Science.gov

Sample records for floating cover constructions

  1. Improving the performance of floating solar pool covers

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, M.A.; Lowrey, P. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1992-11-01

    Experimental and analytical analyses are presented for the evaluation of heat transfer through floating solar swimming pool covers. Two improved floating solar swimming pool cover designs are proposed and investigated in this paper. The results conclusively show that both new cover designs should have significantly better performance than conventional floating solar swimming pool covers.

  2. Covering Construction Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Lawrence

    1997-01-01

    A 1996 U.S. General Accounting Office report indicates one-third of the nation's schools need $111 billion worth of repairs or partial replacement. Local school districts cannot keep up with enrollment increases or construction costs and will receive little help from federal or state governments. Capital improvement funding inequities are heating…

  3. Covering Construction Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Lawrence

    1997-01-01

    A 1996 U.S. General Accounting Office report indicates one-third of the nation's schools need $111 billion worth of repairs or partial replacement. Local school districts cannot keep up with enrollment increases or construction costs and will receive little help from federal or state governments. Capital improvement funding inequities are heating…

  4. Construction Costs of Six Landfill Cover Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1998-12-23

    A large-scale field demonstration comparing and contrasting final landfill cover designs has been constructed and is currently being monitored. Four alternative cover designs and two conventional designs (a RCRA Subtitle `D' Soil Cover and a RCRA Subtitle `C' Compacted Clay Cover) were constructed side-by-side for direct comparison. The demonstration is intended to evaluate the various cover designs based on their respective water balance performance, ease and reliability of construction, and cost. This paper provides an overview of the construction costs of each cover design.

  5. Determination of the State of Strain of Large Floating Covers Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Aided Photogrammetry.

    PubMed

    Ong, Wern Hann; Chiu, Wing Kong; Kuen, Thomas; Kodikara, Jayantha

    2017-07-28

    Floating covers used in waste water treatment plants are one of the many structures formed with membrane materials. These structures are usually large and can spread over an area measuring 470 m × 170 m. The aim of this paper is to describe recent work to develop an innovative and effective approach for structural health monitoring (SHM) of such large membrane-like infrastructure. This paper will propose a potentially cost-effective non-contact approach for full-field strain and stress mapping using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) mounted with a digital camera and a global positioning system (GPS) tracker. The aim is to use the images acquired by the UAV to define the geometry of the floating cover using photogrammetry. In this manner, any changes in the geometry of the floating cover due to forces acting beneath resulting from its deployment and usage can be determined. The time-scale for these changes is in terms of weeks and months. The change in the geometry can be implemented as input conditions to a finite element model (FEM) for stress prediction. This will facilitate the determination of the state of distress of the floating cover. This paper investigates the possibility of using data recorded from a UAV to predict the strain level and assess the health of such structures. An investigation was first conducted on a laboratory sized membrane structure instrumented with strain gauges for comparison against strains, which were computed from 3D scans of the membrane geometry. Upon validating the technique in the laboratory, it was applied to a more realistic scenario: an outdoor test membrane structure and capable UAV were constructed to see if the shape of the membrane could be computed. The membrane displacements were then used to calculate the membrane stress and strain, state demonstrating a new way to perform structural health monitoring on membrane structures.

  6. Determination of the State of Strain of Large Floating Covers Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Aided Photogrammetry

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Wern Hann; Chiu, Wing Kong; Kuen, Thomas; Kodikara, Jayantha

    2017-01-01

    Floating covers used in waste water treatment plants are one of the many structures formed with membrane materials. These structures are usually large and can spread over an area measuring 470 m × 170 m. The aim of this paper is to describe recent work to develop an innovative and effective approach for structural health monitoring (SHM) of such large membrane-like infrastructure. This paper will propose a potentially cost-effective non-contact approach for full-field strain and stress mapping using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) mounted with a digital camera and a global positioning system (GPS) tracker. The aim is to use the images acquired by the UAV to define the geometry of the floating cover using photogrammetry. In this manner, any changes in the geometry of the floating cover due to forces acting beneath resulting from its deployment and usage can be determined. The time-scale for these changes is in terms of weeks and months. The change in the geometry can be implemented as input conditions to a finite element model (FEM) for stress prediction. This will facilitate the determination of the state of distress of the floating cover. This paper investigates the possibility of using data recorded from a UAV to predict the strain level and assess the health of such structures. An investigation was first conducted on a laboratory sized membrane structure instrumented with strain gauges for comparison against strains, which were computed from 3D scans of the membrane geometry. Upon validating the technique in the laboratory, it was applied to a more realistic scenario: an outdoor test membrane structure and capable UAV were constructed to see if the shape of the membrane could be computed. The membrane displacements were then used to calculate the membrane stress and strain, state demonstrating a new way to perform structural health monitoring on membrane structures. PMID:28788081

  7. 40 CFR 63.942 - Standards-Surface impoundment floating membrane cover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards-Surface impoundment floating membrane cover. 63.942 Section 63.942 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... fabricated from a synthetic membrane material that is either: (i) High density polyethylene (HDPE) with...

  8. Evaporation suppression from water reservoirs using floating covers: Lab scale observations and model predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Or, D.; Lehmann, P.; Aminzadeh, M.; Sommer, M.; Wey, H.; Wunderli, H.; Breitenstein, D.

    2016-12-01

    The competition over dwindling fresh water resources is expected to intensify with projected increase in human population in arid regions, expansion of irrigated land and changes in climate and drought patterns. The volume of water stored in reservoirs would also increase to mitigate seasonal shortages due to rainfall variability and to meet irrigation water needs. By some estimates up to half of the stored water is lost to evaporation thereby exacerbating the water scarcity problem. Recently, there is an upsurge in the use of self-assembling floating covers to suppress evaporation, yet the design, and implementation remain largely empirical. Studies have shown that evaporation suppression is highly nonlinear, as also known from a century of research on gas exchange from plant leaves (that often evaporate as free water surfaces through stomata that are only 1% of leaf area). We report a systematic evaluation of different cover types and external drivers (radiation, wind, wind+radiation) on evaporation suppression and energy balance of a 1.4 m2 basin placed in a wind-tunnel. Surprisingly, evaporation suppression by black and white floating covers (balls and plates) were similar despite significantly different energy balance regimes over the cover surfaces. Moreover, the evaporation suppression efficiency was a simple function of the uncovered area (square root of the uncovered fraction) with linear relations with the covered area in some cases. The thermally decoupled floating covers offer an efficient solution to the evaporation suppression with limited influence of the surface energy balance (water temperature for black and white covers was similar and remained nearly constant). The results will be linked with a predictive evaporation-energy balance model and issues of spatial scales and long exposure times will be studied.

  9. Evaporation and energy balance of partially covered water reservoirs using self-assembling floating elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminzadeh, Milad; Lehmann, Peter; Or, Dani

    2017-04-01

    The projected increase in fresh water storage to meet growing municipal and irrigation needs and mitigate effects of rainfall variability and prolonged droughts will require new measures for suppressing evaporation from reservoirs and conserve water resources. A low risk and cost effective means for evaporation suppression uses self-assembling floating elements. We seek to develop a systematic framework for quantifying impacts of various cover designs and properties on heat and mass fluxes and energy balance of water reservoirs of different characteristics and climatic regions. The vertical energy balance equation including diurnal and seasonal variations in atmospheric forcing and energy transport to the water column was employed to resolve temperature and flux dynamics from water bodies. We then consider energy coupling of a unit floating cover element with water body (including lateral heat exchanges) to evaluate effect of different cover designs, climate conditions, and reservoir characteristics on evaporation suppression and energy balance of water body. The mechanistic framework offers a means for evaluating ecological impacts of covers, enables consideration of different cover designs (shape, size, thermal and radiative properties), and advances this largely empirical resource conservation strategy into a predictive framework for design and management purposes.

  10. Effective Removal of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Surface Water Using Constructed Comprehensive Floating Remediation Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Bai, S.

    2008-12-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorus are the chief pollutants of our aquatic systems which may be resulted from different contamination sources and could cause serious environmental and ecological problems. For example, nitrate contamination of the water systems from agricultural practices may be contributing to the eutrophication of the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, USA, degrading water quality and aquatic habitats. Effective approaches for removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from our aquatic systems, particularly from surface water, is called for imminently. An in-situ remediation measure by constructed floating remediation islands has been developed and tested through the field experiments recently. Four pilot-scale settings with the different components and structures were constructed and operated in parallel in which a new type of the constructed floating remediation islands with multi-layers of substrate fillers, called the constructed multi-layer comprehensive floating remediation island, was included. The contaminated water taken directly from a river containing richly nitrogen and phosphorus was used for those experiments. The experiment results obtained from the four different experiment settings were examined. It was noticed that the degradation rates of both nitrogen and phosphorus in water in the setting with the constructed multi-layer comprehensive floating remediation island was greater than those in others. The mean removal rate of phosphorous in the experiment setting with the constructed multi-layer comprehensive floating remediation island was considerably higher than the removal rates of phosphorous in the other three experiment settings.

  11. Evaporation suppression from reservoirs using floating covers: Lab scale wind-tunnel observations and mechanistic model predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Or, Dani; Lehmann, Peter; Aminzadeh, Milad; Sommer, Martina; Wey, Hannah; Krentscher, Christiane; Wunderli, Hans; Breitenstein, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    The competition over dwindling fresh water resources is expected to intensify with projected increase in human population in arid regions, expansion of irrigated land and changes in climate and drought patterns. The volume of water stored in reservoirs would also increase to mitigate seasonal shortages due to rainfall variability and to meet irrigation water needs. By some estimates up to half of the stored water is lost to evaporation, thereby exacerbating the water scarcity problem. Recently, there is an upsurge in the use of self-assembling floating covers to suppress evaporation, yet the design and implementation remain largely empirical. We report a systematic experimental evaluation of different cover types and external drivers (radiation, wind, wind plus radiation) on evaporation suppression and energy balance of a 1.4 m2 basin placed in a wind-tunnel. Surprisingly, evaporation suppression by black and white floating covers (balls and plates) were similar despite significantly different energy balance regimes over the cover surfaces. Moreover, the evaporation suppression efficiency was a simple function of the uncovered area (square root of the uncovered fraction) with linear relations with the covered area in some cases. The thermally decoupled floating covers offer an efficient solution to the evaporation suppression with limited influence of the surface energy balance (water temperature for black and white covers was similar and remained nearly constant). The results will be linked with a predictive evaporation-energy balance model and issues of spatial scales and long exposure times will be studied.

  12. On the transient response of a floating ice cover to an advancing ship

    SciTech Connect

    Valanto, P.

    1996-12-01

    Model tests on the icebreaking process were carried out in three dimensions for verification and further development of the mathematical model on the transient response of a floating ice sheet to an advancing ship model, which is under development by the author. Two bow forms were tested: (1) a Simplified Waas-Bow; (2) a Simplified Round Bow. Icebreaking forces at the design waterline on the bows of the models were measured with one and two measuring segments, simultaneously with the measurement of the transient deflection of the ice sheet in space fixed coordinates in front of the advancing model. Detailed information on the icebreaking process in model ice was acquired.

  13. 8. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS EXTERIOR VIEW OF NEARLYCOMPLETED FACILITY. SHOWS COVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS EXTERIOR VIEW OF NEARLY-COMPLETED FACILITY. SHOWS COVER OVER SHIELDING TANK, FRAMEWORK ASSEMBLY WITH GUY WIRES, FENCE AROUND TANK AREA, DANGER SIGNS, AND MOUNDED BUNKER IN BACKGROUND. INEL PHOTO NUMBER 65-5442, TAKEN OCTOBER 20, 1965. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. Evaluation of native bees as pollinators of cucurbit crops under floating row covers.

    PubMed

    Minter, Logan M; Bessin, Ricardo T

    2014-10-01

    Production of cucurbit crops presents growers with numerous challenges. Several severe pests and diseases can be managed through the use of rotation, trap cropping, mechanical barriers, such as row covers, and chemical applications. However, considerations must also be made for pollinating insects, as adequate pollination affects the quantity and quality of fruit. Insecticides may negatively affect pollinators; a concern enhanced in recent years due to losses in managed Apis melifera L. colonies. Row covers can be used in place of chemical control before pollination, but when removed, pests have access to fields along with the pollinators. If pollination services of native bees could be harnessed for use under continuous row covers, both concerns could be balanced for growers. The potential of two bee species which specialize on cucurbit flowers, Peponapis pruinosa Say and Xenoglossa strenua Cresson, were assessed under continuous row covers, employed over acorn squash. Experimental treatments included plots with either naturally or artificially introduced bees under row covers and control plots with row covers either permanently removed at crop flowering, or employed continuously with no added pollinating insects. Pests in plots with permanently removed row covers were managed using standard practices used in certified organic production. Marketable yields from plots inoculated with bees were indistinguishable from those produced under standard practices, indicating this system would provide adequate yields to growers without time and monetary inputs of insecticide applications. Additionally, application of this technique was investigated for muskmelon production and discussed along with considerations for farm management.

  15. Heat transfer and fluid flow in floating-zone crystal growth with a mostly covered melt surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, C. W.; Kou, Sindo

    1992-01-01

    Computer simulation was conducted to study a modified floating-zone crystal growth process, in which the melt surface is mostly covered with a heated ring. The growth of 6-mm diameter single crystals of NaNO3 was considered, and the effects of the following parameters were studied: (1) temperature of the ring, (2) growth rate, (3) surface tension-temperature coefficient of the melt, (4) thermal expansion coefficient of the melt, and (5) gravity. It was demonstrated that thermocapillary convection in the melt zone is reduced significantly in this modified process. The model was checked against the measured lengths of the meniscus near the growth front and axial temperature distribution in a growing crystal, and the agreement was good.

  16. Heat transfer and fluid flow in floating-zone crystal growth with a mostly covered melt surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, C. W.; Kou, Sindo

    1992-01-01

    Computer simulation was conducted to study a modified floating-zone crystal growth process, in which the melt surface is mostly covered with a heated ring. The growth of 6-mm diameter single crystals of NaNO3 was considered, and the effects of the following parameters were studied: (1) temperature of the ring, (2) growth rate, (3) surface tension-temperature coefficient of the melt, (4) thermal expansion coefficient of the melt, and (5) gravity. It was demonstrated that thermocapillary convection in the melt zone is reduced significantly in this modified process. The model was checked against the measured lengths of the meniscus near the growth front and axial temperature distribution in a growing crystal, and the agreement was good.

  17. 40 CFR 63.942 - Standards-Surface impoundment floating membrane cover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manner such that there are no visible cracks, holes, gaps, or other open spaces between cover section... position there are no visible cracks, holes, gaps, or other open spaces in the closure device or between.... Examples of such activities include those times when a worker needs to open a port to sample the liquid...

  18. 40 CFR 63.942 - Standards-Surface impoundment floating membrane cover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manner such that there are no visible cracks, holes, gaps, or other open spaces between cover section... position there are no visible cracks, holes, gaps, or other open spaces in the closure device or between.... Examples of such activities include those times when a worker needs to open a port to sample the liquid...

  19. 40 CFR 63.942 - Standards-Surface impoundment floating membrane cover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manner such that there are no visible cracks, holes, gaps, or other open spaces between cover section... position there are no visible cracks, holes, gaps, or other open spaces in the closure device or between.... Examples of such activities include those times when a worker needs to open a port to sample the liquid...

  20. 40 CFR 63.942 - Standards-Surface impoundment floating membrane cover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manner such that there are no visible cracks, holes, gaps, or other open spaces between cover section... position there are no visible cracks, holes, gaps, or other open spaces in the closure device or between.... Examples of such activities include those times when a worker needs to open a port to sample the liquid...

  1. 29 CFR 776.27 - Construction which is related to covered production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Construction Industry Individual Employee Coverage in the Construction Industry § 776.27 Construction which is... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Construction which is related to covered production. 776.27... applicable to other construction which is an integral part of a covered production unit, such as the...

  2. 29 CFR 776.27 - Construction which is related to covered production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Construction Industry Individual Employee Coverage in the Construction Industry § 776.27 Construction which is... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Construction which is related to covered production. 776.27... applicable to other construction which is an integral part of a covered production unit, such as the...

  3. 29 CFR 776.26 - Relationship of the construction work to the covered facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF 1938 Construction Industry Individual Employee Coverage in the Construction Industry § 776.26 Relationship of the construction work to the covered facility. Unless the construction work is physically or... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Relationship of the construction work to the covered...

  4. 29 CFR 776.27 - Construction which is related to covered production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Construction Industry Individual Employee Coverage in the Construction Industry § 776.27 Construction which is... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Construction which is related to covered production. 776.27... applicable to other construction which is an integral part of a covered production unit, such as the...

  5. 29 CFR 776.27 - Construction which is related to covered production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Construction Industry Individual Employee Coverage in the Construction Industry § 776.27 Construction which is... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Construction which is related to covered production. 776.27... applicable to other construction which is an integral part of a covered production unit, such as the...

  6. 29 CFR 776.26 - Relationship of the construction work to the covered facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF 1938 Construction Industry Individual Employee Coverage in the Construction Industry § 776.26 Relationship of the construction work to the covered facility. Unless the construction work is physically or... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Relationship of the construction work to the covered...

  7. 29 CFR 776.26 - Relationship of the construction work to the covered facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF 1938 Construction Industry Individual Employee Coverage in the Construction Industry § 776.26 Relationship of the construction work to the covered facility. Unless the construction work is physically or... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relationship of the construction work to the covered...

  8. 29 CFR 776.27 - Construction which is related to covered production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Construction Industry Individual Employee Coverage in the Construction Industry § 776.27 Construction which is... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Construction which is related to covered production. 776.27... applicable to other construction which is an integral part of a covered production unit, such as the...

  9. 29 CFR 776.26 - Relationship of the construction work to the covered facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF 1938 Construction Industry Individual Employee Coverage in the Construction Industry § 776.26 Relationship of the construction work to the covered facility. Unless the construction work is physically or... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Relationship of the construction work to the covered...

  10. Accelerated carbonation of steel slags in a landfill cover construction

    SciTech Connect

    Diener, S.; Andreas, L.; Herrmann, I.; Ecke, H.; Lagerkvist, A.

    2010-01-15

    Steel slags from high-alloyed tool steel production were used in a full scale cover construction of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. In order to study the long-term stability of the steel slags within the final cover, a laboratory experiment was performed. The effect on the ageing process, due to i.e. carbonation, exerted by five different factors resembling both the material characteristics and the environmental conditions is investigated. Leaching behaviour, acid neutralization capacity and mineralogy (evaluated by means of X-ray diffraction, XRD, and thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis, TG/DTA) are tested after different periods of ageing under different conditions. Samples aged for 3 and 10 months were evaluated in this paper. Multivariate data analysis was used for data evaluation. The results indicate that among the investigated factors, ageing time and carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere were able to exert the most relevant effect. However, further investigations are required in order to clarify the role of the temperature.

  11. Effect of artificial aeration, temperature, and structure on nutrient removal in constructed floating islands.

    PubMed

    Dunqiu, Wang; Shaoyuan, Bai; Mingyu, Wang; Qinglin, Xie; Yinian, Zhu; Hua, Zhang

    2012-05-01

    To study the optimal performance characteristics and maximize the removal efficiency of contaminants by the constructed floating islands (CFIs), four kinds of parallel pilot-scale CFIs with different structures were set up outdoors to treat eutrophic water for approximately 6 months. The contribution of artificial aeration to nutrient removal on the basis of gas-water ratios was investigated, and the influences of the structure and temperature were evaluated simultaneously. It was noted that the nutrient removal rate of the multi-medium CFI was greater than those of others. In the four kinds of units, aeration could significantly increase the nutrient removal efficiency, and a gas-water ratio of 10 was adequate for the relatively high removal of nutrients. Using the aforementioned gas-water ratio of 10 and a hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 2 days, the mean removal efficiencies of the multi-medium CFI for NH3-N and total phosphorus were 71.7% and 63.6%, respectively-approximately twice as great as those in the non-aerated system. Furthermore, temperature was an important factor for nutrient removal in the multi-medium CFI. With the water temperature of >13 degrees C and the HRT of 2.5 days, the mean removal efficiencies for NH3-N and total phosphorus were 87.6% and 83.5%, respectively, whereas the removal efficiency decreased significantly when the temperature was lower than 13 degrees C.

  12. 29 CFR 776.26 - Relationship of the construction work to the covered facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF 1938 Construction Industry Individual Employee Coverage in the Construction Industry § 776.26..., apartments, hotels, churches and schools are not covered projects. 15 Similarly the construction of...

  13. Impending rupture of saphenous vein graft aneurysm with floating fractured bare metal stent treated by coil embolization and covered stent implantation.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Atsuko; Kurita, Tairo; Kato, Osamu; Suzuki, Takahiko

    2016-11-01

    Aneurysmal degeneration of a saphenous vein graft (SVG) is a rare, but potentially fatal complication of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. In this case report, a patient that had undergone prior CABG surgery and bare metal stent (BMS) implantation at the site of a stenotic SVG lesion presented at our hospital with chest pain, and an SVG aneurysm was detected at the previous BMS implantation site. In addition, the implanted BMS was fractured and floating in the SVG aneurysm. The SVG aneurysm was successfully occluded by percutaneous intervention, using a combination of distal covered stent deployment at the site of the anastomosis between the native coronary artery and the SVG and proximal coil embolization of the aneurysm.

  14. Refining the In-Parameter-Order Strategy for Constructing Covering Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Michael; Lawrence, Jim; Lei, Yu; Kacker, Raghu N.; Kuhn, D. Richard

    2008-01-01

    Covering arrays are structures for well-representing extremely large input spaces and are used to efficiently implement blackbox testing for software and hardware. This paper proposes refinements over the In-Parameter-Order strategy (for arbitrary t). When constructing homogeneous-alphabet covering arrays, these refinements reduce runtime in nearly all cases by a factor of more than 5 and in some cases by factors as large as 280. This trend is increasing with the number of columns in the covering array. Moreover, the resulting covering arrays are about 5 % smaller. Consequently, this new algorithm has constructed many covering arrays that are the smallest in the literature. A heuristic variant of the algorithm sometimes produces comparably sized covering arrays while running significantly faster. PMID:27096128

  15. View of McKenzieRichey covered well showing log and lumber construction ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of McKenzie-Richey covered well showing log and lumber construction and shingles, facing southeast - McKenzie Property, Covered Well, North Bank of Sailor Gulch, 750 feet northwest of intersection of U.S.F.S. Roads 651 & 349, Placerville, Boise County, ID

  16. Telescoping Dual Covered Stent Graft Construct for Endovascular Treatment of a Giant Extracranial Carotid Artery Pseudoaneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Dale; Starke, Robert M.; Moriarty, Maurice; Brew, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Large pseudoaneurysms which compress the parent vessel are challenging lesions to successfully treat with endovascular therapy. We describe the endovascular treatment of a giant extracranial carotid artery (ECCA) pseudoaneurysm resulting in substantial mass effect on the common carotid artery (CCA) bifurcation using a telescoping dual covered stent graft construct. A 56-year-old male was diagnosed with an 8.5 cm × 13 cm pseudoaneurysm arising from the left CCA bifurcation, which was causing luminal narrowing of the CCA and proximal internal carotid artery (ICA). The patient underwent endovascular intervention, during which a balloon-expandable covered stent was deployed within a heparin-bonded covered stent, such that the overall construct spanned from the CCA to the lower cervical ICA. The employment of a telescoping dual covered stent technique can successfully treat appropriately selected patients with large or giant ECCA pseudoaneurysms, with the concomitant goals of excluding the pseudoaneurysm and restoring the luminal caliber of the parent artery. PMID:28163519

  17. Telescoping Dual Covered Stent Graft Construct for Endovascular Treatment of a Giant Extracranial Carotid Artery Pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dale; Starke, Robert M; Moriarty, Maurice; Brew, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    Large pseudoaneurysms which compress the parent vessel are challenging lesions to successfully treat with endovascular therapy. We describe the endovascular treatment of a giant extracranial carotid artery (ECCA) pseudoaneurysm resulting in substantial mass effect on the common carotid artery (CCA) bifurcation using a telescoping dual covered stent graft construct. A 56-year-old male was diagnosed with an 8.5 cm × 13 cm pseudoaneurysm arising from the left CCA bifurcation, which was causing luminal narrowing of the CCA and proximal internal carotid artery (ICA). The patient underwent endovascular intervention, during which a balloon-expandable covered stent was deployed within a heparin-bonded covered stent, such that the overall construct spanned from the CCA to the lower cervical ICA. The employment of a telescoping dual covered stent technique can successfully treat appropriately selected patients with large or giant ECCA pseudoaneurysms, with the concomitant goals of excluding the pseudoaneurysm and restoring the luminal caliber of the parent artery.

  18. 14 CFR 27.753 - Main float design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Main float design. 27.753 Section 27.753... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 27.753 Main float design. (a) Bag floats. Each bag float must be designed to withstand— (1) The maximum pressure differential...

  19. 14 CFR 29.753 - Main float design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Main float design. 29.753 Section 29.753... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.753 Main float design. (a) Bag floats. Each bag float must be designed to withstand— (1) The maximum pressure differential...

  20. 14 CFR 29.753 - Main float design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Main float design. 29.753 Section 29.753... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.753 Main float design. (a) Bag floats. Each bag float must be designed to withstand— (1) The maximum pressure...

  1. 14 CFR 27.753 - Main float design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Main float design. 27.753 Section 27.753... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 27.753 Main float design. (a) Bag floats. Each bag float must be designed to withstand— (1) The maximum pressure...

  2. Assessing the environmental impact of ashes used in a landfill cover construction.

    PubMed

    Travar, I; Lidelöw, S; Andreas, L; Tham, G; Lagerkvist, A

    2009-04-01

    Large amounts of construction materials will be needed in Europe in anticipation for capping landfills that will be closed due to the tightening up of landfill legislation. This study was conducted to assess the potential environmental impacts of using refuse derived fuel (RDF) and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ashes as substitutes for natural materials in landfill cover designs. The leaching of substances from a full-scale landfill cover test area built with different fly and bottom ashes was evaluated based on laboratory tests and field monitoring. The water that drained off above the liner (drainage) and the water that percolated through the liner into the landfill (leachate) were contaminated with Cl(-), nitrogen and several trace elements (e.g., As, Cu, Mo, Ni and Se). The drainage from layers containing ash will probably require pre-treatment before discharge. The leachate quality from the ash cover is expected to have a minor influence on overall landfill leachate quality because the amounts generated from the ash covers were low, <3-30l (m(2)yr)(-1). Geochemical modelling indicated that precipitation of clay minerals and other secondary compounds in the ash liner was possible within 3 years after construction, which could contribute to the retention of trace elements in the liner in the long term. Hence, from an environmental view point, the placement of ashes in layers above the liner is more critical than within the liner.

  3. Oxygen transfer in marsh-pond-marsh constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Marsh-pond-marsh (M-P-M) constructed wetlands have been used to treat wastewater from swine anaerobic lagoons. To mitigate undesired ammonia emission from M-P-M, ponds were covered with floating wetlands (M-FB-M). The pond sections of the M-FB-M were covered with floating wetlands consisted of recyc...

  4. Oxygen transfer in marsh-pond-marsh constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Marsh-pond-marsh (M-P-M) constructed wetlands have been used to treat wastewater from swine anaerobic lagoons. To mitigate undesired ammonia emission from M-P-M, ponds were covered with floating wetlands (M-FB-M). The pond sections of the M-FB-M were covered with floating wetlands consisted of recyc...

  5. Stools - floating

    MedlinePlus

    ... absorption of nutrients ( malabsorption ) or too much gas (flatulence). Considerations Most causes of floating stools are harmless. ... Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 140. Read More Gas - flatulence Malabsorption Review Date 5/11/2016 Updated by: ...

  6. 14 CFR 23.753 - Main float design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Main float design. 23.753 Section 23.753... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 23.753 Main float design. Each seaplane main float must meet the requirements of § 23.521. ...

  7. 14 CFR 23.753 - Main float design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Main float design. 23.753 Section 23.753... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 23.753 Main float design. Each seaplane main float must meet the requirements of § 23.521....

  8. 14 CFR 27.751 - Main float buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Main float buoyancy. 27.751 Section 27.751... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 27.751 Main float buoyancy. (a) For main floats, the buoyancy necessary to support the maximum weight of the rotorcraft in...

  9. 14 CFR 27.751 - Main float buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Main float buoyancy. 27.751 Section 27.751... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 27.751 Main float buoyancy. (a) For main floats, the buoyancy necessary to support the maximum weight of the rotorcraft in...

  10. 14 CFR 27.751 - Main float buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Main float buoyancy. 27.751 Section 27.751... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 27.751 Main float buoyancy. (a) For main floats, the buoyancy necessary to support the maximum weight of the rotorcraft in...

  11. 14 CFR 27.751 - Main float buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Main float buoyancy. 27.751 Section 27.751... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 27.751 Main float buoyancy. (a) For main floats, the buoyancy necessary to support the maximum weight of the rotorcraft in...

  12. 14 CFR 27.751 - Main float buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Main float buoyancy. 27.751 Section 27.751... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 27.751 Main float buoyancy. (a) For main floats, the buoyancy necessary to support the maximum weight of the rotorcraft in...

  13. Two-dimensional molybdenum disulphide nanosheet-covered metal nanoparticle array as a floating gate in multi-functional flash memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Su-Ting; Zhou, Ye; Chen, Bo; Zhou, Li; Yan, Yan; Zhang, Hua; Roy, V. A. L.

    2015-10-01

    Semiconducting two-dimensional materials appear to be excellent candidates for non-volatile memory applications. However, the limited controllability of charge trapping behaviors and the lack of multi-bit storage studies in two-dimensional based memory devices require further improvement for realistic applications. Here, we report a flash memory consisting of metal NPs-molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) as a floating gate by introducing a metal nanoparticle (NP) (Ag, Au, Pt) monolayer underneath the MoS2 nanosheets. Controlled charge trapping and long data retention have been achieved in a metal (Ag, Au, Pt) NPs-MoS2 floating gate flash memory. This controlled charge trapping is hypothesized to be attributed to band bending and a built-in electric field ξbi between the interface of the metal NPs and MoS2. The metal NPs-MoS2 floating gate flash memories were further proven to be multi-bit memory storage devices possessing a 3-bit storage capability and a good retention capability up to 104 s. We anticipate that these findings would provide scientific insight for the development of novel memory devices utilizing an atomically thin two-dimensional lattice structure.Semiconducting two-dimensional materials appear to be excellent candidates for non-volatile memory applications. However, the limited controllability of charge trapping behaviors and the lack of multi-bit storage studies in two-dimensional based memory devices require further improvement for realistic applications. Here, we report a flash memory consisting of metal NPs-molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) as a floating gate by introducing a metal nanoparticle (NP) (Ag, Au, Pt) monolayer underneath the MoS2 nanosheets. Controlled charge trapping and long data retention have been achieved in a metal (Ag, Au, Pt) NPs-MoS2 floating gate flash memory. This controlled charge trapping is hypothesized to be attributed to band bending and a built-in electric field ξbi between the interface of the metal NPs and MoS2. The metal

  14. Changes in the Vegetation Cover in a Constructed Wetland at Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, C.L.; LaGory, K.

    2004-01-01

    Wetlands are valuable resources that are disappearing at an alarming rate. Land development has resulted in the destruction of wetlands for approximately 200 years. To combat this destruction, the federal government passed legislation that requires no net loss of wetlands. The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is responsible for regulating wetland disturbances. In 1991, the USACE determined that the construction of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory would damage three wetlands that had a total area of one acre. Argonne was required to create a wetland of equal acreage to replace the damaged wetlands. For the first five years after this wetland was created (1992-1996), the frequency of plant species, relative cover, and water depth was closely monitored. The wetland was not monitored again until 2002. In 2003, the vegetation cover data were again collected with a similar methodology to previous years. The plant species were sampled using quadrats at randomly selected locations along transects throughout the wetland. The fifty sampling locations were monitored once in June and percent cover of each of the plant species was determined for each plot. Furthermore, the extent of standing water in the wetland was measured. In 2003, 21 species of plants were found and identified. Eleven species dominated the wetland, among which were reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), crown vetch (Coronilla varia), and Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense). These species are all non-native, invasive species. In the previous year, 30 species were found in the same wetland. The common species varied from the 2002 study but still had these non-native species in common. Reed canary grass and Canada thistle both increased by more than 100% from 2002. Unfortunately, the non-native species may be contributing to the loss of biodiversity in the wetland. In the future, control measures should be taken to ensure the establishment of more desired native species.

  15. The effect of floating vegetation on denitrification and greenhouse gas production in wetland mesocosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, A. E.; Harrison, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Anthropogenic intensification of nitrogen (N) loading to aquatic ecosystems is widespread and can lead to the degradation of these systems. Wetlands are important sites for N removal via denitrification, the microbially mediated reduction of reactive nitrate to inert N2 gas, but they can also produce high levels of greenhouse gases. Floating plants play an important role in encouraging denitrification, since they create low oxygen conditions that may favor denitrification. We investigated whether wetland sediments with floating plant cover had higher denitrification and greenhouse gas production rates than wetland sediments without floating plants. Replicate flow-through mesocosms with wetland sediment and water were constructed in a growth chamber to mimic the wetland where the sediment and water were collected. Mesocosm treatments were covered with floating vegetation (duckweed), an opaque tarp, or no cover to determine how cover type affects denitrification and greenhouse gas production and whether biotic or abiotic factors are likely responsible for observed differences. Denitrification and greenhouse gas production rates were calculated by measuring excess N2 gas, methane, and nitrous oxide concentrations in the water column and measuring the gas exchange rates between the water column and the atmosphere. Gas exchange rates were measured using an inert volatile tracer added to the water column and accumulation of gas in the mesocosm headspace. Additional mesocosm experiments were performed to determine how duckweed-dominated wetland systems respond to nitrogen loading and which mechanism for lowering dissolved oxygen concentrations is important in affecting denitrification under floating vegetation. Mesocosms with floating vegetation had lower dissolved oxygen than no cover or tarp-covered mesocosms, which is consistent with field and literature observations. Water flowing out of the mesocosms had statistically lower total nitrogen and nitrate concentrations

  16. Construction of Mixed Covering Arrays of Variable Strength Using a Tabu Search Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, Loreto; Rangel-Valdez, Nelson; Torres-Jimenez, Jose

    The development of a new system involves extensive tests on the software functionality in order to identify possible failures. Also, a system already built requires a fine tuning of its configurable options to give the best performance in the environment it is going to work. Both cases require a finite set of tests that avoids testing all the possible combinations (which is time consuming); to this situation Mixed Covering Arrays (MCAs) are a feasible alternative. MCAs are combinatorial structures represented as matrices having a test case per row. MCAs are small, in comparison with brute force, and guarantees a level of interaction among the parameters involved (a difference with random testing). We present a Tabu Search (TS) algorithm to construct MCAs; the novelty in the algorithm is a mixture of three neighborhood functions. We also present a new benchmark for the MCAs problem. The experimental evidence showed that the TS algorithm improves the results obtained by other approaches reported in the literature, finding the optimal solution in some the solved cases.

  17. On floats and float tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seewald, Friedrich

    1931-01-01

    The principal source of information on float resistance is the model test. In view of the insuperable difficulties opposing any attempt at theoretical treatment of the resistance problem, particularly at attitudes which tend toward satisfactory take-off, such as the transitory stage to planing, the towing test is and will remain the primary method for some time.

  18. Floating Oil-Spill Containment Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous oil containment booms have an open top that allows natural gas to escape, and have significant oil leakage due to wave action. Also, a subsea pyramid oil trap exists, but cannot move relative to moving oil plumes from deepsea oil leaks. The solution is to have large, moveable oil traps. One version floats on the sea surface and has a flexible tarp cover and a lower weighted skirt to completely entrap the floating oil and natural gas. The device must have at least three sides with boats pulling at each apex, and sonar or other system to track the slowly moving oil plume, so that the boats can properly locate the booms. The oil trap device must also have a means for removal of the oil and the natural gas. A second design version has a flexible pyramid cover that is attached by lines to ballast on the ocean floor. This is similar to fixed, metal pyramid oil capture devices in the Santa Barbara Channel off the coast of California. The ballast lines for the improved design, however, would have winches that can move the pyramid to always be located above the oil and gas plume. A third design is a combination of the first two. It uses a submerged pyramid to trap oil, but has no anchor and uses boats to locate the trap. It has ballast weights located along the bottom of the tarp and/or at the corners of the trap. The improved floating oil-spill containment device has a large floating boom and weighted skirt surrounding the oil and gas entrapment area. The device is triangular (or more than three sides) and has a flexible tarp cover with a raised gas vent area. Boats pull on the apex of the triangles to maintain tension and to allow the device to move to optimum locations to trap oil and gas. The gas is retrieved from a higher buoyant part of the tarp, and oil is retrieved from the floating oil layer contained in the device. These devices can be operated in relatively severe weather, since waves will break over the devices without causing oil leaking. Also, natural

  19. 40 CFR 65.43 - Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... drains, each opening shall be equipped with a gasketed cover or gasketed lid. (iii) Each penetration of... cover, access hatch, gauge float well, or lid on any opening in the internal floating roof shall...

  20. 40 CFR 65.43 - Fixed roof with an internal floating roof (IFR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... drains, each opening shall be equipped with a gasketed cover or gasketed lid. (iii) Each penetration of... cover, access hatch, gauge float well, or lid on any opening in the internal floating roof shall...

  1. SEMINAR PUBLICATION: DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF RCRA/CERCLA FINAL COVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover systems are an essential part of all land disposal facilities. Covers control moisture infiltration from the surface into closed facilities and limit the formation of leachate and its migration to ground water. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subparts G, K...

  2. SEMINAR PUBLICATION: DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF RCRA/CERCLA FINAL COVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover systems are an essential part of all land disposal facilities. Covers control moisture infiltration from the surface into closed facilities and limit the formation of leachate and its migration to ground water. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subparts G, K...

  3. Attenuation of hydrogen sulfide at construction and demolition debris landfills using alternative cover materials.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiyong; Townsend, Timothy; Reinhart, Debra

    2010-04-01

    The attenuation of H(2)S emissions by various landfill cover materials was evaluated using both laboratory and field experiments. The results demonstrated that cover materials consisting of selected waste products (compost and yard trash) and soils amended with quicklime and calcium carbonate effectively attenuated H(2)S emissions and detectable H(2)S emissions were only encountered in a testing plot using a sandy soil cover (average emission rate was 4.67x10(-6)mgm(-2)s(-1)). H(2)S concentration profiles in the cover materials indicated that H(2)S was removed as it migrated through the cover materials. At the same depth in the testing area, the H(2)S concentration in the sandy soil field plot was always higher than that of other testing plots because the sand (a) demonstrated less ability to remove H(2)S and (b) exhibited a higher H(2)S concentration at the base of the cover. Laboratory experiments confirmed these observations, with a combination of physical adsorption, chemical reactions, and biological oxidation, accounting for the enhanced removal. In addition to removal, the results suggest that some of the cover materials reduced H(2)S generation by creating less favorable conditions for sulfate-reducing bacteria (e.g., high pH and temperature).

  4. State of the Earth’s cryosphere at the beginning of the 21st century : glaciers, global snow cover, floating ice, and permafrost and periglacial environments: Chapter A in Satellite image atlas of glaciers of the world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.; Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter is the tenth in a series of 11 book-length chapters, collectively referred to as “this volume,” in the series U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386, Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World. In the other 10 chapters, each of which concerns a specific glacierized region of Earth, the authors used remotely sensed images, primarily from the Landsat 1, 2, and 3 series of spacecraft, in order to analyze that glacierized region and to monitor changes in its glaciers. Landsat images, acquired primarily during the period 1972 through 1981, were used by an international team of glaciologists and other scientists to study the various glacierized regions and (or) to discuss related glaciological topics. In each glacierized region, the present distribution of glaciers within its geographic area is compared, wherever possible, with historical information about their past areal extent. The atlas provides an accurate regional inventory of the areal extent of glacier ice on our planet during the 1970s as part of an expanding international scientific effort to measure global environmental change on the Earth’s surface. However, this chapter differs from the other 10 in its discussion of observed changes in all four elements of the Earth’s cryosphere (glaciers, snow cover, floating ice, and permafrost) in the context of documented changes in all components of the Earth System. Human impact on the planet at the beginning of the 21st century is pervasive. The focus of Chapter A is on changes in the cryosphere and the importance of long-term monitoring by a variety of sensors carried on Earth-orbiting satellites or by a ground-based network of observatories in the case of permafrost. The chapter consists of five parts. The first part provides an introduction to the Earth System, including the interrelationships of the geosphere (cryosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and atmosphere), the biosphere, climate processes, biogeochemical cycles, and the

  5. 14 CFR 25.753 - Main float design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Main float design. 25.753 Section 25.753 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 25.753 Main float design...

  6. 33 CFR 143.120 - Floating OCS facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Floating OCS facilities. 143.120...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT OCS Facilities § 143.120 Floating OCS facilities. (a) Before construction is started on a proposed floating OCS facility, the owner or operator of the...

  7. 33 CFR 143.120 - Floating OCS facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Floating OCS facilities. 143.120...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT OCS Facilities § 143.120 Floating OCS facilities. (a) Before construction is started on a proposed floating OCS facility, the owner or operator of the...

  8. 33 CFR 143.120 - Floating OCS facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Floating OCS facilities. 143.120...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT OCS Facilities § 143.120 Floating OCS facilities. (a) Before construction is started on a proposed floating OCS facility, the owner or operator of the...

  9. 33 CFR 143.120 - Floating OCS facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Floating OCS facilities. 143.120...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT OCS Facilities § 143.120 Floating OCS facilities. (a) Before construction is started on a proposed floating OCS facility, the owner or operator of the...

  10. 14 CFR 25.753 - Main float design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Main float design. 25.753 Section 25.753 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 25.753 Main float...

  11. 47 CFR 73.3536 - Application for license to cover construction permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... television stations, “Application for TV Station Broadcast License.” (2) FCC Form 310, “Application for an... may file FCC Form 302-CA, “Application for Class A Television Broadcast Station Construction Permit Or...

  12. Using Tensor Completion Method to Achieving Better Coverage of Traffic State Estimation from Sparse Floating Car Data

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Bin; Song, Li; Cheng, Yang; Tan, Huachun

    2016-01-01

    Traffic state estimation from the floating car system is a challenging problem. The low penetration rate and random distribution make available floating car samples usually cover part space and time points of the road networks. To obtain a wide range of traffic state from the floating car system, many methods have been proposed to estimate the traffic state for the uncovered links. However, these methods cannot provide traffic state of the entire road networks. In this paper, the traffic state estimation is transformed to solve a missing data imputation problem, and the tensor completion framework is proposed to estimate missing traffic state. A tensor is constructed to model traffic state in which observed entries are directly derived from floating car system and unobserved traffic states are modeled as missing entries of constructed tensor. The constructed traffic state tensor can represent spatial and temporal correlations of traffic data and encode the multi-way properties of traffic state. The advantage of the proposed approach is that it can fully mine and utilize the multi-dimensional inherent correlations of traffic state. We tested the proposed approach on a well calibrated simulation network. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed approach yield reliable traffic state estimation from very sparse floating car data, particularly when dealing with the floating car penetration rate is below 1%. PMID:27448326

  13. Using Tensor Completion Method to Achieving Better Coverage of Traffic State Estimation from Sparse Floating Car Data.

    PubMed

    Ran, Bin; Song, Li; Zhang, Jian; Cheng, Yang; Tan, Huachun

    2016-01-01

    Traffic state estimation from the floating car system is a challenging problem. The low penetration rate and random distribution make available floating car samples usually cover part space and time points of the road networks. To obtain a wide range of traffic state from the floating car system, many methods have been proposed to estimate the traffic state for the uncovered links. However, these methods cannot provide traffic state of the entire road networks. In this paper, the traffic state estimation is transformed to solve a missing data imputation problem, and the tensor completion framework is proposed to estimate missing traffic state. A tensor is constructed to model traffic state in which observed entries are directly derived from floating car system and unobserved traffic states are modeled as missing entries of constructed tensor. The constructed traffic state tensor can represent spatial and temporal correlations of traffic data and encode the multi-way properties of traffic state. The advantage of the proposed approach is that it can fully mine and utilize the multi-dimensional inherent correlations of traffic state. We tested the proposed approach on a well calibrated simulation network. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed approach yield reliable traffic state estimation from very sparse floating car data, particularly when dealing with the floating car penetration rate is below 1%.

  14. Floating Point Control Library

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G. L.; Shereda, C.

    2007-08-02

    Floating Point Control is a Library that allows for the manipulation of floating point unit exception masking funtions control exceptions in both the Streaming "Single Instruction, Multiple Data" Extension 2 (SSE2) unit and the floating point unit simultaneously. FPC also provides macros to set floating point rounding and precision control.

  15. Exploring Floating Concrete and Beam Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Billie G.; Snell, Luke M.

    2002-01-01

    Presents two construction activities that address both state and federal science standards and encourage students to consider career options in mathematics and science. Includes floating concrete and paper bridge activities. (YDS)

  16. Exploring Floating Concrete and Beam Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Billie G.; Snell, Luke M.

    2002-01-01

    Presents two construction activities that address both state and federal science standards and encourage students to consider career options in mathematics and science. Includes floating concrete and paper bridge activities. (YDS)

  17. [Covering dental defects with aluminum cast dowel construction and technology of their manufacture].

    PubMed

    Khudonogov, G I

    1995-01-01

    Clinical and laboratory studies have revealed benefits of aluminum cast constructions. Its cast dowel inserts are used in the system of fixed metal-free dentures made from ceramics (dental bridges, single crowns, etc.). The high efficiency, availability of casting technology for aluminum reduces patients' treatment periods and ensures accurate attachment of dowel insets to the root canal and stump of a tooth.

  18. Floating plant dominance as a stable state

    PubMed Central

    Scheffer, Marten; Szabó, Sándor; Gragnani, Alessandra; van Nes, Egbert H.; Rinaldi, Sergio; Kautsky, Nils; Norberg, Jon; Roijackers, Rudi M. M.; Franken, Rob J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Invasion by mats of free-floating plants is among the most important threats to the functioning and biodiversity of freshwater ecosystems ranging from temperate ponds and ditches to tropical lakes. Dark, anoxic conditions under thick floating-plant cover leave little opportunity for animal or plant life, and they can have large negative impacts on fisheries and navigation in tropical lakes. Here, we demonstrate that floating-plant dominance can be a self-stabilizing ecosystem state, which may explain its notorious persistence in many situations. Our results, based on experiments, field data, and models, represent evidence for alternative domains of attraction in ecosystems. An implication of our findings is that nutrient enrichment reduces the resilience of freshwater systems against a shift to floating-plant dominance. On the other hand, our results also suggest that a single drastic harvest of floating plants can induce a permanent shift to an alternative state dominated by rooted, submerged growth forms. PMID:12634429

  19. 46 CFR 160.027-3 - Additional requirements for life floats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional requirements for life floats. 160.027-3..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Floats for Merchant Vessels § 160.027-3 Additional requirements for life floats. (a) Each life float must have a platform...

  20. 46 CFR 160.027-3 - Additional requirements for life floats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional requirements for life floats. 160.027-3..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Floats for Merchant Vessels § 160.027-3 Additional requirements for life floats. (a) Each life float must have a platform designed...

  1. 46 CFR 160.027-3 - Additional requirements for life floats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional requirements for life floats. 160.027-3..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Floats for Merchant Vessels § 160.027-3 Additional requirements for life floats. (a) Each life float must have a platform designed...

  2. 46 CFR 160.027-3 - Additional requirements for life floats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional requirements for life floats. 160.027-3..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Floats for Merchant Vessels § 160.027-3 Additional requirements for life floats. (a) Each life float must have a platform designed...

  3. 46 CFR 160.027-3 - Additional requirements for life floats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional requirements for life floats. 160.027-3..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Life Floats for Merchant Vessels § 160.027-3 Additional requirements for life floats. (a) Each life float must have a platform designed...

  4. WindWaveFloat

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, Alla

    2011-11-01

    Presentation from the 2011 Water Peer Review includes in which principal investigator Alla Weinstein discusses project progress in development of a floating offshore wind structure - the WindFloat - and incorporation therin of a Spherical Wave Energy Device.

  5. "Floating shoulder" injuries.

    PubMed

    Heng, Kenneth

    2016-12-01

    "Floating shoulder" is a rare injury complex resulting from high-energy blunt force trauma to the shoulder, resulting in scapulothoracic dissociation. It is commonly associated with catastrophic neurovascular injury. Two cases of motorcyclists with floating shoulder injuries are described.

  6. Floating: sink or swim.

    PubMed

    Pronger, L

    1995-12-01

    Budget restrictions, fewer human resources and fluctuating patient populations have combined to increase the practice of floating general duty nurses. Floating occurs when a nurse from an overstaffed unit, based on patient load, is required to work in another unit that is understaffed. Floating is not a new practice, but it has always been an emotionally charged issue. Today, with more float pool nurses seeking the security of a permanent position in a home unit, the issue has increased in intensity.

  7. The Design of Floats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sottorf, W

    1938-01-01

    Following a summary of the multiplicity of domestic and foreign floats and a brief enumeration of the requirements of floats, the essential form parameters and their effect on the qualities of floats are detailed. On this basis a standard float design is developed which in model families with varying length/beam ratio and angle of dead rise is analyzed by an experimental method which permits its best utilization on any airplane.

  8. Float launch system

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, R.R.

    1989-09-26

    This patent describes a method for deploying a seismic subarray, which includes a float, seismic gun support beam and umbilical cable, from a vessel. It comprises: putting the vessel underway; connecting the subarray to the vessel by a detachable saddle rigged via a cable from a boom; moving the subarray along the length of the boom outboard of the vessel; deploying the seismic gun support beam from the float into the water, whereby the beam stabilizes the subarray; lowering the float to the water; releasing the detachable saddle from the float; towing the released float with the vessel by the umbilical cable; and raising the detached saddle.

  9. Floating into Deep Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Frenais, R.; Saraceno, T.; Powell, J.

    2014-04-01

    Is it possible for spaceflight to become more sustainable? Artist and architect Tomas Saraceno proposes a long-term artscience research project based on his initial work with solar balloons to join with the efforts of engineers such as John Powell, working on the Airship to Orbit experiments, which describe a three stage process of using airships to fly to a large suborbital "Dark Sky Station' then literally floating into orbit with additional electrical and chemical propulsion. (See: http://www.jpaerospace.com) In his artworks Tomás Saraceno proposes cell-like flying cities as possible architectonic living spaces in direct reference to Buckminster Fuller's Cloud Nine (circa 1960). The fantastic architectural utopia Cloud Nine consists of a freely floating sphere measuring one mile in diameter that offers living space to several autonomous communities encompassing thousands of inhabitants each. The notion of the cloud is essential to the artist's work. The cloud as metaphor stands for artistic intention, for the meaning of territory and border in today's (urban) society, and for exploring possibilities for the sustainable development of the human living environment. In Saraceno's work this environment is not limited to the earth, but is explicitly conceived to reach into outer space. (Biomimetic Constructions- On the works of Tomás Saraceno By Katharina Schlüter) Saraceno is also interested in human factors experiments using his existing constructions as analogue environments for living on Mars and is proposing carry out a series of workshops, experiments and solar balloon launces in White Sands desert in early 2016 in collaboration with the curator Dr Rob La Frenais, the Rubin Center at The University of Texas at El Paso and various scientific partners.

  10. From the Sun to the Ice - Then Where? A Bi-polar, Integrated View of the Role of Polar Snow and Floating Ice Covers in the Earth's Heat Budget During IPY 2007/08

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eicken, H.; Grenfell, T.; Jeffries, M.; Perovich, D.; Sturm, M.

    2003-12-01

    The polar regions play a key role in the disposition of energy and in particular solar radiation in the earth's climate system. With the largest seasonal variations in surface albedo occurring over the polar oceans and with substantial changes in the extent and nature of the snow and ice covers in recent decades, the polar regions are a critical link between top-of-the atmosphere radiative fluxes and solar energy absorbed by the earth system. While recent studies have greatly improved our knowledge of the heat budget of the polar oceans, we are still far from understanding a number of fundamental questions related to the role of snow and ice in the global radiation budget and their importance for albedo feedback processes. For example, currently albedo parameterizations in large-scale sea ice and climate models are only partially successful in taking into account the physical processes driving seasonal and interannual albedo changes. In fact, the majority of models employ different albedo parameterizations for northern and southern hemisphere snow and sea ice. This is dictated by the strong contrasts in snow and ice melt processes in Arctic and Antarctic, which in of themselves are not all that well understood. Our own research in the Western Arctic and in the southern Ross Sea indicates that snow may play a crucial, currently underestimated role in governing these processes and hence the nature and magnitude of ice-albedo feedback processes. Here, we propose that an integrated, bi-polar examination of the interaction between snow and floating ice covers (sea and lake ice), coupled with a global-scale analysis of the role of polar ice masses in affecting the earth's radiation budget would provide an interesting and scientifically significant cryospheric thread within the framework of the IPY 2007/08. This work would also address other important aspects such as large-scale cloud radiative forcing over ice surfaces and spatio-temporal partitioning of the radiation

  11. A niche construction approach on the central Netherlands covering the last 220,000 years.

    PubMed

    van den Biggelaar, Don F A M; Kluiving, Sjoerd J

    This paper shows what a niche construction theory (NCT) approach can contribute to the long-term social and environmental history of an area when applied to both sedentary and non-sedentary communities. To understand how communities create and respond to environmental change, hominin presence of the central Netherlands within the last 220,000 years is used as a case study. For this case study we studied the interrelationship between hominins, water and landscape gradients for four periods of interest within this long-term hominin presence. During each of these periods the study area had a specific environmental setting and (possible) traces of hominin presence. These periods cover the (1) Middle to Late Saalian (~220-170 ka), (2) Late Glacial (~14.7-11.7 ka, (3) Mid-Holocene (6000-5400 BP) and (4) Late Holocene (1200-8 BP). This review shows that traces of niche construction behaviour related to water and landscape gradients in the central Netherlands can be shown for both sedentary and non-sedentary communities. Furthermore, in this review it is shown that the transition from inceptive to counteractive change in ecosystem management style in the central Netherlands took place between the Mid- and Late Holocene periods.

  12. 3. VIEW NORTH SHOWING FIXED SPAN, COVERED SPAN, MOVEABLE TRANSITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTH SHOWING FIXED SPAN, COVERED SPAN, MOVEABLE TRANSITION SPAN AND PONTOON FLOATING SPAN - Lacey V. Murrow Memorial Floating Bridge, Spanning Lake Washington at I-90, Seattle, King County, WA

  13. 46 CFR 161.010-2 - Design, construction, and test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Floating Electric Waterlight § 161.010-2 Design, construction, and test requirements. Each floating electric waterlight shall meet...

  14. 46 CFR 161.010-2 - Design, construction, and test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Floating Electric Waterlight § 161.010-2 Design, construction, and test requirements. Each floating electric waterlight shall meet...

  15. 152. Photographic copy of original construction drawing dated October 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    152. Photographic copy of original construction drawing dated October 24, 1930 (from Record Group 115, Denver Branch of the National Archives, Denver). 60 x 12 RING GATE CONTROL; FLOAT WELL ASSEMBLY AND COVER HOIST STEM-CONNECTION ROD-SLEEVE. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  16. Float Zone Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    A summary of the Analytical Float Zone Experiment System (AFZES) concept is presented. The types of experiments considered for such a facility are discussed. Reports from various industrial producers and users of float zone material are presented. Special emphasis is placed on state-of-the-art developments in low gravity manufacturing and their applications to space processing.

  17. Distribution and mobilization of pollutants in the sediment of a constructed floating wetland used for treatment of combined sewer overflow events.

    PubMed

    Van de Moortel, Annelies M K; Du Laing, Gijs; De Pauw, Niels; Tack, Filip M G

    2011-05-01

    Sediments in combined sewer overflow treatment systems may exhibit elevated pollutant concentrations. Concentrations measured in the sediment of a floating treatment wetland ranged from 0.17 to 1.6 (cadmium), 28 to 142 (copper), 10 to 33 (chromium), 50 to 141 (manganese), 5 to 20 (nickel), 50 to 203 (lead), and 185 to 804 (zinc) mg/kg dry matter and 7.4 to 17 (iron), 2 to 8 (total nitrogen), and 1.3 to 4.4 (total phosphorus) g/kg dry matter. During overflow events, the entering water volumes can disturb the sediments. A greenhouse experiment was set up to evaluate the possible mobilization of pollutants through disturbation. The disturbation did not result in an increased mobilization of cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel, lead, zinc, nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon towards the pore and surface water. Calcium concentrations in the surface water increased for all sediments, as a result of release from the exchangeable sediment pool and dissolution of carbonates. Geochemical speciation modeling indicated that, in the pore water, the free ion form was the most abundant for calcium, iron, manganese, cadmium, and nickel, with its fraction increasing with time.

  18. Floating emitter solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chih, Sah (Inventor); Cheng, Li-Jen (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A front surface contact floating emitter solar cell transistor is provided in a semiconductor body (n-type), in which floating emitter sections (p-type) are diffused or implanted in the front surface. Between the emitter sections, a further section is diffused or implanted in the front surface, but isolated from the floating emitter sections, for use either as a base contact to the n-type semiconductor body, in which case the section is doped n+, or as a collector for the adjacent emitter sections.

  19. Micromechanisms with floating pivot

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Ernest J.

    2001-03-06

    A new class of tilting micromechanical mechanisms have been developed. These new mechanisms use floating pivot structures to relieve some of the problems encountered in the use of solid flexible pivots.

  20. Floating Magnet Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake, Masayoshi

    1990-01-01

    A room-temperature demonstration of a floating magnet using a high-temperature superconductor is described. The setup and operation of the apparatus are described. The technical details of the effect are discussed. (CW)

  1. Commercial Float Zone Furnace

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-05-25

    S77-E-5094 (25 May 1996) --- Astronaut Marc Garneau, mission specialist representing the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), stands at the Commercial Float Zone Furnace (CFZF) in the Spacehab Module onboard the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour.

  2. Floating Magnet Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake, Masayoshi

    1990-01-01

    A room-temperature demonstration of a floating magnet using a high-temperature superconductor is described. The setup and operation of the apparatus are described. The technical details of the effect are discussed. (CW)

  3. The Floating Reference Librarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernon, Peter; Pastine, Maureen

    1972-01-01

    The floating librarian'' is one who interprets and adjusts the formal library structure to meet legitimate needs. This is one of the ways the academic reference librarian can gain greater acceptance with students and faculty. (9 references) (Author/NH)

  4. Reducing float coal dust

    PubMed Central

    Patts, J.R.; Colinet, J.F.; Janisko, S.J.; Barone, T.L.; Patts, L.D.

    2016-01-01

    Controlling float coal dust in underground coal mines before dispersal into the general airstream can reduce the risk of mine explosions while potentially achieving a more effective and efficient use of rock dust. A prototype flooded-bed scrubber was evaluated for float coal dust control in the return of a continuous miner section. The scrubber was installed inline between the face ventilation tubing and an exhausting auxiliary fan. Airborne and deposited dust mass measurements were collected over three days at set distances from the fan exhaust to assess changes in float coal dust levels in the return due to operation of the scrubber. Mass-based measurements were collected on a per-cut basis and normalized on the basis of per ton mined by the continuous miner. The results show that average float coal dust levels measured under baseline conditions were reduced by more than 90 percent when operating the scrubber. PMID:28018004

  5. Stabilized floating platforms

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, David G.

    1976-01-01

    The subject invention is directed to a floating platform for supporting nuclear reactors and the like at selected offshore sites. The platform is provided with a stabilizer mechanism which significantly reduces the effects of wave action upon the platform and which comprises a pair of relatively small floats attached by rigid booms to the platform at locations spaced therefrom for reducing wave pitch, acceleration, and the resonance period of the wave.

  6. Well casing float shoe or collar

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, H. J.

    1985-08-06

    A well casing float shoe which is adapted for a variety of well installations consists of a tubular metal shoe member filled with cementitious material having a longitudinal bore surrounding and securing in place a tubular metal sleeve. The metal sleeve is threaded at the top and bottom ends to receive a variety of sizes and types of check valves. A well casing float collar has the same construction, but the tubular shoe member is replaced with a tubular metal collar with threaded connections both above and below the cementitious filler material.

  7. Effect of a floating electrode on a plasma jet

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, J. T.; Wang, J. G.; Liu, X. Y.; Liu, D. W.; Lu, X. P.; Shi, J. J.; Ostrikov, K.

    2013-08-15

    Two kinds of floating electrode, floating dielectric barrier covered electrode (FDBCE) and floating pin electrode (FPE), which can enhance the performance of plasma jet are reported. The intense discharge between the floating electrode and power electrode decreased the voltage to trigger the plasma jet substantially. The transition of plasma bullet from ring shape to disk shape in the high helium concentration region happened when the floating electrode was totally inside the powered ring electrode. The enhanced electric field between propagating plasma bullet and ground electrode is the reason for this transition. The double plasma bullets happened when part of the FDBCE was outside the powered ring electrode, which is attributed to the structure and surface charge of FDBCE. As part of the FPE was outside the powered ring electrode, the return stroke resulted in a single intensified plasma channel between FPE and ground electrode.

  8. Floating zone melting of cadmium telluride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Wen-Ming; Regel, L. L.; Wilcox, W. R.

    1992-01-01

    To produce superior crystals of cadmium telluride, floating zone melting in space has been proposed. Techniques required for floating zone melting of cadmium telluride are being developed. We have successfully float-zoned cadmium telluride on earth using square rods. A resistance heater was constructed for forming the molten zone. Evaporation of the molten zone was controlled by adding excess cadmium to the growth ampoule combined with heating of the entire ampoule. An effective method to hold the feed rod was developed. Slow rotation of the growth ampoule was proven experimentally to be necessary to achieve a complete symmetric molten zone. Most of the resultant cylindrical rods were single crystals with twins. Still needed is a suitable automatic method to control the zone length. We tried a fiber optical technique to control the zone length, but experiments showed that application of this technique to automate zone length control is unlikely to be successful.

  9. Floating zone melting of cadmium telluride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Wen-Ming; Regel, L. L.; Wilcox, W. R.

    1992-01-01

    To produce superior crystals of cadmium telluride, floating zone melting in space has been proposed. Techniques required for floating zone melting of cadmium telluride are being developed. We have successfully float-zoned cadmium telluride on earth using square rods. A resistance heater was constructed for forming the molten zone. Evaporation of the molten zone was controlled by adding excess cadmium to the growth ampoule combined with heating of the entire ampoule. An effective method to hold the feed rod was developed. Slow rotation of the growth ampoule was proven experimentally to be necessary to achieve a complete symmetric molten zone. Most of the resultant cylindrical rods were single crystals with twins. Still needed is a suitable automatic method to control the zone length. We tried a fiber optical technique to control the zone length, but experiments showed that application of this technique to automate zone length control is unlikely to be successful.

  10. 46 CFR 160.057-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange... subjected to frigid or tropical climates, or both. (b) Workmanship. Floating orange smoke distress...

  11. 46 CFR 160.057-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange... subjected to frigid or tropical climates, or both. (b) Workmanship. Floating orange smoke distress...

  12. 46 CFR 160.022-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange... subjected to frigid or tropical climates, or both. (b) Workmanship. Floating orange smoke distress...

  13. 46 CFR 160.057-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange... subjected to frigid or tropical climates, or both. (b) Workmanship. Floating orange smoke distress...

  14. 46 CFR 160.022-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange... subjected to frigid or tropical climates, or both. (b) Workmanship. Floating orange smoke distress...

  15. 46 CFR 160.022-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange... subjected to frigid or tropical climates, or both. (b) Workmanship. Floating orange smoke distress signals...

  16. 46 CFR 160.057-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange... subjected to frigid or tropical climates, or both. (b) Workmanship. Floating orange smoke distress signals...

  17. 46 CFR 160.057-3 - Materials, workmanship, construction, and performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange... subjected to frigid or tropical climates, or both. (b) Workmanship. Floating orange smoke distress signals...

  18. Evaluation of alternative landfill cover soils for attenuating hydrogen sulfide from construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Cristine; Xu, Qiyong; Townsend, Timothy; Bitton, Gabriel; Booth, Matthew

    2007-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) generated from C&D debris landfills has emerged as a major environmental concern due to odor problems and possible health impacts to landfill employees and surrounding residents. Research was performed to evaluate the performance of various cover materials as control measures for H(2)S emissions from C&D debris landfills. Twelve laboratory-scale simulated landfill columns containing gypsum drywall were operated under anaerobic conditions to promote H(2)S production. Five different cover materials were placed on top of the waste inside duplicate columns: (1) sandy soil, (2) sandy soil amended with lime, (3) clayey soil, (4) fine concrete (particle size less than 2.5 cm), and (5) coarse concrete (particle size greater than 2.5 cm). No cover was placed on two of the columns, which were used as controls. H(2)S concentrations measured from the middle of the waste layer ranged from 50,000 to 150,000 ppm. The different cover materials demonstrated varying H(2)S removal efficiencies. The sandy soil amended with lime and the fine concrete were the most effective for the control of H(2)S emissions. Both materials exhibited reduction efficiencies greater than 99%. The clayey and sandy soils exhibited lower reduction efficiencies, with average removal efficiencies of 65% and 30%, respectively. The coarse concrete was found to be the least efficient material as a result of its large particle size.

  19. Behavior of Flotsam in the California Current System Utilizing Surface Drift of RAFOS Floats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    illustrates approximate water level when floating on the ocean surface. Float is constructed from a 0.08 m by 1.52 m glass tube...such as the “ Great Pacific Garbage Patch” (Howell et al. 2012) or possibly washed ashore (Maximenko et al. 2012). Flotsam drifts in the surface...is constructed from a 0.08 m by 1.52 m glass tube, which houses the electronics required for operation. 4 Figure 1. RAFOS Float (Woods Hole

  20. Floating Versus Sinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vella, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Small objects that are more dense than water may still float at the air-water interface because of surface tension. Whether this is possible depends not only on the density and size of the object, but also on its shape and surface properties, whether other objects are nearby, and how gently the object is placed at the interface. This review surveys recent work to quantify when objects can float and when they must sink. Much interest in this area has been driven by studies of the adaptations of water-walking insects to life at interfaces. I therefore discuss these results in the context of this and other applications.

  1. Floating nut retention system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, J. F.; Theakston, H. A. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A floating nut retention system includes a nut with a central aperture. An inner retainer plate has an opening which is fixedly aligned with the nut aperture. An outer retainer member is formed of a base plate having an opening and a surface adjacent to a surface of the inner retainer plate. The outer retainer member includes a securing mechanism for retaining the inner retainer plate adjacent to the outer retainer member. The securing mechanism enables the inner retainer plate to float with respect to the outer retainer number, while simultaneously forming a bearing surface for inner retainer plate.

  2. Floated gravity gradiometer and method

    SciTech Connect

    Lautzenhiser, T.V.; Eisner, M.

    1990-09-11

    This patent describes a gravity gradiometer. It comprises: a housing containing a fluid; a float buoyantly supported within the fluid; means for varying the metacentric height of the float; and means for obtaining a measure of the gravitational gradient acting on the float resulting from varying the metacentric height.

  3. Tethered float liquid level sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Daily, III, William Dean

    2016-09-06

    An apparatus for sensing the level of a liquid includes a float, a tether attached to the float, a pulley attached to the tether, a rotation sensor connected to the pulley that senses vertical movement of said float and senses the level of the liquid.

  4. Compound floating pivot micromechanisms

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Ernest J.

    2001-04-24

    A new class of tilting micromechanical mechanisms have been developed. These new mechanisms use compound floating pivot structures to attain far greater tilt angles than are practical using other micromechanical techniques. The new mechanisms are also capable of bi-directional tilt about multiple axes.

  5. Thomas floats through Zvezda

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-07-28

    S114-E-5588 (28 July 2005) --- Astronaut Andrew S.W. Thomas may be reminiscing about his long duration stay aboard Russia's late Mir space station as he floats about the International Space Station during STS-114 flight day three activities.

  6. Commercial Float Zone Furnace

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-05-25

    S77-E-5093 (25 May 1996) --- Astronaut Marc Garneau, mission specialist representing the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), makes a visual check of the Commercial Float Zone Furnace (CFZF), a single-rack-mounted facility in the Spacehab Module onboard the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour. The scene was recorded with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC).

  7. The floating anchored craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Gutman, Matthew J; How, Elena; Withers, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    The "floating anchored" craniotomy is a technique utilized at our tertiary neurosurgery institution in which a traditional decompressive craniectomy has been substituted for a floating craniotomy. The hypothesized advantages of this technique include adequate decompression, reduction in the intracranial pressure, obviating the need for a secondary cranioplasty, maintained bone protection, preventing the syndrome of the trephined, and a potential reduction in axonal stretching. The bone plate is re-attached via multiple loosely affixed vicryl sutures, enabling decompression, but then ensuring the bone returns to its anatomical position once cerebral edema has subsided. From the analysis of 57 consecutive patients analyzed at our institution, we have found that the floating anchored craniotomy is comparable to decompressive craniectomy for intracranial pressure reduction and has some significant theoretical advantages. Despite the potential advantages of techniques that avoid the need for a second cranioplasty, they have not been widely adopted and have been omitted from trials examining the utility of decompressive surgery. This retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data suggests that the floating anchored craniotomy may be applicable instead of decompressive craniectomy.

  8. Why Do Things Float?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selley, Nicholas

    1993-01-01

    Combines two strands: one being an exposition of the variety of explanations which are given for the phenomenon of floating; the other being the pedagogical implications which arise from the use of alternative models in science. Attention is drawn to the ethical questions that may arise when primary science seems to conflict with accepted…

  9. FLOPAK: FLOATING POINT PROGRAMING PACKAGE,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FLOPAK is a Packard-Bell 250 Computer semi-automatic, floating - point programing system which may be operated simultaneously in either of two modes...250 floating - point system available which may be used in real-time control. The system was originally designed to solve a real-time communication problem....The first is a non-time optimized mode which may be used by inex perienced coders; the second mode is a high-speed, fully time-optimized floating

  10. Analyses and thought on countermeasures for the family formation trend among floating population in Wuhan city.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Sun, L

    1997-01-01

    The familized floating population in China consists of families formed from blood kinship networks of floating population. This study examines the size of the familized floating population in Wuhan City in 1995 and the negative impacts for urban management, supplies, family planning, education, and employment. Floating population families are formed due to the presence of rural and urban differences, the desire for income, and a goal of permanent urban residence with family stability and steady economic gains. Data were obtained from a 1% sample survey among the floating population who lived in rented, borrowed, or self-built houses or apartments for over 6 months. 69.2% of the floating population, or 335,000 people, were familized floating population. 55.01% of the familized floating population were women, and 60.41% of the laborers were women. 33.50% of the women who "should" be employed were not. 50% of the women in some districts were unemployed. 30.61% were children under 14 years of age. The dependency burden for the employed floating population was greater than for the urban employed population. The birth rate among the familized floating population was 44.60%. 89.59% of women aged older than 15 years in the familized floating population were of childbearing age. Most had a low level of education. The floating population creates the need for educating 15,000 new students every year; this requires construction of 10 new schools every year. The floating population increases the need to produce more electricity, clothing, food, houses, and other services or facilities. The floating population brings norms about a higher family size, which challenges urban residents' beliefs and impedes smooth implementation of the family planning policy. Management needs to regulate population flow, reduce consumption, and control family formation and childbearing. Management needs to increase mobility costs.

  11. Floating-diffusion electrometer with adjustable sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, John R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The effective capacitance of the floating diffusion in a floating-diffusion electrometer is modified to adjust electrometer sensitivity. This is done by changing the direct potential applied to a gate electrode proximate to the floating diffusion.

  12. 40 CFR 63.1043 - Standards-Separator floating roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... visible cracks, holes, gaps, or other open spaces in the closure device or between the perimeter of the... secondary seal shall be mounted above the primary seal and cover the annular space between the floating roof... normal operations. Examples of such activities include those times when a worker needs to open a port...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1043 - Standards-Separator floating roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... visible cracks, holes, gaps, or other open spaces in the closure device or between the perimeter of the... secondary seal shall be mounted above the primary seal and cover the annular space between the floating roof... normal operations. Examples of such activities include those times when a worker needs to open a port...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1043 - Standards-Separator floating roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... visible cracks, holes, gaps, or other open spaces in the closure device or between the perimeter of the... secondary seal shall be mounted above the primary seal and cover the annular space between the floating roof... normal operations. Examples of such activities include those times when a worker needs to open a port...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1043 - Standards-Separator floating roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... visible cracks, holes, gaps, or other open spaces in the closure device or between the perimeter of the... secondary seal shall be mounted above the primary seal and cover the annular space between the floating roof... normal operations. Examples of such activities include those times when a worker needs to open a port...

  16. The impact on floats or hulls during landing as affected by bottom width

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewes, E

    1936-01-01

    For floats and hulls having V bottoms the impact force does not necessarily increase with increasing width. Therefore, the weight of the float landing gear, side walls, and other parts, and of the fuselage construction need not be increased with increasing bottom width, but the weight of the bottom construction itself, on the other hand, does not increase with increase in bottom width and is largely determined by the type of construction.

  17. Does It Sink or Float?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Judith Richards

    2012-01-01

    This activity is designed to teach prekindergarten to second grade students about the concept of sink or float through an inquiry activity. Students will use familiar objects to predict and test the properties of sink and float. Background information is offered to teachers to assist them with this activity. This lesson begins with an engaging…

  18. BEST POSSIBLE FLOATING POINT ARITHMETIC.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report presents an algorithm for floating point arithmetic, using single-length arithmetic registers, which yields the most accurate...approximation which can be expressed in the given floating point format, the greatest lower bound, or the least upper bound for the result of the operation

  19. Does It Sink or Float?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Judith Richards

    2012-01-01

    This activity is designed to teach prekindergarten to second grade students about the concept of sink or float through an inquiry activity. Students will use familiar objects to predict and test the properties of sink and float. Background information is offered to teachers to assist them with this activity. This lesson begins with an engaging…

  20. Construction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Harbor Deepening Project, Jacksonville, FL Palm Valley Bridge Project, Jacksonville, FL Rotary Club of San Juan, San Juan, PR Tren Urbano Subway...David. What is nanotechnology? What are its implications for construction?, Foresight/CRISP Workshop on Nanotechnology, Royal Society of Arts

  1. Construction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    San Juan, PR Tren Urbano Subway Project, San Juan, PR U.S. Army South, San Juan, PR U.S. Coast Guard Housing Project, San Juan, PR U.S. Coast Guard...construction?, Foresight/CRISP Workshop on Nanotechnology, Royal Society of Arts . Cheltenham, England: 2001, p.5. 56 Concrete Proposals, Economist, July 24

  2. Construction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    hot water, appliances, lightening and misc.66 Average and efficient energy costs were determined for each base. The collection of average and...data and the appropriate regional median condominium87 and apartment O&M costs . For new housing projects the energy efficient utility costs were used...supply of domestic skilled laborers and the increasing cost of insurance. The construction industry has always contracted and expanded based

  3. Floating-point Bugs in Embedded GNU C Library

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-19

    Floating-point Bugs in Embedded GNU C Library Soonho Kong Sicun Gao Edmund M. Clarke November 19, 2013 CMU-CS-13-130 School of Computer Science...Embedded GNU C Library. For instance, the sine function can return values larger than 1053 in certain rounding modes. Further investigation also...REPORT DATE 19 NOV 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Floating-point Bugs in Embedded GNU C

  4. Floating Silicon Method

    SciTech Connect

    Kellerman, Peter

    2013-12-21

    The Floating Silicon Method (FSM) project at Applied Materials (formerly Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates), has been funded, in part, by the DOE under a “Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross Cutting Technologies” grant (number DE-EE0000595) for the past four years. The original intent of the project was to develop the FSM process from concept to a commercially viable tool. This new manufacturing equipment would support the photovoltaic industry in following ways: eliminate kerf losses and the consumable costs associated with wafer sawing, allow optimal photovoltaic efficiency by producing high-quality silicon sheets, reduce the cost of assembling photovoltaic modules by creating large-area silicon cells which are free of micro-cracks, and would be a drop-in replacement in existing high efficiency cell production process thereby allowing rapid fan-out into the industry.

  5. Floating on oil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jihua; Deng, Xu; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Vollmer, Doris

    2014-09-09

    We demonstrate that disk-shaped steel meshes coated with a superamphiphobic layer are able to float on water and on organic liquids. A coated disk-shaped steel mesh of 1 cm radius has a loading capacity of 17 mN in water and still remarkable 9 mN in n-hexadecane. Experimentally measured supporting forces and loading capacities agree well with theoretical predictions. Inspired by the giant water lily, pan-shaped "oil lilies" with even higher loading capacity and artificial oil striders carrying more than 10 times their own weight are designed. Even after the artificial devices are fully immersed into different liquids, they show self-draining properties due to capillary forces.

  6. An integrated circuit floating point accumulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, T. C.

    1977-01-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center has developed a large scale integrated circuit (type 623) which can perform pulse counting, storage, floating point compression, and serial transmission, using a single monolithic device. Counts of 27 or 19 bits can be converted to transmitted values of 12 or 8 bits respectively. Use of the 623 has resulted in substantial savaings in weight, volume, and dollar resources on at least 11 scientific instruments to be flown on 4 NASA spacecraft. The design, construction, and application of the 623 are described.

  7. Evaporation mitigation by floating modular devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, M. M.; Peirson, W. L.

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged periods of drought and consequent evaporation from open water bodies in arid parts of Australia continue to be a threat to water availability for agricultural production. Over many parts of Australia, the annual average evaporation exceeds the annual precipitation by more than 5 times. Given its significance, it is surprising that no evaporation mitigation technique has gained widespread adoption to date. High capital and maintenance costs of manufactured products are a significant barrier to implementation. The use of directly recycled clean plastic containers as floating modular devices to mitigate evaporation has been investigated for the first time. A six-month trial at an arid zone site in Australia of this potential cost effective solution has been undertaken. The experiment was performed using clean conventional drinking water bottles as floating modules on the open water surface of 240-L tanks with three varying degrees of covering (nil, 34% and 68%). A systematic reduction in evaporation is demonstrated during the whole study period that is approximately linearly proportional to the covered surface. These results provide a potential foundation for robust evaporation mitigation with the prospect of implementing a cost-optimal design.

  8. Floating gate circuits in MOSIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, James R.

    1990-11-01

    The MOSIS foundry offers a two-poly CMOS process that can be used as a floating gate technology, albeit not with the same performance as commercial EEPROM foundries. This report characterizes the structures and programming techniques necessary to build floating gate structures and associated high-voltage addressing circuitry on the low-noise analog process available through MOSIS. Techniques that are used include Fowler-Nordheim tunneling, channel hot-electron injection, and avalanche injection. The dielectric materials between the floating gate and both the control gate and substrate are characterized. Unconventional lightly doped drain FET devices and additional circuit techniques for handling the high-voltage programming signals are presented.

  9. 95. Photocopied August 1978. CRIBS BEING FLOATED INTO PLACE FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. Photocopied August 1978. CRIBS BEING FLOATED INTO PLACE FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE SECOND SET (NOS. 13-16) OF COMPENSATING GATES. NOTE THE ORIGINAL FOUR GATES IN THE BACKGROUND, MAY 14, 1915. (587) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  10. Ipsilateral Floating Hip and Floating Knee - A Rare Entity.

    PubMed

    Yashavantha Kumar, C; Nalini, K B; Nagaraj, Prashanth; Jawali, Abhijith

    2013-01-01

    Ipsilateral floating hip and floating knee are very rare injuries. These injuries so uncommon that only three cases of similar kind have been reported. These injuries are due to high velocity injuries following motor vehicle accidents. Management of such complex injuries is a challenging task even in experienced hands as there are no standard treatment guidelines for such fractures. We hereby report a 20 yr old male who sustained ipsilateral floating hip and ipsilateral floating knee injuries following motor vehicle accident. Patient was stabilized initially and later taken up for surgery. Patient was treated with interlocking nail for femur and tibia in the same sitting whereas acetabulam fracture was managed conservatively. At five months all the fractures united well with restoration of good range of motion in both hip and knee. Ipsilateral floating knee and floating hip are very rare injuries seen following high velocity motor vehicle accidents. There are no standard guidelines for treatment of those fractures as only a few cases of similar kind have been reported in literature. Early fixation and aggressive mobilization ensures fracture union and fewer complications.

  11. Sellers floats into Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-16

    ISS023-E-041819 (16 May 2010) --- NASA astronaut Piers Sellers, STS-132 mission specialist, floats through a hatch on the International Space Station while space shuttle Atlantis remains docked with the station.

  12. De Winne floats through FGB

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-14

    ISS020-E-008936 (14 June 2009) --- European Space Agency astronaut Frank De Winne, Expedition 20 flight engineer, floats through the Zarya functional cargo block (FGB) of the International Space Station.

  13. De Winne floats through FGB

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-14

    ISS020-E-008938 (14 June 2009) --- European Space Agency astronaut Frank De Winne, Expedition 20 flight engineer, floats through the Zarya functional cargo block (FGB) of the International Space Station.

  14. NULL Convention Floating Point Multiplier

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Seshasayanan

    2015-01-01

    Floating point multiplication is a critical part in high dynamic range and computational intensive digital signal processing applications which require high precision and low power. This paper presents the design of an IEEE 754 single precision floating point multiplier using asynchronous NULL convention logic paradigm. Rounding has not been implemented to suit high precision applications. The novelty of the research is that it is the first ever NULL convention logic multiplier, designed to perform floating point multiplication. The proposed multiplier offers substantial decrease in power consumption when compared with its synchronous version. Performance attributes of the NULL convention logic floating point multiplier, obtained from Xilinx simulation and Cadence, are compared with its equivalent synchronous implementation. PMID:25879069

  15. NULL convention floating point multiplier.

    PubMed

    Albert, Anitha Juliette; Ramachandran, Seshasayanan

    2015-01-01

    Floating point multiplication is a critical part in high dynamic range and computational intensive digital signal processing applications which require high precision and low power. This paper presents the design of an IEEE 754 single precision floating point multiplier using asynchronous NULL convention logic paradigm. Rounding has not been implemented to suit high precision applications. The novelty of the research is that it is the first ever NULL convention logic multiplier, designed to perform floating point multiplication. The proposed multiplier offers substantial decrease in power consumption when compared with its synchronous version. Performance attributes of the NULL convention logic floating point multiplier, obtained from Xilinx simulation and Cadence, are compared with its equivalent synchronous implementation.

  16. Control development for floating wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savenije, Feike; Peeringa, Johan

    2014-06-01

    Control of a floating wind turbine has proven to be challenging, but essential for lowering the cost of floating wind energy. Topic of a recent joint R&D project by GustoMSC, MARIN and ECN, is the concept design and verification with coupled simulations and model tests of the GustoMSC Tri-Floater. Only using an integral design approach, including mooring and control design, a cost effective system can be obtained. In this project, ECN developed a general floating wind turbine control strategy and applied this in a case study to the GustoMSC Tri-Floater and the OC3Hywind spar, both equipped with the NREL 5MW RWT. The designed controller ensures stable operation, while maintaining proper speed and power regulation. The motions of the floating support are reduced and substantial load reduction has been achieved.

  17. Floating orbital molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Perlt, Eva; Brüssel, Marc; Kirchner, Barbara

    2014-04-21

    We introduce an alternative ab initio molecular dynamics simulation as a unification of Hartree-Fock molecular dynamics and the floating orbital approach. The general scheme of the floating orbital molecular dynamics method is presented. Moreover, a simple but sophisticated guess for the orbital centers is provided to reduce the number of electronic structure optimization steps at each molecular dynamics step. The conservation of total energy and angular momentum is investigated in order to validate the floating orbital molecular dynamics approach with and without application of the initial guess. Finally, a water monomer and a water dimer are simulated, and the influence of the orbital floating on certain properties like the dipole moment is investigated.

  18. Electrically floating, near vertical incidence, skywave antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Allen A.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Tremblay, Paul A.; Mays, Belva L.

    2014-07-08

    An Electrically Floating, Near Vertical Incidence, Skywave (NVIS) Antenna comprising an antenna element, a floating ground element, and a grounding element. At least part of said floating ground element is positioned between said antenna element and said grounding element. The antenna is separated from the floating ground element and the grounding element by one or more electrical insulators. The floating ground element is separated from said antenna and said grounding element by one or more electrical insulators.

  19. Floating wind turbine system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A floating wind turbine system with a tower structure that includes at least one stability arm extending therefrom and that is anchored to the sea floor with a rotatable position retention device that facilitates deep water installations. Variable buoyancy for the wind turbine system is provided by buoyancy chambers that are integral to the tower itself as well as the stability arm. Pumps are included for adjusting the buoyancy as an aid in system transport, installation, repair and removal. The wind turbine rotor is located downwind of the tower structure to allow the wind turbine to follow the wind direction without an active yaw drive system. The support tower and stability arm structure is designed to balance tension in the tether with buoyancy, gravity and wind forces in such a way that the top of the support tower leans downwind, providing a large clearance between the support tower and the rotor blade tips. This large clearance facilitates the use of articulated rotor hubs to reduced damaging structural dynamic loads. Major components of the turbine can be assembled at the shore and transported to an offshore installation site.

  20. Skylab floating ice experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. J. (Principal Investigator); Ramseier, R. O.; Weaver, R. J.; Weeks, W. F.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Coupling of the aircraft data with the ground truth observations proved to be highly successful with interesting results being obtained with IR and SLAR passive microwave techniques, and standard photography. Of particular interest were the results of the PMIS system which operated at 10.69 GHz with both vertical and horizontal polarizations. This was the first time that dual polarized images were obtained from floating ice. In both sea and lake ice, it was possible to distinguish a wide variety of thin ice types because of their large differences in brightness temperatures. It was found that the higher brightness temperature was invariably obtained in the vertically polarized mode, and as the age of the ice increases the brightness temperature increases in both polarizations. Associated with this change in age, the difference in temperature was observed as the different polarizations decreased. It appears that the horizontally polarized data is the most sensitive to variations in ice type for both fresh water and sea ice. The study also showed the great amount of information on ice surface roughness and deformation patterns that can be obtained from X-band SLAR observations.

  1. Floating into Thin Air

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A U

    2007-02-06

    On May 18, 2005, a giant helium balloon carrying the High Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT) sailed into the spring sky over the deserts of New Mexico. The spindly steel and aluminum gondola that houses the optics, detectors, and other components of the telescope floated for 25 hours after its launch from Fort Sumner, New Mexico. For 21 of those hours, the balloon was nearly 40 kilometers above Earth's surface--almost four times higher than the altitude routinely flown by commercial jet aircraft. In the upper reaches of Earth's atmosphere, HEFT searched the universe for x-ray sources from highly energetic objects such as binary stars, galaxy clusters, and supermassive black holes. Before landing in Arizona, the telescope observed and imaged a dozen scientific targets by capturing photons emitted from these objects in the high-energy (hard) x-ray range (above 10 kiloelectronvolts). Among these targets were the Crab synchrotron nebula, the black hole Cygnus X-1 (one of the brightest x-ray sources in the sky), and the blazar 3C454.3. The scientific data gathered from these targets are among the first focused hard x-ray images returned from high altitudes.

  2. Covered Bridge Security Manual

    Treesearch

    Brett Phares; Terry Wipf; Ryan Sievers; Travis Hosteng

    2013-01-01

    The design, construction, and use of covered timber bridges is all but a lost art in these days of pre-stressed concrete, high-performance steel, and the significant growth both in the volume and size of vehicles. Furthermore, many of the existing covered timber bridges are preserved only because of their status on the National Registry of Historic Places or the...

  3. 40 CFR Table 27 to Subpart G of... - Summary of Internal Floating Deck Fitting Loss Factors (KF) and Typical Number of Fittings (NF)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Summary of Internal Floating Deck... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Automatic gauge float well 1. Bolted cover, gasketed 5.1 Unbolted cover, gasketed 15 Unbolted...

  4. Evaporation mitigation using floating modular devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, M. Mahmudul; Peirson, William Leslie; Neyland, Bryce M.; Fiddis, Nicholas McQuistan

    2015-11-01

    Reducing evaporation losses from open water storages is of paramount importance in the improvement of water security in arid countries, including Australia. Widespread adoption of evaporation mitigation techniques has been prevented by their high capital and maintenance or operating costs. The use of clean, floating recycled materials to mitigate evaporation technique has been investigated systematically at sites within both the coastal and semi-arid zones of Australia. Evaporation reduction systematically increases with the proportion of covered surface. Evaporation is reduced by 43% at coastal site and 37% at arid zone site at the maximum packing densities achievable for a single layer of floating devices. The study highlights the importance of both long-term investigations and the climatic influences in the robust quantification of evaporation mitigation. The effects of solar radiation, temperature, wind speed and relative humidity on the evaporation rate at both study sites have been determined in terms of both the classical Penman model and FAO Penman Monteith model with corresponding pan coefficients quantified. FAO Penman Monteith model better estimates evaporation from the open reference tank.

  5. Effectiveness of porous covers for control of ammonia, reduced sulfur compounds, total hydrocarbons, selected volatile organic compounds, and odor from hog manure storage lagoons.

    PubMed

    Regmi, Shekhar; Ongwandee, Maneerat; Morrison, Glenn; Fitch, Mark; Surampalli, Rao

    2007-06-01

    Anaerobic lagoons are a major source of odor at concentrated animal feeding operations. Seven different kinds of artificial (geotextile and polyethylene foam) and natural (straw and redwood) permeable lagoon covers were evaluated for their potential to reduce odorous emissions generated by anaerobic waste lagoons. A novel floating sampling raft was constructed and used to simultaneously evaluate the effectiveness of lagoon covers on an operating swine waste lagoon. The air collected from the raft was evaluated for odor, total reduced sulfur (TRS) compounds, ammonia, total hydrocarbons, dimethyldisulfide, and trimethylamine. The emission rates from the lagoon were highly variable both temporally and spatially. All of the lagoon covers substantially reduced TRS emissions and odor. Geotextile fabric and a recycled foam cover exhibited the greatest reduction in total hydrocarbon emissions; natural covers were less effective. Because of consistently low emission rates of ammonia, no statistically significant reduction of ammonia emissions were observed from any of the lagoon covers.

  6. Organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories utilizing sputtered C nanoparticles as nano-floating-gate

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Chang-Hai; She, Xiao-Jian; Sun, Qi-Jun; Gao, Xu; Wang, Sui-Dong

    2014-10-20

    High-performance organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories have been achieved using sputtered C nanoparticles as the nano-floating-gate. The sputtered C nano-floating-gate is prepared with low-cost material and simple process, forming uniform and discrete charge trapping sites covered by a smooth and complete polystyrene layer. The devices show large memory window, excellent retention capability, and programming/reading/erasing/reading endurance. The sputtered C nano-floating-gate can effectively trap both holes and electrons, and it is demonstrated to be suitable for not only p-type but also n-type organic field-effect transistor nonvolatile memories.

  7. Cover Crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cover crops are a beneficial tool for use in conservation tillage systems. Cover crop residues reduce soil erosion from water and wind, increase soil water availability for subsequent crops, enhance soil organic matter and biological activity, and can decrease labor and energy inputs. Cover crop...

  8. Detection of Floating Inputs in Logic Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cash, B.; Thornton, M. G.

    1984-01-01

    Simple modification of oscilloscope probe allows easy detection of floating inputs or tristate outputs in digital-IC's. Oscilloscope probe easily modified with 1/4 W resistor and switch for detecting floating inputs in CMOS logic circuits.

  9. Detection of Floating Inputs in Logic Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cash, B.; Thornton, M. G.

    1984-01-01

    Simple modification of oscilloscope probe allows easy detection of floating inputs or tristate outputs in digital-IC's. Oscilloscope probe easily modified with 1/4 W resistor and switch for detecting floating inputs in CMOS logic circuits.

  10. Water-Pressure Distribution on Seaplane Float

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, F L

    1929-01-01

    The investigation presented in this report was conducted for the purpose of determining the distribution and magnitude of water pressures likely to be experienced on seaplane hulls in service. It consisted of the development and construction of apparatus for recording water pressures lasting one one-hundredth second or longer and of flight tests to determine the water pressures on a UO-1 seaplane float under various conditions of taxiing, taking off, and landing. The apparatus developed was found to operate with satisfactory accuracy and is suitable for flight tests on other seaplanes. The tests on the UO-1 showed that maximum pressures of about 6.5 pounds per square inch occur at the step for the full width of the float bottom. Proceeding forward from the step the maximum pressures decrease in magnitude uniformly toward the bow, and the region of highest pressures narrows toward the keel. Immediately abaft the step the maximum pressures are very small, but increase in magnitude toward the stern and there once reached a value of about 5 pounds per square inch. (author)

  11. Suppression of Marangoni Convection in Float Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    The basic purpose of this program is to demonstrate by means of an Earth-based 1-g experiment that the undesirable Marangoni (surface tension) convection can be suppressed or significantly reduced by means of gas jets directed tangentially to the free surface of the liquid in a float zone. These jets will establish the tangential shear stress field over the surface which must be adjusted to equal the counter-stress resultant of the Marangoni shear stress which causes the convection. For proposed materials processing in space (o-g), particularly of important, highly reactive semiconductor materials, e.g., silicon, microgravity will virtually eliminate the unwanted thermal-buoyancy convection in the liquid silicon, but will have no effect in reducing the Marangoni convection. Unless this can be sufficiently suppressed by other means, there may be no significant advantages to the proposed space processing of reactive semiconductors. Although some inert gas such as argon must be used for the corrosive liquid silicon, the Earth-based experiment uses air jets and various transparent oils, since the basic principle involved is the same. The first float zone is enclosed in a very small rectangular box with a quasi-planar free surface. Stable Marangoni convection has been achieved and velocities measured photographically. The air jet system with variable velocity and temperature is under construction. Three independent parameters must be optimized to attain maximum suppression: the gas velocity, angle of attack, and gas temperature.

  12. Suppression of Marangoni Convection in Float Zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    The basic purpose of this program is to demonstrate by means of an Earth-based 1-g experiment that the undesirable Marangoni (surface tension) convection can be suppressed or significantly reduced by means of gas jets directed tangentially to the free surface of the liquid in a float zone. These jets will establish the tangential shear stress field over the surface which must be adjusted to equal the counter-stress resultant of the Marangoni shear stress which causes the convection. For proposed materials processing in space (o-g), particularly of important, highly reactive semiconductor materials, e.g., silicon, microgravity will virtually eliminate the unwanted thermal-buoyancy convection in the liquid silicon, but will have no effect in reducing the Marangoni convection. Unless this can be sufficiently suppressed by other means, there may be no significant advantages to the proposed space processing of reactive semiconductors. Although some inert gas such as argon must be used for the corrosive liquid silicon, the Earth-based experiment uses air jets and various transparent oils, since the basic principle involved is the same. The first float zone is enclosed in a very small rectangular box with a quasi-planar free surface. Stable Marangoni convection has been achieved and velocities measured photographically. The air jet system with variable velocity and temperature is under construction. Three independent parameters must be optimized to attain maximum suppression: the gas velocity, angle of attack, and gas temperature.

  13. 77 FR 44544 - Safety Zone; Gilmerton Bridge Center Span Float-In, Elizabeth River; Norfolk, Portsmouth, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Gilmerton Bridge Center Span Float-In...; withdrawal. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is withdrawing its proposed rule concerning the Gilmerton Bridge Center Span Float-in and bridge construction of span placement. The original proposal had a start date of July...

  14. 77 FR 43557 - Safety Zone; Gilmerton Bridge Center Span Float-in, Elizabeth River; Norfolk, Portsmouth, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Gilmerton Bridge Center Span Float-in... provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the Gilmerton Bridge Center Span Float- in and bridge construction of span placement. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement to...

  15. 77 FR 35900 - Safety Zone; Gilmerton Bridge Center Span Float-in, Elizabeth River; Norfolk, Portsmouth, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Gilmerton Bridge Center Span Float-in... provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the Gilmerton Bridge Center Span Float- in and bridge construction of span placement. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement to...

  16. 40 CFR 65.45 - External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. 65.45 Section 65.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. The owner or operator who elects to...

  17. 40 CFR 65.45 - External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. 65.45 Section 65.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. The owner or operator who elects to...

  18. 40 CFR 65.45 - External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. 65.45 Section 65.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. The owner or operator who elects to...

  19. 40 CFR 65.45 - External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. 65.45 Section 65.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. The owner or operator who elects to...

  20. 40 CFR 65.45 - External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. 65.45 Section 65.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... External floating roof converted into an internal floating roof. The owner or operator who elects...

  1. 32 CFR 935.165 - Floating objects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Floating objects. 935.165 Section 935.165... REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Public Safety § 935.165 Floating objects. No person may anchor, moor, or beach any boat, barge, or other floating object on Wake Island in any location or manner other than as...

  2. Have Floating Rates Been a Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higham, David

    1983-01-01

    Floating exchange rates have not lived up to all expectations, but neither have they performed as badly as some critics have suggested. Examined are the impact of floating rates on balance of payments adjustment, domestic economic policy, and inflation and the claim that floating rates have displayed excessive fluctuations. (Author/RM)

  3. New Directions in Floating-Point Arithmetic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beebe, Nelson H. F.

    2007-12-01

    This article briefly describes the history of floating-point arithmetic, the development and features of IEEE standards for such arithmetic, desirable features of new implementations of floating-point hardware, and discusses work-in-progress aimed at making decimal floating-point arithmetic widely available across many architectures, operating systems, and programming languages.

  4. Have Floating Rates Been a Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higham, David

    1983-01-01

    Floating exchange rates have not lived up to all expectations, but neither have they performed as badly as some critics have suggested. Examined are the impact of floating rates on balance of payments adjustment, domestic economic policy, and inflation and the claim that floating rates have displayed excessive fluctuations. (Author/RM)

  5. Float It Down the River.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendzel, Sharon; Orfan, Lucy; Schuhmacher, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Presents an activity that involves students in a hands-on, creative project in which they use higher order thinking skills while designing and studying the basics of floating devices. Focuses on inquiry, a number of scientific principles, and the relationship between mathematics and science. (ASK)

  6. Floating Ring-Groove Lapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Robert L., Sr.; Williams, Robert L., Jr.; Chase, Timothy L.

    1992-01-01

    Tool fits out-of-round seal groove and laps it to fine finish without binding. Includes floating lapping pieces riding freely in groove, and are curved to match nominal diameter of groove. One lapping piece tightened so it does not move relative to disk.

  7. Flinking: Neither Floating nor Sinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Roger B.

    1993-01-01

    Describes an activity that challenges students to make an object that, when released under water, does not float up or sink down. The main concept this activity investigates is the density of ordinary objects in comparison to the density of water. (PR)

  8. Flinking: Neither Floating nor Sinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Roger B.

    1993-01-01

    Describes an activity that challenges students to make an object that, when released under water, does not float up or sink down. The main concept this activity investigates is the density of ordinary objects in comparison to the density of water. (PR)

  9. Designing seaplane hulls and floats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit,

    1926-01-01

    Experimental data, such as the results of tank tests of models, render it possible to predict, at least in principle, as to how a hull or float of a given shape will comport itself. We will see further along, however, how uncertain these methods are and how they leave room for empiricism, which will reign for a long time yet in seaplane research bureaus.

  10. Floating Ring-Groove Lapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Robert L., Sr.; Williams, Robert L., Jr.; Chase, Timothy L.

    1992-01-01

    Tool fits out-of-round seal groove and laps it to fine finish without binding. Includes floating lapping pieces riding freely in groove, and are curved to match nominal diameter of groove. One lapping piece tightened so it does not move relative to disk.

  11. Apple Floating in Cupola Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-06

    ISS038-E-042112 (6 Feb. 2014) --- A fresh apple floating freely near a window in the Cupola of the International Space Station is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 38 crew member. Currently docked to the station, a Russian Progress resupply vehicle (left) and a Soyuz spacecraft along with Earth's horizon are visible in the background.

  12. Fruit Floating at Cupola Window

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-12

    ISS038-E-029073 (12 Jan. 2014) --- A fresh apple floating freely near a window in the Cupola of the International Space Station is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 38 crew member. Attached to the Harmony node, the Orbital Sciences Corp. Cygnus commercial cargo craft, which brought the fresh fruit, is visible at center.

  13. Apple Floating in Cupola Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-06

    ISS038-E-042121 (6 Feb. 2014) --- A fresh apple floating freely near a window in the Cupola of the International Space Station is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 38 crew member. The bright sun and Earth's horizon provide the backdrop for the scene.

  14. Covering Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gest, Ted; Krajicek, David; Hackney, Suzette; Moore, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    Presents four brief articles on covering crime. Notes that reporting on crimes requires special skills for student reporters, editors, and photographers. Explains how to gain access to scenes, to develop journalistic ethics, and how to cover crime and its victims. Discusses the relation of race and ethnic issues to crime, and how visual…

  15. Floating nuclear power plants: potential implications for radioactive pollution of the northern marine environment.

    PubMed

    Standring, W J F; Dowdall, M; Amundsen, I; Strand, P

    2009-02-01

    Recent media reports as to the development, construction and possible deployment of floating nuclear power plants in the northern regions has generated significant interest in the matter. This paper presents background to the concept of floating nuclear power plants, information as to possible designs and iterations and some aspects of potential concern with respect to safety and the potential for environmental or other impacts as a result of the development and use of such systems in the northern regions.

  16. Assessing Fatigue and Ultimate Load Uncertainty in Floating Offshore Wind Turbines Due to Varying Simulation Length

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, G.; Lackner, M.; Haid, L.; Matha, D.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.

    2013-07-01

    With the push towards siting wind turbines farther offshore due to higher wind quality and less visibility, floating offshore wind turbines, which can be located in deep water, are becoming an economically attractive option. The International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) 61400-3 design standard covers fixed-bottom offshore wind turbines, but there are a number of new research questions that need to be answered to modify these standards so that they are applicable to floating wind turbines. One issue is the appropriate simulation length needed for floating turbines. This paper will discuss the results from a study assessing the impact of simulation length on the ultimate and fatigue loads of the structure, and will address uncertainties associated with changing the simulation length for the analyzed floating platform. Recommendations of required simulation length based on load uncertainty will be made and compared to current simulation length requirements.

  17. Implementation of 14 bits floating point numbers of calculating units for neural network hardware development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoev, I. V.; Beresnev, A. P.; Mytsko, E. A.; Malchukov, A. N.

    2017-02-01

    An important aspect of modern automation is machine learning. Specifically, neural networks are used for environment analysis and decision making based on available data. This article covers the most frequently performed operations on floating-point numbers in artificial neural networks. Also, a selection of the optimum value of the bit to 14-bit floating-point numbers for implementation on FPGAs was submitted based on the modern architecture of integrated circuits. The description of the floating-point multiplication (multiplier) algorithm was presented. In addition, features of the addition (adder) and subtraction (subtractor) operations were described in the article. Furthermore, operations for such variety of neural networks as a convolution network - mathematical comparison of a floating point (‘less than’ and ‘greater than or equal’) were presented. In conclusion, the comparison with calculating units of Atlera was made.

  18. A CMOS floating point multiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uya, M.; Kaneko, K.; Yasui, J.

    1984-10-01

    This paper describes a 32-bit CMOS floating point multiplier. The chip can perform 32-bit floating point multiplication (based on the proposed IEEE Standard format) and 24-bit fixed point multiplication (two's complement format) in less than 78.7 and 71.1 ns, respectively, and the typical power dissipation is 195 mW at 10 million operations per second. High-speed multiplication techniques - a modified Booth's allgorithm, a carry save adder scheme, a high-speed CMOS full adder, and a modified carry select adder - are used to achieve the above high performance. The chip is designed for compatibility with 16-bit microcomputer systems, and is fabricated in 2 micron n-well CMOS technology; it contains about 23000 transistors of 5.75 x 5.67 sq mm in size.

  19. Topsides equipment, operating flexibility key floating LNG design

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, K.; Lopez, R.; Mok, J.

    1998-03-09

    Use of a large-scale floating liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant is an economical alternative to an onshore plant for producing from an offshore field. Mobil Technology Co., Dallas, has advanced a design for such a plant that is technically feasible, economical, safe, and reliable. Presented were descriptions of the general design basis, hull modeling and testing, topsides and storage layouts, and LNG offloading. But such a design also presents challenges for designing topsides equipment in an offshore environment and for including flexibility and safety. These are covered in this second article. Mobil`s floating LNG plant design calls for a square concrete barge with a moon-pool in the center. It is designed to produce 6 million tons/year of LNG with up to 55,000 b/d of condensate from 1 bcfd of raw feed gas.

  20. CFZF - Commercial Float Zone Furnace

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-06-05

    STS077-392-033 (19-29 May 1996) --- Astronaut Marc Garneau, mission specialist, works at the Commercial Float Zone Furnace (CFZF) in the Spacehab Module onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour. Garneau, representing the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), and five other astronauts went on to spend almost ten-days aboard Endeavour in support of the Spacehab 4 mission and a number of other payloads.

  1. Fruit Floating at Cupola Window

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-12

    ISS038-E-029068 (12 Jan. 2014) --- A fresh apple floating freely near a window in the Cupola of the International Space Station is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 38 crew member. Attached to the Harmony node, the Orbital Sciences Corp. Cygnus commercial cargo craft, which brought the fresh fruit, is visible at center. The bright sun, Earth's horizon and the blackness of space provide the backdrop for the scene.

  2. Sky cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerth, Jordan J.

    Of all of the standard meteorological parameters collected and observed daily, sky cover is not only one of the most complex, but the one that is fairly ambiguously defined and difficult to quantify. Despite that, the implications of how cloud fraction and sky cover are understood not only impact daily weather forecasts, but also present challenges to assessing the state of the earth's climate system. Part of the reason for this is the lack of observational methods for verifying the skill of clouds represented and parameterized in numerical models. While human observers record sky cover as part of routine duties, the spatial coverage of such observations in the United States is relatively sparse. There is greater spatial coverage of automated observations, and essentially complete coverage from geostationary weather satellites that observe the Americas. A good analysis of sky cover reconciles differences between manual observations, automated observations, and satellite observations, through an algorithm that accounts for the strengths and weaknesses of each dataset. This work describes the decision structure for trusting and weighting these similar observations. Some of the issues addressed include: human and instrument error resulting from approximations and estimations, a deficiency in high cloud detectability using surface-based ceilometers, poorly resolved low cloud using infrared channels on space-based radiometers during overnight hours, and decreased confidence in satellite-detected cloud during stray light periods. Using the blended sky cover analysis as the best representation of cloudiness, it is possible to compare the analysis to numerical model fields in order to assess the performance of the model and the parameterizations therein, as well as confirm or uncover additional relationships between sky cover and pertinent fields using an optimization methodology. The optimizer minimizes an affine expression of adjusted fields to the "truth" sky cover

  3. Float zone experiments in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoeven, J. D.; Noack, M. A.; Gill, W. N.; Hau, C. C.

    1984-01-01

    The molten zone/freezing crystal interface system and all the mechanisms were examined. If Marangoni convection produces oscillatory flows in the float zone of semiconductor materials, such as silicon, then it is unlikely that superior quality crystals can be grown in space using this process. The major goals were: (1) to determine the conditions for the onset of Marangoni flows in molten tin, a model system for low Prandtl number molten semiconductor materials; (2) to determine whether the flows can be suppressed by a thin oxide layer; and (3) based on experimental and mathematical analysis, to predict whether oscillatory flows will occur in the float zone silicon geometry in space, and if so, could it be suppressed by thin oxide or nitride films. Techniques were developed to analyze molten tin surfaces in a UHV system in a disk float zone geometry to minimize buoyancy flows. The critical Marangoni number for onset of oscillatory flows was determined to be greater than 4300 on atomically clean molten tin surfaces.

  4. Float Zone Experiments in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoeven, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this work has been to evaluate whether or not Marangoni flow could be suppressed in molten metals by the presence of very thin oxide films. Experimental work has been carried out on molten Sn under UHV conditions. A disk floating zone arrangement was developed to allow in situ Auger examination of molten surfaces. An electron energy loss technique was developed which allows detection of continuous tin oxide films of 6 A or greater. Experiments were planned to detect the effects of oxide formation upon Marangoni flow by measuring: (1) temperature profiles, (2) solid liquid interface shapes, (3) macrosegregation, and (4) the onset of oscillatory Marangoni flow by detecting oscillating temperature variations. Work on (4) showed that oscillatory temperature variations of frequency or = 10 Hz were not present in the disk float zone geometry under conditions of Ma = 4300 with an oxide free molten surface. The disk float zone geometry was modeled with a finite element analysis and temperature and velocity profiles were determined.

  5. Cost comparisons of alternative landfill final covers

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1997-02-01

    A large-scale field demonstration comparing and contrasting final landfill cover designs has been constructed and is currently being monitored. Four alternative cover designs and two conventional designs (a RCRA Subtitle ``D`` Soil Cover and a RCRA Subtitle ``C`` Compacted Clay Cover) were constructed of uniform size, side-by-side. The demonstration is intended to evaluate the various cover designs based on their respective water balance performance, ease and reliability of construction, and cost. This paper provides an overview of the construction costs of each cover design.

  6. Diagnosing overturning and water mass transformation in the Labrador Sea from Argo and PALACE floats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holte, J.; Straneo, F.

    2016-02-01

    We use Argo and PALACE floats, which have been sampling the Labrador Sea since the mid 1990s, to examine the Labrador Sea overturning and its variability on seasonal and decadal timescales. Floats have collected observations in all seasons as well as in the boundary current, allowing for an examination of the seasonal signal of the overturning and of the boundary current's contribution to the overturning. We construct seasonal composite geostrophic velocity sections across the mouth of the Labrador Sea from potential density profiles and float trajectories at 1000 m. The velocity sections are used to calculate the horizontal and overturning circulations and the water mass transformation. We also track the seasonal and spatial patterns of properties in the boundary current to evaluate theoretical estimates of sinking in the boundary current. The recent Argo observations, collected during a period of relatively weak deep convection, are compared to PALACE float observations from the mid-1990s, a period of stronger deep convection.

  7. Tank Tests of Twin Seaplane Floats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrman, H; Kempf, G; Kloess, H

    1928-01-01

    The following report contains the most essential data for the hydrodynamic portion of the twin-float problem. The following points were successfully investigated: 1) difference between stationary and nonstationary flow; 2) effect of the shape of the step; 3) effect of distance between floats; 4) effect of nose-heavy and tail-heavy moments; 5) effect of the shape of floats; 6) maneuverability.

  8. The impact on seaplane floats during landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Karman, TH

    1929-01-01

    In order to make a stress analysis of seaplane floats, and especially of the members connecting the floats with the fuselage, it is of great importance to determine the maximum pressure acting on the floats during landing. Here, the author gives a formula for maximum pressures during landing that permits one to apply experimental results to different bodies and different velocities. The author notes that the formula checks very well with experimental results.

  9. Acoustic Float for Marine Mammal Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    a matured technology, and is manufactured mainly by two companies, Webb Research (APEX) and Martec (PROVOR). Our original acoustic float, the...adding another microprocessor inside the float as originally planned, we have reprogrammed the APEX float processor board itself (apf9) by changing... echolocation clicks. The analysis revealed that by using ICI information, the ERMA detector was able to reduce the number of false positive detections to less

  10. Floating Point Multiply-Add-Subtract Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-07

    implementation receives two floating point numbers Ain and Bin. The floating point number is separated into component parts for processing. For this purpose...in FIG. 2 the mantissa of Ain is identified as Aman, and the mantissa of Bin is identified as Bman. The exponent of Ain is identified as Aexp, and...unit implementation 10 receives Ain and Bin in a floating point format that can be broken up into signs, mantissas, and exponents. These numbers

  11. Wall Covering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The attractive wall covering shown below is one of 132 styles in the Mirror Magic II line offered by The General Tire & Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio. The material is metallized plastic fabric, a spinoff from space programs. Wall coverings are one of many consumer applications of aluminized plastic film technology developed for NASA by a firm later bought by King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Massachusetts, which now produces the material. The original NASA use was in the Echo 1 passive communications satellite, a "space baloon" made of aluminized mylar; the high reflectivity of the metallized coating enabled relay of communications signals from one Earth station to another by "bouncing" them off the satellite. The reflectivity feature also made the material an extremely efficient insulator and it was subsequently widely used in the Apollo program for such purposes as temperature control of spacecraft components and insulation of tanks for fuels that must be maintained at very low temperatures. I Used as a wall covering, the aluminized material offers extra insulation, reflects light and I resists cracking. In addition to General Tire, King-Seeley also supplies wall covering material to Columbus Coated Fabrics Division of Borden, Incorporated, Columbus, Ohio, among others.

  12. Cover Crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cover crops are great tools to improve soil quality and health, and great tools to increase carbon sequestration. They are nutrient management tools that can help scavenge nitrate, cycle nitrogen to the following crop, mine NO3 from groundwater, and increase nitrogen use efficiency of cropping syste...

  13. Modeling International Space Station (ISS) Floating Potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Gardner, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    The floating potential of the International Space Station (ISS) as a function of the electron current collection of its high voltage solar array panels is derived analytically. Based on Floating Potential Probe (FPP) measurements of the ISS potential and ambient plasma characteristics, it is shown that the ISS floating potential is a strong function of the electron temperature of the surrounding plasma. While the ISS floating potential has so far not attained the pre-flight predicted highly negative values, it is shown that for future mission builds, ISS must continue to provide two-fault tolerant arc-hazard protection for astronauts on EVA.

  14. [Assessment of concomitant floating knees injuries severity].

    PubMed

    Eone, Daniel Handy; Lamah, Léopold; Bayiha, Jean Emile; Ondoa, Danielle Larissa Essomba; Nonga, Bernadette Ngo; Ibrahima, Farikou; Bahebeck, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Floating knee is caused by high-energy trauma, whose genesis is suggestive of extensive locoregional and general damages. Referring to multiple trauma. The aim of our study was to collect data on all concomitant floating knee injuries in our practice environment and to evaluate their severity. We conducted a descriptive and retrospective study over a period of 14 years and 9 months. Our sample consisted of 75 floating knees, the average age was 35 years. Sixty six patients had an ISS≥16 (classified as polytrauma). Head traumas, chest and abdominal injuries associated with floating knee injuries require adequate resuscitation.

  15. Modeling International Space Station (ISS) Floating Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Gardner, Barbara

    2002-05-01

    The floating potential of the International Space Station (ISS) as a function of the electron current collection of its high voltage solar array panels is derived analytically. Based on Floating Potential Probe (FPP) measurements of the ISS potential and ambient plasma characteristics, it is shown that the ISS floating potential is a strong function of the electron temperature of the surrounding plasma. While the ISS floating potential has so far not attained the pre-flight predicted highly negative values, it is shown that for future mission builds, ISS must continue to provide two-fault tolerant arc-hazard protection for astronauts on EVA.

  16. Floating point representations in quantum circuit synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, Nathan; Kliuchnikov, Vadym

    2013-09-01

    We provide a non-deterministic quantum protocol that approximates the single qubit rotations Rx(2ϕ21ϕ22) using Rx(2ϕ1) and Rx(2ϕ2) and a constant number of Clifford and T operations. We then use this method to construct a ‘floating point’ implementation of a small rotation wherein we use the aforementioned method to construct the exponent part of the rotation and also to combine it with a mantissa. This causes the cost of the synthesis to depend more strongly on the relative (rather than absolute) precision required. We analyze the mean and variance of the T-count required to use our techniques and provide new lower bounds for the T-count for ancilla free synthesis of small single-qubit axial rotations. We further show that our techniques can use ancillas to beat these lower bounds with high probability. We also discuss the T-depth of our method and see that the vast majority of the cost of the resultant circuits can be shifted to parallel computation paths.

  17. Effect of long-term stress relief annealing on properties of low-alloy weld deposit of covered electrodes for welding of thick-walled nuclear constructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niagaj, Jerzy

    2012-09-01

    The article discusses the results of tests on the impact of long-term stress relief annealing at 620-650°C and cooling at a rate of 10°C/h on the mechanical properties of low-alloy weld deposits of covered electrodes containing 1.5-3% Ni, 0-0.3% Mo and 0.01-0.03% P. The article also contains information on the most advantageous nickel content for obtaining the highest impact energy (KV) values in subzero temperatures. X-ray structural analysis revealed that such weld deposits contain solely Fe3C carbides, which prevents the impact of molybdenum carbides on the change of KV. The study also confirmed the adverse effect of phosphorus on the weld deposit impact energy after long-lasting heat treatment.

  18. Raft and floating radio frequency identification (RFID) antenna systems for detecting and estimating abundance of PIT-tagged fish in rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fetherman, Eric R.; Avila, Brian W.; Winkelman, Dana L.

    2016-01-01

    Portable radio frequency identification (RFID) PIT tag antenna systems are increasingly being used in studies examining aquatic animal movement, survival, and habitat use, and their design flexibility permits application in a wide variety of settings. We describe the construction, use, and performance of two portable floating RFID PIT tag antenna systems designed to detect fish that were unavailable for recapture using stationary antennas or electrofishing. A raft antenna system was designed to detect and locate PIT-tagged fish in relatively long (i.e., ≥10 km) river reaches, and consisted of two antennas: (1) a horizontal antenna (4 × 1.2 m) installed on the bottom of the raft and used to detect fish in shallower river reaches (<1 m), and (2) a vertical antenna (2.7 × 1.2 m) for detecting fish in deeper pools (≥1 m). Detection distances of the horizontal antenna were between 0.7 and 1.0 m, and detection probability was 0.32 ± 0.02 (mean ± SE) in a field test using rocks marked with 32-mm PIT tags. Detection probability of PIT-tagged fish in the Cache la Poudre River, Colorado, using the raft antenna system, which covered 21% of the wetted area, was 0.14 ± 0.14. A shore-deployed floating antenna (14.6 × 0.6 m), which covered 100% of the wetted area, was designed for use by two operators for detecting and locating PIT-tagged fish in shorter (i.e., <2 km) river reaches. Detection distances of the shore-deployed floating antenna were between 0.7 and 0.8 m, and detection probabilities during field deployment in the St. Vrain River exceeded 0.52. The shore-deployed floating antenna was also used to estimate abundance of PIT-tagged fish. Results suggest that the shore-deployed floating antenna could be used as an alternative to estimating abundance using traditional sampling methods such as electrofishing.

  19. BLOCK-FLOATING-POINT REALIZATION OF DIGITAL FILTERS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A realization for digital filters using block- floating - point arithmetic is proposed. A statistical model for roundoff noise is presented and used to compare block- floating - point with fixed-point and floating - point realizations.

  20. Wave drag on floating bodies

    PubMed Central

    Le Merrer, Marie; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David; Raphaël, Élie; Chevy, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    We measure the deceleration of liquid nitrogen drops floating at the surface of a liquid bath. On water, the friction force is found to be about 10 to 100 times larger than on a solid substrate, which is shown to arise from wave resistance. We investigate the influence of the bath viscosity and show that the dissipation decreases as the viscosity is increased, owing to wave damping. The measured resistance is well predicted by a model imposing a vertical force (i.e., the drop weight) on a finite area, as long as the wake can be considered stationary. PMID:21876186

  1. Self-stabilizing floating tower

    SciTech Connect

    Mougin, G.L.

    1980-12-30

    An offshore floating tower comprises two coaxial cylindrical enclosures interconnected by continuous radial bulkheads forming in the upper portion a ring of damping chambers and in the lower portion a ring of buoyancy tanksaround a bell-shaped chamber which is partially filled with air to produce pneumatic damping of vertical movement of the tower. The upper portion of the tower is separated from the lower portion by a horizontal slab. The upper portion of the internal enclosure is perforated in the vicinity of the horizontal slab.

  2. Floating patella associated with lymphoedema

    PubMed Central

    Vun, Shen Hwa; Bayam, Levent; Drampalos, Efstathios; Jesry, Mohammed; Fadel, George

    2015-01-01

    Ipsilateral injury of more than one component of the knee extensor apparatus is rare. It is mostly associated with previous trauma, surgery, immunosuppression therapy and systemic disease. We present the first documented case of a spontaneous bifocal disruption of the knee extensor apparatus (i.e. floating patella) associated with lymphoedema. This case highlights the importance of considering lymphoedema as another risk factor for rupture of the knee extensor apparatus. It also highlights the importance of assessing all components of the knee extensor apparatus in patients presenting with acute knee injuries. PMID:25802253

  3. 46 CFR 160.073-10 - Construction and performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Float-Free Link or Life Floats and Buoyant Apparatus § 160.073-10 Construction and performance. (a) The link must be constructed essentially as shown in figure 160.073-10. The link must be formed from a single salt water corrosion-resistant wire. A...

  4. 46 CFR 160.073-10 - Construction and performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Float-Free Link or Life Floats and Buoyant Apparatus § 160.073-10 Construction and performance. (a) The link must be constructed essentially as shown in figure 160.073-10. The link must be formed from a single salt water corrosion-resistant wire. A...

  5. Floating Probe Assembly for Measuring Temperature of Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Randy; Ruffin, Clyde

    2002-01-01

    A floating apparatus denoted a temperature probe aquatic suspension system (TPASS) has been developed for measuring the temperature of an ocean, lake, or other natural body of water at predetermined depths. Prior instruments built for the same purpose were found to give inaccurate readings because the apparatuses themselves significantly affected the temperatures of the water in their vicinities. The design of the TPASS is intended to satisfy a requirement to minimize the perturbation of the temperatures to be measured. The TPASS includes a square-cross-section aluminum rod 28 in. (=71 cm) long with floats attached at both ends. Each float includes five polystyrene foam disks about 3/4 in.(=1.9 cm) thick and 2.5 in. (=6.4 cm) in diameter. The disks are stacked to form cylinders, bolted to the rod, and covered with hollow plastic sleeves. A metal sleeve is clamped to the middle of the aluminum rod, from whence it hangs down into the water. Temperature probes (which can be thermocouples, thermistors, or resistance temperature devices) are placed within the sleeve at the desired measurement depths. Wires from the temperature probes are routed to the input terminals of a data logger.

  6. Floating Probe Assembly for Measuring Temperature of Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selinsky, T.; Stewart, Randy; Ruffin, Clyde

    2002-01-01

    A floating apparatus denoted a temperature probe aquatic suspension system (TPASS) has been developed for measuring the temperature of an ocean, lake, or other natural body of water at predetermined depths. Prior instruments built for the same purpose were found to give inaccurate readings because the apparatuses themselves significantly affected the temperatures of the water in their vicinities. The design of the TPASS is intended to satisfy a requirement to minimize the perturbation of the temperatures to be measured. The TPASS includes a square-cross-section aluminum rod 28 in. (approx. = 71 cm) long with floats attached at both ends. Each float includes five polystyrene foam disks about 3/4 in. (approx. = 1.9 cm) thick and 2.5 in. (approx. = 6.4 cm) in diameter. The disks are stacked to form cylinders, bolted to the rod, and covered with hollow plastic sleeves. A metal sleeve is clamped to the middle of the aluminum rod, from whence it hangs down into the water. Temperature probes (which can be thermocouples, thermistors, or resistance temperature devices) are placed within the sleeve at the desired measurement depths. Wires from the temperature probes are routed to the input terminals of a data logger. This work was done by Randy

  7. Floating Probe Assembly for Measuring Temperature of Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selinsky, T.; Stewart, Randy; Ruffin, Clyde

    2002-01-01

    A floating apparatus denoted a temperature probe aquatic suspension system (TPASS) has been developed for measuring the temperature of an ocean, lake, or other natural body of water at predetermined depths. Prior instruments built for the same purpose were found to give inaccurate readings because the apparatuses themselves significantly affected the temperatures of the water in their vicinities. The design of the TPASS is intended to satisfy a requirement to minimize the perturbation of the temperatures to be measured. The TPASS includes a square-cross-section aluminum rod 28 in. (approx. = 71 cm) long with floats attached at both ends. Each float includes five polystyrene foam disks about 3/4 in. (approx. = 1.9 cm) thick and 2.5 in. (approx. = 6.4 cm) in diameter. The disks are stacked to form cylinders, bolted to the rod, and covered with hollow plastic sleeves. A metal sleeve is clamped to the middle of the aluminum rod, from whence it hangs down into the water. Temperature probes (which can be thermocouples, thermistors, or resistance temperature devices) are placed within the sleeve at the desired measurement depths. Wires from the temperature probes are routed to the input terminals of a data logger. This work was done by Randy

  8. Floating Probe Assembly for Measuring Temperature of Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Randy; Ruffin, Clyde

    2002-01-01

    A floating apparatus denoted a temperature probe aquatic suspension system (TPASS) has been developed for measuring the temperature of an ocean, lake, or other natural body of water at predetermined depths. Prior instruments built for the same purpose were found to give inaccurate readings because the apparatuses themselves significantly affected the temperatures of the water in their vicinities. The design of the TPASS is intended to satisfy a requirement to minimize the perturbation of the temperatures to be measured. The TPASS includes a square-cross-section aluminum rod 28 in. (=71 cm) long with floats attached at both ends. Each float includes five polystyrene foam disks about 3/4 in.(=1.9 cm) thick and 2.5 in. (=6.4 cm) in diameter. The disks are stacked to form cylinders, bolted to the rod, and covered with hollow plastic sleeves. A metal sleeve is clamped to the middle of the aluminum rod, from whence it hangs down into the water. Temperature probes (which can be thermocouples, thermistors, or resistance temperature devices) are placed within the sleeve at the desired measurement depths. Wires from the temperature probes are routed to the input terminals of a data logger.

  9. Development of mid-scale and floating LNG facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Price, B.C.; Mortko, R.A.

    1998-12-31

    The development of large-scale base load LNG facilities has dominated the process industry for decades. However, in many areas of the world, base load facilities are not feasible due to inadequate reserves. Mid-scale facilities can be economically attractive in certain locations and, in fact, have several advantages which aid in their development. The PRICO II LNG liquefaction process offers a process configuration which fits well with these developments. The process has been used in a range of facility sizes from base load to peak shaving applications. In addition to onshore facilities, floating liquefaction facilities can be developed on barges or tankers to handle mid-scale to large scale LNG production. Concepts for several sizes and configurations of floating facilities have been developed using the PRICO II process integrated into a total production, liquefaction, and load-out system. This paper covers the PRICO process concept, application areas and facility configurations which are currently being developed for mid-scale and floating LNG facilities.

  10. Automatic cloud cover mapping.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, J. P., III; Rosenfeld, A.

    1971-01-01

    A method of converting a picture into a 'cartoon' or 'map' whose regions correspond to differently textured regions is described. Texture edges in the picture are detected, and solid regions surrounded by these (usually broken) edges are 'colored in' using a propagation process. The resulting map is cleaned by comparing the region colors with the textures of the corresponding regions in the picture, and also by merging some regions with others according to criteria based on topology and size. The method has been applied to the construction of cloud cover maps from cloud cover pictures obtained by satellites.

  11. Floating roof tank with rim space seal

    SciTech Connect

    Grove, R.B.; Peters, S.W.; Tellalian, M.L.

    1986-10-07

    This patent describes a vertical cylindrical liquid storage tank having a circular floating roof of smaller diameter than the tank thereby defining a clearance space between the roof edge and the tank wall; a seal joined to the roof and extending upwardly therefrom into slidable contact with the tank wall; the seal completely covering the clearance space; the seal comprising a plurality of individual flexible sections of sheet material in substantially side-by-side arrangement but with adjacent section side edge portions overlapping each other; a gasket between the overlapping side edge portions; a clip attached to each section adjacent its edge portion which is overlapped by the edge portion of an adjacent section; the clip having a wing spaced upward from the section to which it is attached and extending over the edge portion of the adjacent section to press the edge portions together, but permit the edge portions to slide laterally with respect to each other; and a flexible elastometric tip joined to the outer end of the sections and in slidable contact with the tank wall.

  12. Future float zone development in industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandfort, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The present industrial requirements for float zone silicon are summarized. Developments desired by the industry in the future are reported. The five most significant problems faced today by the float zone crystal growth method in industry are discussed. They are economic, large diameter, resistivity uniformity, control of carbon, and swirl defects.

  13. 32 CFR 935.165 - Floating objects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Floating objects. 935.165 Section 935.165 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Public Safety § 935.165 Floating objects. No person may anchor, moor, or beach...

  14. 32 CFR 935.165 - Floating objects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Floating objects. 935.165 Section 935.165 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Public Safety § 935.165 Floating objects. No person may anchor, moor, or beach...

  15. 32 CFR 935.165 - Floating objects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Floating objects. 935.165 Section 935.165 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Public Safety § 935.165 Floating objects. No person may anchor, moor, or beach...

  16. 32 CFR 935.165 - Floating objects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Floating objects. 935.165 Section 935.165 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Public Safety § 935.165 Floating objects. No person may anchor, moor, or beach...

  17. Future float zone development in industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandfort, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The present industrial requirements for float zone silicon are summarized. Developments desired by the industry in the future are reported. The five most significant problems faced today by the float zone crystal growth method in industry are discussed. They are economic, large diameter, resistivity uniformity, control of carbon, and swirl defects.

  18. Vertical pump with free floating check valve

    DOEpatents

    Lindsay, Malcolm

    1980-01-01

    A vertical pump with a bottom discharge having a free floating check valve isposed in the outlet plenum thereof. The free floating check valve comprises a spherical member with a hemispherical cage-like member attached thereto which is capable of allowing forward or reverse flow under appropriate conditions while preventing reverse flow under inappropriate conditions.

  19. Towards sensible floating-point arithmetic

    SciTech Connect

    Cody, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    Efforts to promote the development of high-quality transportable numerical software show that few, if any, of the floating-point arithmetic systems in existing computers are completely satisfactory for serious numerical computation. Examination of the defects in these systems leads to specifications for a sensible floating-point system from a numerical analyst's viewpoint. 1 table.

  20. Whatever Floats Your Boat: A Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornoelje, Joanne; Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a simple design challenge, based on the PBS program "Design Squad's" "Watercraft" activity that will prove engaging to most technology and engineering students. In this floating boat challenge, students are to build a boat that can float and support 25 pennies for at least 10 seconds--without leaking, sinking, or tipping…

  1. Whatever Floats Your Boat: A Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornoelje, Joanne; Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a simple design challenge, based on the PBS program "Design Squad's" "Watercraft" activity that will prove engaging to most technology and engineering students. In this floating boat challenge, students are to build a boat that can float and support 25 pennies for at least 10 seconds--without leaking, sinking, or tipping…

  2. Evapotranspiration (ET) covers.

    PubMed

    Rock, Steve; Myers, Bill; Fiedler, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) cover systems are increasingly being used at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, hazardous waste landfills, at industrial monofills, and at mine sites. Conventional cover systems use materials with low hydraulic permeability (barrier layers) to minimize the downward migration of water from the surface to the waste (percolation), ET cover systems use water balance components to minimize percolation. These cover systems rely on soil to capture and store precipitation until it is either transpired through vegetation or evaporated from the soil surface. Compared to conventional membrane or compacted clay cover systems, ET cover systems are expected to cost less to construct. They are often aesthetic because they employ naturalized vegetation, require less maintenance once the vegetative system is established, including eliminating mowing, and may require fewer repairs than a barrier system. All cover systems should consider the goals of the cover in terms of protectiveness, including the pathways of risk from contained material, the lifecycle of the containment system. The containment system needs to be protective of direct contact of people and animals with the waste, prevent surface and groundwater water pollution, and minimize release of airborne contaminants. While most containment strategies have been based on the dry tomb strategy of keeping waste dry, there are some sites where adding or allowing moisture to help decompose organic waste is the current plan. ET covers may work well in places where complete exclusion of precipitation is not needed. The U.S. EPA Alternative Cover Assessment Program (ACAP), USDOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others have researched ET cover design and efficacy, including the history of their use, general considerations in their design, performance, monitoring, cost, current status, limitations on their use, and project specific examples. An on-line database has been developed with information

  3. Study on resources and environmental data integration towards data warehouse construction covering trans-boundary area of China, Russia and Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Song, J.; Gao, M.; Zhu, L.

    2014-02-01

    The trans-boundary area between Northern China, Mongolia and eastern Siberia of Russia is a continuous geographical area located in north eastern Asia. Many common issues in this region need to be addressed based on a uniform resources and environmental data warehouse. Based on the practice of joint scientific expedition, the paper presented a data integration solution including 3 steps, i.e., data collection standards and specifications making, data reorganization and process, data warehouse design and development. A series of data collection standards and specifications were drawn up firstly covering more than 10 domains. According to the uniform standard, 20 resources and environmental survey databases in regional scale, and 11 in-situ observation databases were reorganized and integrated. North East Asia Resources and Environmental Data Warehouse was designed, which included 4 layers, i.e., resources layer, core business logic layer, internet interoperation layer, and web portal layer. The data warehouse prototype was developed and deployed initially. All the integrated data in this area can be accessed online.

  4. 46 CFR 161.012-7 - Construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Personal Flotation Device Lights § 161.012-7 Construction. (a... to operate while detached from a PFD must be capable of floating in water with its light source at...

  5. Pipe-type cable floated into place across river

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    In 1992, the 60-yr-old Portland Bridge across the Fore River in Maine had to be replaced with a completely new structure. Unfortunately for Central Maine Power Co, three 34.5-kV submarine cables and a 115-kV pipe-type cable (plus spare pipe), which paralleled the old structure, were directly in the path planned for the footing of the new bridge. Before construction could begin, these had to be relocated to the other side of the old bridge. Because of space limitations in the crossing area, the two 1200-ft replacement pipes were assembled one mile upstream and floated down to the bridge using specially made polystyrene floats. The trench, measuring 20 ft wide and 20 ft deep, was dredged across the river bottom and designed to accommodate both the submarine and pipe-type cables with adequate spacing. First, the two pipes were floated into position and sunk into the trench. Then the three submarine cables were laid simultaneously from a cable barge. Divers ensured that there was adequate spacing between the medium- and high-voltage cables. 10 figs.

  6. Experimental investigation of the stability of the floating water bridge.

    PubMed

    Montazeri Namin, Reza; Azizpour Lindi, Shiva; Amjadi, Ahmad; Jafari, Nima; Irajizad, Peyman

    2013-09-01

    When a high voltage is applied between two beakers filled with deionized water, a floating bridge of water is formed in between exceeding the length of 2 cm when the beakers are pulled apart. Currently two theories regarding the stability of the floating water bridge exist, one suggesting that the tension caused by electric field in the dielectric medium is holding the bridge and the other suggesting surface tension to be responsible for the vertical equilibrium. We construct experiments in which the electric field and the geometry of the bridge are measured and compared with predictions of theories of the floating water bridge stability. We use a numerical simulation for estimation of the electric field. Our results indicate that the two forces of dielectric and surface tensions hold the bridge against gravity simultaneously and, having the same order of magnitude, neither of the two forces are negligible. In bridges with larger diameters, the effect of dielectric tension is slightly more in the vertical equilibrium than surface tension. Results show that the stability can be explained by macroscopic forces, regardless of the microscopic changes in the water structure.

  7. Exponential flux-controlled memristor model and its floating emulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Fa-Qiang; Ma, Xi-Kui

    2015-11-01

    As commercial memristors are still unavailable in the market, mathematic models and emulators which can imitate the features of the memristor are meaningful for further research. In this paper, based on the analyses of characteristics of the q-φ curve, an exponential flux-controlled model, which has the quality that its memductance (memristance) will keep monotonically increasing or decreasing unless the voltage’s polarity reverses (if not approach the boundaries), is constructed. A new approach to designing the floating emulator of the memristor is also proposed. This floating structure can flexibly meet various demands for the current through the memristor (especially the demand for a larger current). The simulations and experiments are presented to confirm the effectiveness of this model and its floating emulator. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51377124 and 51221005), the Foundation for the Author of National Excellent Doctoral Dissertation of China (Grant No. 201337), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University of China (Grant No. NCET-13-0457), and the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province of China (Grant No. 2012JQ7026).

  8. Multiprocessing system for performing floating point arithmetic operations

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyenphu, M.; Thatcher, L.E.

    1990-10-02

    This patent describes a data processing system. It comprises: a fixed point arithmetic processor means for performing fixed point arithmetic operations and including control means for decoding a floating point arithmetic instruction specifying a floating point arithmetic operation, and an addressing means for computing addresses for floating point data for the floating point operation from a memory means. The memory means for storing data and including means for receiving the addresses from the fixed point arithmetic processor means and providing the floating point data to a floating point arithmetic processor means; and the floating point arithmetic processor means for performing floating point arithmetic operations and including control means for decoding the floating point instruction and performing the specified floating point arithmetic operation upon the floating point data from the memory means.

  9. Multilateral installation from a floating rig

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Troll Olje gas province is approximately 100 km northwest of Bergen, Norway, in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea at a water depth of approximately 315 to 340 m. Troll Olje is part of the Troll gas field, where Norsk Hydro is responsible for developing two areas with thin oil rims. Before spudding the multilateral well described in this paper, 17 wells had been drilled and completed in the Troll Olje oil province. The multilateral-well concept was introduced in the gas province primarily to increase the drainage area for each well. When producing from two separate laterals, a lower drawdown pressure exists throughout the horizontal section. Therefore, gas coning is less likely to occur, and higher production rates can be sustained for a longer period of time. In addition, cost savings are substantial because of reduced well-construction time for each horizontal reservoir-drainage section and because of the reduced number of completion strings, subsea wellheads, and pipelines required for total field development. The full-length paper details design, development, testing, and installation of the first successful multilateral well installed from a floating rig offshore Norway. The paper gives a synopsis.

  10. Verification methods: Rigorous results using floating-point arithmetic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rump, Siegfried M.

    A classical mathematical proof is constructed using pencil and paper. However, there are many ways in which computers may be used in a mathematical proof. But `proof by computer', or even the use of computers in the course of a proof, is not so readily accepted (the December 2008 issue of the Notices of the American Mathematical Society is devoted to formal proofs by computer).In the following we introduce verification methods and discuss how they can assist in achieving a mathematically rigorous result. In particular we emphasize how floating-point arithmetic is used.

  11. Extending the generality of ecological models to artificial floating habitats.

    PubMed

    Cole, Victoria J; Glasby, Tim M; Holloway, Michael G

    2005-08-01

    Marine assemblages on natural hard substrata are generally different from those on artificial habitats. There is, however, the potential for certain ecological processes to operate on both types of structures. On the sides of floating pontoons in Sydney Harbour, there were strong patterns of vertical distribution of sessile epibiotic organisms and molluscan grazers across relatively small spatial scales (in three defined zones, namely splash, shallow and deep). Patterns of vertical distribution of the tubeworms Hydroides spp. were reversed depending on the cover of mussels. A manipulative experiment was done to test if patterns of vertical distribution of Hydroides spp. were due to (1) the functioning of mussels or (2) the structure provided by mussels. Neither the functioning nor structure of mussels accounted for the patterns of distribution of Hydroides spp. Mussels increased recruitment of Hydroides spp., in the shallow and deep zones, and this was not due to increased surface area of the mussel shells. Manipulation of numbers of grazers and covers of sessile epibiota showed that the observed negative relationship between grazers and epibiota was due to grazers reducing recruitment of epibiota and epibiota decreasing survival of grazers. Most importantly, processes that accounted for patterns of distribution of mobile and sessile organisms on artificial floating structures were similar to those repeatedly shown to create such patterns on natural rocky shores.

  12. New CFOA-based floating immittance emulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taher Abuelma'atti, Muhammad; Dhar, Sagar Kumar

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents four new topologies for emulating floating immittance functions. Each circuit uses two or three current-feedback operational-amplifiers (CFOAs) and three passive elements. The proposed topologies can emulate positive/negative lossless and lossy floating inductances, and positive/negative capacitance, resistance and inductance multipliers in addition to floating frequency-dependent positive and negative resistances. The functionality of the proposed circuits is verified using the Advanced Design System software and the AD844 CFOA. The simulation results are in excellent agreement with the theoretical calculations.

  13. Floating point arithmetic in future supercomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.; Barton, John T.; Simon, Horst D.; Fouts, Martin J.

    1989-01-01

    Considerations in the floating-point design of a supercomputer are discussed. Particular attention is given to word size, hardware support for extended precision, format, and accuracy characteristics. These issues are discussed from the perspective of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Systems Division at NASA Ames. The features believed to be most important for a future supercomputer floating-point design include: (1) a 64-bit IEEE floating-point format with 11 exponent bits, 52 mantissa bits, and one sign bit and (2) hardware support for reasonably fast double-precision arithmetic.

  14. Floating point arithmetic in future supercomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, David H.; Barton, John T.; Simon, Horst D.; Fouts, Martin J.

    1989-01-01

    Considerations in the floating-point design of a supercomputer are discussed. Particular attention is given to word size, hardware support for extended precision, format, and accuracy characteristics. These issues are discussed from the perspective of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Systems Division at NASA Ames. The features believed to be most important for a future supercomputer floating-point design include: (1) a 64-bit IEEE floating-point format with 11 exponent bits, 52 mantissa bits, and one sign bit and (2) hardware support for reasonably fast double-precision arithmetic.

  15. Used float shoe recovered and tested

    SciTech Connect

    Colvard, R.L.

    1986-02-01

    A cement float valve has been recovered after it was circulated through and cemented downhole. It was retrieved by coring as part of an investigation into a cementing failure. The float equipment was then analyzed for downhole performance. This is believed to be the first instance of intact recovery of full-scale cementing hardware after it has been cemented in place. In this instance, the valve performed as designed. Flash set proved to be the probable cause of job failure. This article documents the job and includes photographs of the used float shoe and its components.

  16. 46 CFR 161.010-2 - Design, construction, and test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design, construction, and test requirements. 161.010-2..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Floating Electric Waterlight § 161.010-2 Design, construction, and test requirements. Each floating electric waterlight shall...

  17. 33 CFR 144.01-1 - Life floats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Life floats. 144.01-1 Section 144... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES LIFESAVING APPLIANCES Manned Platforms § 144.01-1 Life floats. Each manned platform shall be provided with at least two approved life floats. The life floats shall have...

  18. 33 CFR 144.01-1 - Life floats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Life floats. 144.01-1 Section 144... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES LIFESAVING APPLIANCES Manned Platforms § 144.01-1 Life floats. Each manned platform shall be provided with at least two approved life floats. The life floats shall have...

  19. 33 CFR 144.01-1 - Life floats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Life floats. 144.01-1 Section 144... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES LIFESAVING APPLIANCES Manned Platforms § 144.01-1 Life floats. Each manned platform shall be provided with at least two approved life floats. The life floats shall have...

  20. Program Converts VAX Floating-Point Data To UNIX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alves, Marcos; Chapman, Bruce; Chu, Eugene

    1996-01-01

    VAX Floating Point to Host Floating Point Conversion (VAXFC) software converts non-ASCII files to unformatted floating-point representation of UNIX machine. This is done by reading bytes bit by bit, converting them to floating-point numbers, then writing results to another file. Useful when data files created by VAX computer must be used on other machines. Written in C language.

  1. 33 CFR 144.01-1 - Life floats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Life floats. 144.01-1 Section 144... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES LIFESAVING APPLIANCES Manned Platforms § 144.01-1 Life floats. Each manned platform shall be provided with at least two approved life floats. The life floats shall have...

  2. Program Converts VAX Floating-Point Data To UNIX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alves, Marcos; Chapman, Bruce; Chu, Eugene

    1996-01-01

    VAX Floating Point to Host Floating Point Conversion (VAXFC) software converts non-ASCII files to unformatted floating-point representation of UNIX machine. This is done by reading bytes bit by bit, converting them to floating-point numbers, then writing results to another file. Useful when data files created by VAX computer must be used on other machines. Written in C language.

  3. Land cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgenson, Janet C.; Joria, Peter C.; Douglas, David C.; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    Documenting the distribution of land-cover types on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge coastal plain is the foundation for impact assessment and mitigation of potential oil exploration and development. Vegetation maps facilitate wildlife studies by allowing biologists to quantify the availability of important wildlife habitats, investigate the relationships between animal locations and the distribution or juxtaposition of habitat types, and assess or extrapolate habitat characteristics across regional areas.To meet the needs of refuge managers and biologists, satellite imagery was chosen as the most cost-effective method for mapping the large, remote landscape of the 1002 Area.Objectives of our study were the following: 1) evaluate a vegetation classification scheme for use in mapping. 2) determine optimal methods for producing a satellite-based vegetation map that adequately met the needs of the wildlife research and management objectives; 3) produce a digital vegetation map for the Arctic Refuge coastal plain using Lands at-Thematic Mapper(TM) satellite imagery, existing geobotanical classifications, ground data, and aerial photographs, and 4) perform an accuracy assessment of the map.

  4. Floating-gated memory based on carbon nanotube field-effect transistors with Si floating dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seike, Kohei; Fujii, Yusuke; Ohno, Yasuhide; Maehashi, Kenzo; Inoue, Koichi; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    We have fabricated a carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNTFET)-based nonvolatile memory device with Si floating dots. The electrical characteristics of this memory device were compared with those of devices with a HfO2 charge storage layer or Au floating dots. For a sweep width of 6 V, the memory window of the devices with the Si floating dots increased twofold as compared with that of the devices with the HfO2 layer. Moreover, the retention characteristics revealed that, for the device with the Au floating dots, the off-state had almost the same current as the on-state at the 400th s. However, the devices with the Si floating dots had longer-retention characteristics. The results indicate that CNTFET-based devices with Si floating dots are promising candidates for low-power consumption nonvolatile memory devices.

  5. View of EVA Tool floating in the US Lab during Expedition 15

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-05-17

    ISS015-E-08374 (17 May 2007) --- A view of a hockey-stick-shaped tool wrapped in insulating tape and floating freely in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station, scheduled for possible use during STS-117 extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction resumes on the International Space Station.

  6. Tests find hammering, fluid cutting, erosion cause float shoe failures

    SciTech Connect

    Stringfellow, B.

    1985-01-21

    The results of a systematic test program to evaluate float equipment performance are presented. The testing has destroyed, over an eightmonth period, 160 float valves, float shoes and float collars. A new float valve design with greater resistance to failure has been developed as a result of the testing. New float collars and float shoes are expected to provide the operator with a failure rate of less than 1 1/2% when used within design limits and under normal cementing conditions. Further testing objectives include: extension of operating temperature limits to include deep well and geothermal conditions, and evaluation of the effects of more abrasive mud and cement systems.

  7. Constructive Mentoring for Primary Science Teaching: Exploring and Designing Constructs for Sequencing Science Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Explains the strategies employed to constructively mentor a preservice teacher. Uses small group instruction to test different theories on the topics of floating and sinking. Includes a mentor feedback sheet. (YDS)

  8. Constructive Mentoring for Primary Science Teaching: Exploring and Designing Constructs for Sequencing Science Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Explains the strategies employed to constructively mentor a preservice teacher. Uses small group instruction to test different theories on the topics of floating and sinking. Includes a mentor feedback sheet. (YDS)

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Floating-Harbor syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... mineralization of the bones (delayed bone age), delayed speech development, and characteristic facial features. The condition is named ... normal by age 6 to 12. Delay in speech development (expressive language delay) may be severe in Floating- ...

  10. Floating patterns of metered dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Wolf, B L; Cochran, K R

    1997-01-01

    As long as metered dose inhalers have existed, patients have sought a reliable method to determine if a given canister was still potent. Concerning beta agonists, the answer to this question may be lifesaving. Issues of compliance have made dating canisters or counting doses impractical. Likewise, previous claims of floating characteristics are unreliable. In tap water, we float-tested 13 commonly used inhalers three times each, observing variations as they were incrementally actuated, emptying their contents. One essential pattern was observed. Almost all prescription-size canisters sink when full; all float by the time one-third of their contents is gone. Orientation of prescription-size canisters changes in a distinct pattern especially near 90% depletion. Sample-size canisters showed some variance. Results suggest that the pharmaceutical industry should include individual floating characteristics as part of the package insert as they provide a reproducible means of gauging contents.

  11. EMU floating in the Node 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-15

    ISS041-E-011851 (15 Sept. 2014) --- An unoccupied Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuit, photographed by an Expedition 41 crew member, floats freely near the hatches inside the Harmony node of the International Space Station.

  12. Wheelock floats into Node 1 / Unity module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-10-25

    S120-E-006435 (25 Oct. 2007) --- Astronaut Doug Wheelock, STS-120 mission specialist, floats into the Unity node of the International Space Station while Space Shuttle Discovery is docked with the station.

  13. Kononenko floats through the ATV-3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-06

    ISS030-E-210850 (6 April 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kononenko, Expedition 30 flight engineer, floats freely in the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV-3) currently docked with the International Space Station.

  14. Kuipers floats through the ATV-3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-06

    ISS030-E-210842 (6 April 2012) --- European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers, Expedition 30 flight engineer, floats into the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV-3) currently docked with the International Space Station.

  15. Free-floating Failed Star Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-09-05

    This artist concept portrays a free-floating brown dwarf, or failed star. A new study using data from NASA Spitzer Space Telescope shows that several of these objects are warmer than previously thought.

  16. Verification of floating-point software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Doug N.

    1990-01-01

    Floating point computation presents a number of problems for formal verification. Should one treat the actual details of floating point operations, or accept them as imprecisely defined, or should one ignore round-off error altogether and behave as if floating point operations are perfectly accurate. There is the further problem that a numerical algorithm usually only approximately computes some mathematical function, and we often do not know just how good the approximation is, even in the absence of round-off error. ORA has developed a theory of asymptotic correctness which allows one to verify floating point software with a minimum entanglement in these problems. This theory and its implementation in the Ariel C verification system are described. The theory is illustrated using a simple program which finds a zero of a given function by bisection. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  17. Thumb polydactyly with a floating ulnar thumb.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Kenjiro; Namba, Yuzaburo; Kimata, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Thumb polydactyly is reported to be the most common congenital anomaly of the hand in Japan. The floating type is not particularly rare, accounting for 0.9 to 15% of all cases of thumb polydactyly. However, to the best of our knowledge, there has been only one case of thumb polydactyly with a floating ulnar thumb, reported by Onizuka. Herein, we report a case very similar to that reported by Onizuka. In our case, the vessels feeding the floating ulnar thumb branched from the superficial palmar arterial arch, and X-rays revealed triphalangism. In surgery, we not only reconstructed the morphology of the thumb, but also tried to preserve the sensation in the reconstructed thumb by transposing the digital nerve of the floating ulnar thumb to the radial thumb. In addition to thumb polydactyly, our case also showed hypoplasia of the thenar muscles.

  18. Preview of Mars Curiosity Parade Float

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Jim Green, Director of the Science Mission Directorate Planetary Systems Division at NASA Headquarters, describes the replica of the Mars Curiosity Rover on the second NASA float in Monday's inaugu...

  19. Floating wetland islands as a method of nitrogen mass reduction: results of a 1 year test.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Burney, Rafael; Bays, James; Messer, Ryan; Harris, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Floating wetland islands (FWIs) were tested in Pasco County, Florida, as a method of reducing total nitrogen (TN) in reclaimed water during reservoir storage. The Pasco County Master Reuse System (PCMRS) is a regional reclaimed-water transmission and distribution system providing wastewater effluent disposal for the county. Total daily mass loading from reclaimed water is limited by nitrogen content in the PCMRS watershed. To test TN reduction efficacy, 20 FWIs were constructed, installed, and monitored in a lined pond receiving PCMRS reclaimed water. In total, 149 m2 of FWIs were installed, distributed as a connected network covering 1,122 m2, or 7% of pond area. Pond hydraulic residence time averaged 15.7 days. Treatment performance was assessed during three consecutive periods: establishment (first 6 months of grow-in), performance (8 months immediately following grow-in), and control (3 months after the FWIs were removed from the pond). The FWIs enhanced pond nitrogen removal capacity by 32%. The primary effect of the FWIs was to decrease organic nitrogen in the pond outflow. By evaluating the difference between the performance and control periods, an incremental TN removal rate for the FWIs was calculated to be 4.2 kg N/m2 FWI per year.

  20. Seed Bank Contribution to Vascular Plant Richness on Temporary Floating Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, J. A.

    2005-05-01

    Fluctuating water levels create opportunities for recruitment of new individuals from wetland seed banks. In this study, floating island formation functioned similarly to drawdowns in water level by creating patches of sediment that were less inundated than the surrounding, undisturbed deep-water marsh. To examine if and how seed banks contributed to temporary formation of distinct plant assemblages on these islands, field surveys of plant percent cover on and off of islands were conducted over two years, along with a controlled greenhouse experiment in which inundation was manipulated. Plant assemblages differed significantly on and off of floating islands. Floating-leaved perennials dominated undisturbed deep-water marsh, while emergent species dominated floating islands. Moreover, species richness was greater on islands than in the undisturbed deep-water marsh. Plant assemblages in the greenhouse experiment also differed among inundation treatments in a manner consistent with differences observed in field surveys. These results demonstrate that floating island formation temporarily altered levels of inundation favoring the germination of a more species-rich, emergent plant assemblage. Because these islands persisted long enough for several species to set seed, their formation may contribute to the maintenance of the seed bank and help maintain populations of otherwise rare species within the deep-water marsh.

  1. Autonomous Microstructure EM-APEX Floats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    agreement with the Batchelor spectrum and by the close inter-float agreement of temporal and vertical variations measured by multiple floats...molecular temperature diffusivity (~1.4 x 10–7 m2 s–1), () the vertical wavenumber kz spectrum of the vertical gradient of temperature ...dissipation wavenumber regime. Three transfer functions are applied to FP-07 sensor measurements to derive the temperature gradient spectrum ; they are the

  2. Archimedes' floating bodies on a spherical Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rorres, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Archimedes was the first to systematically find the centers of gravity of various solid bodies and to apply this concept in determining stable configurations of floating bodies. In this paper, we discuss an error in a proof developed by Archimedes that involves determining whether a uniform, spherical cap will float stably with its base horizontal in a liquid on a spherical Earth. We present a simpler, corrected proof and discuss aspects of his proof regarding a spherical cap that is not uniform.

  3. Genetic Algorithms, Floating Point Numbers and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Yorick; Steeb, Willi-Hans; Stoop, Ruedi

    The core in most genetic algorithms is the bitwise manipulations of bit strings. We show that one can directly manipulate the bits in floating point numbers. This means the main bitwise operations in genetic algorithm mutations and crossings are directly done inside the floating point number. Thus the interval under consideration does not need to be known in advance. For applications, we consider the roots of polynomials and finding solutions of linear equations.

  4. Multiple valued floating potentials of Langmuir probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nam, Cheol-Hee; Hershkowitz, N.; Cho, M. H.; Intrator, T.; Diebold, D.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that Langmuir probes can have three different floating potentials in plasmas produced by a hot filament discharge in a multi-dipole device when the primary and secondary electron currents are comparable. The measured floating potential depends on the probe's initial condition - the most negative and the least negative potentials are found to be stable and the in-between value is found to be unstable. Results are compared to a simple theoretical model.

  5. Multiple valued floating potentials of Langmuir probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nam, Cheol-Hee; Hershkowitz, N.; Cho, M. H.; Intrator, T.; Diebold, D.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that Langmuir probes can have three different floating potentials in plasmas produced by a hot filament discharge in a multi-dipole device when the primary and secondary electron currents are comparable. The measured floating potential depends on the probe's initial condition - the most negative and the least negative potentials are found to be stable and the in-between value is found to be unstable. Results are compared to a simple theoretical model.

  6. Floating assembly of diatom Coscinodiscus sp. microshells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Pan, Junfeng; Cai, Jun; Zhang, Deyuan

    2012-03-30

    Diatoms have silica frustules with transparent and delicate micro/nano scale structures, two dimensional pore arrays, and large surface areas. Although, the diatom cells of Coscinodiscus sp. live underwater, we found that their valves can float on water and assemble together. Experiments show that the convex shape and the 40 nm sieve pores of the valves allow them to float on water, and that the buoyancy and the micro-range attractive forces cause the valves to assemble together at the highest point of water. As measured by AFM calibrated glass needles fixed in manipulator, the buoyancy force on a single floating valve may reach up to 10 μN in water. Turning the valves over, enlarging the sieve pores, reducing the surface tension of water, or vacuum pumping may cause the floating valves to sink. After the water has evaporated, the floating valves remained in their assembled state and formed a monolayer film. The bonded diatom monolayer may be valuable in studies on diatom based optical devices, biosensors, solar cells, and batteries, to better use the optical and adsorption properties of frustules. The floating assembly phenomenon can also be used as a self-assembly method for fabricating monolayer of circular plates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Orogenic float of the Venezuelan Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monod, Bernard; Dhont, Damien; Hervouët, Yves

    2010-07-01

    The Venezuelan (or Mérida) Andes are a NE-trending intracontinental orogen that started to rise from the Middle Miocene due to the E-W far field convergence between the Maracaibo block to the northwest and the Guyana shield to the southeast. Oblique convergence is responsible for strain partitioning with thrusting along both foreland basins and right-lateral strike-slip faulting along the NE-SW Boconó fault cutting the Venezuelan Andes along-strike. The central part of the belt is also cut by the N-S left-lateral strike-slip Valera fault that connects the Boconó fault, both faults bounding the Trujillo block that escapes towards the NNE. Even though the regional geology of belt is well known, its structure at depth remains a matter of debate. Our work, based on the integration of geological and geophysical data aims to better constrain the deep geometry of faults and the tectonic evolution of the mountain belt. We used the orogenic float model to construct two NW-SE trans-Andean crustal scale balanced sections. The Late Neogene-Quaternary shortening varies from 40 km in the south to 30 km in the north across the Trujillo block, indicating that a quarter of the deformation seems to be absorbed by the tectonic escape process. More importantly, a major reorganization in the crust took place in the Early Pliocene. It is characterized by the imbrication of the Maracaibo crust into the Guyana crust. This resulted in the subduction of the Guyana lower crust and the formation of a NW-vergent basement thrust propagating upwards and surfacing along the Las Virtudes thrust. Rapid uplift of the northern flank of the belt subsequently occurred together with massive deposition of the Plio-Quaternary coarse grained Betijoque formation in the northwestern foreland basin.

  8. Airship-floated wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    A wind turbine, by use of a tethered airship for support, may be designed for the economical recovery of power at heights of 2,000 feet or more above ground, at which height power density in the wind is typically three times the power density available to a conventionally supported wind turbine. Means can be added to such an airship-floated wind turbine which will permit its generators to be used to meet load demand even during periods of little or no wind. Described to this end is a wind turbine system which combines, among other novel features: a novel tether line system which provides access for men and materials to the supporting airship while in active service, a novel system for providing additional buoyant lift at the nose of the turbine-supporting airship to offset the vertical component of tension induced in the tether line by the downwind force exerted by the turbine blades, a novel bearing assembly at the nose of the supporting airship which permits the airship to rotate as a unit with the turbine it supports without causing a similar rotation of the tether line, a novel turbine airship structure which handles concentrated loads from the turbine efficiently and also permits the safe use of hydrogen for buoyancy, a novel ''space frame'' structure which supports the turbine blades and greatly reduces blade weight, a novel system for controlling turbine blade angle of incidence and for varying blade incidene in synchrony with blade angular position abut the turbine axis to provide greater control over airship movement, a novel system for locating propellor-driven generators out at the wind turbine perimeter and for using lightweight, high-RPM generators to produce electrical energy at a power line frequency, which greatly reduces the weight required to convert turbine blade torque into useful power, and a novel system for incorporating compressed air storage and combustion turbine components into the wind turbine's generator drive systems.

  9. [Free-Floating Intraocular Cysts].

    PubMed

    Werner, Jens Ulrich; Lang, Gerhard K; Enders, Christian

    2017-05-03

    Background Free-floating intraocular cysts may be found in the anterior chamber (FZV) and the vitreous (FZG). The first description of a cyst was 150 years ago, and they are considered to be ocular rarities. Materials and Methods The actual knowledge about FZV and FZG is shown on the basis of two exemplary patients. Results and Discussion Patient 1 had a FZV as an incidental finding which had a smooth surface, a slight pigmentation and was translucent. The ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed an echo-free interior space. Without the patient's discomfort and missing treatment indication, a watch-and-wait strategy was chosen. Cysts of the iris can be classified as primary and secondary cysts. Primary cysts of the iris can arise from the stroma as the pigment epithelium wherein it is believed that FZV descend from the pigment epithelium. Secondary cysts and FZV can be generated by tumors, inflammation, epithelial ingrowth, the use of eye-drops or intraocular foreign bodies. Patient 2 showed marked myopic fundus changes and an FZG with a yellowish-greenish surface; the transparency was reduced and the surface was not pigmented. The ultrasound examination also revealed an echo-free interior space. Clinical controls were advised. Congenital and acquired causes are discussed for the formation of FZG. FZG could originate from the pigment epithelium of the iris, but there are conflicting study results. Trauma, inflammation and chorioretinal diseases are considered as a reason for acquired causes of FZG. The genesis, especially of FZG, is still unclear. For the treatment of patients with FZV and FZG, it is important to know the potential causes to be able to make a therapeutic decision. High quality photographic and sonographic documentation is needed in the watch-and-wait strategy. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Floating seal system for rotary devices

    DOEpatents

    Banasiuk, Hubert A.

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to a floating seal system for rotary devices to reduce gas leakage around the rotary device in a duct and across the face of the rotary device to an adjacent duct. The peripheral seal bodies are made of resilient material having a generally U-shaped cross section wherein one of the legs is secured to a support member and the other of the legs forms a contacting seal against the rotary device. The legs of the peripheral seal form an extended angle of intersection of about 10.degree. to about 30.degree. in the unloaded condition to provide even sealing forces around the periphery of the rotary device. The peripheral seal extends around the periphery of the support member except where intersected by radial seals which reduce gas leakage across the face of the rotary device and between adjacent duct portions. The radial seal assembly is fabricated from channel bars, the smaller channel bar being secured to the divider of the support member and a larger inverted rigid floating channel bar having its legs freely movable over the legs of the smaller channel bar forming therewith a tubular channel. A resilient flexible tube is positioned within the tubular channel for substantially its full length to reduce gas leakage across the tubular channel. A spacer extends beyond the face of the floating channel near each end of the floating channel a distance to provide desired clearance between the floating channel and the face of the rotary device.

  11. Floating seal system for rotary devices

    DOEpatents

    Banasiuk, H.A.

    1983-08-23

    This invention relates to a floating seal system for rotary devices to reduce gas leakage around the rotary device in a duct and across the face of the rotary device to an adjacent duct. The peripheral seal bodies are made of resilient material having a generally U-shaped cross section wherein one of the legs is secured to a support member and the other of the legs forms a contacting seal against the rotary device. The legs of the peripheral seal form an extended angle of intersection of about 10[degree] to about 30[degree] in the unloaded condition to provide even sealing forces around the periphery of the rotary device. The peripheral seal extends around the periphery of the support member except where intersected by radial seals which reduce gas leakage across the face of the rotary device and between adjacent duct portions. The radial seal assembly is fabricated from channel bars, the smaller channel bar being secured to the divider of the support member and a larger inverted rigid floating channel bar having its legs freely movable over the legs of the smaller channel bar forming therewith a tubular channel. A resilient flexible tube is positioned within the tubular channel for substantially its full length to reduce gas leakage across the tubular channel. A spacer extends beyond the face of the floating channel near each end of the floating channel a distance to provide desired clearance between the floating channel and the face of the rotary device. 5 figs.

  12. Battery charging in float vs. cycling environments

    SciTech Connect

    COREY,GARTH P.

    2000-04-20

    In lead-acid battery systems, cycling systems are often managed using float management strategies. There are many differences in battery management strategies for a float environment and battery management strategies for a cycling environment. To complicate matters further, in many cycling environments, such as off-grid domestic power systems, there is usually not an available charging source capable of efficiently equalizing a lead-acid battery let alone bring it to a full state of charge. Typically, rules for battery management which have worked quite well in a floating environment have been routinely applied to cycling batteries without full appreciation of what the cycling battery really needs to reach a full state of charge and to maintain a high state of health. For example, charge target voltages for batteries that are regularly deep cycled in off-grid power sources are the same as voltages applied to stand-by systems following a discharge event. In other charging operations equalization charge requirements are frequently ignored or incorrectly applied in cycled systems which frequently leads to premature capacity loss. The cause of this serious problem: the application of float battery management strategies to cycling battery systems. This paper describes the outcomes to be expected when managing cycling batteries with float strategies and discusses the techniques and benefits for the use of cycling battery management strategies.

  13. Optical Remote Sensing Method to Estimate Green Tide Biomass Based on Floating Algae Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lianbo; Hu, Chuanmin; He, Mingxia

    2014-11-01

    Floating Algae Index (FAI) has been developed to detect various floating algae in open ocean environments using the medium-resolution (250- and 500-m) data from operational MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instruments. FAI method has been routinely used to identify and calculate the covering area of green tide in the Yellow Sea (YS) since 2009. In addition to green tide covering area, knowledge of the biomass is also important in studying green tide recycling, nutrient load, carbon cycling and for government management. In this study, in situ experiments were conducted to simultaneously measure the biomass and reflectance spectra of green tide on the sea surface in coastal waters off Qingdao on 9 and 11 June 2013. The in situ measurements showed high correlation between green tide biomass and FAI, from which an empirical method to estimate biomass using FAI could be developed.

  14. In Brief: Profiling floats fully deployed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-11-01

    The Argo network of sensor-bearing profiling floats, which allows scientists to observe the basic physical state of the world's oceans, reached its full deployment of 3000 units on 1 November, according to the Argo steering committee. With the full deployment of these floats-which measure ocean water temperature, salinity, and velocity-data from every ocean region are available with an average coverage of one sensor per 3 degrees of latitude and longitude. The floats drift on ocean currents for 10 days, descend to up to 2000 meters in depth, and return to the surface to beam results to passing satellites. ``The climate science objectives that drive the Argo array require that we observe the global oceans indefinitely, so achieving the global array is merely the beginning of the observation period,'' said Dean Roemmich, cochairman of the Argo program steering committee and a physical oceanographer at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography.

  15. Floating mechanism of a small liquid marble

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Chin Hong; Plackowski, Chris; Nguyen, Anh V.; Vadivelu, Raja K.; John, James A. St.; Dao, Dzung Viet; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2016-01-01

    Flotation of small solid objects and liquid droplets on water is critical to natural and industrial activities. This paper reports the floating mechanism of liquid marbles, or liquid droplets coated with hydrophobic microparticles. We used X-ray computed tomography (XCT) to acquire cross-sectional images of the floating liquid marble and interface between the different phases. We then analysed the shape of the liquid marble and the angles at the three-phase contact line (TPCL). We found that the small floating liquid marbles follow the mechanism governing the flotation of solid objects in terms of surface tension forces. However, the contact angles formed and deformation of the liquid marble resemble that of a sessile liquid droplet on a thin, elastic solid. For small liquid marbles, the contact angle varies with volume due to the deformability of the interface. PMID:26902930

  16. Cephalometric floating norms for North American adults.

    PubMed

    Franchi, L; Baccetti, T; McNamara, J A

    1998-12-01

    Floating norms provide a method of analysis that uses the variability of the associations among suitable cephalometric measures, on the basis of a regression model combining both sagittal and vertical skeletal parameters. This study establishes floating norms for the description of the individual skeletal pattern in North American adults. The method is based on the correlations among the following craniofacial measurements: SNA, SNB, NL-NSL, ML-NSL, and NSBa. The results are given in a graphical box-like form. This easy, practical procedure allows for the identification of either individual harmonious craniofacial features or anomalous deviations from the individual norm. The use of cephalometric floating norms may be helpful for diagnosis and treatment planning in orthognathic surgery and dentofacial orthopedics.

  17. Hydrodynamic Tests of Models of Seaplane Floats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eula, Antonio

    1935-01-01

    This report contains the results of tank tests carried out at free trim on seventeen hulls and floats of various types. The data as to the weight on water, trim, and relative resistance for each model are plotted nondimensionally and are referenced both to the total weight and to the weight on water. Despite the fact that the experiments were not made systematically, a study of the models and of the test data permits nevertheless some general deductions regarding the forms of floats and their resistance. One specific conclusion is that the best models have a maximum relative resistance not exceeding 20 percent of the total weight.

  18. Improvements in floating point addition/subtraction operations

    DOEpatents

    Farmwald, P.M.

    1984-02-24

    Apparatus is described for decreasing the latency time associated with floating point addition and subtraction in a computer, using a novel bifurcated, pre-normalization/post-normalization approach that distinguishes between differences of floating point exponents.

  19. Floating Escherichia coli by expressing cyanobacterial gas vesicle genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tianhe; Kang, Li; Li, Jiaheng; Wu, Wenjie; Zhang, Peiran; Gong, Minghao; Lai, Weihong; Zhang, Chunyan; Chang, Lei; Peng, Yong; Yang, Zhongzhou; Li, Lian; Bao, Yingying; Xu, Haowen; Zhang, Xiaohua; Sui, Zhenghong; Yang, Guanpin; Wang, Xianghong

    2015-02-01

    Gas vesicles are hollow, air-filled polyprotein structures that provide the buoyancy to cells. They are found in a variety of prokaryotes. In this study, we isolated a partial gas vesicle protein gene cluster containing gvpA and gvpC20Ψ from Planktothrix rubescens, and inserted it into an expression vector and expressed it in E. coli. The gas vesicle was developed in bacterial cells, which made bacterial cells to float on medium surface. We also amplified gvpA and gvpC20Ψ separately and synthesized an artificial operon by fusing these two genes with the standardized gene expression controlling elements of E. coli. The artificial operon was expressed in E. coli, forming gas vesicles and floating bacteria cells. Our findings verified that the whole set of genes and the overall structure of gas vesicle gene cluster are not necessary for developing gas vesicles in bacteria cells. Two genes, gvpA and gvpC20Ψ, of the gas vesicle gene cluster are sufficient for synthesizing an artificial operon that can develop gas vesicles in bacteria cells. Our findings provided a wide range of applications including easing the harvest of cultured microalgae and bacteria, as well as enriching and remediating aquatic pollutants by constructing gas vesicles in their cells.

  20. Coupled Dynamic Modeling of Floating Wind Turbine Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wayman, E. N.; Sclavounos, P. D.; Butterfield, S.; Jonkman, J.; Musial, W.

    2006-03-01

    This article presents a collaborative research program that the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have undertaken to develop innovative and cost-effective floating and mooring systems for offshore wind turbines in water depths of 10-200 m. Methods for the coupled structural, hydrodynamic, and aerodynamic analysis of floating wind turbine systems are presented in the frequency domain. This analysis was conducted by coupling the aerodynamics and structural dynamics code FAST [4] developed at NREL with the wave load and response simulation code WAMIT (Wave Analysis at MIT) [15] developed at MIT. Analysis tools were developed to consider coupled interactions between the wind turbine and the floating system. These include the gyroscopic loads of the wind turbine rotor on the tower and floater, the aerodynamic damping introduced by the wind turbine rotor, the hydrodynamic damping introduced by wave-body interactions, and the hydrodynamic forces caused by wave excitation. Analyses were conducted for two floater concepts coupled with the NREL 5-MW Offshore Baseline wind turbine in water depths of 10-200 m: the MIT/NREL Shallow Drafted Barge (SDB) and the MIT/NREL Tension Leg Platform (TLP). These concepts were chosen to represent two different methods of achieving stability to identify differences in performance and cost of the different stability methods. The static and dynamic analyses of these structures evaluate the systems' responses to wave excitation at a range of frequencies, the systems' natural frequencies, and the standard deviations of the systems' motions in each degree of freedom in various wind and wave environments. This article in various wind and wave environments. This article explores the effects of coupling the wind turbine with the floating platform, the effects of water depth, and the effects of wind speed on the systems' performance. An economic feasibility analysis of the two concepts

  1. Quality of life associated with perceived stigma and discrimination among the floating population in Shanghai, China: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Wei; Cui, Zhi-Ting; Cui, Hong-Wei; Wei, Chang-Nian; Harada, Koichi; Minamoto, Keiko; Ueda, Kimiyo; Ingle, Kapilkumar N; Zhang, Cheng-Gang; Ueda, Atsushi

    2010-12-01

    The floating population refers to the large and increasing number of migrants without local household registration status and has become a new demographic phenomenon in China. Most of these migrants move from the rural areas of the central and western parts of China to the eastern and coastal metropolitan areas in pursuit of a better life. The floating population of China was composed of 121 million people in 2000, and this number was expected to increase to 300 million by 2010. Quality of life (QOL) studies of the floating population could provide a critical starting point for recognizing the potential of regions, cities and local communities to improve QOL. This study explored the construct of QOL of the floating population in Shanghai, China. We conducted eight focus groups with 58 members of the floating population (24 males and 34 females) and then performed a qualitative thematic analysis of the interviews. The following five QOL domains were identified from the analysis: personal development, jobs and career, family life, social relationships and social security. The results indicated that stigma and discrimination permeate these life domains and influence the framing of life expectations. Proposals were made for reducing stigma and discrimination against the floating population to improve the QOL of this population.

  2. Resumes, Applications, and Cover Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    Good resumes, applications, and cover letters broadcast one's abilities. They tell employers how one's qualifications match a job's responsibilities. If these critical preliminaries are constructed well, one has a better chance of landing interviews--and, eventually, a job. This article provides some guidelines for creating resumes and cover…

  3. 33 CFR 144.01-10 - Equipment for life floats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equipment for life floats. 144.01... for life floats. (a) Each lifefloat shall be provided with a painter. This painter shall be a manila... 1/2 inch in diameter. (b) Each life float must have a water light of an approved automatic...

  4. 46 CFR 131.870 - Life floats and buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Life floats and buoyant apparatus. 131.870 Section 131... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.870 Life floats and buoyant apparatus. (a) The name of the vessel must be plainly marked or painted on each life float or buoyant...

  5. 33 CFR 144.01-10 - Equipment for life floats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equipment for life floats. 144.01... for life floats. (a) Each lifefloat shall be provided with a painter. This painter shall be a manila... 1/2 inch in diameter. (b) Each life float must have a water light of an approved automatic...

  6. 46 CFR 131.870 - Life floats and buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Life floats and buoyant apparatus. 131.870 Section 131... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.870 Life floats and buoyant apparatus. (a) The name of the vessel must be plainly marked or painted on each life float or buoyant...

  7. 33 CFR 144.01-10 - Equipment for life floats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equipment for life floats. 144.01... for life floats. (a) Each lifefloat shall be provided with a painter. This painter shall be a manila... 1/2 inch in diameter. (b) Each life float must have a water light of an approved automatic...

  8. 46 CFR 131.870 - Life floats and buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Life floats and buoyant apparatus. 131.870 Section 131... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.870 Life floats and buoyant apparatus. (a) The name of the vessel must be plainly marked or painted on each life float or buoyant...

  9. 46 CFR 131.870 - Life floats and buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.870 Life floats and buoyant apparatus. (a) The name of the vessel must be plainly marked or painted on each life float or buoyant apparatus... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Life floats and buoyant apparatus. 131.870 Section...

  10. 46 CFR 131.870 - Life floats and buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.870 Life floats and buoyant apparatus. (a) The name of the vessel must be plainly marked or painted on each life float or buoyant apparatus... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Life floats and buoyant apparatus. 131.870 Section...

  11. 33 CFR 144.01-15 - Alternates for life floats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternates for life floats. 144... for life floats. (a) Approved lifeboats, approved life rafts or approved inflatable life rafts may be used in lieu of approved life floats for either all or part of the capacity required. When...

  12. 33 CFR 144.01-15 - Alternates for life floats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternates for life floats. 144... for life floats. (a) Approved lifeboats, approved life rafts or approved inflatable life rafts may be used in lieu of approved life floats for either all or part of the capacity required. When...

  13. 33 CFR 144.01-15 - Alternates for life floats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternates for life floats. 144... for life floats. (a) Approved lifeboats, approved life rafts or approved inflatable life rafts may be used in lieu of approved life floats for either all or part of the capacity required. When...

  14. 33 CFR 144.01-15 - Alternates for life floats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternates for life floats. 144... for life floats. (a) Approved lifeboats, approved life rafts or approved inflatable life rafts may be used in lieu of approved life floats for either all or part of the capacity required. When...

  15. 33 CFR 144.01-15 - Alternates for life floats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternates for life floats. 144... for life floats. (a) Approved lifeboats, approved life rafts or approved inflatable life rafts may be used in lieu of approved life floats for either all or part of the capacity required. When...

  16. 40 CFR 65.44 - External floating roof (EFR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false External floating roof (EFR). 65.44... (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Storage Vessels § 65.44 External floating roof (EFR). (a) EFR... emissions by using an external floating roof shall comply with the design requirements listed in...

  17. 33 CFR 144.01-10 - Equipment for life floats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equipment for life floats. 144.01... for life floats. (a) Each lifefloat shall be provided with a painter. This painter shall be a manila... 1/2 inch in diameter. (b) Each life float must have a water light of an approved automatic...

  18. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757 Section 29.757 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand the...

  19. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757 Section 29.757 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand the...

  20. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757 Section 29.757 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand the...

  1. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757 Section 29.757 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand the...

  2. 14 CFR 29.757 - Hull and auxiliary float strength.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull and auxiliary float strength. 29.757 Section 29.757 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 29.757 Hull and auxiliary float strength. The hull, and auxiliary floats if used, must withstand...

  3. Effect of floating conducting objects on critical switching impulse breakdown of air insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Rizk, F.A.M.

    1995-07-01

    The paper analyses the mechanism of breakdown of phase-to-ground and phase-to-phase air insulation in the presence of large conducting floating objects, under critical switching impulse stress. A new physical modeling approach is introduced which involves determination of the potential of the floating object by charge simulation technique, assessment of streamer breakdown and/or leader inception and propagation in the partial gaps and finally predicts the critical breakdown voltage of various configurations. As to phase-to-ground insulation, the investigation covers rod-plane, conductor-plane and conductor-tower leg configurations with different gap spacings as well as different shapes, dimensions and positions of the floating object. The phase-to-phase study additionally includes the effect of negative switching impulse content of the applied stress. The model is in excellent agreement with experiment and provides a novel tool for assessment of the effect of floating objects on switching impulse breakdown of some basic air gap configurations relevant to live line work.

  4. Software Aspects of IEEE Floating-Point Computations for Numerical Applications in High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-11

    Floating-point computations are at the heart of much of the computing done in high energy physics. The correctness, speed and accuracy of these computations are of paramount importance. The lack of any of these characteristics can mean the difference between new, exciting physics and an embarrassing correction. This talk will examine practical aspects of IEEE 754-2008 floating-point arithmetic as encountered in HEP applications. After describing the basic features of IEEE floating-point arithmetic, the presentation will cover: common hardware implementations (SSE, x87) techniques for improving the accuracy of summation, multiplication and data interchange compiler options for gcc and icc affecting floating-point operations hazards to be avoided About the speaker Jeffrey M Arnold is a Senior Software Engineer in the Intel Compiler and Languages group at Intel Corporation. He has been part of the Digital->Compaq->Intel compiler organization for nearly 20 years; part of that time, he worked on both low- and high-level math libraries. Prior to that, he was in the VMS Engineering organization at Digital Equipment Corporation. In the late 1980s, Jeff spent 2½ years at CERN as part of the CERN/Digital Joint Project. In 2008, he returned to CERN to spent 10 weeks working with CERN/openlab. Since that time, he has returned to CERN multiple times to teach at openlab workshops and consult with various LHC experiments. Jeff received his Ph.D. in physics from Case Western Reserve University.

  5. Software Aspects of IEEE Floating-Point Computations for Numerical Applications in High Energy Physics

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Floating-point computations are at the heart of much of the computing done in high energy physics. The correctness, speed and accuracy of these computations are of paramount importance. The lack of any of these characteristics can mean the difference between new, exciting physics and an embarrassing correction. This talk will examine practical aspects of IEEE 754-2008 floating-point arithmetic as encountered in HEP applications. After describing the basic features of IEEE floating-point arithmetic, the presentation will cover: common hardware implementations (SSE, x87) techniques for improving the accuracy of summation, multiplication and data interchange compiler options for gcc and icc affecting floating-point operations hazards to be avoided About the speaker Jeffrey M Arnold is a Senior Software Engineer in the Intel Compiler and Languages group at Intel Corporation. He has been part of the Digital->Compaq->Intel compiler organization for nearly 20 years; part of that time, he worked on both low- and high-level math libraries. Prior to that, he was in the VMS Engineering organization at Digital Equipment Corporation. In the late 1980s, Jeff spent 2½ years at CERN as part of the CERN/Digital Joint Project. In 2008, he returned to CERN to spent 10 weeks working with CERN/openlab. Since that time, he has returned to CERN multiple times to teach at openlab workshops and consult with various LHC experiments. Jeff received his Ph.D. in physics from Case Western Reserve University.

  6. Dealing with Human Death: The Floating Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Gary M.

    1991-01-01

    Explores approach to dealing with human death. Describes floating perspective, based on insights from Choron and Jaspers, as suggesting it is possible to deal with human death by refraining from taking ultimate position on the problem. Position encourages openness to death. Examines role of anxiety and describes possible meaningful outcomes of…

  7. 14 CFR 23.757 - Auxiliary floats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Auxiliary floats. 23.757 Section 23.757 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... fresh water, they provide a righting moment of at least 1.5 times the upsetting moment caused by the...

  8. Astronaut Precourt floats into Mir space station

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-07-10

    STS071-105-021 (27 June-7 July 1995) --- Astronaut Charles J. Precourt, STS-71 pilot, floats from the space shuttle Atlantis into Russia's Mir Space Station Kristall Module during the historic eleven-day flight involving a total of ten astronauts and cosmonauts.

  9. Floating--A Key to Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Norman

    1980-01-01

    Described are several activities to be used to help students grasp the concept of floating. The activities include the use of a spring scale to measure the weight of the objects in air, in water, and in salt water, and a discussion of why there are differences in these weights. (DS)

  10. The "floating door sign" in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, O; Lafaver, K; Tarsy, D

    2013-09-01

    Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) display micrographia. We report a new method to elicit micrographic drawing in individuals with PD and compare this to drawing in individuals with essential tremor (ET). We asked 81 individuals with PD and 19 individuals with ET to draw a house and write a sentence. We examined house height and whether vertical lines of the door connected to the house floor. If both vertical door lines failed to reach the floor by more than 1mm we designated this a "floating door sign". House height of <5 cm and letter height of <5 mm were considered micrographic drawing and writing. 45 of 81 PD patients displayed a "floating door sign" compared with only 4 of 19 ET patients (p = 0.0103). 24 of 81 PD patients compared with 1 of 19 ET patients had micrographic writing (p = 0.0224). 60 of 81 PD patients compared with 9 of 19 ET patients had micrographic drawing (p = 0.00526). The "floating door sign" correlated with micrographic writing (p = 0.0275) but not micrographic drawing. The "floating door sign" had a positive predictive value for PD but not ET. We believe it correlates with hypometeric hand movements which cause inadequate stroke size, a phenomenon described in PD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Subtropical Productivity from Profiling Floats and Gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, D. P.; Johnson, K. S.; Karl, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2007 profiling floats equipped with dissolved oxygen and nitrate sensors have been released from the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) and Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) sites and can be calibrated using time-series observations. More recent deployments have also included bio-optical and pH sensors. Gliders with oxygen sensors and bio-optics have been intermittently deployed near HOT Station ALOHA since 2008 and at BATS since 2014. While gliders maintain a restricted survey region near the time-series stations, profiling floats drifted widely across the subtropical gyres. Multiple floats and gliders enables a cotemporaneous comparison of biogeochemical processes across gyres. These platforms enable observations on spatial scales from submesoscale to basin scale and on temporal scales from diel to interannual. Here, I focus on the spatiotemporal variability of nitrate and oxygen mass balances in the North Pacific and North Atlantic subtropical gyres using a data-assimilating and float-tracking 1D upper ocean model.

  12. Dealing with Human Death: The Floating Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Gary M.

    1991-01-01

    Explores approach to dealing with human death. Describes floating perspective, based on insights from Choron and Jaspers, as suggesting it is possible to deal with human death by refraining from taking ultimate position on the problem. Position encourages openness to death. Examines role of anxiety and describes possible meaningful outcomes of…

  13. High-Resolution Radar Scattering Characteristics of a Disturbed Sea Surface and Floating Debris

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-29

    theoretically and experimentally. Oil drums, logs, and aluminum-covered plastic gallon milk bottles were considered and measured. A comparison of the echoing...covered plastic bottle ,38 N R tEPO R1 8 131 0 DBSM L LJ v ’ da) B 6 GH1 0 DSM -- DBSM ib) 9.2 GHz Ils Fig. 29 - Vertically polarized return from wave...j2 ’ NRL Report 8131 (~High-Resolution Radar Scattering Characteristics of a Disturbed Sea Surface and Floating Debris B. L. LEWIS. J. P. HANSEN. 1

  14. [Co-prevalence of chronic disease risk factors and influencing factors in floating population in China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Z H; Zhang, M; Li, Y C; Huang, Z J; Wang, L M

    2017-09-10

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence and co-prevalence of tobacco use, excessive alcohol use, insufficient intake of vegetable and fruit, physical inactivity, and overweight or obesity in floating population and influencing factors in China, 2012. Methods: Data from the 2012 China Chronic Disease Risk Factor Survey in Floating Population in China were used. In this survey, 48 704 people aged 18-59 years in floating population were selected through stratified multistage clustering sampling in 170 counties and districts from 31 province (autonomous regions and municipalities) and Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps. The gender specific prevalence and co-prevalence of five risk factors were estimated, and the rank sum test was used for result comparison. Results: Among the people surveyed, 27.4% had one risk factor, 37.1% had two risk factors, 28.5% had ≥3 risk factors. The prevalence or co-prevalence of risk factors were positively correlated with age (P<0.05), income level (P<0.05) and migration time (P<0.05), and negatively correlated with educational level (P<0.05). People who were males, in Han ethnic group, engaged in construction and from other provinces were more likely to have more risk factors (P<0.05). Conclusion: The prevalence and co-prevalence of tobacco use, excessive alcohol use, insufficient intake of vegetable and fruit, physical inactivity and overweight or obesity were high in floating population in China, suggesting that it is necessary to strengthen the comprehensive behavior intervention in floating population.

  15. Floating-Point Units and Algorithms for field-programmable gate arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, Keith D.; Hemmert, K. Scott

    2005-11-01

    The software that we are attempting to copyright is a package of floating-point unit descriptions and example algorithm implementations using those units for use in FPGAs. The floating point units are best-in-class implementations of add, multiply, divide, and square root floating-point operations. The algorithm implementations are sample (not highly flexible) implementations of FFT, matrix multiply, matrix vector multiply, and dot product. Together, one could think of the collection as an implementation of parts of the BLAS library or something similar to the FFTW packages (without the flexibility) for FPGAs. Results from this work has been published multiple times and we are working on a publication to discuss the techniques we use to implement the floating-point units, For some more background, FPGAS are programmable hardware. "Programs" for this hardware are typically created using a hardware description language (examples include Verilog, VHDL, and JHDL). Our floating-point unit descriptions are written in JHDL, which allows them to include placement constraints that make them highly optimized relative to some other implementations of floating-point units. Many vendors (Nallatech from the UK, SRC Computers in the US) have similar implementations, but our implementations seem to be somewhat higher performance. Our algorithm implementations are written in VHDL and models of the floating-point units are provided in VHDL as well. FPGA "programs" make multiple "calls" (hardware instantiations) to libraries of intellectual property (IP), such as the floating-point unit library described here. These programs are then compiled using a tool called a synthesizer (such as a tool from Synplicity, Inc.). The compiled file is a netlist of gates and flip-flops. This netlist is then mapped to a particular type of FPGA by a mapper and then a place- and-route tool. These tools assign the gates in the netlist to specific locations on the specific type of FPGA chip used and

  16. Term Cancellations in Computing Floating-Point Gröbner Bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Tateaki; Kako, Fujio

    We discuss the term cancellation which makes the floating-point Gröbner basis computation unstable, and show that error accumulation is never negligible in our previous method. Then, we present a new method, which removes accumulated errors as far as possible by reducing matrices constructed from coefficient vectors by the Gaussian elimination. The method manifests amounts of term cancellations caused by the existence of approximate linearly dependent relations among input polynomials.

  17. The motion of floating and submerged objects in the Chattahoochee River, Atlanta, GA.

    PubMed

    Dilen, D R

    1984-10-01

    Two mannikins, one designed to float and one designed to sink, were used to examine the ways in which human bodies move in a river. The floating mannikin was used to examine the movement of a body floating downstream on the surface and to determined the flow patterns of surface currents through bends in the Chattahoochee River in Atlanta, GA. The submerged mannikin was constructed to have a specific gravity of a deceased person (over a range of specific gravities) and was used to examine the motion of a body immediately upon entering the water. The submerged mannikin also was used to examine motion along the bottom of the river. Floating objects near each bank of the Chattahoochee River were found to remain along their respective banks as they moved downstream through the bends in the river. No mechanisms of transport from one bank to the other in the bends was found. The movement of a submerged dummy only occurred at very high river flows. The dummy remained stationary at the place where it reached the bottom for tests over a wide range of specific gravities and a moderate range of flow levels. A discussion of the river conditions (for example, bottom topography, bottom composition, flow rates, and hydraulics) is included. The results of the experiments offer initial guidelines and principles that can be used by officials and agencies involved in the search, rescue, and recovery of bodies in most rivers.

  18. Float zone silicon sheet growth. Technical progress report quarterly report No. 8, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bleil, C.E.

    1995-12-01

    Research continued on float zone silicon sheet growth. Progress is described in the following 8 tasks: heat pipe construction; heat pipe heater and heat extraction system; optical temperature monitoring system; replenishment source development; RF electrode assembly; solid-liquid interface monitors; ribbon seed preparation; and overall system assembly.

  19. 40 CFR Table 28 to Subpart G of... - Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD) for..., and Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 28 Table 28 to Subpart G of Part 63—Deck Seam Length Factors a (SD) for Internal Floating Roof Tanks Deck construction Typical deck seam length factor...

  20. Assessment of the abnormal growth of floating macrophytes in Winam Gulf (Kenya) by using MODIS imagery time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusilli, L.; Collins, M. O.; Laneve, G.; Palombo, A.; Pignatti, S.; Santini, F.

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this research study is to assess the capability of time-series of MODIS imagery to provide information suitable for enhancing the understanding of the temporal cycles shown by the abnormal growth of the floating macrophytes in order to support monitoring and management action of Lake Victoria water resources. The proliferation of invasive plants and aquatic weeds is of growing concern. Starting from 1989, Lake Victoria has been interested by the high infestation of water hyacinth with significant socio-economic impact on riparian populations. In this paper, we describe an approach based on the time-series of MODIS to derive the temporal behaviour, the abundance and distribution of the floating macrophytes in the Winam Gulf (Kenyan portion of the Lake Victoria) and its possible links to the concentrations of the main water constituencies. To this end, we consider the NDVI values computed from the MODIS imagery time-series from 2000 to 2009 to identify the floating macrophytes cover and an appropriate bio-optical model to retrieve, by means of an inverse procedure, the concentrations of chlorophyll a, coloured dissolved organic matter and total suspended solid. The maps of the floating vegetation based on the NDVI values allow us to assess the spatial and temporal dynamics of the weeds with high time resolution. A floating vegetation index (FVI) has been introduced for describing the weeds pollution level. The results of the analysis show a consistent temporal relation between the water constituent concentrations within the Winam Gulf and the FVI, especially in the proximity of the greatest proliferation of floating vegetation in the last 10 years that occurred between the second half of 2006 and the first half of 2007.The adopted approach will be useful to implement an automatic system for monitoring and predicting the floating macrophytes proliferation in Lake Victoria.

  1. Floating production systems planned for Italy, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    EMH has signed a contract to design, fabricate and install a permanent deepwater, gravity-based single-point mooring (SPM) system and floating oil storage facility in Societa Energio Montedison's (SEM) Vega field off Italy. The design of the system is described. The system is designed to accomodate production rates of 75,000 bpd. The oil will be loaded from the storage tanker into shuttle tankers which will take it to area refineries. The shuttle tankers can moor either in tandem or side-by-side for loading. Also described in this paper are three Nigerian offshore fields -- Akam, Adanga and Ebughu -- being developed by Ashland Oil. They will be brought onstream through the use of an integrated floating production, storage and offloading (FPSO) system. Production from all three fields will be piped to a central manifold platform to which a tanker will be permanently moored via a soft-yoke mooring system.

  2. Computer-controlled float zone crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Y. T.; Mailloux, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    A PC-based computer control system to automate a high-temperature float zone growth of titanium carbide is reported. The control strategy of the computer control system relies on the relations derived from a combination of empirical relations and results from detailed mathematical analysis of the physical transports of the entire float zone assembly. A system control computer program was written to establish real-time determination of the size of the molten zone from a thermal image, control parameters from established relationships, and collected processed data to achieve control objectives. We found that the developed computer control allows the growth process to be operated nearer the stability limit. Any slight variations in growth conditions can be corrected in time to avoid any instability growth, which otherwise cannot be adjusted via manual control.

  3. Floating behavior of hydrophobic glass spheres.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinjie; Wang, Xiaolong; Liang, Yongmin; Zhou, Feng

    2009-08-15

    When a hydrophobic solid sphere is floating on water or salt solutions with different concentrations, it is at equilibrium under the impact of gravity, buoyancy force, and curvature force, the component of surface tension in the vertical direction. We have changed the diameters of the spheres and the concentrations of the two selected salts, NaCl and NaNO(3), to study the floating behaviors of these spheres and the contributions of surface tension and buoyancy force to their floatation. Generally speaking, the surface tension plays a more important role than the buoyancy force when the gravity is small, but the buoyancy force plays an identical or a more important role when the spheres are big enough. The wettability of the spheres significantly influences the height below the contact perimeter especially in salt solutions. The theoretical calculation meniscus slope angles at the sphere three-phase contact line are in agreement with experimental results.

  4. Capillary deposition of advected floating particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressaire, Emilie; Debaisieux, Aymeric; Gregori, Federico

    2016-11-01

    The deposition and aggregation of particles flowing through a confined environment can dramatically hinder the transport of suspensions. Yet, the mechanisms responsible for the deposition of particles in shear flow are not fully understood. Here, we use an experimental model system in which floating particles are advected on the surface of a water channel and deposited on fixed obstacles through attractive capillary effects. By varying the flow rate of the liquid, the wetting properties and size of the particles and obstacles, we can tune the magnitude of the capillary and hydrodynamic forces that determine the probability of deposition and the equilibrium position on the substrate. We show that arrays of obstacles can be designed to efficiently capture the floating particles advected by the flow.

  5. Health Insurance Coverage and Its Impact on Medical Cost: Observations from the Floating Population in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yinjun; Kang, Bowei; Liu, Yawen; Li, Yichong; Shi, Guoqing; Shen, Tao; Jiang, Yong; Zhang, Mei; Zhou, Maigeng; Wang, Limin

    2014-01-01

    Background China has the world's largest floating (migrant) population, which has characteristics largely different from the rest of the population. Our goal is to study health insurance coverage and its impact on medical cost for this population. Methods A telephone survey was conducted in 2012. 644 subjects were surveyed. Univariate and multivariate analysis were conducted on insurance coverage and medical cost. Results 82.2% of the surveyed subjects were covered by basic insurance at hometowns with hukou or at residences. Subjects' characteristics including age, education, occupation, and presence of chronic diseases were associated with insurance coverage. After controlling for confounders, insurance coverage was not significantly associated with gross or out-of-pocket medical cost. Conclusion For the floating population, health insurance coverage needs to be improved. Policy interventions are needed so that health insurance can have a more effective protective effect on cost. PMID:25386914

  6. Floating vs flying: A propulsion energy comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marbury, F.

    1975-01-01

    Floating craft are compared to those that fly. Drag/weight for floaters is shown to be proportional to v squared/L, while for flyers it is independent of size and speed. The transportation market will therefore assign airships to lower speeds than airplanes, and will favor large airship sizes. Drag of an airship is shown to be only 11 percent of submarine drag at equal displacement and speed, raising the possibility that airships can compete with some types of ships.

  7. Ships as future floating farm systems?

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2016-09-29

    Environmental and agriculture challenges such as severe drought, desertification, sprawling cities and shrinking arable lands in large regions in the world compel us to think about alternative and sustainable farming systems. Ongoing projects to build floating cities in the sea suggest that building specific ships for farming purposes (as farming ships or farming boats) would also be attainable to introduce new farming surfaces and boost food production worldwide to cope with food insecurity issues.

  8. TVFMCATS. Time Variant Floating Mean Counting Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, R.K.

    1999-05-01

    This software was written to test a time variant floating mean counting algorithm. The algorithm was developed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company and a provisional patent has been filed on the algorithm. The test software was developed to work with the Val Tech model IVB prototype version II count rate meter hardware. The test software was used to verify the algorithm developed by WSRC could be correctly implemented with the vendor`s hardware.

  9. Time Variant Floating Mean Counting Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, Russell Kevin

    1999-06-03

    This software was written to test a time variant floating mean counting algorithm. The algorithm was developed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company and a provisional patent has been filed on the algorithm. The test software was developed to work with the Val Tech model IVB prototype version II count rate meter hardware. The test software was used to verify the algorithm developed by WSRC could be correctly implemented with the vendor''s hardware.

  10. High-Rate Capable Floating Strip Micromegas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bender, Michael; Biebel, Otmar; Danger, Helge; Flierl, Bernhard; Hertenberger, Ralf; Lösel, Philipp; Moll, Samuel; Parodi, Katia; Rinaldi, Ilaria; Ruschke, Alexander; Zibell, André

    2016-04-01

    We report on the optimization of discharge insensitive floating strip Micromegas (MICRO-MEsh GASeous) detectors, fit for use in high-energy muon spectrometers. The suitability of these detectors for particle tracking is shown in high-background environments and at very high particle fluxes up to 60 MHz/cm2. Measurement and simulation of the microscopic discharge behavior have demonstrated the excellent discharge tolerance. A floating strip Micromegas with an active area of 48 cm × 50 cm with 1920 copper anode strips exhibits in 120 GeV pion beams a spatial resolution of 50 μm at detection efficiencies above 95%. Pulse height, spatial resolution and detection efficiency are homogeneous over the detector. Reconstruction of particle track inclination in a single detector plane is discussed, optimum angular resolutions below 5° are observed. Systematic deviations of this μTPC-method are fully understood. The reconstruction capabilities for minimum ionizing muons are investigated in a 6.4 cm × 6.4 cm floating strip Micromegas under intense background irradiation of the whole active area with 20 MeV protons at a rate of 550 kHz. The spatial resolution for muons is not distorted by space charge effects. A 6.4 cm × 6.4 cm floating strip Micromegas doublet with low material budget is investigated in highly ionizing proton and carbon ion beams at particle rates between 2 MHz and 2 GHz. Stable operation up to the highest rates is observed, spatial resolution, detection efficiencies, the multi-hit and high-rate capability are discussed.

  11. Floating gate transistors as biosensors (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisbie, C. Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Electrolyte gated transistors (EGTs) are a sub-class of thin film transistors that are extremely promising for biological sensing applications. These devices employ a solid electrolyte as the gate insulator; the very large capacitance of the electrolyte results in low voltage operation and high transconductance or gain. This talk will describe the fabrication of floating gate EGTs and their use as ricin sensors. The critical performance metrics for EGTs compared with other types of TFTs will also be reviewed.

  12. FPP [Floating Potential Probe] Results, Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    2007-01-01

    The Floating Potential Probe (FPP) operated on the International Space Station (ISS) from December 2000 to April 2001. During that time, it took many measurements of the ISS floating potential and the electron density and temperature. Those measurements were used as inputs to the Environments WorkBench (EWB) model of ISS potentials (originally developed by SAIC, but now sometimes called the Boeing model) that is used even today to predict charging levels for ISS. FPP is now completely defunct, having been removed and ejected from ISS. With the advent of the new Floating Potential Monitoring Unit (FPMU) on ISS, and the beginning of ISS operations with two large solar array panels instead of just one, a review of FPP measurements can offer comparisons with the new FPMU data and perhaps improve the accuracy of future ISS charging predictions. In particular, FPP measurements during times of low electron temperature and high electron density (the times of worst ISS charging) will be brought forward for comparison with the newly obtained FPMU data.

  13. Floating debris in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Suaria, Giuseppe; Aliani, Stefano

    2014-09-15

    Results from the first large-scale survey of floating natural (NMD) and anthropogenic (AMD) debris (>2 cm) in the central and western part of the Mediterranean Sea are reported. Floating debris was found throughout the entire study area with densities ranging from 0 to 194.6 items/km(2) and mean abundances of 24.9 AMD items/km(2) and 6.9 NMD items/km(2) across all surveyed locations. On the whole, 78% of all sighted objects were of anthropogenic origin, 95.6% of which were petrochemical derivatives (i.e. plastic and styrofoam). Maximum AMD densities (>52 items/km(2)) were found in the Adriatic Sea and in the Algerian basin, while the lowest densities (<6.3 items/km(2)) were observed in the Central Tyrrhenian and in the Sicilian Sea. All the other areas had mean densities ranging from 10.9 to 30.7 items/km(2). According to our calculations, more than 62 million macro-litter items are currently floating on the surface of the whole Mediterranean basin.

  14. Liquid encapsulated float zone process and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, Robert J. (Inventor); Frazier, Donald O. (Inventor); Lehoczky, Sandor L. (Inventor); Vlasse, Marcus (Inventor); Facemire, Barbara R. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    The process and apparatus for growing crystals using float zone techniques are described. A rod of crystalline materials is disposed in a cylindrical container, leaving a space between the rod and container walls. This space is filled with an encapsulant, selected to have a slightly lower melting point than the crystalline material. The rod is secured to a container end cap at one end and to a shaft at its other end. A piston slides over the rod and provides pressure to prevent loss of volatile components upon melting of the rod. Prior to melting the rod the container is first heated to melt the encapsulant, with any off-gas from this step being vented to a cavity behind the piston. The piston moves slightly forward owing to volume change upon melting of the encapsulant, and the vent passageway is closed. The container is then moved longitudinally through a heated zone to progressively melt sections of the rod as in conventional float zone processes. The float zone technique may be used in the microgravity environment of space.

  15. Borofloat and Starphire Float Glasses: A Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, Andrew A.; Anderson Jr., Charles E.

    2014-10-28

    Borofloat® borosilicate float glass and Starphire® soda-lime silicate float glass are used in transparent protective systems. They are known to respond differently in some ballistic and triaxial loading conditions, and efforts are underway to understand the causes of those differences. Toward that, a suite of test and material characterizations were completed in the present study on both glasses so to identify what differences exist among them. Compositional, physical properties, elastic properties, flaw size distributions and concentrations, tensile/flexure strength, fracture toughness, spherical indentation and hardness, transmission electron microscopy, striae, high pressure responses via diamond anvil cell testing, laser shock differences, and internal porosity were examined. Differences between these two float glasses were identified for many of these properties and characteristics, and the role of three (striae, high pressures where permanent densification can initiate, and sub-micron-sized porosity) lack understanding and deserve further attention. Lastly, the contributing roles of any of those properties or characteristics to triaxial or ballistic loading responses are not definitive; however, they provide potential correlations that may lead to improved understanding and management of loading responses in glasses used in transparent protective systems.

  16. Borofloat and Starphire Float Glasses: A Comparison

    DOE PAGES

    Wereszczak, Andrew A.; Anderson Jr., Charles E.

    2014-10-28

    Borofloat® borosilicate float glass and Starphire® soda-lime silicate float glass are used in transparent protective systems. They are known to respond differently in some ballistic and triaxial loading conditions, and efforts are underway to understand the causes of those differences. Toward that, a suite of test and material characterizations were completed in the present study on both glasses so to identify what differences exist among them. Compositional, physical properties, elastic properties, flaw size distributions and concentrations, tensile/flexure strength, fracture toughness, spherical indentation and hardness, transmission electron microscopy, striae, high pressure responses via diamond anvil cell testing, laser shock differences, andmore » internal porosity were examined. Differences between these two float glasses were identified for many of these properties and characteristics, and the role of three (striae, high pressures where permanent densification can initiate, and sub-micron-sized porosity) lack understanding and deserve further attention. Lastly, the contributing roles of any of those properties or characteristics to triaxial or ballistic loading responses are not definitive; however, they provide potential correlations that may lead to improved understanding and management of loading responses in glasses used in transparent protective systems.« less

  17. Cover/Frequency (CF)

    Treesearch

    John F. Caratti

    2006-01-01

    The FIREMON Cover/Frequency (CF) method is used to assess changes in plant species cover and frequency for a macroplot. This method uses multiple quadrats to sample within-plot variation and quantify statistically valid changes in plant species cover, height, and frequency over time. Because it is difficult to estimate cover in quadrats for larger plants, this method...

  18. Estimating Cloud Cover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this activity was to help students understand the percentage of cloud cover and make more accurate cloud cover observations. Students estimated the percentage of cloud cover represented by simulated clouds and assigned a cloud cover classification to those simulations. (Contains 2 notes and 3 tables.)

  19. Estimating Cloud Cover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this activity was to help students understand the percentage of cloud cover and make more accurate cloud cover observations. Students estimated the percentage of cloud cover represented by simulated clouds and assigned a cloud cover classification to those simulations. (Contains 2 notes and 3 tables.)

  20. Construction measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    This text/reference on construction measurements contains material concerning electronic surveying and remote sensing. New to this edition is coverage of the GPS satellite positioning system, electronic distance measurement (EDM), laser sweep, calculator techniques, radial surveying and tracking, Loran-C, inertial navigation surveying, 3-point resection, computer software, and electronic fieldbooks. It covers the difference of elevation, angle measurements and directions, coordinate surveying and layout, offshore measurements, and random field and office techniques.

  1. 46 CFR 116.425 - Deck coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.425 Deck coverings. (a) Except as provided in this section, deck coverings used for leveling or finishing purposes in control spaces, stairway enclosures, passageways, accommodation spaces and...

  2. 46 CFR 116.425 - Deck coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.425 Deck coverings. (a) Except as provided in this section, deck coverings used for leveling or finishing purposes in control spaces, stairway enclosures, passageways, accommodation spaces and...

  3. Float processing of high-temperature complex silicate glasses and float baths used for same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Reid Franklin (Inventor); Cook, Glen Bennett (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A float glass process for production of high melting temperature glasses utilizes a binary metal alloy bath having the combined properties of a low melting point, low reactivity with oxygen, low vapor pressure, and minimal reactivity with the silicate glasses being formed. The metal alloy of the float medium is exothermic with a solvent metal that does not readily form an oxide. The vapor pressure of both components in the alloy is low enough to prevent deleterious vapor deposition, and there is minimal chemical and interdiffusive interaction of either component with silicate glasses under the float processing conditions. Alloys having the desired combination of properties include compositions in which gold, silver or copper is the solvent metal and silicon, germanium or tin is the solute, preferably in eutectic or near-eutectic compositions.

  4. Tank Tests of Two Floats for High-speed Seaplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Joe W

    1933-01-01

    At the request of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department, a study of the design of floats especially suitable for use on high-speed seaplanes was undertaken in the N.A.C.A. tank. This note give the results obtained in tests of one-quarter full-size models of two floats for high-speed seaplanes. One was a float similar to that used on the Macchi high-speed seaplane which competed in the 1926 Schneider Trophy races, and the other a float designed at the N.A.C.A. tank in an attempt to improve on the water performance of the Macchi float. The model of the latter showed considerably better water performance than the model of the Macchi float.

  5. Electron Temperature Measurement by Floating Probe Method Using AC Voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nodomi, Satoshi; Sato, Shuichi; Ohuchi, Mikio

    2016-11-01

    This study presents a novel floating probe method to measure electron temperatures using a hollow cathode-type discharge tube. The proposed method detects a shift in the floating potential when an AC voltage is applied to a probe through an intermediary blocking capacitor. The shift in the floating potential is described as a function of the electron temperature and the applied AC voltage. The floating probe method is simpler than the Langmuir probe method because it does not require the measurement of volt-ampere characteristics. As the input AC voltage increases, the electron temperature converges. The electron temperature measured using the floating probe method with an applied sinusoidal voltage shows a value close to the first (tail) electron temperature in the range of the floating potential.

  6. Electron Temperature Measurement by Floating Probe Method Using AC Voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoshi, Nodomi; Shuichi, Sato; Mikio, Ohuchi

    2016-11-01

    This study presents a novel floating probe method to measure electron temperatures using a hollow cathode-type discharge tube. The proposed method detects a shift in the floating potential when an AC voltage is applied to a probe through an intermediary blocking capacitor. The shift in the floating potential is described as a function of the electron temperature and the applied AC voltage. The floating probe method is simpler than the Langmuir probe method because it does not require the measurement of volt-ampere characteristics. As the input AC voltage increases, the electron temperature converges. The electron temperature measured using the floating probe method with an applied sinusoidal voltage shows a value close to the first (tail) electron temperature in the range of the floating potential.

  7. Vehicle body cover

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, T.

    1987-01-13

    This patent describes a vehicle body covered with a vehicle body cover which comprises: a front cover part, a rear cover part, a pair of side cover parts, and a roof cover part: the front cover part having portions adapted to cover only a hood, an area around a windshield and tops of front fenders of a vehicle body. The portion covering the hood is separated from the portions covering the tops of the fenders by cuts in the front cover part, the front cover part having an un-cut portion corresponding to a position at which the hood is hinged to the car body. The front cover part has a cut-out at a position corresponding to the windshield of the vehicle body and the front cover part has at least one cut-out at a position corresponding to where a rear view mirror is attached to the vehicle body; and the rear cover part having portions adapted to cover an area around a rear window, a trunk lid and a rear end of the vehicle body, the portion covering the trunk lid separated from the rest of the rear cover part by cuts corresponding to three sides of the trunk lid and an un-cut portion corresponding to a position at which the trunk lid is hinged to the vehicle body. The rear cover part has a hole at position corresponding to a trunk lid lock, a cut-out portion at a position corresponding to the rear window of the vehicle body, a cut-out at a position corresponding to a license plate of the vehicle body and cut-outs at positions corresponding to rear taillights of the vehicle body.

  8. Selection of floating-point or fixed-point for adaptive noise canceller in somatosensory evoked potential measurement.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chongfei; Liu, Hongtao; Xie, Xb; Luk, Keith Dk; Hu, Yong

    2007-01-01

    Adaptive noise canceller (ANC) has been used to improve signal to noise ratio (SNR) of somsatosensory evoked potential (SEP). In order to efficiently apply the ANC in hardware system, fixed-point algorithm based ANC can achieve fast, cost-efficient construction, and low-power consumption in FPGA design. However, it is still questionable whether the SNR improvement performance by fixed-point algorithm is as good as that by floating-point algorithm. This study is to compare the outputs of ANC by floating-point and fixed-point algorithm ANC when it was applied to SEP signals. The selection of step-size parameter (micro) was found different in fixed-point algorithm from floating-point algorithm. In this simulation study, the outputs of fixed-point ANC showed higher distortion from real SEP signals than that of floating-point ANC. However, the difference would be decreased with increasing micro value. In the optimal selection of micro, fixed-point ANC can get as good results as floating-point algorithm.

  9. When chromatin organisation floats astray: the Srcap gene and Floating-Harbor syndrome.

    PubMed

    Messina, Giovanni; Atterrato, Maria Teresa; Dimitri, Patrizio

    2016-12-01

    Floating-Harbor syndrome (FHS) is a rare human disease characterised by delayed bone mineralisation and growth deficiency, often associated with mental retardation and skeletal and craniofacial abnormalities. FHS was first described at Boston's Floating Hospital 42 years ago, but the causative gene, called Srcap, was identified only recently. Truncated SRCAP protein variants have been implicated in the mechanism of FHS, but the molecular bases underlying the disease must still be elucidated and investigating the molecular defects leading to the onset of FHS remains a challenge. Here we comprehensively review recent work and provide alterative hypotheses to explain how the Srcap truncating mutations lead to the onset of FHS.

  10. Track Construction Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banke, Ron; Di Gennaro, Guy; Ediger, Rick; Garner, Lanny; Hersom, Steve; Miller, Jack; Nemeth, Ron; Petrucelli, Jim; Sierks, Donna; Smith, Don; Swank, Kevin; West, Kevin

    This book establishes guidelines for the construction and maintenance of tracks by providing information for building new tracks or upgrading existing tracks. Subjects covered include running track planning and construction, physical layout, available surfaces, and maintenance. General track requirements and construction specifications are…

  11. Trident: An FPGA Compiler Framework for Floating-Point Algorithms.

    SciTech Connect

    Tripp J. L.; Peterson, K. D.; Poznanovic, J. D.; Ahrens, C. M.; Gokhale, M.

    2005-01-01

    Trident is a compiler for floating point algorithms written in C, producing circuits in reconfigurable logic that exploit the parallelism available in the input description. Trident automatically extracts parallelism and pipelines loop bodies using conventional compiler optimizations and scheduling techniques. Trident also provides an open framework for experimentation, analysis, and optimization of floating point algorithms on FPGAs and the flexibility to easily integrate custom floating point libraries.

  12. A Formalization of Floating Point Numeric Base Conversion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The process of converting arbitrary real numbers into a floating point format is formalized as a mapping of the reals into a specified subset of real...numbers. The structure of this subset, the set of a significant digit base beta floating point numbers, is analyzed and properties of conversion...implications of these results with regards to establishing goals and standards for floating point formats and conversion procedures are considered.

  13. An Analysis of the Full-Floating Journal Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, M C; Nussdorfer, T J , Jr

    1947-01-01

    An analysis of the operating characteristics of a full-floating journal bearing, a bearing in which a floating sleeve is located between the journal and bearing surfaces, is presented together with charts from which the performance of such bearings may be predicted. Examples are presented to illustrate the use of these charts and a limited number of experiments conducted upon a glass full-floating bearing are reported to verify some results of the analysis.

  14. 46 CFR 127.440 - Operability of window coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operability of window coverings. 127.440 Section 127.440... ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.440 Operability of window coverings. Any covering or protection placed over a window or porthole that could be used as a means of...

  15. 46 CFR 127.440 - Operability of window coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operability of window coverings. 127.440 Section 127.440... ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.440 Operability of window coverings. Any covering or protection placed over a window or porthole that could be used as a means...

  16. 46 CFR 127.440 - Operability of window coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operability of window coverings. 127.440 Section 127.440... ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.440 Operability of window coverings. Any covering or protection placed over a window or porthole that could be used as a means...

  17. 46 CFR 127.440 - Operability of window coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operability of window coverings. 127.440 Section 127.440... ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.440 Operability of window coverings. Any covering or protection placed over a window or porthole that could be used as a means...

  18. 46 CFR 127.440 - Operability of window coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operability of window coverings. 127.440 Section 127.440... ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.440 Operability of window coverings. Any covering or protection placed over a window or porthole that could be used as a means...

  19. Multiple layer insulation cover

    DOEpatents

    Farrell, James J.; Donohoe, Anthony J.

    1981-11-03

    A multiple layer insulation cover for preventing heat loss in, for example, a greenhouse, is disclosed. The cover is comprised of spaced layers of thin foil covered fabric separated from each other by air spaces. The spacing is accomplished by the inflation of spaced air bladders which are integrally formed in the cover and to which the layers of the cover are secured. The bladders are inflated after the cover has been deployed in its intended use to separate the layers of the foil material. The sizes of the material layers are selected to compensate for sagging across the width of the cover so that the desired spacing is uniformly maintained when the cover has been deployed. The bladders are deflated as the cover is stored thereby expediting the storage process and reducing the amount of storage space required.

  20. Models in towing basins/design of floats for seaplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Towing carriage gear housing in the Tow Tank. Starr Truscott described the Towing Carriage in NACA TR No. 470: ' The structure of the towing carriage is of carbon-steel tube, with all joints welded. In order to insure accuracy of alinement (sic.) in the girders forming the car structure, the ends of all the tubes meeting at a joint were milled to fit snugly before welding and all welding was done with the structure in a massive jig. The gear cases also are of welded construction.' (p. 537) The Tow Tank was designed by Starr Truscott. Construction was authorized in March 1929 and was dedicated on May 27, 1931 during the Annual Manufacturer's Inspection meeting. The tank's initial cost was $649,000. It was used by the NACA to study hydrodynamics problems until 1959 when the facility was turned over to the U.S. Navy. The tank was extended to 2960 in 1936. In addition to increasing the length of the tank, a new high-speed (80-mph) carriage was installed in 1936-1937.Construction of pontoon hull model to be tested in Tow Tank No. 1. This is a 1/6 full size model of the hull of a Navy PH-1 flying boat. Two typical tests were conducted and included in the first report describing the High-Speed Towing Basin. From TR 470: 'A survey of the information available regarding the application of the results of tests of models in towing basins to the design of floats for seaplanes was made by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in 1929. It was found that the development of flying boats and seaplanes had been assisted very much in the United States, and possibly more in other countries, by tests of models in towing basins or tanks. Some tanks already existed which were designed especially for testing models of seaplane floats and the construction of other tanks for this special purpose was projected. There was no such tank in the United States; in fact, there were only two tanks, both constructed before the appearance of the seaplane and designed originally to test

  1. Floating Drug Delivery of Nevirapine as a Gastroretentive System

    PubMed Central

    Vedha, Hari BN; Brahma, Reddy A; Samyuktha, Rani B

    2010-01-01

    A multiple-unit floating drug delivery system based on gas formation technique was developed, in order to prolong the gastric residence time and to increase the overall bioavailability of the dosage form. The floating bead formulations were prepared by dispersing nevirapine together with calcium carbonate in a mixture of sodium alginate and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose solution and then dripping the dispersion into an acidified solution of calcium chloride. Calcium alginate beads were formed, as the alginate underwent ionotropic gelation by calcium ions, and carbon dioxide developed from the reaction of carbonate salts with acid. The obtained beads were able to float due to CO2-gas formation and the gas entrapment by the polymeric membrane. The prepared beads were evaluated for percent drug loading, drug entrapment efficiency, morphology, surface topography, buoyancy, in-vitro release, and release kinetics. The formulations were optimized for different weight ratios of the gas-forming agent and sodium alginate. The beads containing higher amounts of calcium carbonate demonstrated an instantaneous, complete, and excellent floating ability over a period of 24 hours. The increased amount of the gas forming agent did not affect the time to float, but increased the drug release from the floating beads, while increasing the coating level of the gas-entrapped membrane, increased the time to float, and slightly retarded the drug release. Good floating properties and sustained drug release were achieved. Finally, these floating beads seemed to be a promising gastroretentive drug delivery system. PMID:21264092

  2. Surface Drift of RAFOS Floats in the California Current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, D. C.; Collins, C. A.; Margolina, T.

    2011-12-01

    The patterns of surface drift of ninety RAFOS floats in the California Current System have been studied. The floats were launched in the California Undercurrent during 1992-2010 and were tracked by the ARGOS system when they surfaced at the end of their subsurface mission. The float hulls were glass cylinders which were 8.6 cm wide by 1.52 m long and floated with the upper 30 cm of the hull above water. The surface drift of these floats was typically equatorward in the California Current. However, some floats would flow poleward, others would drift westward into the North Pacific Gyre, and others with orbital cyclonic and/or anti-cyclonic motions. The duration of surface trajectories varied from as short as a period of days to approximately ten months. Forces on the floats included wind stress on the exposed hull and the drag of ocean currents on the subsurface hull. The latter included the Stokes drift associated with surface wind waves, Ekman flow caused by the stress of the wind on the ocean surface, and the currents associated with the general circulation of the ocean. Surface currents can be explained by calculating current direction and velocity from wind stress data. As a first step, the relationship between observed wind stress and the motion of the float is determined by assuming Ekman balance. Mesoscale effects, including eddies, are also considered in explaining the surface drift of the floats.

  3. Environment parameters and basic functions for floating-point computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. S.; Feldman, S. I.

    1978-01-01

    A language-independent proposal for environment parameters and basic functions for floating-point computation is presented. Basic functions are proposed to analyze, synthesize, and scale floating-point numbers. The model provides a small set of parameters and a small set of axioms along with sharp measures of roundoff error. The parameters and functions can be used to write portable and robust codes that deal intimately with the floating-point representation. Subject to underflow and overflow constraints, a number can be scaled by a power of the floating-point radix inexpensively and without loss of precision. A specific representation for FORTRAN is included.

  4. Stress analysis and mitigation measures for floating pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenpeng, Guo; Yuqing, Liu; Chao, Li

    2017-03-01

    Pipeline-floating is a kind of accident with contingency and uncertainty associated to natural gas pipeline occurring during rainy season, which is significantly harmful to the safety of pipeline. Treatment measures against pipeline floating accident are summarized in this paper on the basis of practical project cases. Stress states of pipeline upon floating are analyzed by means of Finite Element Calculation method. The effectiveness of prevention ways and subsequent mitigation measures upon pipeline-floating are verified for giving guidance to the mitigation of such accidents.

  5. Floating Offshore Wind in Hawaii: Potential for Jobs and Economic Impacts from Three Future Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, Tony; Keyser, David; Tegen, Suzanne

    2016-04-18

    Construction of the first offshore wind power plant in the United States began in 2015, off the coast of Rhode Island, using fixed platform structures that are appropriate for shallow seafloors, like those located off the East Coast and mid-Atlantic. However, floating platforms, which have yet to be deployed commercially, will likely need to be anchored to the deeper seafloor if deployed in Hawaiian waters. To analyze the employment and economic potential for floating offshore wind off Hawaii's coasts, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to analyze two hypothetical deployment scenarios for Hawaii: 400 MW of offshore wind by 2050 and 800 MW of offshore wind by 2050. The results of this analysis can be used to better understand the general scale of economic opportunities that could result from offshore wind development.

  6. Regional approach to modeling the transport of floating plastic debris in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Liubartseva, S; Coppini, G; Lecci, R; Creti, S

    2016-02-15

    Sea surface concentrations of plastics and their fluxes onto coastlines are simulated over 2009-2015. Calculations incorporate combinations of terrestrial and maritime litter inputs, the Lagrangian model MEDSLIK-II forced by AFS ocean current simulations, and ECMWF wind analyses. With a relatively short particle half-life of 43.7 days, the Adriatic Sea is defined as a highly dissipative basin where the shoreline is, by construction, the main sink of floating debris. Our model results show that the coastline of the Po Delta receives a plastic flux of approximately 70 kg(km day)(-1). The most polluted sea surface area (>10 g km(-2) floating debris) is represented by an elongated band shifted to the Italian coastline and narrowed from northwest to southeast. Evident seasonality is found in the calculated plastic concentration fields and the coastline fluxes. Complex source-receptor relationships among the basin's subregions are quantified in impact matrices.

  7. The complexity of class polynomial computation via floating point approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enge, Andreas

    2009-06-01

    We analyse the complexity of computing class polynomials, that are an important ingredient for CM constructions of elliptic curves, via complex floating point approximations of their roots. The heart of the algorithm is the evaluation of modular functions in several arguments. The fastest one of the presented approaches uses a technique devised by Dupont to evaluate modular functions by Newton iterations on an expression involving the arithmetic-geometric mean. Under the heuristic assumption, justified by experiments, that the correctness of the result is not perturbed by rounding errors, the algorithm runs in time O left( sqrt {\\vert D\\vert} log^3 \\vert D\\vert M left( sq... ...arepsilon} \\vert D\\vert right) subseteq O left( h^{2 + \\varepsilon} right) for any \\varepsilon > 0 , where D is the CM discriminant, h is the degree of the class polynomial and M (n) is the time needed to multiply two n -bit numbers. Up to logarithmic factors, this running time matches the size of the constructed polynomials. The estimate also relies on a new result concerning the complexity of enumerating the class group of an imaginary quadratic order and on a rigorously proven upper bound for the height of class polynomials.

  8. 25 CFR 900.215 - What does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-Award Contract Disputes § 900.215 What does this subpart cover? (a) This subpart covers: (1) All HHS and DOI self-determination contracts, including construction contracts; and (2) All disputes regarding an...

  9. Cover Your Cough

    MedlinePlus

    ... as PDF files. Cover Your Cough, Flyer for Health Care Settings English [324 KB] English (no logo) [281 KB] Cover Your Cough, Flyer & Poster for Health Care Settings Flyer : English Portuguese [268 KB] French [225 ...

  10. What Medicare Covers

    MedlinePlus

    ... your Medicare coverage — Original Medicare or a Medicare Advantage Plan (Part C). What Part A covers Medicare ... health plans cover Medicare health plans include Medicare Advantage, Medical Savings Account (MSA), Medicare Cost plans, PACE, ...

  11. Finite Element Analysis of a Floating Microstimulator

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Mesut; Ur-Rahman, Syed S.

    2011-01-01

    Analytical solutions for voltage fields in a volume conductor are available only for ideal electrodes with radially symmetric contacts and infinitely extending substrates. Practical electrodes for neural stimulation may have asymmetric contacts and finite substrate dimensions and hence deviate from the ideal geometries. For instance, it needs to be determined if the analytical solutions are adequate for simulations of narrow shank electrodes where the substrate width is comparable to the size of the contacts. As an extension to this problem, a “floating” stimulator can be envisioned where the substrate would be finite in all directions. The question then becomes how small this floating stimulator can be made before its stimulation strength is compromised by the decrease in the medium impedance between the contacts as the contacts are approaching each other. We used finite element modeling to solve the voltage and current profiles generated by these radially asymmetric electrode geometries in a volume conductor. The simulation results suggest that both the substrate size and the bipolar contact separation influence the voltage field when these parameters are as small as a few times the contact size. Both of these effects are larger for increasing elevations from the contact surface, and even stronger for floating electrodes (finite substrate in all directions) than the shank-type electrodes. Location of the contacts on the floating electrode also plays a role in determining the voltage field. The voltage field for any device size and current, and any specific resistance of the volume conductor can be predicted from these results so long as the aspect ratios are preserved. PMID:17601192

  12. 40 CFR 426.50 - Applicability; description of the float glass manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... float glass manufacturing subcategory. 426.50 Section 426.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Float Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.50 Applicability; description of the float...

  13. 40 CFR 426.50 - Applicability; description of the float glass manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... float glass manufacturing subcategory. 426.50 Section 426.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Float Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.50 Applicability; description of the float...

  14. Density tracers give option to float

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.J.; Wood, C.J.; Lyman, G.J.

    1986-05-01

    Density tracers, that is, particles of precisely known specific gravities, offer alternative to the float-sink technique for determining separation densities. Usually made of plastic and dosed with heavy metal salts to obtain the desired specific gravity, the tracers are added to the separator feed, collected by hand from the product and reject streams, and sorted into appropriate increments on the basis of color-coding or other markings. After counting, the partition number for each specific gravity is calculated and the circuit partition or tromp curve drawn.

  15. Floating air riding seal for a turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, Todd A

    2016-08-16

    A floating air riding seal for a gas turbine engine with a rotor and a stator, an annular piston chamber with an axial moveable annular piston assembly within the annular piston chamber formed in the stator, an annular cavity formed on the annular piston assembly that faces a seal surface on the rotor, where the axial moveable annular piston includes an inlet scoop on a side opposite to the annular cavity that scoops up the swirling cooling air and directs the cooling air to the annular cavity to form an air cushion with the seal surface of the rotor.

  16. Floating hydrometer with energy dissipating baffle

    SciTech Connect

    Kownurko, W.A.

    1987-11-24

    This patent describes a floating hydrometer employable for purposes of obtaining measurements of the presence of suspended solids in a fluid substance contained in a receptacle comprising: a. a probe portion operative as an instrument-bearing housing; b. an elongated tubular element having a hollow interior and at least one open end so as to enable the flow into the hollow interior of the elongated tubular element through the open end; and c. energy dissipating baffle means having a first mode of action and a second mode of action and including a member having a hollow interior.

  17. Localized buckling of a floating elastica.

    PubMed

    Audoly, B

    2011-07-01

    We study the buckling of a two-dimensional elastica floating on a bath of dense fluid, subjected to axial compression. The sinusoidal pattern predicted by the analysis of linear stability is shown to become localized above the buckling threshold. A nonlinear amplitude equation is derived for the envelope of the pattern. These results provide a simple interpretation to the wrinkle-to-fold transition reported by Pocivavsek et al. [Science 320, 912 (2008)]. An analogy with the classical problem of the localized buckling of a strut on a nonlinear elastic foundation is presented.

  18. Pilot Kent Rominger floats in tunnel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-10-24

    STS073-E-5053 (26 Oct. 1995) --- Astronaut Kent V. Rominger, STS-73 pilot, floats through a tunnel connecting the space shuttle Columbia's cabin and its science module. Rominger is one of seven crewmembers in the midst of a 16-day multi-faceted mission aboard Columbia. For the next week and a half, the crew will continue working in shifts around the clock on a diverse assortment of United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2) experiments located in the science module. Fields of study include fluid physics, materials science, biotechnology, combustion science and commercial space processing technologies. The frame was exposed with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC).

  19. Globulettes: Formation Sites of Free Floating Planets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haikala, Lauri

    2017-06-01

    NIR imaging and ALMA arc-second resolution CO, CS and H2CO imaging of two typical Rosette Nebula globulettes is discussed. Velocity structure is observed in the 12CO line whereas the observed CS line widths are are extremely narrow, 0.3kms-1-0.4kms-1, indicating practically no internal motions in the very core. The highest molecular line column densities are detected at the side facing the HII region central cluster. The estimated masses of the globulettes range from 60 to 100 MJupiter (RN88) and 100 to 300MJ (RN122) and thus formation of planetary mass free floating planets is possible.

  20. Rounding in redundant digit floating point system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahmy, Hossam A. H.; Flynn, Michael J.

    2003-12-01

    Redundant representations are used to increase the performance of arithmetic units. If redundancy is eliminated, the bits needed to represent a number may increase or decrease depending on the type of redundancy used. In such a redundant representation, finding the exact location and correct decision for rounding without eliminating the redundancy or loosing its performance gains is difficult. This paper discusses the different issues related to rounding in redundant systems. It also presents a solution that was used to maintain the gains of redundancy in a floating point unit while correctly implementing the IEEE rounding modes.

  1. Research effort aims at floating production technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-17

    This paper reports that a 3 year research and development program on floating production systems (FPS), instigated by the Royal Norwegian Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (NTNF), has refined and qualified technologies for North Sea and arctic conditions. The FPS 2000 program, which cost 58 million kroner ($10 million), concentrated mainly on mooring systems and pipeline technology, along with new system concepts and cost reduction measures. More than 30 projects have been completed within the scheme. The anchoring and positioning project concentrates on developing methods for simulating behavior of mooring systems for large volume structures in deep water. It also seeks ways to determine efficiency of dynamic positioning thrusters under extreme conditions.

  2. Cover crop water use

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cover crops are being widely promoted because of soil health benefits. However, semi-arid dryland production systems, chronically short of water for crop production, may not be able to profitably withstand the yield reduction that follows cover crops because of cover crop water use. Some studies sug...

  3. Cover crops for Alabama

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cover crops are grown to benefit the following crop as well as to improve the soil, but they are normally not intended for harvest. Selecting the right cover crops for farming operations can improve yields, soil and water conservation and quality, and economic productivity. Properly managed cover ...

  4. Invasive floating macrophytes reduce greenhouse gas emissions from a small tropical lake

    PubMed Central

    Attermeyer, K.; Flury, S.; Jayakumar, R.; Fiener, P.; Steger, K.; Arya, V.; Wilken, F.; van Geldern, R.; Premke, K.

    2016-01-01

    Floating macrophytes, including water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), are dominant invasive organisms in tropical aquatic systems, and they may play an important role in modifying the gas exchange between water and the atmosphere. However, these systems are underrepresented in global datasets of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study investigated the carbon (C) turnover and GHG emissions from a small (0.6 km2) water-harvesting lake in South India and analysed the effect of floating macrophytes on these emissions. We measured carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions with gas chambers in the field as well as water C mineralization rates and physicochemical variables in both the open water and in water within stands of water hyacinths. The CO2 and CH4 emissions from areas covered by water hyacinths were reduced by 57% compared with that of open water. However, the C mineralization rates were not significantly different in the water between the two areas. We conclude that the increased invasion of water hyacinths and other floating macrophytes has the potential to change GHG emissions, a process that might be relevant in regional C budgets. PMID:26846590

  5. The Seasonal Cycle of Carbon in the Southern Pacific Ocean Observed from Biogeochemical Profiling Floats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmiento, J. L.; Gray, A. R.; Johnson, K. S.; Carter, B.; Riser, S.; Talley, L. D.; Williams, N. L.

    2016-02-01

    The Southern Ocean is thought to play an important role in the ocean-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide and the uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide. However, the total number of observations of the carbonate system in this region is small and heavily biased towards the summer. Here we present 1.5 years of biogeochemical measurements, including pH, oxygen, and nitrate, collected by 11 autonomous profiling floats deployed in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean in April 2014. These floats sampled a variety of oceanographic regimes ranging from the seasonally ice-covered zone to the subtropical gyre. Using an algorithm trained with bottle measurements, alkalinity is estimated from salinity, temperature, and oxygen and then used together with the measured pH to calculate total carbon dioxide and pCO2 in the upper 1500 dbar. The seasonal cycle in the biogeochemical quantities is examined, and the factors governing pCO2 in the surface waters are analyzed. The mechanisms driving the seasonal cycle of carbon are further investigated by computing budgets of heat, carbon, and nitrogen in the mixed layer. Comparing the different regimes sampled by the floats demonstrates the complex and variable nature of the carbon cycle in the Southern Ocean.

  6. Invasive floating macrophytes reduce greenhouse gas emissions from a small tropical lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attermeyer, K.; Flury, S.; Jayakumar, R.; Fiener, P.; Steger, K.; Arya, V.; Wilken, F.; van Geldern, R.; Premke, K.

    2016-02-01

    Floating macrophytes, including water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), are dominant invasive organisms in tropical aquatic systems, and they may play an important role in modifying the gas exchange between water and the atmosphere. However, these systems are underrepresented in global datasets of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study investigated the carbon (C) turnover and GHG emissions from a small (0.6 km2) water-harvesting lake in South India and analysed the effect of floating macrophytes on these emissions. We measured carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions with gas chambers in the field as well as water C mineralization rates and physicochemical variables in both the open water and in water within stands of water hyacinths. The CO2 and CH4 emissions from areas covered by water hyacinths were reduced by 57% compared with that of open water. However, the C mineralization rates were not significantly different in the water between the two areas. We conclude that the increased invasion of water hyacinths and other floating macrophytes has the potential to change GHG emissions, a process that might be relevant in regional C budgets.

  7. Invasive floating macrophytes reduce greenhouse gas emissions from a small tropical lake.

    PubMed

    Attermeyer, K; Flury, S; Jayakumar, R; Fiener, P; Steger, K; Arya, V; Wilken, F; van Geldern, R; Premke, K

    2016-02-05

    Floating macrophytes, including water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), are dominant invasive organisms in tropical aquatic systems, and they may play an important role in modifying the gas exchange between water and the atmosphere. However, these systems are underrepresented in global datasets of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study investigated the carbon (C) turnover and GHG emissions from a small (0.6 km(2)) water-harvesting lake in South India and analysed the effect of floating macrophytes on these emissions. We measured carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions with gas chambers in the field as well as water C mineralization rates and physicochemical variables in both the open water and in water within stands of water hyacinths. The CO2 and CH4 emissions from areas covered by water hyacinths were reduced by 57% compared with that of open water. However, the C mineralization rates were not significantly different in the water between the two areas. We conclude that the increased invasion of water hyacinths and other floating macrophytes has the potential to change GHG emissions, a process that might be relevant in regional C budgets.

  8. Can Biochar Covers Reduce Emissions from Manure Lagoons While Capturing Nutrients?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The unique physical and chemical properties of biochars make them promising materials for odor, gas, and nutrient sorption. Floating covers made from organic materials (biocovers) are one option for reducing odor and gas emissions from livestock manure lagoons. This study evaluat...

  9. STS-56 MS1 Foale, in LES/LEH, floats during bailout exercises in JSC WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) Michael Foale, wearing launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), floats in a single person life raft during launch emergency egress (bailout) exercises in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool. Foale's body is covered with the life raft tarp. His head and the space shuttle search and rescue satellite aided tracking (SARSAT) antenna protrude above the tarp. This simulation prepares the astronauts for the event of an emergency egress and subsequent water landing during launch.

  10. Floating treatment wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Faulwetter, J L; Burr, M D; Cunningham, A B; Stewart, F M; Camper, A K; Stein, O R

    2011-01-01

    Floating islands are a form of treatment wetland characterized by a mat of synthetic matrix at the water surface into which macrophytes can be planted and through which water passes. We evaluated two matrix materials for treating domestic wastewater, recycled plastic and recycled carpet fibers, for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen removal. These materials were compared to pea gravel or open water (control). Experiments were conducted in laboratory scale columns fed with synthetic wastewater containing COD, organic and inorganic nitrogen, and mineral salts. Columns were unplanted, naturally inoculated, and operated in batch mode with continuous recirculation and aeration. COD was efficiently removed in all systems examined (>90% removal). Ammonia was efficiently removed by nitrification. Removal of total dissolved N was ∼50% by day 28, by which time most remaining nitrogen was present as NO(3)-N. Complete removal of NO(3)-N by denitrification was accomplished by dosing columns with molasses. Microbial communities of interest were visualized with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) by targeting specific functional genes. Shifts in the denitrifying community were observed post-molasses addition, when nitrate levels decreased. The conditioning time for reliable nitrification was determined to be approximately three months. These results suggest that floating treatment wetlands are a viable alternative for domestic wastewater treatment.

  11. Improved bioavailability through floating microspheres of lovastatin

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S.; Nagpal, K; Singh, SK.; Mishra, DN.

    2011-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study Lovastatin is an antihyperlipidemic agent which has low bioavailability due to the extensive first pass metabolism. It was sought to increase gastric retention of lovastatin by development of a sustained release gastroretentive drug delivery system leading to reduced fluctuation in the plasma concentration and improved bioavailability. Mehods Floating microspheres were prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion technique, using various polymers and their blends. The in vitro performance was evaluated for drug-polymer compatibility, percent yield, particle size, drug entrapment efficiency, in vitro onset and duration of floatation, in vitro drug release as well as in vivo determination of serum cholesterol level. Results The mean particle size of microspheres was observed to be between 6.9 to 9.5 µm and the maximum particle size was around 50 µm. In vivo studies of the selected batches indicated lower level of serum cholesterol compared to the marketed tablet at the same dose but was not significant. Major conclusion The data obtained in this study suggested that a microparticulate floating dosage form of lovastatin can be successfully designed to yield controlled delivery with improved therapeutic efficacy. PMID:22615640

  12. A laboratory study of floating lenticular anticyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gal, Patrice; de La Rosa, Hector; Cros, Anne; Cruz-Gomez, Raúl; Le Bars, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Oceanic vortices play an important role in the redistribution of heat, salt and momentum in the oceans. Among these vortices, floating lenses or rings are often met in the meanders of warm currents. For instance the North Brazil Current rings are among the most intense and large anticyclonic vortices on Earth. In order to better describe these vortices, we propose here a laboratory study of these floating anticyclonic lenses. A blob of fresh water is slowly injected near the surface of a rotating layer of homogeneous salted water. Because of the opposite effects of rotation that tends to generate columnar structures and density stratification that spreads light water on the surface, the vortices take a finite size three dimensionnal typical shape. Visualization and PIV measurements of the shape, aspect ratios and vorticity profiles are compared to analytical predictions that use first a simple solid body rotation model and then a more realistic isolated Gaussian vorticity field inside the anticyclones. This work was carried out within the framework of a bilateral cooperation between CNRS (France) and CONACYT (Mexico).

  13. 22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. The float actuates a valve that maintains water level over the bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  14. 14 CFR 23.535 - Auxiliary float loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 23.535 Auxiliary float loads. (a) General. Auxiliary floats and their attachments and supporting structures must be designed for the conditions prescribed in this section. In the cases specified...

  15. 14 CFR 23.535 - Auxiliary float loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 23.535 Auxiliary float loads. (a) General. Auxiliary floats and their attachments and supporting structures must be designed for the conditions prescribed in this section. In the cases specified...

  16. 14 CFR 23.535 - Auxiliary float loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 23.535 Auxiliary float loads. (a) General. Auxiliary floats and their attachments and supporting structures must be designed for the conditions prescribed in this section. In the cases specified...

  17. 14 CFR 23.535 - Auxiliary float loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 23.535 Auxiliary float loads. (a) General. Auxiliary floats and their attachments and supporting structures must be designed for the conditions prescribed in this section. In the cases specified...

  18. 14 CFR 23.535 - Auxiliary float loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Water Loads § 23.535 Auxiliary float loads. (a) General. Auxiliary floats and their attachments and supporting structures must be designed for the conditions prescribed in this section. In the cases specified...

  19. 14 CFR 25.535 - Auxiliary float loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... The resultant water load must be applied in the plane of symmetry of the float at a point three... r y=ratio of the lateral distance between the center of gravity and the plane of symmetry of the... the plane of symmetry of the float at a point one-fourth of the distance from the bow to the step...

  20. 14 CFR 25.535 - Auxiliary float loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... The resultant water load must be applied in the plane of symmetry of the float at a point three... r y=ratio of the lateral distance between the center of gravity and the plane of symmetry of the... the plane of symmetry of the float at a point one-fourth of the distance from the bow to the step...

  1. 14 CFR 25.535 - Auxiliary float loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... The resultant water load must be applied in the plane of symmetry of the float at a point three... r y=ratio of the lateral distance between the center of gravity and the plane of symmetry of the... the plane of symmetry of the float at a point one-fourth of the distance from the bow to the step...

  2. 14 CFR 25.535 - Auxiliary float loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... The resultant water load must be applied in the plane of symmetry of the float at a point three... r y=ratio of the lateral distance between the center of gravity and the plane of symmetry of the... the plane of symmetry of the float at a point one-fourth of the distance from the bow to the step...

  3. 14 CFR 25.535 - Auxiliary float loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... The resultant water load must be applied in the plane of symmetry of the float at a point three... r y=ratio of the lateral distance between the center of gravity and the plane of symmetry of the... the plane of symmetry of the float at a point one-fourth of the distance from the bow to the step...

  4. 33 CFR 143.120 - Floating OCS facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Floating OCS facilities. 143.120 Section 143.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT OCS Facilities § 143.120 Floating OCS...

  5. 33 CFR 144.01-1 - Life floats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Life floats. 144.01-1 Section 144.01-1 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES LIFESAVING APPLIANCES Manned Platforms § 144.01-1 Life floats. Each...

  6. ROUND-OFF ERROR OF FLOATING-POINT DIGITAL FILTERS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    the filter, the problem has been studied extensively. The only result available for floating - point arithmetic realization of digital filters is an...paper, a statistic approach is adopted to treat the round-off error problem for floating - point computer realization of filters. (Author)

  7. Algorithms to Reveal Properties of Floating-Point Arithmetic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Two algorithms are presented in the form of Fortran subroutines. Each subroutine computes the radix and number of digits of the floating - point numbers...and whether rounding or chopping is done by the machine on which it is run. The methods are shown to work on any ’reasonable’ floating - point computer.

  8. 14 CFR 29.751 - Main float buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Main float buoyancy. 29.751 Section 29.751 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... buoyancy. (a) For main floats, the buoyancy necessary to support the maximum weight of the rotorcraft...

  9. 14 CFR 25.751 - Main float buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Main float buoyancy. 25.751 Section 25.751 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... buoyancy. Each main float must have— (a) A buoyancy of 80 percent in excess of that required to support...

  10. 14 CFR 25.751 - Main float buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Main float buoyancy. 25.751 Section 25.751 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... buoyancy. Each main float must have— (a) A buoyancy of 80 percent in excess of that required to support...

  11. 14 CFR 29.751 - Main float buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Main float buoyancy. 29.751 Section 29.751 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... buoyancy. (a) For main floats, the buoyancy necessary to support the maximum weight of the rotorcraft...

  12. 14 CFR 29.751 - Main float buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Main float buoyancy. 29.751 Section 29.751 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... buoyancy. (a) For main floats, the buoyancy necessary to support the maximum weight of the rotorcraft...

  13. 14 CFR 29.751 - Main float buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Main float buoyancy. 29.751 Section 29.751 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... buoyancy. (a) For main floats, the buoyancy necessary to support the maximum weight of the rotorcraft...

  14. 14 CFR 29.751 - Main float buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Main float buoyancy. 29.751 Section 29.751 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... buoyancy. (a) For main floats, the buoyancy necessary to support the maximum weight of the rotorcraft...

  15. 14 CFR 25.751 - Main float buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Main float buoyancy. 25.751 Section 25.751 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... buoyancy. Each main float must have— (a) A buoyancy of 80 percent in excess of that required to support...

  16. 14 CFR 25.751 - Main float buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Main float buoyancy. 25.751 Section 25.751 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... buoyancy. Each main float must have— (a) A buoyancy of 80 percent in excess of that required to support...

  17. 14 CFR 25.751 - Main float buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Main float buoyancy. 25.751 Section 25.751 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... buoyancy. Each main float must have— (a) A buoyancy of 80 percent in excess of that required to support...

  18. A novel grounded to floating admittance converter with electronic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Dinesh; Ahmad, Javed; Srivastava, Mayank

    2017-07-01

    This article suggests a new grounded to floating admittance convertor employing only two voltage differencing transconductance amplifiers (VDTAs). The proposed circuit can convert any arbitrary grounded admittance into floating admittance with electronically controllable scaling factor. The presented converter enjoys the following beneficial: (1) no requirement of any additional passive element (2) scaling factor can be tuned electronically through bias currents of VDTAs (3) no matching constraint required (4) low values of active/passive sensitivity indexes and (5) excellent non ideal behavior that indicates no deviation in circuit behavior even under non ideal environment. Application of the proposed configuration in realization of floating resistor and floating capacitor has been presented and the workability of these floating elements has been confirmed by active filter design examples. SPICE simulations have been performed to demonstrate the performance of the proposed circuits.

  19. Collective Behavior of Camphor Floats Migrating on the Water Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimori, Hiraku; Suematsu, Nobuhiko J.; Nakata, Satoshi

    2017-10-01

    As simple and easily controllable objects among various self-propelled particles, camphor floats on the water surface have been widely recognized. In this paper, we introduce characteristic behaviors and discuss the background mechanism of camphor floats on water, both in isolated and non-isolated conditions. In particular, we focus on: (i) the transition of dynamical characters through bifurcations exhibited by systems with small number of camphor floats and (ii) the emergence of a rich variety of complex dynamics observed in systems with large number camphor floats, and attempt to elucidate these phenomena through mathematical modeling as well as experimental analysis. Finally, we discuss the connection of the dynamics of camphor floats to that of a wider class of complex and sophisticated dynamics exhibited by various types of self-propelled particles.

  20. Hydroelastic responses of pontoon type very large floating offshore structure

    SciTech Connect

    Haeda, Hisaaki; Miyajima, Shyogo; Masuda, Koich; Ikoma, Tomoki

    1996-12-31

    The authors developed the estimating method of the hydroelastic response of a very large pontoon type floating structure. In this method, the pressure distribution method with shallow draft assumption was used to obtain the hydrodynamic forces considering the elastic motion of a floating body. The elastic responses of very large floating structure were estimated by using 1-D beam modeling. On the other hand, to observe the elastic response of a large pontoon type structure they carried out experiments in head sea and head-beam sea conditions. The experimental model was an elastic model of pontoon type large floating body. To validate numerical estimation method the authors compared the numerical results with experimental results. From these results, they found good agreement and confirmed the accuracy of this numerical estimation method of the hydroelasticity of a very large pontoon type floating structure.

  1. Floating-point arithmetic in embedded and reconfigurable computing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilani, Syed; Schulte, Michael; Compton, Katherine; Hockert, Neil

    2009-08-01

    Modern embedded and reconfigurable systems need to support a wide range of applications, many of which may significantly benefit from hardware support for floating-point arithmetic. Some of these applications include 3D graphics, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless communication algorithms, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based systems, and digital filters. Many of these applications have real-time constraints that cannot tolerate the high latency of software emulated floating-point arithmetic. Moreover, software emulation can lead to higher energy consumption that may be unsuitable for applications in powerconstrained environments. This paper examines applications that can potentially benefit from hardware support for floating-point arithmetic and discusses some approaches taken for floating-point arithmetic in embedded and reconfigurable systems. Precision and range analysis is performed on emerging applications in the MIMO wireless communications domain to investigate the potential for low power floating-point units that utilize reduced precision and exponent range.

  2. Floating production systems in a ``new economic regime``

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksen, K.; D`Souza, R.B.; Wilson, A.J.S.; Johansson, O.

    1995-12-31

    Except for a short period before, during and after the Gulf War, the oil prices have been depressed for 8--10 years. This has forced industry to be profitable at these low oil price levels. Since 1975 various floating production systems have been evaluated and used as field development solutions around the world. As technical challenges have been overcome, floating production systems have become leading contenders for traditional and deepwater field developments in this new economic regime. There are many types of Floating production systems. A few examples are--the semisubmersible Floating Production System (FPS), the monohull Floating Production, Storage and Offloading system (FPSO), the Spar Buoy and the Deep Draft Floater. As the FPS and FPSO represent proven technology and are leading contenders for several field developments in both the North Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, this paper will concentrate on these concepts.

  3. Lightweight composite fighting cover prototype development program

    SciTech Connect

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Frame, B.J.; Gwaltney, R.C.; Akerman, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Army Field Assistance Science and Technology Program requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the use of lightweight composite materials in construction of overhead covers for reinforced infantry fighting positions. In recent years, ORNL researchers have designed and tested several concepts for lightweight ballistic protection structures, and they have developed numerous prototype composite structures for military and civilian applications. In the current program, composite panel designs and materials are tested and optimized to meet anticipated static and dynamic load conditions for the overhead cover structure. Ten prototype composite covers were built at ORNL for use in Army field tests. Each composite cover has a nominal surface area of 12 ft[sup 2] and a nominal weight of 8 lb. Four of the prototypes are made with folding sections to improve their handling characteristics. The composite covers exhibit equivalent performance in Army field tests to covers made with conventional materials that weigh four times as much.

  4. Floating Offshore Wind in Oregon: Potential for Jobs and Economic Impacts from Two Future Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, Tony; Keyser, David; Tegen, Suzanne; Speer, Bethany

    2016-05-01

    Construction of the first offshore wind power plant in the United States began in 2015, off the coast of Rhode Island, using fixed platform structures that are appropriate for shallow seafloors, like those located off of the East Coast and mid-Atlantic. However, floating platforms, which have yet to be deployed commercially, will likely need to anchor to the deeper seafloor if deployed off of the West Coast. To analyze the employment and economic potential for floating offshore wind along the West Coast, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to analyze two hypothetical, large-scale deployment scenarios for Oregon: 5,500 megawatts (MW) of offshore wind deployment in Oregon by 2050 (Scenario A), and 2,900 MW of offshore wind by 2050 (Scenario B). These levels of deployment could power approximately 1,600,000 homes (Scenario A) or 870,000 homes (Scenario B). Offshore wind would contribute to economic development in Oregon in the near future, and more substantially in the long term, especially if equipment and labor are sourced from within the state. According to the analysis, over the 2020-2050 period, Oregon floating offshore wind facilities could support 65,000-97,000 job-years and add $6.8 billion-$9.9 billion to the state GDP (Scenario A).

  5. Interaction of wave with a body floating on a wide polynya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. F.; Shi, Y. Y.; Wu, G. X.

    2017-09-01

    A method based on wide spacing approximation is proposed for the interaction of water wave with a body floating on a polynya. The ice sheet is modelled as an elastic plate and fluid flow is described by the velocity potential theory. The solution procedure is constructed based on the assumption that when the distance between two disturbances to the free surface is sufficiently large, the interactions between them involve only the travelling waves caused by the disturbances and the effect of the evanescent waves is ignored. The solution for the problem can then be obtained from those for a floating body without an ice sheet and for an ice sheet/free surface without a floating body. Both latter solutions have already been found previously and therefore there will be no additional effort in solution once the wide spacing approximation formulation is derived. Extensive numerical results are provided to show that the method is very accurate compared with the exact solution. The obtained formulations are then used to provide some insightful explanations for the physics of flow behaviour, as well as the mechanism for the highly oscillatory features of the hydrodynamic force and body motion. Some explicit equations are derived to show zero reflection by the polynya and peaks and troughs of the force and excited body motion. It is revealed that some of the peaks of the body motion are due to resonance while others are due to the wave characters in the polynya.

  6. Effects of stereoscopic artificial floating wetlands on nekton abundance and biomass in the Yangtze Estuary.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Feng; Song, Chao; Gao, Yu; Geng, Zhi; Zhuang, Ping

    2017-09-01

    Habitat degradation is one of the greatest existing threats to nekton biodiversity in estuarine and coastal habitats. Stereoscopic artificial floating wetlands (SAFWs) can provide new nekton habitats and have been widely used as conservation and management tools in freshwater and marine environments. In the current study, we constructed Phragmites australis SAFWs: the P. australis rhizomes were planted on the artificial floating beds, and palm slices were hung under the floating platforms to act as submerged plants. These SAFWs were anchored in the north channel of the Yangtze Estuary. To determine if SAFWs can serve as fish aggregation devices, fishes and crustaceans were sampled monthly using a bottom lift net during high-tide from July to October 2014. Our assessment was based on environmental parameters, nekton density, nekton species composition and the total length of the three most abundant fishes at the experimental and control sites. Nekton abundance was approximately three times greater in the SAFWs than that in the control habitats (108.2 ± 27.56 ind./m(2) vs. 28.37 ± 15.88 ind./m(2), respectively). There were no significant habitat-specific differences in the size distribution of the three most abundant fish species (Acanthogobius ommaturus, Odontamblyopus rubicundus and Eleutheronema tetradactylum) because most of the individuals sampled were juveniles. This study demonstrates that SAFWs can form stable environments for nekton and increase habitat available to juvenile fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of vibration characteristics on the walking discomfort of floating floors on concrete slabs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Ho; Jeon, Jin Yong

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, the vibration characteristics of floating floor systems and the discomfort in walking upon them have been studied in concrete slab structures through mock-up floors experiments. Seven types of floor systems, with panels of various sizes and supporting beams with different joist spacings, were constructed based on actual conditions. For the vibration measurement, an ISO rubber ball dropped from a height of 20 cm was used as an impact source to reproduce human walking. The vibration characteristics were evaluated by calculating the vibration acceleration values and the autocorrelation function parameters for the floor structures. Finally, a human walking experiment was conducted to investigate subjective responses to the vibration characteristics of floating floors. From the results, it was found that the vibration acceleration values and walking discomfort varied with the supporting conditions of the floors and that these were highly correlated with each other. It was also found that more than 75% of subjects accepted the floors when the vibration value of the floor in terms of vibration does value (VDV) is below 4.8 ms(-1.75). In addition, a practical regression of the VDV was obtained and design guidelines for floating floors were suggested.

  8. On-line defects inspection of floating glass by variable LED raster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wenyong

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To detect and identify all kinds of visible defection on floating glass production line in real time, such as bubbles, tin ash, impurities, stone, craterlet, thread, distortion, etc., which is extremely important for glass process management, grading and stowing. Methods: A set of machine vision system is used to detect the defects. In this system, a novel illumination technique and sensor unit based on time-variale LED raster is developed to obtain both the distortion and deformation features together. The resulting defects are determined by a RLE-based image processing algorithm and transferred to subsequent marking or cutting devices. Results: Real experiments illustrated the stability and effectiveness of this system, by which most of the main defects are inspected at real time under the speed of 30 m/min. With 5 m glass width, the inspection precisions are 0.1 mm/pixel both in direction of width and length. Applications verify the speed, reliability and accuracy of the proposed method. Conclusions: Quality inspection of floating glass at real time requires multiple linear cameras to construct distributed data processing system. Also material characters of the glass should be stressed to design proper optical structure, so that the glass defects will be inspected successfully. Using this system, the quality of floating glass can be improved effectively.

  9. Discrete Element Modelling of Floating Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaffey, Samantha; Liang, Qiuhua; Parkin, Geoff; Large, Andy; Rouainia, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Flash flooding is characterised by high velocity flows which impact vulnerable catchments with little warning time and as such, result in complex flow dynamics which are difficult to replicate through modelling. The impacts of flash flooding can be made yet more severe by the transport of both natural and anthropogenic debris, ranging from tree trunks to vehicles, wheelie bins and even storage containers, the effects of which have been clearly evident during recent UK flooding. This cargo of debris can have wide reaching effects and result in actual flood impacts which diverge from those predicted. A build-up of debris may lead to partial channel blockage and potential flow rerouting through urban centres. Build-up at bridges and river structures also leads to increased hydraulic loading which may result in damage and possible structural failure. Predicting the impacts of debris transport; however, is difficult as conventional hydrodynamic modelling schemes do not intrinsically include floating debris within their calculations. Subsequently a new tool has been developed using an emerging approach, which incorporates debris transport through the coupling of two existing modelling techniques. A 1D hydrodynamic modelling scheme has here been coupled with a 2D discrete element scheme to form a new modelling tool which predicts the motion and flow-interaction of floating debris. Hydraulic forces arising from flow around the object are applied to instigate its motion. Likewise, an equivalent opposing force is applied to fluid cells, enabling backwater effects to be simulated. Shock capturing capabilities make the tool applicable to predicting the complex flow dynamics associated with flash flooding. The modelling scheme has been applied to experimental case studies where cylindrical wooden dowels are transported by a dam-break wave. These case studies enable validation of the tool's shock capturing capabilities and the coupling technique applied between the two numerical

  10. National land cover dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has produced a land cover dataset for the conterminous United States on the basis of 1992 Landsat thematic mapper imagery and supplemental data. The National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) is a component of the USGS Land Cover Characterization Program. The seamless NLCD contains 21 categories of land cover information suitable for a variety of State and regional applications, including landscape analysis, land management, and modeling nutrient and pesticide runoff. The NLCD is distributed by State as 30-meter resolution raster images in an Albers Equal-Area map projection.

  11. Armored geomembrane cover engineering.

    PubMed

    Foye, Kevin

    2011-06-01

    Geomembranes are an important component of modern engineered barriers to prevent the infiltration of stormwater and runoff into contaminated soil and rock as well as waste containment facilities--a function generally described as a geomembrane cover. This paper presents a case history involving a novel implementation of a geomembrane cover system. Due to this novelty, the design engineers needed to assemble from disparate sources the design criteria for the engineering of the cover. This paper discusses the design methodologies assembled by the engineering team. This information will aid engineers designing similar cover systems as well as environmental and public health professionals selecting site improvements that involve infiltration barriers.

  12. Armored Geomembrane Cover Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Foye, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Geomembranes are an important component of modern engineered barriers to prevent the infiltration of stormwater and runoff into contaminated soil and rock as well as waste containment facilities—a function generally described as a geomembrane cover. This paper presents a case history involving a novel implementation of a geomembrane cover system. Due to this novelty, the design engineers needed to assemble from disparate sources the design criteria for the engineering of the cover. This paper discusses the design methodologies assembled by the engineering team. This information will aid engineers designing similar cover systems as well as environmental and public health professionals selecting site improvements that involve infiltration barriers. PMID:21776229

  13. Initial Results from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Swenson, Charles; Thompson, Don; Barjatya, Aroh; Koontz, Steven L.; Schneider, Todd; Vaughn, Jason; Minow, Joseph; Craven, Paul; Coffey, Victoria; Parker, Linda; Bui, Them

    2007-01-01

    The Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) is a multi-probe package designed to measure the floating potential of the 1nternational Space Station (ISS) as well as the density and temperature of the local ionospheric plasma environment. The role oj the FPMU is to provide direct measurements of ISS spacecraft charging as continuing construction leads to dramatic changes in ISS size and configuration. FPMU data are used for refinement and validation of the ISS spacecraft charging models used to evaluate the severity and frequency of occurrence of ISS charging hazards. The FPMU data and the models are also used to evaluate the effectiveness of proposed hazard controls. The FPMU consists of four probes: a floating potential probe, two Langmuir probes. and a plasma impedance probe. These probes measure the floating potential of the ISS, plasma density, and electron temperature. Redundant measurements using different probes support data validation by inter-probe comparisons. The FPMU was installed by ISS crewmembers, during an ExtraVehicular Activity, on the starboard (Sl) truss of the ISS in early August 2006, when the ISS incorporated only one 160V US photovoltaic (PV) array module. The first data campaign began a few hours after installation and continued for over five days. Additional data campaigns were completed in 2007 after a second 160V US PV array module was added to the ISS. This paper discusses the general performance characteristics of the FPMU as integrated on ISS, the functional performance of each probe, the charging behavior of the ISS before and after the addition of a second 160V US PV array module, and initial results from model comparisons.

  14. Capillary self-assembly of floating bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sunghwan; Thompson, Paul; Bush, John

    2007-11-01

    We study the self-assembly of bodies supported on the water surface by surface tension. Attractive and repulsive capillary forces exist between menisci of, respectively, the same and opposite signs. In nature, floating objects (e.g. mosquito larvae) thus interact through capillary forces to form coherent packings on the water surface. We here present the results of an experimental investigation of such capillary pattern formation. Thin elliptical metal sheets were designed to have variable shape, flexibility and mass distribution. On the water surface, mono-, bi-, or tri-polar menisci could thus be achieved. The influence of the form of the menisci on the packings arising from the interaction of multiple floaters is explored. Biological applications are discussed.

  15. Inexpensive, floating, insect-emergence trap

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.

    1983-11-01

    The Environmental Sciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been investigating the usefulness of aquarium microcosms and ponds for the quantification and predictions of toxicant effects on freshwater systems. Ideally, concepts and methods applicable to both 150-L microcosms and 15,000-L ponds would bridge the gap between the two. The effort of processing the benthic samples, as well as the destructiveness of the sampling in small ponds, limited the number of samples that could be taken. Therefore, the author developed an inexpensive emergence trap appropriate for use in small outdoor ponds, as one method of increasing sampling efficiency and economy. To prevent the possibility of trapping adults from adjacent ponds, which would confound the results, the traps had to be designed such that they could only trap insects from the ponds upon which they were floating. The design of this trap is described.

  16. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Skiba, James M.; Scherer, Carolynn P.

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  17. Bipolar dislocation of the forearm (floating forearm).

    PubMed

    Aşkar, Hüseyin; Ertürk, Cemil; Altay, Mehmet Akif; Akif Altay, Mehmet; Bilge, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar dislocation of the forearm (floating forearm) is an unusual injury and is therefore often overlooked. We report a 28-year-old male patient who presented at another center with a history of a fall while climbing a tree. The patient's left elbow was treated with closed reduction and immobilization with a long-arm cast brace due to elbow dislocation. However, the patient was admitted with pain and swelling of the wrist to our emergency department the following day. Physical and radiological examination revealed dorsal trans-scaphoid perilunate dislocation. A dorsal incision was performed for open reduction and internal fixation to provide wide surgical exposure. Concomitant occurrence of elbow dislocation and fracture-dislocation of the perilunate is infrequent. Therefore, physicians should be aware of possible additional injuries and current recommended treatment methods.

  18. Fresh look at floating shock fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwich, PETER-M.

    1990-01-01

    A fast implicit upwind procedure for the two-dimensional Euler equations is described that allows accurate computations of shocked flows on nonadapted meshes. Away from shocks, the second-order accurate upwinding is based on the split-coefficient-matrix (SCM) method. In the presence of shocks, the difference stencils are modified using a floating shock fitting technique. Rapid convergence to steady-state solutions is attained with a diagonalized approximate factorization (AF) algorithm. Results are presented for Riemann's problem, for a regular shock reflection at an inviscid wall, for supersonic flow past a cylinder, and for a transonic airfoil. All computed shocks are ideally sharp and in excellent agreement with other numerical results or 'exact' solutions. Most importantly, this has been accomplished on unusually crude meshes without any attempt to align grid lines with shock fronts or to cluster grid lines around shocks.

  19. Active floating micro electrode arrays (AFMA).

    PubMed

    Kim, T; Troyk, P R; Bak, M

    2006-01-01

    Neuroscientists have widely used metal microelectrodes inserted into the cortex to record neural signals from, and provide electrical stimulation to, neural tissue for many years. Recently, the demand for implanting electrode arrays within the cortex, for both stimulation and recording, has rapidly increased. We are developing Active-floating-micro-electrode-arrays (AFMA) that are intended for use as a multielectrode cortical interface while minimizing the number of wires leading from the array to extra-dural circuitry or connectors. When combined with a wireless module, these new microelectrode arrays should allow for simulation and recording within free-roaming animals. This paper mainly discusses the design, fabrication, and packing of the first generation AFMA. Our long-term vision is a wireless-transmission electrode system, for stimulation and recording in free-roaming animals, which uses a family of modular active implantable electrode arrays.

  20. Clustering of floating particles in stratified turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boffetta, Guido; de Lillo, Filippo; Musacchio, Stefano; Sozza, Alessandro

    2016-11-01

    We study the dynamics of small floating particles transported by stratified turbulence in presence of a mean linear density profile as a simple model for the confinement and the accumulation of plankton in the ocean. By means of extensive direct numerical simulations we investigate the statistical distribution of floaters as a function of the two dimensionless parameters of the problem. We find that vertical confinement of particles is mainly ruled by the degree of stratification, with a weak dependency on the particle properties. Conversely, small scale fractal clustering, typical of non-neutral particles in turbulence, depends on the particle relaxation time and is only weakly dependent on the flow stratification. The implications of our findings for the formation of thin phytoplankton layers are discussed.

  1. Fresh look at floating shock fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwich, PETER-M.

    1990-01-01

    A fast implicit upwind procedure for the two-dimensional Euler equations is described that allows accurate computations of shocked flows on nonadapted meshes. Away from shocks, the second-order accurate upwinding is based on the split-coefficient-matrix (SCM) method. In the presence of shocks, the difference stencils are modified using a floating shock fitting technique. Rapid convergence to steady-state solutions is attained with a diagonalized approximate factorization (AF) algorithm. Results are presented for Riemann's problem, for a regular shock reflection at an inviscid wall, for supersonic flow past a cylinder, and for a transonic airfoil. All computed shocks are ideally sharp and in excellent agreement with other numerical results or 'exact' solutions. Most importantly, this has been accomplished on unusually crude meshes without any attempt to align grid lines with shock fronts or to cluster grid lines around shocks.

  2. Potential of water surface-floating microalgae for biodiesel production: Floating-biomass and lipid productivities.

    PubMed

    Muto, Masaki; Nojima, Daisuke; Yue, Liang; Kanehara, Hideyuki; Naruse, Hideaki; Ujiro, Asuka; Yoshino, Tomoko; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2017-03-01

    Microalgae have been accepted as a promising feedstock for biodiesel production owing to their capability of converting solar energy into lipids through photosynthesis. However, the high capital and operating costs, and high energy consumption, are hampering commercialization of microalgal biodiesel. In this study, the surface-floating microalga, strain AVFF007 (tentatively identified as Botryosphaerella sudetica), which naturally forms a biofilm on surfaces, was characterized for use in biodiesel production. The biofilm could be conveniently harvested from the surface of the water by adsorbing onto a polyethylene film. The lipid productivity of strain AVFF007 was 46.3 mg/L/day, allowing direct comparison to lipid productivities of other microalgal species. The moisture content of the surface-floating biomass was 86.0 ± 1.2%, which was much lower than that of the biomass harvested using centrifugation. These results reveal the potential of this surface-floating microalgal species as a biodiesel producer, employing a novel biomass harvesting and dewatering strategy.

  3. Tank Tests of Models of Floats for Single-float Seaplanes First Series.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, J B

    1936-01-01

    Large models of the Mark V and Mark VI floats used for single float seaplanes (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) models 41-A and 41-B, respectively) were tested in the NACA tank to provide general test data for typical single floats and a basis for possible improvements of their form. The resistance of model 41-B was greater than that of model 41-A, either when free to trim or at the best trim angle for each. The resistance of model 35-B (a pointed step hull tested free to trim) was less than either of the models at the hump speed, greater at intermediate planing speeds, and less at the speeds and loads near get-away, although the spray was generally worse owing to the absence of transverse flare. The results of the fixed-trim tests of model 41-A were cross plotted to obtain data at the angle for zero trimming moment and at the best trim angle. The trims assumed by models 41-A and 41-B, when tested free to trim, were found to be excessive at the hump speed. The corresponding trim of model 35-B was found to be approximately 3 degrees lower because of the lower angle of afterbody keel used in this model, and the maximum hump resistance was 15 percent lower.

  4. WindWaveFloat (WWF): Final Scientific Report

    SciTech Connect

    Alla Weinstein; Roddier, Dominique; Banister, Kevin

    2012-03-30

    Principle Power Inc. and National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) have completed a contract to assess the technical and economic feasibility of integrating wave energy converters into the WindFloat, resulting in a new concept called the WindWaveFloat (WWF). The concentration of several devices on one platform could offer a potential for both economic and operational advantages. Wind and wave energy converters can share the electrical cable and power transfer equipment to transport the electricity to shore. Access to multiple generation devices could be simplified, resulting in cost saving at the operational level. Overall capital costs may also be reduced, provided that the design of the foundation can be adapted to multiple devices with minimum modifications. Finally, the WindWaveFloat confers the ability to increase energy production from individual floating support structures, potentially leading to a reduction in levelized energy costs, an increase in the overall capacity factor, and greater stability of the electrical power delivered to the grid. The research conducted under this grant investigated the integration of several wave energy device types into the WindFloat platform. Several of the resulting system designs demonstrated technical feasibility, but the size and design constraints of the wave energy converters (technical and economic) make the WindWaveFloat concept economically unfeasible at this time. Not enough additional generation could be produced to make the additional expense associated with wave energy conversion integration into the WindFloat worthwhile.

  5. Silostop Bunker Covers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The quality of the seal provided by the plastic cover is a key issue for minimizing losses in bunker and pile silos. Most bunker covers are 6 to 8 mil polyethylene sheets held in place by tires or tire sidewalls. Frequently there are problems with spoilage at the shoulders (i.e., against the walls),...

  6. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: LANDFILL COVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill covers are used at Superfund sites to minimize surface water infiltration and control gas migration. In many cases covers are used in conjunction with other waste treatment technologies, such as slurry walls, ground water pump-and-treat systems, and gas collection. This ...

  7. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: LANDFILL COVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill covers are used at Superfund sites to minimize surface water infiltration and control gas migration. In many cases covers are used in conjunction with other waste treatment technologies, such as slurry walls, ground water pump-and-treat systems, and gas collection. This ...

  8. [Using a method--'floating absolute risks' to estimate the confidential intervals of relative hazards].

    PubMed

    Wu, Qian; Li, Wei; Wang, Rui; Wang, Yang; Wang, Fen-ji

    2008-12-01

    Compare the risks between multiple groups and to avoid bias, using arbitrary reference group. Floating absolute risks (FAR) is used to estimate the relative hazard ratios and to get the confidence intervals. From the example, FAR can describe the construction of standard error for all groups. It gets the relative hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals between any two groups; even if neither is used as baseline data. FAR can eliminate the bias in comparison of any two groups by selecting a baseline group. It is useful in many epidemiological studies.

  9. Floating arterial thrombus related stroke treated by intravenous thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Vanacker, P; Cordier, M; Janbieh, J; Federau, C; Michel, P

    2014-01-01

    The effects of intravenous thrombolysis on floating thrombi in cervical and intracranial arteries of acute ischemic stroke patients are unknown. Similarly, the best prevention methods of early recurrences remain controversial. This study aimed to describe the clinical and radiological outcome of thrombolyzed strokes with floating thrombi. We retrospectively analyzed all thrombolyzed stroke patients in our institution between 2003 and 2010 with floating thrombi on acute CT-angiography before the intravenous thrombolysis. The floating thrombus was diagnosed if an elongated thrombus of at least 5 mm length, completely surrounded by contrast on supra-aortic neck or intracerebral arteries, was present on CT-angiography. Demographics, vascular risk factors, and comorbidities were recorded and stroke etiology was determined after a standardized workup. Repeat arterial imaging was performed by CTA at 24 h or before if clinical worsening was noted and then by Doppler and MRA during the first week and at four months. Of 409 thrombolyzed stroke patients undergoing acute CT Angiography, seven (1.7%) had a floating thrombus; of these seven, six had it in the anterior circulation. Demographics, risk factors and stroke severity of these patients were comparable to the other thrombolyzed patients. After intravenous thrombolysis, the floating thrombi resolved completely at 24 h in four of the patients, whereas one had an early recurrent stroke and one developed progressive worsening. One patient developed early occlusion of the carotid artery with floating thrombus and subsequently a TIA. The two patients with a stable floating thrombus had no clinical recurrences. In the literature, only one of four reported cases were found to have a thrombolysis-related early recurrence. Long-term outcome seemed similar in thrombolyzed patients with floating thrombus, despite a possible increase of very early recurrence. It remains to be established whether acute mechanical thrombectomy could be

  10. Land Cover Trends Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Acevedo, William

    2006-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  11. Dynamics and early post-tsunami evolution of floating marine debris near Fukushima Daiichi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, John Philip; Ostrovsky, Lev; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Komori, Satoru; Tamura, Hitoshi

    2017-08-01

    The devastating tsunami triggered by the Tōhoku-Oki earthquake of 11 March 2011 caused a crisis at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station where it overtopped the seawall defences. On retreating, the tsunami carried loose debris and wreckage seaward and marshalled buoyant material into extensive plumes. Widespread concern over the fate of these and numerous other Tōhoku tsunami depositions prompted attempts to simulate debris dispersion throughout the wider Pacific. However, the effects of locally perturbed wind and wave fields, active Langmuir circulation and current-induced attrition determine a complex and poorly understood morphology for large floating agglomerations. Here we show that the early post-tsunami evolution of marine-debris plumes near Fukushima Daiichi was also shaped by near-surface wind modifications that took place above relatively calm (lower surface roughness) waters covered by surface films derived from oil and other contaminants. High-spatial-resolution satellite tracking reveals faster-than-expected floating-debris motions and invigorated plume evolution within these regions, while numerical modelling of turbulent air flow over the low-drag, film-covered surface predicts typically metre-per-second wind strengthening at centimetric heights, sufficient to explain the observed debris-speed increases. Wind restructuring probably stimulates the dispersion of flotsam from both biological and anthropogenic sources throughout a global ocean of highly variable surface roughness.

  12. Float level switch for a nuclear power plant containment vessel

    DOEpatents

    Powell, J.G.

    1993-11-16

    This invention is a float level switch used to sense rise or drop in water level in a containment vessel of a nuclear power plant during a loss of coolant accident. The essential components of the device are a guide tube, a reed switch inside the guide tube, a float containing a magnetic portion that activates a reed switch, and metal-sheathed, ceramic-insulated conductors connecting the reed switch to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. Special materials and special sealing techniques prevent failure of components and allow the float level switch to be connected to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. 1 figures.

  13. Strongly Emitting Surfaces Unable to Float below Plasma Potential

    DOE PAGES

    Campanell, M. D.; Umansky, M. V.

    2016-02-25

    One important unresolved question in plasma physics concerns the effect of strong electron emission on plasma-surface interactions. Previous papers reported solutions with negative and positive floating potentials relative to the plasma edge. For these two models a very different predictions for particle and energy balance is given. Here we show that the positive potential state is the only possible equilibrium in general. Even if a negative floating potential existed at t=0, the ionization collisions near the surface will force a transition to the positive floating potential state. Moreover, this transition is demonstrated with a new simulation code.

  14. Radiation Issues and Applications of Floating Gate Memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheick, L. Z.; Nguyen, D. N.

    2000-01-01

    The radiation effects that affect various systems that comprise floating gate memories are presented. The wear-out degradation results of unirradiated flash memories are compared to irradiated flash memories. The procedure analyzes the failure to write and erase caused by wear-out and degradation of internal charge pump circuits. A method is described for characterizing the radiation effects of the floating gate itself. The rate dependence, stopping power dependence, SEU susceptibility and applications of floating gate in radiation environment are presented. The ramifications for dosimetry and cell failure are discussed as well as for the long term use aspects of non-volatile memories.

  15. Float level switch for a nuclear power plant containment vessel

    DOEpatents

    Powell, James G.

    1993-01-01

    This invention is a float level switch used to sense rise or drop in water level in a containment vessel of a nuclear power plant during a loss of coolant accident. The essential components of the device are a guide tube, a reed switch inside the guide tube, a float containing a magnetic portion that activates a reed switch, and metal-sheathed, ceramic-insulated conductors connecting the reed switch to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. Special materials and special sealing techniques prevent failure of components and allow the float level switch to be connected to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel.

  16. Defining the IEEE-854 floating-point standard in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, Paul S.

    1995-01-01

    A significant portion of the ANSI/IEEE-854 Standard for Radix-Independent Floating-Point Arithmetic is defined in PVS (Prototype Verification System). Since IEEE-854 is a generalization of the ANSI/IEEE-754 Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic, the definition of IEEE-854 in PVS also formally defines much of IEEE-754. This collection of PVS theories provides a basis for machine checked verification of floating-point systems. This formal definition illustrates that formal specification techniques are sufficiently advanced that is is reasonable to consider their use in the development of future standards.

  17. A floating gate MOSFET dosimeter requiring no external bias supply

    SciTech Connect

    Tarr, N.G.; Mackay, G.F.; Thomson, I.; Shortt, K.

    1998-06-01

    MOSFET dosimeters incorporating an electrically floating polysilicon gate have been fabricated in a commercial CMOS technology. Charge is placed on the floating gate by tunneling from a small overlapping injector gate. Subsequent irradiation partially discharges the floating gate, producing a change in threshold voltage which can be used to infer the absorbed dose. No external power source is required during this sensing period. Sensitivities up to 70 mVGy{sup {minus}1} (0.7 mV/rad) have been obtained for temperature-compensated matched-pair dosimeters under {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation.

  18. Radiation Issues and Applications of Floating Gate Memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheick, L. Z.; Nguyen, D. N.

    2000-01-01

    The radiation effects that affect various systems that comprise floating gate memories are presented. The wear-out degradation results of unirradiated flash memories are compared to irradiated flash memories. The procedure analyzes the failure to write and erase caused by wear-out and degradation of internal charge pump circuits. A method is described for characterizing the radiation effects of the floating gate itself. The rate dependence, stopping power dependence, SEU susceptibility and applications of floating gate in radiation environment are presented. The ramifications for dosimetry and cell failure are discussed as well as for the long term use aspects of non-volatile memories.

  19. Floating potential measurements in plasmas: From dust to spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beadles, R.; Wang, X.; Horányi, M.

    2017-02-01

    We present measurements of the floating potential of spherical probes, used as a model of a dust particle or a spacecraft, immersed in plasmas with a wide range of Debye lengths. Our experimental results verified the theoretical prediction that the probe floating potential is a function of the Debye length. It is shown that, in an argon plasma with the ion to electron temperature ratio ˜0.01, the magnitude of the floating potential is approximately doubled when the Debye length is changed from larger to smaller than the radius of the probe.

  20. Curriculum Guide Construction Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Ken

    As part of a model construction cluster curriculum development project, this guide was developed and implemented in the Beaverton (Oregon) School District. The curriculum guide contains 16 units covering the following topics: introduction to construction jobs; safety and first aid; blueprint readings; basic mathematics; site work; framing; roofing…

  1. Planning School Plant Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.

    Steps in planning the school plant are outlined and described. Topics covered are--(1) the school plant program, (2) characteristics of a good school building, (3) financing and constructing the building, (4) the role of various state agencies, (5) Kentucky laws pertaining to planning, financing, and construction of school buildings, (6) Kentucky…

  2. Curriculum Guide Construction Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Ken

    As part of a model construction cluster curriculum development project, this guide was developed and implemented in the Beaverton (Oregon) School District. The curriculum guide contains 16 units covering the following topics: introduction to construction jobs; safety and first aid; blueprint readings; basic mathematics; site work; framing; roofing…

  3. Incoherent systems and coverings in finite dimensional Banach spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Temlyakov, V N

    2014-05-31

    We discuss the construction of coverings of the unit ball of a finite dimensional Banach space. There is a well-known technique based on comparing volumes which gives upper and lower bounds on covering numbers. However, this technique does not provide a method for constructing good coverings. Here we study incoherent systems and apply them to construct good coverings. We use the following strategy. First, we build a good covering using balls with a radius close to one. Second, we iterate this construction to obtain a good covering for any radius. We shall concentrate mainly on the first step of this strategy. Bibliography: 14 titles.

  4. 10 CFR 950.21 - Notification of covered event.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notification of covered event. 950.21 Section 950.21... Process § 950.21 Notification of covered event. (a) A sponsor shall submit in writing to the Claims Administrator a notification that a covered event has occurred that has delayed the schedule for construction...

  5. 10 CFR 950.21 - Notification of covered event.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notification of covered event. 950.21 Section 950.21... Process § 950.21 Notification of covered event. (a) A sponsor shall submit in writing to the Claims Administrator a notification that a covered event has occurred that has delayed the schedule for construction...

  6. 10 CFR 950.21 - Notification of covered event.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notification of covered event. 950.21 Section 950.21... Process § 950.21 Notification of covered event. (a) A sponsor shall submit in writing to the Claims Administrator a notification that a covered event has occurred that has delayed the schedule for construction...

  7. 26. Mechanical float gages used to monitor level of water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Mechanical float gages used to monitor level of water in the filtration bed reservoir. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  8. 16. EAST ELEVATION OF FLOAT HOUSE AND FISH WATER RELEASE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. EAST ELEVATION OF FLOAT HOUSE AND FISH WATER RELEASE OUTLET. PART OF ENERGY DISSIPATING BAFFLE PIER SYSTEM IS VISIBLE AT LEFT. - Pit 4 Diversion Dam, Pit River west of State Highway 89, Big Bend, Shasta County, CA

  9. 31. Floating original Ship Canal draw (in background) to University ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Floating original Ship Canal draw (in background) to University Heights location. New Ship Canal draw in foreground. June 1906 photograph. - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York County, NY

  10. Astronaut Gerald Carr floats in forward dome area

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1974-02-01

    Astronaut Gerald P. Carr, commander for the Skylab 4 mission, demonstrates the effects of zero-gravity as he floats in the forward dome area of the Orbital Workshop of the Skylab space station while in Earth orbit.

  11. Sellers floats into the Node 1 during Joint Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-23

    S132-E-010074 (23 May 2010) --- NASA astronaut Piers Sellers, STS-132 mission specialist, floats through a hatch into the Unity node of the International Space Station while space shuttle Atlantis remains docked with the station.

  12. 8. CAR FLOAT AND TUG DOCKED AT BRIDGE NO. 11 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. CAR FLOAT AND TUG DOCKED AT BRIDGE NO. 11 FROM BRIDGE NO. 9 APRON. LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Greenville Yard, Transfer Bridge System, Port of New York/New Jersey, Upper New York Bay, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  13. Sellers floats in the Node 1 during Joint Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-23

    S132-E-010067 (23 May 2010) --- NASA astronaut Piers Sellers, STS-132 mission specialist, floats freely in the Unity node of the International Space Station while space shuttle Atlantis remains docked with the station.

  14. CANVAS FINISH TO REMOVE FLOAT MARKS. View is to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CANVAS FINISH TO REMOVE FLOAT MARKS. View is to the northwest of deck finishing operations - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

  15. Tarelkin floats through hatch into the U.S. Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-06

    ISS034-E-005682 (6 Dec. 2012) --- Russian cosmonaut Evgeny Tarelkin, Expedition 34 flight engineer, floats through a hatchway between the Unity node (background) and the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  16. 36. FLOAT WELL AND PIPE ENCASEMENT EAST CUTOFF WALL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. FLOAT WELL AND PIPE ENCASEMENT - EAST CUTOFF WALL, REINFORCEMENT DETAILS. Sheet A-17, October, 1940. File no. SA 342/2. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  17. 9. LOADED CAR FLOAT AND TUG IN THE PROCESS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. LOADED CAR FLOAT AND TUG IN THE PROCESS OF DOCKING AT BRIDGE NO. 11. LOOKING EAST. - Greenville Yard, Transfer Bridge System, Port of New York/New Jersey, Upper New York Bay, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  18. 51. (no plate) Lens, lens pedestal, mercury float, shade holder ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. (no plate) Lens, lens pedestal, mercury float, shade holder installation, drawing # 3101, sheet 2 of 2. Approved April 6, 1928. - Block Island Southeast Light, Spring Street & Mohegan Trail at Mohegan Bluffs, New Shoreham, Washington County, RI

  19. 63. VIEW OF THE SHOOFLY BRIDGE LIFT SPAN BEING FLOATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. VIEW OF THE SHOOFLY BRIDGE LIFT SPAN BEING FLOATED INTO PLACE, LOOKING NORTH, January 29, 1935 - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  20. Sellers floats into the Node 1 during Joint Operations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-23

    S132-E-010098 (23 May 2010) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Soichi Noguchi, Expedition 23 flight engineer, floats into the Unity node of the International Space Station while space shuttle Atlantis (STS-132) remains docked with the station.