Strickland, J W
In this five-part series, we have attempted to review our current understanding of flexor tendon anatomy, physiology, biomechanics, healing and adhesion formation around a repaired tendon. The methods of acute flexor tendon repair, conventional free tendon grafting, staged flexor tendon reconstruction and pulley restoration have been discussed as well as flexor tenolysis, rehabilitation and results. From these articles it may be seen that flexor tendon surgery is a complex and difficult art which requires a thorough appreciation of the normal flexor tendon system, the exact status of that system following injury and a strong understanding of the techniques which may be best utilized to restore flexor tendon function. The procedures described require both technical skill and experience and postoperative therapy programs must be carefully instituted based on the unique status of each patient. With the important advances occurring in many areas of flexor tendon surgery, it is realistic to believe that in the near future the techniques described in these articles may be substantially altered and modified. Results will continue to improve until the patient and surgeon can realistically expect to return most digits to nearly full function after flexor tendon interruption.
King, Elizabeth A; Lien, John R
Closed pulley ruptures are rare in the general population but occur more frequently in rock climbers due to biomechanical demands on the hand. Injuries present with pain and swelling over the affected pulley, and patients may feel or hear a pop at the time of injury. Sequential pulley ruptures are required for clinical bowstringing of the flexor tendons. Ultrasound confirms diagnosis of pulley rupture and evaluates degree of displacement of the flexor tendons. Isolated pulley ruptures frequently are treated conservatively with early functional rehabilitation. Sequential pulley ruptures require surgical reconstruction. Most climbers are able to return to their previous activity level.
Sammer, Douglas M; Chung, Kevin C
The intrasynovial flexor tendons of the hand are critical for normal hand function. Injury to these tendons can result in absent finger flexion, and a subsequent loss of overall hand function. The surgical techniques used to repair these tendons have improved in the past few decades, as have the postoperative rehabilitation protocols. In spite of these advances, intrasynovial flexor tendon repairs continue to be plagued by postoperative scar formation, which limits tendon gliding and prevents a full functional recovery. This paper describes the current challenges of flexor tendon repair, and evaluates the most recent advances and strategies for achieving an excellent functional outcome. © 2014 by the Wound Healing Society.
Griffin, M; Hindocha, S; Jordan, D; Saleh, M; Khan, W
Flexor tendon injuries still remain a challenging condition to manage to ensure optimal outcome for the patient. Since the first flexor tendon repair was described by Kirchmayr in 1917, several approaches to flexor tendon injury have enabled successful repairs rates of 70-90%. Primary surgical repair results in better functional outcome compared to secondary repair or tendon graft surgery. Flexor tendon injury repair has been extensively researched and the literature demonstrates successful repair requires minimal gapping at the repair site or interference with tendon vascularity, secure suture knots, smooth junction of tendon end and having sufficient strength for healing. However, the exact surgical approach to achieve success being currently used among surgeons is still controversial. Therefore, this review aims to discuss the results of studies demonstrating the current knowledge regarding the optimal approach for flexor tendon repair. Post-operative rehabilitation for flexor tendon surgery is another area, which has caused extensive debate in hand surgery. The trend to more active mobilisation protocols seems to be favoured but further study in this area is needed to find the protocol, which achieves function and gliding but avoids rupture of the tendons. Lastly despite success following surgery complications commonly still occur post surgery, including adhesion formation, tendon rupture and stiffness of the joints. Therefore, this review aims to discuss the appropriate management of these difficulties post surgery. New techniques in management of flexor tendon will also be discussed including external laser devices, addition of growth factors and cytokines. PMID:22431948
Chinchalkar, Shrikant J; Pipicelli, Joey G; Agur, Anne; Athwal, George S
In this manuscript, these authors have utilized years of clinical experience to suggest rehabilitation modifications for Zone III flexor tendon injuries. - VictoriaPriganc, PhD, OTR, CHT, CLT, Practice Forum Editor.
Manninen, M; Karjalainen, T; Määttä, J; Flinkkilä, T
Flexor tendon injuries cause significant morbidity in working-age population. The epidemiology of these injuries in adult population is not well known. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of flexor tendon injuries in a Northern Finnish population. Data on flexor tendon injuries, from 2004 to 2010, were retrieved from patient records from four hospitals, which offer surgical repair of the flexor tendon injuries in a well-defined area in Northern Finland. The incidence of flexor tendon injury as well as the gender-specific incidence rates was calculated. Mechanism of injury, concomitant nerve injuries, and re-operations were also recorded. The incidence rate of flexor tendon injury was 7.0/100,000 person-years. The incidence was higher in men and inversely related to age. The most common finger to be affected was the fifth digit. In 37% of injuries also digital nerve was affected. The most common finger to have simultaneous digital nerve injury was the thumb. Flexor tendon laceration is a relatively rare injury. It predominantly affects working-aged young males and frequently includes a nerve injury, which requires microsurgical skills from the surgeon performing the repair. This study describes epidemiology of flexor tendon injuries and therefore helps planning the surgical and rehabilitation services needed to address this entity.
Kotwal, Prakash P; Ansari, Mohammed Tahir
Flexor tendon injuries are seen commonly yet the management protocols are still widely debated. The advances in suture techniques, better understanding of the tendon morphology and its biomechanics have resulted in better outcomes. There has been a trend toward the active mobilization protocols with development of multistrand core suture techniques. Zone 2 injuries remain an enigma for the hand surgeons even today but the outcome results have definitely improved. Biomolecular modulation of tendon repair and tissue engineering are now the upcoming fields for future research. This review article focuses on the current concepts in the management of flexor tendon injuries in zone 2. PMID:23325961
In the reconstruction of hand flexor tendon injuries it is fundamental to select the best suture technique, which makes possible early, active postoperative mobilization and achievement of the best results. The author reviews the development of suture techniques of the flexor tendon injuries during the last fifteen years, and discusses experimental tendon reconstruction results as well as clinical outcomes. The author describes the importance of different tendon suture materials, the significance of the pulley system of the fingers, the stretching between the sutured tendon ends by tendon sutures and, finally, the importance of the moving course in the reconstructed tendon. He states, that the wide-range adoption of the discussed modern tendon sutures would be necessary for better postoperative results.
Drake, David B; Tilt, Alexandra C; DeGeorge, Brent R
Flexor tendon injuries continue to pose a significant challenge to the hand surgeon. In particular, chronic tendon ruptures with adhesions of the tendons and sheath, damage or loss of the intrasynovial flexor tendons in zone II, and combined soft tissue and bone injuries present especially difficult problems for restoring satisfactory digital function. This challenge in flexor tendon reconstruction has motivated hand surgeons to explore and develop novel solutions for nearly a century. Recent advances and techniques in processing and decellularizing allograft human flexor tendon constructs may prove to be a new horizon for tendon reconstruction. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dovelle, S; Heeter, P K
This article describes the use of the "Washington Regimen" of early controlled motion in the rehabilitation of flexor tendon injuries of the hand. This regimen is derived from a combination of Kleinert's controlled active extension with rubber-hand passive flexion, Duran's controlled passive techniques, and the modification of the Kleinert orthosis that uses a palmar pulley system. Based on results of clinical investigations, this regimen of early controlled motion appears effective in inhibiting peritendinous scarring, joint contractures, and other complications that commonly occur secondary to flexor tendon repairs. A six-week staged regimen of postoperative rehabilitation is presented. Splint design, exercise regimen, and rationale for treatment are reviewed.
Netscher, David T; Badal, Justin J
We review different causes, diagnoses, and treatment options of closed flexor tendon disruptions in the hand. A classification of closed tendon ruptures based on their mechanism includes traumatic tendon avulsion, spontaneous midsubstance rupture, attrition rupture, infiltrative tenosynovial rupture, and iatrogenic. Certain conditions result in tendon disruption inflicted by more than 1 of these etiologies. In rheumatoid arthritis, tendon rupture may result from attrition on an exposed rough surface, proliferative tenosynovial tendon infiltration, or steroid use. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jacobsen, Else; Dart, Andrew J.; Mondori, Takamitsu; Horadogoda, Neil; Jeffcott, Leo B.; Little, Christopher B.; Smith, Margaret M.
It is not known how extensively a localised flexor tendon injury affects the entire tendon. This study examined the extent of and relationship between histopathologic and gene expression changes in equine superficial digital flexor tendon after a surgical injury. One forelimb tendon was hemi-transected in six horses, and in three other horses, one tendon underwent a sham operation. After euthanasia at six weeks, transected and control (sham and non-operated contralateral) tendons were regionally sampled (medial and lateral halves each divided into six 3cm regions) for histologic (scoring and immunohistochemistry) and gene expression (real time PCR) analysis of extracellular matrix changes. The histopathology score was significantly higher in transected tendons compared to control tendons in all regions except for the most distal (P ≤ 0.03) with no differences between overstressed (medial) and stress-deprived (lateral) tendon halves. Proteoglycan scores were increased by transection in all but the most proximal region (P < 0.02), with increased immunostaining for aggrecan, biglycan and versican. After correcting for location within the tendon, gene expression for aggrecan, versican, biglycan, lumican, collagen types I, II and III, MMP14 and TIMP1 was increased in transected tendons compared with control tendons (P < 0.02) and decreased for ADAMTS4, MMP3 and TIMP3 (P < 0.001). Aggrecan, biglycan, fibromodulin, and collagen types I and III expression positively correlated with all histopathology scores (P < 0.001), whereas lumican, ADAMTS4 and MMP14 expression positively correlated only with collagen fiber malalignment (P < 0.001). In summary, histologic and associated gene expression changes were significant and widespread six weeks after injury to the equine SDFT, suggesting rapid and active development of tendinopathy throughout the entire length of the tendon. These extensive changes distant to the focal injury may contribute to poor functional outcomes and re-injury
Jacobson, Else; Jacobsen, Else; Dart, Andrew J; Mondori, Takamitsu; Horadogoda, Neil; Jeffcott, Leo B; Little, Christopher B; Smith, Margaret M
It is not known how extensively a localised flexor tendon injury affects the entire tendon. This study examined the extent of and relationship between histopathologic and gene expression changes in equine superficial digital flexor tendon after a surgical injury. One forelimb tendon was hemi-transected in six horses, and in three other horses, one tendon underwent a sham operation. After euthanasia at six weeks, transected and control (sham and non-operated contralateral) tendons were regionally sampled (medial and lateral halves each divided into six 3 cm regions) for histologic (scoring and immunohistochemistry) and gene expression (real time PCR) analysis of extracellular matrix changes. The histopathology score was significantly higher in transected tendons compared to control tendons in all regions except for the most distal (P ≤ 0.03) with no differences between overstressed (medial) and stress-deprived (lateral) tendon halves. Proteoglycan scores were increased by transection in all but the most proximal region (P < 0.02), with increased immunostaining for aggrecan, biglycan and versican. After correcting for location within the tendon, gene expression for aggrecan, versican, biglycan, lumican, collagen types I, II and III, MMP14 and TIMP1 was increased in transected tendons compared with control tendons (P < 0.02) and decreased for ADAMTS4, MMP3 and TIMP3 (P < 0.001). Aggrecan, biglycan, fibromodulin, and collagen types I and III expression positively correlated with all histopathology scores (P < 0.001), whereas lumican, ADAMTS4 and MMP14 expression positively correlated only with collagen fiber malalignment (P < 0.001). In summary, histologic and associated gene expression changes were significant and widespread six weeks after injury to the equine SDFT, suggesting rapid and active development of tendinopathy throughout the entire length of the tendon. These extensive changes distant to the focal injury may contribute to poor functional outcomes and re-injury
In his literary analysis, the author describes a novel method applied in the reconstruction of flexor tendon injuries of the hand. This procedure is named tissue engineering, and it is examined mainly under experimental circumstances. After definition of the method and descriptions of literary preliminaries the author discusses the healing process of the normal tendon tissue, then development of the scaffold, an important step of tissue engineering is described. After these topics the introduction of the pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells into the scaffold, and proliferation of these cells and development of the sliding systems are presented. The mechanical resisting ability of the formed tendon tissue is also discussed. Finally, the author concludes that as long as results of experimental research cannot be successfully applied into clinical practice, well-tried tendon reconstruction operations and high quality postoperative rehabilitation are needed.
Oki, H; Miyake, T; Kasashima, Y; Sasaki, Y
The superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) injury causes considerable wastage of racing Thoroughbreds. In this study, the heritability of SDFT injury of the forelimbs was estimated in the Thoroughbred racehorses based on the Bayesian analysis with Gibbs sampling using threshold animal models. New horse patients of SDFT injury at the age of 2-5 years accommodated in the training centers in 2005 were used for the analyses. Based on clinical data of 8198 horses, heritability of SDFT was estimated to be the order of 0.17 (posterior mode) to 0.19 +/- 0.05 (posterior mean +/- posterior SD).
Sade, Ilgin; İnanir, Murat; Şen, Suzan; Çakmak, Esra; Kablanoğlu, Serkan; Selçuk, Barin; Dursun, Nigar
[Purpose] The primary aim of this study was to assess rehabilitation outcomes for early and two-stage repair of hand flexor tendon injuries. The secondary purpose of this study was to compare the findings between treatment groups. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three patients were included in this study. Early repair (n=14) and two-stage repair (n=9) groups were included in a rehabilitation program that used hand splints. This retrospective evaluated patients according to their demographic characteristics, including age, gender, injured hand, dominant hand, cause of injury, zone of injury, number of affected fingers, and accompanying injuries. Pain, range of motion, and grip strength were evaluated using a visual analog scale, goniometer, and dynamometer, respectively. [Results] Both groups showed significant improvements in pain and finger flexion after treatment compared with baseline measurements. However, no significant differences were observed between the two treatment groups. Similar results were obtained for grip strength and pinch grip, whereas gross grip was better in the early tendon repair group. [Conclusion] Early and two-stage reconstruction of patients with flexor tendon injuries can be performed with similarly favorable responses and effective rehabilitation programs. PMID:27630400
Background Zone 2 flexor tendon injuries still represent a challenging problem to hand surgeons despite the well developed surgical techniques and suture materials. Meticulous surgical repair with atraumatic handling of the severed tendon stumps and minimal damage to the tendon sheath are particularly important to prevent postoperative adhesions and ruptures in this area. In zone 2 flexor tendon injuries proximal to the vinculas, the cut ends of the flexor tendons retract to the palm with muscle contraction. To retrieve the severed proximal flexor tendon under tendon sheath and pulley system is very difficult without damaging these structures. Many techniques are described in the literature for the delivery of the retracted proximal tendon stump to the repair site. Methods In this report we would like to present a simple and relatively atraumatic technique that facilitates passing of the retracted flexor tendon through the pulleys in zone 2. We sutured the proximal tendon stump at the distal palmar crease with 3–0 polypropylene suture and used a 14 gauge plastic feeding tube, acting like a conduit for the passage of straightened needle to the finger. Results We have used this technique 21 times without any complication in our clinic. We have not seen any suture breakage during the passage or needle breakage due to the bending of the needle. Conclusions We have found this technique is very simple and very effective in retrieving the retracted tendon stump without causing undue damage to the tendon stump or tendon sheath. PMID:24040913
Duci, Shkelzen B; Arifi, Hysni M; Ahmeti, Hasan R; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Neziri, Burim; Mekaj, Agon Y; Lajqi, Shpetim; Shahini, Labinot
The main goals of flexor tendon surgery are to restore digital motion by providing tendon healing and to preserve tendon gliding. Our purpose was to investigate the effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on tendon adhesions in partially divided profundus flexor tendons (flexor digitorum profundus [FDPs]) following surgical repair and in partially divided FDPs without surgical repair, and to compare the results of the repair versus the nonrepair of zone two injuries via macroscopic and biomechanical evaluations of tendon adhesions. We used 32 adult male European rabbits (Oryctolagus cunniculus) weighing from 2.5 to 3.5 kg. The study was performed on the deep flexor tendons of the second and third digits of the right hind paws of the rabbits; thus, a total of 64 tendons were examined in this study. Based on the results achieved in our experimental study, the load (N) significantly increased in subgroup 1a in which the tendons were surgically repaired and were not treated with 5-FU compared with subgroup 2a in which tendons were surgically repaired and treated with 5-FU. The load (N) significantly increased in subgroup 1a in which the tendons were surgically repaired and were not treated with 5-FU compared to subgroup 2a in which the tendons were surgically repaired and treated with 5-FU. Therefore, these results revealed a decrease in adhesion formation in the subgroup that was treated with 5-FU due to increased resistance to tendon adhesions during their excursion through the tendon sheath, which in this case required greater traction force.
Duci, Shkelzen B; Arifi, Hysni M; Ahmeti, Hasan R; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Neziri, Burim; Mekaj, Agon Y; Lajqi, Shpetim; Shahini, Labinot
Background: The main goals of flexor tendon surgery are to restore digital motion by providing tendon healing and to preserve tendon gliding. Our purpose was to investigate the effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on tendon adhesions in partially divided profundus flexor tendons (flexor digitorum profundus [FDPs]) following surgical repair and in partially divided FDPs without surgical repair, and to compare the results of the repair versus the nonrepair of zone two injuries via macroscopic and biomechanical evaluations of tendon adhesions. Methods: We used 32 adult male European rabbits (Oryctolagus cunniculus) weighing from 2.5 to 3.5 kg. The study was performed on the deep flexor tendons of the second and third digits of the right hind paws of the rabbits; thus, a total of 64 tendons were examined in this study. Results: Based on the results achieved in our experimental study, the load (N) significantly increased in subgroup 1a in which the tendons were surgically repaired and were not treated with 5-FU compared with subgroup 2a in which tendons were surgically repaired and treated with 5-FU. Conclusions: The load (N) significantly increased in subgroup 1a in which the tendons were surgically repaired and were not treated with 5-FU compared to subgroup 2a in which the tendons were surgically repaired and treated with 5-FU. Therefore, these results revealed a decrease in adhesion formation in the subgroup that was treated with 5-FU due to increased resistance to tendon adhesions during their excursion through the tendon sheath, which in this case required greater traction force. PMID:26063369
Ahmad, Muhammad; Hussain, Syed Shahid; Tariq, Farhan; Rafiq, Zulqarnain; Khan, M Ibrahim; Malik, Saleem A
Flexor tendon injury is one of the most common hand injuries. This initial treatment is of the utmost importance because it often determines the final outcome; inadequate primary treatment is likely to give poor long tem results. Various suture techniques have been devised for tendon repair but the modified Kessler's technique is the most commonly used. This study was conducted in order to know the cause, mechanism and the effects of early controlled mobilization after flexor tendon repair and to assess the range of active motion after flexor tendon repair in hand. This study was conducted at the department of Plastic Surgery, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad from 1st March 2002 to 31st August 2003. Only adult patients of either sex with an acute injury were included in whom primary or delayed primary tendon repair was undertaken. In all the patients, modified Kessler's technique was used for the repair using non-absorbable monofilament (Prolene 4-0). The wound was closed with interrupted non-absorbable, polyfilament (Silk 4-0) suture. A dorsal splint extending beyond the finger tip to proximal forearm was used with wrist in 20-30 degrees palmer flexion, metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint flexed at 60 degrees. Passive movements of fingers were started from the first post operative day, and for controlled, active movements, a dynamic splint was applied. During this study, 33 patients with 39 digits were studies. 94% of the patients had right dominated hand involvement. 51% had the complete flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) injuries. Middle and ring fingers were most commonly involved. Thumb was involved in 9% of the patients. Zone III(46%) was the commonest to be involved followed by zone II (28%). Laceration with sharp object was the most frequent cause of injury. Finger tip to distal palmer crease distance (TPD) was < 2.0 cm in 71% cases (average 2.4cm) at the end of 2nd postoperative week. Total number of
Al-Qattan, Mohammad M
There is a paucity of the literature on the outcome of zone III flexor tendon injuries. In this paper, we report on the results of zone III flexor tendon repair in 35 consecutive adult patients with clean cut lacerations of both flexor tendons in 42 fingers. There were 25 men and 10 women with an average age of 32 years. Repair of both flexor tendons was performed using 'figure of eight' core sutures and a continuous epitendinous suture. Postoperatively, an immediate active range of motion protocol was applied to ensure full active extension of the interphalangeal joints. The results were assessed using the Strickland-Glogovac grading system. There were no ruptures. One patient with two injured fingers developed complex regional pain syndrome and the final outcome was fair in both fingers. In the remaining 34 patients (40 fingers), 33 patients (38 fingers) had an excellent outcome and the remaining patient (two fingers) had a good outcome.
Strafun, S S; Tovmasian, V V
The results of treatment of 56 patients with tendons of digital flexors were analyzed. In 28 of them in complex of treatment vobenzim was included, and an early active mobilization as well. Considerable antiinflammatory, antioedematous, secondarily analgetic effect of preparation, its application in early period permitted to realize active movements, to reach high functional result of treatment of patients' were noted.
Chong, Alphonsus K S; Riboh, Jonathan; Smith, R Lane; Lindsey, Derek P; Pham, Hung M; Chang, James
Tissue engineering of flexor tendons requires scaffolds with adequate strength and biocompatibility. The biomechanical properties of acellularized and reseeded flexor tendon scaffolds are unknown. Acellularized tendons and reseeded constructs were tested to determine whether the treatment process had altered their biomechanical properties. Rabbit flexor tendons were acellularized using a freeze-thaw cycle followed by trypsin and Triton-X treatment. Complete acellularization of the tendon samples was confirmed by histology and by attempting to obtain viable cells by trypsin treatment of acellularized tendon. Reseeded constructs were obtained by incubating acellularized tendons in a tenocyte suspension. Tensile testing was performed to compare the ultimate tensile stress and elastic modulus of acellularized tendons and reseeded flexor tendon constructs to control flexor tendons. The treatment protocol successfully acellularized flexor tendons. No cells were seen within the tendon on histologic assessment, and no viable cells could be obtained from acellularized tendon. Acellularized tendon was successfully reseeded with tenocytes, although cell adhesion was limited to the surface of the tendon scaffold. Tensile testing showed that acellularized tendon had the same ultimate stress and elastic modulus as normal tendons. Reseeded tendons had the same elastic modulus as normal tendons, but hind-paw tendon constructs showed a decrease in ultimate stress compared with normal tendons (50.09 MPa versus 66.01 MPa, p = 0.026). Acellularized flexor tendons are a potential high-strength scaffold for flexor tendon tissue engineering. This approach of acellularization and reseeding of flexor tendons may provide additional intrasynovial graft material for hand reconstruction.
Coats, Robert W; Echevarría-Oré, Julio C; Mass, Daniel P
Flexor tendon repair in zone II is still a technically demanding procedure, but the outcomes have become more predictable and satisfying. Of keystone importance for obtaining the goals of normal strength and gliding of repaired flexor tendons are an atraumatic surgical technique, an appropriate suture material, a competent pulley system, and the use of early motion rehabilitation protocols. The overall goal of hand and finger function also implies timely addressing of neurovascular injuries. New devices such as the TenoFix (Ortheon Medical; Winter Park, Florida) have shown adequate strength in the laboratory but are bulky and untested for work of flexion. Insufficient clinical data and high cost may prevent widespread use.
Yeh, Peter C; Shin, Steven S
Mallet injuries are the most common closed tendon injury in the athlete. Flexor digitorum profundus ruptures are rare in baseball, but are common injuries in contact sports. The diagnosis for each condition is based on clinical examination, although radiographs should be evaluated for a possible bony component. Treatment for mallet injury depends on the athlete's goals of competition and understanding of the consequences of any treatment chosen. Gripping, throwing, and catching would be restricted or impossible with the injured finger immobilized. Treatment of FDP ruptures is almost always surgical and requires reattachment of the torn tendon to the distal phalanx.
Danilov, A A; Sokoliuk, A M; Boiko, N A; Kutsenko, P I
The investigation of bioelectrical activity of flexors of the fingers in children at different terms after the injury and subsequent restoration of the tendons allowed to determine the dynamics of bioelectrogenesis of the muscles. Decrease in bioelectrical activity of the muscles was most expressed and stable during the first 6 months after the injury. The morphological studies carried out at that time demonstrated presence of lysis of some muscle fibers. Complete restoration of bioelectrical activity of the muscles was observed after suture of the tendons and autotendoplastn which was performed not later thay 4-6 months after the trauma. The investigation of dynamics of restoration of bioelectrical activity of the muscles allowed to determine the optimal terms for performing tendolysis.
Chai, S C; Wong, C W
This retrospective study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the modified regime for rehabilitation of Zone II flexor tendon injuries in Sibu Hospital. From January to December 2003, 8 patients with 15 injured digits were treated by using the combined method of dynamic traction and passive mobilization. According to Strickland's criteria, 14 (93.3%) digits achieved good to excellent outcomes and only 1 (6.7%) was rated as poor. No occurrence of tendon rupture was noted. The overall grip strength of the injured hand was 50.1% of the uninjured hand at 3 months after the repair. Our results compare favorably with the other published studies. We believed that this modified regime is as effective as other established regimes and suitable to be adopted in our setting. Further study with larger sample group will be required to consolidate our findings.
Wong, Jason K.F.; Lui, Yin H.; Kapacee, Zoher; Kadler, Karl E.; Ferguson, Mark W. J.; McGrouther, Duncan A.
Intrasynovial flexor tendon injuries of the hand can frequently be complicated by tendon adhesions to the surrounding sheath, limiting finger function. We have developed a new tendon injury model in the mouse to investigate the three-dimensional cellular biology of intrasynovial flexor tendon healing and adhesion formation. We investigated the cell biology using markers for inflammation, proliferation, collagen synthesis, apoptosis, and vascularization/myofibroblasts. Quantitative immunohistochemical image analysis and three-dimensional reconstruction with cell mapping was performed on labeled serial sections. Flexor tendon adhesions were also assessed 21 days after wounding using transmission electron microscopy to examine the cell phenotypes in the wound. When the tendon has been immobilized, the mouse can form tendon adhesions in the flexor tendon sheath. The cell biology of tendon healing follows the classic wound healing response of inflammation, proliferation, synthesis, and apoptosis, but the greater activity occurs in the surrounding tissue. Cells that have multiple “fibripositors” and cells with cytoplasmic protrusions that contain multiple large and small diameter fibrils can be found in the wound during collagen synthesis. In conclusion, adhesion formation occurs due to scarring between two damaged surfaces. The mouse model for flexor tendon injury represents a new platform to study adhesion formation that is genetically tractable. PMID:19834058
Marr, C M
Microwave thermographs were recorded from 77 normal horses. In 51% the lowest temperature was recorded in the mid-metacarpal region, and in 41% it was in the distal metacarpal region. The mean temperature of the normal limbs ranged from 25.04 to 37.4 degrees C. Maximum temperature differences between symmetrical points in both forelimbs ranged from 0 to 5.33 degrees C and differences in mean limb temperatures between both forelimbs ranged from 0 to 2.91 degrees C. In 48 horses with acute (less than 4 weeks' duration) injury of the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) (36 unilateral, 12 bilateral) and 12 horses with acute injury of the soft tissues of the palmar metacarpal region other than the SDFT (all unilateral) 66% of forelimbs had acute SDFT injury, and 50% of those with other soft tissue injuries, had elevations of the temperature in the mid- or distal metacarpal region. Abnormal values for mean limb temperature, difference in mean limb temperature and maximum temperature difference between locations in opposite forelimbs were detected in 75% of the horses with SDFT injury and in only 16% of the horses with other soft tissue injury. The sensitivity of microwave thermography for the detection of SDFT injury was 81% and the specificity 74%. When 30 horses in National Hunt training were examined weekly for 5 weeks, 2 horses sustained SDFT injury during that period. The microwave thermographs recorded from these 2 horses, at 1 and 2 weeks before the onset of clinical signs, were abnormal. However, 16 horses which did not develop tendon injury also displayed thermographic abnormalities.
Crowley, Timothy P
Rock climbing has increased in popularity over the past two decades. Closed traumatic rupture of the finger flexor tendon pulleys is rare among the general population but is seen much more commonly in rock climbers. This article reviews the anatomy and biomechanics of the finger flexor tendon pulleys, how they may be injured in rock climbing and how these injuries are best diagnosed and managed.
Welsh, Claire E; Lewis, Thomas W; Blott, Sarah C; Mellor, Dominic J; Stirk, Anthony J; Parkin, Timothy D H
A retrospective cohort study of distal limb fracture and superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) injury in Thoroughbred racehorses was conducted using health records generated by the British Horseracing Authority (BHA) between 2000 and 2010. After excluding records of horses that had both flat and jump racing starts, repeated records were reduced to a single binary record per horse (n = 66,507, 2982 sires), and the heritability of each condition was estimated using residual maximum likelihood (REML) with animal logistic regression models. Similarly, the heritability of each condition was estimated for the flat racing and jump racing populations separately. Bivariate mixed models were used to generate estimates of genetic correlations between SDFT injury and distal limb fracture. The heritability of distal limb fracture ranged from 0.21 to 0.37. The heritability of SDFT injury ranged from 0.31 to 0.34. SDFT injury and distal limb fracture were positively genetically correlated. These findings suggest that reductions in the risk of the conditions studied could be attempted using targeted breeding strategies.
Wu, Fan; Nerlich, Michael; Docheva, Denitsa
Tendons connect muscles to bones, ensuring joint movement. With advanced age, tendons become more prone to degeneration followed by injuries. Tendon repair often requires lengthy periods of rehabilitation, especially in elderly patients. Existing medical and surgical treatments often fail to regain full tendon function. The development of novel treatment methods has been hampered due to limited understanding of basic tendon biology. Recently, it was discovered that tendons, similar to other mesenchymal tissues, contain tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs) which possess the common stem cell properties. The current strategies for enhancing tendon repair consist mainly of applying stem cells, growth factors, natural and artificial biomaterials alone or in combination. In this review, we summarise the basic biology of tendon tissues and provide an update on the latest repair proposals for tendon tears. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:332-342. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160075 PMID:28828182
Bellemère, P; Ardouin, L
Primary flexor tendon repair is still challenging even in the most experienced hands. With atraumatic surgery, the goal is to suture the tendon in a way that it will be strong enough to allow for tendon gliding without the risk of rupture or adhesions during the 12 weeks needed for the tendon to heal. After reviewing the zone 2 anatomy, the authors describe the state of art for flexor tendon repair along with their personal preferences. Although suture methods and postoperative rehabilitation programs are not universal, most specialized teams now use multistrand suturing techniques with at least 4 stands along with protected and controlled early active mobilization. Although the published rates of failure of the repair or postoperative adhesions with stiffness have decreased, these complications are still a concern. They will continue to pose a challenge for scientists performing research into the mechanics and biology of flexor tendon repairs, especially in zone 2.
Deren, Matthew E; Mitchell, Charles H; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C
Distal scaphoid excision is one treatment option for osteoarthritis of the scaphotrapeziotrapezoid (STT) joint following failure of conservative measures. Potential complications of this procedure include injury to the carpal ligaments, cartilage, and radial artery. A single case was identified by the senior author, and the medical record was reviewed for surgical notes, progress notes, and radiographs. A 68-year-old male sustained ruptures of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and flexor digitorum profundus to the index finger 3 years following a distal scaphoid excision for symptomatic STT osteoarthritis. He required a flexor tendon reconstruction using the remaining FDS tendon for graft incorporated with a Pulvertaft weave. His midcarpal pain continued after recovery of his index finger function, eventually requiring a 4-corner fusion of the wrist. Flexor tendon rupture is a previously unreported complication of distal scaphoid excision for STT arthritis.
Raghavan, Shyam S; Woon, Colin Y L; Kraus, Armin; Megerle, Kai; Choi, Matthew S S; Pridgen, Brian C; Pham, Hung; Chang, James
In mutilating hand injuries, tissue engineered tendon grafts may provide a reconstructive solution. We have previously described a method to decellularize cadaveric human flexor tendons while preserving mechanical properties and biocompatibility. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the immunogenicity and strength of these grafts when implanted into an immunocompetent rat model. Cadaveric human flexor tendons were divided into two groups. Group 1 was untreated, and Group 2 was decellularized by treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and peracetic acid (PAA). Both groups were then analyzed for the presence of major histocompatibility complexes by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Pair-matched tendons from each group were then placed into the dorsal subcutaneous tissue and anchored to the spinal ligaments of Wistar rats for 2 or 4 weeks, and harvested. The infiltration of B-cells and macrophages was determined using IHC. The explants where then subjected to mechanical testing to determine the ultimate tensile stress (UTS) and elastic modulus (EM). Statistical analysis was performed using a paired Student's t-test. The decellularization protocol successfully removed cells and MHC-1 complexes. At 2 weeks after implantation, there was increased infiltration of B-cells in Group 1 (untreated) compared with Group 2 (acellular), both in the capsule and tendon substance. There was improved ultimate tensile stress (UTS, 42.7 ± 8.3 vs. 22.8 ± 7.8 MPa, p<0.05) and EM (830.2 ± 206.7 vs. 421.2 ± 171.3 MPa, p<0.05) in tendons that were decellularized. At 4 weeks, there was continued B-cell infiltration in Group 1 (untreated) compared with Group 2 (acellular). There was no appreciable difference in macrophage infiltration at both time points. At 4 weeks Group 2 (acellular) demonstrated persistently greater UTS (40.5 ± 9.1 vs. 14.6 ± 4.2 MPa, p<0.05) and EM (454.05 ± 101.5 vs. 204.6 ± 91.3 MPa, p<0.05) compared with Group 1
The Andrew J. Weiland Medal is presented each year by the American Society for Surgery of the Hand and the American Foundation for Surgery of the Hand for a body of work related to hand surgery research. This essay, awarded the Weiland Medal in 2011, focuses on the clinical need for flexor tendon reconstruction and on investigations into flexor tendon biology. Reconstruction of the upper extremity is limited by 2 major problems after injury or degeneration of the flexor tendons. First, adhesions formed after flexor tendon repair can cause decreased postoperative range of motion and hand function. Second, tendon losses can result from trauma and degenerative diseases, necessitating additional tendon graft material. Tendon adhesions are even more prevalent after tendon grafting; therefore these 2 problems are interrelated and lead to considerable disability. The total costs in terms of disability and inability to return to work are enormous. In this essay, published work from the past 12 years in our basic science laboratory is summarized and presented with the common theme of using molecular techniques to understand the cellular process of flexor tendon wound healing and to create substances and materials to improve tendon repair and regeneration. These are efforts to address 2 interrelated and clinically relevant problems that all hand surgeons face in their practice. Copyright Â© 2012 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Miranda, B. H.; Cerovac, S.
Background Spontaneous flexor tendon rupture is considered to be invariably associated with previous hand/wrist injury or systemic disease such as rheumatoid arthritis. Case Description A 54-year-old man presented with a 4-month history of mild ulnar wrist pain and spontaneous left little finger flexion loss in the absence of distant/recent trauma and systemic arthropathy. Surgical exploration confirmed a zone IV left little finger flexor digitorum profundus (FDP5) attritional rupture (100%), ring finger flexor digitorum profundus (FDP4) attenuation (40%) and a disrupted lunotriquetral ligament and volar-ulnar wrist capsule. Volar subluxation of the narrowed carpal tunnel resulted in flexor tendon attrition against the hamate hook. A side-to-side tendon transfer was performed along with a lunotriquetral ligament repair and temporary Kirschner wire fixation. At 6 months the patient had full active, synchronous flexion of the ring and little fingers and reduced wrist pain. Literature Review Traumatic flexor tendon ruptures have been reported following distal radius/hamate hook fractures, from carpal bone osteophytes, accessory carpal bones and intraosseous ganglia. Attritional ruptures caused by chronic, degenerative carpal pathology are less common. Clinical Relevance This case highlights an unusual cause of flexor tendon rupture due to chronic carpal instability. PMID:25032080
Schöffl, Volker; Heid, Andreas; Küpper, Thomas
Tendon injuries are the second most common injuries of the hand and therefore an important topic in trauma and orthopedic patients. Most injuries are open injuries to the flexor or extensor tendons, but less frequent injuries, e.g., damage to the functional system tendon sheath and pulley or dull avulsions, also need to be considered. After clinical examination, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have proved to be important diagnostic tools. Tendon injuries mostly require surgical repair, dull avulsions of the distal phalanges extensor tendon can receive conservative therapy. Injuries of the flexor tendon sheath or single pulley injuries are treated conservatively and multiple pulley injuries receive surgical repair. In the postoperative course of flexor tendon injuries, the principle of early passive movement is important to trigger an “intrinsic” tendon healing to guarantee a good outcome. Many substances were evaluated to see if they improved tendon healing; however, little evidence was found. Nevertheless, hyaluronic acid may improve intrinsic tendon healing. PMID:22720265
Fedorczyk, Jane M; Barr, Ann E; Rani, Shobha; Gao, Helen G; Amin, Mamta; Amin, Shreya; Litvin, Judith; Barbe, Mary F
Upper extremity tendinopathies are associated with performance of forceful repetitive tasks. We used our rat model of repetitive strain injury to study changes induced in forelimb flexor digitorum tendons. Rats were trained to perform a high repetition high force (HRHF) handle-pulling task (12 reaches/min at 60 +/- 5% maximum pulling force [MPF]), or a low repetition negligible force (LRNF) reaching and food retrieval task (three reaches/min at 5 +/- 5% MPF), for 2 h/day in 30 min sessions, 3 days/week for 3-12 weeks. Forelimb grip strength was tested. Flexor digitorum tendons were examined at midtendon at the level of the carpal tunnel for interleukin (IL)-1beta, neutrophil, and macrophage influx, Substance P, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and periostin-like factor (PLF) immunoexpression, and histopathological changes. In HRHF rats, grip strength progressively decreased, while IL-1beta levels progressively increased in the flexor digitorum peritendon (para- and epitendon combined) and endotendon with task performance. Macrophage invasion was evident in week 6 and 12 HRHF peritendon but not endotendon. Also in HRHF rats, Substance P immunoexpression increased in week 12 peritendon as did CTGF- and PLF-immunopositive fibroblasts, the increased fibroblasts contributing greatly to peritendon thickening. Endotendon collagen disorganization was evident in week 12 HRHF tendons. LRNF tendons did not differ from controls, even at 12 weeks. Thus, we observed exposure-dependent changes in flexor digitorum tendons within the carpal tunnel, including increased inflammation, nociceptor-related neuropeptide immunoexpression, and fibrotic histopathology, changes associated with grip strength decline.
Wu, Y F; Mao, W F; Zhou, Y L; Wang, X T; Liu, P Y; Tang, J B
Adhesion formation after digital flexor tendon injury greatly affects gliding function of the tendon, which is a major clinical complication after hand surgery. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) has a critical role in adhesion formation during tendon healing. Persistent regulation of TGF-β1 through application of microRNA (miRNA) specifically inhibiting the function of TGF-β1 (TGF-β1-miRNA) holds promise for treatment of such a complication. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) was used to transfer TGF-β1-miRNA to the chicken digital flexor tendons, which had been injured and surgically repaired. Four doses of AAV2-TGF-β1-miRNA (2 × 10¹¹, 2 × 10¹⁰, 2 × 10⁹ and 2 × 10⁸ vector genomes (vg)) were used to determine the transfection efficiency. At postoperative 3 weeks, we found a positive correlation between the administered AAV2-TGF-β1-miRNA doses and transfection efficiency. The transfection rate ranged from 10% to 77% as the doses increased. Production of TGF-β1 protein in the tendons decreased on increasing vector dosage. When 2 × 10¹¹ and 2 × 10¹⁰) vg were injected into the tendon, gliding excursion of the repaired tendon and work of flexion of chicken toes were significantly increased and adhesion score decreased 6 and 8 weeks later, indicating the improvement of tendon gliding and decreases in adhesion formations. However, the ultimate strength of the tendons transfected at the dose of 2 × 10¹⁰ vg was 12-24% lower than that of the control tendons. The results of this study demonstrate that application of TGF-β1-miRNA had a mixed impact on tendon healing: adhesion around the tendon is reduced but strength of the tendon healing is adversely affected. Future studies should aim at maintaining the beneficial effects of reducing tendon adhesions, while eliminating the adverse effects of decreasing the healing strength.
Kadar, Assaf; Thoreson, Andrew R; Reisdorf, Ramona L; Amadio, Peter C; Moran, Steven L; Zhao, Chunfeng
Flexor tendon injuries are one of the most common hand injuries and remain clinically challenging for functional restoration. Canine and chicken have been the most commonly used animal models for flexor tendon-related research but possess several disadvantages. The purpose of this study was to explore a potential turkey model for flexor tendon research. The third digit from human cadaveric hands, canine forepaws, turkey foot, and chicken foot were used for this study. Six digits in each of four species were studied in detail, comparing anatomy of the flexor apparatus, joint range of motioņ tendon excursion, tendon cross-sectional area, work of flexion, gliding resistance at the level of the A2 pulley, modulus of elasticity, suture retention strength, and histology across species. Anatomically, the third digit in the four species displayed structural similarities; however, the tendon cross-sectional area of the turkey and human were similar and larger than canine and chicken. Furthermore, the turkey digit resembles the human's finger with the lack of webbing between digits, similar vascularization, tendon excursion, work of flexion, gliding resistance, mechanical properties, and suture holding strength. More importantly, human and turkey tendons were most similar in histological appearance. Turkey flexor tendons have many properties that are comparable to human flexor tendons which would provide a clinically relevant, economical, nonhuman companion large animal model for flexor tendon research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oda, Ryo; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Tokunaga, Daisaku; Kishida, Aiko; Taniguchi, Daigo; Seno, Takahiro; Kawahito, Yutaka; Kubo, Toshikazu
Spontaneous flexor tendon rupture is an unusual complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and has not previously been reported. While tendon ruptures in association with SLE have been focused on the previous studies, upper extremity tendon ruptures are infrequently reported in the literature. Here, we present an uncommon case of spontaneous flexor tendon rupture of the ring and little fingers in a patient with SLE and discuss the mechanism of injury and its surgical treatment.
Fischer, Lauren H; Abzug, Joshua M; Osterman, A Lee; Stern, Peter J; Chang, James
Orthopaedic and hand surgeons frequently treat disorders of the flexor and extensor tendon systems. Common conditions, such as trigger finger, de Quervain tenosynovitis, extensor tendon injury, and zone II flexor tendon injury, can be challenging to treat. Complications that limit normal hand function still occur despite advances in surgical techniques and therapy protocols. It is helpful to be aware of the complications related to the treatment of these hand disorders and understand surgical techniques to minimize their frequency.
Flexor tendon pulley has been very early noticed and described. Terminology usually accepted recognizes 6 arcifom pulleys (A0 to A5) and 3 cruciform pulleys (C1 to C3). Anatomy and physiology of this flexor tendon gliding and reflection system at the level of the digital sheet are exposed. The integrity necessity of this system became obvious regarding the flexor tendons repair. Four main pathologies may be concerned: the trigger finger congenital or progressive, due to a chondroid metaplasia of the A1 pulley; tenosynovial ganglions arising at the weak point between A1 and A2 pulley; lesions of the flexor tendon sheet during traumatic lacerations or surgical repairs; quite experimental lesions creating isolated ruptures of one or several pulleys which occur during sport practice, especially high level rock climbing. The repair techniques are exposed to allow to graduate and hierarchy the reparation technique regarding the pathology. A2 and A4 repair is always indicated. The best reconstruction material is an extensor retinaculum graft. But its poor surface available often draws to use conventional palmaris longus free graft.
Damkat-Thomas, L; Black, CE; Herbert, K
An unusual case of fibromatosis of the dominant left flexor pollicus longus (FPL) in a thirteen year old schoolboy. Initially presenting with pain in the thenar eminence and difficulty flexing the metacarpal phalangeal joint (MPJ), other symptoms include locking, triggering and difficulty writing. MRI showed a 4cm segment of thickened abnormal tendon. Intra-operatively three 1cm nodules were excised from the FPL while preserving the tendon. Histopathology reported the nodules as fibromatosis. A literature search revealed that this has not previously been reported although symptomatic tendon sheath fibromas have. Our patient achieved a good result following surgical intervention and the two year review has shown no complications. PMID:24946359
Songür, Murat; Şahin, Ercan; Zehir, Sinan; Kalem, Mahmut
High energy distal radius fractures may cause significant soft tissue injuries. Dorsal displacement of median nerve and flexor tendons to dorsal compartment between distal radioulnar joint was an unreported type of soft tissue injury. 35-Year male admitted following fall from height diagnosed as closed distal radius fracture with dorsal displacement. The patient had no flexion and extension of all fingers with loss of sensation. Radial artery pulse was not palpable. Radiography and CT imaging revealed distal radius fracture with dorsal displacement with dorsal carpal dislocation. After failure of closed reduction, operative treatment was performed. At surgery, flexor tendons and median nerve was found to be placed at dorsal compartment. Reduction of the soft tissues was facilitated by distraction of distal radioulnar joint. Dorsal displacement of volar structures as the result of fracture dislocation was found to be an unreported type of injury. Difficulty during reduction of dorsally displaced structures is an important feature of the case. For severely displaced and deformed distal radial fractures and fracture dislocations, threshold for operative treatment should be kept low. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Lui, Tun Hing; Chan, Kwok Bill; Chan, Lap Ki
The purpose of this study was to investigate the anatomy of the zone 2 flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon sheath. Dissection of the zone 2 FHL tendon sheath was performed in 12 feet of 6 cadavers. The tendon sheath was subdivided into proximal fibrous (zone 2A) and distal fascial (zone 2B) parts. The lengths of the zone 2A and 2B FHL tendon were measured and represented the length of the corresponding tendon sheaths, and the relation of the medial plantar nerve to each part of the zone 2 FHL tendon sheath was studied. In all specimens there were fibrous and fascial components of the zone 2 FHL tendon sheath. The medial plantar nerve crossed the zone 2B tendon sheaths and then became plantar lateral to the sheath in 7 specimens. The distance between the medial plantar nerve and the orifice of the zone 2A tendon sheath averaged 7.6 mm. The distance between the medial plantar nerve and the junction between zones 2A and 2B averaged 3.2 mm. The distance between the medial plantar nerve and the distal end of the zone 2B tendon sheath averaged 4.2 mm. The mean length of the zone 2A tendon sheath was 35.9 mm, and the mean length of the zone 2B tendon sheath was 30.5 mm. The zone 2 FHL tendon sheath can be subdivided into a proximal fibrous zone (2A) and a distal fascial zone (2B). Because of the close proximity of the medial plantar nerve to the tendon sheath, there is a significant risk of iatrogenic nerve injury when surgical procedures are performed in zone 2B. An understanding of the anatomy of the zone 2 FHL tendon sheath is useful for the safe practice of zone 2 FHL tendoscopy. Copyright (c) 2010 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hashizume, Hiroyuki; Nishida, Keiichiro; Fujiwara, Kazuo; Inoue, Hajime
A 54-year-old woman who had been treated for rheumatoid arthritis for 12 years developed spontaneous multiple flexor tendon ruptures during a 5-month period. Radiography revealed volar subluxation of the lunate bone. Surgery was performed 5 months after the first onset of tendon rupture. All eight flexors, except the flexor pollicis longus tendons, had ruptured, and the damage resembled spaghetti. Four flexor digitorum profundus tendons were reconstructed by bridge graft using their respective sublimis tendons. Wrist joint fusion and tenolysis were performed 3 months after the first operation. Each finger achieved a good range of motion 2 years and 6 months after the second operation.
... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...
Berglund, M E; Hart, D A; Reno, C; Wiig, M
The purpose of the study was to contribute to the mapping of molecular events during flexor tendon healing, in particular the growth factors insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-3 and MMP-13) and their inhibitors (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases, TIMP-1 and TIMP-3, and the protease cathepsin K. In a rabbit model of flexor tendon injury, the mRNA expression for the growth factors, MMPs and TIMPs were measured in tendon and tendon sheath tissue at several time points (3, 6, 21, and 42 days) representing different phases of the healing process. We found that MMP-13 remained increased during the study period, whereas MMP-3 returned to normal levels within the first week after injury. TIMP-3 was down-regulated in the tendon sheaths. Cathepsin K was up-regulated in tendons and sheaths after injury. NGF was present in both tendons and sheaths, but unaltered. IGF-1 exhibited a late increase in the tendons, while VEGF was down-regulated at the later time points. In conclusion, we have demonstrated the presence of NGF in flexor tendons. MMP-13 expression appears to play a more protracted role in flexor tendon healing than MMP-3. The relatively low levels of endogenous IGF-1 and VEGF mRNA following injury support their potential beneficial role as exogenous modulators to optimize tendon healing and strength without increasing adhesion formation.
Qi, Jin; Xia, Yayi; Wang, Yuliang; Zhao, Lin; Yao, Changjiang
To evaluate the effectiveness of hamstring tendon and flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon autograft for Achilles tendon defects reconstruction. Between February 2009 and October 2011, 9 patients (9 feet) with Achilles tendon defect were treated with hamstring tendon and FHL tendon autograft. Of 9 cases, 6 were male and 3 were female with an average age of 43 years (range, 21-65 years), including 5 cases of chronic Achilles tendon ruptures caused by sport injury and 4 cases of Achilles tendon defects caused by resection of tendon lesion (2 cases of hyaline degeneration with necrosis, 1 case of giant cell tumor, and 1 case of chronic inflammation with hyaline degeneration). The disease duration ranged from 31 to 387 days (mean, 137.6 days). The defect length was 5 to 18 cm (mean, 8.6 cm). Functional exercise of the ankle began at 6 weeks after plaster fixation. Dehiscence and effusion occurred in 2 cases and plantar pain caused by injury of tibial nerve in 1 case; primary healing of wound was obtained in the other patients without complication. Nine patients were followed up 19.7 months on average (range, 13-25 months); no re-rupture was observed. There was no significant difference in the dorsal extension between at preoperation and at 1 year and last follow-up after operation (P > 0.05); the ankle plantar flexion at 1 year and last follow-up after operation was significantly larger than that at preoperation (P < 0.05). The ankle plantar flexion and dorsal extension at 1 year and last follow-up after operation were significantly larger than those at 3 months after operation (P < 0.05), but no significant difference was found between at 1 year and last follow-up (P > 0.05). American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) and short-form 36 health survey scale (SF-36) scores were significantly increased at postoperation when compared with scores at preoperation (P < 0.05), and the scores at last follow-up were significantly higher than those at 3 months after
Sasi, P. Kiran; Mahapatra, Swagath; Raj Pallapati, Samuel C.; Thomas, Binu P.
Traumatic musculotendinous junction avulsions are rare injuries except in avulsion amputations. They pose a significant challenge to the treating surgeon. We present a 24-year-old male who sustained an open musculotendinous avulsion of the flexor pollicis longus tendon. He was treated with primary tendon transfer using the flexor digitorum superficialis of ring finger, in flexor zone 3. The functional result at 10 months following surgery was excellent. PMID:27019757
Pridgen, Brian C; Woon, Colin Y L; Kim, Maxwell; Thorfinn, Johan; Lindsey, Derek; Pham, Hung; Chang, James
Acellular human tendons are a candidate scaffold for tissue engineering flexor tendons of the hand. This study compared acellularization methods and their compatibility with allogeneic human cells. Human flexor tendons were pretreated with 0.1% ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA) for 4 h followed by 24 h treatments of 1% Triton X-100, 1% tri(n-butyl)phosphate, or 0.1% or 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in 0.1% EDTA. Outcomes were assessed histologically by hematoxylin and eosin and SYTO green fluorescent nucleic acid stains and biochemically by a QIAGEN DNeasy kit, Sircol collagen assay, and 1,9 dimethylmethylene blue glycosaminoglycan assay. Mechanical data were collected using a Materials Testing System to pull to failure tendons acellularized with 0.1% SDS. Acellularized tendons were re-seeded in a suspension of human dermal fibroblasts. Attachment of viable cells to acellularized tendon was assessed biochemically by a cell viability assay and histologically by a live/dead stain. Data are reported as mean±standard deviation. Compared with the DNA content of fresh tendons (551±212 ng DNA/mg tendon), only SDS treatments significantly decreased DNA content (1% SDS [202.8±37.4 ng DNA/mg dry weight tendon]; 0.1% SDS [189±104 ng DNA/mg tendon]). These findings were confirmed by histology. There was no decrease in glycosaminoglycans or collagen following acellularization with SDS. There was no difference in the ultimate tensile stress (55.3±19.2 [fresh] vs. 51.5±6.9 [0.1% SDS] MPa). Re-seeded tendons demonstrated attachment of viable cells to the tendon surface using a viability assay and histology. Human flexor tendons were acellularized with 0.1% SDS in 0.1% EDTA for 24 h with preservation of mechanical properties. Preservation of collagen and glycoaminoglycans and re-seeding with human cells suggest that this scaffold is biocompatible. This will provide a promising scaffold for future human flexor tendon tissue engineering studies to
Khurana, Shruti; Wadhwa, Vibhor; Chhabra, Avneesh; Amirlak, Bardia
Flexor tendon rupture is an unusual complication following collagenase injection to relieve contractures. These patients require a close follow-up and in the event of tendon rupture, a decision has to be made whether to repair the tendon or manage the complication conservatively. The authors report the utility of MRI in the prognostication and management of a patient with Dupuytren's contracture, who underwent collagenase injection and subsequently developed flexor digitorum profundus tendon rupture.
Tamura, N; Nukada, T; Kato, T; Kuroda, T; Kotoyori, Y; Fukuda, K; Kasashima, Y
The objective assessment of the mechanical properties of the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) could provide useful information for the rehabilitation of horses with SDFT injuries. Assessment of strain ratio (the strain of a standard reference divided by that of lesions) is a quantitative method in sonoelastography for evaluating tissue stiffness in vivo. As yet, no longitudinal studies have used strain ratio to evaluate the progression of stiffness in SDFT injuries. To test the hypothesis that strain ratio can evaluate the recovery of stiffness during the healing of SDFT injuries. Prospective and longitudinal study with observer-blinded evaluation. Ultrasonography, including sonoelastography, was performed in seven Thoroughbred horses with naturally occurring SDFT injuries at five time points: within 20 days of the injury, and at 2, 3, 6 and 9 months after the injury. Blinded sonoelastographic images were independently evaluated by two veterinarians to assess interobserver agreement. The recovery of stiffness and echogenicity in lesions were evaluated using the strain ratio and grey-scale ratio (echogenicity of lesions divided by that of the surrounding area), respectively. Interobserver agreement was assessed as 'almost perfect'. Strain ratios were significantly higher at 9 months after injury than at the other time points (all P<0.05). Strain ratios at 6 months after injury were significantly higher than those at earlier time points (P<0.05). Grey-scale ratios within 20 days of injury were significantly lower than those at the other time points (all P<0.05). Validations of SDFT status were evaluated only by recovery of the echogenicity in lesions and not by histopathological examination. Although further studies are needed to validate the relationships between injured SDFT status and sonoelastographic findings, this preliminary study shows that strain ratio may provide a means to monitor the recovery of stiffness in lesions during rehabilitation, even
Gülke, Joachim; Mentzel, Martin; Krischak, Gert; Gulkin, David; Dornacher, Daniel; Wachter, Nikolaus
These days there are different types of aftercare following flexor tendon injury. Patients in this study received a dynamic Kleinert protocol and additionally two different postoperative treatments. Both treatment groups were compared to each other and results were put into perspective when compared to other treatment options. Sixty-two patients presenting with clean lesions of the two flexor tendons in zone 2 received postoperative treatment with a dynamic Kleinert protocol. Patients were randomly divided into either Group I (physical therapy) or Group II (exoskeleton). Range of motion was assessed after 6, 12 and 18 weeks. In addition, we measured the Strickland score and grip strength at the 18-week follow-up. DASH scores were obtained at weeks 12 and 18. Regardless of the received postoperative treatment, range of motion was predominantly limited in the proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints after 6 weeks. This deficit decreased with time and almost full range of motion was achieved after 18 weeks. Grip strength measured 75% (Group I) and 78% (Group II) of the healthy hand's level. Good functional outcome was observed in the DASH scores after 12 weeks, which improved further, measuring 7.5 (Group I) and 6.8 (Group II) at the 18-week follow-up. We did not see any clinically relevant differences between the two patient groups. Regarding possible reruptures, the Kleinert protocol delivers a safe treatment regime. The possible disadvantage of flexion contractures with the Kleinert protocol was not seen in our measurements. Additional motion exercises using an exoskeleton delivered comparable results to classic physical therapy.
Kondratko, Jaclyn; Duenwald-Kuehl, Sarah; Lakes, Roderic; Vanderby, Ray
Tendons function to transmit loads from muscle to move and stabilize joints and absorb impacts. Functionality of lacerated tendons is diminished, however clinical practice often considers surgical repair only after 50% or more of the tendon is lacerated, the "50% rule." Few studies provide mechanical insight into the 50% rule. In this study cyclic and static stress relaxation tests were performed on porcine flexor tendons before and after a 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 2.75 mm deep transverse, midsubstance laceration. Elastic and viscoelastic properties, such as maximum stress, change in stress throughout each test, and stiffness, were measured and compared pre- and post-laceration. Nominal stress and stiffness parameters decreased, albeit disproportionately in magnitude, with increasing percent loss of cross-sectional area. Conversely, mean stress at the residual area (determined using remaining intact area at the laceration cross section) exhibited a marked increase in stress concentration beginning at 47.2% laceration using both specified load and constant strain analyses. The marked increase in stress concentration beginning near 50% laceration provides mechanical insight into the 50% rule. Additionally, a drastic decrease in viscoelastic stress parameters after only an 8.2% laceration suggests that time-dependent mechanisms protecting tissues during impact loadings are highly compromised regardless of laceration size.
Griffin, M; Hindocha, S; Jordan, D; Saleh, M; Khan, W
Extensor tendon injuries are very common injuries, which inappropriately treated can cause severe lasting impairment for the patient. Assessment and management of flexor tendon injuries has been widely reviewed, unlike extensor injuries. It is clear from the literature that extensor tendon repair should be undertaken immediately but the exact approach depends on the extensor zone. Zone I injuries otherwise known as mallet injuries are often closed and treated with immobilisaton and conservative management where possible. Zone II injuries are again conservatively managed with splinting. Closed Zone III or ‘boutonniere’ injuries are managed conservatively unless there is evidence of displaced avulsion fractures at the base of the middle phalanx, axial and lateral instability of the PIPJ associated with loss of active or passive extension of the joint or failed non-operative treatment. Open zone III injuries are often treated surgically unless splinting enable the tendons to come together. Zone V injuries, are human bites until proven otherwise requires primary tendon repair after irrigation. Zone VI injuries are close to the thin paratendon and thin subcutaneous tissue which strong core type sutures and then splinting should be placed in extension for 4-6 weeks. Complete lacerations to zone IV and VII involve surgical primary repair followed by 6 weeks of splinting in extension. Zone VIII require multiple figure of eight sutures to repair the muscle bellies and static immobilisation of the wrist in 45 degrees of extension. To date there is little literature documenting the quality of repairing extensor tendon injuries however loss of flexion due to extensor tendon shortening, loss of flexion and extension resulting from adhesions and weakened grip can occur after surgery. This review aims to provide a systematic examination method for assessing extensor injuries, presentation and management of all type of extensor tendon injuries as well as guidance on
Lutter, John D; Schneider, Robert K; Sampson, Sarah N; Cary, Julie A; Roberts, Greg D; Vahl, Christopher I
To describe the location and severity of deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) lesions diagnosed by means of high-field-strength MRI in horses and to identify variables associated with return to activity following medical treatment. Retrospective case series. 118 horses. Medical records of horses with DDFT injury diagnosed with MRI over a 10-year period (2000-2010) and treated medically (intrasynovial administration of corticosteroids and sodium hyaluronan, rest and rehabilitation, or both) were reviewed. History, signalment, use, results of lameness examination and diagnostic local anesthesia, MRI findings, and treatment details were recorded. Outcome was obtained by telephone interview or follow-up examination. Horses were grouped by predictor variables and analyzed with logistic regression to identify significant effects. Overall, of 97 horses available for follow-up (median time to follow-up, 5 years; range, 1 to 12 years), 59 (61%) returned to activity for a mean duration of 22.6 months (median, 18 months; range, 3 to 72 months), with 25 (26%) still sound at follow-up. Of horses with mild, moderate, and severe injury, 21 of 29 (72%), 20 of 36 (56%), and 18 of 32 (56%), respectively, returned to use. Horses treated with intrasynovial corticosteroid injection and 6 months of rest and rehabilitation returned to use for a significantly longer duration than did horses treated without rest. Western performance horses returned to use for a significantly longer duration than did English performance horses. Results of the present study suggested that outcome for horses with DDFT injuries treated medically depended on injury severity, presence of concurrent injury to other structures in the foot, type of activity, and owner compliance with specific treatment recommendations. Although some horses successfully returned to prior activity, additional treatment options are needed to improve outcome in horses with severe injuries and to improve long-term prognosis.
... Basic types of peroneal tendon injuries are tendonitis, tears and subluxation. Tendonitis is an inflammation of one ... include: Pain Swelling Warm to the touch Acute tears are caused by repetitive activity or trauma. Immediate ...
Moor, Beat K; Nagy, Ladislav; Snedeker, Jess G; Schweizer, Andreas
Disruption of the finger flexor tendon pulleys are the most often occurring injury in rock climbers due to bowstringing of tendons during crimp grip position. The aim of this study was to quantify friction between the flexor tendons and pulleys and the influence of high load and speed of movement as a potential factor of pulley disruption. Friction between the flexor tendons and pulleys of eight human cadaver fingers was indirectly determined using an isokinetic movement device. During flexion and extension movement with rotational speed from 30 to 210 deg/s in the proximal interphalangeal joint and with load from 20 to 100 N to the flexor tendons the flexion force at the tip of the finger was measured. With 40 N loaded flexor tendons the force at the fingertip was 14.5 N (SD1.5) during extension and 12.6N (SD1.3) during flexion movement. Corresponding force difference of 12.9% and 3.77 N (SD0.6) force of friction can be calculated. Friction peaked at 85.8 degrees (SD2.05) of flexion of the proximal interphalangeal joint. Different speed of motion and load to the flexor tendons did not influence force difference other than linear. Considerable friction between flexor tendons and pulleys is apparent and therefore may have an influence on pulley injuries. Particularly during the crimp grip position where the proximal interphalangeal joint is flexed about 90 degrees shows the greatest amount of friction. However there was no change of friction during high speed motion and no other than linear increase during high load.
Pillukat, T; Fuhrmann, R; Windolf, J; van Schoonhoven, J
Properly gliding flexor tendons is mandatory for the normal functioning of the finger and thumb. Any damage to tendons, tendon sheath or adjacent tissue can lead to the formation of adhesions that inhibit the normal gliding function. If adhesions limit the digital function and adequate hand therapy does not provide further progress, then surgical intervention should be considered. The authors' strategy and treatment algorithm for flexor tenolysis are presented in the context of the current literature. There is no absolute indication for flexor tenolysis. The decision should be made in a motivated patient who has access to adequate postoperative hand therapy. It should be based on healed fractures and osteotomies, mature soft tissue coverage, intact tendons and gliding tissues, and a full range of passive flexion, and preferably extension of the affected joints. The principle of flexor tenolysis is the consequent resection of all adhesive tissue around the tendon inside and outside the tendon sheath, with preservation of as many pulley sections as possible. Therefore, extensive approaches are frequently necessary. Arthrolysis and the resolution of unfavorable scars, the resection of scarred lumbricals, and pulley reconstruction are additional procedures that are frequently performed. In the literature, improvement in the range of motion is between 59 and 84 %. Good and excellent functional results are reported in 60-80 % of the cases. Nevertheless, in selected cases, functional deterioration occurs. Flexor tendon ruptures after tenolysis were observed in 0-8 % of the patients. With regard to complications such as secondary tendon ruptures, loss of pulleys, and scar formation, flexor tenolysis is part of a reconstructive ladder that includes further procedures. In the case of failure or complications, salvage procedures such as arthrodesis, amputation, and ray resection or staged flexor tendon reconstruction including tendon grafting are recommended. After
Gil, Joseph A; Skjong, Christian; Katarincic, Julia A; Got, Christopher
To assess the strength of flexor tendon repair with looped suture. We hypothesized that, after passing the intact looped suture in the desired repair configuration, splitting the loop and tying 2 independent knots would increase the strength of flexor tendon repair. Thirty-two flexor tendons were harvested and were sharply transected in zone II. The tendons were repaired with a 4-strand core suture repair using 3-0 looped nonabsorbable nylon suture. The harvested tendons were randomly assigned and repaired with either a 1- or a 2-knot construct. The repaired flexor tendons were fixed in a servohydraulic material testing system and were loaded to failure either with uniaxial tension or cyclically. The average force at failure was 43 N for the 1-knot repair and 28 N for the 2-knot repair. The mode of failure of 15 of the flexor tendon repairs that were cyclically loaded to failure was suture pull-out. The average number of cycles and force in cyclic testing that caused failure of flexor tendon repairs was 134 cycles and 31 N for tendons repaired with looped 3-0 suture tied with 1 knot and 94 cycles and 33 N for tendons repaired with looped 3-0 suture tied with 2 knots. Our hypothesis was disproved by the results of this study. This study suggests that, when using looped suture, tying 2 independent knots instead of tying a single knot does not increase the strength of the flexor tendon repair. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ferreira, Aline M; Tanaka, Denise M; Barbosa, Rafael I; Marcolino, Alexandre M; Elui, Valeria MC; Mazzer, Nilton
Objective: To evaluate the activity of wrist extensor muscle, correlating with wrist motion during gripping after flexor tendon repair. Design: Cross-sectional clinical measurement study. Setting: Laboratory for biomechanics and rehabilitation. Subjects: A total of 11 patients submitted to rehabilitation by early passive motion of the fingers with wrist flexion position were evaluated after 8 weeks of fingers flexor tendon repair and 11 healthy volunteers, all ranging from 20 to 37 years of age. Intervention: Volunteers performed an isometric standardized gripping task. Main measures: We used electrogoniometry to analyze wrist range of motion and surface electromyography, considering 100% maximum voluntary contraction to represent the amplitude of electromyographic activity of the extensor carpi radialis and flexor digitorum superficialis. Results: Patients with flexor tendon repair showed co-activation deficit between wrist extensor (extensor carpi radialis) and flexor finger muscles (flexor digitorum superficialis) during gripping in the intermediate phase of rehabilitation, despite some recovering mobility for wrist extension (p ≤ 0.05). A moderate correlation between range of motion and extensor carpi radialis was present only for injured group (r = 0.32). Total active motion score, which represents finger active excursion, was regular or poor in 65% of cases, all with nerve repair associated. Conclusion: Wrist extensors have an important synergist role at handgrip, although some imbalance can be present after flexor tendon repair. These preliminary findings suggest that emphasis could be directed to add synergistic wrist motion in rehabilitation protocols after flexor tendon repair. Future studies with early active rehabilitation are necessary. PMID:26770674
Marr, C M; Love, S; Boyd, J S; McKellar, Q
Ultrasonographic examination was used to define the severity of injuries to the superficial digital flexor tendon in 73 National Hunt or point-to-point racehorses and the factors influencing the outcome of the cases were examined. Thirty-four of the horses (46 per cent) returned to work with an average time out of training of 13.5 months. The rate of recurrence of the injury was 35 per cent. The severity of the lesions was related to the outcome; all the mildly affected horses returned to work, with 63 per cent of them racing and an average time out of training of 10.2 months; 50 per cent of the moderately affected horses returned to work, and 30 per cent raced with an average time out of training of 11.3 months; 30 per cent of the severely affected horses worked, and 23 per cent raced with an average time out of training of 18.3 months. The differences in outcome between unilateral and bilateral injuries within each severity group were not statistically significant. Seventy-six per cent of horses treated with polysulphated glycosaminoglycans returned to work, compared with 46 per cent of conservatively managed horses and 50 per cent of horses treated with laser therapy. However, these differences were not statistically significant and the rate of recurrence of the injury in the horses treated with polysulphated glycosaminoglycans was 50 per cent compared with only 31 per cent in the conservatively managed horses. Seventy per cent of the mares and 47 per cent of the geldings were retired from racing.
Sun, L-Q; Zhao, G; Gao, S-H; Chen, C
We report a new method of flexor tendon repair in zone II using a standard modified Kessler technique combined with a vascularized dorsal fascial flap from the finger pedicled on a dorsal cutaneous branch of the proper digital artery, which is placed as a mechanical barrier between the flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus tendons. The functional outcomes of 14 patients (Group A) with flexor tendon repairs in zone II by this new technique were compared with those of 32 patients (Group B) with flexor tendon repairs in zone II using a standard modified Kessler technique only. Patients in Group A had a higher proportion of excellent results (on the modified Strickland system) and more movement in the distal interphalangeal joint than the patients in Group B.
Cooper, Maureen A; Laverty, Peter H; Soiderer, Emily E
Two cats presented with bilateral flexor tendon contracture following onychectomy. This previously unreported complication proved to be painful and debilitating. Deep digital flexor tenectomy successfully resolved the problem. Twelve months after surgery, the first cat remains free of complications. The second cat recovered full limb function, but died of unrelated causes.
Abstract Two cats presented with bilateral flexor tendon contracture following onychectomy. This previously unreported complication proved to be painful and debilitating. Deep digital flexor tenectomy successfully resolved the problem. Twelve months after surgery, the first cat remains free of complications. The second cat recovered full limb function, but died of unrelated causes. PMID:15884646
Ahed, K; Moujtahid, M; Nechad, M
Zone II flexor tendon injuries continue to be a challenge for hand surgeons. During the injury event, the tendon ends may retract towards the palm. Retrieval of these lacerated ends can be problematic because the tendon sheath is unstretchable. This demanding surgery requires a precise repair technique where the tendon stumps are handled in an atraumatic manner. Microtrauma to the tendon sheath must be avoided as this can induce adhesions and lead to poor functional outcomes. Several retrieval methods for retracted tendon ends have been described in published studies. In this technical note, we will describe a technical variation that streamlines the surgical procedure and uses commonly available materials. This simple trick makes the procedure easier and avoids having to suture the tendon to the tubing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Cavadas, P C; Pérez-García, A; Thione, A; Lorca-García, C
The reconstruction of finger flexor tendons with vascularized flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) tendon grafts (flaps) based on the ulnar vessels as a single stage is not a popular technique. We reviewed 40 flexor tendon reconstructions (four flexor pollicis longus and 36 finger flexors) with vascularized FDS tendon grafts in 38 consecutive patients. The donor tendons were transferred based on the ulnar vessels as a single-stage procedure (37 pedicled flaps, three free flaps). Four patients required composite tendon and skin island transfer. Minimum follow-up was 12 months, and functional results were evaluated using a total active range of motion score. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the factors that could be associated with the postoperative total active range of motion. The average postoperative total active range of motion (excluding the thumbs) was 178.05° (SD 50°). The total active range of motion was significantly lower for patients who were reconstructed with free flaps and for those who required composite tendon and skin island flap. Age, right or left hand, donor/motor tendon and pulley reconstruction had no linear effect on total active range of motion. Overall results were comparable with a published series on staged tendon grafting but with a lower complication rate. Vascularized pedicled tendon grafts/flaps are useful in the reconstruction of defects of finger flexor tendons in a single stage, although its role in the reconstructive armamentarium remains to be clearly established.
Chen, Qiang; Lu, Hui; Yang, Hu
Chitosan has been demonstrated to exert potent anti-adhesive activity during tendon repair; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the preventive effects of chitosan on adhesion in rabbit tendon repair, and to investigate the role of the sirtuin (SIRT)1 signaling pathway in this process. A total of 30 rabbits were divided randomly into three equal groups: Group 1, saline treatment; group 2, chitosan treatment; and group 3, chitosan + nicotinamide treatment. The flexor tendon of each of the rabbits was injured, and subsequently each rabbit was injected with the one of the reagents. Six weeks post‑surgery, all of the rabbits were sacrificed and their flexor tendons were harvested for subsequent evaluation of adhesion. Western blotting was used to determine the protein expression levels of specific signaling molecules. An MTT assay was conducted to evaluate the viability of human tenocytes and flow cytometry was used to analyze the apoptotic rate of the cells. The present study demonstrated that treatment with chitosan relieved adhesion in the rabbits with flexor tendon injuries. In addition, chitosan treatment increased SIRT1 expression, and reduced acetylated p65 and p53 expression in the tendons. The effects of chitosan on the tendons were attenuated by treatment with nicotinamide (a SIRT1 inhibitor). In the human tenocytes, pretreatment with chitosan resulted in an inhibition of interleukin (IL)‑1β‑induced apoptosis. Furthermore, chitosan reversed the IL‑1β‑induced downregulation of SIRT1 and upregulation of acetylated p65 and p53. Furthermore, downregulation of Sirt1 by RNA interference abrogated the effects of chitosan on the levels of p65 and p53 acetylation, and the rate of tenocyte apoptosis. In conclusion, chitosan treatment prevented adhesion via the SIRT1 signaling pathway during rabbit flexor tendon repair. These results indicate that SIRT1 may be targeted for therapeutic
Nourissat, Geoffroy; Berenbaum, Francis; Duprez, Delphine
Tendon is a crucial component of the musculoskeletal system. Tendons connect muscle to bone and transmit forces to produce motion. Chronic and acute tendon injuries are very common and result in considerable pain and disability. The management of tendon injuries remains a challenge for clinicians. Effective treatments for tendon injuries are lacking because the understanding of tendon biology lags behind that of the other components of the musculoskeletal system. Animal and cellular models have been developed to study tendon-cell differentiation and tendon repair following injury. These studies have highlighted specific growth factors and transcription factors involved in tenogenesis during developmental and repair processes. Mechanical factors also seem to be essential for tendon development, homeostasis and repair. Mechanical signals are transduced via molecular signalling pathways that trigger adaptive responses in the tendon. Understanding the links between the mechanical and biological parameters involved in tendon development, homeostasis and repair is prerequisite for the identification of effective treatments for chronic and acute tendon injuries.
Thorfinn, Johan; Saber, Sepideh; Angelidis, Ioannis K; Ki, Sae H; Zhang, Andrew Y; Chong, Alphonsus K; Pham, Hung M; Lee, Gordon K; Chang, James
Tissue-engineered tendon material may address tendon shortages in mutilating hand injuries. Tenocytes from rabbit flexor tendon can be successfully seeded onto acellularized tendons that are used as tendon constructs. These constructs in vivo exhibit a population of tenocyte-like cells; however, it is not known to what extent these cells are of donor or recipient origin. Furthermore, the temporal distribution is also not known. Tenocytes from New Zealand male rabbits were cultured and seeded onto acellularized rabbit forepaw flexor tendons (n = 48). These tendon constructs were transplanted into female recipients. Tendons were examined after 3, 6, 12, and 30 weeks using fluorescent in situ hybridization to detect the Y chromosome in the male donor cells. One unseeded, acellularized allograft in each animal was used as a control. The donor male tenocytes populate the epitenon and endotenon of the grafts at greater numbers than the recipient female tenocytes at 3 and 6 weeks. The donor and recipient tenocytes are present jointly in the grafts until 12 weeks. At 30 weeks, nearly all cells are recipient tenocyte-like cells. Donor male cells survive in decreasing numbers over time until 30 weeks. The presence of cells in tissue-engineered tendon grafts has been shown in prior studies to add to the strength of the constructs in vitro. This study shows that recipient cells can migrate into and repopulate the tendon construct. Cell seeding onto tendon material may create stronger constructs that will allow the initiation of motion earlier.
Elliot, David; Giesen, Thomas
Repair of the divided flexor tendon to achieve normal, or near normal, function is an unsolved problem, with each result still uncertain. The authors believe the way forward in primary flexor tendon surgery clinically is by use of strengthened but simpler sutures, appropriate venting of the pulley system, and maintaining early rehabilitation. However, there needs also be consideration of patient factors and other aspects. Research needs to continue more widely, in both the laboratory and the clinical environment, to find ways of better modifying adhesions after surgical repair of the tendon.
Kociolek, Aaron M; Tat, Jimmy; Keir, Peter J
Pathological changes in carpal tunnel syndrome patients include fibrosis and thickening of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) adjacent to the flexor tendons in the carpal tunnel. These clinical findings suggest an etiology of excessive shear-strain force between the tendon and SSCT, underscoring the need to assess tendon gliding characteristics representative of repetitive and forceful work. A mechanical actuator moved the middle finger flexor digitorum superficialis tendon proximally and distally in eight fresh frozen cadaver arms. Eighteen experimental conditions tested the effects of three well-established biomechanical predictors of injury, including a combination of two wrist postures (0° and 30° flexion), three tendon velocities (50, 100, 150mm/sec), and three forces (10, 20, 40N). Tendon gliding resistance was determined with two light-weight load cells, and integrated over tendon displacement to represent tendon frictional work. During proximal tendon displacement, frictional work increased with tendon velocity (58.0% from 50-150mm/sec). There was a significant interaction between wrist posture and tendon force. In wrist flexion, frictional work increased 93.0% between tendon forces of 10 and 40N. In the neutral wrist posture, frictional work only increased 33.5% (from 10-40N). During distal tendon displacement, there was a similar multiplicative interaction on tendon frictional work. Concurrent exposure to multiple biomechanical work factors markedly increased tendon frictional work, thus providing a plausible link to the pathogenesis of work-related carpal tunnel syndrome. Additionally, our study provides the conceptual basis to evaluate injury risk, including the multiplicative repercussions of combined physical exposures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Arensburg, L; Wilderjans, H; Simon, O; Dewulf, J; Boussauw, B
Longitudinal tears (LTs) of the digital flexor tendons are an important cause of chronic tenosynovitis of the digital flexor tendon sheath (DFTS). The origin of those marginal tears is not yet fully understood. The long-term outcome after medical and surgical treatment is guarded. To determine the prevalence of LTs of the digital flexor tendons in a large population of horses undergoing diagnostic tenoscopy of the DFTS and to assess the outcome of surgical treatment and the factors influencing the outcome. Medical records of 130 horses with chronic tenosynovitis of the DFTS that had tenoscopic surgery between 1999 and 2009 were evaluated. One hundred and thirty-five DFTSs were examined. LTs were diagnosed in 104 DFTSs in 101 horses and long-term follow-up was obtained. Seventy-eight percent of the horses with a nonseptic tenosynovitis of the DFTS had a LT. Preoperative ultrasonographic examination diagnosed tears in 76% of the cases. In showjumpers forelimbs were more frequently affected than hindlimbs (88 vs. 12%), with the right front having a higher incidence of injury than the left front (76 vs. 24%). Seventy-nine percent of the tears involved the deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) and 87% were located on the lateral tendon border. Thirty-seven horses (38%) returned to an equal or higher level of work. The use of a radiofrequency probe (coblation) was associated with a lower level of performance and decreased the cosmetic end result. Persistence of marked post operative distension of the DFTS carried a poor prognosis for return to previous level of work. A guarded prognosis for future soundness should be given to horses presented for treatment of LTs of the digital flexor tendons. The use of coblation wands had a negative effect on the final outcome. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.
Farhat, Youssef M.; Al-Maliki, Alaa A.; Easa, Anas; O’Keefe, Regis J.; Schwarz, Edward M.; Awad, Hani A.
Flexor tendon injuries caused by deep lacerations to the hands are a challenging problem as they often result in debilitating adhesions that prevent the movement of the afflicted fingers. Evidence exists that tendon adhesions as well as scarring throughout the body are largely precipitated by the pleiotropic growth factor, TGF-β1, but the effects of TGF-β1 are poorly understood in tendon healing. Using an in vitro model of tendon healing, we previously found that TGF-β1 causes gene expression changes in tenocytes that are consistent with scar tissue and adhesion formation, including upregulation of the anti-fibrinolytic protein, PAI-1. Therefore, we hypothesized that TGF-β1 contributes to scarring and adhesions by reducing the activity of proteases responsible for ECM degradation and remodeling, such as plasmin and MMPs, via upregulation of PAI-1. To test our hypothesis, we examined the effects of TGF-β1 on the protease activity of tendon cells. We found that flexor tendon tenocytes treated with TGF-β1 had significantly reduced levels of active MMP-2 and plasmin. Interestingly, the effects of TGF-β1 on protease activity were completely abolished in tendon cells from homozygous PAI-1 KO mice, which are unable to express PAI-1. Our findings support the hypothesis that TGF-β1 induces PAI-1, which suppresses plasmin and plasmin-mediated MMP activity, and provide evidence that PAI-1 may be a novel therapeutic target for preventing adhesions and promoting a scarless, regenerative repair of flexor tendon injuries. PMID:24962629
Hashimoto, Ken; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki; Suzuki, Takane; Hiwatari, Ryo; Matsuura, Yusuke; Takahashi, Kazuhisa
To compare the mechanical properties of sliding lengthening (SL) and Z-lengthening (ZL) for flexor tendon elongation used for conditions such as Volkmann contracture, cerebral palsy, and poststroke spasticity. We harvested 56 flexor tendons, including flexor pollicis longus tendons, flexor digitorum superficialis tendons (zones II to IV), and flexor digitorum profundus tendons (zones II to V) from 24 upper limbs of 12 fresh cadavers. Each tendon was harvested together with its homonymous tendon from the opposite side of the cadaver and paired. We used 28 pairs of tendons and divided them randomly into 4 groups depending on the lengthening distance (20 or 30 mm) and type of stitching (single or double mattress sutures). Then we divided each pair into either the SL or ZL group. Each group was composed of 7 specimens. The same surgeon lengthened all tendons and stitched them with 2-0 polyester sutures. We tested biomechanical tensile strength immediately after completing lengthening and suturing in each group. Ultimate tensile strengths were: 23 N for the SL 20-mm lengthening and single mattress suture and 7 N for the ZL; 25 N for the SL 20-mm lengthening and double mattress suture and 10 N for the ZL; 15 N for the SL 30-mm lengthening and single mattress suture and 8 N for the ZL; and 18 N for the SL 30-mm lengthening and double mattress suture and 10 N for the ZL. The SL technique may be a good alternative to the ZL technique because it provides higher ultimate tensile strength. Because of its higher ultimate tensile strength, the SL technique may allow for earlier rehabilitation and reduced risk of postoperative complications. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bottagisio, Marta; Lovati, Arianna B
Tendon is a connective tissue mainly composed of collagen fibers with peculiar mechanical properties essential to functional movements. The increasing incidence of tendon traumatic injuries and ruptures-associated or not with the loss of tissue-falls on the growing interest in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The use of animal models is mandatory to deepen the knowledge of the tendon healing response to severe damages or acute transections. Thus, the selection of preclinical models is crucial to ensure a successful translation of effective and safe innovative treatments to the clinical practice. The current review is focused on animal models of tendon ruptures and lacerations or defective injuries with large tissue loss that require surgical approaches or grafting procedures. Data published between 2000 and 2016 were examined. The analyzed articles were compiled from Pub Med-NCBI using search terms, including animal model(s) AND tendon augmentation OR tendon substitute(s) OR tendon substitution OR tendon replacement OR tendon graft(s) OR tendon defect(s) OR tendon rupture(s). This article presents the existing preclinical models - considering their advantages and disadvantages-in which translational progresses have been made by using bioactive sutures or tissue engineering that combines biomaterials with cells and growth factors to efficiently treat transections or large defects of Achilles and flexor tendons.
Thorfinn, J; Angelidis, I K; Gigliello, L; Pham, H M; Lindsey, D; Chang, J
Tissue-engineered rabbit flexor tendons reseeded with cells are stronger in vitro after culture in a bioreactor. It is not known whether this effect persists in vivo. Tenocytes from New Zealand white rabbits were seeded onto rabbit rear paw flexor tendons that were deprived of cells and exposed to cyclic strain in a bioreactor. Reseeded constructs that were kept unloaded in a medium for 5 days were used as controls. The tendons were implanted to bridge a zone II defect in the rabbit. After explantation 4 weeks later, the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elastic modulus (EM) were determined. Tendon constructs that were exposed to cyclic strain had significantly improved UTS and EM. Histology showed that cellularity was increased in the bioreactor tendons.
Du, Jun-feng; Zhu, Yang-yi
To explore the clinical effect of interference screw and flexor hallucis longus tendon as augmentation material in repair of chronic Achilles tendon rupture. From September 2010 to June 2012,26 patients with chronic Achilles tendon rupture were treated, including 18 males and 8 females with an average age of 44.2 years old (20 to 66 years old). All patients were unilateral damage. MRI showed the Achilles tendon.ends' distance was 6.0 to 9.0 cm. The postoperative complications were observed. The curative effect was assessed by American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society and Leppilahti score. All the 26 patients were followed up for 18 to 68 months (means 30.4 months). No neurological injury and infection of incision occurred, all patients were stage I incision healing. The shape and function of the ankle were recovered well. The average AOFAS score increased from 52.27±12.30 preoperatively to 90.92±6.36 postoperatively. Leppilahti Achilles Tendon Repair score increased from 34.23±12.86 preoperatively to 90.00±5.10 postoperatively. The flexor hallucis tendon transfer with an interference screw technique for repairing the chronic Achilles tendon rupture of type IV of Kuwada had advantages of simple operation, quick recovery, firm tendon fixation, and less complications.
Newmeyer, William L; Manske, Paul R
New surgical procedures, novel concepts, and/or the presentation of very good results with an apparently discredited technique meet varying degrees of resistance among the establishment of any profession. In hand surgery this phenomenon was exemplified in a striking fashion with the presentation of a controversial report entitled, "Primary repair of flexor tendons in no man's land" by Kleinert, Kutz, Ashbell, and Martinez of Louisville, KY, at the 1967 American Society for Surgery of the Hand (ASSH) annual meeting. The discussant, Joseph Boyes, expressed such skepticism that a special ASSH committee was appointed to go to Louisville and review the results to determine if they were as good as claimed. They were, and today primary flexor tendon repair is the procedure of choice for most flexor tendon lacerations.
Van Demark, Robert E; Helsper, Elizabeth; Hayes, Meredith; Hayes, Matthew; Smith, Vanessa J S
Flexor tendon ruptures in the wrist are uncommon. Flexor carpi radialis (FCR) tendon rupture can occur in rheumatoid patients, following cortisone injection for tenosynovitis, and following trauma. Following tendon rupture, tethering of the ruptured FCR tendon, or pseudotendon, can form which may or may not be symptomatic. A literature review was done reviewing treatment and outcomes of FCR tendon lesions. A case report of painful FCR pseudotendon following a fall is presented. The patient presented 4 months after injury with a tender lump 6 cm proximal to the wrist joint with pain and weakness aggravated with wrist motion and gripping. The literature review reveals operative excision of a symptomatic FCR pseudotendon lesion results in great patient satisfaction with no morbidity. In this case report, in spite of conservative measures including cortisone injection and activity modification, the patient had persistent symptoms. The patient proceeded with surgery for complete excision of both the painful pseudotendon and retracted FCR tendon stump. Post-operatively, his wrist motion and grip strength returned to normal, and his Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score was significantly improved from 72 to 9. FCR pseudotendon is an uncommon condition and can be seen following trauma. Majority of FCR tendon ruptures resolve with non-operative treatment. Based on the excellent outcomes following complete FCR tendon harvest for thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint reconstruction, complete excision of a symptomatic pseudotendon results in excellent relief of symptoms with no long-term morbidity.
Hunter, Barbara G; Semevolos, Stacy A
A 2-year-old male Suri alpaca was referred for evaluation of severe right forelimb lameness of 2 weeks' duration following a traumatic episode. Examination of the distal aspect of the metacarpus revealed 4 wounds exuding purulent material. On weight bearing, the metacarpophalangeal joint was severely hyperextended with the palmar surface touching the ground. Ultrasonography of the palmar surface of the metacarpus revealed desmitis of the proximal suspensory ligament, a large core lesion of the deep digital flexor tendon at mid-metacarpus, and complete loss of fiber pattern within the deep digital flexor tendon and lateral aspect of the superficial digital flexor tendon distally. The alpaca was treated systemically with antimicrobials and anti-inflammatory drugs and underwent repeated antimicrobial intraosseous regional limb perfusion. A bandage and splint were applied to stabilize the affected forelimb in an anatomically correct position, and the alpaca underwent prolonged stall confinement. At the time of hospital discharge 5 days after initial evaluation, clinical evidence of infection at the wound sites was absent. Three months following treatment, the alpaca was moving freely in a small paddock and had moderate hyperextension of the metacarpophalangeal joint. Treatment of septic flexor tendonitis and suspensory desmitis with antimicrobial intraosseous regional limb perfusion in combination with systemic treatment with antimicrobials and orthopedic support resulted in an excellent outcome in this alpaca. Antimicrobial intraosseous regional limb perfusion is simple to perform and has the potential to be beneficial in the treatment of infections in the distal portion of a limb in camelids.
Savage, Robert; Tang, Jin Bo
Multistrand core suture repairs have become the mainstay of digital flexor tendon repair in recent decades. Here we briefly describe the history of the development of these multistrand repair methods and their correct nomenclature. A historical account, their evolution, the correct use of nomenclature, and some technical points are reviewed.
Summary: The Saint John Protocol describes a rehabilitation program of up to half a fist of protected true active finger flexion beginning 3 to 5 days after flexor tendon repair. We no longer use full fist place and hold. We illustrate with film and text the reasons for these changes. PMID:27975032
Pritsch, Tamir; Wong, Corrine; Sammer, Douglas M
To determine whether hand surgeons could accurately and consistently estimate the size of partial flexor tendon lacerations. Thirty-two partial flexor tendon lacerations were made in the flexor digitorum profundus tendons of a fresh-frozen cadaveric hand. Four hand surgeons and 5 residents estimated the size of the lacerations. Estimates were repeated 3 days later. Magnified images of the laceration cross-section were used to calculate the true size of each laceration. Inter- and intrarater reliability were calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient. Accuracy was measured with the mean bias error and the mean absolute error. Interrater and intrarater reliabilities were both high. There was a high level of consistency for both surgeons and residents. In terms of accuracy, there was a 3% bias toward underestimation. The mean absolute error was 11%. There was no statistically significant difference between the accuracy of attending hand surgeons and that of residents. Participants were less accurate when estimating lacerations close to a 60% laceration threshold for surgical repair (lacerations in the 50%-70% range). For lacerations within this range, an incorrect management decision would have been made 17% of the time, compared with 7% of the time for lacerations outside that range. The accuracy and reliability of surgeon estimates of partial flexor tendon laceration size were high for surgeons and residents. Accuracy was lower for lacerations close to the threshold for repair. Visual estimation is acceptable for evaluating partial flexor tendon lacerations, but it may be less reliable for lacerations near the threshold for repair. Therefore, surgeons should be cautious when deciding whether or not to repair partial lacerations in the borderline range. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Durgam, Sushmitha S; Stewart, Allison A; Sivaguru, Mayandi; Wagoner Johnson, Amy J; Stewart, Matthew C
Tendinitis is a common and a performance-limiting injury in athletes. This study describes the value of intralesional tendon-derived progenitor cell (TDPC) injections in equine flexor tendinitis. Collagenase-induced tendinitis was created in both front superficial digital flexor (SDF) tendons. Four weeks later, the forelimb tendon lesions were treated with 1 × 10(7) autogenous TDPCs or saline. Tendinitis was also induced by collagenase in one hind SDF tendon, to study the survival and distribution of DiI-labeled TDPCs 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks after injection. The remaining normal tendon was used as a "control." Twelve weeks after forelimb TDPC injections, tendons were harvested for assessment of matrix gene expression, biochemical, biomechanical, and histological characteristics. DiI-labeled TDPCs were abundant 1 week after injection but gradually declined over time and were undetectable after 6 weeks. Twelve weeks after TDPC injection, collagens I and III, COMP and tenomodulin mRNA levels were similar (p = 0.3) in both TDPC and saline groups and higher (p < 0.05) than normal tendon. Yield and maximal stresses of the TDPC group were significantly greater (p = 0.005) than the saline group's and similar (p = 0.6) to normal tendon. However, the elastic modulus of the TDPC and saline groups were not significantly different (p = 0.32). Histological assessment of the repair tissues with Fourier transform-second harmonic generation imaging demonstrated that collagen alignment was significantly better (p = 0.02) in TDPC group than in the saline controls. In summary, treating collagenase-induced flexor tendon lesions with TDPCs improved the tensile strength and collagen fiber alignment of the repair tissue. Study Design © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:2162-2171, 2016. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bartle, B K; Telepun, G M; Goldberg, N H
Reconstruction or replacement of the damaged pulley is a difficult surgical problem because of the need to find suitable biological material, the bulkiness of the repair, and adhesion formation between the pulley and flexor tendons. Therefore, a method was developed to reconstruct the fibro-osseous pulleys with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane. Twenty White Leghorn chickens had the A3 pulley of the long digit excised; this was followed by a standard injury to the flexor profundus tendon. The A3 pulley was then reconstructed with PTFE membrane. In the opposite foot, the A3 pulley was transected laterally, the tendon injured in the same manner, and the native pulley sutured. Seven control chickens had a PTFE pulley reconstruction without tendon injury in one foot and the opposite foot did not undergo surgery. At postoperative days 0, 21, and 35, the animals were killed to evaluate the effectiveness of the PTFE pulleys. Flexor tendon function was assessed by determining the active range of motion of the digit. There was no significant difference between the PTFE pulleys and suture repair of the native pulleys at postoperative days 21 and 35. This indicates that the PTFE pulleys were capable of preventing tendon bow-stringing and did not significantly impair tendon gliding. The breaking strength of the PTFE pulley was less than that of the normal A3 pulleys, but it was sufficient to allow immediate mobilization of the digits postoperatively without fear of pulley rupture. The synthetic PTFE pulley appears to have the potential to function as an effective immediate replacement for the fibro-osseous pulleys.
Gabra, Joseph N.; Gordon, Joshua L.; Marquardt, Tamara L.; Li, Zong-Ming
The transverse carpal ligament (TCL) is a component of the flexor pulley system of the wrist, keeping the flexor tendons in place by resisting their volar displacement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vivo biomechanical interaction between the TCL and flexor tendons in response to tendon tensioning with the wrist at various postures. In eight healthy subjects, the flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus tendons were tensioned by isometrically applying loads (5, 10, and 15 N) to the index finger while the wrist posture was at 20° extension, neutral, 20° flexion, and 40° flexion. The TCL and flexor tendons were imaged at the distal carpal tunnel cross section using ultrasound. The volar-dorsal positions of the tendons, TCL arch height, and TCL-tendon distances were calculated. With increasing wrist flexion, the flexor tendons moved volarly, the TCL arch height increased, and the TCL-tendon distances decreased, indicating that the flexor tendons contacted the TCL and pushed it volarly. The TCL-tendon interaction was amplified by the combination of finger loading and wrist flexion. This study provides in vivo evidence of the biomechanical interaction between the TCL and flexor tendons. Repetitive TCL-tendon interactions may implicate the interacting tissues and the median nerve resulting in tissue maladaptation and nerve compression. PMID:27401044
Gabra, Joseph N; Gordon, Joshua L; Marquardt, Tamara L; Li, Zong-Ming
The transverse carpal ligament (TCL) is a component of the flexor pulley system of the wrist, keeping the flexor tendons in place by resisting their volar displacement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vivo biomechanical interaction between the TCL and flexor tendons in response to tendon tensioning with the wrist at various postures. In eight healthy subjects, the flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus tendons were tensioned by isometrically applying loads (5, 10, and 15N) to the index finger while the wrist posture was at 20° extension, neutral, 20° flexion, and 40° flexion. The TCL and flexor tendons were imaged at the distal carpal tunnel cross section using ultrasound. The volar-dorsal positions of the tendons, TCL arch height, and TCL-tendon distances were calculated. With increasing wrist flexion, the flexor tendons moved volarly, the TCL arch height increased, and the TCL-tendon distances decreased, indicating that the flexor tendons contacted the TCL and pushed it volarly. The TCL-tendon interaction was amplified by the combination of finger loading and wrist flexion. This study provides in vivo evidence of the biomechanical interaction between the TCL and flexor tendons. Repetitive TCL-tendon interactions may implicate the interacting tissues and the median nerve resulting in tissue maladaptation and nerve compression.
Thomopoulos, Stavros; Zampiakis, Emmanouil; Das, Rosalina; Silva, Matthew J; Gelberman, Richard H
Previous tendon and ligament studies have demonstrated a role for mechanical loading in tissue homeostasis and healing. In uninjured musculoskeletal tissues, increased loading leads to an increase in mechanical properties, whereas decreased loading leads to a decrease in mechanical properties. The role of loading on healing tissues is less clear. We studied tendon-to-bone healing in a canine flexor tendon-to-bone injury and repair model. To examine the effect of muscle loading on tendon-to-bone healing, repaired tendons were either cut proximally (unloaded group) to remove all load from the distal phalanx repair site or left intact proximally (loaded group). All paws were casted postoperatively and subjected to daily passive motion rehabilitation. Specimens were tested to determine functional properties, biomechanical properties, repair-site gapping, and bone mineral density. Loading across the repair site led to improved functional and biomechanical properties (e.g., stiffness for the loaded group was 8.2 +/- 3.9 versus 5.1 +/- 2.5 N/mm for the unloaded group). Loading did not affect bone mineral density or gapping. The formation of a gap between the healing tendon and bone correlated with failure properties. Using a clinically relevant model of flexor tendon injury and repair, we found that muscle loading was beneficial to healing. Complete removal of load by proximal transection resulted in tendon-to-bone repairs with less range of motion and lower biomechanical properties compared to repairs in which the muscle-tendon-bone unit was left intact.
Koren, Lior; Stahl, Shalom; Rovitsky, Alexey; Peled, Eli
Amputation of fingers with tendon avulsion occurs through a traction injury, and most occur through a ring avulsion mechanism. Usually the flexor digitorum profundus is torn out with the amputated finger. Replantation usually is recommended only when the amputation is distal to the flexor digitorum superficialis insertion. Animal bites are relatively common, with a decreasing order of frequency of dogs, cats, and humans. Horse bites are relatively infrequent but are associated with crush injuries and tissue loss when they occur. This article describes a 23-year-old man with amputation of his middle finger at the level of the proximal phalanx after being bitten by a horse. The amputated stump was avulsed with the middle finger flexor digitorum profundus and flexor digitorum superficialis torn from the muscle-tendon junction from approximately the middle of the forearm. The patient had no other injuries, and he was able to move his other 4 fingers with only mild pain. As the amputated digit was not suitable for replantation, the wound was irrigated and debrided. The edges of the phalanx were trimmed, and the edges of the wound were sutured. Tetanus toxoid and rabies vaccine were administered, along with intravenous amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. The patient was discharged from the hospital 2 days later, with no sign of infection of the wound or compartment syndrome of the forearm. This case demonstrates the weakest point in the myotendinous junction and emphasizes the importance of a careful physical examination in patients with a traumatic amputation. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.
Rouhani, Alireza; Tabrizi, Ali; Ghavidel, Ehsan
Background: Peritendinous adhesions after repairing an injury to the digital flexor tendons are a major problem in hand surgery. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy may affect tendon healing and the development of peritendinous adhesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate ibuprofen effect in patients function after flexor tendon surgical repair. Method: Thirty-five patients, who had sharp-edge lacerations of hand-zone II requiring flexor tendons repair, participated in this randomized double-blind clinical trial study. The patients were randomly classified into two parallel and matched groups (21 patients in the intervention group and 14 patients in the control group). The groups were matched considering age, gender, and laceration size. The control group received a placebo with the same appearance and dosage. In the intervention group, ibuprofen was prescribed at a high dosage (2400 mg/day). The range of motion improvement rate of the involved fingers and the patients’ performance after their follow-up period were compared. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups for range of motion of the involved finger joints (P=0.03). According to the DASH score, there was a statistically significant difference between the final performance of the patients, such that it was 11±2.4 and 18.4±6.3 in the intervention and control groups, respectively (P=0.01). There was not any case of re-tear or need to re-operate in the intervention and control groups. Conclusion: Our findings reveal that ibuprofen with an anti-inflammatory dose was effective in improving the range of motion of the involved fingers joints after flexor tendon injury. PMID:25207280
Nunley, J A; Levin, L S; Devito, D; Goldner, R D; Urbaniak, J R
Between 1976 and 1986, 38 consecutive acute isolated flexor pollicis longus lacerations were repaired. This study excluded all replanted or mutilated digits and all lacerations with associated fracture. Average follow-up was 26 months. Tendon rehabilitation was standardized. Range of motion and pinch strength were measured postoperatively. Seventy-four percent (28/38) of the flexor pollicis longus injuries occurred in zone II. Neurovascular injury occurred in 82% of the lacerations, and this correlated with the zone of tendon injury. In 21% of the patients (8/38) both digital nerves and arteries were transected. Postoperative thumb interphalangeal motion averaged 35 degrees and key pinch strength was 81% that of the uninjured thumb. One rupture occurred in a child. Laceration of the flexor pollicis longus is likely to involve damage to neurovascular structures, and repair may be necessary. Direct end-to-end repairs within the pulley system do at least as well as delayed tendon reconstruction and do not require additional procedures.
Tsubone, Tetsu; Moran, Steven L; Amadio, Peter C; Zhao, Chunfeng; An, Kai-Nan
Growth factors, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), epidermal growth factor (EGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), are critical components of the cutaneous wound healing process. Little is known, however, about the expression of these growth factors in normal flexor tendon healing. In this study, we wished to examine which of these growth factors are present at 10 days following tendon injury in a canine flexor tendon repair model. Using immunohistochemical analysis, we found positive staining for all growth factors in both timing groups. TGF-beta was detected around the repair site and proximal to it. PDGF-AA, PDGF-BB and VEGF appeared in the whole tendon section following repair. EGF, IGF and bFGF were not seen in tenocytes but were present in inflammatory cells surrounding the repair site. These findings provide evidence that TGF-beta, EGF, PDGF-AA, PDGF-BB, IGF, bFGF and VEGF are all expressed at 10 days after tendon injury but by different cell types and in different locations. The time course of growth factor expression is an important element in wound healing, and a better understanding of where and when such factors are expressed may help in the development of methods to manipulate this expression, accelerate healing, and reduce adhesions.
Ayad, K. E.; El Gohary, H. M.; Abd Elrahman, M.; Abd El Mejeed, S. F.; Bekheet, A. B.
Flexor tendon injury is a common problem requiring suturing repair followed by early postoperative mobilization. Muscle atrophy, joint stiffness, osteoarthritis, infection, skin necrosis, ulceration of joint cartilage and tendocutaneous adhesion are familiar complications produced by prolonged immobilization of surgically repaired tendon ruptures. The purpose of this study was to clarify the importance of low level laser therapy after hand flexor tendon repair in zone II. Thirty patients aging between 20 and 40 years were divided into two groups. Patients in group A (n = 15) received a conventional therapeutic exercise program while patients in group B (n = 15) received low level laser therapy combined with the same therapeutic exercise program. The results showed a statistically significant increase in total active motion of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints as well as maximum hand grip strength at three weeks and three months postoperative, but improvement was more significant in group B. It was concluded that the combination of low level laser therapy and early therapeutic exercises was more effective than therapeutic exercises alone in improving total active motion of proximal and distal interphalangeal joints and hand grip strength after hand flexor tendon repair.
Ayad, K. E.; Abd El Mejeed, S. F.; El Gohary, H. M.; Abd Elrahman, M.; Bekheet, A. B.
Flexor tendon injury is a common problem requiring suturing repair followed by early postoperative mobilization. Muscle atrophy, joint stiffness, osteoarthritis, infection, skin necrosis, ulceration of joint cartilage and tendocutaneous adhesion are familiar complications produced by prolonged immobilization of surgically repaired tendon ruptures. The purpose of this study was to clarify the importance of low level laser therapy after hand flexor tendon repair in zone II. Thirty patients aging between 20 and 40 years were divided into two groups. Patients in group A (n = 15) received a conventional therapeutic exercise program while patients in group B (n = 15) received low level laser therapy combined with the same therapeutic exercise program. The results showed a statistically significant increase in total active motion of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints as well as maximum hand grip strength at three weeks and three months postoperative, but improvement was more significant in group B. It was concluded that the combination of low level laser therapy and early therapeutic exercises was more effective than therapeutic exercises alone in improving total active motion of proximal and distal interphalangeal joints and hand grip strength after hand flexor tendon repair.
Barker, B Justin; Kolovich, Gregory P; Klinefelter, Ryan D
Accurate assessment of partial-thickness flexor tendon lacerations in the hand is difficult owing to the subjectivity of evaluation. In this study, we created 12 partial-thickness flexor tendon lacerations in a cadaveric hand, evaluated the accuracy of 6 orthopedic residents and 4 fellowship-trained hand surgeons in estimating the percentage thickness of each laceration, and assessed the groups' interobserver and intraobserver agreement. The 10 participants estimated each laceration independently and on 2 separate occasions and indicated whether they would repair it. The actual thickness of each laceration was calculated from measurements made with a pair of digital microcalipers. Overall estimates differed significantly from calibrated measurements. Estimates grouped by residents and fellowship-trained hand surgeons also differed significantly. Third-year residents were the most accurate residents, and fellowship-trained hand surgeons were more accurate than residents. Overall interobserver agreement was poor for both readings. There was moderate overall intraobserver agreement. Fellowship-trained hand surgeons and first-year residents had the highest intraobserver agreement. These results highlight the difficulty in accurately assessing flexor tendon lacerations. Accuracy appears not to improve with surgeon experience.
Korstanje, Jan-Wiebe H; Soeters, Johannes N M; Schreuders, Ton A R; Amadio, Peter C; Hovius, Steven E R; Stam, Henk J; Selles, Ruud W
Different mobilization protocols have been proposed for rehabilitation after hand flexor tendon repair to provide tendon excursion sufficient to prevent adhesions. Several cadaver studies have shown that the position of the neighboring fingers influences tendon excursions of the injured finger. We hypothesized that the positions of adjacent fingers influence the long finger flexor digitorum profundus tendon excursion, measured both absolutely and relative to the surrounding tissue of the tendon. Long finger flexor digitorum profundus tendon excursions and surrounding tissue movement were measured in zone V in eleven healthy subjects during three different rehabilitation protocols and two experimental models: (1) an active four-finger mobilization protocol, (2) a passive four-finger mobilization protocol, (3) a modified Kleinert mobilization protocol, (4) an experimental modified Kleinert flexion mobilization model, and (5) an experimental modified Kleinert extension mobilization model. Tendon excursions were measured with use of a frame-to-frame analysis of high-resolution ultrasound images. The median absolute long finger flexor digitorum profundus tendon excursions were 23.4, 17.8, 10.0, 13.9, and 7.6 mm for the active four-finger mobilization protocol, the passive four-finger mobilization protocol, the modified Kleinert mobilization protocol, the experimental modified Kleinert flexion mobilization model, and the experimental modified Kleinert extension mobilization model, respectively, and these differences were all significant (p ≤ 0.041). The corresponding relative flexor digitorum profundus tendon excursions were 11.2, 8.5, 7.2, 10.4, and 5.6 mm. Active four-finger mobilization protocol excursions were significantly (p = 0.013) greater than passive four-finger mobilization protocol excursions but were not significantly greater than experimental modified Kleinert flexion mobilization model excursions (p =0.213). The present study demonstrated large and
Thomopoulos, Stavros; Zampiakis, Emmanouil; Das, Rosalina; Silva, Matthew J.; Gelberman, Richard H.
SUMMARY Previous tendon and ligament studies demonstrated a role for mechanical loading in tissue homeostasis and healing. In uninjured musculoskeletal tissues, increased loading leads to an increase in mechanical properties, while decreased loading leads to a decrease in properties. The role of loading on healing tissues is less clear. We studied tendon-to-bone healing in a canine flexor tendon-to-bone injury and repair model. To examine the effect of muscle loading on healing, repaired tendons were either cut proximally to remove all load from the distal phalanx repair site (unloaded group) or left intact proximally (loaded group). All paws were cast post-operatively and subjected to daily passive motion rehabilitation. Specimens were tested to determine functional properties, biomechanical properties, repair-site gapping, and bone mineral density. Loading across the repair site led to improved functional and biomechanical properties (e.g., stiffness for the loaded group was 8.2 ± 3.9 vs. 5.1 ± 2.5 N/mm for the unloaded group). Loading did not affect bone mineral density or gapping. The formation of a gap between the healing tendon and bone correlated with failure properties. Using a clinically relevant model of flexor tendon injury and repair, we found that muscle loading was beneficial to healing. Complete removal of load by proximal transection resulted in tendon-to-bone repairs with less range of motion and lower biomechanical properties compared to repairs in which the muscle-tendon-bone unit was left intact. PMID:18524009
Yamazaki, H; Kato, H; Hata, Y; Nakatsuchi, Y; Tsuchikane, A
We analysed 21 patients with closed rupture of the flexor tendons caused by carpal bone and joint disorders. The tendon that ruptured depended on the location of the bone perforation into the carpal tunnel. Radiocarpal arthrography was performed in 13 patients and capsular perforation was demonstrated by contrast medium leakage into the carpal canal in 11 patients. This proved a useful diagnostic test. The flexor tendon(s) were reconstructed with free tendon graft in 17 patients, cross-over transfer of flexor tendons from adjacent digits in two and buddying to an adjacent flexor tendon in one patient. Postoperative total active range of motion in the fingers after 13 free tendon graft reconstructions averaged 213 degrees (range 170-265 degrees ). The active range of motion of the thumb-interphalangeal joint after free tendon graft reconstruction in three cases improved from 0 degrees to 33 degrees on average (range 10 degrees -40 degrees ).
Megerle, Kai; Woon, Colin; Kraus, Armin; Raghavan, Shyam; Pham, Hung; Chang, James
The flexor tendon sheath is an ideal target for tissue engineering because it is difficult to reconstruct by conventional surgical methods. The authors hypothesized that decellularized porcine pericardium can be used as a scaffold for engineering a biologically active tendon sheath. The authors' protocol removed cellular material from the pericardium and preserved the structural architecture in addition to the collagen and glycosaminoglycan content. The scaffold was successfully reseeded with human sheath synoviocytes and human adipose-derived stem cells. Cells were evaluated for 8 weeks after reseeding. The reseeded construct demonstrated continuous production of hyaluronic acid, the main component of synovial fluid. After being seeded on the membrane, adipose-derived stem cells demonstrated down-regulation of collagen I and III and up-regulation of hyaluronan synthase 2. The results indicate that decellularized porcine pericardium may be a potential scaffold for engineering a biologically active human tendon sheath.
Suganuma, Seigo; Tada, Kaoru; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki
We have proposed that a positive tendon irritation test is suggestive of flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon damage that can lead to tendon rupture after volar plate fixation for distal radius fractures. We investigated cases of postsurgical hardware removal and validated the tendon irritation test as a way to elicit a sign of FPL tendon irritation. We performed hardware removal from 30 wrists in 28 consecutive patients after volar plate fixation. Subjects included 9 men and 19 women with an average age of 58.8 years. The duration of internal fixation averaged 14.5 months. We investigated the efficacy of the tendon irritation test to elicit a sign of tendon irritation before hardware removal, and we intraoperatively evaluated the presence of FPL tendon injuries. Twenty-four of 30 wrists exhibited a sign of tendon irritation. There was no statistical correlation between a sign of tendon irritation and patient age or the duration of internal fixation. We diagnosed 10 wrists with tenosynovitis and 8 frayed tendons. The sensitivity of the tendon irritation test to identify a sign of tendon irritation that was associated with FPL tendon injuries was 80.0%, and its specificity to correctly identify non-injured FPL tendons was 40.0%. The duration of internal fixation associated with tendon fraying was significantly longer than it was in cases of non-injured tendons and tenosynovitis. Our results suggest that subsequent examinations should be performed when the tendon irritation test is positive for signs of tendon irritation that may require plate removal.
Felder, Jerrod J; Guseila, Loredana M; Saranathan, Archana; Shary, Timothy J; Lippitt, Steven B; Elias, John J
The current study was performed to determine the strength and rigidity of the intact flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon attachment and compare the rigidity at the attachment site to the rigidity within a more proximal part of the tendon. Eight cadaveric index fingers were tested to failure of the FDP tendon. Lines were drawn on each tendon with India ink stain at the position of the attachment to bone and 5 mm and 10 mm proximally. Each test was recorded using a high resolution video camera. A minimum of six images per test were used for analysis of tissue deformation. The centroid of each line was computationally identified to characterize the deformation of the tendon between the lines. Force vs. deformation curves were generated for the 5 mm region representing the tendon attachment and the 5 mm region adjacent to the attachment. Stiffness measurements were generated for each curve, and normalized by the initial length to determine the rigidity. The failure strength ranged from 263 N to 548 N, with rigidity values ranging from 2201 N/(mm/mm) to 8714 N/(mm/mm) and from 3459 N/(mm/mm) to 6414 N/(mm/mm) for the attachment and the tendon proximal to the attachment, respectively. The rigidity did not vary significantly between the attachment and proximal tendon based on a Wilcoxon signed rank test (p = 0.2). The measured strength and rigidity establish biomechanical properties for the FDP tendon attachment to bone.
Fraser, B S L; Bladon, B M
Lacerations to the digital flexor tendon sheath (DFTS) are a common injury in the horse, but little information is available in the literature regarding prognostic indicators. To ascertain whether laceration of the DFTS carried a better prognosis if treated by tenoscopic lavage, debridement and repair within 36 h of the original injury. A retrospective analysis of 39 horses treated surgically for lacerations to the DFTS was performed over a 3 year period. The injury-to-surgery interval was recorded as <36 or >36 h. The structures damaged by the injury were also recorded, as well as age, sex, use and outcome. Sixteen horses had laceration and contamination of the DFTS alone, of which 15 (94%) returned to their original or intended use. Sixteen horses had lacerations involving the superficial digital flexor tendon, of which 12 (75%) made a full recovery. Six horses had lacerations to both superficial and deep digital flexor tendons, 5 were subjected to euthanasia intraoperatively and one is paddock sound. Treatment within 36 h of initial laceration carried a significantly better prognosis for return to intended athletic use (25 of 28 horses allowed to recover from anaesthesia) than treatment after 36 h (2 of 5 P = 0.03; Fisher's Exact Test). If sepsis is treated early using tenoscopic visualisation, lavage and repositol antibiotics, the limiting factor in return to athletic function is tendon damage. This study supports anecdotal evidence that early treatment of synovial sepsis improves the prognosis for return to intended use. It also provides information on prognostic indicators including extent of damage to collateral structures.
Ostric, Srdjan Andrei; Russell, Robert C; Petrungaro, Jason
Zone III flexor tendon injuries are relatively rare in comparison to other flexor tendon injuries in zones I, II, IV, and V. Often, these are open injuries resulting from an electrical device like a saw; however, closed injures are even rarer, and those mid-substance ruptures resulting from bowling with no evidence of underlying tendinopathy from diseases like gout are highly unusual. The principles underlying tendon repair remain the same regardless of the etiology. In this case, we delineate some of the options and stress the guiding principles of the various methods available in this interesting and unusual case.
Schmitt, Taliah; Fox, Paige M; Woon, Colin Y; Farnebo, Simon J; Bronstein, Joel A; Behn, Anthony; Pham, Hung; Chang, James
Tissue-engineered human flexor tendons may be an option to aid in reconstruction of complex upper extremity injuries with significant tendon loss. The authors hypothesize that human adipose-derived stem cells remain viable following reseeding on human tendon scaffolds in vivo and aid in graft integration. Decellularized human flexor tendons harvested from fresh-frozen cadavers and reseeded with green fluorescent protein-labeled pooled human adipose-derived stem cells were examined with bioluminescent imaging and immunohistochemistry. Reseeded repaired tendons were compared biomechanically with unseeded controls following implantation in athymic rats at 2 and 4 weeks. The ratio of collagen I to collagen III at the repair site was examined using Sirius red staining. To confirm cell migration, reseeded and unseeded tendons were placed either in contact or with a 1-mm gap for 12 days. Green fluorescent protein signal was then detected. Following reseeding, viable cells were visualized at 12 days in vitro and 4 weeks in vivo. Biomechanical testing revealed no significant difference in ultimate load to failure and 2-mm gap force. Histologic evaluation showed host cell invasion and proliferation of the repair sites. No increase in collagen III was noted in reseeded constructs. Cell migration was confirmed from reseeded constructs to unseeded tendon scaffolds with tendon contact. Human adipose-derived stem cells reseeded onto decellularized allograft scaffolds are viable over 4 weeks in vivo. The movement of host cells into the scaffold and movement of adipose-derived stem cells along and into the scaffold suggests biointegration of the allograft.
Zhao, Chunfeng; Sun, Yu-Long; Jay, Gregory D; Moran, Steven L; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C
Although post-rehabilitation is routinely performed following flexor tendon repair, in some clinical scenarios post-rehabilitation must be delayed. We investigated modification of the tendon surface using carbodiimide derivatized hyaluronic acid and lubricin (cd-HA-Lub) to maintain gliding function following flexor tendon repair with postoperative immobilization in a in vivo canine model. Flexor digitorum profundus tendons from the 2nd and 5th digits of one forepaw of six dogs were transected and repaired. One tendon in each paw was treated with cd-HA-Lub; the other repaired tendon was not treated. Following tendon repair, a forearm cast was applied to fully immobilize the operated forelimb for 10 days, after which the animals were euthanized. Digit normalized work of flexion (nWOF) and tendon gliding resistance were assessed. The nWOF of the FDP tendons treated with cd-HA-Lub was significantly lower than the nWOF of the untreated tendons (p < 0.01). The gliding resistance of cd-HA-Lub treated tendons was also significantly lower than that of the untreated tendons (p < 0.05). Surface treatment with cd-HA-Lub following flexor tendon repair provides an opportunity to improve outcomes for patients in whom the post-operative therapy must be delayed after flexor tendon repair. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.
Tat, Jimmy; Kociolek, Aaron M; Keir, Peter J
Non-inflammatory fibrosis and thickening of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) are characteristic in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients. These pathological changes have been linked to repetitive hand tasks that create shear forces between the flexor tendons and SSCT. We measured the relative motion of the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon and SSCT during two repetitive finger tasks using color Doppler ultrasound. Twelve participants performed flexion-extension cycles for 30 min with the long finger alone (differential movement) and with all four fingers together (concurrent movement). Shear strain index (SSI, a relative measure of excursion in flexion and extension) and maximum velocity ratio (MVR, the ratio of SSCT versus tendon during flexion and extension) were used to represent shear. A linear effect of exertion time was significant and corresponded with larger tendon shear in differential motion. The flexion SSI increased 20.4% from the first to the 30th minute, while MVR decreased 8.9% in flexion and 8.7% in extension. No significant changes were found during concurrent motion. These results suggest that exposure to repetitive differential finger tasks may increase the risk of shear injury in the carpal tunnel.
Kennedy, J A; Dias, J J
The optimal management of partial flexor tendon laceration is controversial and remains a clinical challenge. Abnormal tendon gliding (triggering and entrapment) was assessed at the A2 pulley in 40 turkey tendons in three groups: intact, partially divided (palmar or lateral), and trimmed. Testing was of gliding resistance and friction coefficient at 30° and 70° of flexion, loaded with 2 and 4 N. We observed for triggering and entrapment. The changes in gliding properties were compared and analysed using Wilcoxon matched pair testing. A significant difference was found in the change in gliding properties of intact to lacerated and lacerated to trimmed tendons and between tendons that glided normally compared with those exhibiting triggering or entrapment. This suggests that palmar and lateral lacerations which, through clinical examination and visualization, are found to glide normally should be treated with early mobilization. However, partial lacerations that exhibit triggering or entrapment should be trimmed. © The Author(s) 2013.
Introduction Tendon injury is a common problem in athletes, with poor tissue regeneration and a high rate of re-injury. Stem cell therapy is an attractive treatment modality as it may induce tissue regeneration rather than tissue repair. Currently, there are no reports on the use of pluripotent cells in a large animal tendon model in vivo. We report the use of intra-lesional injection of male, fetal derived embryonic-like stem cells (fdESC) that express Oct-4, Nanog, SSEA4, Tra 1-60, Tra 1-81 and telomerase. Methods Tendon injury was induced using a collagenase gel-physical defect model in the mid-metacarpal region of the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) of eight female adult Thoroughbred or Thoroughbred cross horses. Tendon lesions were treated one week later with intra-lesional injection of male derived fdESCs in media or media alone. Therapy was blinded and randomized. Serial ultrasound examinations were performed and final analysis at eight weeks included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), biochemical assays (total DNA, glycosaminoglycan, collagen), gene expression (TNC, TNMD, SCX, COL1A1, COL3A1, COMP, DCN, MMP1, MMP3, MMP13, 18S) and histology. Differences between groups were assessed with Wilcoxon's rank sum test. Results Cell survival was demonstrated via the presence of the SRY gene in fdESC treated, but not control treated, female SDFT at the end of the trial. There were no differences in tendon matrix specific gene expression or total proteoglycan, collagen or DNA of tendon lesions between groups. Tissue architecture, tendon size, tendon lesion size, and tendon linear fiber pattern were significantly improved on histologic sections and ultrasound in the fdESC treated tendons. Conclusions Such profound structural effects lend further support to the notion that pluripotent stem cells can effect musculoskeletal regeneration, rather than repair, even without in vitro lineage specific differentiation. Further investigation into the safety of
Legrand, Anais; Kaufman, Yoav; Long, Chao; Fox, Paige M
Tendon injuries are encountered after major and minor hand trauma. Despite meticulous repair technique, adhesion formation can occur, limiting recovery. Although a great deal of progress has been made toward understanding the mechanism of tendon healing and adhesions, clinically applicable solutions to prevent adhesions remain elusive. The goal of this paper is to review the most recent literature relating to the tendon healing and adhesion prevention. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Johnson, M.; Firoozbakhsh, K.; Moniem, M.; Jamshidi, M.
An SC-based multi-objective decision-making method for determining the optimal flexor-tendon repair technique from experimental and clinical survey data, and with variable circumstances, was presented. Results were compared with those from the Taguchi method. Using the Taguchi method results in the need to perform ad-hoc decisions when the outcomes for individual objectives are contradictory to a particular preference or circumstance, whereas the SC-based multi-objective technique provides a rigorous straightforward computational process in which changing preferences and importance of differing objectives are easily accommodated. Also, adding more objectives is straightforward and easily accomplished. The use of fuzzy-set representations of information categories provides insight into their performance throughout the range of their universe of discourse. The ability of the technique to provide a "best" medical decision given a particular physician, hospital, patient, situation, and other criteria was also demonstrated.
Johnson, M.; Firoozbakhsh, K.; Moniem, M.; Jamshidi, M.
An SC-based multi-objective decision-making method for determining the optimal flexor-tendon repair technique from experimental and clinical survey data, and with variable circumstances, was presented. Results were compared with those from the Taguchi method. Using the Taguchi method results in the need to perform ad-hoc decisions when the outcomes for individual objectives are contradictory to a particular preference or circumstance, whereas the SC-based multi-objective technique provides a rigorous straightforward computational process in which changing preferences and importance of differing objectives are easily accommodated. Also, adding more objectives is straightforward and easily accomplished. The use of fuzzy-set representations of information categories provides insight into their performance throughout the range of their universe of discourse. The ability of the technique to provide a "best" medical decision given a particular physician, hospital, patient, situation, and other criteria was also demonstrated.
Galvez, M G; Crowe, C; Farnebo, S; Chang, J
Tissue engineering of flexor tendons addresses a challenge often faced by hand surgeons: the restoration of function and improvement of healing with a limited supply of donor tendons. Creating an engineered tendon construct is dependent upon understanding the normal healing mechanisms of the tendon and tendon sheath. The production of a tendon construct includes: creating a three-dimensional scaffold; seeding cells within the scaffold; encouraging cellular growth within the scaffold while maintaining a gliding surface; and finally ensuring mechanical strength. An effective construct incorporates these factors in its design, with the ultimate goal of creating tendon substitutes that are readily available to the reconstructive hand surgeon.
Two-thirds of Achilles tendon injuries in competitive athletes are paratenonitis and one-fifth are insertional complaints (bursitis and insertion tendinitis). The remaining afflictions consist of pain syndromes of the myotendineal junction and tendinopathies. The majority of Achilles tendon injuries from sport occur in males, mainly because of their higher rates of participation in sport, but also with tendinopathies a gender difference is probably indicated. Athletes in running sports have a high incidence of Achilles tendon overuse injuries. About 75% of total and the majority of partial tendon ruptures are related to sports activities usually involving abrupt repetitive jumping and sprinting movements. Mechanical factors and a sedentary lifestyle play a role in the pathology of these injuries. Achilles tendon overuse injuries occur at a higher rate in older athletes than most other typical overuse injuries. Recreational athletes with a complete Achilles tendon rupture are about 15 years younger than those with other spontaneous tendon ruptures. Following surgery, about 70 to 90% of athletes have a successful comeback after Achilles tendon injury. Surgery is required in about 25% of athletes with Achilles tendon overuse injuries and the frequency of surgery increases with patient age and duration of symptoms as well as occurrence of tendinopathic changes. However, about 20% of injured athletes require a re-operation for Achilles tendon overuse injuries, and about 3 to 5% are compelled to abandon their sports career because of these injuries. Myotendineal junction pain should be treated conservatively. Partial Achilles tendon ruptures are primarily treated conservatively, although the best treatment method of chronic partial rupture seems to be surgery. Complete Achilles tendon ruptures of athletes are treated surgically, because this increases the likelihood of athletes reaching preinjury activity levels and minimises the risk of re-ruptures. Marked forefoot
Lustgarten, Meghann; Redding, W Rich; Labens, Raphael; Morgan, Michel; Davis, Weston; Seiler, Gabriela S
Tendon and ligament injuries are common causes of impaired performance in equine athletes. Gray-scale ultrasonography is the current standard method for diagnosing and monitoring these injuries, however this modality only provides morphologic information. Elastography is an ultrasound technique that allows detection and measurement of tissue strain, and may provide valuable mechanical information about equine tendon and ligament injuries. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility, reproducibility, and repeatability of elastography; and to describe elastographic characteristics of metacarpal tendons in sound horses. Nineteen legs for 17 clinically sound horses without evidence of musculoskeletal pathology were included. Elastographic images of the superficial and deep digital flexor tendons and the branches of the suspensory ligament (tendon of the interosseous muscle) were described quantitatively and qualitatively. There was no statistically significant difference between operators (P = 0.86) nor within operators (P = 0.93). For qualitative assessments, reproducibility (0.46) was moderate and repeatability (0.78) was good. Similar to human Achilles tendons, equine tendons were classified as predominantly hard using elastography. There was no statistically significant difference in stiffness of the flexor tendons (P = 0.96). No significant difference in stiffness was found with altered leg position during standing (P = 0.84) and while nonweight bearing (P = 0.61). The flexor tendons were softer when imaged in longitudinal versus transverse planes (P < 0.01) however, the suspensory branches were not (P = 0.67). Findings supported future clinical application of elastography as a noninvasive "stall-side" imaging modality for evaluation of the tendons and ligaments of the distal forelimb in horses.
Bertelli, J A
The aim of this study was to validate direct tendon palpation during agonist contraction and antagonist co-contraction as a method to assess wrist flexor and extensor muscle function in cases of upper limb paralysis. On one occasion, five doctors examined 17 patients with partial paralysis of the upper limb resulting from brachial plexus or cervical spinal cord injury. We asked examiners to determine if the extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL), extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB), extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU), flexor carpi radialis (FCR), flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) and palmaris longus (PL) were paralyzed, weak or strong in each patient. Examiners tested flexion - extension and radial - ulnar deviation against resistance and palpated wrist motor tendons. While palpating tendons, co-contractions were encouraged by soliciting finger extension to evaluate the FCU, thumb extension to evaluate the ECU, and finger flexion to evaluate the ECRB. Kappa values were 0.8 for the ECRL, 0.7 for the ECRB, 0.5 for the ECU, 0.8 for the FCR, 0.6 for the PL, and 0.8 for the FCU, indicating moderate to almost perfect agreement between examiners. Tendon palpation during muscle examination was adequate to identify complete paralysis, as well as weak and strong muscle contractions. This assessment helps to identify muscles that could be used during nerve or tendon transfer for reconstruction of extensive upper limb paralysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Lee, G J; Kwak, S; Kim, H K; Ha, S H; Lee, H J; Baek, G H
Spontaneous flexor tendon rupture is a rare condition and the aetiology is not clear. We report 12 elderly Korean farmers with spontaneous flexor tendon ruptures. We found the rupture in the dominant hand in ten patients. A rupture in the little finger was found in all 12 patients (seven with both flexor tendons ruptured and five with only the profundus ruptured), in the ring finger in four patients (the profundus ruptured in all and both flexor tendons in two patients), and in the middle finger a partial rupture of the profundus in one patient. The tendons were ruptured close to the hook of the hamate. Repetitive friction between the flexor tendons and the hamate hook may cause the ruptures. The hamate hook was excised and the ruptured profundus tendons were reconstructed with tendon transfers with quite favourable functional recovery at follow-up of 1 to 2 years. The ruptured superficialis tendons were not reconstructed. Level of Evidence IV.
Zhao, Chunfeng; Ozasa, Yasuhiro; Shimura, Haruhiko; Reisdorf, Ramona L.; Thoreson, Andrew R.; Jay, Gregory; Moran, Steven L.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.
The purpose of the study was to test a novel treatment that carbodiimide-derivatized-hyaluronic acid-lubricin (cd-HA-lubricin) combined cell-based therapy in an immobilized flexor tendon repair in a canine model. Seventy-eight flexor tendons from 39 dogs were transected. One tendon was treated with cd-HA-lubricin plus an interpositional graft of 8 × 105 BMSCs and GDF-5. The other tendon was repaired without treatment. After 21 day of immobilization, 19 dogs were sacrificed; the remaining 20 dogs underwent a 21-day rehabilitation protocol before euthanasia. The work of flexion, tendon gliding resistance, and adhesion score in treated tendons were significantly less than the untreated tendons (p < 0.05). The failure strength of the untreated tendons was higher than the treated tendons at 21 and 42 days (p < 0.05). However, there is no significant difference in stiffness between two groups at day 42. Histologic analysis of treated tendons showed a smooth surface and viable transplanted cells 42 days after the repair, whereas untreated tendons showed severe adhesion formation around the repair site. The combination of lubricant and cell treatment resulted in significantly improved digit function, reduced adhesion formation. This novel treatment can address the unmet needs of patients who are unable to commence an early mobilization protocol after flexor tendon repair. PMID:26177854
Rao, Mohandas; Somayaji, S Nagabhushana; Mishra, Snigdha; Guru, Anitha; Rao, Ashutosh
Variation in the origin of long flexor tendons in the anterior compartment of forearm is common. During routine cadaveric dissection at Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Campus), we observed a separate muscle belly and tendon of flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) to the fifth digit in the right upper limb of a 60 year-old male cadaver. The anomalous muscle belly originated from the common flexor tendon from the medial epicondyle of the humerus and continued as a thin tendon at the middle of the forearm to get inserted into the middle phalanx of the fifth digit. This can be considered as a case of split flexor digitorum superficialis. Such muscle variations and knowledge of their frequency, appearance, and location can be helpful for surgeons. PMID:28861181
Rao, Mohandas; Somayaji, S Nagabhushana; Mishra, Snigdha; Guru, Anitha; Rao, Ashutosh
Variation in the origin of long flexor tendons in the anterior compartment of forearm is common. During routine cadaveric dissection at Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Campus), we observed a separate muscle belly and tendon of flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) to the fifth digit in the right upper limb of a 60 year-old male cadaver. The anomalous muscle belly originated from the common flexor tendon from the medial epicondyle of the humerus and continued as a thin tendon at the middle of the forearm to get inserted into the middle phalanx of the fifth digit. This can be considered as a case of split flexor digitorum superficialis. Such muscle variations and knowledge of their frequency, appearance, and location can be helpful for surgeons.
Kryger, Gil S; Chong, Alphonsus K S; Costa, Melinda; Pham, Hung; Bates, Steven J; Chang, James
Tissue-engineered tendon grafts will meet an important clinical need. To engineer tendons, we used acellularized allogeneic tendon as scaffold material. To determine the ideal cell type to seed the scaffolds, we studied in vitro characteristics of epitenon tenocytes, tendon sheath fibroblasts, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), and adipoderived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs). Subsequently, we implanted reseeded acellularized tendons in vivo as flexor tendon grafts. Tenocytes, sheath fibroblasts, BMSCs, and ASCs were obtained from adult rabbits. For all cell lines, collagen 1, 2, and 3 immunocytochemistry was performed, and proliferation was assessed by hemacytometry and senescence by beta-galactosidase staining. Flexor tendons were acellularized after harvest. Tendons were assessed by histology after in vitro reseeding with each of the cell types after 1, 4, and 8 weeks. Finally, reseeded tendons and controls were implanted in a flexor profundus tendon defect. After 6 weeks, the reseeded tendons were harvested and assessed by histology. Statistical analysis for cell proliferation was performed using analysis of variance and t-tests with Bonferroni correction. All cell types had similar collagen expression. Cell proliferation was higher in ASCs in late passage compared with early passage and in ASCs compared with epitenon tenocytes at late passage. The other cell types were similar in growth characteristics. No senescence was detected. In vitro assessment of reseeded constructs showed the presence of cells on the construct surface. In vivo assessment after implantation showed viable cells seen within the tendon architecture in all cell types. This study suggests that the four cell types may be successfully used to engineer tendons. Adipoderived mesenchymal stem cells proliferate faster in cell culture, but the cell types were similar in other respects. All could be used to successfully repopulate acellularized tendon in vivo as flexor tendon grafts.
DiGiovanni, Daria L; Rademacher, Nathalie; Riggs, Laura M; Baumruck, Rebecca A; Gaschen, Lorrie
Palmar/plantar annular desmitis is a common disease that may be associated with adhesions and structures affecting the flexor tendons, which requires tenoscopy to diagnose. The purpose of this descriptive study was to develop a dynamic sonographic technique for evaluating the motion of normal equine flexor tendons in relation to the palmar/plantar annular ligament and to compare findings with horses previously diagnosed with palmar/plantar annular desmitis. Ten healthy adult horses were examined prospectively and the images of four horses diagnosed with palmar/plantar annular desmitis were retrospectively evaluated. Dynamic sonography was performed at the level of the metacarpo/metatarsophalangeal joint by maximally extending and flexing the interphalangeal joints. Palmar/plantar annular ligament thickness (mm), size of any gap between the flexor tendons, and subjectively increased angulation of the long linear echoes of the superficial digital flexor tendon were measured. The presence of gliding motion between the palmar/plantar annular ligament and superficial digital flexor tendon was determined by consensus. Twenty-eight healthy control limbs (16 hind/12 fore) and four with palmar/plantar annular desmitis (3 hind/1 fore) were evaluated. Controls had unrestricted gliding motion between the palmar/plantar annular ligament and flexor tendons and zero to 13° of angulation of the long linear echoes. The four affected horses had restricted gliding motion and between 20-35° angulation of the long linear echoes. Dynamic ultrasound is a feasible technique for detecting restricted flexor tendon and palmar/plantar annular ligament gliding motion, as well as subjectively increased angulation of the long linear echoes of the flexor tendon in affected horses compared with controls and warrants further investigation.
Lui, Tun Hing
Tenosynovial chondromatosis can occur in the flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath. Complete synovectomy and removal of the loose bodies comprise the treatment of choice. An open procedure requires extensive soft-tissue dissection because the flexor hallucis longus tendon is a deep structure except at the hallux. A tendoscopy approach to synovectomy and removal of loose bodies has the advantage of minimally invasive surgery. This technical note outlines pearls and pitfalls and provides a step-by-step guide to performing this procedure.
Schon, Lew C; Shores, Jennifer L; Faro, Frances D; Vora, Anand M; Camire, Lyn M; Guyton, Gregory P
In patients with Achilles tendinosis, Achilles tendon debridement can be supplemented with flexor hallucis longus tendon transfer. Outcomes have not been studied prospectively in older, sedentary, and overweight patients. Fifty-eight consecutive limbs in fifty-six consecutive older, sedentary patients with insertional or midsubstance Achilles tendinosis were enrolled prospectively and underwent the procedure. Ten patients were lost to follow-up, leaving forty-eight limbs in forty-six patients available for evaluation after twenty-four months. The forty-six patients who were included in the study had an average age of 54 ± 10 years with an average body mass index of 33.8 ± 6.8 kg/m². Significant improvement was observed between baseline and twenty-four months in terms of the visual analog scale for overall pain intensity (6.7 ± 2.3 versus 0.8 ± 2.0; p < 0.001), the Short Form-36 physical score (34.3 ± 8.0 versus 49.0 ± 9.3; p < 0.001), the Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale pain (54.4 ± 19.2 versus 1.9 ± 2.7; p < 0.001) and dysfunction (62.6 ± 21.4 versus 11.0 ± 24.2; p < 0.001) subscale scores, and performance of a single-leg heel rise (1.9 ± 3.0 versus 7.3 ± 2.7 cm; p < 0.001). Significant improvement compared with baseline was observed at three or six months except in the single-leg heel rise. Improvements in terms of pain and function occurred over twenty-four months, with the most improvement occurring in the first twelve months. At twenty-four months, maximum gastrocnemius circumference was significantly less in the involved compared with the uninvolved leg (40.2 ± 5.1 versus 41.2 ± 4.8 cm; p < 0.001). The mean passive range of motion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint decreased from 85.1° ± 25.3° preoperatively to 68.1° ± 36.7° (a 20% change) at six months (p = 0.03). Most patients reported no hallux weakness (57%; twenty-six of forty-six patients) and no loss of balance due to hallux weakness (76%; thirty-five of forty-six patients
Wu, J H; Thoreson, A R; Gingery, A; An, K N; Moran, S L; Amadio, P C; Zhao, C
The present study describes a novel technique for revitalising allogenic intrasynovial tendons by combining cell-based therapy and mechanical stimulation in an ex vivo canine model. Specifically, canine flexor digitorum profundus tendons were used for this study and were divided into the following groups: (1) untreated, unprocessed normal tendon; (2) decellularised tendon; (3) bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC)-seeded tendon; and (4) BMSC-seeded and cyclically stretched tendon. Lateral slits were introduced on the tendon to facilitate cell seeding. Tendons from all four study groups were distracted by a servohydraulic testing machine. Tensile force and displacement data were continuously recorded at a sample rate of 20 Hz until 200 Newton of force was reached. Before testing, the cross-sectional dimensions of each tendon were measured with a digital caliper. Young's modulus was calculated from the slope of the linear region of the stress-strain curve. The BMSCs were labeled for histological and cell viability evaluation on the decellularized tendon scaffold under a confocal microscope. Gene expression levels of selected extracellular matrix tendon growth factor genes were measured. Results were reported as mean ± SD and data was analyzed with one-way ANOVAs followed by Tukey's post hoc multiple-comparison test. We observed no significant difference in cross-sectional area or in Young's modulus among the four study groups. In addition, histological sections showed that the BMSCs were aligned well and viable on the tendon slices after two-week culture in groups three and four. Expression levels of several extracellular matrix tendon growth factors, including collagen type I, collagen type III, and matrix metalloproteinase were significantly higher in group four than in group three (p < 0.05). Lateral slits introduced into de-cellularised tendon is a promising method of delivery of BMSCs without compromising cell viability and tendon mechanical properties. In addition
Crevier-Denoix, N; Ravary-Plumioën, B; Vergari, C; Camus, M; Holden-Douilly, L; Falala, S; Jerbi, H; Desquilbet, L; Chateau, H; Denoix, J-M; Pourcelot, P
The incidence of superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) injuries is one of the highest of all equine musculoskeletal conditions. Horses with SDFT injuries commonly show no improvement of lameness on soft ground, unlike those suffering from distal bone or joint lesions. The aim of this study was to compare the SDFT loading in five horses at the walk and trot on asphalt and sand using a non-invasive ultrasonic tendon force measurement device. Three horses were equipped with the ultrasonic device, whereas the other two horses were equipped with the ultrasonic device and a dynamometric horseshoe (DHS); the DHS was used to calibrate the measured values of tendon speed of sound (SOS) converted to tendon force, while a previously established ground reaction force pattern was used to calibrate SOS measurements for the other three horses. Although the horses tended to be slower on S, maximal tendon force was higher on sand than on asphalt at the trot (+6%); there was no significant difference between the two surfaces at the walk. The duration of tendon loading was longer on S (+5%) and the area under the tendon force-time curve was larger on S (+10%) at both walk and trot. SDFT loading is significantly affected by the ground surface and the observed increase in SDFT loading on sand compared with asphalt is consistent with clinical observations in horses with SDFT injuries. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Vega, Jordi; Redó, David; Savín, Gabriela; Malagelada, Francesc; Dalmau-Pastor, Miki
The flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon is the main anatomical landmark during hindfoot endoscopy, and anatomical variations related to the FHL can pose a risk to the tibial nerve and posterior tibial vessels during hindfoot endoscopy. The aim of this study was to determine the distance between the FHL tendon and the tibial neurovascular bundle in the posterior ankle joint when an anatomical variant of the FHL is present. The hypothesis was that the shortest distance between the tibial neurovascular bundle and the FHL tendon in the working area of the hindfoot endoscopy is increased when an anatomical variant of the FHL is present. A retrospective review was performed using consecutive ankle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans obtained during 1 year. All scans with anatomical variations related to the FHL were included in the study. A control group including scans without anatomical variations was obtained for comparison. The shortest distance between the FHL tendon and the neurovascular tibial bundle was measured in both groups. Three-hundred and fifty-five ankle MRIs were reviewed. 35 scans with anatomical variants of the FHL (9.8%) were found and comprised the study group that was compared to 35 scans without variants (control group). The mean distance from FHL to the neurovascular tibial bundle in the control group was 0.9 mm. The study group consisted of 18 cases with distal muscle belly insertion (5.1%), and 17 cases with an accessory tendon corresponding to a flexor digitorum accessorius longus (4.5%). In these subgroups, the mean distance from FHL to the neurovascular tibial bundle was 1.1 and 1.5 mm respectively. Overall this distance was found to be higher in the group with anatomical variants (1.3 mm) when compared to the control group (0.9 mm) (p < 0.05). During hindfoot endoscopy, the presence of an anatomical variant related to the FHL tendon has proven safer anatomically than in its absence, due to the increased distance between the FHL
Elliot, David; Giesen, Thomas
As primary repair of divided flexor tendons becomes more common, secondary tendon surgery becomes largely that of the complications of primary repair, namely ruptured and adherent repairs. These occur with an incidence of each in most reported series world-wide of around 5%, with these problems having changed little in the last two decades, despite strengthening our suture repairs. Where the primary referral service is less well-developed, and as a more occasional occurrence where primary treatment is the routine, the surgeon faces different problems. Patients arrive at a hand unit variable, but longer, times after the primary insult, having had no, or bad, previous treatment. Sometimes the situation is the same, viz. an extended finger with no active flexion, but now no longer amenable to primary repair. Frequently, it is much more complex as a result of injuries to the other tissues of the digit and, also, as a result of the unaided healing process within the digit in the presence of an inactive flexor system. We present our experience in dealing with ruptured repairs, tethered repairs and pulley incompetence. PMID:24459333
Stenekes, Martin W; Geertzen, Jan H; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A; De Jong, Bauke M; Mulder, Theo
To determine whether motor imagery during the immobilization period after flexor tendon injury results in a faster recovery of central mechanisms of hand function. Randomized controlled trial. Tertiary referral hospital. Patients (N=28) after surgical flexor tendon repair were assigned to either an intervention group or a control group. Kinesthetic motor imagery of finger flexion movements during the postoperative dynamic splinting period. The central aspects of hand function were measured with a preparation time test of finger flexion in which subjects pressed buttons as fast as possible following a visual stimulus. Additionally, the following hand function modalities were recorded: Michigan Hand Questionnaire, visual analog scale for hand function, kinematic analysis of drawing, active total motion, and strength. After the immobilization period, the motor imagery group demonstrated significantly less increase of preparation time than the control group (P=.024). There was no significant influence of motor imagery on the other tested hand function (P>.05). All tests except kinematic analysis (P=.570) showed a significant improvement across time after the splinting period (P=.001). Motor imagery significantly improves central aspects of hand function, namely movement preparation time, while other modalities of hand function appear to be unaffected.
Ennaciri, Badr; Mahfoud, Mustapha; El Bardouni, Ahmed; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh
Hand wounds are common, poor functional outcomes are marked because of sequelae inherent to posttraumatic and postoperative complications. Suitable surgery repair in emergency can ensure best results. Classically, tendon's injuries occur near the injured area and their repair depend on traumatized zone, sutures techniques, associated lesions and surgeon's abilities. We report a case of a farmer who has sustained of a severe hand wound due to blades of a combine harvester. Clinical examination showed exceptional laceration of 2(nd) and 3(rd) flexor digitorum tendons from musculo-tendinous junction, without any lesion in their palmar section. We proceeded; after extensive debridement, abundant lavage and removal of foreign body; to modified Kessler sutures using PDS 4.0 followed by dorsal splint for protecting tendons repair, and progressive rehabilitation program. Final result was interesting after 12 weeks. Thinking to tendon laceration is important, when manipulating machines with rotational movements.
Endo, Jun; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Sasho, Takahisa
Intratendinous ganglion cysts are rare lesions of unknown etiology that originate within a tendon. We report the case of a 34-year-old female with an intratendinous ganglion in the plantar portion of the flexor hallucis longus tendon. The intratendinous ganglion recurred after ultrasound-guided needle aspiration. Tendoscopic excision of the intratendinous ganglion cyst achieved a satisfactorily result without recurrence.
Flexor Hallucis Longus Tenosynovitis and First Metatarsophalangeal Synovitis After Penetrating Nail Prick Injury: Treated by Zone 3 Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendoscopy and Metatarsosesamoid Arthroscopy.
Lui, Tun Hing
Pedal penetrating nail prick injury around the first metatarsal head can result in persistent synovitis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint and tenosynovitis of the flexor hallucis longus tendon. Exploration and debridement is indicated if the condition does not improve with antibiotics. Open surgery requires extensive dorsal and plantar incisions. The purpose of this Technical Note is to report the combined arthroscopic and tendoscopic approaches to address the first metatarsophalangeal joint and flexor hallucis longus tendon pathologies. Because it is a result of a pedal injury, the layer-by-layer exploration and debridement is from plantar dorsally. It starts with zone 3 flexor hallucis longus tendoscopy, followed by arthroscopy of the metatarsosesamoid compartment, and finally arthroscopy of the metatarsophalangeal compartment.
Agabalyan, Natacha A; Evans, Darrell J R; Stanley, Rachael L
Mineralisation of the tendon tissue has been described in various models of injury, ageing and disease. Often resulting in painful and debilitating conditions, the processes underlying this mechanism are poorly understood. To elucidate the progression from healthy tendon to mineralised tendon, an appropriate model is required. In this study, we describe the spontaneous and non-pathological ossification and calcification of tendons of the hindlimb of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). The appearance of the ossified avian tendon has been described previously, although there have been no studies investigating the developmental processes and underlying mechanisms leading to the ossified avian tendon. The tissue and cells from three tendons – the ossifying extensor and flexor digitorum longus tendons and the non-ossifying Achilles tendon – were analysed for markers of ageing and mineralisation using histology, immunohistochemistry, cytochemistry and molecular analysis. Histologically, the adult tissue showed a loss of healthy tendon crimp morphology as well as markers of calcium deposits and mineralisation. The tissue showed a lowered expression of collagens inherent to the tendon extracellular matrix and presented proteins expressed by bone. The cells from the ossified tendons showed a chondrogenic and osteogenic phenotype as well as tenogenic phenotype and expressed the same markers of ossification and calcification as the tissue. A molecular analysis of the gene expression of the cells confirmed these results. Tendon ossification within the ossified avian tendon seems to be the result of an endochondral process driven by its cells, although the roles of the different cell populations have yet to be elucidated. Understanding the role of the tenocyte within this tissue and the process behind tendon ossification may help us prevent or treat ossification that occurs in injured, ageing or diseased tendon. PMID:23826786
Agabalyan, Natacha A; Evans, Darrell J R; Stanley, Rachael L
Mineralisation of the tendon tissue has been described in various models of injury, ageing and disease. Often resulting in painful and debilitating conditions, the processes underlying this mechanism are poorly understood. To elucidate the progression from healthy tendon to mineralised tendon, an appropriate model is required. In this study, we describe the spontaneous and non-pathological ossification and calcification of tendons of the hindlimb of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). The appearance of the ossified avian tendon has been described previously, although there have been no studies investigating the developmental processes and underlying mechanisms leading to the ossified avian tendon. The tissue and cells from three tendons - the ossifying extensor and flexor digitorum longus tendons and the non-ossifying Achilles tendon - were analysed for markers of ageing and mineralisation using histology, immunohistochemistry, cytochemistry and molecular analysis. Histologically, the adult tissue showed a loss of healthy tendon crimp morphology as well as markers of calcium deposits and mineralisation. The tissue showed a lowered expression of collagens inherent to the tendon extracellular matrix and presented proteins expressed by bone. The cells from the ossified tendons showed a chondrogenic and osteogenic phenotype as well as tenogenic phenotype and expressed the same markers of ossification and calcification as the tissue. A molecular analysis of the gene expression of the cells confirmed these results. Tendon ossification within the ossified avian tendon seems to be the result of an endochondral process driven by its cells, although the roles of the different cell populations have yet to be elucidated. Understanding the role of the tenocyte within this tissue and the process behind tendon ossification may help us prevent or treat ossification that occurs in injured, ageing or diseased tendon. © 2013 Anatomical Society.
Findling, Jeff; Lascola, Natalie K; Groner, Thomas W
Giant cell tumor of tendon sheath is infrequently documented in the foot and even less near the ankle. This case report involves such a tumor of the flexor hallucis longus tendon presenting at the posterior ankle. Diagnosis was aided by magnetic resonance imaging, and treatment consisted of complete surgical excision. Pathologic examination verified the diagnosis of giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging revealed no remnants or recurrence of tumor 1 year after surgery.
Simonson, Devin C; Elliott, Andrew D; Roukis, Thomas S
Deep infection is one of the most devastating complications following repair of an Achilles tendon rupture. Treatment requires not only culture-driven antibiotic therapy, but more importantly, appropriate débridement of some or even all of the Achilles tendon. This may necessitate delayed reconstruction of the Achilles tendon. The authors present a successful case of reconstruction of a chronically infected Achilles tendon in an otherwise healthy 43-year-old man via a multistaged approach using the flexor hallucis longus and peroneus brevis tendons. We also provide a brief review of the literature regarding local tendon transfer used in the reconstruction of Achilles tendon rupture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Peltz, Tim Sebastian; Hoffman, Stuart William; Scougall, Peter James; Gianoutsos, Mark Peter; Savage, Robert; Oliver, Rema Antoinette; Walsh, William Robert
This laboratory study compared pig, sheep and human deep flexor tendons in regards to their biomechanical comparability. To investigate the relevant biomechanical properties for tendon repair experiments, the tendons resistance to cheese-wiring (suture drag/splitting) was assessed. Cheese-wiring of a suture through a tendon is an essential factor for repair gapping and failure in a tendon repair. Biomechanical testing showed that forces required to pulling a uniform suture loop through sheep or pig tendons in Zone II were higher than in human tendons. At time point zero of testing these differences did not reach statistical significance, but differences became more pronounced when forces were measured beyond initial cheese-wiring (2 mm, 5 mm and 10 mm). The stronger resistance to cheese-wiring was more pronounced in the pig tendons. Also regarding size and histology, sheep tendons were more comparable to human tendons than pig tendons. Differences in tendon bio-properties should be kept in mind when comparing and interpreting the results of laboratory tendon experiments.
Lee, S K; Bae, K W; Choy, W S
It has been suggested that the increased frequency of trigger finger (TF) after carpal tunnel release (CTR) may be caused by the volar migration of the flexor tendons at the wrist altering the tendon biomechanics at the A1 pulley. This hypothesis has not been validated. We performed pre- and post-operative ultrasonography (USG) on the affected wrists of 92 patients who underwent CTR. Pre-operative USG was performed in neutral with no tendon loading; post-operative USG was performed in neutral unloaded and in various positions of wrist flexion whilst loading the flexor tendons with gripping. The mean volar migration of the flexor tendons after CTR was 2.2 (SD 0.4) mm in the unloaded neutral position. It was 1.8 (SD 0.4) mm in patients who did not develop TF and 2.5 (SD 0.5) mm in those who did (p = 0.0067). In loaded wrist flexion, the mean volar migration of flexor tendons after CTR in patients who did not develop TF and those who did was 2.1 and 3.0 mm in 0° flexion; 3.2 and 3.9 mm in 15° flexion; 4.3 and 5.1 mm in 30° flexion; and 4.9 and 5.8 mm in 45° flexion, respectively. There were significant differences between patients with and without TF at each flexion angle. Our data indicate that patients with greater volar migration of the flexor tendons after CTR are more likely to develop TF. This conclusion supports the hypothesis that the occurrence of TF after CTR may be caused by the bowstringing effects of the flexor tendons. © The Author(s) 2013.
Filan, P; Hart, R
To verify, in cadaver specimens, the precise anatomic structure of cross-connection between the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) and flexor digitorum longus (FDL) tendons and to identify its position in relation to orientation points in the foot in view of the surgical technique for tendon transfer, including the necessity of subsequent tendon suture. A hundred cadaver legs (50 cadavers of 29 men and 21 women, all Caucasians) were dissected by an extensive medio-plantar approach. The anatomical relationship of the FHL and FDL tendons was studied. The distances measured were as follows: between the first metatarsophalangeal joint line and the FHL origin of a tendinous slip; between the slip and the calcaneal tubercle; and the total distance between the first metatarsophalangeal joint line and the calcaneal tubercle. In all cadaver legs, a cross-connection between the FHL and FDL tendons was present in the plantar midfoot. There was always a tendinous slip branching from the FHL tendon and running lateral and distal to the FDL tendon. The slip was attached to the FDL tendon distal to its branching for the toes; it either attached to only the FDL tendon for the second toe or it split to attach to the FDL tendon branches for the second and the third toe. The two configurations were referred to as type II and type II,III, respectively. Type II was found in both legs of 31 cadavers (62 %), and type II,III in 14 cadavers (28 %). In five cadavers (10 %) attachment was different in the right and the left foot. Expressed in absolute numbers, there were 67 type II attachments (two-thirds of the findings) and 33 type II,III attachments (one-third of the findings). The average distance between the first metatarsophalangeal joint line and the origin of an FHL tendinous slip was 7.3 (± 0.9 ) cm, the average distance between the origin of an FHL tendinous slip and the calcaneal tubercle was 9.2 (± 1.1) cm and the average distance between the first metatarsophalangeal joint line and
Wong, Jason; Bennett, William; Ferguson, Mark W J; McGrouther, Duncan A
Mice are currently the species of choice for the in vivo study of injury, but few detailed anatomical descriptions have been made of rodent digits, limiting their use for the investigation of intrasynovial tendon healing. In this study a detailed microscopic and histological investigation was performed using C57/BL6 and Tie2 LacZ reporter gene transgenic mice. Serial-sectioned mouse hindpaw digits were characterized using haematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome (collagen), Alcian blue (fibrocartilage), Miller's stain (elastin) and TRITC-phalloidin (cellular cytoskeleton) staining. Digital vasculature was demonstrated using FITC-labelled dextran perfusion studies supplemented with LacZ expression in Tie2 LacZ transgenic mice digits. Imaging of the digit used a combination of brightfield and confocal microscopy with three-dimensional reconstruction. Our findings demonstrated that the mouse hindpaw possesses deep and superficial flexor tendons within a synovial sheath comparable with that found in other mammalian species. The intrasynovial tendons were avascular and had regions of fibrocartilaginous specialization relating to areas of compression. Corresponding vascular networks were demonstrated around the sheath using Tie2 LacZ mice and FITC-perfused hindpaws. Furthermore, there is an area of digit where both deep and superficial tendons reside between two pulleys, similar to zone 2 in the human hand where it would be possible to study intrasynovial tendon injury and adhesion formation. In conclusion, although the dimensions of the mouse digit pose technical challenges for surgical intervention, we have identified a model for the study of flexor tendon injury that will permit future genetic manipulation studies. PMID:17005025
As tendon transfer of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) and the flexor digitorum longus (FDL) is an established procedure, exact knowledge of the formation of the chiasma plantare is of great interest. Although the quadratus plantae (QP) appears to play a major role, it has been rarely addressed in previous studies. The aim of the present study was to reinvestigate the formation of the chiasma plantare and the composition of the long flexor tendons in order to clarify the inexact and partly contradictory descriptions published from 1865 onward. The chiasma plantare and the long flexor tendons in both feet of 50 formalin-fixed specimens of body donors (25 men and women) were analyzed by gross anatomical dissection. It was composed of one (3%), two (69%) or three layers (28%) which were variably established by the tendinous and muscular fibers of the FHL, the FDL and the QP. In 61% the FHL gave one or more slips to the FDL, and in 39% there was a bidirectional interconnection between the two tendons. The slip from the FHL to the FDL largely reinforces the second (45%), or the second and third tendon (46%). Thus, the FHL is involved in the first tendon in all cases, in the second one in 97% of cases, and in the third tendon in about one half of cases (53%). In all instances, the FDL contributes to the third to fourth, in 98% the second, and in at least 39% to the first tendon. The QP reinforces the second to fourth tendon in nearly all cases, the fifth in about one half of cases, and even the first tendon in 14% of cases. In addition, the individual composition of the five long flexor tendons arising from the chiasma plantare was analyzed in detail. Special emphasis was placed on the evaluation of side and sex differences as well as individual symmetry. Furthermore, biomechanical, developmental and phylogenetic aspects were outlined. In terms of the outcome of this study, the FHL appears to be the better donor for tendon transfer to restore lost function, but
Bernhard, Andrew; Miller, Josh; Keeler, Jason; Siesel, Kathy; Bridges, Evan
This study was undertaken to help confirm the percentages concerning the presence or absence of the flexor digitorum brevis muscle tendon to the fifth toe. We also hope to be able to determine the presence based on gender and nationality. It is known to be absent occasionally; however, there is no definitive study dedicated to its prevalence. Using a pool of 60 cadavers, 97 total feet were included in our analysis. Of these feet, 47 (48%) lacked a flexor digitorum brevis tendon to the fifth toe at all. Furthermore, 25 (26%) had notably small tendons to the fifth toe. The final 25 (26%) had what the researchers deemed present tendons. This information could be helpful in surgical planning, including tendon transfer techniques, and biomechanical evaluations. Further research would need to be conducted as this was a cadaveric study. Cadaver/anatomy research, Level V.
Tamura, N; Kuroda, T; Kotoyori, Y; Fukuda, K; Nukada, T; Kato, T; Kuwano, A; Kasashima, Y
Sonoelastography can assess the inner stiffness of tissues. Sonoelastographic evaluation of injured equine superficial digital flexor tendons (SDFTs) is considered to be useful for assessing the stiffness of a lesion even during late-stage rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the sonoelastographic appearance of injured SDFTs over time from the onset of the injury. Eighteen horses were classified into three groups according to the length of time from injury onset: group A, within two weeks after injury; group B, approximately five months after injury; and group C, approximately nine months after injury. Longitudinal and transverse images of all injured SDFTs were obtained using grey-scale ultrasonography and sonoelastography. Grey-scale and sonoelastographic images were evaluated by two observers using echogenicity-grading and colour-grading systems, respectively. The authors evaluated the interobserver agreement and compared the grades among the three groups. The results indicated almost perfect interobserver agreement. Significant differences were found in the sonoelastography among the three groups, whereas no significant difference was found in the grey-scale ultrasonography between groups B and C. Sonoelastography is a feasible and useful modality to evaluate the equine injured SDFTs in vivo and to distinguish between them among the different phases even during the chronic phase.
Gulihar, A; Hajipour, L; Dias, J J
Surgical repair is advocated for partial flexor tendon lacerations deeper than 70%. We compared gliding resistance with three different peripheral repairs in partial flexor tendon lacerations. Thirty flexor tendons and A2 pulleys were harvested from turkey toes. Gliding resistance was measured for all intact tendons. The tendons were then lacerated to 50% and repaired with a modified Kessler core suture and either a Silfverskiold or Halsted repair or a simple running suture and gliding resistance was measured. Compared to the intact tendon, the increase in gliding resistance after surgical repair was 100% with the Halsted repair, 80% with the Silfverskiold repair and 60% with a running suture (p = 0.05). In conclusion, a simple running suture caused less resistance to gliding compared to the other techniques when repairing partial flexor tendon lacerations and we recommend its use when surgical repair is needed.
Nonoperative, dynamic treatment of acute achilles tendon rupture: influence of early weightbearing on biomechanical properties of the plantar flexor muscle-tendon complex-a blinded, randomized, controlled trial.
Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner; Bencke, Jesper; Lauridsen, Hanne Bloch; Dippmann, Christian; Ebskov, Lars; Troelsen, Anders
Acute Achilles tendon rupture alters the biomechanical properties of the plantar flexor muscle-tendon complex that can affect functional performance and the risk of repeat injury. The purpose of the present study was to compare the biomechanical properties of the plantar flexor muscle-tendon complex in patients randomized to early weightbearing or non-weightbearing in the nonoperative treatment of Achilles tendon rupture. A total of 60 patients were randomized to full weightbearing from day 1 of treatment or non-weightbearing for 6 weeks. After 6 and 12 months, the peak passive torque at 20° dorsiflexion, the stiffness during slow stretching, and the maximal strength were measured in both limbs. The stiffness of the plantar flexor muscle-tendon complex in the terminal part of dorsiflexion was significantly increased (p = .024) in the non-weightbearing group at 12 months. The peak passive torque was significantly lower for the affected limb at 6 months (91%; p = .01), and the stiffness was significantly lower for the affected limb during the early part of dorsiflexion at 6 (67%; p < .001) and 12 (77%; p < .001) months. In conclusion, an increased stiffness of the plantar flexor muscle-tendon complex in the terminal part of dorsiflexion was found in the non-weightbearing group. The altered stiffness and strength in the affected limb could affect the coordination of gait and running. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Elgohary, Hatem Elsayed Ahmed; Elmoghazy, Nabil A; Abd Ellatif, Mohammed Serry
The aim of this study was to assess the functional outcomes after a combined FHL transfer and a gastrocnemius recession for treatment of chronic ruptures of Achilles tendon with a gap and to investigate the patient's satisfaction about the great toe function after transfer. 19 patients with chronic rupture of the Achilles tendon with a gap were treated with a flexor halluces longus tendon transfer combined with a gastrocnemius recession, Clinical diagnosis depends on the presence of gap in the tendon on examination, inability of tip toe walking on the affected side and positive calf-squeeze test, MRI was used to confirm the clinical diagnosis. American Orthopedic Foot & Ankle Society hind foot score was used for assessment of the results. The AOFAS score improved significantly from a mean of 65 preoperatively to 94 at the last follow up (p<0.001), there was no significant difference in the final outcome between patients with FHL tendon weaved through the stump of the Achilles tendon and those with trans osseous tunnels, the mean AOFAS score at the last follow up was 94.2, 93.8 respectively, no patient complained of big toe dysfunction. Management of chronic rupture of the Achilles tendon with a gap with flexor halluces longus tendon transfer combined with a gastrocnemius recession is a safe and reliable method with a significantly improved functional outcome, muscle advancement through gastrocnemius recession decreases the length of the gap without affecting the muscle function, flexor halluces longus tendon transfer doesn't harm the big toe function. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Kang; Moon, Jeong Seok; Seo, Jeong Gook; Lee, Woo Chun
We present one-stage treatment of deep infection following repair of Achilles tendon rupture using flexor hallucis longus transfer. Flexor hallucis longus was used not only to connect the defect in Achillles tendon, but also to control the soft tissue infection with its abundant blood supply, simultaneously. The clinical results for the two patients in this report were excellent without major complication.
Senda, Hiroya; Mizutani, Jun; Okamoto, Hideki
Abstract An intratendinous ganglion of the hand is a rare entity, and only one case report of flexor tendon has been published in the English literature. We herein report two cases of an intratendinous ganglion occurring in the extensor digitorum communis and flexor digitorum superficialis tendon, respectively. PMID:28164147
Frueh, Florian Samuel; Kunz, Viviane Sylvie; Gravestock, Isaac Joseph; Held, Leonhard; Haefeli, Mathias; Giovanoli, Pietro; Calcagni, Maurizio
To compare early passive mobilization (EPM) with controlled active motion (CAM) after flexor tendon surgery in zones 1 and 2. We performed a retrospective analysis of collected data of all patients receiving primary flexor tendon repair in zones 1 and 2 from 2006 to 2011, during which time 228 patients were treated, and 191 patients with 231 injured digits were eligible for study. Exclusion criteria were replantation, finger revascularization, age younger than 16 years, rehabilitation by means other than EPM or CAM, and missing information regarding postoperative rehabilitation. This left 132 patients with 159 injured fingers for analysis. The primary endpoint was the comparison of total active motion (TAM) values 4 and 12 weeks after surgery between the EPM and the CAM protocols. The analysis of TAM measurements under the rehabilitation protocols was conducted using t-tests and further linear modeling. We defined rupture rate and the assessment of adhesion/infection as secondary endpoints. There was a statistically significant difference between the TAM values of the EPM and the CAM protocols 4 weeks after surgery. At 12 weeks, however, there was no significant difference between the 2 protocols. Older age and injuries with finger fractures were associated with lower TAM values. Rupture rates were 5% (CAM) and 7% (EPM), which were not statistically different. This study showed a favorable effect of CAM protocol on TAM 4 weeks after surgery. The percent rupture rate was slightly lower in the patients with CAM than in the patients with EPM regime. Further studies are required to confirm our results and to investigate whether faster recovery of TAM is associated with shorter time out of work. Therapeutic III. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Watanabe, Takafumi; Hosaka, Yoshinao; Yamamoto, Etsuko; Ueda, Hiromi; Tangkawattana, Prasarn; Takehana, Kazushige
The Golgi tendon organ (GTO) is an encapsulated fusiform mechanoreceptor siding in the musculo-tendinous junction of many animal species. Inhibitory function of afferent nerve fibers distributed from nearby motor units, the organ responds to active tension exerted onto the muscle. The morphological features of the equine GTO have not yet been elucidated. Additionally, there is some controversy regarding to the existence of the GTO in the equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT). Therefore, immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy using alcian blue (pH 2.5) staining and the silver-enhanced colloidal gold method were carried out to determine both the location and characteristics of the GTO at the musculo-tendinous junction of the SDFT. A GTO with a fusiform structure of approximately 3 mm in length was found in the tendinous part. The lumen of the GTO was divided into compartments by septal cells. Each compartment contained collagen fibrils, nerve fibers and Schwann cells. This is the first report of the equine GTO.
Schöffl, Volker Rainer; Schöffl, Isabelle
Closed traumatic ruptures of finger flexor tendon pulleys began to be recognized specifically over the past several decades. This injury, although rare in the general population, is seen more commonly in rock climbers. This article analyzes this type of injury and the current diagnostic and therapeutic criteria. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are used to differentiate between a pulley strain, partial rupture, complete rupture, or multiple ruptures. Grade I to III injuries (strains, partial rupture, single ruptures) are treated conservatively with initial immobilization and early functional therapy under pulley protection. Grade IV injuries (multiple ruptures) require surgical repair.
Barrett, Elizabeth J; Munsterman, Amelia S; Hanson, R Reid; Jackson, Robert L
To compare in vitro strength and failure characteristics of a tendon implant against a 3 loop pulley suture pattern for equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) laceration repair. Experimental. Cadaveric equine forelimb SDFT (n = 16). One tendon of each of 8 pair of SDFT was randomly selected for repair with either the 3-loop pulley (3LP) suture pattern using 2 polydioxanone or with 4 stainless steel suture and anchor implants (SA). Ultimate load to failure, mode of failure, gap at failure, and load to 2 mm gap were obtained using a materials testing system synchronized with a high-speed camera. Statistical evaluation was made using Student's t-test; significance was set at P ≤ .05. The 3LP failed at a significantly (P = .0001) greater load (363.5 ± 83.7 N) than SA (132.4 ± 26.8 N), but the load to a 2 mm gap (3LP = 164.9 ± 67.7 N, SA = 114.5 ± 21.5 N) was not significantly different (P = .09). Failure mode was by suture pull out and anchor pull out respectively. The gap at failure was significantly larger in the 3LP than in SA repair (P = .000005). Both the SA repair and the 3LP resisted similar tension to 2 mm gap. However, the ultimate load to failure of the SA repair was only 36% that of the 3LP repair. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.
Frois Temponi, Eduardo; de Carvalho, Lúcio Honório; da Silva Bernardes, Cláudio Otávio; Presses Teixeira, Bruno
Chronic patellar tendon rupture is a rare disabling injury that is technically difficult to repair. The true prevalence of this injury is unknown. Delayed reconstruction of chronic patellar tendon rupture has yielded suboptimal clinical and functional results. Many different surgical methods for reconstruction of chronic patellar tendon injury have been reported. In this report, we present a case with chronic patellar tendon injury that was addressed using a technique that had not previously been described in the literature, through combining procedures that had been described separately. The reconstruction method presented in this article has the advantages of being easy and reproducible, without a requirement of allografts.
Lui, Tun Hing
Flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon transfer is indicated for reconstruction of the Achilles tendon with a gap larger than 5 cm. The tendon can be harvested at zone 2 or zone 3 by minimally invasive techniques with the advantage of minimal soft-tissue dissection. The tendon can be harvested under the sustentaculum tali by zone 2 FHL tendoscopy. It is adequate for FHL transfer to the posterior calcaneal tubercle. If a double-thickness reconstruction of a huge gap of the Achilles tendon is indicated, the tendon can be harvested at the level of the hallux by means of a tendon stripper. However, the interconnection tendon of the master knot of Henry can be split together with the FHL or flexor digitorum longus tendon instead of being cut. Zone 2 FHL tendoscopy can be used to release the split tendon to complete the FHL harvest.
Wiig, Monica E.; Dahlin, Lars B.; Fridén, Jan; Hagberg, Lars; Larsen, Sören E.; Wiklund, Kerstin; Mahlapuu, Margit
Background Postoperative adhesions constitute a substantial clinical problem in hand surgery. Fexor tendon injury and repair result in adhesion formation around the tendon, which restricts the gliding function of the tendon, leading to decreased digit mobility and impaired hand recovery. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of the peptide PXL01 in preventing adhesions, and correspondingly improving hand function, in flexor tendon repair surgery. Methods This prospective, randomised, double-blind trial included 138 patients admitted for flexor tendon repair surgery. PXL01 in carrier sodium hyaluronate or placebo was administered around the repaired tendon. Efficacy was assessed by total active motion of the injured finger, tip-to-crease distance, sensory function, tenolysis rate and grip strength, and safety parameters were followed, for 12 months post-surgery. Results The most pronounced difference between the treatment groups was observed at 6 months post-surgery. At this timepoint, the total active motion of the distal finger joint was improved in the PXL01 group (60 vs. 41 degrees for PXL01 vs. placebo group, p = 0.016 in PPAS). The proportion of patients with excellent/good digit mobility was higher in the PXL01 group (61% vs. 38%, p = 0.0499 in PPAS). Consistently, the PXL01 group presented improved tip-to-crease distance (5.0 vs. 15.5 mm for PXL01 vs. placebo group, p = 0.048 in PPAS). Sensory evaluation showed that more patients in the PXL01 group felt the thinnest monofilaments (FAS: 74% vs. 35%, p = 0.021; PPAS: 76% vs. 35%, p = 0.016). At 12 months post-surgery, more patients in the placebo group were considered to benefit from tenolysis (30% vs. 12%, p = 0.086 in PPAS). The treatment was safe, well tolerated, and did not increase the rate of tendon rupture. Conclusions Treatment with PXL01 in sodium hyaluronate improves hand recovery after flexor tendon repair surgery. Further clinical trials are warranted to determine the
Wiig, Monica E; Dahlin, Lars B; Fridén, Jan; Hagberg, Lars; Larsen, Sören E; Wiklund, Kerstin; Mahlapuu, Margit
Postoperative adhesions constitute a substantial clinical problem in hand surgery. Fexor tendon injury and repair result in adhesion formation around the tendon, which restricts the gliding function of the tendon, leading to decreased digit mobility and impaired hand recovery. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of the peptide PXL01 in preventing adhesions, and correspondingly improving hand function, in flexor tendon repair surgery. This prospective, randomised, double-blind trial included 138 patients admitted for flexor tendon repair surgery. PXL01 in carrier sodium hyaluronate or placebo was administered around the repaired tendon. Efficacy was assessed by total active motion of the injured finger, tip-to-crease distance, sensory function, tenolysis rate and grip strength, and safety parameters were followed, for 12 months post-surgery. The most pronounced difference between the treatment groups was observed at 6 months post-surgery. At this timepoint, the total active motion of the distal finger joint was improved in the PXL01 group (60 vs. 41 degrees for PXL01 vs. placebo group, p = 0.016 in PPAS). The proportion of patients with excellent/good digit mobility was higher in the PXL01 group (61% vs. 38%, p = 0.0499 in PPAS). Consistently, the PXL01 group presented improved tip-to-crease distance (5.0 vs. 15.5 mm for PXL01 vs. placebo group, p = 0.048 in PPAS). Sensory evaluation showed that more patients in the PXL01 group felt the thinnest monofilaments (FAS: 74% vs. 35%, p = 0.021; PPAS: 76% vs. 35%, p = 0.016). At 12 months post-surgery, more patients in the placebo group were considered to benefit from tenolysis (30% vs. 12%, p = 0.086 in PPAS). The treatment was safe, well tolerated, and did not increase the rate of tendon rupture. Treatment with PXL01 in sodium hyaluronate improves hand recovery after flexor tendon repair surgery. Further clinical trials are warranted to determine the most efficient dose and health
Rico Aguado, A; del Pino Paredes, V
The existence of connections, in the form of tendon slips, between the tendons of the flexor pollicis longus and the flexor digitorum profundus indicis has been described by different authors as being a relatively frequent anomaly. Complete fusion between the two muscles, however, must be considered a very rare anomaly. A bilateral case is described, in which the right hand also had post-traumatic adhesions between the two tendons.
Domnick, C; Wieskötter, B; Raschke, M J; Schulze, M; Kronenberg, D; Wefelmeier, M; Langer, M F; Herbort, M
Porcine flexor tendons, bovine extensor tendons, and human (semitendinosus) tendons are frequently used as substitutes for human ACL grafts in biomechanical in vitro studies. This study compares the biomechanical properties and structural differences of these tendons. In this biomechanical study, fresh-frozen porcine flexor tendons, bovine extensor tendons, and human semitendinosus tendons were used (n = 36). The tendons were mounted in a uniaxial testing machine (Zwick/Roell) with cryo-clamps, leaving a 60 mm tendon part free between the two clamps. Specimens have been loaded to failure to evaluate the biomechanical parameters stiffness, yield load, and maximum load. A Total Collagen Assay Kit was used to detect differences in the total collagen type I concentration (n = 30). A one-way ANOVA was performed to detect differences in the means. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. There were no significant differences in the stiffness between the groups (bovine 194 ± 43 N/mm, porcine 211 ± 63 N/mm, and human cadaveric 208 ± 58 N/mm). The yield and maximum loads were high (>1000 N) in all groups, but they were significantly increased in both animal specimens (means of 1681-1795 N) compared with human cadaveric specimen (means of 1289-1406 N; p < 0.01). No difference in the collagen type I concentration was detected (N.S.). Porcine flexor and bovine extensor tendons are eligible substitutes with similar stiffness and high failure loads compared with human cadaveric semitendinosus tendons in in vitro studies.
Hahn, P; Kirchberger, M C; Unglaub, F; Spies, C K
Scores are essential for comparing function after flexor tendon reconstructions. The Buck-Gramcko Score, the Strickland Score and the ASSH (American Society for Surgery of the Hand) Score are the most commonly applied rating systems. The purpose of this study is to evaluate these systems and their interchangeability. Based on an unrestricted metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint of 0-0-90° or limited range of motion of the MCP joint of 0-30-90°, the scores of the 3 rating systems were assessed and graphically displayed for each possible finger position regarding proximal (PIP) and distal (DIP) interphalangeal joints. Based on an unrestricted MCP joint, the scores of the 3 rating systems differed in 24-33% of the obtained values, depending on the sum of joint flexion and extension deficits of the aforementioned PIP and DIP joints. If the range of motion was restricted to 0-30-90° in the MCP joint, differing values were only observed in 16-19% of the obtained values. In extreme cases, scores for the same clinical presentation may thus be "excellent", "fair" or "poor", depending on which system has been used. The different rating systems for the evaluation of flexor tendon reconstruction are neither identical nor adjustable. Therefore, consensus or at least a recommendation is needed regarding the system to be used. It may even be necessary to develop a generally accepted rating system to compare studies. In the meantime, the readings of the active and passive range of motion of all joints of the affected finger/thumb ought to be published in studies to compare and validate the results. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
To report appositional augmentation of Achilles tendon rupture in a toy breed dog with an intact flexor digitorum lateralis (FDL) muscle tendon. Clinical case report. Two-year-old spayed female Toy Poodle with Achilles tendon rupture. The Achilles tendon was accidentally ruptured by hair clippers during grooming. The dog demonstrated a plantigrade stance without digital flexion of the right hind limb. The ruptured gastrocnemius and superficial digital flexor tendons were sutured to their respective cut ends using a simple locking loop pattern under a surgical microscope. The repair site was appositionally augmented by the caudally retracted intact FDL. An aluminum splint was applied on the plantar aspect to immobilize the tarsal joint for the first 2 weeks, after which a soft bandage was applied for another 2 weeks. At the 7 month follow-up no lameness was detected during walking and no complications associated with decreased FDL function such as digital contracture were observed. The range of motion of the tarsal joint had improved and could be flexed to ∼60° and extended fully. Use of the FDL is feasible for augmenting Achilles tendon repair in toy breed dogs. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.
Amadio, Peter C.; Thoreson, Andrew R.; An, Kai-Nan
Purpose: Delayed healing is a common problem whenever tendon allografts are used for tendon or ligament reconstruction. Repopulating the allograft with host cells may accelerate tendon regeneration, but cell penetration into the allograft tendon is limited. Processing the tendon surface with slits that guide cells into the allograft substrate may improve healing. The purpose of this study was to describe a surface modification of allograft tendon that includes slits to aid cell repopulation and lubrication to enhance tendon gliding. Methods: Canine flexor digitorum profundus tendons were used for this study. Cyclic gliding resistance was measured over 1000 cycles. Tensile stiffness was assessed for normal tendon, tendon decellularized with trypsin and Triton X-100 (decellularized group), tendon decellularized and perforated with multiple slits (MS group) and tendon decellularized, perforated with slits and treated with a carbodiimide-derivatized hyaluronic acid and gelatin (cd-HA-gelatin) surface modification (MS-SM group). To assess tendon repopulation, bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were used in the decellularized and MS groups. DNA concentration and histology were evaluated and compared to normal tendons and nonseeded decellularized tendons. Results: The gliding resistance of the decellularized and MS groups was significantly higher compared with the normal group. There was no significant difference in gliding resistance between the decellularized and MS group. Gliding resistance of the normal group and MS-SM group was not significantly different. The Young's modulus was not significantly different among the four groups. The DNA concentration in the MS group was significantly lower than in normal tendons, but significantly higher than in decellularized tendons, with or without BMSCs. Viable BMSCs were found in the slits after 2 weeks in tissue culture. Conclusions: Tendon slits can successfully harbor BMSCs without compromising their survival and without
Linnanmäki, Lasse; Göransson, Harry; Havulinna, Jouni; Sippola, Petteri; Karjalainen, Teemu; Leppänen, Olli V
To study the biomechanical properties of flexor tendon repairs, static tensile testing is commonly used because of its simplicity. However, cyclic testing resembles the physiological loading more closely. The aim of the present study is to assess how the biomechanical competence of repaired flexor tendons under cyclic testing relates to specific parameters derived from static tensile testing. Twenty repaired porcine flexor tendons were subjected to static tensile testing. Additional 35 specimens were tested cyclically with randomly assigned peak load for each specimen. Calculated risks of repair failure during repetitive loading were determined for mean of each statically derived parameter serving as a peak load. Furthermore, we developed a novel objective method to determine the critical load, which is a parameter predicting the survival of the repair in cyclic testing. The mean of statically derived yield load equalled the mean of critical load, justifying its role as a valid surrogate for critical load. However, regarding mean of any determined parameter as a clinically safe threshold is arbitrary due to the natural variation among samples. Until the universal performance of yield load is verified, we recommend employing cyclically derived critical load as primary parameter when comparing different methods of flexor tendon repair. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sato, Junko; Ishii, Yoshinori; Noguchi, Hideo; Takeda, Mitsuhiro
This study investigated the sonographic appearance of the pulley and flexor tendon in idiopathic trigger finger in correlation with the contracture of the interphalangeal (IP) joint in the thumb or proximal IP (PIP) joint in the other digits. Sonographic measurements using axial images were performed in 177 affected digits including 17 thumbs and 34 other digits judged to have IP or PIP joint contracture and 77 contralateral control digits. The A1 pulley of the contracture group was significantly thicker than that of the non-contracture group in all digits, whereas the flexor tendon was thicker only in digits other than the thumb. In the analysis using calculated cut-off values, A1 pulley thickening in the thumb and A1 pulley and flexor tendon thickening in the other digits showed statistically significant correlations with IP or PIP joint contracture. This study sonographically confirmed previous reports showing that enlargement of the flexor tendons contribute to the pathogenesis of PIP joint contracture. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Korstanje, Jan-Wiebe H; Scheltens-De Boer, Marjan; Blok, Joleen H; Amadio, Peter C; Hovius, Steven E R; Stam, Henk J; Selles, Ruud W
Changes in subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients may result in altered dynamics; consequently, quantification of these dynamics might support objective diagnosis of CTS. We measured and compared longitudinal excursion of the flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus tendons, the median nerve, and the SSCT between the most and least affected hands of 51 CTS patients during extension-to-fist motion. Median nerve and flexor digitorum superficialis tendon excursions in the most affected hands were smaller than in the least affected hands of the same patients, whereas the excursions of the flexor digitorum profundus were larger. Based on these excursions, logistic regression models classified between 67% and 86% of the hands correctly as having CTS. The altered hand dynamics in CTS patients may have implications for the pathophysiology and clinical evaluation of CTS, and ultrasound-based classification models may further support the diagnosis of CTS. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rowley, K Michael; Jarvis, Danielle N; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Chang, Yu-Jen; Fietzer, Abbigail L; Kulig, Kornelia
Tendinopathy of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL), colloquially referred to as "dancer's tendinitis," is a common condition in dancers and attributed to high demand on this muscle in positions of extreme ankle plantarflexion and metatarsophalangeal (MTP)) flexion and extension. Despite such a high prevalence, there has been little research into preventative or nonsurgical interventions. As a means to identify potential targets for prevention and intervention, this study aimed to characterize toe flexors in dancers by measuring strength, flexibility, function, and FHL tendon morphology. Dancers (n=25) were compared to non-dancers (n=25) in toe flexor isometric strength, first MTP joint range of motion, foot longitudinal arch flexibility, balance ability, endurance during modified heel raises without use of the toes, and FHL tendon thickness, cross-sectional area, and peak spatial frequency. Significant differences were found in functional first MTP joint extension (dancers 101.95°, non-dancers 91.15°, p<0.001), balance ability during single-leg stance on the toes (dancers 11.43 s, non-dancers 5.90 s, p=0.013), and during modified heel raises (dancers 22.20 reps, non-dancers 28.80 reps, p=0.001). Findings indicate that dancers rely on toe flexors more than non-dancers to complete balance and heel raise tasks. Efficacy of using this modified heel raise task with the toes off the edge of a block as a means to train larger plantarflexors and as a nonsurgical intervention should be studied in the future. Improving interventions for FHL tendinopathy will be impactful for dancers, in whom this condition is highly prevalent.
Dennerlein, J T; Diao, E; Mote, C D; Rempel, D M
Force may be a risk factor for musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremity associated with typing and keying. However, the internal finger flexor tendon forces and their relationship to fingertip forces during rapid tapping on a keyswitch have not yet been measured in vivo. During the open carpal tunnel release surgery of five human subjects, a tendon-force transducer was inserted on the flexor digitorum superficialis of the long finger. During surgery, subjects tapped with the long finger on a computer keyswitch, instrumented with a keycap load cell. The average tendon maximum forces during a keystroke ranged from 8.3 to 16.6 N (mean = 12.9 N, SD = 3.3 N) for the subjects, four to seven times larger than the maximum forces observed at the fingertip. Tendon forces estimated from an isometric tendon-force model were only one to two times larger than tip force, significantly less than the observed tendon forces (p = 0.001). The force histories of the tendon during a keystroke were not proportional to fingertip force. First, the tendon-force histories did not contain the high-frequency fingertip force components observed as the tip impacts with the end of key travel. Instead, tendon tension during a keystroke continued to increase throughout the impact. Second, following the maximum keycap force, tendon tension during a keystroke decreased more slowly than fingertip force, remaining elevated approximately twice as long as the fingertip force. The prolonged elevation of tendon forces may be the result of residual eccentric muscle contraction or passive muscle forces, or both, which are additive to increasing extensor activity during the release phase of the keystroke.
de Jong, Johanna P.; Nguyen, Jesse T.; Sonnema, Anne J. M.; Nguyen, Emily C.; Amadio, Peter C.
Background Acute traumatic tendon injuries of the hand and wrist are commonly encountered in the emergency department. Despite the frequency, few studies have examined the true incidence of acute traumatic tendon injuries in the hand and wrist or compared the incidences of both extensor and flexor tendon injuries. Methods We performed a retrospective population-based cohort study of all acute traumatic tendon injuries of the hand and wrist in a mixed urban and rural Midwest county in the United States between 2001-2010. A regional epidemiologic database and medical codes were used to identify index cases. Epidemiologic information including occupation, year of injury, mechanism of injury and the injured tendon and zone were recorded. Results During the 10-year study period there was an incidence rate of 33.2 injuries per 100,000 person-years. There was a decreasing rate of injury during the study period. Highest incidence of injury occurred at 20-29 years of age. There was significant association between injury rate and age, and males had a higher incidence than females. The majority of cases involved a single tendon, with extensor tendon injuries occurring more frequently than flexor tendons. Typically, extensor tendon injuries involved zone three of the index finger, while flexor tendons involved zone two of the index finger. Work-related injuries accounted for 24.9% of acute traumatic tendon injuries. The occupations of work-related injuries were assigned to major groups defined by the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification structure. After assigning these patients' occupations to respective major groups, the most common groups work-related injuries occurred in construction and extraction occupations (44.2%), food preparation and serving related occupations (14.4%), and transportation and material moving occupations (12.5%). Conclusions Epidemiology data enhances our knowledge of injury patterns and may play a role in the prevention and treatment of future
Zhao, Chunfeng; Hashimoto, Takahiro; Kirk, Ramona L.; Thoreson, Andrew R.; Jay, Gregory D.; Moran, Steven L.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.
We assessed surface coating with carbodiimide derivatized hyaluronic acid combined with lubricin (cd-HA-Lubricin) as a way to improve extrasynovial tendon surface quality and, consequently, the functional results in flexor tendon reconstruction, using a canine in vivo model. The second and fifth flexor digitorum profundus tendons from 14 dogs were reconstructed with autologs peroneus longus (PL) tendons 6 weeks after a failed primary repair. One digit was treated with cd-HA-Lubricin, and the other was treated with saline as the control. Six weeks following grafting, the digits and graft tendons were functionally and histologically evaluated. Adhesion score, normalized work of flexion, graft friction in zone II, and adhesion breaking strength at the proximal repair site in zone III were all lower in the cd-HA-Lubricin treated group compared to the control group. The strength at the distal tendon/bone interface was decreased in the cd-HA-Lubricin treated grafts compared to the control grafts. Histology showed inferior healing in the cd-HA-Lubricin group at both proximal and distal repair sites. However, cd-HA-Lubricin treatment did not result in any gap or rupture at either the proximal or distal repair sites. These results demonstrate that cd-HA-Lubricin can eliminate graft adhesions and improve digit function, but that treatment may have an adverse effect on tendon healing. PMID:23335124
Kitay, Alison; Swanstrom, Morgan; Schreiber, Joseph J; Carlson, Michelle G; Nguyen, Joseph T; Weiland, Andrew J; Daluiski, Aaron
To determine whether there were differences between plate position in patients who had postoperative flexor tendon ruptures following volar plate fixation of distal radius fractures and those who did not. Three blinded reviewers measured the volar plate prominence and position on the lateral radiographs of 8 patients treated for flexor tendon ruptures and 17 matched control patients without ruptures following distal radius fracture fixation. We graded plate prominence using the Soong grading system, and we measured the distances between the plate and both the volar critical line and the volar rim of the distal radius. A higher Soong grade was associated with flexor tendon rupture. Patients with ruptures had plates that were more prominent volarly and more distal than matched controls without ruptures. Plate prominence projecting greater than 2.0 mm volar to the critical line had a sensitivity of 0.88, a specificity of 0.82, and positive and negative predictive values of 0.70 and 0.93, respectively, for tendon ruptures. Plate position distal to 3.0 mm from the volar rim had a sensitivity of 0.88, a specificity of 0.94, and positive and negative predictive values of 0.88 and 0.94, respectively, for tendon ruptures. We identified plate positions associated with attritional flexor tendon rupture following distal radius fracture fixation with volar plates. To decrease rupture risk, we recommend considering elective hardware removal after union in symptomatic patients with plate prominence greater than 2.0 mm volar to the critical line or plate position within 3.0 mm of the volar rim. Therapeutic III. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Witvrouw, E; Mahieu, N; Roosen, P; McNair, P
The function of tendons can be classified into two categories: tensile force transmission, and storage and release of elastic energy during locomotion. The action of tendons in storing and releasing energy is mainly seen in sports activities with stretch-shortening cycles (SSCs). The more intense the SSC movements are (jumping-like activities), the more frequently tendon problems are observed. High SSC movements impose high loads on tendons. Consequently, tendons that frequently deal with high SSC motion require a high energy-absorbing capacity to store and release this large amount of elastic energy. As the elasticity of tendon structures is a leading factor in the amount of stored energy, prevention and rehabilitation programmes for tendon injuries should focus on increasing this tendon elasticity in athletes performing high SSC movements. Recently, it has been shown that ballistic stretching can significantly increase tendon elasticity. These findings have important clinical implications for treatment and prevention of tendon injuries.
Smutz, W P; France, E P; Bloswick, D S
The aim of this study was to measure tendon strain during low-force, high-frequency activities such as computer keyboard use. Prior to creep strain testing an estimate of flexor tendon force during keyboard use was made. Tendon force was measured indirectly by comparing electromyographic activity of the flexor and extensor digitorum muscles in five human volunteers for various hand activities. Results of the electromyographic study showed that flexor tendon forces during keyboard use may be as high as 60 N. Sixty eight flexor digitorum tendons from 17 fresh-frozen cadaver hands were used for the creep strain tests. Three loading conditions (static, 1 Hz cyclic, (1/4) Hz cyclic) and four load levels (10, 20, 50, 100 N) were used. Results of the creep study showed that for a flexor tendon force of 60 N the total strain of the tendon would be approximately 1.8%. This does not appear to be enough strain to cause permanent damage to the tendon according to current cumulative strain models. RELEVANCE: Recent studies have shown an increase in hand and wrist tendinitis among computer users. At the present time the aetiology is unknown, but risk factors commonly associated with tendinitis are hand forces, wrist postures, and frequency of finger movements. This research looks at tendon creep due to repeated force as a possible aetiology.
Schache, Anthony G.; Brown, Nicholas A. T.; Pandy, Marcus G.
Tendon elastic strain energy is the dominant contributor to muscle–tendon work during steady-state running. Does this behaviour also occur for sprint accelerations? We used experimental data and computational modelling to quantify muscle fascicle work and tendon elastic strain energy for the human ankle plantar flexors (specifically soleus and medial gastrocnemius) for multiple foot contacts of a maximal sprint as well as for running at a steady-state speed. Positive work done by the soleus and medial gastrocnemius muscle fascicles decreased incrementally throughout the maximal sprint and both muscles performed more work for the first foot contact of the maximal sprint (FC1) compared with steady-state running at 5 m s−1 (SS5). However, the differences in tendon strain energy for both muscles were negligible throughout the maximal sprint and when comparing FC1 to SS5. Consequently, the contribution of muscle fascicle work to stored tendon elastic strain energy was greater for FC1 compared with subsequent foot contacts of the maximal sprint and compared with SS5. We conclude that tendon elastic strain energy in the ankle plantar flexors is just as vital at the start of a maximal sprint as it is at the end, and as it is for running at a constant speed. PMID:27581481
Zhao, Chunfeng; Wei, Zhuang; Reisdorf, Ramona L; Thoreson, Andrew R; Jay, Gregory D; Moran, Steven L; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C
Using allograft is an attractive alternative for flexor tendon reconstruction because of the lack of donor-site morbidity, and better matching to the intrasynovial environment. The purpose of this study was to use biological lubricant molecules to modify the graft surface to decrease adhesions and improve digit function. Twenty-eight flexor digitorum profundus tendons from the second and fifth digits of 14 dogs were lacerated and repaired to create a model with repair failure and scar digit for tendon reconstruction. Six weeks after the initial operation, the tendons were reconstructed with flexor digitorum profundus allograft tendons obtained from canine cadavers. One graft tendon in each dog was treated with saline as a control and the other was treated with carbodiimide-derivatized hyaluronic acid and gelatin plus lubricin. Six weeks postoperatively, digit function, graft mechanics, and biology were analyzed. Allograft tendons treated with carbodiimide-derivatized hyaluronic acid-lubricin had decreased adhesions at the proximal tendon/graft repair and within the flexor sheath, improved digit function, and increased graft gliding ability. The treatment also reduced the strength at the distal tendon-to-bone repair, but the distal attachment rupture rate was similar for both graft types. Histologic evaluation showed that viable cells migrated to the allograft, but these were limited to the tendon surface. Carbodiimide-derivatized hyaluronic acid-lubricin treatment of tendon allograft improves digit functional outcomes after flexor tendon reconstruction. However, delayed bone-to-tendon healing should be a caution. Furthermore, the cell infiltration into the allograft tendon substance should be a target for future studies, to shorten the allograft self-regeneration period.
Gomes Júnior, Nelson Pelozo; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Raduan, Fernando Cipolini; Ejnisman, Benno; Cohen, Moisés
The presence of accessory tendons in the foot and ankle needs to be recognized, given that depending on their location, they may cause disorders relating either to pain processes or to handling of the surgical findings. We describe the presence of an accessory flexor tendon of the toes, seen in surgical exposure for transferring the long flexor tendon of the hallux to the calcaneus, due to the presence of a disorder of tendinopathy of the insertion of the calcaneal tendon in association with Haglund's syndrome.
Gomes Júnior, Nelson Pelozo; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Raduan, Fernando Cipolini; Ejnisman, Benno; Cohen, Moisés
The presence of accessory tendons in the foot and ankle needs to be recognized, given that depending on their location, they may cause disorders relating either to pain processes or to handling of the surgical findings. We describe the presence of an accessory flexor tendon of the toes, seen in surgical exposure for transferring the long flexor tendon of the hallux to the calcaneus, due to the presence of a disorder of tendinopathy of the insertion of the calcaneal tendon in association with Haglund's syndrome. PMID:26962495
Samukawa, Mina; Hattori, Masaki; Sugama, Naoko; Takeda, Naoki
Dynamic stretching is commonly used in warm-up routines for athletic activities. Even though several positive effects of dynamic stretching on athletic performance have been reported, the effects on the muscle-tendon unit (MTU) itself are still unclear. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of dynamic stretching on the ankle plantar flexor muscle-tendon properties by use of ultrasonography. Twenty healthy male subjects participated in the present study. The subjects were asked to engage in dynamic stretching of plantar flexors for 30 s and to repeat for 5 sets. Ankle dorsiflexion ROM was measured before and after the dynamic stretching. Changes in the displacement of the myotendinous junction (MTJ), pennation angle, and fascicle length were also determined by using ultrasonography. Ankle dorsiflexion ROM increased significantly after the dynamic stretching (p < 0.0001). A significant distal displacement of the MTJ was observed until the second stretching set (p < 0.001) with no significant changes thereafter. Pennation angle, and fascicle length were unaffected by the dynamic stretching. Dynamic stretching was shown to be effective in increasing ankle joint flexibility. Outcomes that could have indicated changes in muscle tissue (such as the pennation angle and fascicle length) were unaltered. However, a significant displacement of the MTJ was found, indicating some change in the tendon tissues. Therefore, dynamic stretching of the plantar flexors was considered an effective means of lengthening the tendon tissues.
Zhao, Chunfeng; Ettema, Anke M; Berglund, Lawrence J; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of carpal tunnel pressure on the gliding characteristics of flexor tendons within the carpal tunnel. Eight fresh human cadaver wrists and hands were used. A balloon was inserted into the carpal tunnel to elevate the pressure. The mean gliding resistance of the middle finger flexor digitorum superficialis tendon was measured with the following six conditions: (1) as a baseline, before balloon insertion; (2) balloon with 0 mmHg pressure; (3) 30 mmHg; (4) 60 mmHg; (5) 90 mmHg; (6) 120 mmHg. The gliding resistance of flexor tendon gradually increased as the carpal tunnel pressure was elevated. At pressures above 60 mmHg, the increase in gliding resistance became significant compared to the baseline condition. This study helps us to understand the relationship between carpal tunnel pressure, which is elevated in the patient with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and tendon gliding resistance, which is a component of the work of flexion. These findings suggest that patients with CTS may have to expend more energy to accomplish specific motions, which may in turn affect symptoms of hand pain, weakness and fatigue, seen commonly in such patients. Copyright © 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society.
Zhao, Chunfeng; Ettema, Anke M.; Berglund, Lawrence J.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of carpal tunnel pressure on the gliding characteristics of flexor tendons within the carpal tunnel. Eight fresh human cadaver wrists and hands were used. A balloon was inserted into the carpal tunnel to elevate the pressure. The mean gliding resistance of the middle finger flexor digitorum superficialis tendon was measured with the following six conditions 1) as a baseline, before balloon insertion; 2) balloon with 0 mmHg pressure; 3) 30 mmHg; 4) 60 mmHg; 5) 90 mmHg; 6) 120 mmHg. The gliding resistance of flexor tendon gradually increased as the carpal tunnel pressure was elevated. At pressures above 60 mmHg, the increase in gliding resistance became significant compared to the baseline condition. This study helps us to understand the relationship between carpal tunnel pressure, which is elevated in the patient with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and tendon gliding resistance, which is a component of the work of flexion. These findings suggest that patients with CTS may have to expend more energy to accomplish specific motions, which may in turn affect symptoms of hand pain, weakness and fatigue, seen commonly in such patients. PMID:20661935
Lui, Tun Hing
Chronic tendinopathy is characterized by pain in the tendon, generally at the start and completion of exercise. However, tendinosis may lead to decreased blood flow, increased stiffness of the tendon and reduced tensile strength, and predispose to rupture. Operative treatment is indicated to restore the function of the Achilles tendon and alleviate the prerupture heel cord pain. A case of acute Achilles tendon rupture with extensive tendinosis that was successfully treated with minimally invasive flexor hallucis longus transfer is reported.
Nagy, Mathias Thomas; Ghosh, Sabyasachi; Shah, Bhavik; Sankar, Thangasamy
We report a rare case of an 84-year-old woman who presented with delayed, complete rupture of superficial (flexor digitorum superficialis) and deep flexor tendons (flexor digitorum profundus) of the third, fourth and fifth digits of the right hand in zone V of the flexor tendons. The patient, who was otherwise healthy, active and independent, incurred a closed fracture of her right wrist 18 years ago, which was treated conservatively. Current X-rays and operative findings confirmed a malunited Galeazzi fracture-dislocation with volar dislocation of the ulna from the distal radioulnar joint. She underwent surgical treatment to improve her hand function and agonising neuritis symptoms, as she was unable to use her middle, ring and little fingers and had developed severe neuritis of the ulnar nerve. Exploration and repair of the flexor tendons, nerve decompressions and Darrach procedure were performed. On follow-up, the patient showed improvement in hand function with the neuritis completely resolved.
Rahm, Stefan; Spross, Christian; Gerber, Fabienne; Farshad, Mazda; Buck, Florian M; Espinosa, Norman
Transfer of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon aims to restore function and relieve pain in chronic Achilles tendon (AT) disease. The goal of the present study was to investigate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of FHL transfer to the AT and to compare the transtendinous technique to the transosseous technique. We hypothesized that the type of technique would have a notable impact on outcome. Forty patients (42 ankles) were retrospectively reviewed and divided into group 1 (transtendinous technique, 22 patients/24 ankles) and group 2 (transosseous technique, 18 patients/18 ankles). Outcome parameters included the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) hindfoot score, Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A) score, Foot Function Index (FFI), and Short Form-36 (SF-36) scores. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lower leg was performed preoperatively to assess muscle quality and fatty infiltration. Postoperatively, isokinetic plantar flexion strength was assessed using a Con-Trex dynamometer. In group 1 (follow-up, 73 months; age, 52 years), the AOFAS score improved from 66 points to 89 points (P < .001) with average values for the VISA-A of 76 points, FFI-D pain 15%, and FFI-D function 22%. In group 2 (follow-up, 35 months; age, 56 years), the AOFAS score increased from 59 points to 85 points (P < .001) with mean values for the VISA-A 76 points, FFI-D pain 25%, and FFI-D function 24%. At follow-up, the average SF-36 score in group 1 was 66% and in group 2 was 77%. Isokinetic testing at 30 deg/s in group 1 revealed notable weakness in the operated ankle averaging 54.7 N·m (75% of normal), and in group 2 the average was 58.2 N·m (77% of normal). No statistically significant differences were found between the groups. The hypothesis was disproved. Both techniques for FHL transfer to AT, intratendinous and transosseous, provided good to excellent clinical and functional outcome in the treatment of irreparable AT disease. Level III
Long, Chao; Galvez, Michael G; Legrand, Anais; Joubert, Lydia-Marie; Wang, Zhen; Chattopadhyay, Arhana; Chang, James; Fox, Paige M
Decellularized cadaveric tendons are a potential source for reconstruction. Reseeding to enhance healing is ideal; however, cells placed on the tendon surface result in inadequate delivery. The authors used an injection technique to evaluate intratendinous cell delivery. Decellularized tendons were reseeded with adipose-derived stem cells in culture, and injected with fetal bovine serum or hydrogel. PKH26-stained cells in cross-section were quantified. To evaluate cell viability, the authors delivered luciferase-labeled cells and performed bioluminescent imaging. To evaluate synthetic ability, the authors performed immunohistochemistry of procollagen. Adipose-derived stem cells' ability to attract tenocytes was assessed using transwell inserts. Cell-to-cell interaction was assessed by co-culturing, measuring proliferation and collagen production, and quantifying synergy. Finally, tensile strength was tested. Both fetal bovine serum (p < 0.001) and hydrogel (p < 0.001) injection led to more cells inside the tendon compared with culturing. Hydrogel injection initially demonstrated greater bioluminescence than culturing (p < 0.005) and fetal bovine serum injection (p < 0.05). Injection groups demonstrated intratendinous procollagen staining correlating with the cells' location. Co-culture led to greater tenocyte migration (p < 0.05). Interaction index of proliferation and collagen production assays were greater than 1 for all co-culture ratios, demonstrating synergistic proliferation and collagen production compared with controls (p < 0.05). There were no differences in tensile strength. Hydrogel injection demonstrated the greatest intratendinous seeding efficiency and consistency, without compromising tensile strength. Intratendinous cells demonstrated synthetic capabilities and can potentially attract tenocytes inside the tendon, where synergy would promote intrinsic tendon healing. Therapeutic, V.
An original method for A1 retinaculum reconstruction of flexor pollicis longus sheath with extensor pollicis brevis tendon is presented. Reconstructed retinaculum is very strong. Loss of extensor pollicis brevis did not impaired thumb function.
Kociolek, Aaron M; Keir, Peter J
Finger flexor tendinopathies and carpal tunnel syndrome are histologically characterised by non-inflammatory fibrosis of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) in the carpal tunnel, which is indicative of excessive and repetitive shear forces between the finger flexor tendons and SSCT. We assessed flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) tendon and adjacent SSCT displacements with colour Doppler ultrasound as 16 healthy participants completed long finger flexion/extension movements captured by a motion capture system. FDS tendon displacements fit a second-order regression model based on metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joint flexion angles (R(2) = 0.92 ± 0.01). SSCT displacements were 33.6 ± 1.7% smaller than FDS tendon displacements and also fit a second-order regression model (R(2) = 0.89 ± 0.01). FDS tendon and SSCT displacement both correlated with finger joint thickness, enabling participant-specific anthropometric scaling. We propose the current regression models as an ergonomic method to determine relative displacements between the finger flexor tendons and SSCT. Relative displacements between the finger flexor tendons and SSCT provide insight into gliding and friction in the carpal tunnel. Our regression models represent a move towards mechanistic-based ergonomic risk assessment of the wrist/hand. This is a natural evolution of ergonomic methods based on tendon-joint interaction.
Innocenti, Marco; Tani, Massimiliano; Carulli, Christian; Ghezzi, Serena; Raspanti, Andrea; Menichini, Giulio
Wound dehiscence, infection, and necrosis of tendon and overlying skin are severe complications after open repairs of Achilles tendon. A simultaneous reconstruction should be provided in a single stage operation. We evaluated the outcomes of one of the possible options: the radial forearm free flap with Flexor Carpi Radialis (FCR) tendon. Between 2006 and 2014, six patients affected by infection and necrosis after Achilles tendon open repair underwent multi-tissutal reconstruction by a composite radial forearm free flap including a vascularized FCR tendon. The mean skin and tendon defect was respectively 9.8 cm × 4.7 cm and 6.5 cm. After reconstruction, patients underwent clinical examination, including the Achilles Tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) questionnaire, DASH score, MRI study, and a computer-assisted gait analysis. All flaps survived and no complications were recorded. Full weightbearing was allowed within 2 months after surgery. The mean follow-up was 36.2 months (range 12-96). MRI showed an optimal reconstruction of the tendon. Range of motion was minimally reduced if compared to the contralateral side. Gait analysis showed the recovery of a nearly symmetrical stance phase, time to heel off, and step length of the gate. ATRS and DASH score improved to a mean value of 85.2 (range 83-88) and 8.0 (range 3-15) respectively. This procedure provided an anatomical reconstruction of the Achilles tendon and skin achieving good and objective functional results; donor site morbidity was limited to the sacrifice of the radial artery, which, in our opinion, is a minor drawback if compared to the quality of the results. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Peterson, W W; Manske, P R; Lesker, P A; Kain, C C; Schaefer, R K
A method was developed to reconstruct the fibro-osseous pulleys with Nitex, a synthetic material. Nitex is a closely woven fabric constructed from monofilament nylon fibers. Six adult monkeys (24 digits) had excision of the A1 and A2 pulleys; this was followed by reconstruction of the A2 pulley with the Nitex synthetic material. The animals were killed, two at a time, at 4, 8, and 12 weeks to evaluate the effectiveness of the Nitex pulleys. Flexor tendon function was assessed by biomechanical methods with a tensile testing machine to measure the tendon excursion and the work of flexion (the area under the force-excursion curve) necessary to fully flex each digit; these parameters revealed that the Nitex pulleys were capable of preventing tendon bow-stringing and did not significantly impair tendon gliding. The breaking strength of the Nitex pulleys was comparable to that of normal A2 pulleys (for monkeys weighing less than 10 kg) and it was sufficient to allow immediate mobilization of the digits postoperatively without fear of pulley rupture. Histologic examination showed minimal foreign body reaction around the Nitex, and the gliding surface of a Nitex pulley was found to be covered with a smooth layer of fibrous tissue with minimal adhesions to the underlying flexor tendon. The synthetic Nitex pulley appears to have the potential to function as an effective fibro-osseous pulley replacement.
Rodriguez, D; Devos Bevernage, B; Maldague, P; Deleu, P-A; Leemrijse, T
Tarsal tunnel syndrome (TTS) defines an entrapment neuropathy of the posterior tibial nerve or one of its branches, within the tarsal tunnel. Numerous etiologies have been described explaining this entrapment, including trauma, space-occupying lesions, foot deformities, etc. We present an unreported cause of a space-occupying lesion in the etiology of TTS, namely the combination of a hypertrophic long distally extended muscle belly of the flexor hallucis longus and repetitive ankle motion. Surgical debulking of the muscle belly in the posterior ankle compartment resolved all symptoms.
Al-Qattan, M M
Over an eight-year period, the author has treated five males (mean age of 31 years) with clean-cut zone 2 lacerations of both flexor tendons of all fingers using the same surgical technique (profundus only repair using three 'figure of eight' core sutures and proximal venting of the pulley system) and the same postoperative mobilization programme (a dorsal blocking splint with immediate active motion that allowed full extension at the interphalangeal joints). There were no ruptures of the repaired 20 fingers. At final follow-up (mean of 22 months after surgery), the outcome was considered excellent in 12 fingers, good in four fingers and fair in the remaining four fingers by the Strickland-Glogovac criteria. The outcome was similar in all four fingers for every patient supporting the hypothesis of previous studies that the outcome of repair of clean-cut flexor tendon lacerations in zone 2 is related to the psychological and biologic characteristics of the patient.
Jordana, Mireia; Wilderjans, Hans; Boswell, Jane; Dewulf, Jeroen; Smith, Roger K W; Martens, Ann
To report outcome after the surgical treatment of lacerations of the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT), deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT), suspensory ligament (SL), and/or distal sesamoidean ligaments (DSL) in horses. Case series. Horses (n=106) with lacerations of the SDFT, DDFT, SL, and/or DSL. Medical records (1988-2002) were reviewed for signalment, limb and tendon/ligament involvement (location and extent of injury, tendon sheath involvement), method of repair, and outcome. The median age of horses was 7 years and the follow-up time ranged from 1 to 10 years. Fifty-five percent of horses returned to their previous level of performance, 27% to a lower level, and 18% were euthanatized. Multivariate statistical analysis demonstrated that the number of structures transected had the most significant influence on outcome. No significant association was detected between outcome and tendon sheath involvement, tendon suturing, casting, or limb affected. Fetlock hyperextension was the most significant complication. A high survival rate can be expected after SDFT, DDFT, SL, and/or DSL lacerations in horses, but only 55% of affected horses returned to their previous activity level. The number of structures affected was the major factor determining whether horses returned to an equal level of performance. © Copyright 2011 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.
Hennecke, Kathleen; Redeker, Joern; Kuhbier, Joern W.; Strauss, Sarah; Allmeling, Christina; Kasper, Cornelia; Reimers, Kerstin; Vogt, Peter M.
Repair success for injuries to the flexor tendon in the hand is often limited by the in vivo behaviour of the suture used for repair. Common problems associated with the choice of suture material include increased risk of infection, foreign body reactions, and inappropriate mechanical responses, particularly decreases in mechanical properties over time. Improved suture materials are therefore needed. As high-performance materials with excellent tensile strength, spider silk fibres are an extremely promising candidate for use in surgical sutures. However, the mechanical behaviour of sutures comprised of individual silk fibres braided together has not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, we characterise the maximum tensile strength, stress, strain, elastic modulus, and fatigue response of silk sutures produced using different braiding methods to investigate the influence of braiding on the tensile properties of the sutures. The mechanical properties of conventional surgical sutures are also characterised to assess whether silk offers any advantages over conventional suture materials. The results demonstrate that braiding single spider silk fibres together produces strong sutures with excellent fatigue behaviour; the braided silk sutures exhibited tensile strengths comparable to those of conventional sutures and no loss of strength over 1000 fatigue cycles. In addition, the braiding technique had a significant influence on the tensile properties of the braided silk sutures. These results suggest that braided spider silk could be suitable for use as sutures in flexor tendon repair, providing similar tensile behaviour and improved fatigue properties compared with conventional suture materials. PMID:23613793
Draeger, Reid W; Patterson, Brendan M; Olsson, Erik C; Schaffer, Alicia; Patterson, J Megan M
To determine the effect of patient insurance status on access to outpatient orthopedic care for acute flexor tendon lacerations. The research team contacted 100 randomly chosen orthopedic surgery practices in North Carolina by phone on 2 different occasions separated by 3 weeks. The research team attempted to obtain an appointment for a fictitious 28-year-old man with an acute flexor tendon laceration. Insurance status was presented as Medicaid in 1 call and private insurance in the other call. Ability of an office to schedule an appointment was recorded. Of the 100 practices, 13 were excluded because they did not perform hand surgery, which left 87 practices. The patient in the scenario with Medicaid was offered an appointment significantly less often (67%) than the patient in the scenario with private insurance (82%). The odds of the patient with private insurance obtaining an appointment were 2.2 times greater than the odds of the Medicaid patient obtaining an appointment. The Medicaid patient was more likely not to be offered an appointment owing to the lack of a hand surgeon at a practice (28% of appointment denials) than privately insured patients (13% of appointment denials). For patients with acute flexor tendon lacerations, insurance status has an important role in the ability to obtain an orthopedic clinic appointment. We found that patients with Medicaid have more barriers to accessing care for a flexor tendon laceration than patients with private insurance. Prognostic II. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhao, Chunfeng; Wei, Zhuang; Kirk, Ramona L.; Thoreson, Andrew R.; Jay, Gregory D.; Moran, Steven L.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.
Background Using allograft is an attractive alternative for flexor tendon reconstruction because of the lack of donor morbidity, and better matching to the intrasynovial environment. The purpose of this study was to use biolubricant molecules to modify the graft surface to decrease adhesions and improve digit function. Methods 28 flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons from the 2nd and 5th digits of 14 dogs were first lacerated and repaired to create a model with repair failure and scar digit for tendon reconstruction. Six weeks after the initial surgery, the tendons were reconstructed with FDP allograft tendons obtained from canine cadavers. One graft tendon in each dog was treated with saline as a control and the other was treated with gelatin, carbodiimide derivatized, hyaluronic acid and lubricin (cd-HA-Lubricin). Six weeks postoperatively, digit function, graft mechanics, and biology were analyzed. Results Allograft tendons treated with cd-HA-Lubricin had decreased adhesions at the proximal tendon/graft repair and within flexor sheath, improved digit function, and increased graft gliding ability. The treatment also reduced the strength at the distal tendon to bone repair, but the distal attachment rupture rate was similar for both graft types. Histology showed that viable cells migrated to the allograft, but these were limited to the tendon surface. Conclusion cd-HA-Lubricin treatment of tendon allograft improves digit functional outcomes after flexor tendon reconstruction. However, delayed bone-tendon healing should be a caution. Furthermore, the cell infiltration into the allograft tendons substance should be a target for future studies, to shorten the allograft self-regeneration period. PMID:24445876
Kubo, Keitaro; Teshima, Takanori; Ikebukuro, Toshihiro; Hirose, Norikazu; Tsunoda, Naoya
The purpose of this study was to compare the elastic properties and size of tendinous structures and muscle architecture for knee extensors and plantar flexors in boys and men. Twenty-two early pubescent boys (9.6-12.7yrs) and 23 young adult men (19.8-26.2yrs) participated in this study. The maximal strain and thickness of tendinous structures for knee extensors and plantar flexors were measured using ultrasonography. In addition, the fascicle lengths of vastus lateralis and medial gastrocnemius muscles were measured. The maximal strain of tendinous structures for plantar flexors was significantly greater in boys than in men, while there was no difference in the maximal strain for knee extensors between the two groups. The relative thickness (to body mass(1/3)) of Achilles tendon was significantly greater in boys than in men, although there was no difference in that of patellar tendon between the two groups. The relative fascicle length (to limb length) of vastus lateralis muscle was significantly lower in boys than in men, although there was no difference in that of medial gastrocnemius muscle between the two groups. These results suggest that the amount of changes in the elastic properties and sizes of tendinous structures and in the fascicle lengths from early pubescence to maturity is different for different muscle groups (in particular, the knee extensors and the plantar flexors). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schweizer, A; Frank, O; Ochsner, P E; Jacob, H A C
A method was developed to indirectly measure friction between the flexor tendons and pulleys of the middle and ring finger in vivo. An isokinetic movement device to determine maximum force of wrist flexion, interphalangeal joint flexion (rolling in and out) and isolated proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint flexion was built. Eccentric and concentric maximum force of these three different movements where gliding of the flexor tendon sheath was involved differently (least in wrist flexion) was measured and compared. Fifty-one hands in 26 male subjects were evaluated. The greatest difference between eccentric and concentric maximum force (29.9%) was found in flexion of the PIP joint. Differences in the rolling in and out movement (26.8%) and in wrist flexion (14.5%) were significantly smaller. The force of friction between flexor tendons and pulleys can be determined by the greater difference between eccentric and concentric maximum force provided by the same muscles in overcoming an external force during flexion of the interphalangeal joints and suggests the presence of a non-muscular force, such as friction. It constitutes of 9% of the eccentric flexion force in the PIP joint and therefore questions the low friction hypothesis at high loads. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.
Mehdi Nasab, Seyed Abdolhossein; Sarrafan, Nasser; Saeidian, Seyed Reza; Emami, Hassan
Objective : There are few reports on outcome following flexor tendon repair of the hand in zone 5. We hypothesized that early mobilization of the fingers is possible if the suture site of repaired tendon is strong enough. The aim of this study was to assess the results of flexor tendon repair in this zone using modified Kessler method reinforced by peripheral running suture and a post operative early active and passive mobilization of the fingers. Methodology: This prospective study was carried out between April 2006 and Feb 2010, and 171 digits flexor tendons cut in 42 patients were repaired by modified Kessler technique reinforced by running peripheral suture. Early active mobilization and gentle passive motion of the fingers was allowed in a dorsal wrist splint the day after surgery. Wrist Immobilization was performed for one month. Function of the tendons was assessed by Buck-Gramcko score at nine month follow up. Results: Mean age of the patients was 25.4 years (range 17-46 y). Twenty nine flexor policis longus, 77 flexor digitorum superficialis and 65 flexor digitorum profundus tendons of digits were repaired. Middle and index fingers were most commonly involved. Median and ulnar nerve repair was done in 17 and 12 cases respectively. Good to excellent results were seen in of 79.34% of FPL and 74.65% of other finger flexors. One case of FPL rupture was seen. Tenolysis of FDS was performed in one case. Recovery in thenar muscle function was good, fair and poor in 5, 2 and 10 cases after median nerve repair, while all 12 patients with ulnar nerve lesion showed some degrees of clawing of 4th and 5th fingers. Conclusion : Most patients following flexor tendon repair at zone 5 obtained good results. Early motion of the fingers seems to improve outcome in these patients. Concomitant nerve cut in particular of ulnar nerve were associated with a high rate of poor results. PMID:24353505
Stavros, Thomopoulos; Emmanouil, Zampiakis; Rosalina, Das; Hyun-Min, Kim; J., Silva, Matthew; Necat, Havlioglu; H., Gelberman, Richard
Purpose Our previous studies in a canine animal model demonstrated that the flexor tendon-to-bone insertion site has a poor capacity to heal. Magnesium based adhesives have the potential to improve tendon-to-bone healing. Therefore, we hypothesized that magnesium based bone adhesive (MBA) will improve the tendon-to-bone biomechanical properties initially and in the early period after repair. Methods Flexor digitorum profundus tendons were injured and repaired into bone tunnels in the distal phalanges of dogs. The bone tunnels were either filled with MBA prior to completing the repair or left empty (CTL). Histologic appearance, tensile properties, range of motion, and bone density were examined at time zero and 21 days after the repair. Results There was no histologic evidence of acute inflammation. There appeared to be more mast cells in the MBA group than in the CTL group. Chronic inflammatory infiltrate and fibrosis was slightly higher in the MBA group compared to the CTL group. Tensile properties at time zero were significantly higher in the MBA group compared to the CTL group. However, tensile properties were significantly lower in the MBA group compared to the CTL group at 21 days. Range of motion and bone density were significantly lower in the MBA and CTL groups compared to normal (i.e., uninjured) at 21 days; no differences were seen when comparing MBA to CTL. Conclusions We found that the initial biomechanical properties of flexor tendon-to-bone repairs can be improved with MBA. However, MBA use in vivo led to a decrease in the biomechanical properties of the repair. There was no effect of MBA on bone density or range of motion in the early period after repair. Our histologic analysis suggests that the poor healing in the MBA group may have been due to an allergic response or to increased chronic inflammation due to the foreign material. PMID:19643291
Battery, Lucy; Maffulli, Nicola
Overuse tendon injuries present with pain and swelling of the affected tendon with associated decrease in exercise tolerance and function of the limb. After early inflammatory and degenerative hypotheses, the term "tendinopathy" is now deemed a more appropriate reflection of the mixed histopathological picture seen in operative biopsies from affected patients. The condition presents histopathological evidence of "failed healing response," but its etiology remains unclear. The incidence of tendinopathy is increased in individuals with obesity and decreased insulin sensitivity (as seen in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus). These groups of patients also exhibit an increased risk of developing a state of chronic low-grade, systemic inflammation. This paper considers the theoretical bases to discuss whether these conditions may predispose to the development of tendinopathy and the implication that such a relationship may have on its management.
Zhao, Chunfeng; Zobitz, Mark E.; Sun, Yu-Long; Predmore, Kelly S.; Amadio, Peter C.; An, Kai-Nan; Moran, Steven L.
Background: Topical 5-fluorouracil has been reported to reduce adhesions in animal models of tenolysis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of topical 5-fluorouracil on adhesion formation after tendon repairs were subjected to immediate postoperative rehabilitation in a canine model in vivo. Methods: Sixty dogs were randomly assigned to either a 5-fluorouracil treatment (thirty dogs) or a control group (thirty dogs). Each treatment group was then divided into three survival time points: ten days, twenty-one days, and forty-two days. The second and fifth flexor digitorum profundus tendons from each dog were fully lacerated at the zone-II area and then were repaired. Passive motion therapy started at day 5 postoperatively and continued until the dogs were killed. The repaired tendons were evaluated for normalized work of flexion, gliding resistance, repair strength, gene expression for type-I and type-III collagen and transforming growth factor-β1, and histological appearance. Results: The normalized work of flexion of the repaired tendons treated with 5-fluorouracil was significantly lower than that of the repaired tendons without 5-fluorouracil treatment at ten days. However, there was no significant difference between treated and untreated tendons at twenty-one and forty-two days. There was also no significant difference in gliding resistance, repair failure strength, or stiffness between treated and untreated tendons at any time point, or in the gross or histological appearance of adhesions at the time of killing. The expression of types-I and III collagen and transforming growth factor-β1 of the repaired tendon with 5-fluorouracil treatment was significantly lower than that of the tendons without treatment at ten days postoperatively, but not at twenty-one or forty-two days. Conclusions: Although 5-fluorouracil treatment can reduce adhesions in in vivo models of tenolysis, this treatment had only a transient effect in an in vivo model of
Giant cell tumour of tendon sheath with simultaneous two tendon involvement of the foot treated with excision of the tumour and reconstruction of the flexor retinaculum using tibialis posterior tendon in a paediatric patient: A rare case report.
Tiwari, Vivek; Ansari, Tahir; Mittal, Samarth; Sharma, Pankaj; Nalwa, Aasma
Giant cell tumour of tendon sheath is a benign soft tissue tumour arising from the tendon sheath. The involvement of foot and ankle by such tumours is relatively rare. Children are not commonly afflicted by this condition. All such tumours are reported to arise either from a single tendon sheath or one joint. We report a case of giant cell tumour of tendon sheath in a 12-year-old child, arising simultaneously from the tendon sheaths of tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendons, as well as extending into the ankle joint. It was treated by complete excision of the mass along with the tendon sheaths with reconstruction of the flexor retinaculum. The location of the tumour, age of the patient, diffuse nature of the tumour and novel technique of reconstruction of the flexor retinaculum make this case extremely rare and the first to be reported in literature.
Groom, Lauren M; White, Nathaniel A; Adams, M Norris; Barrett, Jennifer G
Lesions of the distal deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) are frequently diagnosed using MRI in horses with foot pain. Intralesional injection of biologic therapeutics shows promise in tendon healing; however, accurate injection of distal deep digital flexor tendon lesions within the hoof is difficult. The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate accuracy of a technique for injection of the deep digital flexor tendon within the hoof using MRI-guidance, which could be performed in standing patients. We hypothesized that injection of the distal deep digital flexor tendon within the hoof could be accurately guided using open low-field MRI to target either the lateral or medial lobe at a specific location. Ten cadaver limbs were positioned in an open, low-field MRI unit. Each distal deep digital flexor tendon lobe was assigned to have a proximal (adjacent to the proximal aspect of the navicular bursa) or distal (adjacent to the navicular bone) injection. A titanium needle was inserted into each tendon lobe, guided by T1-weighted transverse images acquired simultaneously during injection. Colored dye was injected as a marker and postinjection MRI and gross sections were assessed. The success of injection as evaluated on gross section was 85% (70% proximal, 100% distal). The success of injection as evaluated by MRI was 65% (60% proximal, 70% distal). There was no significant difference between the success of injecting the medial versus lateral lobe. The major limitation of this study was the use of cadaver limbs with normal tendons. The authors conclude that injection of the distal deep digital flexor tendon within the hoof is possible using MRI guidance. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.
Gordon, Leonard; Matsui, Jun; McDonald, Erik; Gordon, Joshua A; Neimkin, Ronald
To compare the biomechanical and technical properties of flexor tendon repairs using a 4-strand cruciate FiberWire (FW) repair and a 2-strand multifilament stainless steel (MFSS) single cross-lock cable-crimp system. Eight tests were conducted for each type of repair using cadaver hand flexor digitorum profundus tendons. We measured the required surgical exposure, repair time, and force of flexion (friction) with a custom motor system with an inline load cell and measured ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and 2-mm gap force on a servo-hydraulic testing machine. Repair time averaged less than 7 minutes for the 2-strand MFSS cable crimp repairs and 12 minutes for the FW repairs. The FW repair was performed with 2 cm of exposure and removal of the C-1 and A-3 pulleys. The C-1 and A-3 pulleys were retained in each of the MFSS cable crimp repairs with less than 1 cm of exposure. Following the FW repair, the average increase in friction was 89% compared with an average of 53% for the MFSS repairs. Six of the 8 MFSS specimens achieved the UTS before any gap had occurred, whereas all of the FW repairs had more than 2 mm of gap before the UTS, indicating that the MFSS was a stiffer repair. The average UTS appeared similar for both groups. We describe a 2-strand multifilament stainless steel single cross-lock cable crimp flexor repair system. In our studies of this cable crimp system, we found that surgical exposure, average repair times, and friction were reduced compared to the traditional 4-strand cruciate FW repair. While demonstrating these benefits, the crimp repair also produced a stiff construct and high UTS and 2-mm gap force. A cable crimp flexor tendon repair may offer an attractive alternative to current repair methods. The benefits may be important especially for flexor tendon repair in zone 2 or for the repair of multiple tendons. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhao, Chunfeng; Ettema, Anke M; Osamura, Naoki; Berglund, Lawrence J; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C
The purpose of this study was to investigate the gliding characteristics of flexor tendons within the carpal tunnel with varied wrist positions and tendon motion styles, which may help us to understand the relationship between carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and repetitive hand motion. Eight fresh human cadaveric wrists and hands were used. The peak (PGR) and mean (MGR) gliding resistance of the middle finger flexor digitorum superficialis tendon were measured with the wrist in 0, 30, and 60 degrees of flexion and extension. While moving all three fingers together, the PGR at 60 degrees flexion was significantly higher than that at 0, 30, or 60 degrees extension. While moving the middle finger alone, the PGR at 60 and 30 degrees flexion was significantly higher than the PGR at 60 degrees extension. The PGR moving the middle finger FDS alone was significantly greater than that for all three digits moving together in 0, 30, and 60 degrees flexion. Differential finger motion with wrist flexion elevated the tendon gliding resistance in the carpal tunnel, which may be relevant in considering the possible role of wrist position and activity in the etiology of CTS.
Watanabe, Takafumi; Imamura, Yasutada; Hosaka, Yoshinao; Ueda, Hiromi; Takehana, Kazushige
By using ultramorphological and biochemical methods, we analyzed the regional differences between the three parts of the equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT), namely, the myotendinous junction (MTJ), middle metacarpal (mM), and osteotendinous junction (OTJ). Cross-sectional images showed unique distributions of collagen fibrils of varying diameters in each region. Small collagen fibrils (diameter <100 nm) were distributed predominantly in the MTJ region, and the OTJ region was relatively rich in large collagen fibrils (diameter >200 nm). In the mM region, the collagen fibrils were intermediately distributed between the MTJ and OTJ. The results indicate a graded arrangement of collagen fibrils in the tendon. Type V collagen was detected preferentially in the MTJ region. Since type V collagen is believed to be one of the collagens regulating collagen fibril formation, its possible functionality in the MTJ region in terms of fibril formation and fibril arrangement in the tendon has been discussed here.
Chauhan, Aakash; Schimoler, Patrick; Miller, Mark C; Kharlamov, Alexander; Merrell, Gregory A; Palmer, Bradley A
The aim of the study was to compare biomechanical strength, repair times, and repair values for zone II core flexor tendon repairs. A total of 75 fresh-frozen human cadaveric flexor tendons were harvested from the index through small finger and randomized into one of 5 repair groups: 4-stranded cross-stitch cruciate (4-0 polyester and 4-0 braided suture), 4-stranded double Pennington (2-0 knotless barbed suture), 4-stranded Pennington (4-0 double-stranded braided suture), and 6-stranded modified Lim-Tsai (4-0 looped braided suture). Repairs were measured in situ and their repair times were measured. Tendons were linearly loaded to failure and multiple biomechanical values were measured. The repair value was calculated based on operating room costs, repair times, and suture costs. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post hoc statistical analysis were used to compare repair data. The braided cruciate was the strongest repair ( P > .05) but the slowest ( P > .05), and the 4-stranded Pennington using double-stranded suture was the fastest ( P > .05) to perform. The total repair value was the highest for braided cruciate ( P > .05) compared with all other repairs. Barbed suture did not outperform any repairs in any categories. The braided cruciate was the strongest of the tested flexor tendon repairs. The 2-mm gapping and maximum load to failure for this repair approached similar historical strength of other 6- and 8-stranded repairs. In this study, suture cost was negligible in the overall repair cost and should be not a determining factor in choosing a repair.
Ali, Sayed; Griffin, Nicole L; Ellis, Whitney; Meyr, Andrew J
It is important to have a full appreciation of lower-extremity anatomical relationships before undertaking diabetic foot surgery. We sought to evaluate the potential for communication of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon with other pedal tendons and plantar foot compartments at the master knot of Henry and to provide cadaveric images and computed tomographic (CT) scans of such communications. Computed tomography and subsequent anatomical dissection were performed on embalmed cadaveric limbs. Initially, 5 to 10 mL (1:4 dilution) of iohexol and normal saline was injected into the FHL sheath as it coursed between the two hallux sesamoids. Subsequently, CT scans were obtained in the axial plane using a multidetector CT scanner with sagittal and coronal reformatted images. The limbs were then dissected for specific evaluation of the known variable intertendinous connections between the FHL and flexor digitorum longus (FDL) and quadratus plantae (QP) muscles. One cadaver demonstrated retrograde flow of contrast into the four individual tendons of the FDL, with observation of a large intertendinous slip between the FHL and FDL on dissection. Another cadaver demonstrated contrast filling in the QP with an associated intertendinous slip between the FHL and QP on dissection. These results indicate that the master knot of Henry (the location in the plantar aspect of the midfoot where the FHL and FDL tendons decussate, with the FDL passing superficially over the FHL) has at least the potential to serve as one source of communication in diabetic foot infections from the medial plantar compartment and FHL to the central and lateral compartments via the FDL and to the rearfoot via the QP.
Sanmartín-Fernández, M; Fernández-Bran, B; Couceiro-Otero, J
To evaluate the results and complications of flexor tendon repair in which a home-based rehabilitation program was utilized without the assistance of a hand therapist during the first 4postoperative weeks. Between July 2009 and July 2014, a total of 21 digits in 15 patients were treated in our institution for complete laceration of the flexor tendons within the flexor pulley system (zone 1 and 2). Passive and active exercises performed by the patients themselves were started the morning after the operation. Data, as range-of-motion and complications, were collected 6months after the surgery. Fifteen digits had full recovery of flexion. One patient suffered a rupture in the fifth postoperative week. Ten of the 21 digits developed a flexion contracture of the proximal interphalangeal joint; in 5 the contracture was less or equal to 10° without impairment of function or aesthetics. Over recent decades, specialized hand therapy has been of great importance in the postoperative treatment of hand diseases. Unfortunately, these professionals are not always available in our area in the first days after surgery. With this protocol, the patient is in charge of carrying out the postoperative exercises, which could lead to a worse final result and a higher rate of complications. The home-based rehabilitation program yielded complete recovery of joint mobility in most cases with a low complication rate. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Mao, Haijiao; Shi, Zengyuan; Xu, Dachuan; Liu, Zhenxin
Neglected Achilles Tendon Ruptures are commonly seen by orthopaedic surgeons. In cases resistant to conservative treatment, a variety of surgical procedures have been utilized in the past. The senior -surgeon at our institution has utilized a technique -employing two turndown fascia flaps fashioned from the proximal Achilles tendon augmented by a tenomyodesis of the flexor hallucis longus and plantaris tendon. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical outcome of all patients who underwent this procedure. The medical records of 10 cases that underwent this procedure were retrospectively reviewed. We completed data collection sets using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hind foot scores, isokinetic evaluation, and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 1 year of follow-up. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hind foot scores improved from 64.4±3.54. Isokinetic testing at 30º/sec and 120º/sec revealed an mean deficits of 24.5%, respectively, in the plantar flexion peak torque of the involved ankle than non-involved ankle. The flexor hallucis longus tendon, gastrocnemius fascia flap and plantaris were well -integrated into the Achilles tendon forming a homogenous tendon, which was confirmed in MRI. Our subjective and objective data indicate that the reconstructive technique using flexor hallucis longus transfer with two turndown gastrocnemius fascia flaps and plantaris tendon is a good option for repairing large gap defect of Achilles tendon.
Bertone, A L; Stashak, T S; Smith, F W; Norrdin, R W
In nine horses (18 forelimbs), a 3 cm section of superficial digital flexor tendon was removed and the tendons were repaired with immobilization for 6 weeks and (1) no suture (n = 6); (2) a double locking loop tenorrhaphy with carbon fiber (n = 6); or (3) a double locking loop tenorrhaphy with size 2 nylon suture (n = 6). Clinical assessment, gross evaluation, morphometry, histology, and mechanical testing were performed on two limbs from each treatment group at weeks 6, 12, and 24. At weeks 6 and 12, the unsutured tissue was less mature than the tissue sutured with nylon. By week 24, the carbon fiber repair had breaking stress (mean, 12.5 M Pa) similar to the unsutured repair (mean, 10.6 M Pa). There was necrosis and a granulomatous foreign body reaction around the carbon fiber. The nylon suture repair had significantly greater strength per unit area (mean breaking stress, 20.4 M Pa) because of a smaller area of repair tissue in the gap (mean, 3.6 cm2). At week 24, the nylon suture repair tissue was the most mature with the least inflammation of the three repair methods. A nylon double locking loop suture was the preferred method for equine flexor tenorrhaphy of a tendon gap because of greater breaking stress, histologic maturity, biocompatibility, and the adequate functional and cosmetic outcome.
Sato, Junko; Ishii, Yoshinori; Noguchi, Hideo; Takeda, Mitsuhiro
To evaluate trigger digits with sonography to determine morphological changes in the A1 pulley, flexor tendon, and volar plate in relation to the severity of triggering. We evaluated 67 trigger digits and graded them into 1 of 4 groups. We compared the groups according to severity and to contralateral fingers, which served as controls. The thickness of the flexor tendons under the A1 pulley was proportional to the severity of triggering. The anteroposterior thickness of the flexor tendon increased significantly among the grades exhibiting triggering regardless of the affected digit. However, in digits other than the thumb, tendon thickness increased even in the absence of active triggering. Thickening tended to be greater with finger flexion. The A1 pulley exhibited the greatest thickness and the volar plate exhibited significant thickening in the group that exhibited continuous triggering that was easily reduced with active extension (grade III). The flexor tendon thickened significantly before patients experienced triggering except in the thumb. In the thumb, the flexor tendon and A1 pulley thickened significantly only after patients exhibited triggering. Thickening of the volar plate appears to have an important role in continuous triggering. Although most clinicians can easily determine the severity of a trigger digit by clinical examination, ultrasound might be helpful for objectively understanding the severity and response to treatment, by examining the thickness of the flexor tendon and A1 pulley. In particular, sonographic measurement of the A1 pulley might be useful in judging the progression of trigger finger severity. In cases where a Doppler signal is detected inside the A1 pulley, more conservative therapies might be worth considering before surgery. Diagnostic ΙΙΙ. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kubo, Keitaro; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo
The purposes of this study were to compare the elasticity of tendon and aponeurosis in human knee extensors and ankle plantar flexors in vivo and to examine whether the maximal strain of tendon was correlated to that of aponeurosis. The elongation of tendon and aponeurosis during isometric knee extension (n = 23) and ankle plantar flexion (n = 22), respectively, were determined using a real-time ultrasonic apparatus, while the participants performed ramp isometric contractions up to voluntary maximum. To calculate the strain values from the measured elongation, we measured the respective length of tendon and aponeurosis. For the knee extensors, the maximal strain of aponeurosis (12.1 +/- 2.8 %) was significantly greater than that of the patella tendon (8.3 +/- 2.4 %), p < 0.001. On the contrary, the maximal strain of Achilles tendon (5.9 +/- 1.4 %) was significantly greater than that of aponeurosis in ankle plantar flexors (2.7 +/- 1.4 %), p < 0.001. Furthermore, for both knee extensors and ankle plantar flexors there was no significant correlation between maximal strain of tendon and aponeurosis. These results would be important for understanding the different roles of tendon and aponeurosis during human movements and for more accurate muscle modeling.
Lawrence, Tom M; Davis, Tim R C
Flexor tendon repair strength depends on the suture technique and the suture material used. Configurations that incorporate locking loops prevent sutures from pulling through the tendon but typically fail because of suture breakage. The choice of suture material therefore influences repair strength. This study investigated the mechanical properties of 5 nonabsorbable 4-0 suture materials (monofilament nylon, monofilament polypropylene, braided polyester, braided stainless steel wire, and braided polyethylene) and evaluated their performance when used in a locking 4-strand flexor tendon repair configuration. Five samples of 2 strands of each suture type were tested mechanically to determine the material stiffness and ultimate load. In addition, 50 fresh porcine flexor tendons were divided and repaired with each of the 5 suture materials using a 4-strand single-cross technique. Gap force, ultimate strength, and stiffness were measured to compare biomechanical performance. All repairs failed by suture rupture at the locking loop. Fibrewire and stainless-steel sutures and repairs were significantly stronger and stiffer than the other suture types. The results for Prolene and Ethibond were similar in the tendon repair groups with respect to gap and ultimate forces although Ethibond provided significantly increased repair stiffness. Nylon sutures and repairs consistently produced the poorest mechanical performance in all outcome measures. Suture material strongly influences the biomechanical performance of multistrand tendon repairs and is an important consideration for the surgeon. Fibrewire and stainless steel are the most biomechanically suitable suture materials for flexor tendon repair whereas nylon is the least suitable. Further developments in suture materials are important for advancements in flexor tendon repair strength.
Lu, Hui; Chen, Qiang; Shen, Hui
Abstract Rationale: Gouty tophi is a rare cause of CTS. We first report a unique case of repeated CTS with gouty tophi in flexor tendon. In the previous literature, the symptoms cases of CTS were gradually increased. Patient concerns: We report a 44-year-old male porter presented with mass on his left distal forearm combined a repeated carpal tunnel syndrome for 5 years. He felt numbness in fingers and his left palmar. The CTS symptoms had been eased through rest and dugs medication. It recurred twice. Diagnoses: Monosodium urate crystal deposits were found in surgery. Histologic findings confirmed the diagnosis of gout. Interventions: We removed partial of gouty tophus and retained the integrity of the tendon. Outcomes: Two years after the surgery, the patient had not experienced any symptom recurrence. Lessons: Early diagnosis and control of gout are necessary to avoid irreversible complications. The surgery combined with decreasing trioxypurine treatment can improve the treatment outcome of gouty tophus. PMID:28248892
Oksanen, Maria M; Haapasalo, Heidi H; Elo, Petra P; Laine, Heikki-Jussi
Flexor hallucis longus tendon (FHLT) transfer has become a popular method for reconstructing a chronic Achilles tendon rupture (ATR). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes and possible hypertrophy of the FHL muscle after FHLT transfer in patients with chronic ATR. Seven patients with chronic ATR underwent an FHLT transfer to heel through single incision. The patients were clinically evaluated 27 (16-39) months after the surgery. The patient satisfaction was assessed with Achilles Tendon Total Rupture Scale (ATRS). Isokinetic strength was measured from both legs. The FHL muscle hypertrophy was evaluated from MRI of both legs. All subjects also performed a gait analysis with an instrumented walkway system (GAITRite(®)). The plantar flexion strength was 16.1% (-45, 7-2, 4%) weaker in the operated leg. ATRS scores averaged 70.3. Marked hypertrophy, +52% (9-104%) of the FHL muscle was seen in the operated leg compared to the non-operated leg. The gait analysis did not show any marked pathology in any of the patients. A mean hypertrophy of 52% of the FHL muscle was found after FHLT transfer for the chronic ATR. This indicates strong adaptation capacity of this muscle after FLHT transfer in situation where the function of the gastro-soleus complex was severely impaired preoperatively. The reconstruction of chronic ATR with FHLT transfer provided a good functional outcome and excellent patient satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Al-Qattan, Mohammad M
Previous authors have used either a grasping or a locking technique for flexor tendon repair in zone II. A combined (grasping and locking) 10-strand repair was used by the author in 22 adults (n = 28 fingers) with lacerations of both flexor tendons in zone II. The combined repair is known to be strong (mean tensile strength of 164 N), and the technique was used in selected cases who were thought to be at higher risk of rupture either because of excessive digital oedema (in early tendon repairs) or because of tendon retraction (in late primary tendon repairs). The 10-strand repair was bulky and, hence, only the profundus tendon was repaired; and "venting" of the pulley system was done proximal to the repair site as recommended by other authors. Supervised early active mobilisation was done immediately after the operation. At final follow-up, the outcome was calculated using the original Strickland-Glogovac grading system. There were no ruptures and the final outcome was considered excellent in 19 patients (n = 25 fingers), good in two patients (n = 2 fingers), and fair in the remaining patient (n = 1 finger). It was concluded that the bulky 10-strand repair may be used for zone II finger flexor tendon lacerations as long as a profundus-(?) only repair and "venting" of the pulley system are performed.
Lee, Daniel J; Southgate, Richard D; Farhat, Youssef M; Loiselle, Alayna E; Hammert, Warren C; Awad, Hani A; O'Keefe, Regis J
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) 1-34 is known to enhance fracture healing. Tendon repair is analogous to bone healing in its dependence on the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, matrix formation, and tissue remodeling.(1,2,3) We hypothesized that PTH 1-34 enhances tendon healing in a flexor digitorum longus (FDL) tendon repair model. C57Bl/6J mice were treated with either intraperitoneal PTH 1-34 or vehicle-control (PBS). Tendons were harvested at 3-28 days for histology, gene expression, and biomechanical testing. The metatarsophalangeal joint range of motion was reduced 1.5-2-fold in PTH 1-34 mice compared to control mice. The gliding coefficient, a measure of adhesion formation, was 2-3.5-fold higher in PTH 1-34 mice. At 14 days post-repair, the tensile strength was twofold higher in PTH 1-34 specimens, but at 28 days there were no differences. PTH 1-34 mice had increased fibrous tissue deposition that correlated with elevated expression of collagens and fibronectin as seen on quantitative PCR. PTH 1-34 accelerated the deposition of reparative tissue but increased adhesion formation.
Foisneau-Lottin, A; Touillet, A; Paysant, J; Dautel, G
The repair of the finger flexor tendons can be complicated by the appearance of ruptures and peritendinous adhesions. Ruptures are often treated with tendon grafts. Peritendinous adhesions can require tenolysis. Following these two surgical procedures, there is a risk of new adhesions and rupture. Rehabilitation after this secondary surgery consists of a tailored, closely supervised protocol. Protocols used by the team at the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department of the Regional Rehabilitation Institute and the team at the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Department of the Emile-Gallé Surgical Center of Nancy (France) are described. A close collaboration between these teams of surgeons and physical therapists is essential. After tendon grafting, protected early motion helps to move the transplant immediately while still protecting it. After tenolysis, immediate (several times a day) and extended rehabilitation ensures that the mobility obtained intraoperatively is maintained. It is performed in a specialized rehabilitation center during the first three postoperative weeks. The goal is to prevent new adhesions from forming while taking into account tendon's fragility.
Pritsch, Tamir; Sammer, Douglas M
To describe in a cadaveric model a tenodesis procedure for restoring distal interphalangeal joint flexion in patients with unrepairable isolated flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) injuries. In 16 fresh-frozen cadaveric fingers, the FDP tendon was transected 1 cm proximal to its insertion to simulate an isolated zone I laceration. The injury was reconstructed using a palmaris longus tendon graft to create a mechanical linkage between the interphalangeal joints, which restored coordinated interphalangeal joint flexion. Joint motion and the force required to flex and extend the fingers were tested before and after the tenodesis. After FDP zone I laceration, distal interphalangeal joint flexion with load applied to the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon averaged 2°. The FDP flexion increased to a mean of 57° after the tenodesis. The sum of metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joint flexion averaged 186° before the tenodesis and increased to 233° after the tenodesis. The force required to achieve fingertip to palm contact and the force required to fully extend the proximal interphalangeal joint were not altered. In this cadaveric model, this tenodesis successfully restored coordinated interphalangeal joint flexion after a simulated zone I FDP laceration with improvements in distal interphalangeal joint flexion and composite finger flexion. Critical factors such as the effects of inflammation, edema, soft tissue healing, and scar formation could not be evaluated and would likely affect the outcomes of this procedure. The in vivo results of this procedure are not known. The potential use of this tenodesis for treating unrepairable isolated zone I FDP injuries was demonstrated in a cadaveric model. Further investigation of the outcomes and complications in vivo would be required before routine clinical use. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Angelidis, Ioannis K; Thorfinn, Johan; Connolly, Ian D; Lindsey, Derek; Pham, Hung M; Chang, James
Tissue-engineered flexor tendons could eventually be used for reconstruction of large tendon defects. The goal of this project was to examine the effect of a tissue bioreactor on the biomechanical properties of tendon constructs seeded with adipoderived stem cells (ASCs) and fibroblasts (Fs). Rabbit rear paw flexor tendons were acellularized and seeded with ASCs or Fs. A custom bioreactor applied a cyclic mechanical load of 1.25 N at 1 cycle/minute for 5 days onto the tendon constructs. Three additional groups were used as controls: fresh tendons and tendons reseeded with either ASCs or Fs that were not exposed to the bioreactor treatment and were left in stationary incubation for 5 days. We compared the ultimate tensile stress (UTS) and elastic modulus (EM) of bioreactor-treated tendons with the unloaded control tendons and fresh tendons. Comparison across groups was assessed using one-way analysis of variance with the significance level set at p<.05. Pairwise comparison between the samples was determined by using the Tukey test. The UTS and EM values of bioreactor-treated tendons that were exposed to cyclic load were significantly higher than those of unloaded control tendons. Acellularized tendon constructs that were reseeded with ASCs and exposed to a cyclic load had a UTS of 66.76 MPa and an EM of 906.68 MPa; their unloaded equivalents had a UTS of 47.90 MPa and an EM of 715.57 MPa. Similar trends were found in the fibroblast-seeded tendon constructs that were exposed to the bioreactor treatment. The bioreactor-treated tendons approached the UTS and EM values of fresh tendons. Histologically, we found that cells reoriented themselves parallel to the direction of strain in response to cyclic strain. The application of cyclic strain on seeded tendon constructs that were treated with the bioreactor helped achieve a UTS and an EM comparable with those of fresh tendons. Bioreactor pretreatment and alternative cell lines, such as ASCs and Fs, might therefore
Effects of sodium-hyaluronate and glucosamine-chondroitin sulfate on remodeling stage of tenotomized superficial digital flexor tendon in rabbits: a clinical, histopathological, ultrastructural, and biomechanical study.
Oryan, Ahmad; Moshiri, Ali; Meimandiparizi, Abdul-Hamid
This study was designed to evaluate the effects of sodium-hyaluronate (NaH) combined with glucosamine HCl-chondroitin sulfate (GlcN-CS) on the post-surgical repair of tendon rupture on day 84 post injury. Twenty white New Zealand female rabbits were divided randomly into two equal groups of injured treated and injured untreated. After tenotomy and surgical repair, using the modified Kessler technique and running pattern, the injured legs were casted for 14 days. NaH was injected subcutaneously over the lesion on days 3, 7, and 10 and was followed by daily oral administration of GlcN-CS on days 3 to 23 post injury. The control animals received normal saline injection and oral placebo similarly. The weight of the animals, tendon diameter, clinical manifestations, and radiographic and ultrasonographic evaluations were conducted for 12 weeks. The rabbits were euthanized 84 days post injury and the tendons were evaluated at macroscopic, histopathologic, and ultrastructural level and were assessed for biomechanical and percentage dry-weight parameters. Treatment significantly reduced the tendon diameter and ultimate and yield strain, and increased the echogenicity, dry-weight content, ultimate and yield strength, and stress and stiffness of the injured tendons compared to those of the untreated ones. Treatment also significantly enhanced the maturation rate of the tenoblasts, fibrillogenesis, the diameters of the collagen fibrils, and fibrillar density. These findings suggest that a combined treatment of NaH and GlcN-CS could be effective in restoring the morphological and biomechanical properties of injured superficial digital flexor tendon of rabbits and might be helpful for future clinical trial studies in tendon ruptures.
Hernández-Cortés, P; Caba, M; Gómez-Sánchez, R; Gómez-Morales, M
The authors report an unusual case of flexor tenosynovitis, severe carpal tunnel syndrome, and triggering at the carpal tunnel as the first manifestation of gout. A 69-year-old man presented with digital flexion contracture and severe carpal tunnel syndrome of his right hand and was treated surgically. A flexor tenosynovectomy and a median nerve neurolysis were performed through an extended carpal tunnel approach. The sublimis and the profundus tendons were involved. Partial ruptures and multiple whitish lesions suggestive of tophacceous infiltration of the flexor tendons were seen. Macroscopically, the removed synovial tissue was involved by multiple whitish nodules that were milimetric in size and was suggestive of monosodium urate crystals deposits. By light microscopy examination, numerous nonnecrotizing granulomas of different sizes were observed that were compounded by large aggregations of acellular nonpolarized material, surrounded by epithelioid histiocytes, mononuclear cells, and foreign body multinucleated giant cells. Postoperatively, the patient recovered with resolution of the median nerve symptoms and a near-to-full range of motion of the affected digits.To the authors' knowledge, this patient is the first case report with flexor tendons tophacceous infiltration as the first clinical sign of gout. Gouty flexor tenosynovitis can occur in the absence of a long history of gout. A high index of suspicion is paramount to the initiation of proper management. Operative treatment of gouty flexor tenosynovitis is mandatory to debulk tophaceous deposits, improve tendon gliding, and decompress nerves. Routine uric acid determination could be helpful in the preoperative evaluation of patients with flexor tenosynovitis. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.
Peffers, Mandy J.; Thorpe, Chavaunne T.; Collins, John A.; Eong, Robin; Wei, Timothy K. J.; Screen, Hazel R. C.; Clegg, Peter D.
Energy storing tendons, such as the human Achilles and equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT), are highly prone to injury, the incidence of which increases with aging. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that result in increased injury in aged tendons are not well established but are thought to result in altered matrix turnover. However, little attempt has been made to fully characterize the tendon proteome nor determine how the abundance of specific tendon proteins changes with aging and/or injury. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the protein profile of normal SDFTs from young and old horses using label-free relative quantification to identify differentially abundant proteins and peptide fragments between age groups. The protein profile of injured SDFTs from young and old horses was also assessed. The results demonstrate distinct proteomic profiles in young and old tendon, with alterations in the levels of proteins involved in matrix organization and regulation of cell tension. Furthermore, we identified several new peptide fragments (neopeptides) present in aged tendons, suggesting that there are age-specific cleavage patterns within the SDFT. Proteomic profile also differed between young and old injured tendon, with a greater number of neopeptides identified in young injured tendon. This study has increased the knowledge of molecular events associated with tendon aging and injury, suggesting that maintenance and repair of tendon tissue may be reduced in aged individuals and may help to explain why the risk of injury increases with aging. PMID:25077967
Mao, Haijiao; Shi, Zengyuan; Wapner, Keith L; Dong, Wenwei; Yin, Weigang; Xu, Dachuan
The purpose of the study was to describe the anatomical variations of the connection between the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) and flexor digitorum longus (FDL) tendons in the knot of Henry in Asians, and quantify the length of FHL tendon graft with different incisions. Sixty-four embalmed feet of 32 cadavers were analyzed anatomically with respect to the individual cross-links in the planta pedis. Single incision technique graft length was measured from the musculotendinous junction of FHL and the point at sustentaculum tali. Double incision technique was measured from musculotendinous junction of FHL and the level of the master knot of Henry. Additionally, minimally invasive incision technique was measured from musculotendinous junction of FHL to the first interphalangeal joint. These three techniques were then combined to determine the total potential tendon graft length obtainable using different approach. Only two different configurations were found. Type 1, a tendinous slip branched from the FHL to the FDL (62 of 64 feet). Type 2, a slip branched from the FHL to the FDL and another slip from the FDL to FHL (2 of 64). The average length of the FHL graft available from a single incision measured 5.08 cm (range 3.32-10.35, SD = 1.09), double incision technique measured 6.72 cm (range 4.69-12.09, SD = 1.03), and minimally invasive incision measured 17.49 cm (range 13.51-20.52, SD = 1.80). The difference between the lengths obtained from these three techniques was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The absence of no attachment and FDL tendon to the FHL between the two tendons in the foot may be more frequent than previously reported. Only two configurations of the anatomical relationship were found in this study. In over 96 % of the feet, a proximal to distal connection from the FHL to the FDL was found, which might contribute to the residual function of the lesser toes after FDL transfer.
McNair, Peter; Nordez, Antoine; Olds, Margie; Young, Simon W; Cornu, Christophe
We compared the effects of a non-weight bearing protocol (NWB) and a weight bearing (WB) protocol on energy stored, stiffness, and shock absorption in the plantar flexor muscle-tendon unit of patients managed non-operatively following an Achilles tendon rupture. Thirty-eight subjects were randomized to a WB cast fitted with a Bohler iron or a traditional non-weight-bearing cast. At a 6-month follow-up, a biomechanical assessment utilizing an isokinetic dynamometer allowed measurement of peak passive torque, energy stored, shock absorption, and stiffness. The WB group had greater peak passive torque (≈ 20%). Irrespective of group, peak passive torque in unaffected legs was greater (≈ 26%) than affected legs. Across the groups, energy stored in the NWB group was 74% of the WB group. The energy stored in affected legs was 80% of that in unaffected legs. Shock absorption was not significantly different across legs or groups. Irrespective of group, affected legs had significantly less stiffness (20-40%). While the augmentation of plaster with a Bohler iron to allow increased weight bearing had positive effects, deficits in affected compared to unaffected legs irrespective of group were notable, and should be addressed prior to participation in vigorous physical activities. Copyright © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society.
Tanabe, Katsuhisa; Miyamoto, Nao
Ulnar nerve neuropathy is a rare complication following the carpal tunnel release. Above all, compression neuropathy is much rare. We report an acute ulnar nerve neuropathy following open carpal tunnel release due to the volar and ulnar displacement of the flexor tendons from the carpal tunnel and review the literature.
Todhunter, P G; Schumacher, J; Finn-Bodner, S T
Chronic lameness was determined to be caused by desmitis of the accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon and adhesions associated with these 2 structures. Desmotomy of the accessory ligament, resection of adhesions, and controlled exercise during convalescence resulted in return to normal use without apparent lameness. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9332748
Mulon, Pierre-Yves; Achard, Damien; Babkine, Marie
A 17-month-old Holstein heifer was presented for persistent enlargement above the right hind fetlock of 1-month's duration. Diffuse plantar soft tissue swelling was present on the radiographs and ultrasonography revealed the presence of multiple porcupine quill extremities embedded in the subcutaneous tissue within the flexor tendon sheath wall. Surgical removal was performed.
Godino, M; Vides, M; Guerado, E
Traumatic dislocation of the posterior tibial tendon (PTT) has a very low prevalence. It presents with pain and recurrent snapping on the posterior side of the medial malleolus after an ankle sprain while practicing sports. The diagnosis is based on clinical examination, supported by imaging techniques. The treatment must be always surgical. A 28 year old man sprained ankle his ankle while jogging. He was treated in an emergency department with an elastic bandage. Once he recovered, he went back to running, noticing a projection with ankle pain. In the physical examination the PTT was reproduced with inversion maneuvers and forced dorsiflexion. Ultrasound and MRI were performed on the ankle. The patient was operated on, leaving a stable ankle with no projection. Three months later he had no pain and restarted his physical activities. Surgical treatment of PTT dislocation by re-anchoring the flexor retinacula provides an excellent functional outcome. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
... flexor - aftercare; Hip flexor injury - aftercare; Hip flexor tear - aftercare; Iliopsoas strain - aftercare; Strained iliopsoas muscle - aftercare; Torn iliopsoas muscle - aftercare; Psoas strain - aftercare
Ji, Xiaoxi; Reisdorf, Ramona L.; Thoreson, Andrew R.; Berglund, Lawrence R.; Moran, Steven L.; Jay, Gregory D.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.; Zhao, Chunfeng
Background: Functional restoration is the major concern after flexor tendon reconstruction in the hand. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of modifying the surface of extrasynovial tendon autografts with carbodiimide-derivatized synovial fluid with gelatin (cd-SF-G) on functional outcomes of flexor tendon reconstruction using a canine model. Methods: The second and fifth flexor digitorum profundus tendons from eleven dogs were transected and repaired in zone II. The dogs then had six weeks of free activity leading to tendon rupture and scar formation (the repair-failure phase). In the reconstruction phase, two autologous peroneus longus tendons from each dog were harvested; one tendon was coated with cd-SF-G and the other, with saline solution, as a control. A non-weight-bearing rehabilitation protocol was followed for six weeks after reconstruction. The digits were then harvested and evaluations of function, adhesion status, gliding resistance, attachment strength, cell viability, and histology were performed. Results: The tendons coated with cd-SF-G demonstrated significantly lower values (mean and standard deviation) compared with the saline-solution group for work of flexion (0.63 ± 0.24 versus 1.34 ± 0.42 N-mm/deg), adhesion score (3.5 ± 1.6 versus 6.1 ± 1.3), proximal adhesion breaking force (8.6 ± 3.2 versus 20.2 ± 10.2 N), and gliding resistance (0.26 ± 0.08 versus 0.46 ± 0.22 N) (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the cd-SF-G and saline-solution groups (p > 0.05) in distal attachment-site strength (56.9 ± 28.4 versus 77.2 ± 36.2 N), stiffness (19 ± 7.5 versus 24.5 ± 14.5 N/mm), and compressive modulus from indentation testing (4.37 ± 1.26 versus 3.98 ± 1.24 N/mm). Histological analysis showed that tendons coated with cd-SF-G had smoother surfaces and demonstrated tendon-to-bone and tendon-to-tendon incorporation. No significant difference in viable cell count between the two groups was observed
Ji, Xiaoxi; Reisdorf, Ramona L; Thoreson, Andrew R; Berglund, Lawrence R; Moran, Steven L; Jay, Gregory D; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C; Zhao, Chunfeng
Functional restoration is the major concern after flexor tendon reconstruction in the hand. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of modifying the surface of extrasynovial tendon autografts with carbodiimide-derivatized synovial fluid with gelatin (cd-SF-G) on functional outcomes of flexor tendon reconstruction using a canine model. The second and fifth flexor digitorum profundus tendons from eleven dogs were transected and repaired in zone II. The dogs then had six weeks of free activity leading to tendon rupture and scar formation (the repair-failure phase). In the reconstruction phase, two autologous peroneus longus tendons from each dog were harvested; one tendon was coated with cd-SF-G and the other, with saline solution, as a control. A non-weight-bearing rehabilitation protocol was followed for six weeks after reconstruction. The digits were then harvested and evaluations of function, adhesion status, gliding resistance, attachment strength, cell viability, and histology were performed. The tendons coated with cd-SF-G demonstrated significantly lower values (mean and standard deviation) compared with the saline-solution group for work of flexion (0.63 ± 0.24 versus 1.34 ± 0.42 N-mm/deg), adhesion score (3.5 ± 1.6 versus 6.1 ± 1.3), proximal adhesion breaking force (8.6 ± 3.2 versus 20.2 ± 10.2 N), and gliding resistance (0.26 ± 0.08 versus 0.46 ± 0.22 N) (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the cd-SF-G and saline-solution groups (p > 0.05) in distal attachment-site strength (56.9 ± 28.4 versus 77.2 ± 36.2 N), stiffness (19 ± 7.5 versus 24.5 ± 14.5 N/mm), and compressive modulus from indentation testing (4.37 ± 1.26 versus 3.98 ± 1.24 N/mm). Histological analysis showed that tendons coated with cd-SF-G had smoother surfaces and demonstrated tendon-to-bone and tendon-to-tendon incorporation. No significant difference in viable cell count between the two groups was observed on tendon culture
Ozasa, Yasuhiro; Amadio, Peter C.; Thoreson, Andrew R.; An, Kai-Nan; Zhao, Chunfeng
Purpose To investigate the gliding ability and mechanical properties of decellularized intrasynovial tendons without and with surface modification designed to reduce gliding resistance. Methods Thirty-three canine flexor digitorum profundus tendons were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: untreated fresh tendons, to serve as a control; tendons decellularized with trypsin and Triton X-100; and tendons decellularized as in group 2 with surface modification using carbodiimide-derivatized hyaluronic acid and gelatin (cd- HA-gelatin). Tendons were subjected to cyclic friction testing for 1000 cycles with subsequent tensile stiffness testing. The surface roughness after 1000 cycles was qualitatively evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. Results The gliding resistance of the decellularized group was significantly higher than that of both the control and cd-HA-gelatin tendons (0.20N, 0.09N and 0.11N after the first cycle, 0.41N, 0.09N and 0.14N after 1000 cycles, respectively).Gliding resistance between the control and cd-HA-gelatin groups was not significantly different. The Young modulus was not significantly different between the 3 groups. The surfaces of the control and cd-HA-gelatin treated tendons appeared smooth after 1000 cycles, while those of the decellularized tendons appeared rougher under scanning electron microscopy observation. Conclusions Decellularization with trypsin and Triton X-100 did not change tendon stiffness. However, this treatment, while effective in removing cells, adversely altered the tendon surface, both in appearance and gliding resistance. Surface modification with cd- HA-gelatin improved the tendon surface smoothness and significantly decreased the gliding resistance. Clinical Relevance The combination of decellularization and surface modification may improve the function of tendon allografts when used clinically. PMID:23849733
Ozasa, Yasuhiro; Amadio, Peter C; Thoreson, Andrew R; An, Kai-Nan; Zhao, Chunfeng
To investigate the gliding ability and mechanical properties of decellularized intrasynovial tendons with and without surface modification designed to reduce gliding resistance. We randomly assigned 33 canine flexor digitorum profundus tendons to 1 of 3 groups: untreated fresh tendons, to serve as a control; tendons decellularized with trypsin and Triton X-100; and tendons decellularized as in group 2 with surface modification using carbodiimide-derivatized hyaluronic acid and gelatin (cd-HA-gelatin). Tendons were subjected to cyclic friction testing for 1,000 cycles with subsequent tensile stiffness testing. We qualitatively evaluated the surface roughness after 1,000 cycles using scanning electron microscopy. The gliding resistance of the decellularized group was significantly higher than that of both the control and cd-HA-gelatin tendons (0.20, 0.09, and 0.11 N after the first cycle; and 0.41, 0.09, and 0.14 N after 1,000 cycles, respectively). Gliding resistance between the control and cd-HA-gelatin groups was not significantly different. The Young modulus was not significantly different between groups. The surfaces of the control and cd-HA-gelatin-treated tendons appeared smooth after 1,000 cycles, whereas those of the decellularized tendons appeared roughened under scanning electron microscopy observation. Decellularization with trypsin and Triton X-100 did not change tendon stiffness. However, although this treatment was effective in removing cells, it adversely altered the tendon surface in both appearance and gliding resistance. Surface modification with cd-HA-gelatin improved the tendon surface smoothness and significantly decreased the gliding resistance. The combination of decellularization and surface modification may improve the function of tendon allografts when used clinically. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wichelhaus, Dagmar Alice; Beyersdoerfer, Sascha Tobias; Gierer, Philip; Vollmar, Brigitte; Mittlmeier, Th
The outcome of flexor tendon surgery is negatively affected by the formation of adhesions which can occur during the healing of the tendon repair. In this experimental study, we sought to prevent adhesion formation by wrapping a collagen-elastin scaffold around the repaired tendon segment. In 28 rabbit hind legs, the flexor tendons of the third and fourth digits were cut and then repaired using a two-strand suture technique on the fourth digit and a four-strand technique on the third digit. Rabbits were randomly assigned to study and control groups. In the control group, the operation ended by closing the tendon sheath and the skin. In the study group, a collagen-elastin scaffold was wrapped around the repaired tendon segment in both digits. After 3 and 8 weeks, the tendons were harvested and processed histologically. The range of motion of the digits and the gap formation between the repaired tendon ends were measured. The formation of adhesions, infiltration of leucocytes and extracellular inflammatory response were quantified. At the time of tendon harvesting, all joints of the operated toes showed free range of motion. Four-strand core sutures lead to significantly less diastasis between the repaired tendon ends than two-strand core suture repairs. The collagen-elastin scaffold leads to greater gapping after 3 weeks compared to the controls treated without the matrix. Within the tendons treated with the collagen-elastin matrix, a significant boost of cellular and extracellular inflammation could be stated after 3 weeks which was reflected by a higher level of CAE positive cells and more formation of myofibroblasts in the αSMA stain in the study group. The inflammatory response subsided gradually and significantly until the late stage of the study. Both the cellular and extracellular inflammatory response was emphasized with the amount of material used for the repair. The use of a collagen-elastin matrix cannot be advised for the prevention of adhesion
Rispler, D; Greenwald, D; Shumway, S; Allan, C; Mass, D
The efficiency of the flexor tendon system was examined in a human cadaver model. Pulleys were randomly sectioned, and the results were evaluated on the basis of the tendon excursion, force generated at the fingertip, and the work (force multiplied by distance) involved, as compared to the intact pulley system. When a single minor pulley (A1 or A5) was cut, there was no statistical difference in work efficiency or excursion efficiency from controls. Cutting all minor pulleys (A1, A3, A5) lead to a significant loss in excursion efficiency. The intact three pulley systems of A2, A3, and A4 were near normal and statistically better than A2 and A4 together for work efficiency. Cutting one of the major pulleys (A2, A4) resulted in significant changes in efficiency, but what was unexpected was to find an 85% loss of both work and excursion efficiency for the loss of A4 but only an excursion difference of 94% for the loss of A2. Our findings demonstrated that in this model, with the influence of the skin removed, A4 absence produced the largest biomechanically measured efficiency changes and that a combination of A2, A3, and A4 was necessary to preserve both work and excursion efficiency.
Jacoby, Sidney M; Sivalingam, Jocelyn J; Raikin, Steven Mark
Mycobacterium fortuitum (M. fortuitum), a rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacterium is a well-recognized, yet uncommon cause of soft tissue infection. The incidence of post surgical wound infections from this organism is increasing. The presentation of infection is atypical and failure to consider this pathogen can cause diagnostic delay and increased morbidity. Achilles tendon debridement with FHL augmentation is commonly used in patients with chronic Achilles tendinosis. Wound-edge necrosis is the most common surgical complication of this procedure, and superficial and deep infections are potentially devastating complications. We report the case of a patient who underwent Achilles tendon debridement with flexor hallucis longus augmentation, whose postoperative course was complicated by a deep M. FORTUITUM infection. Critical to the identification and ultimate treatment of this particular pathogen is the utilization of appropriate intraoperative cultures and microbiologic testing. In addition, repeat aggressive irrigation and debridement procedures coupled with removal of foreign materials and the appropriate use of prolonged antibiotic therapy can result in a successful long-term outcome.
Wu, Jingheng; Thoreson, Andrew R.; Reisdorf, Ramona L.; An, Kai-Nan; Moran, Steven L.; Amadio, Peter C.; Zhao, Chunfeng
The purpose of this study was to investigate the biomechanical properties of modified repair techniques for flexor tendon reconstruction and the effects of surface modification using carbodiimide-derivatized synovial fluid plus gelatin (cd-SF-G), compared to the traditional repair techniques. The second and fifth digits from 16 canine forepaws were randomly divided into 4 groups: (1) traditional graft repairs (TGR group) including distal Bunnell repair and proximal Pulvertaft weave repair; (2) modified graft repairs (MGR group) including distal graft bony attachment repair and proximal step-cut repair; (3) group TGR coated with cd-SF-G (TGR-C group); and (4) group MGR coated with cd-SF-G (MGR-C group). Digit normalized work of flexion (nWOF), ultimate failure strength, and stiffness were measured. The nWOF in MGR group was significantly less than TGR group (p < 0.05). The nWOF in groups treated with cd-SF-G was significantly less than their untreated counterparts (p < 0.05). Ultimate load to failure of the MGR-C group was significantly greater than the TGR-C group (p < 0.05), but no significant difference in stiffness was found between these two groups. The modified techniques cannot only improve tendon gliding abilities but can also improve breaking strength. Additionally, surface modification with cd-SF-G significantly decreased the work of flexion. PMID:25665071
McDonald, Erik; Gordon, Joshua A; Buckley, Jenni M; Gordon, Leonard
To investigate the mechanical properties of some common suture materials currently in use and compare them with a new multifilament stainless steel suture. We investigated the mechanical properties of 3-0 and 4-0 Fiberwire, 3-0 Supramid, 3-0 Ethibond, and a new 3-0 and 4-0 multifilament stainless steel suture. All suture material was tested in a knotted configuration and all but the Supramid was tested in an unknotted configuration. We measured the load, elongation at failure, and stiffness during both tests. The 4-0 multifilament stainless steel showed the least elongation, whereas the 3-0 multifilament stainless steel withstood the highest load of any material in both the knotted and unknotted tests. There was no difference in stiffness between the 3-0 and 4-0 multifilament stainless steel when untied; however, the 3-0 multifilament stainless steel was stiffer when tied. Soaking in a saline solution had no significant effect on the ultimate load, elongation at failure, or stiffness of any of the sutures. The 3-0 Fiberwire and 3-0 Ethibond required at least 5 throws to resist untying. Multifilament stainless steel exhibited promising mechanical advantages over the other sutures tested. More research is needed to determine how this material will affect the clinical outcomes of primary flexor tendon repair. With a secure attachment to the tendon, the multifilament stainless steel's lower elongation and better knot-holding ability may result in a higher force to produce a 2-mm gap and a higher ultimate tensile strength in a tendon repair. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Halát, Gabriel; Negrin, Lukas; Erhart, Jochen; Ristl, Robin; Hajdu, Stefan; Platzer, Patrick
The objective of this retrospective review was to evaluate the functional and esthetic outcomes in patients with non- or minimally (<2 mm), and severely (>2 mm) displaced bony avulsions of the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon. Between 1996 and 2010, 29 patients with a bony avulsion of the FDP tendon were treated. The displacement magnitude of the avulsed fragment determined, whether conservative or surgical treatment was performed. Persisting functional deficit, radiological findings, remaining disabilities using the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score, as well as treatment-related deformities and complications were evaluated retrospectively and at a mean follow-up of 7 years. In 16 patients, conservative therapy by initial static splinting due to a fragment displacement of <2 mm was conducted. These patients reported no functional impairment at follow-up. In 13 cases, major displacement (>2 mm) of the bony fragment led to an open reconstruction of the avulsion injury either by screw fixation or a Lengemann pull-out wire. In a majority, an extension deficit in the DIP joint and a decrease of tip pinch strength by 25% was present at follow-up. In five patients, peri- or short-term postoperative complications occurred and in five, a nail deformity remained. DASH score revealed satisfying results after both therapeutic approaches. Conservative treatment in non- or minimally displaced avulsions leads to satisfying functional results. Patients receiving surgery after major fragment displacement need to be aware of a possible impaired ROM at the DIP joint. The use of the Lengemann pull-out wire may place patients at an increased complication risk and frequently induces nail deformities. Therapeutic, level IV.
Ramsey, M L
Rupture of the distal biceps tendon occurs most commonly in the dominant extremity of men between 40 and 60 years of age when an unexpected extension force is applied to the flexed arm. Although previously thought to be an uncommon injury, distal biceps tendon ruptures are being reported with increasing frequency. The rupture typically occurs at the tendon insertion into the radial tuberosity in an area of preexisting tendon degeneration. The diagnosis is made on the basis of a history of a painful, tearing sensation in the antecubital region. Physical examination demonstrates a palpable and visible deformity of the distal biceps muscle belly with weakness in flexion and supination. The ability to palpate the tendon in the antecubital fossa may indicate partial tearing of the biceps tendon. Plain radiographs may show hypertrophic bone formation at the radial tuberosity. Magnetic resonance imaging is generally not required to diagnose a complete rupture but may be useful in the case of a partial rupture. Early surgical reattachment to the radial tuberosity is recommended for optimal results. A modified two-incision technique is the most widely used method of repair, but anterior single-incision techniques may be equally effective provided the radial nerve is protected. The patient with a chronic rupture may benefit from surgical reattachment, but proximal retraction and scarring of the muscle belly can make tendon mobilization difficult, and inadequate length of the distal biceps tendon may necessitate tendon augmentation. Postoperative rehabilitation must emphasize protected return of motion for the first 8 weeks after repair. Formal strengthening may begin as early as 8 weeks, with a return to unrestricted activities, including lifting, by 5 months.
Lalonde, Donald H; Kozin, Scott
After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Make decisions on flexor tendon repair based on current evidence. 2. Perform some important tendon transfers after viewing Dr. Kozin's videos. 3. Inject local anesthesia for wide-awake flexor tendon repair after viewing the appropriate videos in the article. 4. Use relative motion extension splints for the postoperative management of extensor tendon injuries. This article provides a practical, clinically useful overview of some of the current best techniques and evidence available to the plastic surgeon in the treatment of flexor and extensor tendon injuries, tendon transfers, trigger fingers, mallet fingers, boutonniere deformities, and De Quervain tenosynovitis. Twelve short movies and drawings emphasize important points of diagnosis and treatment of tendon disorders.
Ramesh, R; Kumar, N; Sharma, A K; Maiti, S K; Singh, G R
Sixteen tenorrhaphies were performed at the mid-metatarsal region in eight buffalo calves under lignocaine epidural analgesia. A 2 cm long gap was created in the superficial digital flexor (SDF) tendon and immediately repaired with acellular grafts in animals of group I, 1% glutaraldehyde-preserved tendon allografts in group II. In group III, the defect was repaired with autografts. This group served as control. The contralateral limb in each animal was operated after an interval of 60 days and the animals underwent the same procedure according to the designed groups. Diclofenac sodium and Enrofloxacin was given post-operatively for 5 days. Clinical examination revealed significant increase (P < 0.05) in rectal temperature, heart and respiratory rate for 3-4 postoperative days in all the animals. Mild pain and exudation as well as early restoration of tendon gliding movements and weight-bearing were observed earlier in group I in comparison with group II. Air-tendograms revealed early organization, minimal adhesion formation and lesser thickening of tendon at the reconstructive site in the acellular group whereas in the glutaraldehyde group dense homogenous swelling with adhesions was seen along the flexors. Angiography on day 30 showed that the area of proximal and distal host tendon graft junction appeared hypervascularized, whereas the area occupied by the graft appeared relatively less vascularized. Normal vascularization was observed on day 90 in all the three groups.
Tan, Y L; Yong, F C
The condition of proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ) locking in hyperextension may occur in the athetoid or spastic hand with moderate or severe swan-neck deformity at the 'opening' phase of prehension. The patient's complaints are of complete or incomplete locking that may require passive assistance to initiate PIPJ flexion. Surgical procedures to overcome this include rerouting the lateral band, stabilisation or reconstruction procedure for the volar instability of the PIPJ, etc. Volar stabilisation may be achieved by Flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) tenodesis procedures or criss-cross tendon graft for volar plate reconstruction. We report a case of successful stabilisation using the criss-cross tendon sling procedure for volar plate reconstruction using a slip of the FDS tendon instead of a free tendon graft. This is a simple and safe procedure that effectively corrects the swan-neck deformity and improves the prehension function in the hand.
Cody, F W; Plant, T
1. The electromyographic (EMG) reflexes evoked in the wrist flexor muscle, flexor carpi radialis (FCR), by percutaneous extension of its tendon and by forcible extension of the wrist joint have been studied. Reflexes were elicited during steadily maintained voluntary flexor contraction of 10% of each subject's maximum. 2. Tendon extension, using 'ramp and hold' displacements, evoked fairly prolonged (ca 50 ms) increases in EMG activity. These responses were usually subdivided into two main excitatory peaks of respectively short (SL, ca 20 ms) and long (LL, ca 45 ms) latency. This pattern contrasted with that observed following brief tendon taps when only a single, SL peak was elicited. 3. 'Stretch' reflexes evoked by 'ramp and hold' wrist extensions, as has been noted by numerous earlier investigators, were also protracted and comprised two main excitatory components. These responses resembled those produced by tendon extension both in their general form and in their behaviour upon altering the velocity of mechanical stimuli. Quantitatively, however, two main differences were evident. The reflexes evoked by wrist extension, including their SL and LL peaks, were generally somewhat larger. Additionally, when parameters of the two modes of stimulation were adjusted to elicit SL responses of equivalent amplitude, the LL responses elicited by tendon extension were regularly smaller and of shorter duration than those elicited by wrist extension. 4. Termination of the two forms of mechanical stimulation, by releasing tendon or wrist extension, each elicited a SL reduction in EMG activity. Such troughs were more pronounced and more consistently observed upon release of wrist extension. 5. Neither local anaesthesia of the skin overlying the flexor tendons at the wrist nor ischaemia of the hand and lower forearm produced any systematic modification of reflex response patterns. 6. It is concluded that intramuscular receptors (presumably muscle spindles) in FCR mediate both
Lee, Young-Keun; Park, Soojin; Lee, Malrey
The proximal phalangeal base is the most commonly fractured hand bone in children. Such fractures are rarely reported as irreducible due to flexor tendon entrapment. Here, we describe a patient who sustained a malunited fracture on the right fifth finger proximal phalanx with flexor tendon entrapment after treatment with closed reduction with K-wires fixation.A 13-year-old patient came to the clinic following a bicycle accident 6 weeks ago. He presented with flexion limitation in his small finger on the right hand. During physical examination, the patient felt no pain, and the neurovascular structures were intact. However range of motion (ROM) in his small finger was not normal. Plain radiographs displayed a Salter-Harris type II fracture of the small finger proximal phalanx base and volar angulation with callus formation. During the operation, it was established that the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) around the fracture had a severe adhesion, whereas the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) was entrapped between the volarly displaced metaphyses and the epiphyses and united with the bone. We removed the volarly displaced metaphyses and freed FDP and repaired the A2 pulley. The bone was anatomically fixed with K-wires. In the treatment after the operation, on the 2nd day, the patient was permitted the DIP joint motion by wearing a dynamic splint.At the 12-months follow-up, the patient had regained full ROM with no discomfort and the proximal phalanx growth plate of the small finger closed naturally with normal alignment.When treating a proximal phalangeal base fracture in children, the possibility of flexor tendon entrapment should be considered and should be carefully dealt with in its treatment.
Choi, Rachel K; Smith, Margaret M; Martin, Joshua H; Clarke, Jillian L; Dart, Andrew J; Little, Christopher B; Clarke, Elizabeth C
Both mechanical and structural properties of tendon change after injury however the causal relationship between these properties is presently unclear. This study aimed to determine the extent of biomechanical change in post-injury tendon pathology and whether the sulphated glycosaminoglycans (glycosaminoglycans) present are a causal factor in these changes. Equine superficial digital flexor tendons (SDF tendons) were surgically-injured in vivo (n=6 injured, n=6 control). Six weeks later they were harvested and regionally dissected into twelve regions around the lesion (equal medial/lateral, proximal/distal). Glycosaminoglycans were removed by enzymatic (chondroitinase) treatment. Elastic modulus (modulus) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) were measured under uniaxial tension to failure, and tendon glycosaminoglycan content was measured by spectrophotometry. Compared to healthy tendons, pathology induced by the injury decreased modulus (-38%; 95%CI -49% to -28%; P<0.001) and UTS (-38%; 95%CI -48% to -28%; P<0.001) and increased glycosaminoglycan content (+52%; 95%CI 39% - 64%; P<0.001) throughout the tendon. Chondroitinase-mediated glycosaminoglycan removal (50%; 95%CI 21-79%; P<0.001) in surgically-injured pathological tendons caused a significant increase in modulus (5.6MPa/µg removed; 95%CI 0.31-11; P=0.038) and UTS (1.0MPa per µg removed; 95%CI 0.043-2; P=0.041). These results demonstrate that the chondroitin/dermatan sulphate glycosaminoglycans that accumulate in pathological tendon post-injury are partly responsible for the altered biomechanical properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Crevier-Denoix, Nathalie; Ravary-Plumioën, Bérangère; Evrard, Delphine; Pourcelot, Philippe
A non-invasive ultrasonic (US) technique of tendon force measurement has been recently developed. It is based on the relationship demonstrated between the speed of sound (SOS) in a tendon and the traction force applied to it. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the variability of this non-linear relationship among 7 equine superficial digital flexor (SDF) tendons, and the reproducibility of SOS measurements in these tendons over successive loading cycles and tests. Seven SDF tendons were equipped with an US probe (1MHz), secured in contact with the skin overlying the tendon metacarpal part. The tendons were submitted to a traction test consisting in 5 cycles of loading/unloading between 50 and 4050N. Four tendons out of the 7 were submitted to 5 additional cycles up to 5550N. The SOS-tendon force relationships appeared similar in shape, although large differences in SOS levels were observed among the tendons. Reproducibility between cycles was evaluated from the root mean square of the standard deviations (RMS-SD) of SOS values observed every 100N, and of force values every 2m/s. Reproducibility of SOS measurements revealed high between successive cycles: above 500N the RMS-SD was less than 2% of the corresponding traction force. Reproducibility between tests was lower, partly due to the experimental set-up; above 500N the difference between the two tests stayed nevertheless below 15% of the corresponding mean traction force. The reproducibility of the US technique here demonstrated in vitro has now to be confirmed in vivo.
Schöffl, V; Winkelmann, H-P
Tendon lesions are the second most common injury in the hand and therefore an important factor in orthopedic patients. Most injuries are open injuries to the flexor or extensor tendons; nevertheless, also less frequent injuries such as damage to the functional system of tendon sheath and pulley or dull avulsions need to be considered. Besides the clinical examination, ultrasound and MRI have proven to be important diagnostic tools. In the postoperative course of flexor tendon injuries, the principle of early passive movement is important to trigger "intrinsic" tendon healing to guarantee a good outcome.
Schmitt, S; Mühldorfer-Fodor, M; van Schoonhoven, J; Prommersberger, K J
Restoration of active thumb flexion at the distal joint. Loss of active flexion of the interphalangeal (IP) joint of the thumb if there is a transection of the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon at the tendon channel of the thumb or thenar and direct suture is not possible but the tendon channel is intact, as alternative procedure to a free tendon graft if the transection is proximal to the tendon channel and the muscle of the FPL is contracted/injured or the FPL tendon is unharmed but the FPL muscle is partially or complete paralyzed. Insufficiency of the FPL tendon channel, impairment of the superficial or deep flexor tendon of the ring finger, limited passive motion of the proximal and distal thumb joints, acute local general infection and non-compliance or incapacity of the patient. The surgical technique depends on the necessity of transosseous refixation of the FDS IV at the base of the distal phalanx of the thumb or the possibility of woven sutures through the FPL proximal to the tendon channel. If the tendon channel is intact the distal part of the FPL tendon is shortened to 1 cm, the FDS IV tendon is cut distal to the chiasma of Camper, pulled through the carpal tunnel and moved into the channel of the FPL tendon and fixed transosseously through the base of the distal phalanx of the thumb. If the transection of the FPL tendon is located proximal to the tendon channel and muscle of the FPL is injured, FDS IV tendon will be woven using the Pulvertaft technique through the FPL tendon at the distal forearm. Postoperative 6 weeks motion of thumb flexion without resistance in relieved position of the thumb through a thermoplast splint and 6 weeks of functional use of the hand with increasing weight bearing. In this study 10 patients with FDS IV transposition to reconstruct an isolated rupture of the FPL tendon could be followed for an average of 4.1 years postoperatively. The active range of motion of the IP joint of the thumb averaged 65° (10-100°), 8
Liu, Yung-Chun; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Shih, Hui-Hsuan; Yang, Tai-Hua; Yang, Hsiao-Bai; Yang, Dee-Shan; Su, Fong-Chin; Sun, Yung-Nien
Quantifying the pathological features of flexor tendon pulleys is essential for grading the trigger finger since it provides clinicians with objective evidence derived from microscopic images. Although manual grading is time consuming and dependent on the observer experience, there is a lack of image processing methods for automatically extracting pulley pathological features. In this paper, we design and develop a color-based image segmentation system to extract the color and shape features from pulley microscopic images. Two parameters which are the size ratio of abnormal tissue regions and the number ratio of abnormal nuclei are estimated as the pathological progression indices. The automatic quantification results show clear discrimination among different levels of diseased pulley specimens which are prone to misjudgments for human visual inspection. The proposed system provides a reliable and automatic way to obtain pathological parameters instead of manual evaluation which is with intra- and interoperator variability. Experiments with 290 microscopic images from 29 pulley specimens show good correspondence with pathologist expectations. Hence, the proposed system has great potential for assisting clinical experts in routine histopathological examinations.
Messina, A; Messina, J C
The direct midlateral approach and the lateral enlarging procedure of the pulley system have been utilized in our service since 1972. The incision runs directly behind the neurovascular pedicle, which is left in the palmar skin flap of the anterior compartment of the finger, in order to ensure its blood supply and sensibility. The transverse digital lamina of Landsmeer's skin anchoring system and Cleland's ligament are preserved and are used to perform a lateral enlargement of the pulleys after tendon repair. The technique allows wide surgical exposure of the digital fibro-osseous tunnel, enlargement and reconstruction of the pulley system and tendon sheath, flexor tendon repair (using the technique of choice) and reduces postoperative impingement in zone 2.
Romero Nakagaki, Wilson; Rosa Pimentel, Edson; Pereira Benevides, Gustavo; Gomes, Laurecir
The aim of this study was to evaluate if spontaneous (nonforced active) exercise and age (maturation process) alter the biomechanical and biochemical properties of superficial digital flexor tendon. Chickens aged 1, 5, and 8 months were divided into two groups: caged and penned. The caged group was reared in an area of 0.5 m(2) (3 animals/cage), while the penned group was reared in an area of 60 m(2) (3 animals/area). For biochemical analysis, the tendon was divided into tensile and compressive regions for quantification of hydroxyproline and glycosaminoglycan content. Biomechanical properties were analyzed from tensile tests of intact tendons. The biomechanical measurements were taken at maximum load and maximum stress. In both the caged and penned groups, maximum load and energy absorption increased with maturation; however, the elastic modulus, maximum stress, and maximum strain did not increase with maturation. Exercise resulted in a higher load, stress, and elastic modulus in the fifth month. Collagen content increased with age in the penned group and with exercise in the fifth and eighth months. Exercise results in a higher expression of glycosaminoglycans in young tendons compared to mature tendons. Thus, low-intensity mechanical stimuli promote the synthesis and possible rearrangement of molecules in immature tendons, whereas inactivity leads to deleterious effects on the material properties (maximum stress and elastic modulus) during growth and maturation.
Sun, Yulong; Chen, Meng-Yi; Zhao, Chunfeng; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.
Although the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon’s gliding resistance is low, the lubrication mechanism that enables this is unclear. The principal lubricants in joints, such as hyaluronic acid, phospholipids, and lubricin, a lubricating glycoprotein, are known to be present in the canine tendon. In this study, we assessed the effect of these lubricants in the tendon by measuring gliding resistance before and after their removal. Canine FDP tendons were treated with hyaluronidase, phospholipase, lipid solvent, and/or trypsin. The gliding resistance of FDP tendons significantly increased after all treatments (p < 0.05). The largest effect on gliding resistance was observed after trypsin digestion. Scanning electron microscopy and immunostaining for hyaluronic acid and lubricin were used to qualitatively assess the tendon surface after treatments. The trypsin digestion produced the most irregular surface, with many exposed collagen fibers. The results of this study suggest that phospholipids, hyaluronic acid, and protein components are all involved in maintaining the low gliding resistance of the FDP tendon. PMID:18404658
Thorpe, C T; McDermott, B T; Goodship, A E; Clegg, P D; Birch, H L
Advancing age is a well-known risk factor for tendon disease. Energy-storing tendons [e.g., human Achilles, equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT)] are particularly vulnerable and it is thought that injury occurs following an accumulation of micro-damage in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Several authors suggest that age-related micro-damage accumulates due to a failure of the aging cell population to maintain the ECM or an imbalance between anabolic and catabolic pathways. We hypothesized that ageing results in a decreased ability of tendon cells to synthesize matrix components and matrix-degrading enzymes, resulting in a reduced turnover of the ECM and a decreased ability to repair micro-damage. The SDFT was collected from horses aged 3-30 years with no signs of tendon injury. Cell synthetic and degradative ability was assessed at the mRNA and protein levels. Telomere length was measured as an additional marker of cell ageing. There was no decrease in cellularity or relative telomere length with increasing age, and no decline in mRNA or protein levels for matrix proteins or degradative enzymes. The results suggest that the mechanism for age-related tendon deterioration is not due to reduced cellularity or a loss of synthetic functionality and that alternative mechanisms should be considered. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tendon injures cause a great deal of disability and pain, and increase medical costs. However, relatively little is known about tendon biology and healing. Many tendon-related surgical procedures are not very successful and leave the patient with essentially a chronic injury. New therapeutic approaches for tendon injury are needed. Preliminary evidence suggests that various nutrients such as proteins, amino acids (leucine, arginine, glutamine), vitamins C and D, manganese, copper, zinc, and phytochemicals may be useful in improving tendon growth and healing. More research on nutrition and tendon health is needed. Because many nutrients are required for tendon health, nutritional interventions involving multiple nutrients may be more effective than single-nutrient strategies. In the future, ideal treatment regimens for tendon injuries may include a multifaceted "bundle" of nutrition, drugs, biologic products, extracellular matrix therapies, exercise/physical therapy, and possibly surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Iyer, Srinivasan; Basu, Indraneil; Kaba, Rahim; Pabari, Amit
Flexor tendon rupture following a Colles' fracture is a rare complication with only a handful of cases reported since the initial report in 1932. We present a case in which all digital flexor tendons ruptured within 6 months of a Colles' fracture. Previous reported cases have demonstrated rupture of either the radial or ulnar digital flexors but this case is the first in which all the digital flexors have been involved. This case report highlights the clinical implications of this rare occurrence and stresses the importance of accurate reduction and thorough clinical examination following bony injuries to the wrist.
van Doesburg, Margriet H. M.; Yoshii, Yuichi; Henderson, Jacqueline; Villarraga, Hector R.; Moran, Steven L.; Amadio, Peter C.
Objectives The aim of this study was to image both tendon and subsynovial connective tissue movement in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and healthy control volunteers, using sonography with speckle tracking. To estimate accuracy of this tracking method, we used in vivo measurements during surgery to validate the motion estimated with sonography. Methods We recruited 22 healthy volunteers and 18 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. Longitudinal sonograms of the middle finger flexor digitorum superficialis tendon and subsynovial connective tissue were obtained during finger flexion and extension. The images were analyzed with a speckle-tracking algorithm. The ratio of the sub-synovial connective tissue velocity to tendon velocity was calculated as the maximum velocity ratio, and the shear index, the ratio of tendon to subsynovial connective tissue motion, was calculated. For validation, we recorded flexor digitorum superficialis tendon motion during open carpal tunnel release. Results The shear index was higher in patients than controls (P < .05), whereas the maximum velocity ratio in extension was lower in patients than controls (P < .05). We found good intraclass correlation coefficients (>0.08) for shear index and maximum velocity ratio measurements between speckle-tracking and in vivo measurements. Bland-Altman analyses showed that all measurements remained within the limits of agreement. Conclusions Speckle tracking is a potentially useful method to assess the biomechanics within the carpal tunnel and to distinguish between healthy individuals and patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. This method, however, needs to be further developed for clinical use, with the shear index and maximum velocity ratio as possible differentiating parameters between patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and healthy individuals. PMID:22733858
Tendons , *Synthetic materials, *Prosthetics, Musculoskeletal system, Warfare, Wounds and injuries, Response(Biology), Pathology, Surgery, Chickens, Laboratory animals, Experimental data, Histology, Synthetic rubber
Jordana, M; Martens, A; Duchateau, L; Haspeslagh, M; Vanderperren, K; Oosterlinck, M; Pille, F
Controversy exists about the specificity of diagnostic analgesia of the digital flexor tendon sheath (DFTS) in horses. To evaluate the degree of diffusion of mepivacaine from the equine DFTS to adjacent synovial structures. Crossover experiment. Under general anaesthesia, the DFTS of one front and one hindlimb of 8 horses were injected simultaneously with mepivacaine. Synovial fluid samples of the injected DFTS, the adjacent metacarpo-/metatarsophalangeal (MCP/MTP) joint, proximal interphalangeal joint, distal interphalangeal joint, navicular bursa and contralateral MCP/MTP joint were collected 15 min post injection (T15) from one of the injected limbs and 60 min post injection (T60) from the other limb. Venous blood samples were obtained at T0, T15 and T60 to evaluate systemic distribution of mepivacaine. After a 2-week washout period, the procedure was repeated using the same limbs but reversing the time of sampling (front vs. hindlimbs). The concentration of mepivacaine in samples was measured with a commercial ELISA kit. Mepivacaine concentrations in the DFTS samples, at both T15 (5077 mg/l) and T60 (3503 mg/l), exceeded those estimated sufficient to produce synovial analgesia (100 mg/l or 300 mg/l). Mepivacaine was found in all synovial structures adjacent to the injected DFTS and in the contralateral MCP/MTP joints, but concentrations were low, with a maximum value of only 3.2 mg/l. With the exception of the navicular bursa samples, the mepivacaine concentrations in the adjacent synovial structures were significantly higher at T60 than at T15 (P<0.03). Significantly higher mepivacaine concentrations were found in the ipsilateral than the contralateral MCP/MTP joints at T60 (P<0.001). Blood samples had significantly higher mepivacaine concentrations at T15 and T60 than at T0 (P<0.001). Mepivacaine injected into the DFTS of horses diffuses towards adjacent synovial structures without achieving clinically relevant concentrations. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.
Hahn, Frederik; Meyer, Patrick; Maiwald, Christian; Zanetti, Marco; Vienne, Patrick
In patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy, augmentation with flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon transfer can be performed to improve pain and functional limitations. There are no reports of postoperative imaging for evaluating tendon integration, inflammatory alterations or degeneration of the FHL muscle. The purpose of this study was to evaluate postoperative MR imaging based on clinical outcome and isokinetic strength. 13 patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy (10 ruptures) underwent augmentation with FHL transfer. Clinical parameters, isokinetic strength and outcome measurements (AOFAS, SF-36) were evaluated at an average followup of 46.5 months. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of postoperative MRI were conducted using the non-operated side for comparison. All patients had a significant reduction of pain. The operated side had a torque deficit of 35% for plantar flexion. Ten patients returned to their former level of activity. MRI showed a complete integration of the FHL tendon in six patients. Fatty atrophy in the triceps surae was found in ten patients. The FHL was free of degeneration in all patients. Hypertrophy of the FHL of more than 15% was observed in eight patients. Augmentation with FHL transfer is a valuable option in the treatment of chronic Achilles tendinopathy with and without rupture. Our results demonstrate high patient satisfaction without donor site morbidity. The FHL tendon is well integrated into the Achilles tendon. Hypertrophy of the FHL muscle suggests functional incorporation into plantar flexion. The primary benefit of the operation is pain relief and increased muscle strength.
Latheef, L; Bhardwaj, P; Sankaran, A; Sabapathy, S R
This study reports an objective assessment of postoperative function of 11 triple transfers for high radial palsies, using pronator teres for wrist extension, flexor carpi ulnaris for finger extension and palmaris longus for thumb extension. The mean follow-up was 3.3 years. Assessment was done by recording the active ranges of wrist motion, grip strength, wrist and finger strength and work simulation. The mean strength and range of wrist extension were 42% and 86%, respectively, of the contralateral wrist. Other measured movements were within the functional range and work simulation confirmed good restoration of function. The mean DASH score was 3.45, with no patient reporting any specific functional complaints. This study shows that even though the range of wrist motion and the strength of the wrist and fingers are less than normal, hand function remains good. We conclude that the flexor carpi ulnaris set of tendon transfer works well. 3.
Spriet, Mathieu; McKnight, Alexia
Three isolated equine limbs were imaged with a low-field magnetic resonance system with a vertical magnetic field. Each limb was scanned in multiple positions with mild variation of the angle between the magnetic field and the long axis of the limb. When the long axis of the limb was not perpendicular to the magnetic field, a linear hyperintense signal was present at the palmar aspect of one of the deep digital flexor tendon lobes, at the level of the navicular bone and collateral sesamoidean ligaments, in proton density and T1-weighted pulse sequences. With increased angulation of the limb, the palmar hyperintense signal extended farther distally and proximally and additional signal hyperintensity was present at the dorsal aspect of the distal part of the other lobe of the deep digital flexor tendon. Increased signal intensity was also present in the collateral ligament of the distal interphalangeal joint on the same side as the palmar hyperintense signal in the tendon. The changes in the deep digital flexor tendon are due to the specific orientation of fibers at the palmar and dorsal aspect of the tendon, which is responsible for focal manifestation of the magic angle effect. Careful positioning of the limb perpendicular to the magnetic field can prevent this phenomenon. The association of palmar increased signal intensity in the deep digital flexor tendon with increased signal in the collateral ligament of the distal interphalangeal joint on the same side should be recognized as manifestations of the magic angle effect.
Lee, Chul Hyung; Cha, Soo Min; Shin, Hyun Dae
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anatomical features of injured structures, investigate the protection provided by the specific tendon of each corresponding important neurovascular structure (radial artery, median nerve, and ulnar nerve/artery) and to compare the results among the three categories of wrist injuries. This study included 114 patients who underwent primary repair for damaged wrist structures; 40 patients sustained accidental damage without intention (group 1), 40 had self-inflicted damage (group 2), and 34 patients had a stab or penetrating wound caused by a sharp instrument during a conflict or violent event involving another person (group 3). The basic demographic factors, distribution pattern, area, and depth of the injured structures were investigated and compared. The barrier roles of the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) for the radial artery, palmaris longus (PL) for the median nerve, and flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) for the ulnar nerve were estimated. In group 1, FCU injury was the most common single-structure injury. In group 2, PL±median nerve injuries were the most common. Multiple-structure injuries involving more than five structures occurred more frequently in group 3 than in the other groups. FCU±ulnar nerve injuries were more common in group 3 than in the other groups. Radial-side structures were injured most frequently in group 3, and central-side injuries occurred most frequently in groups 1 and 2. Superficial- and middle-layer injuries occurred at similar frequencies among the three groups. Particularly, deep-layer injuries were most weakly related to group 2 injuries. The barrier effects of the FCR, PL, and FCU were confirmed, respectively. Wrist soft tissue injuries showed particular patterns of injured structures and depths according to the injury mechanism. These patterns included features such as single-structure injuries and the locations and depths of multiple-structure injuries with or without neurovascular injuries
Ren, Dejie; Sun, Kang; Tian, Shaoqi; Yang, Xu; Zhang, Cailong; Wang, Wenhao; Huang, Hongjie; Zhang, Jihua; Deng, Yujie
An increasing number of tissue banks have begun to focus on gamma irradiation and freeze-thaw in the reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligaments using allografts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical properties of human tendons after exposure to gamma radiation and repeated freeze-thaw cycles and to compare them with fresh specimens. Forty flexor digitorum superficialis tendons were surgically procured from five fresh cadavers and divided into four groups: fresh tendon, gamma irradiation, freeze-thaw and gamma irradiation+freeze-thaw. The dose of gamma irradiation was 25 kGy. Each freeze-thaw cycle consisted of freezing at -80 °C for 7 day and thawing at 25 °C for 6 h. These tendons underwent 4 freeze-thaw cycles. Biomechanical properties were analyzed during load-to-failure testing. The fresh tendons were found to be significantly different in ultimate load, stiffness and ultimate stress relative to the other three groups. The tendons of the gamma+freeze-thaw group showed a significant decrease in ultimate load, ultimate stress and stiffness compared with the other three groups. Gamma irradiation and repeated freezing-thawing (4 cycles) can change the biomechanical properties. However, no significant difference was found between these two processes on the effect of biomechanical properties. It is recommended that gamma irradiation (25 kGy) and repetitive freeze-thaw cycles (4 cycles) should not be adopted in the processing of the allograft tendons. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Balogh, Daniel G; Biskup, Jeffery J; O'Sullivan, M Gerard; Scott, Ruth M; Groschen, Donna; Evans, Richard B; Conzemius, Michael G
To evaluate the biochemical and biomechanical properties of native and decellularized superficial digital flexor tendons (SDFTs) and deep digital flexor tendons (DDFTs) harvested from the pelvic limbs of orthopedically normal dogs. 22 commercially supplied tendon specimens (10 SDFT and 12 DDFT) harvested from the pelvic limbs of 13 canine cadavers. DNA, glycosaminoglycan, collagen, and protein content were measured to biochemically compare native and decellularized SDFT and DDFT specimens. Mechanical testing was performed on 4 groups consisting of native tendons (5 SDFTs and 6 DDFTs) and decellularized tendons (5 SDFTs and 6 DDFTs). All tendons were preconditioned, and tension was applied to failure at 0.5 mm/s. Failure mode was video recorded for each tendon. Load-deformation and stress-strain curves were generated; calculations were performed to determine the Young modulus and stiffness. Biochemical and biomechanical data were statistically compared by use of the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Decellularized SDFT and DDFT specimens had significantly less DNA content than did native tendons. No significant differences were identified between native and decellularized specimens with respect to glycosaminoglycan, collagen, or protein content. Biomechanical comparison yielded no significant intra- or intergroup differences. All DDFT constructs failed at the tendon-clamp interface, whereas nearly half (4/10) of the SDFT constructs failed at midsubstance. Decellularized commercial canine SDFT and DDFT specimens had similar biomechanical properties, compared with each other and with native tendons. The decellularization process significantly decreased DNA content while minimizing loss of extracellular matrix components. Decellularized canine flexor tendons may provide suitable, biocompatible graft scaffolds for bioengineering applications such as tendon or ligament repair.
Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona; Zaniewicz-Kaniewska, Katarzyna; Kwiatkowska, Brygida
Summary Background Enthesitis is considered a characteristic presentation of the second most common group of rheumatoid disorders, i.e. spondyloarthropathies (SpAs), particularly peripheral spondyloarthropathies. At the initial stages, enthesitis may be the only symptom of SpA, particularly in patients lacking the HLA-B27 receptor. Material/Methods In light of diagnostic difficulties with detecting enthesitis in clinical examinations and laboratory investigations, many studies point out the high specificity of imaging studies, and particularly ultrasonography. Results A total of 20% Achilles tendon entheses, 45% plantar aponeurosis entheses and 89.5% of flexor digiti brevis tendon entheses were unremarkable. In the remaining cases, the presentation of pathological lesions was not specific to enthesitis and might more likely correspond to degeneration or microinjuries of the entheses, beside the most obvious cases of achillobursitis or Kager’s fat pad inflammation. Conclusions The studies demonstrated that ultrasound scans rarely confirm the clinical diagnosis of enthesitis. PMID:25674194
Kumar, N; Sharma, A K; Sharma, A K; Kumar, S
The efficacy of carbon fibres and plasma-preserved tendon allografts for gap repair in the superficial digital flexor tendon in the mid-metatarsal region was evaluated in 12 crossbred calves. Experimental tenectomies were performed, followed by implantation of carbon fibres in group I (12 legs) and plasma-preserved tendon allografts in group II (12 legs). Gross observations in group I showed filling of the defect with granulation tissue with more vascularity on day 7, which was less prominent at day 14. On day 30, the neotendon formed was slightly thicker and comparable to normal tendon in appearance and texture. On day 90, it exhibited all the characteristics of a fully developed tendon. Whereas, in group II increased vascularity at the site and encapsulation of the graft with connective tissue in early periods was observed. The gap between graft and host was filled with fibrous connective tissue. Peritendinous adhesions were maximum on day 7 which were gradually reduced in both groups. Microscopically, an acute inflammatory reaction in the periphery of carbon fibres was observed on day 7. Immature fibroblasts were arranged in a haphazard pattern at this stage. By day 14, numerous newly formed capillaries and comparatively more mature fibroblasts were present in between and around the carbon fibres which were aligning parallel to the longitudinal axis of the tendon. By day 30 the healing tissue exhibited longitudinal orientation of collagen fibres and was at a more advance stage of maturation. By day 90, the neotendon formed simulated the picture of normal tendon. In the grafted tendon group, there was normal healing tissue at the functional sites between host and grafted tendon. The fibroblastic activity appeared to be both extrinsic and intrinsic in origin. The connective tissue had invaded the graft to a variable distance and there was resorption of graft which was replaced by newly formed connective tissue on day 90. Scanning electron microscopic observation
Dogramaci, Yunus; Kalaci, Aydiner; Sevinç, Teoman Toni; Esen, Erdinc; Komurcu, Mahmut; Yanat, Ahmet Nedim
This study compares the mechanical properties of modified Kessler and double-modified Kessler flexor tendon repair techniques and evaluates simple modifications on both methods. Forty fresh sheep flexor tendons were divided equally into four groups. A transverse sharp cut was done in the middle of each tendon and then repaired with modified Kessler technique, modified Kessler with additional purchase point in the midpoint of each longitudinal strand, double-modified Kessler technique, or a combination of outer Kessler and inner cruciate configuration based on double-modified Kessler technique. The tendons were tested in a tensile testing machine to assess the mechanical performance of the repairs. Outcome measures included gap formation and ultimate forces. The gap strengths of the double-modified Kessler technique (30.85 N, SD 1.90) and double-modified Kessler technique with inner cruciate configuration (33.60 N, SD 4.64) were statistically significantly greater than that of the two-strand modified Kessler (22.56 N, SD 3.44) and modified Kessler with additional purchase configuration (21.75 N, SD 4.03; Tukey honestly significant difference test, P < 0.000). There were statistically significant differences in failure strengths of the all groups (analysis of variance, P < 0.000). With an identical number of strands, the gap formation and ultimate forces of the repairs were not changed by additional locking purchase point in modified Kessler repair or changing the inner strand configuration in double-modified Kessler repair. The results of this study show that the number of strands across the repair site together with the number of locking loops clearly affects the strength of the repair; meanwhile, the longitudinal strand orientation and number of purchase points in a single loop did not affect its strength.
Zhao, Chunfeng; Ozasa, Yasuhiro; Reisdorf, Ramona L; Thoreson, Andrew R; Jay, Gregory D; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C
Adhesions and poor healing are complications of flexor tendon repair. The purpose of this study was to investigate a tissue engineering approach to improve functional outcomes after flexor tendon repair in a canine model. Flexor digitorum profundus tendons were lacerated and repaired in 60 dogs that were followed for 10, 21, or 42 days. One randomly selected repair from either the second or fifth digit in one paw in each dog was treated with carbodiimide-derivatized hyaluronic acid, gelatin, and lubricin plus autologous bone marrow stromal cells stimulated with growth and differentiation factor 5; control repair tendons were not treated. Digits were analyzed by adhesion score, work of flexion, tendon-pulley friction, failure force, and histology. In the control group, 35 of 52 control tendons had adhesions, whereas 19 of 49 treated tendons had adhesions. The number of repaired tendons with adhesions in the control group was greater than the number in the treated group at all three times (p = 0.005). The normalized work of flexion in treated tendons was 0.28 (± 0.08), 0.29 (± 0.19), and 0.32 (± 0.22) N/mm/° at Day 10, Day 21, and Day 42 respectively, compared with the untreated tendons of 0.46 (± 0.19) at Day 10 (effect size, 1.5; p = 0.01), 0.77 (± 0.49) at Day 21 (effect size, 1.4; p < 0.001), and 1.17 (± 0.82) N/mm/° at Day 42 (effect size, 1.6; p < 0.001). The friction data were comparable to the work of flexion data at all times. The repaired tendon failure force in the untreated group at 42 days was 70.2 N (± 8.77), which was greater than the treated tendons 44.7 N (± 8.53) (effect size, 1.9; p < 0.001). Histologically, treated repairs had a smooth surface with intrinsic healing, whereas control repairs had surface adhesions and extrinsic healing. Our study provides evidence that tissue engineering coupled with restoration of tendon gliding can improve the quality of tendon healing in a large animal in vivo model. Tissue engineering may enhance
Crevier-Denoix, N; Ruel, Y; Dardillat, C; Jerbi, H; Sanaa, M; Collobert-Laugier, C; Ribot, X; Denoix, J-M; Pourcelot, P
The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that tendon echogenicity is associated with the material properties of the corresponding tendon site, especially in case of lesions, due to local changes in tendon matrix composition. Four normal and nine spontaneously injured equine superficial digital flexor tendons (SDFT) were isolated then ultrasonographically examined under tension, in a special device placed in a water bath. Ultrasonographic transversal images (7.5MHz linear transducer) of five segments along each tendon were digitized, and analyzed in order to measure the mean cross-sectional area (MCSA) and mean echogenicity (ME) of each segment. The tendons were then tested in traction until rupture in a testing machine. For each segment, stress and strain were determined throughout the test, and the elastic modulus (EM) was evaluated. The tendon lesions were also documented by histology. No correlation was found between ME and the material properties of normal tendon segments. At the rupture sites of the nine diseased tendons, ME was positively correlated with maximal stress and EM, whereas no correlation was demonstrated with maximal strain. Besides, a positive correlation was demonstrated between ME and both MCSA and EM, when the three metacarpal segments of the diseased tendons were considered. Although ME gives only rough information about tendon matrix structure, it does show, under these in vitro conditions, significant correlations with material properties of pathological tendon segments, which may improve the functional significance and therefore the prognostic value of the ultrasonographic examination of tendon lesions.
Thorpe, C T; Udeze, C P; Birch, H L; Clegg, P D; Screen, H Rc
Age-related tendinopathy is common in both humans and horses; the initiation and progression of which is similar between species. The majority of tendon injuries occur to high-strain energy storing tendons, such as the human Achilles tendon and equine superficial digital flexor (SDFT). By contrast, the low-strain positional human anterior tibialis tendon and equine common digital extensor (CDET) are rarely injured. It has previously been established that greater extension occurs at the fascicular interface in the SDFT than in the CDET; this may facilitate the large strains experienced during locomotion in the SDFT without damage occurring to the fascicles. This study investigated the alterations in whole tendon, fascicle and interfascicular mechanical properties in the SDFT and CDET with increasing age. It was hypothesised that the amount of sliding at the fascicular interface in the SDFT would decrease with increasing horse age, whereas the properties of the interface in the CDET would remain unchanged with ageing. Data support the hypothesis; there were no alterations in the mechanical properties of the whole SDFT or its constituent fascicles with increasing age. However, there was significantly less sliding at the fascicular interface at physiological loads in samples from aged tendons. There was no relationship between fascicle sliding and age in the CDET. The increase in stiffness of the interfascicular matrix in aged SDFT may result in the fascicles being loaded at an earlier point in the stress strain curve, increasing the risk of damage. This may predispose aged tendons to tendinopathy.
Boyer, M I; Gelberman, R H; Burns, M E; Dinopoulos, H; Hofem, R; Silva, M J
Rehabilitation methods that generate increased tendon force and motion have been advocated to improve results following intrasynovial flexor tendon repair. However, the effects of rehabilitation force and motion on tendon-healing may be masked by the high stiffness produced by newer suture methods. Our objective was to determine whether the biomechanical properties of tendons repaired by one of two multistrand suture methods were sensitive to an increased level of applied rehabilitation force. Two hundred and fourteen flexor digitorum profundus tendons from 107 adult dogs were transected and repaired. Dogs were assigned to one of four groups based on the rehabilitation method (low force [<5 N] or high force [17 N]) and the repair technique (four-strand or eight-strand core suture) and were killed between five and forty-two days after the procedure. Repair-site structural properties were determined by tensile testing, and digital range of motion was assessed with use of a motion-analysis system. Tensile properties did not differ between the low and high-force rehabilitation groups, regardless of the repair technique (p > 0.05). In contrast, tensile properties were strongly affected by the repair technique, with tendons in the eight-strand group having an approximately 35% increase in ultimate force and rigidity compared with those in the four-strand group (p < 0.05). Ultimate force did not change significantly with time during the first twenty-one days (p > 0.05); there was no evidence of softening in either of the repair or rehabilitation groups. Force increased significantly from twenty-one to forty-two days, while rigidity increased throughout the forty-two-day period (p < 0.05). Increasing the level of force applied during postoperative rehabilitation from 5 to 17 N did not accelerate the time-dependent accrual of stiffness or strength. Suture technique was of primary importance in providing a stiff and strong repair throughout the early healing interval. Our
Demirseren, Mustafa Erol; Afandiyev, Kamran; Durgun, Mustafa; Kilicarslan, Kasim; Yorubulut, Mehmet
In this paper, we report a case of a 14-year-old girl with congenital aplasia of the flexor pollicis longus tendon who had no other associated anomalies of thumb hypoplasia and no trauma history. Flexor pollicis longus tendon anomalies are rare; several types of this congenital anomaly have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis should be considered if a patient is unable to flex the interphalangeal joint of the thumb. A hypoplastic thumb or an absent interphalangeal joint crease may be a diagnostic feature in such cases. Besides physical examination, we also used direct radiography and magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose this rare congenital anomaly in our patient.
Viitanen, M; Bird, J; Smith, R; Tulamo, R-M; May, S A
The study hypothesis was that navicular disease is a process analogous to degenerative joint disease, which leads to changes in navicular fibrocartilage and in deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) matrix composition and that the process extends to the adjacent distal interphalangeal joint. The objectives were to compare the biochemical composition of the navicular articular and palmar cartilages from 18 horses with navicular disease with 49 horses with no history of front limb lameness, and to compare navicular fibrocartilage with medial meniscus of the stifle and collateral cartilage of the hoof. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), total glycosaminoglycan (GAG), metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 and water content in tissues were measured. Hyaline cartilage had the highest content of COMP and COMP content in hyaline cartilage and tendon was higher in lame horses than in sound horses (p<0.05). The concentration of MMP-2 amount in hyaline cartilage was higher in lame horses than in sound horses. The MMP-2 amounts were significantly higher in tendons compared to other tissue types. Overall, 79% of the lame horses with lesions had MMP-9 in their tendons and the amount was higher than in sound horses (p<0.05). In horses with navicular disease there were matrix changes in navicular hyaline and fibrocartilage as well as the DDFT with potential implications for the pathogenesis and management of the condition.
O'Brien, Etienne John Ogilvy; Shrive, Nigel G; Rosvold, Joshua M; Thornton, Gail M; Frank, Cyril B; Hart, David A
Heterotopic mineralization may result in tendon weakness, but effects on other biomechanical responses have not been reported. We used a needle injury, which accelerates spontaneous mineralization of murine Achilles tendons, to test two hypotheses: that injured tendons would demonstrate altered biomechanical responses; and that unilateral injury would accelerate mineralization bilaterally. Mice underwent left hind (LH) injury (I; n = 11) and were euthanized after 20 weeks along with non-injured controls (C; n = 9). All hind limbs were examined by micro computed tomography followed by biomechanical testing (I = 7 and C = 6). No differences were found in the biomechanical responses of injured tendons compared with controls. However, the right hind (RH) tendons contralateral to the LH injury exhibited greater static creep strain and total creep strain compared with those LH tendons (p ≤ 0.045) and RH tendons from controls (p ≤ 0.043). RH limb lesions of injured mice were three times larger compared with controls (p = 0.030). Therefore, despite extensive mineralization, changes to the responses we measured were limited or absent 20 weeks postinjury. These results also suggest that bilateral occurrence should be considered where tendon mineralization is identified clinically. This experimental system may be useful to study the mechanisms of bilateral new bone formation in tendinopathy and other conditions.
Yamazaki, H; Kato, H; Nakatsuchi, Y; Murakami, N; Hata, Y
We report six patients with closed flexor tendon rupture affecting the little finger, occurring secondarily to non-union of the hook of the hamate bone. The ununited fragments were separated from the basal part of the hook by more than 1mm. The fragments were also rounded and showed marginal sclerosis. Non-union was located in the middle part of the hook in three patients, the tip in two, and the base in one. At operation, the fragments were removed in all patients. Five patients were treated by free tendon grafts using three palmaris and two plantaris grafts and one underwent tendon transfer. Postoperative total range of active motion of the little finger averaged 218 degrees (range 185-265 degrees ). All patients returned to their original employment. This series would suggest that flexor tendon rupture can occur after fracture of the hook of the hamate bone, even when the ununited fragment is small and/or rounded.
Momose, T; Amadio, P C; Zhao, C; Zobitz, M E; Couvreur, P J; An, K N
We studied the breaking strength and gliding resistance between the pulley and flexor tendon for various suture techniques. Canine flexor digitorum profundus tendons were transected and sutured using one of eight repair techniques: modified Kessler (MK); Tsuge (Tsuge); two variations of a double modified Kessler (DK1, DK2); combined modified Kessler-modified Tsuge (MKT); augmented Becker (Becker); Cruciate (Cruciate); and modified double Tsuge (DT). The force to produce a 1.5 mm gap, ultimate failure load, resistance to gap formation, and gliding resistance were measured. The force to produce a 1.5 mm gap and the ultimate breaking force were higher with the DK1, DK2, MKT, Becker, Cruciate, and DT repairs than they were with the MK and Tsuge repair, while the gliding resistance of the Becker was higher than that of the MK, DK1, DK2, MKT. Cruciate, and UT repairs. In addition to confirming that repair strength increases as the number of strands crossing the repair increases, we also found that these stronger repairs need not produce higher gliding resistance than less robust repairs.
Jordana, M; Cornillie, P; Oosterlinck, M; Simoens, P; Pille, F; Martens, A
During endoscopy (tenoscopy) of the distal aspect of the equine digital flexor tendon sheath (DFTS), the digital manica flexoria can be visualized connecting the distal branches of the superficial digital flexor tendon. However, this structure has been inconsistently described and variably named in the veterinary literature. The objectives of this study were to describe the presence, configuration and variability of the digital manica flexoria in the equine distal limb. Dissection of 144 equine cadaveric limbs revealed the presence of this structure in all the feet, although different types and conformations were identified. In the forelimbs, a membranous digital manica flexoria predominated (94%; P < 0.001), in particular a synovial bridge type (83%; P < 0.001). In the hindlimbs, a tendinous digital manica flexoria predominated (93%; P < 0.001), in particular the oblique-crossing of tendinous bundles (61%; P < 0.001). Passage dorsal to the digital manica flexoria towards the distal DFTS was only possible in 22 of the 144 limbs, all forelimbs. Clinicians should be aware of the intra- and inter-individual anatomical variations of the digital manica flexoria to avoid misinterpretation during ultrasonographic and tenoscopic examinations of the DFTS.
Yang, Tai-Hua; Lu, Szu-Ching; Lin, Wei-Jr; Zhao, Kristin; Zhao, Chunfeng; An, Kai-Nan; Jou, I-Ming; Lee, Pei-Yuan
Background The flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) are critical for finger flexion. Although research has recently focused on these tendons’ coactivity, their contributions in different tasks remain unclear. This study created a novel simultaneous approach to investigate the coactivity between the tendons and to clarify their contributions in different tasks. Methods Ten human cadaveric hands were mounted on our custom frame with the FDS and FDP of the third finger looped through a mechanical pulley connected to a force transducer. Joint range of motion, tendon excursion and loading force were recorded during individual joint motion and free joint movement from rest to maximal flexion. Each flexor tendon’s moment arm was then calculated. Results In individual motions, we found that the FDP contributed more than the FDS in proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint motion, with an overall slope of 1.34 and all FDP-to-FDS excursion (P/S) ratios greater than 1.0 with force increase. However, the FDP contributed less than the FDS in metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint motion, with an overall slope of 0.95 and P/S ratios smaller than 1.0 throughout the whole motion except between 1.9% and 13.1% force. In free joint movement, the FDP played a greater role than the FDS, with an overall ratio of 1.37 and all P/S ratios greater than 1.0. Conclusions The new findings include differences in finger performance and excursion amounts between the FDS and FDP throughout flexion. Such findings may provide the basis for new hand models and treatments. PMID:27513744
Smith, Andrew C; Mummidisetty, Chaithanya K; Rymer, William Zev; Knikou, Maria
In humans, a chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) impairs the excitability of pathways mediating early flexor reflexes and increases the excitability of late, long-lasting flexor reflexes. We hypothesized that in individuals with SCI, locomotor training will alter the behavior of these spinally mediated reflexes. Nine individuals who had either chronic clinically motor complete or incomplete SCI received an average of 44 locomotor training sessions. Flexor reflexes, elicited via sural nerve stimulation of the right or left leg, were recorded from the ipsilateral tibialis anterior (TA) muscle before and after body weight support (BWS)-assisted treadmill training. The modulation pattern of the ipsilateral TA responses following innocuous stimulation of the right foot was also recorded in 10 healthy subjects while they stepped at 25% BWS to investigate whether body unloading during walking affects the behavior of these responses. Healthy subjects did not receive treadmill training. We observed a phase-dependent modulation of early TA flexor reflexes in healthy subjects with reduced body weight during walking. The early TA flexor reflexes were increased at heel contact, progressively decreased during the stance phase, and then increased throughout the swing phase. In individuals with SCI, locomotor training induced the reappearance of early TA flexor reflexes and changed the amplitude of late TA flexor reflexes during walking. Both early and late TA flexor reflexes were modulated in a phase-dependent pattern after training. These new findings support the adaptive capability of the injured nervous system to return to a prelesion excitability and integration state.
Lui, Tun Hing
Tendosynovial chondromatosis of the foot and ankle is a rare disease entity. We reported 3 patients with tenosynovial osteochondromatosis of flexor hallucis longus. They were successfully treated by arthroscopic synovectomy and removal of the loose bodies.
Ferlic, D C
Rheumatoid flexor tenosynovitis at the wrist can cause locking, limitation of motion, nerve compression, and rupture of tendons. To prevent and treat these conditions, a flexor tenosynovectomy, combined with nerve decompression and tendon reconstruction as indicated, is necessary. If tendons are ruptured, the flexor pollicis longus and profundus to the index finger are most commonly affected. On the fingers flexor tenosynovitis can also cause locking, decrease in range of motion and rupture tendons. Flexor tenosynovitis of the fingers should be treated with decompression of the tendons health with preservation of the pulley system.
Martin, Joel R.; Paclet, Florent; Latash, Mark. L.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.
Background Carpal tunnel syndrome is a disorder caused by increased pressure in the carpal tunnel associated with repetitive, stereotypical finger actions. Little is known about in vivo geometrical changes in the carpal tunnel caused by motion at the finger joints and exerting a fingertip force. Methods The hands and forearms of five subjects were scanned using a 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. The metacarpophalangeal joint of the index finger was placed in: flexion, neutral and extension. For each joint posture subjects either produced no active force (passive condition) or exerted a flexion force to resist a load (~4.0 N) at the fingertip (active condition). Changes in the radii of curvature, position and transverse plane area of the flexor digitorum profundus tendons at the carpal tunnel level were measured. Results The radius of curvature of the flexor digitorum profundus tendons, at the carpal tunnel level, was significantly affected by posture of the index finger metacarpophalangeal joint (p<0.05) and the radii was significantly different between fingers (p<0.05). Actively producing force caused a significant shift (p<0.05) in the flexor digitorum profundus tendons in the ventral (palmar) direction. No significant change in the area of an ellipse containing the flexor digitorum profundus tendons was observed between conditions. Interpretation The results show that relatively small changes in the posture and force production of a single finger can lead to significant changes in the geometry of all the flexor digitorum profundus tendons in the carpal tunnel. Additionally, voluntary force production at the fingertip increases the moment arm of the FDP tendons about the wrist joint. PMID:23219762
Wolfe Wurtzel, Caroline N; Burns, Geoffrey T; Zhu, Andy F; Ozer, Kagan
Volar plates positioned at, or distal to, the watershed line have been shown to have a higher incidence of attritional rupture of the flexor pollicis longus (FPL). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of wrist extension and volar tilt on the contact between the plate and the FPL tendon in a cadaver model. We hypothesized that, following volar plate application, loss of native volar tilt increases the contact between the FPL and the plate at lower degrees of wrist extension. A volar locking plate was applied on 6 fresh-frozen cadavers. To determine the contact between the plate and the FPL tendon, both structures were wrapped with copper wire and circuit conductivity was monitored throughout wrist motion. A lateral wrist radiograph was obtained at each circuit closure, indicating tendon-plate contact. Baseline measurements were obtained with plate positioned at Soong grades 0, 1, and 2. An extra-articular osteotomy was made and contact was recorded at various volar tilt angles (+5°, 0°, -5°, -10°, -15°, and -20°) in 3 different plate positions. A blinded observer measured the degree of wrist extension on all lateral radiographs. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects regression model. Plates placed distal to the watershed line had the most contact throughout wrist range of motion. Significantly, less wrist extension was required for contact in wrists with neutral or dorsal tilt and in distally placed volar plates. Volar tilt, wrist extension, and plate position were 3 independent risk factors determining contact between plate and tendon. Loss of volar tilt, increased wrist extension, and higher Soong grade plate position result in greater contact between wire-wrapped FPL tendon and plate. The FPL/plate contact chart generated in this study may be used to assess the risk of rupture in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oryan, A; Moshiri, A
This study was designed to investigate the effects of recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on a complete superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) rupture after surgical repair in rabbits. Eighty mature New Zealand White rabbits of both sexes were randomly divided into two equal groups: Treated and Control. Each group was subdivided into two 28- and 84-day post-injury subgroups. After tenotomy and surgical repair, the animals were immobilized for 14 days. In the treated group, bFGF was directly applied subcutaneously over the lesion on days 3, 7 and 10 after injury. The control animals received normal saline injection of the same viscosity and volume and at the same intervals. Ultrasonographical observations were conducted at weekly intervals. The animals were euthanized at 28 and 84 days after injury. The tendons were evaluated at macroscopic, histopathologic and ultrastructural levels and were assessed for biomechanical and percentage dry weight parameters. Compared to injured control animals, treated animals showed a decrease in the diameter of the injured tendon and peritendinous adhesion as well as increased tenoblast proliferation, collagen production and ultimate strength of the injured tendons (p < 0.005). At 84 days after injury, treatment resulted in enhanced maturation of the cellular and collagen elements and improved tissue alignment and density. These improvements resulted in increased biomechanical performance of the injured tendons compared to controls (p = 0.001). bFGF showed promising curative effects on restoration of the biomechanical and morphological properties of the ruptured SDFT in rabbits and may be applicable in clinical studies. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Serner, A; Weir, A; Tol, J L; Thorborg, K; Roemer, F; Guermazi, A; Yamashiro, E; Hölmich, P
Hip flexor injuries account for one-third of acute groin injuries; however, little is known about specific injury characteristics. The aims of this study were to describe acute hip flexor injuries using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in athletes with acute groin pain and to compare specific muscle injuries with reported injury situations. Male athletes with acute groin pain were prospectively and consecutively included during three sports seasons. MRI was performed within 7 days of injury using a standardized protocol and a reliable assessment approach. All athletes with an MRI confirmed acute hip flexor muscle injury were included. A total of 156 athletes presented with acute groin pain of which 33 athletes were included, median age 26 years (range 18-35). There were 16 rectus femoris, 12 iliacus, 7 psoas major, 4 sartorius, and 1 tensor fascia latae injury. Rectus femoris injuries primarily occurred during kicking (10) and sprinting (4), whereas iliacus injuries most frequently occurred during change of direction (5). In 10 (63%) rectus femoris injuries, tendinous injury was observed. The iliacus and psoas major injuries were mainly observed at the musculotendinous junction (MTJ), and two included tendinous injury. We have illustrated specific injury locations within these muscles, which may be relevant for the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of these injuries. Most proximal rectus femoris injuries included tendinous injury. In contrast, distinct acute iliacus and psoas injuries predominantly occurred at the MTJ. Only the iliacus or psoas major were injured during change of direction, whereas rectus femoris injuries occurred primarily during kicking and sprinting. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
TAKAHASHI, Toshiyuki; MUKAI, Kazutaka; OHMURA, Hajime; AIDA, Hiroko; HIRAGA, Atsushi
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to create a lower forelimb model of the Thoroughbred horse for measuring the force in the superficial and deep digital flexor tendons (SDFT and DDFT), and the suspensory ligament (SL) during a trot. The mass, centers of gravity, and inertial moments in the metacarpus, pastern, and hoof segments were measured in 4 Thoroughbred horses. The moment arms of the SDFT, DDFT, and SL in the metacarpophalangeal (fetlock) and distal interphalangeal (coffin) joints were measured in 7 Thoroughbred horses. The relationship between the fetlock joint angle and the force in the SL was assessed in 3 limbs of 2 Thoroughbred horses. The forces in the SDFT, DDFT, and SL during a trot were also measured in 7 Thoroughbred horses. The mass of the 3 segments, and the moment arms of the SDFT and DDFT in the fetlock joint of the Thoroughbred horses were smaller than those of the Warmblood horses, whereas the other values were almost the same in the 2 types. The calculated force in the SDFT with this Thoroughbred model reached a peak (4,615 N) at 39.3% of the stance phase, whereas that in the DDFT reached a peak (5,076 N) at 51.2% of the stance phase. The force in the SL reached a peak (11,957 N) at 49.4% of the stance phase. This lower forelimb model of the Thoroughbred can be applied to studying the effects of different shoe types and change of hoof angle for the flexor tendon and SL forces. PMID:24834009
Fiske-Jackson, A R; Barker, W H J; Eliashar, E; Foy, K; Smith, R K W
The sensitivity of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of manica flexoria (MF) tears within the digital flexor tendon sheath (DFTS) is lower than for diagnosis of marginal tears of the deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT). Additional diagnostic tools would assist in appropriate decision making for either conservative or surgical management. To evaluate the improvement in lameness of horses with MF or DDFT tears following intrathecal analgesia and to assess the sensitivity and specificity of contrast radiography for the diagnosis of these tears. The case records of horses presented to a referral clinic over a 7-year period that underwent intrathecal diagnostic analgesia, or intrathecal analgesia and contrast radiography, of the DFTS with subsequent tenoscopy were examined. Fifty-three limbs had intrathecal diagnostic analgesia performed and 23 contrast tenograms were assessed in horses undergoing DFTS tenoscopy. Horses with DDFT tears were significantly more likely to respond positively to intrathecal diagnostic analgesia than those with MF tears (P = 0.02). Using contrast radiography, tears of the MF were predicted with an overall sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 80%; marginal tears of the DDFT were predicted with an overall sensitivity of 57% and specificity of 84%. The results of intrathecal analgesia of the DFTS in combination with contrast radiography have a high sensitivity for predicting MF tears. The sensitivity of contrast radiography for predicting tears of the DDFT is lower but the specificity remains high. Contrast radiography performed at the same time as intrathecal analgesia provides useful information regarding the presence of MF tears and DDFT tears, which can assist in the decision of whether to manage the lameness conservatively or with tenoscopic evaluation. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.
Lapole, Thomas; Temesi, John; Gimenez, Philippe; Arnal, Pierrick J; Millet, Guillaume Y; Petitjean, Michel
Daily Achilles tendon vibration has been shown to increase muscle force, likely via corticospinal neural adaptations. The aim of the present study was to determine the extent by which corticospinal excitability is influenced during direct Achilles tendon vibration. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were elicited in the soleus (SOL), gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and tibialis anterior (TA) by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortical area of the leg with and without Achilles tendon vibration at various frequencies (50, 80 and 110 Hz). Contralateral homologues were also investigated. SOL and GM MEP amplitude significantly increased by 226 ± 188 and 66 ± 39%, respectively, during Achilles tendon vibration, without any difference between the tested frequencies. No MEP changes were reported for TA or contralateral homologues. Increased SOL and GM MEP amplitude suggests increased vibration-induced corticospinal excitability independent of vibration frequency.
Forootan, Kamal S; Karimi, Hamid; Forootan, Nazilla-Sadat S
Precise and tension-free approximation of two tendon endings is the key predictor of outcomes following tendon lacerations and repairs. We evaluate the efficacy of a new tendon approximator device in tendon laceration repairs. In a comparative study, we used our new tendon approximator device in 99 consecutive patients with laceration of 266 tendons who attend a university hospital and evaluated the operative time to repair the tendons, surgeons' satisfaction as well as patient's outcomes in a long-term follow-up. Data were compared with the data of control patients undergoing tendon repair by conventional method. Totally 266 tendons were repaired by approximator device and 199 tendons by conventional technique. 78.7% of patients in first group were male and 21.2% were female. In approximator group 38% of patients had secondary repair of cut tendons and 62% had primary repair. Patients were followed for a mean period of 3years (14-60 months). Time required for repair of each tendon was significantly reduced with the approximator device (2 min vs. 5.5 min, p<0.0001). After 3-4 weeks of immobilization, passive and active physiotherapy was started. Functional Results of tendon repair were identical in the two groups and were not significantly different. 1% of tendons in group A and 1.2% in group B had rupture that was not significantly different. The new nerve approximator device is cheap, feasible to use and reduces the time of tendon repair with sustained outcomes comparable to the conventional methods.
Stephenson, Anne L; Wu, Wei; Cortes, Daniel; Rochon, Paula A
Fluoroquinolone antibiotics are commonly used to treat infections and are prescribed by general practitioners, medical specialists and surgeons. Tendon injury has been associated with the use of these medications but the risk associated with newer fluoroquinolones has not been established. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence from observational studies to determine the strength of the association between fluoroquinolone use and tendinopathy, and to identify risk factors for this complication. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Collaboration from inception through May 2013 to identify observational studies focused on tendon injury and fluoroquinolones. Studies with original data were selected for inclusion following the PRISMA guidelines. Of the 560 abstracts screened, 16 relevant studies were independently rated by three authors (WW, AS, DC) using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale, and assigned a quality score out of 9. High-quality studies (i.e. scored 4.5 or higher) are summarized in detail in this article. Data were independently extracted by two authors (WW, AS). Overall, 16 studies were included in our study. Eight were deemed to be of high quality and five specifically evaluated Achilles tendon rupture. In addition, three studies examined Achilles tendinitis, and three included tendon disorders (including any tendon rupture) as an outcome. Results from these studies suggest that individuals exposed to fluoroquinolones are at increased risk for Achilles tendon rupture, particularly within the first month following exposure to the drug (odds ratios ranged from 1.1 to 7.1). One study showed an increased risk of tendon rupture in those over 60 years of age. Five studies stated that individuals taking fluoroquinolones and oral corticosteroids are at increased risk for tendon injury compared with those taking fluoroquinolones alone. Four studies examined the differential effect of a limited number of fluoroquinolones
Netscher, D; Mosharrafa, A; Lee, M; Polsen, C; Choi, H; Steadman, A K; Thornby, J
A three-part study is described that examines postoperative weakness after open carpal tunnel release and investigates the role of the transverse carpal ligament in the digital flexor pulley system. The effect of this ligament on flexor tendon excursion is evaluated in a cadaver study. Magnetic resonance imaging analysis is used to determine whether division of the transverse carpal ligament promotes volar migration of the median nerve and flexor tendons. Finally, the effects of ligament division and various methods of transverse carpal ligament reconstruction on the return of grip and pinch strengths after open carpal tunnel release are evaluated. The authors were able to determine that transverse carpal ligament reconstruction, particularly the transposition flap repair technique, after open carpal tunnel release confers a mechanical advantage and that the transverse carpal ligament is an important pulley for flexor tendon excursion. Based on the magnetic resonance imaging studies, volar displacement of carpal contents is reduced in patients undergoing transverse carpal ligament reconstruction by means of a transposition flap compared with those undergoing no ligament reconstruction and those undergoing reconstruction using the palmar aponeurosis. Postoperative grip and pinch strength values for the transposition flap repair group surpassed those of the other two groups at 12 weeks.
Otayek, Salma; Pierrart, Jérôme; Masmejean, Emmanuel H.
Introduction: The Percutaneous Needle Aponeurotomy (PNA) is a known and validated non-surgical treatment for Dupuytren’s disease with a low rate of complications. Initially described for purely palmar forms, the indications extended to digital adhesions. Numerous surgeons remain hesitant about performing the PNA for digital treatment because of the risk of lesions in the noble structures. In literature, one complication is still rare, even non-existent, i.e. the tendon rupture. Case Presentation: We are reporting here the case of a rupture of the deep common flexor tendon, secondary to a needle aponeurotomy, for a recurring digital form in a 72-year-old woman. We performed surgical treatment by tenodesis of the distal stump and resection of the proximal stump. The result was satisfactory. Conclusion: The purpose of describing this case is to report this rare complication leading to surgical revision. Within our team, we do not recommend performing PNAs for digital cases, and even less so for recurrences. For those who wish to perform the PNA, they need to know some technical artifices that enable these complications to be reduced, albeit not eliminated. PMID:28116281
Zetlitz, Elisabeth; Wearing, Scott Cameron; Nicol, Alexander; Hart, Andrew Mackay
This study evaluated the utility of a porcine flexor tendon model and standard biomechanical testing procedures to quantify the acquisition of surgical skills associated with Zone II flexor tendon repair in a trainee by benchmarking task performance outcomes relative to evidence-based standards. Single-subject repeated measures research design. Bench-top set-up of apparatus undertaken in a University Research laboratory. After initial directed learning, a trainee repaired 70 fresh flexor digitorum profundus tendons within the flexor sheath using either a Pennington or ventral-locking-loop modification of a two-strand Kessler core repair. Tendon repairs were then preconditioned and distracted to failure. Key biomechanical parameters of the repair, including the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength, 3 mm gap force and stiffness, were calculated. Repairs were divided into 3 categories, early (first 10 days), intermediate (ensuing 10 days), and late repairs (final 10 days), and potential changes in repair properties over the training period were evaluated using a general linear modeling approach. There was a significant change in the mechanical characteristics of the repairs over the training period, evidencing a clear learning effect (p < 0.05). Irrespective of the repair technique employed, early and intermediate repairs were characterized by a significantly lower UTS (29% and 20%, respectively), 3 mm gap (21% and 16%, respectively), and yield force (18% and 23%, respectively), but had a higher stiffness (33% and 38%, respectively) than late repairs (p < 0.05). The UTS of late repairs (47-48 N) were comparable to those published within the literature (45-51 N), suggesting surgical competence of the trainee. This simple, low-cost porcine model appears to be useful for providing preclinical training in flexor tendon repair techniques and has the potential to provide a quantitative index to evaluate the competency of surgical trainees. Further research is now
Csapo, R.; Malis, V.; Hodgson, J.
The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the age-associated decrease of tendon stiffness would necessitate greater muscle fascicle strains to produce similar levels of force during isometric contraction. Greater fascicle strains could force sarcomeres to operate in less advantageous regions of their force-length and force-velocity relationships, thus impairing the capacity to generate strong and explosive contractions. To test this hypothesis, sagittal-plane dynamic velocity-encoded phase-contrast magnetic resonance images of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle and Achilles tendon (AT) were acquired in six young (YW; 26.1 ± 2.3 yr) and six senior (SW; 76.7 ± 8.3 yr) women during submaximal isometric contraction (35% maximum voluntary isometric contraction) of the plantar flexor muscles. Multiple GM fascicle lengths were continuously determined by automatically tracking regions of interest coinciding with the end points of muscle fascicles evenly distributed along the muscle's proximo-distal length. AT stiffness and Young's modulus were measured as the slopes of the tendon's force-elongation and stress-strain curves, respectively. Despite significantly lower AT stiffness at older age (YW: 120.2 ± 52.3 N/mm vs. SW: 53.9 ± 44.4 N/mm, P = 0.040), contraction-induced changes in GM fascicle lengths were similar in both age groups at equal levels of absolute muscular force (4–5% fascicle shortening in both groups), and even significantly larger in YW (YW: 11–12% vs. SW: 6–8% fascicle shortening) at equal percentage of maximum voluntary contraction. These results suggest that factors other than AT stiffness, such as age-associated changes in muscle composition or fascicle slack, might serve as compensatory adaptations, limiting the degree of fascicle strains upon contraction. PMID:24505104
Csapo, R; Malis, V; Hodgson, J; Sinha, S
The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the age-associated decrease of tendon stiffness would necessitate greater muscle fascicle strains to produce similar levels of force during isometric contraction. Greater fascicle strains could force sarcomeres to operate in less advantageous regions of their force-length and force-velocity relationships, thus impairing the capacity to generate strong and explosive contractions. To test this hypothesis, sagittal-plane dynamic velocity-encoded phase-contrast magnetic resonance images of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle and Achilles tendon (AT) were acquired in six young (YW; 26.1 ± 2.3 yr) and six senior (SW; 76.7 ± 8.3 yr) women during submaximal isometric contraction (35% maximum voluntary isometric contraction) of the plantar flexor muscles. Multiple GM fascicle lengths were continuously determined by automatically tracking regions of interest coinciding with the end points of muscle fascicles evenly distributed along the muscle's proximo-distal length. AT stiffness and Young's modulus were measured as the slopes of the tendon's force-elongation and stress-strain curves, respectively. Despite significantly lower AT stiffness at older age (YW: 120.2 ± 52.3 N/mm vs. SW: 53.9 ± 44.4 N/mm, P = 0.040), contraction-induced changes in GM fascicle lengths were similar in both age groups at equal levels of absolute muscular force (4-5% fascicle shortening in both groups), and even significantly larger in YW (YW: 11-12% vs. SW: 6-8% fascicle shortening) at equal percentage of maximum voluntary contraction. These results suggest that factors other than AT stiffness, such as age-associated changes in muscle composition or fascicle slack, might serve as compensatory adaptations, limiting the degree of fascicle strains upon contraction.
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mediates tenogenic differentiation of tendon-derived stem cells and tendon repair: accelerating tendon injury healing by intervening in its downstream signaling.
Liu, Yang; Xu, Jia; Xu, Liangliang; Wu, Tianyi; Sun, Yuxin; Lee, Yuk-Wai; Wang, Bin; Chan, Hsiao-Chang; Jiang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jinfang; Li, Gang
Tendons are a mechanosensitive tissue, which enables them to transmit to bone forces that are derived from muscle. Patients with tendon injuries, such as tendinopathy or tendon rupture, were often observed with matrix degeneration, and the healing of tendon injuries remains a challenge as a result of the limited understanding of tendon biology. Our study demonstrates that the stretch-mediated activation channel, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), was up-regulated in tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) during tenogenic differentiation under mechanical stretching. Tendon tissues in CFTR-dysfunctional DF508 mice exhibited irregular cell arrangement, uneven fibril diameter distribution, weak mechanical properties, and less matrix formation in a tendon defect model. Moreover, both tendon tissues and TDSCs isolated from DF508 mice showed significantly decreased levels of tendon markers, such as scleraxis, tenomodulin, Col1A1 (collagen type I α 1 chain), and decorin Furthermore, by RNA sequencing analysis, we demonstrated that Wnt/β-catenin signaling was abnormally activated in TDSCs from DF508 mice, thereby further activating the pERK1/2 signaling pathway. Of most importance, we found that intervention in pERK1/2 signaling could promote tenogenic differentiation and tendon regeneration both in vitro and in vivo Taken together, our study demonstrates that CFTR plays an important role in tenogenic differentiation and tendon regeneration by inhibiting the β-catinin/pERK1/2 signaling pathway. The therapeutic strategy of intervening in the CFTR/β-catenin/pERK1/2 regulatory axis may be helpful for accelerating tendon injury healing, which has implications for tendon injury management.-Liu, Y., Xu, J., Xu, L., Wu, T., Sun, Y., Lee, Y.-W., Wang, B., Chan, H.-C., Jiang, X., Zhang, J., Li, G. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mediates tenogenic differentiation of tendon-derived stem cells and tendon repair: accelerating tendon injury
Gheno, Ramon; Nico, Marcelo A. C.; Haghighi, Parviz; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald
Purpose To determine the precise anatomy and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of the chiasma crurale in cadavers, paying special attention to degenerative changes Material and methods Twelve fresh human ankles were harvested from 11 nonembalmed cadavers (mean age at death 77 years) and used according to institutional guidelines. MR imaging and MR tenography were used to investigate the anatomy of the chiasma crurale using proton density-weighted sequences. The gross anatomy of the chiasma crurale was evaluated and compared to the MR imaging findings. Histology was used to elucidate further the structure of the chiasma crurale. Results Above the chiasma, five specimens had a small amount of fat tissue between the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendon. In all specimens both tendons had a sheath below the chiasma but not above it. At the central portion of the chiasma there was no soft tissue between the tendons, except in two specimens that showed an anatomic variant consisting of a thick septum connecting the tibial periosteum and the deep transverse fascia of the leg. In MR images, eight specimens showed what were believed to be degenerative changes in the tendons at the level of the chiasma. However, during gross inspection and histologic analysis of the specimens, there was no tendon degeneration visible. Conclusion At the central portion of the chiasma, there is no tissue between the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendons unless there is an anatomic variant. At the chiasma crurale, areas with irregular tendon surfaces are normal findings and are not associated with tendon degeneration (fraying). PMID:19876626
Zhang, Jacques X; Gray, Jason; Lalonde, Donald H; Carr, Nicholas
The literature generally supports the safety of epinephrine injection in the digits, but recent case reports describe ischemic adverse events associated with the use of lidocaine and epinephrine in which phentolamine rescue was not performed. We present a case of finger necrosis and subsequent amputation in a patient after 1% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine was injected in the fat and flexor sheaths in the palm for a 3-finger trigger release. Phentolamine rescue was not performed. All surgeons who use epinephrine in the finger should be prepared to reverse vasoconstriction with phentolamine rescue if there is persistently inadequate perfusion of the fingertip.
Rappaport, Patricia O; Thoreson, Andrew R; Yang, Tai-Hua; Reisdorf, Ramona L; Rappaport, Stephen M; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C
Therapy after flexor pollicis longus (FPL) repair typically mimics finger flexor management, but this ignores anatomic and biomechanical features unique to the FPL. We measured FPL tendon tension in zone T2 to identify biomechanically appropriate exercises for mobilizing the FPL. Eight human cadaver hands were studied to identify motions that generated enough force to achieve FPL movement without exceeding hypothetical suture strength. With the carpometacarpal and metacarpophalangeal joints blocked, appropriate forces were produced for both passive interphalangeal (IP) motion with 30° wrist extension and simulated active IP flexion from 0° to 35° with the wrist in the neutral position. This work provides a biomechanical basis for safely and effectively mobilizing the zone T2 FPL tendon. Our cadaver study suggests that it is safe and effective to perform early passive and active exercise to an isolated IP joint. NA. Copyright © 2015 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Farnebo, Simon; Chang, James
After reviewing this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Recognize and treat common tendinopathies such as trigger finger and de Quervain tenosynovitis. 2. Recognize and treat flexor tendon and extensor tendon injuries. 3. Define the different zones where flexor tendon and extensor tendon injuries occur and identify the surgical challenges related to each zone. Common tendon disorders in the hand range from simple trigger fingers to more complex zone II flexor tendon injuries. The goal of treatment in all cases is to aim for optimal early strength and to create conditions favorable for early rehabilitation to decrease the risk of tendon scarring and subsequent poor range of motion. This CME article reviews the presentation, evaluation, state-of-the-art treatment, and outcomes of the treatment of trigger finger, de Quervain tenosynovitis, and flexor tendon and extensor tendon injuries. New developments in the different areas are highlighted to inform the reader of emerging techniques in the treatment of tendon disorders of the hand.
Ricco, S; Renzi, S; Del Bue, M; Conti, V; Merli, E; Ramoni, R; Lucarelli, E; Gnudi, G; Ferrari, M; Grolli, S
Overstrain tendonitis are common pathologies in the sport horses. Therapeutic approaches to tendon healing do not always result in a satisfactory anatomical and functional repair, and healed tendon is often characterized by functional impairment and high risk of reinjury. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and platelet rich plasma (PRP) have been proposed as novel therapeutic treatments to improve the tendon repair process. MSCs are multipotent, easy to culture and being originated from adult donors do not pose ethical issues. To date, autologous MSCs have been investigated mainly in the treatment of large bone defects, cardiovascular diseases, osteogenesis imperfecta and orthopaedic injuries both in human and veterinary medicine. The clinical applications in which autologous MSCs can be used are limited because patient-specific tissue collection and cell expansion require time. For clinical applications in which MSCs should be used right away, it would be more practical to use cells collected from a donor, expanded in vitro and banked to be readily available when needed. However, there are concerns over the safety and the efficacy of allogeneic MSCs. The safety and efficacy of a therapy based on the use of allogeneic adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) associated to platelet rich plasma (PRP) were evaluated in 19 horses affected by acute or subacute overstrain superficial digital flexor tendonitis (SDFT). The application of allogeneic ASCs neither raised clinical sign of acute or chronic adverse tissue reactions, nor the formation of abnormal tissue in the long-term. After a follow-up of 24 months, 89.5% horses returned to their previous level of competition, while the reinjury rate was 10.5%, comparable to those recently reported for SDFT treated with autologous bone marrow derived MSCs. This study suggests that the association between allogeneic ASCs and PRP can be considered a safe and effective strategy for the treatment of SDF tendonitis
Chang, Song Ho; Naito, Masashi
This report presents a case of stenosing tenosynovitis of the flexor hallucis longus tendon associated with the plantar capsular accessory ossicle at the interphalangeal joint of the great toe, which was confirmed by intraoperative observation and was successfully treated with surgical resection of the ossicle. As the plantar capsular accessory ossicle was not visible radiographically due to the lack of ossification, ultrasonography was helpful for diagnosing this disorder. PMID:28255483
Couceiro, Jose; Fraga, Javier; Sanmartin, Marcos
Introduction Post-traumatic trigger finger is considerably rarer than normal trigger finger. The diagnosis is usually made on a clinical basis. This can be obscured; however, by concurrent pathological conditions. We report a case of post-traumatic trigger finger in which diagnosis was aided by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Presentation of case Our patient is a 32-year-old male who had a previous laceration with a subsequent surgery for infectious tenosynovitis. The MRI showed the impinging tendon tag. Surgical excision of the tag successfully solved the case. Discussion The use of imaging studies for the diagnosis of post-traumatic trigger finger has been previously reported, the authors described a variation on the contour of the pulley system. The full lacerated tendon tag can be seen on our patient's MRI. Conclusion On this case, the use of MRI was a useful aid for the differential diagnosis of post-traumattic trigger finger. PMID:25765739
Rodger, M P; Theobald, P; Giddins, G
The ultimate tensile repair strength and gap formation of the pig extensor tendons repaired with a standard 4-strand Savage with epitendinous suture repair, was compared with a new technique of adding a vein sleeve. Force and displacement data were recorded, and video images during linear cyclic loading up to failure. At 35 N, video-graphic observation detected significantly smaller gap lengths in the standard and vein repair specimens compared with standard repair specimens (p = 0.047). The incidence of 3 mm gaps between the repaired tendon ends in the standard repair group was 20 %, but no 3 mm gaps were seen in the standard and vein specimens. The addition of a vein sleeve increased the ultimate tensile strength of the standard repair from 50.4 N (4.5) to 55.4 N (4.5); this was statistically significant (p = 0.03). This study demonstrated that the addition of a vein graft prevented gap formation and increased ultimate tensile strength of tendon repair.
Kontor, J. A.
Due to their superficial course, the extensor tendons are frequently lacerated over the dorsum of the hand and fingers. Excellent functional results are obtained in repairs of simple tendon lacerations. ‘Open’ mallet lacerations over the distal IP joint or involving the central extensor slip over the proximal IP joint require more precise suturing methods. More proximal extensor tendon divisions near the wrist involve dissection of the retracted finger extensors or long thumb extensor in the distal forearm and more formal tendon repairs, including a possible tendon transfer to the thumb. ‘Closed injuries’, with varying degrees of extensor tendon disruption, occur at three main sites. The mallet injury at the DIP joint and the boutonnière deformity over the PIP joint are sometimes recognized late, but respond to conservative splinting for a minimum of four weeks with guarded motion avoiding secondary stiffening of the remaining small joints of the hand. Surgery of closed injuries most frequently involves the intra-articular traction fracture type of mallet deformities in which the DIP joint has taken the brunt of the injury. PMID:21286174
Sharma, Pankaj; Maffulli, Nicola
Tendon disorders are frequent and are responsible for substantial morbidity both in sports and in the workplace. Tendinopathy, as opposed to tendinitis or tendinosis, is the best generic descriptive term for the clinical conditions in and around tendons arising from overuse. Tendinopathy is a difficult problem requiring lengthy management, and patients often respond poorly to treatment. Preexisting degeneration has been implicated as a risk factor for acute tendon rupture. Several physical modalities have been developed to treat tendinopathy. There is limited and mixed high-level evidence to support the, albeit common, clinical use of these modalities. Further research and scientific evaluation are required before biological solutions become realistic options.
Kawano, Cezar Teruyuki; de Moraes Barros Fucs, Patrícia Maria; Severino, Nilson Roberto
Pretensioning of the flexor tendon graft of the knee is used to improve the stability of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions. The objective was to demonstrate the pretensioning of grafts of the semitendinosus and gracilis in situ with range of flexion and extension of 0-110°, and determine the appropriate number of cycles in two types of femoral fixation. ACL reconstruction was performed in 60 patients, aged 16-48 years, 90% male, with 50% right knees and 50% left knees, divided into two groups of 30 patients: One with the femur fixed using interference screws (direct form) and the other with the transcondylar cross-pin screw (from a distance). Total length of the grafts, their circumference and the measurements on the radiographs of length of the grafts submitted to pretensioning and the measurements with ten, 25 and 50 cycles of flexion and extension were determined. There was no significant difference in relation to the total tendon lengths and their circumferences. The lengths of the portions submitted to pretensioning were significantly different: 7.90 cm for the interference and 10.92 cm for the transcondylar (mean). After tensioning, in the interference and transcondylar groups, respectively, lengthening was 3.57 mm/3.97 mm with ten, 6.30 mm/7.03 mm with 25, and 6.83 mm/7.7 mm with 50 cycles. The greater the length of the graft, the greater the lengthening on pretensioning throughout the substance; the shorter the length, the earlier the end of the lengthening was achieved, close to 25 cycles; more than ten cycles were necessary, 25 being sufficient.
da Silva, Ary Gomes; Machado, Elbe Rodrigues; de Almeida, Leonardo Mendes; Nunes, Ricardo Marcelo Menezes; Giesbrecht, Patrícia Caldeira Pena; Costa, Regina Mamed; Costa, Helber B; Romão, Wanderson; Kuster, Ricardo Machado
One of the Brazilian arnicas, Solidago chilensis Meyen, is a species of the Asteraceae family. This plant is known by this common name because it shares remarkably similar organoleptic properties with the genus Arnica L., also within the family Asteraceae. We examined the effectiveness of the S. chilensis fluid extract used externally for treating tendinitis of flexor and extensor tendons of wrist and hand in placebo-controlled double-blind clinical pharmacological studies. This study was approved by the Ethical Committee for Scientific Research in Human Beings at University Vila Velha-UVV. Two daily skin applications on the arm skin of a gel cream containing a 5% glycolic plant extract were administered to eight volunteers for 21 days. Among the volunteers, one of their arms was used as the placebo group, and the other one was used as a test group. Statistical data analyses demonstrated a significant reduction in the perception of pain in the arms in the test group, when it was compared to those receiving only the placebo. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Mitsionis, G; Bastidas, J A; Grewal, R; Pfaeffle, H J; Fischer, K J; Tomaino, M M
We investigated the effect of partial excision of the A2 and A4 digital pulleys, separately and in combination, on finger angular rotation and the energy for finger flexion. Statistically significant decreases in angular rotation resulted only after 50% and 75% excision of A2, A4, or A2 and A4 in combination. Work of flexion trends were weak and none of the changes were statistically significant. Although optimal finger function relies on the integrity of the A2 and A4 pulleys to maintain the efficiency of the digital flexor system, these data suggest that the A2 and A4 pulleys can be excised up to 25%, either separately or in combination, without significant effects on angular rotation. Decreases in total angular range of motion after 50% and 75% pulley excision were small, even for combined pulley excision (9 degrees +/- 3 degrees and 15 degrees +/- 5 degrees [mean +/- SD], respectively), and may be clinically acceptable.
Bourne, Matthew N; Opar, David A; Williams, Morgan D; Shield, Anthony J
Hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) represent the most common cause of lost playing time in rugby union. Eccentric knee flexor weakness and between-limb imbalance in eccentric knee flexor strength are associated with a heightened risk of HSIs in other sports; however, these variables have not been explored in rugby union. To determine if lower levels of eccentric knee flexor strength or greater between-limb imbalance in this parameter during the Nordic hamstring exercise are risk factors for HSIs in rugby union. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. This prospective study was conducted over the 2014 Super Rugby and Queensland Rugby Union seasons. In total, 178 rugby union players (mean age, 22.6 ± 3.8 years; mean height, 185.0 ± 6.8 cm; mean weight, 96.5 ± 13.1 kg) had their eccentric knee flexor strength assessed using a custom-made device during the preseason. Reports of previous hamstring, quadriceps, groin, calf, and anterior cruciate ligament injuries were also obtained. The main outcome measure was the prospective occurrence of HSIs. Twenty players suffered at least 1 HSI during the study period. Players with a history of HSIs had a 4.1-fold (95% CI, 1.9-8.9; P = .001) greater risk of subsequent HSIs than players without such a history. Between-limb imbalance in eccentric knee flexor strength of ≥15% and ≥20% increased the risk of HSIs by 2.4-fold (95% CI, 1.1-5.5; P = .033) and 3.4-fold (95% CI, 1.5-7.6; P = .003), respectively. Lower eccentric knee flexor strength and other prior injuries were not associated with an increased risk of future HSIs. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that the risk of reinjuries was augmented in players with strength imbalances. Previous HSIs and between-limb imbalance in eccentric knee flexor strength were associated with an increased risk of future HSIs in rugby union. These results support the rationale for reducing imbalance, particularly in players who have suffered a prior HSI, to mitigate the risk of future
Zhang, Kairui; Asai, Shuji; Hast, Michael W.; Liu, Min; Usami, Yu; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Soslowsky, Louis J.; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi
Ectopic tendon mineralization can develop following tendon rupture or trauma surgery. The pathogenesis of ectopic tendon mineralization and its clinical impact have not been fully elucidated yet. In this study, we utilized a mouse Achilles tendon injury model to determine whether ectopic tendon mineralization alters the biomechanical properties of the tendon and whether BMP signaling is involved in this condition. A complete transverse incision was made at the midpoint of the right Achilles tendon in 8-week-old CD1 mice and the gap was left open. Ectopic cartilaginous mass formation was found in the injured tendon by 4 weeks post-surgery and ectopic mineralization was detected at 8–10 weeks post-surgery. Ectopic mineralization grew over time and volume of the mineralized materials of 25-weeks samples was about 2.5 fold bigger than that of 10-weeks samples, indicating that injury-induced ectopic tendon mineralization is progressive. In vitro mechanical testing showed that max force, max stress and mid-substance modulus in the 25-weeks samples were significantly lower than the 10-weeks samples. We observed substantial increases in expression of bone morphogenetic protein family genes in injured tendons 1 week post-surgery. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that phosphorylation of both Smad1 and Smad3 were highly increased in injured tendons as early as 1 week post-injury and remained high in ectopic chondrogenic lesions 4 weeks post-injury. Treatment with the BMP receptor kinase inhibitor (LDN193189) significantly inhibited injury-induced tendon mineralization. These findings indicate that injury-induced ectopic tendon mineralization is progressive, involves BMP signaling and associated with deterioration of tendon biomechanical properties. PMID:26825318
de Castro, Renato Luiz Bevilacqua; Acras, Sandor Dosa
Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the results of ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) reconstruction using quadruple flexor tendons as grafts, with ligament fixation in the femur using a rigid guide transverse screw and in the tibia, using a cancellous screw with a fixing washer. Methods: 173 knees (166 from males and seven from females) that had undergone surgery with ACL reconstruction using this technique between December 2002 and February 2007 were evaluated. The mean age was 30 years (from 13 to 56 years), and the mean follow-up time was 30 months (6-55 months). We divided the knees into three groups, which were assessed using the Lysholm scale: Group A with six months of follow-up; Group B with 12 months of follow-up; and Group C with 24 months of follow-up. Results: We evaluated the results, and groups A, B and C received 94, 95 and 95 points respectively on the Lysholm scale. Conclusions: The surgical technique proved to be safe and easy to perform, with good results and a low complication rate. Also, its results were maintained throughout the study period of 24 months. PMID:27027002
Farris, Dominic James; Lichtwark, Glen A; Brown, Nicholas A T; Cresswell, Andrew G
Humans utilise elastic tendons of lower limb muscles to store and return energy during walking, running and jumping. Anuran and insect species use skeletal structures and/or dynamics in conjunction with similarly compliant structures to amplify muscle power output during jumping. We sought to examine whether human jumpers use similar mechanisms to aid elastic energy usage in the plantar flexor muscles during maximal vertical jumping. Ten male athletes performed maximal vertical squat jumps. Three-dimensional motion capture and a musculoskeletal model were used to determine lower limb kinematics that were combined with ground reaction force data in an inverse dynamics analysis. B-mode ultrasound imaging of the lateral gastrocnemius (GAS) and soleus (SOL) muscles was used to measure muscle fascicle lengths and pennation angles during jumping. Our results highlighted that both GAS and SOL utilised stretch and recoil of their series elastic elements (SEEs) in a catapult-like fashion, which likely serves to maximise ankle joint power. The resistance of supporting of body weight allowed initial stretch of both GAS and SOL SEEs. A proximal-to-distal sequence of joint moments and decreasing effective mechanical advantage early in the extension phase of the jumping movement were observed. This facilitated a further stretch of the SEE of the biarticular GAS and delayed recoil of the SOL SEE. However, effective mechanical advantage did not increase late in the jump to aid recoil of elastic tissues. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Hunt, Kenneth J; Cohen, Bruce E; Davis, W Hodges; Anderson, Robert B; Jones, Carroll P
Chronic insertional Achilles tendinopathy is a common pathology that can be difficult to manage. Some experts have advocated augmentation with the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon in patients over age 50 and those with more severe tendon disease. We hypothesized that FHL augmentation would be associated with superior clinical outcome scores and greater ankle plantar flexion strength compared with Achilles debridement alone. Consecutive patients older than 50 years who had failed nonoperative treatment for chronic insertional Achilles tendinopathy were randomly assigned to Achilles decompression and debridement alone (control group) or Achilles decompression and debridement augmented with FHL transfer (FHL group). Outcome measures included American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle/hindfoot score, visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, ankle and hallux plantar flexion strength, and a patient satisfaction survey. A total of 39 enrolled patients had a minimum 1-year follow-up, 18 in the control group and 21 in the FHL transfer group. The average patient age was 60.5 years. AOFAS and VAS scores improved in both groups at 6 months and 1 year with no difference between groups. There was greater ankle plantar flexion strength in the FHL group at 6 months and at 1 year compared with the control group (P < .05). There was no difference between the 2 groups in hallux plantar flexion strength preoperatively and at 1 year after surgery. Some 87% of patients were satisfied with the outcome of their procedure. There was no significant increase in wound complications in the FHL group (P < .05). We found no differences in pain, functional outcome (as measured by the AOFAS ankle/hindfoot scale), and patient satisfaction when comparing patients treated with Achilles debridement alone versus FHL augmentation for chronic Achilles tendinopathy. Ankle plantar flexion strength appeared to be improved with FHL transfer, with no loss of hallux plantar flexion strength
Woo, Savio L Y; Fisher, Matthew B; Feola, Andrew J
The contribution of biomechanics to the advancement of management of ligament and tendon injuries has been significant. Thanks to Professor Y.C. Fung's writing and guidance, our field of research has done fundamental work on anatomy and biology of ligaments and tendons, developed methods to accurately determine mechanical properties, identified various experimental factors which could change the outcome measurements as well as examined biological factors that change tissue properties in-vivo. Professor Fung also gave us his quasi-linear viscoelastic theory for soft tissues so that the time and history dependent properties of ligaments and tendons could be properly described. We have further adopted Professor Fung's eight steps on methods of approach for biomechanical investigation to understand as well as enhance the treatment of ligament and tendon injuries during work or sports related activities. Examples on how to better treat the tears of the medial collateral ligament of the knee, as well as how to improve reconstruction procedures for the anterior cruciate ligament are presented in detail. Currently the use of functional tissue engineering for ligament and tendon healing is a topic of great interest. Here the use of biological scaffolds, such as porcine small intestinal submucosa, has shown promise. For the last 35 to 40 years, the field of biomechanics has made great strides in the treatment of ligament and tendon injuries, and many patients have benefited. The future is even brighter because of what has been done properly in the past. Exciting advances can be made in the field of tissue engineering through novel in-vitro culture and bioscaffold fabrication techniques. Recent technology can also allow the collection of in-vivo data so that ligament and tendon injuries can be better understood. Yet, solving new and more complex problems must still follow the stepwise methods of approach as taught by Professor Fung.
Davalos, Eric A; Barank, David; Varma, Rajeev K
Injuries to the popliteus tendon are less frequent than injuries to the menisci or ligamentous structures of the knee. When they do occur, injuries to the popliteus tendon tend to be the result of trauma and associated with injuries to other components of the knee. The most commonly seen injuries include tears at the musculotendinous junction and avulsion tears at the lateral femoral condyle insertion site. This report presents two unusual injuries of the popliteus tendon in patients with chronic knee pain: an isolated split tear of the tendon and a subluxed tendon residing within the lateral joint space.
DAVALOS, ERIC A.; BARANK, DAVID; VARMA, RAJEEV K.
Injuries to the popliteus tendon are less frequent than injuries to the menisci or ligamentous structures of the knee. When they do occur, injuries to the popliteus tendon tend to be the result of trauma and associated with injuries to other components of the knee. The most commonly seen injuries include tears at the musculotendinous junction and avulsion tears at the lateral femoral condyle insertion site. This report presents two unusual injuries of the popliteus tendon in patients with chronic knee pain: an isolated split tear of the tendon and a subluxed tendon residing within the lateral joint space. PMID:27386449
Funasaki, Hiroki; Hayashi, Hiroteru; Sakamoto, Kanako; Tsuruga, Rei; Marumo, Keishi
Stenosing tenosynovitis of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon is known as a major overuse lesion in female dancers. We describe arthroscopic surgical techniques in relation to the dynamic pathology of the disease. Crepitus and pain on moving the great toe with the ankle in plantar flexion on preoperative examination confirm the diagnosis of FHL stenosing tenosynovitis even if the os trigonum is not evident. The ankle is approached through standard posterolateral and posteromedial portals. A 4.0-mm-diameter 30° arthroscope is used. Soft tissues around the talus are cleared with a motorized shaver and a radiofrequency device. The posterior aspects of the talus, os trigonum, and FHL tendon surrounded by the tendon sheath are visualized. The dynamic pathology of the FHL tendon is well observed on passive motion of the great toe. The prominent bone fragment of the talus is removed and the tendon sheath is cut with a retrograde knife and a motorized shaver from the superior border down to the entrance of the fibro-osseous tunnel. Arthroscopic release of the FHL tendon sheath is a useful and easy method to directly approach the dynamic pathology of FHL tenosynovitis in female ballet dancers.
Nanno, Mitsuhiko; Kodera, Norie; Tomori, Yuji; Takai, Shinro
We investigated the movement of the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon on the distal radius during wrist and finger motions using transverse ultrasound in patients with distal radius fractures who underwent volar locking plating. Both wrists of 39 distal radius fracture patients with volar locking plate fixation were evaluated by transverse ultrasound to examine the location of the FPL tendon on the distal radius at varied wrist positions in full finger extension and flexion. At all wrist positions during finger motion, the FPL tendon shifted significantly more dorsally on the affected side than on the unaffected side. Additionally, at the wrist dorsal flexion position with finger flexion, the FPL tendon moved significantly the most dorsally, and the distance between the FPL tendon and the plate or the radius was the smallest among all wrist positions during finger motion. This study showed that the wrist dorsal flexion position with finger flexion could be the appropriate position to examine FPL tendon irritation after plating. Moreover, it would be effective for preventing FPL rupture to cover the FPL transverse gliding area approximately 10 mm radial to the vertex of the palmar bony prominence of the distal radius with the pronator quadratus and the intermediate fibrous zone.
Severo, Antônio Lourenço; Arenhart, Rodrigo; Silveira, Daniela; Ávila, Aluísio Otávio Vargas; Berral, Francisco José; Lemos, Marcelo Barreto; Piluski, Paulo César Faiad; Lech, Osvandré Luís Canfield; Fukushima, Walter Yoshinori
Objective: Analyzing suture time, biomechanics (deformity between the stumps) and the histology of three groups of tendinous surgical repair: Brazil-2 (4-strands) which the end knot (core) is located outside the tendon, Indiana (4-strands) and Tsai (6-strands) with sutures technique which the end knot (core) is inner of the tendon, associated with early active mobilization. Methods: The right calcaneal tendons (plantar flexor of the hind paw) of 36 rabbits of the New Zealand breed (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were used in the analysis. This sample presents similar size to human flexor tendon that has approximately 4.5 mm (varying from 2mm). The selected sample showed the same mass (2.5 to 3kg) and were male or female adults (from 8 ½ months). For the flexor tendons of the hind paws, sterile and driven techniques were used in accordance to the Committee on Animal Research and Ethics (CETEA) of the University of the State of Santa Catarina (UDESC), municipality of Lages, in Brazil (protocol # 1.33.09). Results: In the biomechanical analysis (deformity) carried out between tendinous stumps, there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.01). There was no statistical difference in relation to surgical time in all three suture techniques with a mean of 6.0 minutes for Tsai (6- strands), 5.7 minutes for Indiana (4-strands) and 5.6 minutes for Brazil (4-strands) (p>0.01). With the early active mobility, there was qualitative and quantitative evidence of thickening of collagen in 38.9% on the 15th day and in 66.7% on the 30th day, making the biological tissue stronger and more resistant (p=0.095). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that there was no histological difference between the results achieved with an inside or outside end knot with respect to the repaired tendon and the number of strands did not affect healing, vascularization or sliding of the tendon in the osteofibrous tunnel, which are associated with early active mobility, with the repair techniques
Sakaki, Marcos Hideyo; Godoy-Santos, Alexandre Leme; Ortiz, Rafael Trevisan; Araújo, Antônio; Fernandes, Túlio Diniz
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the FHL length difference obtained through a single approach and by a double combined approach. METHODS: 16 fresh cadavers, a total of 32 feet, were used to measure the FHL graft length. With the cadaver positioned in ventral decubitus, a posteromedial incision in the ankle and a second incision in the plantar cavus were performed. RESULTS: The average gain of tendon's length (GTL) was of 42.43 mm, the lowest value being 32 mm and the largest 48 mm. The comparative analysis of the GTL on the right and left sides through the paired "t" Test does not show statistical differences, with a p-value = 0.463 and a statistical power of 0.1443. The height analysis of the sample and the right and left GTL performed through linear regression do not show statistically significant differences, with a p-value of 0.38311 and 0.82640, respectively. CONCLUSION: Harvesting the FHL graft using a double combined approach yields a 42.43 mm length gain in comparison to harvesting using the single approach. Level of Evidence III, Case Control Study. PMID:25061420
Figueroa, D; Martínez, R; Calvo, R; Scheu, M; Gallegos, M; Vaisman, A; Martínez, C; González, A
For successful anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, revascularisation and histological maturation are necessary, as their failure can cause graft rupture. The purpose of this study was to describe differences in the histological maturation of early failed plasty (less than 12 months after surgery) and late failed plasty (more than 12 months after surgery) in patients with re-rupture after ACL reconstruction with hamstring tendons. A descriptive observational study was conducted on a consecutive series of 20 patients whose ACL reconstruction had failed. Graft biopsy samples were obtained during the revision surgery from the proximal, medial, and distal graft remnants. The samples were evaluated by light microscopy, and the vascularity and maturation of the samples were established by histological scoring. The most common aetiology of reconstruction failure (86.6%) was a specific event with non-contact mechanism. The patients with re-rupture of their ACL plasty less than 12 months after surgery had substance vessels that were less deep. The distal segment of the graft in those patients showed a delay in histological maturation with fewer collagen fibres. In patients whose ACL grafts failed less than 12 months after surgery, a lower distribution of blood vessels and collagen fibres was found that were less ordered in the distal graft. These results indicate a delay in maturation, which leads to a higher risk of graft failure. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Bouvier, Tom; Opplert, Jules; Cometti, Carole; Babault, Nicolas
This study aimed to determine the acute effects of static stretching on stiffness indexes of two muscle groups with a contrasting difference in muscle-tendon proportion. Eleven active males were tested on an isokinetic dynamometer during four sessions randomly presented. Two sessions were dedicated to quadriceps and the two others to triceps surae muscles. Before and immediately after the stretching procedure (5 × 30 s), gastrocnemius medialis and rectus femoris fascicle length and myotendinous junction elongation were determined using ultrasonography. Passive and maximal voluntary torques were measured. Fascicle and myotendinous junction stiffness indexes were calculated. After stretching, maximal voluntary torque similarly decreased for both muscle groups. Passive torque significantly decreased on triceps surae and remained unchanged on quadriceps muscles. Fascicle length increased similarly for both muscles. However, myotendinous junction elongation remained unchanged for gastrocnemius medialis and increased significantly for rectus femoris muscle. Fascicle stiffness index significantly decreased on medial gastrocnemius and remained unchanged on rectus femoris muscle. In contrast, myotendinous junction stiffness index similarly decreased on both muscles. Depending on the muscle considered, the present results revealed different acute stretching effects. This muscle dependency appeared to affect primarily fascicle stiffness index rather than the myotendinous junction.
Osbahr, Daryl C; Swaminathan, Swarup S; Allen, Answorth A; Dines, Joshua S; Coleman, Struan H; Altchek, David W
Ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction techniques have afforded baseball players up to a reported 90% return to prior or higher level of play. A subpopulation exists with less impressive clinical outcomes potentially related to the presence of a concomitant flexor-pronator mass injury. Combined flexor-pronator and ulnar collateral ligament injuries occur in older players, and results in this group are inferior to those reported for isolated ulnar collateral ligament reconstructions. Case Series; Level of evidence, 4. All baseball players who had ulnar collateral ligament reconstructions by 1 surgeon over a 6-year period were identified, and the authors studied those treated for a combined flexor-pronator and ulnar collateral ligament injury. The ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction was accomplished using the docking technique, and the flexor-pronator injury was treated with debridement if tendinotic or reattachment if torn. A 2-sample t test was conducted to evaluate the likelihood of developing the combined flexor-pronator/ulnar collateral ligament compared with ulnar collateral ligament injury based on age, while a Pearson chi(2) test was used to evaluate the likelihood of a patient being > or =30 years of age in the combined flexor-pronator/ulnar collateral ligament versus ulnar collateral ligament groups. Outcome was assessed using a modified Conway classification. A total of 187 male baseball players between 14 and 42 years of age (mean, 20.7 years) had an ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction by 1 surgeon. Eight (4%) of 187 baseball players were treated for the combined flexor-pronator/ulnar collateral ligament injury. There was a statistically significant difference in age between the ulnar collateral ligament group (20.1 years) and the flexor-pronator/ulnar collateral ligament group (33.4 years) (P < .001). Age > or =30 years was a statistically significant age limit to predict the presence of a combined flexor-pronator/ulnar collateral ligament
Lee, Kyung Tai; Choi, Yun Sun; Lee, Young Koo; Lee, Jeong Pil; Young, Ki Won; Park, Shin Yi
Extensor hallucis longus (EHL) tendon injuries can occur in taekwondo athletes when performing hyperplantarflexed barefoot kicking exercises. A state of full excursion of the extensor tendon is used to strike opponents in which the metatarsal bone and the proximal phalanx area is in contact with the opponent. The purpose of this study is to examine the incidence of extensor hallucis longus tendon injury in taekwondo athletes. Case-control study. 50 Athletes from the Korean taekwondo national team and a control group of 50 healthy subjects. History of sports participation, the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score and ultrasound imaging of the EHL. Difference in the AOFAS scores were noted with the control group at 92.95+/-9.18, and the experimental group score at 88.45+/-10.93 (p<0.01). Only one person (one tendon) from the control group demonstrated changes on sonography (2%), whilst 10 subjects from the taekwondo group displayed changes in 16 tendons (20%). EHL thickness of the experimental group (1.52+/-0.16 mm) was greater and the control group (1.46+/-0.11 mm) (p<0.01). Taekwondo athletes have a higher incidence of changes on sonographic imaging of the EHL compared to non-taekwando participating healthy subjects.
Jordana, M; Martens, A; Duchateau, L; Vanderperren, K; Saunders, J; Oosterlinck, M; Pille, F
Controversy exists about the desensitisation obtained after diagnostic analgesia of the digital flexor tendon sheath (DFTS) during lameness examinations. To determine whether DFTS analgesia results in inadvertent desensitisation of the palmar/plantar digital nerves and whether this depends on the injection technique used. Crossover experimental study. The DFTS of 9 horses were injected with local anaesthetic solution and radiodense contrast medium using one of the following techniques: Proximal (at lateral proximal recess of the DFTS), Axial (axial to the lateral proximal sesamoid bone), Base (at base of the lateral proximal sesamoid bone), and Distal (at palmar/plantar mid-pastern). In total, 72 injections were performed. Skin desensitisation at the heel bulbs was tested with a dynamometer before and at 15, 30, 90 and 120 min after injection. Overall, complete desensitisation of a heel bulb at one or more time points after injection occurred in 22 limbs (30.6%). An additional 7 limbs were partially desensitised. Complete skin desensitisation occurred in 10, 3, 4 and 5 limbs using the Proximal, Axial, Base and Distal techniques respectively. Significant differences between techniques were only found at T30. The probability of skin desensitisation at the heel bulbs was 4 times higher when using the Proximal compared with the Axial and Base techniques in the forelimbs, and 3 times higher compared with the Axial and Distal techniques in the hindlimbs. Skin desensitisation nearly always occurred exclusively on the lateral heel bulb. Bilateral desensitisation only occurred in 5 limbs. Anaesthesia of the palmar/plantar digital nerves with distal limb desensitisation often occurs after DFTS analgesia. A higher chance of desensitisation exists when injecting the proximal DFTS recess. It is advisable to verify skin sensitivity at the heel bulbs after DFTS analgesia to avoid false interpretations about the origin of pain causing lameness. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.
Comparison of autologous bone marrow and adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells, and platelet rich plasma, for treating surgically induced lesions of the equine superficial digital flexor tendon.
Romero, A; Barrachina, L; Ranera, B; Remacha, A R; Moreno, B; de Blas, I; Sanz, A; Vázquez, F J; Vitoria, A; Junquera, C; Zaragoza, P; Rodellar, C
Several therapies have been investigated for equine tendinopathies, but satisfactory long term results have not been achieved consistently and a better understanding of the healing mechanism elicited by regenerative therapies is needed. The aim of this study was to assess the separate effects of autologous bone marrow (BM) and adipose tissue (AT) derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and platelet rich plasma (PRP), for treating lesions induced in the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) of horses. Lesions were created surgically in both SDFTs of the forelimbs of 12 horses and were treated with BM-MSCs (six tendons), AT-MSCs (six tendons) or PRP (six tendons). The remaining six tendons received lactated Ringer's solution as control. Serial ultrasound assessment was performed prior to treatment and at 2, 6, 10, 20 and 45 weeks post-treatment. At 45 weeks, histopathology and gene expression analyses were performed. At week 6, the ultrasound echogenicity score in tendons treated with BM-MSCs suggested earlier improvement, whilst all treatment groups reached the same level at week 10, which was superior to the control group. Collagen orientation scores on histological examination suggested a better outcome in treated tendons. Gene expression was indicative of better tissue regeneration after all treatments, especially for BM-MSCs, as suggested by upregulation of collagen type I, decorin, tenascin and matrix metalloproteinase III mRNA. Considering all findings, a clear beneficial effect was elicited by all treatments compared with the control group. Although differences between treatments were relatively small, BM-MSCs resulted in a better outcome than PRP and AT-MSCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Danoff, J R; Birman, M V; Rosenwasser, M P
In patients with severe thenar atrophy secondary to carpal tunnel syndrome, we hypothesize that following open carpal tunnel release, concomitant transfer of the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) origin to the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) tendon will lead to improved patient function restoring palmar abduction and thumb opposition. We evaluated 14 patients through questionnaires and seven patients through additional physical examination (thumb range of motion, ability to tip pinch, grip/pinch strength) for a mean follow-up of 2.8 years. All patients showed evidence of palmar abduction with 71% demonstrating the ability to oppose the thumb to the tip and base of the small finger. The transfer of the APB origin to the FCR tendon can restore thumb abduction and opposition for thenar paralysis secondary to severe carpal tunnel syndrome. Patients experience good functional outcomes with the majority experiencing restored thumb opposition.
Gott, Michael; Ast, Michael; Lane, Lewis B; Schwartz, John A; Catanzano, Anthony; Razzano, Pasquale; Grande, Daniel A
Advancements in the technical aspects of tendon repair have significantly improved the treatment of tendon injuries. Arthroscopic techniques, suture material, and improved rehabilitation have all been contributing factors. Biological augmentation and tissue engineering appear to have the potential to improve clinical outcomes as well. After review of the physiology of tendon repair, three critical components of tissue engineering can be discerned: the cellular component, the carrier vehicle (matrix or scaffold), and the bioactive component (growth factors, platelet rich plasma). These three components are discussed with regard to each of three tendon types: Intra-synovial (flexor tendon), extra-synovial (Achilles tendon), and extra-synovial tendon under compression (rotator cuff). Scaffolds, biologically enhanced scaffolds, growth factors, platelet rich plasma, gene therapy, mesenchymal stem cells, and local environment factors in combination or alone may contribute to tendon healing. In the future it may be beneficial to differentiate these modes of healing augmentation with regard to tendon subtype.
Histological and Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Autologous Cultured Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Bone Marrow Mononucleated Cells in Collagenase-Induced Tendinitis of Equine Superficial Digital Flexor Tendon
Crovace, Antonio; Lacitignola, Luca; Rossi, Giacomo; Francioso, Edda
The aim of this study was to compare treatment with cultured bone marrow stromal cells (cBMSCs), bone marrow Mononucleated Cells (BMMNCs), and placebo to repair collagenase-induced tendinitis in horses. In six adult Standardbred horses, 4000 IU of collagenase were injected in the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT). Three weeks after collagenase treatment, an average of either 5.5 × 106 cBMSCs or 1.2 × 108 BMMNCs, fibrin glue, and saline solution was injected intralesionally in random order. In cBMSC- and BMMNCS-treated tendons, a high expression of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) and type I collagen, but low levels of type III collagen were revealed by immunohistochemistry, with a normal longitudinally oriented fiber pattern. Placebo-treated tendons expressed very low quantities of COMP and type I collagen but large numbers of randomly oriented type III collagen fibers. Both cBMSC and BMMNCS grafts resulted in a qualitatively similar heling improvement of tendon extracellular matrix, in terms of the type I/III collagen ratio, fiber orientation, and COMP expression. PMID:20445779
Lehnert, Bruce; Nyska, Meir; Ip, Wing; Huynh, Em; Palmanovich, Ezequiel
Harvesting of the flexor digitorum longus (FDL) or the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) is a procedure used when tendon transfer is needed. It is commonly used in tibialis posterior reconstruction and Achilles tendon reconstruction. Harvesting of these tendons is sometimes difficult and time-consuming. It is important to obtain sufficient length to make a loop around the navicular bone or anchor it in the calcaneus. We describe a technique in which a loop is passed from proximal identification of the FDL or FHL through the tendon sheath, harvesting it from a minimal plantar approach. After using this technique, we evaluated 10 consecutive patients for neurovascular damage. We found no postoperative neurovascular injuries. The technique described enables the surgeon to find the FDL/FHL tendon through the medial approach and obtain sufficient length for the procedure by cutting the distal portion of the tendon through an additional plantar incision. Our technical tip for passing the loop facilitates harvest of the tendon easily and safely using the plantar approach. IV, case series.
Park, Don Young; Chou, Loretta
Professional and recreational athletes commonly perform pre-exercise stretching to prevent musculoskeletal injuries. Little definitive evidence exists that clearly demonstrates the efficacy of stretching in reducing injury. Achilles tendon injuries are among the most common injuries affecting active individuals in the United States today. Clinicians commonly recommend stretching the Achilles tendon without concrete scientific evidence to support such a claim. Few studies have addressed the effect of stretching in Achilles tendon injuries, and it is unclear if the conclusions made for musculoskeletal injuries can be applied to the Achilles tendon. Biomechanical studies of the Achilles tendon and measurements of the tendon's reflex activity have demonstrated possible mechanisms for the potential benefit of stretching, including load-induced hypertrophy and increased tendon tensile strength. Recent prospective studies have contended that reductions in plantarflexor strength and increases in ankle dorsiflexion range of motion from stretching the Achilles tendon may increase the risk of injury. Studies examining stretching in injury prevention, the biomechanical properties of injuries to the Achilles tendon were compiled and reviewed. Although many theories have been published regarding the potential benefits and limitations of stretching, few studies have been able to definitively demonstrate its utility in injury prevention.
Hahn, P; Lanz, U
Primary or secondary flexor tendon surgery occasionally leads to damaged flexor pulleys. Insufficient pulley reconstruction causes loss of finger function by bow stringing of the flexor tendon. This paper reviews the anatomy and biomechanics of the flexor pulley system. Different techniques of reconstruction are discussed.
Adekanmbi, Isaiah; Zargar, Nasim; Hulley, Philippa
The healing process of ruptured tendons is suboptimal, taking months to achieve tissue with inferior properties to healthy tendon. Mechanical loading has been shown to positively influence tendon healing. However, high frequency low magnitude (HFLM) loads, which have shown promise in maintaining healthy tendon properties, have not been studied with in vitro injury models. Here, we present and validate an in vitro scratch tendon tissue injury model to investigate effects of HFLM loading on the properties of injured rat tail tendon fascicles (RTTFs). A longitudinal tendon tear was simulated using a needle aseptically to scratch a defined length along individual RTTFs. Tissue viability, biomechanical, and biochemical parameters were investigated before and 7 days after culture . The effects of static, HFLM (20 Hz), and low frequency (1 Hz) cyclic loading or no load were also investigated. Tendon viability was confirmed in damaged RTTFs after 7 days of culture, and the effects of a 0.77 ± 0.06 cm scratch on the mechanical property (tangent modulus) and tissue metabolism in damaged tendons were consistent, showing significant damage severity compared with intact tendons. Damaged tendon fascicles receiving HFLM (20 Hz) loads displayed significantly higher mean tangent modulus than unloaded damaged tendons (212.7 ± 14.94 v 92.7 ± 15.59 MPa), and damaged tendons receiving static loading (117.9 ± 10.65 MPa). HFLM stimulation maintained metabolic activity in 7-day cultured damaged tendons at similar levels to fresh tendons immediately following damage. Only damaged tendons receiving HFLM loads showed significantly higher metabolism than unloaded damaged tendons (relative fluorescence units -7021 ± 635.9 v 3745.1 ± 641.7). These validation data support the use of the custom-made in vitro injury model for investigating the potential of HFLM loading interventions in treating damaged tendons.
Boublik, Martin; Schlegel, Theodore F; Koonce, Ryan C; Genuario, James W; Kinkartz, Jason D
Distal quadriceps tendon tears are uncommon injuries that typically occur in patients older than 40 years of age, and they have a guarded prognosis. Predisposing factors, prodromal findings, mechanisms of injury, treatment guidelines, and recovery expectations are not well described in high-level athletes. Professional American football players with an isolated tear of the quadriceps tendon treated with timely surgical repair will return to their sport. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Fourteen unilateral distal quadriceps tendon tears were identified in National Football League (NFL) players from 1994 to 2004. Team physicians retrospectively reviewed training room and clinic records, operative notes, and imaging studies for each of these players. Data on each player were analyzed to identify variables predicting return to play. A successful outcome was defined as returning to play in regular-season NFL games. Eccentric contraction of the quadriceps was the most common mechanism of injury, occurring in 10 players. Only 1 player had antecedent ipsilateral extensor mechanism symptoms. Eleven players had a complete rupture of the quadriceps tendon, and 3 had partial tears. There were no associated knee injuries. All ruptures were treated with surgical repair, 1 of which was delayed after failure of nonoperative treatment. Fifty percent of players returned to play in regular-season NFL games. There was a trend toward earlier draft status for those who returned to play compared with those who did not (draft round, 3.1 ± 2.5 vs. 6.0 ± 2.9, respectively; P = .073). For those who returned to play, the average number of games after injury was 40.9 (range, 12-92). Quadriceps tendon tears are rare in professional American football players, and they usually occur from eccentric load on the extensor mechanism. Prodromal symptoms and predisposing factors are usually absent. Even with timely surgical repair, there is a low rate of return to play in regular-season games. There
Bevilacqua, Nicholas J
Achilles tendon ruptures are best managed acutely. Neglected Achilles tendon ruptures are debilitating injuries and the increased complexity of the situation must be appreciated. Surgical management is recommended, and only in the poorest surgical candidate is conservative treatment entertained. Numerous treatment algorithms and surgical techniques have been described. A V-Y advancement flap and flexor halluces longus tendon transfer have been found to be reliable and achieve good clinical outcomes for defects ranging from 2 cm to 8 cm. This article focuses on the treatment options for the neglected Achilles tendon rupture. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Freeman, Kendra D; Barrett, Jennifer G; Youngstrom, Daniel W; White, Nathaniel A
The 6-strand Savage (SSS) tenorrhaphy pattern is biomechanically superior to the commonly employed 3-loop pulley (3LP); however, its effects on intrinsic tendon vasculature remain unknown. The objective of this study was to compare perfusion of intrinsic vasculature of the equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) after 3LP and SSS tenorrhaphies. We hypothesized that the SSS technique would significantly decrease vascular perfusion compared to the 3LP technique. Ex vivo, randomized, paired design. Horses (n = 9) METHODS: Under general anesthesia, 9 pairs of forelimb SDFT were transected. Two tendons served as baseline control, the remainder had either SSS or 3LP tenorrhaphy performed. Horses were heparinized, euthanatized, and forelimbs perfused with barium sulfate solution were then fixed with formalin under tension. Tendons were transected every 5 mm and microangiographic images obtained. Microvascular analysis of sections proximal to, throughout, and distal to the tenorrhaphy was completed using a custom macro. Differences in vascular count were assessed using MANOVA. A significant reduction in the number of perfused vessels was seen for SSS compared with 3LP at 2 locations within the tenorrhaphy (P = .039 and P = .009). The SSS technique took on average 4.7 ± 0.9 times longer to place. The SSS technique causes an acute reduction in tendon perfusion compared to the 3LP, which may limit its clinical use. Further research is required to elucidate the clinical significance of this difference. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.
van de Ven-Stevens, Lucelle A W; Graff, Maud J L; Peters, Marlijn A M; van der Linde, Harmen; Geurts, Alexander C H
In patient-centered practice, instruments need to assess outcomes that are meaningful to patients with hand conditions. It is unclear which assessment tools address these subjective perspectives best. The aim of this study was to establish the construct validity of the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) in relation to the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire and the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ) in people with hand conditions. It was hypothesized that COPM scores would correlate with DASH and MHQ total scores only to a moderate degree and that the COPM, DASH questionnaire, and MHQ would all correlate weakly with measures of hand impairments. This was a validation study. The COPM, DASH questionnaire, and MHQ were scored, and then hand impairments were measured (pain [numerical rating scale], active range of motion [goniometer], grip strength [dynamometer], and pinch grip strength [pinch meter]). People who had received postsurgery rehabilitation for flexor tendon injuries, extensor tendon injuries, or Dupuytren disease were eligible. Seventy-two participants were included. For all diagnosis groups, the Pearson coefficient of correlation between the DASH questionnaire and the MHQ was higher than .60, whereas the correlation between the performance scale of the COPM and either the DASH questionnaire or the MHQ was lower than .51. Correlations of these assessment tools with measures of hand impairments were lower than .46. The small sample sizes may limit the generalization of the results. The results supported the hypotheses and, thus, the construct validity of the COPM after surgery in people with hand conditions. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.
Amadio, Peter C
The smooth gliding of the normal human digital flexor is maintained by synovial fluid lubrication and lubricants bound to the tendon surface. This system can be disrupted by degenerative conditions such as trigger finger, or by trauma. The resistance to tendon gliding after surgical repair of the lacerated digital flexor tendon relates to location of suture knots, exposure of suture materials, and type of surgical repair and materials. Restoration of a functioning gliding surface after injury can be helped by using low-friction, high-strength suture designs, therapy that enables gliding, and the addition of lubricants to the tendon surface.
Comin, Jules; Malliaras, Peter; Baquie, Peter; Barbour, Tim; Connell, David
The hamstring muscles are the most commonly injured muscle group in many different sports. Recovery time is often unpredictable and prolonged, and recurrent injury is common. Hamstring injuries that disrupt the central tendon enclosed within the muscle belly require a longer recovery time than do injuries involving only muscle, epimysial fascia, or the musculotendinous junction. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Injury records from professional sports teams were reviewed to determine the length of recovery from each hamstring injury that occurred over a 24-month period. The integrity of the central tendon on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was retrospectively reviewed for each case. The association between central tendon disruption on MRI and recovery time was determined. There were 62 hamstring injuries included for analysis; 45 (72%) involved the biceps femoris, 11 (18%) involved the semimembranosus, and 6 (10%) involved the semitendinosus. Central tendon disruption was identified in 12 (45%) of the biceps femoris injuries and in none of the injuries to the other 2 muscles. Three of these injuries were treated surgically, with a median recovery time of 91 days. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) recovery times for those remaining biceps femoris injuries with and without central tendon disruption were 21 days (IQR, 9-28) and 72 days (IQR, 42-109), respectively (P < .01). Disruption of the central tendon in injuries to the biceps femoris results in a significantly longer recovery time than injuries that do not disrupt the central tendon. This highlights the distinction between injury to the hamstring muscle and injury to the hamstring tendon, which is underappreciated as being a distinct entity when injury involves the enclosed central portion of the tendon.
Dar, Tahir Ahmed; Sultan, Asif; Dhar, Shabir Ahmed; Ali, Murtaza Fazal; Wani, Mohammed Iqbal; Wani, Sharief Ahmed
Lacerations of the Achilles tendon are caused by a number of mechanisms. The toilet seat as a cause of Achilles tendon injury is rare. We report on this rare mechanism of laceration of the tendo Achilles. The injury can be avoided with the use of western toilets and the additional devascularisation caused by extending the wound should be avoided while repairing the tendon in such situations.
Gulati, Vivek; Jaggard, Matthew; Al-Nammari, Shafic Said; Uzoigwe, Chika; Gulati, Pooja; Ismail, Nizar; Gibbons, Charles; Gupte, Chinmay
Achilles tendon rupture has been on the rise over recent years due to a variety of reasons. It is a debilitating injury with a protracted and sometimes incomplete recovery. Management strategy is a controversial topic and evidence supporting a definite approach is limited. Opinion is divided between surgical repair and conservative immobilisation in conjunction with functional orthoses. A systematic search of the literature was performed. Pubmed, Medline and EmBase databases were searched for Achilles tendon and a variety of synonymous terms. A recent wealth of reporting suggests that conservative regimens with early weight bearing or mobilisation have equivalent or improved rates of re-rupture to operative regimes. The application of dynamic ultrasound assessment of tendon gap may prove crucial in minimising re-rupture and improving outcomes. Studies employing functional assessments have found equivalent function between operative and conservative treatments. However, no specific tests in peak power, push off strength or athletic performance have been reported and whether an advantage in operative treatment exists remains undetermined. PMID:25992315
Flexor tendonitis and suspensory desmitis are among most prevalent musculoskeletal injuries observed in racehorses. The aim of this study was to determine which horse and race-related parameters can help to diminish the possibility of injury or--when injury has occurred--to evaluate the potential for the horse to continue a successful career after convalescence. Special attention was given to the comparison of Arabian and Thoroughbred racehorses. 187 horses with ultrasonographically visible lesions were included in the study. Following parameters were analyzed: structure (Superficial Digital Flexor Tendon [SDFT], Deep Digital Flexor Tendon [DDFT], Suspensory Ligament [SL]); percentage of cross sectional area increase; hypoechogenic lesion character; in horses with SDF tendonitis - tendonitis grade according to Genovese. This study showed that Thoroughbreds are more at risk of musculoskeletal problems than Arabian racehorses. In both breeds, the most frequent injuries concern SDFT, then SL. Over 95% of tendonitis concern forelimbs. In Thoroughbreds, the prevalence of tendonitis is higher in bigger horses, in males when compared to females and in fence/steeple racehorses when compared to flat track racehorses. The inside limb is more at risk of SDF tendonitis, when the external limb - of SL desmitis. Tendonitis severity increases with age and is greater in steeplechasers when compared to flat track racehorses. The outcome of tendonitis without hypoechogenic lesion is much better than that with hypoechogenic lesion. Evaluation of hypoechogenic lesion length is an easy and accurate prognosis tool, as the chances of returning to racing drop dramatically with lesions longer than 12 cm.
Kim, Jin Sung; Sung, Seung Je; Choi, Young Woong
Background The purpose of this study was to identify the epidemiologic characteristics of hand tendon injuries in children and to compare these with those of adults. Methods This retrospective study was conducted on acute traumatic tendon injuries of the hand treated at our institution from 2005 to 2013, based on medical records and X-ray findings. Age, sex, hand injured, mechanism of injury, tendons and zones injured, number of affected digits, and comorbidities and complications were analyzed. Patients were divided into 2 groups: a pediatric group (≤15 years) and an adult group (>15 years). Results Over the 9-year study period, 533 patients were surgically treated for acute traumatic tendon injuries of the hand. In the pediatric group (n=76), being male, the right hand, the extensor tendon, complete rupture, the middle finger, and glass injury predominated in hand tendon injuries. In the adult group (n=457), results were similar, but injury to the index finger and knife injury were the most common. An accompanying fracture was more common in the adult group and complication rates were non-significantly different. Conclusions This comparative analysis revealed no significant epidemiologic intergroup differences. The belief that pediatric tendon injuries tend to be less severe is misplaced, and careful physical examination and exploration should be conducted in pediatric cases of hand injury. PMID:28352603
Taylor, Sarah Elizabeth; García, Eugenio Cillán; Reardon, Richard J.M.
Objective To evaluate the frequency of inadvertent penetration of the digital flexor tendon sheath (DFTS) and/or distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) when using a direct endoscopic approach to the navicular bursa, and to evaluate an alternate direct approach to the navicular bursa. Study Design Cadaveric study. Sample Population Equine cadaver limbs (n = 40 for direct; n = 12 for alternate approach). Methods Four surgeons performed the direct endoscopic approach to the navicular bursa on 10 limbs each. Frequencies of inadvertent synovial penetration and iatrogenic damage were compared between surgeons. Use of an alternate direct approach, adopting a straight parasagittal trajectory, was evaluated by 2 surgeons. Results Inadvertent synovial penetration occurred in 45% of limbs (DFTS 37.5%; DIPJ 17.5%; and both structures 10%). Successful bursa entry was achieved on the first attempt in 45% of limbs. Significant variation in frequency of inadvertent synovial penetration was observed between surgeons (range 10–80%). Inadvertent synovial penetration did not occur when using the alternate direct technique. Iatrogenic damage to navicular bone fibrocartilage and/or deep digital flexor tendon occurred in 55% of limbs using the direct endoscopic approach and in 0% of limbs using the alternate direct approach. Conclusion Because of the considerable risk of inadvertent penetration of the DFTS and/or the DIPJ when making a direct endoscopic approach to the navicular bursa, it is advisable to investigate for inadvertent penetration when treating navicular bursa sepsis using a direct approach. The alternate direct technique may reduce the risk of inadvertent penetration; however, the view within the bursa may be restricted. PMID:26971252
Kane-Smyth, Justine; Taylor, Sarah Elizabeth; García, Eugenio Cillán; Reardon, Richard J M
To evaluate the frequency of inadvertent penetration of the digital flexor tendon sheath (DFTS) and/or distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) when using a direct endoscopic approach to the navicular bursa, and to evaluate an alternate direct approach to the navicular bursa. Cadaveric study. Equine cadaver limbs (n = 40 for direct; n = 12 for alternate approach). Four surgeons performed the direct endoscopic approach to the navicular bursa on 10 limbs each. Frequencies of inadvertent synovial penetration and iatrogenic damage were compared between surgeons. Use of an alternate direct approach, adopting a straight parasagittal trajectory, was evaluated by 2 surgeons. Inadvertent synovial penetration occurred in 45% of limbs (DFTS 37.5%; DIPJ 17.5%; and both structures 10%). Successful bursa entry was achieved on the first attempt in 45% of limbs. Significant variation in frequency of inadvertent synovial penetration was observed between surgeons (range 10-80%). Inadvertent synovial penetration did not occur when using the alternate direct technique. Iatrogenic damage to navicular bone fibrocartilage and/or deep digital flexor tendon occurred in 55% of limbs using the direct endoscopic approach and in 0% of limbs using the alternate direct approach. Because of the considerable risk of inadvertent penetration of the DFTS and/or the DIPJ when making a direct endoscopic approach to the navicular bursa, it is advisable to investigate for inadvertent penetration when treating navicular bursa sepsis using a direct approach. The alternate direct technique may reduce the risk of inadvertent penetration; however, the view within the bursa may be restricted. © 2016 The Authors. Veterinary Surgery published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.
Kang, Yeoun-Seung; Park, Yoon-Ghil; Lee, Bum-Suk; Park, Hyung-Soon
The wrist-driven flexor hinge orthosis (WDFHO) is a device used to restore hand function in persons with tetraplegic spinal cord injury by furnishing three-point prehension. We assessed the effectiveness and biomechanical properties of the WDFHO in 24 persons with cervical 6 or 7 tetraplegia who have severely impaired hand function. This study introduces a mechanical operating model to assess the efficiency of the WDFHO. Experimental results showed that pinch force increased significantly (p < 0.001) after using the WDFHO and was found to positively correlate with the strength of wrist extensor muscles (r = 0.41, p < 0.001). However, when the strength of the wrist extensors acting on the WDFHO was greater, the reciprocal wrist and finger motion that generates three-point prehension was less effective (r = 0.79, p < 0.001). Reliable and valid biomechanical evaluation of the WDFHO could improve our understanding of its biomechanics.
... tendon. It can occur as a result of injury, overuse, or with aging as the tendon loses elasticity. Any action that places prolonged repetitive strain on the forearm muscles can cause tendonitis. The ...
Flexor digitorum tendon injuries are challenging conditions to manage to ensure optimal patient outcomes. While several surgical approaches with high success rates have been developed, there remains no gold standard for suture technique for the repair of flexor tendon injuries. In this study, we compared two distinct peripheral suture methods on the strength of repaired tendons. Pig flexor digitorum profundus tendons were used in biomechanical studies and the biomechanical influence on tendon repair of continuous running peripheral suture (CRPS) and continuous locking peripheral suture (CLPS), were compared, using stitch length ranging from 1mm to 5mm. In CRPS, the 1mm stitch length group displayed the highest maximum load and breaking power, which was 1.57 fold higher than the 2mm stitch length group. Pairwise comparison revealed that the 1 and 2mm groups were statistically different from the 3, 4, and 5mm stitch length groups while comparison among the latter groups was not statistically significant. For CLPS, the 1mm group exhibited consistently the highest maximum load strength and breaking power, which was twice the strength displayed by the 2mm group. Pairwise comparisons between groups showed statistical significance. For future repairs of flexor tendon injuries, 1mm stitch length is highly recommended for simple peripheral suture.
Yoshii, Yuichi; Zhao, Chunfeng; Henderson, Jacqueline; Zhao, Kristin D; Zobitz, Mark E; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of flexor retinaculum division (simulated carpal tunnel release) on the relative motion of flexor tendon, subsynovial connective tissue, and median nerve in human cadaver specimens. Using fluoroscopy, we measured the relative motion of middle finger flexor digitorum superficialis tendon, subsynovial connective tissue, and median nerve in twelve human cadavers with simulated fist motion. Measurements were obtained for three wrist positions: neutral; 60 degrees flexion; and 60 degrees extension. The shear index was defined as the difference in motion between two tissues (tendon, subsynovial connective tissue, or nerve) relative to tendon excursion, expressed as a percentage. After testing with an intact carpal tunnel, the flexor retinaculum was cut and the testing procedure was repeated. With an intact flexor retinaculum, the wrist flexion position showed significantly less displacement for the subsynovial connective tissue and median nerve relative to tendon displacement, and thus the highest potential shear strain between subsynovial connective tissue-tendon, and tendon-nerve. The wrist extension position also had a significantly higher potential shear strain for tendon-nerve compared to the neutral position. After division of the flexor retinaculum, the differences in shear index among wrist positions were reduced. For the wrist flexion position, the subsynovial connective tissue and median nerve displacements significantly increased, indicating lower shear index values. These findings suggest that division of flexor retinaculum reduces the potential shear strain and thus possibly the risk of shear injury to tissues with the carpal tunnel.
Yoshii, Yuichi; Zhao, Chunfeng; Henderson, Jacqueline; Zhao, Kristin D.; Zobitz, Mark E.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.
Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of flexor retinaculum division (simulated carpal tunnel release) on the relative motion of flexor tendon, subsynovial connective tissue, and median nerve in human cadaver specimens. Methods Using fluoroscopy, we measured the relative motion of middle finger flexor digitorum superficialis tendon, subsynovial connective tissue, and median nerve in twelve human cadavers with simulated fist motion. Measurements were obtained for three wrist positions: neutral; 60 degrees flexion; and 60 degrees extension. The shear index was defined as the difference in motion between two tissues (tendon, subsynovial connective tissue, or nerve) relative to tendon excursion, expressed as a percentage. After testing with an intact carpal tunnel, the flexor retinaculum was cut and the testing procedure was repeated. Findings With an intact flexor retinaculum, the wrist flexion position showed significantly less displacement for the subsynovial connective tissue and median nerve relative to tendon displacement, and thus the highest potential shear strain between subsynovial connective tissue-tendon, and tendon-nerve. The wrist extension position also had a significantly higher potential shear strain for tendon-nerve compared to the neutral position. After division of the flexor retinaculum, the differences in shear index among wrist positions were reduced. For the wrist flexion position, the subsynovial connective tissue and median nerve displacements significantly increased, indicating lower shear index values. Interpretation These findings suggest that division of flexor retinaculum reduces the potential shear strain and thus possibly the risk of shear injury to tissues with the carpal tunnel. PMID:18644662
Kadel, Nancy J; Donaldson-Fletcher, Emily A; Hansen, Sigvard T; Sangeorzan, Bruce J
The modified Jones procedure is the traditional operative procedure for correction of a clawed hallux, although the deformity may be caused by overpull of one of three different muscles. In this study we present the radiographic and functional outcomes of flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon transfer as treatment for clawed hallux. The transfer is performed by drawing two thirds of the FHL tendon up through a drill hole in the proximal phalanx and then suturing it medially back to the remaining third. We retrospectively identified 19 patients (22 feet) who had FHL tendon transfer for correction of clawed hallux over a period of 5 years. Followup was an average of 51.0 (range 6 to 74; +/- 3.8) months after the procedure. Outcome and patient satisfaction were determined using the Long-Form Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (MFA) score. Patients were asked whether they were satisfied, somewhat satisfied, or dissatisfied with the overall outcome and were asked about shoewear limitations. Preoperative and postoperative radiographs were evaluated in 15 patients (17 feet). We measured the hallux valgus and interphalangeal (IP) angles on the anteroposterior (AP) radiographs. On the lateral view we measured the angle of the IP joint, the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint, and the talometatarsal angle. Statistical analysis was done using a repeated measures ANOVA (p < 0.05). On the lateral radiographs, the hallux IP joint angle (p < 0.0012; n = 15) and hallux MTP joint angle (p < 0.0265; n = 15) were significantly reduced postoperatively. On AP radiographs, the hallux valgus angle (p < 0.0334) was significantly reduced; however, the IP angle and the talometatarsal angle were not significantly different after surgery. Patients had an average MFA score of 14.6 (+/-3.8 standard error, range 1 to 35; n = 19). Thirteen patients were fully satisfied and six were somewhat satisfied with the overall result of the surgery. Four patients thought that their hallux limited the types of
Watanabe, Takafumi; Imamura, Yasutada; Suzuki, Daisuke; Hosaka, Yoshinao; Ueda, Hiromi; Hiramatsu, Kohzy; Takehana, Kazushige
The equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) has a graded distribution of collagen fibril diameters, with predominantly small-diameter fibrils in the region of the myotendinous junction (MTJ), a gradual increase in large-diameter fibrils toward the osteotendinous junction (OTJ), and a mixture of small- and large-diameter fibrils in the middle metacarpal (MM) region. In this study, we investigated the ultrastructure of the SDFT, to correlate the spatial relationship of the collagen fibrils with the graded distribution. The surface-to-surface distances of pairs of fibrils were found to be almost constant over the entire tendon. However, the center-to-center distances varied according to fibril diameter. Decorin is the predominant proteoglycan in normal mature tendons, and has one dermatan sulfate (DS) or chondroitin sulfate (CS) filament as a side chain which is associated with the surfaces of the collagen fibrils via its core protein. We identified a coordinated arrangement of decorin DS filaments in the equine SDFT. The sizes of the decorin DS filaments detected by Cupromeronic blue staining showed a unique regional variation; they were shortest in the MM region and longer in the MTJ and OTJ regions, and a considerable number of filaments were arranged obliquely to adjacent collagen fibrils in the MTJ region. This regional variation of the filaments may be an adaptation to lubricate the interfibrillar space in response to local mechanical requirements. The results of this study suggest that the MTJ region, which receives the muscular contractile force first, acts as a buffer for mechanical forces in the equine SDFT. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2011 Anatomical Society.
Galloway, Marc T.; Lalley, Andrea L.; Shearn, Jason T.
➤ Tendon injuries often result from excessive or insufficient mechanical loading, impairing the ability of the local tendon cell population to maintain normal tendon function. ➤ The resident cell population composing tendon tissue is mechanosensitive, given that the cells are able to alter the extracellular matrix in response to modifications of the local loading environment. ➤ Natural tendon healing is insufficient, characterized by improper collagen fibril diameter formation, collagen fibril distribution, and overall fibril misalignment. ➤ Current tendon repair rehabilitation protocols focus on implementing early, well-controlled eccentric loading exercises to improve repair outcome. ➤ Tissue engineers look toward incorporating mechanical loading regimens to precondition cell populations for the creation of improved biological augmentations for tendon repair. PMID:24005204
Vaughn, Natalie H.; Stepanyan, Hayk; Gallo, Robert A.; Dhawan, Aman
Background: Tendon injury such as tendinopathy or rupture is common and has multiple etiologies, including both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The genetic influence on susceptibility to tendon injury is not well understood. Purpose: To analyze the published literature regarding genetic factors associated with tendon injury. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A systematic review of published literature was performed in concordance with the Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines to identify current evidence for genetic predisposition to tendon injury. PubMed, Ovid, and ScienceDirect databases were searched. Studies were included for review if they specifically addressed genetic factors and tendon injuries in humans. Reviews, animal studies, or studies evaluating the influence of posttranscription factors and modifications (eg, proteins) were excluded. Results: Overall, 460 studies were available for initial review. After application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 11 articles were ultimately included for qualitative synthesis. Upon screening of references of these 11 articles, an additional 15 studies were included in the final review, for a total of 26 studies. The genetic factors with the strongest evidence of association with tendon injury were those involving type V collagen A1, tenascin-C, matrix metalloproteinase–3, and estrogen-related receptor beta. Conclusion: The published literature is limited to relatively homogenous populations, with only level 3 and level 4 data. Additional research is needed to make further conclusions about the genetic factors involved in tendon injury. PMID:28856171
Vaughn, Natalie H; Stepanyan, Hayk; Gallo, Robert A; Dhawan, Aman
Tendon injury such as tendinopathy or rupture is common and has multiple etiologies, including both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The genetic influence on susceptibility to tendon injury is not well understood. To analyze the published literature regarding genetic factors associated with tendon injury. Systematic review; Level of evidence, 3. A systematic review of published literature was performed in concordance with the Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines to identify current evidence for genetic predisposition to tendon injury. PubMed, Ovid, and ScienceDirect databases were searched. Studies were included for review if they specifically addressed genetic factors and tendon injuries in humans. Reviews, animal studies, or studies evaluating the influence of posttranscription factors and modifications (eg, proteins) were excluded. Overall, 460 studies were available for initial review. After application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 11 articles were ultimately included for qualitative synthesis. Upon screening of references of these 11 articles, an additional 15 studies were included in the final review, for a total of 26 studies. The genetic factors with the strongest evidence of association with tendon injury were those involving type V collagen A1, tenascin-C, matrix metalloproteinase-3, and estrogen-related receptor beta. The published literature is limited to relatively homogenous populations, with only level 3 and level 4 data. Additional research is needed to make further conclusions about the genetic factors involved in tendon injury.
Mohammadrezaei, Narges; Seyedhosseini, Javad; Vahidi, Elnaz
Tendon ruptures are common musculoskeletal injuries all around the world. Correct and timely diagnosis of tendon injuries is obviously important for improving the treatment and minimizing the community costs. Ultrasound is now being considered as one of useful modalities in this area. The preset study is going to validate the diagnostic ability of ultrasound in tendon injuries induced by penetrating extremity trauma. In this prospective, observational study, patients with penetrating extremity trauma and suspicion of tendon injuries were enrolled in our study. A team of emergency medicine (EM) residents performed ultrasound examination in these cases after attending the specific workshop and acquiring necessary skills in normal and abnormal tendon ultrasound examination. Then another team of either EM or orthopedic residents explored patients' wounds and determined intact or injured tendons under direct visual observation. The results were analyzed to validate sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound as an alternative diagnostic test. Seventy-one patients were enrolled in our study and 11 patients were excluded during one year in 2014. Sixty patients, 11 with lower extremity and 49 with upper limb injuries were evaluated, among them 32 patients had extensor zone and 28 patients had flexure zone injuries. The overall sensitivity and specificity were calculated 94.4% (95% CI 72.7-99.8%) and 100% (95% 91.5-100.0%) respectively. Our results were similar to previous findings. Ultrasound can effectively differentiate injured from intact tendons in penetrating extremity trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kochevar, Andrew; Rayan, Ghazi
A Taekwondo participant sustained a hand injury from punching an opponent that resulted in painful instability of the ring finger extensor digitorum communis tendon due to sagittal band damage. His symptoms resolved after reconstructive surgery on the sagittal band (SB) with stabilization of the extensor tendon over the metacarpophalangeal joint.
Monaco, Nathan A.; Dwyer, C. Liam; Ferikes, Alex J.; Lubahn, John D.
Background: Volar plate fixation with locked screws has become the preferred treatment of displaced distal radius fractures that cannot be managed nonoperatively. This treatment, however, is not without complication. The purpose of this study was to determine what percentage of hand surgeons, over a 12-month period, have experienced a tendon complication when using volar plates for the treatment of distal radius fractures. Methods: A total of 3022 hand surgeons were e-mailed a link to an online questionnaire regarding their observation and treatment of tendon injuries associated with volar plating of distal radius fractures. Responses were reported using descriptive statistics. Results: Of the 596 (20%) respondents, 199 (33%) surgeons reported encountering at least one flexor tendon injury after distal radius volar plating over the past year of practice. The flexor pollicis longus was the most commonly reported tendon injury (254, 75%). Palmaris longus grafting (118, 37%) and tendon transfer (114, 36%) were the most often reported treatments following this complication. A total of 216 respondents (36%) also encountered 324 cases of extensor tendon rupture after volar plating of distal radius fractures, with tendon transfer (88%) being the preferred treatment option. Conclusions: Both flexor and extensor tendon ruptures can be seen after volar plating of distal radius fractures. Surgeons should be aware of these complications. Critical assessment of hardware position at the time of index procedure is recommended to avoid complications. Long-term studies are needed to standardize approaches to managing tendon rupture following volar plating of distal radius fractures. PMID:27698628
Aiyegbusi, A I; Duru, F I O; Anunobi, C C; Noronha, C C; Okanlawon, A O
Bromelain, an enzyme extracted from the stem of the pineapple plant has been proposed as a treatment for reducing pain and swelling following acute muscle injuries but studies are yet to be done on its effect on tendon healing. This study therefore investigated the effects of bromelain on tenocyte proliferation and the tendon malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the early stage of healing in a crush injury to the Achilles tendon of Sprague-Dawley rats. Twenty four male rats were divided randomly into three groups; groups 2 and 3 had induced crush injury to the left Achilles tendon. Group 1; nil injury and nil treatment, Group 2; nil treatment, Group 3; oral bromelain treatment. Bromelain was given at a dosage of 7 mg/kg body weight daily over the first 14 days post-injury. On day 15 post injury, the animals were killed and the tendons excised and processed for histological study and MDA assay. The results showed a significant increase in the tenocyte population in the bromelain group; p < 0.05. There was, however, no significant difference in the MDA level. Based on this study, 600 GDU bromelain given once daily in acute tendon injury at a dosage of 7 mg/kg promoted healing by stimulating tenocyte proliferation. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Batista, Jorge Pablo; del Vecchio, Jorge Javier; Golanó, Pau; Vega, Jordi
Endoscopy for the posterior region of the ankle through two portals is becoming more widespread for the treatment of a large number of conditions which used to be treated with open surgery years ago. The tendon of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) travels along an osteofibrous tunnel between the posterolateral and posteromedial tubercles of the talus. Chronic inflammation of this tendon may lead to painful stenosing tenosynovitis. The aim of this report is to describe two cases depicting an accessory tendon which is an anatomical variation of the flexor hallucis longus in patients with posterior friction syndrome due to posterior ankle impingement and associated with a posteromedial osteochondral lesion of the talus. The anatomical variation (FDAL) described was a finding during an endoscopy of the posterior region of the ankle, and we have spared it by sectioning the superior flexor retinaculum only. The accessory flexor digitorum longus is an anatomical variation and should be taken into account when performing an arthroscopy of the posterior region of the ankle. We recommend this treatment on this type of injury although we admit this does not make a definite conclusion. PMID:26060592
Background Common peroneal nerve palsy leading to foot drop is difficult to manage and has historically been treated with extended bracing with expectant waiting for return of nerve function. Peroneal nerve exploration has traditionally been avoided except in cases of known traumatic or iatrogenic injury, with tendon transfers being performed in a delayed fashion after exhausting conservative treatment. We present a new strategy for management of foot drop with nerve exploration and concomitant tendon transfer. Method We retrospectively reviewed a series of 12 patients with peroneal nerve palsies that were treated with tendon transfer from 2005 to 2011. Of these patients, seven were treated with simultaneous peroneal nerve exploration and repair at the time of tendon transfer. Results Patients with both nerve repair and tendon transfer had superior functional results with active dorsiflexion in all patients, compared to dorsiflexion in 40% of patients treated with tendon transfers alone. Additionally, 57% of patients treated with nerve repair and tendon transfer were able to achieve enough function to return to running, compared to 20% in patients with tendon transfer alone. No patient had full return of native motor function resulting in excessive dorsiflexion strength. Conclusion The results of our limited case series for this rare condition indicate that simultaneous nerve repair and tendon transfer showed no detrimental results and may provide improved function over tendon transfer alone. PMID:25099247
Taljanovic, Mihra S; Alcala, Jennifer N; Gimber, Lana H; Rieke, Joshua D; Chilvers, Margaret M; Latt, L Daniel
Injuries of the peroneal tendon complex are common and should be considered in every patient who presents with chronic lateral ankle pain. These injuries occur as a result of trauma (including ankle sprains), in tendons with preexisting tendonopathy, and with repetitive microtrauma due to instability. The peroneus brevis and peroneus longus tendons are rarely torn simultaneously. Several anatomic variants, including a flat or convex fibular retromalleolar groove, hypertrophy of the peroneal tubercle at the lateral aspect of the calcaneus, an accessory peroneus quartus muscle, a low-lying peroneus brevis muscle belly, and an os peroneum, may predispose to peroneal tendon injuries. High-resolution 1.5-T and 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with use of dedicated extremity coils and high-resolution ultrasonography (US) with high-frequency linear transducers and dynamic imaging are proved to adequately depict the peroneal tendons for evaluation and can aid the orthopedic surgeon in injury management. An understanding of current treatment approaches for partial- and full-thickness peroneal tendon tears, subluxation and dislocation of these tendons with superior peroneal retinaculum (SPR) injuries, intrasheath subluxations, and peroneal tendonopathy and tenosynovitis can help physicians achieve a favorable outcome. Patients with low functional demands do well with conservative treatment, while those with high functional demands may benefit from surgery if nonsurgical treatment is unsuccessful. Radiologists should recognize the normal anatomy and specific pathologic conditions of the peroneal tendons at US and MR imaging and understand the various treatment options for peroneal tendon and SPR superior peroneal retinaculum injuries. Online supplemental material is available for this article.
Hess, Gregory William
Sports participation has undergone an increase in recent decades. Injury due to sporting activity has also recently risen. The Achilles tendon has been one of the most common sports-related injuries. A 2 in 100,000 individual Achilles tendon injury rate increased to a 12 in 100,000 individual injury rate in less than 10 years. The injury is typically observed in men in the fourth to fifth decades of life. Male to female injury ratios range from 2:1 to 12:1. Running, jumping, and agility activities involving eccentric loading and explosive plyometric contractions are usual mechanisms. Natural aging allows predisposing chronic degeneration of the tendon. Blood flow decreases and stiffness increases with aging to decrease the ability to withstand stress. Noninflammatory tendinosis and chronic tendinopathy are 2 separate processes proposed for tendon degeneration and subsequent rupture. Rupture typically occurs 2 to 6 cm proximal to the calcaneal insertion. Predisposing factors are grouped into 2 categories: intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. Avoidance of degenerative changes within the tendon is the primary method to prevent rupture. Regular physical activity as athletes age also promotes tendon hypertrophy, increases nutrient delivery, and reduces collagen fiber fatigue.
Selvan, D R; Perry, D; Machin, D G; Brown, D J
Volar plating of distal radius fractures is one of the common procedures performed in trauma surgery. Flexor pollicis longus (FPL) rupture has been described as complication following volar plating of distal radius fractures. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible relation between parameters measured on post-operative radiographs and the occurrence of FPL ruptures. This was a case control study. The post-operative radiographs of 11 FPL rupture, and 22 non-FPL rupture patients were reviewed with respect to fracture reduction and plate position and the various parameters were calculated by five independent people. Logistic regression was used to examine the importance of the variables. We identified two significant factors to predict FPL rupture after volar plating of distal radial fractures. These were radial tilt and plate distance from the joint line. The odds ratio of ruptures was 0.74 (95% CI 0.57-0.95) for every degree of radial tilt <25° and 0.50 (95% CI 0.28-0.88) for every millimetre that the distal end of the plate was away from the volar lip of the distal radius at the wrist joint. Post-operative radiographs could help us predict FPL rupture after distal radius volar plating. The findings also highlight the need for good fracture reduction and thoughtful placement of the volar plate intraoperatively to minimise the risk of FPL tendon rupture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sherlock, C E; Mair, T S
Recognition of artefacts is an essential component of the accurate interpretation of diagnostic images. This study aimed to investigate the presence of magic angle effect in the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) in the equine proximal pastern region. The proximal pastern of four cadaver limbs was imaged using a 0.27 Tesla magnet with high-resolution sequences that are commonly utilised in clinical equine practice. The limbs were imaged in a neutral position and positions that simulated the horse 'leaning in', 'leaning out' and having internal and external rotation of the distal limb. Signal intensity changes in the SDFT were described and compared. The simulated 'leaning in' and external rotation positions resulted in increased signal intensity in the axial and middle thirds of the lateral half of the SDFT on sequences with short echo times. The simulated 'leaning out' and internal rotation positions resulted in increased signal intensity in the axial and middle thirds of the medial half of the SDFT on sequences with short echo times. These signal intensity changes did not occur or were only mild and inconsistent on T2 fast spin echo sequences with longer echo times. The increases in signal intensity in the SDFT are consistent with a position-induced magic angle artefact that has been noted in clinical cases. Attention to positioning of the equine distal limb is essential during clinical imaging; radiologists should be aware of position-induced artefacts to ensure accurate image interpretation.
Rigó, István Zoltán; Røkkum, Magne
We compared the results of two methods for reinsertion of flexor digitorum profundus tendons retrospectively. In 35 fingers of 29 patients pull-out suture and in 13 fingers of 11 patients transverse intraosseous loop technique was performed with a mean follow-up of 8 and 6 months, respectively. Eleven and nine fingers achieved "excellent" or "good" function according to Strickland and Glogovac at 8 weeks; 20 and ten at the last control in the pull-out and transverse intraosseous loop groups, respectively. The difference at 8 weeks was statistically significant in favour of the transverse intraosseous loop group. Ten patients underwent 12 complications in the pull-out group (four superficial infections; one rerupture, one PIP and one DIP joint contracture, one adhesion, two granulomas, one nail deformity and one carpal tunnel syndrome) and four of them were reoperated (one carpal tunnel release, one teno-arthrolysis and two resections of granuloma). There was no complication and no reoperation in the transverse intraosseous loop group, the difference being statistically significant for the former. In our study the transverse intraosseous loop technique seemed to be a safe alternative with possibly better functional results compared to the pull-out suture.
Waryasz, Gregory R; McClure, Philip; Vopat, Bryan G
The differential diagnosis for lower extremity swelling and ankle pain is broad and can have overlapping and related diagnoses. If there is concern for more than one diagnosis, the practitioner should perform a thorough physical examination, order the appropriate studies, and perform the correct procedures to completely diagnose and treat the patient. This article presents the case of a 19-year-old male who presented with 5 days of left ankle pain, fevers, and swelling without any known trauma to the area. Physical examination was concerning for a septic ankle joint, cellulitis, deep venous thrombosis, and compartment syndrome. Duplex venous ultrasound confirmed a deep venous thrombosis in the popliteal vein. Joint aspiration of the ankle had gross purulence with the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The patient was taken emergently to the operating room where he was found to have gross purulence in the deep posterior compartment, medial and lateral soft tissues of the ankle, and gross purulence in the ankle joint. The deep posterior compartment also had significant muscle necrosis and evidence of compartment syndrome. This case presents the possibility of a septic ankle leading to compartment syndrome and deep venous thrombosis/pulmonary embolism due to the intra-articular nature of the flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath. Case report, Level IV. © 2014 The Author(s).
Opar, David A; Piatkowski, Timothy; Williams, Morgan D; Shield, Anthony J
Reliability and case-control injury study. To determine if a novel device designed to measure eccentric knee flexor strength via the Nordic hamstring exercise displays acceptable test-retest reliability; to determine normative values for eccentric knee flexor strength derived from the device in individuals without a history of hamstring strain injury (HSI); and to determine if the device can detect weakness in elite athletes with a previous history of unilateral HSI. HSI and reinjury are the most common cause of lost playing time in a number of sports. Eccentric knee flexor weakness is a major modifiable risk factor for future HSI. However, at present, there is a lack of easily accessible equipment to assess eccentric knee flexor strength. Thirty recreationally active males without a history of HSI completed the Nordic hamstring exercise on the device on 2 separate occasions. Intraclass correlation coefficients, typical error, typical error as a coefficient of variation, and minimal detectable change at a 95% confidence level were calculated. Normative strength data were determined using the most reliable measurement. An additional 20 elite athletes with a unilateral history of HSI within the previous 12 months performed the Nordic hamstring exercise on the device to determine if residual eccentric muscle weakness existed in the previously injured limb. The device displayed high to moderate reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.83-0.90; typical error, 21.7-27.5 N; typical error as a coefficient of variation, 5.8%-8.5%; minimal detectable change at a 95% confidence level, 60.1-76.2 N). Mean ± SD normative eccentric flexor strength in the uninjured group was 344.7 ± 61.1 N for the left and 361.2 ± 65.1 N for the right side. The previously injured limb was 15% weaker than the contralateral uninjured limb (mean difference, 50.3 N; 95% confidence interval: 25.7, 74.9; P<.01), 15% weaker than the normative left limb (mean difference, 50.0 N; 95
Sawadkar, Prasad; Mudera, Vivek
Tendon disease and injuries carry significant morbidity worldwide in both athletic and non-athletic populations. It is estimated that tendon injuries account for 30%−50% of all musculoskeletal injuries globally. Current treatments have been inadequate in providing an accelerated process of repair resulting in high relapse rates. Modern concepts in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have led to increasing interest in the application of cell therapy for the treatment of tendon disease. This review will explore the use of cell therapy, by bringing together up-to-date evidence from in vivo human and animal studies, and discuss the issues surrounding the safety and efficacy of its use in the treatment of tendon disease. PMID:25383170
Silva, Jose M.; Zhao, Chunfeng; An, Kai-Nan; Zobitz, Mark E.; Amadio, Peter C.
Purpose While the strength of a tendon repair is clearly important, the friction of the repair is also a relevant consideration. The purpose of this study was to characterize the frictional coefficient, gliding resistance and breaking strength of suture materials and a suture construct commonly used for flexor tendon repair. Methods We measured the friction coefficients of 3-0 braided nylon enclosed in a smooth nylon outer shell (Supramid, S. Jackson, Alexandria, VA), 3-0 braided polyester coated with polybutilate (Ethibond, Ethicon, Somerville, NJ), and a 3-0 braided polyester/monofilament polyethylene composite (FiberWire, Arthrex, Naples, FL) sutures. We also measured the gliding resistance, linear breaking strength and resistance to gapping of zone 2 modified Pennington tendon repairs with the two lowest friction sutures in 20 human cadaveric flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons. Results The braided polyester/monofilament polyethylene composite had a significantly lower friction coefficient (0.054) than either the coated polyester (0.076) or nylon (0.130) sutures (p<0.001). The gliding resistances of the repaired tendons with braided/monofilament polyethylene composite suture and coated, braided polyester were similar (p> 0.05). The strength of the two repairs, force to produce a 2mm gap, and resistance to gap formation than coated, braided polyester repairs were also not significantly different. Conclusion Braided polyester composite is a low friction suture material. However, when this suture was used for tendon repair with a locking suture technique, it did not show a significant effect on the gliding resistance and repair strength compared with the same repair using coated polyester suture. PMID:19121735
Furumatsu, Takayuki; Shimamura, Yasunori; Nishida, Keiichiro
Tendons and ligaments are dense connective fibers mainly composed of type I collagen. However, the structure, function, and cellular behavior are different between tendons and ligaments. Anatomic, biological, and developmental studies have revealed the distinct differentiation process of tendons, ligaments, and these attachments to the bones (so-called entheses). In addition, arthroscopic devices, surgical materials, and operative techniques for the treatment of tendon/ligament injuries have been dramatically improved. Based on these backgrounds, the treatment strategies of tendon/ligament disorders have changed in recent years. This review focused on the pathology of tendon and ligament injuries involved in the tear of the rotator cuff and anterior cruciate ligament. We also described the current treatment for the tendon/ligament injuries and the future regeneration therapy against these connective tissue injuries.
Swamy, Girish N; Nanjayan, Shashi K; Yallappa, Sachin; Bishnoi, Amit; Pickering, Simon A W
Ruptures of the patellar and quadriceps tendon are rare injuries requiring immediate repair to re-establish knee extensor continuity and allow early motion. Ultrasound is extensively used as a diagnostic tool before surgery on acute traumatic tears of the patellar tendon and quadriceps tendons. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of sonography in diagnosing quadriceps and patellar tendon rupture and in differentiating partial from complete tears. We conducted a retrospective review of 51 consecutive patients who had a surgical intervention for suspected acute quadriceps and patellar tendon rupture over a 5-year period. Intra-operative findings were compared with pre-operative clinical examination. Radiographs, ultrasound and MRI reports were reviewed. On clinical examination, 22 patients had a suspected patellar tendon rupture and 29 patients had a suspected quadriceps tendon rupture. Diagnosis was confirmed by clinical examination and plain radiographs alone in 13 patients, with additional ultrasound performed in 24 patients and MRI scan performed in 14 patients. There were 8 false positives out of 24 [33.3%] in the ultrasound proven group and 1 false positive out of 13 [7.69%] in the clinical examination and radiographs only group. MRI was 100% accurate. We conclude that ultrasonography is not a reliable method in establishing the diagnosis of acute injuries to the extensor mechanism of the knee, particularly the quadriceps tendon ruptures in the obese and the very muscular patients. If there is clinical ambiguity, MRI scan is a better investigation tool before undertaking surgical treatment.
Mokhtee, David B; Brown, Justin M; Mackinnon, Susan E; Tung, Thomas H
Surgical repair of distal biceps tendon rupture is a technically challenging procedure that has the potential for devastating and permanently disabling complications. We report two cases of posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) injury following successful biceps tendon repair utilizing both the single-incision and two-incision approaches. We also describe our technique of posterior interosseous nerve repair using a medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve graft (MABC) and a new approach to the terminal branches of the posterior interosseous nerve that makes this reconstruction possible. Finally, we advocate consideration for identification of the posterior interosseous nerve prior to reattachment of the biceps tendon to the radial tuberosity.
Orchard, John W; Blanch, Peter; Paoloni, Justin; Kountouris, Alex; Sims, Kevin; Orchard, Jessica J; Brukner, Peter
To assess workload-related risk factors for injuries to particular tissue types in cricket fast bowlers. 235 fast bowlers who bowled in 14600 player innings over a period of 15 years were followed in a prospective cohort risk factor study to compare overs bowled in each match (including preceding workload patterns) and injury risk in the 3-4 weeks subsequent to the match. Injuries were categorised according to the affected tissue type as either: bone stress, tendon injuries, muscle strain or joint injuries. Workload risk factors were examined using binomial logistic regression multivariate analysis, with a forward stepwise procedure requiring a significance of <0.05. High acute match workload and high previous season workload were risk factors for tendon injuries, but high medium term (3-month workload) was protective. For bone stress injuries, high medium term workload and low career workload were risk factors. For joint injuries, high previous season and career workload were risk factors. There was little relationship between muscle injury and workload although high previous season workload was slightly protective. The level of injury risk for some tissue types varies in response to preceding fast bowling workload, with tendon injuries most affected by workload patterns. Workload planning may need to be individualised, depending on individual susceptibility to various injury types. This study supports the theory that tendons are at lowest risk with consistent workloads and susceptible to injury with sudden upgrades in workload. Gradual upgrades are recommended, particularly at the start of a bowler's career to reduce the risk of bone stress injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Steiner, Adrian; Anderson, David E; Desrochers, André
Contracted flexor tendon leading to flexural deformity is a common congenital defect in cattle. Arthrogryposis is a congenital syndrome of persistent joint contracture that occurs frequently in Europe as a consequence of Schmallenberg virus infection of the dam. Spastic paresis has a hereditary component, and affected cattle should not be used for breeding purposes. The most common tendon avulsion involves the deep digital flexor tendon. Tendon disruptions may be successfully managed by tenorrhaphy and external coaptation or by external coaptation alone. Medical management alone is unlikely to be effective for purulent tenosynovitis.
Davies, Michael R; Ravishankar, Bharat; Laron, Dominique; Kim, Hubert T; Liu, Xuhui; Feeley, Brian T
Rotator cuff tears (RCTs) are among the most common musculoskeletal injuries seen by orthopaedic surgeons. Clinically, massive cuff tears lead to unique pathophysiological changes in rotator cuff muscle, including atrophy, and massive fatty infiltration, which are rarely seen in other skeletal muscles. Studies in a rodent model for RCT have demonstrated that these histologic findings are accompanied by activation of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) pathways following combined tendon-nerve injury. The purpose of this study was to compare the histologic and molecular features of rotator cuff muscle and gastrocnemius muscle--a major hindlimb muscle, following combined tendon-nerve injury. Six weeks after injury, the rat gastrocnemius did not exhibit notable fatty infiltration compared to the rotator cuff. Likewise, the adipogenic markers SREBP-1 and PPARγ as well as the TGF-β canonical pathway were upregulated in the rotator cuff, but not the gastrocnemius. Our study suggests that the rat rotator cuff and hindlimb muscles differ significantly in their response to a combined tendon-nerve injury. Clinically, these findings highlight the unique response of the rotator cuff to injury, and may begin to explain the poor outcomes of massive RCTs compared to other muscle-tendon injuries.
Protocol for an investigator-blinded, randomised, 3-month, parallel-group study to compare the efficacy of intraoperative tendon sheath irrigation only with both intraoperative and postoperative irrigation in the treatment of purulent flexor tenosynovitis
Jokihaara, Jarkko; Kaivorinne, Antti; Havulinna, Jouni; Göransson, Harry
Introduction The management of purulent flexor tenosynovitis of the hand consists of surgical debridement followed by antibiotic treatment. Usually, the debridement is carried out by irrigating the tendon sheath in a proximal to distal direction facilitated by two small incisions. It is unclear whether intraoperative irrigation by itself is adequate for healing or if it should be combined with postoperative irrigation in the ward. The hypothesis of this prospective randomised trial is that intraoperative catheter irrigation alone is as effective as a combination of intraoperative and postoperative intermittent catheter irrigation in the treatment of purulent flexor tenosynovitis. Methods and analysis In this investigator-blinded, prospective randomised trial, 48 patients suffering from purulent flexor tenosynovitis are randomised in two groups. Intraoperative catheter irrigation of the flexor tendon sheath and antibiotic treatment is identical in both groups, whereas only the patients in one group are subjected to intermittent postoperative catheter irrigation three times a day for 3 days. The primary outcome measure is total active range of movement of the affected finger after 3 months of surgery. The secondary outcome is the need for reoperation. Ethics and dissemination The research ethics committee of Pirkanmaa Hospital District has approved the study protocol. The protocol has been registered with ClinicalTrials.gov registry (#NCT02320929). All participants will give written informed consent. The study results will elucidate the role of postoperative irrigation, which can be criticised as being labour consuming and unpleasant to the patient. The results of the study will be disseminated as a published article in a peer-reviewed journal. Trial registration number: NCT02320929; pre-results. PMID:26671952
Protocol for an investigator-blinded, randomised, 3-month, parallel-group study to compare the efficacy of intraoperative tendon sheath irrigation only with both intraoperative and postoperative irrigation in the treatment of purulent flexor tenosynovitis.
Leppänen, Olli V; Jokihaara, Jarkko; Kaivorinne, Antti; Havulinna, Jouni; Göransson, Harry
The management of purulent flexor tenosynovitis of the hand consists of surgical debridement followed by antibiotic treatment. Usually, the debridement is carried out by irrigating the tendon sheath in a proximal to distal direction facilitated by two small incisions. It is unclear whether intraoperative irrigation by itself is adequate for healing or if it should be combined with postoperative irrigation in the ward. The hypothesis of this prospective randomised trial is that intraoperative catheter irrigation alone is as effective as a combination of intraoperative and postoperative intermittent catheter irrigation in the treatment of purulent flexor tenosynovitis. In this investigator-blinded, prospective randomised trial, 48 patients suffering from purulent flexor tenosynovitis are randomised in two groups. Intraoperative catheter irrigation of the flexor tendon sheath and antibiotic treatment is identical in both groups, whereas only the patients in one group are subjected to intermittent postoperative catheter irrigation three times a day for 3 days. The primary outcome measure is total active range of movement of the affected finger after 3 months of surgery. The secondary outcome is the need for reoperation. The research ethics committee of Pirkanmaa Hospital District has approved the study protocol. The protocol has been registered with ClinicalTrials.gov registry (#NCT02320929). All participants will give written informed consent. The study results will elucidate the role of postoperative irrigation, which can be criticised as being labour consuming and unpleasant to the patient. The results of the study will be disseminated as a published article in a peer-reviewed journal. NCT02320929; pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Zhang, Jianying; Yuan, Ting; Wang, James H-C.
The effect of exercise on wound healing in aging tendon was tested using a rat moderate treadmill running (MTR) model. The rats were divided into an MTR group that ran on a treadmill for 4 weeks and a control group that remained in cages. After MTR, a window defect was created in the patellar tendons of all rats and wound healing was analyzed. We found that MTR accelerated wound healing by promoting quicker closure of wounds, improving the organization of collagen fibers, and decreasing senescent cells in the wounded tendons when compared to the cage control. MTR also lowered vascularization, increased the numbers of tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSCs) and TSC proliferation than the control. Besides, MTR significantly increased the expression of stem cell markers, OCT-4 and Nanog, and tenocyte genes, Collagen I, Collagen III and tenomodulin, and down-regulated PPAR-γ, Collagen II and Runx-2 (non-tenocyte genes). These findings indicated that moderate exercise enhances healing of injuries in aging tendons through TSC based mechanisms, through which exercise regulates beneficial effects in tendons. This study reveals that appropriate exercise may be used in clinics to enhance tendon healing in aging patients. PMID:26885754
Zhang, Jianying; Yuan, Ting; Wang, James H-C
The effect of exercise on wound healing in aging tendon was tested using a rat moderate treadmill running (MTR) model. The rats were divided into an MTR group that ran on a treadmill for 4 weeks and a control group that remained in cages. After MTR, a window defect was created in the patellar tendons of all rats and wound healing was analyzed. We found that MTR accelerated wound healing by promoting quicker closure of wounds, improving the organization of collagen fibers, and decreasing senescent cells in the wounded tendons when compared to the cage control. MTR also lowered vascularization, increased the numbers of tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSCs) and TSC proliferation than the control. Besides, MTR significantly increased the expression of stem cell markers, OCT-4 and Nanog, and tenocyte genes, Collagen I, Collagen III and tenomodulin, and down-regulated PPAR-γ, Collagen II and Runx-2 (non-tenocyte genes). These findings indicated that moderate exercise enhances healing of injuries in aging tendons through TSC based mechanisms, through which exercise regulates beneficial effects in tendons. This study reveals that appropriate exercise may be used in clinics to enhance tendon healing in aging patients.
Walden, Grace; Liao, Xin; Donell, Simon; Raxworthy, Mike J; Riley, Graham P; Saeed, Aram
Tendon injury is common and debilitating, and it is associated with long-term pain and ineffective healing. It is estimated to afflict 25% of the adult population and is often a career-ending disease in athletes and racehorses. Tendon injury is associated with high morbidity, pain, and long-term suffering for the patient. Due to the low cellularity and vascularity of tendon tissue, once damage has occurred, the repair process is slow and inefficient, resulting in mechanically, structurally, and functionally inferior tissue. Current treatment options focus on pain management, often being palliative and temporary and ending in reduced function. Most treatments available do not address the underlying cause of the disease and, as such, are often ineffective with variable results. The need for an advanced therapeutic that addresses the underlying pathology is evident. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is an emerging field that is aimed at stimulating the body's own repair system to produce de novo tissue through the use of factors such as cells, proteins, and genes that are delivered by a biomaterial scaffold. Successful tissue engineering strategies for tendon regeneration should be built on a foundation of understanding of the molecular and cellular composition of healthy compared with damaged tendon, and the inherent differences seen in the tissue after disease. This article presents a comprehensive clinical, biological, and biomaterials insight into tendon tissue engineering and regeneration toward more advanced therapeutics.
Walden, Grace; Liao, Xin; Donell, Simon; Raxworthy, Mike J.; Riley, Graham P.
Tendon injury is common and debilitating, and it is associated with long-term pain and ineffective healing. It is estimated to afflict 25% of the adult population and is often a career-ending disease in athletes and racehorses. Tendon injury is associated with high morbidity, pain, and long-term suffering for the patient. Due to the low cellularity and vascularity of tendon tissue, once damage has occurred, the repair process is slow and inefficient, resulting in mechanically, structurally, and functionally inferior tissue. Current treatment options focus on pain management, often being palliative and temporary and ending in reduced function. Most treatments available do not address the underlying cause of the disease and, as such, are often ineffective with variable results. The need for an advanced therapeutic that addresses the underlying pathology is evident. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is an emerging field that is aimed at stimulating the body's own repair system to produce de novo tissue through the use of factors such as cells, proteins, and genes that are delivered by a biomaterial scaffold. Successful tissue engineering strategies for tendon regeneration should be built on a foundation of understanding of the molecular and cellular composition of healthy compared with damaged tendon, and the inherent differences seen in the tissue after disease. This article presents a comprehensive clinical, biological, and biomaterials insight into tendon tissue engineering and regeneration toward more advanced therapeutics. PMID:27596929
de Padua, Vitor Barion Castro; Nascimento, Paulo Emílio Dourado; Silva, Sergio Candido; de Gusmão Canuto, Sergio Marinho; Zuppi, Guilherme Nunes; de Carvalho, Sebastião Marcos Ribeiro
Objective The aim of this study was to assess whether harvesting of two hamstring tendons (semitendinosus and gracilis) has the same rate of nerve injury as harvesting of the semitendinosus tendon alone, used as a triple graft. Methods Changes in sensitivity relating to injury of the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve were evaluated in 110 patients six months after they underwent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using hamstring tendons. They were divided into two groups: one in which only the semitendinosus was used and the other, the semitendinosus and gracilis. Results The group in which only the semitendinosus was used as a graft presented a nerve injury rate of 36.1%. In the group in which the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons were used, 58.1% of the patients presented altered sensitivity. In the general assessment on all the patients, the nerve injury rate was 50.9%. Conclusion Harvesting the semitendinosus alone and using it in triple form is a viable option for ACL reconstruction and may give rise to fewer nerve injuries relating to branches of the saphenous nerve. PMID:26535201
de Padua, Vitor Barion Castro; Nascimento, Paulo Emílio Dourado; Silva, Sergio Candido; de Gusmão Canuto, Sergio Marinho; Zuppi, Guilherme Nunes; de Carvalho, Sebastião Marcos Ribeiro
The aim of this study was to assess whether harvesting of two hamstring tendons (semitendinosus and gracilis) has the same rate of nerve injury as harvesting of the semitendinosus tendon alone, used as a triple graft. Changes in sensitivity relating to injury of the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve were evaluated in 110 patients six months after they underwent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using hamstring tendons. They were divided into two groups: one in which only the semitendinosus was used and the other, the semitendinosus and gracilis. The group in which only the semitendinosus was used as a graft presented a nerve injury rate of 36.1%. In the group in which the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons were used, 58.1% of the patients presented altered sensitivity. In the general assessment on all the patients, the nerve injury rate was 50.9%. Harvesting the semitendinosus alone and using it in triple form is a viable option for ACL reconstruction and may give rise to fewer nerve injuries relating to branches of the saphenous nerve.
The objective of the two-staged flexor tendon method is to improve the predictability of final results in difficult problems dealing with tendon reconstruction. This article reviews the evolution and benefits of this procedure. It also considers the use of the technique to help deal with problems requiring pulley and skin reconstruction simultaneously with re-constituting the flexor tendon system.
Stanley, Rachael L; Fleck, Roland A; Becker, David L; Goodship, Allen E; Ralphs, Jim R; Patterson-Kane, Janet C
Injury to the energy-storing superficial digital flexor tendon is common in equine athletes and is age-related. Tenocytes in the superficial digital flexor tendon of adult horses appear to have limited ability to respond adaptively to exercise or prevent the accumulation of strain-induced microdamage. It has been suggested that conditioning exercise should be introduced during the growth period, when tenocytes may be more responsive to increased quantities or intensities of mechanical strain. Tenocytes are linked into networks by gap junctions that allow coordination of synthetic activity and facilitate strain-induced collagen synthesis. We hypothesised that there are reductions in cellular expression of the gap junction proteins connexin (Cx) 43 and 32 during maturation and ageing of the superficial digital flexor tendon that do not occur in the non-injury-prone common digital extensor tendon. Cryosections from the superficial digital flexor tendon and common digital extensor tendon of 5 fetuses, 5 foals (1–6 months), 5 young adults (2–7 years) and 5 old horses (18–33 years) were immunofluorescently labelled and quantitative confocal laser microscopy was performed. Expression of Cx43 and Cx32 protein per tenocyte was significantly higher in the fetal group compared with all other age groups in both tendons. The density of tenocytes was found to be highest in immature tissue. Higher levels of cellularity and connexin protein expression in immature tendons are likely to relate to requirements for tissue remodelling and growth. However, if further studies demonstrate that this correlates with greater gap junctional communication efficiency and synthetic responsiveness to mechanical strain in immature compared with adult tendons, it could support the concept of early introduction of controlled exercise as a means of increasing resistance to later injury. PMID:17848160
Doral, Mahmut Nedim; Bozkurt, Murat; Turhan, Egemen; Dönmez, Gürhan; Demirel, Murat; Kaya, Defne; Ateşok, Kıvanç; Atay, Ozgür Ahmet; Maffulli, Nicola
Although the Achilles tendon (AT) is the strongest tendon in the human body, rupture of this tendon is one of the most common sports injuries in the athletic population. Despite numerous nonoperative and operative methods that have been described, there is no universal agreement about the optimal management strategy of acute total AT ruptures. The management of AT ruptures should aim to minimize the morbidity of the injury, optimize rapid return to full function, and prevent complications. Since endoscopy-assisted percutaneous AT repair allows direct visualization of the synovia and protects the paratenon that is important in biological healing of the AT, this technique becomes a reasonable treatment option in AT ruptures. Furthermore, Achilles tendoscopy technique may decrease the complications about the sural nerve. Also, early functional postoperative physiotherapy following surgery may improve the surgical outcomes.
Doral, Mahmut Nedim; Bozkurt, Murat; Turhan, Egemen; Dönmez, Gürhan; Demirel, Murat; Kaya, Defne; Ateşok, Kıvanç; Atay, Özgür Ahmet; Maffulli, Nicola
Although the Achilles tendon (AT) is the strongest tendon in the human body, rupture of this tendon is one of the most common sports injuries in the athletic population. Despite numerous nonoperative and operative methods that have been described, there is no universal agreement about the optimal management strategy of acute total AT ruptures. The management of AT ruptures should aim to minimize the morbidity of the injury, optimize rapid return to full function, and prevent complications. Since endoscopy-assisted percutaneous AT repair allows direct visualization of the synovia and protects the paratenon that is important in biological healing of the AT, this technique becomes a reasonable treatment option in AT ruptures. Furthermore, Achilles tendoscopy technique may decrease the complications about the sural nerve. Also, early functional postoperative physiotherapy following surgery may improve the surgical outcomes. PMID:24198562
Georg, Rindermann; Maria, Cislakova; Gisela, Arndt
This case report describes the intralesional application of autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) in seven horses as treatment of severe tendinitis of the superficial digital flexor tendon, deep digital flexor tendon, or desmitis of the inferior check ligament. Follow-up data of the horses revealed a positive outcome in 10 to 13 months post injury. All horses treated with ACP were either performing in their previous work-load or were back in full training. Further studies with long-term follow-up will have to be performed to support these clinical intermediate-term observations. PMID:20458161
Vieira, M H C; Oliveira, R J; Eça, L P M; Pereira, I S O; Hermeto, L C; Matuo, R; Fernandes, W S; Silva, R A; Antoniolli, A C M B
Rupture of the Achilles tendon diminishes quality of life. The gold-standard therapy is a surgical suture, but this presents complications, including wound formation and inflammation. These complications spurred evaluation of the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from adipose tissue. New Zealand rabbits were divided into 6 groups (three treatments with two time points each) evaluated at either 14 or 28 days after surgery: cross section of the Achilles tendon (CSAT); CSAT + Suture; and CSAT + MSC. A comparison between all groups at both time points showed a statistically significant increase in capillaries and in the structural organization of collagen in the healed tendon in the CSAT + Suture and CSAT + MSC groups at the 14-day assessment. Comparison between the two time points within the same group showed a statistically significant decrease in the inflammatory process and an increase in the structural organization of collagen in the CSAT and CSAT + MSC groups. A study of the genomic integrity of the cells suggested a linear correlation between an increase of injuries and culture time. Thus, MSC transplantation is a good alternative for treatment of Achilles tendon ruptures because it may be conducted without surgery and tendon suture and, therefore, has no risk of adverse effects resulting from the surgical wound or inflammation caused by nonabsorbable sutures. Furthermore, this alternative treatment exhibits a better capacity for wound healing and maintaining the original tendon architecture, depending on the arrangement of the collagen fibers, and has important therapeutic potential.
van der Made, Anne D; Almusa, Emad; Whiteley, Rod; Hamilton, Bruce; Eirale, Cristiano; van Hellemondt, Frank; Tol, Johannes L
Hamstring injury with intramuscular tendon involvement is regarded as a serious injury with a delay in return to play (RTP) of more than 50 days and reinjury rates up to 63%. However, this reputation is based on retrospective case series with high risk of bias. Determine whether intramuscular tendon involvement is associated with delayed RTP and elevated rates of reinjury. MRI of male athletes with an acute hamstring injury was obtained within 5 days of injury. Evaluation included standardised MRI scoring and scoring of intramuscular tendon involvement. Time to RTP and reinjury rate were prospectively recorded. Out of 70 included participants, intramuscular tendon disruption was present in 29 (41.4%) injuries. Injuries without intramuscular tendon disruption had a mean time to RTP of 22.2±7.4 days. Injuries with <50%, 50%-99% and 100% disruption of tendon cross-sectional area had a mean time to RTP of 24.0±9.7, 25.3±8.6 and 31.6±10.9 days, respectively. Injuries with full-thickness disruption took longer to RTP compared with injuries without disruption (p=0.025). Longitudinal intramuscular tendon disruption was not significantly associated with time to RTP. Waviness was present in 17 (24.3%) injuries. Mean time to RTP for injuries without and with waviness was 22.6±7.5 and 30.2±10.8 days (p=0.014). There were 11 (15.7%) reinjuries within 12 months, five (17.2%) in the group with intramuscular tendon disruption and six (14.6%) in the group without intramuscular tendon disruption. Time to RTP for injuries with full-thickness disruption of the intramuscular tendon and waviness is significantly longer (by slightly more than 1 week) compared with injuries without intramuscular tendon involvement. However, due to the considerable overlap in time to RTP between groups with and without intramuscular tendon involvement, its clinical significance for the individual athlete is limited. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text
Freedman, Benjamin R; Salka, Nabeel S; Morris, Tyler R; Bhatt, Pankti R; Pardes, Adam M; Gordon, Joshua A; Nuss, Courtney A; Riggin, Corinne N; Fryhofer, George W; Farber, Daniel C; Soslowsky, Louis
Achilles tendon ruptures affect 15 of 100,000 women and 55 of 100,000 men each year. Controversy continues to exist regarding optimal treatment and rehabilitation protocols. The objective of this study was to investigate the temporal effects of surgical repair and immobilization or activity on Achilles tendon healing and limb function after complete transection in rodents. Injured tendons were repaired (n = 64) or left nonrepaired (n = 64). The animals in both cohorts were further randomized into groups immobilized in plantar flexion for 1, 3, or 6 weeks that later resumed cage and treadmill activity for 5, 3, or 0 weeks, respectively (n = 36 for each regimen), which were euthanized at 6 weeks after injury, or into groups immobilized for 1 week and then euthanized (n = 20). At 6 weeks after injury, the groups that had 1 week of immobilization and 5 weeks of activity had increased range of motion and decreased ankle joint toe stiffness compared with the groups that had 3 weeks of immobilization and 3 weeks of activity. The groups with 6 weeks of immobilization and no activity period had decreased tendon cross-sectional area but increased tendon echogenicity and collagen alignment. Surgical treatment dramatically decreased fatigue cycles to failure in repaired tendons from groups with 1 week of immobilization and 5 weeks of activity. Normalized comparisons between 1-week and 6-week postinjury data demonstrated that changes in tendon healing properties (area, alignment, and echogenicity) were maximized by 1 week of immobilization and 5 weeks of activity, compared with 6 weeks of immobilization and no activity period. This study builds on an earlier study of Achilles tendon fatigue mechanics and functional outcomes during early healing by examining the temporal effects of different immobilization and/or activity regimens after initial postinjury immobilization. This study demonstrates how the temporal postinjury healing response of rodent Achilles tendons depends on
Kim, Raymond H; Randolph, Amanda H; Tirre, Conrad J; Morrey, Matthew; Jennings, Jason M
Cryogenic thermal necrosis after knee surgery is rare. We describe a patient who presented with an anterior knee soft tissue defect in conjunction with an extensor mechanism deficiency secondary to a cold thermal injury after an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. We treated the patient with a single stage surgical procedure combining patellar tendon reconstruction and soft tissue coverage utilizing the superficial portion of the patient's vascularized Achilles tendon attached to a medial gastrocnemius flap. The patient returned to unrestricted activities and has demonstrated this through a five year follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Çirci, Esra; Akman, Yunus Emre; Şükür, Erhan; Bozkurt, Erol Rüştü; Tüzüner, Tolga; Öztürkmen, Yusuf
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the timing of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) application on the healing of Achilles tendon injury in a rat model. Fifty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: PRP preparation group (n=6); Achilles tendon tear and 150 µL of PRP received on the day following the injury (PRP day 0, group 1, n=16); Achilles tendon tear and 150 µL of PRP received on the third day following injury (day 3 , group 2, n=16); Achilles tendon tear and 150 µL of saline received on the day following injury (PRP day 0, group 3, n=16). Rats were sacrificed at 3 weeks. Consequently, biomechanical and histologic analyses were performed. According to histological evaluation, inflammation, fibroblast density, epitenon thickness, and collagen fiber were significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (p<0.05). Biomechanical testing results of group 1 and group 2 were inferior to the control group, while the differences were not significant (p>0.05). Based on histological criteria, results of the present study suggest that immediate injection of PRP for tendon injury improves tendon healing in rats. Although the use of PRP is well recognized in orthopedic surgery, we aimed to highlight the importance of immediate application of PRP for acute tendon injury.
Achilles tendon rupture Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Achilles (uh-KILL-eez) tendon rupture is an injury that affects the back ... but it can happen to anyone. The Achilles tendon is a strong fibrous cord that connects the ...
Huang, Deqing; Balian, Gary; Chhabra, A Bobby
Technologic improvements in the field of tissue engineering are leading to new potential developments in the currently used approaches to treat tendon injuries including difficult clinical scenarios such as zone II flexor tendon injuries of the hand and the mutilated hand with extensive tendon defects. A combination of mesenchymal (adult stem) cells, growth factors, and bioresorbable polymers can provide a solution for the treatment of difficult tendon injuries. Extensive research is needed to show that the extracellular matrix produced in response to the cell/growth factor/polymer composites in vivo is effective and functional as a regenerate tissue. Further exciting advances are foreseen in cell-based genetic engineering with the transfer of DNA to the site of tendon lacerations. These treatment modalities require improved safety precautions to reduce the risks and enhance the benefits of gene therapy.
Kisi, Shinya; Yoshida, Munehito
[Purpose] We investigated Achilles tendon injury in Kendo players in junior and senior high schools to obtain a possible indicator for preventing an outbreak of Achilles tendon injury and tendonitis, possible risk factors concerning foot function and morphology were extracted. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 60 Kendo players aged 14–18 years from Wakayama Prefecture, Japan (33 boys and 27 girls). A questionnaire survey was conducted on the past history, current status, time of occurrence about Achilles tendon pain or rupture, and site of Achilles tendon pain or rupture. Based on the responses to the questionnaire, these students were divided into two groups, i.e., those who had a history of Achilles tendon pain (n=30) or rupture (n=3) (pain group) and those who had no history of Achilles tendon pain (no-pain group), and they were examined for foot alignment, flexion and extension Range of motion test of the first toe, flexion and extension muscle strength of the first toe, and opening movement of the toes. [Results] Achilles tendon pain had occurred in 53% of the Kendo players (including 3 who had suffered Achilles tendon rupture). Poor foot alignment and deterioration of opening movement of the toes were noted in the pain group. [Conclusion] Foot alignment was poor and opening function of the toes deteriorated in the pain group, suggesting that these may be some of factors for Achilles tendon injury. Training aimed at improving foot alignment and function is important to prevent and improve Achilles tendon injury. PMID:28265159
Lui, Tun Hing
Tenosynovitis of the flexor hallucis longus tendon is a condition typically found in ballet dancers and sometimes in soccer players and is related to chronic overuse. It mostly involves the portion of the tendon behind the ankle joint. However, the portion of the tendon under the sustentaculum tali can also be involved. Open synovectomy requires extensive dissection. We report the technique of arthroscopic synovectomy of the deep portion of the flexor hallucis longus.
Franson, Justin; Baravarian, Bob
Many articles have been published that discuss various lateral ankle injuries and specific lateral ankle pathology. The purpose of this article is to explore and present a specific combination of findings that the author's multiphysician practice has noticed on a frequently recurring basis. The triple injury of ankle synovitis, ankle instability, and peroneal tendon tear can be termed the Lateral Ankle Triad. While it is common to find each of these specific injuries individually, they are often found in combination. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Ribbans, William John; Garde, Ajit
The tibialis posterior tendon and the spring and deltoid ligament complexes combine to provide dynamic and passive stabilization on the medial side of the ankle and hindfoot. Some of the injuries will involve acute injury to previous healthy structures, but many will develop insidiously. The clinician must be aware of new treatment strategies and the level of accompanying scientific evidence regarding injuries sustained by athletes in these areas, while acknowledging that more traditional management applied to nonathletic patients is still likely to be appropriate in the setting of treatment for elite athletes.
Guevara-Alvarez, Alberto; Schmitt, Andreas; Russell, Ryan P.; Imhoff, Andreas B.; Buchmann, Stefan
Summary Background: tendon tissue shows limited regeneration potential with formation of scar tissue and inferior mechanical properties. The capacity of several growth factors to improve the healing response and decrease scar formation is described in different preclinical studies. Besides the application of isolated growth factors, current research focuses on two further strategies to improve the healing response in tendon injuries: platelet rich plasma (PRP) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Objective: the present review focuses on these two options and describes their potential to improve tendon healing. Results: in vitro experiments and animal studies showed promising results for the use of PRP, however clinical controlled studies have shown a tendency of reduced pain related symptoms but no significant differences in overall clinical scores. On the other hand MSCs are not totally arrived in clinical use so that there is still a lack of randomized controlled trials. In basic research experiments they show an extraordinary paracrine activity, anti-inflammatory effect and the possibility to differentiate in tenocytes when different activating-factors are added. Conclusion: preclinical studies have shown promising results in improving tendon remodeling but the comparability of current literature is difficult due to different compositions. PRP and MSCs can act as efficient growth factor vehicles, however further studies should be performed in order to adequate investigate their clinical benefits in different tendon pathologies. PMID:25489557
Rajabi, Hamid; Sheikhani Shahin, Homa; Norouzian, Manijeh; Mehrabani, Davood; Dehghani Nazhvani, Seifollah
Clinical tendon injuries represent serious and unresolved issues of the case on how the injured tendons could be improved based on natural structure and mechanical strength. The aim of this studies the effect of aquatic activities and alogenic platelet rich plasma (PRP) injection in healing Achilles tendons of rats. Forty rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups. Seventy two hours after a crush lesion on Achilles tendon, group 1 underwent aquatic activity for 8 weeks (five sessions per week), group 2 received intra-articular PRP (1 ml), group 3 had aquatic activity together with injection PRP injection after an experimental tendon injury, group 4 did not receive any treatment after tendon injury and the control group with no tendon injuries. of 32 rats. After 8 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and the tendons were transferred in 10% formalin for histological evaluation. There was a significant increase in number of fibroblast and cellular density, and collagen deposition in group 3 comparing to other groups denoting to an effective healing in injured tendons. However, there was no significant difference among the studied groups based on their tendons diameter. Based on our findings on the number of fibroblast, cellular density, collagen deposition, and tendon diameter, it was shown that aquatic activity together with PRP injection was the therapeutic measure of choice enhance healing in tendon injuries that can open a window in treatment of damages to tendons.
Rajabi, Hamid; Sheikhani Shahin, Homa; Norouzian, Manijeh; Mehrabani, Davood; Dehghani Nazhvani, Seifollah
BACKGROUND Clinical tendon injuries represent serious and unresolved issues of the case on how the injured tendons could be improved based on natural structure and mechanical strength. The aim of this studies the effect of aquatic activities and alogenic platelet rich plasma (PRP) injection in healing Achilles tendons of rats. METHODS Forty rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups. Seventy two hours after a crush lesion on Achilles tendon, group 1 underwent aquatic activity for 8 weeks (five sessions per week), group 2 received intra-articular PRP (1 ml), group 3 had aquatic activity together with injection PRP injection after an experimental tendon injury, group 4 did not receive any treatment after tendon injury and the control group with no tendon injuries. of 32 rats. After 8 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and the tendons were transferred in 10% formalin for histological evaluation. RESULTS There was a significant increase in number of fibroblast and cellular density, and collagen deposition in group 3 comparing to other groups denoting to an effective healing in injured tendons. However, there was no significant difference among the studied groups based on their tendons diameter. CONCLUSION Based on our findings on the number of fibroblast, cellular density, collagen deposition, and tendon diameter, it was shown that aquatic activity together with PRP injection was the therapeutic measure of choice enhance healing in tendon injuries that can open a window in treatment of damages to tendons. PMID:25606479
This is a descriptive study of tendon pathology with different structural appearances of repair tissue correlated to immunolocalization of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) and type I and III collagens and expression of COMP mRNA. The material consists of nine tendons from seven horses (5–25 years old; mean age of 10 years) with clinical tendinopathy and three normal tendons from horses (3, 3, and 13 years old) euthanized for non-orthopedic reasons. The injured tendons displayed different repair-tissue appearances with organized and disorganized fibroblastic regions as well as areas of necrosis. The normal tendons presented distinct immunoreactivity for COMP and expression of COMP mRNA and type I collagen in the normal aligned fiber structures, but no immunolabeling of type III collagen. However, immunoreactivity for type III collagen was present in the endotenon surrounding the fiber bundles, where no expression of COMP could be seen. Immunostaining for type I and III collagens was present in all of the pathologic regions indicating repair tissue. Interestingly, the granulation tissues showed immunostaining for COMP and expression of COMP mRNA, indicating a role for COMP in repair and remodeling of the tendon after fiber degeneration and rupture. The present results suggest that not only type III collagen but also COMP is involved in the repair and remodeling processes of the tendon. PMID:23020676
Lui, Tun Hing
The deep palmar spaces of the hand include the midpalmar space, the hypothenar space, the thenar space, space of Parona, and the interdigital web spaces. There are various communications between different spaces. These communications are of clinical importance in explaining the spread of inflammatory, infectious, and even neoplasic processes that involve this region. Surgical incision and drainage of all potentially communicating spaces and compartments is mandatory in deep hand infections. The purpose of this technical note is to describe the minimally invasive approach of endoscopic drainage and debridement of the flexor pollicis longus tendon sheath, radial bursa, and thenar space.
Whitlock, Patrick W; Seyler, Thorsten M; Northam, Casey N; Smith, Thomas L; Poehling, Gary G; Koman, L Andrew; Van Dyke, Mark E
Naturally derived tendon scaffolds have the potential to improve the treatment of flexor tendon injuries. Seeded and unseeded tendon scaffolds were maintained in the presence or absence of physiologic strain for 7 days. After 7 days, the tensile properties and associated messenger RNA expression were compared. Seeded scaffolds maintained in the absence of strain had significantly lower tensile properties than unseeded tendons and fresh-frozen tendons. The loss of tensile properties was associated with elevated matrix metalloproteinase-2 and collagen III expression. Tensile properties of seeded scaffolds maintained in the presence of strain for 7 days after seeding did not differ from those of fresh-frozen tendons. This study demonstrates that the tensile properties of seeded, naturally derived tendon scaffolds will degrade rapidly in the absence of cyclic strain. Seeded scaffolds used for tendon reconstruction should be maintained under cyclic strain to maintain essential tensile properties.
Bernardes, A; Melo, C; Pinheiro, S
The muscles of the anterior compartment of the forearm often exhibit anatomic variations. During dissection of the upper right limb of a preserved cadaver, morphological variations in the Palmaris longus and Flexor digitorum superficialis muscles were found. The Palmaris longus muscular fibers converged to a tendon that passed beneath the Flexor retinaculum, and inserted at the base of the middle phalanx of the fourth digit, replacing the tendon of Flexor digitorum superficialis. The Flexor digitorum superficialis was divided into two muscular heads: a digastric medial head giving tendons to the second and fifth digits, and a lateral head giving one tendon to the third digit. All these tendons were inserted in the respective digits by two bundles between which were located the tendon of the Flexor digitorum profundus muscle. Variations of flexor muscles must be documented because of their clinical significance and their potential use of these muscles in orthopaedic and reconstructive surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Wei, David H; Terrono, Andrew L
Swan neck deformity, or hyperextension of the proximal interphalangeal joint, may occur secondary to trauma, rheumatoid arthritis, cerebral palsy, or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and can be treated with tenodesis of one slip of the flexor digitorum sublimis tendon. This technique has several variations, differing primarily in the specific location and method that a single slip of the flexor digitorum sublimis tendon is secured, but they all serve to create a static volar restraint against hyperextension. Options include tunneling the tendon through the bone of the proximal phalanx, attaching the tendon to the A1 or A2 pulley, or securing the tendon with bone anchors in the proximal phalanx.
Timmins, Ryan G; Bourne, Matthew N; Shield, Anthony J; Williams, Morgan D; Lorenzen, Christian; Opar, David A
To investigate the role of eccentric knee flexor strength, between-limb imbalance and biceps femoris long head (BFlh) fascicle length on the risk of future hamstring strain injury (HSI). Elite soccer players (n=152) from eight different teams participated. Eccentric knee flexor strength during the Nordic hamstring exercise and BFlh fascicle length were assessed at the beginning of preseason. The occurrences of HSIs following this were recorded by the team medical staff. Relative risk (RR) was determined for univariate data, and logistic regression was employed for multivariate data. Twenty seven new HSIs were reported. Eccentric knee flexor strength below 337 N (RR=4.4; 95% CI 1.1 to 17.5) and possessing BFlh fascicles shorter than 10.56 cm (RR=4.1; 95% CI 1.9 to 8.7) significantly increased the risk of a HSI. Multivariate logistic regression revealed significant effects when combinations of age, history of HSI, eccentric knee flexor strength and BFlh fascicle length were explored. From these analyses the likelihood of a future HSI in older athletes or those with a HSI history was reduced if high levels of eccentric knee flexor strength and longer BFlh fascicles were present. The presence of short BFlh fascicles and low levels of eccentric knee flexor strength in elite soccer players increases the risk of future HSI. The greater risk of a future HSI in older players or those with a previous HSI is reduced when they have longer BFlh fascicles and high levels of eccentric strength. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Alluri, Ram K; Pannell, William; Heckmann, Nathanael; Sivasundaram, Lakshmanan; Stevanovic, Milan; Ghiassi, Alidad
Background: Dog bite injuries to the upper extremity can result in traumatic neurovascular and musculotendinous damage. Currently, there are no clear guidelines dictating which patients may benefit from early operative exploration. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical variables that were predictive of abnormal intraoperative findings in patients who sustained an upper extremity dog bite injury. Methods: All patients who presented to a level I trauma center between 2007 and 2015 with an upper extremity dog bite injury who underwent subsequent surgical exploration were retrospectively screened for inclusion in our study. Patients with inadequate documentation or preexisting neurovascular or motor deficits were excluded. Abnormalities on physical exam and injuries encountered during surgical exploration were recorded for each patient. Contingency tables were constructed comparing normal and abnormal nerve, tendon, and vascular physical exam findings with intact or disrupted neurovascular and musculotendinous structures identified during surgical exploration. Results: Between 2007 and 2014, 117 patients sustained a dog bite injury to the upper extremity, of which 39 underwent subsequent surgical exploration and were included in our analysis. Sixty-nine percent of patients with neuropraxia on exam had intraoperative nerve damage. Seventy-seven percent of patients with an abnormal tendon exam had intraoperative musculotendinous damage. One hundred percent of patients with an abnormal vascular physical exam had intraoperative arterial injury. Conclusions: To date, there are no clear guidelines on what clinical criteria indicate the need for operative exploration and possible repair of neurovascular structures in upper extremity dog bite injuries. In our study, nerve, tendon, and vascular abnormalities noted on physical exam were strongly predictive of discovering neurovascular and musculotendinous damage during surgical exploration.
Lui, Tun Hing
Adhesion of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) muscle to the distal tibia can occur after distal tibial fracture, distal fibular fracture, low tibial osteotomy, soft-tissue injury at the posterior ankle, subclinical compartment syndrome of the distal deep posterior compartment of the leg, or Volkmann contracture after deep posterior compartment syndrome of the leg. The purpose of this Technical Note is to report the endoscopic approach of FHL muscle adhesiolysis. It is indicated in patients with symptomatic adhesion of the FHL muscle and contraindicated if there is entrapment of the FHL muscle or tendon in the fracture callus or if there is extensive fibrosis and contracture of the FHL muscle as a result of Volkmann contracture after deep posterior compartment syndrome of the leg.
Merolla, Giovanni; Paladini, Paolo; Campi, Fabrizio; Porcellini, Giuseppe
Summary Pectoralis major (PM) muscle is the powerful dynamic stabiliser of the shoulder that acts as a flexor, adductor and internal rotator. The rupture of the PM tendon is a relatively rare injury that was firstly described in a French boy by Patissier in 1822 and later, in 1861, by Letenneur who reported another similiar case. To date, over 200 cases have been published. In this article we describe the clinical anatomy and the mechanism of injuries of PM and we review the surgical procedures for acute and chronic ruptures. PMID:23738281
Evgeniou, Evgenios; Iyer, Srinivasan
Flexor tenosynovitis is an aggressive closed-space infection of the digital flexor tendon sheaths of the hand. We present a case of pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis in an immunocompromised patient and discuss the importance of early diagnosis and referral to a specialist hand surgery unit. A 61-year-old man visited his general practitioner because of swelling and tenderness of his left index finger. The patient was discharged on oral antibiotics but returned 4 days after because of deterioration of his symptoms and was referred to a plastic surgery unit. A diagnosis of flexor tenosynovitis was made and the patient required multiple debridements in theatre, resulting in the amputation of the infected finger. Pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis is a relatively common but often misdiagnosed hand infection. Patients with suspected flexor tenosynovitis should be referred and treated early to avoid significant morbidity, especially when risk factors for poor prognosis are present.
Hinchey, John W; Aronowitz, Jessica G; Sanchez-Sotelo, Joaquin; Morrey, Bernard F
Distal biceps tendon rupture is a common injury, and primary repair results in excellent return of function and strength. Complications resulting from distal biceps tendon repairs are well reported, but the incidence of re-ruptures has never been investigated. A search of the Mayo Clinic's Medical/Surgical Index was performed, and all distal biceps tendon repairs from January 1981 through May 2009 were identified. All patients who completed 12 months or more of follow-up were included. All charts were reviewed and patients contacted as necessary to identify a re-rupture. We also investigated the situation causing the re-rupture. We identified a total of 190 distal biceps tendon ruptures that underwent repair and met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of the 190 repairs, 172 (90.5%) were performed by the Mayo modification of the Boyd-Anderson 2-incision technique. Bilateral ruptures occurred in 13 patients (7.3%). Six primary ruptures (3.2%) occurred in women, 4 of the 6 being partial ruptures. Partial ruptures were found to be statistically more common than complete ruptures in women (P = .05). We identified 3 re-ruptures (1.5%), all occurring within 3 weeks of the index surgery. The re-rupture rate after primary repair of the distal biceps tendon is low at 1.5% and occurs within 3 weeks of index repair. This appears to be due to patient compliance and excessive force placed on repairs. We also found the incidence of women who sustain a distal biceps tendon tear to be 3.2%, with partial tears being statistically more common than complete ruptures. Level IV, case series, treatment study Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Yi; Lu, Liangyu; Lu, Zhe; Xiao, Lei; Kang, Yifan; Wang, Zimin
Objective: To evaluate clinical efficacy of arthroscopic transtendinous repair of partial articular-sided PASTA (partial articular supraspinatus tendon avulsion) injury. Methods: From February 2011 to July 2014, 12 cases of PASTA, aged 29 to 72 years with an average of 52.9 ± 13.3 years, were treated arthoscopically. To repair PASTA, articular-sided rotator cuff tear was explored, injury site was punctured and labeled with PDS absorbable monofilament suture (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ, USA) suture, subacromial bursa was cleaned up with acromioplasty, and integrity of bursa-side rotator cuff was assessed. Then with arthroscope in glenohumeral joint, footprint of the bursa-side supraspinatus tendon was preserved, rivets were introduced into the joint through supraspinatus tendon, joint-side partial tear was sutured, and anatomical reconstruction of the rotator cuff footprint was established. The patients were followed up post-operatively for 12-36 months, average 22 ± 7.3 months. The clinical outcomes were emulated with ASES (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons) Shoulder Score system and UCLA (University of California at Los Angeles) Shoulder rating scale. Results: The post-operative ASES score was 89.7 ± 5.6, higher than the pre-operative one 49.8 ± 9.8 (t = 12.25, P <0.0001). While UCLA scale increased from the pre-operative 17.3, ± 3.3 to the post-operative 30.4 ± 3.2 points (t = 9.87, P <0.0001), with a satisfaction rate of 11/12 (91.7%). Conclusion: Trans-tendon repair is ideal for PASTA with advantage of maximal preservation of the normal rotator cuff tissue, anatomical reconstruction of the rotator cuff footprint and stable fixation of tendon-bone interface. PMID:25784979
Sullivan, Raymond J; Gladwell, Heather A; Aronow, Michael S; Nowak, Michael D
The surgical management of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction often includes transfer of the flexor digitorum longus (FDL) tendon through a tunnel in the navicular. Fixation often is obtained by sewing the tendon back onto itself. The purpose of this study was to compare this standard method of fixation with suture anchor fixation, a technique that may be associated with less surgical morbidity, because it requires the harvesting of less tendon length. FDL tendon transfer to the navicular was done in 13 fresh-frozen cadaver specimens. In six feet comprising the standard group, the FDL tendon was transected distal to the master knot of Henry, placed through a drill hole into the navicular, and sutured back onto itself. In seven feet the FDL tendon was transected proximal to the master knot of Henry, placed into a drill hole into the navicular, and fixed with a suture anchor. Load was applied to the proximal FDL muscle and tendon using a materials testing system (MTS) machine and peak load to failure was measured. The mean load to failure was 142.48 N +/- 38.06 N for the standard group and 142.12 N +/- 59.26 N for the suture anchor group (p = 0.305 for the Student-t test and p = 0.945 for the Mann-Whitney test). Transfer of the FDL tendon to the navicular using suture anchor fixation requires less tendon length yet provides similar fixation strength as compared to sewing the tendon back onto itself. However, suture anchors are considerably more expensive than sutures. Suture anchors allow comparable fixation of FDL tendon transfer into a navicular without the need to disrupt the master knot of Henry. This technique may be associated with less morbidity including a shorter incision, decreased risk of medial plantar nerve injury, and decreased loss of lesser toe plantarflexion strength secondary to maintenance of the normal interconnections between the flexor hallucis longus (FHL) and FDL tendons.
Reed, S A; Leahy, E R
Tendon injuries affect all levels of athletic horses and represent a significant loss to the equine industry. Accumulation of microdamage within the tendon architecture leads to formation of core lesions. Traditional approaches to tendon repair are based on an initial period of rest to limit the inflammatory process followed by a controlled reloading program designed to promote the maturation and linear arrangement of scar tissue within the lesion. However, these treatment protocols are inefficient, resulting in prolonged recovery periods and frequent recurrence. Current alternative therapies include the use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) and a population of nucleated cells from adipose containing adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSC). Umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells (UCB) have recently received attention for their increased plasticity in vitro and potential as a therapeutic aid. Both BMSC and AdMSC require expansion in culture before implantation to obtain a pure stem cell population, limiting the time frame for implantation. Collected at parturition, UCB can be cryopreserved for future use. Furthermore, the low immunogenicity of the UCB population allows for allogeneic implantation. Current research indicates that BMSC, AdMSC, and UCB can differentiate into tenocyte-like cells in vitro, increasing expression of scleraxis, tenascin c, and extracellular matrix proteins. When implanted, BMSC and AdMSC engraft into the tendon and improve tendon architecture. However, treatment with these stem cells does not decrease recovery period. Furthermore, the resulting regeneration is not optimal, as the resulting tissue is still inferior to native tendon. Umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells may provide an alternate source of stem cells that promote improved regeneration of tendon tissue. A more naïve cell population, these cells may have a greater rate of engraftment as well as an increased ability to secrete bioactive factors and
Merenda, Lisa A.; Rutter, Laure; Curran, Kimberly; Kozin, Scott H.
Background: Tendon transfer surgery can restore elbow extension in approximately 70% of persons with tetraplegia and often results in antigravity elbow extension strength. However, we have noted an almost 15% rupture/attenuation rate. Objective: This investigation was conducted to analyze potential causes in adolescents/young adults with spinal cord injury (SCI) who experienced tendon rupture or attenuation after biceps-to-triceps transfer. Methods: Medical charts of young adults with SCI who underwent biceps-to-triceps transfer and experienced tendon rupture or attenuation were reviewed. Data collected by retrospective chart review included general demographics, surgical procedure(s), use and duration of antibiotic treatment, time from tendon transfer surgery to rupture/attenuation, and method of diagnosis. Results: Twelve subjects with tetraplegia (mean age, 19 years) who underwent biceps-to-triceps reconstruction with subsequent tendon rupture or attenuation were evaluated. Mean age at time of tendon transfer was 18 years (range, 14-21 years). A fluoroquinolone was prescribed for 42% (n=5) of subjects. Tendon rupture was noted in 67% (n=8), and attenuation was noted in 33% (n=4). Average length of time from surgery to tendon rupture/attenuation was 5.7 months (range, 3-10 months). Conclusion: Potential contributing causes of tendon rupture/attenuation after transfer include surgical technique, rehabilitation, co-contraction of the transfer, poor patient compliance, and medications. In this cohort, 5 subjects were prescribed fluoroquinolones that have a US Food and Drug Administration black box concerning tendon ruptures. Currently, all candidates for upper extremity tendon transfer reconstruction are counseled on the effects of fluoroquinolones and the potential risk for tendon rupture. PMID:23459326
Thorpe, Chavaunne T.; Godinho, Marta S.C.; Riley, Graham P.; Birch, Helen L.; Clegg, Peter D.; Screen, Hazel R.C.
While the predominant function of all tendons is to transfer force from muscle to bone and position the limbs, some tendons additionally function as energy stores, reducing the cost of locomotion. Energy storing tendons experience extremely high strains and need to be able to recoil efficiently for maximum energy storage and return. In the equine forelimb, the energy storing superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) has much higher failure strains than the positional common digital extensor tendon (CDET). However, we have previously shown that this is not due to differences in the properties of the SDFT and CDET fascicles (the largest tendon subunits). Instead, there is a greater capacity for interfascicular sliding in the SDFT which facilitates the greater extensions in this particular tendon (Thorpe et al., 2012). In the current study, we exposed fascicles and interfascicular matrix (IFM) from the SDFT and CDET to cyclic loading followed by a test to failure. The results show that IFM mechanical behaviour is not a result of irreversible deformation, but the IFM is able to withstand cyclic loading, and is more elastic in the SDFT than in the CDET. We also assessed the effect of ageing on IFM properties, demonstrating that the IFM is less able to resist repetitive loading as it ages, becoming stiffer with increasing age in the SDFT. These results provide further indications that the IFM is important for efficient function in energy storing tendons, and age-related alterations to the IFM may compromise function and predispose older tendons to injury. PMID:25958330
Thorpe, Chavaunne T; Godinho, Marta S C; Riley, Graham P; Birch, Helen L; Clegg, Peter D; Screen, Hazel R C
While the predominant function of all tendons is to transfer force from muscle to bone and position the limbs, some tendons additionally function as energy stores, reducing the cost of locomotion. Energy storing tendons experience extremely high strains and need to be able to recoil efficiently for maximum energy storage and return. In the equine forelimb, the energy storing superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) has much higher failure strains than the positional common digital extensor tendon (CDET). However, we have previously shown that this is not due to differences in the properties of the SDFT and CDET fascicles (the largest tendon subunits). Instead, there is a greater capacity for interfascicular sliding in the SDFT which facilitates the greater extensions in this particular tendon (Thorpe et al., 2012). In the current study, we exposed fascicles and interfascicular matrix (IFM) from the SDFT and CDET to cyclic loading followed by a test to failure. The results show that IFM mechanical behaviour is not a result of irreversible deformation, but the IFM is able to withstand cyclic loading, and is more elastic in the SDFT than in the CDET. We also assessed the effect of ageing on IFM properties, demonstrating that the IFM is less able to resist repetitive loading as it ages, becoming stiffer with increasing age in the SDFT. These results provide further indications that the IFM is important for efficient function in energy storing tendons, and age-related alterations to the IFM may compromise function and predispose older tendons to injury.
Aiyegbusi, A I; Duru, F I O; Awelimobor, D; Noronha, C C; Okanlawon, A O
The Pineapple plant contains the enzyme bromelain which has been acclaimed to reduce pain and swellings following acute muscle injuries as well as carotenoids and polyphenols which are powerful antioxidants. It is yet to be determined if these constituents are distributed throughout the plant and what effect they have on the healing of acute tendon injuries. This study therefore investigated the effects of the aqueous extract of different parts of the pineapple plant on tenoblast proliferation and the tendon Malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the early stage of healing in a crush injury to the achilles tendon of Sprague-Dawley rats. Forty male rats were divided randomly into five groups; all had induced crush injury to the left Achilles tendon. Group 1; injury and nil treatment, Group 2; leaves extract, Group 3; fruit flesh extract, Group 4; bark extract, Group 5; core extract. The extract was given at a dosage of 30 mg/kg body weight daily over the first 14 days post-injury. On the 15th day post injury, the animals were sacrificed and the tendons excised and processed for histological study and MDA assay. The flesh and bark extract induced a proliferation of tenoblasts which however was not significantly different from that of the untreated tendon while the leaves and core extracts reduced the population of the tenocytes. The flesh extract significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the MDA level while the leaves and core extract significantly (p < 0.001) increased it. The bark extract had no significant impact on the MDA level compared with the untreated tendon. This study suggests that the anti-oxidant constituents of the pineapple plant are concentrated in the flesh while the bark and flesh extracts have the potential to promote healing by stimulating tenoblast proliferation.
Koulaxouzidis, G; Stark, G B; Lampert, F M
Restoration of active extension of wrist, thumb and digits by muscle-tendon transposition. Radial nerve palsy due to peripheral nerve injury. Peripheral nerve disease. Muscle or tendon injury. Restoration of wrist extension in high radial nerve palsy. Reversible distal radial nerve palsy, absence of suitable donor muscles, spasticity, limited range of motion of affected joints, extensive scarring and inappropriate soft tissue conditions, unjustifiable loss of function at donor site. Reinnervated donor muscles, progressive muscle disease, insufficient patient compliance. Dissection of the flexor carpi ulnaris, palmaris longus and pronator teres tendon insertion. Transposition of the tendons. Interweaving of tendons of the pronator teres and extensor carpi radialis brevis muscles, the extensor digitorum communis and flexor carpi ulnaris muscles, as well as the extensor pollicis longus and palmaris longus muscles using the Pulvertaft technique. 3 Weeks immobilization in forearm splint. Additional immobilization for 2 weeks at night. Subsequently, intensive physical and occupational therapy for another 4-6 weeks is required, starting 3 weeks postoperatively. The procedure was carried out in 12 patients over the past 14 years. We treated proximal radial nerve palsy in nine cases. In accordance with the current medical literature, we consider the described motor replacement surgery a reliable procedure.
Singh, Rohit; Manoharan, Gopikanthan; Moores, Thomas Steven; Patel, Amit
Achilles tendon ruptures tend to occur more commonly in healthy men between the ages of 30 and 50 years who have had no previous injury or problem reported in the affected leg. The injury is usually due to sudden forced plantar flexion of the foot, unexpected dorsiflexion of the foot and violent dorsiflexion of a plantar flexed foot, all of which occur during high impact activities. We present the first reported case of interactive activity with Nintendo Wii games that have resulted in Achilles tendon rupture in a 46-year-old man. There have been no previous reports of Achilles tendon rupture with Nintendo Wii usage; it is a relatively uncommon mode of injury and is rare in terms of epidemiology of motion sensing video game injuries.
Singh, Rohit; Manoharan, Gopikanthan; Moores, Thomas Steven; Patel, Amit
Achilles tendon ruptures tend to occur more commonly in healthy men between the ages of 30 and 50 years who have had no previous injury or problem reported in the affected leg. The injury is usually due to sudden forced plantar flexion of the foot, unexpected dorsiflexion of the foot and violent dorsiflexion of a plantar flexed foot, all of which occur during high impact activities. We present the first reported case of interactive activity with Nintendo Wii games that have resulted in Achilles tendon rupture in a 46-year-old man. There have been no previous reports of Achilles tendon rupture with Nintendo Wii usage; it is a relatively uncommon mode of injury and is rare in terms of epidemiology of motion sensing video game injuries. PMID:24827648
... up. Tight calf muscles or muscles that lack flexibility decrease a person's range of motion and put an extra strain on the tendon. Running or exercising on a hard or uneven surface or doing lunges or plyometrics without adequate training. A traumatic injury to the Achilles tendon. How ...
Lustgarten, Meghann; Redding, W Rich; Labens, Raphael; Davis, Weston; Daniel, Thomas M; Griffith, Emily; Seiler, Gabriela S
Compression elastography is an ultrasonographic technique that estimates tissue strain and may have utility in diagnosing and monitoring soft tissue injuries in the equine athlete. Recently, elastography has been proven to be a feasible and repeatable imaging modality for evaluating normal tendons and ligaments of the equine distal forelimb. The purposes of this prospective study were to investigate the ability of elastography to detect spontaneously occurring lesions of equine tendons and ligaments diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and gray-scale ultrasound (US) and to characterize the differences in the elastographic appearance of acute vs. chronic injuries. Fifty seven horses with a total of 65 lesions were evaluated. Images were assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Acute lesions were found to be significantly softer (P < 0.0001) than chronic lesions (P < 0.0001) and the stiffness of lesions increased with progression of healing (P = 0.0138). A negative correlation between lesion hypoechogenicity and softness was appreciated with more hypoechoic lesions appearing softer (P = 0.0087) and more hyperechoic regions harder (P = 0.0002). A similar finding occurred with increased signal intensity on short tau inversion recovery (STIR) and proton density (PD) MRI sequences correlating with increased softness on elastography (P = 0.0164). Using US and MRI as references, commonly encountered soft tissue injuries of the equine distal limb could be detected with elastography. However, elastography was limited for detecting small, proximal injuries of the hindlimb proximal suspensory ligament. Elastographic evaluation of equine tendons and ligaments may allow better characterization of lesion chronicity and severity, and sequential examinations may optimize lesion management, rehabilitation, and return to training.
Fu, Sai-Chuen; Chan, Kai-Ming; Chan, Lai-Shan; Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Lui, Po-Yee Pauline
Chronic tendinopathy is characterized with longstanding activity-related pain with degenerative tendon injuries. An objective tool to measure painful responses in animal models is essential for the development of effective treatment for tendinopathy. Gait analysis has been developed to monitor the inflammatory pain in small animals. We reported the use of motion analysis to monitor gait changes in a rat model of degenerative tendon injury. Intratendinous injection of collagenase into the left patellar tendon of Sprague Dawley rat was used to induce degenerative tendon injury, while an equal volume of saline was injected in the control groups. Motion analyses with a high speed video camera were performed on all rats at pre-injury, 2, 4, 8, 12 or 16 weeks post injection. In the end-point study, the rats were sacrificed to obtain tendon samples for histological examination after motion analyses. In the follow-up study, repeated motion analyses were performed on another group of collagenase-treated and saline-treated rats. The results showed that rats with injured patellar tendon exhibited altered walking gait as compared to the controls. The change in double stance duration in the collagenase-treated rats was reversible by administration of buprenorphrine (p=0.029), it suggested that the detected gait changes were associated with pain. Comparisons of end-point and follow-up studies revealed the confounding effects of training, which led to higher gait velocities and probably a different adaptive response to tendon pain in the trained rats. The results showed that motion analysis could be used to measure activity-related chronic tendon pain.
Lowe, Brian; Albers, James; Hudock, Stephen; Krieg, Edward
Pneumatic nail guns used in wood framing are equipped with one of two triggering mechanisms. Sequential actuation triggers have been shown to be a safer alternative to contact actuation triggers because they reduce traumatic injury risk. However, the sequential actuation trigger must be depressed for each individual nail fired as opposed to the contact actuation trigger, which allows the trigger to be held depressed as nails are fired repeatedly by bumping the safety tip against the workpiece. As such, concerns have been raised about risks for cumulative trauma injury, and reduced productivity, due to repetitive finger motion with the sequential actuation trigger. This study developed a method to predict cumulative finger flexor tendon travel associated with the sequential actuation trigger nail gun from finger joint kinematics measured in the trigger actuation and productivity standards for wood-frame construction tasks. Finger motions were measured from six users wearing an instrumented electrogoniometer glove in a simulation of two common framing tasks-wall building and flat nailing of material. Flexor tendon travel was calculated from the ensemble average kinematics for an individual nail fired. Finger flexor tendon travel was attributable mostly to proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joint motion. Tendon travel per nail fired appeared to be slightly greater for a wall-building task than a flat nailing task. The present study data, in combination with construction industry productivity standards, suggest that a high-production workday would be associated with less than 60 m/day cumulative tendon travel per worker (based on 1700 trigger presses/day). These results suggest that exposure to finger tendon travel from sequential actuation trigger nail gun use may be below levels that have been previously associated with high musculoskeletal disorder risk.
Lowe, Brian; Albers, James; Hudock, Stephen; Krieg, Edward
TECHNICAL ABSTRACT Background Pneumatic nail guns used in wood framing are equipped with one of two triggering mechanisms. Sequential actuation triggers have been shown to be a safer alternative to contact actuation triggers because they reduce traumatic injury risk. However, the sequential actuation trigger must be depressed for each individual nail fired as opposed to the contact actuation trigger, which allows the trigger to be held depressed as nails are fired repeatedly by bumping the safety tip against the workpiece. As such, concerns have been raised about risks for cumulative trauma injury, and reduced productivity, due to repetitive finger motion with the sequential actuation trigger. Purpose This study developed a method to predict cumulative finger flexor tendon travel associated with the sequential actuation trigger nail gun from finger joint kinematics measured in the trigger actuation and productivity standards for wood-frame construction tasks. Methods Finger motions were measured from six users wearing an instrumented electrogoniometer glove in a simulation of two common framing tasks–wall building and flat nailing of material. Flexor tendon travel was calculated from the ensemble average kinematics for an individual nail fired. Results Finger flexor tendon travel was attributable mostly to proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joint motion. Tendon travel per nail fired appeared to be slightly greater for a wall-building task than a flat nailing task. The present study data, in combination with construction industry productivity standards, suggest that a high-production workday would be associated with less than 60 m/day cumulative tendon travel per worker (based on 1700 trigger presses/day). Conclusion and Applications These results suggest that exposure to finger tendon travel from sequential actuation trigger nail gun use may be below levels that have been previously associated with high musculoskeletal disorder risk. PMID
Lui, Pauline Po Yee; Wong, On Tik; Lee, Yuk Wa
Treatment of tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) with connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and ascorbic acid promoted their tenogenic differentiation. We investigated the effects of TDSCs pre-treated with CTGF and ascorbic acid on tendon repair in a patellar tendon window injury rat model. Green fluorescent protein-TDSCs (GFP-TDSCs) were pre-treated with or without CTGF and ascorbic acid for 2 weeks before transplantation. The patellar tendons of rats were injured and divided into three groups: fibrin glue-only group (control group), untreated and treated TDSC group. The rats were followed up until week 16. The treated TDSCs accelerated and enhanced the quality of tendon repair compared with untreated TDSCs up to week 8, which was better than that in the controls up to week 16 as shown by histology, ultrasound imaging and biomechanical test. The fibrils in the treated TDSC group showed better alignment and larger size compared with those in the control group at week 8 (P = 0.004). There was lower risk of ectopic mineralization after transplantation of treated or untreated TDSCs (all P ≤ 0.050). The transplanted cells proliferated and could be detected in the window wound up to weeks 2 to 4 and week 8 for the untreated and treated TDSC groups, respectively. The transplantation of TDSCs promoted tendon repair up to week 16, with CTGF and ascorbic acid pre-treatment showing the best results up to week 8. Pre-treatment of TDSCs with CTGF and ascorbic acid may be used to further enhance the rate and quality of tendon repair after injury. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kaux, Jean-François; Janssen, Lauriane; Drion, Pierre; Nusgens, Betty; Libertiaux, Vincent; Pascon, Frédéric; Heyeres, Antoine; Hoffmann, Audrey; Lambert, Charles; Le Goff, Caroline; Denoël, Vincent; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Rickert, Markus; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Colige, Alain
Summary Tendon lesions are among the most frequent musculoskeletal pathologies. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to regulate angiogenesis. VEGF-111, a biologically active and proteolysis-resistant splice variant of this family, was recently identified. This study aimed at evaluating whether VEGF-111 could have a therapeutic interest in tendon pathologies. Surgical section of one Achilles tendon of rats was performed before a local injection of either saline or VEGF-111. After 5, 15 and 30 days, the Achilles tendons of 10 rats of both groups were sampled and submitted to a biomechanical tensile test. The force necessary to induce tendon rupture was greater for tendons of the VEGF-111 group (p<0.05) while the section areas of the tendons were similar. The mechanical stress was similar at 5 and 15 days in the both groups but was improved for the VEGF-111 group at day 30 (p <0.001). No difference was observed in the mRNA expression of collagen III, tenomodulin and MMP-9. In conclusion, we observed that a local injection of VEGF-111 improves the early phases of the healing process of rat tendons after a surgical section. Further confirmatory experimentations are needed to consolidate our results. PMID:24932443
Wong, J.K.F.; Alyouha, S.; Kadler, K.E.; Ferguson, M.W.J.; McGrouther, D.A.
Trauma by suturing tendon form areas devoid of cells termed “acellular zones” in the matrix. This study aimed to characterise the cellular insult of suturing and acellular zone formation in mouse tendon. Acellular zone formation was evaluated using single grasping sutures placed using flexor tendons with time lapse cell viability imaging for a period of 12 h. Both tension and injury were required to induce cell death and cell movement in the formation of the acellular zone. DNA fragmentation studies and transmission electron microscopy indicated that cells necrosed. Parallel in vivo studies showed that cell-to-cell contacts were disrupted following grasping by the suture in tensioned tendon. Without tension, cell death was lessened and cell-to-cell contacts remained intact. Quantitative immunohistochemistry and 3D cellular profile mapping of wound healing markers over a one year time course showed that acellular zones arise rapidly and showed no evidence of healing whilst the wound healing response occurred in the surrounding tissues. The acellular zones were also evident in a standard modified “Kessler” clinical repair. In conclusion, the suture repair of injured tendons produces acellular zones, which may potentially cause early tendon failure. PMID:20600895
Zhang, Gai-Ying; Zhuang, Hai-Ying; Wang, Le-Xin
To investigate the value of high frequency ultrasonography in the diagnosis of zone 2 flexor tendon injuries. Ninety-two patients (49 males and 43 females, mean age 32.6 ± 11.2 years) with zone 2 flexor tendon injuries in one or more digits were randomly divided into a study (n = 46, 95 digits) and a control group (n = 46, 90 digits). In the study group, preoperative ultrasound was performed and surgical repair was conducted based on ultrasonographic findings. Diagnosis and surgical repair of the control group was based on history of trauma and physical examination. Types of ruptures (complete or partial) and the location of the distal end of the ruptured tendon diagnosed by preoperative ultrasonography were consistent with surgical findings in all cases (95/95, 100%) of the study group, whereas the concordance rate between clinically diagnosed ruptures and surgical findings was only 34.4% (31/90) in the control group (p = 0.02). Preoperative high frequency ultrasound examination yielded excellent diagnostic accuracy for zone 2 flexor tendon injuries. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.