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Sample records for flexible long-reach manipulators

  1. Telerobotic operation of structurally flexible, long-reach manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, D.S.; Hwang, D.H.; Babcock, S.M.

    1994-09-01

    As a part of the Department of Energy`s Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program, long-reach manipulators are being considered for the retrieval of waste from large storage tanks. Long-reach manipulators may have characteristics significantly different from those of typical industrial robots because of the flexibility of long links needed to cover the large workspace. To avoid structural vibrations during operation, control algorithms employing various types of shaping filters were investigated. A new approach that uses embedded simulation was developed and compared with others. In the new approach, generation of joint trajectories considering link flexibility was also investigated.

  2. Input shaping methods for telerobotic operation of flexible, long-reach manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Dong-Soo; Hwang, Dong-Hwan; Babcock, S.M.

    1994-09-01

    Among the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program of the U.S. Department of Energy, the remediation of radioactive waste from the underground storage tank challenges the state-of-the-art equipment and methods. Long-reach manipulators are being considered to be one of the most advantageous approaches for the retrieval of waste from large storage tanks. Because of long-reach manipulator`s high payload capacity and high length-to-cross-section ratios, such manipulator system exhibits significant structural flexibility. To avoid structural vibrations during operation, control algorithms employing various types of shaping filters were investigated. A robust notch filtering method and an impulse shaping method were evaluated. In addition to that, a new approach that uses imbedded simulation was developed and compared with others. In the new approach, joint trajectories have been generated considering the flexible link dynamics.

  3. Control issues related to bilateral teleoperation of long-reach, flexible manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Love, L.J.

    1997-02-01

    A challenging problem presently being addressed by the Department of Energy (DOE) is the extraction of large volumes of hazardous waste from underground waste storage facilities. The nature of the material requires the use of robotic and teleoperated systems. Furthermore, the constraints of the storage tanks require the use of long reach manipulators. These robots are characterized by their large workspace and reduced mass. Unfortunately, this reduction in mass increases structural compliance, making these robots susceptible to vibration. Until recently, no attempt has been made to provide the operator any type of force reflection due to the compliance of the slave robot. This paper addresses the control of bilateral teleoperation systems that use long-reach, flexible manipulators. Analysis and experiments show that the compliance of the slave robot directly affects the stability of the teleoperation system. This study suggests that this may be controlled by increasing the damping on the master robot. However, this increase in target damping increases the energy an operator must exert during the execution of a task. A new teleoperation strategy adapts the target impedance of the master robot to variations in the identified impedance of the remote environment coupled to the slave robot. Experiments show increased performance due to a decrease in the energy the operator must provide during task execution.

  4. Input shaping filter methods for the control of structurally flexible, long-reach manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Dong-Soo; Hwang, Dong-Hwan; Babcock, S.M.; Burks, B.L.

    1993-11-01

    Within the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program of the US Department of Energy, the remediation of single-shell radioactive waste storage tanks is one of the areas that challenge state-of-the-art equipment and methods. Concepts that utilize long-reach manipulators are being seriously considered for this task. Due to high payload capacity and high length-to-cross-section ratio requirements, these long-reach manipulator systems are expected to exhibit significant structural flexibility. To avoid structural vibrations during operation, various types of shaping filter methods have been investigated. A robust notch filtering method and an impulse shaping method were used as simulation benchmarks. In addition to that, two very different approaches have been developed and compared. One new approach, referred to as a ``feedforward simulation filter,`` uses imbedded simulation with complete knowledge of the system dynamics. The other approach, ``fuzzy shaping method,`` employs a fuzzy logic method to modify the joint trajectory from the desired end-position trajectory without precise knowledge of the system dynamics.

  5. On stiffening cables of a long reach manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.L.; Santiago, P.

    1996-02-01

    A long reach manipulator will be used for waste remediation in large underground storage tanks. The manipulator`s slenderness makes it flexible and difficult to control. A low-cost and effective method to enhance the manipulator`s stiffness is proposed in this research by using suspension cables. These cables can also be used to accurately measure the position of the manipulator`s wrist.

  6. Key design requirements for long-reach manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, D.S.; March-Leuba, S.; Babcock, S.M.; Hamel, W.R.

    1993-09-01

    Long-reach manipulators differ from industrial robots and teleoperators typically used in the nuclear industry in that the aspect ratio (length to diameter) of links is much greater and link flexibility, as well as joint or drive train flexibility, is likely to be significant. Long-reach manipulators will be required for a variety of applications in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. While each application will present specific functional kinematic, and performance requirements an approach for determining the kinematic applicability and performance characteristics is presented, with a focus on waste storage tank remediation. Requirements are identified, kinematic configurations are considered, and a parametric study of link design parameters and their effects on performance characteristics is presented.

  7. Key Design Requirements for Long-Reach Manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    Long-reach manipulators differ from industrial robots and teleoperators typically used in the nuclear industry in that the aspect ratio (length to diameter) of links is much greater and link flexibility, as well as joint or drive train flexibility, is likely to be significant. Long-reach manipulators will be required for a variety of applications in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. While each application will present specific functional, kinematic, and performance requirements, an approach for determining the kinematic applicability and performance characteristics is presented, with a focus on waste storage tank remediation. Requirements are identified, kinematic configurations are considered, and a parametric study of link design parameters and their effects on performance characteristics is presented.

  8. Control of a long reach manipulator with suspension cables for waste storage tank remediation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.L.

    1994-12-30

    A long reach manipulator will be used for waste remediation in large underground storage tanks. The manipulator`s slenderness makes it flexible and difficult to control. A low-cost and effective method to enhance the manipulator`s stiffness is proposed in this research by using suspension cables. These cables can also be used to accurately measure the position of the manipulator`s wrist.

  9. Defining a controller architecture for the Long-Reach Manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, W.E.

    1994-06-01

    To draft a procurement specification for the Long-Reach Manipulator (LRM), the benefits and limitations of the various robotic control system architectures available need to be determined. This report identifies and describes the advantages and potential disadvantages of using an open control system versus a closed (or proprietary) system, focusing on integration of interfaces for sensors, end effectors, tooling, and operator interfaces. In addition, the various controls methodologies of several recent systems are described. Finally, the reasons behind the recommendation to procure an open control system are discussed.

  10. Combined long reach and dexterous manipulation for waste storage tank applications

    SciTech Connect

    Burks, B.L.; Armstrong, G.A.; Butler, P.L. ); Boissiere, P. )

    1991-01-01

    One of the highest priority environmental restoration tasks within the Department of Energy (DOE) is the remediation of single-shell waste storage tanks (WSTs), especially those suspected of, or documented as, leakers. Most currently proposed approaches for remediation of large underground WSTs require application of remotely operated long-reach (greater than 10 m), high-lift capacity (greater than 200 kg) manipulator systems. Because of the complexity of in-tank hardware, waste forms, remediation tasks, and variety of end-effector tools, these manipulator systems must also be capable of performing a diverse set of dexterous manipulations. This presentation will describe the integration of a Spar RMS 2500 manipulator system, a Schilling Titan-7F manipulator, and control systems developed at ORNL and SNL to provide a combined long reach and dexterous manipulation system. The purpose of integrating these two manipulator systems was to study and demonstrate their combined performance, evaluate design requirements for a deployed system, and provide a testbed for control and end-effector technologies that might be applicable to remediation of WSTs. 5 refs.

  11. Positional control strategies for a modular, long-reach, truss-type manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salerno, Robert James

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a new type of modular, long-reach, truss type manipulator. Variable Geometry Trusses (VGT's) are used to construct a reconfigurable manipulator system in which all primary members are loaded in pure tension or compression. Each module of the manipulator system is either a static truss link or one of several possible VGT actuators. This results in an extremely stiff and strong manipulator system with minimal overall weight. While many potential applications exist for this technology, the present work was largely motivated by the need for a robotic waste remediation system for underground radioactive waste storage tanks. This new manipulator system provides several advantages when used for this application. The reconfigurable nature of the proposed system allows the manipulator to be adapted on site to unforeseen conditions. Additionally, the kinematic redundancy of the manipulator ensures that solutions can be accomplished even in a highly obstructed workspace. The parallel structure of the truss modules enables the manipulator to be withdrawn in the event of a structural failure. Finally, of particular importance to this task, the open framework of the modules provide a passageway for waste conveyance or additionally, could act as a shielded conduit for control and power cabling. Kinematic analysis algorithms tailored to address the peculiarities of this new manipulator system have also been developed. In this work, the kinematic redundancy of the system is exploited to provide alternative solutions, to avoid numerical difficulties at singularities, or to avoid workspace obstacles. These issues are addressed through a combination of null space optimization procedures and order reduction methods. The null space optimization procedures are accomplished by extracting information from a full singular value decomposition of the jacobian matrix. This method is shown to converge quickly, even for systems with thirty or more degrees of freedom

  12. Impact of access port diameter on the long reach manipulator design

    SciTech Connect

    Stoughton, R.S.

    1994-04-01

    Many of the single shell storage tanks (SSTs) on the Hanford site appear to have central 42-in. risers which could be used as access ports for the Long Reach Manipulator (LRM). However, about half of the tanks are known to not have a central 42-in. riser and it has recently been discovered that of the tanks whose drawings indicate central 42-in. risers, the majority have been plugged, sealed, or taper down to a much smaller diameter at ground level. Thus, it can be assumed that a central access port for the LRM will have to be made. There are many issues involved in determining the best diameter for this access port such as radiation exposure, contamination prevention, and availability of remote excavation technology. This report analyzes the relationship between the access port diameter and the performance characteristics of the LRM. Previous work has assumed that the mast diameter would be 80% of the access port diameter. In this report, the maximum mast diameter will be varied rather than the access port diameter, leaving the issue of the required clearance between the mast and the access port open.

  13. Application of a Novel Long-Reach Manipulator Concept to Asteroid Redirect Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsey, John T.; Doggett, William R.; Jones, Thomas C.; King, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    A high priority mission currently being formulated by NASA is to capture all or part of an asteroid and return it to cis-lunar space for examination by an astronaut crew. Two major mission architectures are currently being considered: in the first (Mission Concept A), a spacecraft would rendezvous and capture an entire free flying asteroid (up to 14 meters in diameter), and in the second (Mission Concept B), a spacecraft would rendezvous with a large asteroid (which could include one of the Martian moons) and retrieve a boulder (up to 4 meters in diameter). A critical element of the mission is the system that will capture the asteroid or boulder material, enclose it and secure it for the return flight. This paper describes the design concepts, concept of operations, structural sizing and masses of capture systems that are based on a new and novel Tendon- Actuated Lightweight In-Space MANipulator (TALISMAN) general-purpose robotic system. Features of the TALISMAN system are described and the status of its technology development is summarized. TALISMAN-based asteroid material retrieval system concepts and concepts-of-operations are defined for each asteroid mission architecture. The TALISMAN-based capture systems are shown to dramatically increase operational versatility while reducing mission risk. Total masses of TALISMAN-based systems are presented, reinforcing the mission viability of using a manipulator-based approach for the asteroid redirect mission.

  14. Symbolic modeling of flexible manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cetinkunt, Sabri; Book, Wayne J.

    1987-01-01

    An algorithm is presented to symbolically derive the full nonlinear dynamic equations of motion of multilink flexible manipulators. Lagrange's assumed modes method is the basis of new algorithm and adapted in a way suitable for symbolic manipulation by digital computers. It is applied to model a two-link flexible arm by means of a commercially available symbolic manipulation program. The advantages of the algorithm and simulation results are discussed.

  15. Damping control of a large flexible manipulator through inertial forces of a small manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Trudnowski, D.J.; Baker, C.P.; Evans, M.S.

    1993-06-01

    Damping control is applied to a detailed computer model of a long- reach flexible manipulator test bed. The test bed consists of a long slender link with a dexterous manipulator mounted at its tip. The movement of the dexterous manipulator is controlled to create inertial damping forces on the long link. Parameter identification and sequential loop-closure are used to design a controller that feeds back relative tip position and velocity of the long link to control the azimuth angle of the dexterous manipulator. The controller is designed to be robust to varying manipulator loading conditions and reliable under sensor failures.

  16. Design and experimental evaluation of flexible manipulator control algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, D.S.; Hwang, D.H.; Babcock, S.M.; Kress, R.L.; Lew, J.Y.; Evans, M.S.

    1995-04-01

    Within the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program of the US Department of Energy, the remediation of single-shell radioactive waste storage tanks is one of the areas that challenge state-of-the-art equipment and methods. The use of long-reach manipulators is being seriously considered for this task. Because of high payload capacity and high length-to-cross-section ratio requirements, these long-reach manipulator systems are expected to use hydraulic actuators and to exhibit significant structural flexibility. The controller has been designed to compensate for the hydraulic actuator dynamics by using a load-compensated velocity feedforward loop and to increase the bandwidth by using an inner pressure feedback loop. Shaping filter techniques have been applied as feedforward controllers to avoid structural vibrations during operation. Various types of shaping filter methods have been investigated. Among them, a new approach, referred to as a ``feedforward simulation filter`` that uses embedded simulation, has been presented.

  17. Tracking control of the hydraulically actuated flexible manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, D.S.; Babcock, S.M.; Burks, B.L.; Kress, R.L.

    1995-03-01

    The remediation of single-shell radioactive waste storage tanks is one of the urgent tasks of the Department of Energy that challenge state-of-the-art equipment and methods. The use of long-reach manipulators is being seriously considered for this remediation task. Because high payload capacity and high length-to-cross-section ratio requirements, these long-reach manipulator systems are expected to use hydraulic actuators and to exhibit significant structural flexibility. The controller has been designed to compensate for the hydraulic actuator dynamics by using a load-compensated velocity feedforward loop and to increase the bandwidth by using a pressure feed backloop. Shaping filter techniques have been applied as a feedforward controller to avoid structural vibrations during operation. Among various types of shaping filter methods investigated an approach, referred to as a ``feedforward simulation filter`` that uses embedded simulation, has been presented.

  18. Model reduction of flexible manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Xu, Yangsheng; Chen, C. S.

    1992-06-01

    Flexible manipulators can be characterized by a dynamic model with a large number of vibration modes, and the use of the model in the model-based control schemes requires reduction of model order. Balanced truncation is an effective method for model reduction of asymptotically stable systems by transforming the states to a coordinate system in which the controllability and observability Gramians are equal and diagonal, and eliminating the states which contribute weakly to the input-output map. An elastic flexible manipulator, however, is a marginally stable system and thus the balanced truncation method can not be directly applied. Herein, a method is presented of reducing the order of a marginally stable system based on the fact that translation transformations in the frequency domain preserve input-output properties of the system. The successful application is addressed of the method to model reduction of flexible manipulators with infinite-dimensional for finite-dimensional model. The method is also applicable for any other marginally stable model, such as elastic space trusswork and multi-dimensional space vehicle structure.

  19. Active damping in a flexible manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pham, Trung T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on active damping in a flexible manipulator are presented. Topics covered include: Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS); flexible structures; vibration; modeling of a flexible manipulator dynamical structure; designing control law criterion that minimizes vibration; and candidate application of fuzzy logic control law to the problem.

  20. Precise control of flexible manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, R. H., Jr.; Bindford, T. O.; Schmitz, E.

    1984-01-01

    The design and experimental testing of end point position controllers for a very flexible one link lightweight manipulator are summarized. The latest upgraded version of the experimental set up, and the basic differences between conventional joint angle feedback and end point position feedback are described. A general procedure for application of modern control methods to the problem is outlined. The relationship between weighting parameters and the bandwidth and control stiffness of the resulting end point position closed loop system is shown. It is found that joint rate angle feedback in addition to the primary end point position sensor is essential for adequate disturbance rejection capability of the closed loop system. The use of a low order multivariable compensator design computer code; called Sandy is documented. A solution to the problem of control mode switching between position sensor sets is outlined. The proof of concept for endpoint position feedback for a one link flexible manipulator was demonstrated. The bandwidth obtained with the experimental end point position controller is about twice as fast as the beam's first natural cantilevered frequency, and comes within a factor of four of the absolute physical speed limit imposed by the wave propagation time of the beam.

  1. Simulation and analysis of flexibly jointed manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Steve H.; Wen, John T.; Saridis, George M.

    1990-01-01

    Modeling, simulation, and analysis of robot manipulators with non-negligible joint flexibility are studied. A recursive Newton-Euler model of the flexibly jointed manipulator is developed with many advantages over the traditional Lagrange-Euler methods. The Newton-Euler approach leads to a method for the simulation of a flexibly jointed manipulator in which the number of computations grows linearly with the number of links. Additionally, any function for the flexibility between the motor and link may be used permitting the simulation of nonlinear effects, such as backlash, in a uniform manner for all joints. An analysis of the control problems for flexibly jointed manipulators is presented by converting the Newton-Euler model to a Lagrange-Euler form. The detailed structure available in the model is used to examine linearizing controllers and shows the dependency of the control on the choice of flexible model and structure of the manipulator.

  2. The effect of passive damping on feedback control performance of flexible manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, J.Y.; Evans, M.S.

    1994-06-01

    This paper discusses the effect of passive damping on long-reach manipulators. Specifically, this paper explains how the addition of structural damping affects the closed-loop system response of the manipulators. A single-link flexible manipulator is used to illustrate the effects of passive damping on the location of the system`s pole s and zeros. The corresponding performance of the system with modified pole/zero locations is discussed. The analysis is performed including colocated and noncolocated flexible-link manipulators.

  3. Large planar maneuvers for articulated flexible manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Jen-Kuang; Yang, Li-Farn

    1988-01-01

    An articulated flexible manipulator carried on a translational cart is maneuvered by an active controller to perform certain position control tasks. The nonlinear dynamics of the articulated flexible manipulator are derived and a transformation matrix is formulated to localize the nonlinearities within the inertia matrix. Then a feedback linearization scheme is introduced to linearize the dynamic equations for controller design. Through a pole placement technique, a robust controller design is obtained by properly assigning a set of closed-loop desired eigenvalues to meet performance requirements. Numerical simulations for the articulated flexible manipulators are given to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed position control algorithms.

  4. Large planar maneuvers for articulated flexible manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Jen-Kuang; Yang, Li-Farn; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1988-01-01

    An articulated flexible manipulator carried on a translational cart is maneuvered by an active controller to perform certain position control tasks. The nonlinear dynamics of the articulated flexible manipulator are derived and a transformation matrix is formulated to localize the nonlinearities in the inertia matrix. Then a feeback linearization scheme is introduced to linearize the dynamic equations for controller design. Through a pole placement technique, a robust controller design is obtained by properly assigning a set of closed-loop desired eigenvalues to meet performance requirements. Numerical simulations for the articulated flexible manipulators are given to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed position control algorithms.

  5. Large planar maneuvers for articulated flexible manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Jen-Kuang; Yang, Li-Farn; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1988-01-01

    An articulated flexible manipulator carried on a translational cart is maneuvered by an active controller to perform certain position control tasks. The nonlinear dynamics of the articulated flexible manipulator are derived and a transformation matrix is formulated to localize the nonlinearities in the inertia matrix. Then a feeback linearization scheme is introduced to linearize the dynamic equations for controller design. Through a pole placement technique, a robust controller design is obtained by properly assigning a set of closed-loop desired eigenvalues to meet performance requirements. Numerical simulations for the articulated flexible manipulators are given to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed position control algorithms.

  6. Precise control of flexible manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, R. H., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental apparatus were developed for physically testing control systems for pointing flexible structures, such as limber spacecraft, for the case that control actuators cannot be collocated with sensors. Structural damping ratios are less than 0.003, each basic configuration of sensor/actuator noncollocation is available, and inertias can be halved or doubled abruptly during control maneuvers, thereby imposing, in particular, a sudden reversal in the plant's pole-zero sequence. First experimental results are presented, including stable control with both collocation and noncollocation.

  7. Position control of robot manipulators manipulating a flexible payload

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, D.; Mills, J.K.; Liu, Y.

    1999-03-01

    Robotic manipulation of a flexible payload is a complex and challenging control problem. This paper demonstrates from both theoretical and experimental perspectives that through proper design of the control gains, the simple scheme of PD plus gravity compensation can control a flexible payload manipulated by multiple robots to a desired position/orientation while damping the vibrations of the payload at each contact. The suppression of the vibration at each contact is helpful to suppress all vibrations of the flexible body. If the payload has a large stiffness or small mass, the proposed scheme can regulate the deformations at the contacts to zero, and also, the offsets of all static deformations of the payload with reference to the original positions decay to zero. A clamped-free model is used to decompose the dynamics of the payload into two distinct dynamic subsystems. This allows them to treat these dynamic subsystems separately and prove that desired motion trajectories can be achieved with the proposed scheme. As an example, the experiment of manipulating a flexible sheet using two CRS A460 robots is further described.

  8. Dynamics And Control Of Flexible Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gawronski, Wodek K.; Ih, Che-Hang C.; Wang, Shyh J.

    1992-01-01

    Nonlinear equations solved with linear approximations applicable during small increments of time. Report presents theoretical study of selected aspects of dynamics and control of robotic manipulator that includes multiple flexible links. Addresses problem of control primarily from perspective of inverse-dynamics problem.

  9. Flexible manipulator control experiments and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yurkovich, S.; Ozguner, U.; Tzes, A.; Kotnik, P. T.

    1987-01-01

    Modeling and control design for flexible manipulators, both from an experimental and analytical viewpoint, are described. From the application perspective, an ongoing effort within the laboratory environment at the Ohio State University, where experimentation on a single link flexible arm is underway is described. Several unique features of this study are described here. First, the manipulator arm is slewed by a direct drive dc motor and has a rigid counterbalance appendage. Current experimentation is from two viewpoints: (1) rigid body slewing and vibration control via actuation with the hub motor, and (2) vibration suppression through the use of structure-mounted proof-mass actuation at the tip. Such an application to manipulator control is of interest particularly in design of space-based telerobotic control systems, but has received little attention to date. From an analytical viewpoint, parameter estimation techniques within the closed-loop for self-tuning adaptive control approaches are discussed. Also introduced is a control approach based on output feedback and frequency weighting to counteract effects of spillover in reduced-order model design. A model of the flexible manipulator based on experimental measurements is evaluated for such estimation and control approaches.

  10. Passivity analysis for flexible multilink space manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damaren, Christopher J.

    1995-03-01

    The important input-output property of passivity is explored for a general flexible space manipulator with chain topology. The manipulator is assumed to consist of rigid and/or flexible links interconnected via revolute joints, and a free rigid spacecraft and cantilevered payload are modeled at the base and tip, respectively. Actuation on the spacecraft and torques at the joints serve as control inputs and a suitably modified input variable is constructed. The notion of reflected tip position introduced by Wang and Vidyasagar for a single flexible link is extended to the multilink case and used to define a corresponding modified output variable. The dynamics governing the system are developed using a Lagrangian approach and both linearized and nonlinear forms of the mapping relating modified inputs to modified outputs are examined. Our major result shows that the transfer function in the linear case is positive real when the spacecraft and payload are much more massive than the manipulator links. The corresponding nonlinear analysis shows that the mapping is, in fact, passive and uncovers an approximate static relationship between the elastic coordinates and applied torques. A numerical example employing the Space Shuttle, remote manipulator system, and payload is used to demonstrate the validity of the theoretical results. Applications to control system design are indicated.

  11. Mathematical Modeling For Control Of A Flexible Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Anren

    1996-01-01

    Improved method of mathematical modeling of dynamics of flexible robotic manipulators developed for use in controlling motions of manipulators. Involves accounting for effect, upon modes of vibration of manipulator, of changes in configuration of manipulator and manipulated payload(s). Flexible manipulator has one or more long, slender articulated link(s), like those used in outer space, method also applicable to terrestrial industrial robotic manipulators with relatively short, stiff links, or to such terrestrial machines as construction cranes.

  12. Experimental verification of a large flexible manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jac Won; Huggins, James D.; Book, Wayne J.

    1988-01-01

    A large experimental lightweight manipulator would be useful for material handling, for welding, or for ultrasonic inspection of a large structure, such as an airframe. The flexible parallel link mechanism is designed for high rigidity without increasing weight. This constrained system is analyzed by singular value decomposition of the constraint Jacobian matrix. A verification of the modeling using the assumed mode method is presented. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the linearized model are compared to the measured system natural frequencies and their associated mode shapes. The modeling results for large motions are compared to the time response data from the experiments. The hydraulic actuator is verified.

  13. Experimental verification of a large flexible manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jac Won; Huggins, James D.; Book, Wayne J.

    1988-01-01

    A large experimental lightweight manipulator would be useful for material handling, for welding, or for ultrasonic inspection of a large structure, such as an airframe. The flexible parallel link mechanism is designed for high rigidity without increasing weight. This constrained system is analyzed by singular value decomposition of the constraint Jacobian matrix. A verification of the modeling using the assumed mode method is presented. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the linearized model are compared to the measured system natural frequencies and their associated mode shapes. The modeling results for large motions are compared to the time response data from the experiments. The hydraulic actuator is verified.

  14. Dynamics modeling and adaptive control of flexible manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasiadek, J. Z.

    1991-01-01

    An application of Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) to the position and force control of flexible manipulators and robots is presented. A single-link flexible manipulator is analyzed. The problem was to develop a mathematical model of a flexible robot that is accurate. The objective is to show that the adaptive control works better than 'conventional' systems and is suitable for flexible structure control.

  15. Capture of free-flying payloads with flexible space manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komatsu, T.; Uenohara, M.; Iikura, S.; Miura, H.; Shimoyama, I.

    1989-01-01

    A recently developed control system for capturing free-flying payloads with flexible manipulators is discussed. Three essential points in this control system are, calculating optimal path, using a vision sensor for an external sensor, and controlling active vibration. Experimental results are shown using a planar flexible manipulator.

  16. Adaptive control of a manipulator with a flexible link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Y. P.; Gibson, J. S.

    1988-01-01

    An adaptive controller for a manipulator with one rigid link and one flexible link is presented. The performance and robustness of the controller are demonstrated by numerical simulation results. In the simulations, the manipulator moves in a gravitational field and a finite element model represents the flexible link.

  17. Experiments in identification and control of flexible-link manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yurkovich, Stephen; Tzes, Anthony P.; Pacheco, Fernando E.

    1989-01-01

    Interest in the study of flexible-link manipulators for space-based applications has risen strongly in recent years. Moreover, numerous experimental results have appeared for the various problems in the modeling, identification and control of such systems. Nevertheless, relatively little literature has appeared involving laboratory verification of tuning controllers for certain types of realistic flexible-link manipulators. Specifically flexible-link manipulators which are required to maintain endpoint accuracy while manipulating loads that are possibly unknown and varying as they undergo disturbance effects from the environment and workspace. Endpoint position control of flexible-link manipulators in these areas are discussed, with laboratory setups consisting of one and two-link manipulators.

  18. Manipulator interactive design with interconnected flexible elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, R. P.; Likins, P. W.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an analysis tool for the interactive design of control systems for manipulators and similar electro-mechanical systems amenable to representation as structures in a topological chain. The chain consists of a series of elastic bodies subject to small deformations and arbitrary displacements. The bodies are connected by hinges which permit kinematic constraints, control, or relative motion with six degrees of freedom. The equations of motion for the chain configuration are derived via Kane's method, extended for application to interconnected flexible bodies with time-varying boundary conditions. A corresponding set of modal coordinates has been selected. The motion equations are imbedded within a simulation that transforms the vector-dyadic equations into scalar form for numerical integration. The simulation also includes a linear, time-invariant controler specified in transfer function format and a set of sensors and actuators that interface between the structure and controller. The simulation is driven by an interactive set-up program resulting in an easy-to-use analysis tool.

  19. Control of a flexible bracing manipulator: Integration of current research work to realize the bracing manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Dong-Soo

    1991-01-01

    All research results about flexible manipulator control were integrated to show a control scenario of a bracing manipulator. First, dynamic analysis of a flexible manipulator was done for modeling. Second, from the dynamic model, the inverse dynamic equation was derived, and the time domain inverse dynamic method was proposed for the calculation of the feedforward torque and the desired flexible coordinate trajectories. Third, a tracking controller was designed by combining the inverse dynamic feedforward control with the joint feedback control. The control scheme was applied to the tip position control of a single link flexible manipulator for zero and non-zero initial condition cases. Finally, the contact control scheme was added to the position tracking control. A control scenario of a bracing manipulator is provided and evaluated through simulation and experiment on a single link flexible manipulator.

  20. An inverse dynamic tracking control for bracing a flexible manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The goal of this research is to produce a braced manipulator that is flexible. In order to brace the manipulator against a surface, a tip position tracking control becomes essential to avoid large impacts on contact, and to control the force after contact. If we consider the characteristics of the flexible manipulator, the control task may be characterized as a tracking control of a nonlinear, noncolocated, nonminimum-phase system with uncertainties. First, the author introduces the staged positioning concept and provides a conceptual background for the bracing strategy. Second, a single link flexible manipulator is modeled by the assumed-modes method, and the validity of the model is verified with experimental results. Third, a time domain inverse dynamic method is proposed to cancel out the nonminimum-phase positive zeros which cannot be cancelled by feedback controls. Fourth, a tracking controller is designed to control the end point of a flexible manipulator without any overshoot or residual vibrations. Its perfect tracking or asymptotic tracking performance is analyzed and discussed for zero and non-zero initial condition cases. Finally, impact phenomena are investigated, and contact force control of a flexible bracing manipulator is presented to set up a control scenerio for such a manipulator. The proposed control scheme is implemented on a single link flexible manipulator, and analyzed and evaluated with simulations and experiments.

  1. Spatial-Operator Algebra For Flexible-Link Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Rodriguez, Guillermo

    1994-01-01

    Method of computing dynamics of multiple-flexible-link robotic manipulators based on spatial-operator algebra, which originally applied to rigid-link manipulators. Aspects of spatial-operator-algebra approach described in several previous articles in NASA Tech Briefs-most recently "Robot Control Based on Spatial-Operator Algebra" (NPO-17918). In extension of spatial-operator algebra to manipulators with flexible links, each link represented by finite-element model: mass of flexible link apportioned among smaller, lumped-mass rigid bodies, coupling of motions expressed in terms of vibrational modes. This leads to operator expression for modal-mass matrix of link.

  2. Controlling Flexible Manipulators, an Experimental Investigation. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, Gordon Greene

    1986-01-01

    Lightweight, slender manipulators offer faster response and/or greater workspace range for the same size actuators than tradional manipulators. Lightweight construction of manipulator links results in increased structural flexibility. The increase flexibility must be considered in the design of control systems to properly account for the dynamic flexible vibrations and static deflections. Real time control of the flexible manipulator vibrations are experimentally investigated. Models intended for real-time control of distributed parameter system such as flexible manipulators rely on model approximation schemes. An linear model based on the application of Lagrangian dynamics to a rigid body mode and a series of separable flexible modes is examined with respect to model order requirements, and modal candidate selection. Balanced realizations are applied to the linear flexible model to obtain an estimate of appropriate order for a selected model. Describing the flexible deflections as a linear combination of modes results in measurements of beam state, which yield information about several modes. To realize the potential of linear systems theory, knowledge of each state must be available. State estimation is also accomplished by implementation of a Kalman Filter. State feedback control laws are implemented based upon linear quadratic regulator design.

  3. Intelligent Control of Flexible-Joint Robotic Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colbaugh, R.; Gallegos, G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper considers the trajectory tracking problem for uncertain rigid-link. flexible.joint manipulators, and presents a new intelligent controller as a solution to this problem. The proposed control strategy is simple and computationally efficient, requires little information concerning either the manipulator or actuator/transmission models and ensures uniform boundedness of all signals and arbitrarily accurate task-space trajectory tracking.

  4. Force detecting gripper and flexible micro manipulator for neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Yoneyama, T; Watanabe, T; Kagawa, H; Hamada, J; Hayashi, Y; Nakada, M

    2011-01-01

    In order to realize a less invasive robotic neurosurgery for the deeply seated tumor, a force detecting gripper with a flexible micro manipulator has been developed. Gripping force applied on the gripper is detected by strain gages fit on the gripper clip. Signal is conducted to the amplifier by the cables through the inner pipe of the manipulator. In order to approach to the deeply seated tumor through a narrow hole, a micro manipulator which can flex at the end part to face the gripper for the target and can rotate the closing direction of the gripper at the end of the manipulator has been developed. Some operation test showed that the developed manipulator can approach flexibly to the target, and the taking out force of a target on the soft material was detected clearly.

  5. Control of a flexible bracing manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Dong-Soo

    1991-01-01

    Many applications of robotic manipulator arms require operation in contact and noncontact regimes. Control of impact between the arm's tip and the environment has been largely ignored in prior research. The impact phenomena was investigated through simulation and experiment for the realization of the bracing strategy, and the key factors of the behavior were understood well. The approaching velocity is dominant parameter for the magnitude of the impact force. The impact is also affected by the compliance of the environmental surface.

  6. Control of a flexible bracing manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Dong-Soo

    1991-01-01

    Many applications of robotic manipulator arms require operation in contact and noncontact regimes. Control of impact between the arm's tip and the environment has been largely ignored in prior research. The impact phenomena was investigated through simulation and experiment for the realization of the bracing strategy, and the key factors of the behavior were understood well. The approaching velocity is dominant parameter for the magnitude of the impact force. The impact is also affected by the compliance of the environmental surface.

  7. Impedance control of flexible macro/mini manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Heidi Christine

    Construction and maintenance of on-orbit crew-operated hardware is currently done mostly by extra-vehicular astronauts. Use of robotics for some of these tasks provides the opportunity for both increased safety for the astronauts and major cost savings. An effective space robotic manipulator must be lightweight, have a large workspace, and be capable of fine dexterous control. A large lightweight manipulator will necessarily be quite flexible, limiting the achievable end-point bandwidth. One way to achieve all of the objectives is via advanced control of a macro/mini manipulator: a large lightweight manipulator carrying a small dexterous manipulator, such as is planned for the International Space Station. The goal of this work is to control a flexible-joint macro carrying a two-arm mini manipulator. For ease of use, a low-level controller should be designed such that the user or automated planner need only command the desired end-point motions and forces. Designing an end-point controller for a macro/mini manipulator presents many challenges. Such a manipulator system is non-linear, has low frequency flexibility, and has dynamic coupling between the macro and mini. A smart method for controlling manipulators is impedance control, which specifies a desired force-velocity relationship at the end-point of the manipulator, enabling smooth contact with the environment. Using operational space control, the dynamics of the manipulator are transformed into operational coordinates for implementation of the impedance law. The operational space method also enables a secondary control of the redundant degrees of freedom, without degrading the end-point impedance task. This thesis presents new theoretical advances that enable extending the concepts of operational space and impedance control to redundant joint-flexible robots. Important advances include a new method for choosing the end-point impedance and a null-space controller that performs much better. The new control

  8. Fuzzy Control of Flexible-Link Manipulators: A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akbarzadeh-T, M.-R.; Quintana, S.; Jamshidi, M.

    1998-01-01

    Several recent research efforts are reviewed here which have applied fuzzy logic in control of flexible-link manipulators. A flexible robot is a distributed parameter system represented by complex nonlinear dynamics, its actuator and the control parameters are non-colocated, and lastly, unstructured/unknown parameters play a significant role in model dynamics of a flexible robot operating in the real world. As a result, control of flexible robots is considered a promising area for application of intelligent control methodologies such as fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms, and neural networks.

  9. Fuzzy Control of Flexible-Link Manipulators: A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akbarzadeh-T, M.-R.; Quintana, S.; Jamshidi, M.

    1998-01-01

    Several recent research efforts are reviewed here which have applied fuzzy logic in control of flexible-link manipulators. A flexible robot is a distributed parameter system represented by complex nonlinear dynamics, its actuator and the control parameters are non-colocated, and lastly, unstructured/unknown parameters play a significant role in model dynamics of a flexible robot operating in the real world. As a result, control of flexible robots is considered a promising area for application of intelligent control methodologies such as fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms, and neural networks.

  10. Vibration control of a manipulator tip on a flexible body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, J.; Bainum, P. M.; Li, F.

    1992-01-01

    Vibration control of a rigid manipulator tip on a main flexible uniform beam is examined. It is proposed to add a compensator between the manipulator and the beam to rotate and extend/retrieve the manipulator during the control period. The 2D station-keeping maneuvers within the linear range without gravity and damping are considered. The compensatory open-loop control law, which depends on the amplitudes of the beam's flexible deformations at the connection joint, is synthesized using linear quadratic regulator techniques. After introducing the compensatory control into the system, system control is still stable, and the tip coordinates of the manipulator can be made to closely follow the rigid beam motion, which is assumed to be a desired motion.

  11. Direct model reference adaptive control of a flexible robotic manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meldrum, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Quick, precise control of a flexible manipulator in a space environment is essential for future Space Station repair and satellite servicing. Numerous control algorithms have proven successful in controlling rigid manipulators wih colocated sensors and actuators; however, few have been tested on a flexible manipulator with noncolocated sensors and actuators. In this thesis, a model reference adaptive control (MRAC) scheme based on command generator tracker theory is designed for a flexible manipulator. Quicker, more precise tracking results are expected over nonadaptive control laws for this MRAC approach. Equations of motion in modal coordinates are derived for a single-link, flexible manipulator with an actuator at the pinned-end and a sensor at the free end. An MRAC is designed with the objective of controlling the torquing actuator so that the tip position follows a trajectory that is prescribed by the reference model. An appealing feature of this direct MRAC law is that it allows the reference model to have fewer states than the plant itself. Direct adaptive control also adjusts the controller parameters directly with knowledge of only the plant output and input signals.

  12. The rigid-flexible nonlinear robotic manipulator: Modeling and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenili, André; Balthazar, José Manoel

    2011-05-01

    The State-Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE) control of a nonlinear rigid-flexible two link robotic manipulator is investigated. Different cases are considered assuming small deviations and large deviations from the desired final states. The nonlinear governing equations of motion are coupled, providing considerable excitation of all the nonlinear terms. The results present satisfactory final states but also undesirable overshoot.

  13. Experiments in identification and control of flexible-link manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yurkovich, Stephen; Tzes, Anthony P.

    1990-01-01

    A report is presented on an ongoing effort for end-point position control of flexible-link manipulators under realistic conditions in laboratory setups consisting of one- and two-link manipulators. The authors treat modeling, identification, and control of flexible-link manipulators that are required to carry payloads, possibly unknown and varying, while undergoing disturbance effects from the environments and the workspace. The various identification and control techniques being investigated are summarized, with emphasis on the ability of the controller to adjust to changes in dynamics, payload, and working environment. It is found that time-domain methods offer identified model structures that are readily available for control design, whereas frequency-domain methods, particularly the time-varying transfer function estimation approach developed for this application, are more desirable when rapid controller tuning is required.

  14. Analytical dynamic solution of a flexible cable-suspended manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamdad, Mahdi

    2013-12-01

    Cable-suspended manipulators are used in large scale applications with, heavy in weight and long in span cables. It seems impractical to maintain cable assumptions of smaller robots for large scale manipulators. The interactions among the cables, platforms and actuators can fully evaluate the coupled dynamic analysis. The structural flexibility of the cables becomes more pronounced in large manipulators. In this paper, an analytic solution is provided to solve cable vibration. Also, a closed form solution can be adopted to improve the dynamic response to flexibility. The output is provided by the optimal torque generation subject to the actuator limitations in a mechatronic sense. Finally, the performance of the proposed algorithm is examined through simulations.

  15. Remote Manipulation of Droplets on a Flexible Magnetically Responsive Film

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Hun; Kang, Seong Min; Lee, Byung Jun; Ko, Hangil; Bae, Won-Gyu; Suh, Kahp Yang; Kwak, Moon Kyu; Jeong, Hoon Eui

    2015-01-01

    The manipulation of droplets is used in a wide range of applications, from lab-on-a-chip devices to bioinspired functional surfaces. Although a variety of droplet manipulation techniques have been proposed, active, fast and reversible manipulation of pure discrete droplets remains elusive due to the technical limitations of previous techniques. Here, we describe a novel technique that enables active, fast, precise and reversible control over the position and motion of a pure discrete droplet with only a permanent magnet by utilizing a magnetically responsive flexible film possessing actuating hierarchical pillars on the surface. This magnetically responsive surface shows reliable actuating capabilities with immediate field responses and maximum tilting angles of ~90°. Furthermore, the magnetic responsive film exhibits superhydrophobicity regardless of tilting angles of the actuating pillars. Using this magnetically responsive film, we demonstrate active and reversible manipulation of droplets with a remote magnetic force. PMID:26648418

  16. Tradeoffs in manipulator structure and control. Part 4: Flexible manipulator analysis program. [user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Book, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    The Flexible Manipulator Analysis Program (FMAP) is a collection of FORTRAN coding to allow easy analysis of the flexible dynamics of mechanical arms. The user specifies the arm configuration and parameters and any or all of several frequency domain analyses to be performed, while the time domain impulse response is obtained by inverse Fourier transformation of the frequency response. A detailed explanation of how to use FMAP is provided.

  17. Spatial operator approach to flexible manipulator inverse and forward dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G.

    1990-01-01

    This study extends to flexible multibody manipulators the recent results of the author on the use of spatially recursive filtering and smoothing techniques for robot arm dynamics. The configuration analyzed is that of a mechanical system of flexible bodies joined together by articulated joints. The inverse and forward dynamics problems are solved using the techniques of spatially recursive Kalman filtering and smoothing. The algorithms are easily developed using a set of identities associated with mass matrix factorization and inversion. The identities are easily derived using a spatial operator algebra developed by the author.

  18. Manipulators with flexible links: A simple model and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimoyama, Isao; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    1989-01-01

    A simple dynamic model proposed for flexible links is briefly reviewed and experimental control results are presented for different flexible systems. A simple dynamic model is useful for rapid prototyping of manipulators and their control systems, for possible application to manipulator design decisions, and for real time computation as might be applied in model based or feedforward control. Such a model is proposed, with the further advantage that clear physical arguments and explanations can be associated with its simplifying features and with its resulting analytical properties. The model is mathematically equivalent to Rayleigh's method. Taking the example of planar bending, the approach originates in its choice of two amplitude variables, typically chosen as the link end rotations referenced to the chord (or the tangent) motion of the link. This particular choice is key in establishing the advantageous features of the model, and it was used to support the series of experiments reported.

  19. Approximate minimum-time trajectories for 2-link flexible manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisler, G. R.; Segalman, D. J.; Robinett, R. D.

    1989-01-01

    Powell's nonlinear programming code, VF02AD, was used to generate approximate minimum-time tip trajectories for 2-link semi-rigid and flexible manipulator movements in the horizontal plane. The manipulator is modeled with an efficient finite-element scheme for an n-link, m-joint system with horizontal-plane bending only. Constraints on the trajectory include boundary conditions on position and energy for a rest-to-rest maneuver, straight-line tracking between boundary positions, and motor torque limits. Trajectory comparisons utilize a change in the link stiffness, EI, to transition from the semi-rigid to flexible case. Results show the level of compliance necessary to excite significant modal behavior. Quiescence of the final configuration is examined with the finite-element model.

  20. An adaptive control scheme for a flexible manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T. C.; Yang, J. C. S.; Kudva, P.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of controlling a single link flexible manipulator is considered. A self-tuning adaptive control scheme is proposed which consists of a least squares on-line parameter identification of an equivalent linear model followed by a tuning of the gains of a pole placement controller using the parameter estimates. Since the initial parameter values for this model are assumed unknown, the use of arbitrarily chosen initial parameter estimates in the adaptive controller would result in undesirable transient effects. Hence, the initial stage control is carried out with a PID controller. Once the identified parameters have converged, control is transferred to the adaptive controller. Naturally, the relevant issues in this scheme are tests for parameter convergence and minimization of overshoots during control switch-over. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, simulation results are presented with an analytical nonlinear dynamic model of a single link flexible manipulator.

  1. Modelling the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System: Another flexible model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhorst, Alan A.

    1993-01-01

    High fidelity elastic system modeling algorithms are discussed. The particular system studied is the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS) undergoing full articulated motion. The model incorporates flexibility via a methodology the author has been developing. The technique is based in variational principles, so rigorous boundary condition generation and weak formulations for the associated partial differential equations are realized, yet the analyst need not integrate by parts. The methodology is formulated using vector-dyad notation with minimal use of tensor notation, therefore the technique is believed to be affable to practicing engineers. The objectives of this work are as follows: (1) determine the efficacy of the modeling method; and (2) determine if the method affords an analyst advantages in the overall modeling and simulation task. Generated out of necessity were Mathematica algorithms that quasi-automate the modeling procedure and simulation development. The project was divided into sections as follows: (1) model development of a simplified manipulator; (2) model development of the full-freedom RMS including a flexible movable base on a six degree of freedom orbiter (a rigid-body is attached to the manipulator end-effector); (3) simulation development for item 2; and (4) comparison to the currently used model of the flexible RMS in the Structures and Mechanics Division of NASA JSC. At the time of the writing of this report, items 3 and 4 above were not complete.

  2. Boundary feedback stabilisation of a flexible robotic manipulator with constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wei; Sun, Chen

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the flexible robotic manipulator is modelled as a distributed parameter system, represented by a group of partial differential equations and ordinary differential equations. Control is designed at the boundary of the robotic manipulator based on integral-barrier Lyapunov function to suppress the vibration of the elastic deflection and track the desired angular position. With the proposed boundary control, the manipulator can be driven to the desired set-point with angular position and elastic deflection stay under the former setting constraint. Uniformed boundedness of the closed-loop system under the unknown time-varying disturbance is achieved. Stability analysis of the closed-loop system is given by employing the Lyapunov stability theory. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed boundary controller for ensuring output constraint and suppressing vibrations.

  3. An inverse dynamic method yielding flexible manipulator state trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Dong-Soo; Book, Wayne J.

    1990-01-01

    An inverse dynamic equation for a flexible manipulator is derived in a state form. By dividing the inverse system into the causal part and the anticausal part, torque is calculated in the time domain for a certain end point trajectory, as well as trajectories of all state variables. The open loop control of the inverse dynamic method shows an excellent result in simulation. For practical applications, a control strategy adapting feedback tracking control to the inverse dynamic feedforward control is illustrated, and its good experimental result is presented.

  4. Experimental verification of modified command shaping using a flexible manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee, David P.; Book, Wayne J.

    1991-01-01

    A brief discussion introduces the original input shaping method applied to a system with varying parameters. A change in parameters causes a vibration in the system and a modified command shaping technique is created to eliminate this unwanted motion. Using a two degree of freedom (DOF) flexible manipulator, experiments are conducted by varying perturbations to input trajectories to compare the modified method to a previously used adaptive proportional plus derivative (P.D.) control method. The control scheme that produces the smaller magnitude of resonant vibration at the first natural frequency of the robot is considered the more effective control method.

  5. An inverse dynamic method yielding flexible manipulator state trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Dong-Soo; Book, Wayne J.

    1990-01-01

    An inverse dynamic equation for a flexible manipulator is derived in a state form. By dividing the inverse system into the causal part and the anticausal part, one can calculate torque in the time domain for a certain end-point trajectory, as well as trajectories of all state variables. The open-loop control of the inverse dynamic method shows an excellent result in simulation. For practical applications, a control strategy adapting feedback tracking control to the inverse dynamic feedforward control is illustrated, and experimental results are presented.

  6. Adaptive precompensators for flexible-link manipulator control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tzes, Anthony P.; Yurkovich, Stephen

    1989-01-01

    The application of input precompensators to flexible manipulators is considered. Frequency domain compensators color the input around the flexible mode locations, resulting in a bandstop or notch filter in cascade with the system. Time domain compensators apply a sequence of impulses at prespecified times related to the modal frequencies. The resulting control corresponds to a feedforward term that convolves in real-time the desired reference input with a sequence of impulses and produces a vibration-free output. An adaptive precompensator can be implemented by combining a frequency domain identification scheme which is used to estimate online the modal frequencies and subsequently update the bandstop interval or the spacing between the impulses. The combined adaptive input preshaping scheme provides the most rapid slew that results in a vibration-free output. Experimental results are presented to verify the results.

  7. An inverse dynamic trajectory planning for the end-point tracking control of a flexible manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, D.S.; Babcock, S.M.; Book, W.J.

    1992-11-01

    A manipulator system that needs significantly large workspace volume and high payload capacity has greater link flexibility than typical industrial robots and teleoperators. If link flexibility is significant, position control of the manipulator`s end-effecter exhibits the nonminimum phase, noncollocated, and flexible structure system control problems. This paper addresses inverse dynamic trajectory planning issues of a flexible manipulator. The inverse dynamic equation of a flexible manipulator was solved in the time domain. By dividing the inverse system equation into the causal part and the anticausal part, the inverse dynamic method calculates the feedforward torque and the trajectories of all state variables that do not excite structural vibrations for a given end-point trajectory. Through simulation and experiment with a single-link flexible manipulator, the effectiveness of the inverse dynamic method has been demonstrated.

  8. Experimental investigations of the effects of cutting angle on chattering of a flexible manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lew, J.; Huggins, J.; Magee, D.; Book, W.

    1991-01-01

    When a machine tool is mounted at the tip of a robotic manipulator, the manipulator becomes more flexible (the natural frequencies are lowered). Moreover, for a given flexible manipulator, its compliance will be different depending on feedback gains, configurations, and direction of interest. Here, the compliance of a manipulator is derived analytically, and its magnitude is represented as a compliance ellipsoid. Then, using a two-link flexible manipulator with an abrasive cut off saw, the experimental investigation shows that the chattering varies with the saw cutting angle due to different compliance. The main work is devoted to finding a desirable cutting angle which reduces the chattering.

  9. Manipulation of flow around bluff bodies by flexible slender filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omidyeganeh, Mohammad; Pinelli, Alfredo

    2016-11-01

    Manipulation of bluff bodies wakes to control the intensity of fluid forces and the induced solid vibrations is of paramount importance. A biomimetic passive control based on the use of flexible slender appendages protruding from the body into the separated region has shown promising achievements in drag reduction and moderating force fluctuations. The present research aimed at understating and optimizing the physical properties and the arrangement of elongated flexible filaments to delay the 3D transition of the wake in terms of Reynolds number, mean drag reduction, and mitigation of the force fluctuations. The numerical campaign unveiled the role of flexural stiffness of the filaments: matching the natural frequency with the vortex shedding frequency enhances the mixing at the lee side. However, softer filaments (i.e. larger time scales) lock-in on either side of mid plane breaking the symmetry of the flow field (inducing a net lift force). In addition to 2D effects, the presence of filaments can interfere with the 3D bifurcation process resulting in a delay of the spanwise destabilization of the wake. The most effective parameter for this transitional interference is the spacing between filaments that should be smaller than the wavelength of the dominant 3D unstable mode.

  10. Experimental sliding mode control of a flexible single link manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Timothy Wei Tie

    1993-09-01

    A study was conducted to explore and develop practical controller designs for a flexible manipulator based on the variable structure (VS) system and sliding mode (SM) theory. A new control design method is first proposed based on the continuous time VSSM theory, which can significantly simplify the VS system design process. Moreover, the variables concerned can be assigned separate gains. Direct application of the VSSM control system to the flexible arm, however, has limitations due to the inherent properties of the system. To solve this problem, facilitate digital implementation, and eliminate undesirable chattering in conventional VS system control, the discrete time quasi sliding mode control (DQSMC) is developed. Two control algorithms are derived satisfying the conditions for existence of discrete time sliding hypersurfaces. It is proven that the DQSMC design is equivalent to a full state feedback with its steady state motion constrained to the sliding hypersurfaces, and that DQSMC provides a general structure unifying the three different kinds of discrete time SM control. Experimental testing of the DQSMC controller showed good results, which compared favorably to the linear quadratic Gaussian controller under the same load variations. A novel approach was then devised to realize the proposed new controller designs.

  11. Intrarenal manipulation of flexible ureteroscopes: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Monga, Manoj; Weiland, Derek; Pedro, Renato N; Lynch, Alexandria C; Anderson, Kyle

    2007-07-01

    To compare the relative ease of manipulation around a calyceal model in the hands of experienced ureteroscopists of four flexible ureteroscopes (FUs), as new-generation FUs provide exaggerated active deflection to facilitate intrarenal manipulation. Four FUs of <7.5 F were tested: the FlexVision U-500 (SF) (Stryker Endoscopy, San Jose, CA, USA), the Dur-8 Elite (D8E) (ACMI, Southborough, MA, USA), the Viper (Richard Wolf Medical Instruments, Vernon Hills, IL, USA) and the URF-P3 (Olympus Surgical, Orangeburg, NY, USA). Eight experienced ureteroscopists, each with a minimum of 100 flexible ureteroscopies over the preceding 3 years, assessed the FUs. The Mediskills calyceal model represents a moderately hydronephrotic collecting system, with a renal pelvic width of 2 cm, infundibular widths of 1 cm and infundibular lengths of 2 cm. The middle calyx infundibular angle was 80 degrees and the lower calyx infundibular angle was 100 degrees . The model does not allow for significant passive secondary deflection. The surgeons manoeuvred systematically around a four-point course, from the pelvi-ureteric junction, to anterior lower calyx, to anterior middle calyx, to posterior lower calyx, to posterior middle calyx, touching a metal sensor with an fulguration electrode, to trigger an automated signal at each calyx. The order of FU used by each surgeon was randomized. Each surgeon performed the course twice with each FU, ending with the first FU they started with, to diminish the impact of "learning the course". There were significant differences in the mean (sd) total time for manipulation through the four-point course, for the Viper, SF, D8E and URF-P3, at 29 (11), 37 (23), 38 (20) and 50 (24) s, respectively (P = 0.034). The URF-P3 took longer to reach the posterior lower pole, at 18.1 (14.5) s than the Viper, SF and D8E, at 6.3 (2.8) (P = 0.004), 6.6 (3.3) (P = 0.008) and 7.7 (4.9) (P = 0.008), respectively. The Viper was quicker to reach the posterior middle pole, at 7

  12. Modeling, design, and control of flexible manipulator arms: Status and trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Book, Wayne J.

    1989-01-01

    The desire for higher performance manipulators has lead to dynamic behavior in which the flexibility is an essential aspect. The mathematical representations commonly used in modeling flexible arms and arms with flexible drives are examined first. Then design considerations directly arising from the flexible nature of the arm are discussed. Finally, controls of joints for general and tip motion are discussed.

  13. Flexibility effects on the control system performance of large scale robotic manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cetinkunt, Sabri; Book, Wayne J.

    1990-01-01

    Structural flexibility of robotic manipulators becomes significant and limits the performance of a control system when manipulators are large structures, manipulating on large payloads, and/or operating at high speeds. The question of when a manipulator can be considered rigid or must be considered flexible is studied as a function of manipulator dynamics and task characteristics. Results are interpreted in simple quantitative forms which can be used as design and analysis tools to decide whether or not the manipulator flexibility will be a significant factor for a given task condition. The limitations imposed by the manipulator flexibility on the joint variable feedback control system performance is determined using linear and nonlinear methods. The closed loop eigenstructure behavior of finite dimensional models under joint variable feedback is studied and results are compared with the previously reported results.

  14. Flexibility effects on the control system performance of large scale robotic manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cetinkunt, Sabri; Book, Wayne J.

    1990-01-01

    Structural flexibility of robotic manipulators becomes significant and limits the performance of a control system when manipulators are large structures, manipulating on large payloads, and/or operating at high speeds. The question of when a manipulator can be considered rigid or must be considered flexible is studied as a function of manipulator dynamics and task characteristics. Results are interpreted in simple quantitative forms which can be used as design and analysis tools to decide whether or not the manipulator flexibility will be a significant factor for a given task condition. The limitations imposed by the manipulator flexibility on the joint variable feedback control system performance is determined using linear and nonlinear methods. The closed loop eigenstructure behavior of finite dimensional models under joint variable feedback is studied and results are compared with the previously reported results.

  15. An inverse dynamic trajectory planning for the end-point tracking control of a flexible manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, D.S.; Babcock, S.M. ); Book, W.J. . School of Mechanical Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    A manipulator system that needs significantly large workspace volume and high payload capacity has greater link flexibility than typical industrial robots and teleoperators. If link flexibility is significant, position control of the manipulator's end-effecter exhibits the nonminimum phase, noncollocated, and flexible structure system control problems. This paper addresses inverse dynamic trajectory planning issues of a flexible manipulator. The inverse dynamic equation of a flexible manipulator was solved in the time domain. By dividing the inverse system equation into the causal part and the anticausal part, the inverse dynamic method calculates the feedforward torque and the trajectories of all state variables that do not excite structural vibrations for a given end-point trajectory. Through simulation and experiment with a single-link flexible manipulator, the effectiveness of the inverse dynamic method has been demonstrated.

  16. A Robotic System for Actively Stiffening Flexible Manipulators

    PubMed Central

    Loschak, Paul M.; Burke, Stephen F.; Zumbro, Emiko; Forelli, Alexandra R.; Howe, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    A system for actively changing the stiffness of a long, thin, flexible robotic manipulator has been designed for cardiologists to use in a range of diagnosis and treatment procedures. Low-stiffness manipulators, such as catheters, are ideal for steering through vasculature with low risk of tissue injury. However, such instruments are not well-suited for applying force to tissue. The proposed system solves this problem by using a series of bead-shaped vertebrae containing pull wires to actively change the stiffness of the catheter, similar to gooseneck surgical retractors. Individual wires steer the catheter to a desired location. All wires are then tensioned to create friction between each vertebra and prevent sliding, therefore resisting motion. While this design concept has been implemented manually in various settings for decades, fine robotic control of the friction and stiffness of the system relies on a thorough understanding of the friction properties between vertebral segments. We have developed an analytical model to understand the interactions between vertebrae and determine the relationships between system parameters and the overall stiffness of the catheter. Experiments validated the calculations from the model and the functionality of the system by applying known loads to the tip of the catheter and measuring the catheter displacement. The catheter stiffness was measured to range from 100 N/m to 800 N/m, which is sufficient for performing many surgical tasks on tissue. This system can be useful in minimally invasive procedures involving direct instrument contact with tissue by improving accuracy, safety, and work flow. PMID:26709364

  17. A Robotic System for Actively Stiffening Flexible Manipulators.

    PubMed

    Loschak, Paul M; Burke, Stephen F; Zumbro, Emiko; Forelli, Alexandra R; Howe, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    A system for actively changing the stiffness of a long, thin, flexible robotic manipulator has been designed for cardiologists to use in a range of diagnosis and treatment procedures. Low-stiffness manipulators, such as catheters, are ideal for steering through vasculature with low risk of tissue injury. However, such instruments are not well-suited for applying force to tissue. The proposed system solves this problem by using a series of bead-shaped vertebrae containing pull wires to actively change the stiffness of the catheter, similar to gooseneck surgical retractors. Individual wires steer the catheter to a desired location. All wires are then tensioned to create friction between each vertebra and prevent sliding, therefore resisting motion. While this design concept has been implemented manually in various settings for decades, fine robotic control of the friction and stiffness of the system relies on a thorough understanding of the friction properties between vertebral segments. We have developed an analytical model to understand the interactions between vertebrae and determine the relationships between system parameters and the overall stiffness of the catheter. Experiments validated the calculations from the model and the functionality of the system by applying known loads to the tip of the catheter and measuring the catheter displacement. The catheter stiffness was measured to range from 100 N/m to 800 N/m, which is sufficient for performing many surgical tasks on tissue. This system can be useful in minimally invasive procedures involving direct instrument contact with tissue by improving accuracy, safety, and work flow.

  18. Development of a 6-DOF manipulator driven by flexible shaft for minimally invasive surgical application.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quanquan; Kobayashi, Yo; Noguchi, Takahiko; Inko, Elgezua; Sekiguchi, Yuta; Zhang, Bo; Ye, Jing; Toyoda, Kazutaka; Hashizume, Makoto; Fujie, Masakatsu G

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a 6-DOF manipulator which consists of four parts, 1-DOF translational joint, two 2-DOF bending joints (segment1 and segment2), and 1-DOF rotational gripper. The manipulator with "flexible shaft and Double Screw Drive (DSD) mechanism" structure can obtain omni-directional bending motion through rotation of flexible shafts. In the first prototype, the flexible shafts were connected directly with the actuators in the manipulator. Compared with the first prototype, in the second prototype, flexible shafts for power transmission are connected to the base of the manipulator. Universal joints are used for power transmission to realize distal motion. The improvement done with the design of the second prototype reduced the torque necessary to drive the flexible shafts during motion in surgical interventions. Experiment results show that the manipulator has enough range of movement for surgical intervention.

  19. Back-stepping control of two-link flexible manipulator based on an extended state observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongjiu; Yu, Yang; Yuan, Yuan; Fan, Xiaozhao

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we consider trajectory tracking control of a two-link flexible manipulator model in space. Two variables of joint angle and elastic deformation are partly decoupled by a nonlinear decoupling feedback control method. An extended state observer is introduced to estimate nonlinear terms of the two-link flexible manipulator system. Based on a back-stepping method, a nonlinear controller is designed for the flexible manipulator system. Finally, some simulation results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed techniques in this paper.

  20. Beam rider for an Articulated Robot Manipulator (ARM) accurate positioning of long flexible manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malachowski, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Laser beam positioning and beam rider modules were incorporated into the long hollow flexible segment of an articulated robot manipulator (ARM). Using a single laser beam, the system determined the position of the distal ARM endtip, with millimetric precision, in six degrees of freedom, at distances of up to 10 meters. Preliminary designs, using space rated technology for the critical systems, of a two segmented physical ARM, with a single and a dual degree of freedom articulation, were developed, prototyped, and tested. To control the positioning of the physical ARM, an indirect adaptive controller, which used the mismatch between the position of the laser beam under static and dynamic conditions, was devised. To predict the behavior of the system and test the concept, a computer simulation model was constructed. A hierarchical artificially intelligent real time ADA operating system program structure was created. The software was designed for implementation on a dedicated VME bus based Intel 80386 administered parallel processing multi-tasking computer system.

  1. Dynamical modeling of serial manipulators with flexible links and joints using the method of kinematic influence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Philip L.

    1989-01-01

    A method of formulating the dynamical equations of a flexible, serial manipulator is presented, using the Method of Kinematic Influence. The resulting equations account for rigid body motion, structural motion due to link and joint flexibilities, and the coupling between these two motions. Nonlinear inertial loads are included in the equations. A finite order mode summation method is used to model flexibilities. The structural data may be obtained from experimental, finite element, or analytical methods. Nonlinear flexibilities may be included in the model.

  2. Centralized, decentralized, and independent control of a flexible manipulator on a flexible base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Feiyue; Bainum, Peter M.; Xu, Jianke

    1991-01-01

    The dynamics and control of a flexible manipulator arm with payload mass on a flexible base in space are considered. The controllers are provided by one torquer at the center of the base and one torquer at the connection joint of the robot and the base. The nonlinear dynamics of the system is modeled by applying the finite element method and Lagrangian formula. Three control strategies are considered and compared, i.e., centralized control, decentralized control, and independent control. All these control designs are based on the linear quadratic regulator theory. A mathematical decomposition is used in the decentralization process so that the coupling between the subsystems is weak, while a physical decomposition is used in the independent control design process. For both the decentralized and the independent controls, the stability of the overall linear system is checked before a numerical simulations is initiated. Two numerical examples show that the response of the independent control system are close to those of the centralized control system, while the responses of the decentralized control system are not.

  3. Centralized, decentralized, and independent control of a flexible manipulator on a flexible base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feiyue; Bainum, Peter M.; Xu, Jianke

    1993-03-01

    The dynamics and control of a flexible manipulator arm with payload mass on a flexible base in space are considered. The controllers are provided by one torquer at the center of the base and one torquer at the connection joint of the robot and the base. The nonlinear dynamics of the system is modeled by applying the finite element method and Lagrangian formula. Three control strategies are considered and compared, i.e. centralized control, decentralized control, and independent control. All these control designs are based on the linear quadratic regulator theory. A mathematical decomposition is used in the decentralization process so that the coupling between the subsystems is weak, while a physical decomposition is used in the independent control design process. For both the decentralized and the independent controls, the stability of the overall linear system is checked before a numerical simulation is initiated. Two numerical examples show that the responses of the independent control system are close to those of the centralized control system, while the responses of the decentralized control system are not.

  4. Centralized, decentralized, and independent control of a flexible manipulator on a flexible base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Feiyue; Bainum, Peter M.; Xu, Jianke

    1991-01-01

    The dynamics and control of a flexible manipulator arm with payload mass on a flexible base in space are considered. The controllers are provided by one torquer at the center of the base and one torquer at the connection joint of the robot and the base. The nonlinear dynamics of the system is modeled by applying the finite element method and Lagrangian formula. Three control strategies are considered and compared, i.e., centralized control, decentralized control, and independent control. All these control designs are based on the linear quadratic regulator theory. A mathematical decomposition is used in the decentralization process so that the coupling between the subsystems is weak, while a physical decomposition is used in the independent control design process. For both the decentralized and the independent controls, the stability of the overall linear system is checked before a numerical simulations is initiated. Two numerical examples show that the response of the independent control system are close to those of the centralized control system, while the responses of the decentralized control system are not.

  5. Dynamic analysis and control of lightweight manipulators with flexible parallel link mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeh Won

    1991-01-01

    The flexible parallel link mechanism is designed for increased rigidity to sustain the buckling when it carries a heavy payload. Compared to a one link flexible manipulator, a two link flexible manipulator, especially the flexible parallel mechanism, has more complicated characteristics in dynamics and control. The objective of this research is the theoretical analysis and the experimental verification of dynamics and control of a two link flexible manipulator with a flexible parallel link mechanism. Nonlinear equations of motion of the lightweight manipulator are derived by the Lagrangian method in symbolic form to better understand the structure of the dynamic model. A manipulator with a flexible parallel link mechanism is a constrained dynamic system whose equations are sensitive to numerical integration error. This constrained system is solved using singular value decomposition of the constraint Jacobian matrix. The discrepancies between the analytical model and the experiment are explained using a simplified and a detailed finite element model. The step response of the analytical model and the TREETOPS model match each other well. The nonlinear dynamics is studied using a sinusoidal excitation. The actuator dynamic effect on a flexible robot was investigated. The effects are explained by the root loci and the Bode plot theoretically and experimentally. For the base performance for the advanced control scheme, a simple decoupled feedback scheme is applied.

  6. Dynamic analysis and control of lightweight manipulators with flexible parallel link mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeh Won

    1991-01-01

    The flexible parallel link mechanism is designed for increased rigidity to sustain the buckling when it carries a heavy payload. Compared to a one link flexible manipulator, a two link flexible manipulator, especially the flexible parallel mechanism, has more complicated characteristics in dynamics and control. The objective of this research is the theoretical analysis and the experimental verification of dynamics and control of a two link flexible manipulator with a flexible parallel link mechanism. Nonlinear equations of motion of the lightweight manipulator are derived by the Lagrangian method in symbolic form to better understand the structure of the dynamic model. A manipulator with a flexible parallel link mechanism is a constrained dynamic system whose equations are sensitive to numerical integration error. This constrained system is solved using singular value decomposition of the constraint Jacobian matrix. The discrepancies between the analytical model and the experiment are explained using a simplified and a detailed finite element model. The step response of the analytical model and the TREETOPS model match each other well. The nonlinear dynamics is studied using a sinusoidal excitation. The actuator dynamic effect on a flexible robot was investigated. The effects are explained by the root loci and the Bode plot theoretically and experimentally. For the base performance for the advanced control scheme, a simple decoupled feedback scheme is applied.

  7. Decentralized vibration control of a multi-link flexible robotic manipulator using smart piezoelectric transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halim, Dunant; Luo, Xi; Trivailo, Pavel M.

    2014-11-01

    The work in this paper is aimed to investigate the use of a decentralized control system for suppressing vibration of a multi-link flexible robotic manipulator using embedded smart piezoelectric transducers. To achieve this, a non-linear dynamic model of a flexible robotic manipulator with smart piezoelectric actuators/sensors, is developed based on the co-rotational finite element method. The method incorporates multiple co-ordinate (co-rotational) systems which rotate and translate with each element, so that the geometric non-linearity present in rotating manipulator system can be dealt with efficiently. The placement of piezoelectric actuators and sensors over the flexible links are considered for the application of decentralized control system. A numerical study shows that the developed co-rotational finite element method can be utilized to investigate the piezoelectric actuator/sensor placement and vibration control performances for a multi-link flexible manipulator undertaking complicated motion.

  8. Comparison of some modeling and control issues for a flexible two link manipulator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Xu, W; Nair, S S

    2004-10-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of a flexible two link manipulator presents a challenging modeling and control problem with its lumped actuator dynamics coupled with distributed link dynamics. Issues related to modeling uncertainty and control robustness as well as a good understanding of the experimental issues are essential for advanced modeling and control for such systems. This paper reports some of the advanced modeling, control, and experimental issues for a flexible two link manipulator, including some novel approaches developed by the authors.

  9. Maneuver and vibration control of flexible manipulators using variable-speed control moment gyros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Quan; Zhang, Jingrui

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, the variable-speed control moment gyros (VS-CMGs) are adopted as actuators for vibration suppression of space flexible manipulators. They are directly mounted on the flexible links of the manipulator. Such system can be viewed as a flexible multibody system in chain topology actuated by both joint motors and VS-CMGs. We first develop a general approach for establishing the system equations of motion through Kane's method. Then, two controllers are designed for trajectory tracking and vibration suppression: one is an inverse dynamics control, whereas the other is based on the singular perturbation method. The proposed two control strategies are applied to a free-flying platform with a flexible manipulator. Sample numerical results show that the VS-CMGs can significantly suppress the induced vibration of the flexible links during the large angle maneuver.

  10. Dynamics of flexible multi-body mechanisms and manipulators. Part 1: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubowsky, Steven

    1989-01-01

    Flexibility can be a major limitation to the performance of high performance conventional machine systems. The current status of robotic manipulators is limited by the effects of system flexibility. The status of current commercial robots, anticipated development in 5 and 10 years is outlined.

  11. Remote manipulator system flexibility analysis program: Mission planning, mission analysis, and software formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, L.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program is described for calculating the flexibility coefficients as arm design changes are made for the remote manipulator system. The coefficients obtained are required as input for a second program which reduces the number of payload deployment and retrieval system simulation runs required to simulate the various remote manipulator system maneuvers. The second program calculates end effector flexibility and joint flexibility terms for the torque model of each joint for any arbitrary configurations. The listing of both programs is included in the appendix.

  12. Correction of path tracking errors in a two-link flexible robotic manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, R.L.; Elsayed, M.A.; Tan, Kok. L.; Do, Tu

    1995-12-31

    Path tracking errors in a two-link flexible robotic manipulator are studied by means of time domain computer simulations. Structural flexibilities of the driven members and the dynamic of the servo motors are considered in the system model. It is shown that the joint angle commands to the servometers can be conditioned in a way that overcomes the following errors in the servos, and that virtually eliminates vibrations in the driven members. Tracking errors can therefore be greatly minimized. This feedforward approach is presently being studied on an experimental apparatus, and may be useful in improving the slewing control of flexible space manipulators.

  13. On dynamics and control of multi-link flexible space manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gawronski, W.; Ih, C.-H. C.; Wang, S. J.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper dynamics, inverse dynamics, and control problems for multi-link flexible space manipulators are presented. In deriving the flexible manipulator dynamics the following are assumed: flexible deformations are relatively small; angular rates of the links are much smaller than their fundamental frequencies; nonlinear terms (centrifugal and Coriolis forces) in the flexible manipulator model are the same as those in the rigid body model. These assumptions are reasonable for large space manipulators, such as the space crane. Flexible displacements are measured with respect to the rigid body configuration, for which a linear time-varying system is obtained. The inverse dynamics problem consists of determination of joint torques, given tip trajectory, such that joint angles in flexible configuration are equal to the angles in the rigid body configuration. The manipulator control system consists of the feedforward compensation and feedback control loops. Simulation results of a two-link space crane with large payload show that the performance of this linearized dynamics and control approach is reasonable and robust subject to parameter variations during slew operations.

  14. Adaptive nonlinear vibration control of a Cartesian flexible manipulator driven by a ballscrew mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Zhi-cheng

    2012-07-01

    A flexible Cartesian manipulator is a coupling system with a moving rigid body and flexible structures. Thus, vibration suppression problem must be solved to guarantee the stability and control accuracy. A characteristic model based nonlinear golden section adaptive control (CMNGSAC) algorithm is implemented to suppress the vibration of a flexible Cartesian smart material manipulator driven by a ballscrew mechanism using an AC servomotor. The system modeling is derived to recognize the dynamical characteristics. The closed loop stability is analyzed based on the model. Also, an experimental setup is constructed to verify the adopted method. Experimental comparison studies are conducted for modal frequencies' identification and active vibration control of the flexible manipulator. The active vibration control experiments include set-point vibration control responses, vibration suppression under resonant excitation and simultaneous translating and vibration suppression using different control methods. The experimental results demonstrate that the controller can suppress both the larger and the lower amplitude vibration near the equilibrium point effectively.

  15. Identification and control for a manipulator with two flexible links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yurkovich, Stephen; Hillsley, Kenneth L.; Tzes, Anthony P.

    1990-01-01

    The authors investigate the effectiveness of an online identification scheme for tracking the modal frequencies of a two-link flexible mechanism executing large-angle movements and carrying an unknown payload. A decentralized, gain-scheduled, adaptive control scheme is employed in conjunction with the identification scheme in order to illustrate the feasibility of online controller adjustment for endpoint position control in terms of vibration suppression after large-angle movements. Motivation for adopting the autoregressive-moving-average-model perspective is based on the convenient representation for online controller tuning and on the assumption that flexibility dynamics, for small deflections after a nonlinear large-angle motion, exhibit linear behavior. Experimental results are presented for a two-link planar mechanism in which both links are very flexible.

  16. Identification and control for a manipulator with two flexible links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yurkovich, Stephen; Hillsley, Kenneth L.; Tzes, Anthony P.

    1990-01-01

    The authors investigate the effectiveness of an online identification scheme for tracking the modal frequencies of a two-link flexible mechanism executing large-angle movements and carrying an unknown payload. A decentralized, gain-scheduled, adaptive control scheme is employed in conjunction with the identification scheme in order to illustrate the feasibility of online controller adjustment for endpoint position control in terms of vibration suppression after large-angle movements. Motivation for adopting the autoregressive-moving-average-model perspective is based on the convenient representation for online controller tuning and on the assumption that flexibility dynamics, for small deflections after a nonlinear large-angle motion, exhibit linear behavior. Experimental results are presented for a two-link planar mechanism in which both links are very flexible.

  17. Constrained motion control of flexible robot manipulators based on recurrent neural networks.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lianfang; Wang, Jun; Mao, Zongyuan

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, a neural network approach is presented for the motion control of constrained flexible manipulators, where both the contact force everted by the flexible manipulator and the position of the end-effector contacting with a surface are controlled. The dynamic equations for vibration of flexible link and constrained force are derived. The developed control, scheme can adaptively estimate the underlying dynamics of the manipulator using recurrent neural networks (RNNs). Based on the error dynamics of a feedback controller, a learning rule for updating the connection weights of the adaptive RNN model is obtained. Local stability properties of the control system are discussed. Simulation results are elaborated on for both position and force trajectory tracking tasks in the presence of varying parameters and unknown dynamics, which show that the designed controller performs remarkably well.

  18. Identification of a two-link flexible manipulator using adaptive time delay neural networks.

    PubMed

    Yazdizadeh, A; Khorasani, K; Patel, R V

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with identification of a two-link flexible manipulator belonging to a class of multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) nonlinear systems, by using adaptive time delay neural networks (ATDNNs). Two neuro-dynamic identifiers are proposed. The capabilities of the proposed structures for representing the nonlinear input-output map of the flexible manipulator are shown analytically. Selection criteria for specifying the fixed structural parameters as well as the adaptation laws for updating the adjustable parameters of the networks are provided. During identification, the two-link flexible manipulator is under nonlinear control and the input-output data sets are generated for different desired trajectories. Simulation results reveal that the proposed neuro-dynamic structures are capable of successfully identifying a highly nonlinear system without any a priori information about the nonlinearities of the system and without any off-line training.

  19. Validation of attitude/deformation sensing techniques for space flexible manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasbarri, Paolo; Palmerini, Giovanni B.; Coppotelli, Giuliano; Toglia, Chiara

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach that makes use of two different techniques to sense and identify both the rigid attitude motion and the flexible dynamics of a manipulator. With the first technique, an accurate attitude motion determination, based on the use of a global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) signals, is performed. For this purpose, some antennas are placed on the manipulator in order to obtain the observable phase of the GNSS signal. The second technique, based on the use of accelerometer sensors, is used in order to identify the dynamic signature during the motion of the flexible link. Specifically, the modal parameters are estimated using data recorded from accelerometers, conveniently placed on the structure, by means of an output-only based approach. The developed algorithms used for both the attitude estimation and the output-only modal analysis are validated by experimental activities carried out on an in-house testbed representing a two flexible arm manipulator.

  20. Dynamic Analysis and Control of Lightweight Manipulators with Flexible Parallel Link Mechanisms. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeh Won

    1990-01-01

    The objective is the theoretical analysis and the experimental verification of dynamics and control of a two link flexible manipulator with a flexible parallel link mechanism. Nonlinear equations of motion of the lightweight manipulator are derived by the Lagrangian method in symbolic form to better understand the structure of the dynamic model. The resulting equation of motion have a structure which is useful to reduce the number of terms calculated, to check correctness, or to extend the model to higher order. A manipulator with a flexible parallel link mechanism is a constrained dynamic system whose equations are sensitive to numerical integration error. This constrained system is solved using singular value decomposition of the constraint Jacobian matrix. Elastic motion is expressed by the assumed mode method. Mode shape functions of each link are chosen using the load interfaced component mode synthesis. The discrepancies between the analytical model and the experiment are explained using a simplified and a detailed finite element model.

  1. Anatomy of an experimental two-link flexible manipulator under end-point control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oakley, Celia M.; Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The design and experimental implementation of an end-point controller for two-link flexible manipulators are presented. The end-point controller is based on linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) theory and is shown to exhibit significant improvements in trajectory tracking over a conventional controller design. To understand the behavior of the manipulator structure under end-point control, a strobe sequence illustrating the link deflections during a typical slew maneuver is included.

  2. Anatomy of an experimental two-link flexible manipulator under end-point control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oakley, Celia M.; Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The design and experimental implementation of an end-point controller for two-link flexible manipulators are presented. The end-point controller is based on linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) theory and is shown to exhibit significant improvements in trajectory tracking over a conventional controller design. To understand the behavior of the manipulator structure under end-point control, a strobe sequence illustrating the link deflections during a typical slew maneuver is included.

  3. Accurate positioning of long, flexible ARM's (Articulated Robotic Manipulator)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malachowski, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    An articulated robotic manipulator (ARM) system is being designed for space applications. Work being done on a concept utilizing an infinitely stiff laser beam for position reference is summarized. The laser beam is projected along the segments of the ARM, and the position is sensed by the beam rider modules (BRM) mounted on the distal ends of the segments. The BRM concept is the heart of the system. It utilizes a combination of lateral displacements and rotational and distance measurement sensors. These determine the relative position of the two ends of the segments with respect to each other in six degrees of freedom. The BRM measurement devices contain microprocessor controlled data acquisition and active positioning components. An indirect adaptive controller is used to accurately control the position of the ARM.

  4. Demonstration of non-collocated vibration control of a flexible manipulator using electrical dynamic absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Myeong; Kim, Heungseob; Boo, Kwangsuck; Brennan, Michael J.

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes an experimental study into the vibration control of a servo system comprising a servo motor and a flexible manipulator. Two modes of the system are controlled by using the servo motor and an accelerometer attached to the tip of the flexible manipulator. The control system is thus non-collocated. It consists of two electrical dynamic absorbers, each of which consists of a modal filter and, in case of an out-of-phase mode, a phase inverter. The experimental results show that each absorber acts as a mechanical dynamic vibration absorber attached to each mode and significantly reduces the settling time for the system response to a step input.

  5. Application and comparison of on-line identification methods for flexible manipulator control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tzes, Anthony P.; Yurkovich, Stephen

    1991-01-01

    The application of on-line identification schemes to flexible manipulators is considered. The common objective of all methods, for control purposes, is a time domain parameterization of the system transfer function. Time domain methods generally require more computational load, are more sensitive to noise than frequency domain methods, and suffer from over- (under-) parameterization of the transfer function. Frequency domain methods parameterize the lightly damped transfer function in terms of its easily recognizable poles and zeros and offer alternatives to time domain methods. Several solutions to overcome the aforementioned problems are discussed and demonstrated through experimental studies on a one-link flexible manipulator.

  6. Application and comparison of on-line identification methods for flexible manipulator control

    SciTech Connect

    Tzes, A.P. ); Yurkovich, S. )

    1991-10-01

    The application of on-line identification schemes to flexible manipulators is considered. The common objective of all methods, for control purposes, is a time domain parameterization of the system transfer function. Time domain methods generally require more computational load, are more sensitive to noise than frequency domain methods, and suffer from over- (under-) parameterization of the transfer function. Frequency domain methods parameterize the lightly damped transfer function in terms of its easily recognizable poles and zeros and offer alternatives to time domain methods. Several solutions to overcome the aforementioned problems are discussed and demonstrated through experimental studies on a one-link flexible manipulator.

  7. The response of flexible manipulators to a new computed torque control strategy: Simulation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Looke, T. D.; Bayoumi, M. M.; Farooq, M.

    The need for faster and lighter autonomous and teleoperated robots, especially in military land, undersea, and space applications, requires control algorithms which account for the elastic response of lightweight, flexible structures. The numerical analysis and testing of these control algorithms further requires accurate simulation techniques. The finite element simulation method generally yields very accurate predictions of the transient dynamic response of flexible structures to applied loads. It is shown that a standard finite element simulation package (ANSYS) may be used to test computed torque and adaptive feedback control algorithms for multi-link flexible manipulators. The response of one- and two-link, planar and non-planar flexible manipulators to computed torque algorithms is illustrated. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the new computed torque approach.

  8. Self-tuning control of a two-link manipulator with a flexible forearm

    SciTech Connect

    Koivo, A.J.; Lee, K.S. )

    1992-08-01

    The control of the motion of a two-link manipulator with a flexible forearm is studied. The first link is rigid, and the second link has a flexible part as an extension of a rigid part. The motion of the manipulator takes place on a horizontal plane. The dynamics of the two-link manipulator with a flexible forearm are determined in Lagrange's formulation. The positions of specified points on the flexible forearm are obtained from the strain gauge measurements and the positions of the joint variables. The inputs are applied to the actuators of the revolute first joint and the prismatic link. For the controller design, a time series multivariate model of the autoregressive exogenous (ARX) type is used to describe the input/output relation. The discounted least squares method is used to estimate the parameters of the time series model. A self-tuning controller is so designed that the positions of the specified points on the flexible forearm track the given trajectory points. The controller operates on the Cartesian coordinates, which specify the positions of the chosen points on the flexible forearm. Simulation results as well as laboratory experiments on a Stanford/JPL arm controlled by a self-tuning controller are presented to illustrate the approach.

  9. Two-Link Flexible Manipulator Control Using Sliding Mode Control Based Linear Matrix Inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulfatman; Marzuki, Mohammad; Alif Mardiyah, Nur

    2017-04-01

    Two-link flexible manipulator is a manipulator robot which at least one of its arms is made of lightweight material and not rigid. Flexible robot manipulator has some advantages over the rigid robot manipulator, such as lighter, requires less power and costs, and to result greater payload. However, suitable control algorithm to maintain the two-link flexible robot manipulator in accurate positioning is very challenging. In this study, sliding mode control (SMC) was employed as robust control algorithm due to its insensitivity on the system parameter variations and the presence of disturbances when the system states are sliding on a sliding surface. SMC algorithm was combined with linear matrix inequality (LMI), which aims to reduce the effects of chattering coming from the oscillation of the state during sliding on the sliding surface. Stability of the control algorithm is guaranteed by Lyapunov function candidate. Based on simulation works, SMC based LMI resulted in better performance improvements despite the disturbances with significant chattering reduction. This was evident from the decline of the sum of squared tracking error (SSTE) and the sum of squared of control input (SSCI) indexes respectively 25.4% and 19.4%.

  10. On the nonlinear dynamics of a space platform based mobile flexible manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modi, V. J.; Mah, H. W.; Misra, A. K.

    1993-10-01

    A relatively general formulation is developed for studying the dynamics of an orbiting arbitrary chain of translating, slewing flexible bodies. The formulation accounts for transverse, axial, and torsional deformation of beams. The model takes into account joint flexibility in three dimensions as well as specified and generalized coordinates at the joints, with freedom to transverse over a flexible platform free to librate and carrying a flexible payload. The model can also analyze a cluster of flexible bodies at joints forming 'flower petal-type' configurations, rigid central-body-based geometry applicable to a large class of scientific and communications satellites. The versatility of the formulation permits dynamical analysis and nonlinear control of a wide class of space- and ground-based manipulators.

  11. Development of a modular integrated control architecture for flexible manipulators. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Burks, B.L.; Battiston, G.

    1994-12-08

    In April 1994, ORNL and SPAR completed the joint development of a manipulator controls architecture for flexible structure controls under a CRADA between the two organizations. The CRADA project entailed design and development of a new architecture based upon the Modular Integrated Control Architecture (MICA) previously developed by ORNL. The new architecture, dubbed MICA-II, uses an object-oriented coding philosophy to provide a highly modular and expandable architecture for robotic manipulator control. This architecture can be readily ported to control of many different manipulator systems. The controller also provides a user friendly graphical operator interface and display of many forms of data including system diagnostics. The capabilities of MICA-II were demonstrated during oscillation damping experiments using the Flexible Beam Experimental Test Bed at Hanford.

  12. The effect of inertial coupling in the dynamics and control of flexible robotic manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesar, Delbert; Curran, Carol Cockrell; Graves, Philip Lee

    1988-01-01

    A general model of the dynamics of flexible robotic manipulators is presented, including the gross motion of the links, the vibrations of the links and joints, and the dynamic coupling between the gross motions and vibrations. The vibrations in the links may be modeled using lumped parameters, truncated modal summation, a component mode synthesis method, or a mixture of these methods. The local link inertia matrix is derived to obtain the coupling terms between the gross motion of the link and the vibrations of the link. Coupling between the motions of the links results from the kinematic model, which utilizes the method of kinematic influence. The model is used to simulate the dynamics of a flexible space-based robotic manipulator which is attached to a spacecraft, and is free to move with respect to the inertial reference frame. This model may be used to study the dynamic response of the manipulator to the motions of its joints, or to externally applied disturbances.

  13. Approximate minimum-time trajectories for two-link flexible manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisler, G. R.; Segalman, D. J.; Robinett, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The method of recursive quadratic programming was used to generate approximate minimum-time tip trajectories for two-link semi-rigid and flexible manipulator movements in the horizontal plane. The manipulator is modeled with an efficient finite-element scheme for an n-link, m-joint system with bending only in the horizontal plane. Constraints on the trajectory include boundary conditions on position and energy for a rest-to-rest maneuver, straight-line tracking between boundary positions, and motor torque limits. Trajectory comparisons utilize a change in the link stiffness to compare a semi-rigid configuration to a flexible one. The level of bending flexibility necessary to excite significant modal behavior is demonstrated. Applied torques for minimum-time maneuvers are shown to be very similar between configurations and retain much of the qualitative character of rigid-body slewing motion.

  14. Approximate minimum-time trajectories for two-link flexible manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisler, G. R.; Segalman, D. J.; Robinett, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The method of recursive quadratic programming was used to generate approximate minimum-time tip trajectories for two-link semi-rigid and flexible manipulator movements in the horizontal plane. The manipulator is modeled with an efficient finite-element scheme for an n-link, m-joint system with bending only in the horizontal plane. Constraints on the trajectory include boundary conditions on position and energy for a rest-to-rest maneuver, straight-line tracking between boundary positions, and motor torque limits. Trajectory comparisons utilize a change in the link stiffness to compare a semi-rigid configuration to a flexible one. The level of bending flexibility necessary to excite significant modal behavior is demonstrated. Applied torques for minimum-time maneuvers are shown to be very similar between configurations and retain much of the qualitative character of rigid-body slewing motion.

  15. Modeling and quasi-static hybrid position/force control of constrained planar two-link flexible manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuno, Fumitoshi . Dept. of Computer and Systems Engineering); Asano, Toshio; Sakawa, Yoshiyuki . Dept. of Systems Engineering)

    1994-06-01

    In this paper, a method is proposed whereby both contact force exerted by a flexible manipulator and position of end-effector while in contact with a surface are controlled. The authors derive dynamic equations of joint angles, vibrations of flexible links, and contact force by means of Hamilton's principle. On the basis of some assumptions the authors derive the quasi-static equations and design the hybrid position/force controller of the flexible manipulator. A set of experiments for the hybrid control of the flexible manipulator using a force sensor has been carried out. Several experimental results are shown.

  16. Neural network based control schemes for flexible-link manipulators: simulations and experiments.

    PubMed

    Talebi, H A.; Khorasani, K; Patel, R V.

    1998-10-01

    This paper presents simulation and experimental results on the performance of neural network-based controllers for tip position tracking of flexible-link manipulators. The controllers are designed by utilizing the modified output re-definition approach. The modified output re-definition approach requires only a priori knowledge about the linear model of the system and no a priori knowledge about the payload mass. Four different neural network schemes are proposed. The first two schemes are developed by using a modified version of the 'feedback-error-learning' approach to learn the inverse dynamics of the flexible manipulator. Both schemes require only a linear model of the system for defining the new outputs and for designing conventional PD-type controllers. This assumption is relaxed in the third and fourth schemes. In the third scheme, the controller is designed based on tracking the hub position while controlling the elastic deflection at the tip. In the fourth scheme which employs two neural networks, the first network (referred to as the 'output neural network') is responsible for specifying an appropriate output for ensuring minimum phase behavior of the system. The second neural network is responsible for implementing an inverse dynamics controller. The performance of the four proposed neural network controllers is illustrated by simulation results for a two-link planar flexible manipulator and by experimental results for a single flexible-link test-bed. The networks are all trained and employed as online controllers and no off-line training is required.

  17. Sensitivity analysis of flexible joint nonholonomic wheeled mobile manipulator in singular configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korayem, A. H.; Azimirad, V.; Binabaji, H.; Korayem, M. H.

    2012-03-01

    This paper proposes a method for decreasing jerk and increasing Maximum Allowable Load (MAL) of nonholonomic Wheeled Mobile Manipulator (WMM) considering flexibility of joints in singular conditions. The full dynamic model of nonholonomic WMM contains simultaneous operation of mobile base and manipulator with joint flexibility (in wheels and manipulator) which is presented here. The problem is formulated in terms of the optimal control which leads to a two point boundary value problem. Then Sobol's sensitivity analysis method is applied to determine the optimal values of flexible joint constants subject to the jerk minimization. To illustrate the proposed method, two categories of conditions are considered: conditions containing non-singular configuration and the singular conditions. An example is explained for non-singular condition of nonholonomic WMM in presence of obstacle in which a complex path is generated but there is no singularity in robot configuration. Some examples of occurring singular configuration in final point and moving boundary condition is also presented. The results show that flexibility of the joints near to singular configuration normalizes the sudden movement and jerk implied to actuators. That is why using a rotational spring with a low stiffness coefficient could be helpful to decrease the high jerk and increase the maximum allowable load in mobile robots.

  18. Algorithms for adaptive control of two-arm flexible manipulators under uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skowronski, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    A nonlinear extension of model reference adaptive control (MRAC) technique is used to guide a double arm nonlinearizable robot manipulator with flexible links, driven by actuators collocated with joints subject to uncertain payload and inertia. The objective is to track a given simple linear and rigid but compatible dynamical model in real, possible stipulated time and within stipulated degree of accuracy of convergence while avoiding collision of the arms. The objective is attained by a specified signal adaptive feedback controller and by adaptive laws, both given in closed form. A case of 4 DOF manipulator illustrates the technique.

  19. Vibration control for a rigid-flexible manipulator with full state constraints via Barrier Lyapunov Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Fangfei; Liu, Jinkun

    2017-10-01

    Considering full state constraints, this paper designs a boundary controller for a two-link rigid-flexible manipulator via Barrier Lyapunov Function. The dynamic model of the two-link rigid-flexible manipulator is described by coupled ordinary differential equations- partial differential equations (ODEs-PDEs). Based on the original model without neglecting the high-frequency modes, boundary controller is proposed to regulate the joint positions and eliminate the elastic vibration simultaneously. To ensure that the full state constraints which include position, speed and vibration constraints are not transgressed, a Barrier Lyapunov Function is employed in the proposed controller. The asymptotic stability of the closed-loop system is rigorously proved by the LaSalle's Invariance Principle. Simulations are given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed controller with state constraints.

  20. End-point controller design for an experimental two-link flexible manipulator using convex optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oakley, Celia M.; Barratt, Craig H.

    1990-01-01

    Recent results in linear controller design are used to design an end-point controller for an experimental two-link flexible manipulator. A nominal 14-state linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) controller was augmented with a 528-tap finite-impulse-response (FIR) filter designed using convex optimization techniques. The resulting 278-state controller produced improved end-point trajectory tracking and disturbance rejection in simulation and experimentally in real time.

  1. Vibration control of a flexible space manipulator during on orbit operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, Marco; Gasbarri, Paolo; Monti, Riccardo; Palmerini, Giovanni Battista

    2012-04-01

    Space manipulators are complex systems, composed by robotic arms accommodated on an orbiting platform. They can be used to perform a variety of tasks: launch of satellites, retrieval of spacecraft for inspection, maintenance and repair, movement of cargo and so on. All these missions require extreme precision. However, in order to respect the mass at launch requirements, manipulators arms are usually very light and flexible, and their motion involves significant structural vibrations, especially after a grasping maneuver. In order to fulfill the maneuvers of space robotic systems it is hence necessary to properly model the forces acting on the space robot, from the main terms, such as the orbital motion, to the second order perturbations, like the gravity gradient and the orbital perturbations; also flexible excitation of the links and of the joints can be of great importance in the manipulators dynamics. The case is furthermore complicated by the fact that the manipulator, together with its supporting spacecraft, is an unconstrained body. Therefore the motion of any of its parts affects the entire system configuration. The governing equations of the dynamics of such robotic systems are highly nonlinear and fully coupled. The present paper aims at designing and studying active damping strategies and relevant devices that could be used to reduce the structural vibrations of a space manipulator with flexible links during its on orbit operations. In particular an optimized adaptive vibration control via piezoelectric devices is proposed. The number of piezoelectric devices, their placement and operational mode should be correctly chosen in order to obtain maximum performance in terms of elastic oscillations reduction and power consumption. Even though an optimal placement cannot have a universal validity, since it depends on the type of maneuver and on the overall inertial and geometrical characteristics, an approach to solve the problem is proposed.

  2. Effects of joint controller on analytical modal analysis of rotational flexible manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Ming; Zhang, Yanheng; Chen, Gang; Sun, Hanxu

    2015-04-01

    Modal analysis is a fundamental and important task for modeling and control of the flexible manipulator. However, almost all of the traditional modal analysis methods view the flexible manipulator as a pure mechanical structure and neglect feedback action of joint controller. In order to study the effects of joint controller on the modal analysis of rotational flexible manipulator, a closed-loop analytical modal analysis method is proposed. Firstly, two exact boundary constraints, namely servo feedback constraint and bending moment constraint, are derived to solve the vibration partial differential equation. It is found that the stiffness and damping gains of joint controller are both included in the boundary conditions, which lead to an unconventional secular term. Secondly, analytical algorithm based on Ritz approach is developed by using Laplace transform and complex modal approach to obtain the natural frequencies and mode shapes. And then, the numerical simulations are performed and the computational results show that joint controller has pronounced influence on the modal parameters: joint controller stiffness reduces the natural frequency, while joint controller damping makes the shape phase non-zero. Furthermore, the validity of the presented conclusion is confirmed through experimental studies. These findings are expected to improve the performance of dynamics simulation systems and model-based controllers.

  3. Performance limitations of joint variable-feedback controllers due to manipulator structural flexibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cetinkunt, Sabri; Book, Wayne J.

    1990-01-01

    The performance limitations of manipulators under joint variable-feedback control are studied as a function of the mechanical flexibility inherent in the manipulator structure. A finite-dimensional time-domain dynamic model of a two-link two-joint planar manipulator is used in the study. Emphasis is placed on determining the limitations of control algorithms that use only joint variable-feedback information in calculations of control decisions, since most motion control systems in practice are of this kind. Both fine and gross motion cases are studied. Results for fine motion agree well with previously reported results in the literature and are also helpful in explaining the performance limitations in fast gross motions.

  4. Performance limitations of joint variable-feedback controllers due to manipulator structural flexibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cetinkunt, Sabri; Book, Wayne J.

    1990-01-01

    The performance limitations of manipulators under joint variable-feedback control are studied as a function of the mechanical flexibility inherent in the manipulator structure. A finite-dimensional time-domain dynamic model of a two-link two-joint planar manipulator is used in the study. Emphasis is placed on determining the limitations of control algorithms that use only joint variable-feedback information in calculations of control decisions, since most motion control systems in practice are of this kind. Both fine and gross motion cases are studied. Results for fine motion agree well with previously reported results in the literature and are also helpful in explaining the performance limitations in fast gross motions.

  5. Fetus-supporting flexible manipulator with balloon-type stabilizer for endoscopic intrauterine surgery.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hongen; Suzuki, Hirokazu; Matsumiya, Kiyoshi; Masamune, Ken; Dohi, Takeyoshi; Chiba, Toshio

    2008-09-01

    Minimally invasive endoscopic fetal surgery enables intrauterine intervention with reduced risk to the mother and fetus. A novel surgical manipulator is described for stabilizing the fetus and restraining it from floating free during endoscopic intrauterine surgery. We designed and fabricated a prototype fetus-supporting manipulator equipped with flexible joint and bending mechanisms and a soft balloon stabilizer. The flexible joint and bending mechanisms enable the stabilizer to reach the target sites within the confined space of the uterus under the guidance of an ultrasound device. The balloon stabilizer could be inserted into the uterus through a small incision. The accuracy evaluation showed that the maximum error of the bending mechanism was as small as 7 mm and the standard deviation of the joint mechanism was just 1.6 degrees. In the experiments using a fetus model, the manipulator could be well controlled with guidance from ultrasound images and its bending mechanism with the balloon stabilizer could be clearly visualized while stabilizing the fetus model. The manipulator has the potential to be used in minimally invasive intrauterine surgery, although further improvements and experiments remain to be carried out.

  6. Fetus support manipulator with flexible balloon-based stabilizer for endoscopic intrauterine surgery.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hongen; Suzuki, Hirokazu; Matsumiya, Kiyoshi; Masamune, Ken; Dohi, Takeyoshi; Chiba, Toshio

    2006-01-01

    A novel manipulator is described for stabilizing fetus and preventing it from free-floating during the endoscopic intrauterine surgery. Minimally invasive endoscopic fetal surgery enables intrauterine intervention with reduced risk to the mother and fetus. We designed and fabricated a prototype of a fetus supporting manipulator equipped with a flexible bending/curving mechanisms and a soft balloon-based stabilizer. The flexible bending and curving mechanisms enable the stabilizer to reach the target sites within the uterus under an ultrasound-guidance. The balloon-based stabilizer could be inserted into the uterus with a small incision for entry. The accuracy evaluation showed that the maximum error of the curving mechanism was as small as 7 mm and the standard deviation of the bending mechanism was just 1.6 degrees. In the experiments using a fetus model, the manipulator could be well controlled under ultrasound guidance and its curving mechanism with the balloon-based stabilizer could be clearly visualized during the implementation of fetus model supporting. The manipulator has the potential to be used in minimally invasive intrauterine surgery, though further improvements and experiments remain to be carried out.

  7. Modeling and control of a hydraulically actuated flexible-prismatic link robot

    SciTech Connect

    Love, L.; Kress, R.; Jansen, J.

    1996-12-01

    Most of the research related to flexible link manipulators to date has focused on single link, fixed length, single plane of vibration test beds. In addition, actuation has been predominantly based upon electromagnetic motors. Ironically, these elements are rarely found in the existing industrial long reach systems. This manuscript describes a new hydraulically actuated, long reach manipulator with a flexible prismatic link at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Focus is directed towards both modeling and control of hydraulic actuators as well as flexible links that have variable natural frequencies.

  8. Hardware interface for isolation of vibrations in flexible manipulators: Development and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manouchehri, Davoud; Lindsay, Thomas; Ghosh, David

    1994-01-01

    NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) is addressing the problem of isolating the vibrations of the Shuttle remote manipulator system (RMS) from its end-effector and/or payload by modeling an RMS flat-floor simulator with a dynamic payload. Analysis of the model can lead to control techniques that will improve the speed, accuracy, and safety of the RMS in capturing satellites and eventually facilitate berthing with the space station. Rockwell International Corporation, also involved in vibration isolation, has developed a hardware interface unit to isolate the end-effector from the vibrations of an arm on a Shuttle robotic tile processing system (RTPS). To apply the RTPS isolation techniques to long-reach arms like the RMS, engineers have modeled the dynamics of the hardware interface unit with simulation software. By integrating the Rockwell interface model with the NASA LaRC RMS simulator model, investigators can study the use of a hardware interface to isolate dynamic payloads from the RMS. The interface unit uses both active and passive compliance and damping for vibration isolation. Thus equipped, the RMS could be used as a telemanipulator with control characteristics for capture and berthing operations. The hardware interface also has applications in industry.

  9. Reducing model uncertainty effects in flexible manipulators through the addition of passive damping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberts, T. E.

    1987-01-01

    An important issue in the control of practical systems is the effect of model uncertainty on closed loop performance. This is of particular concern when flexible structures are to be controlled, due to the fact that states associated with higher frequency vibration modes are truncated in order to make the control problem tractable. Digital simulations of a single-link manipulator system are employed to demonstrate that passive damping added to the flexible member reduces adverse effects associated with model uncertainty. A controller was designed based on a model including only one flexible mode. This controller was applied to larger order systems to evaluate the effects of modal truncation. Simulations using a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) design assuming full state feedback illustrate the effect of control spillover. Simulations of a system using output feedback illustrate the destabilizing effect of observation spillover. The simulations reveal that the system with passive damping is less susceptible to these effects than the untreated case.

  10. genepopedit: a simple and flexible tool for manipulating multilocus molecular data in R.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Ryan R E; Jeffery, Nicholas W; Wringe, Brendan F; DiBacco, Claudio; Bradbury, Ian R

    2017-01-01

    Advances in genetic sequencing technologies and techniques have made large, genome-wide data sets comprised of hundreds or even thousands of individuals and loci the norm rather than the exception even for nonmodel organisms. While such data present new opportunities for evaluating population structure and demographic processes, the large size of these genomic data sets brings new computational challenges for researchers needing to parse, convert and manipulate data often into a variety of software-specific formats required of genomic analyses. We developed genepopedit as a flexible tool for the manipulation of multilocus molecular data sets. Functionality can be divided among diagnostic-, manipulation-, sampling-, simulation-, and transformation-based tools. Metadata from large genomic data sets can be efficiently extracted, without the need to view data in a text-editing program. genepopedit provides tools to manipulate loci, individual samples and populations included in genomic data sets, in addition to the ability to convert directly to a variety of software formats. Functions are compiled as an R package, which can integrate into existing analysis workflows. Importantly, genepopedit provides a simple yet robust code-based tool for repeatable genomic data manipulation, which has been proven to be stable for data sets in excess of 200 000 SNPs. The latest version of the package and associated documentation are available on Github (github.com/rystanley/genepopedit).

  11. End-point control of a two-link manipulator with a very flexible forearm - Issues and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oakley, Celia M.; Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    For mechanical manipulators, a logical sensor location is at the manipulator end-point where tasks are performed. Unfortunately, when bending flexibility exists between an end-point sensor and a joint actuator, stability and performance are achieved only through sophisticated control design. Some of the issues involved in utilizing end-point sensing for two-link flexible manipulators are addressed. A modeling technique that properly represents the foreshortening of a flexible link undergoing deflections is presented. In order to realize fully the advantages of the assumed-modes modeling method, mode shapes are selected that allow a low-order model to be used effectively for simulation and control purposes. A nonlinear controller, incorporating state feedback and a constant-gain extended Kalman filter driven by end-point measurements, is designed and compared to a conventional proportional-plus-derivative controller that uses collocated sensors. Results from implementing these controllers on the experimental Stanford multilink flexible manipulator are given.

  12. End-point control of a two-link manipulator with a very flexible forearm - Issues and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oakley, Celia M.; Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    For mechanical manipulators, a logical sensor location is at the manipulator end-point where tasks are performed. Unfortunately, when bending flexibility exists between an end-point sensor and a joint actuator, stability and performance are achieved only through sophisticated control design. Some of the issues involved in utilizing end-point sensing for two-link flexible manipulators are addressed. A modeling technique that properly represents the foreshortening of a flexible link undergoing deflections is presented. In order to realize fully the advantages of the assumed-modes modeling method, mode shapes are selected that allow a low-order model to be used effectively for simulation and control purposes. A nonlinear controller, incorporating state feedback and a constant-gain extended Kalman filter driven by end-point measurements, is designed and compared to a conventional proportional-plus-derivative controller that uses collocated sensors. Results from implementing these controllers on the experimental Stanford multilink flexible manipulator are given.

  13. Control of vibrations for a parallel manipulator with flexible links — concepts and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morlock, M.; Burkhardt, M.; Seifried, R.

    2016-09-01

    A comprehensive control approach is presented to reduce the vibrations of a parallel manipulator with a kinematic loop and two flexible links whereof the longer one can show significant oscillations. The control objectives are end-effector trajectory tracking and active vibration control. The system is modeled as a flexible multibody system and exact feedforward control based on the full dynamic flexible multibody system is applied to improve the end-effector trajectory tracking performance. Furthermore, the effect of different position control concepts for the two linear drives, such as gain scheduling for the utilized cascade control and a model based friction compensation, on the movers themselves as well as on the end-effector are discussed, which can be conflicting. Experimental results are presented illustrating the achievable accuracy of the end-effector tracking for different trajectories while showing significant error reductions for a feedforward control based on an elastic model in contrast to a rigid one. Finally, a model based curvature controller is utilized which actively controls the occurring oscillations of the parallel manipulator. Here, a proportional controller as well as a linear-quadratic regulator are applied and the impact of an additional curvature control on the end-effector tracking performance is investigated.

  14. Experimental verification of a model of a two-link flexible, lightweight manipulator. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huggins, James David

    1988-01-01

    Experimental verification is presented for an assumed modes model of a large, two link, flexible manipulator design and constructed in the School of Mechanical Engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology. The structure was designed to have typical characteristics of a lightweight manipulator.

  15. A reliable and flexible gene manipulation strategy in posthatch zebra finch brain

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadiantehrani, Somayeh; London, Sarah E.

    2017-01-01

    Songbird models meaningfully contribute to many fields including learned vocal communication, the neurobiology of social interactions, brain development, and ecology. The value of investigating gene-brain-behavior relationships in songbirds is therefore high. Viral infections typically used in other lab animals to deliver gene editing constructs have been less effective in songbirds, likely due to immune system properties. We therefore leveraged the in vivo electroporation strategy used in utero in rodents and in ovo in poultry, and apply it to posthatch zebra finch songbird chicks. We present a series of experiments with a combination of promoters, fluorescent protein genes, and piggyBac transposase vectors to demonstrate that this can be a reliable, efficient, and flexible strategy for genome manipulation. We discuss options for gene delivery experiments to test circuit and behavioral hypotheses using a variety of manipulations, including gene overexpression, CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing, inducible technologies, optogenetic or DREADD cellular control, and cell type-specific expression. PMID:28233828

  16. Effect of Lumbar Spine Manipulation on Asymptomatic Cyclist Sprint Performance and Hip Flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Eric; Bodziony, Michael; Ward, John; Coats, Jesse; Koby, Bradley; Goehry, Doug

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of midlumbar spinal manipulation on asymptomatic cyclist sprint performance and hip flexibility. Methods Twelve cyclists were equally randomized into an AB:BA crossover study design after baseline testing. Six participants were in the AB group, and 6 were in the BA group. The study involved 1 week of rest in between each of the 3 tested conditions: baseline testing (no intervention prior to testing), condition A (bilateral midlumbar spine manipulation prior to testing), and condition B (sham acupuncture prior to testing, as a control). Testing was blinded and involved a sit-and-reach test followed by a 0.5-km cycle ergometer sprint test against 4-kp resistance. Outcome measures were sit-and-reach distance, time to complete 0.5 km, maximum heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion. An additional 8 cyclists were recruited and used as a second set of controls that engaged in 3 testing sessions without any intervention to track test acclimation. An analysis of variance was used to compare dependent variables under each of the 3 conditions for the experimental group and control group #1, and a repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to analyze test acclimation in control group #2. Results Lumbar spine manipulation did not demonstrate statistically significant between-group changes in sit-and-reach (P = .765), 0.5-km sprint performance time (P = .877), maximum exercise heart rate (P = .944), or rating of perceived exertion (P = .875). Conclusions The findings of this preliminary study showed that midlumbar spinal manipulation did not improve hip flexibility or cyclist power output of asymptomatic participants compared with an acupuncture sham and no-treatment control groups. PMID:25435836

  17. Effect of lumbar spine manipulation on asymptomatic cyclist sprint performance and hip flexibility.

    PubMed

    Olson, Eric; Bodziony, Michael; Ward, John; Coats, Jesse; Koby, Bradley; Goehry, Doug

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the impact of midlumbar spinal manipulation on asymptomatic cyclist sprint performance and hip flexibility. Twelve cyclists were equally randomized into an AB:BA crossover study design after baseline testing. Six participants were in the AB group, and 6 were in the BA group. The study involved 1 week of rest in between each of the 3 tested conditions: baseline testing (no intervention prior to testing), condition A (bilateral midlumbar spine manipulation prior to testing), and condition B (sham acupuncture prior to testing, as a control). Testing was blinded and involved a sit-and-reach test followed by a 0.5-km cycle ergometer sprint test against 4-kp resistance. Outcome measures were sit-and-reach distance, time to complete 0.5 km, maximum heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion. An additional 8 cyclists were recruited and used as a second set of controls that engaged in 3 testing sessions without any intervention to track test acclimation. An analysis of variance was used to compare dependent variables under each of the 3 conditions for the experimental group and control group #1, and a repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to analyze test acclimation in control group #2. Lumbar spine manipulation did not demonstrate statistically significant between-group changes in sit-and-reach (P = .765), 0.5-km sprint performance time (P = .877), maximum exercise heart rate (P = .944), or rating of perceived exertion (P = .875). The findings of this preliminary study showed that midlumbar spinal manipulation did not improve hip flexibility or cyclist power output of asymptomatic participants compared with an acupuncture sham and no-treatment control groups.

  18. A time domain inverse dynamic method for the end point tracking control of a flexible manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Dong-Soo; Book, Wayne J.

    1991-01-01

    The inverse dynamic equation of a flexible manipulator was solved in the time domain. By dividing the inverse system equation into the causal part and the anticausal part, we calculated the torque and the trajectories of all state variables for a given end point trajectory. The interpretation of this method in the frequency domain was explained in detail using the two-sided Laplace transform and the convolution integral. The open loop control of the inverse dynamic method shows an excellent result in simulation. For real applications, a practical control strategy is proposed by adding a feedback tracking control loop to the inverse dynamic feedforward control, and its good experimental performance is presented.

  19. On controller tuning for a flexible-link manipulator with varying payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yurkovich, Stephen; Pachecho, Fernando E.

    1989-01-01

    In this article experimental results are presented for system identification and control of a single-link flexible manipulator carrying an unknown, varying payload. The control objective is to maintain endpoint position accuracy in the presence of flexure effects after rapid movement due to a rigid body slew-angle commanded position. Various time-domain parameter estimation techniques are used to identify ARMA model representations to be employed in controller tuning schemes for vibration compensation. Only endpoint acceleration measurements and motor shaft angle measurements are utilized in relatively simple PID control schemes, which are tuned as dictated by a varying, unknown payload.

  20. Application of model reference adaptive control to a flexible remote manipulator arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meldrum, D. R.; Balas, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    An exact modal state-space representation is derived in detail for a single-link, flexible remote manipulator with a noncollocated sensor and actuator. A direct model following adaptive controller is designed to control the torque at the pinned end of the arm so as to command the free end to track a prescribed sinusoidal motion. Conditions that must be satisfied in order for the controller to work are stated. Simulation results to date are discussed along with the potential of the model following adaptive control scheme in robotics and space environments.

  1. On controller tuning for a flexible-link manipulator with varying payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yurkovich, Stephen; Pachecho, Fernando E.

    1989-01-01

    In this article experimental results are presented for system identification and control of a single-link flexible manipulator carrying an unknown, varying payload. The control objective is to maintain endpoint position accuracy in the presence of flexure effects after rapid movement due to a rigid body slew-angle commanded position. Various time-domain parameter estimation techniques are used to identify ARMA model representations to be employed in controller tuning schemes for vibration compensation. Only endpoint acceleration measurements and motor shaft angle measurements are utilized in relatively simple PID control schemes, which are tuned as dictated by a varying, unknown payload.

  2. Input preshaping with frequency domain information for flexible-link manipulator control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tzes, Anthony; Englehart, Matthew J.; Yurkovich, Stephen

    1989-01-01

    The application of an input preshaping scheme to flexible manipulators is considered. The resulting control corresponds to a feedforward term that convolves in real-time the desired reference input with a sequence of impulses and produces a vibration free output. The robustness of the algorithm with respect to injected disturbances and modal frequency variations is not satisfactory and can be improved by convolving the input with a longer sequence of impulses. The incorporation of the preshaping scheme to a closed-loop plant, using acceleration feedback, offers satisfactory disturbance rejection due to feedback and cancellation of the flexible mode effects due to the preshaping. A frequency domain identification scheme is used to estimate the modal frequencies on-line and subsequently update the spacing between the impulses. The combined adaptive input preshaping scheme provides the fastest possible slew that results in a vibration free output.

  3. Active vibration control of Flexible Joint Manipulator using Input Shaping and Adaptive Parameter Auto Disturbance Rejection Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W. P.; Luo, B.; Huang, H.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a vibration control strategy for a two-link Flexible Joint Manipulator (FJM) with a Hexapod Active Manipulator (HAM). A dynamic model of the multi-body, rigid-flexible system composed of an FJM, a HAM and a spacecraft was built. A hybrid controller was proposed by combining the Input Shaping (IS) technique with an Adaptive-Parameter Auto Disturbance Rejection Controller (APADRC). The controller was used to suppress the vibration caused by external disturbances and input motions. Parameters of the APADRC were adaptively adjusted to ensure the characteristic of the closed loop system to be a given reference system, even if the configuration of the manipulator significantly changes during motion. Because precise parameters of the flexible manipulator are not required in the IS system, the operation of the controller was sufficiently robust to accommodate uncertainties in system parameters. Simulations results verified the effectiveness of the HAM scheme and controller in the vibration suppression of FJM during operation.

  4. Adaptive nonlinear model predictive control design of a flexible-link manipulator with uncertain parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnelle, Fabian; Eberhard, Peter

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a novel adaptive nonlinear model predictive control design for trajectory tracking of flexible-link manipulators consisting of feedback linearization, linear model predictive control, and unscented Kalman filtering. Reducing the nonlinear system to a linear system by feedback linearization simplifies the optimization problem of the model predictive controller significantly, which, however, is no longer linear in the presence of parameter uncertainties and can potentially lead to an undesired dynamical behaviour. An unscented Kalman filter is used to approximate the dynamics of the prediction model by an online parameter estimation, which leads to an adaptation of the optimization problem in each time step and thus to a better prediction and an improved input action. Finally, a detailed fuzzy-arithmetic analysis is performed in order to quantify the effect of the uncertainties on the control structure and to derive robustness assessments. The control structure is applied to a serial manipulator with two flexible links containing uncertain model parameters and acting in three-dimensional space.

  5. Direct adaptive fuzzy control of a translating piezoelectric flexible manipulator driven by a pneumatic rodless cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Zhi-cheng; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Xian-min; Han, Jian-da

    2013-04-01

    This study presents a novel translating piezoelectric flexible manipulator driven by a rodless cylinder. Simultaneous positioning control and vibration suppression of the flexible manipulator is accomplished by using a hybrid driving scheme composed of the pneumatic cylinder and a piezoelectric actuator. Pulse code modulation (PCM) method is utilized for the cylinder. First, the system dynamics model is derived, and its standard multiple input multiple output (MIMO) state-space representation is provided. Second, a composite proportional derivative (PD) control algorithms and a direct adaptive fuzzy control method are designed for the MIMO system. Also, a time delay compensation algorithm, bandstop and low-pass filters are utilized, under consideration of the control hysteresis and the caused high-frequency modal vibration due to the long stroke of the cylinder, gas compression and nonlinear factors of the pneumatic system. The convergence of the closed loop system is analyzed. Finally, experimental apparatus is constructed and experiments are conducted. The effectiveness of the designed controllers and the hybrid driving scheme is verified through simulation and experimental comparison studies. The numerical simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system scheme of employing the pneumatic drive and piezoelectric actuator can suppress the vibration and achieve the desired positioning location simultaneously. Furthermore, the adopted adaptive fuzzy control algorithms can significantly enhance the control performance.

  6. Control of a flexible-link robotic arm manipulating an unknown dynamic payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alder, Lawrence John

    1993-12-01

    When light-weight space-based robots, such as the space shuttle's RMS (remote manipulator system), manipulate massive payloads such as satellites, significant structural bending is induced in the links of the robot. In addition, space-based robots will often manipulate payloads that are not rigid bodies: for example, satellites may contain fuel or have flexible appendages. This dissertation contributes new basic technology that will enable flexible-link manipulators to perform precise end-point control of payloads while simultaneously controlling the unknown internal dynamics of the payload. The approach taken here combines high-performance control with an innovative identification algorithm. In addition, to facilitate the development of controllers, a numerically efficient procedure to merge payload and arm dynamic models is presented. First, controllers incorporating end-point feedback with a known payload are made robust to high-frequency modelling errors, sensor noise, and sensor bias using frequency-weighted linear quadratic Gaussian design methods. Using end-point position measurements as the primary sensor, the robot is then capable of actively damping the internal payload dynamics an order of magnitude faster than the natural damping rate--if it knows the payload parameter. However, with this type of controller small parameter variations in the payload can lead to poor performance or instability. This research has therefore also developed an identification algorithm that updates the end-point controller parameters; this enables the system to achieve high performance when the payload dynamics are not known a priori. By using a nominal control law, the identification problem can be reduced to detecting and identifying eigenvalues of a closed system. To identify these eigenvalues, a generic algorithm capable of determining the eigenvalues of a system in real time has been developed: even the order of the system need not be known in advance. With this approach

  7. Direct Adaptive Control Methodologies for Flexible-Joint Space Manipulators with Uncertainties and Modeling Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Steve

    This work addresses the direct adaptive trajectory tracking control problem associated with lightweight space robotic manipulators that exhibit elastic vibrations in their joints, and which are subject to parametric uncertainties and modeling errors. Unlike existing adaptive control methodologies, the proposed flexible-joint control techniques do not require identification of unknown parameters, or mathematical models of the system to be controlled. The direct adaptive controllers developed in this work are based on the model reference adaptive control approach, and manage modeling errors and parametric uncertainties by time-varying the controller gains using new adaptation mechanisms, thereby reducing the errors between an ideal model and the actual robot system. More specifically, new decentralized adaptation mechanisms derived from the simple adaptive control technique and fuzzy logic control theory are considered in this work. Numerical simulations compare the performance of the adaptive controllers with a nonadaptive and a conventional model-based controller, in the context of 12.6 m xx 12.6 m square trajectory tracking. To validate the robustness of the controllers to modeling errors, a new dynamics formulation that includes several nonlinear effects usually neglected in flexible-joint dynamics models is proposed. Results obtained with the adaptive methodologies demonstrate an increased robustness to both uncertainties in joint stiffness coefficients and dynamics modeling errors, as well as highly improved tracking performance compared with the nonadaptive and model-based strategies. Finally, this work considers the partial state feedback problem related to flexible-joint space robotic manipulators equipped only with sensors that provide noisy measurements of motor positions and velocities. An extended Kalman filter-based estimation strategy is developed to estimate all state variables in real-time. The state estimation filter is combined with an adaptive

  8. Inverse dynamics of a 3 degree of freedom spatial flexible manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayo, Eduardo; Serna, M.

    1989-01-01

    A technique is presented for solving the inverse dynamics and kinematics of 3 degree of freedom spatial flexible manipulator. The proposed method finds the joint torques necessary to produce a specified end effector motion. Since the inverse dynamic problem in elastic manipulators is closely coupled to the inverse kinematic problem, the solution of the first also renders the displacements and rotations at any point of the manipulator, including the joints. Furthermore the formulation is complete in the sense that it includes all the nonlinear terms due to the large rotation of the links. The Timoshenko beam theory is used to model the elastic characteristics, and the resulting equations of motion are discretized using the finite element method. An iterative solution scheme is proposed that relies on local linearization of the problem. The solution of each linearization is carried out in the frequency domain. The performance and capabilities of this technique are tested through simulation analysis. Results show the potential use of this method for the smooth motion control of space telerobots.

  9. Controlled manipulation of flexible carbon nanotubes through shape-dependent pushing by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung-Cheol; Qian, Xiaoping

    2013-09-17

    A systematic approach to manipulating flexible carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been developed on the basis of atomic force microscope (AFM) based pushing. Pushing CNTs enables efficient transport and precise location of individual CNTs. A key issue for pushing CNTs is preventing defective distortion in repetitive bending and unbending deformation. The approach presented here controls lateral movement of an AFM tip to bend CNTs without permanent distortion. The approach investigates possible defects caused by tensile strain of the outer tube under uniform bending and radial distortion by kinking. Using the continuum beam model and experimental bending tests, dependency of maximum bending strain on the length of bent CNTs and radial distortion on bending angles at a bent point have been demonstrated. Individual CNTs are manipulated by limiting the length of bent CNTs and the bending angle. In our approach, multiwalled CNTs with 5-15 nm diameter subjected to bending deformation produce no outer tube breakage under uniform bending and reversible radial deformation with bending angles less than 110°. The lateral tip movement is determined by a simple geometric model that relies on the shape of multiwalled CNTs. The model effectively controls deforming CNT length and bending angle for given CNT shape. Experimental results demonstrate successful manipulation of randomly dispersed CNTs without visual defects. This approach to pushing can be extended to develop a wide range of CNT based nanodevice applications.

  10. Experimental results on discrete-time nonlinear adaptive tracking control of a flexible-link manipulator.

    PubMed

    Rokui, M R; Khorasani, K

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop and implement a nonlinear adaptive control scheme for a single-link flexible manipulator. The controller is designed based on a discrete-time nonlinear model of the arm. The model is derived by using the forward difference method (Euler approximation). The output redefinition concept is then used so that the associated zero dynamics corresponding to the new output is guaranteed to be exponentially stable. An indirect adaptive linearizing controller is developed for the resulting minimum phase system where the "payload mass" is assumed to be unknown but its upper bound is assumed to be known a priori. The performance of the adaptively controlled closed-loop system is investigated by both numerical simulations and experimental results. The proposed controller is also compared experimentally with those of nonadaptive feedback linearization and conventional proportional derivative (PD) control strategies.

  11. A stable neural network-based observer with application to flexible-joint manipulators.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, Farzaneh; Talebi, H A; Patel, Rajnikant V

    2006-01-01

    A stable neural network (NN)-based observer for general multivariable nonlinear systems is presented in this paper. Unlike most previous neural network observers, the proposed observer uses a nonlinear-in-parameters neural network (NLPNN). Therefore, it can be applied to systems with higher degrees of nonlinearity without any a priori knowledge about system dynamics. The learning rule for the neural network is a novel approach based on the modified backpropagation (BP) algorithm. An e-modification term is added to guarantee robustness of the observer. No strictly positive real (SPR) or any other strong assumption is imposed on the proposed approach. The stability of the recurrent neural network observer is shown by Lyapunov's direct method. Simulation results for a flexible-joint manipulator are presented to demonstrate the enhanced performance achieved by utilizing the proposed neural network observer.

  12. Neural network based tracking control of a flexible macro-micro manipulator system.

    PubMed

    Cheng, X P; Patel, R V

    2003-03-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of stable tracking control of a flexible macro-micro manipulator (M(3)) system. A two-layer neural network is utilized to approximate the nonlinear robot dynamic behavior of the M(3) system, and the controllers for the macro and micro arms are developed without any need for prior knowledge of the dynamic model of the controlled M(3) system. A learning algorithm for the neural network using Lyapunov stability theory is derived. It is shown that both the tracking error and the weight-tuning error are uniformly ultimately bounded under this new control scheme. Simulation results are presented and compared to those obtained using a PD controller.

  13. Nonlinear modeling of a long flexible manipulator and control by inertial devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbieri, Enrique; Kenny, Sean P.; Montgomery, Raymond C.

    1992-01-01

    The authors consider the modeling and control of a planar, long flexible manipulator that is representative of current space-based robotic arms. The arm is equipped with three actuators: 1) a shoulder motor; 2) a torque wheel at the tip; and 3) a proof-mass actuator at the tip. The goal is to investigate the potential use of inertial devices as control inputs for maneuvering tasks and vibration suppression. The parameters used for the inertial devices at the tip are comparable to those specified for the Mini-Mast facility at the Langley Research Center. A nonlinear distributed parameter model is obtained by the extended Hamilton principle. The associated eigenvalue/eigenfunction problem is solved and a finite-dimensional state space model is assembled. A preliminary design of a linear quadratic regulator is used, and computer simulation results illustrate the benefits of using the proposed actuators.

  14. System Identification and Model Reduction for a Single-Link Flexible Manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIU, K.; SUN, X.

    2001-05-01

    A new model reduction and updating technique is proposed and applied in modelling of a single-link flexible manipulator. The Observability Range Space Extraction algorithm is used to generate an initial overparameterized state-space model. The identified model is transformed into modal realization. The modal responses of individual modes are evaluated. A new measure is proposed to quantify the contribution of individual modes to the total responses. Using the proposed measure, a reduced order model is obtained by retaining the most significant modes. To improve model accuracy, either the reduced input or output matrix can be recalculated by a proposed method. Several critical issues related to the experimental identification are addressed. Experimental identification results are presented to illustrate the proposed technique.

  15. Boundary control for a flexible manipulator based on infinite dimensional disturbance observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tingting; Liu, Jinkun; He, Wei

    2015-07-01

    This paper focuses on disturbance observer and boundary control design for the flexible manipulator in presence of both boundary disturbance and spatially distributed disturbance. Taking the infinite-dimensionality of the flexural dynamics into account, this study proposes a partial differential equation (PDE) model. Since the spatially distributed disturbance is infinite dimensional, it cannot be compensated by the typical disturbance observer, which is designed by finite dimensional approach. To estimate the spatially distributed disturbance, we propose a novel infinite dimensional disturbance observer (IDDO). Applying the IDDO as a feedforward compensator, a boundary control scheme is designed to regulate the joint position and eliminate the elastic vibration simultaneously. Theoretical analysis validates the stability of both the proposed disturbance observer and the boundary controller. The performance of the closed-loop system is demonstrated by numerical simulations.

  16. Modal analysis and control of flexible manipulator arms. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neto, O. M.

    1974-01-01

    The possibility of modeling and controlling flexible manipulator arms was examined. A modal approach was used for obtaining the mathematical model and control techniques. The arm model was represented mathematically by a state space description defined in terms of joint angles and mode amplitudes obtained from truncation on the distributed systems, and included the motion of a two link two joint arm. Three basic techniques were used for controlling the system: pole allocation with gains obtained from the rigid system with interjoint feedbacks, Simon-Mitter algorithm for pole allocation, and sensitivity analysis with respect to parameter variations. An improvement in arm bandwidth was obtained. Optimization of some geometric parameters was undertaken to maximize bandwidth for various payload sizes and programmed tasks. The controlled system is examined under constant gains and using the nonlinear model for simulations following a time varying state trajectory.

  17. Active Vibration Control of a Large Flexible Manipulator by Inertial Force and Joint Torque. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Soo Han

    1988-01-01

    The efficiency and positional accuracy of a lightweight flexible manipulator are limited by its flexural vibrations, which last after a gross motion is completed. The vibration delays subsequent operations. In the proposed work, the vibration is suppressed by inertial force of a small arm in addition to the joint actuators and passive damping treatment. The proposed approach is: (1) Dynamic modeling of a combined system, a large flexible manipulator and a small arm, (2) Determination of optimal sensor location and controller algorithm, and (3) Verification of the fitness of model and the performance of controller.

  18. Optimal target grasping of a flexible space manipulator for a class of objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toglia, Chiara; Sabatini, Marco; Gasbarri, Paolo; Palmerini, Giovanni B.

    2011-04-01

    Space graspers are complex systems, composed by robotic arms placed on an orbiting platform. In order to fulfil the manoeuvres' requirements, it is necessary to properly model all the forces acting on the space robot. A fully nonlinear model is used to describe the dynamics, based on a multibody approach. The model includes the orbital motion, the gravity gradient, the aerodynamic effects, as well as the flexibility of the links. The present paper aims to design, thanks to nonlinear optimization algorithms, a class of manoeuvres that, given the same target to be grasped, are characterized by different mission objectives. The grasping mission can be performed with the objective to minimize the power consumption. Collision avoidance constraints can be also added when the target is equipped with solar panels or other appendices. In some cases, large elastic displacements should be expected, possibly leading to an inaccurate positioning of the end-effector. Therefore, different design strategies can require that the manoeuvre is accomplished with minimum vibrations' amplitude at the end-effector. Performance of the different strategies is analyzed in terms of control effort, trajectory errors, and flexible response of the manipulator.

  19. Identifying the adaptive mechanism in globular proteins: Fluctuations in densely packed regions manipulate flexible parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Lutfu Safak; Atilgan, Ali Rana

    2000-09-01

    A low-resolution structural model based on the packing geometry of α-carbons is utilized to establish a connection between the flexible and rigid parts of a folded protein. The former commonly recognizes a complementing molecule for making a complex, while the latter manipulates the necessary conformational change for binding. We attempt analytically to distinguish this control architecture that intrinsically exists in globular proteins. First with two-dimensional simple models, then for a native protein, bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, we explicitly demonstrate that inserting fluctuations in tertiary contacts supported by the stable core, one can regulate the displacement of residues on loop regions. The positional fluctuations of the flexible regions are annihilated by the rest of the protein in conformity with the Le Chatelier-Braun principle. The results indicate that the distortion of the principal nonbonded contacts between highly packed residues is accompanied by that of the slavery fluctuations that are widely distributed over the native structure. These positional arrangements do not appear in a reciprocal relation between a perturbation and the associated response; the effect of a movement of residue i on residue j is not equal to that of the same movement of residue j on residue i.

  20. CSI compensation for reduced-order model based control of a flexible robot manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reisenauer, Brian T.; Balas, Mark J.

    1989-01-01

    In controller design for flexible structures, certain system modes are extremely important for the overall performance of the structure. A reduced-order model (ROM) based control focuses on these modes, providing a viable, active control algorithm for large systems. Unfortunately, unmodeled structure dynamics can interact with the ROM controller (CSI) and cause crippling deterioration of system performance, possibly to the point that system stability is lost. A residual model filter (RMF) eliminates one channel of control structure interaction (CSI), while adding only a simple, second-order filter to the control loop. Thus, the ROM controller can be designed independently, based strictly on performance criteria, and residual mode filters can then be selected to compensate for CSI. A flexible robot manipulator is used for preliminary experimentation with the ROM/RMF design methodology. Since the controller was to be implemented both with, and without compensation for CSI, the ROM control gains are carefully chosen such that closed loop stability is never compromised. In this way, RMF effectiveness is easily evaluated in terms of the improvement in system performance resulting from CSI compensation.

  1. Finite element based model predictive control for active vibration suppression of a one-link flexible manipulator.

    PubMed

    Dubay, Rickey; Hassan, Marwan; Li, Chunying; Charest, Meaghan

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a unique approach for active vibration control of a one-link flexible manipulator. The method combines a finite element model of the manipulator and an advanced model predictive controller to suppress vibration at its tip. This hybrid methodology improves significantly over the standard application of a predictive controller for vibration control. The finite element model used in place of standard modelling in the control algorithm provides a more accurate prediction of dynamic behavior, resulting in enhanced control. Closed loop control experiments were performed using the flexible manipulator, instrumented with strain gauges and piezoelectric actuators. In all instances, experimental and simulation results demonstrate that the finite element based predictive controller provides improved active vibration suppression in comparison with using a standard predictive control strategy. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rigid-flexible coupling dynamic modeling and investigation of a redundantly actuated parallel manipulator with multiple actuation modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Dong; Song, Yimin; Sun, Tao; Jin, Xueying

    2017-09-01

    A systematic dynamic modeling methodology is presented to develop the rigid-flexible coupling dynamic model (RFDM) of an emerging flexible parallel manipulator with multiple actuation modes. By virtue of assumed mode method, the general dynamic model of an arbitrary flexible body with any number of lumped parameters is derived in an explicit closed form, which possesses the modular characteristic. Then the completely dynamic model of system is formulated based on the flexible multi-body dynamics (FMD) theory and the augmented Lagrangian multipliers method. An approach of combining the Udwadia-Kalaba formulation with the hybrid TR-BDF2 numerical algorithm is proposed to address the nonlinear RFDM. Two simulation cases are performed to investigate the dynamic performance of the manipulator with different actuation modes. The results indicate that the redundant actuation modes can effectively attenuate vibration and guarantee higher dynamic performance compared to the traditional non-redundant actuation modes. Finally, a virtual prototype model is developed to demonstrate the validity of the presented RFDM. The systematic methodology proposed in this study can be conveniently extended for the dynamic modeling and controller design of other planar flexible parallel manipulators, especially the emerging ones with multiple actuation modes.

  3. Light-driven 3D droplet manipulation on flexible optoelectrowetting devices fabricated by a simple spin-coating method.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dongyue; Park, Sung-Yong

    2016-05-21

    Technical advances in electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) over the past few years have extended our attraction to three-dimensional (3D) devices capable of providing more flexibility and functionality with larger volumetric capacity than conventional 2D planar ones. However, typical 3D EWOD devices require complex and expensive fabrication processes for patterning and wiring of pixelated electrodes that also restrict the minimum droplet size to be manipulated. Here, we present a flexible single-sided continuous optoelectrowetting (SCOEW) device which is not only fabricated by a spin-coating method without the need for patterning and wiring processes, but also enables light-driven 3D droplet manipulations. To provide photoconductive properties, previous optoelectrowetting (OEW) devices have used amorphous silicon (a-Si) typically fabricated through high-temperature processes over 300 °C such as CVD or PECVD. However, most of the commercially-available flexible substrates such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) experience serious thermal deformation under such high-temperature processes. Because of this compatibility issue of conventional OEW devices with flexible substrates, light-driven 3D droplet manipulations have not yet been demonstrated on flexible substrates. Our study overcomes this compatibility issue by using a polymer-based photoconductive material, titanium oxide phthalocyanine (TiOPc) and thus SCOEW devices can be simply fabricated on flexible substrates through a low-cost, spin-coating method. In this paper, analytical studies were conducted to understand the effects of light patterns on static contact angles and EWOD forces. For experimental validations of our study, flexible SCOEW devices were successfully fabricated through the TiOPc-based spin-coating method and light-driven droplet manipulations (e.g. transportation, merging, and splitting) have been demonstrated on various 3D terrains such as inclined

  4. Study of design and control of remote manipulators. Modeling manipulator arms with distributed flexibility for design and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Book, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    The interactions of control system and distributed flexible structural dynamics is explored for mechanical arms. A modeling process using 4 x 4 transfer matrices is described which permits the closed loop response of many current arm configurations to be evaluated. Root locus, frequency response, modal shapes, and time impulse response have all been obtained from the digital computer implementation of this model, which is oriented to arm design and allows for easy variation of the arm configuration through data cards. The model corresponds with experimentally observed natural frequencies with an average error of less than 5% in the first three flexible modes in the seven cases considered. The model was used to explore the limits imposed by structural flexibility on a nondimensionalized two link arm with one and two joints for planar motion.

  5. Experiments on rigid body-based controllers with input preshaping for a two-link flexible manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Khorrami, F.; Jain, S.; Tzes, A. . Control/Robotics Research Lab.)

    1994-02-01

    Dynamics of multi-link flexible manipulators are highly nonlinear. Furthermore, the vibrational frequencies of these manipulators are configuration-dependent. Therefore, any feedforward or feedback algorithm has to deal with these frequency variations. In this paper, an inner-loop nonlinear controller based on feedback linearization of O(1) dynamics derived from an asymptotic expansion is utilized. It is shown that this control scheme significantly reduces the frequency variations due to the geometric configuration of the arm and cancels some of the nonlinearities due to Coriolis and centripetal effects. The advocated control law is compared and contrasted to an independent joint-based PD controller. However, since the aforementioned controllers are joint-based control schemes, significant vibrations are still induced at the end-effector. To this end, these control schemes are augmented with an input preshaper for vibration suppression. The objective is to preshape the reference input signals so that a vibration free output is achieved. The input preshaping scheme is shown to be effective when the plant dynamics are linear and time-invariant. These assumptions do not hold for the multi-link flexible manipulators as alluded to above. Application of an inner-loop nonlinear control to cancel some of the nonlinearities and to reduce configuration dependence of structural frequencies enhances the performance of the advocated input preshaping scheme or any other outer-loop linear control design. Experimental and simulation results for a two-link flexible manipulator are provided to validate the effectiveness of the advocated controllers.

  6. Vibration control of a pneumatic driven piezoelectric flexible manipulator using self-organizing map based multiple models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhi-li; Qiu, Zhi-cheng; Zhang, Xian-min; Han, Jian-da

    2016-03-01

    A kind of hybrid pneumatic-piezoelectric flexible manipulator system has been presented in the paper. A hybrid driving scheme is achieved by combining of a pneumatic proportional valve based pneumatic drive and a piezoelectric actuator bonded to the flexible beam. The system dynamics models are obtained based on system identification approaches, using the established experimental system. For system identification of the flexible piezoelectric manipulator subsystem, parametric estimation methods are utilized. For the pneumatic driven system, a single global linear model is not accurate enough to describe its dynamics, due to the high nonlinearity of the pneumatic driven system. Therefore, a self-organizing map (SOM) based multi-model system identification approach is used to get multiple local linear models. Then, a SOM based multi-model inverse controller and a variable damping pole-placement controller are applied to the pneumatic drive and piezoelectric actuator, respectively. Experiments on pneumatic driven vibration control, piezoelectric vibration control and hybrid vibration control are conducted, utilized proportional and derivative (PD) control, SOM based multi-model inverse controller, and the variable damping pole-placement controller. Experimental results demonstrate that the investigated control algorithms can improve the vibration control performance of the pneumatic driven flexible piezoelectric manipulator system.

  7. Analytical development of dynamic equations of motion for a three-dimensional flexible link manipulator with revolute and prismatic joints.

    PubMed

    Khadem, S E; Pirmohammadi, A A

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model capable of handling a three-dimensional (3D) flexible n-degree of freedom manipulator having both revolute and prismatic joints is considered. This model is used to study the longitudinal, transversal, and torsional vibration characteristics of the robot manipulator and obtain kinematic and dynamic equations of motion. The presence of prismatic joints makes the mathematical derivation complex. In this paper, for the first time, prismatic joints as well as revolute joints have been considered in the structure of a 3D flexible n-degree of freedom manipulator. The kinematic and dynamic equations of motion representing longitudinal, transversal, and torsional vibration characteristics have been solved in parametric form with no discretization. In this investigation, in order to obtain an analytical solution of the vibrational equations, a novel approach is presented using the perturbation method. By solving the equations of motion, it is shown that mode shapes of the link with prismatic joints can be modeled as the equivalent clamped beam at each time instant. As an example, this method is applied to a three degrees of freedom robot with revolute and prismatic joints. The obtained equations are solved using the perturbation method and the results are used to simulate vibrational behavior of the manipulator.

  8. Finite-time state-dependent Riccati equation for time-varying nonaffine systems: rigid and flexible joint manipulator control.

    PubMed

    Korayem, M H; Nekoo, S R

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates finite-time optimal and suboptimal controls for time-varying systems with state and control nonlinearities. The state-dependent Riccati equation (SDRE) controller was the main framework. A finite-time constraint imposed on the equation changes it to a differential equation, known as the state-dependent differential Riccati equation (SDDRE) and this equation was applied to the problem reported in this study that provides general formulation and stability analysis. The following four solution methods were developed for solving the SDDRE; backward integration, state transition matrix (STM) and the Lyapunov based method. In the Lyapunov approach, both positive and negative definite solutions to related SDRE were used to provide suboptimal gain for the SDDRE. Finite-time suboptimal control is applied for robotic manipulator, as finite-time constraint strongly decreases state error and operation time. General state-dependent coefficient (SDC) parameterizations for rigid and flexible joint arms (prismatic or revolute joints) are introduced. By including nonlinear control inputs in the formulation, the actuator׳s limits can be inserted directly to the state-space equation of a manipulator. A finite-time SDRE was implemented on a 6R manipulator both in theory and experimentally. And a reduced 3R arm was modeled and tested as a flexible joint robot (FJR). Evaluations of load carrying capacity and operation time were investigated to assess the capability of this approach, both of which showed significant improvement. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. On utilizing alternating current-flow field effect transistor for flexibly manipulating particles in microfluidics and nanofluidics

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weiyu; Shao, Jinyou; Ren, Yukun; Liu, Jiangwei; Tao, Ye; Jiang, Hongyuan; Ding, Yucheng

    2016-01-01

    By imposing a biased gate voltage to a center metal strip, arbitrary symmetry breaking in induced-charge electroosmotic flow occurs on the surface of this planar gate electrode, a phenomenon termed as AC-flow field effect transistor (AC-FFET). In this work, the potential of AC-FFET with a shiftable flow stagnation line to flexibly manipulate micro-nano particle samples in both a static and continuous flow condition is demonstrated via theoretical analysis and experimental validation. The effect of finite Debye length of induced double-layer and applied field frequency on the manipulating flexibility factor for static condition is investigated, which indicates AC-FFET turns out to be more effective for achieving a position-controllable concentrating of target nanoparticle samples in nanofluidics compared to the previous trial in microfluidics. Besides, a continuous microfluidics-based particle concentrator/director is developed to deal with incoming analytes in dynamic condition, which exploits a design of tandem electrode configuration to consecutively flow focus and divert incoming particle samples to a desired downstream branch channel, as prerequisite for a following biochemical analysis. Our physical demonstrations with AC-FFET prove valuable for innovative designs of flexible electrokinetic frameworks, which can be conveniently integrated with other microfluidic or nanofluidic components into a complete lab-on-chip diagnostic platform due to a simple electrode structure. PMID:27190570

  10. Exact and explicit optimal solutions for trajectory planning and control of single-link flexible-joint manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Guanrong

    1991-01-01

    An optimal trajectory planning problem for a single-link, flexible joint manipulator is studied. A global feedback-linearization is first applied to formulate the nonlinear inequality-constrained optimization problem in a suitable way. Then, an exact and explicit structural formula for the optimal solution of the problem is derived and the solution is shown to be unique. It turns out that the optimal trajectory planning and control can be done off-line, so that the proposed method is applicable to both theoretical analysis and real time tele-robotics control engineering.

  11. Flexible Slippery Surface to Manipulate Droplet Coalescence and Sliding, and Its Practicability in Wind-Resistant Water Collection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanfeng; Qian, Baitai; Lai, Chuilin; Wang, Xiaowen; Ma, Kaikai; Guo, Yujuan; Zhu, Xingli; Fei, Bin; Xin, John H

    2017-07-26

    A flexible slippery membrane (FSM) with tunable morphology and high elastic deformability has been developed by infusing perfluoropolyether (PFPE) into a fluorinated-copolymer-modified thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) nanofiberous membrane. To immobilize PFPE in TPU matrix, we synthesized a fluorinated-copolymer poly(DFMA-co-IBOA-co-LMA) with low surface energy, high chemical affinity to PFPE, adequate flexibility, and strong physical adhesion on TPU. Upon external tensile stress, the as-prepared FSM can realize a real-time manipulation of water sliding and coalescence on it. Furthermore, it exhibits the ability to preserve the captured water from being blown away by strong wind, which ensures the water collection efficiency in windy regions.

  12. Control of a small working robot on a large flexible manipulator for suppressing vibrations: Development of a robust control law for flexible robot and it's stability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soo, Han Lee

    1991-01-01

    Researchers developed a robust control law for slow motions for the accurate trajectory control of a flexible robot. The control law does not need larger velocity gains than position gains, which some researchers need to ensure the stability of a rigid robot. Initial experimentation for the Small Articulated Manipulator (SAM) shows that control laws that use smaller velocity gains are more robust to signal noise than the control laws that use larger velocity gains. Researchers analyzed the stability of the composite control law, the robust control for the slow motion, and the strain rate feedback for the fast control. The stability analysis was done by using a quadratic Liapunov function. Researchers found that the flexible motion of links could be controlled by relating the input force to the flexible signals which are sensed at the near tip of each link. The signals are contaminated by the time delayed input force. However, the effect of the time delayed input force can be reduced by giving a certain configuration to the SAM.

  13. Control of a small working robot on a large flexible manipulator for suppressing vibrations: Development of a robust control law for flexible robot and it's stability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soo, Han Lee

    1991-01-01

    Researchers developed a robust control law for slow motions for the accurate trajectory control of a flexible robot. The control law does not need larger velocity gains than position gains, which some researchers need to ensure the stability of a rigid robot. Initial experimentation for the Small Articulated Manipulator (SAM) shows that control laws that use smaller velocity gains are more robust to signal noise than the control laws that use larger velocity gains. Researchers analyzed the stability of the composite control law, the robust control for the slow motion, and the strain rate feedback for the fast control. The stability analysis was done by using a quadratic Liapunov function. Researchers found that the flexible motion of links could be controlled by relating the input force to the flexible signals which are sensed at the near tip of each link. The signals are contaminated by the time delayed input force. However, the effect of the time delayed input force can be reduced by giving a certain configuration to the SAM.

  14. Effect of general flexibility on thumb-tip force generation - implication for mobilization and manipulation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Meng-Tzu; Hsu, Ar-Tyan; Lin, Se-Wei; Su, Fong-Ching

    2009-10-01

    Pain involving basal joints of the thumb is one of the major occupation-related disorders for orthopedic physiotherapists and manual therapists. The thumb-tip force generation while performing manual techniques may be influenced not only by the specific manual techniques employed but also by general flexibility of the therapist. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of general flexibility and different techniques on thumb-tip force generation. Twenty-three subjects with no exposure to manual techniques and 15 physical therapy clinicians with at least 3 years of orthopedic experience participated. The general flexibility of each subject was assessed by Beighton score (BS). Each subject was requested to exert a maximal force on a six-component load cell with the thumb unsupported (T1), with the rest of digits supported (T2), and with interphalangeal joint of the thumb supported by the index (T3).The thumb-tip force was normalized by body weight. The thumb-tip force generation is influenced not only by the differences in technique employed by the therapists, but also by the general flexibility of the therapists. Physiotherapists with excessive thumb flexibility are advised to perform PA glide with IP joint supported to protect the thumb joints from injury.

  15. Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, L. Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Flexibility is an important aspect of all sports and recreational activities. Flexibility can be developed and maintained by stretching exercises. Exercises designed to develop flexibility in ankle joints, knees, hips, and the lower back are presented. (JN)

  16. Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, L. Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Flexibility is an important aspect of all sports and recreational activities. Flexibility can be developed and maintained by stretching exercises. Exercises designed to develop flexibility in ankle joints, knees, hips, and the lower back are presented. (JN)

  17. A vision-based end-point control for a two-link flexible manipulator. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obergfell, Klaus

    1991-01-01

    The measurement and control of the end-effector position of a large two-link flexible manipulator are investigated. The system implementation is described and an initial algorithm for static end-point positioning is discussed. Most existing robots are controlled through independent joint controllers, while the end-effector position is estimated from the joint positions using a kinematic relation. End-point position feedback can be used to compensate for uncertainty and structural deflections. Such feedback is especially important for flexible robots. Computer vision is utilized to obtain end-point position measurements. A look-and-move control structure alleviates the disadvantages of the slow and variable computer vision sampling frequency. This control structure consists of an inner joint-based loop and an outer vision-based loop. A static positioning algorithm was implemented and experimentally verified. This algorithm utilizes the manipulator Jacobian to transform a tip position error to a joint error. The joint error is then used to give a new reference input to the joint controller. The convergence of the algorithm is demonstrated experimentally under payload variation. A Landmark Tracking System (Dickerson, et al 1990) is used for vision-based end-point measurements. This system was modified and tested. A real-time control system was implemented on a PC and interfaced with the vision system and the robot.

  18. Optimal trajectories for flexible-link manipulator slewing using recursive quadratic programming: Experimental verification

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.G.; Eisler, G.R.; Feddema, J.T.

    1994-09-01

    Procedures for trajectory planning and control of flexible link robots are becoming increasingly important to satisfy performance requirements of hazardous waste removal efforts. It has been shown that utilizing link flexibility in designing open loop joint commands can result in improved performance as opposed to damping vibration throughout a trajectory. The efficient use of link compliance is exploited in this work. Specifically, experimental verification of minimum time, straight line tracking using a two-link planar flexible robot is presented. A numerical optimization process, using an experimentally verified modal model, is used for obtaining minimum time joint torque and angle histories. The optimal joint states are used as commands to the proportional-derivative servo actuated joints. These commands are precompensated for the nonnegligible joint servo actuator dynamics. Using the precompensated joint commands, the optimal joint angles are tracked with such fidelity that the tip tracking error is less than 2.5 cm.

  19. Research in free-flying robots and flexible manipulators at the Stanford Aerospace Robotics Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballhaus, W. L.; Alder, L. J.; Chen, V. W.; Dickson, W. C.; Ullman, M. A.; Wilson, E.

    1993-01-01

    Over the last ten years, the Stanford Aerospace Robotics Laboratory (ARL) has developed a hardware facility in which a number of space robotics issues have been, and continue to be addressed. This paper reviews two of the current ARL research areas: navigation and control of free flying space robots, and modeling and control of extremely flexible space structures.

  20. Manipulating flexible parts using a teleoperated system with time delay: An experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotoku, T.; Takamune, K.; Tanie, K.; Komoriya, K.; Matsuhira, N.; Asakura, M.; Bamba, H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports experiments involving the handling of flexible parts (e.g. wires) when using a teleoperated system with time delay. The task is principally a peg-in-hole task involving the wrapping of a wire around two posts on the task-board. It is difficult to estimate the effects of the flexible parts; therefore, on-line teleoperation is indispensable for this class of unpredictable task. We first propose a teleoperation system based on the predictive image display, then describe an experimental teleoperation testbed with a four second transmission time delay. Finally, we report on wire handling operations that were performed to evaluate the performance of this system. Those experiments will contribute to future advanced experiments for the MITI ETS-7 mission.

  1. Control of flexible robots with prismatic joints and hydraulic drives

    SciTech Connect

    Love, L.J.; Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.

    1997-03-01

    The design and control of long-reach, flexible manipulators has been an active research topic for over 20 years. Most of the research to date has focused on single link, fixed length, single plane of vibration test beds. In addition, actuation has been predominantly based upon electromagnetic motors. Ironically, these elements are rarely found in the existing industrial long-reach systems. One example is the Modified Light Duty Utility Arm (MLDUA) designed and built by Spar Aerospace for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This arm operates in larger, underground waste storage tanks located at ORNL. The size and nature of the tanks require that the robot have a reach of approximately 15 ft and a payload capacity of 250 lb. In order to achieve these criteria, each joint is hydraulically actuated. Furthermore, the robot has a prismatic degree-of-freedom to ease deployment. When fully extended, the robot`s first natural frequency is 1.76 Hz. Many of the projected tasks, coupled with the robot`s flexibility, present an interesting problem. How will many of the existing flexure control algorithms perform on a hydraulic, long-reach manipulator with prismatic links? To minimize cost and risk of testing these algorithms on the MLDUA, the authors have designed a new test bed that contains many of the same elements. This manuscript described a new hydraulically actuated, long-reach manipulator with a flexible prismatic link at ORNL. Focus is directed toward both modeling and control of hydraulic actuators as well as flexible links that have variable natural frequencies.

  2. Dynamic control modification techniques in teleoperation of a flexible manipulator. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee, David Patrick

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this research is to reduce the end-point vibration of a large, teleoperated manipulator while preserving the usefulness of the system motion. A master arm is designed to measure desired joint angles as the user specifies a desired tip motion. The desired joint angles from the master arm are the inputs to an adaptive PD control algorithm that positions the end-point of the manipulator. As the user moves the tip of the master, the robot will vibrate at its natural frequencies which makes it difficult to position the end-point. To eliminate the tip vibration during teleoperated motions, an input shaping method is presented. The input shaping method transforms each sample of the desired input into a new set of impulses that do not excite the system resonances. The method is explained using the equation of motion for a simple, second-order system. The impulse response of such a system is derived and the constraint equations for vibrationless motion are presented. To evaluate the robustness of the method, a different residual vibration equation from Singer's is derived that more accurately represents the input shaping technique. The input shaping method is shown to actually increase the residual vibration in certain situations when the system parameters are not accurately specified. Finally, the implementation of the input shaping method to a system with varying parameters is shown to induce a vibration into the system. To eliminate this vibration, a modified command shaping technique is developed. The ability of the modified command shaping method to reduce vibration at the system resonances is tested by varying input perturbations to trajectories in a range of possible user inputs. By comparing the frequency responses of the transverse acceleration at the end-point of the manipulator, the modified method is compared to the original PD routine. The control scheme that produces the smaller magnitude of resonant vibration at the first natural frequency is

  3. Design of robust controllers and a nonlinear observer for the control of a single-link flexible robotic manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalhoub, N. G.; Kfoury, G. A.; Bazzi, B. A.

    2006-03-01

    Two robust nonlinear controllers along with a nonlinear observer have been developed in this study to control the rigid and flexible motions of a single-link robotic manipulator. The controllers and the observer have been designed based on a simplified model of the arm, which only accounts for the first elastic mode of the beam. The controllers consist of a conventional sliding mode controller (CSMC) and a fuzzy-sliding mode controller (FSMC). Moreover, the robust nonlinear observer has been designed based on the sliding mode methodology. The dynamic model, used in assessing the performances of the controllers and the observer, considers the first two elastic modes of the beam. The inclusion of the second elastic mode has been done to investigate the effects of unstructured uncertainties on the overall performance of the closed-loop system. The digital simulations have demonstrated the capability of the observer in yielding accurate estimates of the state variables in the presence of modeling uncertainties. Moreover, they served to prove the viability of using the observer to provide on-line estimates of the state variables for the computation of the control signals. The results have illustrated robust performances of the controllers and the observer in controlling the rigid and flexible motions of the manipulator in the presence of both structured and unstructured uncertainties. This was achieved irrespective of the differences in the initial conditions between the plant and the observer. Furthermore, the structural deformations, incurred by the beam at the onset of its movement, have been shown to be significantly reduced by fuzzy-tuning the η-control parameter. The results have demonstrated the superiority of the FSMC over the CSMC in producing less oscillatory and more accurate response of the angular displacement at the base joint, in damping out the unwanted vibrations of the beam, and in requiring significantly smaller control torques.

  4. Minimum-time trajectory control of a two-link flexible robotic manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenwald, D.A.; Feddema, J.T.; Eisler, G.R.; Segalman, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper analyzes the experimental and simulation results of a minimum-time trajectory control scheme for a two-link flexible robot. An off-line optimization routine determines a minimum-time, straight line tip trajectory which stays within the torque constraints of the motors and ends in a quiescent state, i.e., no vibrational transients. An efficient finite-element model is used in the optimization to approximate the flexible arm dynamics. The control strategy described here is used to determine the feedback gains for the position, velocity, and strain gage signals from a quadratic cost criterion based on the finite-element model linearized about the straight line tip trajectory. These feedback signals are added to the modeled torque obtained from the optimization routine and used to control the robot arm actuators. The results indicate that this combination of model-based and error-driven control strategies achieves a closer tracking of the desired trajectory and a better handling of modeling errors (such as tip payloads) than either strategy alone.

  5. Passivity/Lyapunov based controller design for trajectory tracking of flexible joint manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sicard, Pierre; Wen, John T.; Lanari, Leonardo

    1992-01-01

    A passivity and Lyapunov based approach for the control design for the trajectory tracking problem of flexible joint robots is presented. The basic structure of the proposed controller is the sum of a model-based feedforward and a model-independent feedback. Feedforward selection and solution is analyzed for a general model for flexible joints, and for more specific and practical model structures. Passivity theory is used to design a motor state-based controller in order to input-output stabilize the error system formed by the feedforward. Observability conditions for asymptotic stability are stated and verified. In order to accommodate for modeling uncertainties and to allow for the implementation of a simplified feedforward compensation, the stability of the system is analyzed in presence of approximations in the feedforward by using a Lyapunov based robustness analysis. It is shown that under certain conditions, e.g., the desired trajectory is varying slowly enough, stability is maintained for various approximations of a canonical feedforward.

  6. Advances in dynamics and control of flexible spacecraft and space-based manipulations; Proceedings of the Symposium, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Dallas, TX, Nov. 25-30, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Suresh M. (Editor); Alberts, Thomas E. (Editor); Kakad, Yogendra P. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Consideration is given to control formulations for vibration suppression of an active structure in slewing motions, the use if distributed sensing in control of large flexible spacecraft, an improved shooting method for solving minimum-time maneuver problems, and nonlinear slew maneuver dynamics of large flexible spacecrafts. Attention is also given to initial experiments in trusterless locomotion control of a free-flying robot, dynamic analysis to evaluate viscoelastic passive damping augmentation for the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System, initial experiments in cooperative manipulation from a moving platform, and intelligent pipelined control architecture for remote robotic applications.

  7. Advances in dynamics and control of flexible spacecraft and space-based manipulations; Proceedings of the Symposium, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Dallas, TX, Nov. 25-30, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Suresh M. (Editor); Alberts, Thomas E. (Editor); Kakad, Yogendra P. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Consideration is given to control formulations for vibration suppression of an active structure in slewing motions, the use if distributed sensing in control of large flexible spacecraft, an improved shooting method for solving minimum-time maneuver problems, and nonlinear slew maneuver dynamics of large flexible spacecrafts. Attention is also given to initial experiments in trusterless locomotion control of a free-flying robot, dynamic analysis to evaluate viscoelastic passive damping augmentation for the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System, initial experiments in cooperative manipulation from a moving platform, and intelligent pipelined control architecture for remote robotic applications.

  8. Advances in dynamics and control of flexible spacecraft and space-based manipulations; Proceedings of the Symposium, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Dallas, TX, Nov. 25-30, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Suresh M.; Alberts, Thomas E.; Kakad, Yogendra P.

    Consideration is given to control formulations for vibration suppression of an active structure in slewing motions, the use if distributed sensing in control of large flexible spacecraft, an improved shooting method for solving minimum-time maneuver problems, and nonlinear slew maneuver dynamics of large flexible spacecrafts. Attention is also given to initial experiments in trusterless locomotion control of a free-flying robot, dynamic analysis to evaluate viscoelastic passive damping augmentation for the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System, initial experiments in cooperative manipulation from a moving platform, and intelligent pipelined control architecture for remote robotic applications.

  9. The rigid-flexible robotic manipulator: Nonlinear control and state estimation considering a different mathematical model for estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenili, André

    2012-11-01

    In this paper the author investigates the angular position and vibration control of a nonlinear rigid-flexible two link robotic manipulator considering fast angular maneuvers. The nonlinear control technique named State-Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE) is used here to achieve these aims. In a more realistic approach, it is considered that some states can be measured and some states cannot be measured. The states not measured are estimated in order to be used for the SDRE control. These states are all the angular velocities and the velocity of deformation of the flexible link. A state-dependent Riccati equation-based estimator is used here. Not only different initial conditions between the system to be controlled (here named "real" system) and the estimator but also a different mathematical model is considered as the estimation model in order to verify the limitations of the proposed estimation and control techniques. The mathematical model that emulates the real system to be controlled considers two modes expansion and the estimation model considers only one mode expansion. The results for the different approaches are compared and discussed.

  10. Certification of a hybrid parameter model of the fully flexible Shuttle Remote Manipulator System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhorst, Alan A.

    1995-01-01

    The development of high fidelity models of mechanical systems with flexible components is in flux. Many working models of these devices assume the elastic motion is small and can be superimposed on the overall rigid body motion. A drawback associated with this type of modeling technique is that it is required to regenerate the linear modal model of the device if the elastic motion is sufficiently far from the base rigid motion. An advantage to this type of modeling is that it uses NASTRAN modal data which is the NASA standard means of modal information exchange. A disadvantage to the linear modeling is that it fails to accurately represent large motion of the system, unless constant modal updates are performed. In this study, which is a continuation of a project started last year, the drawback of the currently used modal snapshot modeling technique is addressed in a rigorous fashion by novel and easily applied means.

  11. Control of a small working robot on a large flexible manipulator for suppressing vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Soo Han

    1991-01-01

    The short term objective of this research is the completion of experimental configuration of the Small Articulated Robot (SAM) and the derivations of the actuator dynamics of the Robotic Arm, Large and Flexible (RALF). In order to control vibrations SAM should have larger bandwidth than that of the vibrations. The bandwidth of SAM consist of 3 parts; structural rigidity, processing speed of controller, and motor speed. The structural rigidity was increased to a reasonably high value by attaching aluminum angles at weak points and replacing thin side plates by thicker ones. The high processing speed of the controller was achieved by using parallel processors (three 68000 process, three interface board, and one main processor (IBM-XT)). Maximum joint speed and acceleration of SAM is known as about 4 rad/s and 15 rad/sq s. Hence SAM can move only .04 rad at 3 Hz which is the natural frequency of RALF. This will be checked by experiment.

  12. Control of a small working robot on a large flexible manipulator for suppressing vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Soo Han

    1991-01-01

    The short term objective of this research is the completion of experimental configuration of the Small Articulated Robot (SAM) and the derivations of the actuator dynamics of the Robotic Arm, Large and Flexible (RALF). In order to control vibrations SAM should have larger bandwidth than that of the vibrations. The bandwidth of SAM consist of 3 parts; structural rigidity, processing speed of controller, and motor speed. The structural rigidity was increased to a reasonably high value by attaching aluminum angles at weak points and replacing thin side plates by thicker ones. The high processing speed of the controller was achieved by using parallel processors (three 68000 process, three interface board, and one main processor (IBM-XT)). Maximum joint speed and acceleration of SAM is known as about 4 rad/s and 15 rad/sq s. Hence SAM can move only .04 rad at 3 Hz which is the natural frequency of RALF. This will be checked by experiment.

  13. ONU discovery using multiple subchannels for seamless service support in long-reach OFDMA-PON.

    PubMed

    Bang, Hakjeon; Doo, Kyeong-Hwan; Lee, Jonghyun; Lee, Sangsoo

    2014-09-08

    In a passive optical network (PON), discovery is a process that detects and registers newly connected optical network units (ONUs). A long-reach PON requires a longer discovery window, e.g., at least 1 ms for 100 km, due to the increased round-trip time between an optical line terminal (OLT) and an ONU. The longer discovery window consumes more network resources and issues longer service-interruption time. From this motivation, for a long-reach orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA)-PON, we propose a discovery method using multiple subchannels, where each subchannel consists of one or several subcarrier(s). Compared to discovery using a single channel, the proposed discovery method can increase the number of successfully detected ONUs at the same resources (i.e., for a discovery window) and ensure seamless service support to already registered ONUs, by assigning some subchannels for discovery and the remainder for data transmission. We analyze the discovery efficiency (i.e., the number of successfully detected ONUs in the discovery process) based on a probability and optimize the discovery window size by numerical simulations.

  14. Protection of long-reach PON traffic through router database synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, David K.; Lu, Zheng; Gilfedder, Tim H.

    2007-05-01

    A resilience strategy is introduced for networks implementing dual homing (dual parenting) of customers, specifically those employing long-reach PONs (LR-PONs). Assuming that some mechanism exists to detect network element failures, the discussion concentrates on protocols that propagate information about customer reachability and how this information reroutes traffic in the event of a fault. Each router holds a database indicating which other routers, and which LR-PONs, are available within the network, and these are synchronized between routers using IP. This information is used to reroute traffic in the event of failure. Simulation and analysis show that signaling time lies well within 50ms, leaving sufficient time for redirection of user traffic.

  15. A long-reach WDM passive optical network enabling broadcasting service with centralized light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Tang, M.; Fu, S.; Liu, D.; Shum, P.

    2012-02-01

    We propose a long-reach wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) passive optical network (PON) to provide conventional point-to-point (P2P) data and downstream broadcasting service simultaneously by superimposing, for each WDM channel, the differential-phase-shift-keying (DPSK) broadcasting signal with the subcarrier multiplexing (SCM) modulated downstream P2P signal, at the optical line terminal (OLT). In the optical network units (ONUs), by re-modulating part of the downstream signal with a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA), we realize color-less ONUs for upstream data transmission. The proposed scheme is numerically verified with a 5 Gb/s downstream P2P signal and broadcasting services, as well as 2.5 Gb/s upstream data through a 60 km bidirectional fiber link. In particular, the influence of the downstream lightwave's optical carrier-subcarrier ratio (OCSR) on the system performance is also investigated.

  16. A high performance long-reach passive optical network with a novel excess bandwidth distribution scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, I.-Fen; Zhang, Tsung-Min

    2015-06-01

    Long-reach passive optical networks (LR-PONs) have been considered to be promising solutions for future access networks. In this paper, we propose a distributed medium access control (MAC) scheme over an advantageous LR-PON network architecture that reroutes the control information from and back to all ONUs through an (N + 1) × (N + 1) star coupler (SC) deployed near the ONUs, thereby overwhelming the extremely long propagation delay problem in LR-PONs. In the network, the control slot is designed to contain all bandwidth requirements of all ONUs and is in-band time-division-multiplexed with a number of data slots within a cycle. In the proposed MAC scheme, a novel profit-weight-based dynamic bandwidth allocation (P-DBA) scheme is presented. The algorithm is designed to efficiently and fairly distribute the amount of excess bandwidth based on a profit value derived from the excess bandwidth usage of each ONU, which resolves the problems of previously reported DBA schemes that are either unfair or inefficient. The simulation results show that the proposed decentralized algorithms exhibit a nearly three-order-of-magnitude improvement in delay performance compared to the centralized algorithms over LR-PONs. Moreover, the newly proposed P-DBA scheme guarantees low delay performance and fairness even when under attack by the malevolent ONU irrespective of traffic loads and burstiness.

  17. Experimental evaluation and improvement methods for low cost transmitters in long reach PONs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzi, Sotiria; Klonidis, Dimitrios; Tsekrekos, Christos P.; Lazaro, Jose A.; Prat, Josep; Tomkos, Ioannis

    2013-12-01

    An extensive experimental research of an optical access network behaviour has been realized, in the framework of studying distance enhancement of long reach passive optical networks (PONs), while maintaining low cost and high performance. The network system has been implemented with low cost transmitters - operated at low driving voltage, without the use of electrical amplification, at 10 Gb/s - and with colourless optical network units (ONUs) as receivers. Although studied for variable lengths, error-free transmission (target bit-error rate at 10-9) over 100 km reach has been achieved in several ways. The performance of extended PONs, when low cost transmitters operated at low driving voltage are utilized, is improved by the application of optical dispersion compensation and electronic equalization techniques. The chirp of the transmitter has been shown to have an important effect on the behaviour of the system because of the dispersion phenomenon. It is observed however, that the combined use of optical dispersion compensation and electronic equalization gives a reduction of 5-10 dB of the required optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) for an error-free transmission. Moreover, it significantly reduces the heterogeneity of the system performance for several distances, yielding a predictable behaviour, while at the same time permits the use of handy, inexpensive and integrated transmitters.

  18. Direct-detection optical OFDM superchannel for long-reach PON using pilot regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rong; Yang, Qi; Xiao, Xiao; Gui, Tao; Li, Zhaohui; Luo, Ming; Yu, Shaohua; You, Shanhong

    2013-11-04

    We demonstrate a novel long-reach PON downstream scheme based on the regenerated pilot assisted direct-detection optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DDO-OFDM) superchannel transmission. We use the optical comb source to form DDO-OFDM superchannel, and reserve the center carrier as a seed pilot. The seed pilot is further tracked and reused to generate multiple optical carriers at the local exchange. Each regenerated pilot carrier is selected to beat with an adjacent OFDM sub-band at ONU, so that the electrical bandwidth limitation can be much released compared to the conventional DDO-OFDM superchannel detection. With the proposed proof-of-concept architecture, we experimentally demonstrated a 116.7 Gb/s superchannel OFDM-PON system with transmission reach of 100 km, and 1:64 splitting ratio. We analyze the impact of carrier-to-sideband power ratio (CSPR) on system performance. The experiment result shows that, 5 dB power margin is still remained at ONU using such technique.

  19. OTACT: ONU Turning with Adaptive Cycle Times in Long-Reach PONs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, Sajjad; Ghaffarpour Rahbar, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    With the expansion of PON networks as Long-Reach PON (LR-PON) networks, the problem of degrading the efficiency of centralized bandwidth allocation algorithms threatens this network due to high propagation delay. This is because these algorithms are based on bandwidth negotiation messages frequently exchanged between the optical line terminal (OLT) in the Central Office and optical network units (ONUs) near the users, which become seriously delayed when the network is extended. To solve this problem, some decentralized algorithms are proposed based on bandwidth negotiation messages frequently exchanged between the Remote Node (RN)/Local Exchange (LX) and ONUs near the users. The network has a relatively high delay since there are relatively large distances between RN/LX and ONUs, and therefore, control messages should travel twice between ONUs and RN/LX in order to go from one ONU to another ONU. In this paper, we propose a novel framework, called ONU Turning with Adaptive Cycle Times (OTACT), that uses Power Line Communication (PLC) to connect two adjacent ONUs. Since there is a large population density in urban areas, ONUs are closer to each other. Thus, the efficiency of the proposed method is high. We investigate the performance of the proposed scheme in contrast with other decentralized schemes under the worst case conditions. Simulation results show that the average upstream packet delay can be decreased under the proposed scheme.

  20. MetNetAPI: A flexible method to access and manipulate biological network data from MetNet.

    PubMed

    Sucaet, Yves; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

    2010-11-18

    Convenient programmatic access to different biological databases allows automated integration of scientific knowledge. Many databases support a function to download files or data snapshots, or a webservice that offers "live" data. However, the functionality that a database offers cannot be represented in a static data download file, and webservices may consume considerable computational resources from the host server. MetNetAPI is a versatile Application Programming Interface (API) to the MetNetDB database. It abstracts, captures and retains operations away from a biological network repository and website. A range of database functions, previously only available online, can be immediately (and independently from the website) applied to a dataset of interest. Data is available in four layers: molecular entities, localized entities (linked to a specific organelle), interactions, and pathways. Navigation between these layers is intuitive (e.g. one can request the molecular entities in a pathway, as well as request in what pathways a specific entity participates). Data retrieval can be customized: Network objects allow the construction of new and integration of existing pathways and interactions, which can be uploaded back to our server. In contrast to webservices, the computational demand on the host server is limited to processing data-related queries only. An API provides several advantages to a systems biology software platform. MetNetAPI illustrates an interface with a central repository of data that represents the complex interrelationships of a metabolic and regulatory network. As an alternative to data-dumps and webservices, it allows access to a current and "live" database and exposes analytical functions to application developers. Yet it only requires limited resources on the server-side (thin server/fat client setup). The API is available for Java, Microsoft.NET and R programming environments and offers flexible query and broad data- retrieval methods. Data

  1. MetNetAPI: A flexible method to access and manipulate biological network data from MetNet

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Convenient programmatic access to different biological databases allows automated integration of scientific knowledge. Many databases support a function to download files or data snapshots, or a webservice that offers "live" data. However, the functionality that a database offers cannot be represented in a static data download file, and webservices may consume considerable computational resources from the host server. Results MetNetAPI is a versatile Application Programming Interface (API) to the MetNetDB database. It abstracts, captures and retains operations away from a biological network repository and website. A range of database functions, previously only available online, can be immediately (and independently from the website) applied to a dataset of interest. Data is available in four layers: molecular entities, localized entities (linked to a specific organelle), interactions, and pathways. Navigation between these layers is intuitive (e.g. one can request the molecular entities in a pathway, as well as request in what pathways a specific entity participates). Data retrieval can be customized: Network objects allow the construction of new and integration of existing pathways and interactions, which can be uploaded back to our server. In contrast to webservices, the computational demand on the host server is limited to processing data-related queries only. Conclusions An API provides several advantages to a systems biology software platform. MetNetAPI illustrates an interface with a central repository of data that represents the complex interrelationships of a metabolic and regulatory network. As an alternative to data-dumps and webservices, it allows access to a current and "live" database and exposes analytical functions to application developers. Yet it only requires limited resources on the server-side (thin server/fat client setup). The API is available for Java, Microsoft.NET and R programming environments and offers flexible query and broad

  2. Two-Time Scale Virtual Sensor Design for Vibration Observation of a Translational Flexible-Link Manipulator Based on Singular Perturbation and Differential Games

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Jinyong; Li, Wei; Wang, Yuqiao; Fan, Mengbao; Yang, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Effective feedback control requires all state variable information of the system. However, in the translational flexible-link manipulator (TFM) system, it is unrealistic to measure the vibration signals and their time derivative of any points of the TFM by infinite sensors. With the rigid-flexible coupling between the global motion of the rigid base and the elastic vibration of the flexible-link manipulator considered, a two-time scale virtual sensor, which includes the speed observer and the vibration observer, is designed to achieve the estimation for the vibration signals and their time derivative of the TFM, as well as the speed observer and the vibration observer are separately designed for the slow and fast subsystems, which are decomposed from the dynamic model of the TFM by the singular perturbation. Additionally, based on the linear-quadratic differential games, the observer gains of the two-time scale virtual sensor are optimized, which aims to minimize the estimation error while keeping the observer stable. Finally, the numerical calculation and experiment verify the efficiency of the designed two-time scale virtual sensor. PMID:27801840

  3. Two-Time Scale Virtual Sensor Design for Vibration Observation of a Translational Flexible-Link Manipulator Based on Singular Perturbation and Differential Games.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jinyong; Li, Wei; Wang, Yuqiao; Fan, Mengbao; Yang, Xuefeng

    2016-10-28

    Effective feedback control requires all state variable information of the system. However, in the translational flexible-link manipulator (TFM) system, it is unrealistic to measure the vibration signals and their time derivative of any points of the TFM by infinite sensors. With the rigid-flexible coupling between the global motion of the rigid base and the elastic vibration of the flexible-link manipulator considered, a two-time scale virtual sensor, which includes the speed observer and the vibration observer, is designed to achieve the estimation for the vibration signals and their time derivative of the TFM, as well as the speed observer and the vibration observer are separately designed for the slow and fast subsystems, which are decomposed from the dynamic model of the TFM by the singular perturbation. Additionally, based on the linear-quadratic differential games, the observer gains of the two-time scale virtual sensor are optimized, which aims to minimize the estimation error while keeping the observer stable. Finally, the numerical calculation and experiment verify the efficiency of the designed two-time scale virtual sensor.

  4. Control and analysis of a single-link flexible beam with experimental verification

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, J.F.

    1992-12-01

    The objective of this report is to ascertain the general conditions for the avoidance and reduction of residual vibration in a flexible manipulator. Conventional manipulators usually have a 1.5 to 2-m reach, and their associated dynamic models typically are composed of lumped parameter elements; the major compliance emanates from the drive trains because of torsional loading effects. The energy storage of the drive system is predominantly potential energy because of the low inertia in the drive train; thus simple spring models have been adequate. A long-reach manipulator with a large aspect ratio (length to diameter) is a fundamentally different problem. Energy storage for this type of manipulator is distributive by nature because of the potential energy resulting from bending and the kinetic energy due to deflection rates. Instead of ordinary differential equations, partial differential equations are required to describe this system, making the analysis more difficult. The general flexibility problem associated with a distributive dynamic system, with specific emphasis on flexible manipulator, will be addressed in this report. Furthermore, three control schemes will be discussed and demonstrated on a single flexible manipulator to determine their general merits.

  5. Control and Analysis of a Single-Link Flexible Beam with Experimental Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this report is to ascertain the general conditions for the avoidance and reduction of residual vibration in a flexible manipulator. Conventional manipulators usually have a 1.5 to 2-m reach, and their associated dynamic models typically are composed of lumped parameter elements; the major compliance emanates from the, drive trains because of torsional loading effects. The energy storage of the drive system is predominantly potential energy because of the low inertia in the drive tram; thus simple spring models have been adequate. A long-reach manipulator with a large aspect ratio (length to diameter) is a fundamentally different problem. Energy storage for this type of manipulator is distributive by nature because of the potential energy resulting from bending and the kinetic energy due to deflection rates. Instead of ordinary differential equations, partial differential equations are required to describe this system, making the analysis more difficult. The general flexibility problem associated with a distributive dynamic system, with specific emphasis on flexible manipulator, will be addressed in this report. Furthermore, three control schemes will be discussed and demonstrated on, a single flexible manipulator to determine their general merits.

  6. Polarization Manipulation via Orientation Control in Polycrystalline BiFeO3 Thin Films on Biaxially Textured, Flexible Metallic Tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Junsoo; Goyal, Amit; Jesse, Stephen; Heatherly, Lee

    2011-02-01

    (111)-, (101)-, and (001)-oriented polycrystalline BiFeO3 films were fabricated on rolling-assisted biaxially textured substrates (RABiTS) with appropriate engineering of heteroepitaxially grown buffer multilayers on RABiTS. The crystallographic orientation and polarization direction were confirmed using X-ray diffraction and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), respectively. All the films exhibited excellent piezoelectric properties. Switching spectroscopy PFM demonstrated that the switching polarization in (111)-oriented polycrystalline BiFeO3 films is higher than that in (101)- or (001)-oriented films. These BiFeO3 films on low-cost, flexible, biaxially textured metallic tapes with controllable orientation and polarization are attractive for application in flexible piezoelectric devices.

  7. Out-reach in-space technology experiments program: Control of flexible robot manipulators in zero gravity, experiment definition phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Warren F.

    1989-01-01

    The results obtained show that it is possible to control light-weight robots with flexible links in a manner that produces good response time and does not induce unacceptable link vibrations. However, deflections induced by gravity cause large static position errors with such a control system. For this reason, it is not possible to use this control system for controlling motion in the direction of gravity. The control system does, on the other hand, have potential for use in space. However, in-space experiments will be needed to verify its applicability to robots moving in three dimensions.

  8. Adaptive controller for single-link flexible manipulators based on algebraic identification and generalized proportional integral control.

    PubMed

    Becedas, Jonathan; Trapero, Juan Ramón; Feliu, Vicente; Sira-Ramirez, Hebertt

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a fast online closed-loop identification method combined with an output-feedback controller of the generalized proportional integral (GPI) type for the control of an uncertain flexible robotic arm with unknown mass at the tip, including a Coulomb friction term in the motor dynamics. A fast nonasymptotic algebraic identification method developed in continuous time is used to identify the unknown system parameter and update the designed certainty equivalence GPI controller. In order to verify this method, several informative simulations and experiments are shown.

  9. Distributed piezoelectric vibration control for a flexible-link manipulator based on an observer in the form of partial differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongjun; Liu, Jinkun

    2016-02-01

    This paper mainly focuses on designing a distributed observer-based controller for a flexible-link manipulator bonded with piezoelectric actuators. The dynamic model of the link can be taken as an Euler-Bernoulli beam and takes on the form of partial differential equations (PDEs). The proposed observer, which is proven exponentially stable, has the ability to estimate infinite dimensional states, and only the boundary practical measurement values are needed. A novel distributed observer-based controller is subsequently developed to make the joint position track a desired trajectory and rapidly regulate vibrations on the whole beam, which is the main contribution of the paper. The closed-loop system is guaranteed exponentially stable by theoretical analysis and its favorable performance is demonstrated by numerical simulations.

  10. Manipulation strategies for massive space payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Book, Wayne J.

    1991-01-01

    Motion planning and control for the joints of flexible manipulators are discussed. Specific topics covered include control of a flexible braced manipulator, control of a small working robot on a large flexible manipulator to suppress vibrations, control strategies for ensuring cooperation among disparate manipulators, and motion planning for robots in free-fall.

  11. Electric pulses: a flexible tool to manipulate cytosolic calcium concentrations and generate spontaneous-like calcium oscillations in mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    de Menorval, Marie-Amelie; Andre, Franck M.; Silve, Aude; Dalmay, Claire; Français, Olivier; Le Pioufle, Bruno; Mir, Lluis M.

    2016-01-01

    Human adipose mesenchymal stem cells (haMSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells of great interest in regenerative medicine or oncology. They present spontaneous calcium oscillations related to cell cycle progression or differentiation but the correlation between these events is still unclear. Indeed, it is difficult to mimic haMSCs spontaneous calcium oscillations with chemical means. Pulsed electric fields (PEFs) can permeabilise plasma and/or organelles membranes depending on the applied pulses and therefore generate cytosolic calcium peaks by recruiting calcium from the external medium or from internal stores. We show that it is possible to mimic haMSCs spontaneous calcium oscillations (same amplitude, duration and shape) using 100 μs PEFs or 10 ns PEFs. We propose a model that explains the experimental situations reported. PEFs can therefore be a flexible tool to manipulate cytosolic calcium concentrations. This tool, that can be switched on and off instantaneously, contrary to chemicals agents, can be very useful to investigate the role of calcium oscillations in cell physiology and/or to manipulate cell fate. PMID:27561994

  12. Control and analysis of a single-link flexible beam with experimental verification. Robotics Technology Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, J.F.

    1992-12-01

    The objective of this report is to ascertain the general conditions for the avoidance and reduction of residual vibration in a flexible manipulator. Conventional manipulators usually have a 1.5 to 2-m reach, and their associated dynamic models typically are composed of lumped parameter elements; the major compliance emanates from the drive trains because of torsional loading effects. The energy storage of the drive system is predominantly potential energy because of the low inertia in the drive train; thus simple spring models have been adequate. A long-reach manipulator with a large aspect ratio (length to diameter) is a fundamentally different problem. Energy storage for this type of manipulator is distributive by nature because of the potential energy resulting from bending and the kinetic energy due to deflection rates. Instead of ordinary differential equations, partial differential equations are required to describe this system, making the analysis more difficult. The general flexibility problem associated with a distributive dynamic system, with specific emphasis on flexible manipulator, will be addressed in this report. Furthermore, three control schemes will be discussed and demonstrated on a single flexible manipulator to determine their general merits.

  13. Long reach DWDM-PON with 12.5 GHz channel spacing based on comb source seeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhao; Nie, Hai-tao; Wang, Yao-jun

    2016-07-01

    A long reach dense wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network (DWDM-PON) with 12.5 GHz channel spacing is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. An optical frequency comb source is used to provide the multiwavelength seeding light, while reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers (RSOAs) are installed in both optical line terminal (OLT) and optical network units (ONUs) as colorless transmitter. The experimental results show that the bidirectional transmission for 1.2 Gbit/s data rate is achieved over 80 km single mode fiber (SMF).

  14. Micro manipulator motion control to counteract macro manipulator structural vibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, J.Y.; Trudnowski, D.J.; Evans, M.S.; Bennett, D.W.

    1995-02-01

    Inertial force damping control by micro manipulator modulation is proposed to suppress the vibrations of a micro/macro manipulator system. The proposed controller, developed using classical control theory, is added to the existing control system. The proposed controller uses real-time measurements of macro manipulator flexibility to adjust the motion of the micro manipulator to counteract structural vibrations. Experimental studies using an existing micro/macro flexible link manipulator testbed demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach to suppression of vibrations in the macro/micro manipulator system using micro-manipulator-based inertial active damping control.

  15. Long-reach 10-Gb/s RSOA-based WDM PON employing QPSK signal and coherent receiver.

    PubMed

    Cho, K Y; Hong, U H; Jung, S P; Takushima, Y; Agata, A; Sano, T; Horiuchi, Y; Suzuki, M; Chung, Y C

    2012-07-02

    We demonstrate a long-reach wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (WDM PON) operating at the symmetric rate of 10.3 Gb/s. For the cost-effectiveness, we realize the upstream transmission by utilizing directly-modulated TO-can packaged reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers (RSOAs) and digital coherent receivers. In addition, to overcome the limited modulation bandwidth of this TO-can packaged RSOA (~2.2 GHz) and operate it at 10.3 Gb/s, we utilize the quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) format and the electronic phase equalization technique. The result shows that we can extend the maximum reach of the 10.3-Gb/s RSOA-based WDM PON to ~80 km without using any remote amplifiers.

  16. A long-reach ultra-dense 10 Gbit/s WDM-PON using a digital coherent receiver.

    PubMed

    Lavery, Domaniç; Ionescu, Maria; Makovejs, Sergejs; Torrengo, Enrico; Savory, Seb J

    2010-12-06

    We investigate the impact of channel spacing and nonlinear transmission over 120 km of standard single mode fiber for a 10 Gbit/s long-reach wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON). We employed polarization division multiplexed quadrature phase shift keying (PDM-QPSK), which allowed data transmission at 3.125 GBaud, including a 25% overhead for forward error correction. To receive this spectrally efficient modulation format, a digital coherent receiver was employed, allowing for both frequency selectivity and an increased sensitivity of -45 dBm (25 photons/bit).We investigated a channel spacing as low as 5 GHz, for which the loss budget was 48.6 dB, increasing to 54.0 dB for a 50 GHz grid.

  17. Fiber powered sensing system for a long reach single mode fiber link and non-continuous applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosolem, J. B.; Bassan, F. R.; Pereira, F. R.; Penze, R. S.; Leonardi, A. A.; Nascimento, C. A. M.

    2014-05-01

    This work describes a non-continuous sensor operating technique in order to achieve a long reach sensing system, using power over fiber (PoF) in single mode fiber (SMF). Due to the use of super-capacitors and logical circuits in the sensor unit, the energy provided by PoF can be stored and used in an appropriated time. We demonstrated this approach with a micro video camera sensor powered by a 4.4-km SMF link in laboratory and by a 1.6-km link using optical ground wire cable (OPWG), installed between an electrical power substation and a tower of 138-kV overhead transmission line (OTL).

  18. All-optical virtual private network system in OFDM based long-reach PON using RSOA re-modulation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang-Hun; Jung, Sang-Min; Kang, Su-Min; Han, Sang-Kook

    2015-01-01

    We propose an all-optical virtual private network (VPN) system in an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based long reach PON (LR-PON). In the optical access network field, technologies based on fundamental upstream (U/S) and downstream (D/S) have been actively researched to accommodate explosion of data capacity. However, data transmission among the end users which is arisen from cloud computing, file-sharing and interactive game takes a large weight inside of internet traffic. Moreover, this traffic is predicted to increase more if Internet of Things (IoT) services are activated. In a conventional PON, VPN data is transmitted through ONU-OLT-ONU via U/S and D/S carriers. It leads to waste of bandwidth and energy due to O-E-O conversion in the OLT and round-trip propagation between OLT and remote node (RN). Also, it causes inevitable load to the OLT for electrical buffer, scheduling and routing. The network inefficiency becomes more critical in a LR-PON which has been researched as an effort to reduce CAPEX and OPEX through metro-access consolidation. In the proposed system, the VPN data is separated from conventional U/S and re-modulated on the D/S carrier by using RSOA in the ONUs to avoid bandwidth consumption of U/S and D/S unlike in previously reported system. Moreover, the transmitted VPN data is re-directed to the ONUs by wavelength selective reflector device in the RN without passing through the OLT. Experimental demonstration for the VPN communication system in an OFDM based LR-PON has been verified.

  19. Simulation of robot manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Babcock, S.M.; Bills, K.C.; Kwon, D.S.; Schoenwald, D.A.

    1995-03-01

    This paper describes Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s development of an environment for the simulation of robotic manipulators. Simulation includes the modeling of kinematics, dynamics, sensors, actuators, control systems, operators, and environments. Models will be used for manipulator design, proposal evaluation, control system design and analysis, graphical preview of proposed motions, safety system development, and training. Of particular interest is the development of models for robotic manipulators having at least one flexible link. As a first application, models have been developed for the Pacific Northwest Laboratories` Flexible Beam Testbed which is a one-Degree-Of-Freedom, flexible arm with a hydraulic base actuator. Initial results show good agreement between model and experiment.

  20. Channel-reuse bidirectional transmission at 10 Gb/s/λ in long-reach DWDM-PON employing self wavelength managed tunable laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiguo; Wang, Jiahe; Jiang, Xu; Chen, Xue; Wang, Liqian

    2015-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a channel-reuse, bidirectional, 10 Gb/s/λ, long-reach dense wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network (DWDM-PON) and an optical beat noise-based automatic wavelength control method for a tunable laser used in a colorless optical network unit (ONU). A 42 km reach, channel-reuse, full-duplex, 10 Gb/s transmission on a 50 GHz DWDM grid is achieved. Transmission performance is also measured with different optical-signal-to-Rayleigh-backscattering-noise ratios (OSRBNRs) and different central wavelength shifts (WSs) between upstream signal and downstream signal in the channel-reuse system.

  1. HybHyp--hybridizing the host: the long reach of parasite genes. A new hypothesis to explain host-parasite interrelationships in plant hybrid complexes.

    PubMed

    Wissemann, Volker

    2010-12-01

    Ever since existence of sexuality in plants was accepted in around 1700, questions centred about the role and maintenance of sexual reproduction in general, leading to a number of hypotheses like the Vicar of Bray, the Ratchet or the Hitch-hiker theory. Bell (The masterpiece of nature. The evolution and genetics of sexuality. University of California Press, Berkeley, LA, 1982) formulated the Red Queen Hypothesis (RQH) which explains the persistence of sexual reproduction as an outcome of a coevolutionary arms race between hosts and parasites. By sexual recombination and genetic diversification hosts minimize the risk of pathogen infection. Since virulence of pathogens is genetically determined and often species specific, parasites are mostly adapted to common host genotypes, whereas rare and divergent genotypes are less infected and therefore have a selective advantage. Employing Dawkins (The extended phenotype. The long reach of the gene, 1999) central theorem of the extended phenotype to the RQH, mating systems in hosts might be a result of the long reach of the parasites genes. Here now the hypothesis is proposed, that evolution by hybridisation and polyploidy in host plants is an extended phenotype of parasites, a response of hosts triggered by the parasites genes to slow down the effects of the Red Queen strategy of plants. Thus, hybridisation and polyploidy might have evolved by parasite pressure and not by host strategy. This hypothesis is called the "hybridisation-of-the-host-hypothesis".

  2. Model based manipulator control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrosky, Lyman J.; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of using model based control (MBC) for robotic manipulators was investigated. A double inverted pendulum system was constructed as the experimental system for a general study of dynamically stable manipulation. The original interest in dynamically stable systems was driven by the objective of high vertical reach (balancing), and the planning of inertially favorable trajectories for force and payload demands. The model-based control approach is described and the results of experimental tests are summarized. Results directly demonstrate that MBC can provide stable control at all speeds of operation and support operations requiring dynamic stability such as balancing. The application of MBC to systems with flexible links is also discussed.

  3. REMOTELY OPERATED MANIPULATOR

    DOEpatents

    Hutto, E.L.

    1961-08-15

    A manipulator is described for performing, within an entirely enclosed cell containling radioactive materials, various mechanical operations. A rod with flexible fingers is encompassed by a tubular sleeve shorter than the rod. Relative movement between the rod and sleeve causes the fingers to open and close. This relative movement is effected by relative movement of permanent magnets in magnetic coupling relation to magnetic followers affixed to the ends of the rod and sleeve. The rod and its sleeve may be moved as a unit axially or may be rotated by means of the magnetic couplings. The manipulator is enclosed within a tubular member which is flexibly sealed to an opening in the cell. (AEC)

  4. Using adaptive four-band OFDM modulation with 40 Gb/s downstream and 10 Gb/s upstream signals for next generation long-reach PON.

    PubMed

    Yeh, C H; Chow, C W; Chen, H Y; Chen, B W

    2011-12-19

    In this demonstration, we propose and demonstrate an adaptive long-reach passive optical network (LR-PON) using four-band orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OFDM) channels. The downstream traffic rates from 6.25 to 40 Gb/s (using fixed quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) level in the four OFDM bands) and from 9.37 to 40.3 Gb/s (using variable QAM levels in the four OFDM bands) can be achieved adaptively in the optical network units (ONUs) depending on different fiber transmission lengths from 0 to 100 km. For the upstream transmission, a 10 Gb/s 16-QAM OFDM signal with pre-emphasis is experimentally performed by using a 2.5 GHz directly modulated laser (DML). Based on the simulation and experimental results, the proposed adaptive four-band OFDM system could be a promising candidate for the future LR-PON.

  5. On-the-field performance of quintuple-play long-reach OFDM-based WDM-PON optical access networks.

    PubMed

    Llorente, Roberto; Morant, Maria; Pellicer, Eloy; Herman, Milan; Nagy, Zsolt; Alves, Tiago; Cartaxo, Adolfo; Herrera, Javier; Correcher, Jose; Quinlan, Terence; Walker, Stuart; Rodrigues, Cláudio; Cluzeaud, Pierre; Schmidt, Axel; Piesiewicz, Radoslaw; Sambaraju, Rakesh

    2014-03-24

    In this paper the on-the-field performance of a WDM-PON optical access providing quintuple-play services using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation is evaluated in a real fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) network deployed by Towercom operator in Bratislava (Slovakia). A bundle of quintuple-play services comprising full-standard OFDM-based signals (LTE, WiMAX, UWB and DVB-T) and an ad-hoc OFDM-GbE signal is transmitted in coexistence per single user. Both downstream and upstream transmission performances are evaluated in different on-the-field long-reach optical link distance configurations. Four wavelength multi-user transmission of quintuple-play OFDM services is demonstrated exceeding 60.8 km reach in standard single mode fiber.

  6. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Love, L.J.

    1997-03-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL`s flexible/prismatic test stand.

  7. Genetic Manipulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, David

    1973-01-01

    Knowledge of genetic manipulations opens the door to ambitious possibilities of inhabiting the world with genetically perfect human beings. Legal, technological and social problems are involved. Attempts must be made to identify hereditary complaints in individuals. (PS)

  8. Robot Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Space Shuttle's Remote Manipulator System (Canadarm) is a 50 foot robot arm used to deploy, retrieve or repair satellites in orbit. Initial spinoff version is designed to remove, inspect and replace large components of Ontario Hydro's CANDU nuclear reactors, which supply 50 percent of Ontario Hydro's total power reduction. CANDU robot is the first of SPAR's Remote Manipulator Systems intended for remote materials handling operations in nuclear servicing, chemical processing, smelting and manufacturing. Inco Limited used remote manipulator for remote control mining equipment to enhance safety and productivity of Inco's hardrock mining operations. System not only improves safety in a hazardous operation that costs more than a score of lives annually, it also increases productivity fourfold. Remote Manipulator System Division is also manufacturing a line of industrial robots and developing additional system for nuclear servicing, mining, defense and space operations.

  9. Experimental study of coexistence of multi-band OFDM-UWB and OFDM-baseband signals in long-reach PONs using directly modulated lasers.

    PubMed

    Morgado, José A P; Fonseca, Daniel; Cartaxo, Adolfo V T

    2011-11-07

    Transmission of coexisting Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)-baseband (BB) and multi-band OFDM-ultra-wideband (UWB) signals along long-reach passive optical networks using directly modulated lasers (DML) is experimentally demonstrated.When optimized modulation indexes are used, bit error ratios not exceeding 5 × 10⁻⁴ can be achieved by all (OFDM-BB and three OFDM-UWB sub-bands) signals for a reach of 100 km of standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) and optical signal-to-noise ratios not lower than 25dB@0.1 nm. It is experimentally shown that, for the SSMF reach of 100km, the optimized performance of coexisting OFDM-BB and OFDM-UWB signals is mainly imposed by the combination of two effects: the SSMF dispersion-induced nonlinear distortion of the OFDM-UWB signals caused by the OFDM-BB and OFDM-UWB signals, and the further degradation of the OFDM-UWB signals with higher frequency, due to the reduced DML bandwidth.

  10. Manipulation hardware for microgravity research

    SciTech Connect

    Herndon, J.N.; Glassell, R.L.; Butler, P.L.; Williams, D.M. ); Rohn, D.A. . Lewis Research Center); Miller, J.H. )

    1990-01-01

    The establishment of permanent low earth orbit occupation on the Space Station Freedom will present new opportunities for the introduction of productive flexible automation systems into the microgravity environment of space. The need for robust and reliable robotic systems to support experimental activities normally intended by astronauts will assume great importance. Many experimental modules on the space station are expected to require robotic systems for ongoing experimental operations. When implementing these systems, care must be taken not to introduce deleterious effects on the experiments or on the space station itself. It is important to minimize the acceleration effects on the experimental items being handled while also minimizing manipulator base reaction effects on adjacent experiments and on the space station structure. NASA Lewis Research Center has been performing research on these manipulator applications, focusing on improving the basic manipulator hardware, as well as developing improved manipulator control algorithms. By utilizing the modular manipulator concepts developed during the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed an experimental testbed system called the Microgravity Manipulator, incorporating two pitch-yaw modular positioners to provide a 4 dof experimental manipulator arm. A key feature in the design for microgravity manipulation research was the use of traction drives for torque transmission in the modular pitch-yaw differentials.

  11. End Point Control of Flexible Manipulators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    s i t y .b-a p,.) - 6c- ADDRESS (City, State, ar ZIP Code ) 7b. ADDRESS(City, State, and ZIP Code ): 3L. Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics ova...ORGANIZATION (If applicable) DARPA ISTO MDA 903-86--K-0037 8c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code ) 10. SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS 1400 Wilson Blvd. Arlington, VA...COUNT Final FROM Oct 85 TO Oct 8 97 16. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION 17. COSATI CODES 18 SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block

  12. Stability Enhancement of a Flexible Robot Manipulator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-24

    ADC12 - TECMAR DRIVER PAGE 1 APPENDIX F 108 USERLIB.DOC 5-2-83 C $CROUT,$MSG,$CO - TTY 10 ROUTINES C $CA,$DA,$M9,$Tl - FROM FORTN. LIBRARY C C...COUPLERS (LOGICAL) EXTERNALS NONE ADC12 - .....--- DRIVER FOR TECMAR 121BIT A/D CALL SEQ CALL ADC12 (LCHAN,IDATA) ARGUMENTS LCHAN - CHANNEL NUMBER BETWEEN 0...CROMINCROMCO,ADCOS,DACO *USERLIB= ADC12 ,DAC12,DDCIN,DDCOUT,MULLINMULOUT *USERLIB=PRNTHX,FNMOUT,FCI,FCO,NMOUT,MSGCROUT *USERLIB=CNVBN,PRVAL,CICO ; */E NOTE

  13. FARMS: The Flexible Agricultural Robotics Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.

    1991-01-01

    A technology utilization project was established with the Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Georgia to develop an Earth-based, robotic end effector to process live plant (geranium) material which will improve productivity and efficiency in agricultural systems such as commercial nurseries and greenhouse systems. The aim is to apply this technology to NASA's presence in space, including permanently manned space stations and manned planetary communities requiring large scale food production needs.

  14. End-Point Control of Flexible Manipulators.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    axis), and motor tachometer outputs. The motor controller includes three separate analog inputs to each motor , current limiters, and motor disabling...PAGE Block 19 Continued An experimental system was built around a dextrous three -finger hand, sensors, computer interfaces, and control system. The hand... three finger hand with sensors, on sensory control of the hand, on intelligent task execution with the hand, and on sensor technol- ogy. ARL describes

  15. Underwater manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

    1993-04-20

    Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is described for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer [plus minus]45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer [plus minus]10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

  16. Underwater manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Schrum, Phillip B.; Cohen, George H.

    1993-01-01

    Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is provided for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer .+-.45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer .+-.10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

  17. Underwater manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus provided for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer {plus_minus} 45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer {plus_minus} 10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

  18. Optical manipulation by nonlinear response of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Hajime; Nakai, Tatsuya; Hoshina, Masayuki; Kudo, Tetsuhiro

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the optical manipulation of nanoparticles with the resonant nonlinear optical response. Efficient trapping of nanoparticles observed in experiments under the resonance condition is elucidated by considering optical nonlinearity. Also, we propose the flexible optical manipulations of nanoparticles that have gain by optical pumping. The pulling force and the rotational switching are demonstrated, where the stimulated emission from nanoparticles with inverted population is considered. These results show that utilizing nonlinear optical effect will greatly enhance the degrees of freedom to manipulate nanoparticles.

  19. Flexible transformation plasmonics using graphene.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei Bing; Zhu, Wei; Xu, Hong Ju; Ni, Zhen Hua; Dong, Zheng Gao; Cui, Tie Jun

    2013-05-06

    The flexible control of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) is important and intriguing due to its wide application in novel plasmonic devices. Transformation optics (TO) offers the capability either to confine the SPP propagation on rigid curved/uneven surfaces, or to control the flow of SPPs on planar surfaces. However, TO has not permitted us to confine, manipulate, and control SPP waves on flexible curved surfaces. Here, we propose to confine and freely control flexible SPPs using TO and graphene. We show that SPP waves can be naturally confined and propagate on curved or uneven graphene surfaces with little bending and radiation losses, and the confined SPPs are further manipulated and controlled using TO. Flexible plasmonic devices are presented, including the bending waveguides, wave splitter, and Luneburg lens on curved surfaces. Together with the intrinsic flexibility, graphene can be served as a good platform for flexible transformation plasmonics.

  20. Manipulation strategies for massive space payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Book, Wayne J.

    1991-01-01

    The industrial and environmental applications for robots with a relatively large workspace has increased significantly in the last few years. To accommodate the demands, the manipulator is usually designed with long, lightweight links that are inherently flexible. Ongoing research at Georgia Tech into the behavior and design of these flexible links is discussed.

  1. Dynamic control of kinematically redundant manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhengcheng

    1993-03-01

    A robot manipulator is said to be kinematically redundant when it has more degrees of freedom than are necessary to accomplish a particular task. Useful control strategies are designed for kinematically redundant manipulators in order to enhance their performance. Following the impedance control approach, the problem of minimizing redundant manipulator collision impacts is addressed. The configuration control approach is used to reduce impulsive forces, while a simplified impedance control scheme is formulated to minimize rebound effects. A new Cartesian control strategy for redundant flexible-joint manipulators is proposed. The main idea in this hybrid scheme is to control not only the manipulator's end-effector but also its links, so as to achieve specified positions and velocities for the end-effector and the links. Finally, a new application of kinematically redundant manipulators is proposed: using redundancy resolution to compensate for joint flexibility. This redundancy resolution scheme is incorporated in a control strategy for redundant flexible-joint manipulators. The problem of possible algorithmic singularities is considered, and a scheme is suggested which makes the controller robust with respect to such singularities.

  2. REMOTE CONTROL MANIPULATOR

    DOEpatents

    Coffman, R.T.

    1962-11-27

    The patent covers a remote-control manipulator in which a tool is carried on a tube at an end thereof angularly related to the main portion of the tube and joined thereto by a curved section. The main portion of the tube is mounted for rotation and axial shifting in a wall separating safe and dangerous areas. The tool is actuated to grasp and release an object in the dangerous area by means of a compound shaft extending through the tube, the shaft having a flexible section extending through the curved section of the tube. The tool is moved about in the dangerous area by rotation and axial movement of the main portion of the tube. Additional movement of the tool is obtained through axial shifting of the shaft with respect to the tube through which it extends. (AEC)

  3. Liquid Propellant Manipulated Acoustically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Chato, David J.; Mann, Adin, III

    2003-01-01

    Fluids are difficult to manage in the space environment. Without gravity, the liquid and gas do not always remain separated as they do in the 1g environment of Earth. Instead the liquid and gas volumes mix and migrate under the influence of surface tension, thermodynamic forces, and external disturbances. As a result, liquid propellants may not be in a useable location or may even form a chaotic mix of liquid and gas bubbles. In the past, mechanical pumps, baffles, and a variety of specialized passive devices have been used to control the liquid and gas volumes. These methods need to be carefully tuned to a specific configuration to be effective. With increasing emphasis on long-term human activity in space there is a trend toward liquid systems that are more flexible and provide greater control. We are exploring new methods of manipulating liquids by using the nonlinear acoustic effects achieved by using beams of highly directed high-intensity acoustic waves.

  4. Research on a Reconfigurable Modular Manipulator System

    SciTech Connect

    Khosla, P.K.; Kanade, T.

    1992-01-01

    Research has been conducted on developing the theoretical basis and the technology for a Reconfigurable Modular Manipulation System (RMMS). Unlike a conventional manipulator which has a fixed configuration, the RMMS consists of a set of interchangeable modules that can be rapidly assembled into a system of manipulators with appropriate configurations depending on the specific task requirement. For effective development and use of such a versatile and flexible system a program of theoretical and experimental research has been pursued aimed at developing the basis for next generation of autonomous manipulator systems. The RMMS concept extends the idea of autonomy from sensor-based to configuration based autonomy. One of the important components is the development of design methodologies for mapping tasks into manipulator configurations and for automatic generation of manipulator specific algorithms (e.g., kinematics and dynamics) in order to make the hardware transparent to the user.(JDB)

  5. Flexible Ablators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackpoole, Margaret M. (Inventor); Ghandehari, Ehson M. (Inventor); Thornton, Jeremy J. (Inventor); Covington, Melmoth Alan (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A low-density article comprising a flexible substrate and a pyrolizable material impregnated therein, methods of preparing, and devices using the article are disclosed. The pyrolizable material pyrolizes above 350 C and does not flow at temperatures below the pyrolysis temperature. The low-density article remains flexible after impregnation and continues to remain flexible when the pyrolizable material is fully pyrolized.

  6. KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF MODULAR, TRUSS-BASED MANIPULATOR UNITS

    SciTech Connect

    Salerno, R. J.

    1994-06-01

    Decontamination and Dismantling (D&D) activities within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) require a long reach manipulator with a large load capacity. Variable Geometry Trusses (VGTs) are a unique class of mechanical structures which allow the advantages of truss structures for large scale applications to be applied to large robotic manipulators. Individual VGT units may be assembled to create a modular, long-reach, truss-type manipulator. Each module of such a manipulator system is either a static truss section or one of several possible VGT geometries. While many potential applications exist for this technology, the present work is largely motivated by the need for generic robotic systems for remote manipulation. A manipulator system based on VGT modules provides several advantages. The reconfigurable nature of the manipulator system allows it to be adapted on site to unforeseen conditions. The kinematic redundancy of the manipulator enables it to work effectively even in a highly obstructed workspace. The parallel structure of the truss modules enables the manipulator to be withdrawn in the event of a structural failure. Finally, the open framework of the modules provides a clear, protected passageway for control and power cabling, waste conveyance, or other services required at the end effector. As is implied in a truss structure, all primary members of a VGT are ideally loaded in pure tension or compression. This results in an extremely stiff and strong manipulator system with minimal overall weight. Careful design of the joints of a VGT is very important to the overall stiffness and accuracy of the structure, as several links (as many as six) are joined together at each joint. The greatest disadvantage to this approach to manipulator design has traditionally been that the kinematics of VGT structures are complex and poorly understood. This report specifically addresses the kinematics of several possible geometries for the individual VGT units. Equations and

  7. Observation of Metal Nanoparticles for Acoustic Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mian; Cai, Feiyan; Wang, Chen; Wang, Zhiyong; Meng, Long; Li, Fei; Zhang, Pengfei; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong

    2017-05-01

    Use of acoustic trapping for the manipulation of objects is invaluable to many applications from cellular subdivision to biological assays. Despite remarkable progress in a wide size range, the precise acoustic manipulation of 0D nanoparticles where all the structural dimensions are much smaller than the acoustic wavelength is still present challenges. This study reports on the observation of metal nanoparticles with different nanostructures for acoustic manipulation. Results for the first time exhibit that the hollow nanostructures play more important factor than size in the nanoscale acoustic manipulation. The acoustic levitation and swarm aggregations of the metal nanoparticles can be easily realized at low energy and clinically acceptable acoustic frequency by hollowing their nanostructures. In addition, the behaviors of swarm aggregations can be flexibly regulated by the applied voltage and frequency. This study anticipates that the strategy based on the unique properties of the metal hollow nanostructures and the manipulation method will be highly desirable for many applications.

  8. Observation of Metal Nanoparticles for Acoustic Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mian; Cai, Feiyan; Wang, Chen; Wang, Zhiyong; Meng, Long; Li, Fei; Zhang, Pengfei; Liu, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Use of acoustic trapping for the manipulation of objects is invaluable to many applications from cellular subdivision to biological assays. Despite remarkable progress in a wide size range, the precise acoustic manipulation of 0D nanoparticles where all the structural dimensions are much smaller than the acoustic wavelength is still present challenges. This study reports on the observation of metal nanoparticles with different nanostructures for acoustic manipulation. Results for the first time exhibit that the hollow nanostructures play more important factor than size in the nanoscale acoustic manipulation. The acoustic levitation and swarm aggregations of the metal nanoparticles can be easily realized at low energy and clinically acceptable acoustic frequency by hollowing their nanostructures. In addition, the behaviors of swarm aggregations can be flexibly regulated by the applied voltage and frequency. This study anticipates that the strategy based on the unique properties of the metal hollow nanostructures and the manipulation method will be highly desirable for many applications. PMID:28546912

  9. Active damping of oscillations in a long compliant manipulator link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, C. P.; Evans, M. S.; Trudnowski, D. J.; Magee, D. P.

    1993-07-01

    A flexible manipulator test bed consisting of a fifteen foot long fixed-free compliant beam (representing a compliant manipulator link) with a Shilling Titan II dextrous manipulator mounted on its free end has been constructed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). A comprehensive dynamic model which includes flexible body effects has been developed at PNL using a commercially available multibody dynamics code. A linearized version of the model is used to develop control strategies which use inertial forces generated by movements of the dextrous manipulator to damp out induced oscillations in the beam. These control strategies are tested on the model and shown to be feasible, and then implemented in the flexible manipulator testbed. Results from the hardware experiments are analyzed and compared with the model results.

  10. Active damping of oscillations in a long compliant manipulator link

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, C.P.; Evans, M.S.; Trudnowski, D.J.; Magee, D.P.

    1993-07-01

    A flexible manipulator test bed consisting of a fifteen foot long fixed-free compliant beam (representing a compliant manipulator link) with a Shilling Titan II dextrous manipulator mounted on its free end has been constructed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). A comprehensive dynamic model which includes flexible body effects has been developed at PNL using a commercially available multibody dynamics code. A linearized version of the model is used to develop control strategies which use inertial forces generated by movements of the dextrous manipulator to damp out induced oscillations in the beam. These control strategies are tested on the model and shown to be feasible, and then implemented in the flexible manipulator testbed. Results from the hardware experiments are analyzed and compared with the model results.

  11. Manipulator mounted transfer platform

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbins, J.C.; Hoover, M.A.; May, K.W.; Ross, M.J.

    1990-01-23

    The patent describes in a manipulator system for use in hazardous environments including a manipulator adapted for reciprocal movement upon a guide device, a transfer platform. It comprises: a bed frame defining a generally horizontal bed projecting outwardly from the manipulator; and frame mounting means securing the bed frame to the manipulator in a generally cantilevered fashion, thereby essentially minimizing the structure necessary to support the platform outwardly of the manipulator while enhancing operator visibility of the platform and the manipulator during use of the manipulator system.

  12. Dynamic Analysis of a Two Member Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinley, W. Mark; Shen, Ji Y.

    1997-01-01

    Attenuating start-up and stopping vibrations when maneuvering large payloads attached to flexible manipulator systems is a great concern for many space missions. To address this concern, it was proposed that the use of smart materials, and their applications in smart structures, may provide an effective method of control for aerospace structures. In this paper, a modified finite element model has been developed to simulate the performance of piezoelectric ceramic actuators, and was applied to a flexible two-arm manipulator system. Connected to a control voltage, the piezoelectric actuators produce control moments based on the optimal control theory. The computer simulation modeled the end-effector vibration suppression of the NASA manipulator testbed for berthing operations of the Space Shuttle to the Space Station. The results of the simulation show that the bonded piezoelectric actuators can effectively suppress follow-up vibrations of the end-effector, stimulated by some external disturbance.

  13. THE LONG REACH OF EDUCATION: EARLY RETIREMENT

    PubMed Central

    Wise, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to draw attention to the long lasting effect of education on economic outcomes. We use the relationship between education and two routes to early retirement – the receipt of Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) and the early claiming of Social Security retirement benefits – to illustrate the long-lasting influence of education. We find that for both men and women with less than a high school degree the median DI participation rate is 6.6 times the participation rate for those with a college degree or more. Similarly, men and women with less than a high school education are over 25 percentage points more likely to claim Social Security benefits early than those with a college degree or more. We focus on four critical “pathways” through which education may indirectly influence early retirement – health, employment, earnings, and the accumulation of assets. We find that for women health is the dominant pathway through which education influences DI participation. For men, the health, earnings, and wealth pathways are of roughly equal magnitude. For both men and women the principal channel through which education influences early Social Security claiming decisions is the earnings pathway. We also consider the direct effect of education that does not operate through these pathways. The direct effect of education is much greater for early claiming of Social Security benefits than for DI participation, accounting for 72 percent of the effect of education for men and 67 percent for women. For women the direct effect of education on DI participation is not statistically significant, suggesting that the total effect may be through the four pathways. PMID:26664822

  14. THE LONG REACH OF EDUCATION: EARLY RETIREMENT.

    PubMed

    Venti, Steven; Wise, David A

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this paper is to draw attention to the long lasting effect of education on economic outcomes. We use the relationship between education and two routes to early retirement - the receipt of Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) and the early claiming of Social Security retirement benefits - to illustrate the long-lasting influence of education. We find that for both men and women with less than a high school degree the median DI participation rate is 6.6 times the participation rate for those with a college degree or more. Similarly, men and women with less than a high school education are over 25 percentage points more likely to claim Social Security benefits early than those with a college degree or more. We focus on four critical "pathways" through which education may indirectly influence early retirement - health, employment, earnings, and the accumulation of assets. We find that for women health is the dominant pathway through which education influences DI participation. For men, the health, earnings, and wealth pathways are of roughly equal magnitude. For both men and women the principal channel through which education influences early Social Security claiming decisions is the earnings pathway. We also consider the direct effect of education that does not operate through these pathways. The direct effect of education is much greater for early claiming of Social Security benefits than for DI participation, accounting for 72 percent of the effect of education for men and 67 percent for women. For women the direct effect of education on DI participation is not statistically significant, suggesting that the total effect may be through the four pathways.

  15. The Long Reach of Teachers Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonucci, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The largest political campaign spender in America is not a megacorporation, such as Wal-Mart, Microsoft, or ExxonMobil. It isn't an industry association, like the American Bankers Association or the National Association of Realtors. It's not even a labor federation, like the AFL-CIO. If one combines the campaign spending of all those entities it…

  16. Flexibility Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    These brief guidelines for a muscular flexibility program state that the purpose of such a program is to increase the range of motion in order to avoid injuries and eliminate awkwardness in physical activities. A flexibility program is described as an extension of the warm-up period and should be an ongoing, permanent effort to lengthen muscles. A…

  17. Flexible Scheduling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Harold S.; Bechard, Joseph E.

    A flexible schedule allows teachers to change group size, group composition, and class length according to the purpose of the lesson. This pamphlet presents various "master" schedules for flexible scheduling: (1) Simple block schedules, (2) back-to-back schedules, (3) interdisciplinary schedules, (4) school-wide block schedules, (5) open-lab…

  18. Large-area Overhead Manipulator for Access of Fields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Multi-axis, cable-driven manipulators have evolved over many years providing large area suspended platform access, programmability, relatively rigid and flexibly-positioned platform control and full six degree of freedom (DOF) manipulation of sensors and tools. We describe innovations for a new six...

  19. MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph W. Geisinger, Ph.D.

    2001-07-31

    ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a framework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator from these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC{trademark}s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost.

  20. Flexible Sigmoidoscopy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force (USPSTF). Most doctors recommend colonoscopy to screen for colon cancer because colonoscopy shows the entire colon and can remove colon polyps. However, preparing for and performing a flexible sigmoidoscopy may take less time and you may ...

  1. Flexible Straws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentice, Gerard

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the use of flexible straws for teaching properties of figures and families of shapes. Describes a way to make various two- or three-dimensional geometric shapes. Lists eight advantages of the method. (YP)

  2. Flexible Parsing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-22

    grammaticality. The primary objective of this project Is to develop flexible computer q parsing techniques which can deal with the various kinds of...0143 6. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT . TASK Computer Science Department Carnegie-Nellon University PE61102F; 2304...spontaneously, the, often do not adhere strictly to commonly accepted standards of grammaticalitf. The primary objective of this proJect is to develop flexible

  3. Experimental validation of flexible robot arm modeling and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulsoy, A. Galip

    1989-01-01

    Flexibility is important for high speed, high precision operation of lightweight manipulators. Accurate dynamic modeling of flexible robot arms is needed. Previous work has mostly been based on linear elasticity with prescribed rigid body motions (i.e., no effect of flexible motion on rigid body motion). Little or no experimental validation of dynamic models for flexible arms is available. Experimental results are also limited for flexible arm control. Researchers include the effects of prismatic as well as revolute joints. They investigate the effect of full coupling between the rigid and flexible motions, and of axial shortening, and consider the control of flexible arms using only additional sensors.

  4. Progress in nonprehensile manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, M.T.

    1999-11-01

    This paper reviews my recent research in robotic manipulation and speculates on potentially fruitful directions for future work. My recent work is focused on nonprehensile manipulation: manipulating objects without grasping them. In particular, the paper surveys work on a single joint robot that orients parts on a conveyor belt; a robot that uses dynamics to snatch, roll, or throw objects; hitting things to position them; manipulating things whose shapes are not completely known; and integration of manipulation with locomotion. In the future, a broad view of robotics will allow us to focus on fundamental principles and at the same time address a variety of new applications.

  5. Flexible robotics: a new paradigm.

    PubMed

    Aron, Monish; Haber, Georges-Pascal; Desai, Mihir M; Gill, Inderbir S

    2007-05-01

    The use of robotics in urologic surgery has seen exponential growth over the last 5 years. Existing surgical robots operate rigid instruments on the master/slave principle and currently allow extraluminal manipulations and surgical procedures. Flexible robotics is an entirely novel paradigm. This article explores the potential of flexible robotic platforms that could permit endoluminal and transluminal surgery in the future. Computerized catheter-control systems are being developed primarily for cardiac applications. This development is driven by the need for precise positioning and manipulation of the catheter tip in the three-dimensional cardiovascular space. Such systems employ either remote navigation in a magnetic field or a computer-controlled electromechanical flexible robotic system. We have adapted this robotic system for flexible ureteropyeloscopy and have to date completed the initial porcine studies. Flexible robotics is on the horizon. It has potential for improved scope-tip precision, superior operative ergonomics, and reduced occupational radiation exposure. In the near future, in urology, we believe that it holds promise for endoluminal therapeutic ureterorenoscopy. Looking further ahead, within the next 3-5 years, it could enable transluminal surgery.

  6. Manipulator for rotating and examining small spheres

    DOEpatents

    Weinstein, Berthold W. [Livermore, CA; Willenborg, David L. [Livermore, CA

    1980-02-12

    A manipulator which provides fast, accurate rotational positioning of a small sphere, such as an inertial confinement fusion target, which allows inspecting of the entire surface of the sphere. The sphere is held between two flat, flexible tips which move equal amounts in opposite directions. This provides rolling of the ball about two orthogonal axes without any overall translation. The manipulator may be controlled, for example, by an x- and y-axis driven controlled by a mini-computer which can be programmed to generate any desired scan pattern.

  7. Manipulator for rotating and examining small spheres

    DOEpatents

    Weinstein, B.W.; Willenborg, D.L.

    1980-02-12

    A manipulator is disclosed which provides fast, accurate rotational positioning of a small sphere, such as an inertial confinement fusion target, which allows inspecting of the entire surface of the sphere. The sphere is held between two flat, flexible tips which move equal amounts in opposite directions. This provides rolling of the ball about two orthogonal axes without any overall translation. The manipulator may be controlled, for example, by an x- and y-axis driven controlled by a mini-computer which can be programmed to generate any desired scan pattern. 8 figs.

  8. Structural Sizing Methodology for the Tendon-Actuated Lightweight In-Space MANipulator (TALISMAN) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Thomas C.; Dorsey, John T.; Doggett, William R.

    2015-01-01

    The Tendon-Actuated Lightweight In-Space MANipulator (TALISMAN) is a versatile long-reach robotic manipulator that is currently being tested at NASA Langley Research Center. TALISMAN is designed to be highly mass-efficient and multi-mission capable, with applications including asteroid retrieval and manipulation, in-space servicing, and astronaut and payload positioning. The manipulator uses a modular, periodic, tension-compression design that lends itself well to analytical modeling. Given the versatility of application for TALISMAN, a structural sizing methodology was developed that could rapidly assess mass and configuration sensitivities for any specified operating work space, applied loads and mission requirements. This methodology allows the systematic sizing of the key structural members of TALISMAN, which include the truss arm links, the spreaders and the tension elements. This paper summarizes the detailed analytical derivations and methodology that support the structural sizing approach and provides results from some recent TALISMAN designs developed for current and proposed mission architectures.

  9. Flexible flatfoot

    PubMed Central

    Atik, Aziz; Ozyurek, Selahattin

    2014-01-01

    While being one of the most frequent parental complained deformities, flatfoot does not have a universally accepted description. The reasons of flexible flatfoot are still on debate, but they must be differentiated from rigid flatfoot which occurs secondary to other pathologies. These children are commonly brought up to a physician without any complaint. It should be kept in mind that the etiology may vary from general soft tissue laxities to intrinsic foot pathologies. Every flexible flatfoot does not require radiological examination or treatment if there is no complaint. Otherwise further investigation and conservative or surgical treatment may necessitate. PMID:28058304

  10. Piping Flexibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A NASA computer program aids Hudson Engineering Corporation, Houston, Texas, in the design and construction of huge petrochemical processing plants like the one shown, which is located at Ju'aymah, Saudi Arabia. The pipes handling the flow of chemicals are subject to a variety of stresses, such as weight and variations in pressure and temperature. Hudson Engineering uses a COSMIC piping flexibility analysis computer program to analyze stresses and unsure the necessary strength and flexibility of the pipes. This program helps the company realize substantial savings in reduced engineering time.

  11. Giant optical manipulation.

    PubMed

    Shvedov, Vladlen G; Rode, Andrei V; Izdebskaya, Yana V; Desyatnikov, Anton S; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2010-09-10

    We demonstrate a new principle of optical trapping and manipulation increasing more than 1000 times the manipulation distance by harnessing strong thermal forces while suppressing their stochastic nature with optical vortex beams. Our approach expands optical manipulation of particles into a gas media and provides a full control over trapped particles, including the optical transport and pinpoint positioning of ∼100  μm objects over a meter-scale distance with ±10  μm accuracy.

  12. Microfluidics for manipulating cells.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xuan; Zheng, Wenfu; Sun, Jiashu; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Xingyu

    2013-01-14

    Microfluidics, a toolbox comprising methods for precise manipulation of fluids at small length scales (micrometers to millimeters), has become useful for manipulating cells. Its uses range from dynamic management of cellular interactions to high-throughput screening of cells, and to precise analysis of chemical contents in single cells. Microfluidics demonstrates a completely new perspective and an excellent practical way to manipulate cells for solving various needs in biology and medicine. This review introduces and comments on recent achievements and challenges of using microfluidics to manipulate and analyze cells. It is believed that microfluidics will assume an even greater role in the mechanistic understanding of cell biology and, eventually, in clinical applications.

  13. Manipulator mounted transfer platform

    DOEpatents

    Dobbins, James C.; Hoover, Mark A.; May, Kay W.; Ross, Maurice J.

    1990-01-01

    A transfer platform for the conveyance of objects by a manipulator includes a bed frame and saddle clamp secured along an edge of the bed frame and adapted so as to secure the bed frame to a horizontal crosspiece of the manipulator. The platform may thus move with the manipulator in a reciprocal linear path defined by a guide rail. A bed insert may be provided for the support of conveyed objects and a lifting bail may be provided to permit the manipulator arm to install the bed frame upon the crosspiece under remote control.

  14. SNAKES manipulator and ARD sluicer testing -- April 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Berglin, E.J.

    1997-05-29

    Long reach arms represent one of the options available for deployment of end effectors which can be used in the retrieval of radioactive waste, from the Hanford single shell tanks. The versatility of an arm based deployment system is such that it has the potential to improve the performance of a wide range of end effectors compared with stand-alone or other deployment methods. The long term reliability and availability of the deployment system is central to the timely completion of a waste retrieval program. However, concerns have been expressed over the dynamic performance of long reach arms and it is essential that an arm based system can cope with operational dynamic loads generated by end effectors. The test program conducted set out to measure static and dynamic loads and responses from a representative arm and sluicer, with the objective of extrapolating the data to a long reach arm system, that can be used for in-tank waste retrieval. As an arm with an appropriate reach was not available, the test program was undertaken to measure dynamic characteristics of a Magnox Electric 18 ft multi-link, hydraulically actuated SNAKES manipulator. This is the longest reach unit in service, albeit only one third of the 50 ft length required for in-tank waste retrieval. In addition operational performance and loading measurements were obtained from a low pressure confined system sluicer under development by ARD Environmental, to add to the end effector data base. When subject to impulse loading, the arm was found to behave in a repeatable manner having fundamental natural frequencies in the vertical and transverse directions of 1 Hz. There were also a large number of higher natural frequencies measured up to 100 Hz.

  15. Linearization of Robot Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreutz, Kenneth

    1987-01-01

    Four nonlinear control schemes equivalent. Report discusses theory of nonlinear feedback control of robot manipulator, emphasis on control schemes making manipulator input and output behave like decoupled linear system. Approach, called "exact external linearization," contributes efforts to control end-effector trajectories, positions, and orientations.

  16. Actuability of Underactuated Manipulators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    of a manipulator with passive joints in operational space. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 9(1), February 1993. [6] !irohiko Arai and...Susumu Tachi Position control of a manipulator with passive joints using dynamic coupling. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 7(4), August

  17. Self mobile space manipulator project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, H. Ben; Friedman, Mark; Xu, Yangsheng; Kanade, Takeo

    1992-01-01

    A relatively simple, modular, low mass, low cost robot is being developed for space EVA that is large enough to be independently mobile on a space station or platform exterior, yet versatile enough to accomplish many vital tasks. The robot comprises two long flexible links connected by a rotary joint, with 2-DOF 'wrist' joints and grippers at each end. It walks by gripping pre-positioned attachment points, such as trusswork nodes, and alternately shifting its base of support from one foot (gripper) to the other. The robot can perform useful tasks such as visual inspection, material transport, and light assembly by manipulating objects with one gripper, while stabilizing itself with the other. At SOAR '90, we reported development of 1/3 scale robot hardware, modular trusswork to serve as a locomotion substrate, and a gravity compensation system to allow laboratory tests of locomotion strategies on the horizontal face of the trusswork. In this paper, we report on project progress including the development of: (1) adaptive control for automatic adjustment to loads; (2) enhanced manipulation capabilities; (3) machine vision, including the use of neural nets, to guide autonomous locomotion; (4) locomotion between orthogonal trusswork faces; and (5) improved facilities for gravity compensation and telerobotic control.

  18. Cell manipulation in microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hoyoung; Kim, Kisoo; Lee, Won Gu

    2013-06-01

    Recent advances in the lab-on-a-chip field in association with nano/microfluidics have been made for new applications and functionalities to the fields of molecular biology, genetic analysis and proteomics, enabling the expansion of the cell biology field. Specifically, microfluidics has provided promising tools for enhancing cell biological research, since it has the ability to precisely control the cellular environment, to easily mimic heterogeneous cellular environment by multiplexing, and to analyze sub-cellular information by high-contents screening assays at the single-cell level. Various cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics have been developed in accordance with specific objectives and applications. In this review, we examine the latest achievements of cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics by categorizing externally applied forces for manipulation: (i) optical, (ii) magnetic, (iii) electrical, (iv) mechanical and (v) other manipulations. We furthermore focus on history where the manipulation techniques originate and also discuss future perspectives with key examples where available.

  19. Manipulator comparative testing program

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Handel, S.J.; Sundstrom, E.; Herndon, J.N.; Fujita, Y.; Maeda, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Manipulator Comparative Testing Program examined differences among manipulator systems from the United States and Japan. The manipulator systems included the Meidensha BILARM 83A, the Model M-2 of Central Research Laboratories Division of Sargent Industries (CRL), and the GCA Corporation PaR Systems Model 6000. The site of testing was the Remote Operations Maintenance Demonstration (ROMD) facility, operated by the Fuel Recycle Division in the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In all stages of testing, operators using the CRL Model M-2 manipulator had consistently lower times to completion and error rates than they did using other machines. Performance was second best with the Meidensha BILARM 83A in master-slave mode. Performance with the BILARM in switchbox mode and the PaR 6000 manipulator was approximately equivalent in terms of criteria recorded in testing. These data show no impact of force reflection on task performance.

  20. Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Shannon M.; Walkowski, Stevan

    2012-01-01

    Dermatological diseases, such as dysesthesia syndromes, stasis dermatoses, and hyperhidrosis are difficult to treat due to their complex etiologies. Current theories suggest these diseases are caused by physiological imbalances, such as nerve impingement, localized tissue congestion, and impaired autonomic regulation. Osteopathic manipulative therapy targets these physiological dysfunctions and may serve as a beneficial therapeutic option. Osteopathic manipulative therapy techniques include high velocity low amplitude, muscle energy, counterstrain, myofascial release, craniosacral, and lymphatic drainage. An osteopathic manipulative therapy technique is chosen based on its physiological target for a particular disease. Osteopathic manipulative therapy may be useful alone or in combination with standard therapeutic options. However, due to the lack of standardized trials supporting the efficacy of osteopathic manipulative therapy treatment for dermatological disease, randomized, well-controlled studies are necessary to confirm its therapeutic value. PMID:23125887

  1. Optical fiber cabling technologies for flexible access network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanji, Hisashi

    2008-07-01

    Fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) outside plant infrastructure should be so designed and constructed as to flexibly deal with increasing subscribers and system evolution to be expected in the future, taking minimization of total cost (CAPEX and OPEX) into consideration. With this in mind, fiber access architectures are reviewed and key technologies on optical fiber and cable for supporting flexible access network are presented. Low loss over wide wavelength (low water peak) and bend-insensitive single mode fiber is a future proof solution. Enhanced separable ribbon facilitates mid-span access to individual fibers in a cable installed, improving fiber utilizing efficiency and flexibility of distribution design. It also contributes to an excellent low PMD characteristic which could be required for video RF overlay system or high capacity long reach metro-access convergence network in the future. Bend-insensitive fiber based cabling technique including field installable connector greatly improves fiber/cable handling in installation and maintenance work.

  2. Nonlinear adaptive motion control for manipulators with compliant joints.

    PubMed

    Yung, J H; Fu, L C

    1998-01-01

    How to perform control and achieve stability of robotic manipulators with joint flexibility forms a problem of profound practical and theoretical interest. This paper is to investigate and to solve this problem without strict assumption on the joint stiffness. Here, an adaptive control scheme of a flexible-joint manipulator, which takes into account its full nonlinear dynamics, is presented. Without the knowledge of the system model, the developed control lams, requiring only the position and velocity information of the actuators and links, is capable of driving the link tracking errors asymptotically to zero, while maintaining the uniform boundedness of all signals in the closed-loop system. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control law, an example of a two-link flexible-joint manipulator is constructed and a number of computer simulations are performed which show quite satisfactory results.

  3. Study of design and control of remote manipulators. Part 2: Vibration considerations in manipulator design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Book, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation is reported involving a mathematical procedure using 4 x 4 transformation matrices for analyzing the vibrations of flexible manipulators. Previous studies with the procedure are summarized and the method is extended to include flexible joints as well as links, and to account for the effects of various power transmission schemes. A systematic study of the allocation of structural material and the placement of components such as motors and gearboxes was undertaken using the analytical tools developed. As one step in this direction the variables which relate the vibration parameters of the arm to the task and environment of the arm were isolated and nondimensionalized. The 4 x 4 transformation matrices were also used to develop analytical expressions for the terms of the complete 6 x 6 compliance matrix for the case of two flexible links joined by a rotating joint, flexible about its axis of rotation.

  4. Effects of Tools Inserted through Snake-like Surgical Manipulators

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Ryan J.; Otake, Yoshito; Wolfe, Kevin C.; Taylor, Russell H.; Armand, Mehran

    2015-01-01

    Snake-like manipulators with a large, open lumen can offer improved treatment alternatives for minimally- and less-invasive surgeries. In these procedures, surgeons use the manipulator to introduce and control flexible tools in the surgical environment. This paper describes a predictive algorithm for estimating manipulator configuration given tip position for nonconstant curvature, cable-driven manipulators using energy minimization. During experimental bending of the manipulator with and without a tool inserted in its lumen, images were recorded from an overhead camera in conjunction with actuation cable tension and length. To investigate the accuracy, the estimated manipulator configuration from the model and the ground-truth configuration measured from the image were compared. Additional analysis focused on the response differences for the manipulator with and without a tool inserted through the lumen. Results indicate that the energy minimization model predicts manipulator configuration with an error of 0.24 ± 0.22mm without tools in the lumen and 0.24 ± 0.19mm with tools in the lumen (no significant difference, p = 0.81). Moreover, tools did not introduce noticeable perturbations in the manipulator trajectory; however, there was an increase in requisite force required to reach a configuration. These results support the use of the proposed estimation method for calculating the shape of the manipulator with an tool inserted in its lumen when an accuracy range of at least 1mm is required. PMID:25571571

  5. Effects of tools inserted through snake-like surgical manipulators.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Ryan J; Otake, Yoshito; Wolfe, Kevin C; Taylor, Russell H; Armand, Mehran

    2014-01-01

    Snake-like manipulators with a large, open lumen can offer improved treatment alternatives for minimally-and less-invasive surgeries. In these procedures, surgeons use the manipulator to introduce and control flexible tools in the surgical environment. This paper describes a predictive algorithm for estimating manipulator configuration given tip position for nonconstant curvature, cable-driven manipulators using energy minimization. During experimental bending of the manipulator with and without a tool inserted in its lumen, images were recorded from an overhead camera in conjunction with actuation cable tension and length. To investigate the accuracy, the estimated manipulator configuration from the model and the ground-truth configuration measured from the image were compared. Additional analysis focused on the response differences for the manipulator with and without a tool inserted through the lumen. Results indicate that the energy minimization model predicts manipulator configuration with an error of 0.24 ± 0.22mm without tools in the lumen and 0.24 ± 0.19mm with tools in the lumen (no significant difference, p = 0.81). Moreover, tools did not introduce noticeable perturbations in the manipulator trajectory; however, there was an increase in requisite force required to reach a configuration. These results support the use of the proposed estimation method for calculating the shape of the manipulator with an tool inserted in its lumen when an accuracy range of at least 1mm is required.

  6. Anthropomorphic Remote Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jau, Bruno M.

    1991-01-01

    Two-armed telerobot undergoing development manipulates objects with dexterity approaching that of human. Designed to be remotely operated by human. Operator wears harness with exoskeletonlike sleeves and gloves; remote manipulator follows operator's arm, hand, and finger movements and feeds back position and force information so operator has sense of manipulating object held by telerobot. Developed for use in outer space. Suited for such terrestrial uses as handling materials and maintaining equipment in hazardous environments where mechanical dexterity and nearly instantaneous feedback of sensory information needed.

  7. Valuing Flexibility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-09

    Bunker   Buster ”  of  Desert  Storm  (evolved  into  GBU...modular   muni=ons  to  achieve   opera=onal  flexibility   •  Various  configura=ons  are   allowable  based  on   warhead ...28)   –  New   warhead  “module”  used  in  conjunc=on  with  exis=ng  guidance  and  fuze   modules   – 

  8. A manipulator kinematic design for high-vacuum operation

    SciTech Connect

    Killough, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    To meet the special requirements for remote maintenance in vacuum environments, a unique manipulator was designed that could be adapted easily to vacuum use. Rather than concerning on the components that traditionally have made vacuum use difficult, such as flexible wiring, we have developed a new kinematic design that will eliminate the use of these troublesome components. This new manipulator uses a parallel-link configuration to eliminate the need for mounting the motors on moving links, thus also removing the need for flexible cables. The configuration also provides several other unique and beneficial characteristics for nonvacuum USC.

  9. A manipulator kinematic design for high-vacuum operation

    SciTech Connect

    Killough, S.M.

    1993-05-01

    To meet the special requirements for remote maintenance in vacuum environments, a unique manipulator was designed that could be adapted easily to vacuum use. Rather than concerning on the components that traditionally have made vacuum use difficult, such as flexible wiring, we have developed a new kinematic design that will eliminate the use of these troublesome components. This new manipulator uses a parallel-link configuration to eliminate the need for mounting the motors on moving links, thus also removing the need for flexible cables. The configuration also provides several other unique and beneficial characteristics for nonvacuum USC.

  10. Flexible shielding system for radiation protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babin, A.

    1972-01-01

    Modular construction of low cost flexible radiation shielding panels consists of water filled steels cans, zinc bromide windows, turntable unit, master-slave manipulators, and interlocking lead bricks. Easy modifications of shielding wall thicknesses are obtained by rearranging overall geometry of portable components.

  11. Update: Biochemistry of Genetic Manipulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    Various topics on the biochemistry of genetic manipulation are discussed. These include genetic transformation and DNA; genetic expression; DNA replication, repair, and mutation; technology of genetic manipulation; and applications of genetic manipulation. Other techniques employed are also considered. (JN)

  12. Update: Biochemistry of Genetic Manipulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    Various topics on the biochemistry of genetic manipulation are discussed. These include genetic transformation and DNA; genetic expression; DNA replication, repair, and mutation; technology of genetic manipulation; and applications of genetic manipulation. Other techniques employed are also considered. (JN)

  13. Dielectrophoresis for Bioparticle Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Cheng; Huang, Haibo; Chen, Liguo; Li, Xiangpeng; Ge, Zunbiao; Chen, Tao; Yang, Zhan; Sun, Lining

    2014-01-01

    As an ideal method to manipulate biological particles, the dielectrophoresis (DEP) technique has been widely used in clinical diagnosis, disease treatment, drug development, immunoassays, cell sorting, etc. This review summarizes the research in the field of bioparticle manipulation based on DEP techniques. Firstly, the basic principle of DEP and its classical theories are introduced in brief; Secondly, a detailed introduction on the DEP technique used for bioparticle manipulation is presented, in which the applications are classified into five fields: capturing bioparticles to specific regions, focusing bioparticles in the sample, characterizing biomolecular interaction and detecting microorganism, pairing cells for electrofusion and separating different kinds of bioparticles; Thirdly, the effect of DEP on bioparticle viability is analyzed; Finally, the DEP techniques are summarized and future trends in bioparticle manipulation are suggested. PMID:25310652

  14. Japanese remote manipulator system

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, technicians work on the Japanese remote manipulator system. It is scheduled to fly on a 2008 mission along with the Kibo Japanese Experiment Module Pressurized Module (JEM-PM).

  15. Remote manipulator dynamic simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wild, E. C.; Donges, P. K.; Garand, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    A simulator to generate the real time visual scenes required to perform man in the loop investigations of remote manipulator application and design concepts for the space shuttle is described. The simulated remote manipulator consists of a computed display system that uses a digital computer, the electronic scene generator, an operator's station, and associated interface hardware. A description of the capabilities of the implemented simulation is presented. The mathematical models and programs developed for the simulation are included.

  16. Clermont Ferrand uterine manipulator.

    PubMed

    Nassif, Joseph; Wattiez, Arnaud

    2010-10-01

    Laparoscopy was considered marginal to surgical specialties before 1990. Rare innovations in instruments were done. With the realization of the first laparoscopic hysterectomy, this surgical route gained wide acceptance during the 1990s. Technical advances were made by instrument companies offering a wide variety of instruments to surgeons and by surgeons themselves to cope with problems during laparoscopic procedures. Manipulators are among the first instruments that surgeons suggested to ameliorate laparoscopic performance. Instruments that have multiple functions (i.e., grasping, cutting, coagulating) are more and more appreciated because surgeons can avoid changing instruments during surgery. Manipulators offer multifunctional assistance during gynecologic surgical procedures. They are useful for exposure purposes and also for reproductive surgery (and hysterectomy). This article explains the benefits and help that a manipulator can provide, especially in total laparoscopic hysterectomy. In the latter intervention, the manipulator will help to expose the pelvis by moving the uterus in any direction, to identify structures and find anatomical landmarks such as the vaginal fornices for culdotomy, and to avoid complications by pulling the ureter away from the operative field. Also, it is useful to avoid carbon dioxide leakage at the vaginal opening and to retrieve the surgical specimen. Each step is shown in a photograph with the specific hand movements corresponding to the manipulator's handling. We think that the use of manipulators during laparoscopic surgery is very useful and helps to reduce operative time.

  17. Lyapunov-based control designs for flexible-link manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Huang, Jen-Kuang; Yang, Li-Farn

    1989-01-01

    A feedback controller for the stabilization of closed-loop systems is proposed which is based on the Liapunov stability criterion. A feedback control law is first generated for the linear portion of the system equation using linear control theory. A feedback control is then designed for the nonlinear portion of the system equation by making negative the time derivative of a positive definite Liapunov function.

  18. Lyapunov-based control designs for flexible-link manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Huang, Jen-Kuang; Yang, Li-Farn

    1989-01-01

    A feedback controller for the stabilization of closed-loop systems is proposed which is based on the Liapunov stability criterion. A feedback control law is first generated for the linear portion of the system equation using linear control theory. A feedback control is then designed for the nonlinear portion of the system equation by making negative the time derivative of a positive definite Liapunov function.

  19. Joint Mobilization and Manipulation for the Equine Athlete.

    PubMed

    Haussler, Kevin K

    2016-04-01

    Joint mobilization and manipulation provide important diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for addressing musculoskeletal issues in veterinary medicine. Soft tissue and joint mobilization are used to assess the quality and quantity of joint range of motion and as a primary means of treating musculoskeletal disorders. Spinal manipulation was shown to be effective for reducing pain, improving flexibility, reducing muscle tone, and improving symmetry of spinal kinematics in horses. Because of potential misuse and safety issues, joint mobilization and manipulative therapies should be provided only by specially trained veterinarians or licensed human manual therapists.

  20. FLEXIBLE COUPLING

    DOEpatents

    Babelay, E.F.

    1962-02-13

    A flexible shaft coupling for operation at speeds in excess of 14,000 rpm is designed which requires no lubrication. A driving sleeve member and a driven sleeve member are placed in concentric spaced relationship. A torque force is transmitted to the driven member from the driving member through a plurality of nylon balls symmetrically disposed between the spaced sleeves. The balls extend into races and recesses within the respective sleeve members. The sleeve members have a suitable clearance therebetween and the balls have a suitable radial clearance during operation of the coupling to provide a relatively loose coupling. These clearances accommodate for both parallel and/or angular misalignments and avoid metal-tometal contact between the sleeve members during operation. Thus, no lubrication is needed, and a minimum of vibrations is transmitted between the sleeve members. (AEC)

  1. Ultrasonic manipulation of particles in an open fluid film.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Robert; Gralinski, Ian; Neild, Adrian

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasonic manipulation is a noncontact method of trapping and holding particles in suspension, and has found many applications in microfluidic systems. Typically, ultrasonic standing waves are used; this approach is well established in fully enclosed microfluidic systems consisting of channels or chambers with an attached piezoelectric actuator. In this work, we examine the use of ultrasonic manipulation in open fluid films, which offer a high degree of accessibility. A piezoelectric actuator is presented which can be lowered into a separate fluid tray. This two-part system offers a high degree of flexibility; indeed the actuator can be removed with little disturbance to the particle patterns, so manipulation could potentially be periodically applied as required. Particle manipulation is shown to be possible over a distance many times the size of the actuator. Furthermore, particle manipulation can also be achieved in a tilted fluid film, so alignment between the two parts of the system is not critical to its operation.

  2. Reconstruction and robust reduced-order observation of flexible variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, Gordon G.; Book, Wayne J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses reconstruction and estimation of flexible variables from multiple strain measurements for use in state feedback control of flexible manipulators. Reconstruction is proposed for obtaining flexible mode amplitudes from the measurements, and estimation for the modal velocities. Design of the observer for estimation of the velocities is discussed with regard to robust implementation. The performance of the observer is examined experimentally for several specifications of the error dynamics.

  3. Manipulator comparative testing program

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Handel, S.J.; Sundstrom, E.; Herndon, J.N.; Fujita, Y.; Maida, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Manipulator Comparative Testing Program compared performance of selected manipulator systems under typical remote handling conditions. The site of testing was the Remote Operations and Maintenance Demonstration Facility operated by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Three experiment examined differences among manipulator systems from the US and Japan. The manipulator systems included the Meidensha BILARM 83A, Central Research Laboratories' (CRL's) Model M-2, and GCA PaR systems Model 6000. Six manipulator and control mode combinations were evaluated: (a) the BILARM in master-slave mode without force reflection; (b) the BILARM in master-slave mode with force reflection; (c) the Model M-2 in master-slave mode without force reflection; (d) the Model M-2 in master-slave mode with force reflection; (e) the BILARM with switchbox controls; and (f) the PaR 6000 with switchbox controls. The experiments also examined differences between master-slave systems with and without force reflections, and differences between master-slave systems and switchbox-controlled systems.

  4. Stainless steel decontamination manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Three, large-volume coverage manipulator systems were designed and built for the Defense Water Processing Facility at the Savannah River Laboratory. These stainless steel systems will be used for high-pressure spray decontamination of waste containers and large process equipment modules. Each system has a manipulator arm, folding boom, and vertical drive and guide structure. Handling capacity is 45 kg, horizontal reach is 4.6 m with a 180-deg swing motion, and the vertical travel is 6 m. The system is remotely removable and replaceable in modules using an overhead crane and an impact wrench. The manipulator arm has seven motions: Shoulder rotation and pivot, elbow pivot, wrist pivot and rotation, and grip open-close. All motions are variable speed and are slip-clutch protected to prevent overloading from external forces (collisions).

  5. DNA Flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widom, Jonathan

    2005-03-01

    Classic experimental and theoretical analyses led to a unified view of DNA as a semiflexible polymer, characterized by a bending persistence length, P, ˜50 nm (˜150 bp). In this view, DNA lengths that are greater than P are, on average, spontaneously gently bent, and require relatively little force to bend significantly, while DNA lengths that are shorter than P are nearly straight, and require great force to bend significantly. Nevertheless, sharply bent DNA plays important roles in biology. We used the method of ligase catalyzed DNA cyclization to investigate the spontaneous looping of short DNAs. Remarkably, DNAs as short as 84 bp spontaneously bend into circles, and 94 bp DNA sequences cyclize up to 10^5 times more easily than predicted from classic theories of DNA bending. In subsequent studies we find that the twistability of sharply looped DNAs exceeds the prediction of classic theories by up to 400-fold. These results can only be understood by greatly enhanced DNA flexibility, not by permanent bends. Our results provide striking support for two new theories of DNA mechanics based on local melted or kinked regions, and they establish DNA as an active participant in the formation and function of looped regulatory complexes in vivo.

  6. Cell stimulation with optically manipulated microsources

    PubMed Central

    Kress, Holger; Park, Jin-Gyu; Mejean, Cecile O; Forster, Jason D; Park, Jason; Walse, Spencer S; Zhang, Yong; Wu, Dianqing; Weiner, Orion D; Fahmy, Tarek M; Dufresne, Eric R

    2010-01-01

    Molecular gradients are important for various biological processes including the polarization of tissues and cells during embryogenesis and chemotaxis. Investigations of these phenomena require control over the chemical microenvironment of cells. We present a technique to set up molecular concentration patterns that are chemically, spatially and temporally flexible. Our strategy uses optically manipulated microsources, which steadily release molecules. Our technique enables the control of molecular concentrations over length scales down to about 1 µm and timescales from fractions of a second to an hour. We demonstrate this technique by manipulating the motility of single human neutrophils. We induced directed cell polarization and migration with microsources loaded with the chemoattractant formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine. Furthermore, we triggered highly localized retraction of lamellipodia and redirection of polarization and migration with microsources releasing cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of actin polymerization. PMID:19915561

  7. Graphene plasmonic lens for manipulating energy flow

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoxi; Liu, Xueming; Lu, Hua; Zeng, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Manipulating the energy flow of light is at the heart of modern information and communication technologies. Because photons are uncharged, it is still difficult to effectively control them by electrical means. Here, we propose a graphene plasmonic (GP) lens to efficiently manipulate energy flow by elaborately designing the thickness of the dielectric spacer beneath the graphene sheet. Different from traditional metal-based lenses, the proposed graphene plasmonic lens possesses the advantages of tunability and excellent confinement of surface plasmons. It is found that the proposed lens can be utilized to focus and collimate the GP waves propagating along the graphene sheet. Particularly, the lens is dispersionless over a wide frequency range and the performance of lens can be flexibly tuned by adjusting the bias voltage. As an application of such a lens, the image transfer of two point sources with a separation of λ0/30 is demonstrated. PMID:24517981

  8. Control strategy for cooperating disparate manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lew, Jae Young

    1989-01-01

    To manipulate large payloads typical of space construction, the concept of a small arm mounted on the end of a large arm is introduced. The main purposes of such a configuration are to increase the structural stiffness of the robot by bracing against or locking to a stationary frame, and to maintain a firm position constraint between the robot's base and workpieces by grasping them. Possible topologies for a combination of disparate large and small arms are discussed, and kinematics, dynamics, controls, and coordination of the two arms, especially when they brace at the tip of the small arm, are developed. The feasibility and improvement in performance are verified, not only with analytical work and simulation results but also with experiments on the existing arrangement Robotic Arm Large and Flexible and Small Articulated Manipulator.

  9. A comparison of force sensing techniques for planetary manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmick, Daniel; Okon, Avi; DiCicco, Matt

    2006-01-01

    Five techniques for sensing forces with a manipulator are compared analytically and experimentally. The techniques compared are: a six-axis wrist force/torque sensor, joint torque sensors, link strain gauges, motor current sensors, and flexibility modeling. The accuracy and repeatability fo each technique is quantified and compared.

  10. A comparison of force sensing techniques for planetary manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmick, Daniel; Okon, Avi; DiCicco, Matt

    2006-01-01

    Five techniques for sensing forces with a manipulator are compared analytically and experimentally. The techniques compared are: a six-axis wrist force/torque sensor, joint torque sensors, link strain gauges, motor current sensors, and flexibility modeling. The accuracy and repeatability fo each technique is quantified and compared.

  11. ELECTRONIC MASTER SLAVE MANIPULATOR

    DOEpatents

    Goertz, R.C.; Thompson, Wm.M.; Olsen, R.A.

    1958-08-01

    A remote control manipulator is described in which the master and slave arms are electrically connected to produce the desired motions. A response signal is provided in the master unit in order that the operator may sense a feel of the object and may not thereby exert such pressures that would ordinarily damage delicate objects. This apparatus will permit the manipulation of objects at a great distance, that may be viewed over a closed TV circuit, thereby permitting a remote operator to carry out operations in an extremely dangerous area with complete safety.

  12. NASA Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator control system architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, J. C.; Butler, P. L.; Glassell, R. L.; Herndon, J. N.

    1992-01-01

    In support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) goals to increase the utilization of dexterous robotic systems in space, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM) system. It is a dexterous, dual-arm, force reflecting teleoperator system with robotic features for NASA ground-based research. This paper describes the overall control system architecture, including both the hardware and software. The control system is a distributed, modular, and hierarchical design with flexible expansion capabilities for future enhancements of both the hardware and software.

  13. NASA Laboratory telerobotic manipulator control system architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, J. C.; Butler, P. L.; Glassell, R. L.; Herndon, J. N.

    1991-01-01

    In support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) goals to increase the utilization of dexterous robotic systems in space, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM) system. It is a dexterous, dual-arm, force reflecting teleoperator system with robotic features for NASA ground-based research. This paper describes the overall control system architecture, including both the hardware and software. The control system is a distributed, modular, and hierarchical design with flexible expansion capabilities for future enhancements of both the hardware and software.

  14. Dynamic Analysis of a Two Member Manipulator Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinley, Mark; Shen, Ji Y.

    1997-01-01

    Attenuating start-up and stopping vibrations when maneuvering large payloads attached to flexible manipulator systems is a great concern for many space missions. To address this concern, it was proposed that the use of smart materials, and their applications in smart structures, may provide an effective method of control for aerospace structures. In this paper, a modified finite element model has been developed to simulate the performance of piezoelectric ceramic actuators, and was applied to a flexible two-arm manipulator system. Connected to a control voltage, the piezoelectric actuators produce control moments based on the optimal control theory. The computer simulation modeled the end-effector vibration suppression of the NASA manipulator testbed for berthing operations of the Space Shuttle to the Space Station. The results of the simulation show that the bonded piezoelectric actuators can effectively suppress follow-up vibrations of the end-effector, stimulated by some external disturbance.

  15. On Motion Planning and Control of Multi-Link Lightweight Robotic Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cetinkunt, Sabri

    1987-01-01

    A general gross and fine motion planning and control strategy is needed for lightweight robotic manipulator applications such as painting, welding, material handling, surface finishing, and spacecraft servicing. The control problem of lightweight manipulators is to perform fast, accurate, and robust motions despite the payload variations, structural flexibility, and other environmental disturbances. Performance of the rigid manipulator model based computed torque and decoupled joint control methods are determined and simulated for the counterpart flexible manipulators. A counterpart flexible manipulator is defined as a manipulator which has structural flexibility, in addition to having the same inertial, geometric, and actuation properties of a given rigid manipulator. An adaptive model following control (AMFC) algorithm is developed to improve the performance in speed, accuracy, and robustness. It is found that the AMFC improves the speed performance by a factor of two over the conventional non-adaptive control methods for given accuracy requirements while proving to be more robust with respect to payload variations. Yet there are clear limitations on the performance of AMFC alone as well, which are imposed by the arm flexibility. In the search to further improve speed performance while providing a desired accuracy and robustness, a combined control strategy is developed. Furthermore, the problem of switching from one control structure to another during the motion and implementation aspects of combined control are discussed.

  16. Manipulators inspired by the tongue of the chameleon.

    PubMed

    Debray, Alexis

    2011-06-01

    Chameleons have developed a specialized ballistic tongue which elongates more than six times its rest length at speeds higher than 3.5 m s(-1) and accelerations 350 m s(-2), with a highly flexible mobile part, and which applies no continuous force during forward motion. These characteristics are possible because this tongue consists of two highly specialized systems, an ejection system for the forward motion and an accordion-like system for the retraction. Four manipulators inspired by the tongue of the chameleon and based on this design have been developed, resulting in three characteristics similar to the tongue of the chameleon: extensibility of the manipulator, flexibility of the mobile part, and absence of continuous force during the forward motion. The first manipulator mimics the basic mechanism of the tongue of the chameleon and reproduced its basic performances. A second manipulator performs a catching function at a speed of 3.5 m s(-1) with an acceleration of 573 m s(-2) while elongating seven times its rest length. The design of this manipulator is such that the dc motor used for retraction applies a torque 25 times its rated torque. Moreover, during the retraction, the mobile part of the manipulator moves due to its own inertia, allowing the dc motor to rotate at full velocity. In another manipulator, the addition of an elastomer in the mobile part allows for control of the retraction velocity. A model for these two manipulators compares well with the experimental data. Finally, the addition of wings on the mobile part allows us to take the advantage of aerodynamic effects, which is unusual for manipulators.

  17. Manipulating Combinatorial Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labelle, Gilbert

    This set of transparencies shows how the manipulation of combinatorial structures in the context of modern combinatorics can easily lead to interesting teaching and learning activities at every level of education from elementary school to university. The transparencies describe: (1) the importance and relations of combinatorics to science and…

  18. Robot Manipulator Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-07

    This report presents a synthetic approach for calculating the control of robot manipulators. The initial control problem is broken down into linear ... control and modelling problems. The approach allows derivation of numerous schemes (adaptive or not) of control proposed in the literature and suggests

  19. Manipulating the Gradient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaze, Eric C.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a cooperative learning, group lab for a Calculus III course to facilitate comprehension of the gradient vector and directional derivative concepts. The lab is a hands-on experience allowing students to manipulate a tangent plane and empirically measure the effect of partial derivatives on the direction of optimal ascent. (Contains 7…

  20. Computer Algebra versus Manipulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zand, Hossein; Crowe, David

    2004-01-01

    In the UK there is increasing concern about the lack of skill in algebraic manipulation that is evident in students entering mathematics courses at university level. In this note we discuss how the computer can be used to ameliorate some of the problems. We take as an example the calculations needed in three dimensional vector analysis in polar…

  1. Kinematically redundant robot manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baillieul, J.; Hollerbach, J.; Brockett, R.; Martin, D.; Percy, R.; Thomas, R.

    1987-01-01

    Research on control, design and programming of kinematically redundant robot manipulators (KRRM) is discussed. These are devices in which there are more joint space degrees of freedom than are required to achieve every position and orientation of the end-effector necessary for a given task in a given workspace. The technological developments described here deal with: kinematic programming techniques for automatically generating joint-space trajectories to execute prescribed tasks; control of redundant manipulators to optimize dynamic criteria (e.g., applications of forces and moments at the end-effector that optimally distribute the loading of actuators); and design of KRRMs to optimize functionality in congested work environments or to achieve other goals unattainable with non-redundant manipulators. Kinematic programming techniques are discussed, which show that some pseudo-inverse techniques that have been proposed for redundant manipulator control fail to achieve the goals of avoiding kinematic singularities and also generating closed joint-space paths corresponding to close paths of the end effector in the workspace. The extended Jacobian is proposed as an alternative to pseudo-inverse techniques.

  2. Computer Algebra versus Manipulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zand, Hossein; Crowe, David

    2004-01-01

    In the UK there is increasing concern about the lack of skill in algebraic manipulation that is evident in students entering mathematics courses at university level. In this note we discuss how the computer can be used to ameliorate some of the problems. We take as an example the calculations needed in three dimensional vector analysis in polar…

  3. Light Manipulation in Organic Photovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Qing‐Dong

    2016-01-01

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) hold great promise for next‐generation photovoltaics in renewable energy because of the potential to realize low‐cost mass production via large‐area roll‐to‐roll printing technologies on flexible substrates. To achieve high‐efficiency OPVs, one key issue is to overcome the insufficient photon absorption in organic photoactive layers, since their low carrier mobility limits the film thickness for minimized charge recombination loss. To solve the inherent trade‐off between photon absorption and charge transport in OPVs, the optical manipulation of light with novel micro/nano‐structures has become an increasingly popular strategy to boost the light harvesting efficiency. In this Review, we make an attempt to capture the recent advances in this area. A survey of light trapping schemes implemented to various functional components and interfaces in OPVs is given and discussed from the viewpoint of plasmonic and photonic resonances, addressing the external antireflection coatings, substrate geometry‐induced trapping, the role of electrode design in optical enhancement, as well as optically modifying charge extraction and photoactive layers. PMID:27840805

  4. Interactive digital image manipulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henze, J.; Dezur, R.

    1975-01-01

    The system is designed for manipulation, analysis, interpretation, and processing of a wide variety of image data. LANDSAT (ERTS) and other data in digital form can be input directly into the system. Photographic prints and transparencies are first converted to digital form with an on-line high-resolution microdensitometer. The system is implemented on a Hewlett-Packard 3000 computer with 128 K bytes of core memory and a 47.5 megabyte disk. It includes a true color display monitor, with processing memories, graphics overlays, and a movable cursor. Image data formats are flexible so that there is no restriction to a given set of remote sensors. Conversion between data types is available to provide a basis for comparison of the various data. Multispectral data is fully supported, and there is no restriction on the number of dimensions. In this way multispectral data collected at more than one point in time may simply be treated as a data collected with twice (three times, etc.) the number of sensors. There are various libraries of functions available to the user: processing functions, display functions, system functions, and earth resources applications functions.

  5. Light Manipulation in Organic Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Ou, Qing-Dong; Li, Yan-Qing; Tang, Jian-Xin

    2016-07-01

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) hold great promise for next-generation photovoltaics in renewable energy because of the potential to realize low-cost mass production via large-area roll-to-roll printing technologies on flexible substrates. To achieve high-efficiency OPVs, one key issue is to overcome the insufficient photon absorption in organic photoactive layers, since their low carrier mobility limits the film thickness for minimized charge recombination loss. To solve the inherent trade-off between photon absorption and charge transport in OPVs, the optical manipulation of light with novel micro/nano-structures has become an increasingly popular strategy to boost the light harvesting efficiency. In this Review, we make an attempt to capture the recent advances in this area. A survey of light trapping schemes implemented to various functional components and interfaces in OPVs is given and discussed from the viewpoint of plasmonic and photonic resonances, addressing the external antireflection coatings, substrate geometry-induced trapping, the role of electrode design in optical enhancement, as well as optically modifying charge extraction and photoactive layers.

  6. Interactive digital image manipulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henze, J.; Dezur, R.

    1975-01-01

    The system is designed for manipulation, analysis, interpretation, and processing of a wide variety of image data. LANDSAT (ERTS) and other data in digital form can be input directly into the system. Photographic prints and transparencies are first converted to digital form with an on-line high-resolution microdensitometer. The system is implemented on a Hewlett-Packard 3000 computer with 128 K bytes of core memory and a 47.5 megabyte disk. It includes a true color display monitor, with processing memories, graphics overlays, and a movable cursor. Image data formats are flexible so that there is no restriction to a given set of remote sensors. Conversion between data types is available to provide a basis for comparison of the various data. Multispectral data is fully supported, and there is no restriction on the number of dimensions. In this way multispectral data collected at more than one point in time may simply be treated as a data collected with twice (three times, etc.) the number of sensors. There are various libraries of functions available to the user: processing functions, display functions, system functions, and earth resources applications functions.

  7. Door breaching robotic manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenfeld, Erik; Parrington, Lawrence; von Muehlen, Stephan

    2008-04-01

    As unmanned systems become more commonplace in military, police, and other security forces, they are tasked to perform missions that the original hardware was not designed for. Current military robots are built for rough outdoor conditions and have strong inflexible manipulators designed to handle a wide range of operations. However, these manipulators are not well suited for some essential indoor tasks, including opening doors. This is a complicated kinematic task that places prohibitively difficult control challenges on the robot and the operator. Honeybee and iRobot have designed a modular door-breaching manipulator that mechanically simplifies the demands upon operator and robot. The manipulator connects to the existing robotic arm of the iRobot PackBot EOD. The gripper is optimized for grasping a variety of door knobs, levers, and car-door handles. It works in conjunction with a compliant wrist and magnetic lock-out mechanism that allows the wrist to remain rigid until the gripper has a firm grasp of the handle and then bend with its rotation and the swing of the door. Once the door is unlatched, the operator simply drives the robot through the doorway while the wrist compensates for the complex, multiple degree-of-freedom motion of the door. Once in the doorway the operator releases the handle, the wrist pops back into place, and the robot is ready for the next door. The new manipulator dramatically improves a robot's ability to non-destructively breach doors and perform an inspection of a room's content, a capability that was previously out of reach of unmanned systems.

  8. Investigation of Boundary Conditions for Flexible Multibody Spacecraft Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLean, John R.; Huynh, An; Quiocho, Leslie J.

    2007-01-01

    In support of both the Space Shuttle and International Space Station programs, a set of generic multibody dynamics algorithms integrated within the Trick simulation environment have addressed the variety of on-orbit manipulator simulation requirements for engineering analysis, procedures development and crew familiarization/training at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). Enhancements to these dynamics algorithms are now being driven by a new set of Constellation program requirements for flexible multibody spacecraft simulation. One particular issue that has been discussed within the NASA community is the assumption of cantilever-type flexible body boundary conditions. This assumption has been commonly utilized within manipulator multibody dynamics formulations as it simplifies the computation of relative motion for articulated flexible topologies. Moreover, its use for modeling of space-based manipulators such as the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS) and Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) has been extensively validated against flight data. For more general flexible spacecraft applications, however, the assumption of cantilever-type boundary conditions may not be sufficient. This paper describes the boundary condition assumptions that were used in the original formulation, demonstrates that this formulation can be augmented to accommodate systems in which the assumption of cantilever boundary conditions no longer applies, and verifies the approach through comparison with an independent model previously validated against experimental hardware test data from a spacecraft flexible dynamics emulator.

  9. Dynamic manipulation of particles via transformative optofluidic waveguides

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kang Soo; Lee, Kyung Heon; Kim, Sang Bok; Ha, Byung Hang; Jung, Jin Ho; Sung, Hyung Jin; Kim, Sang Soo

    2015-01-01

    Optofluidics is one of the most remarkable areas in the field of microfluidic research. Particle manipulation with optofluidic platforms has become central to optical chromatography, biotechnology, and μ-total analysis systems. Optical manipulation of particles depends on their sizes and refractive indices (n), which occasionally leads to undesirable separation consequences when their optical mobilities are identical. Here, we demonstrate rapid and dynamic particle manipulation according to n, regardless of size. Integrated liquid-core/solid-cladding (LS) and liquid-core/liquid-cladding (L2) waveguides were fabricated and their characteristics were experimentally and theoretically determined. The high and low n particles showed the opposite behaviors by controlling the contrast of their n values to those of the working fluids. The LS waveguide was found to successfully manipulate particles according to n, and the L2 waveguide was found to provide additional system stability and flexibility, compared to the LS system. PMID:26471003

  10. Dialectical thinking and coping flexibility: a multimethod approach.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cecilia

    2009-04-01

    Coping flexibility refers to the formulation of flexible coping strategies that meet distinct demands under changing circumstances. Dialectical thinking was proposed to be related to flexible coping across situations. The hypothesized link between dialectical thinking and coping flexibility was explored by a multimethod approach. In Study 1, the association between dialectical thinking and coping flexibility was examined using a cross-sectional design. In Study 2, the hypothesized link was tested using an experimental paradigm in which dialectical thinking was manipulated by priming procedures. Participants' responses to different hypothetical stressful situations were assessed after priming. Study 3 adopted a prospective design in which dialectical thinking assessed at an initial phase was a predictor of changes in coping flexibility and state anxiety over a 12-month period. Results from the three studies consistently revealed a positive relationship between dialectical thinking and coping flexibility.

  11. Manipulating the Plasmodium genome.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Teresa Gil; Ménard, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Genome manipulation, the primary tool for assigning function to sequence, will be essential for understanding Plasmodium biology and malaria pathogenesis in molecular terms. The first success in transfecting Plasmodium was reported almost ten years ago. Gene-targeting studies have since flourished, as Plasmodium is haploid and integrates DNA only by homologous recombination. These studies have shed new light on the function of many proteins, including vaccine candidates and drug resistance factors. However, many essential proteins, including those involved in parasite invasion of erythrocytes, cannot be characterized in the absence of conditional mutagenesis. Proteins also cannot be identified on a functional basis as random DNA integration has not been achieved. We overview here the ways in which the Plasmodium genome can be manipulated. We also point to the tools that should be established if our goal is to address parasite infectivity in a systematic way and to conduct refined structure-function analysis of selected products.

  12. Kinematics of robot manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The theory and methodology of design of general-purpose machines that may be controlled by a computer to perform all the tasks of a set of special-purpose machines is the focus of modern machine design research. These seventeen contributions chronicle recent activity in the analysis and design of robot manipulators that are the prototype of these general-purpose machines. They focus particularly on kinematics, the geometry of rigid-body motion, which is an integral part of machine design theory. The challenges to kinematics researchers presented by general-purpose machines such as the manipulator are leading to new perspectives in the design and control of simpler machines with two, three, and more degrees of freedom. Researchers are rethinking the uses of gear trains, planar mechanisms, adjustable mechanisms, and computer controlled actuators in the design of modern machines.

  13. Manipulation of quantum evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabera, David Jose Fernandez; Mielnik, Bogdan

    1994-01-01

    The free evolution of a non-relativistic charged particle is manipulated using time-dependent magnetic fields. It is shown that the application of a programmed sequence of magnetic pulses can invert the free evolution process, forcing an arbitrary wave packet to 'go back in time' to recover its past shape. The possibility of more general operations upon the Schrodinger wave packet is discussed.

  14. Microradiographic microsphere manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Singleton, R.M.

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for radiographic characterization of small hollow spherical members (microspheres), constructed of either optically transparent or opaque materials. The apparatus involves a microsphere manipulator which holds a batch of microspheres between two parallel thin plastic films for contact microradiographic characterization or projection microradiography thereof. One plastic film is translated relative to and parallel to the other to roll the microspheres through any desired angle to allow different views of the microspheres.

  15. MANIPULATOR FOR SLAVE ROBOT

    DOEpatents

    Goertz, R.C.; Grimson, J.H.; Kohut, F.A.

    1961-04-01

    A remote-control manipulator comprising two stationary master units, two slave units on a movable vehicle, and electrical connections between the master and slave units is reported. The slave units are side by side with a minimum over-all width, which is made feasible by an arrangement of transducers producing most movements of each slave unit to one side of the support of said slave unit.

  16. Microradiographic microsphere manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Singleton, Russell M.

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus for radiographic characterization of small hollow spherical members (microspheres), constructed of either optically transparent or opaque materials. The apparatus involves a microsphere manipulator which holds a batch of microspheres between two parallel thin plastic films for contact microradiographic characterization or projection microradiography thereof. One plastic film is translated to relative to and parallel to the other to roll the microspheres through any desired angle to allow different views of the microspheres.

  17. Endocavity Ultrasound Probe Manipulators.

    PubMed

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Schäfer, Felix; Huang, Chien-Ming; Zuo, Yihe; Petrisor, Doru; Han, Misop

    2013-06-01

    We developed two similar structure manipulators for medical endocavity ultrasound probes with 3 and 4 degrees of freedom (DoF). These robots allow scanning with ultrasound for 3-D imaging and enable robot-assisted image-guided procedures. Both robots use remote center of motion kinematics, characteristic of medical robots. The 4-DoF robot provides unrestricted manipulation of the endocavity probe. With the 3-DoF robot the insertion motion of the probe must be adjusted manually, but the device is simpler and may also be used to manipulate external-body probes. The robots enabled a novel surgical approach of using intraoperative image-based navigation during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), performed with concurrent use of two robotic systems (Tandem, T-RALP). Thus far, a clinical trial for evaluation of safety and feasibility has been performed successfully on 46 patients. This paper describes the architecture and design of the robots, the two prototypes, control features related to safety, preclinical experiments, and the T-RALP procedure.

  18. Endocavity Ultrasound Probe Manipulators

    PubMed Central

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Schäfer, Felix; Huang, Chien-Ming; Zuo, Yihe; Petrisor, Doru; Han, Misop

    2014-01-01

    We developed two similar structure manipulators for medical endocavity ultrasound probes with 3 and 4 degrees of freedom (DoF). These robots allow scanning with ultrasound for 3-D imaging and enable robot-assisted image-guided procedures. Both robots use remote center of motion kinematics, characteristic of medical robots. The 4-DoF robot provides unrestricted manipulation of the endocavity probe. With the 3-DoF robot the insertion motion of the probe must be adjusted manually, but the device is simpler and may also be used to manipulate external-body probes. The robots enabled a novel surgical approach of using intraoperative image-based navigation during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), performed with concurrent use of two robotic systems (Tandem, T-RALP). Thus far, a clinical trial for evaluation of safety and feasibility has been performed successfully on 46 patients. This paper describes the architecture and design of the robots, the two prototypes, control features related to safety, preclinical experiments, and the T-RALP procedure. PMID:24795525

  19. Welding nozzle position manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L. (Inventor); Gutow, David A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a welding nozzle position manipulator. The manipulator consists of an angle support to which the remaining components of the device are attached either directly or indirectly. A pair of pivotal connections attach a weld nozzle holding link to the angle support and provide a two axis freedom of movement of the holding link with respect to the support angle. The manipulator is actuated by a pair of adjusting screws angularly mounted to the angle support. These screws contact a pair of tapered friction surfaces formed on the upper portion of the welding nozzle holding link. A spring positioned between the upper portions of the support angle and the holding link provides a constant bias engagement between the friction surfaces of the holding link and the adjustment screws, so as to firmly hold the link in position and to eliminate any free play in the adjustment mechanism. The angular relationships between the adjustment screws, the angle support and the tapered friction surfaces of the weld nozzle holding link provide a geometric arrangement which permits precision adjustment of the holding link with respect to the angle support and also provides a solid holding link mount which is resistant to movement from outside forces.

  20. Welding nozzle position manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.

    1994-11-01

    The present invention is directed to a welding nozzle position manipulator. The manipulator consists of an angle support to which the remaining components of the device are attached either directly or indirectly. A pair of pivotal connections attach a weld nozzle holding link to the angle support and provide a two axis freedom of movement of the holding link with respect to the support angle. The manipulator is actuated by a pair of adjusting screws angularly mounted to the angle support. These screws contact a pair of tapered friction surfaces formed on the upper portion of the welding nozzle holding link. A spring positioned between the upper portions of the support angle and the holding link provides a constant bias engagement between the friction surfaces of the holding link and the adjustment screws, so as to firmly hold the link in position and to eliminate any free play in the adjustment mechanism. The angular relationships between the adjustment screws, the angle support and the tapered friction surfaces of the weld nozzle holding link provide a geometric arrangement which permits precision adjustment of the holding link with respect to the angle support and also provides a solid holding link mount which is resistant to movement from outside forces.

  1. Welding nozzle position manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.

    1993-08-01

    The present invention is directed to a welding nozzle position manipulator. The manipulator consists of an angle support to which the remaining components of the device are attached either directly or indirectly. A pair of pivotal connections attach a weld nozzle holding link to the angle support and provide a two axis freedom of movement of the holding link with respect to the support angle. The manipulator is actuated by a pair of adjusting screws angularly mounted to the angle support. These screws contact a pair of tapered friction surfaces formed on the upper portion of the welding nozzle holding link. A spring positioned between the upper portions of the support angle and the holding link provides a constant bias engagement between the friction surfaces of the holding link and the adjustment screws, so as to firmly hold the link in position and to eliminate any free play in the adjustment mechanism. The angular relationships between the adjustment screws, the angle support and the tapered friction surfaces of the weld nozzle holding link provide a geometric arrangement which permits precision adjustment of the holding link with respect to the angle support and also provides a solid holding link mount which is resistant to movement from outside forces.

  2. Linearized flexibility models in multibody dynamics and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cimino, William W.

    1989-01-01

    Simulation of structural response of multi-flexible-body systems by linearized flexible motion combined with nonlinear rigid motion is discussed. Advantages and applicability of such an approach for accurate simulation with greatly reduced computational costs and turnaround times are described, restricting attention to the control design environment. Requirements for updating the linearized flexibility model to track large angular motions are discussed. Validation of such an approach by comparison with other existing codes is included. Application to a flexible robot manipulator system is described.

  3. Flexible packaging and integration of CMOS IC with elastomeric microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bowei; Dong, Quan; Korman, Can E.; Li, Zhenyu; Zaghloul, Mona E.

    2013-05-01

    We have demonstrated flexible packaging and integration of CMOS IC chips with PDMS microfluidics. Microfluidic channels are used to deliver both liquid samples and liquid metals to the CMOS die. The liquid metals are used to realize electrical interconnects to the CMOS chip. As a demonstration we integrated a CMOS magnetic sensor die and matched PDMS microfluidic channels in a flexible package. The packaged system is fully functional under 3cm bending radius. The flexible integration of CMOS ICs with microfluidics enables previously unavailable flexible CMOS electronic systems with fluidic manipulation capabilities, which hold great potential for wearable health monitoring, point-of-care diagnostics and environmental sensing.

  4. Vibration control of an artificial muscle manipulator with a magnetorheological fluid brake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomori, H.; Midorikawa, Y.; Nakamura, T.

    2013-02-01

    Recently, proposed applications of robots require them to contact human safely. Therefore, we focus on pneumatic rubber artificial muscle. This actuator is flexible, light, and has high-power density. However, because the artificial muscle is flexible, it vibrates when there is a high load. Therefore, we paid attention to the magnetorheological (MR) fluid. We propose a control method of the MR brake considering energy of the manipulator system. By this control method, MR brake dissipates energy leading to vibration of the manipulator. In this paper, we calculated the energy and controlled the MR brake. And, we deliberated the proposal method by simulation using the dynamic model of the manipulator, and experiment.

  5. Tip velocity tracking control for elastic manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sever, Manfred Dieter Martin

    A unique approach to tip velocity control of an elastic robotic manipulator is presented. This method has potential application in teleoperation control and in applications where the trajectory is generated in real-time. Control is effected by reducing the tip velocity tracking error between the desired tip velocity and the measured tip velocity. Thus, in teleoperation, the concept of dead reckoning is used, so that while the manipulator's desired tip velocity is specified, the goal is for the tip to follow a path, leading toward a desired terminal position. This is done by concentrating the controller's effort on the manipulator tip while allowing the manipulator's links to deform., The controller utilizes a gain scheduling scheme to arrive at an appropriate feedback law. The control algorithm is implemented using a parallel-processing scheme on a multiprocessor system which consists of INMOS TransputersRTM . Experimental results are obtained using Radius, the Space Robotics Laboratory Facility at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies. Radius was designed to serve specifically as a test-bed for the development and evaluation of control methods for elastic manipulators. For the present work Radius is configured as a two-link manipulator with both links structurally flexible. One of the trajectories used for the simulations and experiment is a square, which is quite difficult for an elastic manipulator to execute. This box trajectory is more demanding than trajectories typically executed by Canadarm and so link elasticity becomes an important consideration. The effect of elasticity is demonstrated using an independent joint PD controller. In simulation, excellent tip velocity tracking was achieved using the proposed controller. In the experiment, reasonable accuracy in following the desired tip path was attained, however, disturbances, mainly a result of unmodeled joint dynamics, caused degraded performance. The controller may be improved by

  6. Computational Control of Flexible Aerospace Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, Lonnie, Jr.; Shen, Ji Yao

    1994-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to establish a distributed parameter modeling technique for structural analysis, parameter estimation, vibration suppression and control synthesis of large flexible aerospace structures. This report concentrates on the research outputs produced in the last two years of the project. The main accomplishments can be summarized as follows. A new version of the PDEMOD Code had been completed. A theoretical investigation of the NASA MSFC two-dimensional ground-based manipulator facility by using distributed parameter modelling technique has been conducted. A new mathematical treatment for dynamic analysis and control of large flexible manipulator systems has been conceived, which may provide a embryonic form of a more sophisticated mathematical model for future modified versions of the PDEMOD Codes.

  7. Toward robot-assisted hard osteolytic lesion treatment using a continuum manipulator.

    PubMed

    Alambeigi, Farshid; Wang, Y; Murphy, Ryan J; Iordachita, Iulian; Armand, Mehran

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of an actuation unit for controlling a continuum dexterous manipulator (CDM). The actuation unit is attached to a positioning robot and the integrated system provides sufficient dexterity for placement of a proposed flexible cutting tool used for treatment of oseteolysis (bone degradation). Preliminary experiments on simulated osteolytic lesions demonstrated the feasibility of using the novel flexible cutter inside the continuum manipulator. In these experiments, we found an optimal combination of rotational and sweeping speed of the cutter through the lesion. We also investigated the buckling of the flexible cutter during the cutting procedure.

  8. The Spartacus telethesis: manipulator control studies.

    PubMed

    Guittet, J; Kwee, H H; Quetin, N; Yclon, J

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes a method and an experimental system permitting a severely handicapped operator, such as a quadriplegic, to control a telemanipulator. These developments form the first phase in the design of the Spartacus "telethesis". This is a manipulator system specifically developed for a quadriplegic person. Manipulator control experiments which are discussed concern four quadriplegics who have used the experimental system for significant periods of time. The present system is a laboratory simulation of a telethesis, consisting of an industrial manipulator controlled by a mini-computer. A flexible semi-sequential control and a variety of transducers permit the system to be adapted to the individual user. Thus far, the experiments performed have shown the feasibility for the four quadriplegics to effectively control a telemanipulator, using head movements and some remaining arm movements in various modes of end-point control. In particular, a position control and a "piloting" type of velocity control, both with the addition of some force limitation, have given promising results.

  9. Balance and flexibility.

    PubMed

    2003-12-01

    The 'work-life balance' and flexible working are currently key buzz terms in the NHS. Those looking for more information on these topics should visit Flexibility at www.flexibility.co.uk for a host of resources designed to support new ways of working, including information on flexible workers and flexible rostering, the legal balancing act for work-life balance and home working.

  10. Performance measurement of mobile manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostelman, Roger; Hong, Tsai; Marvel, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes a concept for measuring the reproducible performance of mobile manipulators to be used for assembly or other similar tasks. An automatic guided vehicle with an onboard robot arm was programmed to repeatedly move to and stop at a novel, reconfigurable mobile manipulator artifact (RMMA), sense the RMMA, and detect targets on the RMMA. The manipulator moved a laser retroreflective sensor to detect small reflectors that can be reconfigured to measure various manipulator positions and orientations (poses). This paper describes calibration of a multi-camera, motion capture system using a 6 degree-of-freedom metrology bar and then using the camera system as a ground truth measurement device for validation of the reproducible mobile manipulator's experiments and test method. Static performance measurement of a mobile manipulator using the RMMA has proved useful for relatively high tolerance pose estimation and other metrics that support standard test method development for indexed and dynamic mobile manipulator applications.

  11. Rational manipulation of digital EEG: pearls and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Seneviratne, Udaya

    2014-12-01

    The advent of digital EEG has provided greater flexibility and more opportunities in data analysis to optimize the diagnostic yield. Changing the filter settings, sensitivity, montages, and time-base are possible rational manipulations to achieve this goal. The options to use polygraphy, video, and quantification are additional useful features. Aliasing and loss of data are potential pitfalls in the use of digital EEG. This review illustrates some common clinical scenarios where rational manipulations can enhance the diagnostic EEG yield and potential pitfalls in the process.

  12. Parasites and supernormal manipulation.

    PubMed Central

    Holen, Ø. H.; Saetre, G. P.; Slagsvold, T.; Stenseth, N. C.

    2001-01-01

    Social parasites may exploit their hosts by mimicking other organisms that the hosts normally benefit from investing in or responding to in some other way. Some parasites exaggerate key characters of the organisms they mimic, possibly in order to increase the response from the hosts. The huge gape and extreme begging intensity of the parasitic common cuckoo chick (Cuculus canorus) may be an example. In this paper, the evolutionary stability of manipulating hosts through exaggerated signals is analysed using game theory. Our model indicates that a parasite's signal intensity must be below a certain threshold in order to ensure acceptance and that this threshold depends directly on the rate of parasitism. The only evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) combination is when hosts accept all signallers and parasites signal at their optimal signal intensity, which must be below the threshold. Supernormal manipulation by parasites is only evolutionarily stable under sufficiently low rates of parasitism. If the conditions for the ESS combination are not satisfied, rejector hosts can invade using signal intensity as a cue for identifying parasites. These qualitative predictions are discussed with respect to empirical evidence from parasitic mimicry systems that have been suggested to involve supernormal signalling, including evicting avian brood parasites and insect-mimicking Ophrys orchids. PMID:11749709

  13. Deployable space manipulator closed-loop control, ideas and possibilities of using GPS as a sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, I.; Vignjevic, R.

    2002-07-01

    In the area of study of the dynamics and control of large flexible spacecraft one of the most challenging areas is that of large space-based robotic manipulators. The Deployable Space Manipulator is a large manipulator concept for Low Earth Orbit operation with one rotational joint and one prismatic joint. In this paper the dynamics of the manipulator undergoing large rotational motion while carrying a payload and extending its length are developed and the need for closed loop control is discussed. An output feedback closed loop control approach is presented and a concept for using GPS antennas mounted on the structure as feedback sensor for the control law is presented and discussed.

  14. Spatial operator approach to flexible multibody system dynamics and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G.

    1991-01-01

    The inverse and forward dynamics problems for flexible multibody systems were solved using the techniques of spatially recursive Kalman filtering and smoothing. These algorithms are easily developed using a set of identities associated with mass matrix factorization and inversion. These identities are easily derived using the spatial operator algebra developed by the author. Current work is aimed at computational experiments with the described algorithms and at modelling for control design of limber manipulator systems. It is also aimed at handling and manipulation of flexible objects.

  15. Multiplexed Force and Deflection Sensing Shell Membranes for Robotic Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yong-Lae; Black, Richard; Moslehi, Behzad; Cutkosky, Mark; Chau, Kelvin

    2012-01-01

    Force sensing is an essential requirement for dexterous robot manipulation, e.g., for extravehicular robots making vehicle repairs. Although strain gauges have been widely used, a new sensing approach is desirable for applications that require greater robustness, design flexibility including a high degree of multiplexibility, and immunity to electromagnetic noise. This invention is a force and deflection sensor a flexible shell formed with an elastomer having passageways formed by apertures in the shell, with an optical fiber having one or more Bragg gratings positioned in the passageways for the measurement of force and deflection.

  16. Flexible robot control: Modeling and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppenheim, Irving J.; Shimoyama, Isao

    1989-01-01

    Described here is a model and its use in experimental studies of flexible manipulators. The analytical model uses the equivalent of Rayleigh's method to approximate the displaced shape of a flexible link as the static elastic displacement which would occur under end rotations as applied at the joints. The generalized coordinates are thereby expressly compatible with joint motions and rotations in serial link manipulators, because the amplitude variables are simply the end rotations between the flexible link and the chord connecting the end points. The equations for the system dynamics are quite simple and can readily be formulated for the multi-link, three-dimensional case. When the flexible links possess mass and (polar moment of) inertia which are small compared to the concentrated mass and inertia at the joints, the analytical model is exact and displays the additional advantage of reduction in system dimension for the governing equations. Four series of pilot tests have been completed. Studies on a planar single-link system were conducted at Carnegie-Mellon University, and tests conducted at Toshiba Corporation on a planar two-link system were then incorporated into the study. A single link system under three-dimensional motion, displaying biaxial flexure, was then tested at Carnegie-Mellon.

  17. Flexible thermal laminate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, F. S.; Sauers, D. G.

    1977-01-01

    Lightweight flexible laminate of interwoven conducting and insulating yarns, designed to provide localized controlled heating for propellant tanks on space vehicles, is useful for nonspace applications where weight, bulk, and flexibility are critical concerns.

  18. Flexibility and Muscular Strength.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell

    1988-01-01

    This definition of flexibility and muscular strength also explores their roles in overall physical fitness and focuses on how increased flexibility and muscular strength can help decrease or eliminate lower back pain. (CB)

  19. Flexibility and Muscular Strength.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell

    1988-01-01

    This definition of flexibility and muscular strength also explores their roles in overall physical fitness and focuses on how increased flexibility and muscular strength can help decrease or eliminate lower back pain. (CB)

  20. Vacuum tool manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, William T.

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm.

  1. Advanced servo manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Holt, W.E.; Kuban, D.P.; Martin, H.L.

    1988-10-25

    An advanced servo manipulator has modular parts. Modular motor members drive individual input gears to control shoulder roll, shoulder pitch, elbow pitch, wrist yaw, wrist pitch, wrist roll, and tong spacing. The modules include a support member, a shoulder module for controlling shoulder roll, and a sleeve module attached to the shoulder module in fixed relation thereto. The shoulder roll sleeve module has an inner cylindrical member rotatable relative to the outer cylindrical member, and upon which a gear pod assembly is mounted. A plurality of shafts are driven by the gears, which are in turn driven by individual motor modules to transmit rotary power to control elbow pitch as well as to provide four different rotary shafts across the bendable elbow joint to supply rotary motive power to a wrist member and tong member. 41 figs.

  2. Advanced servo manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Holt, William E.; Kuban, Daniel P.; Martin, H. Lee

    1988-01-01

    An advanced servo manipulator has modular parts. Modular motor members drive individual input gears to control shoulder roll, shoulder pitch, elbow pitch, wrist yaw, wrist pitch, wrist roll, and tong spacing. The modules include a support member, a shoulder module for controlling shoulder roll, and a sleeve module attached to the shoulder module in fixed relation thereto. The shoulder roll sleeve module has an inner cylindrical member rotatable relative to the outer cylindrical member, and upon which a gear pod assembly is mounted. A plurality of shafts are driven by the gears, which are in turn driven by individual motor modules to transmit rotary power to control elbow pitch as well as to provide four different rotary shafts across the bendable elbow joint to supply rotary motive power to a wrist member and tong member.

  3. Ion manipulation device

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Gordon A; Smith, Richard D; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Baker, Erin M

    2014-09-16

    An ion manipulation method and device is disclosed. The device includes a pair of substantially parallel surfaces. An array of inner electrodes is contained within, and extends substantially along the length of, each parallel surface. The device includes a first outer array of electrodes and a second outer array of electrodes. Each outer array of electrodes is positioned on either side of the inner electrodes, and is contained within and extends substantially along the length of each parallel surface. A DC voltage is applied to the first and second outer array of electrodes. A RF voltage, with a superimposed electric field, is applied to the inner electrodes by applying the DC voltages to each electrode. Ions either move between the parallel surfaces within an ion confinement area or along paths in the direction of the electric field, or can be trapped in the ion confinement area.

  4. Interactive protein manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    SNCrivelli@lbl.gov

    2003-07-01

    We describe an interactive visualization and modeling program for the creation of protein structures ''from scratch''. The input to our program is an amino acid sequence -decoded from a gene- and a sequence of predicted secondary structure types for each amino acid-provided by external structure prediction programs. Our program can be used in the set-up phase of a protein structure prediction process; the structures created with it serve as input for a subsequent global internal energy minimization, or another method of protein structure prediction. Our program supports basic visualization methods for protein structures, interactive manipulation based on inverse kinematics, and visualization guides to aid a user in creating ''good'' initial structures.

  5. [Language Manipulation, Surrogacy, Altruism].

    PubMed

    Serrano Ruiz-Calderón, José Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The Newspeak propitiates a change of the sense of the words and next to the double thinking forms the picture of totalitarianism described by Orwell in 1984. The purpose of the Newspeak is to make all other forms of thought impossible. In bioethics the Newspeak is applied, not because Bioethics is a new science but by the manipulative intention. The twentieth-century political language has, according to Orwell, the intention to remove the ″mental image ″ of what really happens. This is clear in the terms ″surrogacy ″. On the one hand, the mother is deprived of her child. On the other, there is no legal subrogation. As has been said the technique reduces a woman to the condition of a vessel. The excuse of gratuity does not change the exploitative relationship, since gratuitousness in the provision of women is not the altruism of all those involved in surrogacy.

  6. Vacuum tool manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprising a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm.

  7. Vacuum tool manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1993-11-23

    Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm. 6 figures.

  8. Repeatability in redundant manipulator systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Ranjan

    1994-02-01

    Terrestrial manipulators with more DOF than the dimension of the workspace and space manipulators with as many manipulator DOF as the dimension of the workspace are both redundant systems. An interesting problem of such redundant systems has been the repeatability problem due to the presence of nonholonomic constraints. We show, contrary to the existing belief, that integrability of the nonholonomic constraints is not a necessary condition for the repeatability of the configuration variables. There exist certain trajectories in the independent configuration variable space that are like 'holonomic loops' along which the redundant manipulators exhibit repeatable motion. We present a simple method based on optimization techniques for designing repeatable trajectories for free-flying space manipulators and terrestrial manipulators under pseudoinverse control.

  9. A History of Manipulative Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pettman, Erland

    2007-01-01

    Manipulative therapy has known a parallel development throughout many parts of the world. The earliest historical reference to the practice of manipulative therapy in Europe dates back to 400 BCE. Over the centuries, manipulative interventions have fallen in and out of favor with the medical profession. Manipulative therapy also was initially the mainstay of the two leading alternative health care systems, osteopathy and chiropractic, both founded in the latter part of the 19th century in response to shortcomings in allopathic medicine. With medical and osteopathic physicians initially instrumental in introducing manipulative therapy to the profession of physical therapy, physical therapists have since then provided strong contributions to the field, thereby solidifying the profession's claim to have manipulative therapy within in its legally regulated scope of practice. PMID:19066664

  10. Digital Control For Remote Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, Antal K.; Dotson, Ronald S.

    1987-01-01

    Multiple microprocessors enable large separations between controllers and manipulators. Controller for remote manipulator requires no direct mechanical connection between slave arm and master arm moved by human operator. Employs two-way digital data transmission rather than mechanical linkage between master and slave. Manipulator a considerable distance from operator. Software for controller distributed between master and slave locations. Organized into modules. Hardware and software for system demonstrated in laboratory model.

  11. Thinking about Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villa, Mario Diaz

    2009-01-01

    This article emphasizes the complexity of the term flexibility and discusses its meanings and political dimensions, along with its expressions or realizations within the field of higher education. It proposes a new principle of flexibility that overcomes an understanding of flexibility within higher education as the mere ability or versatility to…

  12. Thinking about Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villa, Mario Diaz

    2009-01-01

    This article emphasizes the complexity of the term flexibility and discusses its meanings and political dimensions, along with its expressions or realizations within the field of higher education. It proposes a new principle of flexibility that overcomes an understanding of flexibility within higher education as the mere ability or versatility to…

  13. Torque-Limiting Manipulation Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moetteli, John B. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A device for manipulating a workpiece in space includes a fixture, a stanchion assembly, a manipulation mechanism, an actuation mechanism, and a reaction mechanism. The fixture has an end onto which the workpiece affixes. The stanchion assembly has an upper and a lower end. The manipulation mechanism connects the fixture and the upper end of the stanchion assembly. The lower end of the stanchion assembly mounts, via probe and a socket, to a structure. The actuation mechanism operably connects to the manipulation mechanism, and moves the fixture in space. The reaction mechanism provides a point through which force inputs into the actuation mechanism may react.

  14. Non-manipulation quantitative designs.

    PubMed

    Rumrill, Phillip D

    2004-01-01

    The article describes non-manipulation quantitative designs of two types, correlational and causal comparative studies. Both of these designs are characterized by the absence of random assignment of research participants to conditions or groups and non-manipulation of the independent variable. Without random selection or manipulation of the independent variable, no attempt is made to draw causal inferences regarding relationships between independent and dependent variables. Nonetheless, non-manipulation studies play an important role in rehabilitation research, as described in this article. Examples from the contemporary rehabilitation literature are included. Copyright 2004 IOS Press

  15. Control of free-flying space robot manipulator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    New control techniques for self contained, autonomous free flying space robots were developed and tested experimentally. Free flying robots are envisioned as a key element of any successful long term presence in space. These robots must be capable of performing the assembly, maintenance, and inspection, and repair tasks that currently require human extravehicular activity (EVA). A set of research projects were developed and carried out using lab models of satellite robots and a flexible manipulator. The second generation space robot models use air cushion vehicle (ACV) technology to simulate in 2-D the drag free, zero g conditions of space. The current work is divided into 5 major projects: Global Navigation and Control of a Free Floating Robot, Cooperative Manipulation from a Free Flying Robot, Multiple Robot Cooperation, Thrusterless Robotic Locomotion, and Dynamic Payload Manipulation. These projects are examined in detail.

  16. Graded-index optical fiber tweezers with long manipulation length.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yuan; Huang, Wei; Liu, Qun-Feng; Wu, Yu; Rao, Yunjiang; Peng, Gang-Ding; Lang, Jinyi; Zhang, Ke

    2014-10-20

    Long manipulation length is critical for optical fiber tweezers to enhance the flexibility of non-contact trapping. In this paper a long manipulation distance of more than 40 μm is demonstrated experimentally by the graded-index fiber (GIF) tweezers, which is fabricated by chemically etching a GIF taper with a large cone angle of 58°. The long manipulation distance is obtained by introducing an air cavity between the lead-in single mode fiber and the GIF as well as by adjusting the laser power in the existence of a constant background flow. The influence of the cavity length and the GIF length on the light distribution and the focusing length of the GIF taper is investigated numerically, which is helpful for optimizing the parameters to perform stable optical trapping. This kind of optical fiber tweezers has advantages including low-cost, easy-to-fabricate and easy-to-use.

  17. Manipulating and Visualizing Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Horst D.

    2003-12-05

    ProteinShop Gives Researchers a Hands-On Tool for Manipulating, Visualizing Protein Structures. The Human Genome Project and other biological research efforts are creating an avalanche of new data about the chemical makeup and genetic codes of living organisms. But in order to make sense of this raw data, researchers need software tools which let them explore and model data in a more intuitive fashion. With this in mind, researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California, Davis, have developed ProteinShop, a visualization and modeling program which allows researchers to manipulate protein structures with pinpoint control, guided in large part by their own biological and experimental instincts. Biologists have spent the last half century trying to unravel the ''protein folding problem,'' which refers to the way chains of amino acids physically fold themselves into three-dimensional proteins. This final shape, which resembles a crumpled ribbon or piece of origami, is what determines how the protein functions and translates genetic information. Understanding and modeling this geometrically complex formation is no easy matter. ProteinShop takes a given sequence of amino acids and uses visualization guides to help generate predictions about the secondary structures, identifying alpha helices and flat beta strands, and the coil regions that bind them. Once secondary structures are in place, researchers can twist and turn these pre-configurations until they come up with a number of possible tertiary structure conformations. In turn, these are fed into a computationally intensive optimization procedure that tries to find the final, three-dimensional protein structure. Most importantly, ProteinShop allows users to add human knowledge and intuition to the protein structure prediction process, thus bypassing bad configurations that would otherwise be fruitless for optimization. This saves compute cycles and accelerates the entire process, so

  18. Research on a Reconfigurable Modular Manipulator System. Final report, June 15, 1989--August 14, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Khosla, P.K.; Kanade, T.

    1992-08-01

    Research has been conducted on developing the theoretical basis and the technology for a Reconfigurable Modular Manipulation System (RMMS). Unlike a conventional manipulator which has a fixed configuration, the RMMS consists of a set of interchangeable modules that can be rapidly assembled into a system of manipulators with appropriate configurations depending on the specific task requirement. For effective development and use of such a versatile and flexible system a program of theoretical and experimental research has been pursued aimed at developing the basis for next generation of autonomous manipulator systems. The RMMS concept extends the idea of autonomy from sensor-based to configuration based autonomy. One of the important components is the development of design methodologies for mapping tasks into manipulator configurations and for automatic generation of manipulator specific algorithms (e.g., kinematics and dynamics) in order to make the hardware transparent to the user.(JDB)

  19. Improvements to the Tendon-Actuated Lightweight In-Space MANipulator (TALISMAN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, William R.; Dorsey, John T.; Jones, Thomas C.; Lodding, Kenneth N.; Ganoe, George G.; Mercer, David; King, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    Devices for manipulating and precisely placing payloads are critical for efficient space operations including berthing of spacecraft, in-space assembly, construction and repair. Key to the success of many NASA space activities has been the availability of long-reach crane-like devices such as the Shuttle Remote Manipulation System (SRMS) and the Space Station Remote Manipulation System (SSRMS). These devices have been used for many operations including berthing visiting spacecraft to the International Space Station, deployment of spacecraft, space station assembly, astronaut positioning, payload transfer, and spacecraft inspection prior to atmospheric re-entry. Retiring the Space Transportation System has led to the removal of the SRMS from consideration for in-space missions, thus creating a capability gap. Recognizing this gap, work was initiated at NASA on a new architecture for long-reach space manipulators. Most current devices are constructed by joining revolute joints with carbon composite tubes, with the joints accounting for the majority of the device mass. For example in the case of the SRMS, the entire device mass is 410 kg (904 lbm); the joint structure, motors, gear train, cabling, etc., accounts for the majority of the system mass because the carbon composite tubes mass is 46 kg (101 lbm). An alternate space manipulator concept, the Tendon-Actuated Lightweight In-Space MANipulator (TALISMAN) was created to address deficiencies in the current state-of-the-art in long-reach manipulators. The antagonistic tendon actuated joint architecture allows the motors actuating the joint to be removed from the joint axis, which simplifies the joint design while simultaneously providing mechanical advantage for the motors. The improved mechanical advantage, in turn, reduces the size and power requirements for the motor and gear train. This paper will describe recent architectural improvements to the TALISMAN design that: 1) improve the operational robustness of the

  20. Configurations and control of magnetic fields for manipulating magnetic particles in microfluidic applications: magnet systems and manipulation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cao, Quanliang; Han, Xiaotao; Li, Liang

    2014-08-07

    The use of a magnetic field for manipulating the motion of magnetic particles in microchannels has attracted increasing attention in microfluidic applications. Generation of a flexible and controllable magnetic field plays a crucial role in making better use of the particle manipulation technology. Recent advances in the development of magnet systems and magnetic field control methods have shown that it has great potential for effective and accurate manipulation of particles in microfluidic systems. Starting with the analysis of magnetic forces acting on the particles, this review gives the configurations and evaluations of three main types of magnet system proposed in microfluidic applications. The interaction mechanisms of magnetic particles with magnetic fields are also discussed.

  1. Image Manipulation: Then and Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Ronald E.

    The images of photography have been manipulated almost from the moment of their discovery. The blending together in the studio and darkroom of images not found in actual scenes from life has been a regular feature of modern photography in both art and advertising. Techniques of photograph manipulation include retouching; blocking out figures or…

  2. Modeling Manipulation in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Jason I.

    2010-01-01

    As residents and medical students progress through their medical training, they are presented with multiple instances in which they feel they must manipulate the healthcare system and deceive others in order to efficiently treat their patients. This, however, creates a culture of manipulation resulting in untoward effects on trainees' ethical and…

  3. Elementary School Teachers' Manipulative Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uribe-Florez, Lida J.; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from 503 inservice elementary teachers, this study investigated the relationship between teachers' background characteristics, teachers' beliefs about manipulatives, and the frequency with which teachers use manipulatives as part of their mathematics instruction. Findings from the study show that teachers' grade level and beliefs about…

  4. Modeling Manipulation in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Jason I.

    2010-01-01

    As residents and medical students progress through their medical training, they are presented with multiple instances in which they feel they must manipulate the healthcare system and deceive others in order to efficiently treat their patients. This, however, creates a culture of manipulation resulting in untoward effects on trainees' ethical and…

  5. Sliding Mode Control of a Slewing Flexible Beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, David G.; Parker, Gordon G.; Starr, Gregory P.; Robinett, Rush D., III

    1997-01-01

    An output feedback sliding mode controller (SMC) is proposed to minimize the effects of vibrations of slewing flexible manipulators. A spline trajectory is used to generate ideal position and velocity commands. Constrained nonlinear optimization techniques are used to both calibrate nonlinear models and determine optimized gains to produce a rest-to-rest, residual vibration-free maneuver. Vibration-free maneuvers are important for current and future NASA space missions. This study required the development of the nonlinear dynamic system equations of motion; robust control law design; numerical implementation; system identification; and verification using the Sandia National Laboratories flexible robot testbed. Results are shown for a slewing flexible beam.

  6. Thermoelectrical manipulation of nanomagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadigrobov, A. M.; Andersson, S.; Radić, D.; Shekhter, R. I.; Jonson, M.; Korenivski, V.

    2010-06-01

    We investigate the interplay between the thermodynamic properties and spin-dependent transport in a mesoscopic device based on a magnetic multilayer (F/f/F), in which two strongly ferromagnetic layers (F) are exchange-coupled through a weakly ferromagnetic spacer (f) with the Curie temperature in the vicinity of room temperature. We show theoretically that the Joule heating produced by the spin-dependent current allows a spin-thermoelectronic control of the ferromagnetic-to-paramagnetic (f/N) transition in the spacer and, thereby, of the relative orientation of the outer F-layers in the device (spin-thermoelectric manipulation of nanomagnets). Supporting experimental evidence of such thermally-controlled switching from parallel to antiparallel magnetization orientations in F/f(N)/F sandwiches is presented. Furthermore, we show theoretically that local Joule heating due to a high concentration of current in a magnetic point contact or a nanopillar can be used to reversibly drive the weakly ferromagnetic spacer through its Curie point and thereby exchange couple and decouple the two strongly ferromagnetic F-layers. For the devices designed to have an antiparallel ground state above the Curie point of the spacer, the associated spin-thermionic parallel to antiparallel switching causes magnetoresistance oscillations whose frequency can be controlled by proper biasing from essentially dc to GHz. We discuss in detail an experimental realization of a device that can operate as a thermomagnetoresistive switch or oscillator.

  7. Genetic Manipulations in Dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Alshahni, Mohamed Mahdi; Yamada, Tsuyoshi

    2017-02-01

    Dermatophytes are a group of closely related fungi that nourish on keratinized materials for their survival. They infect stratum corneum, nails, and hair of human and animals, accounting the largest portion of fungi causing superficial mycoses. Huge populations are suffering from dermatophytoses, though the biology of these fungi is largely unknown yet. Reasons are partially attributed to the poor amenability of dermatophytes to genetic manipulation. However, advancements in this field over the last decade made it possible to conduct genetic studies to satisfying extents. These included genetic transformation methods, indispensable molecular tools, i.e., dominant selectable markers, inducible promoter, and marker recycling system, along with improving homologous recombination frequency and gene silencing. Furthermore, annotated genome sequences of several dermatophytic species have recently been available, ensuring an optimal recruitment of the molecular tools to expand our knowledge on these fungi. In conclusion, the establishment of basic molecular tools and the availability of genomic data will open a new era that might change our understanding on the biology and pathogenicity of this fungal group.

  8. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, S.; Pauwels, K.; Rizzolatti, G.; Orban, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors “stimulus type” (action, static control, and dynamic control), “stereopsis” (present, absent) and “viewpoint” (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. PMID:27252350

  9. Space robots with flexible appendages: Dynamic modeling, coupling measurement, and vibration suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Deshan; Wang, Xueqian; Xu, Wenfu; Liang, Bin

    2017-05-01

    For a space robot with flexible appendages, vibrations of flexible structure can be easily excited during both orbit and/or attitude maneuvers of the base and the operation of the manipulators. Hence, the pose (position and attitude) of the manipulator's end-effector will greatly deviate from the desired values, and furthermore, the motion of the manipulator will trigger and exacerbate vibrations of flexible appendages. Given lack of the atmospheric damping in orbit, the vibrations will last for quite a while and cause the on-orbital tasks to fail. We derived the rigid-flexible coupling dynamics of a space robot system with flexible appendages and established a coupling model between the flexible base and the space manipulator. A specific index was defined to measure the coupling degree between the flexible motion of the appendages and the rigid motion of the end-effector. Then, we analyzed the dynamic coupling for different conditions, such as modal displacements, joint angles (manipulator configuration), and mass properties. Moreover, the coupling map was adopted and drawn to represent the coupling motion. Based on this map, a trajectory planning method was addressed to suppress structure vibration. Finally, simulation studies of typical cases were performed, which verified the proposed models and method. This work provides a theoretic basis for the system design, performance evaluation, trajectory planning, and control of such space robots.

  10. Multifunctional, Highly Flexible, Free-Standing 3D Polypyrrole Foam.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunhui; Ding, Yujie; Yuan, Ye; Cao, Anyuan; He, Xiaodong; Peng, Qingyu; Li, Yibin

    2016-08-01

    Multifunctional, highly flexible 3D polypyrrole (PPy) foam is fabricated via a simple electrodeposition method by using nickel foam as the template. The 3D PPy foam has a unique interior structure and is robust enough to manipulate directly. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. A versatile tunnel acts as a flexible duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, N. D.; Costakos, N. C.; Jeppesen, G. L.

    1980-01-01

    Tunnel activated by cable assembly can be expanded, contracted, and bent similar to flexible duct without uncoupling at either end. Tunnel was developed to join reusable space vehicle with cargo module and could be modified to be used as hydraulic or pneumatic hose or duct connecting complex moveable joints in remote manipulators and earth moving machinery.

  12. Manipulability, force, and compliance analysis for planar continuum manipulators.

    PubMed

    Gravagne, Ian A; Walker, Ian D

    2002-06-01

    Continuum manipulators, inspired by the natural capabilities of elephant trunks and octopus tentacles, may find niche applications in areas like human-robot interaction, multiarm manipulation, and unknown environment exploration. However, their true capabilities will remain largely inaccessible without proper analytical tools to evaluate their unique properties. Ellipsoids have long served as one of the foremost analytical tools available to the robotics researcher, and the purpose of this paper is to first formulate, and then to examine, three types of ellipsoids for continuum robots: manipulability, force, and compliance.

  13. Manipulability, force, and compliance analysis for planar continuum manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gravagne, Ian A.; Walker, Ian D.

    2002-01-01

    Continuum manipulators, inspired by the natural capabilities of elephant trunks and octopus tentacles, may find niche applications in areas like human-robot interaction, multiarm manipulation, and unknown environment exploration. However, their true capabilities will remain largely inaccessible without proper analytical tools to evaluate their unique properties. Ellipsoids have long served as one of the foremost analytical tools available to the robotics researcher, and the purpose of this paper is to first formulate, and then to examine, three types of ellipsoids for continuum robots: manipulability, force, and compliance.

  14. Manipulability, force, and compliance analysis for planar continuum manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gravagne, Ian A.; Walker, Ian D.

    2002-01-01

    Continuum manipulators, inspired by the natural capabilities of elephant trunks and octopus tentacles, may find niche applications in areas like human-robot interaction, multiarm manipulation, and unknown environment exploration. However, their true capabilities will remain largely inaccessible without proper analytical tools to evaluate their unique properties. Ellipsoids have long served as one of the foremost analytical tools available to the robotics researcher, and the purpose of this paper is to first formulate, and then to examine, three types of ellipsoids for continuum robots: manipulability, force, and compliance.

  15. Dexterous Manipulation: Making Remote Manipulators Easy to Use

    SciTech Connect

    HARRIGAN, RAYMOND W.; BENNETT, PHIL C.

    2001-11-01

    Perhaps the most basic barrier to the widespread deployment of remote manipulators is that they are very difficult to use. Remote manual operations are fatiguing and tedious, while fully autonomous systems are seldom able to function in changing and unstructured environments. An alternative approach to these extremes is to exploit computer control while leaving the operator in the loop to take advantage of the operator's perceptual and decision-making capabilities. This report describes research that is enabling gradual introduction of computer control and decision making into operator-supervised robotic manipulation systems, and its integration on a commercially available, manually controlled mobile manipulator.

  16. Invertible flexible matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justino, Júlia

    2017-06-01

    Matrices with coefficients having uncertainties of type o (.) or O (.), called flexible matrices, are studied from the point of view of nonstandard analysis. The uncertainties of the afore-mentioned kind will be given in the form of the so-called neutrices, for instance the set of all infinitesimals. Since flexible matrices have uncertainties in their coefficients, it is not possible to define the identity matrix in an unique way and so the notion of spectral identity matrix arises. Not all nonsingular flexible matrices can be turned into a spectral identity matrix using Gauss-Jordan elimination method, implying that that not all nonsingular flexible matrices have the inverse matrix. Under certain conditions upon the size of the uncertainties appearing in a nonsingular flexible matrix, a general theorem concerning the boundaries of its minors is presented which guarantees the existence of the inverse matrix of a nonsingular flexible matrix.

  17. Direct Manipulation in Virtual Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Virtual Reality interfaces offer several advantages for scientific visualization such as the ability to perceive three-dimensional data structures in a natural way. The focus of this chapter is direct manipulation, the ability for a user in virtual reality to control objects in the virtual environment in a direct and natural way, much as objects are manipulated in the real world. Direct manipulation provides many advantages for the exploration of complex, multi-dimensional data sets, by allowing the investigator the ability to intuitively explore the data environment. Because direct manipulation is essentially a control interface, it is better suited for the exploration and analysis of a data set than for the publishing or communication of features found in that data set. Thus direct manipulation is most relevant to the analysis of complex data that fills a volume of three-dimensional space, such as a fluid flow data set. Direct manipulation allows the intuitive exploration of that data, which facilitates the discovery of data features that would be difficult to find using more conventional visualization methods. Using a direct manipulation interface in virtual reality, an investigator can, for example, move a data probe about in space, watching the results and getting a sense of how the data varies within its spatial volume.

  18. Autonomous Object Manipulation Using a Soft Planar Grasping Manipulator

    PubMed Central

    Katzschmann, Robert K.; Marchese, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article presents the development of an autonomous motion planning algorithm for a soft planar grasping manipulator capable of grasp-and-place operations by encapsulation with uncertainty in the position and shape of the object. The end effector of the soft manipulator is fabricated in one piece without weakening seams using lost-wax casting instead of the commonly used multilayer lamination process. The soft manipulation system can grasp randomly positioned objects within its reachable envelope and move them to a desired location without human intervention. The autonomous planning system leverages the compliance and continuum bending of the soft grasping manipulator to achieve repeatable grasps in the presence of uncertainty. A suite of experiments is presented that demonstrates the system's capabilities. PMID:27625916

  19. Autonomous Object Manipulation Using a Soft Planar Grasping Manipulator.

    PubMed

    Katzschmann, Robert K; Marchese, Andrew D; Rus, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the development of an autonomous motion planning algorithm for a soft planar grasping manipulator capable of grasp-and-place operations by encapsulation with uncertainty in the position and shape of the object. The end effector of the soft manipulator is fabricated in one piece without weakening seams using lost-wax casting instead of the commonly used multilayer lamination process. The soft manipulation system can grasp randomly positioned objects within its reachable envelope and move them to a desired location without human intervention. The autonomous planning system leverages the compliance and continuum bending of the soft grasping manipulator to achieve repeatable grasps in the presence of uncertainty. A suite of experiments is presented that demonstrates the system's capabilities.

  20. Development of 3 DOF manipulator using ER fluid clutches for reduction of collision force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boku, Kazuhiko; Nakamura, Taro

    2009-02-01

    .With robots and users more commonly sharing space such as in the fields of medicine and home automation, the possibility of a physical collision has increased, even though many robots use actuators with high-ratio gear trains to minimize the effects of impact. We developed a 3-DOF manipulator having a smart flexible joint using an ER fluid and a sensor-equipped pneumatic cushion. Results of position control and collision experiments using the manipulator demonstrated its effectiveness.

  1. Kinematic sensitivity of robot manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vuskovic, Marko I.

    1989-01-01

    Kinematic sensitivity vectors and matrices for open-loop, n degrees-of-freedom manipulators are derived. First-order sensitivity vectors are defined as partial derivatives of the manipulator's position and orientation with respect to its geometrical parameters. The four-parameter kinematic model is considered, as well as the five-parameter model in case of nominally parallel joint axes. Sensitivity vectors are expressed in terms of coordinate axes of manipulator frames. Second-order sensitivity vectors, the partial derivatives of first-order sensitivity vectors, are also considered. It is shown that second-order sensitivity vectors can be expressed as vector products of the first-order sensitivity vectors.

  2. Manipulator control by exact linearization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruetz, K.

    1987-01-01

    Comments on the application to rigid link manipulators of geometric control theory, resolved acceleration control, operational space control, and nonlinear decoupling theory are given, and the essential unity of these techniques for externally linearizing and decoupling end effector dynamics is discussed. Exploiting the fact that the mass matrix of a rigid link manipulator is positive definite, a consequence of rigid link manipulators belonging to the class of natural physical systems, it is shown that a necessary and sufficient condition for a locally externally linearizing and output decoupling feedback law to exist is that the end effector Jacobian matrix be nonsingular. Furthermore, this linearizing feedback is easy to produce.

  3. Building Fractal Models with Manipulatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coes, Loring

    1993-01-01

    Uses manipulative materials to build and examine geometric models that simulate the self-similarity properties of fractals. Examples are discussed in two dimensions, three dimensions, and the fractal dimension. Discusses how models can be misleading. (Contains 10 references.) (MDH)

  4. Machine intelligence for autonomous manipulation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.

    1973-01-01

    Survey of the present technological development status of machine intelligence for autonomous manipulation in the U.S., Japan, USSR, and England. The extent of task-performance autonomy is examined that machine intelligence gives the manipulator by eliminating the need for a human operator to close continuously the control loop, or to rewrite control programs for each different task. Surveyed research projects show that the development of some advanced automation systems for manipulator control are within the state of the art. Yet, many more realistic breadboard systems and experimental work are needed before further progress can be made in the design of advanced automation systems for manipulator control suitable for new major practical applications. Specific research areas of promise are pointed out.

  5. Building Fractal Models with Manipulatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coes, Loring

    1993-01-01

    Uses manipulative materials to build and examine geometric models that simulate the self-similarity properties of fractals. Examples are discussed in two dimensions, three dimensions, and the fractal dimension. Discusses how models can be misleading. (Contains 10 references.) (MDH)

  6. Rapid rotational/translational maneuvering experiments of a flexible steel beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Yang, Li-Farn; Huanag, Jen-Kuang; Macauley, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Future space manipulators may need translational base motion to expand the access region of a manipulator. An experiment was conducted to demonstrate slewing of flexible structures with coupled rotational and translational axes while simultaneously suppressing vibrational motion during the maneuver. In the experiment, a flexible steel beam carried by a translational cart was maneuvered by an active controller to perform position-control tasks. Experimental results are presented to show how the flexibility of the steel beam influences the multi-input multi-output feedback controller.

  7. Dynamic Scaling of Manipulator Trajectories.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    Manipulators Robotics Trajectory Planning Manipulator Dynamics 20. ABSTRACT (Conftnue wn reverse side ID neceeOor Oine Identlfy b? block nuemNer) A...receives a c factor for each b(i). ’lhus both terms change equally with differing movement speeds. This contradicts the normal assumption in the robotics ...as well since they share the same significance as the velocity terms, yet this is not done. In any case, future generations of robots will contain

  8. Review of orthopaedic manipulator arms.

    PubMed

    Hurst, K S; Phillips, R; Viant, W J; Mohsen, A M; Sherman, K P; Bielby, M

    1998-01-01

    Trajectory planning and implementation forms a substantial part of current and future orthopaedic practice. This type of surgery is governed by a basic orthopaedic principle [1] which involves the placement of a surgical tool at a specific site within a region, via a trajectory which is planned from X-ray based 2D images and governed by 3D anatomical constraints. The accuracy and safety of procedures utilising the basic orthopaedic principle depends on the surgeon's judgement, experience, ability to integrate images, utilisation of intra-operative X-ray, knowledge of anatomical-biomechanical constraints and eye hand dexterity. The surgeon must remain as the responsible medical expert in charge of the overall system. At the same time the surgeon covets the accuracy offered by Computer Assisted Surgery including a manipulator. A summary of current inadequacies of manipulators indicates that the main drivers for future work are that accuracy is critical in close contact with the environment, safety concerns dictate manipulator geometry and technological limitations are many. In any effort to develop an optimal manipulator to guide surgical instruments and tools it is an obvious first step to review and categorise current manipulators. The aim of this paper is to review all aspects of manipulator design against the five main criteria of ergonomics; safety; accuracy; sterility and measurable benefits such as reduced operative time, reduced surgical trauma and improved clinical results.

  9. Manipulation: description, identification and ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Bowers, L

    2003-06-01

    The word manipulation is frequently applied to some of the difficult-to-manage behaviours of the personality-disordered patient. However, the term is rarely defined, and a review of both the clinical and research literature shows that little has been written about its definition and identification, let alone its clinical management in both in- and outpatient settings. Recent empirical work conducted with nurses in forensic settings has demonstrated the range of behaviours that professionals refer to as 'manipulative', thus clarifying the use of the term and allowing the provision of a more precise definition. The scope of manipulation in everyday life, management practice and politics is perhaps relatively small, although manipulation can occur in all areas of human activity. Social behaviour is doubly ambiguous with respect to judgements of manipulation, as such judgements involve a moral evaluation combined with the identification of deception on the basis of little or partial evidence. The implications of this social ambiguity for clinical psychiatric practice are that professionals need to guard themselves from two polar faults: seeing manipulation everywhere; or being blind to its presence. In order to achieve a cautious moderation, staff need to hold both alternatives in mind at all times.

  10. TOWARDS AN ECONOMICAL FLEXIBILITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUDILL, WILLIAM W.; RICHARDSON, L.S.

    AN ARCHITECT AND A SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS COLLABORATED ON THE DESIGN FOR A HIGH SCHOOL, WHICH STRESSED ECONOMY AND FLEXIBILITY. THEY CONSIDERED THREE ASPECTS OF FLEXIBILITY--(1) EXPANDABILITY, (2) CONVERTIBILITY, AND (3) VERSATILITY. EXPANDABILITY IS DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF SITE SELECTION AND PLANNING. CONVERTIBILITY FEATURES IDENTIFIED INCLUDE…

  11. Flexible Animation Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcup, Scott S.

    1990-01-01

    FLEXAN (Flexible Animation), computer program animating structural dynamics on Evans and Sutherland PS300-series graphics workstation with VAX/VMS host computer. Typical application is animation of spacecraft undergoing structural stresses caused by thermal and vibrational effects. Displays distortions in shape of spacecraft. Program displays single natural mode of vibration, mode history, or any general deformation of flexible structure. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  12. Flexible Animation Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcup, Scott S.

    1990-01-01

    FLEXAN (Flexible Animation), computer program animating structural dynamics on Evans and Sutherland PS300-series graphics workstation with VAX/VMS host computer. Typical application is animation of spacecraft undergoing structural stresses caused by thermal and vibrational effects. Displays distortions in shape of spacecraft. Program displays single natural mode of vibration, mode history, or any general deformation of flexible structure. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  13. Shear flexibility for structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stangeland, Maynard L. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    This device comprises a flexible sheet member having cross convolutions oriented 45.degree. to the shear vector with spherical reliefs at the convolution junctions. The spherical reliefs are essential to the shear flexibility by interrupting the principal stress lines that act along the ridges of the convolutions. The spherical reliefs provide convolutions in both directions in the plane of the cross-convolution ridges.

  14. Shear flexibility for structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stangeland, Maynard L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    This device comprises a flexible sheet member having cross convolutions oriented 45.degree. to the shear vector with spherical reliefs at the convolution junctions. The spherical reliefs are essential to the shear flexibility by interrupting the principal stress lines that act along the ridges of the convolutions. The spherical reliefs provide convolutions in both directions in the plane of the cross-convolution ridges.

  15. Flexible 'zoning' aids adaptability.

    PubMed

    Corben, Simon

    2013-09-01

    Simon Corben, business development director at Capita Symonds' Health team, examines how 'clever use of zoning' when planning new healthcare facilities could improve hospital design, increase inherent flexibility, and reduce lifetime costs, and argues that a 'loose-fit, non-bespoke approach' to space planning will lead to 'more flexible buildings that are suitable for conversion to alternative uses'.

  16. Shield For Flexible Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponton, Michael K.; Williford, Clifford B.; Lagen, Nicholas T.

    1995-01-01

    Cylindrical shield designed to fit around flexible pipe to protect nearby workers from injury and equipment from damage if pipe ruptures. Designed as pressure-relief device. Absorbs impact of debris ejected radially from broken flexible pipe. Also redirects flow of pressurized fluid escaping from broken pipe onto flow path allowing for relief of pressure while minimizing potential for harm.

  17. Flexibility within Fidelity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Philip C.; Gosch, Elizabeth; Furr, Jami M.; Sood, Erica

    2008-01-01

    The authors address concerns regarding manual-based treatments, highlighting the role of flexibility and creativity. A cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety called the Coping Cat program demonstrates the flexible application of manuals and emphasizes the importance of a child-centered, personalized approach that involves the child in the…

  18. Berthing of Space Station Freedom using the shuttle remote manipulator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Paul; Demeo, Martha E.

    1993-01-01

    A large-angle, flexible, multi-body, dynamic modeling capability was developed to help validate analytical simulations of the dynamic motion and control forces which occur while berthing of Space Station Freedom to the Shuttle Orbiter during early assembly flights. The dynamics and control of the station, the attached Shuttle Remote Manipulator System, and the Orbiter during a berthing maneuver are described. Emphasis is placed on the modeling of the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System in the multi-body simulation. The influence of the elastic behavior of the station and of the Remote Manipulator System on the attitude control of the station/Orbiter system during the maneuver is investigated.

  19. Concept development of a tendon arm manipulator and anthropomorphic robotic hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolman, C. T.

    1987-01-01

    AMETEK/ORED inhouse research and development efforts leading toward a next-generation robotic manipulator arm and end-effector technology is summarized. Manipulator arm development has been directed toward a multiple-degree-of-freedom, flexible, tendon-driven concept referred to here as a Tendon Arm Manipulator (TAM). End-effector development has been directed toward a three-fingered, dextrous, tendon-driven, anthropomorphic configuration which is referred to as an Anthropomorphic Robotic Hand (ARH). Key technology issues are identified for both concepts.

  20. Flexible ferroelectric organic crystals

    PubMed Central

    Owczarek, Magdalena; Hujsak, Karl A.; Ferris, Daniel P.; Prokofjevs, Aleksandrs; Majerz, Irena; Szklarz, Przemysław; Zhang, Huacheng; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Jakubas, Ryszard; Hong, Seungbum; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2016-01-01

    Flexible organic materials possessing useful electrical properties, such as ferroelectricity, are of crucial importance in the engineering of electronic devices. Up until now, however, only ferroelectric polymers have intrinsically met this flexibility requirement, leaving small-molecule organic ferroelectrics with room for improvement. Since both flexibility and ferroelectricity are rare properties on their own, combining them in one crystalline organic material is challenging. Herein, we report that trisubstituted haloimidazoles not only display ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity—the properties that originate from their non-centrosymmetric crystal lattice—but also lend their crystalline mechanical properties to fine-tuning in a controllable manner by disrupting the weak halogen bonds between the molecules. This element of control makes it possible to deliver another unique and highly desirable property, namely crystal flexibility. Moreover, the electrical properties are maintained in the flexible crystals. PMID:27734829

  1. Flexible ferroelectric organic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Owczarek, Magdalena; Hujsak, Karl A.; Ferris, Daniel P.; Prokofjevs, Aleksandrs; Majerz, Irena; Szklarz, Przemysław; Zhang, Huacheng; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Jakubas, Ryszard; Hong, Seungbum; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2016-10-13

    Flexible organic materials possessing useful electrical properties, such as ferroelectricity, are of crucial importance in the engineering of electronic devices. But, until now, only ferroelectric polymers have intrinsically met this flexibility requirement, leaving small-molecule organic ferroelectrics with room for improvement. Since both flexibility and ferroelectricity are rare properties on their own, combining them in one crystalline organic material is challenging. We report that trisubstituted haloimidazoles not only display ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity-the properties that originate from their non-centrosymmetric crystal lattice-but also lend their crystalline mechanical properties to fine-tuning in a controllable manner by disrupting the weak halogen bonds between the molecules. This element of control makes it possible to deliver another unique and highly desirable property, namely crystal flexibility. Moreover, the electrical properties are maintained in the flexible crystals.

  2. Flexible ferroelectric organic crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Owczarek, Magdalena; Hujsak, Karl A.; Ferris, Daniel P.; ...

    2016-10-13

    Flexible organic materials possessing useful electrical properties, such as ferroelectricity, are of crucial importance in the engineering of electronic devices. But, until now, only ferroelectric polymers have intrinsically met this flexibility requirement, leaving small-molecule organic ferroelectrics with room for improvement. Since both flexibility and ferroelectricity are rare properties on their own, combining them in one crystalline organic material is challenging. We report that trisubstituted haloimidazoles not only display ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity-the properties that originate from their non-centrosymmetric crystal lattice-but also lend their crystalline mechanical properties to fine-tuning in a controllable manner by disrupting the weak halogen bonds between the molecules.more » This element of control makes it possible to deliver another unique and highly desirable property, namely crystal flexibility. Moreover, the electrical properties are maintained in the flexible crystals.« less

  3. Flexible ferroelectric organic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owczarek, Magdalena; Hujsak, Karl A.; Ferris, Daniel P.; Prokofjevs, Aleksandrs; Majerz, Irena; Szklarz, Przemysław; Zhang, Huacheng; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Jakubas, Ryszard; Hong, Seungbum; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2016-10-01

    Flexible organic materials possessing useful electrical properties, such as ferroelectricity, are of crucial importance in the engineering of electronic devices. Up until now, however, only ferroelectric polymers have intrinsically met this flexibility requirement, leaving small-molecule organic ferroelectrics with room for improvement. Since both flexibility and ferroelectricity are rare properties on their own, combining them in one crystalline organic material is challenging. Herein, we report that trisubstituted haloimidazoles not only display ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity--the properties that originate from their non-centrosymmetric crystal lattice--but also lend their crystalline mechanical properties to fine-tuning in a controllable manner by disrupting the weak halogen bonds between the molecules. This element of control makes it possible to deliver another unique and highly desirable property, namely crystal flexibility. Moreover, the electrical properties are maintained in the flexible crystals.

  4. Adaptive path planning for flexible manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Pang C.

    1994-08-01

    Path planning needs to be fast to facilitate real-time robot programming. Unfortunately, current planning techniques are still too slow to be effective, as they often require several minutes, if not hours of computation. To overcome this difficulty, we present an adaptive algorithm that uses past experience to speed up future performance. It is a learning algorithm suitable for automating flexible manufacturing in incrementally-changing environments. The algorithm allows the robot to adapt to its environment by having two experience manipulation schemes: For minor environmental change, we use an object-attached experience abstraction scheme to increase the flexibility of the learned experience; for major environmental change, we use an on-demand experience repair scheme to retain those experiences that remain valid and useful. Using this algorithm, we can effectively reduce the overall robot planning time by re-using the computation result for one task to plan a path for another.

  5. Using a 1.2 GHz bandwidth reflective semiconductor optical amplifier with seeding light by 64-quadrature amplitude modulation orthogonal frequency division multiplexing modulation to achieve a 10-gbits/s upstream rate in long-reach passive optical network access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Chow, Chi-Wai; Wu, Yu-Fu

    2012-01-01

    We use a commercially available 1.2 GHz bandwidth reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA)--based optical network unit (ONU) to achieve 10-gbits/s upstream traffic for an optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) long-reach passive optical network (LR-PON). This is the first time the 64--quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) OFDM format has been applied to RSOA-ONU to achieve a 75 km fiber transmission length. In the proposed LR-PON, the upstream power penalty of 5.2 dB at the bit error rate of 3.8×10-3 is measured by using a 64-QAM OFDM modulation after the 75 km fiber transmission without dispersion compensation.

  6. Dynamics modelling and Hybrid Suppression Control of space robots performing cooperative object manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarafshan, P.; Moosavian, S. Ali A.

    2013-10-01

    Dynamics modelling and control of multi-body space robotic systems composed of rigid and flexible elements is elaborated here. Control of such systems is highly complicated due to severe under-actuated condition caused by flexible elements, and an inherent uneven nonlinear dynamics. Therefore, developing a compact dynamics model with the requirement of limited computations is extremely useful for controller design, also to develop simulation studies in support of design improvement, and finally for practical implementations. In this paper, the Rigid-Flexible Interactive dynamics Modelling (RFIM) approach is introduced as a combination of Lagrange and Newton-Euler methods, in which the motion equations of rigid and flexible members are separately developed in an explicit closed form. These equations are then assembled and solved simultaneously at each time step by considering the mutual interaction and constraint forces. The proposed approach yields a compact model rather than common accumulation approach that leads to a massive set of equations in which the dynamics of flexible elements is united with the dynamics equations of rigid members. To reveal such merits of this new approach, a Hybrid Suppression Control (HSC) for a cooperative object manipulation task will be proposed, and applied to usual space systems. A Wheeled Mobile Robotic (WMR) system with flexible appendages as a typical space rover is considered which contains a rigid main body equipped with two manipulating arms and two flexible solar panels, and next a Space Free Flying Robotic system (SFFR) with flexible members is studied. Modelling verification of these complicated systems is vigorously performed using ANSYS and ADAMS programs, while the limited computations of RFIM approach provides an efficient tool for the proposed controller design. Furthermore, it will be shown that the vibrations of the flexible solar panels results in disturbing forces on the base which may produce undesirable errors

  7. Flexible reusable mandrels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willden, Kurtis S. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A reusable laminate mandrel which is unaffected by extreme temperature changes. The flexible laminate mandrel is comprised of sheets stacked to produce the required configuration, a cover wrap that applies pressure to the mandrel laminate, maintaining the stack cross-section. Then after use, the mandrels can be removed, disassembled, and reused. In the method of extracting the flexible mandrel from one end of a composite stiffener, individual ones of the laminae of the flexible mandrel or all are extracted at the same time, depending on severity of the contour.

  8. Flexible Plasmonic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Shir, Daniel; Ballard, Zachary S.; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical flexibility and the advent of scalable, low-cost, and high-throughput fabrication techniques have enabled numerous potential applications for plasmonic sensors. Sensitive and sophisticated biochemical measurements can now be performed through the use of flexible plasmonic sensors integrated into existing medical and industrial devices or sample collection units. More robust sensing schemes and practical techniques must be further investigated to fully realize the potentials of flexible plasmonics as a framework for designing low-cost, embedded and integrated sensors for medical, environmental, and industrial applications. PMID:27547023

  9. Flexible microstrip antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cano Barrera, Camilo Antonio

    2013-05-01

    Actually the technological community has an interest in developing flexible circuits and antennas with particular characteristics e.g. robust, flexible, lightweight load-bearing, economical and efficient antennas for integrated millimeter wave systems. Microstrip antennas are an excellent solution because those have all the characteristics before mentioned, but they have the problem of being rigid antennas and this makes impossible that those antennas can be use in portable devices. A practical solution is developing flexible microstrip antennas that can be integrated to different devices. One axis of work is the analysis of the electromagnetic field to the microstrip antennas using Bessel function and after generalize for application inflexible microstrip antennas.

  10. Rolling cuff flexible bellows

    DOEpatents

    Lambert, Donald R.

    1985-01-01

    A flexible connector apparatus used to join two stiff non-deformable members, such as piping. The apparatus is provided with one or more flexible sections or assemblies each utilizing a bellows of a rolling cuff type connected between two ridge members, with the bellows being supported by a back-up ring, such that only the curved end sections of the bellows are unsupported. Thus, the bellows can be considered as being of a tube-shaped configuration and thus have high pressure resistance. The components of the flexible apparatus are sealed or welded one to another such that it is fluid tight.

  11. Selective Manipulation of Neural Circuits.

    PubMed

    Park, Hong Geun; Carmel, Jason B

    2016-04-01

    Unraveling the complex network of neural circuits that form the nervous system demands tools that can manipulate specific circuits. The recent evolution of genetic tools to target neural circuits allows an unprecedented precision in elucidating their function. Here we describe two general approaches for achieving circuit specificity. The first uses the genetic identity of a cell, such as a transcription factor unique to a circuit, to drive expression of a molecule that can manipulate cell function. The second uses the spatial connectivity of a circuit to achieve specificity: one genetic element is introduced at the origin of a circuit and the other at its termination. When the two genetic elements combine within a neuron, they can alter its function. These two general approaches can be combined to allow manipulation of neurons with a specific genetic identity by introducing a regulatory gene into the origin or termination of the circuit. We consider the advantages and disadvantages of both these general approaches with regard to specificity and efficacy of the manipulations. We also review the genetic techniques that allow gain- and loss-of-function within specific neural circuits. These approaches introduce light-sensitive channels (optogenetic) or drug sensitive channels (chemogenetic) into neurons that form specific circuits. We compare these tools with others developed for circuit-specific manipulation and describe the advantages of each. Finally, we discuss how these tools might be applied for identification of the neural circuits that mediate behavior and for repair of neural connections.

  12. Mobile camera-space manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seelinger, Michael J. (Inventor); Yoder, John-David S. (Inventor); Skaar, Steven B. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The invention is a method of using computer vision to control systems consisting of a combination of holonomic and nonholonomic degrees of freedom such as a wheeled rover equipped with a robotic arm, a forklift, and earth-moving equipment such as a backhoe or a front-loader. Using vision sensors mounted on the mobile system and the manipulator, the system establishes a relationship between the internal joint configuration of the holonomic degrees of freedom of the manipulator and the appearance of features on the manipulator in the reference frames of the vision sensors. Then, the system, perhaps with the assistance of an operator, identifies the locations of the target object in the reference frames of the vision sensors. Using this target information, along with the relationship described above, the system determines a suitable trajectory for the nonholonomic degrees of freedom of the base to follow towards the target object. The system also determines a suitable pose or series of poses for the holonomic degrees of freedom of the manipulator. With additional visual samples, the system automatically updates the trajectory and final pose of the manipulator so as to allow for greater precision in the overall final position of the system.

  13. High precision redundant robotic manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Young, Kar-Keung David

    1998-01-01

    A high precision redundant robotic manipulator for overcoming contents imposed by obstacles or imposed by a highly congested work space. One embodiment of the manipulator has four degrees of freedom and another embodiment has seven degreed of freedom. Each of the embodiments utilize a first selective compliant assembly robot arm (SCARA) configuration to provide high stiffness in the vertical plane, a second SCARA configuration to provide high stiffness in the horizontal plane. The seven degree of freedom embodiment also utilizes kinematic redundancy to provide the capability of avoiding obstacles that lie between the base of the manipulator and the end effector or link of the manipulator. These additional three degrees of freedom are added at the wrist link of the manipulator to provide pitch, yaw and roll. The seven degrees of freedom embodiment uses one revolute point per degree of freedom. For each of the revolute joints, a harmonic gear coupled to an electric motor is introduced, and together with properly designed based servo controllers provide an end point repeatability of less than 10 microns.

  14. High precision redundant robotic manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Young, K.K.D.

    1998-09-22

    A high precision redundant robotic manipulator for overcoming contents imposed by obstacles or imposed by a highly congested work space is disclosed. One embodiment of the manipulator has four degrees of freedom and another embodiment has seven degrees of freedom. Each of the embodiments utilize a first selective compliant assembly robot arm (SCARA) configuration to provide high stiffness in the vertical plane, a second SCARA configuration to provide high stiffness in the horizontal plane. The seven degree of freedom embodiment also utilizes kinematic redundancy to provide the capability of avoiding obstacles that lie between the base of the manipulator and the end effector or link of the manipulator. These additional three degrees of freedom are added at the wrist link of the manipulator to provide pitch, yaw and roll. The seven degrees of freedom embodiment uses one revolute point per degree of freedom. For each of the revolute joints, a harmonic gear coupled to an electric motor is introduced, and together with properly designed based servo controllers provide an end point repeatability of less than 10 microns. 3 figs.

  15. Learning Area and Perimeter with Virtual Manipulatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouck, Emily; Flanagan, Sara; Bouck, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Manipulatives are considered a best practice for educating students with disabilities, but little research exists which examines virtual manipulatives as tool for supporting students in mathematics. This project investigated the use of a virtual manipulative through the National Library of Virtual Manipulatives--polynominoes (i.e., tiles)--as a…

  16. Learning Area and Perimeter with Virtual Manipulatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouck, Emily; Flanagan, Sara; Bouck, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Manipulatives are considered a best practice for educating students with disabilities, but little research exists which examines virtual manipulatives as tool for supporting students in mathematics. This project investigated the use of a virtual manipulative through the National Library of Virtual Manipulatives--polynominoes (i.e., tiles)--as a…

  17. Mapping and manipulating facial expression.

    PubMed

    Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R; Brick, Timothy R; Cohn, Jeffrey F; Boker, Steven M

    2009-01-01

    Nonverbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this article we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and nonverbal facial gestures in video sequences of people engaged in conversation. We are developing a system for use in psychological experiments, where the effects of manipulating individual components of nonverbal visual behavior during live face-to-face conversation can be studied. In particular, the techniques we describe operate in real-time at video frame-rate and the manipulation can be applied so both participants in a conversation are kept blind to the experimental conditions.

  18. Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression

    PubMed Central

    Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Non-verbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this paper we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and non-verbal facial gestures in video sequences of people engaged in conversation. We are developing a system for use in psychological experiments, where the effects of manipulating individual components of non-verbal visual behaviour during live face-to-face conversation can be studied. In particular, the techniques we describe operate in real-time at video frame-rate and the manipulation can be applied so both participants in a conversation are kept blind to the experimental conditions. PMID:19624037

  19. Manipulating complex light with metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jinwei; Wang, Xi; Sun, Jingbo; Pandey, Apra; Cartwright, Alexander N; Litchinitser, Natalia M

    2013-10-02

    Recent developments in the field of metamaterials have revealed unparalleled opportunities for "engineering" space for light propagation; opening a new paradigm in spin- and quantum-related phenomena in optical physics. Here we show that unique optical properties of metamaterials (MMs) open unlimited prospects to "engineer" light itself. We propose and demonstrate for the first time a novel way of complex light manipulation in few-mode optical fibers using optical MMs. Most importantly, these studies highlight how unique properties of MMs, namely the ability to manipulate both electric and magnetic field components of electromagnetic (EM) waves, open new degrees of freedom in engineering complex polarization states of light at will, while preserving its orbital angular momentum (OAM) state. These results lay the first steps in manipulating complex light in optical fibers, likely providing new opportunities for high capacity communication systems, quantum information, and on-chip signal processing.

  20. The biomechanics of spinal manipulation.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Walter

    2010-07-01

    Biomechanics is the science that deals with the external and internal forces acting on biological systems and the effects produced by these forces. Here, we describe the forces exerted by chiropractors on patients during high-speed, low-amplitude manipulations of the spine and the physiological responses produced by the treatments. The external forces were found to vary greatly among clinicians and locations of treatment on the spine. Spinal manipulative treatments produced reflex responses far from the treatment site, caused movements of vertebral bodies in the "para-physiological" zone, and were associated with cavitation of facet joints. Stresses and strains on the vertebral artery during chiropractic spinal manipulation of the neck were always much smaller than those produced during passive range of motion testing and diagnostic procedures.

  1. Manipulating Complex Light with Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jinwei; Wang, Xi; Sun, Jingbo; Pandey, Apra; Cartwright, Alexander N.; Litchinitser, Natalia M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of metamaterials have revealed unparalleled opportunities for “engineering” space for light propagation; opening a new paradigm in spin- and quantum-related phenomena in optical physics. Here we show that unique optical properties of metamaterials (MMs) open unlimited prospects to “engineer” light itself. We propose and demonstrate for the first time a novel way of complex light manipulation in few-mode optical fibers using optical MMs. Most importantly, these studies highlight how unique properties of MMs, namely the ability to manipulate both electric and magnetic field components of electromagnetic (EM) waves, open new degrees of freedom in engineering complex polarization states of light at will, while preserving its orbital angular momentum (OAM) state. These results lay the first steps in manipulating complex light in optical fibers, likely providing new opportunities for high capacity communication systems, quantum information, and on-chip signal processing. PMID:24084836

  2. Employee involvement: motivation or manipulation?

    PubMed

    McConnell, C R

    1998-03-01

    Employee involvement is subject to a great deal of verbal tribute; there is hardly a manager at work today who will not praise the value of employee input. However, many employee involvement efforts leave employees feeling more manipulated than motivated. This occurs because supervisors and managers, while expecting employees to change the way they work, are themselves either unwilling to change or remain unconscious of the need to change. The result is that, although employee input is regularly solicited in a number of forms, it is often discounted, ignored, or altered to fit the manager's preconceptions. Often the employee is left feeling manipulated. Since the opportunity for involvement can be a strong motivator, it becomes the manager's task to learn how to provide involvement opportunity in manipulative fashion. This can be accomplished by providing involvement opportunity accompanied by clear outcome expectations and allowing employees the freedom to pursue those outcomes in their own way.

  3. Composite flexible blanket insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A. (Inventor); Lowe, David M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An improved composite flexible blanket insulation is presented comprising top silicon carbide having an interlock design, wherein the reflective shield is composed of single or double aluminized polyimide and wherein the polyimide film has a honeycomb pattern.

  4. Flexible Transcription Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr-Smith, Norma

    1976-01-01

    Flexible structure in a San Francisco State University shorthand course is described as a way to provide motivation for students. Topics discussed are transcription testing plan, method of evaluation, practice tests, increasing difficulty of tests, and classroom results. (TA)

  5. Flexible Polyhedral Surfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandrov, V. A.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses some questions connected with Cauchy's theorem which states that two convex closed polyhedral surfaces whose corresponding faces are congruent and whose faces adjoin each other in the same way are congruent. Describes how to construct a flexible polyhedron. (ASK)

  6. Flexible display enabling technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Sigurd; Fonash, Stephen J.; Jackson, Thomas N.; Sturm, James C.

    2001-09-01

    In a collaboration between Pennsylvania State University and Princeton University, we have been laying the foundations for flexible display technology. Flexible substrates including plastic or steel foil, backplanes of organic or silicone transistors, and directly printed RGB organic light emitting diodes are issues central to this collaboration. We present an overview of key recent results. Silicon based thin film transistors have been processed at the ultralow temperatures required for processing on plastic substrates. Organic thin film transistors and circuits with record mobilities have been fabricated that are naturally matched to low temperature substrates. Organic light emitting diodes have been made by inkjet printing in an approach that solves the RGB patterning problem of OLED displays. The mechanics of flexible substrates have been defined and thin film silicon transistor performance is shown to be unaffected by bending. Substantial progress has been made toward the realization of rugged, lightweight, flexible and even conformal displays.

  7. Flexibility of zeolite frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapko, Vitaliy; Treacy, Michael; Thorpe, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Zeolites are an important class of industrial catalysts because of their large internal surfaces and molecular-sieving properties. Recent geometric simulations (1) show that almost all of the known zeolites can exist without distortion of their tetrahedra within some range of densities, which we call the flexibility window. Within this window, the framework accommodates density changes by rotations about the shared tetrahedral corners. We argue that the presence of a flexibility window can be used as a topological criterion to select potential candidates for synthesis from millions of hypothetical structures. We also investigate the exceptions to the rule, as well as the shape of the flexibility window and the symmetric properties of zeolites inside it. (1) A. Sartbaeva, S.A. Wells, M.M.J. Treacy and M.F. Thorpe The flexibility window in zeolites, Nature Materials 5, 962-965 (2006); I. Rivin, commentary 931-932.

  8. Are flexible designs sound?

    PubMed

    Burman, Carl-Fredrik; Sonesson, Christian

    2006-09-01

    Flexible designs allow large modifications of a design during an experiment. In particular, the sample size can be modified in response to interim data or external information. A standard flexible methodology combines such design modifications with a weighted test, which guarantees the type I error level. However, this inference violates basic inference principles. In an example with independent N(mu, 1) observations, the test rejects the null hypothesis of mu < or = 0 while the average of the observations is negative. We conclude that flexible design in its most general form with the corresponding weighted test is not valid. Several possible modifications of the flexible design methodology are discussed with a focus on alternative hypothesis tests.

  9. [The essence of Professor Wu Lian-Zhong's acupuncture manipulation].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Guo, Yi; Wu, Lian-Zhong

    2014-05-01

    The painless needle insertion technique, summarized by Professor WU Lian-zhong during his decades of acupuncture clinical practice is introduced in this article, which is characterized as soft, flexible, fast, plucking and activating antipathogenic qi. The Sancai (three layers) lifting and thrusting manipulation technique is adopted by Professor WU for getting the qi sensation. And features of 10 kinds of needling sensation such as soreness, numbness, heaviness, distension, pain, cold, hot, radiation, jumping and contracture are summarized. Finger force, amplitude, speed and time length are also taken as the basis of reinforcing and reducing manipulations. Moreover, examples are also given to explain the needling technique on some specific points which further embodies Professor WU's unique experiences and understandings on acupuncture.

  10. A novel manipulator technology for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Donald; Khosia, Pradeep; Kanade, Takeo

    1988-01-01

    Modular manipulator designs have long been considered for use as research tools, and as the basis for easily modified industrial manipulators. In these manipulators the links and joints are discrete and modular components that can be assembled into a desired manipulator configuration. As hardware advances have made actual modular manipulators practical, various capabilities of such manipulators have gained interest. Particularly desirable is the ability to rapidly reconfigure such a manipulator, in order to custom tailor it to specific tasks. The reconfiguration greatly enhances the capability of a given amount of manipulator hardware. The development of a prototype modular manipulator is discussed as well as the implementation of a configuration independent manipulator kinematics algorithm used for path planning in the prototype.

  11. Understanding pharmaceutical research manipulation in the context of accounting manipulation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    The problem of the manipulation of data that arises when there is both opportunity and incentive to mislead is better accepted and studied - though by no means solved - in financial accounting than in medicine. This article analyzes pharmaceutical company manipulation of medical research as part of a broader problem of corporate manipulation of data in the creation of accounting profits. The article explores how our understanding of accounting fraud and misinformation helps us understand the risk of similar information manipulation in the medical sciences. This understanding provides a framework for considering how best to improve the quality of medical research and analysis in light of the current system of medical information production. I offer three possible responses: (1) use of the Dodd-Frank whistleblower provisions to encourage reporting of medical research fraud; (2) a two-step academic journal review process for clinical trials; and (3) publicly subsidized trial-failure insurance. These would improve the release of negative information about drugs, thereby increasing the reliability of positive information. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  12. Precision Manipulation with Cooperative Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroupe, Ashley; Huntsberger, Terry; Okon, Avi; Aghzarian, Hrand

    2005-01-01

    This work addresses several challenges of cooperative transportThis work addresses several challenges of cooperative transport and precision manipulation. Precision manipulation requires a rigid grasp, which places a hard constraint on the relative rover formation that must be accommodated, even though the rovers cannot directly observe their relative poses. Additionally, rovers must jointly select appropriate actions based on all available sensor information. Lastly, rovers cannot act on independent sensor information, but must fuse information to move jointly; the methods for fusing information must be determined.

  13. Precision Manipulation with Cooperative Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroupe, Ashley; Huntsberger, Terry; Okon, Avi; Aghzarian, Hrand

    2005-01-01

    This work addresses several challenges of cooperative transportThis work addresses several challenges of cooperative transport and precision manipulation. Precision manipulation requires a rigid grasp, which places a hard constraint on the relative rover formation that must be accommodated, even though the rovers cannot directly observe their relative poses. Additionally, rovers must jointly select appropriate actions based on all available sensor information. Lastly, rovers cannot act on independent sensor information, but must fuse information to move jointly; the methods for fusing information must be determined.

  14. Flexible microresonators: lasing and sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ta, Van Duong; Chen, Rui; Sun, Handong

    2014-03-01

    Microresonators have drawn a great deal of interest for their importance in both practical applications and fundamental physics in light-matter interaction. The optical confinement provided by a microresonator greatly enhances the interaction between optical spatial mode and the light emitting materials. Conventional fabrication of microresonators adopting semiconductor processing technology (no matter top-down or bottom-up approach) still faces some challenges. Here we report the feasibility of constructing solid state microresonators with various configurations including spheres, hemispheres and fibres from organic polymer in a flexible way. We realize optically pumped lasing from these structures after incorporating organic dye materials and/or colloidal quantum dots into the resonators. The lasing characteristics have been systematically examined in terms of size dependence and polarization. The longitudinal optical modes are well defined by whispering gallery modes. We are also able to tune the resonance modes by deforming the shape of micro-spheres, representing the facile manipulation of light-matter interaction. Finally, refractive index sensing with high sensitivity can be readily realized from these structures enabled by the existence of evanescent waves and improved by Vernier effect in coupled resonators.

  15. Computational control of flexible aerospace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, Lonnie, Jr.; Shen, Ji Yao

    1994-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to establish a distributed parameter modeling technique for structural analysis, parameter estimation, vibration suppression and control synthesis of large flexible aerospace structures. This report concentrates on the research outputs produced in the last two years. The main accomplishments can be summarized as follows. A new version of the PDEMOD Code had been completed based on several incomplete versions. The verification of the code had been conducted by comparing the results with those examples for which the exact theoretical solutions can be obtained. The theoretical background of the package and the verification examples has been reported in a technical paper submitted to the Joint Applied Mechanics & Material Conference, ASME. A brief USER'S MANUAL had been compiled, which includes three parts: (1) Input data preparation; (2) Explanation of the Subroutines; and (3) Specification of control variables. Meanwhile, a theoretical investigation of the NASA MSFC two-dimensional ground-based manipulator facility by using distributed parameter modeling technique has been conducted. A new mathematical treatment for dynamic analysis and control of large flexible manipulator systems has been conceived, which may provide an embryonic form of a more sophisticated mathematical model for future modified versions of the PDEMOD Codes.

  16. Computational control of flexible aerospace systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Lonnie, Jr.; Shen, Ji Yao

    1994-12-01

    The main objective of this project is to establish a distributed parameter modeling technique for structural analysis, parameter estimation, vibration suppression and control synthesis of large flexible aerospace structures. This report concentrates on the research outputs produced in the last two years. The main accomplishments can be summarized as follows. A new version of the PDEMOD Code had been completed based on several incomplete versions. The verification of the code had been conducted by comparing the results with those examples for which the exact theoretical solutions can be obtained. The theoretical background of the package and the verification examples has been reported in a technical paper submitted to the Joint Applied Mechanics & Material Conference, ASME. A brief USER'S MANUAL had been compiled, which includes three parts: (1) Input data preparation; (2) Explanation of the Subroutines; and (3) Specification of control variables. Meanwhile, a theoretical investigation of the NASA MSFC two-dimensional ground-based manipulator facility by using distributed parameter modeling technique has been conducted. A new mathematical treatment for dynamic analysis and control of large flexible manipulator systems has been conceived, which may provide an embryonic form of a more sophisticated mathematical model for future modified versions of the PDEMOD Codes.

  17. Discrete-time adaptive control of robot manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarokh, M.

    1989-01-01

    A discrete-time model reference adaptive control scheme is developed for trajectory tracking of robot manipulators. Hyperstability theory is utilized to derive the adaptation laws for the controller gain matrices. It is shown that asymptotic trajectory tracking is achieved despite gross robot parameter variation and uncertainties. The method offers considerable design flexibility and enables the designer to improve the performance of the control system by adjusting free design parameters. The discrete-time adaptation algorithm is extremely simple and is therefore suitable for real-time implementation.

  18. Control and manipulation of cold atoms in optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muldoon, Cecilia; Brandt, Lukas; Dong, Jian; Stuart, Dustin; Brainis, Edouard; Himsworth, Matthew; Kuhn, Axel

    2012-07-01

    Neutral atoms trapped by laser light are among the most promising candidates for storing and processing information in a quantum computer or simulator. The application certainly calls for a scalable and flexible scheme for addressing and manipulating the atoms. We have now made this a reality by implementing a fast and versatile method to dynamically control the position of neutral atoms trapped in optical tweezers. The tweezers result from a spatial light modulator (SLM) controlling and shaping a large number of optical dipole-force traps. Trapped atoms adapt to any change in the potential landscape, such that one can rearrange and randomly access individual sites within atom-trap arrays.

  19. High-speed visual feedback for realizing high-performance robotic manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.; Bergström, N.; Yamakawa, Y.; Senoo, T.; Ishikawa, M.

    2017-02-01

    High-speed vision sensing becomes a driving factor in developing new methods for robotic manipulation. In this paper we present two such methods in order to realize high-performance manipulation. First, we present a dynamic compensation approach which aims to achieve simultaneously fast and accurate positioning under various (from system to external environment) uncertainties. Second, a high-speed motion strategy for manipulating flexible objects is introduced to address the issue of deformation uncertainties. Both methods rely on high-speed visual feedback and are model independent, which we believe is essential to ensure good flexibility in a wide range of applications. The high-speed visual feedback tracks the relative error between the working tool and the target in image coordinates, which implies that there is no need for accurate calibrations of the vision system. Tasks for validating these methods were implemented and experimental results were provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  20. Plug-n-play microfluidic systems from flexible assembly of glass-based flow-control modules.

    PubMed

    Meng, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Wei; Liang, Xuan; Zheng, Wei-Chao; Deng, Nan-Nan; Xie, Rui; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Liu, Zhuang; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2015-04-21

    In this study, we report on a simple and versatile plug-n-play microfluidic system that is fabricated from flexible assembly of glass-based flow-control modules for flexibly manipulating flows for versatile emulsion generation. The microfluidic system consists of three basic functional units: a flow-control module, a positioning groove, and a connection fastener. The flow-control module that is based on simple assembly of low-cost glass slides, coverslips, and glass capillaries provides excellent chemical resistance and optical properties, and easy wettability modification for flow manipulation. The flexible combination of the flow-control modules with 3D-printed positioning grooves and connection fasteners enables creation of versatile microfluidic systems for generating various higher-order multiple emulsions. The simple and reversible connection of the flow-control modules also allows easy disassembly of the microfluidic systems for further scale-up and functionalization. We demonstrate the scalability and controllability of flow manipulation by creating microfluidic systems from flexible assembly of flow-control modules for controllable generation of multiple emulsions from double emulsions to quadruple emulsions. Meanwhile, the flexible flow manipulation in the flow-control module provides advanced functions for improved control of the drop size, and for controllable generation of drops containing distinct components within multiple emulsions to extend the emulsion structure. Such modular microfluidic systems provide flexibility and versatility to flexibly manipulate micro-flows for enhanced and extended applications.

  1. Ants: the supreme soil manipulators

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This review focuses on the semiochemical interactions between ants and their soil environment. Ants occupy virtually every ecological niche and have evolved mechanisms to not just cope with, but also manipulate soil organisms. The metapleural gland, specific to ants was thought to be the major sourc...

  2. Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Nonverbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this article we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and nonverbal facial…

  3. Manipulations to regenerate aspen ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Wayne D. Shepperd

    2001-01-01

    Vegetative regeneration of aspen can be initiated through manipulations that provide hormonal stimulation, proper growth environment, and sucker protection - the three elements of the aspen regeneration triangle. The correct course of action depends upon a careful evaluation of the size, vigor, age, and successional status of the existing clone. Soils and site...

  4. Teaching Integration Applications Using Manipulatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Kavita; Premadasa, Kirthi; Martin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Calculus students' difficulties in understanding integration have been extensively studied. Research shows that the difficulty lies with students understanding of the definition of the definite integral as a limit of a Riemann sum and with the idea of accumulation inherent in integration. We have created a set of manipulatives and activities…

  5. Manipulating Genetic Material in Bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Lisa Crawford, a graduate research assistant from the University of Toledo, works with Laurel Karr of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in the molecular biology laboratory. They are donducting genetic manipulation of bacteria and yeast for the production of large amount of desired protein. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  6. Data manipulation in heterogeneous databases

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, A.; Segev, A.

    1991-10-01

    Many important information systems applications require access to data stored in multiple heterogeneous databases. This paper examines a problem in inter-database data manipulation within a heterogeneous environment, where conventional techniques are no longer useful. To solve the problem, a broader definition for join operator is proposed. Also, a method to probabilistically estimate the accuracy of the join is discussed.

  7. Manipulating Genetic Material in Bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Lisa Crawford, a graduate research assistant from the University of Toledo, works with Laurel Karr of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in the molecular biology laboratory. They are donducting genetic manipulation of bacteria and yeast for the production of large amount of desired protein. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  8. Optical manipulation of valley pseudospin

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Ziliang; Sun, Dezheng; Heinz, Tony F.

    2016-09-19

    The coherent manipulation of spin and pseudospin underlies existing and emerging quantum technologies, including quantum communication and quantum computation. Valley polarization, associated with the occupancy of degenerate, but quantum mechanically distinct valleys in momentum space, closely resembles spin polarization and has been proposed as a pseudospin carrier for the future quantum electronics. Valley exciton polarization has been created in the transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers using excitation by circularly polarized light and has been detected both optically and electrically. In addition, the existence of coherence in the valley pseudospin has been identified experimentally. The manipulation of such valley coherence has, however, remained out of reach. In this paper, we demonstrate all-optical control of the valley coherence by means of the pseudomagnetic field associated with the optical Stark effect. Using below-bandgap circularly polarized light, we rotate the valley exciton pseudospin in monolayer WSe2 on the femtosecond timescale. Both the direction and speed of the rotation can be manipulated optically by tuning the dynamic phase of excitons in opposite valleys. Finally, this study unveils the possibility of generation, manipulation, and detection of the valley pseudospin by coupling to photons.

  9. Master/slave manipulator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C.; King, R. F.; Vallotton, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    System capabilities are equivalent to mobility, dexterity, and strength of human arm. Arrangement of torque motor, harmonic drive, and potentiometer combination allows all power and control leads to pass through center of slave with position-transducer arrangement of master, and "stovepipe joint" is incorporated for manipulator applications.

  10. Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Nonverbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this article we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and nonverbal facial…

  11. Optical manipulation of valley pseudospin

    DOE PAGES

    Ye, Ziliang; Sun, Dezheng; Heinz, Tony F.

    2016-09-19

    The coherent manipulation of spin and pseudospin underlies existing and emerging quantum technologies, including quantum communication and quantum computation. Valley polarization, associated with the occupancy of degenerate, but quantum mechanically distinct valleys in momentum space, closely resembles spin polarization and has been proposed as a pseudospin carrier for the future quantum electronics. Valley exciton polarization has been created in the transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers using excitation by circularly polarized light and has been detected both optically and electrically. In addition, the existence of coherence in the valley pseudospin has been identified experimentally. The manipulation of such valley coherence has, however,more » remained out of reach. In this paper, we demonstrate all-optical control of the valley coherence by means of the pseudomagnetic field associated with the optical Stark effect. Using below-bandgap circularly polarized light, we rotate the valley exciton pseudospin in monolayer WSe2 on the femtosecond timescale. Both the direction and speed of the rotation can be manipulated optically by tuning the dynamic phase of excitons in opposite valleys. Finally, this study unveils the possibility of generation, manipulation, and detection of the valley pseudospin by coupling to photons.« less

  12. Optical manipulation of valley pseudospin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Ziliang; Sun, Dezheng; Heinz, Tony F.

    2017-01-01

    The coherent manipulation of spin and pseudospin underlies existing and emerging quantum technologies, including quantum communication and quantum computation. Valley polarization, associated with the occupancy of degenerate, but quantum mechanically distinct valleys in momentum space, closely resembles spin polarization and has been proposed as a pseudospin carrier for the future quantum electronics. Valley exciton polarization has been created in the transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers using excitation by circularly polarized light and has been detected both optically and electrically. In addition, the existence of coherence in the valley pseudospin has been identified experimentally. The manipulation of such valley coherence has, however, remained out of reach. Here we demonstrate all-optical control of the valley coherence by means of the pseudomagnetic field associated with the optical Stark effect. Using below-bandgap circularly polarized light, we rotate the valley exciton pseudospin in monolayer WSe2 on the femtosecond timescale. Both the direction and speed of the rotation can be manipulated optically by tuning the dynamic phase of excitons in opposite valleys. This study unveils the possibility of generation, manipulation, and detection of the valley pseudospin by coupling to photons.

  13. Adaptive Control Of Remote Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1989-01-01

    Robotic control system causes remote manipulator to follow closely reference trajectory in Cartesian reference frame in work space, without resort to computationally intensive mathematical model of robot dynamics and without knowledge of robot and load parameters. System, derived from linear multivariable theory, uses relatively simple feedforward and feedback controllers with model-reference adaptive control.

  14. COGNITION, ACTION, AND OBJECT MANIPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Weigelt, Matthias; Weiss, Daniel J.; van der Wel, Robrecht

    2012-01-01

    Although psychology is the science of mental life and behavior, it has paid little attention to the means by which mental life is translated into behavior. One domain where links between cognition and action have been explored is the manipulation of objects. This article reviews psychological research on this topic, with special emphasis on the tendency to grasp objects differently depending on what one plans to do with the objects. Such differential grasping has been demonstrated in a wide range of object manipulation tasks, including grasping an object in a way that reveals anticipation of the object's future orientation, height, and required placement precision. Differential grasping has also been demonstrated in a wide range of behaviors, including one-hand grasps, two-hand grasps, walking, and transferring objects from place to place as well as from person to person. The populations in whom the tendency has been shown are also diverse, including nonhuman primates as well as human adults, children, and babies. Meanwhile, the tendency is compromised in a variety of clinical populations and in children of a surprisingly advanced age. Verbal working memory is compromised as well if words are memorized while object manipulation tasks are performed; the recency portion of the serial position curve is reduced in this circumstance. In general, the research reviewed here points to rich connections between cognition and action as revealed through the study of object manipulation. Other implications concern affordances, Donders' Law, and naturalistic observation and the teaching of psychology. PMID:22448912

  15. Teaching Integration Applications Using Manipulatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Kavita; Premadasa, Kirthi; Martin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Calculus students' difficulties in understanding integration have been extensively studied. Research shows that the difficulty lies with students understanding of the definition of the definite integral as a limit of a Riemann sum and with the idea of accumulation inherent in integration. We have created a set of manipulatives and activities…

  16. Soft, flexible micromanipulators comprising polypyrrole trilayer microactuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaldi, Alexandre; Maziz, Ali; Alici, Gursel; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Jager, Edwin W. H.

    2015-04-01

    Within the areas of cell biology, biomedicine and minimal invasive surgery, there is a need for soft, flexible and dextrous biocompatible manipulators for handling biological objects, such as single cells and tissues. Present day technologies are based on simple suction using micropipettes for grasping objects. The micropipettes lack the possibility of accurate force control, nor are they soft and compliant and may thus cause damage to the cells or tissue. Other micromanipulators use conventional electric motors however the further miniaturization of electrical motors and their associated gear boxes and/or push/pull wires has reached its limits. Therefore there is an urgent need for new technologies for micromanipulation of soft biological matter. We are developing soft, flexible micromanipulators such as micro- tweezers for the handling and manipulation of biological species including cells and surgical tools for minimal invasive surgery. Our aim is to produce tools with minimal dimensions of 100 μm to 1 mm in size, which is 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than existing technology. We present newly developed patterning and microfabrication methods for polymer microactuators as well as the latest results to integrate these microactuators into easy to use manipulation tools. The outcomes of this study contribute to the realisation of low-foot print devices articulated with electroactive polymer actuators for which the physical interface with the power source has been a significant challenge limiting their application. Here, we present a new bottom-up microfabrication process. We show for the first time that such a bottom-up fabricated actuator performs a movement in air. This is a significant step towards widening the application areas of the soft microactuators.

  17. Experiments in cooperative manipulation: A system perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Stanley A.; Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    In addition to cooperative dynamic control, the system incorporates real time vision feedback, a novel programming technique, and a graphical high level user interface. By focusing on the vertical integration problem, not only these subsystems are examined, but also their interfaces and interactions. The control system implements a multi-level hierarchical structure; the techniques developed for operator input, strategic command, and cooperative dynamic control are presented. At the highest level, a mouse-based graphical user interface allows an operator to direct the activities of the system. Strategic command is provided by a table-driven finite state machine; this methodology provides a powerful yet flexible technique for managing the concurrent system interactions. The dynamic controller implements object impedance control; an extension of Nevill Hogan's impedance control concept to cooperative arm manipulation of a single object. Experimental results are presented, showing the system locating and identifying a moving object catching it, and performing a simple cooperative assembly. Results from dynamic control experiments are also presented, showing the controller's excellent dynamic trajectory tracking performance, while also permitting control of environmental contact force.

  18. Diversity and evolution of bodyguard manipulation.

    PubMed

    Maure, Fanny; Daoust, Simon Payette; Brodeur, Jacques; Mitta, Guillaume; Thomas, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Among the different strategies used by parasites to usurp the behaviour of their host, one of the most fascinating is bodyguard manipulation. While all classic examples of bodyguard manipulation involve insect parasitoids, induced protective behaviours have also evolved in other parasite-host systems, typically as specific dimensions of the total manipulation. For instance, parasites may manipulate the host to reduce host mortality during their development or to avoid predation by non-host predators. This type of host manipulation behaviour is rarely described, probably due to the fact that studies have mainly focused on predation enhancement rather than studying all the dimensions of the manipulation. Here, in addition to the classic cases of bodyguard manipulation, we also review these 'bodyguard dimensions' and propose extending the current definition of bodyguard manipulation to include the latter. We also discuss different evolutionary scenarios under which such manipulations could have evolved.

  19. Printed Microinductors for Flexible Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Erik; Whitacre, Jay; Wesseling, Emily

    2005-01-01

    A method of fabricating planar, flexible microinductors that exhibit a relatively high quality factor (Q) between 1 and 10 MHz has been devised. These inductors are targeted for use in flexible, low-profile power-converter circuits. They could also be incorporated into electronic circuits integrated into flexible structures, including flexible antenna and solar-sail structures that are deployable.

  20. Improved Thin, Flexible Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Gernert, Nelson J.; Sarraf, David B.; Wollen, Peter J.; Surina, Frank C.; Fale, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Flexible heat pipes of an improved type are fabricated as layers of different materials laminated together into vacuum- tight sheets or tapes. In comparison with prior flexible heat pipes, these flexible heat pipes are less susceptible to leakage. Other advantages of these flexible heat pipes, relative to prior flexible heat pipes, include high reliability and greater ease and lower cost of fabrication. Because these heat pipes are very thin, they are highly flexible. When coated on outside surfaces with adhesives, these flexible heat pipes can be applied, like common adhesive tapes, to the surfaces of heat sinks and objects to be cooled, even if those surfaces are curved.

  1. Flexible Quantum Oblivious Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Yang, Rui; Cao, Wei-Feng; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min

    2017-04-01

    We propose a flexible protocol for one-out-of- nquantum oblivious transfer (QOT) Compared with existing QOT protocols, our protocol is more flexible. We demonstrate that, by adjusting the value of 𝜃 the flexible one-out-of- nQOT is allowable where n can be located theoretically on any value the communicating parties wanted. Meanwhile, it also meets the rigorous security requirements of the oblivious transfer (OT) definition, which ensures Bob can receive on average one of n messages held by Alice, while Alice cannot know which one Bob has received. Finally, we analyze the security of our protocol and show that it is not based on quantum bit commitment and does not violate Lo's no-go theorem so that its security can be achieved.

  2. Flexible Quantum Oblivious Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Yang, Rui; Cao, Wei-Feng; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min

    2017-01-01

    We propose a flexible protocol for one-out-of- nquantum oblivious transfer (QOT) Compared with existing QOT protocols, our protocol is more flexible. We demonstrate that, by adjusting the value of 𝜃 the flexible one-out-of- nQOT is allowable where n can be located theoretically on any value the communicating parties wanted. Meanwhile, it also meets the rigorous security requirements of the oblivious transfer (OT) definition, which ensures Bob can receive on average one of n messages held by Alice, while Alice cannot know which one Bob has received. Finally, we analyze the security of our protocol and show that it is not based on quantum bit commitment and does not violate Lo's no-go theorem so that its security can be achieved.

  3. Natural flexible dermal armor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Chen, Irene H; Gludovatz, Bernd; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Ritchie, Robert O; Meyers, Marc A

    2013-01-04

    Fish, reptiles, and mammals can possess flexible dermal armor for protection. Here we seek to find the means by which Nature derives its protection by examining the scales from several fish (Atractosteus spatula, Arapaima gigas, Polypterus senegalus, Morone saxatilis, Cyprinius carpio), and osteoderms from armadillos, alligators, and leatherback turtles. Dermal armor has clearly been developed by convergent evolution in these different species. In general, it has a hierarchical structure with collagen fibers joining more rigid units (scales or osteoderms), thereby increasing flexibility without significantly sacrificing strength, in contrast to rigid monolithic mineral composites. These dermal structures are also multifunctional, with hydrodynamic drag (in fish), coloration for camouflage or intraspecies recognition, temperature and fluid regulation being other important functions. The understanding of such flexible dermal armor is important as it may provide a basis for new synthetic, yet bioinspired, armor materials. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Flexible radiator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oren, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The soft tube radiator subsystem is described including applicable system requirements, the design and limitations of the subsystem components, and the panel manufacturing method. The soft tube radiator subsystem is applicable to payloads requiring 1 to 12 kW of heat rejection for orbital lifetimes per mission of 30 days or less. The flexible radiator stowage volume required is about 60% and the system weight is about 40% of an equivalent heat rejection rigid panel. The cost should also be considerably less. The flexible radiator is particularly suited to shuttle orbiter sortie payloads and also whose mission lengths do not exceed the 30 day design life.

  5. Thin flexible intercalation anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.C.; Cieslak, W.R.; Klassen, S.E.; Lagasse, R.R.

    1994-10-01

    Poly(acrylonitrile) fibers have been pyrolyzed under various conditions to form flexible carbon yarns capable of intercalating lithium ions. These fibers have also been formed into both woven and non woven cloths. Potentiostatic, potentiodynamic and galvanostatic tests have been conducted with these materials in several electrolytes. In some tests, a potential hold was used after each constant current charge and discharge. These tests have shown some of these flexible materials to reversibly intercalate lithium ions to levels that are suitable for use as a practical battery anode.

  6. Flexible Heating Head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert L.; Johnson, Samuel D.; Coultrip, Robert H.; Phillips, W. Morris

    1994-01-01

    United States Air Force is investigating method of repairing aircraft by use of adhesive bonding with induction heating to cure adhesive. Fast-acting and reliable induction heating device that is lightweight, portable, and easy to use needed for such applications. Newly developed flexible heating head lightweight and conforms to complex, curved surfaces. Incorporates principles and circuitry of toroid joining gun described in "Toroid Joining Gun for Fittings and Couplings" (LAR-14278). Concentrates heat in local area through induction heating. Flexible heating head contains tank circuit, connected via cable to source of power.

  7. Flexible Heating Head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert L.; Johnson, Samuel D.; Coultrip, Robert H.; Phillips, W. Morris

    1994-01-01

    United States Air Force is investigating method of repairing aircraft by use of adhesive bonding with induction heating to cure adhesive. Fast-acting and reliable induction heating device that is lightweight, portable, and easy to use needed for such applications. Newly developed flexible heating head lightweight and conforms to complex, curved surfaces. Incorporates principles and circuitry of toroid joining gun described in "Toroid Joining Gun for Fittings and Couplings" (LAR-14278). Concentrates heat in local area through induction heating. Flexible heating head contains tank circuit, connected via cable to source of power.

  8. Flexible and stretchable micromagnet arrays for tunable biointerfacing

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Peter; Lin, Jonathan; Owsley, Keegan; Kong, Janay; Kunze, Anja; Murray, Coleman

    2015-01-01

    We develop a process to surface pattern PDMS with ferromagnetic structures of varying sizes (micron to mm) and thicknesses (> 70 micron). We utilize their flexibility and magnetic reach to confer dynamic, additive properties to a variety of substrates such as coverslips and eppendorf tubes. We find these substrates can generate additional modes of magnetic droplet manipulation, and can tunably steer magnetic-cell organization. PMID:25537971

  9. Pitching Flexible Propulsors: Experimental Assessment of Performance Characteristics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-09

    E. Motor The motor, shown in Fig. 16, manipulated the angular position of the propulsor using a proportional/integral/derivative ( PID ) controller...cogging torque. The motor also became easier to tune for higher frequency oscillations. The increased frequency corresponded to an increase in the...frequency to resonant frequency, may allow for proper tuning of flexible oscillation parameters for increased performance. Operating at or near a resonant

  10. Flexible and stretchable micromagnet arrays for tunable biointerfacing.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Peter; Lin, Jonathan; Owsley, Keegan; Kong, Janay; Kunze, Anja; Murray, Coleman; Di Carlo, Dino

    2015-02-11

    A process to surface pattern polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with ferromagnetic structures of varying sizes (micrometer to millimeter) and thicknesses (>70 μm) is developed. Their flexibility and magnetic reach are utilized to confer dynamic, additive properties to a variety of substrates, such as coverslips and Eppendorf tubes. It is found that these substrates can generate additional modes of magnetic droplet manipulation, and can tunably steer magnetic-cell organization.

  11. Project W-340 tank 241-C-106 manipulator system closeout summary

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, L.B.

    1995-02-01

    This document summarizes the work that was ongoing when Project W-340 was put on hold. Project W-340: Tank 241-C-106 Manipulator Retrieval System, was a candidate FY98 Major System Acquisition. The project was to develop, procure and deploy a Long Reach Manipulator (LRM) waste retrieval system to provide an alternate method to completing the in-tank demonstration of Single Shell Tank waste retrieval technology. The need for enhanced capabilities derives from (1) the inability of the baseline technology to retrieve certain hard waste forms; (2) uncertainty in the quantity of leakage which will be allowed. Numerous studies over the years have identified an arm architecture as a promising retrieval technology to overcome these concerns. The W340 project was intended to further develop and demonstrate this alternative, as part of selecting the best approach for all tanks. Prior to completing the effort, it was determined that an LRM system was too architecture specific and was envisioned to be too expensive for a one time demonstration of retrieval technology. At the time the work was stopped, an effort was underway to broaden the project scope to allow alternatives to an arm-based system.

  12. Adaptive hybrid control of manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    Simple methods for the design of adaptive force and position controllers for robot manipulators within the hybrid control architecuture is presented. The force controller is composed of an adaptive PID feedback controller, an auxiliary signal and a force feedforward term, and it achieves tracking of desired force setpoints in the constraint directions. The position controller consists of adaptive feedback and feedforward controllers and an auxiliary signal, and it accomplishes tracking of desired position trajectories in the free directions. The controllers are capable of compensating for dynamic cross-couplings that exist between the position and force control loops in the hybrid control architecture. The adaptive controllers do not require knowledge of the complex dynamic model or parameter values of the manipulator or the environment. The proposed control schemes are computationally fast and suitable for implementation in on-line control with high sampling rates.

  13. Accurate manipulation using laser technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoving, Willem

    1997-08-01

    In the industrial production of electrical, optical, and micro-mechanical components, progress in miniaturization requires improved adjusting techniques. Sub-micrometer accuracy adjustment must be obtained within seconds, and the accuracy should be stable over many years. All methods that are presently applied for manipulation in sub-micron dimensions are cumbersome, time-consuming, and tedious, and require expensive equipment. A novel method, laser adjustment, is being explored in which permanent deformation of thin metal sheets are obtained by using thermo-mechanical stresses that occur when the sheets are locally heated using short, intense laser pulses. Manipulation along several degrees of freedom can be realized by both out-of-plane and in-plane laser adjustment or a combination thereof. Within the Brite-Euram project AMULET this new automated micro- manufacturing technology for mass production is developed in order to assemble components where tolerance conditions and accessibility are beyond human capability.

  14. Nanoparticle manipulation by thermal gradient

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A method was proposed to manipulate nanoparticles through a thermal gradient. The motion of a fullerene molecule enclosed inside a (10, 10) carbon nanotube with a thermal gradient was studied by molecular dynamics simulations. We created a one-dimensional potential valley by imposing a symmetrical thermal gradient inside the nanotube. When the temperature gradient was large enough, the fullerene sank into the valley and became trapped. The escaping velocities of the fullerene were evaluated based on the relationship between thermal gradient and thermophoretic force. We then introduced a new way to manipulate the position of nanoparticles by translating the position of thermostats with desirable thermal gradients. Compared to nanomanipulation using a scanning tunneling microscope or an atomic force microscope, our method for nanomanipulation has a great advantage by not requiring a direct contact between the probe and the object. PMID:22364240

  15. The laboratory telerobotic manipulator program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herndon, J. N.; Babcock, S. M.; Butler, P. L.; Costello, H. M.; Glassell, R. L.; Kress, R. L.; Kuban, D. P.; Rowe, J. C.; Williams, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    New opportunities for the application of telerobotic systems to enhance human intelligence and dexterity in the hazardous environment of space are presented by the NASA Space Station Program. Because of the need for significant increases in extravehicular activity and the potential increase in hazards associated with space programs, emphasis is being heightened on telerobotic systems research and development. The Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM) program is performed to develop and demonstrate ground-based telerobotic manipulator system hardware for research and demonstrations aimed at future NASA applications. The LTM incorporates traction drives, modularity, redundant kinematics, and state-of-the-art hierarchical control techniques to form a basis for merging the diverse technological domains of robust, high-dexterity teleoperations and autonomous robotic operation into common hardware to further NASA's research.

  16. Robotic Manipulator Control Performance Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    compensation of a PUMA was addressed and Backes, Leininger and Chung [5], and Zhang and Paul 11111 model friction in an identical fashion. Also at that...1237- 42, June 6-8, 1984. 5. Backes, P. G., Leininger , G. G. and Chung, C., "Real- Time Cartesian Coordinate Hybrid Control of a PUMA 560...Manipulators," Report RSD- TR-10-82, University of Michigan College of Engineering at Ann Arbor, August 1982. 15. Chung, C. H. and Leininger , G., "Adaptive

  17. Towards Manipulation-Driven Vision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    perience through experimental manipulation, using The human ability to segment objects is not general - tight correlations between arm motion and...required for action, rule) generates informative percepts. while the ventral is important for more cognitive tasks such as maintaining an object’s...identity and Neurons in area F4 are thought to provide a body constancy. Although the dorsal/ventral segregation map useful for generating arm, head, and

  18. Dietary manipulation of mouse metabolism.

    PubMed

    Feige, Jérôme N; Lagouge, Marie; Auwerx, Johan

    2008-10-01

    The maintenance of metabolic homeostasis relies on the balanced intake of nutrients from food. Consequently, diet composition strongly impacts whole-body physiology. Dietary formulations with strong nutrient imbalances can lead to metabolic disorders, with lipids and simple sugars playing a prominent role. This unit describes how diet formulation can be modified to generate mouse models of human metabolic pathologies, and it details methodological procedures linked to dietary manipulations, including caloric restriction and introduction of a test compound.

  19. Microbiorobots for Manipulation and Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-19

    bacteria to move in a self-propelled manner and to detect and process sensory information represent enormous potential that can be harnessed and...integrated into microscale robotics and biosensor systems. The objective of the proposed program is to develop a platform that integrates bacteria with...Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Microbiorobots, Bacteria , Manipulation, Sensing REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S

  20. Manipulating the edge of instability

    PubMed Central

    Venkadesan, Madhusudhan; Guckenheimer, John; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the integration of visual and tactile sensory input for dynamic manipulation. Our experimental data and computational modeling reveal that time-delays are as critical to task-optimal multisensory integration as sensorimotor noise. Our focus is a dynamic manipulation task “at the edge of instability.” Mathematical bifurcation theory predicts that this system will exhibit well-classified low-dimensional dynamics in this regime. The task was using the thumbpad to compress a slender spring prone to buckling as far as possible, just shy of slipping. As expected from bifurcation theory, principal components analysis gives a projection of the data onto a low dimensional subspace that captures 91-97% of its variance. In this subspace, we formulate a low-order model for the brain+hand+spring dynamics based on known mechanical and neurophysiological properties of the system. By systematically occluding vision and anesthetically blocking thumbpad sensation in 12 consenting subjects, we found that vision contributed to dynamic manipulation only when thumbpad sensation was absent. The reduced ability of the model system to compress the spring with absent sensory channels closely resembled the experimental results. Moreover, we found that the model reproduced the contextual usefulness of vision only if we took account of time-delays. Our results shed light on critical features of dynamic manipulation distinct from those of static pinch, as well as the mechanism likely responsible for loss of manual dexterity and increased reliance on vision when age or neuromuscular disease increase noisiness and/or time-delays during sensorimotor integration. PMID:17400231