; Dong, Xian-Zi; Liu, Jie; Duan, Xuan-Ming; Zhao, Zhen-Sheng

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a two-beam laser fabrication technique is proposed to fabricate silver nanowire (AgNW) on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The femtosecond pulse laser in the technique plays a role in generating Ag nanoparticles from the silver aqueous solution by multiphoton photoreduction. The continuous wave (CW) laser of the technique works as optical tweezers, and make the Ag nanoparticles gather to a continuous AgNW by the optical trapping force. The optical trapping force of the CW laser was calculated under our experimental condition. The flexibility and the resistance stability of the AgNW that fabricated by this technique are very excellent. Compared to the resistance of the AgNW without bending, the decreasing rate of the AgNW resistance is about 16% under compressed bending condition at the radius of 1 mm, and the increasing rate of the AgNW resistance is only 1.3% after the AgNW bended about 3500 times at the bending radius of 1 mm. The study indicates that the AgNW is promising for achieving flexible device and would promote the development of the flexible electronics.

  20. Relationship between Pore-size Distribution and Flexibility of Adsorbent Materials: Statistical Mechanics and Future Material Characterization Techniques.

    PubMed

    Siderius, Daniel W; Mahynski, Nathan A; Shen, Vincent K

    2017-05-01

    Measurement of the pore-size distribution (PSD) via gas adsorption and the so-called "kernel method" is a widely used characterization technique for rigid adsorbents. Yet, standard techniques and analytical equipment are not appropriate to characterize the emerging class of flexible adsorbents that deform in response to the stress imparted by an adsorbate gas, as the PSD is a characteristic of the material that varies with the gas pressure and any other external stresses. Here, we derive the PSD for a flexible adsorbent using statistical mechanics in the osmotic ensemble to draw analogy to the kernel method for rigid materials. The resultant PSD is a function of the ensemble constraints including all imposed stresses and, most importantly, the deformation free energy of the adsorbent material. Consequently, a pressure-dependent PSD is a descriptor of the deformation characteristics of an adsorbent and may be the basis of future material characterization techniques. We discuss how, given a technique for resolving pressure-dependent PSDs, the present statistical mechanical theory could enable a new generation of analytical tools that measure and characterize certain intrinsic material properties of flexible adsorbents via otherwise simple adsorption experiments.

  1. AVNG authentication features

    SciTech Connect

    Thron, Jonathan Louis; Mac Arthur, Duncan W; White, Greg; Razinkov, Sergey; Livke, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two seemingly contradictory constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released. At the same time, the monitoring party must have confidence in the veracity of the measurement (called authentication). An information barrier (IB) is included in the measurement system to protect the potentially classified information. To achieve both goals, the IB allows only very limited, previously agreed-on information to be displayed to the monitoring party. In addition to this limited information from the potentially classified measurement, other measurements are performed and procedures are put in place for the monitoring party to gain confidence that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations concerning that material. In this presentation, we will discuss the techniques used in the AVNG attribute measuring system to facilitate authentication of the verification measurements by the monitors. These techniques include measuring unclassified items while allowing more information to be displayed; having the monitor understand the system function, design, and implementation; and randomly selecting the order of measurements.

  2. Authentication of Galician (N.W. Spain) quality brand potatoes using metal analysis. Classical pattern recognition techniques versus a new vector quantization-based classification procedure.

    PubMed

    Peña, R M; García, S; Iglesias, R; Barro, S; Herrero, C

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a classification system in order to confirm the authenticity of Galician potatoes with a Certified Brand of Origin and Quality (CBOQ) and to differentiate them from other potatoes that did not have this quality brand. Elemental analysis (K, Na, Rb, Li, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Mg and Ca) of potatoes was performed by atomic spectroscopy in 307 samples belonging to two categories, CBOQ and Non-CBOQ potatoes. The 307 x 10 data set was evaluated employing multivariate chemometric techniques, such as cluster analysis and principal component analysis in order to perform a preliminary study of the data structure. Different classification systems for the two categories on the basis of the chemical data were obtained applying several commonly supervised pattern recognition procedures [such as linear discriminant analysis, K-nearest neighbours (KNN), soft independent modelling of class analogy and multilayer feed-forward neural networks]. In spite of the fact that some of these classification methods produced satisfactory results, the particular data distribution in the 10-dimensional space led to the proposal of a new vector quantization-based classification procedure (VQBCP). The results achieved with this new approach (percentages of recognition and prediction abilities > 97%) were better than those attained by KNN and can be compared advantageously with those provided by LDA (linear discriminant analysis), SIMCA (soft independent modelling of class analogy) and MLF-ANN (multilayer feed-forward neural networks). The new VQBCP demonstrated good performance by carrying out adequate classifications in a data set in which the classes are subgrouped. The metal profiles of potatoes provided sufficient information to enable classification criteria to be developed for classifying samples on the basis of their origin and brand.

  3. Authentication of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma and other two Chinese Materia Medica of the Liliaceae family by pharmacognosy technique with GC-MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingjiao; Liu, Canhuang; Yu, Yafei; Xu, Bei; Gong, Limin; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Lan; Cheng, Qilai; Liu, Tasi

    2015-02-01

    Yuzhu (Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma), Kangdingyuzhu (Polygonati Prattii Rhizoma), and zhugenqiyuzhu (Disporopsis Fuscopictae Rhizoma) are of the same family, but of different genera. They have all often used in Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) as Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma in China market. Three species of CMM are confused. For better application, we need to identify these plants accurately. This study use pharmacognosy technique and GC-MS analysis, three species of CMM were authenticated. In macroscopic characteristics, the fruit of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma is blue-black, while the other two are maroon and dark purple orderly. Nodes of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma are upward and light uplift, about 1 cm spacing, while the other are not. As for microscopic characteristics, the cortex of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma only occupies about 1/5 of the radius of the transverse section with inconspicuous endodermis, which is much smaller than others. The type of vascular bundles of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma is closed collateral, but the other is amphivasal. Raphides of calcium oxalate are scattered, but Raphides of the other two are like brooms and neat rows. GC-MS analysis of essential oil could provide different characteristics to distinguish three species. Twenty-three compounds were identified from essential oil of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma and the main components were n-hexadecanoic acid (49.45%), while n-hexadecanoic acid of the other two are 23.92% and 9.45%. The content of n-hexadecanoic is strongly different. This research was aimed to establish a method by pharmacognosy and GC-MS analysis to identify three CMM and for providing scientifical data to ensure accuracy of origin of three species.

  4. Block-wise authentication method for digital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahtigal, Tomaž; Žemva, Andrej

    2012-11-01

    The ability to modify digital images can cause a serious problem in some applications. In this paper we propose a novel method derived from Wong’s authentication scheme that is capable of authenticating JPEG images as well as uncompressed images, but is not a watermarking method. The method offers great flexibility in terms of the size of the authenticator and the time needed to generate the authenticator, thus making it suitable for real-time image processing. We demonstrate this by implementing it in a programmable FPGA circuit.

  5. The Effects of Cryotherapy and PNF Stretching Techniques on Hip Extensor Flexibility in Elderly Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Beth S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Study determined whether three proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation flexibility maneuvers (to increase hamstring length) were as effective in 31 older females as in younger subjects. Cryotherapy intervention was also employed. Results indicated contract-relax and slow-reversal-hold-relax procedures were superior to static stretching;…

  6. Using Torrance's Problem Identification Techniques To Increase Fluency and Flexibility in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtzberg, Richard L.; Reale, Amelia

    1999-01-01

    A study investigated whether it would be possible to increase creative output of 43 eight-graders by teaching a portion of the Future Problem Solving (FPS) process, the identification of problems, as part of a middle school curriculum. Results indicated that fluency and flexibility could be taught utilizing the FPS process. (Author/CR)

  7. The Effects of Cryotherapy and PNF Stretching Techniques on Hip Extensor Flexibility in Elderly Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Beth S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Study determined whether three proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation flexibility maneuvers (to increase hamstring length) were as effective in 31 older females as in younger subjects. Cryotherapy intervention was also employed. Results indicated contract-relax and slow-reversal-hold-relax procedures were superior to static stretching;…

  8. Defining Authentic Classroom Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Bruce B.; Schmitt, Vicki L.; Allen, Justin P.

    2012-01-01

    A commonly advocated best practice for classroom assessment is to make the assessments authentic. Authentic is often used as meaning the mirroring of real-world tasks or expectations. There is no consensus, however, in the actual definition of the term or the characteristics of an authentic classroom assessment. Sometimes, the realistic component…

  9. Authentic Assessment, Professional's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Concetta Doti

    Authentic assessment is the process of gathering evidence and documenting student learning and growth in an authentic context. Authentic assessment can do a better job than more traditional forms of assessment in informing educators and parents about a student's real achievement. The first chapter of this book presents an overview of authentic…

  10. Authenticity in Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Sam

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the relationship between authenticity and adult learning and prompted by some studies in which adult "authentic learning" is a central concept. The implication revealed by them is that real-worldness of learning contexts, learning content and learning tasks is perceived as conferring authenticity on learning. Here,…

  11. A novel imaging technique for measuring kinematics of light-weight flexible structures

    SciTech Connect

    Zakaria, Mohamed Y.; Eliethy, Ahmed S.; Canfield, Robert A.; Hajj, Muhammad R.

    2016-07-15

    A new imaging algorithm is proposed to capture the kinematics of flexible, thin, light structures including frequencies and motion amplitudes for real time analysis. The studied case is a thin flexible beam that is preset at different angles of attack in a wind tunnel. As the angle of attack is increased beyond a critical value, the beam was observed to undergo a static deflection that is ensued by limit cycle oscillations. Imaging analysis of the beam vibrations shows that the motion consists of a superposition of the bending and torsion modes. The proposed algorithm was able to capture the oscillation amplitudes as well as the frequencies of both bending and torsion modes. The analysis results are validated through comparison with measurements from a piezoelectric sensor that is attached to the beam at its root.

  12. A Control Concept for Large Flexible Spacecraft Using Order Reduction Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieme, G.; Roth, H.

    1985-01-01

    Results found during the investigation of control problems of large flexible spacecraft are given. A triple plate configuration of such a spacecraft is defined and studied. The model is defined by modal data derived from infinite element modeling. The order reduction method applied is briefly described. An attitude control concept with low and high authority control has been developed to design an attitude controller for the reduced model. The stability and response of the original system together with the reduced controller is analyzed.

  13. Authentication of byte sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Stearns, S.D.

    1991-06-01

    Algorithms for the authentication of byte sequences are described. The algorithms are designed to authenticate data in the Storage, Retrieval, Analysis, and Display (SRAD) Test Data Archive of the Radiation Effects and Testing Directorate (9100) at Sandia National Laboratories, and may be used in similar situations where authentication of stored data is required. The algorithms use a well-known error detection method called the Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC). When a byte sequence is authenticated and stored, CRC bytes are generated and attached to the end of the sequence. When the authenticated data is retrieved, the authentication check consists of processing the entire sequence, including the CRC bytes, and checking for a remainder of zero. The error detection properties of the CRC are extensive and result in a reliable authentication of SRAD data.

  14. Multi-factor authentication

    DOEpatents

    Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-10-21

    Detection and deterrence of spoofing of user authentication may be achieved by including a cryptographic fingerprint unit within a hardware device for authenticating a user of the hardware device. The cryptographic fingerprint unit includes an internal physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a PUF value. Combining logic is coupled to receive the PUF value, combines the PUF value with one or more other authentication factors to generate a multi-factor authentication value. A key generator is coupled to generate a private key and a public key based on the multi-factor authentication value while a decryptor is coupled to receive an authentication challenge posed to the hardware device and encrypted with the public key and coupled to output a response to the authentication challenge decrypted with the private key.

  15. Authentication of data for monitoring a comprehensive test ban treaty

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, R.L.; Draelos, T.J.

    1996-05-01

    The important issue of data integrity in the CTBT International Monitoring System (IMS) is discussed and a brief tutorial on data authentication techniques is offered. The utilization of data authentication as a solution to the data integrity problem is evaluated. Public key data authentication is recommended for multilateral monitoring regimes such as the CTBT. The ramifications and system considerations of applying data authentication at various locations in the IMS, or not at all, are reviewed in a data surety context. The paper concludes with a recommendation of authenticating data at all critical monitoring stations.

  16. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using a Flexible Reamer System: Technique and Pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Judd; Saluan, Paul; Richter, Dustin L; Huff, Nathan; Schenck, Robert C

    2015-07-01

    Anatomic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has been shown to improve stability of the knee, particularly rotational stability, potentially leading to superior clinical outcomes and a shorter return to sport. Nonanatomic ACL reconstruction has been linked to graft failure and abnormal cartilage loading thought to contribute to progression of degenerative joint disease. Use of the far anteromedial portal (FAMP) to uncouple the tibial and femoral tunnels has led to improved reproduction of the femoral footprint and facilitates drilling of the femoral tunnel in an anatomic position. The use of the FAMP and straight reamer systems introduces its own set of potential complications, including short femoral tunnels and peroneal nerve injury. These potential complications have been addressed by drilling the femoral tunnel in a hyperflexed position, which can lead to difficulty with positioning the operative extremity, visualization, and identification of anatomic landmarks. The purpose of this case report was to review the advantages and technical aspects of using a flexible reamer system and the FAMP to achieve an anatomic ACL reconstruction while avoiding potential complications and pitfalls. Flexible reamer systems allow an additional way of uncoupling the tibial and femoral tunnels to clearly visualize and establish an anatomic starting point within the femoral footprint of the native ACL while avoiding the complications associated with knee hyperflexion and straight reamers with the far anteromedial portal. In the authors' experience, an anatomic reconstruction of the ACL can be achieved safely using flexible reamers while avoiding some of the difficulties seen with straight reamers used in conjunction with an uncoupled, far anteromedial approach.

  17. Dynamic characterization, monitoring and control of rotating flexible beam-mass structures via piezo-embedded techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, Steven H.-Y.

    1992-01-01

    A variational principle and a finite element discretization technique were used to derive the dynamic equations for a high speed rotating flexible beam-mass system embedded with piezo-electric materials. The dynamic equation thus obtained allows the development of finite element models which accommodate both the original structural element and the piezoelectric element. The solutions of finite element models provide system dynamics needed to design a sensing system. The characterization of gyroscopic effect and damping capacity of smart rotating devices are addressed. Several simulation examples are presented to validate the analytical solution.

  18. Adaptive/learning control of large space structures - System identification techniques. [for multi-configuration flexible spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thau, F. E.; Montgomery, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques developed for the control of aircraft under changing operating conditions are used to develop a learning control system structure for a multi-configuration, flexible space vehicle. A configuration identification subsystem that is to be used with a learning algorithm and a memory and control process subsystem is developed. Adaptive gain adjustments can be achieved by this learning approach without prestoring of large blocks of parameter data and without dither signal inputs which will be suppressed during operations for which they are not compatible. The Space Shuttle Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) experiment is used as a sample problem for the testing of adaptive/learning control system algorithms.

  19. Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Flexibility Techniques: Acute Effects on Arterial Blood Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, William L.; Craft-Hamm, Kelley

    1988-01-01

    The effects of stretching techniques on arterial blood pressure (ABP) were studied in three groups of 20 men each. Each group performed one of three proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques. Results are presented. The study indicates that the benefits of stretching may outweigh the risk of elevated ABP. (JL)

  20. Advanced multimedia security solutions for data and owner authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, Jana; Steinebach, Martin; Croce Ferri, Lucilla; Mayerhoefer, Astrid; Vielhauer, Claus

    2001-12-01

    In this paper we introduce a new content-fragile watermarking concept for multimedia data authentication, especially for a/v data. While previous data authentication watermarking schemes address single media stream only, we discuss the requirements of multimedia protection techniques. Furthermore we introduce our new approach called 3D thumbnail cube. The main idea is based on a 3D hologram over continuing video and audio frames. Beside the data authentication, we face the owner authentication problem as second requirement for manipulation recognition. The watermark for manipulation recognition has to be created by the owner itself. The goal of owner authentication is to ensure that an entity is the one it claims to be. Therefore we introduce a key server and a biometric hash approach. We discuss several strategies and introduce a biometric based framework for owner authentication. With our presented data and owner authentication solutions we can realize an advanced security level.

  1. Flexible microfluidic cloth-based analytical devices using a low-cost wax patterning technique.

    PubMed

    Nilghaz, Azadeh; Wicaksono, Dedy H B; Gustiono, Dwi; Abdul Majid, Fadzilah Adibah; Supriyanto, Eko; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq

    2012-01-07

    This paper describes the fabrication of microfluidic cloth-based analytical devices (μCADs) using a simple wax patterning method on cotton cloth for performing colorimetric bioassays. Commercial cotton cloth fabric is proposed as a new inexpensive, lightweight, and flexible platform for fabricating two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic systems. We demonstrated that the wicking property of the cotton microfluidic channel can be improved by scouring in soda ash (Na(2)CO(3)) solution which will remove the natural surface wax and expose the underlying texture of the cellulose fiber. After this treatment, we fabricated narrow hydrophilic channels with hydrophobic barriers made from patterned wax to define the 2D microfluidic devices. The designed pattern is carved on wax-impregnated paper, and subsequently transferred to attached cotton cloth by heat treatment. To further obtain 3D microfluidic devices having multiple layers of pattern, a single layer of wax patterned cloth can be folded along a predefined folding line and subsequently pressed using mechanical force. All the fabrication steps are simple and low cost since no special equipment is required. Diagnostic application of cloth-based devices is shown by the development of simple devices that wick and distribute microvolumes of simulated body fluids along the hydrophilic channels into reaction zones to react with analytical reagents. Colorimetric detection of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in artificial urine is carried out by direct visual observation of bromophenol blue (BPB) colour change in the reaction zones. Finally, we show the flexibility of the novel microfluidic platform by conducting a similar reaction in a bent pinned μCAD.

  2. Accurate and flexible calibration technique for fringe projection profilometry by using encoded points and Fourier analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Andrés. L.; Contreras, Carlos R.; Meneses, Jaime E.

    2014-05-01

    In order to get measures with a high accurate, three-dimensional reconstruction systems are implemented in industrial, medical, and investigative fields. To obtain high accurate is necessary to carry out an appropriate calibration procedure. In fringe projection profilometry, this procedure allows obtaining a relation between absolute phase and three-dimensional (3D) information of the object in study; however, to execute such procedure a precise movement stage is required. A fringe projection system is formed by a projector, a digital camera and a control unit, called like a projection-acquisition unit in this paper. The calibration of the projection-acquisition unit consists in to establish the parameters that are required to transform the phase of the projected fringes to metric coordinates of the object surface. These parameters are a function of the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of both camera and projector, due to the projector is modeled as an inverse camera. For this purpose, in this paper a novel and flexible calibration method that allows calibrating any device that works with fringe projection profilometry is proposed. In this method is used a reference plane placed in random positions and the projection of an encoded pattern of control points. The camera parameters are computed using Zhang's calibration method; and the projector parameters are computed from the camera parameters and the phase of the pattern of control points, which is determined by using Fourier analysis. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the calibration method.

  3. MetaJC++: A flexible and automatic program transformation technique using meta framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beevi, Nadera; Reghu, M.; Chitraprasad, D.; Vinodchandra, S.

    2014-09-01

    Compiler is a tool to translate abstract code containing natural language terms to machine code. Meta compilers are available to compile more than one languages. We have developed a meta framework intends to combine two dissimilar programming languages, namely C++ and Java to provide a flexible object oriented programming platform for the user. Suitable constructs from both the languages have been combined, thereby forming a new and stronger Meta-Language. The framework is developed using the compiler writing tools, Flex and Yacc to design the front end of the compiler. The lexer and parser have been developed to accommodate the complete keyword set and syntax set of both the languages. Two intermediate representations have been used in between the translation of the source program to machine code. Abstract Syntax Tree has been used as a high level intermediate representation that preserves the hierarchical properties of the source program. A new machine-independent stack-based byte-code has also been devised to act as a low level intermediate representation. The byte-code is essentially organised into an output class file that can be used to produce an interpreted output. The results especially in the spheres of providing C++ concepts in Java have given an insight regarding the potential strong features of the resultant meta-language.

  4. Effects of Sputtering Parameters on AlN Film Growth on Flexible Hastelloy Tapes by Two-Step Deposition Technique.

    PubMed

    Peng, Bin; Gong, Dongdong; Zhang, Wanli; Jiang, Jianying; Shu, Lin; Zhang, Yahui

    2016-08-10

    AlN thin films were deposited on flexible Hastelloy tapes and Si (100) substrate by middle-frequency magnetron sputtering. A layer of Y₂O₃ films was used as a buffer layer for the Hastelloy tapes. A two-step deposition technique was used to prepare the AlN films. The effects of deposition parameters such as sputtering power, N₂/Ar flow rate and sputtering pressure on the microstructure of the AlN thin films were systematically investigated. The results show that the dependency of the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of AlN/Y₂O₃/Hastelloy on the sputtering parameters is similar to that of AlN/Si (100). The FWHM of the AlN (002) peak of the prepared AlN films decreases with increasing sputtering power. The FWHM decreases with the increase of the N₂/Ar flow rate or sputtering pressure, and increases with the further increase of the N₂/Ar flow rate or sputtering pressure. The FWHM of the AlN/Y₂O₃/Hastelloy prepared under optimized parameters is only 3.7° and its root mean square (RMS) roughness is 5.46 nm. Based on the experimental results, the growth mechanism of AlN thin films prepared by the two-step deposition process was explored. This work would assist us in understanding the AlN film's growth mechanism of the two-step deposition process, preparing highly c-axis-oriented AlN films on flexible metal tapes and developing flexible surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors from an application perspective.

  5. Effects of Sputtering Parameters on AlN Film Growth on Flexible Hastelloy Tapes by Two-Step Deposition Technique

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Bin; Gong, Dongdong; Zhang, Wanli; Jiang, Jianying; Shu, Lin; Zhang, Yahui

    2016-01-01

    AlN thin films were deposited on flexible Hastelloy tapes and Si (100) substrate by middle-frequency magnetron sputtering. A layer of Y2O3 films was used as a buffer layer for the Hastelloy tapes. A two-step deposition technique was used to prepare the AlN films. The effects of deposition parameters such as sputtering power, N2/Ar flow rate and sputtering pressure on the microstructure of the AlN thin films were systematically investigated. The results show that the dependency of the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of AlN/Y2O3/Hastelloy on the sputtering parameters is similar to that of AlN/Si (100). The FWHM of the AlN (002) peak of the prepared AlN films decreases with increasing sputtering power. The FWHM decreases with the increase of the N2/Ar flow rate or sputtering pressure, and increases with the further increase of the N2/Ar flow rate or sputtering pressure. The FWHM of the AlN/Y2O3/Hastelloy prepared under optimized parameters is only 3.7° and its root mean square (RMS) roughness is 5.46 nm. Based on the experimental results, the growth mechanism of AlN thin films prepared by the two-step deposition process was explored. This work would assist us in understanding the AlN film’s growth mechanism of the two-step deposition process, preparing highly c-axis–oriented AlN films on flexible metal tapes and developing flexible surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors from an application perspective. PMID:28773806

  6. Decolonizing Researcher Authenticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daza, Stephanie Lynn

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which researcher authenticity is negotiated along three axes of difference, ethno-linguistic affiliation, sexual orientation and race/skin color. Ultimately, it analyzes how researcher authenticity is produced and played out within research, via interactions between participants, researchers and others who…

  7. Decolonizing Researcher Authenticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daza, Stephanie Lynn

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which researcher authenticity is negotiated along three axes of difference, ethno-linguistic affiliation, sexual orientation and race/skin color. Ultimately, it analyzes how researcher authenticity is produced and played out within research, via interactions between participants, researchers and others who…

  8. Developing (Authentic?) Academic Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, Graham

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to consider whether the notion of authenticity is useful or meaningful in the context of developing academics as writers. Design/methodology/approach: The approach taken is that of a reflective essay. Recent texts on authenticity in higher education are examined whilst a transactional theory of writing is also considered…

  9. A wake traverse technique for use in a 2 dimensional transonic flexible walled test section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, S. W. D.

    1982-01-01

    Reported two dimensional validation data from the Transonic Self-Streamlining Wind Tunnel (TSWT) concerns model lift. The models tested provided data on their pressure distributions. This information was numerically integrated over the model surface to determine lift, pressure drag and pitching moment. However, the pressure drag is only a small component of the total drag at nominal angles of attack and cannot be used to assess the quality of flow simulation. An intrusive technique for obtaining information on the total drag of a model in TSWT is described. The technique adopted is the wake traverse method. The associated tunnel hardware and control and data reduction software are outlined and some experimental results are presented for discussion.

  10. Long-range compaction and flexibility of interphase chromatin in budding yeast analyzed by high-resolution imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bystricky, Kerstin; Heun, Patrick; Gehlen, Lutz; Langowski, Jörg; Gasser, Susan M.

    2004-11-01

    Little is known about how chromatin folds in its native state. Using optimized in situ hybridization and live imaging techniques have determined compaction ratios and fiber flexibility for interphase chromatin in budding yeast. Unlike previous studies, ours examines nonrepetitive chromatin at intervals short enough to be meaningful for yeast chromosomes and functional domains in higher eukaryotes. We reconcile high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization data from intervals of 14-100 kb along single chromatids with measurements of whole chromosome arms (122-623 kb in length), monitored in intact cells through the targeted binding of bacterial repressors fused to GFP derivatives. The results are interpreted with a flexible polymer model and suggest that interphase chromatin exists in a compact higher-order conformation with a persistence length of 170-220 nm and a mass density of 110-150 bp/nm. These values are equivalent to 7-10 nucleosomes per 11-nm turn within a 30-nm-like fiber structure. Comparison of long and short chromatid arm measurements demonstrates that chromatin fiber extension is also influenced by nuclear geometry. The observation of this surprisingly compact chromatin structure for transcriptionally competent chromatin in living yeast cells suggests that the passage of RNA polymerase II requires a very transient unfolding of higher-order chromatin structure. higher-order structure | 30-nm fiber | nucleosomes

  11. A flexible mouse-on-mouse immunohistochemical staining technique adaptable to biotin-free reagents, immunofluorescence, and multiple antibody staining.

    PubMed

    Goodpaster, Tracy; Randolph-Habecker, Julie

    2014-03-01

    Immunohistochemistry on mouse tissue utilizing mouse monoclonal antibodies presents a challenge. Secondary antibodies directed against the mouse monoclonal primary antibody of interest will also detect endogenous mouse immunoglobulin in the tissue. This can lead to significant spurious staining. Therefore, a "mouse-on-mouse" staining strategy is needed to yield credible data. This paper presents a method that is easy to use and highly flexible to accommodate both an avidin-biotin detection system as well as a biotin-free polymer detection system. The mouse primary antibody is first combined with an Fab fragment of an anti-mouse antibody in a tube and allowed sufficient time to form an antibody complex. Any non-complexed secondary antibody is bound up with mouse serum. The mixture is then applied to the tissue. The flexibility of this method is confirmed with the use of different anti-mouse antibodies followed by a variety of detection reagents. These techniques can be used for immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence (IF), as well as staining with multiple primary antibodies. This method has also been adapted to other models, such as using human antibodies on human tissue and using multiple rabbit antibodies in dual immunofluorescence.

  12. Uniaxial Pre-strain and Free Recovery (UPFR) as a Flexible Technique for Nitinol Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadelli, A.; Manjeri, R. M.; Sczerzenie, F.; Coda, A.

    2016-03-01

    The measurement of phase transformation temperatures of superelastic (SE) and shape memory (SM) NiTi alloy products and components was studied in this work. The transformation temperatures of a set of twenty different 300 μm NiTi superelastic wires were measured by two well-established and standardized techniques, namely differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and bend and free recovery (BFR) and then compared with the results from the Uniaxial Pre-Strain and Free Recovery (UPFR) test. UPFR is a tension-based test, whose aim is to overcome the limitations associated with BFR testing. Within this work, a test procedure has been set up and validated. UPFR is found to be the only method showing a very strong correlation with the mechanical properties measured using the standard uniaxial tensile test method for superelastic NiTi alloy. Further, UPFR has been validated as a robust technique for measuring the R-phase and austenitic transformation temperatures in specimens of various sizes, composition, and of different geometries. This technique overcomes the limitations of BFR and DSC which cannot be used for testing products such as 25 μm SM wire, a 50 μm SE strip, and different springs and microsprings for actuation.

  13. Buddy enhanced return routability for authentication in mobile IPv6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehead, Matthew E. N.; Medidi, Sirisha R.

    2004-08-01

    This paper proposes an improved form of authentication security for Mobile IPv6 called buddy enhanced return routability. Enhanced return routability builds on the foundation of return routability and extends that technique through the use of stochastic route selection for authentication messages. Theoretical work and simulation results show that enhanced return routability strengthens authentication security without adding restrictive overhead requirements or opening up new security holes.

  14. Secure authentication system that generates seed from biometric information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeojin; Ahn, Jung-Ho; Byun, Hyeran

    2005-02-01

    As biometric recognition techniques are gradually improved, the stability of biometric authentication systems are enhanced. Although bioinformation has properties that make it resistant to fraud, biometric authentication systems are not immune to hacking. We show a secure biometric authentication system (1) to guarantee the integrity of biometric information by mixing data by use of a biometric key and (2) to raise recognition rates by use of bimodal biometrics.

  15. Secure authentication system that generates seed from biometric information.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeojin; Ahn, Jung-Ho; Byun, Hyeran

    2005-02-10

    As biometric recognition techniques are gradually improved, the stability of biometric authentication systems are enhanced. Although bioinformation has properties that make it resistant to fraud, biometric authentication systems are not immune to hacking. We show a secure biometric authentication system (1) to guarantee the integrity of biometric information by mixing data by use of a biometric key and (2) to raise recognition rates by use of bimodal biometrics.

  16. Flexible Parsing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-22

    grammaticality. The primary objective of this project Is to develop flexible computer q parsing techniques which can deal with the various kinds of...0143 6. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT . TASK Computer Science Department Carnegie-Nellon University PE61102F; 2304...spontaneously, the, often do not adhere strictly to commonly accepted standards of grammaticalitf. The primary objective of this proJect is to develop flexible

  17. Dynamic control modification techniques in teleoperation of a flexible manipulator. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee, David Patrick

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this research is to reduce the end-point vibration of a large, teleoperated manipulator while preserving the usefulness of the system motion. A master arm is designed to measure desired joint angles as the user specifies a desired tip motion. The desired joint angles from the master arm are the inputs to an adaptive PD control algorithm that positions the end-point of the manipulator. As the user moves the tip of the master, the robot will vibrate at its natural frequencies which makes it difficult to position the end-point. To eliminate the tip vibration during teleoperated motions, an input shaping method is presented. The input shaping method transforms each sample of the desired input into a new set of impulses that do not excite the system resonances. The method is explained using the equation of motion for a simple, second-order system. The impulse response of such a system is derived and the constraint equations for vibrationless motion are presented. To evaluate the robustness of the method, a different residual vibration equation from Singer's is derived that more accurately represents the input shaping technique. The input shaping method is shown to actually increase the residual vibration in certain situations when the system parameters are not accurately specified. Finally, the implementation of the input shaping method to a system with varying parameters is shown to induce a vibration into the system. To eliminate this vibration, a modified command shaping technique is developed. The ability of the modified command shaping method to reduce vibration at the system resonances is tested by varying input perturbations to trajectories in a range of possible user inputs. By comparing the frequency responses of the transverse acceleration at the end-point of the manipulator, the modified method is compared to the original PD routine. The control scheme that produces the smaller magnitude of resonant vibration at the first natural frequency is

  18. Experiences in applying optimization techniques to configurations for the Control Of Flexible Structures (COFS) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Joanne L.

    1988-01-01

    Optimization procedures are developed to systematically provide closely-spaced vibration frequencies. A general-purpose finite-element program for eigenvalue and sensitivity analyses is combined with formal mathematical programming techniques. Results are presented for three studies. The first study uses a simple model to obtain a design with two pairs of closely-spaced frequencies. Two formulations are developed: an objective function-based formulation and constraint-based formulation for the frequency spacing. It is found that conflicting goals are handled better by a constraint-based formulation. The second study uses a detailed model to obtain a design with one pair of closely-spaced frequencies while satisfying requirements on local member frequencies and manufacturing tolerances. Two formulations are developed. Both the constraint-based and the objective function-based formulations perform reasonably well and converge to the same results. However, no feasible design solution exists which satisfies all design requirements for the choices of design variables and the upper and lower design variable values used. More design freedom is needed to achieve a fully satisfactory design. The third study is part of a redesign activity in which a detailed model is used. The use of optimization in this activity allows investigation of numerous options (such as number of bays, material, minimum diagonal wall thicknesses) in a relatively short time. The procedure provides data for judgments on the effects of different options on the design.

  19. Experiences in applying optimization techniques to configurations for the Control of Flexible Structures (COFS) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Joanne L.

    1989-01-01

    Optimization procedures are developed to systematically provide closely-spaced vibration frequencies. A general purpose finite-element program for eigenvalue and sensitivity analyses is combined with formal mathematical programming techniques. Results are presented for three studies. The first study uses a simple model to obtain a design with two pairs of closely-spaced frequencies. Two formulations are developed: an objective function-based formulation and constraint-based formulation for the frequency spacing. It is found that conflicting goals are handled better by a constraint-based formulation. The second study uses a detailed model to obtain a design with one pair of closely-spaced frequencies while satisfying requirements on local member frequencies and manufacturing tolerances. Two formulations are developed. Both the constraint-based and the objective function-based formulations perform reasonably well and converge to the same results. However, no feasible design solution exists which satisfies all design requirements for the choices of design variables and the upper and lower design variable values used. More design freedom is needed to achieve a fully satisfactory design. The third study is part of a redesign activity in which a detailed model is used.

  20. Authenticity assessment of dairy products.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Miguel Angel; Juárez, Manuela

    2005-01-01

    The authenticity of dairy products has become a focal point, attracting the attention of scientists, producers, consumers, and policymakers. Among many others, some of the practices not allowed in milk and milk products are the substitution of part of the fat or proteins, admixtures of milk of different species, additions of low-cost dairy products (mainly whey derivatives), or mislabeling of products protected by denomination of origin. A range of analytical methods to detect frauds have been developed, modified, and continually reassessed to be one step ahead of manufacturers who pursue these illegal activities. Traditional procedures to assess the authenticity of dairy products include chromatographic, electrophoretic, and immunoenzymatic methods. New approaches such as capillary electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction, and isotope ratio mass spectrometry have also emerged alongside the latest developments in the former procedures. This work intends to provide an updated and extensive overview since 1991 on the principal applications of all these techniques together with their advantages and disadvantages for detecting the authenticity of dairy products. The scope and limits of different tools are also discussed.

  1. Authenticity and Constructivism in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splitter, Laurance J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of authenticity and its relevance in education, from a philosophical perspective. Under the heading of educational authenticity (EA), I critique Fred Newmann's views on authentic pedagogy and intellectual work. I argue against the notion that authentic engagement is usefully analyzed in terms of a relationship…

  2. Authenticity and Constructivism in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splitter, Laurance J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of authenticity and its relevance in education, from a philosophical perspective. Under the heading of educational authenticity (EA), I critique Fred Newmann's views on authentic pedagogy and intellectual work. I argue against the notion that authentic engagement is usefully analyzed in terms of a relationship…

  3. Flexible session management in a distributed environment

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Zach; Bradley, Dan; Tannenbaum, Todd; Sfiligoi, Igor; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Many secure communication libraries used by distributed systems, such as SSL, TLS, and Kerberos, fail to make a clear distinction between the authentication, session, and communication layers. In this paper we introduce CEDAR, the secure communication library used by the Condor High Throughput Computing software, and present the advantages to a distributed computing system resulting from CEDAR's separation of these layers. Regardless of the authentication method used, CEDAR establishes a secure session key, which has the flexibility to be used for multiple capabilities. We demonstrate how a layered approach to security sessions can avoid round-trips and latency inherent in network authentication. The creation of a distinct session management layer allows for optimizations to improve scalability by way of delegating sessions to other components in the system. This session delegation creates a chain of trust that reduces the overhead of establishing secure connections and enables centralized enforcement of system-wide security policies. Additionally, secure channels based upon UDP datagrams are often overlooked by existing libraries; we show how CEDAR's structure accommodates this as well. As an example of the utility of this work, we show how the use of delegated security sessions and other techniques inherent in CEDAR's architecture enables US CMS to meet their scalability requirements in deploying Condor over large-scale, wide-area grid systems.

  4. Flexible session management in a distributed environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Zach; Bradley, Dan; Tannenbaum, Todd; Sfiligoi, Igor

    2010-04-01

    Many secure communication libraries used by distributed systems, such as SSL, TLS, and Kerberos, fail to make a clear distinction between the authentication, session, and communication layers. In this paper we introduce CEDAR, the secure communication library used by the Condor High Throughput Computing software, and present the advantages to a distributed computing system resulting from CEDAR's separation of these layers. Regardless of the authentication method used, CEDAR establishes a secure session key, which has the flexibility to be used for multiple capabilities. We demonstrate how a layered approach to security sessions can avoid round-trips and latency inherent in network authentication. The creation of a distinct session management layer allows for optimizations to improve scalability by way of delegating sessions to other components in the system. This session delegation creates a chain of trust that reduces the overhead of establishing secure connections and enables centralized enforcement of system-wide security policies. Additionally, secure channels based upon UDP datagrams are often overlooked by existing libraries; we show how CEDAR's structure accommodates this as well. As an example of the utility of this work, we show how the use of delegated security sessions and other techniques inherent in CEDAR's architecture enables US CMS to meet their scalability requirements in deploying Condor over large-scale, wide-area grid systems.

  5. Highly flexible, transparent and self-cleanable superhydrophobic films prepared by a facile and scalable nanopyramid formation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ji Hoon; Park, Jong-Kweon; Lee, Deug-Woo; Kim, Soo-Hyung; Kim, Jong-Man

    2014-01-01

    A facile and scalable technique to fabricate optically transparent, mechanically flexible and self-cleanable superhydrophobic films for practical solar cell applications is proposed. The superhydrophobic films were fabricated simply by transferring a transparent porous alumina layer, which was prepared using an anodic aluminium oxidation (AAO) technique, onto a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film with a UV-curable polymer adhesive layer, followed by the subsequent formation of alumina nano pyramids (NPs) through the time-controlled chemical etching of the transferred porous alumina membrane (PAM). It was found experimentally that the proposed functional films can ensure the superhydrophobicity in the Cassie-Baxter wetting mode with superior water-repellent properties through a series of experimental observations including static contact angle (SCA), contact angle hysteresis (CAH), sliding behaviour on the tilted film, and dynamic behaviour of the liquid droplet impacting on the film. In addition to the superior surface wetting properties, an optical transmittance of ~79% at a light wavelength of 550 nm was achieved. Furthermore, there was no significant degradation in both the surface wetting properties and morphology even after 1500-cycles of repetitive bending tests, which indicates that the proposed superhydrophobic film is mechanically robust. Finally, the practicability of the proposed self-cleanable film was proven quantitatively by observing the changes in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of a photovoltaic device covering the film before and after the cleaning process.

  6. Northwestern University Flexible Subischial Vacuum Socket for persons with transfemoral amputation-Part 1: Description of technique

    PubMed Central

    Fatone, Stefania; Caldwell, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Current transfemoral prosthetic sockets restrict function, lack comfort, and cause residual limb problems. Lower proximal trim lines are an appealing way to address this problem. Development of a more comfortable and possibly functional subischial socket may contribute to improving quality of life of persons with transfemoral amputation. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to (1) describe the design and fabrication of a new subischial socket and (2) describe efforts to teach this technique. Study design: Development project. Methods: Socket development involved defining the following: subject and liner selection, residual limb evaluation, casting, positive mold rectification, check socket fitting, definitive socket fabrication, and troubleshooting of socket fit. Three hands-on workshops to teach the socket were piloted and attended by 30 certified prosthetists and their patient models. Results: Patient models responded positively to the comfort, range of motion, and stability of the new socket while prosthetists described the technique as “straight forward, reproducible.” Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to create a teachable subischial socket, and while it appears promising, more definitive evaluation is needed. Clinical relevance We developed the Northwestern University Flexible Subischial Vacuum (NU-FlexSIV) Socket as a more comfortable alternative to current transfemoral sockets and demonstrated that it could be taught successfully to prosthetists. PMID:28094686

  7. Borrowing yet another technique from manufacturing, investigators find that 'operational flexibility' can offer dividends to ED operations.

    PubMed

    2015-03-01

    Through the use of a sophisticated modeling technique, investigators at the University of Cincinnati have found that the creation of a so-called "flex track" that includes beds that can be assigned to either high-acuity or Iow-acuity- patients has the potential to lower mean wait times for patients when it is i added to the traditional fast-track and high-acuity areas of a 50-bed ED that sees 85,000 patients per year. Investigators used discrete-event simulation to model the patient flow and characteristics of the ED at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center, and to test out various operational scenarios without disrupting real-world operations. The investigators concluded that patient wait times were lowest when three flex beds were appropriated from the 10-bed fast track area of the EDs. In light of the results, three flex rooms are being incorporated into a newly remodeled ED scheduled for completion laterthis spring. Investigators suggest the modeling technique could be useful to other EDs interested in optimizing their operational plans. Further, they suggest that ED administrators consider ways to introduce flexibility into departments that are now more rigidly divided between high- and low-acuity areas.

  8. Parametric investigation of substrate temperatures on the properties of Zinc oxide deposited over a flexible polymeric substrate via spray technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopalan, P.; Gagrani, Rohit; Nakamura, Daisuke; Okada, Tatsuo; Singh, Vipul; Palani, I. A.

    2016-09-01

    Here we report the influence of substrate temperature (300-500 °C) on the deposition and growth of ZnO over a Flexible polyimide film. Owing to its simplicity, large area deposition capability and Cost effectivity Spray Pyrolysis technique was used. We have modified the conventional process of Spray pyrolysis by spraying for shorter durations and repeating the process which in turn reduced the Island formation of ZnO. Moreover, this technique helped in maintaining the constant temperature and uniformity during the deposition as prolonged spraying reduces the temperature of the heating plate drastically. Photoluminescence (PL) reveals that at 350 and 400° C the defect have reduced. XRD reveals the crystallinity and Impurities present. FE-SEM reveals the structure morphology changes with the change in the substrate temperature. TGA was done to ensure that substrate does not undergoes dissociation at high temperature. It was observed at the film deposited at 400 °C was found to be more uniform, defect free and crystalline. Hence, IV characterization of the film deposited at 400 °C was done which showed good rectification behaviour of the Schottky diodes.

  9. Highly flexible, transparent and self-cleanable superhydrophobic films prepared by a facile and scalable nanopyramid formation technique.

    PubMed

    Kong, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ji Hoon; Park, Jong-Kweon; Lee, Deug-Woo; Kim, Soo-Hyung; Kim, Jong-Man

    2014-01-01

    A facile and scalable technique to fabricate optically transparent, mechanically flexible and self-cleanable superhydrophobic films for practical solar cell applications is proposed. The superhydrophobic films were fabricated simply by transferring a transparent porous alumina layer, which was prepared using an anodic aluminium oxidation (AAO) technique, onto a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film with a UV-curable polymer adhesive layer, followed by the subsequent formation of alumina nano pyramids (NPs) through the time-controlled chemical etching of the transferred porous alumina membrane (PAM). It was found experimentally that the proposed functional films can ensure the superhydrophobicity in the Cassie-Baxter wetting mode with superior water-repellent properties through a series of experimental observations including static contact angle (SCA), contact angle hysteresis (CAH), sliding behaviour on the tilted film, and dynamic behaviour of the liquid droplet impacting on the film. In addition to the superior surface wetting properties, an optical transmittance of ∼79% at a light wavelength of 550 nm was achieved. Furthermore, there was no significant degradation in both the surface wetting properties and morphology even after 1500-cycles of repetitive bending tests, which indicates that the proposed superhydrophobic film is mechanically robust. Finally, the practicability of the proposed self-cleanable film was proven quantitatively by observing the changes in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of a photovoltaic device covering the film before and after the cleaning process.

  10. Evaluation of various surface-sealing techniques for the preventative maintenance of flexible pavements. Research report(Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Musselman, J.A.; Leitner, E.B.; Murphy, K.H.; Page, G.C.

    1989-02-01

    The selection of an appropriate surface-seal technique for the preventative maintenance of flexible pavements has been a major concern among the various highway agencies for a number of years. In an effort to better equip the engineer in making decisions concerning the selection of the most cost-effective method of pavement maintenance, seven of the different surface-sealing techniques currently available in Florida were constructed in the fall of 1984 for evaluation. The only major problems encountered at the time of construction was the loss of cover material in the sand seal, mineral seal, and surface-treatment sections and raveling in the slurry seal section. These problems are believed to have been caused by traffic on the roadway before adequate curing had occurred. The test sections were evaluated immediately after construction and at 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years, with the evaluation consisting of rut-depth measurements, crack survey, dynamic deflection measurements, rideability, and friction testing. At the conclusion of 3 years, the cost-effectiveness of each section was determined.

  11. Quantum deniable authentication protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei-Min; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Yang, Yu-Guang

    2014-07-01

    The proposed quantum identity authentication schemes only involved authentication between two communicators, but communications with deniability capability are often desired in electronic applications such as online negotiation and electronic voting. In this paper, we proposed a quantum deniable authentication protocol. According to the property of unitary transformation and quantum one-way function, this protocol can provide that only the specified receiver can identify the true source of a given message and the specified receiver cannot prove the source of the message to a third party by a transcript simulation algorithm. Moreover, the quantum key distribution and quantum encryption algorithm guarantee the unconditional security of this scheme. Security analysis results show that this protocol satisfies the basic security requirements of deniable authentication protocol such as completeness and deniability and can withstand the forgery attack, impersonation attack, inter-resend attack.

  12. Authenticity in Anatomy Art.

    PubMed

    Adkins, Jessica

    2017-01-12

    The aim of this paper is to observe the evolution and evaluate the 'realness' and authenticity in Anatomy Art, an art form I define as one which incorporates accurate anatomical representations of the human body with artistic expression. I examine the art of 17th century wax anatomical models, the preservations of Frederik Ruysch, and Gunther von Hagens' Body Worlds plastinates, giving consideration to authenticity of both body and art. I give extra consideration to the works of Body Worlds since the exhibit creator believes he has created anatomical specimens with more educational value and bodily authenticity than ever before. Ultimately, I argue that von Hagens fails to offer Anatomy Art 'real human bodies,' and that the lack of bodily authenticity of his plastinates results in his creations being less pedagogic than he claims.

  13. Authentication of quantum messages.

    SciTech Connect

    Barnum, Howard; Crépeau, Jean-Claude; Gottesman, D.; Smith, A.; Tapp, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Authentication is a well-studied area of classical cryptography: a sender A and a receiver B sharing a classical private key want to exchange a classical message with the guarantee that the message has not been modified or replaced by a dishonest party with control of the communication line. In this paper we study the authentication of messages composed of quantum states. We give a formal definition of authentication in the quantum setting. Assuming A and B have access to an insecure quantum channel and share a private, classical random key, we provide a non-interactive scheme that both enables A to encrypt and authenticate (with unconditional security) an m qubit message by encoding it into m + s qubits, where the probability decreases exponentially in the security parameter s. The scheme requires a private key of size 2m + O(s). To achieve this, we give a highly efficient protocol for testing the purity of shared EPR pairs. It has long been known that learning information about a general quantum state will necessarily disturb it. We refine this result to show that such a disturbance can be done with few side effects, allowing it to circumvent cryptographic protections. Consequently, any scheme to authenticate quantum messages must also encrypt them. In contrast, no such constraint exists classically: authentication and encryption are independent tasks, and one can authenticate a message while leaving it publicly readable. This reasoning has two important consequences: On one hand, it allows us to give a lower bound of 2m key bits for authenticating m qubits, which makes our protocol asymptotically optimal. On the other hand, we use it to show that digitally signing quantum states is impossible, even with only computational security.

  14. Secure authenticated video equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Doren, N.E.

    1993-07-01

    In the verification technology arena, there is a pressing need for surveillance and monitoring equipment that produces authentic, verifiable records of observed activities. Such a record provides the inspecting party with confidence that observed activities occurred as recorded, without undetected tampering or spoofing having taken place. The secure authenticated video equipment (SAVE) system provides an authenticated series of video images of an observed activity. Being self-contained and portable, it can be installed as a stand-alone surveillance system or used in conjunction with existing monitoring equipment in a non-invasive manner. Security is provided by a tamper-proof camera enclosure containing a private, electronic authentication key. Video data is transferred communication link consisting of a coaxial cable, fiber-optic link or other similar media. A video review station, located remotely from the camera, receives, validates, displays and stores the incoming data. Video data is validated within the review station using a public key, a copy of which is held by authorized panics. This scheme allows the holder of the public key to verify the authenticity of the recorded video data but precludes undetectable modification of the data generated by the tamper-protected private authentication key.

  15. Authentic Learning and Alien Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt, Sara D.; Watt, Keith; Gleim, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Glendale Community College has developed a laboratory course and observing program which provides non-science majors with opportunities to perform authentic science in a community college setting. The program is designed around experiential learning which allows students to meaningfully construct concepts within contexts that involve real-world problems that are relevant to the learner. Students learn observational astronomy and data analysis techniques by observing exoplanet transits using 8-inch Celestron telescopes. The exoplanet data gathered and analyzed by the students is contributed to the exoplanet database. This poster presents an overview of the program and highlights early educational results.

  16. Short-Term and Long-Term Retention of Vocabulary through Authentic Subtitled Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aidinlou, Nader Asadi; Moradinejad, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    The current study made an attempt to compare the impacts of teaching authentic materials through traditional techniques with teaching authentic materials through authentic use, where students in the experimental group were taught new vocabulary items of subtitles through watching subtitled videos, and control group were taught the same vocabulary…

  17. Endpoint Security Using Biometric Authentication for Secure Remote Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, John T.; Critchfield, Anna R.

    2000-01-01

    We propose a flexible security authentication solution for the spacecraft end-user, which will allow the user to interact over Internet with the spacecraft, its instruments, or with the ground segment from anywhere, anytime based on the user's pre-defined set of privileges. This package includes biometrics authentication products, such as face, voice or fingerprint recognition, authentication services and procedures, such as: user registration and verification over the Internet and user database maintenance, with a configurable schema of spacecraft users' privileges. This fast and reliable user authentication mechanism will become an integral part of end-to-end ground-to-space secure Internet communications and migration from current practice to the future. All modules and services of the proposed package are commercially available and built to the NIST BioAPI standard, which facilitates "pluggability" and interoperability.

  18. Authentication of digital video evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beser, Nicholas D.; Duerr, Thomas E.; Staisiunas, Gregory P.

    2003-11-01

    In response to a requirement from the United States Postal Inspection Service, the Technical Support Working Group tasked The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to develop a technique tha will ensure the authenticity, or integrity, of digital video (DV). Verifiable integrity is needed if DV evidence is to withstand a challenge to its admissibility in court on the grounds that it can be easily edited. Specifically, the verification technique must detect additions, deletions, or modifications to DV and satisfy the two-part criteria pertaining to scientific evidence as articulated in Daubert et al. v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals Inc., 43 F3d (9th Circuit, 1995). JHU/APL has developed a prototype digital video authenticator (DVA) that generates digital signatures based on public key cryptography at the frame level of the DV. Signature generation and recording is accomplished at the same time as DV is recorded by the camcorder. Throughput supports the consumer-grade camcorder data rate of 25 Mbps. The DVA software is implemented on a commercial laptop computer, which is connected to a commercial digital camcorder via the IEEE-1394 serial interface. A security token provides agent identification and the interface to the public key infrastructure (PKI) that is needed for management of the public keys central to DV integrity verification.

  19. Information barriers and authentication.

    SciTech Connect

    MacArthur, D. W.; Wolford, J. K.

    2001-01-01

    Acceptance of nuclear materials into a monitoring regime is complicated if the materials are in classified shapes or have classified composition. An attribute measurement system with an information barrier can be emplo,yed to generate an unclassified display from classified measurements. This information barrier must meet two criteria: (1) classified information cannot be released to the monitoring party, and (2) the monitoring party must be convinced that the unclassified output accurately represents the classified input. Criterion 1 is critical to the host country to protect the classified information. Criterion 2 is critical to the monitoring party and is often termed the 'authentication problem.' Thus, the necessity for authentication of a measurement system with an information barrier stems directly from the description of a useful information barrier. Authentication issues must be continually addressed during the entire development lifecycle of the measurement system as opposed to being applied only after the system is built.

  20. Authentication of Kalix (N.E. Sweden) vendace caviar using inductively coupled plasma-based analytical techniques: evaluation of different approaches.

    PubMed

    Rodushkin, I; Bergman, T; Douglas, G; Engström, E; Sörlin, D; Baxter, D C

    2007-02-05

    Different analytical approaches for origin differentiation between vendace and whitefish caviars from brackish- and freshwaters were tested using inductively coupled plasma double focusing sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) and multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). These approaches involve identifying differences in elemental concentrations or sample-specific isotopic composition (Sr and Os) variations. Concentrations of 72 elements were determined by ICP-SFMS following microwave-assisted digestion in vendace and whitefish caviar samples from Sweden (from both brackish and freshwater), Finland and USA, as well as in unprocessed vendace roe and salt used in caviar production. This data set allows identification of elements whose contents in caviar can be affected by salt addition as well as by contamination during production and packaging. Long-term method reproducibility was assessed for all analytes based on replicate caviar preparations/analyses and variations in element concentrations in caviar from different harvests were evaluated. The greatest utility for differentiation was demonstrated for elements with varying concentrations between brackish and freshwaters (e.g. As, Br, Sr). Elemental ratios, specifically Sr/Ca, Sr/Mg and Sr/Ba, are especially useful for authentication of vendace caviar processed from brackish water roe, due to the significant differences between caviar from different sources, limited between-harvest variations and relatively high concentrations in samples, allowing precise determination by modern analytical instrumentation. Variations in the 87Sr/86Sr ratio for vendace caviar from different harvests (on the order of 0.05-0.1%) is at least 10-fold less than differences between caviar processed from brackish and freshwater roe. Hence, Sr isotope ratio measurements (either by ICP-SFMS or by MC-ICP-MS) have great potential for origin differentiation. On the contrary, it was impossible to

  1. A Survey of Watermarking Algorithms for Image Authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Christian; Dugelay, Jean-Luc

    2002-12-01

    Digital image manipulation software is now readily available on personal computers. It is therefore very simple to tamper with any image and make it available to others. Insuring digital image integrity has therefore become a major issue. Watermarking has become a popular technique for copyright enforcement and image authentication. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of emerging techniques for detecting whether image tampering has taken place. Compared to the techniques and protocols for security usually employed to perform this task, the majority of the proposed methods based on watermarking, place a particular emphasis on the notion of content authentication rather than strict integrity. In this paper, we introduce the notion of image content authentication and the features required to design an effective authentication scheme. We present some algorithms, and introduce frequently used key techniques.

  2. Hardware authentication using transmission spectra modified optical fiber.

    SciTech Connect

    Grubbs, Robert K.; Romero, Juan A.

    2010-09-01

    The ability to authenticate the source and integrity of data is critical to the monitoring and inspection of special nuclear materials, including hardware related to weapons production. Current methods rely on electronic encryption/authentication codes housed in monitoring devices. This always invites the question of implementation and protection of authentication information in an electronic component necessitating EMI shielding, possibly an on board power source to maintain the information in memory. By using atomic layer deposition techniques (ALD) on photonic band gap (PBG) optical fibers we will explore the potential to randomly manipulate the output spectrum and intensity of an input light source. This randomization could produce unique signatures authenticating devices with the potential to authenticate data. An external light source projected through the fiber with a spectrometer at the exit would 'read' the unique signature. No internal power or computational resources would be required.

  3. Authentic to the Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukral, Nicole; Spector, Stacy

    2012-01-01

    When educators think about what makes learning relevant to students, often they narrow their thinking to electives or career technical education. While these provide powerful opportunities for students to make relevant connections to their learning, they can also create authentic experiences in the core curriculum. In the San Juan Unified School…

  4. User Authentication. SPEC Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plum, Terry, Comp.; Bleiler, Richard, Comp.

    2001-01-01

    This SPEC (Systems and Procedures Exchange Center) Kit presents the results of a survey of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries designed to examine the systems research libraries use to authenticate and authorize the users of their online networked information resources. A total of 52 of 121 ARL member libraries responded to…

  5. User Authentication. SPEC Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plum, Terry, Comp.; Bleiler, Richard, Comp.

    2001-01-01

    This SPEC (Systems and Procedures Exchange Center) Kit presents the results of a survey of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries designed to examine the systems research libraries use to authenticate and authorize the users of their online networked information resources. A total of 52 of 121 ARL member libraries responded to…

  6. Authentic Assessment: A Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Kay, Ed.

    The essays in this collection consider the meaning of authentic assessment and the implications of its use. "Section 1: Assessing Assessment" includes the following essays: (1) "The Nation's Report Card Goes Home: Good News and Bad about Trends in Achievement" (Robert L. Linn and Stephen B. Dunbar); (2) "Budgets, Politics, and Testing" (Chris…

  7. Facilitating Authentic Becoming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksen, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    A "Model of Authentic Becoming" that conceptualizes learning as a continuous and ongoing embodied and relational process, and uses social constructionism assumptions as well as Kolb's experiential learning model as its point of departure, is presented. Through a focus on the subjective, embodied, and relational nature of organizational life, the…

  8. Authentic Assessment: A Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Kay, Ed.

    The essays in this collection consider the meaning of authentic assessment and the implications of its use. "Section 1: Assessing Assessment" includes the following essays: (1) "The Nation's Report Card Goes Home: Good News and Bad about Trends in Achievement" (Robert L. Linn and Stephen B. Dunbar); (2) "Budgets, Politics, and Testing" (Chris…

  9. Portfolios: Authentic Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borowski, Maureen Coursey; Thompson, Carol; Zaccaria, Karen

    This report describes a plan for using student portfolios as a tool for authentic assessment. The targeted population was classes of 5th, 8th, and 12th graders in 3 urban school settings. The three teachers involved felt that current assessment methods were inadequate for measuring student learning. Analysis of the data showed that current…

  10. Tools for Authentication

    SciTech Connect

    White, G

    2008-07-09

    Many recent Non-proliferation and Arms Control software projects include a software authentication component. In this context, 'authentication' is defined as determining that a software package performs only its intended purpose and performs that purpose correctly and reliably over many years. In addition to visual inspection by knowledgeable computer scientists, automated tools are needed to highlight suspicious code constructs both to aid the visual inspection and to guide program development. While many commercial tools are available for portions of the authentication task, they are proprietary, and have limited extensibility. An open-source, extensible tool can be customized to the unique needs of each project (projects can have both common and custom rules to detect flaws and security holes). Any such extensible tool must be based on a complete language compiler infrastructure, that is, one that can parse and digest the full language through its standard grammar. ROSE is precisely such a compiler infrastructure developed within DOE. ROSE is a robust source-to-source analysis and optimization infrastructure currently addressing large, million-line DOE applications in C, C++, and FORTRAN. This year, it has been extended to support the automated analysis of binaries. We continue to extend ROSE to address a number of security-specific requirements and apply it to software authentication for Non-proliferation and Arms Control projects. We will give an update on the status of our work.

  11. Tracheal intubation with a flexible intubation scope versus other intubation techniques for obese patients requiring general anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Amanda; Smith, Andrew F; Lewis, Sharon R; Cook, Tim M

    2014-01-17

    The prevalence of obesity (body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2)) is increasing in both developed and developing countries, leading to a rise in the numbers of obese patients requiring general anaesthesia. Obese patients are at increased risk of anaesthetic complications, and tracheal intubation can be more difficult. Flexible intubation scopes (FISs) are recommended as an alternative method of intubation in these patients. Intubation with an FIS is considered an advanced method, requiring training and experience; therefore it may be underused in clinical practice. Patient outcomes following intubation with these scopes compared with other devices have not been systematically reviewed. We wished to compare the safety and effectiveness of a flexible intubation scope (FIS) used for tracheal intubation in obese patients (BMI > 30 kg/m(2)) with other methods of intubation, including conventional direct laryngoscopy, non-standard laryngoscopy and the use of intubating supraglottic airway devices. We aimed to compare the frequency of complications, as well as process indicators, such as time taken for intubation and the proportion of first attempts that were successful, between groups using the different methods of intubation. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and two trial registers on 18 January 2013, and performed reference checking and citation searching and contacted study authors to identify additional studies. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of participants aged 16 years and older with a BMI > 30 kg/m(2) that had compared the use of an FIS for tracheal intubation with any one of three comparison groups: direct laryngoscopy; non-standard laryngoscopy (including indirect laryngoscopy using a videolaryngoscope (VLS) or a rigid or semi-rigid stylet); or intubation of supraglottic airway devices (SADs). We used standard methodological approaches expected by The Cochrane Collaboration, including

  12. A national-scale authentication infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, R.; Engert, D.; Foster, I.; Kesselman, C.; Tuecke, S.; Volmer, J.; Welch, V.; National Center for Supercomputing Applications; Univ. of Chicago; USC Information Sciences Institute

    2000-12-01

    Today, individuals and institutions in science and industry are increasingly forming virtual organizations to pool resources and tackle a common goal. Participants in virtual organizations commonly need to share resources such as data archives, computer cycles, and networks - resources usually available only with restrictions based on the requested resource's nature and the user's identity. Thus, any sharing mechanism must have the ability to authenticate the user's identity and determine if the user is authorized to request the resource. Virtual organizations tend to be fluid, however, so authentication mechanisms must be flexible and lightweight, allowing administrators to quickly establish and change resource-sharing arrangements. However, because virtual organizations complement rather than replace existing institutions, sharing mechanisms cannot change local policies and must allow individual institutions to maintain control over their own resources. Our group has created and deployed an authentication and authorization infrastructure that meets these requirements: the Grid Security Infrastructure. GSI offers secure single sign-ons and preserves site control over access policies and local security. It provides its own versions of common applications, such as FTP and remote login, and a programming interface for creating secure applications.

  13. Medical Image Authentication Using DPT Watermarking: A Preliminary Attempt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, M. L. Dennis; Goh, Antionette W.-T.; Chua, Hong Siang

    Secure authentication of digital medical image content provides great value to the e-Health community and medical insurance industries. Fragile Watermarking has been proposed to provide the mechanism to authenticate digital medical image securely. Transform Domain based Watermarking are typically slower than spatial domain watermarking owing to the overhead in calculation of coefficients. In this paper, we propose a new Discrete Pascal Transform based watermarking technique. Preliminary experiment result shows authentication capability. Possible improvements on the proposed scheme are also presented before conclusions.

  14. CHALLENGE MEASUREMENTS FOR AUTHENTICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, W. Karl

    2009-10-07

    Authentication of systems with an information barrier that protects sensitive information is difficult; in particular, the information barrier can allow a hidden switch to be implemented by the system fabricator and operator. The hidden switch is the operator’s ability to subvert the measurement system and force it to produce a desired and false result. It is usually discussed in the context of an attribute measurement in which a faked item is presented in place of a real item regulated by an agreement, with the driving motivation being the ability to preserve a stock of valuable items. In simple terms, the hidden switch enables a shell game with assets, and the information barrier protects the switch. This presentation outlines challenge measurements that could be used to detect the implementation of a hidden switch and assist the authentication process.

  15. Probabilistic authenticated quantum dialogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Tzonelih; Luo, Yi-Ping

    2015-12-01

    This work proposes a probabilistic authenticated quantum dialogue (PAQD) based on Bell states with the following notable features. (1) In our proposed scheme, the dialogue is encoded in a probabilistic way, i.e., the same messages can be encoded into different quantum states, whereas in the state-of-the-art authenticated quantum dialogue (AQD), the dialogue is encoded in a deterministic way; (2) the pre-shared secret key between two communicants can be reused without any security loophole; (3) each dialogue in the proposed PAQD can be exchanged within only one-step quantum communication and one-step classical communication. However, in the state-of-the-art AQD protocols, both communicants have to run a QKD protocol for each dialogue and each dialogue requires multiple quantum as well as classical communicational steps; (4) nevertheless, the proposed scheme can resist the man-in-the-middle attack, the modification attack, and even other well-known attacks.

  16. International safeguards data authentication

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, R.B.; Smith, C.E.; DeLand, S.M.; Manatt, D.R.

    1996-07-01

    The International Safeguards community is becoming increasingly reliant on information stored in electronic form. In international monitoring and related activities it must be possible to verify and maintain the integrity of this electronic information. This paper discusses the use of data authentication technology to assist in accomplishing this task. The paper provides background information, identifies the relevance to international safeguards, discusses issues related to export controls, algorithm patents, key management and the use of commercial vs. custom software.

  17. Co-Design Method and Wafer-Level Packaging Technique of Thin-Film Flexible Antenna and Silicon CMOS Rectifier Chips for Wireless-Powered Neural Interface Systems

    PubMed Central

    Okabe, Kenji; Jeewan, Horagodage Prabhath; Yamagiwa, Shota; Kawano, Takeshi; Ishida, Makoto; Akita, Ippei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a co-design method and a wafer-level packaging technique of a flexible antenna and a CMOS rectifier chip for use in a small-sized implantable system on the brain surface are proposed. The proposed co-design method optimizes the system architecture, and can help avoid the use of external matching components, resulting in the realization of a small-size system. In addition, the technique employed to assemble a silicon large-scale integration (LSI) chip on the very thin parylene film (5 μm) enables the integration of the rectifier circuits and the flexible antenna (rectenna). In the demonstration of wireless power transmission (WPT), the fabricated flexible rectenna achieved a maximum efficiency of 0.497% with a distance of 3 cm between antennas. In addition, WPT with radio waves allows a misalignment of 185% against antenna size, implying that the misalignment has a less effect on the WPT characteristics compared with electromagnetic induction. PMID:26694407

  18. Co-Design Method and Wafer-Level Packaging Technique of Thin-Film Flexible Antenna and Silicon CMOS Rectifier Chips for Wireless-Powered Neural Interface Systems.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Kenji; Jeewan, Horagodage Prabhath; Yamagiwa, Shota; Kawano, Takeshi; Ishida, Makoto; Akita, Ippei

    2015-12-16

    In this paper, a co-design method and a wafer-level packaging technique of a flexible antenna and a CMOS rectifier chip for use in a small-sized implantable system on the brain surface are proposed. The proposed co-design method optimizes the system architecture, and can help avoid the use of external matching components, resulting in the realization of a small-size system. In addition, the technique employed to assemble a silicon large-scale integration (LSI) chip on the very thin parylene film (5 μm) enables the integration of the rectifier circuits and the flexible antenna (rectenna). In the demonstration of wireless power transmission (WPT), the fabricated flexible rectenna achieved a maximum efficiency of 0.497% with a distance of 3 cm between antennas. In addition, WPT with radio waves allows a misalignment of 185% against antenna size, implying that the misalignment has a less effect on the WPT characteristics compared with electromagnetic induction.

  19. k-Times Anonymous Authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teranishi, Isamu; Furukawa, Jun; Sako, Kazue

    We propose an authentication scheme in which users can be authenticated anonymously so long as times that they are authenticated is within an allowable number. The proposed scheme has two features: 1) no one, not even an authority, can identify users who have been authenticated within the allowable number, 2) anyone can trace, without help from the authority, dishonest users who have been authenticated beyond the allowable number by using the records of these authentications. Our scheme can be applied to e-voting, e-cash, electronic coupons, and trial browsing of content. In these applications, our scheme, unlike the previous one, conceals users' participation from protocols and guarantees that they will remain anonymous to everyone.

  20. The effect of kinesio taping versus stretching techniques on muscle soreness, and flexibility during recovery from nordic hamstring exercise.

    PubMed

    Ozmen, Tarik; Yagmur Gunes, Gokce; Dogan, Hanife; Ucar, Ilyas; Willems, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of static stretching, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching, or kinesio taping (KT) on muscle soreness and flexibility during recovery from exercise. Sixty-five females were randomly assigned to four groups: PNF stretching (n = 15), static stretching (n = 16), KT (n = 17), and control (n = 17). All participants performed nordic hamstring exercise (5 sets of 8 repetitions). In all groups, hamstring flexibility at 24 h and 48 h was not changed from baseline (p > .05). The muscle soreness was measured higher at 48 h post-exercise compared with baseline in the control group (p = .04) and at 24 h post-exercise compared with baseline in the PNF group (p < .01). No significant differences were found for intervention groups compared with control group in all measurements (p > .05). The KT application and pre-exercise stretching have no contribute to flexibility at 24 h and 48 h after exercise, but may attenuate muscle soreness.

  1. Comparative Study on Various Authentication Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Rajeswari, S. Raja; Seenivasagam, V.

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of lightweight devices with low cost, low power, and short-ranged wireless communication. The sensors can communicate with each other to form a network. In WSNs, broadcast transmission is widely used along with the maximum usage of wireless networks and their applications. Hence, it has become crucial to authenticate broadcast messages. Key management is also an active research topic in WSNs. Several key management schemes have been introduced, and their benefits are not recognized in a specific WSN application. Security services are vital for ensuring the integrity, authenticity, and confidentiality of the critical information. Therefore, the authentication mechanisms are required to support these security services and to be resilient to distinct attacks. Various authentication protocols such as key management protocols, lightweight authentication protocols, and broadcast authentication protocols are compared and analyzed for all secure transmission applications. The major goal of this survey is to compare and find out the appropriate protocol for further research. Moreover, the comparisons between various authentication techniques are also illustrated. PMID:26881272

  2. Comparative Study on Various Authentication Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Rajeswari, S Raja; Seenivasagam, V

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of lightweight devices with low cost, low power, and short-ranged wireless communication. The sensors can communicate with each other to form a network. In WSNs, broadcast transmission is widely used along with the maximum usage of wireless networks and their applications. Hence, it has become crucial to authenticate broadcast messages. Key management is also an active research topic in WSNs. Several key management schemes have been introduced, and their benefits are not recognized in a specific WSN application. Security services are vital for ensuring the integrity, authenticity, and confidentiality of the critical information. Therefore, the authentication mechanisms are required to support these security services and to be resilient to distinct attacks. Various authentication protocols such as key management protocols, lightweight authentication protocols, and broadcast authentication protocols are compared and analyzed for all secure transmission applications. The major goal of this survey is to compare and find out the appropriate protocol for further research. Moreover, the comparisons between various authentication techniques are also illustrated.

  3. Mechanism for control plane authentication

    SciTech Connect

    Tarman, T.D.

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this contribution is to propose an ``Authentication Information Element`` that can be used to carry authentication information within the ATM signaling protocols. This information may be used by either signaling entity to validate the claimed identity of the other, and to verify the integrity of a portion of a message`s contents. By specifying a generic authentication IE, authentication information can be generated by any signature algorithm, and can be appended to any ATM signaling message. Procedures for the use of this information element are also provided.

  4. A novel fast and flexible technique of radical kinetic behaviour investigation based on pallet for plasma evaluation structure and numerical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, Arkadiusz; Takeuchi, Takuya; Chen, Shang; Suzuki, Toshiya; Ishikawa, Kenji; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru; Lukasiak, Lidia; Jakubowski, Andrzej

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes a new, fast, and case-independent technique for sticking coefficient (SC) estimation based on pallet for plasma evaluation (PAPE) structure and numerical analysis. Our approach does not require complicated structure, apparatus, or time-consuming measurements but offers high reliability of data and high flexibility. Thermal analysis is also possible. This technique has been successfully applied to estimation of very low value of SC of hydrogen radicals on chemically amplified ArF 193 nm photoresist (the main goal of this study). Upper bound of our technique has been determined by investigation of SC of fluorine radical on polysilicon (in elevated temperature). Sources of estimation error and ways of its reduction have been also discussed. Results of this study give an insight into the process kinetics, and not only they are helpful in better process understanding but additionally they may serve as parameters in a phenomenological model development for predictive modelling of etching for ultimate CMOS topography simulation.

  5. Authentication of forensic DNA samples.

    PubMed

    Frumkin, Dan; Wasserstrom, Adam; Davidson, Ariane; Grafit, Arnon

    2010-02-01

    Over the past twenty years, DNA analysis has revolutionized forensic science, and has become a dominant tool in law enforcement. Today, DNA evidence is key to the conviction or exoneration of suspects of various types of crime, from theft to rape and murder. However, the disturbing possibility that DNA evidence can be faked has been overlooked. It turns out that standard molecular biology techniques such as PCR, molecular cloning, and recently developed whole genome amplification (WGA), enable anyone with basic equipment and know-how to produce practically unlimited amounts of in vitro synthesized (artificial) DNA with any desired genetic profile. This artificial DNA can then be applied to surfaces of objects or incorporated into genuine human tissues and planted in crime scenes. Here we show that the current forensic procedure fails to distinguish between such samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces with artificial DNA, and corresponding samples with in vivo generated (natural) DNA. Furthermore, genotyping of both artificial and natural samples with Profiler Plus((R)) yielded full profiles with no anomalies. In order to effectively deal with this problem, we developed an authentication assay, which distinguishes between natural and artificial DNA based on methylation analysis of a set of genomic loci: in natural DNA, some loci are methylated and others are unmethylated, while in artificial DNA all loci are unmethylated. The assay was tested on natural and artificial samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces, with complete success. Adopting an authentication assay for casework samples as part of the forensic procedure is necessary for maintaining the high credibility of DNA evidence in the judiciary system.

  6. Trustworthiness and Authenticity: Alternate Ways To Judge Authentic Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipps, Jerome A.

    New methods are needed to judge the quality of alternative student assessment, methods which complement the philosophy underlying authentic assessments. This paper examines assumptions underlying validity, reliability, and objectivity, and why they are not matched to authentic assessment, concentrating on the constructivist paradigm of E. Guba and…

  7. Delamination detection in laminated composite using Virtual crack closure technique (VCCT) and modal flexibility based on dynamic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatir, S.; Behtani, A.; Tiachacht, S.; Bouazouni, A.; Abdel Wahab, M.; Zhou, Y.-L.

    2017-05-01

    The delamination problem is very important failure mechanism in certain types of composite structures. Detecting this type of damage using vibration data is currently a problem of interest to the structural health monitoring community. In this paper, we used finite element method with embedded interface for analysing damaged laminated composite structures. The flexibly modal method, in which analysis data is related to finite element modelling, is used to detect and localize delamination. Several numerical examples are presented in order to evaluate the accuracy this approach.

  8. Anonymous authenticated communications

    DOEpatents

    Beaver, Cheryl L.; Schroeppel, Richard C.; Snyder, Lillian A.

    2007-06-19

    A method of performing electronic communications between members of a group wherein the communications are authenticated as being from a member of the group and have not been altered, comprising: generating a plurality of random numbers; distributing in a digital medium the plurality of random numbers to the members of the group; publishing a hash value of contents of the digital medium; distributing to the members of the group public-key-encrypted messages each containing a same token comprising a random number; and encrypting a message with a key generated from the token and the plurality of random numbers.

  9. Molecular authentication of geo-authentic Scrophularia ningpoensis *

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuan; Duan, Li-na; Zhou, Xiao-long; Chen, Bing-long; Fu, Cheng-xin

    2011-01-01

    Scrophularia ningpoensis has long been used in the Chinese Materia Medica for inflammation. Like other herbal medicines, S. ningpoensis collected from different localities may considerably differ in their therapeutic efficacy, and the one grown in Zhejiang Province is recognized as geo-authentic. However, it is difficult to confirm the geographical authenticity by similar morphological characteristics. In the present study, inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were conducted to detect S. ningpoensis from different origins. A 1 259-bp fragment amplified by primer UBC874 was found only in geo-authentic ones. By cloning and sequencing that specific band, sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers were designed to distinguish geo-authentic S. ningpoensis from others. This is a rapid and easy method that can be used to identify the geographical authenticity of S. ningpoensis. PMID:21528494

  10. Defining the questions: a research agenda for nontraditional authentication in arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Hauck, Danielle K; Mac Arthur, Duncan W; Smith, Morag K; Thron, Jonathan L; Budlong - Sylvester, Kory

    2010-01-01

    Many traditional authentication techniques have been based on hardware solutions. Thus authentication of measurement system hardware has been considered in terms of physical inspection and destructive analysis. Software authentication has implied hash function analysis or authentication tools such as Rose. Continuity of knowledge is maintained through TIDs and cameras. Although there is ongoing progress improving all of these authentication methods, there has been little discussion of the human factors involved in authentication. Issues of non-traditional authentication include sleight-of-hand substitutions, monitor perception vs. reality, and visual diversions. Since monitor confidence in a measurement system depends on the product of their confidences in each authentication element, it is important to investigate all authentication techniques, including the human factors. This paper will present an initial effort to identify the most important problems that traditional authentication approaches in safeguards have not addressed and are especially relevant to arms control verification. This will include a survey of the literature and direct engagement with nontraditional experts in areas like psychology and human factors. Based on the identification of problem areas, potential research areas will be identified and a possible research agenda will be developed.

  11. Advanced information processing system: Authentication protocols for network communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Richard E.; Adams, Stuart J.; Babikyan, Carol A.; Butler, Bryan P.; Clark, Anne L.; Lala, Jaynarayan H.

    1994-01-01

    In safety critical I/O and intercomputer communication networks, reliable message transmission is an important concern. Difficulties of communication and fault identification in networks arise primarily because the sender of a transmission cannot be identified with certainty, an intermediate node can corrupt a message without certainty of detection, and a babbling node cannot be identified and silenced without lengthy diagnosis and reconfiguration . Authentication protocols use digital signature techniques to verify the authenticity of messages with high probability. Such protocols appear to provide an efficient solution to many of these problems. The objective of this program is to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate intercomputer communication architectures which employ authentication. As a context for the evaluation, the authentication protocol-based communication concept was demonstrated under this program by hosting a real-time flight critical guidance, navigation and control algorithm on a distributed, heterogeneous, mixed redundancy system of workstations and embedded fault-tolerant computers.

  12. Quantum secret sharing with identity authentication based on Bell states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abulkasim, Hussein; Hamad, Safwat; Khalifa, Amal; El Bahnasy, Khalid

    Quantum secret sharing techniques allow two parties or more to securely share a key, while the same number of parties or less can efficiently deduce the secret key. In this paper, we propose an authenticated quantum secret sharing protocol, where a quantum dialogue protocol is adopted to authenticate the identity of the parties. The participants simultaneously authenticate the identity of each other based on parts of a prior shared key. Moreover, the whole prior shared key can be reused for deducing the secret data. Although the proposed scheme does not significantly improve the efficiency performance, it is more secure compared to some existing quantum secret sharing scheme due to the identity authentication process. In addition, the proposed scheme can stand against participant attack, man-in-the-middle attack, impersonation attack, Trojan-horse attack as well as information leaks.

  13. Authentication of the 31 species of toxic and potent Chinese materia medica by microscopic technique assisted by ICP-MS analysis, part 4: four kinds of toxic and potent mineral arsenical CMMs.

    PubMed

    Li, Qin; Chu, Chu; Wang, Ya-Qiong; Chen, Hu-Biao; Li, Ping; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen

    2011-01-01

    Toxic and Potent Chinese Materia Medica (T/PCMM) is a special and very important category of Chinese medicines. They have long been used in traditional medical practice and are being used more and more widely throughout the world in recent years. As there may be many fatal toxic effects caused by misusing or confusion of T/PCMM, their quality and safety control arouse increasing attention internationally. Researches on the accurate identification to ensure the safe use of T/PCMM are acquired; however, there are few reports on authentication. We are carrying out a series of studies on 31 T/PCMM originating from plants, animals, minerals, and secreta. In our previous studies, we proved that modern microscopic authentication is a simple, fast, effective, low cost, and less toxic method for identifying animal, seed, and flower T/PCMM. In the present study, we focused on the authentication of four kinds of mineral arsenicals, including orpiment (mainly containing As₂S₃), realgar (mainly containing As₄S₄), arsenolite, and arsenic trioxide (mainly containing As₂O₃). We examined the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the above minerals and found that they all can be easily identified and authenticated by using light microscopy coupled with polarized microscopy. Moreover, the authentication results for arsenolite and arsenic trioxide are confirmed by ICP-MS analysis. We are sure that the morphological and microscopic characteristics indicated here are indispensable to establishing standards for these four mineral T/PCMMs.

  14. Survey of User Authentication Mechanisms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-01

    security. It taxonomizes the existing inventory of user authentication mechanisms such as biometrics, challenge/response, password, smart card and token. The...It taxonomizes the existing inventory of user authentication mechanisms such as biometrics, challenge/response, password, smart card and token.

  15. What Works with Authentic Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burley, Hansel; Price, Margaret

    2003-01-01

    A consistent finding of teachers using authentic assessment is how much they learn from the process and their students. Authentic assessment depends upon independence, mastery of content, and a willingness to engage students in real-life experiences. (Contains 12 references.) (Author/JOW)

  16. Localized lossless authentication watermark (LAW)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celik, Mehmet U.; Sharma, Gaurav; Tekalp, A. Murat; Saber, Eli S.

    2003-06-01

    A novel framework is proposed for lossless authentication watermarking of images which allows authentication and recovery of original images without any distortions. This overcomes a significant limitation of traditional authentication watermarks that irreversibly alter image data in the process of watermarking and authenticate the watermarked image rather than the original. In particular, authenticity is verified before full reconstruction of the original image, whose integrity is inferred from the reversibility of the watermarking procedure. This reduces computational requirements in situations when either the verification step fails or the zero-distortion reconstruction is not required. A particular instantiation of the framework is implemented using a hierarchical authentication scheme and the lossless generalized-LSB data embedding mechanism. The resulting algorithm, called localized lossless authentication watermark (LAW), can localize tampered regions of the image; has a low embedding distortion, which can be removed entirely if necessary; and supports public/private key authentication and recovery options. The effectiveness of the framework and the instantiation is demonstrated through examples.

  17. Reading Authentic Polish, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walczynski, Waldemar

    The second volume on reading authentic Polish is the continuation of a supplementary textbook to be used either in the classroom or in independent study. The materials included in it are unaltered authentic texts from Polish newspapers, magazines, and other mass media that provide exposure to the context and format of everyday reading matter. The…

  18. Authentic Reading Assessment. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutcher, Peggy

    Authentic reading assessment is examined, focusing on its implementation within the Michigan Essential Skills Reading Test (MESRT). Authentic reading assessment emerged as a response to research that indicates that reading is not a particular skill but an interaction among reader, text, and the context of the reading situation. Unlike formal…

  19. Chemical composition analysis and authentication of whisky.

    PubMed

    Wiśniewska, Paulina; Dymerski, Tomasz; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-08-30

    Whisky (whiskey) is one of the most popular spirit-based drinks made from malted or saccharified grains, which should mature for at least 3 years in wooden barrels. High popularity of products usually causes a potential risk of adulteration. Thus authenticity assessment is one of the key elements of food product marketing. Authentication of whisky is based on comparing the composition of this alcohol with other spirit drinks. The present review summarizes all information about the comparison of whisky and other alcoholic beverages, the identification of type of whisky or the assessment of its quality and finally the authentication of whisky. The article also presents the various techniques used for analyzing whisky, such as gas and liquid chromatography with different types of detectors (FID, AED, UV-Vis), electronic nose, atomic absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In some cases the application of chemometric methods is also described, namely PCA, DFA, LDA, ANOVA, SIMCA, PNN, k-NN and CA, as well as preparation techniques such SPME or SPE.

  20. A nuclear method to authenticate Buddha images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaweerat, S.; Ratanatongchai, W.; Channuie, J.; Wonglee, S.; Picha, R.; Promping, J.; Silva, K.; Liamsuwan, T.

    2015-05-01

    The value of Buddha images in Thailand varies dramatically depending on authentication and provenance. In general, people use their individual skills to make the justification which frequently leads to obscurity, deception and illegal activities. Here, we propose two non-destructive techniques of neutron radiography (NR) and neutron activation autoradiography (NAAR) to reveal respectively structural and elemental profiles of small Buddha images. For NR, a thermal neutron flux of 105 n cm-2s-1 was applied. NAAR needed a higher neutron flux of 1012 n cm-2 s-1 to activate the samples. Results from NR and NAAR revealed unique characteristic of the samples. Similarity of the profile played a key role in the classification of the samples. The results provided visual evidence to enhance the reliability of authenticity approval. The method can be further developed for routine practice which impact thousands of customers in Thailand.

  1. Issues of authenticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vara, Renee N.

    2000-03-01

    The problems which the fake or copy present, has received much attention among the art historians, philosophers, and art professionals within the last ten years. This renewed interest has largely focused upon aspects of what constitutes originality or fraud, but also has elucidated the fact that making copies was a common artistic practice during classical antiquity, the Renaissance, the early baroque and most commonly during the post modern period. One academic conference, held in 1985 at National Gallery of Art Symposium, entitled 'Retaining the Original' was focused around the very nature of the question of originality and authenticity. In the introduction to the published paper, Henry Million reminded us, that historically, 'making copies...constituted a major part of the artistic 'enterprise;' copies were valued and costly.

  2. Holograms and authentication: meeting future demands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, Ian M.

    2004-06-01

    The use of holograms as authentication or security devices is the most valuable application of holograms yet devised. In 20 years, this has developed from the first use of a hologram on credit cards, to the situation today where governments turn to holograms as a key security feature on the protected documents they issue, including banknotes, identity documents and tax banderols. At the same time, holograms (and related devices) are the most recognised visible feature used to authenticate and protect branded and OEM products; this sector covers the gamut from CD jewel-box seals to the protection of safety-related items such as medicines and vehicle replacement parts. There has been creative synergy between the commercial suppliers of such holograms and the practical holography community. But new technologies are coming forward to challenge the role of holograms, a challenge that is aided by the counterfeiting of security holograms. What are the characteristics of those technologies and can holograms provide similar resources to users? Examples of collaboration between hologram producers and producers of other technologies to create combination devices suggest a possible route forward for holography to maintain its role in authentication and security. By scrutinising and adapting to needs, often by combination with other techniques, holographers may be able to retain their role in this important application.

  3. Multimedia authentication for copyright protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Mingsheng

    2017-06-01

    Multimedia contents are easy to be copied and modified, so it is important to use authentication technology to ensure reliability and copyright security. Multimedia authentication technology is usually divided into digital signature and digital watermarking. In this paper, we introduce some basic image and video authentication technology, such as PCA algorithm and image signature method based on DCT coefficient, LSB -based digital image watermark, SVD-based digital image watermark, and video watermark. Through these digital content security technology, digital contents can be ensured security

  4. Authenticity in CALL: Three Domains of "Realness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buendgens-Kosten, Judith

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of authenticity and authenticity claims in computer assisted language learning (CALL). It considers authenticity as the result of a social negotiation process rather than an innate feature of a text, object, person, or activity. From this basis, it argues that authenticity claims play an important role in both second…

  5. Authenticity in CALL: Three Domains of "Realness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buendgens-Kosten, Judith

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of authenticity and authenticity claims in computer assisted language learning (CALL). It considers authenticity as the result of a social negotiation process rather than an innate feature of a text, object, person, or activity. From this basis, it argues that authenticity claims play an important role in both second…

  6. Authentic leadership: application to women leaders

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Margaret M.; O’Neil, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this perspective article is to present the argument that authentic leadership is a gendered representation of leadership. We first provide a brief history of leadership theories and definitions of authentic leadership. We then critique authentic leadership and offer arguments to support the premise that authentic leadership is not gender-neutral and is especially challenging for women. PMID:26236254

  7. Smart environment as a service: three factor cloud based user authentication for telecare medical information system.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Zeeshan; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Alghamdi, Abdullah S

    2014-01-01

    The Telecare Medical Information System (TMIS) provides a set of different medical services to the patient and medical practitioner. The patients and medical practitioners can easily connect to the services remotely from their own premises. There are several studies carried out to enhance and authenticate smartcard-based remote user authentication protocols for TMIS system. In this article, we propose a set of enhanced and authentic Three Factor (3FA) remote user authentication protocols utilizing a smartphone capability over a dynamic Cloud Computing (CC) environment. A user can access the TMIS services presented in the form of CC services using his smart device e.g. smartphone. Our framework transforms a smartphone to act as a unique and only identity required to access the TMIS system remotely. Methods, Protocols and Authentication techniques are proposed followed by security analysis and a performance analysis with the two recent authentication protocols proposed for the healthcare TMIS system.

  8. A mixed-contact formulation for a dynamics simulation of flexible systems: An integration with model-reduction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starc, Blaž; Čepon, Gregor; Boltežar, Miha

    2017-04-01

    A new numerical procedure for efficient dynamics simulations of linear-elastic systems with unilateral contacts is proposed. The method is based on the event-driven integration of a contact problem with a combination of single- and set-valued force laws together with classical model-reduction techniques. According to the contact state, the developed event-driven integration enables the formulation of reduced system matrices. Moreover, to enable the transition among different reduced spaces the formulation of the initial conditions is also presented. The method has been developed separately for each of the four most popular model-reduction techniques (Craig-Bampton, MacNeal, Rubin and dual Craig-Bampton). The applicability of the newly presented method is demonstrated on a simple clamped-beam structure with a unilateral contact, which is excited with a harmonic force at the free end.

  9. Determination of the ratio of cationic flexible nanoparticles binding constant of counterions X- and Br- (KX/KBr) using the semi-empirical spectrophotometric (SESp) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, Khalisanni; Khan, M. Niyaz; Sharifuddin, M. Z.; Kim, R. P. T.; Azri, M. N. Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    The determination of the ion exchange constant (KXBr) for ion-exchange process occurring between counterions X- and Br- (X= C6H5CO2- ) at the cationic flexible nanoparticles surface using the semi-emperical spectrophotometric (SESp) technique is described in this paper. The method uses an anionic spectrophotometric probe molecule, N-(2-methoxyphnyl) phthalamate ion (1-), which measures the effects of varying concentrations of nanoparticles (CTABr/NaX/H2O) on absorbance, (Aob) at 310 nm of samples containing constant concentration of (1-), NaOH, CTABr and NaX. The observed data, Aob vs [NaX] fit satisfactorily to an empirical equation which gives the values of two empirical constants. These empirical constants lead to the determination of KXBr (=KX/KBr with KX and KBr representing cationic flexible nanoparticles binding constants of counterions X- Br- respectively). This method gives values of KXBr for moderately hydrophobic X-. The value of KXBr, obtained by using this method, is comparable with the corresponding values of KXBr , obtained by the use of semi-emperical kinetic (SEK) method.

  10. High performance of carbon nanotubes/silver nanowires-PET hybrid flexible transparent conductive films via facile pressing-transfer technique.

    PubMed

    Jing, Mao-Xiang; Han, Chong; Li, Min; Shen, Xiang-Qian

    2014-01-01

    To obtain low sheet resistance, high optical transmittance, small open spaces in conductive networks, and enhanced adhesion of flexible transparent conductive films, a carbon nanotube (CNT)/silver nanowire (AgNW)-PET hybrid film was fabricated by mechanical pressing-transfer process at room temperature. The morphology and structure were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM), the optical transmittance and sheet resistance were tested by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) spectrophotometer and four-point probe technique, and the adhesion was also measured by 3M sticky tape. The results indicate that in this hybrid nanostructure, AgNWs form the main conductive networks and CNTs as assistant conductive networks are filled in the open spaces of AgNWs networks. The sheet resistance of the hybrid films can reach approximately 20.9 to 53.9 Ω/□ with the optical transmittance of approximately 84% to 91%. The second mechanical pressing step can greatly reduce the surface roughness of the hybrid film and enhance the adhesion force between CNTs, AgNWs, and PET substrate. This process is hopeful for large-scale production of high-end flexible transparent conductive films.

  11. Single authentication: exposing weighted splining artifacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciptasari, Rimba W.

    2016-05-01

    A common form of manipulation is to combine parts of the image fragment into another different image either to remove or blend the objects. Inspired by this situation, we propose a single authentication technique for detecting traces of weighted average splining technique. In this paper, we assume that image composite could be created by joining two images so that the edge between them is imperceptible. The weighted average technique is constructed from overlapped images so that it is possible to compute the gray level value of points within a transition zone. This approach works on the assumption that although splining process leaves the transition zone smoothly. They may, nevertheless, alter the underlying statistics of an image. In other words, it introduces specific correlation into the image. The proposed idea dealing with identifying these correlations is to generate an original model of both weighting function, left and right functions, as references to their synthetic models. The overall process of the authentication is divided into two main stages, which are pixel predictive coding and weighting function estimation. In the former stage, the set of intensity pairs {Il,Ir} is computed by exploiting pixel extrapolation technique. The least-squares estimation method is then employed to yield the weighted coefficients. We show the efficacy of the proposed scheme on revealing the splining artifacts. We believe that this is the first work that exposes the image splining artifact as evidence of digital tampering.

  12. Authentically Assessing an Assembly Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, James J.; Kendrick, Martha L.

    1999-01-01

    Authentic assessment in elementary school technology education is linked to a continuum of teacher behavior: nondirective, mediating, directive, and concurrent with teaching. It should be a two-way process between the students and the activity. (JOW)

  13. Authentically Assessing an Assembly Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, James J.; Kendrick, Martha L.

    1999-01-01

    Authentic assessment in elementary school technology education is linked to a continuum of teacher behavior: nondirective, mediating, directive, and concurrent with teaching. It should be a two-way process between the students and the activity. (JOW)

  14. Quantum direct communication with authentication

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hwayean; Lim, Jongin; Yang, HyungJin

    2006-04-15

    We propose two quantum direct communication (QDC) protocols with user authentication. Users can identify each other by checking the correlation of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. Alice can directly send a secret message to Bob without any previously shared secret using the remaining GHZ states after authentication. Our second QDC protocol can be used even though there is no quantum link between Alice and Bob. The security of the transmitted message is guaranteed by properties of entanglement of GHZ states.

  15. Flexible Plasmonic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Shir, Daniel; Ballard, Zachary S.; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical flexibility and the advent of scalable, low-cost, and high-throughput fabrication techniques have enabled numerous potential applications for plasmonic sensors. Sensitive and sophisticated biochemical measurements can now be performed through the use of flexible plasmonic sensors integrated into existing medical and industrial devices or sample collection units. More robust sensing schemes and practical techniques must be further investigated to fully realize the potentials of flexible plasmonics as a framework for designing low-cost, embedded and integrated sensors for medical, environmental, and industrial applications. PMID:27547023

  16. Flexible Ablators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackpoole, Margaret M. (Inventor); Ghandehari, Ehson M. (Inventor); Thornton, Jeremy J. (Inventor); Covington, Melmoth Alan (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A low-density article comprising a flexible substrate and a pyrolizable material impregnated therein, methods of preparing, and devices using the article are disclosed. The pyrolizable material pyrolizes above 350 C and does not flow at temperatures below the pyrolysis temperature. The low-density article remains flexible after impregnation and continues to remain flexible when the pyrolizable material is fully pyrolized.

  17. Authentically Engaged Learning through Live Supervision: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Steven; Kostohryz, Katie; Vereen, Linwood

    2014-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the experiential learning of 5 master's-level counseling students undergoing live supervision in a group techniques course. Multiple themes were identified to provide a textural-structural description of how students authentically engaged in the learning process. Implications for counselor education and…

  18. Deep Brain Stimulation, Authenticity and Value.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Jonathan; Maslen, Hannah; Savulescu, Julian

    2017-10-01

    Deep brain stimulation has been of considerable interest to bioethicists, in large part because of the effects that the intervention can occasionally have on central features of the recipient's personality. These effects raise questions regarding the philosophical concept of authenticity. In this article, we expand on our earlier work on the concept of authenticity in the context of deep brain stimulation by developing a diachronic, value-based account of authenticity. Our account draws on both existentialist and essentialist approaches to authenticity, and Laura Waddell Ekstrom's coherentist approach to personal autonomy. In developing our account, we respond to Sven Nyholm and Elizabeth O'Neill's synchronic approach to authenticity, and explain how the diachronic approach we defend can have practical utility, contrary to Alexandre Erler and Tony Hope's criticism of autonomy-based approaches to authenticity. Having drawn a distinction between the authenticity of an individual's traits and the authenticity of that person's values, we consider how our conception of authenticity applies to the context of anorexia nervosa in comparison to other prominent accounts of authenticity. We conclude with some reflections on the prudential value of authenticity, and by highlighting how the language of authenticity can be invoked to justify covert forms of paternalism that run contrary to the value of individuality that seems to be at the heart of authenticity.

  19. Optical double-image encryption and authentication by sparse representation.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Emad A; Saadon, H L

    2016-12-10

    An optical double-image encryption and authentication method by sparse representation is proposed. The information from double-image encryption can be integrated into a sparse representation. Unlike the traditional double-image encryption technique, only sparse (partial) data from the encrypted data is adopted for the authentication process. Simulation results demonstrate that the correct authentication results are achieved even with partial information from the encrypted data. The randomly selected sparse encrypted information will be used as an effective key for a security system. Therefore, the proposed method is feasible, effective, and can provide an additional security layer for optical security systems. In addition, the method also achieved the general requirements of storage and transmission due to a high reduction of the encrypted information.

  20. Efficient model checking of network authentication protocol based on SPIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zhi-hua; Zhang, Da-fang; Miao, Li; Zhao, Dan

    2013-03-01

    Model checking is a very useful technique for verifying the network authentication protocols. In order to improve the efficiency of modeling and verification on the protocols with the model checking technology, this paper first proposes a universal formalization description method of the protocol. Combined with the model checker SPIN, the method can expediently verify the properties of the protocol. By some modeling simplified strategies, this paper can model several protocols efficiently, and reduce the states space of the model. Compared with the previous literature, this paper achieves higher degree of automation, and better efficiency of verification. Finally based on the method described in the paper, we model and verify the Privacy and Key Management (PKM) authentication protocol. The experimental results show that the method of model checking is effective, which is useful for the other authentication protocols.

  1. A New Advanced User Authentication and Confidentiality Security Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, Sanjay; Chakraborty, Sanjay; Das, Suman

    2014-05-01

    Network & internet security is the burning question of today's world and they are deeply related to each other for secure successful data transmission. Network security approach is totally based on the concept of network security services. In this paper, a new system of network security service is implemented which is more secure than conventional network security services. This technique is mainly deals with two essential network security services, one is user authentication and other is data confidentiality. For user authentication this paper introduces Graphical Username & Voice Password approaches which provides better security than conventional username & password authentication process. In data confidentiality section this paper introduces two layer private key for both message encryption & decryption which is mainly applicable on 8 bit plain text data. This paper also provides the hints of introducing other two network security services (integrity and non-repudiation) as a future work.

  2. Approaching Authentic Peer Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Some scholars writing about improving students' reading and integrating reading and writing instruction suggest using think-aloud techniques to teach students reading comprehension skills. Using think-alouds to teach reading comprehension and then the read-aloud protocol technique (which is based on think-alouds) for peer review has two major…

  3. Approaching Authentic Peer Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Some scholars writing about improving students' reading and integrating reading and writing instruction suggest using think-aloud techniques to teach students reading comprehension skills. Using think-alouds to teach reading comprehension and then the read-aloud protocol technique (which is based on think-alouds) for peer review has two major…

  4. Authentic HIV-1 integrase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chenzhong; Marchand, Christophe; Burke, Terrence R; Pommier, Yves; Nicklaus, Marc C

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1 integrase (IN) is indispensable for HIV-1 replication and has become a validated target for developing anti-AIDS agents. In two decades of development of IN inhibition-based anti-HIV therapeutics, a significant number of compounds were identified as IN inhibitors, but only some of them showed antiviral activity. This article reviews a number of patented HIV-1 IN inhibitors, especially those that possess high selectivity for the strand transfer reaction. These compounds generally have a polar coplanar moiety, which is assumed to chelate two magnesium ions in the binding site. Resistance to those compounds, when given to patients, can develop as a result of IN mutations. We refer to those compounds as authentic IN inhibitors. Continued drug development has so far delivered one authentic IN inhibitor to the market (raltegravir in 2007). Current and future attention will be focused on the development of novel authentic IN inhibitors with the goal of overcoming viral resistance. PMID:21426159

  5. [Rapid PCR authentication Lonicera japanica].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chao; Hou, Jing-Yi; Huang, Lu-Qi; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Jin, Yan

    2014-10-01

    To simply and rapid authenticate Lonicera japanica. Rapid allele-specific PCR primer was designed base on trnL-trnF 625 G/T Single nucleotide polymorphism and the PCR reaction systems including annealing temperature was optimized; optimized results were performed to authenticate L. japanica and its 9 adulterants. When 100 x SYBR Green I was added in the PCR product of 87 degrees C initial denatured 1 min; 87 degrees C denatured 5 s, 68 degrees C annealing 5 s, 30 cycle; L. japanica visualize strong green fluorescence under 365 nm UV lamp whereas adulterants without. The results indicate rapid allele-specific PCR could authenticate L. japanica and its adulterants rapidly and simply.

  6. Designing Pu600 for Authentication

    SciTech Connect

    White, G

    2008-07-10

    Many recent Non-proliferation and Arms Control software projects include an authentication component. Demonstrating assurance that software and hardware performs as expected without hidden 'back-doors' is crucial to a project's success. In this context, 'authentication' is defined as determining that the system performs only its intended purpose and performs that purpose correctly and reliably over many years. Pu600 is a mature software solution for determining the presence of Pu and the ratio of Pu240 to Pu239 by analyzing the gamma ray spectra in the 600 KeV region. The project's goals are to explore hardware and software technologies which can by applied to Pu600 which ease the authentication of a complete, end-to-end solution. We will discuss alternatives and give the current status of our work.

  7. Authenticated sensor interface device

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Jody Rustyn; Poland, Richard W.

    2016-10-18

    A system and method for the secure storage and transmission of data is provided. A data aggregate device can be configured to receive secure data from a data source, such as a sensor, and encrypt the secure data using a suitable encryption technique, such as a shared private key technique, a public key encryption technique, a Diffie-Hellman key exchange technique, or other suitable encryption technique. The encrypted secure data can be provided from the data aggregate device to different remote devices over a plurality of segregated or isolated data paths. Each of the isolated data paths can include an optoisolator that is configured to provide one-way transmission of the encrypted secure data from the data aggregate device over the isolated data path. External data can be received through a secure data filter which, by validating the external data, allows for key exchange and other various adjustments from an external source.

  8. Emerging importance of geographical indications and designations of origin - authenticating geo-authentic botanicals and implications for phytotherapy.

    PubMed

    Brinckmann, J A

    2013-11-01

    Pharmacopoeial monographs providing specifications for composition, identity, purity, quality, and strength of a botanical are developed based on analysis of presumably authenticated botanical reference materials. The specimens should represent the quality traditionally specified for the intended use, which may require different standards for medicinal versus food use. Development of quality standards monographs may occur through collaboration between a sponsor company or industry association and a pharmacopoeial expert committee. The sponsor may base proposed standards and methods on their own preferred botanical supply which may, or may not, be geo-authentic and/or correspond to qualities defined in traditional medicine formularies and pharmacopoeias. Geo-authentic botanicals are those with specific germplasm, cultivated or collected in their traditional production regions, of a specified biological age at maturity, with specific production techniques and processing methods. Consequences of developing new monographs that specify characteristics of an 'introduced' cultivated species or of a material obtained from one unique origin could lead to exclusion of geo-authentic herbs and may have therapeutic implications for clinical practice. In this review, specifications of selected medicinal plants with either a geo-authentic or geographical indication designation are discussed and compared against official pharmacopoeial standards for same genus and species regardless of origin. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Introduction to Methods Demonstrations for Authentication

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Hansen, Randy R.; Pitts, W. K.

    2002-07-15

    During the Trilateral Initiative Technical Workshop on Authentication & Certification, PNNL will demonstrate some authentication technologies. This paper briefly describes the motivation for these demonstrations and provide background on them.

  10. The Authentic Personality: A Theoretical and Empirical Conceptualization and the Development of the Authenticity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Alex M.; Linley, P. Alex; Maltby, John; Baliousis, Michael; Joseph, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the development of a measure of dispositional authenticity and tests whether authenticity is related to well-being, as predicted by several counseling psychology perspectives. Scales were designed to measure a tripartite conception of authenticity, comprising self-alienation, authentic living, and accepting external…

  11. The Authentic Personality: A Theoretical and Empirical Conceptualization and the Development of the Authenticity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Alex M.; Linley, P. Alex; Maltby, John; Baliousis, Michael; Joseph, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the development of a measure of dispositional authenticity and tests whether authenticity is related to well-being, as predicted by several counseling psychology perspectives. Scales were designed to measure a tripartite conception of authenticity, comprising self-alienation, authentic living, and accepting external…

  12. Authentic Montessori: The Teacher Makes the Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huxel, Alexa C.

    2013-01-01

    What are the elements that make up authentic Montessori? Is Montessori something concrete or abstract? Are there intangibles that make Montessori what it is? Many classrooms today have Montessori materials and small tables and chairs. Are they authentic Montessori? When examining areas that traditionally make defining authentic Montessori…

  13. Developmental Changes in Judgments of Authentic Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Brandy N.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the development of an understanding of authenticity among 112 children (preschoolers, kindergarten, 1st graders, and 4th graders) and 119 college students. Participants were presented with pairs of photographs depicting authentic and non-authentic objects and asked to pick which one belongs in a museum and which one they would…

  14. 22 CFR 92.36 - Authentication defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Authentication defined. 92.36 Section 92.36 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Specific Notarial Acts § 92.36 Authentication defined. An authentication is a certification of the genuineness of...

  15. 22 CFR 92.36 - Authentication defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authentication defined. 92.36 Section 92.36 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Specific Notarial Acts § 92.36 Authentication defined. An authentication is a certification of the genuineness of...

  16. 22 CFR 92.36 - Authentication defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Authentication defined. 92.36 Section 92.36 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Specific Notarial Acts § 92.36 Authentication defined. An authentication is a certification of the genuineness of...

  17. 22 CFR 92.36 - Authentication defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Authentication defined. 92.36 Section 92.36 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Specific Notarial Acts § 92.36 Authentication defined. An authentication is a certification of the genuineness of...

  18. 22 CFR 92.36 - Authentication defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Authentication defined. 92.36 Section 92.36 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Specific Notarial Acts § 92.36 Authentication defined. An authentication is a certification of the genuineness of...

  19. 7 CFR 1.22 - Authentication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Authentication. 1.22 Section 1.22 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.22 Authentication. When a request is received for an authenticated copy of a document that the agency determines to...

  20. 7 CFR 1.22 - Authentication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authentication. 1.22 Section 1.22 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.22 Authentication. When a request is received for an authenticated copy of a document that the agency determines to...

  1. Authentic Montessori: The Teacher Makes the Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huxel, Alexa C.

    2013-01-01

    What are the elements that make up authentic Montessori? Is Montessori something concrete or abstract? Are there intangibles that make Montessori what it is? Many classrooms today have Montessori materials and small tables and chairs. Are they authentic Montessori? When examining areas that traditionally make defining authentic Montessori…

  2. Authentication, Time-Stamping and Digital Signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Judah

    1996-01-01

    Time and frequency data are often transmitted over public packet-switched networks, and the use of this mode of distribution is likely to increase in the near future as high-speed logical circuits transmitted via networks replace point-to-point physical circuits. ALthough these networks have many technical advantages, they are susceptible to evesdropping, spoofing, and the alteration of messages enroute using techniques that are relatively simple to implement and quite difficult to detect. I will discuss a number of solutions to these problems, including the authentication mechanism used in the Network Time Protocol (NTP) and the more general technique of signing time-stamps using public key cryptography. This public key method can also be used to implement the digital analog of a Notary Public, and I will discuss how such a system could be realized on a public network such as the Internet.

  3. Authenticity and Lesbian Health Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler-Timmins, Rebecca A.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study used narrative inquiry to explore how lesbian health educators navigate authenticity in a heteronormative higher education setting. The study was grounded in a lesbian standpoint pedagogical viewpoint, which provided a lens with which to view the nine participants' experiences. Of particular interest was how the educators in…

  4. Literacy Cafe: Making Writing Authentic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Erika

    2007-01-01

    The "Literacy Cafe," a celebration of genre study and student writing, offers students (and visitors!) a positive environment in which to engage in reading and discussion of writing without self-consciousness or fear of criticism. It works because students learn to recognize writing as a learning tool and a relevant, authentic skill in the real…

  5. Literacy Cafe: Making Writing Authentic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Erika

    2007-01-01

    The "Literacy Cafe," a celebration of genre study and student writing, offers students (and visitors!) a positive environment in which to engage in reading and discussion of writing without self-consciousness or fear of criticism. It works because students learn to recognize writing as a learning tool and a relevant, authentic skill in the real…

  6. Authentic Instruction and Technology Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cydis, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Technology integration is an important aspect of student competence in the 21st century. The use of technology in teaching and learning is a valuable practice for supporting student learning and engagement. Modelling the pedagogical practices that integrate authentic, performance-based opportunities for technology integration was the focus of a…

  7. Authenticity and Lesbian Health Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler-Timmins, Rebecca A.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study used narrative inquiry to explore how lesbian health educators navigate authenticity in a heteronormative higher education setting. The study was grounded in a lesbian standpoint pedagogical viewpoint, which provided a lens with which to view the nine participants' experiences. Of particular interest was how the educators in…

  8. Authentic Supervision Reconciles the Irreconcilables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajak, Edward F.; Seyfarth, John T.

    1983-01-01

    Successful supervisors share a characteristic of "authenticity," rather than a particular pattern of behavior. From a background of Gestalt psychology, four steps are offered to help supervisors become aware of their own needs and feelings and recognize the "shoulds" that prevent real contact with others. (MLF)

  9. Embodying Authenticity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Orienting to the community of higher education involves a learning experience that is authentic and embodied for one new college administrator. Reflecting on her experience, she articulates how her relationship to her body helps to understand and respond to the tensions of engaging with a scholarly community.

  10. Quantum identity authentication with single photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Chang ho; Heo, Jino; Jang, Jin Gak; Kwon, Daesung

    2017-10-01

    Quantum identity authentication with single photons is proposed in the paper. It can verify a user's identity without exposing to an authentication key information. The protocol guarantees high efficiency in that it can verify two bits of authentication information using just a single photon. The security of our authentication scheme is analyzed and confirmed in the case of a general attack. Moreover, the proposed protocol is practicable with current technology. Our quantum identity authentication protocol does not require quantum memory registration and any entangled photon sources.

  11. Flexibility Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    These brief guidelines for a muscular flexibility program state that the purpose of such a program is to increase the range of motion in order to avoid injuries and eliminate awkwardness in physical activities. A flexibility program is described as an extension of the warm-up period and should be an ongoing, permanent effort to lengthen muscles. A…

  12. Flexible Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Harold S.; Bechard, Joseph E.

    A flexible schedule allows teachers to change group size, group composition, and class length according to the purpose of the lesson. This pamphlet presents various "master" schedules for flexible scheduling: (1) Simple block schedules, (2) back-to-back schedules, (3) interdisciplinary schedules, (4) school-wide block schedules, (5) open-lab…

  13. Joint forensics and watermarking approach for video authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemert, Stefan; Liu, Huajian; Steinebach, Martin; Croce-Ferri, Lucilla

    2007-02-01

    In our paper we discuss and compare the possibilities and shortcomings of both content-fragile watermarking and digital forensics and analyze if the combination of both techniques allows the identification of more than the sum of all manipulations identified by both techniques on their own due to synergetic effects. The first part of the paper discusses the theoretical possibilities offered by a combined approach, in which forensics and watermarking are considered as complementary tools for data authentication or deeply combined together, in order to reduce their error rate and to enhance the detection efficiency. After this conceptual discussion the paper proposes some concrete examples in which the joint approach is applied to video authentication. Some specific forensics techniques are analyzed and expanded to handle efficiently video data. The examples show possible extensions of passive-blind image forgery detection to video data, where the motion and time related characteristics of video are efficiently exploited.

  14. Determination of authenticity of brand perfume using electronic nose prototypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebicki, Jacek; Szulczynski, Bartosz; Kaminski, Marian

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the practical application of an electronic nose technique for fast and efficient discrimination between authentic and fake perfume samples. Two self-built electronic nose prototypes equipped with a set of semiconductor sensors were employed for that purpose. Additionally 10 volunteers took part in the sensory analysis. The following perfumes and their fake counterparts were analysed: Dior—Fahrenheit, Eisenberg—J’ose, YSL—La nuit de L’homme, 7 Loewe and Spice Bomb. The investigations were carried out using the headspace of the aqueous solutions. Data analysis utilized multidimensional techniques: principle component analysis (PCA), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), k-nearest neighbour (k-NN). The results obtained confirmed the legitimacy of the electronic nose technique as an alternative to the sensory analysis as far as the determination of authenticity of perfume is concerned.

  15. Application of analytical methods in authentication and adulteration of honey.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Amna Jabbar; Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Rahman, Atta-Ur-

    2017-02-15

    Honey is synthesized from flower nectar and it is famous for its tremendous therapeutic potential since ancient times. Many factors influence the basic properties of honey including the nectar-providing plant species, bee species, geographic area, and harvesting conditions. Quality and composition of honey is also affected by many other factors, such as overfeeding of bees with sucrose, harvesting prior to maturity, and adulteration with sugar syrups. Due to the complex nature of honey, it is often challenging to authenticate the purity and quality by using common methods such as physicochemical parameters and more specialized procedures need to be developed. This article reviews the literature (between 2000 and 2016) on the use of analytical techniques, mainly NMR spectroscopy, for authentication of honey, its botanical and geographical origin, and adulteration by sugar syrups. NMR is a powerful technique and can be used as a fingerprinting technique to compare various samples.

  16. Broadband quantitative NQR for authentication of vitamins and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Fengchao; Bhunia, Swarup; Mandal, Soumyajit

    2017-05-01

    We describe hardware, pulse sequences, and algorithms for nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy of medicines and dietary supplements. Medicine and food safety is a pressing problem that has drawn more and more attention. NQR is an ideal technique for authenticating these substances because it is a non-invasive method for chemical identification. We have recently developed a broadband NQR front-end that can excite and detect (14)N NQR signals over a wide frequency range; its operating frequency can be rapidly set by software, while sensitivity is comparable to conventional narrowband front-ends over the entire range. This front-end improves the accuracy of authentication by enabling multiple-frequency experiments. We have also developed calibration and signal processing techniques to convert measured NQR signal amplitudes into nuclear spin densities, thus enabling its use as a quantitative technique. Experimental results from several samples are used to illustrate the proposed methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Broadband quantitative NQR for authentication of vitamins and dietary supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Fengchao; Bhunia, Swarup; Mandal, Soumyajit

    2017-05-01

    We describe hardware, pulse sequences, and algorithms for nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy of medicines and dietary supplements. Medicine and food safety is a pressing problem that has drawn more and more attention. NQR is an ideal technique for authenticating these substances because it is a non-invasive method for chemical identification. We have recently developed a broadband NQR front-end that can excite and detect 14N NQR signals over a wide frequency range; its operating frequency can be rapidly set by software, while sensitivity is comparable to conventional narrowband front-ends over the entire range. This front-end improves the accuracy of authentication by enabling multiple-frequency experiments. We have also developed calibration and signal processing techniques to convert measured NQR signal amplitudes into nuclear spin densities, thus enabling its use as a quantitative technique. Experimental results from several samples are used to illustrate the proposed methods.

  18. An Authentication Protocol for Future Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Bilal, Muhammad; Kang, Shin-Gak

    2017-04-28

    Authentication is one of the essential security services in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for ensuring secure data sessions. Sensor node authentication ensures the confidentiality and validity of data collected by the sensor node, whereas user authentication guarantees that only legitimate users can access the sensor data. In a mobile WSN, sensor and user nodes move across the network and exchange data with multiple nodes, thus experiencing the authentication process multiple times. The integration of WSNs with Internet of Things (IoT) brings forth a new kind of WSN architecture along with stricter security requirements; for instance, a sensor node or a user node may need to establish multiple concurrent secure data sessions. With concurrent data sessions, the frequency of the re-authentication process increases in proportion to the number of concurrent connections. Moreover, to establish multiple data sessions, it is essential that a protocol participant have the capability of running multiple instances of the protocol run, which makes the security issue even more challenging. The currently available authentication protocols were designed for the autonomous WSN and do not account for the above requirements. Hence, ensuring a lightweight and efficient authentication protocol has become more crucial. In this paper, we present a novel, lightweight and efficient key exchange and authentication protocol suite called the Secure Mobile Sensor Network (SMSN) Authentication Protocol. In the SMSN a mobile node goes through an initial authentication procedure and receives a re-authentication ticket from the base station. Later a mobile node can use this re-authentication ticket when establishing multiple data exchange sessions and/or when moving across the network. This scheme reduces the communication and computational complexity of the authentication process. We proved the strength of our protocol with rigorous security analysis (including formal analysis using the BAN

  19. An Authentication Protocol for Future Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bilal, Muhammad; Kang, Shin-Gak

    2017-01-01

    Authentication is one of the essential security services in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for ensuring secure data sessions. Sensor node authentication ensures the confidentiality and validity of data collected by the sensor node, whereas user authentication guarantees that only legitimate users can access the sensor data. In a mobile WSN, sensor and user nodes move across the network and exchange data with multiple nodes, thus experiencing the authentication process multiple times. The integration of WSNs with Internet of Things (IoT) brings forth a new kind of WSN architecture along with stricter security requirements; for instance, a sensor node or a user node may need to establish multiple concurrent secure data sessions. With concurrent data sessions, the frequency of the re-authentication process increases in proportion to the number of concurrent connections. Moreover, to establish multiple data sessions, it is essential that a protocol participant have the capability of running multiple instances of the protocol run, which makes the security issue even more challenging. The currently available authentication protocols were designed for the autonomous WSN and do not account for the above requirements. Hence, ensuring a lightweight and efficient authentication protocol has become more crucial. In this paper, we present a novel, lightweight and efficient key exchange and authentication protocol suite called the Secure Mobile Sensor Network (SMSN) Authentication Protocol. In the SMSN a mobile node goes through an initial authentication procedure and receives a re-authentication ticket from the base station. Later a mobile node can use this re-authentication ticket when establishing multiple data exchange sessions and/or when moving across the network. This scheme reduces the communication and computational complexity of the authentication process. We proved the strength of our protocol with rigorous security analysis (including formal analysis using the BAN

  20. Infusing Authentic Inquiry into Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanegan, Nikki L.; Bigler, Amber

    2009-10-01

    Societal benefit depends on the general public's understandings of biotechnology (Betsch in World J Microbiol Biotechnol 12:439-443, 1996; Dawson and Cowan in Int J Sci Educ 25(1):57-69, 2003; Schiller in Business Review: Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia (Fourth Quarter), 2002; Smith and Emmeluth in Am Biol Teach 64(2):93-99, 2002). A National Science Foundation funded survey of high school biology teachers reported that hands-on biotechnology education exists in advanced high school biology in the United States, but is non-existent in mainstream biology coursework (Micklos et al. in Biotechnology labs in American high schools, 1998). The majority of pre-service teacher content preparation courses do not teach students appropriate content knowledge through the process of inquiry. A broad continuum exists when discussing inquiry-oriented student investigations (Hanegan et al. in School Sci Math J 109(2):110-134, 2009). Depending on the amount of structure in teacher lessons, inquiries can often be categorized as guided or open. The lesson can be further categorized as simple or authentic (Chinn and Malhotra in Sci Educ 86(2):175-218, 2002). Although authentic inquiries provide the best opportunities for cognitive development and scientific reasoning, guided and simple inquiries are more often employed in the classroom (Crawford in J Res Sci Teach 37(9):916-937, 2000; NRC in Inquiry and the national science education standards: a guide for teaching and learning, 2000). For the purposes of this study we defined inquiry as "authentic" if original research problems were resolved (Hanegan et al. in School Sci Math J 109(2):110-134, 2009; Chinn and Malhotra in Sci Educ 86(2):175-218, 2002; Roth in Authentic school science: knowing and learning in open-inquiry science laboratories, 1995). The research question to guide this study through naturalistic inquiry research methods was: How will participants express whether or not an authentic inquiry experience enhanced

  1. Flexible Sigmoidoscopy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force (USPSTF). Most doctors recommend colonoscopy to screen for colon cancer because colonoscopy shows the entire colon and can remove colon polyps. However, preparing for and performing a flexible sigmoidoscopy may take less time and you may ...

  2. Flexible Straws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentice, Gerard

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the use of flexible straws for teaching properties of figures and families of shapes. Describes a way to make various two- or three-dimensional geometric shapes. Lists eight advantages of the method. (YP)

  3. A covert authentication and security solution for GMOs.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Siguna; Jafari, Farhad; Roth, Don

    2016-09-21

    Proliferation and expansion of security risks necessitates new measures to ensure authenticity and validation of GMOs. Watermarking and other cryptographic methods are available which conceal and recover the original signature, but in the process reveal the authentication information. In many scenarios watermarking and standard cryptographic methods are necessary but not sufficient and new, more advanced, cryptographic protocols are necessary. Herein, we present a new crypto protocol, that is applicable in broader settings, and embeds the authentication string indistinguishably from a random element in the signature space and the string is verified or denied without disclosing the actual signature. Results show that in a nucleotide string of 1000, the algorithm gives a correlation of 0.98 or higher between the distribution of the codon and that of E. coli, making the signature virtually invisible. This algorithm may be used to securely authenticate and validate GMOs without disclosing the actual signature. While this protocol uses watermarking, its novelty is in use of more complex cryptographic techniques based on zero knowledge proofs to encode information.

  4. Halal authenticity issues in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Nakyinsige, Khadijah; Man, Yaakob Bin Che; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2012-07-01

    In the recent years, Muslims have become increasingly concerned about the meat they eat. Proper product description is very crucial for consumers to make informed choices and to ensure fair trade, particularly in the ever growing halal food market. Globally, Muslim consumers are concerned about a number of issues concerning meat and meat products such as pork substitution, undeclared blood plasma, use of prohibited ingredients, pork intestine casings and non-halal methods of slaughter. Analytical techniques which are appropriate and specific have been developed to deal with particular issues. The most suitable technique for any particular sample is often determined by the nature of the sample itself. This paper sets out to identify what makes meat halal, highlight the halal authenticity issues that occur in meat and meat products and provide an overview of the possible analytical methods for halal authentication of meat and meat products.

  5. Multisensor user authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombi, John M.; Krepp, D.; Rogers, Steven K.; Ruck, Dennis W.; Oxley, Mark E.

    1993-09-01

    User recognition is examined using neural and conventional techniques for processing speech and face images. This article for the first time attempts to overcome this significant problem of distortions inherently captured over multiple sessions (days). Speaker recognition uses both Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) cepstral and auditory neural model representations with speaker dependent codebook designs. For facial imagery, recognition is developed on a neural network that consists of a single hidden layer multilayer perceptron backpropagation network using either the raw data as inputs or principal components of the raw data computed using the Karhunen-Loeve Transform as inputs. The data consists of 10 subjects; each subject recorded utterances and had images collected for 10 days. The utterances collected were 400 rich phonetic sentences (4 sec), 200 subject name recordings (3 sec), and 100 imposter name recordings (3 sec). Face data consists of over 2000, 32 X 32 pixel, 8 bit gray scale images of the 10 subjects. Each subsystem attains over 90% verification accuracy individually using test data gathered on days following the training data.

  6. Multisensor user authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombi, John M.; Krepp, D.; Rogers, Steven K.; Ruck, Dennis W.; Oxley, Mark E.

    1993-08-01

    User recognition is examined using neural and conventional techniques for processing speech and face images. This article for the first time attempts to overcome this significant problem of distortions inherently captured over multiple sessions (days). Speaker recognition uses both Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) cepstral and auditory neural model representations with speaker dependent codebook designs. For facial imagery, recognition is developed on a neural network that consists of a single hidden layer multilayer perceptron backpropagation network using either the raw data as inputs or principal components of the raw data computed using the Karhunen-Loeve Transform as inputs. The data consists of 10 subjects; each subject recorded utterances and had images collected for 10 days. The utterances collected were 400 rich phonetic sentences (4 sec), 200 subject name recordings (3 sec), and 100 imposter name recordings (3 sec). Face data consists of over 2000, 32 X 32 pixel, 8 bit gray scale images of the 10 subjects. Each subsystem attains over 90% verification accuracy individually using test data gathered on day following the training data.

  7. An in Vivo 3D Computed Tomographic Analysis of Femoral Tunnel Geometry and Aperture Morphology Between Rigid and Flexible Systems in Double-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using the Transportal Technique.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Gyoon; Chang, Min Ho; Lim, Hong Chul; Bae, Ji Hoon; Lee, Seung Yup; Ahn, Jin Hwan; Wang, Joon Ho

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare femoral tunnel length, femoral graft-bending angle, posterior wall breakage, and femoral aperture morphologic characteristics between rigid and flexible systems after double-bundle (DB) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using the transportal (TP) technique. We evaluated 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) results for 54 patients who underwent DB ACL reconstruction using the TP technique with either a flexible system (n = 27) or a rigid system (n = 27). The femoral tunnel length, femoral graft-bending angle, posterior wall breakage, femoral tunnel aperture height to width (H:W) ratio, aperture axis angle, and femoral tunnel position were assessed using OsiriX Imaging Software and Geomagic Qualify 2012 (Geomagic, Cary, NC). The mean anteromedial (AM) femoral tunnel length of the flexible group was significantly longer than that of the rigid group (P = .009). The mean femoral graft-bending angles in the flexible group were significantly less acute than those in the rigid group (AM, P < .001; posterolateral [PL], P = .003]. Posterior wall breakage was observed in both groups (P = 1.00). The mean H:W ratios in the rigid group were significantly larger (more elliptical) than those of the flexible group (AM, P < .001; PL, P = .006). The mean aperture axis angle of the PL femoral tunnel in the rigid group was more parallel to the femoral shaft axis than that in the flexible group (P < .001). There were no significant differences in femoral tunnel position between the 2 groups. The AM femoral tunnel length and the AM/PL femoral graft-bending angle of the flexible system were significantly longer and less acute than those of the rigid system. However, the aperture morphologic characteristics of the AM/PL femoral tunnel and the aperture axis angle of the PL femoral tunnel in the rigid system were significantly more elliptical and closer to parallel to the femoral shaft axis than those of the flexible system. Level

  8. An Examination of Career Indecision and Application to Dispositional Authenticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Nathan J.; Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2011-01-01

    Authenticity has been viewed as a dimension related to life satisfaction, but we propose that authenticity is related to career outcomes. In this study, we examined the relation between authenticity and career indecision. Authenticity was assessed by the Authenticity Scale and it was found to be moderately related to different indices of career…

  9. Capturing Cognitive Processing Time for Active Authentication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    biometrics, extracted from keystroke dynamics , as “something a user is” for active authentication. This scheme performs continual verification in the...fingerprint for continuous authentication. Its effectiveness has been verified through a large-scale dataset. 2.0 INTRODUCTION Keystroke dynamics —the...measure the similarity. A recent survey on biometric authentication using keystroke dynamics classified research papers on the basis of their

  10. Obfuscated authentication systems, devices, and methods

    DOEpatents

    Armstrong, Robert C; Hutchinson, Robert L

    2013-10-22

    Embodiments of the present invention are directed toward authentication systems, devices, and methods. Obfuscated executable instructions may encode an authentication procedure and protect an authentication key. The obfuscated executable instructions may require communication with a remote certifying authority for operation. In this manner, security may be controlled by the certifying authority without regard to the security of the electronic device running the obfuscated executable instructions.

  11. Optically secured information retrieval using two authenticated phase-only masks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaogang; Chen, Wen; Mei, Shengtao; Chen, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for jointly designing two phase-only masks (POMs) that allow for the encryption and noise-free retrieval of triple images. The images required for optical retrieval are first stored in quick-response (QR) codes for noise-free retrieval and flexible readout. Two sparse POMs are respectively calculated from two different images used as references for authentication based on modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (GSA) and pixel extraction, and are then used as support constraints in a modified double-phase retrieval algorithm (MPRA), together with the above-mentioned QR codes. No visible information about the target images or the reference images can be obtained from each of these authenticated POMs. This approach allows users to authenticate the two POMs used for image reconstruction without visual observation of the reference images. It also allows user to friendly access and readout with mobile devices. PMID:26494213

  12. Optically secured information retrieval using two authenticated phase-only masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaogang; Chen, Wen; Mei, Shengtao; Chen, Xudong

    2015-10-01

    We propose an algorithm for jointly designing two phase-only masks (POMs) that allow for the encryption and noise-free retrieval of triple images. The images required for optical retrieval are first stored in quick-response (QR) codes for noise-free retrieval and flexible readout. Two sparse POMs are respectively calculated from two different images used as references for authentication based on modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (GSA) and pixel extraction, and are then used as support constraints in a modified double-phase retrieval algorithm (MPRA), together with the above-mentioned QR codes. No visible information about the target images or the reference images can be obtained from each of these authenticated POMs. This approach allows users to authenticate the two POMs used for image reconstruction without visual observation of the reference images. It also allows user to friendly access and readout with mobile devices.

  13. Optically secured information retrieval using two authenticated phase-only masks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaogang; Chen, Wen; Mei, Shengtao; Chen, Xudong

    2015-10-23

    We propose an algorithm for jointly designing two phase-only masks (POMs) that allow for the encryption and noise-free retrieval of triple images. The images required for optical retrieval are first stored in quick-response (QR) codes for noise-free retrieval and flexible readout. Two sparse POMs are respectively calculated from two different images used as references for authentication based on modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (GSA) and pixel extraction, and are then used as support constraints in a modified double-phase retrieval algorithm (MPRA), together with the above-mentioned QR codes. No visible information about the target images or the reference images can be obtained from each of these authenticated POMs. This approach allows users to authenticate the two POMs used for image reconstruction without visual observation of the reference images. It also allows user to friendly access and readout with mobile devices.

  14. Flexible flatfoot

    PubMed Central

    Atik, Aziz; Ozyurek, Selahattin

    2014-01-01

    While being one of the most frequent parental complained deformities, flatfoot does not have a universally accepted description. The reasons of flexible flatfoot are still on debate, but they must be differentiated from rigid flatfoot which occurs secondary to other pathologies. These children are commonly brought up to a physician without any complaint. It should be kept in mind that the etiology may vary from general soft tissue laxities to intrinsic foot pathologies. Every flexible flatfoot does not require radiological examination or treatment if there is no complaint. Otherwise further investigation and conservative or surgical treatment may necessitate. PMID:28058304

  15. Piping Flexibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A NASA computer program aids Hudson Engineering Corporation, Houston, Texas, in the design and construction of huge petrochemical processing plants like the one shown, which is located at Ju'aymah, Saudi Arabia. The pipes handling the flow of chemicals are subject to a variety of stresses, such as weight and variations in pressure and temperature. Hudson Engineering uses a COSMIC piping flexibility analysis computer program to analyze stresses and unsure the necessary strength and flexibility of the pipes. This program helps the company realize substantial savings in reduced engineering time.

  16. An interference-based optical authentication scheme using two phase-only masks with different diffraction distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Dajiang; He, Wenqi; Liao, Meihua; Peng, Xiang

    2017-02-01

    A new method to eliminate the security risk of the well-known interference-based optical cryptosystem is proposed. In this method, which is suitable for security authentication application, two phase-only masks are separately placed at different distances from the output plane, where a certification image (public image) can be obtained. To further increase the security and flexibility of this authentication system, we employ one more validation image (secret image), which can be observed at another output plane, for confirming the identity of the user. Only if the two correct masks are properly settled at their positions one could obtain two significant images. Besides, even if the legal users exchange their masks (keys), the authentication process will fail and the authentication results will not reveal any information. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the validity and security of the proposed method.

  17. Alienation, authenticity and the self.

    PubMed

    Rae, Gavin

    2010-01-01

    While many commentators have held that the concept "alienation" is of crucial importance when attempting to understand human existence, others have held that it is an inherently empty concept that we should abandon. In this article, I refute the latters' charge by showing that each conception of "alienation" is underpinned by a normative ontological conception of the preferable, or authentic, self and show that the concept "alienation" has ethical, existential and socio-political uses. From this I conclude that, when properly understood, the concept "alienation" can provide us with vital insights into human existence.

  18. Epistemological authenticity in science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Paul S.

    A scientifically literate individual understands important characteristics of both the nature of scientific knowledge and the activity that produces it, scientific inquiry. (NRC, 1996; AAAS, 1993) In support of these goals the National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996) envisions science classrooms where students engage productively in activity that is similar to scientific inquiry. It is presumed that by engaging in this kind of activity students will come to deeper understandings of scientific inquiry and scientific knowledge. For this instructional approach to be successful it is necessary students not only engaging in activity that "looks" like science in important ways, but also view their own activity as authentically using knowledge for the purpose of making sense of natural phenomena. Notably the determination of what is authentic is problematic in a science classroom. There are two different possible arbiters "present" in a classroom, the students themselves and the discipline of science. And what is authentic to one might not be to the other. This work provides perspectives on classroom and teacher professional development implications of this view of science instruction. Chapter two articulates a conceptualization, epistemological authenticity, of the nature of student activity necessary to achieve these instructional goals. Such activity involves students engaging in scientific practices with the same purposes as scientists. Chapter three uses a case study of a science classroom to illustrate some of the features of student activity that provide evidence of more and less productive student expectations about the purposes of their own participation in a science class. It also discusses the role teacher instructional choices play in influencing how students perceive the purposes of classroom activity. Chapter four considers teacher professional development, specifically images of exemplary science classrooms in the Standards and a supplement to it

  19. Optical multiple-image authentication based on cascaded phase filtering structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Alfalou, A.; Brosseau, C.

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we report on the recent developments of optical image authentication algorithms. Compared with conventional optical encryption, optical image authentication achieves more security strength because such methods do not need to recover information of plaintext totally during the decryption period. Several recently proposed authentication systems are briefly introduced. We also propose a novel multiple-image authentication system, where multiple original images are encoded into a photon-limited encoded image by using a triple-plane based phase retrieval algorithm and photon counting imaging (PCI) technique. One can only recover a noise-like image using correct keys. To check authority of multiple images, a nonlinear fractional correlation is employed to recognize the original information hidden in the decrypted results. The proposal can be implemented optically using a cascaded phase filtering configuration. Computer simulation results are presented to evaluate the performance of this proposal and its effectiveness.

  20. Authentic Assessment in Reading Education Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginson, Bonnie; Smith, Lynn C.

    Noting that many teachers and some states have abandoned traditional testing methods of public school students in favor of authentic and performance-based assessment, this paper shares alternative assessment methods used by two teacher educators. After a brief introduction to the issues of authentic assessment in reading education courses, the…

  1. Authentic Learning and Multimedia in History Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillis, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The momentum gathering behind authentic learning/critical skills raises fundamental issues concerning teaching and learning. This article discusses some of the more general arguments surrounding authentic learning with particular reference to an in-depth evaluation of its impact on schools in one part of Great Britain. It then moves on to describe…

  2. Authenticity and Technology in Montessori Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbell, Elizabeth Ross

    2006-01-01

    Montessori classrooms commonly integrate their learning across the curriculum, and participate in service learning projects. Both of these practices are authentic experiences for children. This article outlines examples of technology being used to create authentic learning environments, tasks, audiences, sources, and assessments. Technology…

  3. How Pilot Schools Authentically Assess Student Mastery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Collaborative Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document how member schools of the Boston Pilot Schools Network use authentic assessments to understand what their students know and can do. These principles not only reflect the belief that a student's learning must be measured in multiple, authentic ways, they also reflect the Network's focus on equitable…

  4. Making it Real: Authenticity, Process and Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badger, Richard; MacDonald, Malcolm

    2010-01-01

    Authenticity has been a part of the intellectual resources of language teaching since the 1890s but its precise meaning and implications are contested. This commentary argues for a view of authenticity which recognizes the limits of the concept as a guide for pedagogic practice and acknowledges the fact that texts are processes rather than…

  5. Ignoring Authentic African Literature Means Ignoring Africans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Carlin

    2005-01-01

    Africa produces imaginative and authentic literature whose texture makes it impossible to think of Africans as statistics. African writers, however have to struggle to get recognized in America due to their culture and other racial and social differences, hence suggesting that efforts should be made to give authentic African literature its due.

  6. Authentic Assessment: Change for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullens, Dimitra

    This report describes a project on the implementation of authentic assessment methods in order to show an authentic picture of students progress and abilities. The targeted population consisted of approximately 40 eighth grade students in 2 classes in a suburb of a major midwestern city. The problems with current assessment methods were documented…

  7. Making it Real: Authenticity, Process and Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badger, Richard; MacDonald, Malcolm

    2010-01-01

    Authenticity has been a part of the intellectual resources of language teaching since the 1890s but its precise meaning and implications are contested. This commentary argues for a view of authenticity which recognizes the limits of the concept as a guide for pedagogic practice and acknowledges the fact that texts are processes rather than…

  8. Authenticity and Technology in Montessori Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbell, Elizabeth Ross

    2006-01-01

    Montessori classrooms commonly integrate their learning across the curriculum, and participate in service learning projects. Both of these practices are authentic experiences for children. This article outlines examples of technology being used to create authentic learning environments, tasks, audiences, sources, and assessments. Technology…

  9. Wikis as Platforms for Authentic Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Pamela L.; Lawrence, April

    2013-01-01

    Calls for accountability focus attention on assessment of student learning. Authentic assessment involves evaluating student learning as students perform real world tasks. We present a four-stage conceptual framework for authentic assessment. We argue first that evaluation is a process rather than a static one-time event. Second, authentic…

  10. Authentic Learning and Multimedia in History Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillis, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The momentum gathering behind authentic learning/critical skills raises fundamental issues concerning teaching and learning. This article discusses some of the more general arguments surrounding authentic learning with particular reference to an in-depth evaluation of its impact on schools in one part of Great Britain. It then moves on to describe…

  11. Wikis as Platforms for Authentic Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Pamela L.; Lawrence, April

    2013-01-01

    Calls for accountability focus attention on assessment of student learning. Authentic assessment involves evaluating student learning as students perform real world tasks. We present a four-stage conceptual framework for authentic assessment. We argue first that evaluation is a process rather than a static one-time event. Second, authentic…

  12. Test-Task Authenticity: The Multiple Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Zhengdong

    2012-01-01

    Leung and Lewkowicz remind us that the debate over the past two decades that is most relevant to ELT (English languge teaching) pedagogy and curriculum concerns test-task authenticity. This paper first reviews how the authenticity debate in the literature of second language acquisition, pedagogy and testing has evolved. Drawing on a body of…

  13. Authenticity screening of stained glass windows using optical spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Meulebroeck, Wendy; Wouters, Hilde; Nys, Karin; Thienpont, Hugo

    2016-11-24

    Civilized societies should safeguard their heritage as it plays an important role in community building. Moreover, past technologies often inspire new technology. Authenticity is besides conservation and restoration a key aspect in preserving our past, for example in museums when exposing showpieces. The classification of being authentic relies on an interdisciplinary approach integrating art historical and archaeological research complemented with applied research. In recent decades analytical dating tools are based on determining the raw materials used. However, the traditional applied non-portable, chemical techniques are destructive and time-consuming. Since museums oftentimes only consent to research actions which are completely non-destructive, optical spectroscopy might offer a solution. As a case-study we apply this technique on two stained glass panels for which the 14(th) century dating is nowadays questioned. With this research we were able to identify how simultaneous mapping of spectral signatures measured with a low cost optical spectrum analyser unveils information regarding the production period. The significance of this research extends beyond the re-dating of these panels to the 19(th) century as it provides an instant tool enabling immediate answering authenticity questions during the conservation process of stained glass, thereby providing the necessary data for solving deontological questions about heritage preservation.

  14. DNA authentication of animal-derived concentrated Chinese medicine granules.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li-Li; Lo, Yat-Tung; Chen, Wei-Ting; Shaw, Pang-Chui

    2016-09-10

    Concentrated Chinese medicine granules (CCMG) offer patients a convenient option for traditional therapy. However with morphological and microscopic characteristics lost, it is difficult to authenticate and control the quality of these medicinal products. This study is the first to examine the feasibility of using DNA techniques to authenticate animal-derived CCMG, which has so far lacking of effective means for authentication. Primers targeting amplicons of different sizes were designed to determine the presence of PCR-amplifiable DNA fragments in two types of CCMG, namely Zaocys and Scorpio. Species-specific primers were designed to differentiate the genuine drugs from their adulterants. The specificity of the designed primers was evaluated in crude drugs (including genuine and adulterant) and CCMG. Results showed that by using species-specific primers, DNA fragments of less than 200bp could be isolated from the CCMG and the concerned source materials. This study demonstrated the presence of small size DNA in animal-derived CCMG and the DNA is effective in species identification. The work has extended the application of DNA techniques in herbal medicine and this approach may be further developed for quality control and regulatory compliance in the CCMG industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Authenticity screening of stained glass windows using optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulebroeck, Wendy; Wouters, Hilde; Nys, Karin; Thienpont, Hugo

    2016-11-01

    Civilized societies should safeguard their heritage as it plays an important role in community building. Moreover, past technologies often inspire new technology. Authenticity is besides conservation and restoration a key aspect in preserving our past, for example in museums when exposing showpieces. The classification of being authentic relies on an interdisciplinary approach integrating art historical and archaeological research complemented with applied research. In recent decades analytical dating tools are based on determining the raw materials used. However, the traditional applied non-portable, chemical techniques are destructive and time-consuming. Since museums oftentimes only consent to research actions which are completely non-destructive, optical spectroscopy might offer a solution. As a case-study we apply this technique on two stained glass panels for which the 14th century dating is nowadays questioned. With this research we were able to identify how simultaneous mapping of spectral signatures measured with a low cost optical spectrum analyser unveils information regarding the production period. The significance of this research extends beyond the re-dating of these panels to the 19th century as it provides an instant tool enabling immediate answering authenticity questions during the conservation process of stained glass, thereby providing the necessary data for solving deontological questions about heritage preservation.

  16. Authenticity screening of stained glass windows using optical spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Meulebroeck, Wendy; Wouters, Hilde; Nys, Karin; Thienpont, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Civilized societies should safeguard their heritage as it plays an important role in community building. Moreover, past technologies often inspire new technology. Authenticity is besides conservation and restoration a key aspect in preserving our past, for example in museums when exposing showpieces. The classification of being authentic relies on an interdisciplinary approach integrating art historical and archaeological research complemented with applied research. In recent decades analytical dating tools are based on determining the raw materials used. However, the traditional applied non-portable, chemical techniques are destructive and time-consuming. Since museums oftentimes only consent to research actions which are completely non-destructive, optical spectroscopy might offer a solution. As a case-study we apply this technique on two stained glass panels for which the 14th century dating is nowadays questioned. With this research we were able to identify how simultaneous mapping of spectral signatures measured with a low cost optical spectrum analyser unveils information regarding the production period. The significance of this research extends beyond the re-dating of these panels to the 19th century as it provides an instant tool enabling immediate answering authenticity questions during the conservation process of stained glass, thereby providing the necessary data for solving deontological questions about heritage preservation. PMID:27883056

  17. Performance Analysis of Motion-Sensor Behavior for User Authentication on Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chao; Yu, Tianwen; Yuan, Sheng; Li, Yunpeng; Guan, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    The growing trend of using smartphones as personal computing platforms to access and store private information has stressed the demand for secure and usable authentication mechanisms. This paper investigates the feasibility and applicability of using motion-sensor behavior data for user authentication on smartphones. For each sample of the passcode, sensory data from motion sensors are analyzed to extract descriptive and intensive features for accurate and fine-grained characterization of users’ passcode-input actions. One-class learning methods are applied to the feature space for performing user authentication. Analyses are conducted using data from 48 participants with 129,621 passcode samples across various operational scenarios and different types of smartphones. Extensive experiments are included to examine the efficacy of the proposed approach, which achieves a false-rejection rate of 6.85% and a false-acceptance rate of 5.01%. Additional experiments on usability with respect to passcode length, sensitivity with respect to training sample size, scalability with respect to number of users, and flexibility with respect to screen size were provided to further explore the effectiveness and practicability. The results suggest that sensory data could provide useful authentication information, and this level of performance approaches sufficiency for two-factor authentication on smartphones. Our dataset is publicly available to facilitate future research. PMID:27005626

  18. Continuous-variable quantum authentication of physical unclonable keys

    PubMed Central

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios M.; Diamanti, Eleni

    2017-01-01

    We propose a scheme for authentication of physical keys that are materialized by optical multiple-scattering media. The authentication relies on the optical response of the key when probed by randomly selected coherent states of light, and the use of standard wavefront-shaping techniques that direct the scattered photons coherently to a specific target mode at the output. The quadratures of the electromagnetic field of the scattered light at the target mode are analysed using a homodyne detection scheme, and the acceptance or rejection of the key is decided upon the outcomes of the measurements. The proposed scheme can be implemented with current technology and offers collision resistance and robustness against key cloning. PMID:28393853

  19. Continuous-variable quantum authentication of physical unclonable keys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios M.; Diamanti, Eleni

    2017-04-01

    We propose a scheme for authentication of physical keys that are materialized by optical multiple-scattering media. The authentication relies on the optical response of the key when probed by randomly selected coherent states of light, and the use of standard wavefront-shaping techniques that direct the scattered photons coherently to a specific target mode at the output. The quadratures of the electromagnetic field of the scattered light at the target mode are analysed using a homodyne detection scheme, and the acceptance or rejection of the key is decided upon the outcomes of the measurements. The proposed scheme can be implemented with current technology and offers collision resistance and robustness against key cloning.

  20. Teacher Training and Authentic Scientific Research Utilizing Cretaceous Fossil Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danch, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    The readily accessible Cretaceous fossil beds of central New Jersey provide an excellent opportunity for both teacher training in the utilization of paleontological resources in the classroom and authentic scientific student research at the middle and high school levels. Woodbridge Township New Jersey School District teachers participated in field trips to various fossiliferous sites to obtain photographic and video data and invertebrate and vertebrate fossil specimens for use in the classroom. Teachers were also presented with techniques allowing them to mentor students in performing authentic paleontological research. Students participated in multi-year research projects utilizing Cretaceous fossils collected in the field and presented their findings at science fairs and symposia. A workshop for K - 12 teachers statewide was developed for the New Jersey Science Convention providing information about New Jersey fossil resources and allowing participants to obtain, study and classify specimens. Additionally, the workshop provided participants with the information necessary for them to plan and conduct their own field trips.

  1. A RONI Based Visible Watermarking Approach for Medical Image Authentication.

    PubMed

    Thanki, Rohit; Borra, Surekha; Dwivedi, Vedvyas; Borisagar, Komal

    2017-08-09

    Nowadays medical data in terms of image files are often exchanged between different hospitals for use in telemedicine and diagnosis. Visible watermarking being extensively used for Intellectual Property identification of such medical images, leads to serious issues if failed to identify proper regions for watermark insertion. In this paper, the Region of Non-Interest (RONI) based visible watermarking for medical image authentication is proposed. In this technique, to RONI of the cover medical image is first identified using Human Visual System (HVS) model. Later, watermark logo is visibly inserted into RONI of the cover medical image to get watermarked medical image. Finally, the watermarked medical image is compared with the original medical image for measurement of imperceptibility and authenticity of proposed scheme. The experimental results showed that this proposed scheme reduces the computational complexity and improves the PSNR when compared to many existing schemes.

  2. Predicting vibrational failure of flexible ducting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, R. H.

    1971-01-01

    Technique applies to liquid or gas transfer through flexible ducting and proves valuable in high velocity fluid flow cases. Fluid mechanism responsible for free bellows vibrational excitation also causes flexible hose oscillation. Static pressure stress influences flexible ducting fatigue life and is considered separately.

  3. Safety of templates in biometric person authentication using error-correcting code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohki, Tetsushi; Akatsuka, Shiro; Komatsu, Naohisa; Kasahara, Masao

    2006-02-01

    Biometric person authentication has been attracting considerable attention in recent years. Conventional biometric person authentication systems, however, simply store each user's template as-is on the system. If registered templates are not properly protected, the risk arises of template leakage to a third party and impersonation using biometric data restored from a template. We propose a technique that partially deletes and splits template information so as to prevent template restoration using only registered template information while enabling restoration for only that template's owner using error-correcting code. This technique can be applied to general biometric authentication systems. In this paper, we introduce this technique and evaluate template security with it by simulating a speaker verification system.

  4. Evolving bipartite authentication graph partitions

    DOE PAGES

    Pope, Aaron Scott; Tauritz, Daniel Remy; Kent, Alexander D.

    2017-01-16

    As large scale enterprise computer networks become more ubiquitous, finding the appropriate balance between user convenience and user access control is an increasingly challenging proposition. Suboptimal partitioning of users’ access and available services contributes to the vulnerability of enterprise networks. Previous edge-cut partitioning methods unduly restrict users’ access to network resources. This paper introduces a novel method of network partitioning superior to the current state-of-the-art which minimizes user impact by providing alternate avenues for access that reduce vulnerability. Networks are modeled as bipartite authentication access graphs and a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm is used to simultaneously minimize the size of largemore » connected components while minimizing overall restrictions on network users. Lastly, results are presented on a real world data set that demonstrate the effectiveness of the introduced method compared to previous naive methods.« less

  5. Dynamics for flexible systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barraco, A.; Cuny, B.; Ishiomin, G.

    Analytical techniques for dynamic modeling of mechanical systems with deformable members are developed and demonstrated. Formulations for the rigid member and the flexible member are derived; the position of an arbitrary point is defined; and the construction of the complete model from these components is explained. Numerical results for the case of a planar four-bar parallelogram rotating about a fixed axis located in the same plane are presented in graphs and discussed.

  6. Combined Analysis of Stable Isotope, (1)H NMR, and Fatty Acid To Verify Sesame Oil Authenticity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongeun; Jin, Gyungsu; Lee, Yunhee; Chun, Hyang Sook; Ahn, Sangdoo; Kim, Byung Hee

    2015-10-14

    The aim of this study was to verify the authenticity of sesame oils using combined analysis of stable isotope ratio, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and fatty acid profiles of the oils. Analytical data were obtained from 35 samples of authentic sesame oils and 29 samples of adulterated sesame oils currently distributed in Korea. The orthogonal projection to latent structure discriminant analysis technique was used to select variables that most effectively verify the sesame oil authenticity. The variables include δ(13)C value, integration values of NMR peaks that signify the CH3 of n-3 fatty acids, CH2 between two C═C, protons from sesamin/sesamolin, and 18:1n-9, 18:3n-3, 18:2t, and 18:3t content values. The authenticity of 65 of 70 blind samples was correctly verified by applying the range of the eight variables found in the authentic sesame oil samples, suggesting that triple analysis is a useful approach to verify sesame oil authenticity.

  7. Efficient and Security Enhanced Anonymous Authentication with Key Agreement Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaewook; Moon, Jongho; Lee, Donghoon; Won, Dongho

    2017-03-21

    At present, users can utilize an authenticated key agreement protocol in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) to securely obtain desired information, and numerous studies have investigated authentication techniques to construct efficient, robust WSNs. Chang et al. recently presented an authenticated key agreement mechanism for WSNs and claimed that their authentication mechanism can both prevent various types of attacks, as well as preserve security properties. However, we have discovered that Chang et al's method possesses some security weaknesses. First, their mechanism cannot guarantee protection against a password guessing attack, user impersonation attack or session key compromise. Second, the mechanism results in a high load on the gateway node because the gateway node should always maintain the verifier tables. Third, there is no session key verification process in the authentication phase. To this end, we describe how the previously-stated weaknesses occur and propose a security-enhanced version for WSNs. We present a detailed analysis of the security and performance of our authenticated key agreement mechanism, which not only enhances security compared to that of related schemes, but also takes efficiency into consideration.

  8. Efficient and Security Enhanced Anonymous Authentication with Key Agreement Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jaewook; Moon, Jongho; Lee, Donghoon; Won, Dongho

    2017-01-01

    At present, users can utilize an authenticated key agreement protocol in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) to securely obtain desired information, and numerous studies have investigated authentication techniques to construct efficient, robust WSNs. Chang et al. recently presented an authenticated key agreement mechanism for WSNs and claimed that their authentication mechanism can both prevent various types of attacks, as well as preserve security properties. However, we have discovered that Chang et al’s method possesses some security weaknesses. First, their mechanism cannot guarantee protection against a password guessing attack, user impersonation attack or session key compromise. Second, the mechanism results in a high load on the gateway node because the gateway node should always maintain the verifier tables. Third, there is no session key verification process in the authentication phase. To this end, we describe how the previously-stated weaknesses occur and propose a security-enhanced version for WSNs. We present a detailed analysis of the security and performance of our authenticated key agreement mechanism, which not only enhances security compared to that of related schemes, but also takes efficiency into consideration. PMID:28335572

  9. Data Authentication Demonstration for Radionuclide Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Mark; Herrington, Pres; Miley, Harry; Ellis, J. Edward; McKinnon, David; St. Pierre, Devon

    1999-08-03

    Data authentication is required for certification of sensor stations in the International Monitoring System (IMS). Authentication capability has been previously demonstrated for continuous waveform stations (seismic and infrasound). This paper addresses data surety for the radionuclide stations in the IMS, in particular the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) system developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Radionuclide stations communicate data by electronic mail using formats defined in IMS 1.0, Formats and Protocols for Messages. An open message authentication standard exists, called S/MIME (Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions), which has been proposed for use with all IMS radionuclide station message communications. This standard specifies adding a digital signature and public key certificate as a MIME attachment to the e-mail message. It is advantageous because it allows authentication to be added to all IMS 1.0 messages in a standard format and is commercially supported in e-mail software. For command and control, the RASA system uses a networked Graphical User Interface (GUI) based upon Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) communications, which requires special authentication procedures. The authors have modified the RASA system to meet CTBTO authentication guidelines, using a FORTEZZA card for authentication functions. They demonstrated signing radionuclide data messages at the RASA, then sending, receiving, and verifying the messages at a data center. They demonstrated authenticating command messages and responses from the data center GUI to the RASA. Also, the particular authentication system command to change the private/public key pair and retrieve the new public key was demonstrated. This work shows that data surety meeting IMS guidelines may be immediately applied to IMS radionuclide systems.

  10. Digital imaging based classification and authentication of granular food products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, R. M.; Yan, Y.; Tomlins, K.

    2006-02-01

    In the food industry there are many types of product that are in the form of particles, granules or grains. Consistent material size and quality within any given sample is an important requirement that is well known in industry. In addition it is possible that samples of material may be of unknown type or have been subject to adulteration, thus making material authentication a real requirement. The present work implements an advanced, but cost-effective, digital imaging and image processing technique to characterize granular foodstuffs either in real time process control or in an off-line, sample-based, manner. The imaging approach not only provides cost-effective and rugged hardware when compared with other approaches but also allows precise characterization of individual grains of material. In this paper the imaging system is briefly described and the parameters it measures are discussed. Both cluster and discriminant analyses are performed to establish the suitability of the measured parameters for authenticity study and a simple fuzzy logic is implemented based on the findings. Tests are performed, using rice as an example, to evaluate the performance of the system for authenticity testing, and encouraging results are achieved.

  11. Optical ID tags for automatic vehicle identification and authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javidi, Bahram; Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet; Millán, María S.

    2008-03-01

    We review the potential of optical techniques in security tasks and propose to combine some of them in the design of new optical ID tags for automatic vehicle identification and authentication. More specifically, we propose to combine visible and near infrared imaging, optical decryption, distortion-invariant ID tags, optoelectronic devices, coherent image processor, optical correlation, and multiple authenticators. A variety of images and signatures, including biometric and random sequences, can be combined in an optical ID tag for multifactor identification. Encryption of the information codified in the ID tag allows increasing security and deters from unauthorized usage of optical tags. A novel NIR ID tag is designed and built by using commonly available materials. The ID tag content cannot be visually perceived at naked eye; it cannot be copied, scanned, or captured by any conventional device. The identification process encompasses several steps such as detection, information decoding and verification which are all detailed in this work. Design of rotation and scale invariant ID tags is taken into account to achieve a correct authentication even if the ID tag is captured in different positions.

  12. Authenticated communication from quantum readout of PUFs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Škorić, Boris; Pinkse, Pepijn W. H.; Mosk, Allard P.

    2017-08-01

    Quantum readout of physical unclonable functions (PUFs) is a recently introduced method for remote authentication of objects. We present an extension of the protocol to enable the authentication of data: A verifier can check if received classical data were sent by the PUF holder. We call this modification QR-d or, in the case of the optical-PUF implementation, QSA-d. We discuss how QSA-d can be operated in a parallel way. We also present a protocol for authenticating quantum states.

  13. Untraceable Mobile Node Authentication in WSN

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyusuk; Kim, Kwangjo; Shon, Taeshik

    2010-01-01

    Mobility of sensor node in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) brings security issues such as re-authentication and tracing the node movement. However, current security researches on WSN are insufficient to support such environments since their designs only considered the static environments. In this paper, we propose the efficient node authentication and key exchange protocol that reduces the overhead in node re-authentication and also provides untraceability of mobile nodes. Compared with previous protocols, our protocol has only a third of communication and computational overhead. We expect our protocol to be the efficient solution that increases the lifetime of sensor network. PMID:22399886

  14. A taxonomist's view on genomic authentication.

    PubMed

    Baum, Bernard R

    2012-01-01

    A brief history of taxonomy, for the most part plant oriented, is provided, which demonstrates the use of morphology early on, through the stages when different technologies became available at different times until the present use of genomic tools. Genomic authentication facilitates with greater precision than ever before the identification of an organism or part thereof. In this chapter I made an attempt to stress that, in general, but more so for genomic authentication, the use of the variation inherent in taxa down to the lowest level of the hierarchy of classification needs to be used to achieve a high degree of correct authentication.

  15. A Five-Dimensional Framework for Authentic Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulikers, Judith T. M.; Bastiaens, Theo J.; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    Authenticity is an important element of new modes of assessment. The problem is that what authentic assessment really is, is unspecified. In this article, we first review the literature on authenticity of assessments, along with a five-dimensional framework for designing authentic assessments with professional practice as the starting point. Then,…

  16. Final report for the network authentication investigation and pilot.

    SciTech Connect

    Eldridge, John M.; Dautenhahn, Nathan; Miller, Marc M.; Wiener, Dallas J; Witzke, Edward L.

    2006-11-01

    New network based authentication mechanisms are beginning to be implemented in industry. This project investigated different authentication technologies to see if and how Sandia might benefit from them. It also investigated how these mechanisms can integrate with the Sandia Two-Factor Authentication Project. The results of these investigations and a network authentication path forward strategy are documented in this report.

  17. Valuing Flexibility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-09

    Bunker   Buster ”  of  Desert  Storm  (evolved  into  GBU...modular   muni=ons  to  achieve   opera=onal  flexibility   •  Various  configura=ons  are   allowable  based  on   warhead ...28)   –  New   warhead  “module”  used  in  conjunc=on  with  exis=ng  guidance  and  fuze   modules   – 

  18. The Effect of Authentic versus Non-Authentic Texts on Upper Intermediate Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nematollahi, Shirin; Maghsoudi, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    In this current study the researchers have tried to investigate the possible effect of authentic and non-authentic texts on Iranian EFL learners' vocabulary retention. Despite the great deal of studies conducted in the area of EFL/ESL learning, the effect of authentic versus non-authentic texts have almost gained little attention and been…

  19. The effect of soft tissue mobilisation techniques on flexibility and passive resistance in the hamstring muscle-tendon unit: a pilot investigation.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Alison; Spencer, Simon

    2011-04-01

    The growing evidence suggests that physiological mobilisation techniques influence the passive properties of the muscle-tendon unit (MTU). Techniques that combine a transverse directed force to the physiological technique attempt greater influence on biomechanical properties. No research has investigated the biomechanical effects of a technique with addition of a transverse directed force. This pilot study aimed to explore preliminary data of effectiveness of two techniques on longitudinal load (extensibility and passive resistance) in the hamstring MTU. A counterbalanced quasi-experimental same subject design using fifteen healthy subjects compared two conditions: physiological technique and a technique with addition of a transverse directed force. Passive resistance (torque, Nm) and extensibility (knee extension range of movement) of the hamstring MTU were recorded during and following both conditions. Paired t tests explored within and across condition comparisons, with Bonferroni adjustment to account for multiple analyses. Passive resistance demonstrated a significant reduction for the technique with addition of a transverse directed force (t = 4.26, p < 0.05) that may have contributed to the significant increase in extensibility (t = 8.48, p < 0.05). The data suggest that longitudinal load through the hamstring MTU during a physiological mobilisation can be increased by the application of a transverse directed force. This merits further research.

  20. Ultra-Thin, Flexible Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Brian; McPherson, Ryan; Zhang, Tan; Hou, Zhenwei; Dean, Robert; Johnson, R. Wayne; DelCastillo, Linda; Moussessian, Alina

    2008-01-01

    Thinned die can be used to realize ultra-thin flexible electronics for applications such as conformal and wearable electronics. Three techniques have been developed to achieve this goal using thinned die: die flip chip bonded onto flexible substrates, die laminated onto LCP films, and die embedded in polyimide. A key to achieving each of these techniques is the thinning of die to a thickness of 50 microns or thinner. Conventional CMP processing can be used to thin to 50 microns. At 50 microns, the active die become flexible and must be handled by temporarily bonding them to a holder die, for further processing. Once bonded face down to the holder die, the active die can be further thinned by DRIE etching the exposed backside. The thinned die can then been packaged in or on the flexible substrate.

  1. The comparison of the effects of three physiotherapy techniques on hamstring flexibility in children: a prospective, randomized, single-blind study.

    PubMed

    Czaprowski, Dariusz; Leszczewska, Justyna; Kolwicz, Aleksandra; Pawłowska, Paulina; Kędra, Agnieszka; Janusz, Piotr; Kotwicki, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in hamstring flexibility in 120 asymptomatic children who participated in a 6-week program consisting of one physiotherapy session per week and daily home exercises. The recruitment criteria included age (10-13 years), no pain, injury or musculoskeletal disorder throughout the previous year, physical activity limited to school sport. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: (1) post-isometric relaxation - PIR (n = 40), (2) static stretch combined with stabilizing exercises - SS (n = 40) and (3) stabilizing exercises - SE (n = 40). Hamstring flexibility was assessed with straight leg raise (SLR), popliteal angle (PA) and finger-to-floor (FTF) tests. The examinations were conducted by blinded observers twice, prior to the program and a week after the last session with the physiotherapist. Twenty-six children who did not participate in all six exercise sessions with physiotherapists were excluded from the analysis. The results obtained by 94 children were analyzed (PIR, n = 32; SS, n = 31; SE, n = 31). In the PIR and SS groups, a significant (P<0.01) increase in SLR, PA, FTF results was observed. In the SE group, a significant (P<0.001) increase was observed in the SLR but not in the PA and FTF (P>0.05). SLR result in the PIR and SS groups was significantly (P<0.001) higher than in the SE group. As far as PA results are concerned, a significant difference was observed only between the SS and SE groups (P = 0.014). There were no significant (P = 0.15) differences regarding FTF results between the three groups. Post-isometric muscle relaxation and static stretch with stabilizing exercises led to a similar increase in hamstring flexibility and trunk forward bend in healthy 10-13-year-old children. The exercises limited to straightening gluteus maximus improved the SLR result, but did not change the PA and FTF results.

  2. Developing Listening Skills with Authentic Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lindsay

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how to help English-as-a-Second-Language learners develop effective listening skills. Suggests a process for helping ESL learners develop their listening skills and makes suggestions for how this might be achieved with authentic materials. (VWL)

  3. Authentication Protocol using Quantum Superposition States

    SciTech Connect

    Kanamori, Yoshito; Yoo, Seong-Moo; Gregory, Don A.; Sheldon, Frederick T

    2009-01-01

    When it became known that quantum computers could break the RSA (named for its creators - Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman) encryption algorithm within a polynomial-time, quantum cryptography began to be actively studied. Other classical cryptographic algorithms are only secure when malicious users do not have sufficient computational power to break security within a practical amount of time. Recently, many quantum authentication protocols sharing quantum entangled particles between communicators have been proposed, providing unconditional security. An issue caused by sharing quantum entangled particles is that it may not be simple to apply these protocols to authenticate a specific user in a group of many users. An authentication protocol using quantum superposition states instead of quantum entangled particles is proposed. The random number shared between a sender and a receiver can be used for classical encryption after the authentication has succeeded. The proposed protocol can be implemented with the current technologies we introduce in this paper.

  4. Authentic professional competence in clinical neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Denney, Robert L

    2010-08-01

    Authentic Professional Competence in Clinical Neuropsychology was Dr Denney's 2009 presidential address at the Annual Conference of the National Academy of Neuropsychology. In his address, he highlighted the need for clinical neuropsychologists to strive for authentic professional competence rather than a mere pretense of expertise. Undisputed credibility arises from authentic professional competence. Achieving authentic professional competence includes the completion of a thorough course of training within the defined specialty area and validation of expertise by one's peers through the board certification process. Included in the address were survey results regarding what the consumer believes about board certification as well as survey results regarding the experiences of recent neuropsychology diplomates. It is important for neuropsychologists to realize that the board certification process enhances public perception and credibility of the field as well as personal growth for the neuropsychologist. Lastly, he urged all neuropsychologists to support the unified training model and pursue board certification.

  5. Hardware device binding and mutual authentication

    DOEpatents

    Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-03-04

    Detection and deterrence of device tampering and subversion by substitution may be achieved by including a cryptographic unit within a computing device for binding multiple hardware devices and mutually authenticating the devices. The cryptographic unit includes a physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a binding PUF value. The cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF value during an enrollment phase and subsequent authentication phases. During a subsequent authentication phase, the cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF values of the multiple hardware devices to generate a challenge to send to the other device, and to verify a challenge received from the other device to mutually authenticate the hardware devices.

  6. Adapting Authentic Materials for Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darian, Steven

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates the process of adapting authentic materials for use in the English-as-a-Second-language classroom. Focuses on four areas: semantic elements, lexical elements, syntactic elements, and discourse elements.(Author/VWL)

  7. Adapting Authentic Materials for Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darian, Steven

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates the process of adapting authentic materials for use in the English-as-a-Second-language classroom. Focuses on four areas: semantic elements, lexical elements, syntactic elements, and discourse elements.(Author/VWL)

  8. Design of Anonymous Attribute Authentication Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyomoto, Shinsaku; Fukushima, Kazuhide; Tanaka, Toshiaki

    Privacy remains an issue for IT services. Users are concerned that their history of service use may be traceable since each user is assigned a single identifier as a means of authentication.
    In this paper, we propose a perfectly anonymous attribute authentication scheme that is both unidentifiable and untraceable. Then, we present the evaluation results of a prototype system using a PC and mobile phone with the scheme. The proposed scheme employs a self-blindable certificate that a user can change randomly; thus the certificate is modified for each authentication, and the authentication scheme is unidentifiable and untraceable. Furthermore, our scheme can revoke self-blindable certificates without leaks of confidential private information and check the revocation status without online access.

  9. 22 CFR 92.37 - Authentication procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Notarial Acts § 92.37 Authentication procedure. (a) The consular officer must compare the foreign official... there appears on the document a seal and signature which he can compare with a specimen available to...

  10. Intrinsic-surface-tag image authentication

    SciTech Connect

    Palm, R.G.; DeVolpi, A.

    1991-12-01

    The objective of this work is to further the development of a unique treaty limited item (TLI) intrinsic surface tag for arms control applications. This tag's unique feature is the ability to capture the sub-micron scale topography of the TLI surface. The surface topography is captured by plastic castings of the surface as digitally imaged by an electron microscope. Tag authentication is accomplished by comparing digital castings images obtained in two different inspections. Surface replication experiments are described, as these experiments from the basis for the authentication algorithm. Both the experiments and the authentication algorithm are analyzed using the modulation transfer function. Recommendations for future improvements in tag authentication are also suggested by the modulation transfer function analysis. 4 refs.

  11. Intrinsic-surface-tag image authentication

    SciTech Connect

    Palm, R.G.; DeVolpi, A.

    1991-12-01

    The objective of this work is to further the development of a unique treaty limited item (TLI) intrinsic surface tag for arms control applications. This tag`s unique feature is the ability to capture the sub-micron scale topography of the TLI surface. The surface topography is captured by plastic castings of the surface as digitally imaged by an electron microscope. Tag authentication is accomplished by comparing digital castings images obtained in two different inspections. Surface replication experiments are described, as these experiments from the basis for the authentication algorithm. Both the experiments and the authentication algorithm are analyzed using the modulation transfer function. Recommendations for future improvements in tag authentication are also suggested by the modulation transfer function analysis. 4 refs.

  12. Model reduction for flexible space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gawronski, Wodek; Williams, Trevor

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the conditions under which modal truncation yields a near-optimal reduced-order model for a flexible structure. Next, a robust model reduction technique to cope with the damping uncertainties typical of flexible space structure is developed. Finally, a flexible truss and the COFS-1 structure are used to give realistic applications for the model reduction techniques studied in the paper.

  13. Techniques to accelerate dynamic psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fosha, D; Slowiaczek, M L

    1997-01-01

    The techniques described above outline specific ways to deepen the patient's affective experience within an emotionally close therapeutic relationship. When effective, they all enhance the patient/therapist bond, raise self-esteem, reduce defensiveness and anxiety, and facilitate emotional healing. Psychodynamic treatment, long or short, is a complex process uniquely constructed by each therapist/patient pair. AEDP strategies are not intended as recipes for treatment. Good dynamic work depends on the therapist's ability to grasp the patient's capacities and limitations, understand relational dynamics, and interact with the patient in an empathically attuned, emotionally receptive, and flexible way. In that context, these strategies can be helpful tools to facilitate and accelerate the process. The choices made by AEDP--privileging adaptive strivings over defensive reactions, the stance of emotional engagement rather than neutrality and abstinence, the focus on health and change over pathology and stasis--are informed by traditional STDP aims to maximize depth, effectiveness, and efficiency. AEDP's contribution is a set of techniques relying on a response repertoire that is available to a wide range of therapists. Therapists can use these techniques to be more effective while simultaneously retaining the experience of speaking with patients in an authentic voice.

  14. GEOSS authentication/authorization services: a Broker-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, M.; Nativi, S.

    2014-12-01

    The vision of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is the achievement of societal benefits through voluntary contribution and sharing of resources to better understand the relationships between the society and the environment where we live. The GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI) allows users to search, access, and use the resources contributed by the GEOSS members. The GEO DAB (Discovery and Access Broker) is the GCI component in charge of interconnecting the heterogeneous data systems contributing to GEOSS. Client applications (i.e. the portals and apps) can connect to GEO DAB as a unique entry point to discover and access resources available through GCI, with no need to implement the many service protocols and models applied by the GEOSS data providers. The GEO DAB implements the brokering approach (Nativi et al., 2013) to build a flexible and scalable System of Systems. User authentication/authorization functionality is becoming more and more important for GEOSS data providers and users. The Providers ask for information about who accessed their resources and, in some cases, want to limit the data download. The Users ask for a profiled interaction with the system based on their needs and expertise level. Besides, authentication and authorization is necessary for GEOSS to provide moderated social services - e.g. feedback messages, data "fit for use" comments, etc. In keeping with the GEOSS principles of building on existing systems and lowering entry-barriers for users, an objective of the authentication/authorization development was to support existing and well-used users' credentials (e.g. Google, Twitter, etc.). Due to the heterogeneity of technologies used by the different providers and applications, a broker-based approach for the authentication/authorization was introduced as a new functionality of GEO DAB. This new capability will be demonstrated at the next GEO XI Plenary (November 2014). This work will be presented and discussed

  15. Developmental Changes in Judgments of Authentic Objects

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Brandy N.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the development of an understanding of authenticity among 112 children (preschoolers, kindergarten, 1st-graders, and 4th-graders) and 119 college students. Participants were presented with pairs of photographs depicting authentic and non-authentic objects and asked to pick which one belongs in a museum and which one they would want to have. Results suggest that both children and adults recognize the special nature of authentic objects by reporting that they belong in a museum. However, this belief broadens with age, at first just for famous associations (preschool), then also for original creations (kindergarten), and finally for personal associations as well (4th grade). At all ages, an object's authentic nature is distinct from its desirability. Thus, from an early age, children appear to understand that the historical path of an authentic object affects its nature. This work demonstrates the importance of non-obvious properties in children's concepts. For preschool as well as older children, history (a non-visible property) adds meaning beyond the material or functional worth of an object. PMID:20160988

  16. Developmental Changes in Judgments of Authentic Objects.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Brandy N; Gelman, Susan A

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the development of an understanding of authenticity among 112 children (preschoolers, kindergarten, 1(st)-graders, and 4(th)-graders) and 119 college students. Participants were presented with pairs of photographs depicting authentic and non-authentic objects and asked to pick which one belongs in a museum and which one they would want to have. Results suggest that both children and adults recognize the special nature of authentic objects by reporting that they belong in a museum. However, this belief broadens with age, at first just for famous associations (preschool), then also for original creations (kindergarten), and finally for personal associations as well (4(th) grade). At all ages, an object's authentic nature is distinct from its desirability. Thus, from an early age, children appear to understand that the historical path of an authentic object affects its nature. This work demonstrates the importance of non-obvious properties in children's concepts. For preschool as well as older children, history (a non-visible property) adds meaning beyond the material or functional worth of an object.

  17. FLEXIBLE COUPLING

    DOEpatents

    Babelay, E.F.

    1962-02-13

    A flexible shaft coupling for operation at speeds in excess of 14,000 rpm is designed which requires no lubrication. A driving sleeve member and a driven sleeve member are placed in concentric spaced relationship. A torque force is transmitted to the driven member from the driving member through a plurality of nylon balls symmetrically disposed between the spaced sleeves. The balls extend into races and recesses within the respective sleeve members. The sleeve members have a suitable clearance therebetween and the balls have a suitable radial clearance during operation of the coupling to provide a relatively loose coupling. These clearances accommodate for both parallel and/or angular misalignments and avoid metal-tometal contact between the sleeve members during operation. Thus, no lubrication is needed, and a minimum of vibrations is transmitted between the sleeve members. (AEC)

  18. High-throughput SNP-based authentication of human cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Felipe; Dirks, Wilhelm G.; Fähnrich, Silke; Hotz-Wagenblatt, Agnes; Pawlita, Michael; Schmitt, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Use of false cell lines remains a major problem in biological research. Short tandem repeat (STR) profiling represents the gold standard technique for cell line authentication. However, mismatch repair (MMR) deficient cell lines are characterized by microsatellite instability, which could force allelic drifts in combination with a selective outgrowth of otherwise persisting side lines, and thus, are likely to be misclassified by STR-profiling. Based on the high-throughput Luminex platform, we developed a 24-plex SNP-profiling assay, called Multiplex Cell Authentication (MCA), for determining authentication of human cell lines. MCA was evaluated by analysing a collection of 436 human cell lines from the DSMZ, previously characterised by eight loci STR profiling. Both assays showed a very high degree of concordance and similar average matching probabilities (~1 × 10−8 for STR-profiling and ~1 × 10−9 for MCA). MCA enabled the detection of less than 3% contaminating human cells. Analysing MMR deficient cell lines, evidence was obtained for a higher robustness of the MCA compared to STR profiling. In conclusion, MCA could complement routine cell line authentication and replace the standard authentication STR technique in case of MSI cell lines. PMID:22700458

  19. A dual Fourier-wavelet domain authentication-identification watermark.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Farid

    2007-04-16

    A dual Fourier-Wavelet domain watermarking technique for authentication and identity verification is proposed. Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) domain spread spectrum is used for embedding identity (such as registration number, transaction ID etc.) information. While a blind detector detects an ID, it is important to validate with other ancillary data. To satisfy that requirement, we embed a robust signature and hide it in a mid-band wavelet subband using Fourier domain bit-embedding algorithm. Results are furnished to show the compression tolerance of the method.

  20. Perceptions of Leadership Coaches Regarding Leader Authenticity and Authenticity Development Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Anne H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify what leadership coaches perceive to be the benefits of authenticity to their clients' success. Another purpose was to identify what barriers leadership coaches perceive as preventing their clients from developing authenticity. A final purpose of this study was to identify which strategies…

  1. Authenticity in the Bureau-Enterprise Culture: The Struggle for Authentic Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Philip A.

    2007-01-01

    This article emphasizes the extent to which conceptions of authenticity are forged through social interaction and socially mediated identities and how, in turn, authentic leadership involves the transformation of the organizational, social or cultural order in which leadership is situated. The overarching context for this exploration of authentic…

  2. Perceptions of Leadership Coaches Regarding Leader Authenticity and Authenticity Development Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Anne H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify what leadership coaches perceive to be the benefits of authenticity to their clients' success. Another purpose was to identify what barriers leadership coaches perceive as preventing their clients from developing authenticity. A final purpose of this study was to identify which strategies…

  3. Specifying spacecraft flexible appendage rigidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seltzer, S. M.; Shelton, H. L.

    1977-01-01

    As a method for specifying the required degree of rigidity of spacecraft flexible appendages, an analytical technique is proposed for establishing values for the frequency, damping ratio, and modal gain (deflection) of the first several bending modes. The shortcomings of the technique result from the limitations associated with the order of the equations that can be handled practically. An iterative method is prescribed for handling a system whose structural flexibility is described by more than one normal mode. The analytical technique is applied to specifying solar panel rigidity constraints for the NASA Space Telescope. The traditional nonanalytic procedure for specifying the required degree of rigidity of spacecraft flexible appendages has been to set a lower limit below which bending mode frequencies may not lie.

  4. DR-predictor: incorporating flexible docking with specialized electronic reactivity and machine learning techniques to predict CYP-mediated sites of metabolism.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao-wei; Zaretzki, Jed; Bergeron, Charles; Bennett, Kristin P; Breneman, Curt M

    2013-12-23

    Computational methods that can identify CYP-mediated sites of metabolism (SOMs) of drug-like compounds have become required tools for early stage lead optimization. In recent years, methods that combine CYP binding site features with CYP/ligand binding information have been sought in order to increase the prediction accuracy of such hybrid models over those that use only one representation. Two challenges that any hybrid ligand/structure-based method must overcome are (1) identification of the best binding pose for a specific ligand with a given CYP and (2) appropriately incorporating the results of docking with ligand reactivity. To address these challenges we have created Docking-Regioselectivity-Predictor (DR-Predictor)--a method that incorporates flexible docking-derived information with specialized electronic reactivity and multiple-instance-learning methods to predict CYP-mediated SOMs. In this study, the hybrid ligand-structure-based DR-Predictor method was tested on substrate sets for CYP 1A2 and CYP 2A6. For these data, the DR-Predictor model was found to identify the experimentally observed SOM within the top two predicted rank-positions for 86% of the 261 1A2 substrates and 83% of the 100 2A6 substrates. Given the accuracy and extendibility of the DR-Predictor method, we anticipate that it will further facilitate the prediction of CYP metabolism liabilities and aid in in-silico ADMET assessment of novel structures.

  5. [Influence of Nurse Managers' Authentic Leadership on Nurses' Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction: Focused on the Mediating Effects of Empowerment].

    PubMed

    Choi, Han Gyo; Ahn, Sung Hee

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the mediating effect of empowerment in the relationship of nurse managers' authentic leadership, with nurses' organizational commitment and job satisfaction. The participants in this study were 273 registered nurses working in five University hospitals located in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province. The measurements included the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire, Condition of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire-II, Organizational Commitment Questionnaire and Korea-Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using t-test, ANOVA, Scheffé test, Pearson correlation coefficients, simple and multiple regression techniques with the SPSS 18.0 program. Mediation analysis was performed according to the Baron and Kenny method and Sobel test. There were significant correlations among authentic leadership, empowerment, organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Empowerment showed perfect mediating effects in the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment. It had partial mediating effects in the relationship between authentic leadership and job satisfaction. In this study, nurse managers' authentic leadership had significant influences on nurses organizational commitment and job satisfaction via empowerment. Therefore, to enhance nurses' organizational commitment and job satisfaction, it is necessary to build effective strategies to enhance nurse manager's authentic leadership and to develop empowering education programs for nurses.

  6. Interception and modification of network authentication packets with the purpose of allowing alternative authentication modes

    DOEpatents

    Kent, Alexander Dale

    2008-09-02

    Methods and systems in a data/computer network for authenticating identifying data transmitted from a client to a server through use of a gateway interface system which are communicately coupled to each other are disclosed. An authentication packet transmitted from a client to a server of the data network is intercepted by the interface, wherein the authentication packet is encrypted with a one-time password for transmission from the client to the server. The one-time password associated with the authentication packet can be verified utilizing a one-time password token system. The authentication packet can then be modified for acceptance by the server, wherein the response packet generated by the server is thereafter intercepted, verified and modified for transmission back to the client in a similar but reverse process.

  7. DNA Flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widom, Jonathan

    2005-03-01

    Classic experimental and theoretical analyses led to a unified view of DNA as a semiflexible polymer, characterized by a bending persistence length, P, ˜50 nm (˜150 bp). In this view, DNA lengths that are greater than P are, on average, spontaneously gently bent, and require relatively little force to bend significantly, while DNA lengths that are shorter than P are nearly straight, and require great force to bend significantly. Nevertheless, sharply bent DNA plays important roles in biology. We used the method of ligase catalyzed DNA cyclization to investigate the spontaneous looping of short DNAs. Remarkably, DNAs as short as 84 bp spontaneously bend into circles, and 94 bp DNA sequences cyclize up to 10^5 times more easily than predicted from classic theories of DNA bending. In subsequent studies we find that the twistability of sharply looped DNAs exceeds the prediction of classic theories by up to 400-fold. These results can only be understood by greatly enhanced DNA flexibility, not by permanent bends. Our results provide striking support for two new theories of DNA mechanics based on local melted or kinked regions, and they establish DNA as an active participant in the formation and function of looped regulatory complexes in vivo.

  8. Laptop Computers in the Elementary Classroom: Authentic Instruction with At-Risk Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemker, Kate; Barron, Ann E.; Harmes, J. Christine

    2007-01-01

    This case study investigated the integration of laptop computers into an elementary classroom in a low socioeconomic status (SES) school. Specifically, the research examined classroom management techniques and aspects of authentic learning relative to the student projects and activities. A mixed methods approach included classroom observations,…

  9. The Development of Intrinsic Criteria for Authenticity: A Model for Trust in Naturalistic Researches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Yvonna S.

    This paper presents criteria for establishing the trustworthiness of naturalistic inquiries, and specific techniques to facilitate their achievement or determine the degree of their achievement. The following criteria are briefly described: fairness; and ontological, educative, catalytic and tactical authenticity. Explored in greater detail,…

  10. Edge detection techniques for iris recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tania, U. T.; Motakabber, S. M. A.; Ibrahimy, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays security and authentication are the major parts of our daily life. Iris is one of the most reliable organ or part of human body which can be used for identification and authentication purpose. To develop an iris authentication algorithm for personal identification, this paper examines two edge detection techniques for iris recognition system. Between the Sobel and the Canny edge detection techniques, the experimental result shows that the Canny's technique has better ability to detect points in a digital image where image gray level changes even at slow rate.

  11. A highly reliable copper nanowire/nanoparticle ink pattern with high conductivity on flexible substrate prepared via a flash light-sintering technique.

    PubMed

    Joo, Sung-Jun; Park, Sung-Hyeon; Moon, Chang-Jin; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2015-03-18

    In this work, copper nanowires (NWs) and Cu nanoparticles (NPs) were employed to increase the reliability of a printed electrode pattern under mechanical bending fatigue. The fabricated Cu NW/NP inks with different weight fractions of Cu NWs were printed on a polyimide substrate and flash light-sintered within a few milliseconds at room temperature under ambient conditions. Then, 1000 cycles of outer and inner bending fatigue tests were performed using a lab-made fatigue tester. The flash light-sintered Cu NW/NP ink film with 5 wt % Cu NWs prepared under the flash light-sintering conditions (12.5 J·cm–2 irradiation energy, 10 ms pulse duration, and one pulse) showed a lower resistivity (22.77 μΩ·cm) than those of the only Cu NPs and Cu NWs ink (94.01 μΩ·cm and 104.15 μΩ·cm, respectively). In addition, the resistance change (ΔR·R0(–1)) of the 5 wt % Cu NWs Cu NW/NP film was greatly enhanced to 4.19 compared to the 92.75 of the Cu NPs film obtained under mechanical fatigue conditions over 1000 cycles and an outer bending radius of 7 mm. These results were obtained by the densification and enhanced mechanical flexibility of flash light-sintered Cu NW/NP network, which resulted in prevention of crack initiation and propagation. To characterize the Cu NW/NP ink film, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used.

  12. Password Authenticated Key Exchange Based on RSA in the Three-Party Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongna, E.; Cheng, Qingfeng; Ma, Chuangui

    A great deal of password authenticated key exchange (PAKE) protocols have been proposed in recent years. Most of them were based on Diffie-Hellman key exchange. While the approach of designing PAKE protocols with RSA is far from maturity and perfection. In fact, the existing PAKE protocols using RSA or other public-key cryptographic techniques provide an authenticated key exchange only between a client and a server. This paper presents a new efficient PAKE protocol using RSA in the three-party settings (3PAKE-RSA). The novel protocol can be resistant to e-residue attack and provably secure under the RSA assumption in the random oracle model.

  13. Quantum authencryption: one-step authenticated quantum secure direct communications for off-line communicants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Tzonelih; Luo, Yi-Ping; Yang, Chun-Wei; Lin, Tzu-Han

    2014-04-01

    This work proposes a new direction in quantum cryptography called quantum authencryption. Quantum authencryption (QA), a new term to distinguish from authenticated quantum secure direct communications, is used to describe the technique of combining quantum encryption and quantum authentication into one process for off-line communicants. QA provides a new way of quantum communications without the presence of a receiver on line, and thus makes many applications depending on secure one-way quantum communications, such as quantum E-mail systems, possible. An example protocol using single photons and one-way hash functions is presented to realize the requirements on QA.

  14. Multimedia data authentication in wavelet domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinwei; Lian, Shiguo; Liu, Zhongxuan; Zhen, Ren; Dai, Yuewei

    2006-04-01

    With the wide application of multimedia data, multimedia content protection becomes urgent. Till now, various means have been reported, which can be classified into several types according to their functionalities, such as data encryption, digital watermarking or data authentication. They are used to protect multimedia data's confidentiality, ownership and integrity, respectively. For multimedia data authentication, some approaches have been proposed. In this paper, a wavelet-based multi-feature semi-fragile authentication scheme is proposed. According to the approximation component and the energy relationship between the subbands of the detail component, global feature and local feature are both generated. Then, the global watermark and local watermark are generated from global feature and local feature, respectively. The watermarks are then embedded into the multimedia data themselves in the wavelet domain. Both the feature extraction and embedding processes are controlled by secret keys to improve the security of the proposed scheme. In the receiver end, the extracted watermark and the one generated from the received image are compared to determine the tampered location. A new authentication method is designed and it is proved valid in the experiments. This authentication scheme is robust to general compression, sensitive to cutting, pasting or modification, efficient in real-time operation, and secure for practical applications.

  15. Robust authentication for the National Seismic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beardwood, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    During recent (1977-1980) trilateral negotiations between the U.S., the USSR, and the U.K. leading toward a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, it was agreed that in order to monitor compliance with the treaty when it entered into force, unmanned, tamperproof seismic observatories would be installed on the territories of the three parties. The seismic waveforms from each observatory are digitized and combined with other digital information concerning the status of the observatory. Each one second of the digital information is processed by a cryptologic algorithm whose output is appended to the data to permit authentication of the data (to prevent substitution or alteration), and the total digital signals transmitted, via satellite links, to the U.S., USSR, and U.K. for processing and analysis. Transmission errors with a prototype system resulted in an unacceptably high rate of authentication failures. Nine options were examined to lower the rate of authentication failures. These included various combinations of bandwidth reduction, redundant paths, forward error correction coding, and post-reception processing. Four of these options will result in a mean time between authentication failures substantially larger than the mean time between hardware failures. The cryptologic aspects of the authentication process are treated in a classified annex, published separately.

  16. Smartphone sensors for stone lithography authentication.

    PubMed

    Spagnolo, Giuseppe Schirripa; Cozzella, Lorenzo; Papalillo, Donato

    2014-05-07

    Nowadays mobile phones include quality photo and video cameras, access to wireless networks and the internet, GPS assistance and other innovative systems. These facilities open them to innovative uses, other than the classical telephonic communication one. Smartphones are a more sophisticated version of classic mobile phones, which have advanced computing power, memory and connectivity. Because fake lithographs are flooding the art market, in this work, we propose a smartphone as simple, robust and efficient sensor for lithograph authentication. When we buy an artwork object, the seller issues a certificate of authenticity, which contains specific details about the artwork itself. Unscrupulous sellers can duplicate the classic certificates of authenticity, and then use them to "authenticate" non-genuine works of art. In this way, the buyer will have a copy of an original certificate to attest that the "not original artwork" is an original one. A solution for this problem would be to insert a system that links together the certificate and the related specific artwork. To do this it is necessary, for a single artwork, to find unique, unrepeatable, and unchangeable characteristics. In this article we propose an innovative method for the authentication of stone lithographs. We use the color spots distribution captured by means of a smartphone camera as a non-cloneable texture of the specific artworks and an information management system for verifying it in mobility stone lithography.

  17. A flexible business focus

    SciTech Connect

    Hennagir, T.

    1994-11-01

    The challenge of sourcing equipment to meet customer needs around the world remains a prerequisite for boiler and CFB manufacturers as they strive to maintain a strong business presence in key markets. Boiler vendors are learning to meet their targets based upon what the market is, not what they hope it will become. An elastic equipment supply strategy is bolstering new business activity for internationally active boiler and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFB) vendors. Techniques such as flexible sourcing and expanded scope capability are helping suppliers gain market advantage in new global growth areas.

  18. E-Labs - Learning with Authentic Data

    SciTech Connect

    Bardeen, Marjorie G.; Wayne, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    the success teachers have had providing an opportunity for students to: • Organize and conduct authentic research. • Experience the environment of scientific collaborations. • Possibly make real contributions to a burgeoning scientific field. We've created projects that are problem-based, student driven and technology dependent. Students reach beyond classroom walls to explore data with other students and experts and share results, publishing original work to a worldwide audience. Students can discover and extend the research of other students, modeling the processes of modern, large-scale research projects. From start to finish e-Labs are student-led, teacher-guided projects. Students need only a Web browser to access computing techniques employed by professional researchers. A Project Map with milestones allows students to set the research plan rather than follow a step-by-step process common in other online projects. Most importantly, e-Labs build the learning experience around the students' own questions and let them use the very tools that scientists use. Students contribute to and access shared data, most derived from professional research databases. They use common analysis tools, store their work and use metadata to discover, replicate and confirm the research of others. This is where real scientific collaboration begins. Using online tools, students correspond with other research groups, post comments and questions, prepare summary reports, and in general participate in the part of scientific research that is often left out of classroom experiments. Teaching tools such as student and teacher logbooks, pre- and post-tests and an assessment rubric aligned with learner outcomes help teachers guide student work. Constraints on interface designs and administrative tools such as registration databases give teachers the "one-stop-shopping" they seek for multiple e-Labs. Teaching and administrative tools also allow us to track usage and assess the impact on

  19. Integrated circuit authentication using photon-limited x-ray microscopy.

    PubMed

    Markman, Adam; Javidi, Bahram

    2016-07-15

    A counterfeit integrated circuit (IC) may contain subtle changes to its circuit configuration. These changes may be observed when imaged using an x-ray; however, the energy from the x-ray can potentially damage the IC. We have investigated a technique to authenticate ICs under photon-limited x-ray imaging. We modeled an x-ray image with lower energy by generating a photon-limited image from a real x-ray image using a weighted photon-counting method. We performed feature extraction on the image using the speeded-up robust features (SURF) algorithm. We then authenticated the IC by comparing the SURF features to a database of SURF features from authentic and counterfeit ICs. Our experimental results with real and counterfeit ICs using an x-ray microscope demonstrate that we can correctly authenticate an IC image captured using orders of magnitude lower energy x-rays. To the best of our knowledge, this Letter is the first one on using a photon-counting x-ray imaging model and relevant algorithms to authenticate ICs to prevent potential damage.

  20. Authentication of nuclear-material assays made with in-plant instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Hatcher, C.R.; Hsue, S.T.; Russo, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper develops a general approach for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) authentication of nuclear material assays made with in-plant instruments under facility operator control. The IAEA is evaluating the use of in-plant instruments as a part of international safeguards at large bulk-handling facilities, such as reprocessing plants, fuel fabrication plants, and enrichment plants. One of the major technical problems associated with IAEA use of data from in-plant instruments is the need to show that there has been no tampering with the measurements. Two fundamentally different methods are discussed that can be used by IAEA inspectors to independently verify (or authenticate) measurements made with in-plant instruments. Method 1, called external authentication, uses a protected IAEA measurement technique to compare in-plant instrument results with IAEA results. Method 2, called internal authentication, uses protected IAEA standards, known physical constants, and special test procedures to determine the performance characteristics of the in-plant instrument. The importance of measurement control programs to detect normally expected instrument failures and procedural errors is also addressed. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of factors that should be considered by the designers of new in-plant instruments in order to facilitate IAEA authentication procedures.

  1. Classification and authentication of unknown water samples using machine learning algorithms.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Palash K; Panchariya, P C; Kundu, Madhusree

    2011-07-01

    This paper proposes the development of water sample classification and authentication, in real life which is based on machine learning algorithms. The proposed techniques used experimental measurements from a pulse voltametry method which is based on an electronic tongue (E-tongue) instrumentation system with silver and platinum electrodes. E-tongue include arrays of solid state ion sensors, transducers even of different types, data collectors and data analysis tools, all oriented to the classification of liquid samples and authentication of unknown liquid samples. The time series signal and the corresponding raw data represent the measurement from a multi-sensor system. The E-tongue system, implemented in a laboratory environment for 6 numbers of different ISI (Bureau of Indian standard) certified water samples (Aquafina, Bisleri, Kingfisher, Oasis, Dolphin, and McDowell) was the data source for developing two types of machine learning algorithms like classification and regression. A water data set consisting of 6 numbers of sample classes containing 4402 numbers of features were considered. A PCA (principal component analysis) based classification and authentication tool was developed in this study as the machine learning component of the E-tongue system. A proposed partial least squares (PLS) based classifier, which was dedicated as well; to authenticate a specific category of water sample evolved out as an integral part of the E-tongue instrumentation system. The developed PCA and PLS based E-tongue system emancipated an overall encouraging authentication percentage accuracy with their excellent performances for the aforesaid categories of water samples.

  2. Design of Secure ECG-Based Biometric Authentication in Body Area Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Peter, Steffen; Reddy, Bhanu Pratap; Momtaz, Farshad; Givargis, Tony

    2016-04-22

    Body area sensor networks (BANs) utilize wireless communicating sensor nodes attached to a human body for convenience, safety, and health applications. Physiological characteristics of the body, such as the heart rate or Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, are promising means to simplify the setup process and to improve security of BANs. This paper describes the design and implementation steps required to realize an ECG-based authentication protocol to identify sensor nodes attached to the same human body. Therefore, the first part of the paper addresses the design of a body-area sensor system, including the hardware setup, analogue and digital signal processing, and required ECG feature detection techniques. A model-based design flow is applied, and strengths and limitations of each design step are discussed. Real-world measured data originating from the implemented sensor system are then used to set up and parametrize a novel physiological authentication protocol for BANs. The authentication protocol utilizes statistical properties of expected and detected deviations to limit the number of false positive and false negative authentication attempts. The result of the described holistic design effort is the first practical implementation of biometric authentication in BANs that reflects timing and data uncertainties in the physical and cyber parts of the system.

  3. Design of Secure ECG-Based Biometric Authentication in Body Area Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Steffen; Pratap Reddy, Bhanu; Momtaz, Farshad; Givargis, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Body area sensor networks (BANs) utilize wireless communicating sensor nodes attached to a human body for convenience, safety, and health applications. Physiological characteristics of the body, such as the heart rate or Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, are promising means to simplify the setup process and to improve security of BANs. This paper describes the design and implementation steps required to realize an ECG-based authentication protocol to identify sensor nodes attached to the same human body. Therefore, the first part of the paper addresses the design of a body-area sensor system, including the hardware setup, analogue and digital signal processing, and required ECG feature detection techniques. A model-based design flow is applied, and strengths and limitations of each design step are discussed. Real-world measured data originating from the implemented sensor system are then used to set up and parametrize a novel physiological authentication protocol for BANs. The authentication protocol utilizes statistical properties of expected and detected deviations to limit the number of false positive and false negative authentication attempts. The result of the described holistic design effort is the first practical implementation of biometric authentication in BANs that reflects timing and data uncertainties in the physical and cyber parts of the system. PMID:27110785

  4. Authentication Based on Pole-zero Models of Signature Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Rashidi, Saeid; Fallah, Ali; Towhidkhah, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    With the increase of communication and financial transaction through internet, on-line signature verification is an accepted biometric technology for access control and plays a significant role in authenticity and authorization in modernized society. Therefore, fast and precise algorithms for the signature verification are very attractive. The goal of this paper is modeling of velocity signal that pattern and properties is stable for persons. With using pole-zero models based on discrete cosine transform, precise method is proposed for modeling and then features is founded from strokes. With using linear, parzen window and support vector machine classifiers, the signature verification technique was tested with a large number of authentic and forgery signatures and has demonstrated the good potential of this technique. The signatures are collected from three different database include a proprietary database, the SVC2004 and the Sabanci University signature database benchmark databases. Experimental results based on Persian, SVC2004 and SUSIG databases show that our method achieves an equal error rate of 5.91%, 5.62% and 3.91% in the skilled forgeries, respectively. PMID:24696797

  5. Medical Image Tamper Detection Based on Passive Image Authentication.

    PubMed

    Ulutas, Guzin; Ustubioglu, Arda; Ustubioglu, Beste; V Nabiyev, Vasif; Ulutas, Mustafa

    2017-05-08

    Telemedicine has gained popularity in recent years. Medical images can be transferred over the Internet to enable the telediagnosis between medical staffs and to make the patient's history accessible to medical staff from anywhere. Therefore, integrity protection of the medical image is a serious concern due to the broadcast nature of the Internet. Some watermarking techniques are proposed to control the integrity of medical images. However, they require embedding of extra information (watermark) into image before transmission. It decreases visual quality of the medical image and can cause false diagnosis. The proposed method uses passive image authentication mechanism to detect the tampered regions on medical images. Structural texture information is obtained from the medical image by using local binary pattern rotation invariant (LBPROT) to make the keypoint extraction techniques more successful. Keypoints on the texture image are obtained with scale invariant feature transform (SIFT). Tampered regions are detected by the method by matching the keypoints. The method improves the keypoint-based passive image authentication mechanism (they do not detect tampering when the smooth region is used for covering an object) by using LBPROT before keypoint extraction because smooth regions also have texture information. Experimental results show that the method detects tampered regions on the medical images even if the forged image has undergone some attacks (Gaussian blurring/additive white Gaussian noise) or the forged regions are scaled/rotated before pasting.

  6. Approximate Public Key Authentication with Information Hiding

    SciTech Connect

    THOMAS,EDWARD V.; DRAELOS,TIMOTHY J.

    2000-10-01

    This paper describes a solution for the problem of authenticating the shapes of statistically variant gamma spectra while simultaneously concealing the shapes and magnitudes of the sensitive spectra. The shape of a spectrum is given by the relative magnitudes and positions of the individual spectral elements. Class-specific linear orthonormal transformations of the measured spectra are used to produce output that meet both the authentication and concealment requirements. For purposes of concealment, the n-dimensional gamma spectra are transformed into n-dimensional output spectra that are effectively indistinguishable from Gaussian white noise (independent of the class). In addition, the proposed transformations are such that statistical authentication metrics computed on the transformed spectra are identical to those computed on the original spectra.

  7. Efficient asymmetric image authentication schemes based on photon counting-double random phase encoding and RSA algorithms.

    PubMed

    Moon, Inkyu; Yi, Faliu; Han, Mingu; Lee, Jieun

    2016-06-01

    Recently, double random phase encoding (DRPE) has been integrated with the photon counting (PC) imaging technique for the purpose of secure image authentication. In this scheme, the same key should be securely distributed and shared between the sender and receiver, but this is one of the most vexing problems of symmetric cryptosystems. In this study, we propose an efficient asymmetric image authentication scheme by combining the PC-DRPE and RSA algorithms, which solves key management and distribution problems. The retrieved image from the proposed authentication method contains photon-limited encrypted data obtained by means of PC-DRPE. Therefore, the original image can be protected while the retrieved image can be efficiently verified using a statistical nonlinear correlation approach. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of our proposed asymmetric image authentication method.

  8. Facelock: familiarity-based graphical authentication

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, Jane L.; Renaud, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Authentication codes such as passwords and PIN numbers are widely used to control access to resources. One major drawback of these codes is that they are difficult to remember. Account holders are often faced with a choice between forgetting a code, which can be inconvenient, or writing it down, which compromises security. In two studies, we test a new knowledge-based authentication method that does not impose memory load on the user. Psychological research on face recognition has revealed an important distinction between familiar and unfamiliar face perception: When a face is familiar to the observer, it can be identified across a wide range of images. However, when the face is unfamiliar, generalisation across images is poor. This contrast can be used as the basis for a personalised ‘facelock’, in which authentication succeeds or fails based on image-invariant recognition of faces that are familiar to the account holder. In Study 1, account holders authenticated easily by detecting familiar targets among other faces (97.5% success rate), even after a one-year delay (86.1% success rate). Zero-acquaintance attackers were reduced to guessing (<1% success rate). Even personal attackers who knew the account holder well were rarely able to authenticate (6.6% success rate). In Study 2, we found that shoulder-surfing attacks by strangers could be defeated by presenting different photos of the same target faces in observed and attacked grids (1.9% success rate). Our findings suggest that the contrast between familiar and unfamiliar face recognition may be useful for developers of graphical authentication systems. PMID:25024913

  9. Side Channel Authenticity Discriminant Analysis for Device Class Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-31

    Side Channel Authenticity Discriminant Analysis for Device Class Identification Eric Koziel, Kate...include additional identification components. We instead propose Side Channel Authenticity Discriminant Analysis (SICADA) to leverage physical phenomena

  10. 22 CFR 61.5 - Authentication procedures-Imports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS § 61.5 Authentication procedures—Imports. (a) Applicants seeking Department authentication of foreign produced audio-visual materials shall submit to the Department a bona fide foreign...

  11. 22 CFR 61.5 - Authentication procedures-Imports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS § 61.5 Authentication procedures—Imports. (a) Applicants seeking Department authentication of foreign produced audio-visual materials shall submit to the Department a bona fide foreign...

  12. 22 CFR 61.5 - Authentication procedures-Imports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS § 61.5 Authentication procedures—Imports. (a) Applicants seeking Department authentication of foreign produced audio-visual materials shall submit to the Department a bona fide foreign...

  13. 22 CFR 61.5 - Authentication procedures-Imports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS § 61.5 Authentication procedures—Imports. (a) Applicants seeking Department authentication of foreign produced audio-visual materials shall submit to the Department a bona fide foreign...

  14. Optical information authentication using compressed double-random-phase-encoded images and quick-response codes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaogang; Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong

    2015-03-09

    In this paper, we develop a new optical information authentication system based on compressed double-random-phase-encoded images and quick-response (QR) codes, where the parameters of optical lightwave are used as keys for optical decryption and the QR code is a key for verification. An input image attached with QR code is first optically encoded in a simplified double random phase encoding (DRPE) scheme without using interferometric setup. From the single encoded intensity pattern recorded by a CCD camera, a compressed double-random-phase-encoded image, i.e., the sparse phase distribution used for optical decryption, is generated by using an iterative phase retrieval technique with QR code. We compare this technique to the other two methods proposed in literature, i.e., Fresnel domain information authentication based on the classical DRPE with holographic technique and information authentication based on DRPE and phase retrieval algorithm. Simulation results show that QR codes are effective on improving the security and data sparsity of optical information encryption and authentication system.

  15. Standards for Cell Line Authentication and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Kenneth D.; Plant, Anne L.

    2016-01-01

    Different genomic technologies have been applied to cell line authentication, but only one method (short tandem repeat [STR] profiling) has been the subject of a comprehensive and definitive standard (ASN-0002). Here we discuss the power of this document and why standards such as this are so critical for establishing the consensus technical criteria and practices that can enable progress in the fields of research that use cell lines. We also examine other methods that could be used for authentication and discuss how a combination of methods could be used in a holistic fashion to assess various critical aspects of the quality of cell lines. PMID:27300367

  16. Knuckle based hand correlation for user authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sricharan, K. Kumar; Reddy, A. Aneesh; Ramakrishnan, A. G.

    2006-04-01

    Different hand-derived biometric traits have been used for user authentication in many commercial systems. In this paper we have investigated the possibility of using a new biometric trait, the knuckle, for user authentication. Knuckle regions are extracted from the hand images and correlation methods are used for the purpose of verification. Experimental results on a data set of 125 people show that the knuckle is a viable biometric trait, which can be used as an alternative to finger and palm prints or in conjunction with them.

  17. Designing authentic assessment: strategies for nurse educators.

    PubMed

    Poindexter, Kathleen; Hagler, Debra; Lindell, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Increased emphasis on health care safety requires renewed attention to teaching and learning processes for future health care professionals. When presented with problems situated in a clinical context, learners have rich opportunities to demonstrate integration of concepts. Authentic assessment is an approach to evaluation of learning through which students can demonstrate acquired knowledge, skills, and attitudes in the context of real-world or realistic nursing practice activities. This article describes features, approaches, and examples of authentic assessment processes in the context of classroom, clinical, and online nursing education.

  18. Flexible, Polymer-Filled Metallic Conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Swec, Diane M.

    1989-01-01

    Procedure developed to make materials both flexible and reasonably good electrical conductors. Metal or polymer sheet substrate cleaned with beam of energetic inert-gas ions to remove adsorbed gases and contaminants from surface. After cleaning, substrate coated by cosputter deposition of both conductive metal and flexible polymer. Removed by either mechanical or chemical-dissolution technique, and resulting flexible metal/polymer conductor bonded at low temperature to conductor-surface contacts.

  19. Flexible, Polymer-Filled Metallic Conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Swec, Diane M.

    1989-01-01

    Procedure developed to make materials both flexible and reasonably good electrical conductors. Metal or polymer sheet substrate cleaned with beam of energetic inert-gas ions to remove adsorbed gases and contaminants from surface. After cleaning, substrate coated by cosputter deposition of both conductive metal and flexible polymer. Removed by either mechanical or chemical-dissolution technique, and resulting flexible metal/polymer conductor bonded at low temperature to conductor-surface contacts.

  20. Kerberos authentication: The security answer for unsecured networks

    SciTech Connect

    Engert, D.E.

    1995-06-01

    Traditional authentication schemes do not properly address the problems encountered with today`s unsecured networks. Kerbmm developed by MIT, on the other hand is designed to operate in an open unsecured network, yet provide good authentication and security including encrypted session traffic. Basic Kerberos principles as well as experiences of the ESnet Authentication Pilot Project with Cross Realm. Authentication between four National Laboratories will also be described.

  1. Meeting EFL Learners Halfway by Using Locally Relevant Authentic Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The author defines and describes authentic materials and discusses their benefits--citing the Input Hypothesis and the Output Principle in support of such materials--as well as some challenges of using authentic materials. Five categories of authentic materials are presented, and sources for materials and ways to use them in the EFL classroom are…

  2. Authentic Assessment for Student Learning: An Ontological Conceptualisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vu, Thuy T.; Dall'Alba, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Authentic assessment has been proposed as having potential to enhance student learning for a changing world. Conventionally, assessment is seen to be authentic when the tasks are real-to-life or have real-life value. Drawing on Martin Heidegger's work, we challenge this conceptualisation as narrow and limited. We argue that authenticity need…

  3. Reconciling Divisions in the Field of Authentic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarid, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: first, to identify and address three central divisions in the field of authentic education that introduce ambiguity and at times inconsistencies within the field of authentic education. These divisions concern a) the relationship between autonomy and authenticity; b) the division between the two basic attitudes…

  4. 22 CFR 92.40 - Authentication of foreign extradition papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Authentication of foreign extradition papers... RELATED SERVICES Specific Notarial Acts § 92.40 Authentication of foreign extradition papers. Foreign extradition papers are authenticated by chiefs of mission. ...

  5. 22 CFR 92.40 - Authentication of foreign extradition papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Authentication of foreign extradition papers... RELATED SERVICES Specific Notarial Acts § 92.40 Authentication of foreign extradition papers. Foreign extradition papers are authenticated by chiefs of mission. ...

  6. 22 CFR 92.40 - Authentication of foreign extradition papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Authentication of foreign extradition papers... RELATED SERVICES Specific Notarial Acts § 92.40 Authentication of foreign extradition papers. Foreign extradition papers are authenticated by chiefs of mission. ...

  7. 22 CFR 92.40 - Authentication of foreign extradition papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Authentication of foreign extradition papers... RELATED SERVICES Specific Notarial Acts § 92.40 Authentication of foreign extradition papers. Foreign extradition papers are authenticated by chiefs of mission. ...

  8. Children's and Adolescents' Perception of the Authenticity of Smiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibault, Pascal; Gosselin, Pierre; Brunel, Marie-Lise; Hess, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    Recently, Thibault and colleagues described the Duchenne marker as a cultural dialect for the perception of smile authenticity. The current study had the goal to follow up on this finding and to investigate the cues that French Canadian children use to evaluate the authenticity of smiles from members of three ethnic groups. The authenticity of six…

  9. From Lessons to Life: Authentic Materials Bridge the Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spelleri, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the use of authentic materials in teaching English as a Second Language. Issues addressed include students' interest in "real life" materials, the role of the teacher, and how to teach using authentic materials. Sample criteria for selecting authentic materials are included. (Author/VWL)

  10. An Action Research Approach to Authentic Curriculum and Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filby, Nikola N.

    This publication explores the literature on teacher action research and authentic instruction, and draws on investigations of teacher research activities in order to promote the use of more"authentic" curriculum and instruction, especially for students at risk. "Authentic" instruction is defined as instruction based around problems, questions, or…

  11. School Principals' Authentic Leadership and Teachers' Psychological Capital: Teachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Feng-I

    2016-01-01

    This study examined teachers' perceptions of principals' authentic leadership and the relationship of authentic leadership to teachers' psychological capital in Taiwan. A total of 1,429 elementary and secondary school teachers were surveyed. The results showed that teachers perceived their principals' authentic leadership as moderate and that the…

  12. 29 CFR 18.902 - Self-authentication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Authentication and Identification § 18.902 Self-authentication. (a) Extrinsic evidence of authenticity as a condition precedent to admissibility is not required... law in the course of the same proceeding, so far as admissible under the rules of evidence applied as...

  13. Authenticating Corpora for Language Learning: A Problem and Its Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishan, Freda

    2004-01-01

    This paper questions the assumption that corpora are authentic, with particular reference to their application in language pedagogy. The author argues that, because of the form the corpus takes, authentic source texts forfeit a crucial criterion for authenticity, namely context, in the transition from source to electronic data. Other authentic…

  14. Reconciling Divisions in the Field of Authentic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarid, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: first, to identify and address three central divisions in the field of authentic education that introduce ambiguity and at times inconsistencies within the field of authentic education. These divisions concern a) the relationship between autonomy and authenticity; b) the division between the two basic attitudes…

  15. An Examination of Teacher Authenticity in the College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Zac D.; LaBelle, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to generate a more robust understanding of teacher (in)authenticity. In other contexts, authenticity is regarded as a display of true self and has been positively linked to beneficial psychological (e.g., increased self-esteem) and social outcomes (e.g., higher relational satisfaction). However, what it means to be authentic in…

  16. What's the Difference between "Authentic" and "Performance" Assessment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Carol A.

    1992-01-01

    Uses two direct writing assignments to show that performance assessment denotes the kind of student response to be examined, whereas authentic assessment denotes assessment context. Although not all performance assessments are authentic, it is difficult to imagine an authentic assessment that would not also be a performance assessment. Educators…

  17. Children's and Adolescents' Perception of the Authenticity of Smiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibault, Pascal; Gosselin, Pierre; Brunel, Marie-Lise; Hess, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    Recently, Thibault and colleagues described the Duchenne marker as a cultural dialect for the perception of smile authenticity. The current study had the goal to follow up on this finding and to investigate the cues that French Canadian children use to evaluate the authenticity of smiles from members of three ethnic groups. The authenticity of six…

  18. 22 CFR 61.3 - Certification and authentication criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS § 61.3 Certification and authentication criteria. (a) The Department shall certify or authenticate audio-visual materials submitted for review as educational, scientific and... of the material. (b) The Department will not certify or authenticate any audio-visual material...

  19. 22 CFR 61.3 - Certification and authentication criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS § 61.3 Certification and authentication criteria. (a) The Department shall certify or authenticate audio-visual materials submitted for review as educational, scientific and... of the material. (b) The Department will not certify or authenticate any audio-visual material...

  20. 22 CFR 61.3 - Certification and authentication criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS § 61.3 Certification and authentication criteria. (a) The Department shall certify or authenticate audio-visual materials submitted for review as educational, scientific and... of the material. (b) The Department will not certify or authenticate any audio-visual material...

  1. Toward Developing Authentic Leadership: Team-Based Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2014-01-01

    Although there is a consensus that authentic leadership should be an essential component in educational leadership, no study to date has ever tried to find whether team-based simulations may promote authentic leadership. The purpose of this study was to identify whether principal trainees can develop authentic leadership through ethical decision…

  2. Robust authentication through stochastic femtosecond laser filament induced scattering surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haisu; Tzortzakis, Stelios

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate a reliable authentication method by femtosecond laser filament induced scattering surfaces. The stochastic nonlinear laser fabrication nature results in unique authentication robust properties. This work provides a simple and viable solution for practical applications in product authentication, while also opens the way for incorporating such elements in transparent media and coupling those in integrated optical circuits.

  3. Toward Developing Authentic Leadership: Team-Based Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2014-01-01

    Although there is a consensus that authentic leadership should be an essential component in educational leadership, no study to date has ever tried to find whether team-based simulations may promote authentic leadership. The purpose of this study was to identify whether principal trainees can develop authentic leadership through ethical decision…

  4. 22 CFR 61.3 - Certification and authentication criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS § 61.3 Certification and authentication criteria. (a) The Department shall certify or authenticate audio-visual materials submitted for review as educational, scientific and... of the material. (b) The Department will not certify or authenticate any audio-visual...

  5. Teachers' Development Model to Authentic Assessment by Empowerment Evaluation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charoenchai, Charin; Phuseeorn, Songsak; Phengsawat, Waro

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were 1) Study teachers authentic assessment, teachers comprehension of authentic assessment and teachers needs for authentic assessment development. 2) To create teachers development model. 3) Experiment of teachers development model. 4) Evaluate effectiveness of teachers development model. The research is divided into 4…

  6. 22 CFR 92.40 - Authentication of foreign extradition papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authentication of foreign extradition papers... RELATED SERVICES Specific Notarial Acts § 92.40 Authentication of foreign extradition papers. Foreign extradition papers are authenticated by chiefs of mission....

  7. A Comparison of Password Techniques for Multilevel Authentication Mechanisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    to 87.4%. The questions that had the lowest success rate dealt with an individual’s favorite restaurant, actor or actress , and choice of alternative...favorite actor or actress ? 58% What is your favorite flower? 87% What is your favorite dessert? 66% What is your favorite vegetable? 75% What is your...would it be? A-3 11. What is the last name of your favorite actor or actress ? 12. What is your favorite flower? 13. What is your favorite dessert? 14

  8. Smartphone Sensors for Stone Lithography Authentication

    PubMed Central

    Schirripa Spagnolo, Giuseppe; Cozzella, Lorenzo; Papalillo, Donato

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays mobile phones include quality photo and video cameras, access to wireless networks and the internet, GPS assistance and other innovative systems. These facilities open them to innovative uses, other than the classical telephonic communication one. Smartphones are a more sophisticated version of classic mobile phones, which have advanced computing power, memory and connectivity. Because fake lithographs are flooding the art market, in this work, we propose a smartphone as simple, robust and efficient sensor for lithograph authentication. When we buy an artwork object, the seller issues a certificate of authenticity, which contains specific details about the artwork itself. Unscrupulous sellers can duplicate the classic certificates of authenticity, and then use them to “authenticate” non-genuine works of art. In this way, the buyer will have a copy of an original certificate to attest that the “not original artwork” is an original one. A solution for this problem would be to insert a system that links together the certificate and the related specific artwork. To do this it is necessary, for a single artwork, to find unique, unrepeatable, and unchangeable characteristics. In this article we propose an innovative method for the authentication of stone lithographs. We use the color spots distribution captured by means of a smartphone camera as a non-cloneable texture of the specific artworks and an information management system for verifying it in mobility stone lithography. PMID:24811077

  9. Elemental Scanning Devices Authenticate Works of Art

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    To better detect aluminum compounds, Marshall Space Flight Center partnered with KeyMaster Inc. (later acquired by Madison, Wisconsin-based Bruker AXS Inc.) to develop a vacuum pump system that could be attached to X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanners. The resulting technology greatly expanded XRF scanner capabilities, and hundreds of museums now use them to authenticate artifacts and works of art.

  10. The Case for Authentic Materials on Videodisc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Leon, Claire Brandicourt

    1988-01-01

    Foreign language video is invaluable for enhancing foreign language instruction, particularly when combined with laser videodisc technology, which allows learners to study minute details. Authentic materials should be made available on videodisks to fully exploit the resources of foreign language video. (Author/CB)

  11. 28 CFR 68.46 - Authenticity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authenticity. 68.46 Section 68.46 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES IN CASES INVOLVING ALLEGATIONS OF UNLAWFUL EMPLOYMENT OF...

  12. Diversity Writing: Natural Languages, Authentic Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzluf, Phillip P.

    2006-01-01

    Though diversity serves as a valuable source for rhetorical inquiry, expressivist instructors who privilege diversity writing may also overemphasize the essential authenticity of their students' vernaculars. This romantic and salvationist impulse reveals the troubling implications of eighteenth-century Natural Language Theory and may,…

  13. Existential Authenticity: A Foundational Value for Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miars, Russell D.

    2002-01-01

    The author challenges the view that adopting an existential perspective in counseling is inapplicable or a luxury for most clients. The concept of existential authenticity is presented as an organizing ethic that can bring out the positive side of existentialism in counseling. Specific values and conditions are presented that can be adopted to…

  14. Vocation as the Quest for Authentic Existence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homan, Kenneth B.

    1986-01-01

    Examines the concept of vocation and demonstrates that vocation is the organizing, existential principle of the concept of work. Presents a critical examination of Green's (1968) delineation of job and work and asserts that vocation as the quest for authentic existence is the unifying concept that gives grounding to Green's notion of work. (NB)

  15. Progress in authentication of food and wine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Authentication of foods, wines and beverages for varietal, country- (or region-) of-origin, and processing conditions is becoming of increasing concern to consumers and regulators both in the U.S. and internationally. As markets become more globalized and foods and beverages are sourced from many lo...

  16. Authentic Scientific Inquiry and School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hume, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Scientific literacy goals feature strongly in the rhetoric of most forward-looking science curricula. Many science educators believe that a key means of attaining these goals is through the engagement of students in "authentic scientific inquiry". For students to experience such learning it is critical that teachers understand and appreciate what…

  17. In Pursuit of Authentic School Leadership Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begley, Paul T.

    2001-01-01

    Describes authentic leadership and the essential characteristics of values. Discusses concept of values and semantic difficulties related thereto. Uses onion metaphors to illustrate syntax of values terminology and seven arenas of administration. Suggests that discussion and concepts presented in onion illustrations will contribute to school…

  18. Rugged Practices: Embodying Authenticity in Outdoor Recreation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senda-Cook, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    When people recreate outdoors, they value the quality of the experience. This study examines rhetorical practices that sustain or undermine perceived authentic outdoor recreation experiences. I conducted a rhetorical analysis of my fieldnotes gathered through participant observation and interview transcripts of online and in-person interviews. I…

  19. Speed Bumps for Authentic Listening Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meinardi, Marty

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates whether authentic native speaker (NS) to NS speech can be made available to the learner listener through the use of a novel slow-down tool. Results from various preliminary tests seem to indicate that the use of a slow-down algorithm in many cases, and in particular in samples with a higher speed rate and word count,…

  20. Authentic Reading Assessment: Practices and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia, Sheila W., Ed.; And Others

    Presenting nine case studies describing new assessment efforts, this book is designed to foster communication and dialogue about the products and the processes of development. Comprehensive introductory and concluding chapters examine the background of and future challenges facing authentic assessment. Intermediate chapters discusses authentic…

  1. Technology, Authentic Performance, and History Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, David J.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on authentic performance in history education when teaching with technology and utilizing a constructivist approach. Explores ways that technology can be used, such as computer simulations or modeling. Bases the article on four different books that offer suggestions for using electronic tools using the constructivist approach for authentic…

  2. Using Authentic Texts: A Study Skills Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahmy, J. J.; Bilton, Linda

    1989-01-01

    Nonnative university students have difficulty coping with lectures given in English and need authentic and relevant material in listening and note-taking courses. One approach based on a transcription of a paleontology lecture is presented, suggested by linguistic analysis of 40 science lectures at Sultan Qaboos University in Oman. (four…

  3. Existential Authenticity: A Foundational Value for Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miars, Russell D.

    2002-01-01

    The author challenges the view that adopting an existential perspective in counseling is inapplicable or a luxury for most clients. The concept of existential authenticity is presented as an organizing ethic that can bring out the positive side of existentialism in counseling. Specific values and conditions are presented that can be adopted to…

  4. Rugged Practices: Embodying Authenticity in Outdoor Recreation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senda-Cook, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    When people recreate outdoors, they value the quality of the experience. This study examines rhetorical practices that sustain or undermine perceived authentic outdoor recreation experiences. I conducted a rhetorical analysis of my fieldnotes gathered through participant observation and interview transcripts of online and in-person interviews. I…

  5. Simulation for Authentic Learning in Informal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupuis, Jason; Ludwig-Palit, DeDee

    2016-01-01

    In 2011, the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago, Illinois embarked on the creation of a program that allows middle and high school students to explore community health issues using human patient simulation. MedLab was created to engage students in an authentic exploration of medical science, biology, and human anatomy, with a particular…

  6. Disambiguating authenticity: Interpretations of value and appeal

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Kieran; Carroll, Glenn R.; Kovács, Balázs

    2017-01-01

    While shaping aesthetic judgment and choice, socially constructed authenticity takes on some very different meanings among observers, consumers, producers and critics. Using a theoretical framework positing four distinct meanings of socially constructed authenticity–type, moral, craft, and idiosyncratic–we aim to document empirically the unique appeal of each type. We develop predictions about the relationships between attributed authenticity and corresponding increases in the value ascribed to it through: (1) consumer value ratings, (2) willingness to pay, and (3) behavioral choice. We report empirical analyses from a research program of three multi-method studies using (1) archival data from voluntary consumer evaluations of restaurants in an online review system, (2) a university-based behavioral lab experiment, and (3) an online survey-based experiment. Evidence is consistent across the studies and suggests that perceptions of four distinct subtypes of socially constructed authenticity generate increased appeal and value even after controlling for option quality. Findings suggest additional directions for research on authenticity. PMID:28650997

  7. Authentic Reading Assessment: Practices and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia, Sheila W., Ed.; And Others

    Presenting nine case studies describing new assessment efforts, this book is designed to foster communication and dialogue about the products and the processes of development. Comprehensive introductory and concluding chapters examine the background of and future challenges facing authentic assessment. Intermediate chapters discusses authentic…

  8. Issues of Authenticity of Spatial Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlamery, Patrick

    This paper discusses the authenticity of digital spatial data. The first section describes three formats for digital spatial data: vector, raster, and thematic. The second section addresses the integrity of spatial data, including six possible formats for the same information: (1) aerial photographic prints, time stamped, primary, remotely sensed…

  9. Authentic Pedagogy and Students with Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Jennifer; Bo, Tony; Chavez, Deborah; Fayle, Leanne; Gavel, Julie

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a project carried out by the first author, an academic in special education, with the other authors, teachers of students with severe disabilities. It aimed to explore the application of the New South Wales (NSW) model of pedagogy, derived from authentic pedagogy, to the education of students with severe intellectual…

  10. Using Authentic Texts: A Study Skills Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahmy, J. J.; Bilton, Linda

    1989-01-01

    Nonnative university students have difficulty coping with lectures given in English and need authentic and relevant material in listening and note-taking courses. One approach based on a transcription of a paleontology lecture is presented, suggested by linguistic analysis of 40 science lectures at Sultan Qaboos University in Oman. (four…

  11. Culturally Speaking: Booktalking Authentic Multicultural Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Sheryl

    2008-01-01

    Booktalking authentic multicultural literature can encourage students to read, promote respect for all cultures, and help make all students feel welcome in libraries and media centers. It also provides opportunities to collaborate with teachers to increase diversity throughout the schools. This article presents selected booktalks of contemporary…

  12. Authentic Scientific Inquiry and School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hume, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Scientific literacy goals feature strongly in the rhetoric of most forward-looking science curricula. Many science educators believe that a key means of attaining these goals is through the engagement of students in "authentic scientific inquiry". For students to experience such learning it is critical that teachers understand and appreciate what…

  13. In Pursuit of Authentic School Leadership Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begley, Paul T.

    2001-01-01

    Describes authentic leadership and the essential characteristics of values. Discusses concept of values and semantic difficulties related thereto. Uses onion metaphors to illustrate syntax of values terminology and seven arenas of administration. Suggests that discussion and concepts presented in onion illustrations will contribute to school…

  14. Towards an ethics of authentic practice.

    PubMed

    Murray, Stuart J; Holmes, Dave; Perron, Amélie; Rail, Geneviève

    2008-10-01

    This essay asks how we might best elaborate an ethics of authentic practice. Will we be able to agree on a set of shared terms through which ethical practice will be understood? How will we define ethics and the subject's relation to authoritative structures of power and knowledge? We begin by further clarifying our critique of evidence-based medicine (EBM), reflecting on the intimate relation between theory and practice. We challenge the charge that our position amounts to no more than 'subjectivism' and 'antiauthoritarian' theory. We argue that an ethical practice ought to question the authority of EBM without falling into the trap of dogmatic antiauthoritarianism. In this, we take up the work of Hannah Arendt, who offers terms to help understand our difficult political relation to authority in an authentic ethical practice. We continue with a discussion of Michel Foucault's use of 'free speech' or parrhesia, which he adopts from Ancient Greek philosophy. Foucault demonstrates that authentic ethical practice demands that we 'speak truth to power.' We conclude with a consideration of recent biotechnologies, and suggest that these biomedical practices force us to re-evaluate our theoretical understanding of the ethical subject. We believe that we are at a crucial juncture: we must develop an ethics of authentic practice that will be commensurable with new and emergent biomedical subjectivities.

  15. Course Design Using an Authentic Studio Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jay R.

    2013-01-01

    Educational Technology and Design 879 is a graduate course that introduces students to the basics of video design and production. In an attempt to improve the learning experience for students a redesign of the course was implemented for the summer of 2011 that incorporated an authentic design studio model. The design studio approach is based on…

  16. Culturally Speaking: Booktalking Authentic Multicultural Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Sheryl

    2008-01-01

    Booktalking authentic multicultural literature can encourage students to read, promote respect for all cultures, and help make all students feel welcome in libraries and media centers. It also provides opportunities to collaborate with teachers to increase diversity throughout the schools. This article presents selected booktalks of contemporary…

  17. Authentic Classroom Leaders: The Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Megan S.

    2016-01-01

    In a qualitative study assessing students' perceptions of faculty-student interaction in the online learning environment, findings demonstrated that students make meaning of faculty-student interaction in ways that align with authentic leadership behaviors. Faculty interaction, or lack thereof, shaped students' perceptions of faculty authenticity…

  18. Simulation for Authentic Learning in Informal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupuis, Jason; Ludwig-Palit, DeDee

    2016-01-01

    In 2011, the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago, Illinois embarked on the creation of a program that allows middle and high school students to explore community health issues using human patient simulation. MedLab was created to engage students in an authentic exploration of medical science, biology, and human anatomy, with a particular…

  19. Learning about Outdoor Education through Authentic Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    The potential, for the learner, of a maths trail was documented in MT219. Here, the focus is on the planning element of such an event from the perspective of a group of student teachers. Personal reactions, and insights are used to demonstrate that "real, and authentic, learning" takes place for all those involved in the activity.

  20. Supporting Authentic Learning Contexts Beyond Classroom Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrington, Jan; Specht, Marcus; Brickell, Gwyn; Harper, Barry

    At the classroom level, contexts for learning are often limited in the experiential component. Teachers and trainers feel overwhelmed by the difficulty of inventing authentic learning contexts, and creating tasks that truly reflect the way knowledge would be used in the real world (Herrington et al. 2004). However, there are growing numbers of examples of how such authentic learning environments are being used in schools, higher education, and professional development in a variety of contexts and discipline areas, such as in literacy education (Ferry et al. 2006), in physical activity fitness and health (Rice et al. 1999), in Indigenous education (Marshall et al. 2001), in evaluation (Agostinho 2006), in multimedia and ICT (Bennett et al. 2001), in literature (Fitzsimmons 2006), and in business writing (Pennell et al. 1997). Teachers and trainers who subscribe to this approach to learning can be very inventive in developing learner perceptions of authentic contexts, but often financial, situational and time constraints limit the experiential elements of authentic learning settings.

  1. In Search of Authentic Learning in Kazakhstan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cua, Francisco Chia; Reames, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The foreign faculty in Kazakhstan faced the challenge of designing a total authentic learning curricula for undergraduate students used to a traditional approach to learning. Students were asked to submit reflective learning journeys at the end of the spring 2011 semester. This study uses their stories as a springboard to explore their perspective…

  2. Using Rose and Compass for Authentication

    SciTech Connect

    White, G

    2009-07-09

    Many recent non-proliferation software projects include a software authentication component. In this context, 'authentication' is defined as determining that a software package performs only its intended purpose and performs that purpose correctly and reliably over many years. In addition to visual inspection by knowledgeable computer scientists, automated tools are needed to highlight suspicious code constructs both to aid the visual inspection and to guide program development. While many commercial tools are available for portions of the authentication task, they are proprietary, and have limited extensibility. An open-source, extensible tool can be customized to the unique needs of each project. ROSE is an LLNL-developed robust source-to-source analysis and optimization infrastructure currently addressing large, million-line DOE applications in C, C++, and FORTRAN. It continues to be extended to support the automated analysis of binaries (x86, ARM, and PowerPC). We continue to extend ROSE to address a number of security specific requirements and apply it to software authentication for non-proliferation projects. We will give an update on the status of our work.

  3. Authentic Learning Environments in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrington, Tony; Herrington, Jan

    2006-01-01

    As greater accountability in higher education grows, authentic learning has found a prominent place in the education agenda. Technology continues to open up possibilities for innovative and effective learning opportunities, and students and teachers are no longer happy to accept familiar classroom-based pedagogies that rely on content delivery and…

  4. Using Film to Teach Authentic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Meagan; Weeks, Penny Pennington

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing film as a teaching tool in a personal leadership development course helped undergraduate students synthesize authentic leadership concepts. "Iron Jawed Angels" facilitated the culminating lesson as students applied course concepts to an observed leader. Three objectives guided the final lesson: (a) critique Alice Paul's…

  5. Cultural Dimensions of Authenticity in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lin

    2006-01-01

    With an increasingly international student body in universities all over the world, there is growing contact between teachers and students from different cultures. This chapter brings cultural issues to a more conscious and explicit level so they may be examined in the light of teacher authenticity.

  6. Reading Authentic Texts: What Counts as Cognate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2013-01-01

    Most research on cognates has focused on words presented in isolation that are easily defined as cognate between L1 and L2. In contrast, this study investigates what counts as cognate in authentic texts and how such cognates are read. Participants with L1 Danish read news articles in their highly proficient L2, English, while their eye-movements…

  7. Surfacing Authentic Leadership: Inspiration from "After Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billsberry, Jon; North-Samardzic, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This paper advocates an innovative approach to help leadership students analyze, capture, and remember the nature of their authentic leadership. This developmental activity was inspired by the Japanese film, "Wandâfuru raifu" ("After Life") (Kore-Eda, Sato, & Shigenobu, 1998), in which the recently deceased are asked to…

  8. Speed Bumps for Authentic Listening Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meinardi, Marty

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates whether authentic native speaker (NS) to NS speech can be made available to the learner listener through the use of a novel slow-down tool. Results from various preliminary tests seem to indicate that the use of a slow-down algorithm in many cases, and in particular in samples with a higher speed rate and word count,…

  9. Authentic Assessments: Praxis for the Distance Librarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twomey, Beth

    2015-01-01

    Distance librarians continually develop information literacy instruction in a variety of formats. Assessment, when it occurs, tends to be of the traditional multiple-choice variety and does not measure more complex skills. Authentic assessments offer the instruction librarian a way to re-think their instruction strategies and assessment of student…

  10. Dynamic Flexibility and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Lew; Jones, David

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments are described which investigated whether results obtained in studies of static flexibility tranfer to dynamic flexibility. In both experiments, subjects were assigned to a group receiving proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation training, ballistic stretching technique training or a control group. Results are presented and…

  11. Dynamic Flexibility and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Lew; Jones, David

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments are described which investigated whether results obtained in studies of static flexibility tranfer to dynamic flexibility. In both experiments, subjects were assigned to a group receiving proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation training, ballistic stretching technique training or a control group. Results are presented and…

  12. Balance and flexibility.

    PubMed

    2003-12-01

    The 'work-life balance' and flexible working are currently key buzz terms in the NHS. Those looking for more information on these topics should visit Flexibility at www.flexibility.co.uk for a host of resources designed to support new ways of working, including information on flexible workers and flexible rostering, the legal balancing act for work-life balance and home working.

  13. Vein matching using artificial neural network in vein authentication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noori Hoshyar, Azadeh; Sulaiman, Riza

    2011-10-01

    Personal identification technology as security systems is developing rapidly. Traditional authentication modes like key; password; card are not safe enough because they could be stolen or easily forgotten. Biometric as developed technology has been applied to a wide range of systems. According to different researchers, vein biometric is a good candidate among other biometric traits such as fingerprint, hand geometry, voice, DNA and etc for authentication systems. Vein authentication systems can be designed by different methodologies. All the methodologies consist of matching stage which is too important for final verification of the system. Neural Network is an effective methodology for matching and recognizing individuals in authentication systems. Therefore, this paper explains and implements the Neural Network methodology for finger vein authentication system. Neural Network is trained in Matlab to match the vein features of authentication system. The Network simulation shows the quality of matching as 95% which is a good performance for authentication system matching.

  14. How to Speak an Authentication Secret Securely from an Eavesdropper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Gorman, Lawrence; Brotman, Lynne; Sammon, Michael

    When authenticating over the telephone or mobile headphone, the user cannot always assure that no eavesdropper hears the password or authentication secret. We describe an eavesdropper-resistant, challenge-response authentication scheme for spoken authentication where an attacker can hear the user’s voiced responses. This scheme entails the user to memorize a small number of plaintext-ciphertext pairs. At authentication, these are challenged in random order and interspersed with camouflage elements. It is shown that the response can be made to appear random so that no information on the memorized secret can be learned by eavesdroppers. We describe the method along with parameter value tradeoffs of security strength, authentication time, and memory effort. This scheme was designed for user authentication of wireless headsets used for hands-free communication by healthcare staff at a hospital.

  15. Fast flexible electronics using transferrable silicon nanomembranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kan; Seo, Jung-Hun; Zhou, Weidong; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2012-04-01

    A systematic review, covering the aspects of material preparation, device fabrication and process integration, is provided for flexible electronics operating in high-frequency domain based on transferrable monocrystalline silicon (Si) nanomembranes (NM). Previously demonstrated methods of releasing Si NM from silicon-on-insulator source substrates and transferring it to flexible substrates are briefly described. Due to the processing temperature limitation of most flexible substrates, a pre-release NM selective doping scheme is used for Si NMs. With proper selections of ion implantation energy and dose, fully doped Si NMs across their entire thickness with very low sheet resistivity can be obtained, allowing flip transfer of the NMs for backside and even double side processing. A general conclusion of preferred low implantation energy for shallower depth ion implantation is identified. The evolvement of radio frequency (RF) flexible Si thin-film transistor (TFT) structures is described in detail. The continuous performance enhancement of TFTs owing to process and TFT structure innovations is analysed. Demonstrations of flexible Si RF switches and RF inductors and capacitors are also briefly reviewed as valuable components of the general flexible device family, some of which also benefit from the pre-release NM doping technique. With the proved feasibility of these basic RF elements and related processing techniques, more complicated flexible RF circuits can be expected. Future research directions are also discussed, including further enhancement of device performance, building more types of semiconductor devices on flexible substrates, and process integration for flexible circuits and systems.

  16. Authentication and data hiding using a hybrid ROI-based watermarking scheme for DICOM images.

    PubMed

    Al-Qershi, Osamah M; Khoo, Bee Ee

    2011-02-01

    Authenticating medical images using watermarking techniques has become a very popular area of research, and some works in this area have been reported worldwide recently. Besides authentication, many data-hiding techniques have been proposed to conceal patient's data into medical images aiming to reduce the cost needed to store data and the time needed to transmit data when required. In this paper, we present a new hybrid watermarking scheme for DICOM images. In our scheme, two well-known techniques are combined to gain the advantages of both and fulfill the requirements of authentication and data hiding. The scheme divides the images into two parts, the region of interest (ROI) and the region of non-interest (RONI). Patient's data are embedded into ROI using a reversible technique based on difference expansion, while tamper detection and recovery data are embedded into RONI using a robust technique based on discrete wavelet transform. The experimental results show the ability of hiding patient's data with a very good visual quality, while ROI, the most important area for diagnosis, is retrieved exactly at the receiver side. The scheme also shows some robustness against certain levels of salt and pepper and cropping noise.

  17. Data fusion methodologies for food and beverage authentication and quality assessment - a review.

    PubMed

    Borràs, Eva; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard; Mestres, Montserrat; Aceña, Laura; Busto, Olga

    2015-09-03

    The ever increasing interest of consumers for safety, authenticity and quality of food commodities has driven the attention towards the analytical techniques used for analyzing these commodities. In recent years, rapid and reliable sensor, spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques have emerged that, together with multivariate and multiway chemometrics, have improved the whole control process by reducing the time of analysis and providing more informative results. In this progression of more and better information, the combination (fusion) of outputs of different instrumental techniques has emerged as a means for increasing the reliability of classification or prediction of foodstuff specifications as compared to using a single analytical technique. Although promising results have been obtained in food and beverage authentication and quality assessment, the combination of data from several techniques is not straightforward and represents an important challenge for chemometricians. This review provides a general overview of data fusion strategies that have been used in the field of food and beverage authentication and quality assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Asymmetric Flexible Supercapacitor Stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leela Mohana Reddy, A.; Estaline Amitha, F.; Jafri, Imran; Ramaprabhu, S.

    2008-04-01

    Electrical double layer supercapacitor is very significant in the field of electrical energy storage which can be the solution for the current revolution in the electronic devices like mobile phones, camera flashes which needs flexible and miniaturized energy storage device with all non-aqueous components. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique over hydrogen decrepitated Mischmetal (Mm) based AB3 alloy hydride. The polymer dispersed MWNTs have been obtained by insitu polymerization and the metal oxide/MWNTs were synthesized by sol-gel method. Morphological characterizations of polymer dispersed MWNTs have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM and HRTEM). An assymetric double supercapacitor stack has been fabricated using polymer/MWNTs and metal oxide/MWNTs coated over flexible carbon fabric as electrodes and nafion® membrane as a solid electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor stack has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  19. Designing a minimum-functionality neutron and gamma measurement instrument with a focus on authentication

    SciTech Connect

    Karpius, Peter J; Williams, Richard B

    2009-01-01

    During the design and construction of the Next-Generation Attribute-Measurement System, which included a largely commercial off-the-shelf (COTS), nondestructive assay (NDA) system, we realized that commercial NDA equipment tends to include numerous features that are not required for an attribute-measurement system. Authentication of the hardware, firmware, and software in these instruments is still required, even for those features not used in this application. However, such a process adds to the complexity, cost, and time required for authentication. To avoid these added authenticat ion difficulties, we began to design NDA systems capable of performing neutron multiplicity and gamma-ray spectrometry measurements by using simplified hardware and software that avoids unused features and complexity. This paper discusses one possible approach to this design: A hardware-centric system that attempts to perform signal analysis as much as possible in the hardware. Simpler processors and minimal firmware are used because computational requirements are kept to a bare minimum. By hard-coding the majority of the device's operational parameters, we could cull large sections of flexible, configurable hardware and software found in COTS instruments, thus yielding a functional core that is more straightforward to authenticate.

  20. Controlling flexible structures: A survey of methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Russell A.; Coleman, Edward E.

    1989-01-01

    Most of the presently available control system design techniques applicable to flexible structure problems were developed to design controllers for rigid body systems. Although many of these design methods can be applied to flexible dynamics problems, recently developed techniques may be more suitable for flexible structure controller design. The purpose of this presentation is to examine briefly the peculiarities of the dynamics of flexible structures and to stimulate discussion about top level controller design approaches when designing controllers for flexible structures. Presented here is a suggestion of a set of categories of design methods for designing controllers for flexible structures as well as a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each category. No attempt has been made herein to select one category of design techniques as the best for flexible structure controller design. Instead, it is hoped that the structure suggested by these categories will facilitate further discussion on the merits of particular methods that will eventually point to those design techniques suitable for further development.

  1. Authentication of medicinal plants by SNP-based multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ok Ran; Kim, Min-Kyeoung; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Highly variable intergenic spacer and intron regions from nuclear and cytoplasmic DNA have been used for species identification. Noncoding internal transcribed spacers (ITSs) located in 18S-5.8S-26S, and 5S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNAs) represent suitable region for medicinal plant authentication. Noncoding regions from two cytoplasmic DNA, chloroplast DNA (trnT-F intergenic spacer region), and mitochondrial DNA (fourth intron region of nad7 gene) are also successfully applied for the proper identification of medicinal plants. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites obtained from the amplification of intergenic spacer and intron regions are properly utilized for the verification of medicinal plants in species level using multiplex PCR. Multiplex PCR as a variant of PCR technique used to amplify more than two loci simultaneously.

  2. Privacy preserving, real-time and location secured biometrics for mCommerce authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuseler, Torben; Al-Assam, Hisham; Jassim, Sabah; Lami, Ihsan A.

    2011-06-01

    Secure wireless connectivity between mobile devices and financial/commercial establishments is mature, and so is the security of remote authentication for mCommerce. However, the current techniques are open for hacking, false misrepresentation, replay and other attacks. This is because of the lack of real-time and current-precise-location in the authentication process. This paper proposes a new technique that includes freshly-generated real-time personal biometric data of the client and present-position of the mobile device used by the client to perform the mCommerce so to form a real-time biometric representation to authenticate any remote transaction. A fresh GPS fix generates the "time and location" to stamp the biometric data freshly captured to produce a single, real-time biometric representation on the mobile device. A trusted Certification Authority (CA) acts as an independent authenticator of such client's claimed realtime location and his/her provided fresh biometric data. Thus eliminates the necessity of user enrolment with many mCommerce services and application providers. This CA can also "independently from the client" and "at that instant of time" collect the client's mobile device "time and location" from the cellular network operator so to compare with the received information, together with the client's stored biometric information. Finally, to preserve the client's location privacy and to eliminate the possibility of cross-application client tracking, this paper proposes shielding the real location of the mobile device used prior to submission to the CA or authenticators.

  3. Protecting autonomy as authenticity using Ulysses contracts.

    PubMed

    van Willigenburg, Theo; Delaere, Patrick

    2005-08-01

    Pre-commitment directives or Ulysses contracts are often defended as instruments that may strengthen the autonomous self-control of episodically disordered psychiatric patients. Autonomy is understood in this context in terms of sovereignty ("governing" or "managing" oneself). After critically analyzing this idea of autonomy in the context of various forms of self-commitment and pre-commitment, we argue that what is at stake in using Ulysses contracts in psychiatry is not autonomy as sovereignty, but autonomy as authenticity. Pre-commitment directives do not function to protect autonomous self-control. They serve in upholding the guidance that is provided by one's deepest identity conferring concerns. We elucidate this concept of autonomy as authenticity, by showing how Ulysses contracts protect the possibility of being "a self."

  4. Personal authentication using hand vein triangulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajay; Prathyusha, K. Venkata

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents a new approach to authenticate individuals using triangulation of hand vein images. The proposed method is fully automated and employs palm dorsal hand vein images acquired from the low-cost, near infrared, contactless imaging. The knuckle tips are used as key points for image normalization and the extraction of region of interest. The matching scores are generated in two parallel stages; (i) hierarchical matching score from the four topologies of triangulation in binarized vein structures and (ii) from the geometrical features consisting of knuckle point perimeter distances in the acquired images. The weighted score level combination from these two matching scores are used to authenticate the individuals. The achieved experimental results from the proposed system using contactless, palm dorsal hand vein images are promising and suggest more user friendly alternative for user identification.

  5. Location-assured, multifactor authentication on smartphones via LTE communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuseler, Torben; Lami, Ihsan A.; Al-Assam, Hisham

    2013-05-01

    With the added security provided by LTE, geographical location has become an important factor for authentication to enhance the security of remote client authentication during mCommerce applications using Smartphones. Tight combination of geographical location with classic authentication factors like PINs/Biometrics in a real-time, remote verification scheme over the LTE layer connection assures the authenticator about the client itself (via PIN/biometric) as well as the client's current location, thus defines the important aspects of "who", "when", and "where" of the authentication attempt without eaves dropping or man on the middle attacks. To securely integrate location as an authentication factor into the remote authentication scheme, client's location must be verified independently, i.e. the authenticator should not solely rely on the location determined on and reported by the client's Smartphone. The latest wireless data communication technology for mobile phones (4G LTE, Long-Term Evolution), recently being rolled out in various networks, can be employed to enhance this location-factor requirement of independent location verification. LTE's Control Plane LBS provisions, when integrated with user-based authentication and independent source of localisation factors ensures secure efficient, continuous location tracking of the Smartphone. This feature can be performed during normal operation of the LTE-based communication between client and network operator resulting in the authenticator being able to verify the client's claimed location more securely and accurately. Trials and experiments show that such algorithm implementation is viable for nowadays Smartphone-based banking via LTE communication.

  6. Authentication of Smartphone User Using RSSI Geolocation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    GPS receivers in smartphones varies by vendors, which results in satellite acquisition times to vary from seconds to minutes [2]. Services like... SMARTPHONE USER USING RSSI GEOLOCATION by Vincent K. Nguyen March 2014 Thesis Advisor: Craig Martell Second Reader: Mark Gondree THIS...Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE AUTHENTICATION OF SMARTPHONE USER USING RSSI GEOLOCATION 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Vincent K. Nguyen 7

  7. Capturing Cognitive Fingerprints for Active Authentication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    performs verification continuously as long as the session remains active. This work focuses on using behavioral biometrics as “something a user is” for...4) Testing the system with tri-graph sub-word features, (5) Surveying learning algorithms for various biometric features, (6) Supervised problem...fingerprints from individuals and use it as a biometric for continual authentication. This project proposed studying new biometric modalities for

  8. Application of authentic peroxynitrite to biological materials.

    PubMed

    Ishida, H; Genka, C; Nakazawa, H

    1999-01-01

    A method to expose cultured cardiac myocytes to authentic ONOO- by using a constant perfusion system was described. The perfusion apparatus is linked to a microscope equipped with video and fluorescence measurement systems, which enable the evaluation of myocardial contraction, [Ca2+]i, [pH]i, and membrane fluidity. Special care is needed to adjust the pH of the solution appropriately and to obtain a constant concentration of ONOO-.

  9. Verifiable process monitoring through enhanced data authentication.

    SciTech Connect

    Goncalves, Joao G. M.; Schwalbach, Peter; Schoeneman, Barry Dale; Ross, Troy D.; Baldwin, George Thomas

    2010-09-01

    To ensure the peaceful intent for production and processing of nuclear fuel, verifiable process monitoring of the fuel production cycle is required. As part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-EURATOM collaboration in the field of international nuclear safeguards, the DOE Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), the European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) and Directorate General-Energy (DG-ENER) developed and demonstrated a new concept in process monitoring, enabling the use of operator process information by branching a second, authenticated data stream to the Safeguards inspectorate. This information would be complementary to independent safeguards data, improving the understanding of the plant's operation. The concept is called the Enhanced Data Authentication System (EDAS). EDAS transparently captures, authenticates, and encrypts communication data that is transmitted between operator control computers and connected analytical equipment utilized in nuclear processes controls. The intent is to capture information as close to the sensor point as possible to assure the highest possible confidence in the branched data. Data must be collected transparently by the EDAS: Operator processes should not be altered or disrupted by the insertion of the EDAS as a monitoring system for safeguards. EDAS employs public key authentication providing 'jointly verifiable' data and private key encryption for confidentiality. Timestamps and data source are also added to the collected data for analysis. The core of the system hardware is in a security enclosure with both active and passive tamper indication. Further, the system has the ability to monitor seals or other security devices in close proximity. This paper will discuss the EDAS concept, recent technical developments, intended application philosophy and the planned future progression of this system.

  10. System and method for authentication of goods

    DOEpatents

    Kaish, Norman; Fraser, Jay; Durst, David I.

    1999-01-01

    An authentication system comprising a medium having a plurality of elements, the elements being distinctive, detectable and disposed in an irregular pattern or having an intrinsic irregularity. Each element is characterized by a determinable attribute distinct from a two-dimensional coordinate representation of simple optical absorption or simple optical reflection intensity. An attribute and position of the plurality of elements, with respect to a positional reference is detected. A processor generates an encrypted message including at least a portion of the attribute and position of the plurality of elements. The encrypted message is recorded in physical association with the medium. The elements are preferably dichroic fibers, and the attribute is preferably a polarization or dichroic axis, which may vary over the length of a fiber. An authentication of the medium based on the encrypted message may be authenticated with a statistical tolerance, based on a vector mapping of the elements of the medium, without requiring a complete image of the medium and elements to be recorded.

  11. Does Memory Modification Threaten Our Authenticity?

    PubMed

    Erler, Alexandre

    2011-11-01

    One objection to enhancement technologies is that they might lead us to live inauthentic lives. Memory modification technologies (MMTs) raise this worry in a particularly acute manner. In this paper I describe four scenarios where the use of MMTs might be said to lead to an inauthentic life. I then undertake to justify that judgment. I review the main existing accounts of authenticity, and present my own version of what I call a "true self" account (intended as a complement, rather than a substitute, to existing accounts). I briefly describe current and prospective MMTs, distinguishing between memory enhancement and memory editing. Moving then to an assessment of the initial scenarios in the light of the accounts previously described, I argue that memory enhancement does not, by its very nature, raise serious concerns about authenticity. The main threat to authenticity posed by MMTs comes, I suggest, from memory editing. Rejecting as inadequate the worries about identity raised by the President's Council on Bioethics in Beyond Therapy, I argue instead that memory editing can cause us to live an inauthentic life in two main ways: first, by threatening its truthfulness, and secondly, by interfering with our disposition to respond in certain ways to some past events, when we have reasons to respond in such ways. This consideration allows us to justify the charge of inauthenticity in cases where existing accounts fail. It also gives us a significant moral reason not to use MMTs in ways that would lead to such an outcome.

  12. Digital Camera with Apparatus for Authentication of Images Produced from an Image File

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Gary L. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A digital camera equipped with a processor for authentication of images produced from an image file taken by the digital camera is provided. The digital camera processor has embedded therein a private key unique to it, and the camera housing has a public key that is so uniquely related to the private key that digital data encrypted with the private key may be decrypted using the public key. The digital camera processor comprises means for calculating a hash of the image file using a predetermined algorithm, and second means for encrypting the image hash with the private key, thereby producing a digital signature. The image file and the digital signature are stored in suitable recording means so they will be available together. Apparatus for authenticating the image file as being free of any alteration uses the public key for decrypting the digital signature, thereby deriving a secure image hash identical to the image hash produced by the digital camera and used to produce the digital signature. The authenticating apparatus calculates from the image file an image hash using the same algorithm as before. By comparing this last image hash with the secure image hash, authenticity of the image file is determined if they match. Other techniques to address time-honored methods of deception, such as attaching false captions or inducing forced perspectives, are included.

  13. A Selective Group Authentication Scheme for IoT-Based Medical Information System.

    PubMed

    Park, YoHan; Park, YoungHo

    2017-04-01

    The technology of IoT combined with medical systems is expected to support advanced medical services. However, unsolved security problems, such as misuse of medical devices, illegal access to the medical server and so on, make IoT-based medical systems not be applied widely. In addition, users have a high burden of computation to access Things for the explosive growth of IoT devices. Because medical information is critical and important, but users have a restricted computing power, IoT-based medical systems are required to provide secure and efficient authentication for users. In this paper, we propose a selective group authentication scheme using Shamir's threshold technique. The property of selectivity gives the right of choice to users to form a group which consists of things users select and access. And users can get an access authority for those Things at a time. Thus, our scheme provides an efficient user authentication for multiple Things and conditional access authority for safe IoT-based medical information system. To the best of our knowledge, our proposed scheme is the first in which selectivity is combined with group authentication in IoT environments.

  14. Secure biometric image sensor and authentication scheme based on compressed sensing.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Masamichi; Urabe, Takuya; Obi, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    2013-11-20

    It is important to ensure the security of biometric authentication information, because its leakage causes serious risks, such as replay attacks using the stolen biometric data, and also because it is almost impossible to replace raw biometric information. In this paper, we propose a secure biometric authentication scheme that protects such information by employing an optical data ciphering technique based on compressed sensing. The proposed scheme is based on two-factor authentication, the biometric information being supplemented by secret information that is used as a random seed for a cipher key. In this scheme, a biometric image is optically encrypted at the time of image capture, and a pair of restored biometric images for enrollment and verification are verified in the authentication server. If any of the biometric information is exposed to risk, it can be reenrolled by changing the secret information. Through numerical experiments, we confirm that finger vein images can be restored from the compressed sensing measurement data. We also present results that verify the accuracy of the scheme.

  15. Flexible thermal laminate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, F. S.; Sauers, D. G.

    1977-01-01

    Lightweight flexible laminate of interwoven conducting and insulating yarns, designed to provide localized controlled heating for propellant tanks on space vehicles, is useful for nonspace applications where weight, bulk, and flexibility are critical concerns.

  16. Flexibility and Muscular Strength.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell

    1988-01-01

    This definition of flexibility and muscular strength also explores their roles in overall physical fitness and focuses on how increased flexibility and muscular strength can help decrease or eliminate lower back pain. (CB)

  17. Flexibility and Muscular Strength.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell

    1988-01-01

    This definition of flexibility and muscular strength also explores their roles in overall physical fitness and focuses on how increased flexibility and muscular strength can help decrease or eliminate lower back pain. (CB)

  18. The authentic worker's well-being and performance: the relationship between authenticity at work, well-being, and work outcomes.

    PubMed

    van den Bosch, Ralph; Taris, Toon W

    2014-01-01

    Previous research on authenticity has mainly focused on trait conceptualizations of authenticity (e.g., Wood et al., 2008), whereas in specific environments (e.g., at work) state conceptualizations of authenticity (cf. Van den Bosch & Taris, 2013) are at least as relevant. For example, working conditions are subject to change, and this could well have consequences for employees' perceived level of authenticity at work. The current study employs a work-specific, state-like conceptualization of authenticity to investigate the relations between authenticity at work, well-being, and work outcomes. A series of ten separate hierarchical regression analyses using data from 685 participants indicated that after controlling for selected work characteristics and demographic variables, authenticity at work accounted for on average 11% of the variance of various wellbeing and work outcomes. Of the three subscales of authenticity at work (i.e., authentic living, self-alienation, and accepting influence), self-alienation was the strongest predictor of outcomes, followed by authentic living and accepting external influence, respectively. These findings are discussed in the light of their practical and theoretical implications.

  19. Thinking about Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villa, Mario Diaz

    2009-01-01

    This article emphasizes the complexity of the term flexibility and discusses its meanings and political dimensions, along with its expressions or realizations within the field of higher education. It proposes a new principle of flexibility that overcomes an understanding of flexibility within higher education as the mere ability or versatility to…

  20. Thinking about Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villa, Mario Diaz

    2009-01-01

    This article emphasizes the complexity of the term flexibility and discusses its meanings and political dimensions, along with its expressions or realizations within the field of higher education. It proposes a new principle of flexibility that overcomes an understanding of flexibility within higher education as the mere ability or versatility to…

  1. Semantics, Psychometrics, and Assessment Reform: A Close Look at "Authentic" Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terwilliger, James

    1997-01-01

    Questions the claims by advocates of educational assessment reform, highlighting the work of Wiggins, who introduced authentic assessment. Discusses the origins of authentic tests, authenticity and validity, and assessment and educational philosophy, concluding that promotion of authentic assessment is flawed because "authentic" is misleading, and…

  2. An improved authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jianghong; Hu, Xuexian; Liu, Wenfen

    2012-12-01

    The telecare medicine information system enables or supports health-care delivery services. In order to safeguard patients' privacy, such as telephone number, medical record number, health information, etc., a secure authentication scheme will thus be in demand. Recently, Wu et al. proposed a smart card based password authentication scheme for the telecare medicine information system. Later, He et al. pointed out that Wu et al.'s scheme could not resist impersonation attacks and insider attacks, and then presented a new scheme. In this paper, we show that both of them fail to achieve two-factor authentication as smart card based password authentication schemes should achieve. We also propose an improved authentication scheme for the telecare medicine information system, and demonstrate that the improved one satisfies the security requirements of two-factor authentication and is also efficient.

  3. Identity-Based Authenticated Key Agreement Protocols without Bilinear Pairings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xuefei; Kou, Weidong; Yu, Yong; Sun, Rong

    This letter proposes an identity-based authenticated key agreement protocol. Different from available comparable ones, the new protocol realizes implicit authentication without bilinear pairings which makes it more efficient. The security of proposed protocol can be reduced to the standard Computational Diffie-Hellman problem. Two variants of the protocol are also given, with one achieving the security-efficiency trade-off and the other providing authenticated key agreement between users of different domains.

  4. Continuous-variable quantum identity authentication based on quantum teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hongxin; Huang, Peng; Bao, Wansu; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-06-01

    A continuous-variable quantum identity authentication protocol, which is based on quantum teleportation, is presented by employing two-mode squeezed vacuum state and coherent state. The proposed protocol can verify user's identity efficiently with a new defined fidelity parameter. Update of authentication key can also be implemented in our protocol. Moreover, the analysis shows its feasibility and security under the general Gaussian-cloner attack on authentication key, which is guaranteed by quantum entanglement, insertion of decoy state and random displacement.

  5. Ninth Grade Student Responses to Authentic Science Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, Michael Steven

    This mixed methods case study documents an effort to implement authentic science and engineering instruction in one teacher's ninth grade science classrooms in a science-focused public school. The research framework and methodology is a derivative of work developed and reported by Newmann and others (Newmann & Associates, 1996). Based on a working definition of authenticity, data were collected for eight months on the authenticity in the experienced teacher's pedagogy and in student performance. Authenticity was defined as the degree to which a classroom lesson, an assessment task, or an example of student performance demonstrates construction of knowledge through use of the meaning-making processes of science and engineering, and has some value to students beyond demonstrating success in school (Wehlage et al., 1996). Instruments adapted for this study produced a rich description of the authenticity of the teacher's instruction and student performance. The pedagogical practices of the classroom teacher were measured as moderately authentic on average. However, the authenticity model revealed the teacher's strategy of interspersing relatively low authenticity instructional units focused on building science knowledge with much higher authenticity tasks requiring students to apply these concepts and skills. The authenticity of the construction of knowledge and science meaning-making processes components of authentic pedagogy were found to be greater, than the authenticity of affordances for students to find value in classroom activities beyond demonstrating success in school. Instruction frequently included one aspect of value beyond school, connections to the world outside the classroom, but students were infrequently afforded the opportunity to present their classwork to audiences beyond the teacher. When the science instruction in the case was measured to afford a greater level of authentic intellectual work, a higher level of authentic student performance on

  6. Review: DNA Barcoding and Chromatography Fingerprints for the Authentication of Botanicals in Herbal Medicinal Products

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In the last two decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the global use of herbal medicinal products (HMPs) due to their claimed health benefits. This has led to increase in their demand and consequently, also, resulted in massive adulteration. This is due to the fact that most of the traditional methods cannot identify closely related species in a process product form. Therefore the urgent need for simple and rapid identification methods resulted in the discovery of a novel technique. DNA barcoding is a process that uses short DNA sequence from the standard genome for species identification. This technique is reliable and is not affected by external factors such as climates, age, or plant part. The difficulties in isolation of DNA of high quality in addition to other factors are among the challenges encountered using the DNA barcoding in the authentication of HMP. These limitations indicated that using DNA barcoding alone may ineffectively authenticate the HMP. Therefore, the combination of DNA barcoding with chromatographic fingerprint, a popular and generally accepted technique for the assessment and quality control of HMP, will offer an efficient solution to effectively evaluate the authenticity and quality consistency of HMP. Detailed and quality information about the main composition of the HMPs will help to ascertain their efficacy and safety as these are very important for quality control. PMID:28536641

  7. Greek PDO saffron authentication studies using species specific molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Bosmali, I; Ordoudi, S A; Tsimidou, M Z; Madesis, P

    2017-10-01

    Saffron, the spice produced from the red stigmas of the flower of Crocus sativus L. is a frequent target of fraud and mislabeling practices that cannot be fully traced using the ISO 3632 trade standard specifications and test methods. A molecular approach is proposed herein as a promising branding strategy for the authentication of highly esteemed saffron brands such as the Greek Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) "Krokos Kozanis". Specific ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat) markers were used to assess for the first time, the within species variability of several populations of C. sativus L. from the cultivation area of "Krokos Kozanis" as well as the potential differences with the band pattern produced by other Crocus species. Then, species-specific markers were developed taking advantage of an advanced molecular technique such as the HRM analysis coupled with universal DNA barcoding regions (trnL) (Bar-HRM) and applied to saffron admixtures with some of the most common plant adulterants (Calendula officinalis, Carthamus tinctorius, Gardenia jasminoides, Zea mays and Curcuma longa). The sensitivity of the procedure was tested for turmeric as a case study whereas HPLC-fluorescence determination of secondary metabolites was also employed for comparison. The overall results indicated that the Bar-HRM approach is quite effective in terms of specificity and sensitivity. Its effectiveness regarding the detection of turmeric was comparable to that of a conventional HPLC method (0.5% vs 1.0%, w/w). Yet, the proposed DNA-based method is much faster, cost-effective and can be used even by non-geneticists, in any laboratory having access to an HRM-capable real-time PCR instrumentation. It can be, thus, regarded as a strong analytical tool in saffron authentication studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Teachers doing science: An authentic geology research experience for teachers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemler, D.; Repine, T.

    2006-01-01

    Fairmont State University (FSU) and the West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey (WVGES) provided a small pilot group of West Virginia science teachers with a professional development session designed to mimic experiences obtained by geology majors during a typical summer field camp. Called GEOTECH, the program served as a research capstone event complimenting the participants' multi-year association with the RockCamp professional development program. GEOTECH was funded through a Improving Teacher Quality Grant administered by West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission. Over the course of three weeks, eight GEOTEACH participants learned field measurement and field data collection techniques which they then applied to the construction of a surficial geologic map. The program exposed participants to authentic scientific processes by emphasizing the authentic scientific application of content knowledge. As a secondary product, it also enhanced their appreciation of the true nature of science in general and geology particular. After the session, a new appreciation of the effort involved in making a geologic map emerged as tacit knowledge ready to be transferred to their students. The program was assessed using pre/post instruments, cup interviews, journals, artifacts (including geologic maps, field books, and described sections), performance assessments, and constructed response items. Evaluation of the accumulated data revealed an increase in participants demonstrated use of science content knowledge, an enhanced awareness and understanding of the processes and nature of geologic mapping, positive dispositions toward geologic research and a high satisfaction rating for the program. These findings support the efficacy of the experience and document future programmatic enhancements.

  9. Leveraging Experiential Learning Techniques for Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Nate; Sibthorp, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Experiential learning techniques can be helpful in fostering learning transfer. Techniques such as project-based learning, reflective learning, and cooperative learning provide authentic platforms for developing rich learning experiences. In contrast to more didactic forms of instruction, experiential learning techniques foster a depth of learning…

  10. Leveraging Experiential Learning Techniques for Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Nate; Sibthorp, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Experiential learning techniques can be helpful in fostering learning transfer. Techniques such as project-based learning, reflective learning, and cooperative learning provide authentic platforms for developing rich learning experiences. In contrast to more didactic forms of instruction, experiential learning techniques foster a depth of learning…

  11. Self-authentication of value documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayosh, Thomas D.

    1998-04-01

    To prevent fraud it is critical to distinguish an authentic document from a counterfeit or altered document. Most current technologies rely on difficult-to-print human detectable features which are added to a document to prevent illegal reproduction. Fraud detection is mostly accomplished by human observation and is based upon the examiner's knowledge, experience and time allotted for examination of a document. Another approach to increasing the security of a value document is to add a unique property to each document. Data about that property is then encoded on the document itself and finally secured using a public key based digital signature. In such a scheme, machine readability of authenticity is possible. This paper describes a patent-applied-for methodology using the unique property of magnetic ink printing, magnetic remanence, that provides for full self- authentication when used with a recordable magnetic stripe for storing a digital signature and other document data. Traditionally the authenticity of a document is determined by physical examination for color, background printing, paper texture, printing resolution, and ink characteristics. On an initial level, there may be numerous security features present on a value document but only a few can be detected and evaluated by the untrained individual. Because security features are normally not standardized except on currency, training tellers and cashiers to do extensive security evaluation is not practical, even though these people are often the only people who get a chance to closely examine the document in a payment system which is back-end automated. In the context of this paper, one should be thinking about value documents such as commercial and personal checks although the concepts presented here can easily be applied to travelers cheques, credit cards, event tickets, passports, driver's licenses, motor vehicle titles, and even currency. For a practical self-authentication system, the false alarms

  12. Philosophically Rooted Educational Authenticity as a Normative Ideal for Education: Is the International Baccalaureate's Primary Years Programme an Example of an Authentic Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lüddecke, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Whereas the importance of authenticity in relation to educational contexts has been highlighted, educational authenticity (EA) has mainly referred to a real-life/world convergence or the notion of teacher authenticity, implying that authenticity can be taught and learnt. This view, however, has largely overlooked philosophical considerations so…

  13. An Authentic Journey: Teachers' Emergent Understandings about Authentic Assessment and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einbender, Lynne; Wood, Diane

    As a challenge to traditional assessment, this paper describes how the work of a network of teachers to improve schooling through authentic assessment and practice may lead to a general reform of nearly all aspects of the educational enterprise. The paper springs from observation of participant teachers in the Four Seasons Project which is…

  14. Complementing Security Breach of Authentication by Using Shared Authentication Information in Mobile WiMAX Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngwook; Lim, Hyoung-Kyu; Bahk, Saewoong

    The signalling protocol vulnerability opens DDoS problem in Mobile WiMAX networks. This letter proposes an authentication method that uses the unrevealed upper 64bits of Cipher-based MAC as a solution. It runs for MSs in idle mode and reduces the calculation complexity by 59% under DDoS attack while incurring 1% overhead under normal condition.

  15. Efficient Provider Authentication for Bidirectional Broadcasting Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtake, Go; Hanaoka, Goichiro; Ogawa, Kazuto

    Provider authentication is necessary in bidirectional broadcasting services, and a digital signature scheme is often used to prevent an adversary from attempting impersonation. The cost of secure signing key management is extremely high. In addition, the key has to be updated very often, since it is frequently used. The result is that the verification key also has to be updated very often, and its redistribution cost is huge. These costs are real and substantive problems, especially when the number of users is large. In this paper, we propose a system that dramatically reduces these costs. In the system, the signing key is updated, but the corresponding verification key does not have to be updated. This means that the signing key can be updated without any cost for redistributing the verification key and that the system is secure against the threat of signing key leakage, since the key can be frequently updated. Moreover, we propose a new key management method that divides a conventional key management server's role into two. The use of a key-insulated signature (KIS) scheme enables low-cost and more secure key management with two servers. Finally, to make a bidirectional broadcasting service more secure even if the signing key is leaked, we developed a new strong KIS scheme. We performed an experiment that assessed the cost of our strong KIS scheme and found that it is sufficiently low. Accordingly, a provider authentication system employing this scheme would be more efficient and would have lower key redistribution and network costs in comparison with conventional authentication systems.

  16. Beating the forger: authenticating ceramic antiquities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoneham, Doreen; Stoneham, Marshall

    2010-09-01

    Today's forger may have skills to match the artists and craftsmen of the past. But can they be exposed by scientific methods? Ceramic antiquities - including pottery, porcelains, and bronzes with a casting core - have long been valued, and demonstrable antiquity is crucial. Thermoluminescence provides key evidence as to when the object was fired. We describe the basic ideas, the methods themselves, and some of the potential limitations. Examples illustrate the remarkable ingenuity of forgers, who are making determined efforts to beat the physics-based tests of authenticity.

  17. Authenticating concealed private data while maintaining concealment

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Edward V.; Draelos, Timothy J.

    2007-06-26

    A method of and system for authenticating concealed and statistically varying multi-dimensional data comprising: acquiring an initial measurement of an item, wherein the initial measurement is subject to measurement error; applying a transformation to the initial measurement to generate reference template data; acquiring a subsequent measurement of an item, wherein the subsequent measurement is subject to measurement error; applying the transformation to the subsequent measurement; and calculating a Euclidean distance metric between the transformed measurements; wherein the calculated Euclidean distance metric is identical to a Euclidean distance metric between the measurement prior to transformation.

  18. Graph state-based quantum authentication scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Longxia; Peng, Xiaoqi; Shi, Jinjing; Guo, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Inspired by the special properties of the graph state, a quantum authentication scheme is proposed in this paper, which is implemented with the utilization of the graph state. Two entities, a reliable party, Trent, as a verifier and Alice as prover are included. Trent is responsible for registering Alice in the beginning and confirming Alice in the end. The proposed scheme is simple in structure and convenient to realize in the realistic physical system due to the use of the graph state in a one-way quantum channel. In addition, the security of the scheme is extensively analyzed and accordingly can resist the general individual attack strategies.

  19. Robust and efficient biometrics based password authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems using extended chaotic maps.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanrong; Li, Lixiang; Peng, Haipeng; Xie, Dong; Yang, Yixian

    2015-06-01

    The Telecare Medicine Information Systems (TMISs) provide an efficient communicating platform supporting the patients access health-care delivery services via internet or mobile networks. Authentication becomes an essential need when a remote patient logins into the telecare server. Recently, many extended chaotic maps based authentication schemes using smart cards for TMISs have been proposed. Li et al. proposed a secure smart cards based authentication scheme for TMISs using extended chaotic maps based on Lee's and Jiang et al.'s scheme. In this study, we show that Li et al.'s scheme has still some weaknesses such as violation the session key security, vulnerability to user impersonation attack and lack of local verification. To conquer these flaws, we propose a chaotic maps and smart cards based password authentication scheme by applying biometrics technique and hash function operations. Through the informal and formal security analyses, we demonstrate that our scheme is resilient possible known attacks including the attacks found in Li et al.'s scheme. As compared with the previous authentication schemes, the proposed scheme is more secure and efficient and hence more practical for telemedical environments.

  20. Large planar maneuvers for articulated flexible manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Jen-Kuang; Yang, Li-Farn

    1988-01-01

    An articulated flexible manipulator carried on a translational cart is maneuvered by an active controller to perform certain position control tasks. The nonlinear dynamics of the articulated flexible manipulator are derived and a transformation matrix is formulated to localize the nonlinearities within the inertia matrix. Then a feedback linearization scheme is introduced to linearize the dynamic equations for controller design. Through a pole placement technique, a robust controller design is obtained by properly assigning a set of closed-loop desired eigenvalues to meet performance requirements. Numerical simulations for the articulated flexible manipulators are given to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed position control algorithms.