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Sample records for flood basalt volcanism

  1. The biological consequences of flood basalt volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapham, M.

    2012-12-01

    Flood basalt eruptions are among the largest environmental perturbations of the Phanerozoic. The rapid release of CO2 from a large igneous province would have triggered a chain of events that can include climate warming, ocean acidification, reduced seawater carbonate saturation, and expanded oceanic anoxia. Those stressors have widely negative impacts on marine organisms, especially on calcified taxa, by affecting their respiratory physiology and reducing energy available for growth and reproduction. Many Phanerozoic extinctions, most notably the end-Permian and end-Triassic mass extinctions, coincided with flood basalt eruptions and shared distinctive patterns of taxonomic and ecological selectivity. In these extinctions, highly active organisms were more likely to survive because they possess physiological adaptations for maintaining internal pH during activity, which also proves useful when buffering pH against ocean acidification. In contrast, species that did not move and had low metabolic rates, such as brachiopods and sponges, suffered considerable losses during these extinctions. Heavily-calcified organisms, especially corals, were particularly vulnerable; as a result, ocean acidification and saturation state changes from flood basalt eruptions often triggered crises in reef ecosystems. This characteristic pattern of selectivity during "physiological" extinctions that closely coincided with flood basalts provides a template for assessing the causes of other extinction events. Because these crises also provide deep time analogues for the ongoing anthropogenic crisis of warming, ocean acidification, and expanded anoxia, the selectivity patterns can also help constrain "winners" and "losers" over upcoming decades.

  2. Flood basalt volcanism during the past 250 million years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampino, Michael R.; Stothers, Richard B.

    1988-01-01

    A chronology of the initiation dates of major continental flood basalt volcanism is established from published potassium-argon (K-Ar) and argon-argon (Ar-Ar) ages of basaltic rocks and related basic intrusions. The dating is therefore independent of the biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic time scales. Estimated errors of the initiation dates of the volcanic episodes determined from the distributions of the radiometric ages are, approximately, + or - 4 percent. There were 11 distinct episodes during the past 250 million years. Sometimes appearing in pairs, the episodes have occurred quasi-periodically with a mean cycle time of 32 + or - 1 (estimated error of the mean) million years. The initiation dates of the episodes are close to the estimated dates of mass extinctions of marine organisms. Showers of impacting comets may be the cause.

  3. Continental Flood Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Continental flood basalts have been receiving considerable scientific attention lately. Recent publications have focused on several particular flood-basalt provinces (Brito-Arctic, Karoo, Parana', Deccan, and Columbia Plateau), and much attention has been given to the proposed connection between flood-basalt volcanism, bolide impacts, and mass extinctions. The editor of Continental Flood Basalts, J. D. Macdougall, conceived the book to assemble in a single volume, from a vast and scattered literature, an overview of each major post-Cambrian flood-basalt province.Continental Flood Basalts has 10 chapters; nine treat individual flood-basalt provinces, and a summary chapter compares and contrasts continental flood-basalts and mid-oceanic ridge basalts. Specifically, the chapters address the Columbia River basalt, the northwest United States including the Columbia River basalt, the Ethiopian Province, the North Atlantic Tertiary Province, the Deccan Traps, the Parana' Basin, the Karoo Province, the Siberian Platform, and Cenozoic basaltic rocks in eastern China. Each chapter is written by one or more individuals with an extensive background in the province.

  4. A minimum U-Pb age for Siberian flood-basalt volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kamo, S.L.; Czamanske, G.K.; Krogh, T.E.

    1996-01-01

    Establishing an accurate and precise age for Siberian flood-basalt volcanism is of great importance in evaluating causes for the unequaled mass extinction of flora and fauna at the Permian-Triassic boundary. We report a new, minimum U-Pb age obtained from zircon and baddeleyite from the mineralized Noril'sk I intrusion that cuts the lower third of this rapidly deposited, 3500-m-thick volcanic sequence near Noril'sk. This 251.2 ?? 0.3 (2??) Ma age is within analytical error of the SHRIMP U-Pb age for zircon from the Permian-Triassic boundary at Meishan, South China [251.1 ?? 3.6 Ma (2??)], and confirms Siberian basaltic volcanism as a possible contributor to the mass extinction.

  5. Earliest Silicic Volcanism Associated with Mid-Miocene Flood Basalts: Tuffs Interbedded with Steens Basalt, Nevada and Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luckett, M.; Mahood, G. A.; Benson, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    During the main phase of Steens and Columbia River flood basalt eruptions between ~16.7 and 15.0 Ma, spatially associated silicic volcanism was widespread, ~4,000 km3 of silicic magma erupting at calderas and smaller centers dispersed across ~25,000 km2 in eastern Oregon and northern Nevada (Coble and Mahood, 2012). The oldest flood basalts erupted from a focus at Steens Mountain in eastern Oregon, where the section of lavas is ~1 km thick. The Steens Basalt thins southward to only a few flows thick in northern Nevada, either because fewer flows were emplaced this far from the focus or because fewer dikes propagated to the surface on encountering thicker continental crust and/or were intercepted by growing bodies of silicic magma that ultimately erupted in McDermitt Caldera Field (Rytuba and McKee, 1984), High Rock Caldera Complex, and the Lone Mountain/Hawks Valley center (Wypych et al., 2011). Rhyolitic tuffs have not been recognized interbedded with the basalt lavas in the type section, but we have identified several silicic tuffs interbedded with Steens Basalt in the southern Pueblo Mountains and in the Trout Creek Mountains. Although noted by previous workers (e.g., Avent, 1965; Minor, 1986; Hart et al., 1989), they have not been studied. We identified six tuffaceous intervals 20 cm to 15 m thick in the escarpment of the southern Pueblo Mountains near the Oregon-Nevada border where the Steens basalt section is ~250 m thick, with the base unexposed. Two intervals are lithic-rich, reworked volcaniclastic sediments, but four are primary or only slightly reworked sequences of fall deposits that range from fine ash to lapilli in grain size. The heat and weight of the overlying basaltic lava flows has fused the tuffs so that the upper parts of thicker tuffaceous intervals and entire thinner ones are converted to vitrophyres, with crystals of alkali feldspar × quartz × biotite typically 1-2 mm in diameter set in a dense, black, variably hydrated, glassy matrix. We

  6. Constructing the volcanic architecture of Kalkarindji, an ancient flood basalt province, using a multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, P.; Widdowson, M.; Kelley, S. P.; Mac Niocaill, C.; Murphy, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Kalkarindji Continental Flood Basalt Province (CFBP) is the oldest igneous province in the Phanerozoic. Erupted in the mid-Cambrian (505-510 Ma) [1], it is estimated volumes of lava up to 1.5 x 105 km3could have been erupted, making this similar in size to the better known Columbia River Basalts, USA. Relatively little is known about the province, due in part to its remote location, though large swathes remain well preserved (c. 50,000 km2). This study, based on rigorous field investigations, utilises 4 different analytical techniques to construct a volcanic architecture for the Kalkarindji basalts, drawing together these complimentary datasets to generate a series of detailed stratigraphies from around the province. Mineralogy and petrography form the basis while geochemical data aides in defining lava flow stratigraphies and distinguishing individual flow packages in disparate locations around the province. 40Ar/39Ar dating of key stratigraphic marker horizons support stratigraphical correlation across the province whilst the use of palaeomagnetism and magnetostratigraphy has allowed for correlation on a broader scale. Indications from this study point towards an unusual eruption among CFBPs in the Phanerozoic; a lack of tumescence, immediate subsidence of the lava pile following cessation of eruption; and, in the main sub-province, we map a simple volcanic structure thinning to the east from a single source. 1. L. M. Glass, D. Phillips, (2006). Geology. 34, 461-464.

  7. Floral changes across the Triassic/Jurassic boundary linked to flood basalt volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Schootbrugge, B.; Quan, T. M.; Lindström, S.; Püttmann, W.; Heunisch, C.; Pross, J.; Fiebig, J.; Petschick, R.; Röhling, H.-G.; Richoz, S.; Rosenthal, Y.; Falkowski, P. G.

    2009-08-01

    One of the five largest mass extinctions of the past 600million years occurred at the boundary of the Triassic and Jurassic periods, 201.6million years ago. The loss of marine biodiversity at the time has been linked to extreme greenhouse warming, triggered by the release of carbon dioxide from flood basalt volcanism in the central Atlantic Ocean. In contrast, the biotic turnover in terrestrial ecosystems is not well understood, and cannot be readily reconciled with the effects of massive volcanism. Here we present pollen, spore and geochemical analyses across the Triassic/Jurassic boundary from three drill cores from Germany and Sweden. We show that gymnosperm forests in northwest Europe were transiently replaced by fern and fern-associated vegetation, a pioneer assemblage commonly found in disturbed ecosystems. The Triassic/Jurassic boundary is also marked by an enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which, in the absence of charcoal peaks, we interpret as an indication of incomplete combustion of organic matter by ascending flood basalt lava. We conclude that the terrestrial vegetation shift is so severe and wide ranging that it is unlikely to have been triggered by greenhouse warming alone. Instead, we suggest that the release of pollutants such as sulphur dioxide and toxic compounds such as the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may have contributed to the extinction.

  8. Basaltic volcanism, mantle plumes, and the mechanics of rifting: The Paraná flood basalt province of South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harry, Dennis L.; Sawyer, Dale S.

    1992-03-01

    Dynamic modeling of continental extension between South America and Africa shows that the mechanics of rifting played an important role in determining the pattern of volcanism within the Paraná and Etendeka flood-basalt provinces on the Brazilian and Namibian margins. The key feature of the model is the development of a horizontal pressure gradient in the lower crust during the early stages of extension, which provided a mechanism for transporting magma generated beneath the incipient sea-floor spreading axis into the Paraná province, 100-200 km distant. The horizontal pressure gradient developed as a consequence of the dynamic interaction of preexisting weaknesses in the middle crust and upper mantle during rifting. The model accounts for the large quantity of basalt, the asymmetric distribution of basalt on the conjugate margins, and the northward migration of the eruptive center with time. The rapidity of magma genesis is in agreement with models of decompression melting during rifting. The model indicates that although elevated asthenosphere temperatures associated with the Tristan plume account for the volume of melt generated, the mechanics of rifting control the location and style of emplacement. The model suggests that extension in the region began ca. 150-155 Ma, and lasted about 25 m.y.

  9. East Greenland flood basalt volcanism: duration, volatile flux and correlation to the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegner, C.; Heilmann-Clausen, C.; Larsen, R. B.; Kent, A. J. R.

    2012-04-01

    Massive flood basalt volcanism in the NE Atlantic 56 million years ago can be related to the initial manifestation of the Iceland plume and ensuing continental rifting, and has been correlated with a short (c. 200,000 years) global warming period, the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM). A hypothesis is that magmatic sills emplaced into organic-rich sediments on the Norwegian margin triggered rapid release of greenhouse gases. However, the largest exposed volcanic succession in the region, the E Greenland flood basalts provide additional details. The alkaline Ash-17 provides regional correlation of continental volcanism and pertubation of the oceanic environment. In E Greenland Ash-17 is interbedded with the uppermost part of the flood basalt succession. In the marine sections of Denmark, Ash-17 postdates PETM, most likely by 3-400,000 years. While radiometric ages bracket the duration of the main flood basalt event to less than a million years, the subsidence history of the Skaergaard intrusion due to flood basalt emplacement indicates it took less than 300,000 years. It is therefore possible that the main flood basalts in E Greenland postdates PETM. This is supported by a scarcity of ash layers within the PETM interval. Continental flood basalt provinces represent some of the highest sustained volcanic outputs preserved within the geologic record. Recent studies have focused on estimating the atmospheric loading of volatile elements and have led to the suggestion that they may be associated with significant global climate changes and mass extinctions. Estimates suggest that c. 400,000 km3 of basaltic lava erupted in E Greenland and the Faeroe islands. Based on measurements of melt inclusions and solubility models, approximately 3000 Gt of SO2 and 220 Gt of HCl were released by these basalts. Calculated yearly fluxes approach 10 Mt/y SO2 and 0.7 Mt/y HCl. Refinements of these estimates, based largely on further melt inclusion measurements, are proceeding. Our

  10. Pollution and paradigms: lessons from Icelandic volcanism for continental flood basalt studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grattan, John

    2005-02-01

    This paper is based on the premise that research into the environmental impact of continental flood basalt (CFB) volcanism has paid insufficient attention to the potential ecosystem damage that would result from the direct deposition of hundreds of megatons (Tg) of sulphur and other volatiles. The environmental impacts of the 1783 Laki Fissure eruption are reviewed in outline. It is shown that in a relatively brief period of volcanic activity, volatiles emitted by the eruption damaged and destroyed vegetation from the Arctic Ocean to the Mediterranean. Air pollution was so intense that human health was affected and the national death rate increased dramatically in both England and France. It is proposed that the events of 1783 may be used as a paradigm for the environmental impacts of a CFB lava flow, and the emissions of 1783 are scaled up to illustrate this point. Thus, if a Laki style event were to erupt for a year it would approach the physical scale of a single episode of the Roza flow in the Columbia River CFB and potentially yield 576 Tg of sulphur gases which could have been oxidised into approximately 945 Tg of aerosol. This could generate a tropospheric aerosol mass of approximately 708 Tg H 2SO 4. The ecosystem impact of the deposition of acids on this scale would be profound and, as with the actual Laki event, be continental in scale. All parts of the plant life cycle would be disrupted, including photosynthesis and fruiting. Inevitably, with the disruption of food webs animals would also be affected. Poorly buffered inland waters would be acidified, as would Boreal soils, reducing their biodiversity. In our already polluted and interdependent world, any future event on this scale would have serious consequences for human health and trade.

  11. Geology of the Mid-Miocene Rooster Comb Caldera and Lake Owyhee Volcanic Field, eastern Oregon: Silicic volcanism associated with Grande Ronde flood basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Thomas R.; Mahood, Gail A.

    2016-01-01

    The Lake Owyhee Volcanic Field (LOVF) of eastern Oregon consists of rhyolitic caldera centers and lava fields contemporaneous with and spatially related to Mid-Miocene Columbia River flood basalt volcanism. Previous studies delineated two calderas in the southeastern part of LOVF near Owyhee Reservoir, the result of eruptions of two ignimbrites, the Tuff of Leslie Gulch and the Tuff of Spring Creek. Our new interpretation is that these two map units are differentially altered parts of a single ignimbrite produced in a major phreatomagmatic eruption at ~ 15.8 Ma. Areas previously mapped as Tuff of Spring Creek are locations where the ignimbrite contains abundant clinoptilolite ± mordenite, which made it susceptible to erosion. The resistant intracaldera Tuff of Leslie Gulch has an alteration assemblage of albite ± quartz, indicative of low-temperature hydrothermal alteration. Our new mapping of caldera lake sediments and pre- and post-caldera rhyolitic lavas and intrusions that are chemically similar to intracaldera Tuff of Leslie Gulch point to a single ~ 20 × 25 km caldera, which we name the Rooster Comb Caldera. Erosion of the resurgently uplifted southern half of the caldera created dramatic exposures of intracaldera Tuff of Leslie Gulch cut by post-caldera rhyolite dikes and intrusions that are the deeper-level equivalents of lava domes and flows that erupted into the caldera lake preserved in exposures to the northeast. The Rooster Comb Caldera has features in common with more southerly Mid-Miocene calderas of the McDermitt Volcanic Field and High Rock Caldera Complex, including formation in a basinal setting shortly after flood basalt eruptions ceased in the region, and forming on eruption of peralkaline ignimbrite. The volcanism at Rooster Comb Caldera postdates the main activity at McDermitt and High Rock, but, like it, begins ~ 300 ky after flood basalt volcanism begins in the area, and while flood basalts don't erupt through the silicic focus, are

  12. Flood basalt volcanism, end-Triassic deforestation, and intense weathering of soils and bedrock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Schootbrugge, Bas; Lindström, Sofie; Pross, Jörg; Dybkjaer, Karen; Heunisch, Carmen; Petschick, Rainer; Lyachenko, Lara; Püttmann, Willhelm; Oschmann, Wolfgang

    2010-05-01

    The end-Triassic mass-extinction on land was characterized by the widespread dieback of gymnospermous forests across the northern hemisphere and their transient replacement by ferns and fern allies. These floral changes are thought to have been triggered by the eruption of 2 million kubic kilometers of basalt belonging to the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province, releasing noxious and greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Here, we provide evidence for the dramatic consequences of deforestation during the latest Triassic in the form of intense erosion of soils and the weathering of bedrock across northwest Europe. Together with abundant fern spores, representing a pioneer vegetation, we find enhanced levels of kaolinite in the boundary beds, indicating chemical weathering. In palynological samples from cores that span the Triassic-Jurassic boundary in Sweden, Denmark and Germany we notice abundant reworked Carboniferous spores, reworked Silurian and Devonian acritarchs, and mycorrhizal fungal remains. The latter suggest soils were being eroded across the Germanic Basin. In Northern Germany, Denmark, and Sweden, Paleozoic palynomorphs were reworked from the Fennoscandian Shield, while in Southern Germany such palynomorphs may have originated from the Bohemian Massive. The contemporaneous, intense weathering of bed rocks and soil erosion on landmasses during the latest Triassic was likely a direct result of deforestation, but was probably exacerbated by acid rain and greenhouse warming due to the emission of sulfur and carbon dioxide from volcanic activity.

  13. A Plagioclase Ultraphyric Basalt group in the Neogene flood basalt piles of eastern Iceland: Volcanic architecture and mode of emplacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskarsson, B. V.; Riishuus, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    3D photogrammetry in conjunction with ground mapping was applied in order to assess the architecture of a Plagioclase Ultraphyric Basalt (PUB) group in eastern Iceland, namely the Grænavatn group. The ~10 Myr old group is exposed in steep glacially carved fjords and can be traced over 60 km along strike. Two feeder dikes have been found and show that the group erupted along the trend of the dike swarm associated with the Breiddalur central volcano. The group has 9--14 flows where thickest, and thins to about 3--4 flows up-dip to the east within the distance of 15-20 km from the source. We have estimated the volume of the group to exceed 40 km3. The flows have mixed architecture of simple and compound morphology. The flow lobes have thicknesses from 1--24 m and many reach lengths over 1000 m. The surface morphology varies from rubbly to scoriaceous, but is dominantly of pahoehoe style. The internal structure of the lava flows is well preserved and the flows display abundant vesicle cylinders. The modal percentage of An-rich plagioclase macrocrysts varies from 25--50 % and they are in the range of 5--30 mm. The aspect ratio of the group and the nature of the flows indicate fissure-fed eruptions. A thick flow found at the base of the group in various locations seems to record the largest eruption episode in the formation of the group. This phase is also the most abundant in macrocryst. An asymmetric buildup is seen in one location and may have characterized the general buildup of the group. The general morphology of the lava flows suggests low viscous behavior, at odds with the high crystal content. Petrographic observations and mineral chemistry shows that the plagioclase macrocrysts are very calcic (An80-85) and in disequilibrium with the groundmass and plagioclases therein (An50-70). Thus the apparent lava rheology and emplacement of the PUBs was likely achieved due to fast ascent of the magma through the crust and transfer of heat from the primitive macrocrysts

  14. Are flood basalt eruptions monogenetic or polygenetic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Hetu C.; Cañón-Tapia, Edgardo

    2015-11-01

    A fundamental classification of volcanoes divides them into "monogenetic" and "polygenetic." We discuss whether flood basalt fields, the largest volcanic provinces, are monogenetic or polygenetic. A polygenetic volcano, whether a shield volcano or a stratovolcano, erupts from the same dominant conduit for millions of years (excepting volumetrically small flank eruptions). A flood basalt province, built from different eruptive fissures dispersed over wide areas, can be considered a polygenetic volcano without any dominant vent. However, in the same characteristic, a flood basalt province resembles a monogenetic volcanic field, with only the difference that individual eruptions in the latter are much smaller. This leads to the question how a flood basalt province can be two very different phenomena at the same time. Individual flood basalt eruptions have previously been considered monogenetic, contrasted by only their high magma output (and lava fluidity) with typical "small-volume monogenetic" volcanoes. Field data from Hawaiian shield volcanoes, Iceland, and the Deccan Traps show that whereas many feeder dykes were single magma injections, and the eruptions can be considered "large monogenetic" eruptions, multiple dykes are equally abundant. They indicate that the same dyke fissure repeatedly transported separate magma batches, feeding an eruption which was thus polygenetic by even the restricted definition (the same magma conduit). This recognition helps in understanding the volcanological, stratigraphic, and geochemical complexity of flood basalts. The need for clear concepts and terminology is, however, strong. We give reasons for replacing "monogenetic volcanic fields" with "diffuse volcanic fields" and for dropping the term "polygenetic" and describing such volcanoes simply and specifically as "shield volcanoes," "stratovolcanoes," and "flood basalt fields."

  15. New Data on mid-Miocene Rhyolite Volcanism in Eastern Oregon Extend Early, co-CRBG Rhyolite Flare up and Constrain Storage Sites of Grande Ronde Flood Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streck, M. J.; Ferns, M. L.; McIntosh, W. C.

    2015-12-01

    The classical view of relating mid-Miocene rhyolites of the tri-state area of Oregon, Nevada, and Idaho to the flood basalts of the Columbia River Basalt was that a mantle plume impinging along the Oregon-Idaho border first causes eruption of the flood basalts but shortly thereafter causes generation of rhyolites at the McDermitt volcanic field from which then hot-spot track rhyolites developed progressively younging towards Yellowstone. More recent work reveals rhyolites as old as found at McDermitt (~16.5 Ma) to occur along a wide E-W tangent along the Oregon-Nevada-Idaho border. And now, our data extend such early rhyolites (>16 Ma) to several locations further north within and in the periphery of the Lake Owyhee Volcanic Field (LOVF) adding to the geographically orphaned old age of 16.7 Ma of the Silver City Rhyolite, Idaho. Hence, the rhyolite flare-up associated with flood basalt magmatism occurred within a circular area of ~400 km centered 100 km NNE of McDermitt. Consequently, no south-to-north progression exists in the onset of rhyolite volcanism; instead, rhyolites started up at the same time over this large area. Province-wide rhyolite volcanism was strongest between ~16.4 and 15.4 Ma coincident with eruptions of the most voluminous member of the CRBG - the Grande Ronde Basalt (GRB). Field evidence for such bimodal volcanism consists of intercalated local GRB units with the Dinner Creek Tuff and Littlefield Rhyolite in the Malheur River Gorge corridor. GRB eruption sites exist and were likely fed from reservoirs residing below or near rhyolitic chambers. Presently, we have petrological evidence for pinning down GRB storages sites to areas from where rhyolites of the Dinner Creek Tuff and lava flows of the Littlefield Rhyolite erupted. In summary, input of GRG and other CRBG magmas were driving co-CRBG rhyolite volcanism which in turn may have influenced whether flood basalt magmas erupted locally or travelled in dikes to more distally located areas.

  16. The onset of flood basalt volcanism, Northern Paraná Basin, Brazil: A precise U-Pb baddeleyite/zircon age for a Chapecó-type dacite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janasi, Valdecir de Assis; de Freitas, Vivian Azor; Heaman, Larry H.

    2011-02-01

    We report the first U-Pb baddeleyite/zircon date for a felsic volcanic rock from the Paraná Large Igneous Province in south Brazil. The new date of 134.3 ± 0.8 Ma for a hypocrystalline Chapecó-type dacite from Ourinhos (northern Paraná basin) is an important regional time marker for the onset of flood basalt volcanism in the northern and western portion of the province. The dated dacite was erupted onto basement rocks and is overlain by a high-Ti basalt sequence, interpreted to be correlative with Pitanga basalts elsewhere. This new U-Pb date for the Ourinhos dacite is consistent with the local stratigraphy being slightly older than the few reliable step-heating 40Ar/39Ar dates currently available for overlying high-Ti basalts (133.6-131.5 Ma). This indicates an ~ 3 Ma time span for the building of the voluminous high-Ti lava sequence of the Paraná basin. On the other hand, it overlaps the 40Ar/39Ar dates (134.8-134.1 Ma) available for the stratigraphically older low-Ti basalt (Gramado + Esmeralda types) and dacite-rhyolite (Palmas type) sequences from South Brazil, which is consistent with the short-lived character of this volcanism and its rapid succession by the high-Ti sequence.

  17. Flood Basalts and Neoproterozoic Glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halverson, G. P.; Cox, G. M.; Kunzmann, M.; Strauss, J. V.; Macdonald, F. A.

    2014-12-01

    Large igneous provinces (LIPs), which are commonly associated with supercontinental break-up, are the product of the emplacement of >106 km3 of mafic rocks in less than a few million years. LIP magmatism, in particular continental flood basalt (CFB) volcanism, perturbs global climate on shorter time scales through the radiative effects of degassed SO2 and CO2. On longer time scales, CFBs alter climate through the effect of the high weatherabilty of mafic rocks (5-10 times greater than average continental crust) on global silicate weathering. A link between flood basalt weathering, Rodinia break-up, and Neoproterozoic snowball glaciation has been postulated. Here we present a new compilation of Nd isotope data on Neoproterozoic mudstones from Laurentia, Australia, and South China along with a new seawater strontium isotope record from well preserved carbonates that support this hypothesis. These datasets are consistent with an outsized role of basalt weathering on the global silicate weathering budget during the second half of the Tonian period (~850 to 725 Ma). Along with Os isotope data, they also suggest that an additional pulse of basalt weathering at the end of the Tonian may have initiated the Sturtian snowball glaciation. CFBs have relatively high concentrations of phosphorous. Hence, the drawdown in atmospheric CO2 required to trigger the Sturtian snowball Earth was likely accomplished through a combination of increased silicate weathering rates and enhanced biological productivity driven by greater nutrient supply to the oceans. CFBs were also the likely source of the iron in Neoproterozoic iron formation (IF), all significant occurrences of which are restricted to Sturtian-aged glacial successions. Dramatic declines in ɛNd following the Cryogenian snowball glaciations are mirrored by stepwise increases in 87Sr/86Sr, reflecting the scouring of the continents by global ice sheets. This continental resurfacing removed the extensive basalt carapace as well as

  18. Flood basalts and mass extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, W. Jason

    1988-01-01

    There appears to be a correlation between the times of flood basalts and mass-extinction events. There is a correlation of flood basalts and hotspot tracks--flood basalts appear to mark the beginning of a new hotspot. Perhaps there is an initial instability in the mantle that bursts forth as a flood basalt but then becomes a steady trickle that persists for many tens of millions of years. Suppose that flood basalts and not impacts cause the environmental changes that lead to mass-extinctions. This is a very testable hypothesis: it predicts that the ages of the flows should agree exactly with the times of extinctions. The Deccan and K-T ages agree with this hypothesis; An iridium anomaly at extinction boundaries apparently can be explained by a scaled-up eruption of the Hawaiian type; the occurrence of shocked-quartz is more of a problem. However if the flood basalts are all well dated and their ages indeed agree with extinction times, then surely some mechanism to appropriately produce shocked-quartz will be found.

  19. Flood basalt eruptions, comet showers, and mass extinction events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampino, Michael R.; Stothers, Richard B.

    1988-01-01

    A chronology of initiation dates of the major continental flood basalt episodes has been established from compilation of published K-Ar and Ar-Ar ages of basaltic flows and related basic intrusions. The dating is therefore independent of the biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic time scales, and the estimated errors of the inititation dates are approximately + or - 4 pct. There are 11 distinct episodes of continental flood basalts known during the past 250 Myr. The data show that flood basalt episodes are generally relatively brief geologic events, with intermittent eruptions during peak output periods lasting ony 2 to 3 Myr or less. Statistical analyses suggest that these episodes may have occurred quasi-periodically with a mean cycle time of 32 + or - 1 Myr. The initiation dates of the flood basalts are close to the estimated dates of marine mass extinctions and impact-crater clusters. Although a purely internal forcing might be argued for the flood basalt volcanism, quasi-periodic comet impacts may be the trigger for both the flood basalts and the extinctions. Impact cratering models suggest that large-body impactors lead to deep initial cratering, and therefore may cause mantle disturbances and initiate mantle plume activity. The flood basalt episodes commonly mark the initiation or jump of a mantle hotspot, and are often followed by continental rifting and separation. Evidence from dynamical studies of impacts, occurrences of craters and hotspots, and the geochemistry of boundary layers is synthesized to provide a possible model of impact-generated volcanism. Flood basalt eruptions may themselves have severe effects on climate, and possibly on life. Impacts might, as a result, have led to mass extinctions through direct atmospheric disturbances, and/or indirectly through prolonged flood basalt volcanism.

  20. Flood basalts and extinction events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1993-01-01

    The largest known effusive eruptions during the Cenozoic and Mesozoic Eras, the voluminous flood basalts, have long been suspected as being associated with major extinctions of biotic species. Despite the possible errors attached to the dates in both time series of events, the significance level of the suspected correlation is found here to be 1 percent to 4 percent. Statistically, extinctions lag eruptions by a mean time interval that is indistinguishable from zero, being much less than the average residual derived from the correlation analysis. Oceanic flood basalts, however, must have had a different biological impact, which is still uncertain owing to the small number of known examples and differing physical factors. Although not all continental flood basalts can have produced major extinction events, the noncorrelating eruptions may have led to smaller marine extinction events that terminated at least some of the less catastrophically ending geologic stages. Consequently, the 26 Myr quasi-periodicity seen in major marine extinctions may be only a sampling effect, rather than a manifestation of underlying periodicity.

  1. Basaltic volcanism - The importance of planet size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, D.; Stolper, E. M.; Hays, J. F.

    1979-01-01

    The volumetrically abundant basalts on the earth, its moon, and the eucrite parent planet all have chemical compositions that are controlled to a large extent by dry, low-pressure, crystal-liquid equilibria. Since this generalization is valid for these three planetary bodies, we infer that it may also apply to the other unsampled terrestrial planets. Other characteristics of basaltic volcanism show variations which appear to be related to planet size: the eruption temperatures, degrees of fractionation, and chemical variety of basalts and the endurance of basaltic volcanism all increase with planet size. Although the processes responsible for chemical differences between basalt suites are known, no simple systematization of the chemical differences between basalts from planet to planet has emerged.

  2. Large phreatomagmatic vent complex at Coombs Hills, Antarctica: Wet, explosive initiation of flood basalt volcanism in the Ferrar-Karoo LIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClintock, Murray; White, James D. L.

    2006-01-01

    The Mawson Formation and correlatives in the Transantarctic Mountains and South Africa record an early eruption episode related to the onset of Ferrar-Karoo flood basalt volcanism. Mawson Formation rocks at Coombs Hills comprise mainly (≥80% vol) structureless tuff breccia and coarse lapilli tuff cut by irregular dikes and sills, within a large vent complex (>30 km2). Quenched juvenile fragments of generally low but variable vesicularity, accretionary lapilli and country rock clasts within vent-fill, and pyroclastic density current deposits point to explosive interaction of basalt with groundwater in porous country rock and wet vent filling debris. Metre-scale dikes and pods of coherent basalt in places merge imperceptibly into peperite and then into surrounding breccia. Steeply dipping to sub-vertical depositional contacts juxtapose volcaniclastic rocks of contrasting componentry and grainsize. These sub-vertical tuff breccia zones are inferred to have formed when jets of debris + steam + water passed through unconsolidated vent-filling deposits. These jets of debris may have sometimes breached the surface to form subaerial tephra jets which fed subaerial pyroclastic density currents and fall deposits. Others, however, probably died out within vent fill before reaching the surface, allowing mixing and recycling of clasts which never reached the atmosphere. Most of the ejecta that did escape the debris-filled vents was rapidly recycled as vents broadened via lateral quarrying of country rock and bedded pyroclastic vent-rim deposits, which collapsed along the margins into individual vents. The unstratified, poorly sorted deposits comprising most of the complex are capped by tuff, lapilli tuff and tuff breccia beds inferred to have been deposited on the floor of the vent complex by pyroclastic density currents. Development of the extensive Coombs Hills vent-complex involved interaction of large volumes of magma and water. We infer that recycling of water, as well

  3. An ancient recipe for flood-basalt genesis.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Matthew G; Carlson, Richard W

    2011-07-27

    Large outpourings of basaltic lava have punctuated geological time, but the mechanisms responsible for the generation of such extraordinary volumes of melt are not well known. Recent geochemical evidence suggests that an early-formed reservoir may have survived in the Earth's mantle for about 4.5 billion years (ref. 2), and melts of this reservoir contributed to the flood basalt emplaced on Baffin Island about 60 million years ago. However, the volume of this ancient mantle domain and whether it has contributed to other flood basalts is not known. Here we show that basalts from the largest volcanic event in geologic history--the Ontong Java plateau--also exhibit the isotopic and trace element signatures proposed for the early-Earth reservoir. Together with the Ontong Java plateau, we suggest that six of the largest volcanic events that erupted in the past 250 million years derive from the oldest terrestrial mantle reservoir. The association of these large volcanic events with an ancient primitive mantle source suggests that its unique geochemical characteristics--it is both hotter (it has greater abundances of the radioactive heat-producing elements) and more fertile than depleted mantle reservoirs-may strongly affect the generation of flood basalts.

  4. 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Siberian Traps, USSR: Evaluation of the ages of the two major extinction events relative to episodes of flood-basalt volcanism in the USSR and the Deccan Traps, India

    SciTech Connect

    Baksi, A.K. ); Farrar, E. )

    1991-05-01

    {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar incremental-heating studies have been carried out on three whole-rock specimens from the Siberian Traps. A basalt lava flow from the lowermost horizon yields and age of 238.4 {plus minus} 1.4 Ma (1{sigma} error). A second basalt lava flow from the top of the section, {approximately}800 m above the first specimen, yields an age of 229.9 {plus minus} 2.3 Ma, indicating that the duration of volcanism was {approximately}5{minus}10 m.y. A doleritic dike intrusive into the lower parts of the Siberian Traps contains excess argon and yields an isochron age of 234 {plus minus} 7 Ma. Critical reexamination of relevant radiometric data relating two separate episodes of flood-basalt volcanism to global faunal extinctions suggests the volcanic event forming the most voluminous sections of the Deccan Traps, India, was coincident to within {plus minus}1 m.y. with the time of the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. However, the onset of volcanism in the Siberian Traps apparently occurred at a time postdating that of the Permian/Triassic boundary.

  5. Unravelling the Volcanological Complexities of a Flood Basalt Province: Volcanology, Paleomagnetism and Geochemistry, From the Deccan Volcanic Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jay, A. E.; Widdowson, M.; Self, S.; Mac Niocaill, C.

    2006-12-01

    The lavas of the Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP), India, were erupted across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (KTB) and, as such, have been suggested as a candidate for causing the KTB mass extinction event. Understanding the development of such large outpourings of lava is essential to deducing their environmental impact. Detailed flow-by-flow logging was undertaken along four roads up the Mahabaleshwar Plateau, and a further three road sections to the north and south were investigated in order to study the volcanological style of this area of the DVP. Logging along the four roads which ascend the Mahabaleshwar Plateau was combined with detailed geochemical and paleomagnetic sampling and provides the first integrated study of its kind in the DVP. The logging demonstrated that almost all the lavas encountered were inflated pahoehoe sheet lobes. No `a'a flows were encountered and one rubbly pahoehoe flow may have been observed. Statistical analyses of XRF trace element data, and the occurrence of differing thicknesses and numbers of lava units between the paleomagnetic reversal horizon (Chron 29r/29n) and the top of the Ambenali Formation, suggest that individual sheet lobes are not greater than the width of the Plateau c. 20 km. This provides an explanation for the topography, up to 95 m in our study area, on the surface of the DVP at the time when the lavas were being erupted. As the sheet lobes were emplaced and inflated they left areas uncovered by lava, the topographic difference between these two areas could be many 10s of metres, and as this process occurred over the whole DVP the topographic differences could increase. As well as topography, this leads to other complexities. When later lavas in-fill these depressions it causes them to occur physically lower in the sequence than older lavas. This demonstrates that the previously held concept of large, flat-lying sheets lobes covering vast tracts of the province is not probable, as on the local scale tracing

  6. Carbonate Mineralization of Volcanic Province Basalts

    SciTech Connect

    Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter; Owen, Antionette T.

    2010-03-31

    Flood basalts are receiving increasing attention as possible host formations for geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2, with studies underway in the United States, India, Iceland, and Canada. As an extension of our previous experiments with Columbia River basalt, basalts from the eastern United States, India, and South Africa were reacted with aqueous dissolved CO2 and aqueous dissolved CO2-H2S mixtures under supercritical CO2 (scCO2) conditions to study the geochemical reactions resulting from injection of CO2 in such formations. The results of these studies are consistent with cation release behavior measured in our previous experiments (in press) for basalt samples tested in single pass flow through dissolution experiments under dilute solution and mildly acidic conditions. Despite the basalt samples having similar bulk chemistry, mineralogy and apparent dissolution kinetics, long-term static experiments show significant differences in rates of mineralization as well as compositions and morphologies of precipitates that form when the basalts are reacted with CO2-saturated water. For example, basalt from the Newark Basin in the United States was by far the most reactive of any basalt tested to date. Carbonate reaction products for the Newark Basin basalt were globular in form and contained significantly more Fe than the secondary carbonates that precipitated on the other basalt samples. In comparison, the post-reacted samples associated with the Columbia River basalts from the United States contained calcite grains with classic dogtooth spar morphology and trace cation substitution (Mg and Mn). Carbonation of the other basalts produced precipitates with compositions that varied chemically throughout the entire testing period. Examination of polished cross sections of the reacted grains by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy show precipitate overgrowths with varying chemical compositions. Compositional differences in the

  7. An Intense 16.5-16.0 MA Episode of Rhyolitic Volcanism Associated with Flood Basalt Dike Emplacement at Mcdermitt Caldera Field and High Rock Caldera Complex, Nevada and Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, T. R.; Mahood, G. A.; Coble, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Voluminous rhyolites erupted from three major caldera fields and multiple smaller centers contemporaneous with Steens and Columbia River flood basalts at 16.5 to 15.0 Ma (Coble and Mahood, 2012). It has long been known that ignimbrites from McDermitt Caldera Field (MCF) and High Rock Caldera Complex (HRCC) erupted at nearly the same time (e.g., Rytuba and McKee, 1984), but their relative stratigraphic relations have not been previously determined. A west-dipping section on the west flank of the Pueblo Mountains contains four ignimbrites stratigraphically above Steens basalt. A nonwelded metaluminous rhyolitic ignimbrite at the base of the section is chemically distinct from the weakly alkalic to moderately peralkaline rhyolites from MCF and HRCC. This ignimbrite is similar in composition and mineralogy to lavas from the Hawks Valley/Lone Mountain center (HV/LM), north of HRCC, for which Wypych et al. (2011) obtained 40Ar/39Ar ages between ~16.5 and 16.3 Ma. The second ignimbrite in the Pueblo Mountains section is a densely welded, moderately peralkaline, alkali rhyolite that we correlate with the Oregon Canyon Tuff from the MCF based on similar phenocryst abundance and assemblage, whole-rock composition, and an age of 16.51 Ma (FCT=28.02 Ma) from this locality, which is analytically indistinguishable from an age Jarboe et al. (2010) obtained on the tuff in the Trout Creek Mountains. Based on field appearance, mineralogy, and whole-rock composition we correlate the third ignimbrite, a crystal-rich, densely welded, alkali rhyolite, with the Tuff of Trout Creek Mountains, also from MCF. The fourth ignimbrite we identify as the crystal-rich, late-erupted part of the 16.37 Ma Idaho Canyon Tuff. It is the first major ignimbrite known to erupt from HRRC, and in its northernmost outcrops banks in against lavas of HV/LM. At both MCF and HRCC, the interval 16.5-16.0 Ma was a time of intense silicic volcanism, punctuated by the formation of the McDermitt Caldera proper at ~16

  8. Constraining the onset of flood volcanism in Isle of Skye Lava Field, British Paleogene Volcanic Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angkasa, Syahreza; Jerram, Dougal. A.; Svensen, Henrik; Millet, John M.; Taylor, Ross; Planke, Sverre

    2016-04-01

    In order to constrain eruption styles at the onset of flood volcanism, field observations were undertaken on basal sections of the Isle of Skye Lava Field, British Paleogene Volcanic Province. This study investigates three specific sections; Camus Ban, Neist Point and Soay Sound which sample a large area about 1500 km2 and can be used to help explain the variability in palaeo-environments at the onset of flood volcanism. Petrological analysis is coupled with petrophysical lab data and photogrammetry data to create detailed facies models for the different styles of initiating flood basalt volcanism. Photogrammetry is used to create Ortho-rectified 3D models which, along with photomontage images, allow detailed geological observations to be mapped spatially. Petrographic analyses are combined with petrophysical lab data to identify key textural variation, mineral compositions and physical properties of the volcanic rocks emplaced during the initial eruptions. Volcanism initiated with effusive eruptions in either subaerial or subaqueous environments resulting in tuff/hyaloclastite materials or lava flow facies lying directly on the older Mesozoic strata. Volcanic facies indicative of lava-water interactions vary significantly in thickness between different sections suggesting a strong accommodation space control on the style of volcanism. Camus Ban shows hyaloclastite deposits with a thickness of 25m, whereas the Soay Sound area has tuffaceous sediments of under 0.1m in thickness. Subaerial lavas overly these variable deposits in all studied areas. The flood basalt eruptions took place in mixed wet and dry environments with some significant locally developed water bodies (e.g. Camus Ban). More explosive eruptions were promoted in some cases by interaction of lavas with these water bodies and possibly by local interaction with water - saturated sediments. We record key examples of how palaeotopography imparts a primary control on the style of volcanism during the

  9. The deep water cycle and origin of cratonic flood basalts: two examples from the Siberian craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. V.

    2014-12-01

    Cratonic flood basalt volcanism is the most puzzling phenomenon compared to all other types of intraplate volcanism. Cratons are thick and cold; the two parameters which suppress melting of either sublithospheric or lithospheric mantle in dry conditions. Fusible eclogites at hot plume geotherm start to melt in sublithospheric depth (~ 230 km), but geochemical arguments require that, in addition to eclogitic component, significant volume of flood basalts are from peridotitic mantle. Dry peridotitic mantle cannot be melted unless the lithospheric thickness reduced to about 60 km. That is why modern plume models incorporate lithospheric delamination and/or initially thinned lithosphere to explain cratonic flood basalts. However, if lithosphere remained thick, which was the case for the Siberian craton by the time of formation of its Devonian (Vilyui) and Permo-Triassic (Siberian) flood basalt provinces, then plume model is unable to explain the flood basalt volcanism. If mantle is wet, the peridotitic solidus lowered such as it can start to melt at sublithospheric depth (for example, 2 wt. % H2O-bearing peridotite starts to melt at ~320 km depth even at a normal mantle geotherm). In this presentation I will show that fluxing of mantle via the deep water cycle process may explain the Siberian craton flood basalts and many other continental flood basalts. According to the deep water cycle model, water is carried to the mantle transition zone by fast subducting slabs (may be in form of solid ice VII), then water is released from the slabs due to warming to the ambient mantle temperature, then localized hydration creates buoyant wet diapirs (or melt-bearing diapirs), the diapirs raise up to the sublithosheric depth were melt accumulates for the following tectonically triggered flood basalt eruptions.

  10. Cambrian intermediate-mafic magmatism along the Laurentian margin: Evidence for flood basalt volcanism from well cuttings in the Southern Oklahoma Aulacogen (U.S.A.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brueseke, Matthew E.; Hobbs, Jasper M.; Bulen, Casey L.; Mertzman, Stanley A.; Puckett, Robert E.; Walker, J. Douglas; Feldman, Josh

    2016-09-01

    The Southern Oklahoma Aulocogen (SOA) stretches from southern Oklahoma through the Texas panhandle and into Colorado and New Mexico, and contains mafic through silicic magmatism related to the opening of the Iapetus Ocean during the early Cambrian. Cambrian magmatic products are best exposed in the Wichita Mountains (Oklahoma), where they have been extensively studied. However, their ultimate derivation is still somewhat contentious and centers on two very different models: SOA magmatism has been suggested to occur via [1] continental rifting (with or without mantle plume emplacement) or [2] transform-fault related magmatism (e.g., leaky strike-slip faults). Within the SOA, the subsurface in and adjacent to the Arbuckle Mountains in southern Oklahoma contains thick sequences of mafic to intermediate lavas, intrusive bodies, and phreatomagmatic deposits interlayered with thick, extensive rhyolite lavas, thin localized tuffs, and lesser silicic intrusive bodies. These materials were first described in the Arbuckle Mountains region by a 1982 drill test (Hamilton Brothers Turner Falls well) and the best available age constraints from SOA Arbuckle Mountains eruptive products are ~ 535 to 540 Ma. Well cuttings of the mafic through intermediate units were collected from that well and six others and samples from all but the Turner Falls and Morton wells are the focus of this study. Samples analyzed from the wells are dominantly subalkaline, tholeiitic, and range from basalt to andesite. Their overall bulk major and trace element chemistry, normative mineralogy, and Srsbnd Nd isotope ratios are similar to magmas erupted/emplaced in flood basalt provinces. When compared with intrusive mafic rocks that crop out in the Wichita Mountains, the SOA well cuttings are geochemically most similar to the Roosevelt Gabbros. New geochemical and isotope data presented in this study, when coupled with recent geophysical work in the SOA and the coeval relationship with rhyolites, indicates

  11. Basaltic volcanic episodes of the Yucca Mountain region

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, B.M.

    1990-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize briefly the distribution and geologic characteristics of basaltic volcanism in the Yucca Mountain region during the last 10--12 Ma. This interval largely postdates the major period of silicic volcanism and coincides with and postdates the timing of major extensional faulting in the region. Field and geochronologic data for the basaltic rocks define two distinct episodes. The patterns in the volume and spatial distribution of these basaltic volcanic episodes in the central and southern part of the SNVF are used as a basis for forecasting potential future volcanic activity in vicinity of Yucca Mountain. 33 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Extrinsic controls on inter-basaltic plant ecosystems in the Columbia River Flood Basalt Province, Washington State, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebinghaus, Alena; Jolley, David W.; Hartley, Adrian J.

    2015-04-01

    The impact Large Igneous Province (LIP) volcanism may have had on paleoclimate, fauna and flora is still controversy. Inter-lava field plant ecosystems have the potential to record in detail the effects LIPs had on the environment in the immediate vicinity of volcanic activity. The Miocene Columbia River Flood Basalt Province (CRBP), Washington State, USA, provides excellent exposure of an entire LIP stratigraphy and offers a detailed record of inter-basaltic plant ecosystems throughout LIP evolution. The CRBP lava field comprise numerous basaltic lava flows that are intercalated with fluvial and lacustrine sediments which formed during phases of volcanic quiescence. The LIP volcanic evolution is characterised by an initial phase of high eruption volumes and eruptions rates, which is followed by waning volcanism associated with longer interbed intervals. Inter-lava field plant ecosystems are expected to correlate with phases of volcanic evolution: short interbed intervals should be dominated by early seral succession, while longer intervals should record more mature seral successions. The palynological record of the sedimentary interbeds however indicates a decline in successional status within the long interbed intervals of CRBP stratigraphy. An integrated analysis of sedimentary facies and geochemistry suggests intense volcanic ash fall derived from the adjacent Yellowstone hot spot as a major trigger for repetitive successional re-setting. This implies that inter-lava field ecosystem maturity was controlled by extrinsic forcing, and argues against environmental changes solely driven by LIPs of similar scale and magnitude to that of the CRBP.

  13. Products of a Subglacial Flood Basalt Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorny, C. F.; White, J. D. L.; Gudmundsson, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    The Snæbýlisheiði unit, SE Iceland, is a ca. 26 km³ elongate, flat-topped ridge of volcaniclastic debris coupled with and intruded by coherent basalt stretching over 34 km from the eruption site perpendicular to the rift fissure source. It formed from a single subglacial flood basalt eruption during a recent glaciation, and its elongation reflects glacial control on dispersal via the hydraulic potential gradient at the glacier's base, which drove towards the glacier terminus the meltwater+debris formed during the eruption by quenching and fragmentation. High magma discharge and outgassing drove segregation of magma into down-flow propagating intrusions. Edifice growth was mediated by the extent of ice melting, extent and efficiency of meltwater+debris drainage, and hydraulic gradients locally favoring meltwater accumulation. Eruption style reflected magma flux, edifice stability, and accessibility of water to the vent area via flooding or infiltration. Deposits reflect these competing factors in their chaotic internal organization and stratigraphy, limited lithofacies continuity, and diverse particle populations from multiple source vents. Linear growth of the ridge down-gradient from the eruption site was driven primarily by propagation and continuous fragmentation of shoaling intrusions that formed an interconnected intrusive complex with extensive peperites. Advance was along gently meandering and locally bifurcating sub-ice conduits within hyaloclastite with sheet-lobe levees and lobate fingered intrusions. Irregular dikes, apophyses, horns, and tendrils extended from the main body and generated voluminous lapilli tuff and contorticlasts while providing additional heat to the system. Prolonged transport and deposition of debris produced complexly bedded volcaniclastic deposits derived from and intruded by the basalt sheet. The bedding and depositional features of volcaniclastic debris and relationship to their adjacent intrusions suggest transport and

  14. Giant Plagioclase "Mosaicrysts" and Other Textures in the Steens Basalt, Columbia River Flood Basalt Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunder, A.; Moore, N. E.; Bohrson, W. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Steens Basalts (~16.7 Ma), the oldest and most mafic stage of Columbia River flood basalt volcanism, are known for lavas with conspicuous giant plagioclase laths (2 - 5 cm in diameter). Such flows are intercalated with ones that are nearly aphyric or that bear plagioclase (plag) phenocrysts of 0.5-2 cm. Addition textures are distinctive radial, snowflake plag clusters and sandwich glomerocrysts of plag, with olivine trapped between laths. These clusters and glomerocrysts are typically 1, but as large as 3 cm in diameter. Plag composition of all textural types is limited (An76-60). Plag dominates the phenocryst mode; rare flows, mainly low in the section, have olivine > plag and phenocrystic clinopyroxene occurs rarely, and mainly high in the section. Unlike the flows, dikes have few phenocrysts; giant laths are rare and the snowflake texture has not been observed. Giant plag laths are euhedral and make up a few percent to more than 50% of the rock. Many plag megacrysts are made of several plag crystals that form a mosaic, where the constituent crystals are crystallographically distinct and are overgrown with feldspar to make the crystal euhedral. We describe these composite megacrysts as "mosaicrysts". We are exploring magmatic conditions that would trigger oversaturation to spawn rapid growth yielding clusters and overgrowths that form mosaicrysts. Giant plagioclase basalts (so-called GPB) are also described for the Deccan and Emeishan flood basalt provinces attesting to similar magmatic processes. Plag laths typically define strong flow foliation at the flow base, have a swirled distribution in the flow core, and are sparse in the top. Some particularly crystal-rich flows (or sills) have an abrupt transition to a crystal-poor upper few decimeters of the several-m- thick flow. We interpret the crystal-poor top to be the expelled melt from crystal accumulation in the flow, which locally reinjects and is entrained in lower crystal mush.

  15. Iron-induced hydroxyl radical generation from basaltic volcanic ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwell, C. J.; Fenoglio, I.; Fubini, B.

    2007-09-01

    Iron-induced hydroxyl radical generation from the surface of volcanic ash particles is a possible mechanism of respiratory toxicity in addition to crystalline silica induced pathogenicity. Here we show that volcanic ash generates hydroxyl radicals, with greater reactivity in iron-rich, silica-poor samples, such as basaltic ash. Basaltic particles expose at the surface high levels of poorly-coordinated iron ions in both Fe(II) and Fe(III) oxidation states which are likely to be the cause of such reactivity. Hitherto, basaltic ash has been disregarded as a hazard due to the lack of crystalline silica particulate but future hazard assessment should consider its toxic potential.

  16. Major felsic volcanism during the interbasaltic "quiet period" of the Antrim plateau basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganerød, Morgan; Meade, Fiona; Troll, Valentin; Emeleus, Henry; Chew, David

    2013-04-01

    Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) are among the most spectacular acts on the geological stage and are associated with large volumes of magma over short time periods. The surface expression of such activity, in turn, is controlled by the length, duration and activity of lava effusion vs. volcanic quiet periods in flood basalt fields. However, the general tendency in LIP research has been to quantify the rates and volumes of production of the short-lived flood basalt eruptions, leaving a paucity of information on how evolved magmas are related to the trap forming volcanism. We therefore focus on the felsic/evolved rocks in NE Ireland to unravel the relationship of felsic to basaltic volcanism in this part of the North Atlantic Igneous Province. The volcanic centres of NW-Ireland; Slieve Gullion, Carlingford, Tardree and the Mournes, have been systematically dated by 40Ar/39Ar. We found that they are of overlapping age within the uncertainties of the method, apart from the Mournes Centre, which is considerably younger. The former group can be chrono-stratigraphically linked to the Interbasaltic Formation (62.6 - 59.6 Ma), a pause in the stratigraphy of the Antrim plateau basalts (Northern Ireland), part of the North Atlantic Igneous Province. The new data contradict the widely held belief that the Slieve Gullion and Carlingford centres formed during and after the final stages of plateau basalt activity. Our new data not only put Slieve Gullion and Carlingford firmly into the interbasaltic period, this new 'stratigraphic correlation' puts most felsic volcanic and subvolcanic activity in NE Ireland into this time interval, with the Mournes being the only exception. Localized central-volcano-type felsic magmatism thus prevailed during this interbasaltic 'period of quiescence', extending well beyond the preserved basaltic lava fields.

  17. Pliocene Basaltic Volcanism in The East Anatolia Region (EAR), Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyan, Vural; Özdemir, Yavuz; Keskin, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    East Anatolia Region (EAR) is one of the high Plateau which is occurred with north-south compressional regime formed depending on continent-continent collision between Eurasia and Arabia plates (Şengör and Kidd, 1979). Recent studies have revealed that last oceanic lithosphere in the EAR have completely depleted to 20 million years ago based on fission track ages (Okay et al. 2010). Our initial studies suggest that extensively volcanic activity in the EAR peaked in the Pliocene and continued in the same productivity throughout Quaternary. Voluminous basaltic lava plateaus and basaltic lavas from local eruption centers occurred as a result of high production level of volcanism during the Pliocene time interval. In order to better understand the spatial and temporal variations in Pliocene basaltic volcanism and to reveal isotopic composition, age and petrologic evolution of the basaltic volcanism, we have started to study basaltic volcanism in the East Anatolia within the framework of a TUBITAK project (project number:113Y406). Petrologic and geochemical studies carried out on the Pliocene basaltic lavas indicate the presence of subduction component in the mantle source, changing the character of basaltic volcanism from alkaline to subalkaline and increasing the amount of spinel peridotitic melts (contributions of lithospheric mantle?) in the mantle source between 5.5-3.5 Ma. FC, AFC and EC-AFC modelings reveal that the while basaltic lavas were no or slightly influenced by crustal contamination and fractional crystallization, to more evolved lavas such as bazaltictrachyandesite, basalticandesite, trachybasalt might have been important processes. Results of our melting models and isotopic analysis data (Sr, Nd, Pb, Hf, 18O) indicate that the Pliocene basaltic rocks were derived from both shallow and deep mantle sources with different melting degrees ranging between 0.1 - 4 %. The percentage of spinel seems to have increased in the mantle source of the basaltic

  18. Recurrence rates of volcanism in basaltic volcanic fields: An example from the Springerville volcanic field, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Condit, C.D.; Connor, C.B.

    1996-10-01

    A spatio-temporal near-neighbor model is used to identify and map variations in the recurrence rate of volcanism in the Springerville volcanic field, Arizona, a large field on the Colorado Plateau boundary. Detailed mapping of individual lava flows and their associated vents, together with radiometric and paleomagnetic dating, demonstrates that 366 volcanic events have formed the Springerville volcanic field. A near-neighbor spatio-temporal recurrence-rate model using seven near-neighbor volcanoes and a 0.5 m.y. time window reveals that (1) areas of waxing and waning magmatism in the Springerville volcanic field are much more localized and (2) volcanic activity within these areas is much more intense than implied by field-wide temporal trends. Because volcanic activity is spatially and temporally clustered, forecasting subsequent activity is more successful if the spatio-temporal recurrence-rate model is used, rather than the average recurrence rates. This success indicates that spatio-temporal recurrence-rate models are useful tools for the quantification of long-term volcanic hazards in basaltic volcanic fields. 61 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Emplacement of Columbia River flood basalt

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Stephen P. )

    1997-11-01

    Evidence is examined for the emplacement of the Umatilla, Wilbur Creek, and the Asotin Members of Columbia River Basalt Group. These flows erupted in the eastern part of the Columbia Plateau during the waning phases of volcanism. The Umatilla Member consists of two flows in the Lewiston basin area and southwestern Columbia Plateau. These flows mixed to form one flow in the central Columbia Plateau. The composition of the younger flow is preserved in the center and the composition of the older flow is at the top and bottom. There is a complete gradation between the two. Flows of the Wilbur Creek and Asotin Members erupted individually in the eastern Columbia Plateau and also mixed together in the central Columbia Plateau. Comparison of the emplacement patterns to intraflow structures and textures of the flows suggests that very little time elapsed between eruptions. In addition, the amount of crust that formed on the earlier flows prior to mixing also suggests rapid emplacement. Calculations of volumetric flow rates through constrictions in channels suggest emplacement times of weeks to months under fast laminar flow for all three members. A new model for the emplacement of Columbia River Basalt Group flows is proposed that suggests rapid eruption and emplacement for the main part of the flow and slower emplacement along the margins as the of the flow margin expands.

  20. Nd-Sr isotopes, petrochemistry, and origin of the Siberian flood basalts, USSR

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, M.; Basu, A.R. ); Nesterenko, G.V. )

    1991-04-01

    The Siberian Flood Basalt Province (SFBP) of Permo-Triassic age is one of the largest flood basalt provinces with an estimated area of exposure of 337 000 km{sup 2}, average thickness of 1 km, and a magma volume of 337 000 km{sup 3}. Forty-seven basaltic rocks from two main subprovinces, Norilsk (5-10{percent} of area, thickness up to 3 km) and Putorana (90-95{percent} of area, thickness of more than 2 km), were selected, on the basis of petrography and volcano-stratigraphic relation, for major-element analysis. Twenty-six of these basalts, twelve from Norilsk and fourteen from Putorana, were analyzed for Nd- and Sr-isotopic compositions. The Norilsk and Putorana basalts show some contrasting behavior in terms of the ratios of the highly incompatible elements of Ti, P, and K as a function of their Mg. The Norilsk basalts are more variable, suggesting the role of fractional crystallization-assimilation in their evolution. In contrast, the Putorana basalts show remarkable uniformity in their bulk chemical compositions. In Nd- and Sr-isotopic space, most of the Siberian basalts also fall within the field defined by the ocean island basalts data, implying common mantle sources. It is concluded that the SFBP originated by hotspot volcanism due to the rise of a large and relatively primitive lower mantle-derived plume beneath the Siberian continent.

  1. Selective environmental stress from sulphur emitted by continental flood basalt eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Anja; Skeffington, Richard A.; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Self, Stephen; Forster, Piers M.; Rap, Alexandru; Ridgwell, Andy; Fowler, David; Wilson, Marjorie; Mann, Graham W.; Wignall, Paul B.; Carslaw, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    Several biotic crises during the past 300 million years have been linked to episodes of continental flood basalt volcanism, and in particular to the release of massive quantities of magmatic sulphur gas species. Flood basalt provinces were typically formed by numerous individual eruptions, each lasting years to decades. However, the environmental impact of these eruptions may have been limited by the occurrence of quiescent periods that lasted hundreds to thousands of years. Here we use a global aerosol model to quantify the sulphur-induced environmental effects of individual, decade-long flood basalt eruptions representative of the Columbia River Basalt Group, 16.5-14.5 million years ago, and the Deccan Traps, 65 million years ago. For a decade-long eruption of Deccan scale, we calculate a decadal-mean reduction in global surface temperature of 4.5 K, which would recover within 50 years after an eruption ceased unless climate feedbacks were very different in deep-time climates. Acid mists and fogs could have caused immediate damage to vegetation in some regions, but acid-sensitive land and marine ecosystems were well-buffered against volcanic sulphur deposition effects even during century-long eruptions. We conclude that magmatic sulphur from flood basalt eruptions would have caused a biotic crisis only if eruption frequencies and lava discharge rates had been high and sustained for several centuries at a time.

  2. Selective environmental stress from sulphur emitted by continental flood basalt eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Anja; Skeffington, Richard; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Self, Stephen; Forster, Piers; Rap, Alexandru; Ridgwell, Andy; Fowler, David; Wilson, Marjorie; Mann, Graham; Wignall, Paul; Carslaw, Ken

    2016-04-01

    Several biotic crises during the past 300 million years have been linked to episodes of continental flood basalt volcanism, and in particular to the release of massive quantities of magmatic sulphur gas species. Flood basalt provinces were typically formed by numerous individual eruptions, each lasting years to decades. However, the environmental impact of these eruptions may have been limited by the occurrence of quiescent periods that lasted hundreds to thousands of years. Here we use a global aerosol model to quantify the sulphur-induced environmental effects of individual, decade-long flood basalt eruptions representative of the Columbia River Basalt Group, 16.5-14.5 million years ago, and the Deccan Traps, 65 million years ago. For a decade-long eruption of Deccan scale, we calculate a decadal-mean reduction in global surface temperature of 4.5 K, which would recover within 50 years after an eruption ceased unless climate feedbacks were very different in deep-time climates. Acid mists and fogs could have caused immediate damage to vegetation in some regions, but acid-sensitive land and marine ecosystems were well-buffered against volcanic sulphur deposition effects even during century-long eruptions. We conclude that magmatic sulphur from flood basalt eruptions would have caused a biotic crisis only if eruption frequencies and lava discharge rates had been high and sustained for several centuries at a time.

  3. A mantle plume initiation model for the wrangellia flood basalt and other oceanic plateaus.

    PubMed

    Richards, M A; Jones, D L; Duncan, R A; Depaolo, D J

    1991-10-11

    The vast Wrangellia terrane of Alaska and British Columbia is an accreted oceanic plateau with Triassic strata that contain a 3- to 6-kilometers thick flood basalt, bounded above and below by marine sedimentary rocks. This enormous outpouring of basalt was preceded by rapid uplift and was followed by gradual subsidence of the plateau. The uplift and basalt eruptions occurred in less than approximately 5 million years, and were not accompanied by significant extension or rifting of the lithosphere. This sequence of events is predicted by a mantle plume initiation, or plume head, model that has recently been developed to explain continental flood volcanism. Evidence suggests that other large oceanic basalt plateaus, such as the Ontong-Java, Kerguelen, and Caribbean, were formed as the initial outbursts of the Louisville Ridge, Kerguelen, and Galapagos hot spots, respectively. Such events may play an important role in the creation and development of both oceanic and continental crust.

  4. Supertoxic Flood Basalts: The CAMP - Siberian Trap Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puffer, J. H.

    2007-12-01

    Several diverse magma types are represented throughout the CAMP and Siberian Trap LIPs, however, the main extrusive phase of each province is highly unusual among continental flood basalts. The most widespread extrusions were intermediate titanium (ITi-type) CAMP basalt and the lower portion of the Upper Sequence of Siberian Trap. New and recently published data indicate that the geochemistry and petrology of these basalt suites closely resemble each other and infer similar origins. The basalts are characterized by strong negative Nb- Ta anomalies and unusual island arc-like depletion in high field strength elements, particularly Ti, plotted on spider diagrams. The geochemical data is consistent with significant contributions from subducted slabs into the magma source regions. If contaminated, volatile enriched mantle wedges were trapped beneath thick continental plates during the assembly of Pangea, fertile magma sources would have remained dormant until decompression melting was triggered during failed rift, then early rift stages of continental plate disassembly. The combination of volatile enriched sources and highly extensional tectonism would create rare perfect storms of toxicity. Calculated low viscosities assuming negligible carbon dioxide are consistent with rapid crustal penetration. Resulting aphyric melts extruded at enormous effusive rates as thick sub-parallel flows across wide subareal terrains through fissures extending several hundred km in length. High fountain heights would afford ample opportunity for efficient degassing, perhaps into the stratosphere. When the supply of volatile flux was exhausted magmatism ceased. The mass extinctions that coincide with CAMP and Siberian volcanism contrast with some large plume and superplume events that correlate with expansions of biodiversity. This may be due in part to contrasting magma access to sources of toxic volatiles, particularly sulfur concentrations in anoxic subducted sediments.

  5. Deep degassing and the eruptibility of flood basalt magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, B. A.; Manga, M.

    2015-12-01

    Individual flood basalt lavas often exceed 103 km3 in volume, and many such lavas erupt during emplacement of flood basalt provinces. The large volume of individual flood basalt lavas demands correspondingly large magma reservoirs within or at the base of the crust. To erupt, some fraction of this magma must become buoyant and overpressure must be sufficient to encourage failure and dike propagation. Because the overpressure associated with a new injection of magma is inversely proportional to the total reservoir volume, buoyancy overpressure has been proposed as a trigger for flood basalt eruptions. To test this hypothesis, we develop a new one-dimensional model for buoyancy overpressure-driven eruptions that combines volatile exsolution, bubble growth and rise, assimilation, and permeable fluid escape through the surrounding country rocks. Degassing during emplacement of flood basalt provinces may have major environmental repercussions. We investigate the temporal evolution of permeable degassing through the crust and degassing during eruptive episodes. We find that assimilation of volatile-rich country rocks strongly enhances flood basalt eruptibility, implying that the eruptive dynamics of flood basalts may be intertwined with their climatic consequences.

  6. Growing magma chambers control the distribution of small-scale flood basalts.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xun; Chen, Li-Hui; Zeng, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Small-scale continental flood basalts are a global phenomenon characterized by regular spatio-temporal distributions. However, no genetic mechanism has been proposed to explain the visible but overlooked distribution patterns of these continental basaltic volcanism. Here we present a case study from eastern China, combining major and trace element analyses with Ar-Ar and K-Ar dating to show that the spatio-temporal distribution of small-scale flood basalts is controlled by the growth of long-lived magma chambers. Evolved basalts (SiO2 > 47.5 wt.%) from Xinchang-Shengzhou, a small-scale Cenozoic flood basalt field in Zhejiang province, eastern China, show a northward younging trend over the period 9.4-3.0 Ma. With northward migration, the magmas evolved only slightly ((Na2O + K2O)/MgO = 0.40-0.66; TiO2/MgO = 0.23-0.35) during about 6 Myr (9.4-3.3 Ma). When the flood basalts reached the northern end of the province, the magmas evolved rapidly (3.3-3.0 Ma) through a broad range of compositions ((Na2O + K2O)/MgO = 0.60-1.28; TiO2/MgO = 0.30-0.57). The distribution and two-stage compositional evolution of the migrating flood basalts record continuous magma replenishment that buffered against magmatic evolution and induced magma chamber growth. Our results demonstrate that the magma replenishment-magma chamber growth model explains the spatio-temporal distribution of small-scale flood basalts. PMID:26581905

  7. Growing magma chambers control the distribution of small-scale flood basalts

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xun; Chen, Li-Hui; Zeng, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Small-scale continental flood basalts are a global phenomenon characterized by regular spatio-temporal distributions. However, no genetic mechanism has been proposed to explain the visible but overlooked distribution patterns of these continental basaltic volcanism. Here we present a case study from eastern China, combining major and trace element analyses with Ar–Ar and K–Ar dating to show that the spatio-temporal distribution of small-scale flood basalts is controlled by the growth of long-lived magma chambers. Evolved basalts (SiO2 > 47.5 wt.%) from Xinchang–Shengzhou, a small-scale Cenozoic flood basalt field in Zhejiang province, eastern China, show a northward younging trend over the period 9.4–3.0 Ma. With northward migration, the magmas evolved only slightly ((Na2O + K2O)/MgO = 0.40–0.66; TiO2/MgO = 0.23–0.35) during about 6 Myr (9.4–3.3 Ma). When the flood basalts reached the northern end of the province, the magmas evolved rapidly (3.3–3.0 Ma) through a broad range of compositions ((Na2O + K2O)/MgO = 0.60–1.28; TiO2/MgO = 0.30–0.57). The distribution and two-stage compositional evolution of the migrating flood basalts record continuous magma replenishment that buffered against magmatic evolution and induced magma chamber growth. Our results demonstrate that the magma replenishment–magma chamber growth model explains the spatio-temporal distribution of small-scale flood basalts. PMID:26581905

  8. Some volcanologic aspects of Columbia River basalt volcanism relevant to the extinction controversy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Donald A.

    1988-01-01

    The Columbia River Basalt Group is the youngest and most thoroughly studied flood-basalt province known; information about it should be relevant to questions about the possible relation of flood-basalt volcanism to mass extinctions. The group has a total volume of about 174,000 cu km and covers an area of about 164,000 sq km. It was erupted between 17.5 and 6 Ma, as measured by K-Ar and Ar-40/Ar-39 dates. Early eruptions formed the Imnaha Basalt. More than 85 percent of the group was produced during a 1.5 my period between 17 and 15.5 Ma, forming the Grande Ronde and greatly subordinate Picture Gorge Basalts. Later flows formed the Wanapum Basalt, which includes the well-known Roza Member, and the Saddle Mountains Basalt. Linear vent systems for many of the flows are known and are located only in the eastern third of the Columbia Plateau. No systematic migration of vents occurred throughout the 11.5 my period of activity; this and other considerations make it unlikely that the province is related to a hot spot. Model calculations based on observations that little cooling occurred during flow of hundreds of kilometers suggest eruption and emplacement durations of a few days. Some voluminous flows occur in all formations, but most such flows apparently were erupted during Grande Ronde time. The eruption and emplacement of more than 1,000 cu km of 1100 C basaltic lava on the surface within several days doubtless had at least local meteorologic effects. Whether the effects were broader can at present only be hypothesized. Grande Ronde Basalt and Picture Gorge Basalts contain moderately common but thin sedimentary interbeds between flows, whereas earlier and later formations contain numerous, locally thick sediment accumulations. Volcaniclastic debris derived from extra-plateau sources commonly occurs in the testbeds.

  9. Tracing volatile loss during the eruption of individual flood basalt flows in the Columbia River Flood Basalt Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, K. W.; Vye, C.; Gannoun, A.; Self, S.

    2010-12-01

    Continental flood basalt (CFB) volcanism is characterised by the repeated eruption of huge batches of magma, producing enormous basalt provinces (105-106 km3) over relatively brief intervals of time, and delivering large masses of volcanic gas to the atmosphere. The release of gases and aerosols during CFB volcanism is thought to have had a significant impact on the atmosphere, ocean chemistry and climate [1-3]. The key factors influencing atmospheric chemistry and the environmental impact of CFB eruptions are the timing, mechanism and duration of volatile release during individual eruptions, but for the most part such information remains poorly known. The 187Re-187Os isotope system offers a highly sensitive tracer of the evolution of melt chemistry, and of the timing and mechanism of volatile release. This is partly because the contrasting behaviour of Re and Os during melting results in the extreme fractionation of parent/daughter (Re/Os) isotope ratios, thus magmatic phases can yield precise chronological information, and crustal rocks develop highly radiogenic isotope compositions that can be readily traced if assimilated [4]. Partly also because Re behaves as a highly volatile element during sub-aerial volcanism [5]. This study presents 187Re-187Os isotope data for rocks and minerals from two flows in the Columbia River Flood Basalt Group, one of the youngest flood basalt provinces that formed over a 2 million year interval in the Mid-Miocene. The 2,660 km3 Sand Hollow flow field displays small major and trace element variations, both laterally and vertically across the flow, indicative of fractional crystallisation, but the elemental data cannot be used to distinguish source variations and/or crustal contamination. However, Os isotopes indicate systematic crustal contamination over the timescale of an individual eruption, where the earliest formed lavas show the greatest degree of contamination. Isotope and elemental data for phenocryst phases from the 40

  10. Deep Crustal Structure beneath Large Igneous Provinces and the Petrologic Evolution of Flood Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, M. A.; Ridley, V. A.

    2010-12-01

    We present a review of seismological constraints on deep crustal structures underlying large igneous provinces (LIPs), largely from wide-angle seismic refraction surveys. The main purpose of this review is to ascertain whether this seismic evidence is consistent with, or contrary to, petrological models for the genesis of flood basalt lavas. Where high-quality data are available beneath continental flood basalt (CFB) provinces (Emeishan, Columbia River, Deccan, Siberia), high-velocity structures (Vp ~6.9-7.5 km/sec) are typically found immediately overlying the Moho in layers of order ~5-15 km thick. Oceanic plateau (OP) LIPs exhibit similar layers, with a conspicuous layer of very high crustal velocity (Vp~7.7 km/sec) beneath the enormous Ontong-Java plateau. These structures are similar to inferred ultramafic underplating structures seen beneath active hotspots such as Hawaii, the Marquesas, and La Reunion. Petrogenetic models for flood basalt volcanism based on hot plume melting beneath mature lithosphere suggest that these deep seismic structures may consist in large part of cumulate bodies of olivine and clinopyroxene which result from ponding and deep-crustal fractionation of ultramafic primary melts. Such fractionation is necessary to produce basalts with typical MgO contents of ~6-8%, as observed for the vast bulk of observed flood basalts, from primary melts with MgO contents of order ~15-18% (or greater) such as result from hot, deep melting beneath the lithosphere. The volumes of cumulate bodies and ultramafic intrusions in the lowermost crust, often described in the literature as “underplating,” are comparable to those of the overlying basaltic formations, also consistent with petrological models. Further definition of the deep seismic structure beneath such prominent LIPs as the Ontong-Java Plateau could place better constraints on flood basalt petrogenesis by determining the relative volumes of ultramafic bodies and basaltic lavas, thereby better

  11. Deep Crustal Structure beneath Large Igneous Provinces and the Petrologic Evolution of Flood Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Mark; Ridley, Victoria

    2010-05-01

    We present a review of seismological constraints on deep crustal structures underlying large igneous provinces (LIPs), largely from wide-angle seismic refraction surveys. The main purpose of this review is to ascertain whether this seismic evidence is consistent with, or contrary to, petrological models for the genesis of flood basalt lavas. Where high-quality data are available beneath continental flood basalt (CFB) provinces (Emeishan, Columbia River, Deccan, Siberia), high-velocity structures (Vp ~6.9-7.5 km/sec) are typically found immediately overlying the Moho in layers of order ~5-15 km thick. Oceanic plateau (OP) LIPs exhibit similar layers, with a conspicuous layer of very high crustal velocity (Vp~7.7 km/sec) beneath the enormous Ontong-Java plateau. These structures are similar to inferred ultramafic underplating structures seen beneath active hotspots such as Hawaii, the Marqueses, and La Reunion. Petrogenetic models for flood basalt volcanism based on hot plume melting beneath mature lithosphere suggest that these deep seismic structures may consist in large part of cumulate bodies of olivine and clinopyroxene which result from ponding and deep-crustal fractionation of ultramafic primary melts. Such fractionation is necessary to produce basalts with typical MgO contents of ~6-8%, as observed for the vast bulk of observed flood basalts, from primary melts with MgO contents of order ~15-18% (or greater) such as result from hot, deep melting beneath the lithosphere. The volumes of cumulate bodies and ultramafic intrusions in the lowermost crust, often described in the literature as "underplating," are comparable to those of the overlying basaltic formations, also consistent with petrological models. Further definition of the deep seismic structure beneath such prominent LIPs as the Ontong-Java Plateau could place better constraints on flood basalt petrogenesis by determining the relative volumes of ultramafic bodies and basaltic lavas, thereby better

  12. Deep crustal structure beneath large igneous provinces and the petrologic evolution of flood basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, Victoria A.; Richards, Mark A.

    2010-09-01

    We present a review of seismological constraints on deep crustal structures underlying large igneous provinces (LIPs), largely from wide-angle seismic refraction surveys. The main purpose of this review is to ascertain whether this seismic evidence is consistent with, or contrary to, petrological models for the genesis of flood basalt lavas. Where high-quality data are available beneath continental flood basalt (CFB) provinces (Emeishan, Columbia River, Deccan, Siberia), high-velocity structures (Vp ˜ 6.9-7.5 km/sec) are typically found immediately overlying the Moho in layers of order ˜5-15 km thick. Oceanic plateau (OP) LIPs exhibit similar layers, with a conspicuous layer of very high crustal velocity (Vp ˜ 7.7 km/sec) beneath the enormous Ontong-Java plateau. These structures are similar to inferred ultramafic underplating structures seen beneath active hot spots such as Hawaii, the Marquesas, and La Reunion. Petrogenetic models for flood basalt volcanism based on hot plume melting beneath mature lithosphere suggest that these deep seismic structures may consist in large part of cumulate bodies of olivine and clinopyroxene which result from ponding and deep-crustal fractionation of ultramafic primary melts. Such fractionation is necessary to produce basalts with typical MgO contents of ˜6-8%, as observed for the vast bulk of observed flood basalts, from primary melts with MgO contents of order ˜15-18% (or greater) such as result from hot, deep melting beneath the lithosphere. The volumes of cumulate bodies and ultramafic intrusions in the lowermost crust, often described in the literature as "underplating," are comparable to those of the overlying basaltic formations, also consistent with petrological models. Further definition of the deep seismic structure beneath such prominent LIPs as the Ontong-Java Plateau could place better constraints on flood basalt petrogenesis by determining the relative volumes of ultramafic bodies and basaltic lavas, thereby

  13. Continental Flood Basalts of Bennett Island, East Siberian Sea: High Arctic Geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegner, Christian; Pease, Victoria

    2014-05-01

    Volcanism provides a means of tracing mantle melting events and crustal evolution. The High Arctic includes a rich portfolio of volcanic rocks outcropping in the Circum-Arctic borderlands and imaged geophysically beneath the Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge that have been lumped together as a High-Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP). However, the ages (c. 440-60 Ma) and compositions (tholeiitic-alkaline-calc-alkaline) reported varies considerably and geological correlations remain elusive. One of the possible correlative events is the formation of continental flood basalts and sills in the Canadian Arctic Islands, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land and Bennett Island. These flood basalts have previously been linked to mantle plume melting and may represent a short-lived LIP event at c. 124-122 Ma. We present new data for a 350 m thick continental flood basalt succession at Bennett Island examined during fieldwork in Septemer 2013 on a joint Russian (VSEGEI) - Swedish (SWEDARCTIC) expedition to the De Long Archipelago. This volcanic succession is composed of 20 near-horisontal, undeformed flow units overlying a thin sedimentary succession of Cretaceous age (?) including coal seams and possibly volcaniclastic material that, in turn, unconformably overlies a more steeply dipping succession of Cambrian and Ordovician sediments. The flows are thinnest (c. 2-10 m) and aphyric to very-sparsely olivine-phyric in the lower portion. In contrast, the flows in the upper portion are thicker (>20 m) and aphyric to sparsely plagioclase-phyric. We will discuss new petrographic and compositional data for the Bennett Island flood basalts, possibly including new U-Pb age data. The aim is to evaluate their petrogenesis, to discuss their possible correlation to the flood basalt and sill successions of the Canadian Arctic Islands, Svalbard and Franz Josef Land and evaluate the geodynamic evolution of the High Arctic.

  14. Basaltic Volcanism and Ancient Planetary Crusts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shervais, John W.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to decipher the origin of rocks which form the ancient lunar crust. Our goal is to better understand how the moon evolved chemically and, more generally, the processes involved in the chemical fractionation of terrestrial planetoids. This research has implications for other planetary bodies besides the Moon, especially smaller planetoids which evolved early in the history of the solar system and are now thermally stable. The three main areas focused on in our work (lunar mare basalts, KREEP basalts, and plutonic rocks of the lunar highlands) provide complementary information on the lunar interior and the processes that formed it.

  15. Pliocene and Pleistocene alkalic flood basalts on the seafloor north of the Hawaiian islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clague, D.A.; Holcomb, R.T.; Sinton, J.M.; Detrick, R. S.; Torresan, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    The North Arch volcanic field is located north of Oahu on the Hawaiian Arch, a 200-m high flexural arch formed by loading of the Hawaiian Islands. These flood basalt flows cover an area of about 25,000 km2; the nearly flat-lying sheet-like flows extend about 100 km both north and south from the axis of the flexural arch. Samples from 26 locations in the volcanic field range in composition from nephelinite to alkalic basalt. Ages estimated from stratigraphy, thickness of sediment on top of the flows, and thickness of palagonite alteration rinds on the recovered lavas, range from about 0.75-0.9 Ma for the youngest lavas to somewhat older than 2.7 Ma for the oldest lavas. Most of the flow field consists of extensive sheetflows of dense basanite and alkalic basalt. Small hills consisting of pillow basalt and hyaloclastite of mainly nephelinite and alkalic basalt occur within the flow field but were not the source vents for the extensive flows. Many of the vent lavas are highly vesicular, apparently because of degassing of CO2. The lavas are geochemically similar to the rejuvenated-stage lavas of the Koloa and Honolulu Volcanics and were generated by partial melting of sources similar to those of the Koloa Volcanics. Prior to eruption, these magmas may have accumulated at or near the base of the lithosphere in a structural trap created by upbowing of the lithosphere. ?? 1990.

  16. Thermal models for basaltic volcanism on Io

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keszthelyil, L.; McEwen, A.

    1997-01-01

    We present a new model for the thermal emissions from active basaltic eruptions on Io. While our methodology shares many similarities with previous work, it is significantly different in that (1) it uses a field tested cooling model and (2) the model is more applicable to pahoehoe flows and lava lakes than fountain-fed, channelized, 'a'a flows. This model demonstrates the large effect lava porosity has on the surface cooling rate (with denser flows cooling more slowly) and provides a preliminary tool for examining some of the hot spots on Io. The model infrared signature of a basaltic eruption is largely controlled by a single parameter, ??, the average survival time for a lava surface. During an active eruption surfaces are quickly covered or otherwise destroyed and typical values of ?? for a basaltic eruption are expected to be on the order of 10 seconds to 10 minutes. Our model suggests that the Galileo SSI eclipse data are consistent with moderately active to quiescent basaltic lava lakes but are not diagnostic of such activity. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Basalt CO2 Sequestration: Using Wireline Logs to Identify Subsurface Continental Flood Basalt Lithofacies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, E. C.; Finn, S.; Davis, K. N.; Segovia, A. I.

    2010-12-01

    The flows of the Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) of the northwest United States are an important example of reactive flood basalts that are attractive targets for sequestration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Brecciated flow tops and dense flow interiors form layered regional aquifer systems in the Columbia Basin that have the potential to sequester gigatons of supercritical CO2 where they contain non-potable water and are at depths of greater than 800m. The demonstrated chemical reactivity of these continental flood basalts with supercritical CO2 in laboratory experiments suggests that part of the sequestered CO2 will be permanently entombed as carbonate minerals. Here we report on the use of conventional wire-line log data, along with full waveform sonic and resistivity-based image logs to identify subsurface basalt stratigraphy and lithofacies relevant to CO2 sequestration. We compare borehole data from the 2009 Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership basalt pilot well near Wallula, Washington U.S.A. with regional outcrop analogs to determine patterns for recognizing basalt lithofacies in the subsurface. We examine quick-look techniques recently proposed for hydrocarbon exploration in basalt terranes and show that rescaled shear and compressional sonic log curves, which reflect changes in bulk modulus, appear to provide a robust tool for the identification of subsurface CRBG basalt lithofacies Resistivity-based Image Log of Vesicular Basalt and Fractures From the Wallula Basalt Pilot Well

  18. Bimodal magmatism, basaltic volcanic styles, tectonics, and geomorphic processes of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, S.S.; Smith, R.P.; Hackett, W.R.; McCurry, M.; Anderson, S.R.; Ferdock, G.C.

    1997-01-01

    Geology presented in this field guide covers a wide spectrum of internal and surficial processes of the eastern Snake River Plain, one of the largest components of the combined late Cenozoic igneous provinces of the western United States. Focus is on widespread Quaternary basaltic plains volcanism that produced coalescent shields and complex eruptive centers that yielded compositionally evolved magmas. The guide is constructed in several parts beginning with discussion sections that provide an overview of the geology followed by road directions, with explanations, for specific locations. The geology overview briefly summarizes the collective knowledge gained, and petrologic implications made, over the past few decades. The field guide covers plains volcanism, lava flow emplacement, basaltic shield growth, phreatomagmatic eruptions, and complex and evolved eruptive centers. Locations and explanations are also provided for the hydrogeology, groundwater contamination, and environmental issues such as range fires and cataclysmic floods associated with the region.

  19. Quantitative petrogenetic constraints on the Pliocene alkali basaltic volcanism of the SE Spain Volcanic Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebriá, J. M.; López-Ruiz, J.; Carmona, J.; Doblas, M.

    2009-09-01

    Alkali basalts of Pliocene age are the last episode of volcanism in the SE Spain Volcanic Province, postdating a complex series of Miocene calc-alkaline to ultrapotassic rocks. This volcanism is represented by small outcrops and vents NW of Cartagena that has been interpreted as a volcanic episode similar to the contemporaneous monogenetic alkaline basaltic volcanism of the Iberian Peninsula and Western/Central Europe. However, their geochemical signature is characterised by relatively higher 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios as well as distinct trace element anomalies which, at different scale, are only found in the spatially related calc-alkaline to ultrapotassic volcanism. Quantitative modelling of these data demonstrate that the geochemical signature of the Pliocene alkali basalts of Cartagena can be explained by the interaction between primitive melts generated from a sublithospheric mantle source similar to that identified for other volcanic regions of Spain, and liquids derived from the overlying lithospheric mantle. This interaction implies that the alkali basalts show some geochemical features only observed in mantle lithosphere-derived melts (e.g. Sr isotope enrichment and Th-U-Pb positive anomalies), while retaining an overall geochemical signature similar to other Iberian basalts (e.g. Rb-K negative anomalies). This model also implies that beneath the SEVP, enriched (metasomatized) portions were still present within the lithospheric mantle after the Miocene magmatic episodes. Comparison of this model with those already developed for other alkaline basaltic volcanic regions of western/central Europe supports the idea that the interaction of primitive magmas derived from a common sublithospheric mantle source with liquids derived from the overlying regionally heterogeneous lithospheric mantle is a relatively frequent scenario in the European realm.

  20. Mantle and crustal contributions to continental flood volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arndt, N.T.; Czamanske, G.K.; Wooden, J.L.; Fedorenko, V.A.

    1993-01-01

    Arndt, N.T., Czamanske, G.K., Wooden, J.L. and Fedorenko, V.A., 1993. Mantle and crustal contributions to continental flood volcanism. In: M.J.R. Wortel, U. Hansen and R. Sabadini (Editors), Relationships between Mantle Processes and Geological Processes at or near the Earth's Surface. Tectonophysics, 223: 39-52. Most continental flood basalts are enriched in incompatible elements and have high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios and low ??{lunate}Nd values. Many are depleted in Nb and Ta. The commonly-held view that these characteristics are inherited directly from a source in metasomatized lithospheric mantle is inconsistent with the following arguments: (1) thermomechanical modelling demonstrates that flood basalt magmas come mainly from an asthenospheric or plume source, with minimal direct melting of the continental lithospheric mantle. The low water contents of most flood basalts argue against proposals that hydrous lithosphere was the source. (2) Lithospheric mantle normally has low concentrations of incompatible elements, and chondrite-normalized Nb and Ta contents similar to those of other incompatible elements. Such material cannot be the unmodified source of Nb-Ta-depleted basalts such as those from the Karoo, Ferrar, or Columbia River provinces. We suggest there are two main controls on the compositions of continental flood basalts. The first is lithospheric thickness, which strongly influences the depth and degree of mantle melting of a plume or asthenospheric source, and thus has an important influence on the composition of primary magmas. All liquids formed by partial melting of peridotite at sub-lithosphere depths are highly magnesian (20-25 wt.% MgO) but have variable trace-element contents. Where the lithosphere is thick, the source melts at high pressure, garnet is present, the degree of melting is low, and trace-element concentrations are high. This type of magma evolves to produce the high-Ti type of continental flood basalt. Where the lithosphere is

  1. Mafic volcaniclastic deposits in flood basalt provinces: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, P.-S.; Ukstins Peate, I.; McClintock, M. K.; Xu, Y. G.; Skilling, I. P.; White, J. D. L.; Houghton, B. F.

    2005-07-01

    Flood volcanic provinces are assumed generally to consist exclusively of thick lavas and shallow intrusive rocks (mostly sills), with any pyroclastic rocks limited to silicic compositions. However, mafic volcaniclastic deposits (MVDs) exist in many provinces, and the eruptions that formed such deposits are potentially meaningful in terms of potential atmospheric impacts and links with mass extinctions. The province where MVDs are the most voluminous—the Siberian Traps—is also the one temporally associated with the greatest Phanerozoic mass extinction. A lot remains to be learned about these deposits and eruptions before a convincing genetic link can be established, but as a first step, this contribution reviews in some detail the current knowledge on MVDs for the provinces in which they are better known, i.e. the North Atlantic Igneous Province (including Greenland, the Faeroe Islands, the British Isles, and tephra layers in the North Sea basin and vicinity), the Ontong Java plateau, the Ferrar, and the Karoo. We also provide a brief overview of what is known about MVDs in other provinces such as the Columbia River Basalts, the Afro-Arabian province, the Deccan Traps, the Siberian Traps, the Emeishan, and an Archean example from Australia. The thickest accumulations of MVDs occur in flood basalt provinces where they underlie the lava pile (Faeroes: > 1 km, Ferrar province: ≥ 400 m, Siberian Traps: 700 m). In the Faeroes case, the great thickness of MVDs can be attributed to accumulation in a local sedimentary basin, but in the Ferrar and Siberian provinces the deposits are widespread (> 3 × 10 5 km 2 for the latter). On the Ontong Java plateau over 300 m of MVDs occur in one drill hole without any overlying lavas. Where the volcaniclastic deposits are sandwiched between lavas, their thickness is much less. In most of the cases reviewed, primary MVDs are predominantly of phreatomagmatic origin, as indicated by the clast assemblage generally consisting of

  2. Potential for Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Flood Basalts

    SciTech Connect

    McGrail, B. PETER; Schaef, Herbert T.; Ho, Anita M.; Chien, Yi-Ju; Dooley, James J.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2006-12-01

    Flood basalts are a potentially important host medium for geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2. Most lava flows have flow tops that are porous, permeable, and have enormous capacity for storage of CO2. Interbedded sediment layers and dense low-permeability basalt rock overlying sequential flows may act as effective seals allowing time for mineralization reactions to occur. Laboratory experiments confirm relatively rapid chemical reaction of CO2-saturated pore water with basalts to form stable carbonate minerals. Calculations suggest a sufficiently short time frame for onset of carbonate precipitation after CO2 injection that verification of in situ mineralization rates appears feasible in field pilot studies. If proven viable, major flood basalts in the U.S. and India would provide significant additional CO2 storage capacity and additional geologic sequestration options in certain regions where more conventional storage options are limited.

  3. On causal links between flood basalts and continental breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtillot, V.; Jaupart, C.; Manighetti, I.; Tapponnier, P.; Besse, J.

    1999-03-01

    Temporal coincidence between continental flood basalts and breakup has been noted for almost three decades. Eight major continental flood basalts have been produced over the last 300 Ma. The most recent, the Ethiopian traps, erupted in about 1 Myr at 30 Ma. Rifting in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, and possibly East African rift started at about the same time. A second trap-like episode occurred around 2 Ma and formation of true oceanic crust is due in the next few Myr. We find similar relationships for the 60 Ma Greenland traps and opening of the North Atlantic, 65 Ma Deccan traps and opening of the NW Indian Ocean, 132 Ma Parana traps and South Atlantic, 184 Ma Karoo traps and SW Indian Ocean, and 200 Ma Central Atlantic Margin flood basalts and opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean. The 250 Ma Siberian and 258 Ma Emeishan traps seem to correlate with major, if aborted, phases of rifting. Rifting asymmetry, apparent triple junctions and rift propagation (towards the flood basalt area) are common features that may, together with the relative timings of flood basalt, seaward dipping reflector and oceanic crust production, depend on a number of plume- and lithosphere- related factors. We propose a mixed scenario of `active/passive' rifting to account for these observations. In all cases, an active component (a plume and resulting flood basalt) is a pre-requisite for the breakup of a major oceanic basin. But rifting must be allowed by plate-boundary forces and is influenced by pre-existing heterogeneities in lithospheric structure. The best example is the Atlantic Ocean, whose large-scale geometry with three large basins was imposed by the impact points of three mantle plumes.

  4. CASERTZ aeromagnetic data reveal late Cenozoic flood basalts (?) in the West Antarctic rift system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behrendt, John C.

    1994-01-01

    The late Cenozoic volcanic and tectonic activity of the enigmatic West Antarctic rift system, the least understood of the great active continental rifts, has been suggested to be plume driven. In 1991-1992, as part of the CASERTZ (Corridor Aerogeophysics of the Southeast Ross Transect Zone) program, an ~25 000 km aeromagnetic survey over the ice-covered Byrd subglacial basin shows magnetic "texture' critical to interpretations of the underlying extended volcanic terrane. The aeromagnetic data reveal numerous semicircular anomalies ~100-1100 nT in amplitude, interpreted as having volcanic sources at the base of the ice sheet; they are concentrated along north-trending magnetic lineations interpreted as rift fabric. The CASERTZ aeromagnetic results, combined with >100 000 km of widely spaced aeromagnetic profiles, indicate at least 106 km3 of probable late Cenozoic volcanic rock (flood basalt?) in the West Antarctic rift beneath the ice sheet and Ross Ice Shelf. -from Authors

  5. Crustal influence in the generation of continental flood basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, R. W.; Lugmair, G. W.; Macdougall, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    The suggestion that primordial undifferentiated material may exist in the earth's mantle has recently been revived on the strength of Nd isotope data for two types of young continental rocks - flood basalts and kimberlites. The limited published data show a clustering of Nd isotopic compositions close to those for meteorites with chondritic relative rare-earth (REE) abundance. In contrast, data are presented for samples from the Columbia flood basalt province of the northwestern United States which show large isotopic variability suggestive of mixing processes acting after the separation of the primary magmas from their mantle source.

  6. Intracanyon basalt lavas of the Debed River (northern Armenia), part of a Pliocene-Pleistocene continental flood basalt province in the South Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Hetu; Meliksetian, Khachatur; Gevorgyan, Hripsime; Israyelyan, Arsen; Navasardyan, Gevorg

    2015-03-01

    Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene (~ 3.25-2.05 Ma), 200-400 m thick basalt lavas outcrop in the South Caucasus region, including the Kars-Erzurum Plateau (northeastern Turkey), the Javakheti Plateau (Georgia-Armenia), and the Lori Plateau (northern Armenia). These fissure-fed, rapidly erupted fluid lavas filled pre-existing river valleys over many tens of kilometres. The basalts exposed in the Debed River canyon, northern Armenia, are ~ 200 m thick and of three morphological types: (1) basal pillow basalts and hyaloclastites, overlain by (2) columnar-jointed pahoehoe sheet flows, in turn overlain by (3) slabby pahoehoe and rubbly pahoehoe flows. The lower and middle lavas show evidence for damming of river drainage, like many lavas of the Columbia River flood basalt province, Scotland, Ireland, and Iceland. There is also evidence for syn-volcanic faulting of the early lavas. Related basalts also outcrop in the Gegham Uplands and the Hrazdan River basin in Armenia. This 3.25-2.05 Ma South Caucasus basalt province, covering parts of Turkey, Georgia and Armenia, has an estimated areal extent of ~ 15,000 km2 and volume of ~ 2250 km3. Because its main geological features are remarkably like those of many continental flood basalt (CFB) provinces, we consider it a true, albeit small, CFB province. It is the smallest and youngest CFB in the world. An analogue closely similar in major features is the Late Miocene Altos de Jalisco CFB province in the western Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Both provinces formed during lithospheric pull-apart and transtensional faulting. Their broader significance is in showing flood basalt size distribution to be a continuum without natural breaks, with implications for geodynamic models.

  7. A mantle plume beneath California? The mid-Miocene Lovejoy Flood Basalt, northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, N.J.; Busby, C.J.; Gans, P.B.; Putirka, K.; Wagner, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    The Lovejoy basalt represents the largest eruptive unit identified in California, and its age, volume, and chemistry indicate a genetic affinity with the Columbia River Basalt Group and its associated mantle-plume activity. Recent field mapping, geochemical analyses, and radiometric dating suggest that the Lovejoy basalt erupted during the mid-Miocene from a fissure at Thompson Peak, south of Susanville, California. The Lovejoy flowed through a paleovalley across the northern end of the Sierra Nevada to the Sacramento Valley, a distance of 240 km. Approximately 150 km3 of basalt were erupted over a span of only a few centuries. Our age dates for the Lovejoy basalt cluster are near 15.4 Ma and suggest that it is coeval with the 16.1-15.0 Ma Imnaha and Grande Ronde flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group. Our new mapping and age dating support the interpretation that the Lovejoy basalt erupted in a forearc position relative to the ancestral Cascades arc, in contrast with the Columbia River Basalt Group, which erupted in a backarc position. The arc front shifted trenchward into the Sierran block after 15.4 Ma. However, the Lovejoy basalt appears to be unrelated to volcanism of the predominantly calc-alkaline Cascade arc; instead, the Lovejoy is broadly tholeiitic, with trace-element characteristics similar to the Columbia River Basalt Group. Association of the Lovejoy basalt with mid-Miocene flood basalt volcanism has considerable implications for North American plume dynamics and strengthens the thermal "point source" explanation, as provided by the mantle-plume hypothesis. Alternatives to the plume hypothesis usually call upon lithosphere-scale cracks to control magmatic migrations in the Yellowstone-Columbia River basalt region. However, it is difficult to imagine a lithosphere-scale flaw that crosses Precambrian basement and accreted terranes to reach the Sierra microplate, where the Lovejoy is located. Therefore, we propose that the Lovejoy represents a rapid

  8. Modes of emplacement of basalt terrains and an analysis of mare volcanism in the Orientale Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.

    1976-01-01

    Three distinctive types of basalt terrains can be recognized on earth on the basis of surface morphology: flood basalts, shield basalts, and plains basalts, each of which reflects unique styles of eruption and modes of emplacement. Two of these, flood basalts and plains basalts, appear to be important in the emplacement of mare basalts on the moon. Using surface features as identifying criteria, mare units in the Orientale Basin were examined and the following emplacement sequence was derived: (1) initial emplacement of impact melt in the basin center, (2) eruption of flood-type basalts in the basin center and approximately concurrent emplacement of plains type basalts in Lacus Veris, and (3) emplacement of plains type basalts in Lacus Autumni

  9. Volatile fluxes during flood basalt eruptions and potential effects on the global environment: A Deccan perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Self, Stephen; Widdowson, Mike; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Jay, Anne. E.

    2006-08-01

    We examine the role that flood basalt eruptions may have played during times of mass extinction through the release of volcanic gases. Continental flood basalt provinces have formed by numerous eruptions over a short period of geologic time, characteristically a few million years. Within this period, a short-lived climactic phase that lasts about 1 Ma typically emplaces a large proportion of the lava volume. This phase consists of a series of huge eruptions, each yielding 10 3-10 4 km 3 of magma. Each eruption lasted on the order of a decade or more, and built an immense pāhoehoe-dominated lava flow field by eruptive activity along fissures tens to hundreds of km long. High fire-fountains, emanating from vents along the fissures, at times sustained eruption columns that lofted gas and ash into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere while the lava flows covered huge areas. The combination of large eruption magnitudes, maintained high effusion rates during eruptions, and the repeated nature of the characteristic, large-scale eruptive activity occurs in Earth history only during periods of flood basalt volcanism. Based on recent analogs and determination of volatile contents of ancient flood basalt lavas, we estimate that individual eruptions were capable of releasing 10,000 Tg of SO 2, resulting in atmospheric loadings of 1000 Tg a - 1 during a sustained decade-long eruptive event. We apply this model of flood basalt volcanism to estimate the potential mass of CO 2 and SO 2 released during formation of the ˜ 65 Ma Deccan province. The Deccan lava-pile contains the record of hundreds of enormous pāhoehoe flow-fields erupted within a period of about 1 Ma. Consequently, atmospheric perturbations associated with SO 2 emissions from just one of these long-lasting eruptions were likely to have been severe, and constantly augmented over a decade or longer. By contrast, the amounts of CO 2 released would have been small compared with the mass already present in the

  10. Basaltic volcanism in Ethiopia: Constraints on continental rifting and mantle interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, W. K.; WoldeGabriel, G.; Walter, R. C.; Mertzman, S. A.

    1989-06-10

    Middle to late Cenozoic mafic lavas from the Ethiopian volcanic province exhibit considerable chemical and isotopic diversity that is linked to eruption age and eruption location. These variations provide a geochemical framework in which continental rifting can be examined. Trace element and Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic data are interpreted to indicate involvement of up to two depleted and two enriched mantle reservoirs throughout Cenozoic rift development in Ethiopia. Superimposed on the characteristics imparted by varying degrees of melting of these distinct reservoirs are the effects of crystal fractionation and, in some instances, crustal contamnation. Initial stages of Oligocene rifting and volcanism, as manifested by the rift-bounding plateau flood basalts, are attributed to asthenospheric upwelling and melting of a heterogeneous, enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Mildly alkaline lavas were produced from an enriched source with characteristics similar to those of the inferred source of other mantle/minus/derived lavas and xenoliths from east Africa (LoNd array, EMI to HIMU). Contemporaneous tholeiitic lavas were derived from a source similar to that producing oceanic basalts from Samoa and the Society Islands (EMII). As lithospheric thinning and rifting continued into the Miocene, upwelling depleted asthenosphere (depleted OIB reservoir, PREMA) interacted with the lithospheric sources producing lavas with hybrid elemental and isotopic characteristics (11-6 Ma plateau and rift margin basalts).

  11. Origin of Columbia River flood basalt controlled by propagating rupture of the Farallon slab.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lijun; Stegman, Dave R

    2012-02-15

    The origin of the Steens-Columbia River (SCR) flood basalts, which is presumed to be the onset of Yellowstone volcanism, has remained controversial, with the proposed conceptual models involving either a mantle plume or back-arc processes. Recent tomographic inversions based on the USArray data reveal unprecedented detail of upper-mantle structures of the western USA and tightly constrain geodynamic models simulating Farallon subduction, which has been proposed to influence the Yellowstone volcanism. Here we show that the best-fitting geodynamic model depicts an episode of slab tearing about 17 million years ago under eastern Oregon, where an associated sub-slab asthenospheric upwelling thermally erodes the Farallon slab, leading to formation of a slab gap at shallow depth. Driven by a gradient of dynamic pressure, the tear ruptured quickly north and south and within about two million years covering a distance of around 900 kilometres along all of eastern Oregon and northern Nevada. This tear would be consistent with the occurrence of major volcanic dikes during the SCR-Northern Nevada Rift flood basalt event both in space and time. The model predicts a petrogenetic sequence for the flood basalt with sources of melt starting from the base of the slab, at first remelting oceanic lithosphere and then evolving upwards, ending with remelting of oceanic crust. Such a progression helps to reconcile the existing controversies on the interpretation of SCR geochemistry and the involvement of the putative Yellowstone plume. Our study suggests a new mechanism for the formation of large igneous provinces.

  12. Age distribution of Serra Geral (Paraná) flood basalts, southern Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fodor, R.V.; McKee, E.H.; Roisenberg, A.

    1989-01-01

    We evaluated 193 K-Ar ages (10 newly determined) of basaltic and differentiated rocks of the Serra Geral (Paraná) flood-basalt province for indications of magmatism occurring systematically with progressive rifting and complete separation ( ≈130-105 Ma) of South America from Africa. The K-Ar ages represent basalt emplacement between 35° and 19°S covering about 1,200,000 km2. We note that volcanism appears ubiquitous across the province between about 140 and 115 Ma, and that there are no significant age differences within that relate directly to progressive south-to-north tectonism. On the other hand, the oldest samples, about 140–160 Ma, are among those nearest the Brazil coastline (rift margin), perhaps suggesting migration of activity away from the rift with time. Studies of other flood-basalt provinces now indicate short (<3 m.y.) eruption periods, thereby pointing to the need for re-examination of Serra Geral ages by 40Ar-39Ar incremental heating techniques.

  13. Continental flood basalts derived from the hydrous mantle transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuan-Ce; Wilde, Simon A.; Li, Qiu-Li; Yang, Ya-Nan

    2015-07-01

    It has previously been postulated that the Earth's hydrous mantle transition zone may play a key role in intraplate magmatism, but no confirmatory evidence has been reported. Here we demonstrate that hydrothermally altered subducted oceanic crust was involved in generating the late Cenozoic Chifeng continental flood basalts of East Asia. This study combines oxygen isotopes with conventional geochemistry to provide evidence for an origin in the hydrous mantle transition zone. These observations lead us to propose an alternative thermochemical model, whereby slab-triggered wet upwelling produces large volumes of melt that may rise from the hydrous mantle transition zone. This model explains the lack of pre-magmatic lithospheric extension or a hotspot track and also the arc-like signatures observed in some large-scale intracontinental magmas. Deep-Earth water cycling, linked to cold subduction, slab stagnation, wet mantle upwelling and assembly/breakup of supercontinents, can potentially account for the chemical diversity of many continental flood basalts.

  14. Continental flood basalts derived from the hydrous mantle transition zone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuan-Ce; Wilde, Simon A; Li, Qiu-Li; Yang, Ya-Nan

    2015-07-14

    It has previously been postulated that the Earth's hydrous mantle transition zone may play a key role in intraplate magmatism, but no confirmatory evidence has been reported. Here we demonstrate that hydrothermally altered subducted oceanic crust was involved in generating the late Cenozoic Chifeng continental flood basalts of East Asia. This study combines oxygen isotopes with conventional geochemistry to provide evidence for an origin in the hydrous mantle transition zone. These observations lead us to propose an alternative thermochemical model, whereby slab-triggered wet upwelling produces large volumes of melt that may rise from the hydrous mantle transition zone. This model explains the lack of pre-magmatic lithospheric extension or a hotspot track and also the arc-like signatures observed in some large-scale intracontinental magmas. Deep-Earth water cycling, linked to cold subduction, slab stagnation, wet mantle upwelling and assembly/breakup of supercontinents, can potentially account for the chemical diversity of many continental flood basalts.

  15. Cracking the lid: Sill-fed dikes are the likely feeders of flood basalt eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muirhead, James D.; Airoldi, Giulia; White, James D. L.; Rowland, Julie V.

    2014-11-01

    Although subparallel swarms of dikes are thought to be the primary feeders to voluminous volcanic eruptions, increasing recognition of volumetrically significant sill complexes suggests that they too play an important role in magma ascent through the shallow crust. However, the extent to which sills and interconnected, sill-fed dikes actually transport magma to the earth's surface in many large igneous provinces (LIP) is presently unclear. By analyzing field relationships and dimensions of intrusions of the Ferrar LIP in South Victoria Land, Antarctica, we show that sill-fed dikes were the likely feeders for voluminous flood basalt eruptions. These intrusions are small but numerous, with cumulative dimensions equivalent to a feeder network 308,000 km long and 1.8 m wide. Due to the tremendous aerial extent of this intrusive network, each individual dike-feeder segment would only be required to actively feed magma for 2 to 3 days on average to erupt the 70,000 km3 of flood lavas represented by the Kirkpatrick basalts. The Ferrar intrusions form a broadly-distributed array of small, moderately dipping dikes (<2 km long, 1.8 m wide, 56° mean dip) exhibiting almost any orientation. This sill-fed dike network contrasts with dike swarms conventionally depicted to feed flood basalt provinces, and has the appearance of a variably "cracked lid" atop a sill complex. The cracked lid model may apply to a range of shallow feeder systems (<4 km depth) intruding sedimentary basins, where the effects of far-field tectonic stresses are negligible and sill intrusions exert the dominant control on dike orientations. We conclude that sill inflation, and resulting deformation of surrounding host rock, plays a critical role in the ascent of magma in shallow volcanic systems that span the full spectrum of eruptive volumes.

  16. High-3He plume origin and temporal-spatial evolution of the Siberian flood basalts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Basu, A.R.; Poreda, R.J.; Renne, P.R.; Teichmann, F.; Vasiliev, Y.R.; Sobolev, N.V.; Turrin, B.D.

    1995-01-01

    An olivine nephelinite from the lower part of a thick alkalic ultrabasic and mafic sequence of volcanic rocks of the northeastern part of the Siberian flood basalt province (SFBP) yielded a 40ArX39Ar plateau age of 253.3 ?? 2.6 million years, distinctly older than the main tholeiitic pulse of the SFBP at 250.0 million years. Olivine phenocrysts of this rock showed 3He/4He ratios up to 12.7 times the atmospheric ratio; these values suggest a lower mantle plume origin. The neodymium and strontium isotopes, rare earth element concentration patterns, and cerium/lead ratios of the associated rocks were also consistent with their derivation from a near-cnondritic, primitive plume. Geochemical data from the 250-million-year-old volcanic rocks higher up in the sequence indicate interaction of this high-3He SFBP plume with a suboceanic-type upper mantle beneath Siberia.

  17. High-3He Plume Origin and Temporal-Spatial Evolution of the Siberian Flood Basalts.

    PubMed

    Basu, A R; Poreda, R J; Renne, P R; Teichmann, F; Vasiliev, Y R; Sobolev, N V; Turrin, B D

    1995-08-11

    An olivine nephelinite from the lower part of a thick alkalic ultrabasic and mafic sequence of volcanic rocks of the northeastern part of the Siberian flood basalt province (SFBP) yielded a (40)Ar/(39)Ar plateau age of 253.3 +/- 2.6 million years, distinctly older than the main tholeiitic pulse of the SFBP at 250.0 million years. Olivine phenocrysts of this rock showed (3)He/(4)He ratios up to 12.7 times the atmospheric ratio; these values suggest a lower mantle plume origin. The neodymium and strontium isotopes, rare earth element concentration patterns, and cerium/lead ratios of the associated rocks were also consistent with their derivation from a near-chondritic, primitive plume. Geochemical data from the 250-million-year-old volcanic rocks higher up in the sequence indicate interaction of this high-(3)He SFBP plume with a suboceanic-type upper mantle beneath Siberia.

  18. Petrophysical and geochemical properties of Columbia River flood basalt: Implications for carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, Natalia V.; Goldberg, David S.; Sullivan, E. Charlotte; Herron, Michael M.; Grau, James A.

    2012-11-01

    This study presents borehole geophysical data and sidewall core chemistry from the Wallula Pilot Sequestration Project in the Columbia River flood basalt. The wireline logging data were reprocessed, core-calibrated and interpreted in the framework of reservoir and seal characterization for carbon dioxide storage. Particular attention is paid to the capabilities and limitations of borehole spectroscopy for chemical characterization of basalt. Neutron capture spectroscopy logging is shown to provide accurate concentrations for up to 8 major and minor elements but has limited sensitivity to natural alteration in fresh-water basaltic reservoirs. The Wallula borehole intersected 26 flows from 7 members of the Grande Ronde formation. The logging data demonstrate a cyclic pattern of sequential basalt flows with alternating porous flow tops (potential reservoirs) and massive flow interiors (potential caprock). The log-derived apparent porosity is extremely high in the flow tops (20-45%), and considerably overestimates effective porosity obtained from hydraulic testing. The flow interiors are characterized by low apparent porosity (0-8%) but appear pervasively fractured in borehole images. Electrical resistivity images show diverse volcanic textures and provide an excellent tool for fracture analysis, but neither fracture density nor log-derived porosity uniquely correlate with hydraulic properties of the Grande Ronde formation. While porous flow tops in these deep flood basalts may offer reservoirs with high mineralization rates, long leakage migration paths, and thick sections of caprock for CO2 storage, a more extensive multiwell characterization would be necessary to assess lateral variations and establish sequestration capacity in this reservoir.

  19. Petrophysical and Geochemical Properties of Columbia River Flood Basalt: Implications for Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharova, Natalia V.; Goldberg, David S.; Sullivan, E. C.; Herron, Michael M.; Grau, Jim A.

    2012-11-02

    Abstract This study presents borehole geophysical data and sidewall core chemistry from the Wallula Pilot Sequestration Project in the Columbia River flood basalt. The wireline logging data were reprocessed, core-calibrated and interpreted in the framework of reservoir and seal characterization for carbon dioxide storage. Particular attention is paid to the capabilities and limitations of borehole spectroscopy for chemical characterization of basalt. Neutron capture spectroscopy logging is shown to provide accurate concentrations for up to 8 major and minor elements but has limited sensitivity to natural alteration in fresh-water basaltic reservoirs. The Wallula borehole intersected 26 flows from 7 members of the Grande Ronde formation. The logging data demonstrate a cyclic pattern of sequential basalt flows with alternating porous flow tops (potential reservoirs) and massive flow interiors (potential caprock). The log-derived apparent porosity is extremely high in the flow tops (20%-45%), and considerably overestimates effective porosity obtained from hydraulic testing. The flow interiors are characterized by low apparent porosity (0-8%) but appear pervasively fractured in borehole images. Electrical resistivity images show diverse volcanic textures and provide an excellent tool for fracture analysis, but neither fracture density nor log-derived porosity uniquely correlate with hydraulic properties of the Grande Ronde formation. While porous flow tops in these deep flood basalts may offer reservoirs with high mineralization rates, long leakage migration paths, and thick sections of caprock for CO2 storage, a more extensive multi- well characterization would be necessary to assess lateral variations and establish sequestration capacity in this reservoir.

  20. Neodymium isotopes in flood basalts from the Siberian Platform and inferences about their mantle sources

    PubMed Central

    DePaolo, D. J.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1979-01-01

    The initial isotopic compositions of Nd and Sr in basalts from the Central Siberian Plateau and other major continental flood basalts are reported. The continental flood basalts appear to be the product of partial melting of mantle sources that consist of relatively primitive undifferentiated material and are clearly distinct from midocean ridge basalts, which sample mantle reservoirs that have been modified by extraction of continental crust earlier in earth history. These observations provide fundamental constraints on models of mantle structure and dynamics. Isotopic effects of crustal contamination are clearly recognizable in some continental flood basalts, but these effects can be distinguished from isotopic patterns inherited from the mantle magma sources. PMID:16592671

  1. Neodymium isotopes in flood basalts from the Siberian Platform and inferences about their mantle sources.

    PubMed

    Depaolo, D J; Wasserburg, G J

    1979-07-01

    The initial isotopic compositions of Nd and Sr in basalts from the Central Siberian Plateau and other major continental flood basalts are reported. The continental flood basalts appear to be the product of partial melting of mantle sources that consist of relatively primitive undifferentiated material and are clearly distinct from midocean ridge basalts, which sample mantle reservoirs that have been modified by extraction of continental crust earlier in earth history. These observations provide fundamental constraints on models of mantle structure and dynamics. Isotopic effects of crustal contamination are clearly recognizable in some continental flood basalts, but these effects can be distinguished from isotopic patterns inherited from the mantle magma sources.

  2. Volcanic water flows could have flooded Ganymede's planetary rift system

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, M.L.; Clifford, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Global expansion on Ganymede of only 1 or 2% created a planetary rift system which was resurfaced over a significant period of the planet's history creating bright, grooved terrain. The most reasonable model entails flooding of grabens by water or slush magmas which rose to the surface along normal faults in the rift system. Various models exist for the origin of the water magmas including isostatic rise of freezing ice I or diapirs of unstable ice III. A model considering the heat balance at the surface of an ice-covered water flow is constructed with the simplifying assumption that both laminar flow and a solid ice cover are achieved relatively soon after eruption. The ice cover will thicken until the underlying flowing water is entirely frozen. Energy into the system comes from solar radiation and the latent heat of freezing. Energy lost will be by evaporative and radiative cooling at the ice surface and by conduction into the substratum. Solving the heat balance allows a prediction for the volume of magma that can flood the surface. For example a flow 5 m thick will take tens of days to freeze, so that discharge rates equal to that of average terrestrial basalt flows could flood relatively large areas of the surface before freezing. Volcanic flooding is therefore a physically viable mechanism for the origin of bright terrain. During freezing the water/ice volume increases, lifting and fracturing the ice cover. These fractures may localize continued tectonic forces producing large displacements and creating the present grooved terrain.

  3. Petrogenesis of the flood-basalt sequence at Noril'sk, North Central Siberia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fedorenko, V.A.; Lightfoot, P.C.; Naldrett, A.J.; Czamanske, G.K.; Hawkesworth, C.J.; Wooden, J.L.; Ebel, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    The 3500-m-thick sequence of volcanic rocks at Noril'sk, formed during a brief interval (???1 m.y.) at the Permian/Triassic time boundary (???251 Ma), represents the earliest part of the ???6500-m-thick sequence presently ascribed to the Siberian flood-basalt province. It is composed of picritic and basaltic lavas of both low-Ti and high-Ti parentage. Extensive geological, geochemical, and isotopic study of the lava sequence and related intrusions allows detailed reconstruction of its petrogenesis. Various crustal-related processes - fractionation, crustal contamination, sulfide separation, and magma mixing - participated in the formation of the lavas. The geochemical and isotopic characteristics indicative of these processes, as well as mantle-related signatures of lava compositions, are discussed. Based on these characteristics, detailed interpretations of lava genesis and evolution throughout the Noril'sk sequence are presented. Eight varieties of lavas are recognized to be primitive, similar in composition to primary mantle melts; they varied from low-Mg basalts to olivine tholeiites or picrites, with normal tholeiites predominating. The primitive lavas are subdivided into four groups (magma types) on the basis of trace-element ratios (principally. Gd/Yb, Th/U, La/Yb, Ta/La, Ti/Sc, and V/Yb) and isotopic data. Three of the groups include both basaltic and picritic primitive lavas (with low-Mg basalts present in one of them), whereas the fourth group is represented exclusively by tholeiites. Distinctions among the groups cannot be related to degree of melting, and isotopic data indicate that none of the magma types could have formed by mixing or contamination of other types. Apparently, only differences in source composition and/or depth of melting can explain the magmatic diversity. This multitude of primitive magma types may be explained by melting in different layers of the upper mantle, which is complexly layered beneath Siberia to depths of 270 km. Moreover

  4. Assessing Eruption Column Height in Ancient Flood Basalt Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Self, Stephen; Schmidt, Anja; Hunter, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    A buoyant plume model is used to explore the ability of flood basalt eruptions to inject climate-relevant gases into the stratosphere. An example from the 1986 Izu-Oshima basaltic fissure eruption validates the model's ability to reproduce the observed maximum plume heights of 12-16 km above sea level, sustained above fire-fountains. The model predicts maximum plume heights of 13-17 km for source widths of between 4-16 m when 32% (by mass) of the erupted magma is fragmented and involved in the buoyant plume (effective volatile content of 6 wt%). Assuming that the Miocene-age Roza eruption (part of the Columbia River Basalt Group) sustained fire-fountains of similar height to Izu-Oshima (1.6 km above the vent), we show that the Roza eruption could have sustained buoyant ash and gas plumes that extended into the stratosphere at approximately 45 deg N. Assuming 5 km long active fissure segments and 9000 Mt of SO2 released during explosive phases over a 10-15 year duration, the approximately 180 km of known Roza fissure length could have supported approximately 36 explosive events/phases, each with a duration of 3-4 days. Each 5 km fissure segment could have emitted 62 Mt of SO2 per day into the stratosphere while actively fountaining, the equivalent of about three 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruptions per day. Each fissure segment could have had one to several vents, which subsequently produced lava without significant fountaining for a longer period within the decades-long eruption. Sensitivity of plume rise height to ancient atmospheric conditions is explored. Although eruptions in the Deccan Traps (approximately 66 Ma) may have generated buoyant plumes that rose to altitudes in excess of 18 km, they may not have reached the stratosphere because the tropopause was substantially higher in the late Cretaceous. Our results indicate that some flood basalt eruptions, such as Roza, were capable of repeatedly injecting large masses of SO2 into the stratosphere. Thus sustained

  5. The mode of emplacement of Neogene flood basalts in eastern Iceland: Facies architecture and structure of simple aphyric basalt groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Óskarsson, Birgir V.; Riishuus, Morten S.

    2014-12-01

    Simple flows (tabular) in the Neogene flood basalt sections of Iceland are described and their mode of emplacement assessed. The flows belong to three aphyric basalt groups: the Kumlafell group, the Hólmatindur group and the Hjálmadalur group. The groups can be traced over 50 km and originate in the Breiðdalur-Thingmuli volcanic zone. The groups have flow fields that display mixed volcanic facies architecture and can be classified after dominating type morphology. The Kumlafell and the Hólmatindur groups have predominantly simple flows of pāhoehoe and rubbly pāhoehoe morphologies with minor compound or lobate pāhoehoe flows. The Hjálmadalur group has simple flows of rubbly pāhoehoe, but also includes minor compound or lobate flows of rubble and 'a'ā. Simple flows are most common in the distal and medial areas from the vents, while more lobate flows in proximal areas. The simple flows are formed by extensive sheet lobes that are several kilometers long with plane-parallel contacts, some reaching thicknesses of ~ 40 m (aspect ratios < 0.01). They have overlapping contacts and are free of tubes and inflation structures. Their internal structure consists generally of a simple upper vesicular crust, a dense core and a thin basal vesicular zone. The brecciated flow-top is formed by clinker and crustal rubble, the clinker often welded or agglutinated. The simple flows erupted from seemingly short-lived fissures and have the characteristics of cooling-limited flows. We estimate the effusion rates to be ~ 105 m3/s for the simple flows of the Kumlafell and Hólmatindur groups and ~ 104 m3/s for the Hjálmadalur group. The longest flows advanced 15-20 km from the fissures, with lava streams of fast propagating flows inducing tearing and brecciation of the chilled crust. Compound or lobate areas appear to reflect areas of low effusion rates or the interaction of the lava with topographic barriers or wetlands, resulting in chaotic flowage. Slowing lobes with

  6. The Age of Parana Flood Volcanism, Rifting of Gondwanaland, and the Jurassic-Cretaceous Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renne, Paul R.; Ernesto, Marcia; Pacca, Igor G.; Coe, Robert S.; Glen, Jonathon M.; Prevot, Michel; Perrin, Mireille

    1992-11-01

    The Parana-Etendeka flood volcanic event produced ~1.5 x 10^6 cubic kilometers of volcanic rocks, ranging from basalts to rhyolites, before the separation of South America and Africa during the Cretaceous period. New 40Ar/39Ar data combined with earlier paleomagnetic results indicate that Parana flood volcanism in southern Brazil began at 133 ± 1 million years ago and lasted less than 1 million years. The implied mean eruption rate on the order of 1.5 cubic kilometers per year is consistent with a mantle plume origin for the event and is comparable to eruption rates determined for other well-documented continental flood volcanic events. Parana flood volcanism occurred before the initiation of sea floor spreading in the South Atlantic and was probably precipitated by uplift and weakening of the lithosphere by the Tristan da Cunha plume. The Parana event postdates most current estimates for the age of the faunal mass extinction associated with the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary.

  7. The age of parana flood volcanism, rifting of gondwanaland, and the jurassic-cretaceous boundary.

    PubMed

    Renne, P R; Ernesto, M; Pacca, I G; Coe, R S; Glen, J M; Prévot, M; Perrin, M

    1992-11-01

    The Paraná-Etendeka flood volcanic event produced approximately 1.5 x 10(6) cubic kilometers of volcanic rocks, ranging from basalts to rhyolites, before the separation of South America and Africa during the Cretaceous period. New (40)Ar/(39)Ar data combined with earlier paleomagnetic results indicate that Paraná flood volcanism in southern Brazil began at 133 +/- 1 million years ago and lasted less than 1 million years. The implied mean eruption rate on the order of 1.5 cubic kilometers per year is consistent with a mantle plume origin for the event and is comparable to eruption rates determined for other well-documented continental flood volcanic events. Paraná flood volcanism occurred before the initiation of sea floor spreading in the South Atlantic and was probably precipitated by uplift and weakening of the lithosphere by the Tristan da Cunha plume. The Parana event postdates most current estimates for the age of the faunal mass extinction associated with the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary. PMID:17794593

  8. The age of parana flood volcanism, rifting of gondwanaland, and the jurassic-cretaceous boundary.

    PubMed

    Renne, P R; Ernesto, M; Pacca, I G; Coe, R S; Glen, J M; Prévot, M; Perrin, M

    1992-11-01

    The Paraná-Etendeka flood volcanic event produced approximately 1.5 x 10(6) cubic kilometers of volcanic rocks, ranging from basalts to rhyolites, before the separation of South America and Africa during the Cretaceous period. New (40)Ar/(39)Ar data combined with earlier paleomagnetic results indicate that Paraná flood volcanism in southern Brazil began at 133 +/- 1 million years ago and lasted less than 1 million years. The implied mean eruption rate on the order of 1.5 cubic kilometers per year is consistent with a mantle plume origin for the event and is comparable to eruption rates determined for other well-documented continental flood volcanic events. Paraná flood volcanism occurred before the initiation of sea floor spreading in the South Atlantic and was probably precipitated by uplift and weakening of the lithosphere by the Tristan da Cunha plume. The Parana event postdates most current estimates for the age of the faunal mass extinction associated with the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary.

  9. A brief Oligocene period of flood volcanism in Yemen: Implications for the duration and rate of continental flood volcanism at the Afro-Arabian triple junction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, J.; Snee, L.; Menzies, M.

    1996-01-01

    40Ar39Ar dating of mineral separates and whole-rock (WR) samples has established that basaltic continental flood volcanism (CFV) began between 30.9 and 29.2 Ma in northwestern and southwestern Yemen, respectively. Rhyolitic volcanism commenced at 29.3-29.0 Ma throughout Yemen. Lower basaltic lavas were erupted every 10-100 kyr, whereas upper bimodal volcanic units were erupted every 100-500 kyr, which reflects generation of rhyolitic magmas from basalts that resided for longer periods in lithospheric magma chambers than during the early phase of exclusively mafic magmatism. The youngest dated flood volcanic units were erupted between 26.9 and 26.5 Ma throughout Yemen. The duration of preserved CFV defined by 40Ar/39Ar dating (4.4 myr) contrasts with the wide range of WR K-Ar dates previously obtained in Yemen (> 50 myr). 40Ar/39Ar step-heating studies of WR samples has shown that this discrepancy is due to the disturbed Ar systematics of volcanic samples. Most samples have experienced post-crystallization loss of radiogenic Ar and/or contain excess Ar, with only ca. 25% of the WR K-Ar dates within 1-2 myr of true crystallization ages. WR K-Ar data can be screened for reliability using the radiogenic Ar yield and 40K/36Ar ratio, which reflect the Ar retentivity of the sample, the likelihood that alteration has disturbed a sample's Ar systematics, and the susceptibility of the sample to a finite amount of Ar loss or the presence of a finite amount of excess Ar. Examination of existing WR K-Ar data in the Ethiopian part of this flood volcanic province, using these parameters, suggests that much of these data are also misleading. Two phases of flood volcanism are inferred in Ethiopia and Eritrea at 38-30 Ma and ca. 20 Ma. The older phase is equivalent to that in Yemen, and is consistent with the progression in basal volcanic ages obtained in Yemen moving from north to south. The younger phase is related to the onset of upper crustal extension and incipient Red Sea

  10. High water content in primitive continental flood basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Qun-Ke; Bi, Yao; Li, Pei; Tian, Wei; Wei, Xun; Chen, Han-Lin

    2016-05-01

    As the main constituent of large igneous provinces, the generation of continental flood basalts (CFB) that are characterized by huge eruption volume (>105 km3) within short time span (<1–3 Ma) is in principle caused by an abnormally high temperature, extended decompression, a certain amount of mafic source rocks (e.g., pyroxenite), or an elevated H2O content in the mantle source. These four factors are not mutually exclusive. There are growing evidences for high temperature, decompression and mafic source rocks, albeit with hot debate. However, there is currently no convincing evidence of high water content in the source of CFB. We retrieved the initial H2O content of the primitive CFB in the early Permian Tarim large igneous province (NW China), using the H2O content of ten early-formed clinopyroxene (cpx) crystals that recorded the composition of the primitive Tarim basaltic melts and the partition coefficient of H2O between cpx and basaltic melt. The arc-like H2O content (4.82 ± 1.00 wt.%) provides the first clear evidence that H2O plays an important role in the generation of CFB.

  11. High water content in primitive continental flood basalts.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qun-Ke; Bi, Yao; Li, Pei; Tian, Wei; Wei, Xun; Chen, Han-Lin

    2016-01-01

    As the main constituent of large igneous provinces, the generation of continental flood basalts (CFB) that are characterized by huge eruption volume (>10(5) km(3)) within short time span (<1-3 Ma) is in principle caused by an abnormally high temperature, extended decompression, a certain amount of mafic source rocks (e.g., pyroxenite), or an elevated H2O content in the mantle source. These four factors are not mutually exclusive. There are growing evidences for high temperature, decompression and mafic source rocks, albeit with hot debate. However, there is currently no convincing evidence of high water content in the source of CFB. We retrieved the initial H2O content of the primitive CFB in the early Permian Tarim large igneous province (NW China), using the H2O content of ten early-formed clinopyroxene (cpx) crystals that recorded the composition of the primitive Tarim basaltic melts and the partition coefficient of H2O between cpx and basaltic melt. The arc-like H2O content (4.82 ± 1.00 wt.%) provides the first clear evidence that H2O plays an important role in the generation of CFB. PMID:27143196

  12. High water content in primitive continental flood basalts.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qun-Ke; Bi, Yao; Li, Pei; Tian, Wei; Wei, Xun; Chen, Han-Lin

    2016-05-04

    As the main constituent of large igneous provinces, the generation of continental flood basalts (CFB) that are characterized by huge eruption volume (>10(5) km(3)) within short time span (<1-3 Ma) is in principle caused by an abnormally high temperature, extended decompression, a certain amount of mafic source rocks (e.g., pyroxenite), or an elevated H2O content in the mantle source. These four factors are not mutually exclusive. There are growing evidences for high temperature, decompression and mafic source rocks, albeit with hot debate. However, there is currently no convincing evidence of high water content in the source of CFB. We retrieved the initial H2O content of the primitive CFB in the early Permian Tarim large igneous province (NW China), using the H2O content of ten early-formed clinopyroxene (cpx) crystals that recorded the composition of the primitive Tarim basaltic melts and the partition coefficient of H2O between cpx and basaltic melt. The arc-like H2O content (4.82 ± 1.00 wt.%) provides the first clear evidence that H2O plays an important role in the generation of CFB.

  13. High water content in primitive continental flood basalts

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Qun-Ke; Bi, Yao; Li, Pei; Tian, Wei; Wei, Xun; Chen, Han-Lin

    2016-01-01

    As the main constituent of large igneous provinces, the generation of continental flood basalts (CFB) that are characterized by huge eruption volume (>105 km3) within short time span (<1–3 Ma) is in principle caused by an abnormally high temperature, extended decompression, a certain amount of mafic source rocks (e.g., pyroxenite), or an elevated H2O content in the mantle source. These four factors are not mutually exclusive. There are growing evidences for high temperature, decompression and mafic source rocks, albeit with hot debate. However, there is currently no convincing evidence of high water content in the source of CFB. We retrieved the initial H2O content of the primitive CFB in the early Permian Tarim large igneous province (NW China), using the H2O content of ten early-formed clinopyroxene (cpx) crystals that recorded the composition of the primitive Tarim basaltic melts and the partition coefficient of H2O between cpx and basaltic melt. The arc-like H2O content (4.82 ± 1.00 wt.%) provides the first clear evidence that H2O plays an important role in the generation of CFB. PMID:27143196

  14. Matching conjugate volcanic rifted margins: 40Ar/ 39Ar chrono-stratigraphy of pre- and syn-rift bimodal flood volcanism in Ethiopia and Yemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukstins, Ingrid A.; Renne, Paul R.; Wolfenden, Ellen; Baker, Joel; Ayalew, Dereje; Menzies, Martin

    2002-05-01

    40Ar/ 39Ar dating of mineral separates and whole-rock samples of rhyolitic ignimbrites and basaltic lavas from the pre- and syn-rift flood volcanic units of northern Ethiopia provides a temporal link between the Ethiopian and Yemen conjugate rifted volcanic margins. Sixteen new 40Ar/ 39Ar dates confirm that basaltic flood volcanism in Ethiopia was contemporaneous with flood volcanism on the conjugate margin in Yemen. The new data also establish that flood volcanism initiated prior to 30.9 Ma in Ethiopia and may predate initiation of similar magmatic activity in Yemen by ˜0.2-2.0 Myr. Rhyolitic volcanism in Ethiopia commenced at 30.2 Ma, contemporaneous with the first rhyolitic ignimbrite unit in Yemen at ˜30 Ma. Accurate and precise 40Ar/ 39Ar dates on initial rhyolitic ignimbrite eruptions suggest that silicic flood volcanism in Afro-Arabia post-dates the Oligocene Oi2 global cooling event, ruling out a causative link between these explosive silicic eruptions (with individual volumes ≥200 km 3) and climatic cooling which produced the first major expansion of the Antarctic ice sheets. Ethiopian volcanism shows a progressive and systematic younging from north to south along the escarpment and parallel to the rifted margin, from pre-rift flood volcanics in the north to syn-rift northern Main Ethiopian Rift volcanism in the south. A dramatic decrease in volcanic activity in Ethiopia between 25 and 20 Ma correlates with a prominent break-up unconformity in Yemen (26-19 Ma), both of which mark the transition from pre- to syn-rift volcanism (˜25-26 Ma) triggered by the separation of Africa and Arabia. The architecture of the Ethiopian margin is characterized by accumulation and preservation of syn-rift volcanism, while the Yemen margin was shaped by denudational unloading and magmatic starvation as the Arabian plate rifted away from the Afar plume. A second magmatic hiatus and angular unconformity in the northern Main Ethiopian Rift is evident at 10.6-3.2 Ma, and is

  15. Volcanological aspects of the northwest region of Paraná continental flood basalts (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braz Machado, F.; Reis Viana Rocha-Júnior, E.; Soares Marques, L.; Ranalli Nardy, A. J.

    2015-02-01

    There has been little research on volcanological aspects of Paraná continental flood basalts (PCFBs), and all investigations have mainly been concentrated on the internal portions of the lava flows. Thus, this study describes for the first time morphological aspects of lava flows and structural characteristics caused by lava-sediment interaction in the northwestern PCFB province (NW-PCFB). Early Cretaceous (134 to 132 Ma) tholeiitic rocks of the PCFB were emplaced on a large intracratonic Paleozoic sedimentary basin (Paraná Basin), mainly covering dry eolian sandstones (Botucatu Formation). As this sedimentary unit is overlain by the basic lava flows of the PCFB, the interaction of lavas and unconsolidated sediments resulted in the generation of fluidal peperites. This aspect is significant because it shows that restricted wet environments should have existed in the Botucatu desert. The peperite zones of the NW-PCFB are associated with compound pahoehoe-type (P-type) flows and are always related to the first volcanic pulses. These flows have dispersed vesicles and sand-filled cracks in their base and top borders, as well as the presence of interlayered sandstones with irregular contacts and varied thicknesses. It is remarkable that, to the best of current knowledge, only in this area of the whole PCFB did the volcanic activity start with low-Ti basalt flows of Ribeira type (TiO2 < 2.3 wt%), which are scarce in the province.

  16. Diary of a flood basalt: A stratigraphic tour of two sections within the Oligocene Ethiopian Traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooney, T. O.; Bradley, B. L.; Krans, S. R.; Kappelman, J. W.; Yirgu, G.; Ayalew, D.

    2015-12-01

    Flood basalts are the most significant magmatic events on the planet, influencing our environment by modifying the lithosphere and atmosphere. Our understanding of flood basalt processes comes almost entirely from within the rock record - typically a vast pile of basaltic lavas, hiatuses, and sedimentary horizons. Stratigraphic continuity is thus a critical characteristic to constrain the processes associated with the formation of flood basalt provinces. Oceanic flood basalts are difficult to access in situ, leaving continental equivalents our primary target. The Oligocene Ethiopian Traps is among the youngest and most intact flood basalt provinces, making this a premier region to examine flood basalt stratigraphy. Leveraging recent road building, we have constructed a flow by flow stratigraphy for two ~1500m independent sections of the Low-Ti region of the Ethiopian traps, separated by ~70 km. These sections lie towards the edge of the modern exposure of the Ethiopian flood basalts, however the remarkable parallelism of flows and the lack of evidence of pinching suggests that the province was significantly more aerially extensive towards the west. For the most continuous ~1200m section, median flow thickness is about ~15m in the lower ~400m and upper ~400m of the flood basalt sequence, but flows thin significantly to a median of 4m in the central portion of this sequence. The petrography shows distinctive patterns through the pile: largely aphyric and clinopyroxene/olivine phyric flows are more common towards the base of the sequence and transition to largely plagioclase phyric basalts. At the top of the flood basalt pile a further transition from plagioclase phyric to largely aphyric flows is observed. Paleosols become more frequent and are thicker towards the top of the sequence. These observations point to a gradual temporal shift in the differentiation depths and flux of magmas entering the Ethiopian lithosphere.

  17. The source and longevity of sulfur in an Icelandic flood basalt eruption plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Edmonds, Marie; Mather, Tamsin; Schmidt, Anja; Hartley, Margaret; Oppenheimer, Clive; Pope, Francis; Donovan, Amy; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Maclennan, John; Shorttle, Oliver; Francis, Peter; Bergsson, Baldur; Barsotti, Sara; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Bali, Eniko; Keller, Nicole; Stefansson, Andri

    2015-04-01

    The Holuhraun fissure eruption (Bárðarbunga volcanic system, central Iceland) has been ongoing since 31 August 2014 and is now the largest in Europe since the 1783-84 Laki event. For the first time in the modern age we have the opportunity to study at first hand the environmental impact of a flood basalt fissure eruption (>1 km3 lava). Flood basalt eruptions are one of the most hazardous volcanic scenarios in Iceland and have had enormous societal and economic consequences across the northern hemisphere in the past. The Laki eruption caused the deaths of >20% of the Icelandic population by environmental pollution and famine and potentially also increased European levels of mortality through air pollution by sulphur-bearing gas and aerosol. A flood basalt eruption was included in the UK National Risk Register in 2012 as one of the highest priority risks. The gas emissions from Holuhraun have been sustained since its beginning, repeatedly causing severe air pollution in populated areas in Iceland. During 18-22 September, SO2 fluxes reached 45 kt/day, a rate of outgassing rarely observed during sustained eruptions, suggesting that the sulfur loading per kg of erupted magma exceeds both that of other recent eruptions in Iceland and perhaps also other historic basaltic eruptions globally. This raises key questions regarding the origin of these prodigious quantities of sulphur. A lack of understanding of the source of this sulfur, the conversion rates of SO2 gas into aerosol, the residence times of aerosol in the plume and the dependence of these on meteorological factors is limiting our confidence in the ability of atmospheric models to forecast gas and aerosol concentrations in the near- and far-field from Icelandic flood basalt eruptions. In 2015 our group is undertaking a project funded by UK NERC urgency scheme to investigate several aspects of the sulfur budget at Holuhraun using a novel and powerful approach involving simultaneous tracking of sulfur and

  18. Whole rock major element chemistry of KREEP basalt clasts in lunar breccia 15205: Implications for the petrogenesis of volcanic KREEP basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vetter, Scott K.; Shervais, John W.

    1993-01-01

    KREEP basalts are a major component of soils and regolith at the Apollo 15 site. Their origin is controversial: both endogenous (volcanic) and exogenous (impact melt) processes have been proposed, but it is now generally agreed that KREEP basalts are volcanic rocks derived from the nearby Apennine Bench formation. Because most pristine KREEP basalts are found only as small clasts in polymict lunar breccias, reliable chemical data are scarce. The primary aim of this study is to characterize the range in chemical composition of pristine KREEP basalt, and to use these data to decipher the petrogenesis of these unique volcanic rocks.

  19. What happened at the start of the Siberian Traps? Understanding the onset of flood volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerram, D. A.; Svensen, H.; Planke, S.; Polozov, A. G.; Faleide, J.; Sokalska, E.

    2013-12-01

    The Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province was formed during the end-Permian, about 251 million years ago. Basaltic melt was injected into the organic and salt rich Tunguska sedimentary basin, forming interconnected sill complexes and associated hydrothermal vent complexes. We have conducted field work in Siberia during 2004 to 2010 to study the formation and implications of the SiberianTraps volcanism. Thick deposits of basaltic tuff and tephra have been reported as widespread in the lower succession of the Siberian Traps, commonly taken as direct evidence for the explosive nature of the initial phase of volcanism. The field work in this study revealed that tuffs are virtually absent along a 125 km long transect along the Dyupkun lake, even though tuff is shown on available geological maps. Towards the south and west, the transition between the end-Permian sediments and the flood basalts is either characterized by minor (<2 meters) to no tephra deposits (Khantaika area), hyaloclastites and associated lake-deposited tephra (Kureika area), or massive tephra deposits from local eruptive centers (Severnaya area). Within the intrusive complexes beneath the volcanics, contact metamorphism of the sedimentary rocks around dolerite sills and dikes generated greenhouse gases and halocarbons to such an extent that the process could be responsible for both the end-Permian carbon isotope excursion and the mass extinction. The key processes include 1) metamorphism of oil-saturated rock salt sequences (halocarbon production), 2) methane generation from metamorphism of organic-rich shales (methane production), and 3) decarbonation of dolostones (carbon dioxide production). The new results questions the notion of province-scale explosive volcanism in Siberia during the onset of flood volcanism, with more specific impact coming from vent complexes associated with the intrusions.

  20. Age and Duration of the Paraná-Etendeka Flood Basalts and Related Plumbing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renne, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Paraná-Etendeka Igneous Province (PEIP) comprises a large volume sequence of continental flood basalts presently distributed assymetrically between South America (mainly southern Brazil but also parts of Uruguay, Paraguay and Argentina) and southwestern Africa (Namibia, Angola), following opening of the South Atlantic ocean. The PEIP is dominated by tholeiitic basalts to basaltic andesites, with subordinate silicic rocks spanning the dacite-trachyte-rhyolite fields, which occur as lava flows, sills and dike swarms as well as intrusive complexes closely related to the eruptive rocks. The PEIP has long been subject of 40Ar/39Ar geochronologic and paleomagnetic studies which led to conclude its rapid formation near the Hauterivian stage (~133 Ma) with onward progression to Barremian from the intrusive equivalents exposed northwards. Two decades after publication of the first 40Ar/39Ar ages for the Paraná flood basalts (Renne et al., 1992) we report here an updated study of the age and duration of this magmatic event. We calibrated a set of sixty published and new results to the calibration of Renne et al. (2011), which indicates an inception age of the volcanism now estimated at 135 ± 1 Ma, before the initiation of sea floor spreading. Lava extrusion progressed over ~2 Ma from south to north. A protracted duration of ~10 Ma inferred by Stewart et al. (1996) for PEIP volcanism is clearly incorrect, as also concluded by Thiede and Vasconcelos (2010). Low-Ti mafic magmas prevailed during the earlier stages followed over time by enhanced dominance of their silicic equivalents. Eruption of the high-Ti (mafic and silicic) magmas initiated simultaneously ~0.5 m.y. later, continuing up to ~133 Ma with injection of the Ponta Grossa dyke swarm. Despite several paleomagnetic polarity intervals recorded by the lava piles in the southern (> 27°S) and central (latitudes of ~24-27°S) domains of the Brazilian PEIP, the paleomagnetic data show small dispersion in agreement

  1. Differential Bacterial Colonization of Volcanic Minerals in Deep Thermal Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. R.; Popa, R.; Fisk, M. R.; Nielsen, M.; Wheat, G.; Jannasch, H.; Fisher, A.; Sievert, S.

    2010-04-01

    There are reports of microbial weathering patterns in volcanic glass and minerals of both terrestrial and Martian origin. Volcanic minerals are colonized differentially in subsurface hydrothermal environments by a variety of physiological types.

  2. Comparing the evidence relevant to impact and flood basalt at times of major mass extinctions.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Walter

    2003-01-01

    The five major mass extinctions identified in 1982 by Raup and Sepkoski have expanded to six, with the suggestion that the Permian-Triassic extinction was a double event. Is there a general explanation for great mass extinctions, or can they result from different triggers, or even from internal system instabilities? The two most-discussed candidates for a general extinction mechanism are impacts and flood-basalt eruptions. A compilation of evidence for impact at the times of mass extinctions shows that this cause is abundantly confirmed in the case of the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction and the late Eocene, which is a time of minor and gradual extinction, but little or no evidence connects other major extinctions to impact. On the other hand, there is a remarkable time correlation between flood basalts and four major extinctions, but no other evidence that flood basalts cause mass extinctions. The evidence for an impact-extinction linkage is strikingly different from that for a connection between flood basalts and extinctions. Flood basalts cover larger areas than craters and their associated thick ejecta blankets, which are thus less likely to be found. Impacts distribute proxies globally at instantaneous time horizons, whereas flood-basalt events are extended in time, and no remote proxies have been recognized. Many global killing mechanisms have been proposed in the case of impacts, but few have been suggested for flood basalts. It is possible that flood basalts are triggered by impact, but it is not obvious how impacts could result from anything other than chance. The hypothesis that impacts are the general cause of mass extinctions has not received supporting evidence, but has not been falsified. The hypothesis that flood basalts are the general cause of mass extinctions is supported by evidence from timing, but is not susceptible to falsification. Other candidates for general extinction causes, especially sea-level changes and system instabilities, would

  3. Comparing the evidence relevant to impact and flood basalt at times of major mass extinctions.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Walter

    2003-01-01

    The five major mass extinctions identified in 1982 by Raup and Sepkoski have expanded to six, with the suggestion that the Permian-Triassic extinction was a double event. Is there a general explanation for great mass extinctions, or can they result from different triggers, or even from internal system instabilities? The two most-discussed candidates for a general extinction mechanism are impacts and flood-basalt eruptions. A compilation of evidence for impact at the times of mass extinctions shows that this cause is abundantly confirmed in the case of the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction and the late Eocene, which is a time of minor and gradual extinction, but little or no evidence connects other major extinctions to impact. On the other hand, there is a remarkable time correlation between flood basalts and four major extinctions, but no other evidence that flood basalts cause mass extinctions. The evidence for an impact-extinction linkage is strikingly different from that for a connection between flood basalts and extinctions. Flood basalts cover larger areas than craters and their associated thick ejecta blankets, which are thus less likely to be found. Impacts distribute proxies globally at instantaneous time horizons, whereas flood-basalt events are extended in time, and no remote proxies have been recognized. Many global killing mechanisms have been proposed in the case of impacts, but few have been suggested for flood basalts. It is possible that flood basalts are triggered by impact, but it is not obvious how impacts could result from anything other than chance. The hypothesis that impacts are the general cause of mass extinctions has not received supporting evidence, but has not been falsified. The hypothesis that flood basalts are the general cause of mass extinctions is supported by evidence from timing, but is not susceptible to falsification. Other candidates for general extinction causes, especially sea-level changes and system instabilities, would

  4. Flood Volcanism in the Northern High Latitudes of Mercury Revealed by MESSENGER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, James W.; Chapman, Clark R.; Strom, Robert G.; Fassett, Caleb I.; Denevi, Brett W.; Blewett, David T.; Ernst, Carolyn M.; Watters, Thomas R.; Solomon, Sean C.; Murchie, Scott L.; Prockter, Louise M.; Chabot, Nancy L.; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Whitten, Jennifer L.; Goudge, Timothy A.; Baker, David M. H.; Hurwitz, Debra M.; Ostrach, Lillian R.; Xiao, Zhiyong; Merline, William J.; Kerber, Laura; Dickson, James L.; Oberst, Jürgen; Byrne, Paul K.; Klimczak, Christian; Nittler, Larry R.

    2011-09-01

    MESSENGER observations from Mercury orbit reveal that a large contiguous expanse of smooth plains covers much of Mercury’s high northern latitudes and occupies more than 6% of the planet’s surface area. These plains are smooth, embay other landforms, are distinct in color, show several flow features, and partially or completely bury impact craters, the sizes of which indicate plains thicknesses of more than 1 kilometer and multiple phases of emplacement. These characteristics, as well as associated features, interpreted to have formed by thermal erosion, indicate emplacement in a flood-basalt style, consistent with x-ray spectrometric data indicating surface compositions intermediate between those of basalts and komatiites. The plains formed after the Caloris impact basin, confirming that volcanism was a globally extensive process in Mercury’s post-heavy bombardment era.

  5. Flood volcanism in the northern high latitudes of Mercury revealed by MESSENGER.

    PubMed

    Head, James W; Chapman, Clark R; Strom, Robert G; Fassett, Caleb I; Denevi, Brett W; Blewett, David T; Ernst, Carolyn M; Watters, Thomas R; Solomon, Sean C; Murchie, Scott L; Prockter, Louise M; Chabot, Nancy L; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J; Whitten, Jennifer L; Goudge, Timothy A; Baker, David M H; Hurwitz, Debra M; Ostrach, Lillian R; Xiao, Zhiyong; Merline, William J; Kerber, Laura; Dickson, James L; Oberst, Jürgen; Byrne, Paul K; Klimczak, Christian; Nittler, Larry R

    2011-09-30

    MESSENGER observations from Mercury orbit reveal that a large contiguous expanse of smooth plains covers much of Mercury's high northern latitudes and occupies more than 6% of the planet's surface area. These plains are smooth, embay other landforms, are distinct in color, show several flow features, and partially or completely bury impact craters, the sizes of which indicate plains thicknesses of more than 1 kilometer and multiple phases of emplacement. These characteristics, as well as associated features, interpreted to have formed by thermal erosion, indicate emplacement in a flood-basalt style, consistent with x-ray spectrometric data indicating surface compositions intermediate between those of basalts and komatiites. The plains formed after the Caloris impact basin, confirming that volcanism was a globally extensive process in Mercury's post-heavy bombardment era. PMID:21960625

  6. Timing of volcanism along the northern East Pacific Rise based on paleointensity experiments on basaltic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlut, J.; Cormier, M.-H.; Kent, D. V.; Donnelly, K. E.; Langmuir, C. H.

    2004-04-01

    Samples from two adjacent and contrasting ridge segments along the East Pacific Rise were measured for their magnetic paleointensity in order to further explore the possibilities of dating very young volcanic samples using secular variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The ridge segment north of the Orozco transform fault (15°22'-16°20'N) is the shallowest and broadest along more than 5000 km of the East Pacific Rise, whereas the adjacent segment to the north (16°16'-18°N) has a "typical" morphology for its intermediate spreading rate. Both ridge segments were densely sampled during the PANR01MV cruise and 36 samples of axial lava flows, consisting mainly of glasses from the rims of the flows and some fragments of lobate basalts, were selected from this collection for paleointensity experiments. The Coe version of the Thellier double-heating procedure (in air) was used. Twenty-seven units provide internally consistent paleointensity estimates leading to precise estimates of the paleofield, which range between 8 μT and 57 μT. Comparisons with reference paleointensity curves compiled from subaerial flows, archeomagnetic data and sedimentary records projected to the sampling site coordinates show that the measured values can be used to constrain the volcanic history of the ridge segments over the past few thousand years. A good agreement was found between apparent "freshness" of the glasses, the geochemistry of the lavas, and their magnetic paleointensity values. The inflated southern segment seems characterized by recent activities as indicated by numerous flows with paleointensities clustering around today's value (39 μT) or around the high values typical of 2000-3000 years ago (˜55 μT). We interpret this distribution to indicate the flooding by effusive lava flows of the entire axial plateau some 2000-3000 years ago, followed by a volcanic phase producing smaller volume lava flows confined to the innermost 200 m of the ridge axis. The northern ridge

  7. 40Ar/39Ar dates from the West Siberian Basin: Siberian flood basalt province doubled.

    PubMed

    Reichow, Marc K; Saunders, Andrew D; White, Rosalind V; Pringle, Malcolm S; Al'Mukhamedov, Alexander I; Medvedev, Alexander I; Kirda, Nikolay P

    2002-06-01

    Widespread basaltic volcanism occurred in the region of the West Siberian Basin in central Russia during Permo-Triassic times. New 40Ar/39Ar age determinations on plagioclase grains from deep boreholes in the basin reveal that the basalts were erupted 249.4 +/- 0.5 million years ago. This is synchronous with the bulk of the Siberian Traps, erupted further east on the Siberian Platform. The age and geochemical data confirm that the West Siberian Basin basalts are part of the Siberian Traps and at least double the confirmed area of the volcanic province as a whole. The larger area of volcanism strengthens the link between the volcanism and the end-Permian mass extinction. PMID:12052954

  8. Architecture and emplacement of flood basalt flow fields: case studies from the Columbia River Basalt Group, NW USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vye-Brown, C.; Self, S.; Barry, T. L.

    2013-03-01

    The physical features and morphologies of collections of lava bodies emplaced during single eruptions (known as flow fields) can be used to understand flood basalt emplacement mechanisms. Characteristics and internal features of lava lobes and whole flow field morphologies result from the forward propagation, radial spread, and cooling of individual lobes and are used as a tool to understand the architecture of extensive flood basalt lavas. The features of three flood basalt flow fields from the Columbia River Basalt Group are presented, including the Palouse Falls flow field, a small (8,890 km2, ˜190 km3) unit by common flood basalt proportions, and visualized in three dimensions. The architecture of the Palouse Falls flow field is compared to the complex Ginkgo and more extensive Sand Hollow flow fields to investigate the degree to which simple emplacement models represent the style, as well as the spatial and temporal developments, of flow fields. Evidence from each flow field supports emplacement by inflation as the predominant mechanism producing thick lobes. Inflation enables existing lobes to transmit lava to form new lobes, thus extending the advance and spread of lava flow fields. Minimum emplacement timescales calculated for each flow field are 19.3 years for Palouse Falls, 8.3 years for Ginkgo, and 16.9 years for Sand Hollow. Simple flow fields can be traced from vent to distal areas and an emplacement sequence visualized, but those with multiple-layered lobes present a degree of complexity that make lava pathways and emplacement sequences more difficult to identify.

  9. Lava tubes from the Paraná-Etendeka Continental Flood Basalt Province: Morphology and importance to emplacement models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waichel, Breno L.; Tratz, Eliza B.; Pietrobelli, Gisele; Jerram, Dougal A.; Calixto, Geovane R.; Bacha, Rafael R.; Tomazzolli, Edison R.; da Silva, Wellington B.

    2013-12-01

    Lava tubes are a common feature in active volcanic areas around the world. They are related to pahoehoe and 'a'ā lava flow fields, that are predominantly basaltic, and form as the most efficient mechanism to transport lava in insulated fedder pathways. Continental Flood Basalt Provinces (CFBs) are thick volcanic sequences of predominantly basaltic lava flows and flow fields, which cover huge areas and are often related to continental breakup. The proposed emplacement model for CFB's is synonymous with the inflation processes observed in modern active flows. Although pahoehoe and 'a'ā lava flows are recognized in CFB's provinces, good examples of lava tubes, pipes or tube systems are rarely reported. Lava feeder systems (tube/pipes) are a common feature of modern pahoehoe flow systems so it would be expected to find good examples in CFB's provinces formed by the same emplacement processes. Here we describe the morphology of two lava tube systems discovered in the Paraná CFB Province in Southern Brazil. Comparisons are made with active systems and the importance of CFB lava tube systems, and their recognition in the rock record, are discussed in the context of the current emplacement model.

  10. Environmental effects of magmatic sulfur emitted by large-scale flood basalt eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, A.; Skeffington, R.; Thordarson, T.; Self, S.; Forster, P.; Rap, A.; Ridgwell, A.; Fowler, D.; Wilson, M.; Mann, G.; Wignall, P.; Carslaw, K. S.

    2015-12-01

    Continental flood basalt (CFB) volcanism has been temporally, and therefore causally, linked to periods of environmental crisis in the past 260 Ma. The majority of the proposed causal relationships are, however, qualitative, in particular the potential climatic and environmental effects of large amounts of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted to the atmosphere. CFB provinces are typically formed by numerous individual eruptions, each lasting years to decades, with highly uncertain periods of quiescence lasting hundreds to thousands of years. I will present results obtained from a global aerosol-climate model set-up to simulate the sulfur-induced climatic and environmental effects of individual decade to century-long CFB eruptions. For sulfur dioxide emissions representative of a single decade-long eruption in the 65 Ma Deccan Trap Volcanic Province, the model predicts a substantial reduction in global surface temperature of 4.5 K, which is in good agreement with multi-proxy palaeo-temperature records. However, the calculated cooling is short-lived and temperatures recover within less than 50 years once volcanic activity ceases. In contrast to previous studies, I show that acid rain from decade-long eruptions cannot cause widespread vegetation stress or loss due to the buffering capacities of soils. The direct exposure of vegetation to acid mists and fogs, however, could cause damage where the exposure is high and sustained, such as at high elevations. Finally, I will use these modeling results to place constraints on the likely environmental effects and habitability by simulating different eruption frequencies and durations as well as hiatus periods and by comparing to the proxy records.

  11. Heat and Groundwater Flow through Continental Flood Basalt Provinces: Insights Gained from Alternative Models of Permeability/Depth Relationships for the Columbia Plateau, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, E. R.; Williams, C. F.; Ingebritsen, S.; Voss, C. I.; Spane, F.; DeAngelo, J.

    2014-12-01

    Heat-flow mapping of the western USA has identified an apparent low-heat-flow anomaly coincident with the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, a thick sequence of basalt aquifers within the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). A heat and mass transport model (SUTRA) was used to evaluate the potential impact of groundwater flow on heat flow along two different regional groundwater flow paths. Limited in situ permeability (k) data from the CRBG are compatible with a steep permeability decrease (~3.5 orders of magnitude) at 600-900 m depth and ~40oC. Numerical simulations incorporating this permeability decrease demonstrate that regional groundwater flow can explain lower-than-expected heat flow in these highly anisotropic (kx/kz ~104) continental flood basalts. Simulation results indicate that the abrupt reduction in permeability at ~600 m depth results in an equivalently abrupt transition from a shallow region where heat flow is affected by groundwater flow to a deeper region of conduction-dominated heat flow. Abrupt k decreases at similar temperatures have also been observed in the volcanic rocks of the adjacent Cascade Range volcanic arc and at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, where they result from low-temperature hydrothermal alteration. Because pore filling hydrothermal minerals are largely controlled by the major mineral assemblages of the volcanic rocks, other continental flood basalt provinces may also have large permeability changes at depths corresponding to ~40oC.

  12. Early and Late Alkali Igneous Pulses and a High-3He Plume Origin for the Deccan Flood Basalts.

    PubMed

    Basu, A R; Renne, P R; Dasgupta, D K; Teichmann, F; Poreda, R J

    1993-08-13

    Several alkalic igneous complexes of nephelinite-carbonatite affinities occur in extensional zones around a region of high heat flow and positive gravity anomaly within the continental flood basalt (CFB) province of Deccan, India. Biotites from two of the complexes yield (40)Ar/(39)Ar dates of 68.53 +/- 0.16 and 68.57 +/- 0.08 million years. Biotite from a third complex, which intrudes the flood basalts, yields an (40)Ar/(39)Ar date of 64.96 +/- 0.1 1 million years. The complexes thus represent early and late magmatism with respect to the main pulse of CFB volcanism 65 million years ago. Rocks from the older complexes show a (3)He/(4)He ratio of 14.0 times the air ratio, an initial (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio of 0.70483, and other geochemical characteristics similar to ocean island basalts; the later alkalic pulse shows isotopic evidence of crustal contamination. The data document 3.5 million years of incubation of a primitive, high-(3)He mantle plume before the rapid eruption of the Deccan CFB. PMID:17783739

  13. Axial focusing of impact energy in the earth`s interior: A possible link to flood basalts and hotspots

    SciTech Connect

    Boslough, M.B.; Chael, E.P.; Trucano, T.G.; Crawford, D.A.; Campbell, D.L.

    1994-12-01

    We present the results of shock physics and seismological computational simulations that show how energy from a large impact can be coupled to the interior of the Earth. The radially-diverging shock wave generated by the impact decays to linearly elastic seismic waves. These waves reconverge (minus attenuation) along the axis of symmetry between the impact and its antipode. The locations that experience the most strain cycles with the largest amplitudes will dissipate the most energy and have the largest increases in temperature (for a given attenuation efficiency). We have shown that the locus of maximum energy deposition in the mantle lies along the impact axis. Moreover, the most intense focusing is within the asthenosphere at the antipode, within the range of depths where mechanical energy is most readily converted to heat. We propose that if large impacts on the Earth leave geological evidence anywhere other than the impact site itself, it will be at the antipode. We suggest that the most likely result of the focusing for a sufficiently large impact, consistent with features observed in the geological record, would be a flood basalt eruption at the antipode followed by hotspot volcanism. A direct prediction of this model would be the existence of undiscovered impact structures whose reconstructed locations would be antipodal to flood basalt provinces. One such structure would be in the Indian Ocean, associated with the Columbia River Basalts and Yellowstone; another would be a second K/T impact structure in the Pacific Ocean, associated with the Deccan Traps and Reunion.

  14. Early and Late Alkali Igneous Pulses and a High-3He Plume Origin for the Deccan Flood Basalts.

    PubMed

    Basu, A R; Renne, P R; Dasgupta, D K; Teichmann, F; Poreda, R J

    1993-08-13

    Several alkalic igneous complexes of nephelinite-carbonatite affinities occur in extensional zones around a region of high heat flow and positive gravity anomaly within the continental flood basalt (CFB) province of Deccan, India. Biotites from two of the complexes yield (40)Ar/(39)Ar dates of 68.53 +/- 0.16 and 68.57 +/- 0.08 million years. Biotite from a third complex, which intrudes the flood basalts, yields an (40)Ar/(39)Ar date of 64.96 +/- 0.1 1 million years. The complexes thus represent early and late magmatism with respect to the main pulse of CFB volcanism 65 million years ago. Rocks from the older complexes show a (3)He/(4)He ratio of 14.0 times the air ratio, an initial (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio of 0.70483, and other geochemical characteristics similar to ocean island basalts; the later alkalic pulse shows isotopic evidence of crustal contamination. The data document 3.5 million years of incubation of a primitive, high-(3)He mantle plume before the rapid eruption of the Deccan CFB.

  15. Basaltic magmatism on the Moon. A perspective from volcanic picritic glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, C. K.; Papike, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    It is widely accepted that basaltic magmas are products of partial fusion of peridotite within planetary mantles. As such they provide valuable insights into the structure and processes of planetary interiors. Those compositions which approach primary melt compositions provide both a clearer vision of planetary interiors and a starting point at which to understand basaltic evolution. Within the collection of lunar samples returned by the Apollo and Luna missions are homogeneous, picritic glass beads of volcanic origin. These glass beads provide a unique perspective concerning the origin of mare basalts, the characteristics of the lunar interior, and processes culminating in the early differentiation of the moon. In this presentation, we report our ion microprobe derived trace element data from all picritic glasses previously identified. We place this trace element data and literature isotopic and experimental data on the picritic glasses with the framework of mare basaltic magmatism.

  16. Cenozoic basaltic volcanism in W Turkey: Implications for lithospheric thinning and extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altunkaynak, S.

    2013-05-01

    Western Anatolia (Turkey) is regarded as an eastern extension of the Alpine collision belt and was affected dominantly by convergent tectonics preceding current extensional tectonics. Three major episodes of magmatic flare-up were identified in western Anatolia: the Early to late Eocene, late Oligocene to middle Miocene and late Miocene to Quaternary. Ranging from basalt, basaltic andesite to basaltic trachyandesite, Early to late Eocene volcanic rocks include both calc-alkaline and transitional (calc-alkaline to tholeiitic) affinity. They are slightly-moderately enriched in large ion lithophile elements and light rare earth elements with respect to high field strength elements and show negative Nb, Ta, and Ti anomalies. Basaltic lavas and dikes are characterized by 87Sr/86Sr(i) compositions ranging from 0.70530 to 0.70415, positive ɛNd (2.7-6.6) and restricted Pb-isotope compositions. Late Oligocene to Middle Miocene volcanic activity produced High-K calc-alkaline basic to acid lava flows/dikes and associated pyroclastic rocks that exhibit features similar to those of Early Cenozoic Western U.S Cordillera, Great Basin, where magmatism and crustal extension overlapped in space and time. The geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic features of the Late Oligocene-Middle Miocene volcanic units suggest that both lithospheric and asthenospheric mantle melts were involved in the evolution of volcanism during this episode, with a decreasing lithospheric geochemical fingerprint by the middle Miocene, when the asthenospheric mantle source became more dominant. Late Miocene to Quaternary volcanism produced alkaline basalts that show OIB-type trace-element patterns and 87Sr/86Sr (i) (0.7033 to 0.7030) and ɛNd (i) (+6.5 to +2.5) values. These features suggest enriched asthenospheric mantle-derived melts as their main magma source. Geochemical and temporal evolution of basaltic volcanism in western Turkey indicate that the geochemical changes in the nature of volcanism from calc

  17. Low titanium magmatism in northwest region of Paraná continental flood basalts (Brazil): volcanological aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, F. B.; Viana Rocha-Júnior, E. R.; Ranalli Nardy, A. J.; Soares Marques, L.

    2014-08-01

    The early Cretaceous Paraná Continental Flood Basalts (PCFB) is considered as one of the largest volcanic provinces in the world. In Brazil, it completes the last sequence of the sedimentary Paraná Basin (Serra Geral Fm.). The geological unit is contemporary to desert sandstones of Botucatu Fm. and precedes the continental sediments of the Bauru Basin. This Large Igneous Province (LIP) is divided into different types of geochemical magmas which basically are based on TiO2 content (higher - HTi or lower LTi than 2 wt.% in TiO2) and incompatible trace elements ratio. Therefore, we studied the magma LTi (TiO2 < 2.0 wt.%), denominated Ribeira which occurs in the northwestern portion of PCFP which is poorly researched mainly in volcanological and geochemical aspects. This basaltic magma, a short expression in PCFB, occurs in the form of multiple pahoehoe flows with thicknesses ranging from 1.5 to 30 m in compound type flows under low surface slope. Peperites zones are common when associated with the first flows, and sand-filled cracks in the lower and upper edges at all pahoehoe levels when in contact with the sediment. Upward these first sequences of interactions with sediment, on the inside direction basin, simple pahoehoe flows occur being associated with Pitanga magma type (HTi, with TiO2 > 2.0 wt.%). Based on rheology data considering anhydrous environment and the composition of plagioclase (An(42-67)) and clinopyroxene (Wo(30-40)En(34-46)Fs(17-32)) showed that the LTi magma is hotter than HTi, with temperatures that range from 1069 °C to 1248 °C while for the second range from 1020 °C to 1201 °C.

  18. Experimental Parameters for Wax Modeling of the Deccan Traps Flood Basalt Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rader, E. L.; Vanderkluysen, L.; Clarke, A. B.

    2015-12-01

    The Deccan Traps consist of ~1,000,000 km3 of predominantly tholeiitic basaltic lava flows, which cover the western Indian subcontinent. Their eruption occurred over a ~1-3 million year period overlapping with the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary and, hence, has been implicated in one of the most significant extinction events in the history of the planet. The extent of environmental impacts caused by flood basalt eruptions is thought to be related, in part, to the amount, species, and timescales of volcanic gases released. Therefore, constraining the effusion rate of Deccan Traps lava flows is fundamental to understanding the K-Pg extinction event. Previous field and experimental work with polyethylene glycol (PEG) wax has shown that effusion rate is a primary factor controlling flow morphology. While sinuous flows and lava domes have been successfully recreated with PEG wax, the two most common morphologies seen in the Deccan Traps (compound and inflated sheet lobes) have not. We used heated PEG-400 wax injected into a tank of chilled water with a peristaltic pump to form experimental eruptions with high flow rate and low viscosity to replicate inflated flow lobes, and low flow rate with higher viscosity for compound flows. Unlike previous experiments, flow rate was varied during a single experiment to examine the effect on flow morphology. The Psi value is used as a scaling parameter to estimate effusion rates for compound and 'simple' inflated flows in the Deccan Traps. When combined with field work for volume estimates of the two flow types, these experiments will provide the best constraint on eruption rates to date.

  19. Upper mantle seismic structure beneath the Pacific Northwest: A plume-triggered delamination origin for the Columbia River flood basalt eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darold, Amberlee; Humphreys, Eugene

    2013-03-01

    We invert teleseismic P and S body waves constrained by an ambient-noise surface wave model and Moho depth inferred from receiver function analysis (Gao et al., 2011) to image mantle structures continuously from the surface to the base of the upper mantle. The major structures coincide with prominent geological features. We focus on a NE-Oregon structure, termed here the Wallowa anomaly, which coincides with the source area for the ˜16 Ma Columbia River flood basalt eruptions and a circular area of topographic relief created during and after these eruptions. Resolution tests indicate that the curtain-like structure previously interpreted as Farallon lithosphere connects with the Wallowa anomaly above 150 km along the northeast margin of the Wallowa anomaly. This connection, along with the pre-flood basalt magmatic and tectonic history of the Pacific Northwest, lead us to conclude that arrival of the Yellowstone plume to south-central Oregon initiated delamination of remnant Farallon lithosphere from the base of NE Oregon, exposing ocean crust to Yellowstone asthenosphere. This hypothesis accounts for the propagation of flood basalt volcanism far north of the Yellowstone hotspot track, and for the high-silica composition of most of the flood basalt magmas.

  20. Modeling Cooling Rates of Martian Flood Basalt Columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, D. K.; Jackson, B.; Milazzo, M. P.; Barnes, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Columnar jointing in large basalt flows have been extensively studied and can provide important clues about the emplacement conditions and cooling history of a basalt flow. The recent discovery of basalt columns on Mars in crater walls near Marte Vallis provides an opportunity to infer conditions on early Mars when the Martian basalt flows were laid down. Comparison of the Martian columns to Earth analogs allows us to gain further insight into the early Martian climate, and among the best terrestrial analogs are the basalt columns in the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) in eastern Washington. The CRBG is one of the youngest (< 17 Myrs old) and most extensively studied basalt provinces in the world, extending over 163,700 square km with total thickness exceeding 1 km in some places. The morphologies and textures of CRBG basalt columns suggest that in many places flows ~100 m thick cooled at uniform rates, even deep in the flow interior. Such cooling seems to require the presence of water in the column joints since the flow interiors should have cooled much more slowly than the flow margins if conductive cooling dominated. Secondary features, such pillow basalts, likewise suggest the basalt flows were in direct contact with standing water in many places. At the resolution provided by the orbiting HiRISE camera (0.9 m), the Martian basalt columns resemble the CRBG columns in many respects, and so, subject to important caveats, inferences linking the morphologies of the CRBG columns to their thermal histories can be extended in some respects to the Martian columns. In this presentation, we will describe our analysis of the HiRISE images of the Martian columns and what can be reasonably inferred about their thermal histories and the conditions under which they were emplaced. We will also report on a field expedition to the CRBG in eastern Washington State. During that expedition, we surveyed basalt column outcrops on the ground and from the air using Unmanned Aerial

  1. Siderophile and chalcophile metal variations in Tertiary picrites and basalts from West Greenland with implications for the sulphide saturation history of continental flood basalt magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keays, Reid R.; Lightfoot, Peter C.

    2007-04-01

    much more severe than that of the West Greenland contaminated basalts. Moreover, the volumes of the contaminated and metal-depleted volcanic rocks in West Greenland pale is significant when compared to the Nadezhdinsky Formation; local centers rarely contain more than 15 thin flows with a combined thickness of <50 m and more typically 10-20 m, so the volume of the eruptive portions of each system is probably two orders of magnitude smaller than the Nadezhdinsky edifice. The West Greenland centres are juxtaposed along fault zones that appear to be linked to the subsidence of the Tertiary delta, and so emplacement along N-S structures appears to be a principal control on the distribution of lavas and feeder intrusions. This leads us to suggest that the Greenland system is small and segregation of sulphide took place at high levels in the crust, whereas at Noril’sk, the saturation event took place at depth with subsequent emplacement of sulphide-bearing magmas into high levels of the crust. As a consequence, it may be unreasonable to expect that the West Greenland flood basalts experienced mineralizing processes on the scale of the Noril’sk system.

  2. Chemistry and isotope ratios of sulfur in basalts and volcanic gases at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sakai, H.; Casadevall, T.J.; Moore, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Eighteen basalts and some volcanic gases from the submarine and subaerial parts of Kilauea volcano were analyzed for the concentration and isotope ratios of sulfur. By means of a newly developed technique, sulfide and sulfate sulfur in the basalts were separately but simultaneously determined. The submarine basalt has 700 ?? 100 ppm total sulfur with ??34S??s of 0.7 ?? 0.1 ???. The sulfate/sulfide molar ratio ranges from 0.15 to 0.56 and the fractionation factor between sulfate and sulfide is +7.5 ?? 1.5???. On the other hand, the concentration and ??34S??s values of the total sulfur in the subaerial basalt are reduced to 150 ?? 50 ppm and -0.8 ?? 0.2???, respectively. The sulfate to sulfide ratio and the fractionation factor between them are also smaller, 0.01 to 0.25 and +3.0???, respectively. Chemical and isotopic evidence strongly suggests that sulfate and sulfide in the submarine basalt are in chemical and isotopic equilibria with each other at magmatic conditions. Their relative abundance and the isotope fractionation factors may be used to estimate the f{hook}o2 and temperature of these basalts at the time of their extrusion onto the sea floor. The observed change in sulfur chemistry and isotopic ratios from the submarine to subaerial basalts can be interpreted as degassing of the SO2 from basalt thereby depleting sulfate and 34S in basalt. The volcanic sulfur gases, predominantly SO2, from the 1971 and 1974 fissures in Kilauea Crater have ??34S values of 0.8 to 0.9%., slightly heavier than the total sulfur in the submarine basalts and definitely heavier than the subaerial basalts, in accord with the above model. However, the ??34S value of sulfur gases (largely SO2) from Sulfur Bank is 8.0%., implying a secondary origin of the sulfur. The ??34S values of native sulfur deposits at various sites of Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanos, sulfate ions of four deep wells and hydrogen sulfide from a geothermal well along the east rift zone are also reported. The high

  3. Neodymium and strontium isotopic composition of the Strand Fiord Basalts: Cretaceous Volcanism in the Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, K. L.; Tarduno, J. A.; Depaolo, D. J.

    2006-12-01

    The basalts of the Strand Fiord Formation present on Axel Heiberg and Ellesmere Islands in the high Canadian Arctic erupted ~95 million years ago. They appear to record part of a large magmatic event that may have affected much of the high Arctic region in the Cretaceous. Based on location and general timing, the volcanism has been tentatively linked to both the early activity of the Iceland hotspot and the Alpha ridge, a poorly understood yet prominent topographic feature in the Arctic Ocean Basin. This study attempts to use isotopic composition to better understand the nature of the Strand Fiord basalts and their relationship to nearby volcanic rocks. A section of subaerial basalt flows collected at Dragon Creek on Axel Heiberg Island have been analyzed for Nd- and Sr-isotopic compositions. The basalts have epsilon Nd(0) that range from 0 to +3.9. 87Sr/86Sr(0) values range from 0.70532 to 0.70881. These samples do not preserve the same depleted signature as the nearby Baffin Bay picrites. Volcanic rocks exposed near Audhild Bay on Ellesmere Island are proximal to volcanics of the Strand Fiord formation, but paleomagnetic polarity data indicate they are at least 12 million years younger. The samples from this region have a more depleted signature with epsilon Nd(0) of about 4.5 and 87Sr/86Sr(0) of 0.704. On the basis of these data, we tentatively conclude that the Audhild Bay and Strand Fiord volcanics share a common depleted source but the former shows more evidence of contamination by continental crust.

  4. New Insights to the Mid Miocene Calc-alkaline Lavas of the Strawberry Volcanics, NE Oregon Surrounded by the Coeval Tholeiitic Columbia River Basalt Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, A. R.; Streck, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Strawberry Volcanics (SV) of NE Oregon were distributed over 3,400 km2 during the mid-Miocene and comprise a diverse volcanic suite, which span the range of compositions from basalt to rhyolite. The predominant composition of this volcanic suite is calc-alkaline (CA) basaltic andesite and andesite, although tholeiitic (TH) lavas of basalt to andesite occur as well. The coeval flood basalts of the Columbia River province surround the SV. Here we will discuss new ages and geochemical data, and present a new geologic map and stratigraphy of the SV. The SV are emplaced on top of pre-Tertiary accreted terranes of the Blue Mountain Province, Mesozoic plutonic rocks, and older Tertiary volcanic rocks thought to be mostly Oligocene of age. Massive rhyolites (~300 m thick) are exposed mainly along the western flank and underlie the intermediate composition lavas. In the southern portion of this study area, alkali basaltic lavas, thought to be late Miocene to early Pliocene in age, erupted and overlie the SV. In addition, several regional ignimbrites reach into the area. The 9.7 Ma Devine Canyon Tuff and the 7.1 Ma Rattlesnake Tuff also overlie the SV. The 15.9-15.4 Ma Dinner Creek Tuff is mid-Miocene, and clear stratigraphic relationships are found in areas where the tuff is intercalated between thick SV lava flows. All of the basalts of the SV are TH and are dominated by phenocryst-poor (≤2%) lithologies. These basalts have an ophitic texture dominated by plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine (often weathered to iddingsite). Basalts and basaltic andesites have olivine Fo #'s ranging from 44 at the rims (where weathered to iddingsite) and as high as 88 at cores. Pyroxene Mg #'s range from 65 to 85. Andesites of the SV are sub-alkaline, and like the basalts, are exceedingly phenocryst-poor (≤3%) with microphenocrysts of plagioclase and lesser pyroxene and olivine, which occasionally occur as crystal clots of ~1-3 mm instead of single crystals. In addition, minimal

  5. Basal Adare volcanics, Robertson Bay, North Victoria Land, Antarctica: Late Miocene intraplate basalts of subaqueous origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mortimer, N.; Dunlap, W.J.; Isaac, M.J.; Sutherland, R.P.; Faure, K.

    2007-01-01

    Late Cenozoic lavas and associated hyaloclastite breccias of the Adare volcanics (Hallett volcanic province) in Robertson Bay, North Victoria Land rest unconformably on Paleozoic greywackes. Abundant hyaloclastite breccias are confined to a paleovalley; their primary geological features, and the stable isotope ratios of secondary minerals, are consistent with eruption in a subaqueous environment with calcite formation probably involving seawater. In contrast, the lavas which stratigraphically overlie the hyaloclastites on Mayr Spur probably were erupted subaerially. K-Ar dating of eight samples from this basal sequence confirms the known older age limit (Late Miocene) of the Hallett volcanic province. Geochemical data reveal an ocean island basalt-like affinity, similar to other Cenozoic igneous rocks of the Hallett volcanic province. If a submarine eruptive paleoenvironment is accepted then there has been net tectonic or isostatic post-Late Miocene uplift of a few hundred metres in the Robertson Bay-Adare Peninsula area

  6. Flood-basalt magmatism of the Vodlozero Block of the Karelian Craton: relations between high- and low-Cr Varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogina, Maria; Zlobin, Valeriy; Sharkov, Evgenii; Chistyakov, Alexii

    2016-04-01

    The early Paleoproterozoic (2.5-2.3 Ga) volcanic rocks of the Karelian Craton are ascribed to the large igneous province of the eastern Fennoscandian Shield. They are mainly represented by calc-alkaline low-Ti basalts and basaltic andesites with relatively high SiO2 and clearly pronounced continental trace element signatures. The compositions of the rocks vary in the different domains of the Karelian craton. In particular, basalts developed in the Central Domain are represented by strongly fractionated varieties (Mg # < 50), which cannot be used to decipher the source composition. Basaltic rocks of the Vodlozero Block are clustered in two groups. The first group is usually developed in the lower parts of the early Paleopoterozoic volcanic sequences and includes the low Cr (< 200 ppm), low Mg rocks similar to the fractionated varieties developed in the Central Domain. They are characterized by high contents of Zr, Y, and REE, and LILE, fractionated REE patterns with (La/Yb)n = 5.44-12.34, (La/Sm)n = 4.4-2.03, and (Gd/Yb)n = 1.36-2.71), and demonstrate negative Ti and Nb anomalies. The second group is represented by more primitive high Cr (up to 1000 ppm) high Mg# (up to 68) basalts with high Ni contents. Such composition is close to the primary non-fractionated mantle-derived magmas and may be used to provide insight into parental melts of continental flood basalts and their crustal evolution. In the spidergrams they demonstrate weak positive Ti anomaly at positive or absent Zr anomaly and negative Nb anomaly. The rocks of the second group are also characterized (with rare exception) by LREE enriched but less fractionated patterns than the first group: ((La/Yb)n up to 7.5, (La/Sm)n = up to 2.8, (Gd/Yb)n = up to 2.0). High Cr and low Y contents are indicative of relatively high degree of partial melting of a depleted mantle source. These rocks are simulated by sequential fractionation of uncontaminated continental flood basalts leaving Ol residue and lower crustal

  7. Volcanic red-bed copper mineralisation related to submarine basalt alteration, Mont Alexandre, Quebec Appalachians, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Alexandre Raphael; Beaudoin, Georges

    2007-11-01

    Two types of native copper occur in Upper Silurian basaltic rocks in the Mont Alexandre area, Quebec Appalachians: (1) type 1 forms micrometric inclusions in plagioclase and is possibly magmatic in origin, whereas (2) type 2 occurs as coarse-grained patches rimmed by cuprite in altered porphyritic basalt. Type 1 has higher contents of sulphur (2,000-20,263 ppm) and arsenic (146-6,017 ppm), and a broader range of silver abundances (<65-2,186 ppm Ag) than type 2 (149-1,288 ppm S, <90-146 As, <65-928 ppm Ag). No mineral inclusions of sulphide or arsenide in native copper were observed at the electron-microprobe scale. Primary igneous fabrics are preserved, but the basaltic flows are pervasively oxidised and plagioclase is albitised. Chlorite replaces plagioclase and forms interstitial aggregates in the groundmass and has Fe/(Fe+Mg) ratios ranging from 0.29 to 0.36 with calculated temperatures between 155°C and 182°C. Copper sulphides in vacuoles and veinlets are associated with malachite, fibro-radiating albite and yarrowite (Cu9S8 with up to 0.3 wt% Ag). Bulk-rock concentrations of thallium and lithium range from 70 to 310 ppb and 10 to 22 ppm, respectively, and thallium is positively correlated with Fe2O3. Such concentrations of thallium and lithium are typical of spilitisation during heated seawater-basalt interaction. Spilitisation is consistent with the regional geological setting of deepwater-facies sedimentation, but is different from current models for volcanic red-bed copper, which indicate subaerial oxidation of volcanic flows. The volcanic red-bed copper model should be re-examined to account for native copper mineralisation in basalts altered by warm seawater.

  8. Helium Isotopes in Basalt-Hosted Olivines From the Yellowstone Plateau: Implications on Volcanic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedini, A. A.; van Soest, M.; Hurwitz, S.; Kennedy, B. M.

    2006-12-01

    The Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field is the youngest part of a magmatic system that began its northeastward propagation along the path of the eastern Snake River Plain in the mid-Miocene. Previous noble gas isotopic studies in Yellowstone have focused on samples from hydrothermal features. Such samples are often subject to shallow crustal contamination that may mask a deeper magmatic component. Most of the reported He-isotope ratios within the Yellowstone caldera perimeter are ~7 ± 1 RA, with peaks occurring around Mud Volcano (~16 RA) and Gibbon Geyser Basin (~13 RA). Outside the caldera, the He-isotope ratios generally drop to <3 RA. The elevated helium isotope data from Mud Volcano and Gibbon Geyser Basin was interpreted as unequivocal evidence for the presence of a deep mantle plume underlying the Yellowstone volcanic field (Craig et al., 1978; Kennedy et al., 1985). However, in an attempt to reconcile the available geochemical and geophysical data some researchers argue solely for a shallow mantle source for the magmatism related to Yellowstone (Christiansen et al., 2002). To gain a better understanding of the helium isotope composition of the mantle source below Yellowstone and its possible changes in time, we have started a study of helium isotopes in basalt-hosted olivines from the Yellowstone volcanic field. A total of 28 samples representing most basalt units from Yellowstone's three eruptive cycles were collected. All of the exposed basalts are located outside the Yellowstone caldera, mainly near Mammoth Hot Springs and Tower Junction to the north and in the Island Park area to the southwest. Most basalts contain 46-52 wt% SIO2, 8-12 wt% FeO, and 0.16-0.23 wt% MgO. Helium was released from aliquots of ~1.5 g olivine by crushing in vacuo, and initial helium isotope results, corrected for 10-15% procedural blank include: 1. The Gerrit basalt from Island Park, with a ratio of 15.7 ± 2.2 RA; 2. Falls River basalt from Island Park, 15.1 ± 0.8 RA; 3. Warm

  9. Weak-intensity, basaltic, explosive volcanism: Dynamics of Hawaiian fountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parcheta, Carolyn

    Hawaiian fountains, typically occurring on basaltic volcanoes, are sustained, weakly-explosive jets of gas and juvenile ejecta. A broad range of Hawaiian fountaining styles occurred during twelve episodes of the Mauna Ulu eruption on Kilauea between May and December 1969. The western episode 1 fissure system is currently well exposed, providing an exclusive opportunity to study processes of low-intensity fissure fountains. Episode 1 fountains occurred along a 5 km long fissure system that exploited the eastern-most kilometer of the Ko'ai fault system. A low, near-continuous, spatter rampart is present on the northern upwind and upslope side of the fissure. Most pyroclastic products, however, fell downwind to the south and little was preserved because of two processes: 1) incorporation of proximal spatter in rheomorphic lava flows 10--20 meters from the vents, and 2) downslope transport of cooler spatter falling on top of these flows >20 meters from vent. There is a clear 'lava-shed' delineation between lava that drained back into the fissure and lava that continued flowing into the flowfield. Vents range in surface geometry from linear--circular, with superimposed irregularity and sinuosity, and range from straight-sided--flaring cross-sectional geometries. Irregularity results from joints in the pre-existing wall rock. Sinuosity results from the local stress field. Geometry of non-flared vents could indicate the true geometry of the dike. Flared vents likely formed through mechanical erosion and thermo-mechanical abrasion. Vent positions along the fissure likely resulted from flow focusing. Uniquely, these vents drained and remain unobstructed (some >100 m depth), despite subsequent nearby eruptive activity. Three vents were imaged .16 m in depth at <4 cm resolution with tripodmounted LiDAR. Textural analyses of pyroclasts from eruptive episodes 2.12 show three distinct degassing and outgassing paths: 1) rapid degassing and quenching with minimal outgassing, 2

  10. Magmatic inclusions in rhyolites, contaminated basalts, and compositional zonation beneath the Coso volcanic field, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, C.R.; Metz, J.

    1984-01-01

    Basaltic lava flows and high-silica rhyolite domes form the Pleistocene part of the Coso volcanic field in southeastern California. The distribution of vents maps the areal zonation inferred for the upper parts of the Coso magmatic system. Subalkalic basalts (<50% SiO2) were erupted well away from the rhyolite field at any given time. Compositional variation among these basalts can be ascribed to crystal fractionation. Erupted volumes of these basalts decrease with increasing differentiation. Mafic lavas containing up to 58% SiO2, erupted adjacent to the rhyolite field, formed by mixing of basaltic and silicic magma. Basaltic magma interacted with crustal rocks to form other SiO2-rich mafic lavas erupted near the Sierra Nevada fault zone. Several rhyolite domes in the Coso volcanic field contain sparse andesitic inclusions (55-61% SiO2). Pillow-like forms, intricate commingling and local diffusive mixing of andesite and rhyolite at contacts, concentric vesicle distribution, and crystal morphologies indicative of undercooling show that inclusions were incorporated in their rhyolitic hosts as blobs of magma. Inclusions were probably dispersed throughout small volumes of rhyolitic magma by convective (mechanical) mixing. Inclusion magma was formed by mixing (hybridization) at the interface between basaltic and rhyolitic magmas that coexisted in vertically zoned igneous systems. Relict phenocrysts and the bulk compositions of inclusions suggest that silicic endmembers were less differentiated than erupted high-silica rhyolite. Changes in inferred endmembers of magma mixtures with time suggest that the steepness of chemical gradients near the silicic/mafic interface in the zoned reservoir may have decreased as the system matured, although a high-silica rhyolitic cap persisted. The Coso example is an extreme case of large thermal and compositional contrast between inclusion and host magmas; lesser differences between intermediate composition magmas and inclusions lead to

  11. The Mantle and Basalt-Crust Interaction Below the Mount Taylor Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, Christian M.; Crumpler, Larry S.; Schmidt, Marick E.

    2010-01-01

    The Mount Taylor Volcanic Field (MTVF) lies on the Jemez Lineament on the southeastern margin of the Colorado Plateau. The field is centered on the Mt. Taylor composite volcano and includes Mesa Chivato to the NE and Grants Ridge to the WSW. MTVF magmatism spans approximately 3.8-1.5 Ma (K-Ar). Magmas are dominantly alkaline with mafic compositions ranging from basanite to hy-basalt and felsic compositions ranging from ne-trachyte to rhyolite. We are investigating the state of the mantle and the spatial and temporal variation in basalt-crustal interaction below the MTVF by examining mantle xenoliths and basalts in the context of new mapping and future Ar-Ar dating. The earliest dated magmatism in the field is a basanite flow south of Mt. Taylor. Mantle xenolith-bearing alkali basalts and basanites occur on Mesa Chivato and in the region of Mt. Taylor, though most basalts are peripheral to the main cone. Xenolith-bearing magmatism persists at least into the early stages of conebuilding. Preliminary examination of the mantle xenolith suite suggests it is dominantly lherzolitic but contains likely examples of both melt-depleted (harzburgitic) and melt-enriched (clinopyroxenitic) mantle. There are aphyric and crystal-poor hawaiites, some of which are hy-normative, on and near Mt. Taylor, but many of the more evolved MTVF basalts show evidence of complex histories. Mt. Taylor basalts higher in the cone-building sequence contain >40% zoned plagioclase pheno- and megacrysts. Other basalts peripheral to Mt. Taylor and at Grants Ridge contain clinopyroxene and plagioclase megacrysts and cumulate-textured xenoliths, suggesting they interacted with lower crustal cumulates. Among the questions we are addressing: What was the chemical and thermal state of the mantle recorded by the basaltic suites and xenoliths and how did it change with time? Are multiple parental basalts (Si-saturated vs. undersaturated) represented and, if so, what changes in the mantle or in the tectonic

  12. Workshop on Mare Volcanism and Basalt Petrogenesis: Astounding Fundamental Concepts (AFC) Developed Over the Last Fifteen Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A. (Editor); Longi, John (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Papers presented at the workshop on mare volcanism and basalt petrogenesis are compiled. The discussion of recent ideas and concepts within the context of this workshop permitted to catch up on the developments over the last 15 years. The following subject areas were covered: (1) geological setting; (2) magma evolution and source regions; (3) magma source and ascent processes; and (4) history of volcanism.

  13. Continental flood basalt weathering as a trigger for Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Grant M.; Halverson, Galen P.; Stevenson, Ross K.; Vokaty, Michelle; Poirier, André; Kunzmann, Marcus; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Denyszyn, Steven W.; Strauss, Justin V.; Macdonald, Francis A.

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric CO2 levels and global climate are regulated on geological timescales by the silicate weathering feedback. However, this thermostat has failed multiple times in Earth's history, most spectacularly during the Cryogenian (c. 720-635 Ma) Snowball Earth episodes. The unique middle Neoproterozoic paleogeography of a rifting, low-latitude, supercontinent likely favored a globally cool climate due to the influence of the silicate weathering feedback and planetary albedo. Under these primed conditions, the emplacement and weathering of extensive continental flood basalt provinces may have provided the final trigger for runaway global glaciation. Weathering of continental flood basalts may have also contributed to the characteristically high carbon isotope ratios (δ13 C) of Neoproterozoic seawater due to their elevated P contents. In order to test these hypotheses, we have compiled new and previously published Neoproterozoic Nd isotope data from mudstones in northern Rodinia (North America, Australia, Svalbard, and South China) and Sr isotope data from carbonate rocks. The Nd isotope data are used to model the mafic detrital input into sedimentary basins in northern Rodinia. The results reveal a dominant contribution from continental flood basalt weathering during the ca. 130 m.y. preceding the onset of Cryogenian glaciation, followed by a precipitous decline afterwards. These data are mirrored by the Sr isotope record, which reflects the importance of chemical weathering of continental flood basalts on solute fluxes to the early-middle Neoproterozoic ocean, including a pulse of unradiogenic Sr input into the oceans just prior to the onset of Cyrogenian glaciation. Hence, our new data support the hypotheses that elevated rates of flood basalt weathering contributed to both the high average δ13 C of seawater in the Neoproterozoic and to the initiation of the first (Sturtian) Snowball Earth.

  14. Stratigraphical framework of basaltic lavas in Torres Syncline main valley, southern Parana-Etendeka Volcanic Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetti, Lucas M.; Lima, Evandro F.; Waichel, Breno L.; Scherer, Claiton M.; Barreto, Carla J.

    2014-12-01

    The Paraná-Etendeka Volcanic Province records the volcanism of the Early Cretaceous that precedes the fragmentation of the South-Gondwana supercontinent. Traditionally, investigations of these rocks prioritized the acquisition of geochemical and isotopic data, considering the volcanic stack as a monotonous succession of tabular flows. Torres Syncline is a tectonic structure located in southern Brazil and where the Parana-Etendeka basalts are well preserved. This work provides a detailed analysis of lithofacies and facies architecture, integrated to petrographic and geochemical data. We identified seven distinct lithofacies grouped into four facies associations related to different flow morphologies. The basaltic lava flows in the area can be divided into two contrasting units: Unit I - pahoehoe flow fields; and Unit II - simple rubbly flows. The first unit is build up by innumerous pahoehoe lava flows that cover the sandstones of Botucatu Formation. These flows occur as sheet pahoehoe, compound pahoehoe, and ponded lavas morphologies. Compound lavas are olivine-phyric basalts with intergranular pyroxenes. In ponded lavas and cores of sheet flows coarse plagioclase-phyric basalts are common. The first pahoehoe lavas are more primitive with higher contents of MgO. The emplacement of compound pahoehoe flows is related to low volume eruptions, while sheet lavas were emplaced during sustained eruptions. In contrast, Unit II is formed by thick simple rubbly lavas, characterized by a massive core and a brecciated/rubbly top. Petrographically these flows are characterized by plagioclase-phyric to aphyric basalts with high density of plagioclase crystals in the matrix. Chemically they are more differentiated lavas, and the emplacement is related to sustained high effusion rate eruptions. Both units are low TiO2 and have geochemical characteristics of Gramado magma type. The Torres Syncline main valley has a similar evolution when compared to other Large Igneous Provinces

  15. A lithospheric instability origin for Columbia River flood basalts and Wallowa Mountains uplift in northeast Oregon.

    PubMed

    Hales, T C; Abt, D L; Humphreys, E D; Roering, J J

    2005-12-01

    Flood basalts appear to form during the initiation of hotspot magmatism. The Columbia River basalts (CRB) represent the largest volume of flood basalts associated with the Yellowstone hotspot, yet their source appears to be in the vicinity of the Wallowa Mountains, about 500 km north of the projected hotspot track. These mountains are composed of a large granitic pluton intruded into a region of oceanic lithosphere affinity. The elevation of the interface between Columbia River basalts and other geological formations indicates that mild pre-eruptive subsidence took place in the Wallowa Mountains, followed by syn-eruptive uplift of several hundred metres and a long-term uplift of about 2 km. The mapped surface uplift mimics regional topography, with the Wallowa Mountains in the centre of a 'bull's eye' pattern of valleys and low-elevation mountains. Here we present the seismic velocity structure of the mantle underlying this region and erosion-corrected elevation maps of lava flows, and show that an area of reduced mantle melt content coincides with the 200-km-wide topographic uplift. We conclude that convective downwelling and detachment of a compositionally dense plutonic root can explain the timing and magnitude of Columbia River basalt magmatism, as well as the surface uplift and existence of the observed melt-depleted mantle.

  16. A Pliocene shoaling basaltic seamount: Ba Volcanic Group at Rakiraki, Fiji

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhie, J.

    1995-03-01

    At Rakiraki in northeastern Viti Levu, the Pliocene Ba Volcanic Group comprises gently dipping, pyroxene-phyric basaltic lavas, including pillow lava, and texturally diverse volcanic breccia interbedded with conglomerate and sandstone. Three main facies associations have been identified: (1) The primary volcanic facies association includes massive basalt (flows and sills), pillow lava and related in-situ breccia (pillow-fragment breccia, autobreccia, in-situ hyaloclastite, peperite). (2) The resedimented volcaniclastic facies association consists of bedded, monomict volcanic breccia and scoria lapilli-rich breccia. (3) The volcanogenic sedimentary facies association is composed of bedded, polymict conglomerate and breccia, together with volcanic sandstone and siltstone-mudstone facies. Pillow lava and coarse hyaloclastite breccia indicate a submarine depositional setting for most of the sequence. Thick, massive to graded beds of polymict breccia and conglomerate are interpreted as volcaniclastic mass-flow deposits emplaced below wave base. Well-rounded clasts in conglomerate were reworked during subaerial transport and/or temporary storage in shoreline or shallow water environments prior to redeposition. Red, oxidised lava and scoria clasts in bedded breccia and conglomerate also imply that the source was partly subaerial. The facies assemblage is consistent with a setting on the submerged flanks of a shoaling basaltic seamount. The coarse grade and large volume of conglomerate and breccia reflect the high supply rate of clasts, and the propensity for collapse and redeposition on steep palaeoslopes. The clast supply may have been boosted by vigorous fragmentation processes accompanying transition of lava from subaerial to submarine settings. The greater proportion of primary volcanic facies compared with resedimented volcaniclastic and volcanogenic sedimentary facies in central and northwestern exposures (near Rakiraki) indicates they are more proximal than those

  17. Alteration, mass conservation, and magmatic compositions of lavas of the Columbia River flood basalt province: Insights from the Sentinel Bluffs Member, Grande Ronde Basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawlan, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding magmatic processes involved in flood basalt volcanism, and the ability to correlate flows within the voluminous, widespread lava fields requires accurate characterization of their magmatic geochemistry. Although evidence of alteration is widespread, modifications to lava chemistry by secondary processes are poorly understood. This results in uncertainty in the interpretation of geochemical analyses of Columbia River Basalt Group lava flows, particularly those of the Grande Ronde Basalt (GRB), in which chemical differences between the lavas are subtle. This problem is addressed here using major and trace element analyses (XRF) of samples of the Sentinel Bluffs Member (SB) of the GRB collected from multiple stratigraphic sections within the Columbia Plateau, Columbia River Gorge and Coast Ranges. Sixteen chemical groups, comprising 1-3 flows each, are recognized among multiple SB lava compositions. Flows assigned to three or four successive chemical groups are, in turn, assigned to more broadly defined chemical series based on shared characteristics such as immobile element ratios. Magmatic and alteration trends among SB compositions are clearly distinguished in Al-Ti variations. Magmatic trends are defined by inverse correlation of Al2O3 and TiO2. Alteration trends, extending from the magmatic array to higher abundances, are characterized by constant Al2O3/TiO2. Paired enrichments in Al and Ti, as well as other immobile elements, result from concentration in the residuum of altered rock that has lost mass due to soluble cation removal. Such enrichments are inversely proportional to mass loss. A mass conservation index (MCI), derived from Al-Ti systematics, quantifies mass retention and has multiple applications. MCI normalization eliminates residual concentration accompanying mass loss such that MCI-normalized immobile element abundances in altered rock agree with those in high-MCI rock. Compositions filtered to high-MCI values more closely reflect

  18. Oscillatory Thermochemical Convection as a Cause for the Episodic Mare Basalt Volcanism in the PKT Region of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, C.; Zhong, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Moon possesses a number of hemispheric asymmetries including crustal thickness and mare basalt volcanism. Lunar mare volcanism, which lasted from about 4.0 to 1.5 Ga and occurred mostly on the nearside, is crucial in understanding the evolutionary history of the Moon. Recently, we analyzed the mare basalt age distribution for major mare basins, based on the latest mare basalt dating results from the crater size-frequency distribution measurements. Our analysis shows that most mare basalt eruptions are peaked at ~3.6 Ga and end at ~2.8 Ga, while mares Oceanus Procellarum, Imbrium, and Insularum in the Procelluram KREEP Terrane (PKT) feature episodic volcanism with reducing activities in the late stage. In this study, we propose that the episodic mare basalt volcanism is caused by oscillatory thermochemical convection, and has a strong correlation with the KREEP-enriched PKT. We formulate 3-D spherical thermochemical mantle convection models to investigate the genesis of episodic mare volcanism in one hemisphere, and the role of PKT in inducing and maintaining mare eruptions within its region. A MIC (mixture of ilmenite-rich cumulates and olivine-pyroxene) layer, which is rich in radiogenic elements and has a larger intrinsic density than the ambient mantle, is proposed to be the mare basalt source material. MIC is heated up due to radiogenic heating to become thermally buoyant and rise to the mare basalt source region, causing melting. When the heat is released to the extent that MIC becomes negatively buoyant, MIC sinks back to depth. Such a process may occur repetitively, causing episodic volcanism. On the other hand, the heating from KREEP materials in the PKT may maintain a high temperature anomaly in the nearside mantle that favors very long wavelength (i.e., degree 1) upwellings in the PKT region. This process may control the long-term evolution of the lunar interior and have implication for the present-day lunar mantle structure and dynamics.

  19. Martian volcanism: Festoon-like ridges on terrestrial basalt flows and implications for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theilig, E.; Greeley, Ronald

    1987-01-01

    The Fink and Fletcher, and Fink model was used to assess and compare flow rheology for two terrestrial basalt flows and one Martian flow with previous studies. Based on the morphologic similarities between the Martian flows and the Icelandic flows and knowledge of the emplacement of the terrestrial flows, the flows west of Arsia Mons are considered to have been emplaced as large sheet flows from basaltic flood style eruptions. Festoon ridges represent folding of the surface crust in the last stages of emplacement when viscosities would be high due to cooling. Alternatively, the lava may have had a high crystallinity or was erupted at low temperatures. In addition, increased compressive stress behind halted flow fronts or in ponded areas may have contributed to ridge formation.

  20. X-ray microspectroscopy of sulfur in basaltic glass inclusions. Inference on the volcanic sulfur emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Métrich, N.; Susini, J.; Galoisy, L.; Calas, G.; Bonnin-Mosbah, M.; Menez, B.

    2003-03-01

    It is commonly accepted that sulfur is carried out as sulfide (S^{II-}) or/and sulfate (S^{VI}) by Earth mantlederived melts, before being released as SO2 and/or H2S in volcanic emissions. By analyzing reference compounds and a selection of minute glass inclusions in olivine crystals using μXANES (X-ray Near Edge Structure) spectroscopy at the sulfur K-edge, we demonstrated the ubiquitous presence of sulfite (S^{IV}) in addition to sulfate (S^{VI}) in these rare inclusions representative of oxidized and water rich-basaltic magmas, prior to loss of sulfur and water. The sulfide (S^{II-}) when exists is minor. We proposed that sulfite (S^{IV}) acts as an intermediate, metastable species which results in partitioning of sulfur into the volcanic gas emissions.

  1. Compound-specific carbon isotopes from Earth's largest flood basalt eruptions directly linked to the end-Triassic mass extinction.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Jessica H; Olsen, Paul E; Eglinton, Timothy; Brookfield, Michael E; Sambrotto, Raymond N

    2010-04-13

    A leading hypothesis explaining Phanerozoic mass extinctions and associated carbon isotopic anomalies is the emission of greenhouse, other gases, and aerosols caused by eruptions of continental flood basalt provinces. However, the necessary serial relationship between these eruptions, isotopic excursions, and extinctions has never been tested in geological sections preserving all three records. The end-Triassic extinction (ETE) at 201.4 Ma is among the largest of these extinctions and is tied to a large negative carbon isotope excursion, reflecting perturbations of the carbon cycle including a transient increase in CO(2). The cause of the ETE has been inferred to be the eruption of the giant Central Atlantic magmatic province (CAMP). Here, we show that carbon isotopes of leaf wax derived lipids (n-alkanes), wood, and total organic carbon from two orbitally paced lacustrine sections interbedded with the CAMP in eastern North America show similar excursions to those seen in the mostly marine St. Audrie's Bay section in England. Based on these results, the ETE began synchronously in marine and terrestrial environments slightly before the oldest basalts in eastern North America but simultaneous with the eruption of the oldest flows in Morocco, a CO(2) super greenhouse, and marine biocalcification crisis. Because the temporal relationship between CAMP eruptions, mass extinction, and the carbon isotopic excursions are shown in the same place, this is the strongest case for a volcanic cause of a mass extinction to date.

  2. Major CO2 source and sink perturbations of the global carbon cycle due to rapid emplacement of Continental Flood Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, M. F.; Wright, J. D.; Kent, D. V.

    2011-12-01

    Recent evidence from the ~201.5 Ma Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) in the Newark Rift Basin demonstrates that this Large Igneous Province (LIP) produced a transient doubling of atmospheric pCO2, followed by a ~300 kyr falloff to near pre-eruptive concentrations after each major eruptive episode (Schaller, Wright and Kent; Science, 2011). Here we similarly use pedogenic carbonates to test the million-year effects of the CAMP volcanism on Early Jurassic pCO2 in the corollary Hartford Basin of Eastern North America (ENA). In both basins we find a pre-CAMP pCO2 background of ~2000 ± 700 ppm, increasing to ~4500 ± 1600 ppm immediately above the first flow unit, followed by 300 kyr post-extrusive decrease to near background concentrations. The long post-extrusive section of the Hartford Basin shows the same ~300 kyr pCO2 decrease to pre-eruptive background, which continues to levels below pre-CAMP background over the subsequent 1.5 Myr following the final episode of eruptions. We use a geochemical model to demonstrate that the rapidity of the pCO2 decreases, and the fall to concentrations below background may be accounted for by a 1.5-fold amplification of the continental silicate weathering response due to the presence of the more highly weatherable CAMP basalts themselves. This indicates that continental flood basalts capable of producing a short-term perturbation of the carbon system may actually have an overall net-cooling effect on global climates due to a long-term net-decrease in pCO2 to below pre-eruptive levels. Analysis of the effusive potential for various submarine and continental LIPs based on reconstructed volumes suggests that those comparable to, or even larger than the CAMP may have had a significant effect on short term pCO2 concentrations, but this effect is highly dependent on effusive timescale. However, we pose the testable hypothesis that only continental flood basalts participate directly on both the CO2 source and sink side of the

  3. Rock types of South Pole-Aitken basin and extent of basaltic volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pieters, C.M.; Head, J. W.; Gaddis, L.; Jolliff, B.; Duke, M.

    2001-01-01

    The enormous pre-Nectarian South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin represents a geophysically and compositionally unique region on the Moon. We present and analyze the mineralogical diversity across this basin and discuss the implications for basin evolution. Rock types are derived from Clementine multispectral data based on diagnostic characteristics of ferrous absorptions in fresh materials. Individual areas are characterized as noritic (dominated by low-Ca pyroxene), gabbroic/basaltic (dominated by high-Ca pyroxene), feldspathic (<3-6% FeO), and olivine-gabbro (dominated by high-Ca pyroxene and olivine). The anorthositic crust has effectively been removed from the interior of the basin. The style of volcanism within the basin extends over several 100 Myr and includes mare basalt and pyroclastic deposits. Several areas of ancient (pre-Orientale) volcanism, or cryptomaria, have also been identified. The nonmare mafic lithology that occurs across the basin is shown to be noritic in composition and is pervasive laterally and vertically. We interpret this to represent impact melt/breccia deposits derived from the lower crust. A few localized areas are identified within the basin that contain more diverse lithologies (gabbro, olivine-gabbro), some of which may represent material from the deepest part of the lower crust and perhaps uppermost mantle involved in the SPA event. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Enriched continental flood basalts from depleted mantle melts: modeling the lithospheric contamination of Karoo lavas from Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Jussi S.; Luttinen, Arto V.; Bohrson, Wendy A.

    2016-01-01

    Continental flood basalts (CFBs) represent large-scale melting events in the Earth's upper mantle and show considerable geochemical heterogeneity that is typically linked to substantial contribution from underlying continental lithosphere. Large-scale partial melting of the cold subcontinental lithospheric mantle and the large amounts of crustal contamination suggested by traditional binary mixing or assimilation-fractional crystallization models are difficult to reconcile with the thermal and compositional characteristics of continental lithosphere, however. The well-exposed CFBs of Vestfjella, western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, belong to the Jurassic Karoo large igneous province and provide a prime locality to quantify mass contributions of lithospheric and sublithospheric sources for two reasons: (1) recently discovered CFB dikes show isotopic characteristics akin to mid-ocean ridge basalts, and thus help to constrain asthenospheric parental melt compositions and (2) the well-exposed basaltic lavas have been divided into four different geochemical magma types that exhibit considerable trace element and radiogenic isotope heterogeneity (e.g., initial ɛ Nd from -16 to +2 at 180 Ma). We simulate the geochemical evolution of Vestfjella CFBs using (1) energy-constrained assimilation-fractional crystallization equations that account for heating and partial melting of crustal wall rock and (2) assimilation-fractional crystallization equations for lithospheric mantle contamination by using highly alkaline continental volcanic rocks (i.e., partial melts of mantle lithosphere) as contaminants. Calculations indicate that the different magma types can be produced by just minor (1-15 wt%) contamination of asthenospheric parental magmas by melts from variable lithospheric reservoirs. Our models imply that the role of continental lithosphere as a CFB source component or contaminant may have been overestimated in many cases. Thus, CFBs may represent major juvenile crustal

  5. Differential control in the formation of river potholes on basalts of the Paraná Volcanic Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Adalto Gonçalves; Binda, Andrey Luis

    2015-04-01

    Variations in rock properties control geomorphic processes and thus landscape evolution. Potholes developed on basaltic riverbeds are generally associated with vesicular-amygdaloidal zones, although they also occur in massive basalts. Until now, this relationship has not been quantified, nor have the parameters controlling the development of these features in basalts been evaluated. Based on field data collected from 71 sites distributed in three rivers in the Paraná Volcanic Province (PVP), southern Brazil, we investigated the relationship between the occurrence of potholes and features of basalt flows. Reaches were analyzed both in areas with potholes and in areas without these features. The data collected refer to the joint density, the intact rock strength measured with a Schmidt hammer and the typology of basaltic units in terms of vesicularity. It was found that potholes preferentially occur in vesicular-amygdaloidal units (86%). This predominance is not associated with the joint density, which is the same in massive basalts (≈5 m/m2); moreover, potholes occur in basalts with very different joint densities. The intact rock strength is lower in vesicular-amygdaloidal basalts (58) than in massive basalts (61) and does not explain fully the preferential abrasion in vesicular-amygdaloidal units because potholes occur with varying resistances. The basalt strength is a secondary variable. The controlling parameter seems to be vesicularity, which by producing irregularities in the bed and flow triggers the formation of potholes. In the massive basalts, irregularities are produced primarily by joints. In massive basalts there seems to be an upper threshold of stream power beyond which the formation of potholes is restricted (drainage area ≈700 km2; slope ≈0.06). A lower threshold in stream power could also exist to massive basalts of the study area and it is suggested by the inexistence of potholes in sites with drainage area less than 100 km2.

  6. Late Quaternary geology of small basaltic volcanic centers, SW USA: Disparity among dating methods and implications for volcanic and geomorphic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, S.; McFadden, L.; Perry, F.; Forman, S.; Crowe, B.; Pothis, J.; Olinger, C.

    1992-12-31

    Evaluation of volcanic hazards near the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain provides the impetus for a series of detailed field and geochronologic studies of selected small late Quaternary basaltic scoria cones and lava flows in Nevada and California. Two of the most significant results of these studies are: the presence of chronostratigraphic units which indicate multiple eruptions with significant intervals of no activity between events (polycyclic volcanism); and a marked difference between conventional, numerical ages derived from K-Ar and Ar-40/Ar-39 methods and numerical, calibrated, and relative ages derived from thermoluminescence, cosmogenic He-3, the degree of soil development, and geomorphology of these volcanic landforms. Soil-bounded unconformities and buried stone pavements define the boundaries of chronostratigraphic units within these small volume basaltic centers. Volcanic centers displaying this type of stratigraphy may appear morphological simple but cannot be considered mongenetic. Recent studies by Perry and Crowe demonstrate that geochemical variations within a single basaltic volcanic center in NV are consistent with several magma batches forming a complex polycyclic volcano. The K-Ar and Ar-40/Ar-39 ages are 1--2 orders of magnitude older than either TL or cosmogenic He-3 and appear to have insufficient precision to constrain the ages of chronostratigraphic units within polycyclic volcanoes. In contrast, preliminary data indicate the TL and cosmogenic He-3 dating methods have the ability to resolve the late Quaternary volcanic stratigraphy, and results from these dating methods are consistent with the degree of soil development and geomorphic modification of the volcanic units. K-Ar and Ar-40/Ar-39 dates from these small basaltic volcanic centers have been used to calibrate new Quaternary dating methods, e.g. rock varnish, which in turn have been used to interpret landscape evolution in the SW US.

  7. Lithospheric-folding-based understanding on the origin of the back-arc basaltic magmatism beneath Jeju volcanic island, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, S.; Shin, Y.; CHOI, K.; Koh, J.; Nakamura, E.; Na, S.

    2012-12-01

    Jeju Island is an intraplate volcanic island located at the eastern margin on the East Asia behind the Ryukyu Trench, the collisional/subduction boundary between the Eurasian plate and Philippine Sea plate. It is a symmetrical shield volcano, having numerous monogenetic cinder cones, over 365, on the Mt. Halla volcanic edifice. The basement rock mainly consists of Precambrian gneiss, Mesozoic granite and volcanic rocks. Unconsolidated sedimentary rock is found between basement rock and surface lava. The lava plateau is composed of voluminous basaltic lava flows, which extend to the coast region with a gentle slope. Based on the evidence obtained from volcanic stratigraphy, paleontology, and geochronology, the age of the Jeju basalts ranges from the early Pleistocene to Holocene(Historic). The alkaline and tholeiitic basalts exhibits OIB composition from intraplate volcanism which is not associated with plate subduction, while the basement xenolith contained in the volcanic rock indicates that there were volcanic activities associated with the Mesozoic plate subduction. The Geochemical characteristics have been explained with the plume model, lithospheric mantle origin, and melting of shallow asthenosphere by the rapid change of stress regimes between the collision of the India-Eurasia plates and subduction of the Pacific plate, while there has not been any geophysical investigation to disclose it. Compression near collisional plate boundaries causes lithospheric folding which results in the decrease of pressure beneath the ridge of the fold while the pressure increases beneath trough. The decompression beneath lithosphere is likely to accelerate basaltic magmatism along and below the ridge. We investigate the subsurface structure beneath Jeju volcanic island, South Korea and its vicinity and propose an alternative hypothesis that the basaltic magma beneath the island could be caused by episodic lithospheric folding. Unlike the prevailing hypothesis of the

  8. Recent volcanism in the Siqueiros transform fault: Picritic basalts and implications for MORB magma genesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perfit, M.R.; Fornari, D.J.; Ridley, W.I.; Kirk, P.D.; Casey, J.; Kastens, K.A.; Reynolds, J.R.; Edwards, M.; Desonie, D.; Shuster, R.; Paradis, S.

    1996-01-01

    Small constructional volcanic landforms and very fresh-looking lava flows are present along one of the inferred active strike-slip faults that connect two small spreading centers (A and B) in the western portion of the Siqueiros transform domain. The most primitive lavas (picritic and olivine-phyric basalts), exclusively recovered from the young-looking flows within the A-B strike-slip fault, contain millimeter-sized olivine phenocrysts (up to 20 modal%) that have a limited compositional range (Fo91.5-Fo89.5) and complexly zoned Cr-Al spinels. High-MgO (9.5-10.6 wt%) glasses sampled from the young lava flows contain 1-7% olivine phenocrysts (Fo90.5-Fo89) that could have formed by equilibrium crystallization from basaltic melts with Mg# values between 71 and 74. These high MgO (and high Al2O3) glasses may be near-primary melts from incompatible-element depleted oceanic mantle and little modified by crustal mixing and/or fractionation processes. Phase chemistry and major element systematics indicate that the picritic basalts are not primary liquids and formed by the accumulation of olivine and minor spinel from high-MgO melts (10% < MgO < 14%). Compared to typical N-MORB from the East Pacific Rise, the Siqueiros lavas are more primitive and depleted in incompatible elements. Phase equilibria calculations and comparisons with experimental data and trace element modeling support this hypothesis. They indicate such primary mid-ocean ridge basalt magmas formed by 10-18% accumulative decompression melting in the spinel peridotite field (but small amounts of melting in the garnet peridotite field are not precluded). The compositional variations of the primitive magmas may result from the accumulation of different small batch melt fractions from a polybaric melting column.

  9. Understanding heat and groundwater flow through continental flood basalt provinces: insights gained from alternative models of permeability/depth relationships for the Columbia Plateau, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Erick R.; Williams, Colin F.; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Voss, Clifford I.; Spane, Frank A.; DeAngelo, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Heat-flow mapping of the western USA has identified an apparent low-heat-flow anomaly coincident with the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, a thick sequence of basalt aquifers within the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). A heat and mass transport model (SUTRA) was used to evaluate the potential impact of groundwater flow on heat flow along two different regional groundwater flow paths. Limited in situ permeability (k) data from the CRBG are compatible with a steep permeability decrease (approximately 3.5 orders of magnitude) at 600–900 m depth and approximately 40°C. Numerical simulations incorporating this permeability decrease demonstrate that regional groundwater flow can explain lower-than-expected heat flow in these highly anisotropic (kx/kz ~ 104) continental flood basalts. Simulation results indicate that the abrupt reduction in permeability at approximately 600 m depth results in an equivalently abrupt transition from a shallow region where heat flow is affected by groundwater flow to a deeper region of conduction-dominated heat flow. Most existing heat-flow measurements within the CRBG are from shallower than 600 m depth or near regional groundwater discharge zones, so that heat-flow maps generated using these data are likely influenced by groundwater flow. Substantial k decreases at similar temperatures have also been observed in the volcanic rocks of the adjacent Cascade Range volcanic arc and at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, where they result from low-temperature hydrothermal alteration.

  10. Understanding heat and groundwater flow through continental flood basalt provinces: insights gained from alternative models of permeability/depth relationships for the Columbia Plateau, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Erick R.; Williams, Colin F.; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Voss, Clifford I.; Spane, Frank A.; DeAngelo, Jacob

    2015-02-01

    Heat-flow mapping of the western USA has identified an apparent low-heat-flow anomaly coincident with the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, a thick sequence of basalt aquifers within the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). A heat and mass transport model (SUTRA) was used to evaluate the potential impact of groundwater flow on heat flow along two different regional groundwater flow paths. Limited in situ permeability (k) data from the CRBG are compatible with a steep permeability decrease (approximately 3.5 orders of magnitude) at 600–900 m depth and approximately 40°C. Numerical simulations incorporating this permeability decrease demonstrate that regional groundwater flow can explain lower-than-expected heat flow in these highly anisotropic (kx/kz ~ 104) continental flood basalts. Simulation results indicate that the abrupt reduction in permeability at approximately 600 m depth results in an equivalently abrupt transition from a shallow region where heat flow is affected by groundwater flow to a deeper region of conduction-dominated heat flow. Most existing heat-flow measurements within the CRBG are from shallower than 600 m depth or near regional groundwater discharge zones, so that heat-flow maps generated using these data are likely influenced by groundwater flow. Substantial k decreases at similar temperatures have also been observed in the volcanic rocks of the adjacent Cascade Range volcanic arc and at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, where they result from low-temperature hydrothermal alteration.

  11. Osmium and neodymium isotopic constraints on the temporal and spatial evolution of Siberian flood basalt sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horan, M.F.; Walker, R.J.; Fedorenko, V.A.; Czamanske, G.K.

    1995-01-01

    Picrites from the Gudchikhinsky suite, the oldest rocks examined, have ??Os of +5.3 to +6.1 and ??Nd of +3.7 to +4.0. The osmium and neodymium isotopic compositions of these rocks are similar to some modern ocean-island basalts (OIB), consistent with their derivation from an mantle plume. Picrites from the stratigraphically higher Tuklonsky suite have similar ??Os of +3.4 to +6.5, but ??Nd of -0.9 to -2.6. The similar ??Os, but lower ??Nd , suggest that some magmas from the same OIB-type, mantle source were contaminated by lithospheric components. A differentiated ankaramite flow, associated with the top of the stratigraphically higher Morongovsky suite, has ??Os of +9.8 to +10.2 and ??Nd of +1.3 to +1.4. The higher ??Os may indicate that the plume source was heterogeneous with respect to osmium isotopic composition, consistent with osmium isotopic measurements in rocks from other plume sources. Mg-rich, alkaline rocks (meymechites) from the Guli area that erupted much nearer the end of the flood-basalt event have ??Os of -1.2 to -2.6 and ??Nd of +3.7 to +4.9. These rocks were probably produced by low degrees of partial melting of mantle after the main stages of flood-basalt production. -from Authors

  12. Megacrystic Clinopyroxene Basalts Sample A Deep Crustal Underplate To The Mount Taylor Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M. E.; Schrader, C. M.; Crumpler, L. S.; Wolff, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The alkaline and compositionally diverse (basanite to high-Si rhyolite) Mount Taylor Volcanic Field (MTVF), New Mexico comprises 4 regions that cover ~75 x 40 km2: (1) Mount Taylor, a large composite volcano and a surrounding field of basaltic vents; (2) Grants Ridge, constructed of topaz rhyolitic ignimbrite and coulees; (3) Mesa Chivato, a plateau of alkali basalts and mugearitic to trachytic domes; and (4) the Rio Puero basaltic necks. Distributed throughout its history (~3.6 to 1.26 Ma; Crumpler and Goff, 2012) and area (excepting Rio Puerco Necks) is a texturally distinct family of differentiated basalts (Mg# 43.2-53.4). These basalts contain resorbed and moth-eaten megacrysts (up to 2 cm) of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and olivine ±Ti-magnetite ±ilmenite ±rare orthopyroxene. Some megacrystic lava flows have gabbroic cumulate inclusions with mineral compositions similar to the megacrysts, suggesting a common origin. For instance, gabbroic and megacrystic clinopyroxenes form linear positive arrays in TiO2 (0.2-2.3 wt%) with respect to Al2O3 (0.7-9.3 wt%). The lowest Al clinopyroxenes are found in a gabbroic inclusion and are associated with partially melted intercumulus orthopyroxene. Megacrystic and gabbroic plagioclase (An 41-80) in 4 representative thin sections were analyzed for 87Sr/86Sr by Laser Ablation ICP-MS. 87Sr/86Sr values for the suite range from 0.7036 to 0.7047. The low 87Sr/86Sr plagioclases (0.7036 to 0.7037) are associated with high Ti-Al clinopyroxenes. Likewise, the higher 87Sr/86Sr plagioclases (0.7043 to 0.7047) are associated with the low-Al clinopyroxenes. Taken together, these megacrysts track the differentiation of an intrusive body (or related bodies) from alkaline to Si-saturated conditions by fractional crystallization and crustal assimilation. The intrusive body likely underplates portions of the MTVF that have generated silicic magmas (Mount Taylor, Grants Ridge, Mesa Chivato). Although disequilibrium is implied by resorbed

  13. Petrology and geochemistry of high cascade volcanics in southern Washington: Mount St. Helens volcano and the Indian Heaven basalt field

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    Mount St. Helens volcano (Washington, USA) has been characterized by four eruptive periods during the last 2200 years. Eruptive products include a wide spectrum of rock types including basaltic to andesitic lavas, andesitic to dacitic pyroclastic flows and tephra, and dacite domes. The major and trace element compositions of some andesites and dacites are broadly consistent with their derivation from a basaltic andesite parental magma by fractional cyrstallization processes involving the observed phenocryst assemblages. However, the strontium and oxygen isotopic compositions of representative samples of the Mount St. Helens suite indicate that closed system processes cannot explain the isotopic variations. The isotopic rations are positively correlated with one another and the bulk composition (SiO/sub 2/, Mg number, etc.). The vents of the nearby Indian Heaven Quaternary volcanic field erupted several basalt types which can be defined on the basis of major and trace element composition - calcalkaline (low and high TiO/sub 2/ varieties), transitional, and tholeiitic. Several of these basalt types occur at Mount St. Helens as well, but Indian Heaven lavas are generally more primitive as indicated by higher Mg/(Mg + Fe) ratios. The distribution of volcanic rock types in relation to local structures in the Cascade Range of southern Washington and northern Oregon suggests that crustal structure may influence the degree of evolution of specific volcanic fields. Cascade arc suggests that volcanic arc magma evolution does not necessarily produce a continuous sequence from tholeiitic to calcalkaline rocks in time or space.

  14. Basaltic Clasts in Y-86032 Feldspathic Lunar Meteorite: Ancient Volcanism far from the Procellarum Kreep Terrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaguchi, A.; Takeda, H.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D.; Karouji, Y.; Ebihara, M.

    2008-01-01

    Lunar meteorite, Y-86032 is a fragmental or regolith breccia enriched in Al2O3 (28-31 wt%) and having very low concentrations of REEs and Th, U [e.g., 1]. Nyquist et al. [2] suggested that Y- 86032 contains a variety of lithologies not represented by the Apollo samples. They found clasts with old Ar-Ar ages and an ancient Sm-Nd age, and negative Nd indicating a direct link to the primordial magma ocean. Importantly, the final lithification of the Y-86032 breccia was likely >3.8-4.1 Ga ago. Therefore, any lithic components in the breccia formed prior to 3.8 Ga, and lithic components in breccia clasts in the parent breccia formed even earlier. Here we report textures and mineralogy of basaltic and gabbroic clasts in Y- 86032 to better understand the nature of ancient lunar volcanism far from the Procellarum KREEP Terrain (PKT) [3] and the central nearside.

  15. Oligocene basaltic volcanism of the Northern Rio Grande Rift: San Luis Hills, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Ren A.; Johnson, Clark M.; Mehnert, Harald H.

    1991-07-01

    The inception of the Rio Grande rift in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado was accompanied by voluminous mafic volcanism preserved in part as erosional remnants on an intrarift horst within the current axial rift graben of the San Luis Valley. Oligocene (˜26 Ma) volcanic rocks of the Hinsdale Formation at San Luis Hills range from 49 to 57 wt % SiO2 and include nepheline and hypersthene normative lavas. A mildly alkalic series consisting of trachybasalt, basaltic trachyandesite, and trachyandesite is volumetrically dominant, olivine tholeiites are subordinate, and xenocrystic trachyandesites containing abundant quartz and plagioclase xenocrysts occur only locally. Relative to the San Luis Hills olivine tholeiites which have La/Smn ˜ 2, the more alkaline series are enriched in light rare earth elements (LREE) and have La/Sm ratios that increase in the trachybasalt-basaltic trachyandesite suite (La/Smn ˜ 3) to xenocrystic trachyandesites that are the most LREE enriched (La/Smn ˜ 4). Chondrite-normalized, trace element patterns for the lavas in the San Luis Hills are similar in shape within the mildly alkaline to transitional series; they have characteristic Nb and Ta depletions and high K and Th relative to Ta, Nb, and LREE. Major and trace element constraints support a petrogenetic model of fractionation plus lower crustal assimilation for petrologic suites within the San Luis Hills rocks, although the model cannot relate lavas for the entire series to a common parent. Most mafic lavas of the San Luis Hills were evolved (Mg # <60) and contaminated by LREE-enriched silicic partial melts of granulitic lower crust depleted in Rb, Th, and U. Pb isotopes are the most sensitive indicators of crustal contamination, whereas shifts in Nd and Sr isotope ratios are associated with large amounts of assimilation. However, relatively noncontaminated lavas can be identified and indicate at least two mantle source regions were involved.

  16. Two mantle sources, two plumbing systems: Tholeiitic and alkaline magmatism of the Maymecha River basin, Siberian flood volcanic province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arndt, N.; Chauvel, C.; Czamanske, G.; Fedorenko, V.

    1998-01-01

    Rocks of two distinctly different magma series are found in a ???4000-m-thick sequence of lavas and tuffs in the Maymecha River basin which is part of the Siberian flood-volcanic province. The tholeiites are typical low-Ti continental flood basalts with remarkably restricted, petrologically evolved compositions. They have basaltic MgO contents, moderate concentrations of incompatible trace elements, moderate fractionation of incompatible from compatible elements, distinct negative Ta(Nb) anomalies, and ??Nd values of 0 to + 2. The primary magmas were derived from a relatively shallow mantle source, and evolved in large crustal magma chambers where they acquired their relatively uniform compositions and became contaminated with continental crust. An alkaline series, in contrast, contains a wide range of rock types, from meymechite and picrite to trachytes, with a wide range of compositions (MgO from 0.7 to 38 wt%, SiO2 from 40 to 69 wt%, Ce from 14 to 320 ppm), high concentrations of incompatible elements and extreme fractionation of incompatible from compatible elements (Al2O3/TiO2 ??? 1; Sm/Yb up to 11). These rocks lack Ta(Nb) anomalies and have a broad range of ??Nd values, from -2 to +5. The parental magmas are believed to have formed by low-degree melting at extreme mantle depths (>200 km). They bypassed the large crustal magma chambers and ascended rapidly to the surface, a consequence, perhaps, of high volatile contents in the primary magmas. The tholeiitic series dominates the lower part of the sequence and the alkaline series the upper part; at the interface, the two types are interlayered. The succession thus provides evidence of a radical change in the site of mantle melting, and the simultaneous operation of two very different crustal plumbing systems, during the evolution of this flood-volcanic province. ?? Springer-Verlag 1998.

  17. Neogene to Quaternary basalts of the Jabal Eghei (Nuqay) area (south Libya): Two distinct volcanic events or continuous volcanism with gradual shift in magma composition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radivojević, Maša; Toljić, Marinko; Turki, Salah M.; Bojić, Zoran; Šarić, Kristina; Cvetković, Vladica

    2015-02-01

    This study reports and discusses a set of new K/Ar age and new petrochemical data on basalts of the Jabal Eghei (Nuqay) area (south Libya). This area is part of a > 1000 km long NNW-SSE Libyan volcanic field that stretches from the Mediterranean coastal near Tripoli to the Tibesti massif in Chad. Whole rock K/Ar ages, stratigraphy, volcanology and rock petrochemistry indicate that the Jabal Eghei developed during two volcanic events. The first occurred from the Middle Miocene to the Pliocene (K/Ar ages from ~ 16 to ~ 5 Ma) when large volumes of low aspect ratio lava flows of transitional basalts formed. The second event happened in Pliocene-mid-Pleistocene time (4-≤ 1 Ma) and it gave rise to basanite spatter to scoria pyroclastic cones and subordinate lava flow facies. The transitional basalts are less primitive and less enriched in incompatible trace elements than the basanites. Petrochemical characteristics reveal that the transitional basalts underwent weak to moderate olivine-dominated fractionation and that crustal assimilation had negligible effects. REE geochemical modeling shows that primary magmas of both transitional basalts and basanites formed by melting of a similar garnet-bearing, primitive mantle-like source with degree of melting of 3-5% and ≤ 1%, respectively. It is also demonstrated that the transitional basalts show systematic compositional changes in time because progressively younger rocks are petrochemically more similar to basanites. We argue that our data definitely prove that the age pattern along the entire Libyan volcanic field is much more complex than it was thought before.

  18. The "Large" in Large Igneous Provinces: Using Digital Geological Maps to Determine the Area, Magma Flux, and Potential Environmental Impact of the Wrangellia Flood Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoates, J. S.; Greene, A. R.; Weis, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    Large igneous provinces (LIPs), such as continental flood basalts and oceanic plateaus, are formed by relatively short duration, massive outpourings of basalt in intraplate settings. Their emplacement has been associated with global climatic and biotic change (e.g., end-Permian Siberian LIP). The magmatic products of a LIP typically cover an area >1 Mkm2, however erosion and exhumation may substantially reduce the original area and volume of a LIP, especially oceanic plateaus that have been tectonically dispersed during accretion (e.g., Caribbean, Wrangellia). The availability of digital geologic maps from government geologic surveys now allows for measuring the precise areal distribution of remnant LIP-products, which is essential information for estimating total volumes and ultimately potential environmental effects. The Wrangellia flood basalts represent one of the best-exposed accreted oceanic plateaus on Earth. This Triassic LIP is exposed in numerous fault-bound blocks in a belt extending discontinuously for 2300 km in the Pacific Northwest of North America. It contains exposures of submarine and subaerial volcanic rocks representing composite stratigraphic thicknesses of 3.5-6 km. From recently compiled digital geologic maps (British Columbia, Yukon, Alaska), the mapped exposures of the Wrangellia flood basalts are relatively small (25,256 km2 with 75% from Vancouver Island), which leads to minimum calculated erupted volumes of up to 1.4 x 105 km3 and an estimated magma flux of 0.03 km3/yr. The original areal distribution was substantially greater, perhaps by an order of magnitude or more, as the outcrop extent does not include regions covered by younger strata and surficial deposits nor does it account for the volcanic component of the terrane that may have been subducted. However, even this minimum volumetric output rate is comparable to recent estimates of long-term volumetric eruption rates for ocean islands such as Iceland (0.02-0.04 km3/yr) and Hawaii

  19. The Cobb-Eickelberg seamount chain: Hotspot volcanism with mid-ocean ridge basalt affinity

    SciTech Connect

    Desonie, D.L.; Duncan, R.A. )

    1990-08-10

    Cobb hotspot, currently located beneath Axial seamount on the Juan de Fuca ridge, has the temporal but not the isotopic characteristics usually attributed to a mantle plume. The earlier volcanic products of the hotspot, form eight volcanoes in the Cobb-Eickelberg seamount (CES) chain, show a westward age progression away from the hotspot and a westward increase in the age difference between the seamounts and the crust on which they formed. These results are consistent with movement of the Pacific plate over a fixed Cobb hotspot and eventual encroachment by the westwardly migrating Juan de Fuca ridge. CES lavas are slightly enriched in alkalies and incompatible elements relative to those of the Juan de Fuca ridge but they have Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions virtually identical to those found along the ridge. Therefore, Cobb hotspot is a stationary, upper mantle melting anomaly whose volcanic products show strong mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) affinity. These observations can be explained by low degrees of partial melting of entrained heterogeneous upper mantle MORB source material within a thermally driven lower mantle diapir or by an intrinsic MORB-like composition of the deeper mantle source region from which northeast Pacific plumes rise.

  20. Appraisal and evolution of hydrochemical processes from proximity basalt and granite areas of Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP) in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonkamble, Sahebrao; Sahya, Ashalata; Mondal, N. C.; Harikumar, P.

    2012-05-01

    SummaryThis paper deals with a systematic hydrochemical study carried out at proximity basalt and granite areas of Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP) in India to assess groundwater quality and evaluate the hydrochemical processes. A total of 40 groundwater samples were collected equally from these areas and analyzed. Results showed that the groundwaters rich in alkaline earth in the basalt and alkali rich element in the granite. The dominancy of cations was observed as Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Na+ > K+ in the basalt and Na+ > Mg2+ > K+ > Ca2+ in the granite, whereas anions as HCO3->Cl>SO42- and Cl>HCO3->SO42-, respectively. Hydrochemical processes were identified with the helps of ion exchange, carbonate weathering and dissolution, multiple ionic ratios, and silicate weathering, which shown the predominance of carbonate, dolomite, calcite and silicate (anorthite) weathering in basalt, but in granite, silicate (alkali feldspar) weathering was dominated. Factor analysis also showed that there were multiple processes acting on groundwaters, were separated from the main cluster. Salinity, Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR), Soluble Sodium Percentage (SSP), Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC), Kelley's Ratio (KR) and Permeability Index (PI) in well samples showed that groundwater in basalt was more suitable for irrigation purposes. Further, a digital elevation model (DEM) was generated using Global mapper (8.0 version) software, which aided to decipher the thickness of basalt trap, and vertical transition zone of basaltic (trap) and granitic (basement) aquifer at this DVP comprising with the well depths and groundwater chemistry.

  1. The geochemistry and petrogenesis of basalts from the Taupo Volcanic Zone and Kermadec Island Arc, S.W. Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamble, J. A.; Smith, I. E. M.; McCulloch, M. T.; Graham, I. J.; Kokelaar, B. P.

    1993-01-01

    Basalts from the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ), New Zealand, the Kermadec Island Arc (KA) and its back-arc basin, the Havre Trough show systematic variations in trace-element and isotope geochemistry which are attributed to differences in tectonic setting and source heterogeneity along a more or less continuous plate boundary. Basalts from the Kermadec Arc are characterised by low abundances of high field strength elements (HFSE) such as Ti, Zr, Nb, Ta and Hf and have high ratios of Ti/Zr and low ratios of Ti/Sc and Ti/V relative to typical MORB. Basalts from TVZ also show low abundances of the HFS elements relative to MORB but show lower Ti/Zr, higher Ti/V and Ti/Sc ratios and generally higher Zr abundances than KA most basalts. The Havre Trough basalt is mildly alkaline (< 1% normative nepheline) like many back-arc basin basalts from the Pacific rim, contrasting with the hypersthene normative TVZ and KA rocks. It has higher Zr than most TVZ basalts and all KA basalts. Ratios such as Ti/V, Ti/Sc and Ti/Zr are within the range of TVZ and MORB basalts but distinct from KA basalts. The depleted (relative to MORB) HFSE characteristics of the KA and TVZ basalts are complemented by high abundances of large ion lithophile elements (LIL), such as Ba, Rb and K, when compared to MORB, yielding the distinctive LIL-enriched pattern of subduction related rocks on a normalised multi-element plot. In contrast, the Havre Trough basalt is MORB-like. Chondrite-normalised Rare Earth Element (REE) patterns for the TVZ basalts show a field overlapping with that defined by the southern KA (Rumble Sea Mounts), with light REE enriched patterns (Ce/Yb n = ˜ 1.8-3) and flat heavy REE (Tb-Lu). Basalts from the northern KA are typically light REE depleted (Ce/Yb n = 0.5) or slightly enriched (Ce/Yb n = 1.5). The REE pattern of the Havre Trough basalt is distinctive from both the KA and TVZ fields, being richer in the heavy REE, yet similar to many basalts from back-arc basins. Sr and Nd

  2. Geochemical investigation of a semi-continuous extrusive basaltic section from the Deccan Volcanic Province, India: implications for the mantle and magma chamber processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijaya Kumar, Kopparapu; Chavan, Chakradhar; Sawant, Sariput; Naga Raju, K.; Kanakdande, Prachiti; Patode, Sangita; Deshpande, Krishna; Krishnamacharyulu, S. K. G.; Vaideswaran, T.; Balaram, V.

    2010-06-01

    Spatial and temporal variations in the geochemistry of an extrusive basaltic section of Deccan traps record progressive changes in mantle melting and crustal filtration and are relevant to understand continental flood basalt (CFB) magmatism. In the present work we have carried out detailed field, petrographic, density and magnetic susceptibility, and geochemical investigations on a small, semi-continuous extrusive section in the eastern Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP) to understand the role of shallow magma chambers in CFB magmatism. Four formations, Ajanta, Chikhli, Buldhana and Karanja crop out in the Gangakhed-Ambajogai area with increasing elevation. Our studies indicate that: (1) the Karanja Formation represents a major magma addition, as indicated by abrupt change in texture, increases in MgO, CaO, Ni, Cr, and Sr, and drastic decreases in Al2O3, Na2O, K2O, Rb, Ba, REE, bulk-rock density and magnetic susceptibility; (2) assimilation fractional crystallization, crystal-laden magmas, and accessory cumulus phases influence the trace element chemistry of Deccan basalts; (3) the predicted cumulate sequence of olivine gabbro-leucogabbro-oxide-apatite gabbro is supported by the observed layered series in a shallow magma chamber within the DVP; (4) the initial magma was saturated with olivine, plagioclase, and augite, and final the pressure of equilibration for the Gangakhed-Ambajogai section basalts is ~2 kbar (~6 km depth); (5) petrophysical parameters act as proxies for magmatic processes; (6) a small layer of oxide-rich basalts may represent the latest erupted pulse in a given magmatic cycle in the DVP; (7) parental basalts to some of the red boles, considered as formation boundaries, might represent small degree partial melts of the mantle; (8) SW Deccan basaltic-types continue into the eastern DVP; and (9) in addition to the magma chamber processes, dynamic melting of the mantle may have controlled DVP geochemistry. The present study underscores the importance of

  3. Supercontinental warming of the mantle at the origin of gigantic flood basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coltice, N.; Phillips, B. R.; Bertrand, H.; Ricard, Y.; Rey, P.

    2006-12-01

    Continents episodically cluster together into a supercontinent, eventually breaking up with intense magmatic activity supposedly causedby mantle plumes. The break-up of Pangea, the last supercontinent, was accompanied by the emplacement of the largest known continental flood basalt, the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province, causing massive extinctions at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary. However, there is little support for a plume origin for this catastrophic event. On the basis of 2D and 3D spherical convection modelling in a internally heated mantle, we show that continental aggregation leads to large-scale melting without requiring the involvement of plumes. When only internal heat sources in the mantle are considered, the formationof a supercontinent causes the enlargement of the wavelength of the flow and a subcontinental warming as large as 100^{\\mboxo}C. This temperature increase may lead to large- scale melting without the involvment of plumes. Our results suggest the existence of two distinct types of continental flood basalts, caused by plume or by supercontinental warming. We review some potential candidates for our proposed model.

  4. Megacrystic pyroxene basalts sample deep crustal gabbroic cumulates beneath the Mount Taylor volcanic field, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Mariek E.; Schrader, Christian M.; Crumpler, Larry S.; Rowe, Michael C.; Wolff, John A.; Boroughs, Scott P.

    2016-04-01

    Distributed over the ~ 2.3 m.y. history of the alkaline and compositionally diverse Mount Taylor Volcanic Field (MTVF), New Mexico is a widespread texturally distinct family of differentiated basalts that contain resorbed megacrysts (up to 3 cm) of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and olivine ± Ti-magnetite ± ilmenite ± orthopyroxene. These lavas have gabbroic cumulate inclusions with mineral compositions similar to the megacrysts, suggesting a common origin. Gabbroic and megacrystic clinopyroxenes form positive linear arrays in TiO2 (0.2-2.3 wt.%) with respect to Al2O3 (0.7-9.3 wt.%). Plagioclase (An41-80) from representative thin sections analyzed for 87Sr/86Sr by laser ablation ICP-MS range from 0.7036 to 0.7048. The low 87Sr/86Sr plagioclases (0.7036 to 0.7037) are associated with high Ti-Al clinopyroxenes. Likewise, the higher 87Sr/86Sr plagioclases (0.7043 to 0.7047) are associated with the low-Al clinopyroxenes. Taken together, the pyroxene and plagioclase megacrysts appear to track the differentiation of a gabbroic pluton (or related plutons) from alkaline to Si-saturated conditions by fractional crystallization and crustal assimilation. Clinopyroxene-liquid geobarometry calculations suggest that crystallization occurred near the crust-mantle transition at an average of ~ 1200 °C and 12-13 kbar. The distribution of the megacrystic pyroxene basalts suggests that a gabbroic intrusive body underlies subregions of the MTVF that have generated silicic magmas. The gabbro is interpreted to be a significant heat and mass input into the lower crust that is capable of driving the petrogenesis of diverse silicic compositions (through fractionation and crustal assimilation), including mugearites, trachytes, trachy-andesites and dacites, high-Si rhyolites, and topaz rhyolites of the MTVF.

  5. Geochemical and petrologic investigation of the Ola Plateau-basalts from the Okhotsk-Chukotka Volcanic Belt (NE Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, Jürgen; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Akinin, Vyacheslav; Tschegg, Cornelius

    2010-05-01

    The Okhotsk-Chukotka volcanic belt to a large degree consists of coeval Cretaceous and Early Tertiary volcanic and plutonic rocks that occur along the continental margin in northeast Russia. These igneous-arc related rocks build up an Andean-style magmatic arc sequence that occurs for about 3.500 km along the entire length of the Eurasian continent, from Chukotka Peninsula in the north down to north-east China. The rocks of the Okhotsk-Chukotka Volcanic Belt (OCVB) comprise Late Cretaceous, andesitic basalts, andesites, dacites, rhyolites, tuffs, rare beds of nonmarine clastic rocks with conglomerates and sandstones in the base and locally Paleocene gently dipping basalts. The duration of the magmatic activity in the Okhotsk-Chukotka volcanic belt is still in debate but generally it has been estimated from middle of Albian to Campanian. The studied area, the Ola Plateau Basalts (OPB) and the Hypotetica Basalts (HB), comprise basaltic andesites, trachy- basalts, basaltic trachy- andesite and rhyolitic dykes, belongs to the Okhotsk-Cukotka volcanic belt and represents the last volcanic activity related to the subduction of the palaeo-Pacific plate in this region. The exposed lavas have a thickness of 0.5 km and the estimated volume is about 222 km³. Fine grained 4 m thick rhyolitic dykes represent the very last event of the studied sequence. According to Ar/Ar and U/Pb dating (Hourigan, Akinin, 2004;), the average age of the OPB/ HB is 78.8 to 74 Ma. The basaltic rocks that build up the Ola Plateau are mainly fine grained calc- alkaline basalts with clinopyroxene, plagioclase and strongly to moderately altered olivine phenocrysts with spinel inclusions. The Mg# of the calc- alkaline basalts vary from 0.35 to 0.57 and the TiO2 from 1.2 to 2.2 wt% whereas CaO correlates positive with MgO contents. The OPB and HB lavas, according to their primitive mantle normalized trace elements, can be divided into three groups: Group (I) is characterized by positive Sr anomaly with

  6. Bimodal tholeiitic and mildly alkalic basalts from Bhir area, central Deccan Volcanic Province, India: Geochemistry and petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talusani, Reddy V. R.

    2010-01-01

    Bimodal tholeiitic and mildly alkalic basalts occur near Bhir, in the central part of Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP). Major and trace element concentrations show that, of the ten flows, nine are tholeiitic and one is an alkalic basalt. The Bhir basalts have a wide range of chemical composition. Geochemical variations in the stratigraphic section define three distinct phases of evolution (zones 1 to 3). Crystal fractionation of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, olivine and Fe-Ti oxide expanded the compositional range. Low Mg#s (39-55), low concentrations of Ni and Cr and high Zr suggest the evolved nature of the Bhir basalts. Fractionation modeling suggests about 42% fractional crystallization. In spite of the dominant role of fractional crystallization in the evolution of Bhir basalts, some other processes must be sought to explain the chemical variations. Crustal contamination, magma mixing and degree of partial melting are suggested to explain the observed chemical variations. Resorption, reverse zoning and compositional bimodality in plagioclase phenocrysts indicate magma mixing. Samples of flows one and four suspected of being contaminated all have enriched SiO 2 and LILE (K, Rb, and Ba) contents and depletion in Ti and P, believed to be due to 'granitic' crustal contamination. As compared to tholeiitic basalts, the alkalic basalts are characterized by low SiO 2 and high TiO 2, Na 2O, K 2O and P 2O 5. Alkalic basalts are richer in LILE (Rb and Ba), HFSE (Nb, Zr, and Y) and REE than the tholeiitic basalts. The alkalic basalt occurrence is important from a petrogenetic point of view and also suggests that the sources of alkalic basalt magmas may be of variable ages under different parts of the DVP. Based on major, trace and rare earth element distributions it is suggested that asthenospheric mantle having affinities with the source of OIB was the source material of the magmas and the range in the composition of tholeiitic and alkalic basalts was probably controlled by

  7. Distribution and Stratigraphy of Basaltic Lavas in the Southwest Portion of the Quaternary Big Pine Volcanic Field, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolford, J.; Vazquez, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Pleistocene Big Pine Volcanic Field (BPVF), located in the Owens Valley of eastern California, is dominated by basaltic cinder cones and lavas, and poses a potential volcanic hazard to local infrastructure, in particular Highway 395 and the Los Angeles Aqueduct. However, despite numerous petrologic studies, the volcanic history and distribution of products from individual BPVF eruptions are poorly known. Using detailed field mapping and petrology, we have determined the distribution and stratigraphy of basaltic lavas in the southwest portion of the BPVF, which contains the largest number exposed vents and lava. In the Aberdeen area, individual cinder cones and fissure vents are aligned along N-S trending lineaments, with local clustering of vents and lavas. Approximately 19 cones, and at least 14 lava flows occur in the area. Two cinder cones located near the valley floor are partly buried by younger lavas and alluvium. In most cases, lavas are aa in character and traveled ca. 7 km down alluvial fans (8% gradient) towards the Owens River. On average, individual lavas cover ca. 10-12 km2, with average individual volumes of ca. 0.065 km3. Two general groups of basaltic lavas characterize the Aberdeen area: 1) xenocryst-rich and 2) xenolith-poor basalts. Xenolith-rich basalts contain variable amounts of ultramafic, mafic, granitic, and metamorphic lithologies, whereas xenolith-poor lavas are dominated by olivine phenocrysts. Overlapping flow margins define relative ages between adjacent basalts. In both north and south portions of the Aberdeen area, flows composing the base of the volcanic stratigraphy are the xenolith-rich variety, and are typically overlain by xenolith-poor flows. In general, these younger xenolith-poor lavas are approximately 25% larger in volume than the older xenolith-rich lavas. Several vents record changes in lava type during individual eruptions, suggesting transitions in magma discharge rate. At one vent cluster, pahoehoe is restricted to

  8. Re-Os isotope and highly siderophile element systematics of the Paraná continental flood basalts (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha-Júnior, Eduardo R. V.; Puchtel, Igor S.; Marques, Leila S.; Walker, Richard J.; Machado, Fábio B.; Nardy, Antônio J. R.; Babinski, Marly; Figueiredo, Ana M. G.

    2012-07-01

    Basalts of the Paraná continental flood basalt (PCFB) province erupted through dominantly Proterozoic continental crust during the Cretaceous. In order to examine the mantle source(s) of this major flood basalt province, we studied Os, Sr, Nd, and Pb isotope systematics, and highly siderophile element (HSE) abundances in tholeiitic basalts that were carefully chosen to show the minimal effects of crustal contamination. These basalts define a precise Re-Os isochron with an age of 131.6±2.3 Ma and an initial 187Os/188Os of 0.1295±0.0018 (γ187Os=+2.7±1.4). This initial Os isotopic composition is considerably more radiogenic than estimates of the contemporary Depleted Mantle (DM). The fact that the Re-Os data define a well constrained isochron with an age similar to 40Ar/39Ar age determinations, despite generally low Os concentrations, is consistent with closed-system behavior for the HSE. Neodymium, Sr, and Pb isotopic data suggest that the mantle source of the basalts had been variably hybridized by melts derived from enriched mantle components. To account for the combined Os, Nd, Sr, and Pb isotopic characteristics of these rocks, we propose that the primary melts formed from metasomatized asthenospheric mantle (represented by arc-mantle peridotite) that underwent mixing with two enriched components, EM-I and EM-II. The different enriched components are reflected in minor isotopic differences between basalts from southern and northern portions of the province. The Tristan da Cunha hotspot has been previously suggested to be the cause of the Parana continental flood basalt magmatism. However, present-day Tristan da Cunha lavas have much higher 187Os/188Os isotopic compositions than the source of the PCFB. These data, together with other isotopic and elemental data, preclude making a definitive linkage between the Tristan plume and the PCFB.

  9. Catastrophic volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipman, Peter W.

    1988-01-01

    Since primitive times, catastrophes due to volcanic activity have been vivid in the mind of man, who knew that his activities in many parts of the world were threatened by lava flows, mudflows, and ash falls. Within the present century, increasingly complex interactions between volcanism and the environment, on scales not previously experienced historically, have been detected or suspected from geologic observations. These include enormous hot pyroclastic flows associated with collapse at source calderas and fed by eruption columns that reached the stratosphere, relations between huge flood basalt eruptions at hotspots and the rifting of continents, devastating laterally-directed volcanic blasts and pyroclastic surges, great volcanic-generated tsunamis, climate modification from volcanic release of ash and sulfur aerosols into the upper atmosphere, modification of ocean circulation by volcanic constructs and attendent climatic implications, global pulsations in intensity of volcanic activity, and perhaps triggering of some intense terrestrial volcanism by planetary impacts. Complex feedback between volcanic activity and additional seemingly unrelated terrestrial processes likely remains unrecognized. Only recently has it become possible to begin to evaluate the degree to which such large-scale volcanic processes may have been important in triggering or modulating the tempo of faunal extinctions and other evolutionary events. In this overview, such processes are examined from the viewpoint of a field volcanologist, rather than as a previous participant in controversies concerning the interrelations between extinctions, impacts, and volcanism.

  10. Thermal and mass implications of magmatic evolution in the Lassen volcanic region, California, and minimum constraints on basalt influx to the lower crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guffanti, M.; Clynne, M.A.; Muffler, L.J.P.

    1996-01-01

    We have analyzed the heat and mass demands of a petrologic model of basaltdriven magmatic evolution in which variously fractionated mafic magmas mix with silicic partial melts of the lower crust. We have formulated steady state heat budgets for two volcanically distinct areas in the Lassen region: the large, late Quaternary, intermediate to silicic Lassen volcanic center and the nearby, coeval, less evolved Caribou volcanic field. At Caribou volcanic field, heat provided by cooling and fractional crystallization of 52 km3 of basalt is more than sufficient to produce 10 km3 of rhyolitic melt by partial melting of lower crust. Net heat added by basalt intrusion at Caribou volcanic field is equivalent to an increase in lower crustal heat flow of ???7 mW m-2, indicating that the field is not a major crustal thermal anomaly. Addition of cumulates from fractionation is offset by removal of erupted partial melts. A minimum basalt influx of 0.3 km3 (km2 Ma)-1 is needed to supply Caribou volcanic field. Our methodology does not fully account for an influx of basalt that remains in the crust as derivative intrusives. On the basis of comparison to deep heat flow, the input of basalt could be ???3 to 7 times the amount we calculate. At Lassen volcanic center, at least 203 km3 of mantle-derived basalt is needed to produce 141 km3 of partial melt and drive the volcanic system. Partial melting mobilizes lower crustal material, augmenting the magmatic volume available for eruption at Lassen volcanic center; thus the erupted volume of 215 km3 exceeds the calculated basalt input of 203 km3. The minimum basalt input of 1.6 km3 (km2 Ma)-1 is >5 times the minimum influx to the Caribou volcanic field. Basalt influx high enough to sustain considerable partial melting, coupled with locally high extension rate, is a crucial factor in development of Lassen volcanic center; in contrast. Caribou volcanic field has failed to develop into a large silicic center primarily because basalt supply

  11. Rare-earth element geochemistry and the origin of andesites and basalts of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, J.W.; Cashman, K.V.; Rankin, P.C.

    1983-01-01

    Two types of basalt (a high-Al basalt associated with the rhyolitic centres north of Taupo and a "low-Al" basalt erupted from Red Crater, Tongariro Volcanic Centre) and five types of andesite (labradorite andesite, labradorite-pyroxene andesite, hornblende andesite, pyroxene low-Si andesite and olivine andesite/low-Si andesite) occur in the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ), North Island, New Zealand. Rare-earth abundances for both basalts and andesites are particularly enriched in light rare-earth elements. High-Al basalts are more enriched than the "low-Al" basalt and have values comparable to the andesites. Labradorite and labradorite-pyroxene andesites all have negative Eu anomalies and hornblende andesites all have negative Ce anomalies. The former is probably due to changing plagioclase composition during fractionation and the latter to late-stage hydration of the magma. Least-squares mixing models indicate that neither high-Al nor "low-Al" basalts are likely sources for labradorite/labradorite-pyroxene andesites. High-Al basalts are considered to result from fractionation of olivine and clinopyroxene from a garnet-free peridotite at the top of the mantle wedge. Labradorite/labradorite-pyroxene andesites are mainly associated with an older NW-trending arc. The source is likely to be garnet-free but it is not certain whether the andesites result from partial melting of the top of the subducting plate or a hydrated lower portion of the mantle wedge. Pyroxene low-Si andesites probably result from cumulation of pyroxene and calcic plagioclase within labradorite-pyroxene andesites, and hornblende andesites by late-stage hydration of labradorite-pyroxene andesite magma. Olivine andesites, low-Si andesites and "low-Al" basalts are related to the NNE-trending Taupo-Hikurangi arc structure. Although the initial source material is different for these lavas they have probably undergone a similar history to the labradorite/labradorite-pyroxene andesites. All lavas show evidence

  12. The mode of emplacement of Neogene flood basalts in Eastern Iceland: Facies architecture and structure of the Hólmar and Grjótá olivine basalt groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Óskarsson, Birgir V.; Riishuus, Morten S.

    2013-11-01

    Hólmar and Grjótá are two stratigraphically distinct transitional alkaline olivine basalt lava groups within the westward-dipping Neogene flood basalts of eastern Iceland. The Hólmar olivine basalt group, separated from the overlying Grjótá olivine basalt group by only a few tholeiite flows, can be traced over 80 km north-south, with thicknesses varying from ~ 250 m where thickest to ~ 30 m where thinnest. The Grjótá group can be traced over 50 km also north-south, reaching thicknesses of ~ 250 m and thinning down-dip to ~ 10 m. In contrast to other groups in eastern Iceland that thicken down-dip, the studied olivine basalt groups thicken up-dip. The groups filled topographic confinements and formed aprons around central volcanoes. We have estimated the minimum volumes to be ~ 119 km3 for Hólmar and ~ 86 km3 for Grjótá. Scoria cones are found in the Hólmar group, and two thick olivine dolerite sills cross-cut the Hólmar group and probably belong to the plumbing system that fed the Grjótá group. The architecture of the lava groups are near identical. The architecture is compound, with lobes stacked horizontally and vertically, varying from 1-15 m thick and 2-200 m long, but do also encompass a number of thicker (15-20 m) and more extensive (> 1 km long) lava lobe in the stacks. Filled lava tubes are commonly observed within the lava flows. The constituent lobes of the flows are often directly emplaced or welded together, suggesting rapid buildup, but are also found interbedded with redbeds and thicker tuff deposits, and occasionally preserve tree molds. The internal structure follows the characteristics for lava lobe morphology in general, with an upper vesicular crust forming half to one third of the total thickness, a massive core with abundant vesicle cylinders, and a thin basal vesicular crust. Flow tops are of the pahoehoe type, seldom found with scoria or clinker. Inflation structures such as tumuli and inflation clefts were identified in the

  13. Investigating Mantle Sources of Basaltic Melts Using Olivine LA-ICPMS Analysis, Mount Taylor Volcanic Field, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, C. M.; Schmidt, M. E.; Thomas, A.; Bryce, J. G.; Fahnestock, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Mount Taylor Volcanic Field (MTVF), New Mexico, is located along the Jemez Lineament, a major crustal feature and a focus of post-Laramide magmatism. The MTVF comprises at least three regions containing contemporaneous (~3.7 to 1.26 Ma) Ne-normative volcanic rocks. The intermediate Mount Taylor (MT) strata-volcano contains early central and flanking mantle xenolith-bearing alkali basalts and hawaiites. The Rio Puerco (RP) volcanic necks contain mantle xenolith-bearing basanites and alkali basalts and no evolved lavas. Mesa Chivato (MC) contains an alkaline mafic to felsic suite with geochemical similarities to RP and MT lavas but no known mantle-xenoliths. The MTVF xenoliths are diverse (e.g., Thomas et al., 2012, AGU Fall Meeting, V43A-2825) and suggest varying degrees of melt enrichment/fertilization. By LA-ICPMS, we are characterizing olivine trace element chemistry from the mantle xenoliths and basaltic (sensu lato) phenocrysts to test how much can be determined about likely source rocks by phenocryst olivine alone. This is part of a continuing project to investigate spatial trends in Laramide mantle melt metasomatism and its relation to post-Laramide magma compositions. We have analyzed samples from a RP neck (lherzolite in alkali basalt); flows from the MT flank (websterite in alkali basalt) and from the MT amphitheater (wehrlite in hawaiite). Additionally, we analyzed olivine phenocrysts from three xenolith-free lavas: a MT basanite and MC alkali basalt and hawaiite. (1) As diverse as the xenoliths are, their olivine clusters together with regards to most trace elements, though the xenoliths can be discriminated from each other by Co abundances alone or in Cr-Al and Cr-Zn space. (2) Phenocrysts from xenolith-bearing alkali basalts cluster with the xenolith olivine, suggesting the melt was in equilibrium with a lithology of a similar trace element budget. (3) Phenocrysts from the xenolith-bearing MT hawaiite and most MC phenocrysts are depleted in

  14. Flood volcanism on a contracting planet: Insights from Mercury and the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimczak, C.; Byrne, P. K.; Solomon, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Tectonic and volcanic processes on one-plate planets are closely tied to the thermal evolution of their interiors. Thermal history models for both the Moon and Mercury predict that after an initial heating phase, the interiors of these bodies began to cool. Such an evolution may have been accompanied by an initial period of planetary expansion, but much of the thermal history was marked by sustained global contraction. A global state of expansion generates a stress state characterized by horizontal extension within the brittle portion of the lithosphere, allowing for upward propagation of magma-filled dikes and widespread volcanic flooding. Global contraction, in contrast, imposes a horizontally compressive stress state on the lithosphere, under which magma ascent through vertical conduits is suppressed and widespread thrust faulting is favored. Both the Moon and Mercury host populations of thrust-fault-related landforms that are interpreted to have accommodated shortening induced by global contraction, but each body also shows evidence for widespread flood volcanism. On the Moon, gravitational signatures suggestive of ancient, buried dikes; large expanses of lunar mare deposits of volcanic origin; and a widely distributed population of extensional graben generally predate the formation of thrust-fault-related landforms that accommodated surface strains due to global contraction. For Mercury, geological evidence suggests that the great number of large thrust faults that accommodated the planet's decrease in planetary radius (~5-7 km) began to form prior to the cessation of the last major episode of volcanic flooding. Such a temporal overlap of flood volcanism and large-scale thrust faulting poses a challenge. Magmatism in a lithosphere dominated by global contraction should be limited to sill intrusions near the depth of the brittle-ductile transition, so widespread volcanism should be precluded. Localized volcanic flooding might nonetheless be triggered by large

  15. A depleted, not ideally chondritic bulk Earth: The explosive-volcanic basalt loss hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Paul H.

    2008-04-01

    It has long been customary to assume that in the bulk composition of the Earth, all refractory-lithophile elements (including major oxides Al 2O 3 and CaO, all of the REE, and the heat-producing elements Th and U) occur in chondritic, bulk solar system, proportion to one another. Recently, however, Nd-isotopic studies (most notably Boyet M. and Carlson R. W. (2006) A new geochemical model for the Earth's mantle inferred from 146Sm- 142Nd systematics. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.250, 254-268) have suggested that at least the outer portion of the planet features a Nd/Sm ratio depleted to ˜0.93 times the chondritic ratio. The primary reaction to this type of evidence has been to invoke a "hidden" reservoir of enriched matter, sequestered into the deepest mantle as a consequence of primordial differentiation. I propose a hypothesis that potentially explains the evidence for Nd/Sm depletion in a very different way. Among the handful of major types of differentiated asteroidal meteorites, two (ureilites and aubrites) are ultramafic restites so consistently devoid of plagioclase that meteoriticists were once mystified as to how all the complementary plagioclase-rich matter (basalt) was lost. The explanation appears to be basalt loss by graphite-fueled explosive volcanism on roughly 100-km sized planetesimals; with the dispersiveness of the process dramatically enhanced, relative to terrestrial experience, because the pyroclastic gases expand into vacuous space (Wilson L. and Keil K. (1991) Consequences of explosive eruptions on small Solar System bodies: the case of the missing basalts on the aubrite parent body. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.104, 505-512). By analogy with lunar pyroclastic products, the typical size of pyroclastic melt/glass droplets under these circumstances will be roughly 0.1 mm. Once separated from an asteroidal or planetesimal gravitational field, droplets of this size will generally spiral toward the Sun, rather than reaccrete, because drag forces such the

  16. Strawberry Rhyolites, Oregon: Northwestern extent of mid-Miocene flood basalt related rhyolites of the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, A. R.; Streck, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Rhyolitic volcanism associated with the Columbia River-Steens flood basalts of the Pacific Northwest has traditionally been viewed to be centered at McDermitt caldera near the Oregon-Nevada border starting at ~16.5 Ma. In recent years, more rhyolitic centers along this latitude with ages between 16.5-15.5 Ma have been identified and associated with the inception of the Yellowstone hotspot. However the footprint of plume-head related rhyolites becomes much larger when silicic centers of mid-Miocene age in eastern Oregon are included extending the distribution of such rhyolites to areas near the towns of Baker City and John Day ~250 km north of McDermitt. This study addresses one of these rhyolitic centers that was virtually unknown and that constitutes the northwestern extent of mid-Miocene rhyolites. Rhyolites are centered ~40 km SSW of John Day and are considered part of the Strawberry Volcanic Field (SVF), which consists of a diverse group of volcanic rocks ranging from basalt to rhyolite with abundant intermediate compositions. One existing age date of 17.3 Ma ± 0.36 (Robyn, 1977) - if confirmed by our ongoing study - places these rhyolites at the very onset of plume-head related rhyolites. Strawberry rhyolitic lavas are most voluminous in the southwestern portion of the SVF covering approximately 500 km2 between Bear and Logan Valley. The rhyolitic lavas tend to be phenocryst-poor (<3%) and range from obsidian to devitrified flow banded rhyolites. The major phenocryst phases include plagioclase, quartz, and occasional biotite. Field evidence suggests that the aphyric high-silica rhyolite lavas (~77 wt. % SiO2) erupted first, followed by rhyolite lava flows with increasing phenocryst proportions and decreasing SiO2 (70 wt. %). Lastly, phenocryst-rich dacite lava erupted on top, capping the rhyolite. There is no evidence of significant time gaps between lavas flows, suggesting eruption in short succession. Rhyolites from the SVF are high-K, calc-alkaline lavas

  17. Geological relationships of basalts, andesites and sand injectites at the base of the Paraná volcanic province, Torres, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, L. A.; Arena, K. R.; Duarte, S. K.

    2012-09-01

    The Cretaceous interaction of the heated, giant Guarani aquifer with lavas, dikes and sills of the Paraná volcanic province is here evaluated based on the description of the large exposures in Torres, southernmost Brazil. Chalcedony silicified sandstone dikes, sills and breccias containing volcanic clasts in a sandstone matrix are common in the Paraná volcanic province. Sandstone layers mark either the contact between lava flows or the base of the vertically-jointed, massive core. In Torres, one basaltic andesite and one andesite lava flow of the low-Ti Gramado type, and basalt and basaltic andesite sills and dikes, are correlated over 10 km with rocks in the Graxaim quarry. Scintillometric emission rates vary systematically with contents of K, Th and U and are characteristic of each lava or intrusive rock. Major and trace elements are also characteristic of each lava. Three large outcrops of breccias display angular, amygdaloidal volcanic clasts immersed in a silicified sandstone matrix. No evidence was found of high temperature (1150 °C) interaction of the lava with the loose, erg of the Botucatu Formation, such as fluidal volcanic clasts, quenched rims or thermal recrystallization of the sand; only a thin (5 mm) layer of thermally modified sand is present on top of a paleodune in Torres. In Torres, the interaction of andesite with wet sand occurred after degassing of the lava, because the breccia clasts are amygdaloidal. All evidence points to hydrothermal processes for the formation of the breccias, such as lozenge fractures filled with silicified sandstone, preserved detrital characteristics of the sandstone grains and cold (below 130 °C) contact between the volcanic rock and the sand. Most significant is the timing of sand intrusion, because thin (1 mm) dikes of silicified sandstone cut fractures in the rock and the zeolite-filled amygdales. The sandstone dikes, sills and breccias are interpreted as a result of the ascent of overpressured heated water and

  18. Future Volcanism at Yucca Mountain - Statistical Insights from the Non-Detection of Basalt Intrusions in the Potential Repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, N.; Abramson, L.

    2004-05-01

    Yucca Mt. (YM) is a potential repository site for high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel. One issue is the potential for future igneous activity to intersect the repository. If the event probability is <1E-8/yr, it need not be considered in licensing. Plio-Quaternary volcanos and older basalts occur near YM. Connor et al (JGR, 2000) estimate a probability of 1E-8/yr to 1E-7/yr for a basaltic dike to intersect the potential repository. Based on aeromagnetic data, Hill and Stamatakos (CNWRA, 2002) propose that additional volcanos may lie buried in nearby basins. They suggest if these volcanos are part of temporal-clustered volcanic activity, the probability of an intrusion may be as high as 1E-6/yr. We examine whether recurrence probabilities >2E-7/yr are realistic given that no dikes have been found in or above the 1.3E7 yr-old potential repository block. For 2E-7/yr (or 1E-6/yr), the expected number of penetrating dikes is 2.6 (respectively, 13), and the probability of at least one penetration is 0.93 (0.999). These results are not consistent with the exploration evidence. YM is one of the most intensively studied places on Earth. Over 20 yrs of studies have included surface and subsurface mapping, geophysical surveys, construction of 10+ km of tunnels in the mountain, drilling of many boreholes, and construction of many pits (DOE, Site Recommendation, 2002). It seems unlikely that multiple dikes could exist within the proposed repository footprint and escape detection. A dike complex dated 11.7 Ma (Smith et al, UNLV, 1997) or 10 Ma (Carr and Parrish, 1985) does exist NW of YM and west of the main Solitario Canyon Fault. These basalts intruded the Tiva Canyon Tuff (12.7 Ma) in an epoch of caldera-forming pyroclastic eruptions that ended millions of yrs ago. We would conclude that basaltic volcanism related to Miocene silicic volcanism may also have ended. Given the nondetection of dikes in the potential repository, we can use a Poisson model to estimate an

  19. The geochemical characteristics of basaltic and acidic volcanics around the Myojin depression in the Izu arc, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haraguchi, S.; Tamaki, K.; Kato, Y.; Machida, S.

    2012-12-01

    Around the Myojin Depression, westside of the Myojin-sho caldera in the Izu arc, seamounts are circular distributed and hydrothermal activity with sulfide deposition are found from the Baiyonneise Caldera, one of seamounts at the northern side. Some knoll chains distribute in the eastside of the Myojin Depression, and connect between these knolls. This circulator distribution of seamounts and connected knoll chains considered to the dykes are similar to the geographical features of the Kuroko Depositions in the Hokuroku Region, Northwest Japan (Tanahashi et al., 2008). Hydrothermal activities are also found from the other rifts (Urabe and Kusakabe 1990). Based on these observations, the cruise KT09-12 by R/V Tansei-Maru, Ocean Research Institute (ORI), University of Tokyo, investigated in the Myojin Rift. During the cruise, basaltic to dacitic volcanic rocks and some acidic plutonic rocks were recovered by dredge system. Herein, we present petrographical and chemical analyses of these rock samples with sample dredged by the cruise MW9507 by R/V MOANA WAVE, and consider the association with hydrothermal activities and depositions. Dredges during the cruise KT09-12 were obtained at the Daini-Beiyonneise Knoll at the northern side, Daisan-Beiyonneise Knoll at the southern side, and the Dragonborn Hill, small knoll chains, at the southeastern side of the depression. Many volcanic rocks are basalt, and recovered mainly from the Dragonborn Hill. Andesite and dacite was recovered from the Daini- and the Daini-Bayonneise Knoll. Tonalites were recovered from the Daisan-Bayonneise Knoll. Basalts from the Dragonborn Hill show less than 50% of SiO2 and more than 6 wt% and 0.88 wt% of MgO and TiO2 content. Basalts from the rift zone show depleted in the volcanic front (VF) side and enriched in the reararc (RA) side. The Dragonborn Hill is distributed near the VF, and basalts show depleted geochemical characteristics. However, these characteristics are different from the basalts

  20. Processes controlling Sr in surface and ground waters of Tertiary tholeiitic flood basalts in Northern Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridriksson, Thráinn; Arnórsson, Stefán; Bird, Dennis K.

    2009-11-01

    Strontium concentrations of 253 natural water samples from Skagafjördur, a Tertiary tholeiitic flood basalt region in northern Iceland range between 0.10 and 28 ppb. Surface environments (rivers, lakes, and peat soil waters) include the whole range of observed Sr concentrations whereas the Sr concentrations of ground waters are, in most cases, <3.5 ppb. Concentrations of Sr derived from basalt dissolution (i.e., rock-derived Sr) in waters of rivers and lakes exhibit a near linear correlation with the concentration of rock-derived Ca with a median molar Ca/Sr ratio of 1350. This systematic correlation suggests that Ca and Sr concentrations are controlled by weathering processes, i.e., the extent of dissolution of the basalt. The relative mobility of Sr during weathering in Skagafjördur is approximately half that of Ca, which is consistent with observed relative mobilities of these elements elsewhere in Iceland and in other basaltic regions. Peat soil waters commonly have lower concentrations of Sr and higher Ca concentrations than rivers and lakes, and molar ratios of rock-derived Ca to Sr in peat soil waters exhibit no systematic pattern. In several cases calculated concentrations of rock-derived Sr in peat soil waters yield negative values, suggesting a mineralogic sink for Sr in these waters. The low Sr concentrations in cold and thermal ground waters (<3.5 ppb) suggest mineralogic control over Sr in the ground water systems. Precipitation of secondary Sr minerals such as strontianite and celestite is ruled out as the ground waters are understaturated with respect to these minerals. Ground waters are characterized by high Ca/Sr molar ratios (˜5000 compared to bedrock Ca/Sr ratio of 730) suggesting that Sr is being preferentially incorporated (relative to Ca) into secondary minerals. The secondary minerals present in the bedrock in Skagafjördur that can preferentially incorporate Sr include zeolites, such as heulandite, chabazite, and thomsonite, and smectite

  1. Sedimentology, eruptive mechanism and facies architecture of basaltic scoria cones from the Auckland Volcanic Field (New Zealand)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kereszturi, Gábor; Németh, Károly

    2016-09-01

    Scoria cones are a common type of basaltic to andesitic small-volume volcanoes (e.g. 10- 1-10- 5 km3) that results from gas-bubble driven explosive eruptive styles. Although they are small in volume, they can produce complex eruptions, involving multiple eruptive styles. Eight scoria cones from the Quaternary Auckland Volcanic Field in New Zealand were selected to define the eruptive style variability from their volcanic facies architecture. The reconstruction of their eruptive and pyroclastic transport mechanisms was established on the basis of study of their volcanic sedimentology, stratigraphy, and measurement of their pyroclast density, porosity, Scanning Electron Microscopy, 2D particle morphology analysis and Visible and Near Visible Infrared Spectroscopy. Collection of these data allowed defining three end-member types of scoria cones inferred to be constructed from lava-fountaining, transitional fountaining and Strombolian type, and explosive Strombolian type. Using the physical and field-based characteristics of scoriaceous samples a simple generalised facies model of basaltic scoria cones for the AVF is developed that can be extended to other scoria cones elsewhere. The typical AVF scoria cone has an initial phreatomagmatic phases that might reduce the volume of magma available for subsequent scoria cone forming eruptions. This inferred to have the main reason to have decreased cone volumes recognised from Auckland in comparison to other volcanic fields evolved dominantly in dry eruptive condition (e.g. no external water influence). It suggests that such subtle eruptive style variations through a scoria cone evolution need to be integrated into the hazard assessment of a potentially active volcanic field such as that in Auckland.

  2. Zeolites in Eocene basaltic pillow lavas of the Siletz River Volcanics, Central Coast Range, Oregon.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keith, T.E.C.; Staples, L.W.

    1985-01-01

    Zeolites and associated minerals occur in a tholeiitic basaltic pillow lava sequence. Although the zeolite assemblages are similar to those found in other major zeolite occurrences in basaltic pillow lavas, regional zoning of the zeolite assemblages is not apparent. The formation of the different assemblages is discussed.-D.F.B.

  3. Oxygen buffering of Kilauea volcanic gases and the oxygen fugacity of Kilauea basalt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerlach, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    challenges the common assumption that volcanic gases are released from lava in a state of chemical equilibrium and then continue equilibrating homogeneously with falling temperature until reaction rates are unable to keep pace with cooling. No evidence is found, moreover, that certain gas species are kinetically more responsive and able to equilibrate down to lower temperatures than those of the last gas/lava oxygen exchange. Homogeneous reaction rates in the gas phase are apparently slow compared to the time it took for the gases to move from the last site of gas/lava equilibration to the site of collection. An earlier set of data for higher temperature CO2-rich Type I volcanic gases, which come from sustained summit lava lake eruptions supplied by magma that experienced substantially shorter periods of crustal storage, shows fO2 buffering by oxygen transfer up to 1185??C. Oxygen fugacity measurements in drill holes into ponded lava flows suggest that buffering by oxygen transfer may control the fO2 of residual gases down to several hundred degrees below the solidus in the early stages of cooling. Although the details of the fO2 buffering mechanisms for oxygen transfer are unknown, the fact that fO2 buffering is effective from molten to subsolidus conditions suggests that the reaction mechanisms must change with cooling as the reactants change from predominantly melt, to melt plus crystals, to glass plus crystals. Mass balance calculations suggest that redox reactions between the gas and ferrous/ferric iron in the lava are plausible mechanisms for the oxygen transfer and that the fO2 of the gases is buffered by sliding ferrous/ferric equilibria in the erupting lavas. Contrary to expectations based on models predicting the oxidation of basalt by H2 and CO escape during crustal storage, CO2-rich Type I gases and CO2-poor Type II gases have identical oxygen fugacities despite greatly different crustal storage and degassing histories. Volcanic gas data give a tightly co

  4. Compound-specific carbon isotopes from Earth’s largest flood basalt eruptions directly linked to the end-Triassic mass extinction

    PubMed Central

    Whiteside, Jessica H.; Olsen, Paul E.; Eglinton, Timothy; Brookfield, Michael E.; Sambrotto, Raymond N.

    2010-01-01

    A leading hypothesis explaining Phanerozoic mass extinctions and associated carbon isotopic anomalies is the emission of greenhouse, other gases, and aerosols caused by eruptions of continental flood basalt provinces. However, the necessary serial relationship between these eruptions, isotopic excursions, and extinctions has never been tested in geological sections preserving all three records. The end-Triassic extinction (ETE) at 201.4 Ma is among the largest of these extinctions and is tied to a large negative carbon isotope excursion, reflecting perturbations of the carbon cycle including a transient increase in CO2. The cause of the ETE has been inferred to be the eruption of the giant Central Atlantic magmatic province (CAMP). Here, we show that carbon isotopes of leaf wax derived lipids (n-alkanes), wood, and total organic carbon from two orbitally paced lacustrine sections interbedded with the CAMP in eastern North America show similar excursions to those seen in the mostly marine St. Audrie’s Bay section in England. Based on these results, the ETE began synchronously in marine and terrestrial environments slightly before the oldest basalts in eastern North America but simultaneous with the eruption of the oldest flows in Morocco, a CO2 super greenhouse, and marine biocalcification crisis. Because the temporal relationship between CAMP eruptions, mass extinction, and the carbon isotopic excursions are shown in the same place, this is the strongest case for a volcanic cause of a mass extinction to date. PMID:20308590

  5. Origin of the Mackenzie large igneous province and sourcing of flood basalts from layered intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, J. M.; Pearson, D.

    2013-12-01

    The 1.27 Ga Coppermine continental flood basalt (CFB) in northern Canada represents the extrusive manifestation of the Mackenzie large igneous province (LIP) that includes the Mackenzie dyke swarm and the Muskox layered intrusion. New Re-Os isotope and highly siderophile element (HSE: Re, Pd, Pt, Ru, Ir, Os) abundance data are reported together with whole-rock major- and trace-element abundances and Nd isotopes to examine the behaviour of the HSE during magmatic differentiation and to place constraints on the extent of crustal interaction with mantle-derived melts. Mineral-chemical data are also reported for an unusual andesite glass flow (4.9 wt.% MgO) found in proximity to newly recognised picrites (>20 wt.% MgO) in the lowermost stratigraphy of the Coppermine CFB. Compositions of mineral phases in the andesite are similar to equivalent phases found in Muskox Intrusion chromitites and the melt composition is identical to Muskox chromite melt inclusions. Elevated HSE contents (e.g., 3.8 ppb Os) and the mantle-like initial Os isotope composition of this andesitic glass contrast strongly with oxygen isotope and lithophile element evidence for extensive crustal contamination. These signatures implicate an origin for the glass as a magma mingling product formed within the Muskox Intrusion during chromitite genesis. The combination of crust and mantle signatures define roles for both these reservoirs in chromitite genesis, but the HSE appear to be dominantly mantle-sourced. Combined with Nd isotope data that places the feeder for lower Coppermine CFB picrites and basalts within the Muskox Intrusion, this provides the strongest evidence yet for direct processing of some CFB within upper-crustal magma chambers. Modeling of absolute and relative HSE abundances in CFB reveal that HSE concentrations decrease with increasing fractionation for melts with <8×1 wt.% MgO in the Coppermine CFB, with picrites (>13.5wt.% MgO) from CFB having higher Os abundances than ocean island

  6. Unique Mineralogy of Triassic Diamondiferous Hypabyssal Kimberlite Postdated Siberian Flood Basalt (sfb) Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, N. V.; Sobolev, A. V.; Tomilenko, A. A.; Schertl, H. P.; Neuser, R. D.; Timina, T. Y.; Karmanov, N. S.; Batanova, V. G.; Logvinova, A. M.; Kuzmin, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Siberian flood basalt (SFB) province is the largest terrestrial province with the estimated volume of igneous rocks up to 5 million cubic km. The majority of SFB erupted over less than one million years at 251 Ma. The main epochs of kimberlites emplacement took place in Devonian (344-364 Ma) producing principal diamond mines including Udachnaya mine and in Triassic (about 240 Ma) with only one, Malokuonapskaya kimberlite pipe with near-commercial diamond grade. This indicates the availability of complete lithospheric cross section. It contains flood basalt and peridotite xenoliths. We report here preliminary data on mineralogy of this hypabyssal kimberlite containing fresh olivine. Homogeneous cores of zoned olivine with Fo 78.5-93 are different in compositional range from those of Udachnaya olivines (Fo 85-94). Outer rims composition are also different (Fo 85-86 and 89-90 respectively). Concentration of Ni, Mn, Co, Ca, Cr, Al, Ti, P, Na and Zn were measured by EPMA using an innovative method which has been developed based on earlier publication (Sobolev et al., Science, 2007, 316: 412-417). It made possible to obtain external precision down to 10 ppm (2SD) and detection limit down to 2 ppm. High resolution compositional maps of olivine zoning for all mentioned elements are produced. "Hot cathode" CL microscope was applied for study of luminescent minerals including calcite, apatite and baryte. Twenty percent of representative olivine samples are characterized by low Fo 78.5-85 and NiO from 600 to 2300 ppm. Clear zoning in concentration of some trace elements, P in particular, is detected in the cores of studied olivines. Ba-phlogopite containing BaO from less than 1 up to 14.5 wt.% is another specific feature of Malokuonapskaya kimberlite, which is different from any kimberlites and especially from Udachnaya with highest BaO - 4.85 wt.% of its phlogopite. Chromediopsides contain 1.3 - 5.2 wt.% FeO, 0.6 - 2.0 wt.% Cr2O3 and 0.45 - 2.0 wt.% Na2O. Pyropes

  7. The Etendeka Igneous Province: magma types and their stratigraphic distribution with implications for the evolution of the Paraná-Etendeka flood basalt province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, J. S.; Ewart, A.; Milner, S. C.; Duncan, A. R.; Miller, R. McG.

    2001-02-01

    Detailed geochemical and field data for the volcanic sequence and intrusions of the Etendeka Igneous Province are used to construct a stratigraphic framework for petrogenetic interpretation of the evolution of the Etendeka-Paraná continental flood volcanic event. Geochemical and petrographic characterization of over 1,000 analyzed samples allows 8 mafic and 17 silicic magma types to be recognized. Both silicic and mafic types can be grouped into high-Ti and low-Ti suites on the basis of elevated Ti relative to other elements. The mafic magmas are: Khumib (high-Ti), Tafelberg, Kuidas, Horingbaai, Huab, Tafelkop, Albin, and Esmeralda (all low-Ti). Amongst the silicic types, the Goboboseb, Springbok, Wereldsend, Grootberg, and Beacon low-Ti quartz latites, and the Nil Desperandum high-Ti latite have been described previously. In addition, the Hoas (low-Ti), Nadas, Sechomib, and Hoarusib, (all high-Ti) latites and the Fria (low-Ti), Sarusas, Ventura, Khoraseb, Naudé, and Elliott (all high-Ti) quartz latites are described for the first time here. There is a marked provinciality in the distribution of the high- and low-Ti suites, with the former concentrated in the Northern Etendeka region and the latter dominant in the Southern Etendeka. Stratigraphic distribution of magma types allows two new formations to be defined in the Northern Etendeka - the Khumib Formation of basaltic flows and the Skeleton Coast Formation dominated by silicic sheets. The geochemical provinciality hampers precise correlations between Northern and Southern Etendeka. Available evidence suggests that the lower part of the Awahab Formation in the Southern Etendeka is coeval with the lower part of the Khumib Formation and that the silicic units in the upper part of the Tafelberg Formation probably correlate with the Skeleton Coast Formation. The paucity of Khumib dykes in relation to Tafelberg dykes and their field relationships with regard to the volcanic sequence in the Northern Etendeka

  8. A plume-triggered delamination origin for the Columbia River flood basalt eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, E.; Darold, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    From their initial eruptions in south-central Oregon, Columbia River basalt (CRB) volcanism propagated rapidly north, with the largest eruptions being ~300 km north of the Yellowstone hotspot track. We combine upper mantle seismic tomography, CRB eruption timing constraints, geochemical evolution of magmas, uplift history, and the tectonic context to construct a well-constrained model for the origin of the CRB eruptions. Arrival of the Yellowstone plume below south-central Oregon initiated a north-propagating rollback-style delamination of remnant Farallon lithosphere from the base of northern Oregon, enabled by ocean-lithosphere detachment as sills were emplacement near the (continental or oceanic) Moho. This drew Yellowstone asthenosphere to the north. When delamination propagated beneath the Cretaceous Wallowa pluton, its garnet-rich (dense) root foundered. Root foundering led to: pluton uplift (creating the Wallowa Mts); a mantle return flow that greatly amplified magmatic production; and assimilation of continental crust in the vicinity of a large magma chamber created by the evacuated pluton root. Thus, much of the CRB eruptive volume and history is attributed to lithospheric activity that was triggered by the arrival of mantle that was anomalously magmatically productive.

  9. Pyroclastic Deposits in Floor-Fractured Craters: A Unique Style or Lunar Basaltic Volcanism?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; DonaldsonHanna, Kerri L.; Pieters, Carle M.; Moriarty, Daniel P.; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Bennett, Kristen A.; Kramer, Georgiana Y.; Paige, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The lunar maria were formed by effusive fissure flows of low-viscosity basalt. Regional pyroclastic deposits were formed by deep-sourced fire-fountain eruptions dominated by basaltic glass. Basaltic material is also erupted from small vents within floor-fractured impact craters. These craters are characterized by shallow, flat floors cut by radial, concentric and/or polygonal fractures. Schultz [1] identified and classified over 200 examples. Low albedo pyroclastic deposits originate from depressions along the fractures in many of these craters.

  10. Quickly erupted volcanic sections of the Steens Basalt, Columbia River Basalt Group: Secular variation, tectonic rotation, and the Steens Mountain reversal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarboe, N.A.; Coe, R.S.; Renne, P.R.; Glen, J.M.G.; Mankinen, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    The Steens Basalt, now considered part of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG), contains the earliest eruptions of this magmatic episode. Lava flows of the Steens Basalt cover about 50,000 km2 of the Oregon Plateau in sections up to 1000 m thick. The large number of continuously exposed, quickly erupted lava flows (some sections contain over 200 flows) allows for small loops in the magnetic field direction paths to be detected. For volcanic rocks, this detail and fidelity are rarely found outside of the Holocene and yield estimates of eruption durations at our four sections of ??2.5 ka for 260 m at Pueblo Mountains, 0.5 to 1.5 ka for 190 m at Summit Springs, 1-3 ka for 170 m at North Mickey, and ??3 ka for 160 m at Guano Rim. That only one reversal of the geomagnetic field occurred during the eruption of the Steens Basalt (the Steens reversal at approximately 16.6 Ma) is supported by comparing 40Ar/39Ar ages and magnetic polarities to the geomagnetic polarity timescale. At Summit Springs two 40Ar/39Ar ages from normal polarity flows (16.72 ?? ?? 0.29 Ma (16.61) and 16.92 ?? ?? 0.52 Ma (16.82); ?? ?? equals 2s error) place their eruptions after the Steens reversal, while at Pueblo Mountains an 40Ar/39Ar age of 16.72 ?? ?? 0.21 Ma (16.61) from a reverse polarity flow places its eruption before the Steens reversal. Paleomagnetic field directions yielded 50 nontransitional directional-group poles which, combined with 26 from Steens Mountain, provide a paleomagnetic pole for the Oregon Plateau of 85.7??N, 318.4??E, K = 15.1, A95 = 4.3. Comparison of this new pole with a reference pole derived from CRBG flows from eastern Washington and a synthetic reference pole for North America derived from global data implies relative clockwise rotation of the Oregon Plateau of 7.4 ?? 5.0?? or 14.5 ?? 5.4??, respectively, probably due to northward decreasing extension of the basin and range. ?? 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. A petrologic study of the Teanaway Basalt: Eocene slab window volcanism in central WA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roepke, E.; Tepper, J. H.; Ivener, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Teanaway Basalt (TB) includes subaerial basalt to andesite flows, mafic to felsic tuffs, and rhyolite domes in the Central Cascades of Washington State. These volcanics overlie the extensive ~47 Ma Teanaway Dike Swarm (TDS) that cuts the underlying Swauk Formation. This study focuses on the tectonic setting of eruption and geochemical variations relating to geography and stratigraphy within the TB. The western-most area of the TB, Easton Ridge (ER), is compared with the eastern-most area of the TB, Liberty Ridge (LR) - 40 km to the east of ER. The bimodal TB consists predominantly of basaltic andesite and andesite (45.3-63.1 wt% SiO2) with subordinate rhyolite (75.9-79.4 wt% SiO2). The mafic rocks classify as primarily medium-K tholeiites (0.1-3.0 wt% K2O), but a few samples classify as alkaline. Enrichment in LILE and depletion in HFSE on spidergrams are indicative of an arc setting. However, compared with the modern Cascade Arc, the TB is distinctly higher in Fe2O3T (8.8-17.1 wt%) and TiO2 (1.1-2.7 wt%), and distinctly lower in Al2O3 (11.2-14.6) and K2O, with a similar range of Mg #s (0.15-0.48). Most tectonic discrimination plots characterize the TB as MORB, but some indicate an arc or within-plate setting. Preliminary Pb isotopic data (206Pb/204Pb = 19.13-19.19, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.62-15.64, and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.78-38.90) indicate the TB and TDS are more enriched than Cascade Arc rocks in 206Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb. Overall, these geochemical data are consistent with a model in which asthenospheric mantle ascending through a slab window interacts with mantle wedge that has previously acquired arc chemical traits. The existence of a slab window in this region during the mid-Eocene is compatible with plate reconstructions and evidence of extension that have been attributed to subduction of the Resurrection-Kula ridge (Haeussler et al., 2003). Harker plots show lavas at LR are generally more enriched than those at ER in Fe2O3T (11.9-17.1 wt% vs 8.8-15.7 wt%) Mn

  12. Bridging basalts and rhyolites in the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain volcanic province: The elusive intermediate step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanowski, Dawid; Ellis, Ben S.; Bachmann, Olivier; Guillong, Marcel; Phillips, William M.

    2015-04-01

    Many magmatic provinces produce strongly bimodal volcanism with abundant mafic and silicic magmas yet a scarcity of intermediate (55-65 wt.% SiO2) compositions. In such bimodal settings, much debate revolves around whether the basaltic magmas act as heat sources to melt pre-existing crust, or whether they are the parents to the silicic magmas (a fractionation-dominated evolution). Until now, this lack of coeval intermediate compositions has commonly been used to support models involving large degrees of crustal melting. Detailed analysis of mineral cargoes of ignimbrites from the 6.6-4 Ma Heise volcanic field in the famously bimodal Yellowstone-Snake River Plain (YSRP) volcanic province has revealed the existence of intermediate liquids associated with main stage rhyolitic volcanism. Two closely spaced rhyolitic ignimbrites, the Wolverine Creek Tuff and the Conant Creek Tuff, contain pyroxene crystals with major and trace elemental compositions in equilibrium with intermediate melts prior to significant plagioclase fractionation. Hosted within these crystals are glassy melt inclusions that have compositions (57-67 wt.% SiO2) directly recording the intermediate liquids. The combined mineral and melt inclusion data provide the first evidence for the occurrence of intermediate melts, typically erased in the high temperature YSRP ignimbrites by crystal resorption or diffusive re-equilibration. The results suggest the existence of mostly unerupted mid-crustal reservoirs that drive magma compositions towards the erupted rhyolites via assimilation-fractional crystallisation (AFC).

  13. Mare Basalt Volcanism: Generation, Ascent, Eruption, and History of Emplacement of Secondary Crust on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. W.; Wilson, L.

    2016-05-01

    Theoretical analyses of the generation, ascent, intrusion and eruption of basaltic magma provides new insight into magma source depths, supply processes, transport and emplacement mechanisms (dike intrusions, effusive and explosive eruptions).

  14. Geochemistry of Paraná-Etendeka basalts from Misiones, Argentina: Some new insights into the petrogenesis of high-Ti continental flood basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rämö, O. Tapani; Heikkilä, Pasi A.; Pulkkinen, Arto H.

    2016-04-01

    The Early Cretaceous (˜135-131 Ma) Paraná-Etendeka continental flood basalts, preserved in bulk in the Paraná basin of southern Brazil and vicinity, have been divided into low-Ti and high-Ti types that govern the southern and northern halves of the basin, respectively. We have examined a new sample set from the southern margin of the northern high-Ti segment of Paraná basalts in Misiones, northeastern Argentina. These basalts are strongly to moderately enriched in TiO2 (2-4 wt.%), have relatively high Ti/Y (300-500), low MgO (3.5-6.5 wt.%), and high Fe (FeO(tot) 12-14 wt.%) and belong to the Pitanga and Paranapanema magma types of Peate et al. (1992). Nd and Sr isotope compositions are quite unvarying with ɛNd (at 133 Ma) values of -4.6 to -3.6 and initial 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7054-0.7059 and show no variation with fractionation. Compared to high-Ti lavas in the central and northern parts of the Paraná high-Ti basalt segment, the lavas from Misiones are similar to those in the northeastern magin of the basin but less radiogenic in initial Nd isotope composition than those in the central part. This variation probably reflects mixed EM1-EM2 source components in the sublithospheric mantle. A polybaric melt model of a sublithospheric mantle source at the garnet lherzolite-spinel lherzolite transition is compatible with the observed Ti budget of the Pitanga and Paranapanema lavas, regardless of the Nd isotope composition of their purported source.

  15. Palaeoweathering characteristics of an intrabasaltic red bole of the Deccan Flood Basalts near Shrivardhan of western coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayyed, M. R. G.; Pardeshi, R. G.; Islam, R.

    2014-10-01

    An intrabasaltic red bole horizon is studied for its weathering characteristics with respect to the underlying and overlying basalts. The study indicates that all the three units have been considerably weathered; the red bole unit, however shows some distinctive characteristics. The red boles show a higher cation exchange capacity (CEC) and lower sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and organic carbon (OC) as compared to the weathered basalts. The lower values of Al2O3, TiO2 and Fe2O3(T) in red boles indicate their lesser weathering than the underlying and overlying basalts, which is further corroborated by the weathering intensity measured by the indices like chemical index of alteration (CIA) and statistical empirical index of chemical weathering (W). It is also evident that the red bole samples show more retention of original mafic and felsic components. While K2O exhibits an erratic behaviour, the MgO and CaO do not show much leaching in red boles. Lesser leaching and salinity in the red boles is indicated by the higher values of calcification and lower values of salinization. The SiO2-Al2O3-Fe2O3 plot indicates that red bole samples are close to the basalt field, while the weathered upper basalt is more kaolinized than the weathered lower basalt. These observations reveal that the post-formational weathering processes have least affected the original palaeoweathering characters of the red bole horizon and hence the intrabasaltic palaeosols (weathering horizons) can effectively be used to constrain the palaeoweathering and palaeoclimates during the continental flood basalt episodes in the geologic past.

  16. Geohazards (floods and landslides) in the Ndop plain, Cameroon volcanic line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wotchoko, Pierre; Bardintzeff, Jacques-Marie; Itiga, Zénon; Nkouathio, David Guimolaire; Guedjeo, Christian Suh; Ngnoupeck, Gerald; Dongmo, Armand Kagou; Wandji, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    The Ndop Plain, located along the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL), is a volcano-tectonic plain, formed by a series of tectonic movements, volcanic eruptions and sedimentation phases. Floods (annually) and landslides (occasionally) occur with devastating environmental effects. However, this plain attracts a lot of inhabitants owing to its fertile alluvial soils. With demographic explosion in the plain, the inhabitants (143,000 people) tend to farm and inhabit new zones which are prone to these geohazards. In this paper, we use field observations, laboratory analyses, satellite imagery and complementary methods using appropriate software to establish hazard (flood and landslide) maps of the Ndop Plain. Natural factors as well as anthropogenic factors are considered. The hazard maps revealed that 25% of the area is exposed to flood hazard (13% exposed to high flood hazard, 12% to moderate) and 5% of the area is exposed to landslide hazard (2% exposed to high landslide hazard, 3% to moderate). Some mitigation measures for floods (building of artificial levees, raising foundations of buildings and the meticulous regulation of the flood guards at Bamendjing Dam) and landslides (slope terracing, planting of trees, and building retaining walls) are proposed.

  17. Multiplicity of Magma Source Characteristics and Melting Processes for Late Cenozoic Basalts of the Bering Sea Volcanic Province (BSVP), Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukasa, S. B.; Andronikov, A. V.

    2006-12-01

    The Bering Sea Volcanic Province consists of a number of large basaltic late Cenozoic volcanic fields in a broad region inboard from the Aleutian arc front to the Arctic Circle, and from Chukchi Peninsula in Russia to Western Alaska, which we have dated by 40Ar/39Ar at ~6.0-0.1 Ma, but with some flows being too young to date by this method. We estimate that >1000 km3 of magma was erupted through the eastern part of the BSVP, all within the past 6 Ma. Combining age information with volume estimates reveals that the intensity of volcanic activity in the region has increased through time, with only about 15% of lava erupted before 3 Ma, and about 45% of all late Cenozoic magma being erupted within the last 300 k.y. Eruption rates also increase toward more recent times: 6-Ma basalts having erupted at the rate of ~70 m3/km2/yr, while the youngest basalts (? 0.7 Ma), are estimated to have erupted at a rate of ~225 m3/km2/yr. All late Cenozoic volcanic rocks are enriched in highly incompatible trace elements with strongly fractionated REE patterns (LaN/YbN = 4.7-23.7) suggesting Grt-bearing source. Nd-Sr-Hf isotopic compositions of the rocks (143Nd/144Nd = 0.512939-0.513139; 87Sr/86Sr = 0.702653-0.704342; 176Hf/177Hf = 0.283098- 0.283257) are similar to those of MORB and the depleted varieties of OIB. Lead isotopic ratios fall mostly below the Northern Hemisphere Reference Line (NHRL) in the Pacific MORB field, but the youngest rocks display a distinct trend toward the EM-II values (206Pb/204Pb = 18.21-19.10; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.42-15.62; 208Pb/204Pb = 37.72-38.88). Regional differences in both trace element and isotopic compositions are apparent, indicating that BSVP magmatism does not have a single origin. Lavas with the arc signature are prevalent near the southern margin of the province while those with an OIB signature dominate the central and northern sectors. Also, selected regions in the province exhibit a systematic increase in 87Sr/86Sr with time (from 0.7027 to up

  18. Crustal Structure of the Flood Basalt Province of Ethiopia from Constrained 3-D Gravity Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammo, Tilahun

    2013-12-01

    The Oligocene Afar mantle plume resulted in the eruption of a large volume of basaltic magma, including major sequences of rhyolitic ignimbrites, in a short span of time across Ethiopia. In order to assess the impact of these magmatic processes on the crust and to investigate the general crustal configuration beneath the Ethiopian plateau, northern part of the Main Ethiopian Rift and the Afar depression, analysis and modeling of the gravity field have been conducted. The Bouguer gravity map is dominated by long-wavelength anomalies that primarily arise from the isostatic compensation of the topography. Consequently, anomalies within the crust/upper mantle are masked and quantitative interpretation becomes difficult. The long-wavelength anomalies are approximated using admittance technique and subsequently removed from the Bouguer anomalies to obtain the residual isostatic anomalies. The residual map contains both short- and intermediate-wavelength anomalies related to geologic and tectonic features. The long-wavelength regional isostatic field is used to map the crust-mantle interface and the results are in good agreement with those determined by other geophysical methods. Seismic constrained gravity inversion was performed on the isostatic residual field and series of three-dimensional models have been constructed for the structures of the crust and upper mantle beneath the uplifted and rifted flood basalt province of northern Ethiopia. The inversion results have shown that the NW plateau has thick crust that rests on normal lithospheric mantle. Afar, On the other hand, is marked by thin stretched crust resting on a low-density upper mantle indicating a hotter thermal regime and partial melt. No lithospheric mantle is observed beneath Afar. The models further indicate the presence of an extensive sub-crustal thick (~12 km on average) and high-density (~3.06 gm/cc) mafic accreted igneous layer of fractionated cumulate (magmatic underplating) beneath the NW plateau

  19. Osmium isotope variations accompanying the eruption of a single lava flow field in the Columbia River Flood Basalt Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vye-Brown, C.; Gannoun, A.; Barry, T. L.; Self, S.; Burton, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    Geochemical interpretations of continental flood basalts usually assume that individual lava flows represent compositionally homogenous and rapidly erupted products of large well-mixed magma reservoirs. However, inflated pāhoehoe lavas may develop over considerable periods of time and preserve chemical variations that can be temporally linked through flow formation to eruption sequence thus providing an understanding of magma evolution over the timescale of a single eruption. This study presents comprehensive major, trace element and Re-Os isotope data for a single eruption that formed the 2660 km3 Sand Hollow flow field in the Columbia River Basalt Province, USA. Major and trace element variations accompanying flow emplacement (e.g. MgO 3.09-4.55 wt%, Ni 17.5-25.6 ppm) are consistent with fractional crystallisation, but other petrogenetic processes or variable sources cannot be distinguished. However, there is a systematic shift in the initial 187Os/188Os isotope composition of the magma (age corrected to 15.27 Ma), from 0.174 (lava core) to 1.444 (lava crust) within a single 35 m thick sheet lobe. Lava crust values are more radiogenic than any known mantle source, consistent with previous data indicating that neither an enriched reservoir nor the sub-continental lithospheric mantle are likely to have sourced these basalts. Rather, these data indicate that lavas emplaced during the earliest stages of eruption have higher degrees of crustal contamination. These results highlight the limitations of applying chemostratigraphic correlation across continental flood basalt provinces, the use of single data points to define melt sources and magmatic processes, and the dangers of using conventional isochron techniques in such basalt sequences for absolute chronology.

  20. Resolving mantle and magmatic processes in basalts from the Cameroon volcanic line using the Re-Os isotope system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannoun, A.; Burton, K. W.; Barfod, D. N.; Schiano, P.; Vlastélic, I.; Halliday, A. N.

    2015-05-01

    This study presents major-, trace element and Re-Os isotope and elemental data for young alkaline basalts (< 10 Ma) from oceanic (Annobon, S. Tomé, Principe), continental (Manengouba) and continent-oceanic boundary (COB, Mt. Cameroon) sectors of the Cameroon volcanic line (CVL). The CVL is a chain of Tertiary to recent, transitional to strongly alkaline intraplate volcanoes extending from the south Atlantic island of Annobon to the continental interior of West Africa (Biu Plateau). The basalts from the oceanic sector display a range of initial 187Os/188Os ratios between 0.128 and 0.190 and those from the COB and continental sector range between 0.142 and 0.560. The samples with high 206Pb/204Pb (e.g. ratios > 20) possess 187Os/188Os isotope compositions between 0.14 and 0.18 (e.g., basalts from Mt Cameroon and Sao Tomé) which reflect the chemical characteristics that are more likely to be primary features of CVL, and are close to the value of 0.153 attributed to the HIMU end-member (Tubuai-Mangaia). However, most of the lavas from the continental sector show highly radiogenic initial 187Os/188Os ratios (0.36 to 0.56) that are outside the range previously observed for ocean island basalts, with shifts to radiogenic Os isotope compositions accompanied by less radiogenic 206Pb/204Pb and increasing SiO2 contents. The increase in 187Os/188Os is also associated with the decrease of Os, Ni, MgO and phenocryst abundances. These data can be explained by fractional crystallisation and assimilation of continental crust by the ascending magma. The systematic shift to unradiogenic lead isotope compositions from the COB into the oceanic sector is positively correlated with variations in 187Os/188Os isotope composition (from 0.140 to 0.128). At first sight this covariation might be attributed to the mixing of HIMU material with the ambient upper mantle (DMM). However, there is a clear covariation of the Os isotope and elemental composition, best explained with contamination of

  1. Dykes as Tracers of Continental Break-up: Argon Geochronology of Mesozoic Flood Basalts of Western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazel, A.; Kelley, S. P.; Leat, P. T.; Hawkesworth, C.

    2003-04-01

    The British Antarctic Survey MAMOG Project (Magmatism as A Monitor Of Gondwana break up processes) is investigating the mantle processes that resulted in the eruption of the Karoo-Dronning Maud Land CFB suite and its importance in our understanding of the initial stages of Gondwana break-up. One of the problems of understanding the 180Ma continental flood basalts is knowing their precise age. Since they are erupted through more ancient (1000Ma) rocks we have to use the Ar-Ar dating technique to determine whether they are related to the continental break-up or are part of some older event. In addition, we have analysed the chemistry of the dykes and can relate them to several chemical types, the challenge is to test if dykes with similar chemistry all erupted at the same time. It has been suggested that many of the Jurassic dykes in western DML fed the CFB suite that is higher in the volcanic pile. We have found dykes of different ages in the Kirwanveggen and Ahlmannryggen regions of western DML. Although more work needs to be done, we now have mounting evidence to suggest that episodes of chemically similar magmatism in DML stretched from 1000-180Ma with some events separated by hundreds of millions of years implying a lithospheric mantle control on magma composition. The precise ages for the dykes are slightly younger than the accepted ages for the South African Karoo province. In addition to determining the ages of dyke intrusions, a high spatial resolution UV laser has been used to measure argon loss from diorite host rocks adjacent to the dykes. Progressive heating of the country rock during magma emplacement causes argon loss. Thermal modelling of the dykes will allow us to differentiate between various heat loss mechanisms and give an indication of the style, volume and rapidity of magma flow through the dyke. The UV results have shown that some of the dykes were active for long periods probably feeding the surface lava eruptions.

  2. Sr-Pb isotopic studies of primitive and near-primitive basaltic magmas, Garibaldi volcanic belt, northern Cascadia subduction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, N. L.; Sinha, A. K.

    2003-12-01

    The northern Cascadia subduction system is intimately associated with aseismic subduction of extremely young and presumably `hot' oceanic lithosphere beneath northwestern Washington and southwestern British Columbia. Sr and Pb isotopic analyses are presented for primitive and near-primitive (>6.0 wt. % MgO) basalts from a southeast-northwest transect along the Garibaldi volcanic belt (GVB), which overlies subducted oceanic lithosphere that decreases in age from ca. 22 m.y. below Glacier Peak at its southern end to about 13 m.y. beneath the northernmost eruptive centers in the Mosaic (Meager Mountain) and Salal Glacier-Bridge River areas. The basaltic rocks have initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70317-0.70426, with minimum observed values in individual lava suites decreasing northward. Values of Pb isotopic ratios for GVB basaltic suites range from 18.22 to 18.97 for 206Pb/204Pb, from 15.51 to 15.59 for 207Pb/204Pb, and from 37.73 to 38.49 for 208Pb/204Pb. Sr isotopic compositions, unsupported by lava Rb contents, show positive correlations with Cs/Rb, La/Nb, Ba/La, Ba/Nb, Ba/Ta, B/La, B/Zr, Sr/Nd, and primitive mantle normalized Sr/P; and negative correlations with high field strength elements (HFSE: Nb, and Ta), FeO and other transition metals (Co and Zn), Ce/Pb,Cr/Ni, Sm/Yb, Ta/Yb, Hf/Yb, K/Ba, K/Sr, and La/Yb. Moderate to strong correlations between 87Sr/86Sr and ratios involving fluid-mobile and less-fluid-mobile elements are compatible with decreased slab input northward along the volcanic front as the subducted plate becomes hotter. The Pb isotopic compositions exhibit only limited variations when examined against position along the volcanic arc, but show uniform to extremely weak positive correlations of 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb with 87Sr/86Sr, Ba/La, Sr/Nd, Ba/Nb, Zr/Nb, Mg-Number and SiO2; and similarly weak negative correlation of Ce/Pb with 206Pb/204Pb and 207Pb/204Pb. The isotopic data suggest that GVB basaltic magmas have experienced with

  3. Bridging Basalts and Rhyolites in the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain Volcanic Province: the Elusive Intermediate Step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanowski, D.; Ellis, B. S.; Bachmann, O.; Guillong, M.; Phillips, W. M.

    2014-12-01

    Many magmatic provinces produce strongly bimodal volcanism with abundant mafic and silicic magmas yet a scarcity of intermediate compositions (55-65 wt % SiO2). In such bimodal settings, much debate revolves around whether the basaltic magmas act as heat sources to melt pre-existing crust, or whether they are the parents to the silicic magmas (fractionation dominated evolution). Commonly, this scarcity of intermediate compositions has been used to support models involving large degrees of crustal melting. We present evidence of intermediate liquids associated with rhyolite petrogenesis in a famously bimodal province, the Yellowstone-Snake River Plain (YSRP) volcanic area in the western USA. The intermediate (57-67 wt % SiO2) liquids with compositions representing liquid lines of descent are preserved as melt inclusions in pyroxene crystals from two rhyolitic ignimbrites erupted from the 6.6-4.5 Ma Heise volcanic field in eastern Idaho. The host pyroxenes also yield major and trace element compositions in equilibrium with intermediate melts prior to significant plagioclase fractionation. The occurrence of such intermediate melts, most likely typically erased in the high temperature rhyolitic ignimbrites of the YSRP by diffusive re-equilibration, supports the importance of assimilation-fractional crystallisation (AFC) as a primary petrogenetic process. The crystal fractionation driving magma compositions towards the erupted rhyolites requires that unerupted cumulate reservoirs are left behind in the mid-crust - a conclusion supported by earlier seismic studies.

  4. Forecasting of flood basalt eruptions: lessons from Bárðarbunga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, A. J.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Bagnardi, M.; Jarosch, A. H.; Spaans, K.; Magnússon, E.; Parks, M.; Dumont, S.; Ofeigsson, B.; Sigmundsson, F.; Hreinsdottir, S.; Dahm, T.; Jonsdottir, K.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014-15 eruption from Bárðarbunga volcano produced ~1.6 km3 of lava and was the largest Icelandic eruption since the Laki eruption in 1783-84. Nevertheless the recent eruption was still an order of magnitude smaller than Laki and some previous eruptions of Bárðarbunga, which raises the question of whether Bárðarbunga currently has the potential for a larger eruption and, more generally, can we predict how large this type of eruption is going to be once it has started? The eruption was accompanied by a gradual caldera collapse, which provides a plausible mechanism for producing the largest flood basalts that have occurred in Iceland. Here we investigate the potential for larger eruptions through coupled modeling of the caldera collapse and eruption. Our model provides predictive capacity in terms of the end date and final volume of eruption; based on a simple model of piston collapse constrained by subsidence data from a continuously operating GPS station within the caldera, we made a prediction of the end date that was off by only 9 days. We have extended our modeling to consider the effects of episodic pressure change due to earthquakes on faults beneath the caldera, constrained by GPS and InSAR. Our model constrains the aerial extent and volume of the magma body and thus its potential to develop into a larger eruption. The model can be applied to future eruptions that are accompanied by caldera collapse, to forecast the duration and eventual erupted volume, which is critical information for civil authorities.

  5. Seawater osmium isotope evidence for a middle Miocene flood basalt event in ferromanganese crust records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klemm, V.; Frank, M.; Levasseur, S.; Halliday, A.N.; Hein, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Three ferromanganese crusts from the northeast, northwest and central Atlantic were re-dated using osmium (Os) isotope stratigraphy and yield ages from middle Miocene to the present. The three Os isotope records do not show evidence for growth hiatuses. The reconstructed Os isotope-based growth rates for the sections older than 10??Ma are higher than those determined previously by the combined beryllium isotope (10Be/9Be) and cobalt (Co) constant-flux methods, which results in a decrease in the maximum age of each crust. This re-dating does not lead to significant changes to the interpretation of previously determined radiogenic isotope neodymium, lead (Nd, Pb) time series because the variability of these isotopes was very small in the records of the three crusts prior to 10??Ma. The Os isotope record of the central Atlantic crust shows a pronounced minimum during the middle Miocene between 15 and 12??Ma, similar to a minimum previously observed in two ferromanganese crusts from the central Pacific. For the other two Atlantic crusts, the Os isotope records and their calibration to the global seawater curve for the middle Miocene are either more uncertain or too short and thus do not allow for a reliable identification of an isotopic minimum. Similar to pronounced minima reported previously for the Cretaceous/Tertiary and Eocene/Oligocene boundaries, possible interpretations for the newly identified middle Miocene Os isotope minimum include changes in weathering intensity and/or a meteorite impact coinciding with the formation of the No??rdlinger Ries Crater. It is suggested that the eruption and weathering of the Columbia River flood basalts provided a significant amount of the unradiogenic Os required to produce the middle Miocene minimum. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Origin and Role of Recycled Crust in Flood Basalt Magmatism: Case Study of the Central East Greenland Rifted Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, E.; Lesher, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Continental flood basalts (CFB) are extreme manifestations of mantle melting derived from chemically/isotopically heterogeneous mantle. Much of this heterogeneity comes from lithospheric material recycled into the convecting mantle by a range of mechanisms (e.g. subduction, delamination). The abundance and petrogenetic origins of these lithologies thus provide important constraints on the geodynamical origins of CFB magmatism, and the timescales of lithospheric recycling in the mantle. Basalt geochemistry has long been used to constrain the compositions and mean ages of recycled lithologies in the mantle. Typically, this work assumes the isotopic compositions of the basalts are the same as their mantle source(s). However, because basalts are mixtures of melts derived from different sources (having different fusibilities) generated over ranges of P and T, their isotopic compositions only indirectly represent the isotopic compositions of their mantle sources[1]. Thus, relating basalts compositions to mantle source compositions requires information about the melting process itself. To investigate the nature of lithologic source heterogeneity while accounting for the effects of melting during CFB magmatism, we utilize the REEBOX PRO forward melting model[2], which simulates adiabatic decompression melting in lithologically heterogeneous mantle. We apply the model to constrain the origins and abundance of mantle heterogeneity associated with Paleogene flood basalts erupted during the rift-to-drift transition of Pangea breakup along the Central East Greenland rifted margin of the North Atlantic igneous province. We show that these basalts were derived by melting of a hot, lithologically heterogeneous source containing depleted, subduction-modified lithospheric mantle, and <10% recycled oceanic crust. The Paleozoic mean age we calculate for this recycled crust is consistent with an origin in the region's prior subduction history, and with estimates for the mean age of

  7. Formation of PGM-Cu-Ni deposits in the process of evolution of flood-basalt magmatism in the Noril'sk region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivolutskaya, N. A.

    2011-08-01

    The timing of the emplacement of ore-bearing melts in the process of evolution of flood-basalt magmatism in the Noril'sk District is discussed. The current models of ore formation consider the emplacement of ore-bearing intrusions either under the conditions of a closed magmatic system as a product of a self-dependent magmatic event, or under the conditions of an open magmatic system, where intrusions are parts of the conduits feeding lava flows. In both cases, the composition of the initial magma, the content of volatile components therein, and the contribution of country rock assimilation are important for the development of a genetic model. The relationships between lavas and intrusions are exemplified in the South Maslov intrusion, which cuts through the rocks of the Nadezhdinsky Formation. No geological evidence for links of lavas to intrusions has been established. Substantial difference in geochemistry (Ti contents, Gd/Yb and La/Sm ratios, etc.) of the tuff and lava sequence on the northern shore of Lake Lama and the Maslov intrusions are demonstrated. It is concluded that the Noril'sk deposits were formed as products of emplacement of self-dependent portion of magma in the post-lower Nadezhdinsky time. The melt composition determined from melt inclusions in olivine corresponds to high-Mg tholeiitic basalt (up to 7-8 wt % MgO) containing up to 1 wt % H2O and 0.3 wt % Cl and undersaturated with sulfur. The fluid regime of flood-basalt volcanism had no anomalous features—the fluid was aqueous-carbon dioxide. The melts of ore-bearing and barren intrusions had similar concentrations of volatile components. The distribution of major and trace elements in intrusive rocks of the contact zone with the lower part of the Nadezhdinsky Formation characterized by high (La/Sm)N ratio in comparison with gabbroic rocks (2.8-2.3 and 1.3-1.6, respectively), indicates that contamination of the initial melt only took place in a narrow (1 m) contact zone or did not develop at

  8. Alkaline Basalts of The Quaternary Buffalo Valley Volcanic Field, NW Fish Creek Mountains, North-central Nevada, Great Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousens, B.; Henry, C. D.

    2008-12-01

    The Buffalo Valley volcanic field, 5 km southwest of Battle Mountain, consists of approximately 11 cinder cones and associated flows. Youthful volcanoes are rare in the region, and thus this field offers the opportunity to investigate mantle sources currently beneath the central Great Basin. Most of the eruptive centers are distributed along the northwestern margin of the Fish Creek Mountains, a mid-Tertiary caldera complex, along a 13-km-long northeasterly trend that is perpendicular to the regional stress field (or GPS velocity field), suggesting fault control or eruption from a now-buried fissure. The cones are geomorphologically youthful, with well-defined, commonly breached craters. At least one cone, situated slightly east of the main trend, consists of only a thin mantle of scoria and bombs overlying grey Paleozoic limestone. Previous K-Ar and Ar-Ar dating indicate that the cones are between 1.29 and 0.95 Ma in age. Two other nearby Quaternary volcanic centers lie northeast of the Fish Creek Mountains (K-Ar date of 3.3 Ma) and in the center of the Fish Creek caldera (age unknown). Rare Tertiary basalts and more common Tertiary andesites lie around the margin of the caldera. Lavas from the Buffalo Valley cones have vesicular flow tops and more massive interiors. All Quaternary centers are similar petrographically, including 1-2% olivine phenocrysts and megacrysts up to 1 cm in size, and characteristic plagioclase megacrysts that are rarely up to 4 cm long, commonly in a glassy matrix. Two cone samples are alkalic basalt and tephrite with Mg numbers of 0.55, high TiO2 (2.4%), K2O (2.0%), light REE, Nb (60 ppm), but low Cr and Ni (80 ppm), Pb (2 ppm), Ba (450 ppm) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.70375) compared to Late Pliocene/Quaternary volcanic rocks from the western Great Basin near Reno/Carson City/Fallon. The Buffalo Valley cones are similar chemically to lavas from the Pliocene-Quaternary Lunar Craters volcanic field in central Nevada, and are melts of mantle that is

  9. Sulfur release from the Columbia River Basalts and other flood lava eruptions constrained by a model of sulfide saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, S.; Self, S.; Sharma, K.; Sephton, S.

    2010-11-01

    A very likely cause of widespread environmental impacts of flood basalt eruptions is the emission of sulfur, chlorine, and possibly fluorine from the erupting magma. We present new data on the S contents of rare glass inclusions and matrix glasses preserved in quenched lava selvages from lava fields of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG; Ginkgo, Sand Hollow and Sentinel Gap flows, Wanapum Basalt Formation). We compare these results with published data from Neral and Jawar Formation lavas (Deccan Traps, India) and the Roza flow (CRBG). CRBG glass inclusions have up to 2000 ppm S and 15-16 wt.% FeO total. By contrast, the Deccan examples have about 1400 ppm S and 10 wt.% FeO total. Several of the glass inclusions are partly degassed, indicating entrapment during magma rise, and matrix glasses are typically more evolved than glass inclusions due to small amounts of in situ crystallization. Using only the highest S inclusions and taking account of the effect of in situ crystallization and degassing on the S content of the residual matrix glasses indicates S yields of about 0.07 to 0.1 wt.% from Deccan eruptions and about 0.15 wt.% from Wanapum (CRBG) eruptions. The pre-eruptive S contents of these magmas correlate with weight% FeO total in the same way as undegassed sulfide-saturated mid-ocean ridge basalts. Using oceanic basalts to define a sulfide saturation line, and data on S contents of degassed basalts, we propose an equation to estimate the weight% S yield (ΔS) from initially sulfide-saturated basalt liquid without the need to find well-preserved, rare, undegassed glass inclusions and matrix glasses: ΔS=(0.01418×FeO-0.06381)±0.02635. This compares well with independent estimates derived from the petrologic method by taking the difference in S concentration of glass inclusions and matrix glass. Applying our method to the aphyric Grande Ronde Basalts of the CRBG implies a total yield of about 1000 Gt SO 2 delivered into the Miocene atmosphere in

  10. Basaltic volcanism on the eucrite parent body - Petrology and chemistry of the polymict eucrite ALHA80102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, A. H.; Drake, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    The polymict eucrite meteorite ALHA80102 is an unequilibrated breccia of basaltic and gabbroic clasts in a fragmental matrix. Clasts include basalts of many textural types, cumulate gabbro, black 'glass', and ferroan troctolite (plagioclase, silica, Fe-rich olivine, ilmenite, mesostasis). Ferroan troctolite has not been previously reported from eucrites or howardites; it is interpreted as the end-product of fractional crystallization of eucritic magmas. Bulk and trace element compositions (by electron microprobe and INAA) of clasts and matrix from ALHA80102 are similar to those of other eucrites; the meteorite contains clasts similar to Juvinas and to Stannern. A clast of cumulate eucrite gabbro is enriched in the light rare earths (La/Lu = 2XCI). This clast is interpreted as an unrepresentative sample of metamorphically equilibrated gabbro; LREE-enriched magmas need not be invoked. ALHA80102 is similar to other polymict eucrites from the Allan Hills and may be paired with ALHA76005, ALHA77302, and ALHA78040.

  11. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory: a natural laboratory for studying basaltic volcanism: Chapter 1 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tilling, Robert I.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Brantley, Steven R.; Neal, Christina A.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter summarizes HVO’s history and some of the scientific achievements made possible by this permanent observatory over the past century as it grew from a small wooden structure with only a small staff and few instruments to a modern, well-staffed, world-class facility with state-of-the-art monitoring networks that constantly track volcanic and earthquake activity. The many successes of HVO, from improving basic knowledge about basaltic volcanism to providing hands-on experience and training for hundreds of scientists and students and serving as the testing ground for new instruments and technologies, stem directly from the acquisition, integration, and analysis of multiple datasets that span many decades of observations of frequent eruptive activity. HVO’s history of the compilation, interpretation, and communication of long-term volcano monitoring and eruption data (for instance, seismic, geodetic, and petrologic-geochemical data and detailed eruption chronologies) is perhaps unparalleled in the world community of volcano observatories. The discussion and conclusions drawn in this chapter, which emphasize developments since the 75th anniversary of HVO in 1987, are general and retrospective and are intended to provide context for the more detailed, topically focused chapters of this volume.

  12. Contrasting magma types and steady-state, volume-predictable, basaltic volcanism along the Great Rift, Idaho.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuntz, M.A.; Champion, D.E.; Spiker, E. C.; Lefebvre, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    The Great Rift is an 85 km-long, 2-8 km-wide volcanic rift zone in the Snake River Plain, Idaho. Three basaltic lava fields, latest Pleistocene to Holocene, are located along the Great Rift: Craters of the Moon, Kings Bowl and Wapi. Craters of the Moon is the largest, covering 1600 km2 and containing approx 30 km3 of lava flows and pyroclastics. Field, radiocarbon and palaeomagnetic data show that this lava field formed in eight eruptive periods, each lasted several hundred years with a recurrence interval of several hundred to approx 3000 yr. The first eruption began approx 15 000 yr B.P. and the last ended at approx 2100 yr B.P. The other two lava fields formed approx 2250 yr B.P. Three magma types fed flows along the Great Rift. A contaminated and a fractionated type were erupted at the Craters of the Moon lava field. The third, little-fractionated Snake River Plain magma-type was erupted at the other two lava fields. The Craters of the Moon segment of the Great Rift has experienced quasi-steady state, volume-predictable volcanism for the last 15 000 yr. Based on this, about 5-6 km3 of lava will be erupted within the next 1000 yr.-L.C.H.

  13. Eruptive History and Chemical Evolution of the Precaldera and Postcaldera Basalt-Dacite Sequences, Long Valley, California: Implications for Magma Sources, Current Seismic Unrest, and Future Volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, Roy A.

    2004-01-01

    The Long Valley Volcanic Field in east-central California straddles the East Sierran frontal fault zone, overlapping the Sierra Nevada and western Basin and Range Provinces. The volcanic field overlies a mature mid-Tertiary erosional surface that truncates a basement composed mainly of Mesozoic plutons and associated roof pendants of Mesozoic metavolcanic and Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks. Long Valley volcanism began about 4 Ma during Pliocene time and has continued intermittently through the Holocene. The volcanism is separable into two basalt-rhyolite episodes: (1) an earlier, precaldera episode related to Long Valley Caldera that climaxed with eruption of the Bishop Tuff and collapse of the caldera; and (2) a later, postcaldera episode structurally related to the north-south-trending Mono-Inyo Craters fissure system, which extends from the vicinity of Mammoth Mountain northward through the west moat of the caldera to Mono Lake. Eruption of the basalt-dacite sequence of the precaldera basalt-rhyolite episode peaked volumetrically between 3.8 and 2.5 Ma; few basalts were erupted during the following 1.8 m.y. (2.5?0.7 Ma). Volcanism during this interval was dominated by eruption of the voluminous rhyolites of Glass Mountain (2.2?0.8 Ma) and formation of the Bishop Tuff magma chamber. Catastrophic rupture of the roof of this magma chamber caused eruption of the Bishop Tuff and collapse of Long Valley Caldera (760 ka), after which rhyolite eruptions resumed on the subsided caldera floor. The earliest postcaldera rhyolite flows (700?500 ka) contain quenched globular basalt enclaves (mafic magmatic inclusions), indicating that basaltic magma had reentered shallow parts of the magmatic system after a 1.8-m.y. hiatus. Later, at about 400 ka, copious basalts, as well as dacites, began erupting from vents mainly in the west moat of the caldera. These later eruptions initiated the postcaldera basalt-rhyolite episode related to the Mono-Inyo Craters fissure system, which

  14. 3-D high-speed imaging of volcanic bomb trajectory in basaltic explosive eruptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaudin, D.; Taddeucci, J; Houghton, B. F.; Orr, Tim R.; Andronico, D.; Del Bello, E.; Kueppers, U.; Ricci, T.; Scarlato, P.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging, in general, and high speed imaging in particular are important emerging tools for the study of explosive volcanic eruptions. However, traditional 2-D video observations cannot measure volcanic ejecta motion toward and away from the camera, strongly hindering our capability to fully determine crucial hazard-related parameters such as explosion directionality and pyroclasts' absolute velocity. In this paper, we use up to three synchronized high-speed cameras to reconstruct pyroclasts trajectories in three dimensions. Classical stereographic techniques are adapted to overcome the difficult observation conditions of active volcanic vents, including the large number of overlapping pyroclasts which may change shape in flight, variable lighting and clouding conditions, and lack of direct access to the target. In particular, we use a laser rangefinder to measure the geometry of the filming setup and manually track pyroclasts on the videos. This method reduces uncertainties to 10° in azimuth and dip angle of the pyroclasts, and down to 20% in the absolute velocity estimation. We demonstrate the potential of this approach by three examples: the development of an explosion at Stromboli, a bubble burst at Halema'uma'u lava lake, and an in-flight collision between two bombs at Stromboli.

  15. Lead and strontium isotopes and related trace elements as genetic tracers in the Upper Cenozoic rhyolite-basalt association of the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doe, B.R.; Leeman, W.P.; Christiansen, R.L.; Hedge, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    Pb, U, Th, Rb and Sr contents and Pb- and Sr-isotopic compositions, together with field and petrological data, are consistent with the hypothesis of derivation of the basaltic and rhyolitic magmas of this volcanic field from source regions in the upper mantle and lower crust, respectively. It is suggested that the isotopic signatures of the basalts were inherited from a 2600 m.y.-old mantle 'keel' attached to the continental crust and were essentially unaffected by passage of the magma through the latter.R.J.P.

  16. Geology of the saucer-shaped sill near Mahad, western Deccan Traps, India, and its significance to the Flood Basalt Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duraiswami, Raymond A.; Shaikh, Tahira N.

    2013-07-01

    An ˜22-m-thick saucer-shaped sill occurs near Mahad and is exposed as a curvilinear, miniature ridge within the Deccan Traps. The sill has variable dips (42-55°). It has a 7.1-km long axis and 5.3 km short axis (aspect ratio of 1.4) and is larger than the MV sill of the Golden Valley sill complex, South Africa and the Panton sill, Australia. The sill has distinct glassy upper and lower chilled margins with a coarse-grained highly jointed core. The samples from the margin are invariably fractured and iron stained because of deuteric alteration. The rock from the sill is plagioclase-phyric basalt. At least three thick sill-like apophyses emanate from the base of the main sill. The apophyses change direction because of bending and thinning from a horizontal concordant sheet at the top to a discordant inclined form that bends again to pass into a lower horizontal concordant sheet. We interpret such features as `nascent saucer-shaped sills' that did not inflate to form nested sills. Geochemically, the sill consists of poorly differentiated tholeiitic basalt that has a restricted geochemical range. Critical trace element ratios and primitive mantle normalised trace and REE patterns indicate that the sills have geochemical affinities to the Poladpur chemical type and that the pahoehoe flow they intrude belongs to the Bushe Formation. Calculated magmatic overpressures during sill emplacement range from 8.4 to 11.3 MPa (for Young's modulus E = 5 GPa) and 16.7 to 22.5 MPa (for E=10 GPa) and depth to magma chamber ranges from 8.5 to 11.5 km ( E = 5 GPa) and 17.1 to 22.9 km ( E = 10 GPa), consistent with petrological and gravity modelling. The volume of the Mahad sill is approximately 276 km3 and is constant irrespective of the variations in the values of host-rock Young's modulus. In 1980, Cox (J Petrol 21:629-650, 1980) proposed a conceptual model of the crust-mantle section beneath the Karoo CFB which is considered as the fundamental model for flood basalt volcanism. Our

  17. Spectroscopy of olivine basalts using FieldSpec and ASTER data: A case study from Wadi Natash volcanic field, south Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madani, Ahmed

    2015-10-01

    This paper aims at revealing the spectral characteristics of the olivine basalts exposed at Wadi Natash area, Egypt, using FieldSpec spectroradiometer. It also evaluates band ratios and fusion techniques for mapping purposes using ASTER data. Several volcanic episodes occurred during Early- to Late-Cretaceous are recorded in the study area. Early-Cretaceous olivine basalts are highly carbonated. Late-Cretaceous eruptions took place throughout several volcanic cones aligned in NW direction. Based on FieldSpec measurements and petrographic data, two groups of olivine basalt namely `A' and `B' are recognized. Fresh olivine basalt (group A) is characterized by low flat spectral profile with overall low reflectance values (˜20%). Spectral profile of altered olivine basalt (group B) shows moderate reflectance values (˜37%) with four little absorption features around the 1.10, 1.40, 2.00 and 2.35 μm wavelength regions. These absorption features are attributed mainly to the presence of chlorite and carbonate alteration products as indicated by petrographic examination. ASTER false colour composite band ratio image (3/2:R, 8/1:G and 8/5:B) discriminates easily the fresh and altered basalts by deep blue and reddish blue colours respectively. Image fusion between previously mentioned FCC ratios image and high spatial resolution ASTER panchromatic image are carried out using brovey and HSV transformation methods. Visual and statistical assessment methods proved that HSV fusion image yields better image interpretability results compared to brovey image. It improves the spatial resolution of original FCC ratios image with acceptable spectral preservation. The present study proved the usefulness of FieldSpec spectral profiles and the processed ASTER data for discriminating different olivine basalt groups exposed at the study area.

  18. Helium Isotopic Compositions of Antarctic High-Mg Rocks Related to the Karoo Continental Flood Basalts: Evidence for a Depleted Upper Mantle Source?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, J. S.; Kurz, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The isotopic composition of helium is often considered to be one of the key elements in resolving deep mantle plume vs. upper mantle origin of hotspot-related volcanic rocks. High 3He/4He values, greater than 10 times atmospheric (Ra), are generally thought to indicate plume-related sources in the lower mantle. The use of helium isotopes in continental flood basalt (CFB) provinces has been limited by the lack of fresh rock material, poor exposures, time-integrated ingrowth of radiogenic 4He, and strong lithospheric overprinting. Vestfjella mountain range at western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, is comprised of lava flows and intrusive rocks that belong to the Jurassic (~180 Ma) Karoo continental flood basalt province, the bulk of which is exposed in southern Africa. The Karoo CFBs and related rocks show strong lithospheric influence in their geochemistry in general, but some high-Mg dikes from Vestfjella show geochemical evidence of derivation from sublithospheric sources. In an attempt to determine the first estimate for the helium isotopic composition of the Karoo mantle sources, we performed He isotopic measurements on six primitive Vestfjella dike samples collected from variably exposed nunataks. Helium was extracted by in-vacuo stepwise crushing and melting of separated and carefully hand-picked olivine phenocrysts (Ø = 0.25-1 mm; ~10 000 grains in total; abraded and unabraded fractions). The results of coupled crushing and melting measurements show evidence of both cosmogenic and radiogenic helium contributions within the olivines (i.e. by having high He contents and anomalously low or high 3He/4He released by melting), which complicates interpretation of the data. As a best estimate for the mantle isotopic composition, we use the sample with the highest amount of He released (> 50%) during the first crushing step of an abraded coarse fraction, which gave 3He/4He of 7.03 ± 0.23 (2σ) Ra. This value is indistinguishable from those measured from Southwest

  19. Basalt-Limestone and Andesite-Limestone Interaction in the Arc Crust - Implications for Volcanic Degassing of CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, L. B.; Dasgupta, R.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanically emitted CO2 is generally mantle-derived, but high degassing rates at some arcs (e.g. Merapi [1] and Colli Albani Volcanic District [2]) are thought to be affected by magma-carbonate interaction in the upper plate. However, the effects of depth, temperature, and composition on this process are poorly known. We experimentally simulated magma (50%)-limestone (50%) wallrock interactions at 0.5-1.0 GPa, 1100-1200 °C using pure calcite and a hydrous (~3-5 wt.% H2O) melt (basalt, andesite, or dacite). At 1.0 GPa, 1200 °C starting melts are superliquidus, whereas in the presence of calcite, Ca-rich cpx ± Ca-scapolite are produced. With increasing T, basalt-calcite interaction causes the melt, on a volatile-free basis, to become silica-poor and Ca-rich with alumina decreasing as cpx becomes more CaTs-rich. The same trend is seen with all starting melt compositions as P decreases at a constant T (1200 °C), producing melts similar to ultracalcic (CaO/Al2O3>>1) melt inclusions found in arc settings. Shifting from basalt to andesite has little effect on SiO2 and CaO of the reacted melt (e.g. 37 wt.% SiO2, 42 wt.% CaO at 0.5 GPa, 1200 °C), whereas Al2O3 of andesite-derived reacted melt is lower, likely a result of lower alumina in the starting andesite. Wall-rock calcite consumption is observed to increase with increasing T, decreasing P, and increasing melt XSiO2. At 0.5 GPa between 1100 and 1200 °C, our basalt experiments yield carbonate assimilation from 22 to 48 wt.%. This decreases to 20 wt.% at 1.0 GPa, 1200 °C, whereas an andesitic composition assimilates 59 to 52 wt.% from 0.5 to 1.0 GPa at 1200 °C. The higher assimilation in andesite-added runs at high-T is because of lower silicate liquidus as evidenced by lower modal proportion or absence of cpx ± scapolite. Using a magma flux rate estimated for Mt. Vesuvius [3], we obtain a CO2 outflux for a single such volcano experiencing arc magma-calcite reaction [4] of at least 2-4% of the present

  20. Lunar Mare Basalts as Analogues for Martian Volcanic Compositions: Evidence from Visible, Near-IR, and Thermal Emission Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, T. G.; Morris, R. V.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    The lunar mare basalts potentially provide a unique sample suite for understanding the nature of basalts on the martian surface. Our current knowledge of the mineralogical and chemical composition of the basaltic material on Mars comes from studies of the basaltic martian meteorites and from orbital and surface remote sensing observations. Petrographic observations of basaltic martian meteorites (e.g., Shergotty, Zagami, and EETA79001) show that the dominant phases are pyroxene (primarily pigeonite and augite), maskelynite (a diaplectic glass formed from plagioclase by shock), and olivine [1,2]. Pigeonite, a low calcium pyroxene, is generally not found in abundance in terrestrial basalts, but does often occur on the Moon [3]. Lunar samples thus provide a means to examine a variety of pigeonite-rich basalts that also have bulk elemental compositions (particularly low-Ti Apollo 15 mare basalts) that are comparable to basaltic SNC meteorites [4,5]. Furthermore, lunar basalts may be mineralogically better suited as analogues of the martian surface basalts than the basaltic martian meteorites because the plagioclase feldspar in the basaltic Martian meteorites, but not in the lunar surface basalts, is largely present as maskelynite [1,2]. Analysis of lunar mare basalts my also lead to additional endmember spectra for spectral libraries. This is particularly important analysis of martian thermal emission spectra, because the spectral library apparently contains a single pigeonite spectrum derived from a synthetic sample [6].

  1. Petrogenesis of the flood basalts from the Early Permian Panjal Traps, Kashmir, India: Geochemical evidence for shallow melting of the mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shellnutt, J. Gregory; Bhat, Ghulam M.; Wang, Kuo-Lung; Brookfield, Michael E.; Jahn, Bor-Ming; Dostal, Jaroslav

    2014-09-01

    The Early Permian Panjal Traps of northern India represent a significant eruption of volcanic rocks which occurred during the opening of the Neotethys Ocean. Basaltic, basaltic-andesites, dacitic and rhyolitic rocks collected from Guryal Ravine and Pahalgam show evidence for subaerial and subaqueous eruptions indicating that they are contemporaneous with the formation of a shallow marine basin. The major and trace element geochemistry of the basalts is consistent with a within-plate setting and there are basalts which have high-Ti (TiO2 > 2.0 wt.%) and low-Ti (TiO2 < 1.8 wt.%) compositions. The ‘high-Ti’ basalts are similar to OIB whereas the ‘low-Ti’ basalts are similar to continental tholeiites. The identification of ‘high- and low-Ti’ basalts within the Panjal Traps is analogous to other large igneous provinces (e.g. Karoo, Deccan, Parana, Emeishan). The Sr-Nd isotopic values (εNd(T) = - 5.3 to + 1.3; ISr = 0.70432 to 0.71168) of both types of basalts overlap indicating that the rocks may have originated from the same ancient subcontinental lithospheric (i.e. EMII-like) mantle source (TDM = ~ 2000 Ma). The two groups of basalts can be modeled by using a primitive mantle source and different degrees of partial melting where the high-Ti rocks are produced by ~ 1% partial melting of a spinel peridotite source whereas the low-Ti rocks are produced by ~ 8% partial melting. Trace elemental and isotope modeling indicates that some of the basalts assimilated ≤ 10% crustal material. In contrast, the basaltic-andesites are likely formed by mixing between basaltic magmas and crustal melts which produced rocks with higher SiO2 (~ 55 wt.%) content and enriched isotopic signatures (εNd(T) = - 6.1; ISr = 0.70992). The Panjal Trap volcanism was likely due to partial melting of the SCLM within a passive extensional setting related to the rifting of Cimmeria from Gondwana. Contemporaneous volcanic and plutonic granitic rocks throughout the Himalaya are probably

  2. Continental Basaltic Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, G. L.

    2003-12-01

    During the past few decades, geochemical studies of continental basaltic rocks and their petrologic kin have become mainstays of studies of the continental lithosphere. These igneous rocks have taken on such an important role largely because the chemical and isotopic composition of continental basaltic rocks and their mantle (see Chapter 2.05) and crustal xenoliths (see Chapter 3.01) provide the best proxy record available to earth scientists for the chemical and physical evolution of the deep continental lithosphere and underlying mantle, areas that are otherwise resistant to direct study. Keeping this in mind, the primary goal of this chapter is to illustrate how geochemical data can be used both to assess the origin of these rocks and to study the evolution of the continental lithosphere.A complete overview of continental basaltic rocks will not be attempted here, because continental "basalts" come in too wide a range of compositions, and because of the sheer volume of geochemical data available for such rocks worldwide. The scope of the chapter is limited to a discussion of a select group of ultramafic to mafic composition "intraplate" continental igneous rocks consisting primarily of kimberlites, potassic and sodic alkali basalts, and continental flood basalts. Igneous rocks forming at active continental margins, such as convergent or transform plate margins, are important examples of continental magmatism but are not directly discussed here (convergent margin magmas are discussed in Chapters 2.11, 3.11, and 3.18). The geochemistry of intraplate igneous rocks of the ocean basins are covered in Chapters 2.04 and 3.16. Although basaltic magmatism has occurred throughout the Earths history, the majority of the examples presented here are from Mesozoic and Cenozoic volcanic fields due to the more complete preservation of younger continental mafic igneous rocks. While considerable effort has been expended in studying the chemical differentiation of mafic magmas

  3. Oxygen buffering of Kilauea volcanic gases and the oxygen fugacity of Kilauea basalt

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlach, T.M. )

    1993-02-01

    Volcanic gases collected during episode 1 of the Puu Oo eruption along the east rift zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, have uniform C-O-H-S-Cl-F compositions that are sharply depleted in CO[sub 2]. The CO[sub 2]-poor gases are typical of Type II volcanic gases (GERLACH and GRAEBER, 1985) and were emitted from evolved magma stored for a prolonged period of time in the east rift zone after releasing CO[sub 2]-rich gases during an earlier period of temporary residence in the summit magma chamber. The samples are remarkably free of contamination by atmospheric gases and meteoric water. Thermodynamic evaluation of the analytical data shows that the episode 1 gases have equilibrium compositions appropriate for temperatures between 935 and 1032[degrees]C. Open- and closed-system equilibrium models of species distributions for the episode 1 gases show unequivocally that coexisting lavas buffered the gas oxygen fugacities during cooling. These models indicate that the F[sub o[sub 2

  4. D/H on Mars: Effects of floods, volcanism, impacts, and polar processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    Water in the Martian atmosphere is 5.1 times more enriched in deuterium than terrestial water. The enrichment has been previously attributed to either a massive loss of water early in the planet's history or the presence of only a very small reservoir of water that has exchanged with the atmosphere over geologic time. Both these interpretations appear inconsistent with geologic evidence of large floods and sustained volcanism. Large floods are believed to have episodically introduced large amounts of water onto the surface. During a large flood roughly 1017 g of water would almost immediately sublime into the atmospher and be frozen out on polar terrain, to form a new layer several centimeters thick. The long-term effect of a flood would depend on where the water pooled after the flood. If the water pooled at low latitudes, all the water would slowly sublime into the atmosphers and ultimately be frozen out at the poles, thereby adding several meters to the polar deposits for each flood. If the water pooled at high latitude, it would form a permanent ice deposit, largely isolated from further interchange with the atmosphere. Volcanism has also episodically introduced water into the atmosphere. Most of this water has become incorporated into the polar deposits. That released over the last 3.5 Ga could have added a few kilometers to the polar deposits, depending on the amount of dust incorporated along with the ice. Large cometary impacts would have introduced additional large amounts of water into the atmosphere. The long-term evolution of D/H in the atmosphere depends on the rate of exchange of water between the atmosphere and the polar deposits. If exchange is active, then loss rates of hydrogen from the upper atmosphere are substantially higher than those estimated by Y. L. Yung, J. Wen, J. P. Pinto, M. Allen, K. K. Pierce, and S. Paulsen [Icarus 76, 146-159 (1988)]. More plausibly, exchange of water between the atmosphere and the polar deposits is limited, so

  5. Global Climate Change Resulting From Voluminous Intrusive Basaltic Volcanism in Sedimentary Basins: the Methane Production Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planke, S.; Svensen, H.; Malthe-Srenssen, A.; Rasmussen, T.; Jamtveit, B.

    2003-12-01

    Large igneous provinces are often temporarily associated with global warming and mass extinction events, for instance (1) the Siberian Traps and the Permian-Triassic boundary, (2) the Karoo igneous event and the Early Toacian anoxic event, (3) the Deccan Traps and the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, and (4) the North Atlantic Volcanic Province (NAVP) and the initial Eocene thermal maximum (IETM). We propose a new theory for linking the volcanic and global warming events where the magma emplacement environment is a crucial parameter. Our theory is that massive production and release of isotopically light carbon gasses in metamorphic aureoles surrounding magmatic sill intrusions in organic-rich sedimentary basins may trigger global climate change. The greenhouse gasses have to be produced and released in a short time (about 104 years) to be able to explain large global warming events. The intrusion of magma into an organic-rich sedimentary basin may increase the carbon flux into the atmosphere by at least 5 to 30 times compared with degassing of the same volume of extruded magma. Field and seismic data, combined with temperature modelling, show that very voluminous sill complexes are intruded and solidified in a short time span (<1000 years) during the initial phase of volcanic activity. We have recently completed an extensive mapping of Paleocene/Eocene sill complexes in the Cretaceous Vøring and Møre basins off mid-Norway. The extent of the sill complex is >80,000 km2, whereas the estimated total volume of the sill complex is 0.9 to 2.5 x 104 km3. The methane production potential in metamorphic aureoles in these two basins is in the rage 0.3 to 3.3 x1018 g CH4 assuming that 0.5 to 2.0 wt. {%} organic carbon is converted to methane. The methane production potential in the entire NAVP is estimated to be about five times greater. The total volume of methane produced in metamorphic aureoles in NAVP is larger than the volumes required to explain the IETM and the

  6. Oligocene basaltic volcanism of the northern Rio Grande Rift: San Luis Hills, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, R.A.; Johnson, C.M.; Mehnert, H.H.

    1991-01-01

    The inception of the Rio Grande Rift in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado was accompanied by voluminous mafic volcanism preserved in part as erosional remnants on an intrarift horst within the current axial rift graben of the San Luis Valley. Major and trace element constraints support a petrogenetic model of fractionation plus lower crustal assimilation for petrologic suites within the San Luis Hills rocks, although the model cannot relate lavas for the entire series to a common parent. Most mafic lavas of the San Luis Hills were evolved (Mg # <60) and contaminated by LREE-enriched silicic partial melts of granulitic lower crust depleted in Rb, Th, and U. However, relatively noncontaminated lavas can be identified and indicate at least two mantle source regions were involved. -from Authors

  7. Volatile Transport by Volcanic Plumes on Earth, Venus and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Self, Stephen; Baloga, Steve; Stofan, Ellen R.

    2012-01-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions can produce sustained, buoyant columns of ash and gas in the atmosphere (Fig. 1). Large flood basalt eruptions may also include significant explosive phases that generate eruption columns. Such eruptions can transport volcanic volatiles to great heights in the atmosphere. Volcanic eruption columns can also redistribute chemical species within the atmosphere by entraining ambient atmosphere at low altitudes and releasing those species at much higher altitudes.

  8. Geochemical and Sr-Nd isotope variations within Cretaceous continental flood-basalt suites of the Canadian High Arctic, with a focus on the Hassel Formation basalts of northeast Ellesmere Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Solveig

    2015-11-01

    Early- to mid-Cretaceous flood-basalt suites of the northeast Canadian High Arctic assigned to a High Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP) were studied for their whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopes. Data from basalt flows within the upper Albian to lower Cenomanian Hassel Formation of northeast Ellesmere Island are compared with former published data and new inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry data of the stratigraphic equivalent Strand Fiord basalts and the older, late Hauterivian to Aptian Isachsen basalts from Axel Heiberg Island. The transitional to mildly alkaline aphyric Hassel basalts, with ocean island basalt (OIB)-like geochemical signatures in parts, have an Ar-Ar whole-rock age of on average 96.4 ± 1.6 Ma. They represent two geochemically different flow units without a fractional crystallization relationship: the high-phosphorous (HP) and low-phosphorous (LP) basalts. The Hassel HP basalts differ from the LP basalts by additionally higher Ba, K, Rb, Th and LREE contents, a pronounced positive Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* = 1.74-1.76), as well as lower Ta, Nb, Zr and Hf concentrations. The Nd and Sr isotope ratios of the Hassel HP basalts [ ɛ Nd( t) of -1.3 to -1.4, 87Sr/86Sr( t) of 0.70706-0.70707] and the LP basalts [ ɛ Nd( t) of 4.5-4.9, 87Sr/86Sr( t) of 0.7038-0.7040] indicate an origin from different mantle sources. The geochemically similar tholeiitic Isachsen (ca. 130-113 Ma) and Strand Fiord basalts (ca. 105-95 Ma) are also incompatible element enriched relative to the primitive mantle, however, with negative Sr-P anomalies as well as partially negative K, Ta and Nb anomalies. In terms of incompatible element ratios (Zr/Nb, Nb/Th), several mantle components are involved in the formation of the flood-basalt suites: a component with primitive mantle composition, an OIB-like component (probably subducted and recycled oceanic crust) and an enriched lithospheric component. The latter component, probably metasomatized subcontinental

  9. Rare Earth and HFSE Constraints on Basalt Source Regions and Melting Conditions in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt, Northern Cascadia Subduction System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, N. L.

    2002-12-01

    Garibaldi belt (GVB) basalts were erupted above the relatively young (<24 Ma) Juan de Fuca plate, subducted oceanic lithosphere that becomes progressively younger (22-13 Ma), and presumably hotter, northward along the Cascadia convergent margin. Mafic lavas of the 15-km-wide volcanic belt range from high-alumina olivine tholeiites and magnesian andesites near Glacier Peak, northwestern Washington, through transitional basalts to alkali-olivine basalts and basanites in the Bridge River-Salal Glacier areas, southwestern British Columbia. Significant strike-parallel variations characterize REE and HFSE contents of these (GVB) basalts and provide insight into the nature of mantle source heterogeneities that may characterize subduction regimes. Lavas of more northerly volcanic suites tend to have (1) somewhat higher Ti, Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, La, total REE, La/Yb, Sm/Yb, Nb/Y, Zr/Y, Y/Sc and Zr/Yb and (2) lower Th/U, La/Nb, and Th/Yb. The basalts have sub-chondritic to chondritic Na/Tb (6-21) and chondritic to super-chondritic Zr/Hf (up to 55.90) ratios. Only Mount Baker and Glacier Peak basalts exhibit the distinctive negative Na-Ta anomalies associated with arc lavas. REE systematics suggest that the more northerly basaltic suites formed as lower degree melts of mantle sources typically containing 1) garnet + spinel peridotite rather than spinel peridotite and 2) slightly more garnet (4% versus 2%) than in garnet-bearing source regions beneath more southerly eruptive centers. Inverse REE modeling suggests that the Bridge River-Salal Glacier lavas may have been derived from at least two distinct source regions (garnet-bearing and garnet-free). Nb/Ta exhibits slight positive correlations with Nb, Ta, La/Yb, and Th/Yb in some GVB basaltic suites, implying the role of a residual mineral, most likely rutile, in controlling extremely low HFSE partitioning into suduction-related fluids that equilibrated with basalt source regions in the mantle wedge.

  10. Repeated kimberlite magmatism beneath Yakutia and its relationship to Siberian flood volcanism: Insights from in situ U-Pb and Sr-Nd perovskite isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jing; Liu, Chuan-Zhou; Tappe, Sebastian; Kostrovitsky, Sergey I.; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Yakovlev, Dmitry; Yang, Yue-Heng; Yang, Jin-Hui

    2014-10-01

    We report combined U-Pb ages and Sr-Nd isotope compositions of perovskites from 50 kimberlite occurrences, sampled from 9 fields across the Yakutian kimberlite province on the Siberian craton. The new U-Pb ages, together with previously reported geochronological constraints, suggest that kimberlite magmas formed repeatedly during at least 4 episodes: Late Silurian-Early Devonian (419-410 Ma), Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous (376-347 Ma), Late Triassic (231-215 Ma), and Middle/Late Jurassic (171-156 Ma). Recurrent kimberlite melt production beneath the Siberian craton - before and after flood basalt volcanism at 250 Ma - provides a unique opportunity to test existing models for the origin of global kimberlite magmatism. The internally consistent Sr and Nd isotope dataset for perovskites reveals that the Paleozoic and Mesozoic kimberlites of Yakutia have distinctly different initial radiogenic isotope compositions. There exists a notable increase in the initial 143Nd/144Nd ratios through time, with an apparent isotopic evolution that is intermediate between that of Bulk Earth and Depleted MORB Mantle. While the Paleozoic samples range between initial 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7028-0.7034 and 143Nd/144Nd of 0.51229-0.51241, the Mesozoic samples show values between 0.7032-0.7038 and 0.51245-0.51271, respectively. Importantly, perovskites from all studied Yakutian kimberlite fields and age groups have moderately depleted initial εNd values that fall within a relatively narrow range between +1.8 and +5.5. The perovskite isotope systematics of the Yakutian kimberlites are interpreted to reflect magma derivation from the convecting upper mantle, which appears to have a record of continuous melt depletion and crustal recycling throughout the Phanerozoic. The analyzed perovskites neither record highly depleted nor highly enriched isotopic components, which had been previously identified in likely plume-related Siberian Trap basalts. The Siberian craton has frequently been suggested

  11. Low- and high-TiO 2 flood basalts of southern Brazil: origin from picritic parentage and a common mantle source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fodor, R. V.

    1987-08-01

    The Serra Geral (Paraná) continental flood-basalt province of southern Brazil has two main basalt types: low-TiO 2 (˜ 1 wt.%) basalts occupy the southern portion, and high-TiO 2 (> 3 wt.%) basalts are largely in the northern part. Low-Ti basalts are less evolved (Mg# 60) and more radiogenic (e.g., 87Sr/ 86Sr˜ 0.708) than high-Ti basalts (Mg# 35; 87Sr/ 86Sr˜ 0.705). This is consistent with a model that invokes variable melting of a single mantle source to produce picritic magmas that have relatively lower and higher incompatible element contents. Varying percentages of melting can be related to varying proximity to the early Tristan da Cunha hotspot. The Mg-rich magmas fractionated 60-75% olivine, clinopyroxene, and plagioclase to yield low- or high-Ti flood basalts, assimilating more or less crust in the process. The extent of fractionation and assimilation depended on crustal "warmth" (also tied to location relative to hotspot): (1) above zones of ˜ 25% melting, warm crust relatively easily contaminated crystallizing picritic magma that originated by a high degree of melting (i.e., magma with lower incompatible element contents); additionally, high degrees of melting sustained replenishment of magma with low-Ti magma characteristics; (2) above ˜ 10% melting zones, cooler crust comparatively restricted assimilation during crystallization (of magma with higher incompatible element contents) and permitted magma evolution to high-Ti derivatives; lesser degrees of melting also limited replenishment magma and thereby allowed greater evolution of existing magma. This model refers all diagnostic geochemical and isotopic features of Serra Geral basalts to percentages of partial melting of an essentially homogeneous mantle material.

  12. The significance of PGE variations with Sr-Nd isotopes and lithophile elements in the Emeishan flood basalt province from SW China to northern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chusi; Ripley, Edward M.; Tao, Yan; Hu, Ruizhong

    2016-04-01

    New analyses of siderophile-lithophile elements and Sr-Nd isotopes in the Permian basalts and picrites from northern Vietnam, the southernmost occurrence of the Emeishan flood basalt province, together with previously published data, are used to address the question of whether any meaningful correlation between these elements and isotopes exists at a province scale. The available data show that negative correlations between εNd, (87Sr/86Sr)i and mantle-normalized (Nb/Th)n are present in the basalts but not in the associated picrites. This indicates that crustal contamination is negligible in the picrites but significant in some of the basalts. The picrites and basalts from the entire province show negative correlations between (Rh/Ru)n, (Pt/Ru)n, (Pd/Ru)n and Mg-number. This indicates that Ru behaves compatibly whereas Rh, Pt and Pd behave incompatibly during magma differentiation. The incompatible behavior of Rh in natural basaltic systems is also supported by the fact that (Pt/Rh)n remains constant with decreasing Mg-number in the lavas. Depletions of Pd and Pt, and to a lesser degree Cu, in some basaltic samples characterized by relatively low εNd and (Nb/Th)n support the notion that sulfide saturation in the magmas was triggered by a combination of siliceous crustal contamination and addition of external sulfur. Within the entire flood basalt province only the picrites from Song Da, northern Vietnam show clear depletion in Ir relative to Ru. These picrites are also characterized higher Al2O3/TiO2 and lower mantle-normalized La/Yb (0.2-2.4) than those from elsewhere in the province, possibly due to the involvement of an Ir-depleted, fertile mantle component in magma generation at this location.

  13. Origin and geodynamic relationships of the Late Miocene to Quaternary alkaline basalt volcanism in the Pannonian basin, eastern-central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harangi, Szabolcs; Jankovics, M. Éva; Sági, Tamás; Kiss, Balázs; Lukács, Réka; Soós, Ildikó

    2015-11-01

    Alkaline basaltic volcanism has been taking place in the Carpathian-Pannonian region since 11 Ma and the last eruptions occurred only at 100-500 ka. It resulted in scattered low-magma volume volcanic fields located mostly at the margins of the Pannonian basin. Many of the basalts have compositions close to those of the primitive magmas and therefore can be used to constrain the conditions of the magma generation. Low-degree (2-3 %) melting could occur in the convective asthenosphere within the garnet-spinel transition zone. Melting started at about 100 km depth and continued usually up to the base of the lithosphere. Thus, the final melting pressure could indicate the ambient lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. The asthenospheric mantle source regions of the basalts were heterogeneous, presumably in small scale, and included either some water or pyroxenite/eclogite lithology in addition to the fertile to slightly depleted peridotite. Based on the prevailing estimated mantle potential temperature (1,300-1,400 °C) along with the number of further observations, we exclude the existence of mantle plume or plume fingers beneath this region. Instead, we propose that plate tectonic processes controlled the magma generation. The Pannonian basin acted as a thin spot after the 20-12 Ma syn-rift phase and provided suction in the sublithospheric mantle, generating asthenospheric flow from below the adjoining thick lithospheric domains. A near-vertical upwelling along the steep lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary beneath the western and northern margins of the Pannonian basin could result in decompressional melting producing low-volume melts. The youngest basalt volcanic field (Perşani) in the region is inferred to have been formed due to the dragging effect of the descending lithospheric slab beneath the Vrancea zone that could result in narrow rupture at the base of the lithosphere. Continuation of the basaltic volcanism cannot be excluded as inferred from the still fusible

  14. Igneous Rocks of the East Pacific Rise: The alkali volcanic suite appear to be differentiated from a tholeiitic basalt extruded from the mantle.

    PubMed

    Engel, A E; Engel, C G

    1964-10-23

    The apical parts of large volcanoes along the East Pacific Rise (islands and seamounts) are encrusted with rocks of the alkali volcanic suite (alkali basalt, andesine- and oligoclase-andesite, and trachyte). In contrast, the more submerged parts of the Rise are largely composed of a tholeiitic basalt which has low concentrations of K, P, U, Th, Pb, and Ti. This tholeiitic basalt is either the predominant or the only magma generated in the earth's mantle under oceanic ridges and rises. It is at least 1000-fold more abundant than the alkali suite, which is probably derived from tholeiitic basalt by magmatic differentiation in and immediately below the larger volcanoes. Distinction of oceanic tholeiites from almost all continental tholeiites is possible on the simple basis of total potassium content, with the discontinuity at 0.3 to 0.5 percent K(2)O by weight. Oceanic tholeiites also are readily distinguished from some 19 out of 20 basalts of oceanic islands and seamount cappings by having less than 0.3 percent K(2)O by weight and more than 48 percent SiO(2). Deep drilling into oceanic volcanoes should, however, core basalts transitional between the oceanic tholeiites and the presumed derivative alkali basalts. The composition of the oceanic tholeiites suggests that the mantle under the East Pacific Rise contains less than 0.10 percent potassium oxide by weight; 0.1 part per million of uranium and 0.4 part of thorium; a potassium:rubidium ratio of about 1200 and a potassium: uranium ratio of about 10(4).

  15. Igneous Rocks of the East Pacific Rise: The alkali volcanic suite appear to be differentiated from a tholeiitic basalt extruded from the mantle.

    PubMed

    Engel, A E; Engel, C G

    1964-10-23

    The apical parts of large volcanoes along the East Pacific Rise (islands and seamounts) are encrusted with rocks of the alkali volcanic suite (alkali basalt, andesine- and oligoclase-andesite, and trachyte). In contrast, the more submerged parts of the Rise are largely composed of a tholeiitic basalt which has low concentrations of K, P, U, Th, Pb, and Ti. This tholeiitic basalt is either the predominant or the only magma generated in the earth's mantle under oceanic ridges and rises. It is at least 1000-fold more abundant than the alkali suite, which is probably derived from tholeiitic basalt by magmatic differentiation in and immediately below the larger volcanoes. Distinction of oceanic tholeiites from almost all continental tholeiites is possible on the simple basis of total potassium content, with the discontinuity at 0.3 to 0.5 percent K(2)O by weight. Oceanic tholeiites also are readily distinguished from some 19 out of 20 basalts of oceanic islands and seamount cappings by having less than 0.3 percent K(2)O by weight and more than 48 percent SiO(2). Deep drilling into oceanic volcanoes should, however, core basalts transitional between the oceanic tholeiites and the presumed derivative alkali basalts. The composition of the oceanic tholeiites suggests that the mantle under the East Pacific Rise contains less than 0.10 percent potassium oxide by weight; 0.1 part per million of uranium and 0.4 part of thorium; a potassium:rubidium ratio of about 1200 and a potassium: uranium ratio of about 10(4). PMID:17806796

  16. Distinguishing between basalts produced by endogenic volcanism and impact processes: A non-destrwuctive method using quantitative petrography of lunar basaltic samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Clive R.; Donohue, Patrick; Fagan, Amy L.; O'Sullivan, Katie; Oshrin, Jocelyn; Roberts, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Impact processes play an important role in shaping and reshaping the surfaces of airless planetary bodies. Such processes produce regoliths and generate melts that crystallize and record the homogenization of the geology at the impact site. If the volume of melt is substantial, the resultant crystallized product has an igneous texture and may be free of xenolithic clasts making it difficult to distinguish from melts produced by endogenic magmatic processes. This has been clearly demonstrated during the return of the Apollo samples from the Moon, where Apollo 14 basalt 14310 was initially described as a mare basalt and was only subsequently reclassified as an impact melt following detailed and time consuming crystallization experiments. Another way of distinguishing lunar impact melts from endogenically-derived mare basalts is through the quantification of the highly siderophile elements (HSE: Pd, Rh, Ru, Ir, Pt, Os), which have relatively low abundances in pristine lunar samples but are high in meteorites and, therefore, may be enriched in impact melts. However, these analyses consume relatively large quantities of valuable sample and because of mass constraints cannot be performed on many lunar samples. In this paper we present a quantitative petrographic method that has the potential to distinguish lunar impact melts from endogenically-derived mare basalts using plagioclase and olivine crystal size distributions (CSDs). The slopes and intercepts of these CSDs are used to show that olivine from impact melts displays a steeper CSD relative to olivine from mare basalts. For plagioclase, generally impacts melts display CSDs with shallower gradients than those from endogenous mare basalts and, as for olivines, plot in a distinct field on a CSD slope vs. CSD intercept plot. Using just a thin section to distinguish impact melts from mare basalts enables the goals of future robotic sample return missions to determine the age of the South Pole-Aitken basin in the Moon

  17. High-resolution magnetics reveal the deep structure of a volcanic-arc-related basalt-hosted hydrothermal site (Palinuro, Tyrrhenian Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szitkar, Florent; Petersen, Sven; Caratori Tontini, Fabio; Cocchi, Luca

    2015-06-01

    High-resolution magnetic surveys have been acquired over the partially sedimented Palinuro massive sulfide deposits in the Aeolian volcanic arc, Tyrrhenian Sea. Surveys flown close to the seafloor using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) show that the volcanic-arc-related basalt-hosted hydrothermal site is associated with zones of lower magnetization. This observation reflects the alteration of basalt affected by hydrothermal circulation and/or the progressive accumulation of a nonmagnetic deposit made of hydrothermal and volcaniclastic material and/or a thermal demagnetization of titanomagnetite due to the upwelling of hot fluids. To discriminate among these inferences, estimate the shape of the nonmagnetic deposit and the characteristics of the underlying altered area—the stockwork—we use high-resolution vector magnetic data acquired by the AUV Abyss (GEOMAR) above a crater-shaped depression hosting a weakly active hydrothermal site. Our study unveils a relatively small nonmagnetic deposit accumulated at the bottom of the depression and locked between the surrounding volcanic cones. Thermal demagnetization is unlikely but the stockwork extends beyond the limits of the nonmagnetic deposit, forming lobe-shaped zones believed to be a consequence of older volcanic episodes having contributed in generating the cones.

  18. From Dike to Bud to Neck: Critical Physical Transitions in the Evolution of Sustainable Basaltic Volcanic Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, M.; Pollard, D. D.

    2012-12-01

    Basaltic volcanic eruptions are commonly characterized by three stages. In the upper several kilometers of the crust, magma rises in dikes, resulting in fissure eruptions when they intersect the surface. In some cases, the fissures may not feed significant eruptions and may quickly (within hours) die out. In other fissures, magma continues to erupt and localizes into discrete vents, until the flow is sustained through a central vent area, where it is able to carry much greater volumes of magma to the surface. These types of eruptions have been well documented in places like Kilauea in Hawaii and are inferred to have operated in ancient systems like Ship Rock, New Mexico. However, the physical processes governing the evolution of basaltic conduit geometry from dike-like to plug-like and the associated eruptive dynamics are not well understood. Some current theories to explain flow localization and conduit widening include progressive melting of the host rock, pore-pressure and conduit-pressure buildup from water-magma interaction, variation in magmatic pressure inducing wall collapse, and erosion from particle collision and/or shear stress of flowing magma. Field evidence from Ship Rock provides insight we use to develop a conceptual framework for what processes may have caused the evolution of dikes into plugs. Ship Rock is a maar-type diatreme standing ~600 m above the surrounding land surface, with minette dikes and plugs extending radially away. Systematic joint sets (one parallel and the other perpendicular to the dike) are present in the host rock (Mancos shale) adjacent to dike contacts. The presence of breccia along the margins of dikes and around the plugs suggests that tensile fracturing and subsequent erosion of the host rock was responsible for changing conduit geometry. The breccias range in composition from mostly angular shale clasts in a "fluidized" shale matrix, to mostly shale clasts in a minette matrix, to both shale and minette clasts in a

  19. Surface exposure dating of Holocene basalt flows and cinder cones in the Kula volcanic field (western Turkey) using cosmogenic 3He and 10Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heineke, Caroline; Niedermann, Samuel; Hetzel, Ralf; Akal, Cüneyt

    2015-04-01

    The Kula volcanic field is the youngest volcanic province in western Anatolia and covers an area of about 600 km2 around the town Kula (Richardson-Bunbury, 1996). Its alkali basalts formed by melting of an isotopically depleted mantle in a region of long-lived continental extension and asthenospheric upwelling (Prelevic et al., 2012). Based on morphological criteria and 40Ar/39Ar dating, four phases of Quaternary activity have been distinguished in the Kula volcanic field (Richardson-Bunbury, 1996; Westaway et al., 2006). The youngest lava flows are thought to be Holocene in age, but so far only one sample from this group was dated by 40Ar/39Ar at 7±2 ka (Westaway et al., 2006). In this study, we analysed cosmogenic 3He in olivine phenocrysts from three basalt flows and one cinder cone to resolve the Holocene history of volcanic eruptions in more detail. In addition, we applied 10Be exposure dating to two quartz-bearing xenoliths found at the surface of one flow and at the top of one cinder cone. The exposure ages fall in the range between ~500 and ~3000 years, demonstrating that the youngest volcanic activity is Late Holocene in age and therefore distinctly younger than previously envisaged. Our results show that the Late Holocene lava flows are not coeval but formed over a period of a few thousand years. We conclude that surface exposure dating of very young volcanic rocks provides a powerful alternative to 40Ar/39Ar dating. References Prelevic, D., Akal, C. Foley, S.F., Romer, R.L., Stracke, A. and van den Bogaard, P. (2012). Ultrapotassic mafic rocks as geochemical proxies for post-collisional dynamics of orogenic lithospheric mantle: the case of southwestern Anatolia, Turkey. Journal of Petrology, 53, 1019-1055. Richardson-Bunbury, J.M. (1996). The Kula Volcanic Field, western Turkey: the development of a Holocene alkali basalt province and the adjacent normal-faulting graben. Geological Magazine, 133, 275-283. Westaway, R., Guillou, H., Yurtmen, S., Beck, A

  20. Influence of slab thermal structure on basalt source regions and melting conditions: REE and HFSE constraints from the Garibaldi volcanic belt, northern Cascadia subduction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Nathan L.

    2006-03-01

    Garibaldi volcanic belt (GVB) basalts were erupted above the relatively young (≤ 24 Ma) Juan de Fuca plate, which comprises the subducted oceanic lithosphere that becomes progressively younger (22-13 Ma), and presumably hotter, northward along the northern Cascadia convergent margin. Primitive and near-primitive mafic lavas of the 15-km-wide volcanic belt change from high-alumina olivine tholeiites and magnesian andesites near Glacier Peak, northwestern Washington, through transitional basalts to alkali-olivine basalts and basanites in the Bridge River-Salal Glacier areas, southwestern British Columbia. The distribution of different basalt types is consistent with varied source conditions imposed by differences in the thermal structure of the underlying subducted plate. Significant arc-parallel variations characterize REE and HFSE contents in GVB basalts and suggest that source enrichment processes and melting conditions vary within the mantle wedge as the age and thermal state of the underlying subducted plate changes. More northerly GVB basaltic suites tend to have higher TiO 2, Nb, Ta, total REE, La, Sm / Yb, Nb / Yb, Ti / V, Y / Sc and Zr / Yb and lower Th / U, Zr / Ti and Zr / Nb than their southern counterparts. The basalts have sub-chondritic to chondritic Nb / Ta (6-21) and super-chondritic Zr / Hf (up to 55.90) ratios that exhibit positive correlation. Only Mount Baker and Glacier Peak basalts exhibit the distinctive negative Nb-Ta anomalies associated with arc lavas. Inter-HFSE and REE fractionations (including La / Yb, La / Nb and Ce / Pb) show significant correlations with the inferred age of the underlying subducted plate. Proportions of slab-derived HFSE-REE components (SC) transferred to basalt sources in the Cascadia mantle wedge appear to vary from negligible (Ti, Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, Y, Sm, Eu and Tb: less than 15% SC) to perceptible (Nd: up to 35% SC) through moderate (La: up to 75% SC) to substantial (U, Th and Pb: up to 95% SC). Arc-parallel HFSE

  1. Tools and techniques for developing tephra stratigraphies in lake cores: A case study from the basaltic Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Jenni L.; Millet, Marc-Alban; Timm, Christian; Wilson, Colin J. N.; Leonard, Graham S.; Palin, J. Michael; Neil, Helen

    2015-09-01

    Probabilistic hazard forecasting for a volcanic region relies on understanding and reconstructing the eruptive record (derived potentially from proximal as well as distal volcanoes). Tephrostratigraphy is commonly used as a reconstructive tool by cross-correlating tephra deposits to create a stratigraphic framework that can be used to assess magnitude-frequency relationships for eruptive histories. When applied to widespread rhyolitic deposits, tephra identifications and correlations have been successful; however, the identification and correlation of basaltic tephras are more problematic. Here, using tephras in drill cores from six maars in the Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF), New Zealand, we show how X-ray density scanning coupled with magnetic susceptibility analysis can be used to accurately and reliably identify basaltic glass shard-bearing horizons in lacustrine sediments and which, when combined with the major and trace element signatures of the tephras, can be used to distinguish primary from reworked layers. After reliably identifying primary vs. reworked basaltic horizons within the cores, we detail an improved method for cross-core correlation based on stratigraphy and geochemical fingerprinting. We present major and trace element data for individual glass shards from 57 separate basaltic horizons identified within the cores. Our results suggest that in cases where major element compositions (SiO2, CaO, Al2O3, FeO, MgO) do not provide unambiguous correlations, trace elements (e.g. La, Gd, Yb, Zr, Nb, Nd) and trace element ratios (e.g. [La/Yb]N, [Gd/Yb]N, [Zr/Yb]N) are successful in improving the compositional distinction between the AVF basaltic tephra horizons, thereby allowing an improved eruptive history of the AVF to be reconstructed.

  2. Extensive 200-million-year-Old continental flood basalts of the central atlantic magmatic province

    PubMed

    Marzoli; Renne; Piccirillo; Ernesto; Bellieni; De Min A

    1999-04-23

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is defined by tholeiitic basalts that crop out in once-contiguous parts of North America, Europe, Africa, and South America and is associated with the breakup of Pangea. 40Ar/39Ar and paleomagnetic data indicate that CAMP magmatism extended over an area of 2.5 million square kilometers in north and central Brazil, and the total aerial extent of the magmatism exceeded 7 million square kilometers in a few million years, with peak activity at 200 million years ago. The magmatism coincided closely in time with a major mass extinction at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary.

  3. Extensive 200-million-year-Old continental flood basalts of the central atlantic magmatic province

    PubMed

    Marzoli; Renne; Piccirillo; Ernesto; Bellieni; De Min A

    1999-04-23

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is defined by tholeiitic basalts that crop out in once-contiguous parts of North America, Europe, Africa, and South America and is associated with the breakup of Pangea. 40Ar/39Ar and paleomagnetic data indicate that CAMP magmatism extended over an area of 2.5 million square kilometers in north and central Brazil, and the total aerial extent of the magmatism exceeded 7 million square kilometers in a few million years, with peak activity at 200 million years ago. The magmatism coincided closely in time with a major mass extinction at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. PMID:10213679

  4. Alkalic (ocean-island basalt type) and calc-alkalic volcanism in the Mexican volcanic belt: A case for plume-related magmatism and propagating rifting at an active margin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márquez, Alvaro; Oyarzun, Roberto; Doblas, Miguel; Verma, Surendra P.

    1999-01-01

    The Mexican volcanic belt has been traditionally regarded as a classic case of subduction-related calc-alkalic volcanism. However, a series of geologic, geophysical, and petrological arguments makes this simple relationship doubtful. A seismic gap beneath the belt, a large-scale mantle anomaly, a graben triple-junction domain, and the presence of volumetrically important oceanic-island basalt (OIB) volcanism throughout the belt suggest a more complex tectonic scenario involving plume- and subduction-related processes. We here propose a model involving the development of a propagating rift opening from west to east in response to plume activity. The process started in Miocene time within the western sector of the belt (Guadalajara) and gave rise to a graben triple junction and OIB-type and calc-alkalic volcanism. Extension and volcanism proceeded to the east, giving rise to progressively younger ages for the initiation of OIB-type volcanism: (1) Miocene in the west (e.g., Guadalajara), (2) Pliocene in the central zone (e.g., Michoacán-Guanajuato), and (3) Quaternary farther east (e.g., Chichinautzin). Geochemical evidence suggests that part of the modern calc-alkalic volcanism (e.g., Chichinautzin) may be derived from magma mixing between the OIB mafic magmas and silicic, crust-derived magmas. However, we do not preclude some influence of the subducting slab in the generation of other (e.g., Jorullo) calc-alkalic volcanic rocks. Our model suggests a currently unrooted upper plume attached to the subcontinental lithosphere, which defines a hot zone beneath the Mexican volcanic belt.

  5. Balloon-borne measurement of the aerosol size distribution from an Icelandic flood basalt eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignelles, D.; Roberts, T. J.; Carboni, E.; Ilyinskaya, E.; Pfeffer, M.; Dagsson Waldhauserova, P.; Schmidt, A.; Berthet, G.; Jegou, F.; Renard, J.-B.; Ólafsson, H.; Bergsson, B.; Yeo, R.; Fannar Reynisson, N.; Grainger, R. G.; Galle, B.; Conde, V.; Arellano, S.; Lurton, T.; Coute, B.; Duverger, Vincent

    2016-11-01

    We present in situ balloon-borne measurements of aerosols in a volcanic plume made during the Holuhraun eruption (Iceland) in January 2015. The balloon flight intercepted a young plume at 8 km distance downwind from the crater, where the plume is ∼15 min of age. The balloon carried a novel miniature optical particle counter LOAC (Light Optical Aerosol Counter) which measures particle number concentration and size distribution in the plume, alongside a meteorological payload. We discuss the possibility of calculating particle flux by combining LOAC data with measurements of sulfur dioxide flux by ground-based UV spectrometer (DOAS). The balloon passed through the plume at altitude range of 2.0-3.1 km above sea level (a.s.l.). The plume top height was determined as 2.7-3.1 km a.s.l., which is in good agreement with data from Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) satellite. Two distinct plume layers were detected, a non-condensed lower layer (300 m thickness) and a condensed upper layer (800 m thickness). The lower layer was characterized by a lognormal size distribution of fine particles (0.2 μm diameter) and a secondary, coarser mode (2.3 μm diameter), with a total particle number concentration of around 100 cm-3 in the 0.2-100 μm detection range. The upper layer was dominated by particle centered on 20 μm in diameter as well as containing a finer mode (2 μm diameter). The total particle number concentration in the upper plume layer was an order of magnitude higher than in the lower layer. We demonstrate that intercepting a volcanic plume with a meteorological balloon carrying LOAC is an efficient method to characterize volcanic aerosol properties. During future volcanic eruptions, balloon-borne measurements could be carried out easily and rapidly over a large spatial area in order to better characterize the evolution of the particle size distribution and particle number concentrations in a volcanic plume.

  6. Mantle Heterogeneities and Crustal Processes of the Cascade Arc Represented by Basalts of the Poison Lake Chain, Lassen Volcanic Center, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenner, J. M.; Teasdale, R.; Hiebing, M. S.; Lenz, Q. A.; Kroeninger, K.

    2013-12-01

    Basalts in the Poison Lake chain (PLC) include eight chemically distinct groups of primitive calc-alkaline basalts (defined by major element geochemistry and mineralogy). Located east of the Lassen Volcanic Center, PLC primitive basalts span the range of basalt compositions exposed throughout the entire Cascade arc (e.g. Ba: 100-1000 ppm; (Sr/P)n: 1.3 - 3.8; La/Yb: 4-26). PLC groups have trace-element and isotope ratios that show little evidence of direct genetic relationships among groups or a common source. Major, trace element and isotope ratios show evidence of contributions from multiple mantle sources including MORB, fluid rich subduction component and subduction-related sediment. Some groups record compositional variations from multiple mantle sources with minimal crustal processing. Similarly, preliminary probe data for olivine-spinel pairs suggest that some PLC groups are derived from heterogeneous mantle sources. Geochemical evidence indicates that other groups have petrogenetic histories that include crustal processes such as fractional crystallization, mixing or crustal contamination. Isotope ratios, major and trace element compositions and crystal compositions provide insights into the extent of source heterogeneities versus the degree of crustal processing. The broad range of compositional variations in basalts of PLC provides the opportunity to examine the extent of mantle heterogeneities and crustal processing in a small geographic area (50km2) for rocks that are nearly the same age (100-110 ka). The diverse primitive compositions erupted in the constrained time and space of the Poison Lake chain and the lack of genetic relationship among groups make it the ideal place to investigate the small scale nature of mantle domains and the roles of subduction and modification processes in the generation of basaltic compositions in arcs such as the Cascades, Mexico, Japan.

  7. Sulfur Release Associated with Eruption of the Washilla Ridge Member of the Columbia River Flood Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, K.; Wolff, J.; Rowe, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Several estimates of S release associated with eruption of Columbia River Basalts (CRB) have been published. These estimates employ the 'petrologic method' which depends upon analysis of glassy melt inclusions within phenocrysts. Quantification of sulphur release from the most voluminous CRB formation, the Grande Ronde Basalt (~70% of total CRB volume), has proved to be an elusive target due to its perceived aphyric nature, leading to the development of predictive models based on global S abundance in basalts [1]. Here we present analyses of glassy melt inclusions within microphenocrysts of plagioclase and magnetite in glassy phreatomagmatic tephra produced during eruption of the Wapshilla Ridge Member of the Grande Ronde. Melt inclusion S concentrations are 1080 - 1880 ppm with an average of 1500 ppm. The variable S content suggests simultaneous microphenocryst growth and degassing. Sulfur contents in host glassy lapilli are 1290 - 240 ppm with an average of 410 ppm. Variable S in lapilli glasses indicates quenching before degassing was complete, consistent with a phreatomagmatic eruption style. Using the least degassed melt inclusions (representative of pre-eruptive magma) and the most degassed lapilli glasses (representative of degassed lava), we find the released sulfur yield to be 1640 ppm, somewhat in excess of 1190 ± 260 ppm given by the Blake et al. [1] predictive model. The volume of the Wapshilla Ridge Member is 40,000 km3 [2], and its chemical composition exhibits limited variability. Assuming that the tephra we have analyzed is representative, the total mass of S released during the eruption was 180 Gt. Injection would have peaked at 3.6 Mt of S per day during the peak stages of the Wapshilla Ridge eruption, estimated at 0.8 km3 magma/day [2]. This study demonstrates the significance of analysis of glassy tephra associated with the major CRB units toward yielding valuable petrologic information otherwise mostly inacessible from the lavas. References

  8. Influence of seismic processes and volcanic activity on the formation of disastrous floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov, Dmitriy

    2014-05-01

    models of hydraulic systems, but ultimately due to difference of pressures in their respective segments and areas of the transport network. At the exit of the groundwater on the surface such change in pressure is connected both with the state of the actual water flow in underground cavities, or violations of the structure (topology) of 3D-network. As one of the major and sudden reasons of change of pressure in the underground system can serve seismic processes, including volcanic eruptions (as magmatic and ash). During these processes enormous underground space can be freed from the dense rock. This leads to rapid changes in pressure and that, in principle, a new topology of 3D network and water flows in it. It is important that such dynamic processes occur over huge distances in underground basins of thousands of kilometers [3], of course, with a certain time delay. In the result of the analysis of large-scale flooding in Russia in 2001-2002, as well as the catastrophic floods in Western Europe, in the Amur region of Russia and in the state of Colorado USA in 2013, a correlation between seismic and volcanic activities and floods, expressed by specific numerical correlation coefficients, has been revealed. For example, knowing the date, location and magnitude of an earthquake, we can identify potentially dangerous territories in the aspect of the probability of occurrence of floods, because the stresses in the crust, spreading from the hypocenter of earthquakes, and their subsequent relaxation are one of the most important factors of floods. Mechanisms of distribution of these stresses are well-studied today [2] unlike their influence on the groundwater. The defined boundaries of potentially dangerous sites are broad enough; with regard to the direction of distribution of stress, it is about the sectors in 40 degrees (from the line of the movement of the crustal plate) in the direction from the boundaries of lithospheric plates. Distribution of this impact occurs, as a

  9. Extreme U-Th disequilibrium in rift-related basalts, rhyolites and granophyric granite and the timescale of rhyolite generation, intrusion and crystallization at Alid volcanic center, Eritrea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowenstern, J. B.; Charlier, B.L.A.; Clynne, M.A.; Wooden, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Rhyolite pumices and co-erupted granophyric (granite) xenoliths yield evidence for rapid magma generation and crystallization prior to their eruption at 15.2 ?? 2.9 ka at the Alid volcanic center in the Danikil Depression, Eritrea. Whole-rock U and Th isotopic analyses show 230 Th excesses up to 50% in basalts <10 000 years old from the surrounding Oss lava fields. The 15 ka rhyolites also have 30-40% 230Th excesses. Similarity in U-Th disequilibrium, and in Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic values, implies that the rhyolites are mostly differentiated from the local basaltic magma. Given the (230 Th/232Th) ratio of the young basalts, and presumably the underlying mantle, the (230Th/232Th) ratio of the rhyolites upon eruption could be generated by in situ decay in about 50 000 years. Limited (???5%) assimilation of old crust would hasten the lowering of (230Th/232Th) and allow the process to take place in as little as 30 000 years. Final crystallization of the Alid granophyre occurred rapidly and at shallow depths at ???20-25 ka, as confirmed by analyses of mineral separates and ion microprobe data on individual zircons. Evidently, 30 000-50 000 years were required for extraction of basalt from its mantle source region, subsequent crystallization and melt extraction to form silicic magmas, and final crystallization of the shallow intrusion. The granophyre was then ejected during eruption of the comagmatic rhyolites. ?? 2006 Oxford University Press.

  10. Volcanic flood simulation of magma effusion using FLO-2D for drainage of a caldera lake at the Mt. Baekdusan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Khil-Ha; Kim, Sung-Wook; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2014-05-01

    Many volcanic craters and calderas are filled with large amounts of water that can pose significant flood hazards to downstream communities due to their high elevation and the potential for catastrophic releases of water. Recent reports pointed out the Baekdusan volcano that is located between the border of China and North Korea as a potential active volcano. Since Millennium Eruption around 1000 AD, smaller eruptions have occurred at roughly 100-year intervals, with the last one in 1903. Sudden release of huge volume of water stored in temporarily elevated caldera lakes are a recurrent feature of volcanic environments, due to the case with which outlet channels are blocked by and re-cut through, unwelded pyroclastic deposits. The volcano is showing signs of waking from a century-long slumber recently. Volcanic floods, including breakouts from volcanic lakes, can affect communities beyond the areas immediately affected by a volcanic eruption and cause significant hydrological hazards because floods from lake-filled calderas may be particularly large and high. Although a number of case studies have been presented in the literature, investigation of the underlying physical processes is required as well as a method for interpreting the process of the rapid release of water stored in a caldera lake. The development of various forecasting techniques to prevent and minimize economic and social damage is in urgent need. This study focuses on constructing a flood hazard map triggered by the magma effusion in the Baekdusan volcano. A physically-based uplift model was developed to compute the amount of water and time to peak flow. The ordinary differential equation was numerically solved using the finite difference method and Newton-Raphson iteration method was used to solve nonlinear equation. The magma effusion rate into the caldera lake is followed by examples at other volcanic activities. As a result, the hydrograph serves as an upper boundary condition when hydrodynamic

  11. Lithospheric influences on magma compositions of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic intraplate basalts (the Older Volcanics) of Victoria, south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Richard C.; Nicholls, Ian A.; Day, Arthur

    2014-10-01

    Basaltic volcanism, ranging in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene and extending across the southern part of the state of Victoria in south-eastern Australia was initiated during the earliest stages of rifting associated with opening of the Tasman Sea and Southern Ocean. Volcanism has continued sporadically since that time with major breaks in activity occurring between 77 and 62 Ma and 18 and 7 Ma. Basaltic rocks with ages in the range 95 to 18 Ma occur in small lava fields scattered across eastern and south-eastern Victoria and they have also been recovered from bore holes in the west of the state. They have been referred to as the “Older Volcanics” to differentiate them from more volumetrically extensive and younger (mainly < 4.6 Ma) lava fields comprising the “Newer Volcanics” of the Western District Province to the west. Older Volcanics vary in composition from SiO2-undersaturated nephelinites, basanites, basalts and hawaiites through transitional basalts to hypersthene and quartz normative tholeiites. Strontium, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions lie between depleted (DM) and enriched (EM1 and EM2) end member mantle components in Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic space. Trace element compositions are generally characterised by enrichment of Cs, Ba, Rb, Th, U, Nb, K and light REE over heavy REE, Ti, Zr and Y and the overall patterns of major and trace element behaviour can be explained in general terms by petrogenetic models involving partial melting of a complex spectrum of mantle compositions with subsequent but limited additional modification by fractional crystallisation with or without assimilation of crust. Among basalts with relatively high Mg# [100 ∗ Mol. MgO/(MgO + FeO) > 65], two distinct end member compositions can be differentiated using primitive mantle normalised extended element patterns. Group 1 basalts have convex upward patterns with enrichment of light over heavy REE and depletion of Rb, Ba, Th and U relative to Nb. Group 2 basalts also have

  12. The Basalt of Summit Creek: Evidence for an Early Eocene Transition from Arc to Slab Window Volcanism in the Southern Washington Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepper, J. H.; McKinley, E.

    2011-12-01

    Located south of Mt. Rainier, the Basalt of Summit Creek (BSC) is the largest of several small exposures of early- to mid-Eocene volcanic rocks that unconformably overlie highly deformed Mesozoic turbidites and represent the earliest record of Tertiary volcanism in the southern Washington Cascades. The steeply dipping BSC section consists of 2000m of subaerial basalt flows that preserve stratigraphic geochemical trends consistent with a transition from arc to slab window (or rift) magmatism between ~55 and ~44 Ma. Basalts low in the section are interbedded with hornblende andesites and display a variety of arc traits including spidergram HFSE depletions and elevated K2O (> 1.0 wt.%). Higher in the section the BSC is dominated by tholeiitic basalts that have OIB-like spidergrams, lower K2O (<0.4 wt.%) and a mix of MORB and arc affinities on trace element discrimination plots. Much of the compositional diversity among BSC lavas (45.9 - 54.2 wt.% SiO2; Mg# = 66 - 30) is consistent with low-pressure fractional crystallization (ol+plag+cpx+ilm), but incompatible element data indicate the existence of two distinct magma series that differ most notably in Sr, Zr, and K2O contents. Both series are represented throughout the BSC section but there is no evidence of mixing between them. The BSC is coeval with the youngest phase of activity in the Cretaceous-Tertiary North Cascades arc (Miller et al., 2009) and may represent a southern extension of that arc system. However, BSC lavas with OIB traits overlap in major and trace element composition with basalts of the ~55 - 50 Ma Crescent Formation, which crop out ~100 km to the west on the Olympic Peninsula. A marginal rift basin or slab window setting related to subduction of the Kula-Farallon Ridge has been proposed for the Crescent basalts (Babcock et al., 1992). We propose that the BSC may represent a farther-inboard manifestation of the Kula-Farallon slab window, recording its interaction with the southern continuation of

  13. Relation of Volcanism to Crustal Deformation in Klamath Falls, Oregon: Transition from Calc-alkaline Basaltic Andesite to High Alumina Olivine Tholeiite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priest, G. R.; Hladky, F. R.; Murray, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    This paper is based on geologic mapping by Priest et al. (2008) at Klamath Falls, Oregon on the southernmost end of the Klamath Graben. Northeast-southwest extension across this area caused northeast tilting of fault blocks on the east side and southwest tilting of blocks on the west side of the Graben. Dominant strike of these Basin and Range fault blocks is N. 30-40° W. At Klamath Falls the two opposing groups of tilted blocks are separated not by a keystone graben but by a complex of bounding faults striking ~N. 65° W. The bounding faults appear to have components of right-lateral or reverse motion, cut rocks dated at ~4 Ma, and terminate to the northwest against northeast-striking faults at the southern boundary of the Graben. Normal faults within the study area cut basalt dated at 1.8 Ma on the west side of the Graben. Holocene talus is cut on the east side of the Graben immediately north of the study area. The 1993 magnitude 5.9 and 6.0 earthquakes on the west margin of the Klamath Graben are evidence that extensional deformation is continuing there. The youngest proven deformation in the map area south of the Graben boundary is offset Pleistocene alluvial fans at the base of Hogback Mountain. These fans are now preserved as discontinuous hills but once filled the local Altamont basin by up to 150 m higher than its present surface. Much of this sand and gravel has been eroded, possibly coincident with breaching of the basin at ~1 Ma by headward erosion of the Klamath River. Magmatic composition changed as crustal extension in the area progressed and the width of the Cascade volcanic arc decreased. Between ~6 and 4 Ma, calc-alkaline basaltic andesite and andesite from local volcanic centers of the volcanic arc flowed unimpeded across the area, thus the current Basin and Range topography had not developed. Angular unconformities within sequences of volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks dated at 4-2.7 Ma indicate contemporaneous tilting of fault blocks, but much

  14. Relationship Between Low-Velocity S-wave Anomalies, Asthenospheric Dynamics and Basaltic Volcanism in the Intraplate Setting of the Basin and Range, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibbetts, A. K.; Smith, E. I.; Conrad, C. P.; Lee, C.; Plank, T.; Yang, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Pliocene to Recent intraplate mafic volcanic rocks of the Basin and Range Province mostly formed by asthenospheric melting, as determined from calculated melting temperatures ranging from 1249-1521 degrees C. Here asthenosphere is defined by mantle rheology and temperature and not by geochemistry. The duration of melting in a volcanic field may be related to the size and shape of pockets of low velocity asthenosphere moving under the areas of volcanism. Seismic S-wave velocity profiles constrained by ambient noise and earthquake tomography of the mantle (Yang et al., 2008) show low velocity pockets, which may correspond to higher temperatures and/or higher water contents. The lack of wider scale volcanism in the Basin and Range despite large scale anomalies indicates that the anomalies are not the only cause of melting. The observed smaller scale magmatism can be explained by circulatory flow driven by the small scale structure of the anomalies causing localized melting within the anomalies. By applying an asthenospheric shear flow velocity of 0 cm/yr at the base of the lithosphere and 5 cm/yr east at depth (Silver & Holt 2002, Conrad et al., 2007), the distance the mantle has moved since the time of volcanism can be calculated for basalts of known age. Past positions of low-velocity anomalies in the asthenosphere combined with depths and temperatures of melting calculated using the silica-liquid geobarometer (Lee et al., 2009) were used to determine if a low velocity anomaly existed under an area of volcanism at the depth of melting and time of eruption. The data constraints used for calculating depths and temperatures of melting are dry, MgO > 7.5 wt.%, SiO2 > 44 wt.%, and Fe as 90% Fe2+. Depths and temperatures of melting were calculated for San Francisco in AZ; Amboy, Pisgah, Death Valley, Coso, Big Pine, Cima, Long Valley, in CA; Crater Flat, Lunar Crater, Reveille in NV; and Black Rock, Hurricane, Snow Canyon, UT; and others all of which have known ages. Ages

  15. Isotopic analysis of basaltic fragments from lunar breccia 14321 - Chronology and petrogenesis of pre-Imbrium mare volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasch, E. J.; Shih, C.-Y.; Bansal, B. M.; Wiesmann, H.; Nyquist, L. E.

    1987-01-01

    Internal (mineral) Rb-Sr isochrons were determined for six Apollo 14 mare basalts of lunar breccia 14321. The ages of these fragments, which represent the time of crystallization of the respective mafic lavas, range from about 4.05 to 4.24, and, possibly, to 4.33 Ga and are among the oldest dates reported for mare basalts. For three of the fragments, internal Sm-Nd isochron data were collected and initial Nd isotopic composition was determined. The results are discussed with reference to the original source of these different basaltic fragments.

  16. Trace Element Geochemistry of Basaltic Tephra in Maar Cores; Implications for Centre Correlation, Field Evolution, and Mantle Source Characteristics of the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, J. L.; Leonard, G.; Timm, C.; Wilson, C. J. N.; Neil, H.; Millet, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Establishing volcanic hazard and risk management strategies hinges on a detailed understanding of the type, timing and tephra dispersal of past eruptions. In order to unravel the pyroclastic eruption history of a volcanic field, genetic links between the deposits and eruption source centre need to be established. The Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF; New Zealand) has been active for ca. 200 kyr and comprises ca. 53 individual centres covering an area of ca. 360km2. These centres show a range of sizes and eruptive styles from maar craters and tuff rings, to scoria cones and lava flows consistent with both phreatomagmatic and magmatic eruptions. Superimposition of the metropolitan area of Auckland (ca. 1.4 million inhabitants) on the volcanic field makes it critically important to assess the characteristics of the volcanic activity, on which to base assessment and management of the consequent hazards. Here we present a geochemical approach for correlating tephra deposits to their source centres. To acquire the most complete stratigraphic record of pyroclastic events, maar crater cores from different locations, covering various depths and thus ages across the field were selected. Magnetic susceptibility and x-ray density scanning of the cores was used to identify the basaltic tephra horizons, which were sampled and in-situ analysis of individual shards undertaken for major and trace elements using EPMA and LA-ICP-MS techniques, respectively. Our results show that tephra shard trace element ratios are comparable and complementary to the AVF whole rock database. The use of specific trace element ratios (e.g. Gd/Yb vs. Zr/Yb) allows us to fingerprint and cross correlate tephra horizons between cores and, when coupled with newly acquired 40Ar-39Ar age dating and eruption size estimates, correlate horizons to their source centres. This integrated style of study can provide valuable information to help volcanic hazard management and forecasting, and mitigation of related risks.

  17. Isotopic and trace-element constraints on mantle and crustal contributions to Siberian continental flood basalts, Noril'sk area, Siberia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wooden, J.L.; Czamanske, G.K.; Fedorenko, V.A.; Arndt, N.T.; Chauvel, C.; Bouse, R.M.; King, B.-S.W.; Knight, R.J.; Siems, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    We present a tightly controlled and comprehensive set of analytical data for the 250-Ma Siberian flood-basalt province. Consideration of major- and trace-element compositions, along with strontium, lead and neodymium isotopic compositions, strongly supports earlier Russian subdivision of this magmatism into three magmatic cycles, giving rise to three assemblages of eleven basalt suites in the ascending order Ivakinsky-Gudchikhinsky, Khakanchansky-Nadezhdinsky and Morongovsky-Samoedsky. Geochemical and isotopic discontinuities of varying magnitude characterize most of the boundaries between the eleven recognized basalt suites in the Noril'sk area. Although we conclude that the dominant volume of erupted magma originated from an asthenospheric mantle plume, none of the lavas is interpreted to directly represent asthenospheric melts, which would have been far more magnesian. On the basis of thermal considerations, we consider it unlikely that vast volumes of basaltic melt were produced directly from the continental lithospheric mantle beneath the Siberian craton. Moreover, there is little evidence from mantle xenoliths that the geochemical signatures of such melts would correspond to those of the Siberian flood basalts. Studies of melt migration lead us to conclude that transport of asthenospheric melt through the lithospheric mantle would be rapid, by fracture propagation. Lavas from the Gudchikhinsky suite have negligible Ta-Nb anomalies and positive ??{lunate}Nd values and their parental magmas presumably interacted little with the continental lithospheric mantle or crust. All other lavas have negative Ta-Nb anomalies and lower ??{lunate}Nd values that we attribute to interaction with continental crust. The model that we have developed requires discrete contributions from the plume and complex processing of all erupted magmas in the continental crust. The earliest magmas represent small percentages of melt formed in equilibrium with garnet. Over time, the

  18. Nature of basalt-deep crust interaction in the petrogenesis of a potassium-rich, silicic-dominated eruptive system, Davis Mountain volcanic field, west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, R.L.; Walker, J.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The Davis Mountain volcanic field (DMVF) is one of several silicic-dominated eruptive centers that constitute the bulk of the Trans Pecos volcanic province (TPVP). New major-, trace element, and Pb-O isotope data on local granulite-facies xenoliths and the DMVF are used in evaluating the extent of basalt-deep crust interaction to produce voluminous silicic lavas and -ignimbrites. The DMVF (39.3--35.4 Ma) is a high-K, alkali basalt-potassic trachybasalt-shoshonite-latite-trachyte-rhyolite volcanoplutonic series with the evolved members being silica-saturated. DMF silicic rocks are characterized by high concentrations of Rb, Th, U, and K, low-[sup 18]O and have a broad range in Pb isotopes. These characteristics are inconsistent with an origin by partial melting of a Rb-Th-U depleted, unradiogenic Pb granulitic deep crust. However, distinctly different Pb isotope compositions between mafic and silicic rocks preclude an origin by fractional crystallization alone. Multistage-AFC involving a mantle-source, various proportions of OL-CPX-PLAG-KSPAR-MAG-AP-BIO-QTZ-aenigmatite-ZR differentiation, limited (<10%) amounts of deep and upper crustal contamination, and mixing between mafic and silicic magmas can satisfactorily account for the observed chemical and isotopic variation in the DMVF.

  19. Relative Contribution of Crust and Mantle to Flood Basalt Magmatism, Mahabaleshwar Area, Deccan Traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, K. G.; Hawkesworth, C. J.

    1984-04-01

    The 1200 m section of flat-lying basalts in the Mahabaleshwar area is divided into three formations on the basis of the trace elements Sr, Ba, Rb, Zr and Nb. The lowermost unit, the Poladpur Formation, is characterized by high Ba, Rb, and Zr/Nb, and low Sr. These features are accompained by high K and Si, high and variable 87Sr/86Sr initial ratios (0.7043-0.7196), and low and variable ɛ Nd values (+2.6 to -17.4). The formation is interpreted as having developed by contamination of the overlying Ambenali magma-type with ancient granitic crust, with simultaneous fractionation of a gabbroic mineral assemblage. The more basic members of the formation are found towards the base of the succession and are more contaminated than the upper flows. The succeeding Ambenali Formation, characterized by the Ambenali magma type, has low Ba, Rb, Sr and Zr/Nb, and low and rather uniform 87Sr/86Sr initial ratios (0.7038-0.7043) coupled with high and relatively uniform ɛ Nd (+4.7 to +6.4). It is interpreted as being essentially uncontaminated and derived from a mantle source with a history of slight trace-element enrichment relative to m.o.r.b.-source. The uppermost group of flows, the Mahabaleshwar Formation, is, like the Poladpur, enriched in Ba, Rb, K and Si relative to the Ambenali, but has lower Zr/Nb and higher Sr. 87Sr/86Sr initial ratios (0.7040-0.7056) are slightly higher than in the Ambenali, and ɛ Nd lies in the range +7.1 to -3.0. In this formation Sr correlates positively with the other incompatible elements and with 87Sr/86Sr initial ratios. This is in strong contrast to the relations observed in the Poladpur, and we believe that the behaviour of Sr may be a simple pointer to the distinction between mantle and crustal contributions. Assuming that late-stage crystal fractionation processes can be allowed for, if Sr correlates positively with elements such as K, Rb and Ba then mantle enrichment processes are clearly implied. Conversely, as for example in the Poladpur

  20. Southern Cordilleran Basaltic Andesite suite, southern Chihuahua, Mexico: A link between Tertiary continental arc and flood basalt magmatism in the North America

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, K. L.; Nimz, G. J.; Kuentz, D.; Niemeyer, S.; Gunn, S.

    1989-06-10

    Mid-Cenozoic orogenic andesites and ignimbrites of western Mexico, southwestern New Mexico, and Arizona are commonly capped by basaltic andesites, most from 29--20 Ma. We refer to these mafic lavas as the Southern Cordilleran Basaltic Andesite (SCORBA) suite, and they may constitute the most extensive Cenozoic basaltic suite in North America. The SCORBA suite has trace element and isotopic characteristics of orogenic (arc) rocks (i.g., Ba/Nb/gt/40), and silica content (53--56% SiO/sub 2/) like the Grande Ronde Basalt, which represents about 80% of the volume of the Columbia River Group. Geochemical and isotopic data are presented on SCORBA lavas and rare mafic lavas (PRE-SCORBA) interlayered with older ignimbrites from a 700-km-long NE-SW transect of southern Chihuahua, Mexico. SCORBA and PRE-SCORBA lavas with relatively low K/P (/lt/7) and differing Ba/Nd (50 versus 18) have similar isotopic compositions, arguing against their isotopic signatures being controlled by crustal assimilation. Along the entire length of the transect, the basaltic rocks have /var epsilon//sub Nd/ and /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr near bulk Earth and /sup 206/Pb//sup 204/Pb and /sup 207/Pb//sup 204/Pb ratios that lie along a 1.7 Ga pseudoisochron. The Pb isotopic variation is geographically controlled, becoming more radiogenic from east to west, reflecting mixing in mantle source regions. The eastern mantle source has low/sup 206/Pb//sup 204/Pb and is a mixture of an enriched, enriched-mantle-like (EMI) component with one or more depleted components, which could include an intraplate component with relatively high Nb/Y (/gt/0.8).

  1. Crystal preferred orientations of minerals from mantle xenoliths in alkali basaltic rocks form the Catalan Volcanic Zone (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Roig, Mercè; Galán, Gumer; Mariani, Elisabetta

    2015-04-01

    Mantle xenoliths in alkali basaltic rocks from the Catalan Volcanic Zone, associated with the Neogene-Quaternary rift system in NE Spain, are formed of anhydrous spinel lherzolites and harzburgites with minor olivine websterites. Both peridotites are considered residues of variable degrees of partial melting, later affected by metasomatism, especially the harzburgites. These and the websterites display protogranular microstructures, whereas lherzolites show continuous variation between protogranular, porphyroclastic and equigranular forms. Thermometric data of new xenoliths indicate that protogranular harzburgites, lherzolites and websterites were equilibrated at higher temperatures than porphyroclastic and equigranular lherzolites. Mineral chemistry also indicates lower equilibrium pressure for porphyroclastic and equigranular lherzolites than for the protogranular ones. Crystal preferred orientations (CPOs) of olivine and pyroxenes from these new xenoliths were determined with the EBSD-SEM technique to identify the deformation stages affecting the lithospheric mantle in this zone and to assess the relationships between the deformation fabrics, processes and microstructures. Olivine CPOs in protogranular harzburgites, lherzolites and a pyroxenite display [010]-fiber patterns characterized by a strong point concentration of the [010] axis normal to the foliation and girdle distribution of [100] and [001] axes within the foliation plane. Olivine CPO symmetry in porphyroclastic and equigranular lherzolites varies continuously from [010]-fiber to orthorhombic and [100]-fiber types. The orthorhombic patterns are characterized by scattered maxima of the three axes, which are normal between them. The rare [100]-fiber patterns display strong point concentration of [100] axis, with normal girdle distribution of the other two axes, which are aligned with each other. The patterns of pyroxene CPOs are more dispersed than those of olivine, especially for clinopyroxene, but

  2. Climate-Floods relationship in the mountainous volcanic region of Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinson, D.; Gratiot, N.; Saenz-Romero, C.; Prat, C.; Esteves, M.

    2009-04-01

    The present study provides an analysis of the water flows in the mountainous volcanic watershed of Cointzio, Michoacan (Mexico). Daily precipitations and river flows data, gathered over the period 1940-2007, were analysed to estimate the dynamic of superficial waters and its change over years. Precipitation data pointed out the intensity of rains in this tropical region with 5% of the yearly precipitation occurring during a single day. It also reveals an unexpected feature with some extreme events occurring during the dry season. This obviously as some major consequences for the floods and sediment transport within the watershed. For the studied period, the precipitation (mean annual and extreme values) did not reveal any major change while the water flows increased significantly. This specific behaviour is examined in terms of land use change through the evolution of an aridity index over years and literature data. Predictions from a global climate change model for the decades centred in the years 2030, 2060 and 2090 indicate (in comparison to a normalized period of years 1961 to 1990) an increment in mean annual temperature of 1.6, 2.5 and 4.4 °C and a decrease in precipitation of 15.4, 19.1 and 27.7 %, respectively. The consequent increment of aridity leads to expect a reduction of the vegetation coverage and an increment of the runoff with erosive effects.

  3. Alkaline basaltic volcanism of the Sea of Japan and the Philippine Sea: Similar and distinct geochemical and genetic features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelikov, E. P.; Emelyanova, T. A.

    2016-05-01

    The results of study of the deep sources of volcanic rocks from the Sea of Japan and the Philippine Sea with continental and oceanic basements, respectively, are presented. This problem is considered with the example of alkaline volcanic rocks of the Middle Miocene to Pliocene complex of the Sea of Japan and the Eocene-Oligocene Urdaneta Plateau of the Philippine Sea. The rocks have a similar geochemistry typical of OIBs, which indicates their deep (plume) origin. The presence of the Oligocene calc-alkaline volcanic rocks, which were formed prior to the marginal sea volcanism in the Sea of Japan, however, is the main difference in volcanism of the Sea of Japan from that of the Urdaneta Plateau, and this is explained by the different basements of these seas.

  4. Response to Baksi, A., 2012, 'New 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Grande Ronde lavas, Columbia River Basalts, USA: Implications for duration of flood basalt eruption episodes' by Barry et al., 2010—Discussion'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, T. L.; Self, S.; Kelley, S. P.; Reidel, S.; Hooper, P.; Widdowson, M.

    2012-08-01

    Baksi (2012) claims that a number of radiometric ages presented in Barry et al. (2010) are statistically invalid and that many of the samples were altered, thus not able to date the eruptions, and that there is no compelling evidence for a limited duration for the eruption of the Grande Ronde Basalts (GR Basalts), USA. However, Baksi (2012), has simply reiterated some of the assessment of the data presented in the paper and has used an 'Alteration Index', in order to assess the data. The 'Alteration Index' commonly shows that basaltic groundmass is altered and from this Baksi (2012) deduces that the ages are incorrect. In contrast, much work on young volcanics has shown that phenocrysts are often sources of incorrect ages. In any assessment of data, we maintain that whilst alteration is an important consideration, the best approach should include not just alteration, but also experimental reproducibility, stratigraphic order, comparison with other analyses, and analytical techniques, and that the application of an 'Alteration Index' is not a straightforward guide to the validity of an age.

  5. Imaging three-dimensional crustal conductivity structures reflecting continental flood basalt effects hidden beneath thick intracratonic sedimentary basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilha, Antonio L.; Vitorello, Ícaro; Antunes, Cassio E.; Pádua, Marcelo B.

    2015-07-01

    A large-scale array of long-period magnetic data and a deep-probing magnetotelluric profile were recorded in the intracratonic Paraná sedimentary basin in central eastern South America, which presents a thick and extensive sedimentary-magmatic sequence that allows its basement to be investigated only by indirect methods. Integration of the results from both methods showed that the crust beneath the basin presents several quasi-linear highly conductive channeled zones with limited lateral extent, in coincidence with some of the main tectonic structures recognized at the surface, and a moderate but pervasive lithosphere conductivity enhancement beneath its central part. Upward movement of CO2-bearing volatiles and magmas precipitating highly conducting mineral phases along discrete subvertical fault zones that served as feeder conduits for Early Cretaceous voluminous continental flood basalts was a likely process responsible for the localized conductivity enhancements. Correlation between some of the linear conductive zones and elongated magnetic anomalies and between the maximum depth occurrence of most of these conductive anomalies and the Curie depth at which crustal rocks lose their magnetism gives strong support to interconnected iron oxides (especially magnetite) and iron sulfides (such as pyrrhotite) as the main conductive sources. The moderate bulk conductivity increase in the crust and upper mantle beneath the central part of the basin is unexpected for a postulated cratonic basement and is tentatively associated with impregnation of the lithosphere by conducting minerals related either to widespread tectonic events in the Ordovician or Late Precambrian or to dispersed magmatic residues of an Early Cretaceous magma differentiation contaminating the entire lithosphere.

  6. Volcanically-Induced Nile Flood Failure Promotes Internal Revolt and Suppresses Interstate Conflict in Hellenistic Egypt, 305-30 BCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludlow, Francis; Manning, Joseph; Stine, Alexander; Boos, William; Storelvmo, Trude; Sigl, Michael; Marlon, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions are a primary driver of abrupt short-term climatic changes. State-of-the-art revisions to polar ice-core chronologies now allow us to track the impacts of a sequence of major and closely-recurring volcanic eruptions on the great Ptolemaic kingdom centred in Egypt, between 305-30 BCE. This was a formidable Mediterranean cultural and economic power in the efflorescent Hellenistic era of the first four centuries BCE, a period bracketed by Alexander the Great on one end and Cleopatra on the other, and known for its considerable advancement in science and material culture. In this paper we show a link between major volcanic eruptions that register through elevated sulphate deposition in the polar ice, and a suppression of the agriculturally-critical Nile summer flood, identifiable in annual Nilometer measurements from Rhoda, Cairo, between 641 and 1469 CE. This likely relates to a volcanic perturbation of the East African monsoon, responsible for the rainfall in the Ethiopian highlands that drives the annual summer flood, and the effect can also be identified in ancient papyri that indicate the quality of the Nile flood in the first several centuries BCE. Volcanic eruptions in this period are also shown to correspond in timing with the initiation of a series of hitherto poorly understood internal revolts against Ptolemaic rule in Egypt, while also corresponding in timing to the cessation of major interstate conflicts (the nine "Syrian Wars", running 274-96 BCE) between the Ptolemaic kingdom and their powerful Near Eastern rival, the Seleukid empire. Subsistence crises driven by volcanically-induced suppression of the Nile flood are likely to have played a key causal role in these events, an understanding that helps to advance our knowledge of the major historical events of the formative Hellenistic era, which set the scene for the rise of the Roman Empire. Our findings also suggest the potential of integrating human and natural archives to

  7. The basaltic volcanism of the Dumisseau Formation in the Sierra de Bahoruco, SW Dominican Republic: A record of the mantle plume-related magmatism of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escuder-Viruete, Javier; Joubert, Marc; Abad, Manuel; Pérez-Valera, Fernando; Gabites, Janet

    2016-06-01

    The basaltic volcanism of the Dumisseau Fm in the Sierra de Bahoruco, SW Dominican Republic, offers the opportunity to study, on land, the volcanism of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP). It consists of an at least 1.5 km-thick sequence of submarine basaltic flows and pyroclastic deposits, intruded by doleritic dykes and sills. Three geochemical groups have been identified: low-Ti tholeiites (group I); high-Ti transitional basalts (group II); and high-Ti and LREE-enriched alkaline basalts (group III). These geochemical signatures indicate a plume source for all groups of basalts, which are compositionally similar to the volcanic rocks that make up various CLIP fragments in the northern region of the Caribbean Plate. Trace element modelling indicates that group I magmas are products of 8-20% melting of spinel lherzolite, group II magmas result 4-10% melting of a mixture of spinel and garnet lherzolite, and group III basalts are derived by low degrees (0.05-4%) of melting of garnet lherzolite. Dynamic melting models suggest that basalts represent aggregate melts produced by progressive decompression melting in a mantle plume. There is no compositional evidence for the involvement of a Caribbean supra-subduction zone mantle or crust in the generation of the basalts. Two 40Ar/39Ar whole-rock ages reflect the crystallisation of group II magmas at least in the late Campanian (~ 74 Ma) and the lower Eocene (~ 53 Ma). All data suggest that the Dumisseau Fm is an emerged fragment of the CLIP, which continues southward through the Beata Ridge

  8. Combined U/Pb and (U-Th)/He geochronometry of basalt maars in Western Carpathians: implications for age of intraplate volcanism and origin of zircon metasomatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurai, Vratislav; Danišík, Martin; Huraiová, Monika; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Ádám, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    The age of intraplate volcanism in northern Pannonian Basin of Carpathians is revisited using a combination of zircon U/Pb, zircon (U-Th)/He and apatite (U-Th)/He dating techniques, complemented by electron microprobe (EMP) characterisation of dated minerals. A total of six maar structures and diatremes in the South-Slovakian Volcanic Field (SSVF) were dated and the obtained new ages yielded the following key findings: Two isolated maars in SE part indirectly dated by geomorphologic constraints to Late Pleistocene are actually of Pliocene (2.8 ± 0.2 Ma) and Late Miocene (5.5 ± 0.6 Ma) ages. In contrast, two maars in NW part of the study area are of Late Pliocene age (4.1 ± 0.4 and 5.2-5.4 Ma), younger than the Late Miocene age (~6.5 Ma) inferred previously from K/Ar data on the proximal basaltic lava flows. These maars therefore belong to the second volcanic phase that was previously identified only in SE part of the SSVF. In the light of the new geochronologic data, it seems likely that the Pliocene phreatomagmatic eruptions may have occurred along extension-related, NW- and NE-trending orthogonal faults. EMP analyses and imaging revealed an extensive syn- and post-growth metasomatic replacement by dissolution-reprecipitation in the majority of zircons. Abundant silicate melt inclusions in porous metasomatised parts of the zircons are diagnostic of magmatic rather than hydrothermal metasomatism. Consistent ages of the metasomatised and non-metasomatised zones do not indicate disturbance of the U-Pb system during the metasomatism. Enrichment in U and Th loss in the metasomatised zircons are diagnostic of an increasing oxygen fugacity triggered by degassing of the volatile residual melt during the final stages of alkali basalt fractionation. Rare zircon-to-baddeleyite transformation was probably connected with lowered silica activity in carbonated basaltic magmas in south-eastern part of the study area.

  9. Petrologic insights into basaltic volcanism at historically active Hawaiian volcanoes: Chapter 6 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helz, Rosalind L.; Clague, David A.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Thornber, Carl R.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    Contributions to our knowledge of the nature of the mantle source(s) of Hawaiian basalts are reviewed briefly, although this is a topic where debate is ongoing. Finally, our accumulated petrologic observations impose constraints on the nature of the summit reservoirs at Kīlauea and Mauna Loa, specifically whether the summit chamber has been continuous or segmented during past decades.

  10. Results of analyses performed on basalt adjacent to penetrators emplaced into volcanic rock at Amboy, California, April 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, M.; Bunch, T.; Davis, A.; Shade, H.; Erlichman, J.; Polkowski, G.

    1977-01-01

    The physical and chemical modifications found in the basalt after impact of four penetrators were studied. Laboratory analyses show that mineralogical and elemental changes are produced in the powdered and crushed basalt immediately surrounding the penetrator. Optical microscopy studies of material next to the skin of the penetrator revealed a layer, 0-2 mm thick, of glass and abraded iron alloy mixed with fractured mineral grains of basalt. Elemental analysis of the 0-2 mm layer revealed increased concentrations of Fe, Cr, Ni, No, and Mn, and reduced concentrations of Mg, Al, Si, and Ca. The Fe, Cr, Ni, and Mo were in fragments abraded from the penetrator. Mineralogical changes occurring in the basalt sediment next to the penetrator include the introduction of micron-size grains of alpha-iron, magnetite, and hematite. The newly formed silicate minerals include metastable phases of silica (tridymite and cristobalite). An increased concentration of Fe, Cr, Ni, and Mo occurred in the 2-mm to 1-cm layer of penetrator no. 1, which impacted at the highest velocity. No elemental concentration increase was noted for penetrators nos. 2 and 3 in the 2-mm to 1-cm layer. Contaminants introduced by the penetrator occur up to 1 cm away from the penetrator's skin. Although volatile elements do migrate and new minerals are formed during the destruction of host minerals in the crushed rock, no changes were observed beyond the 1-cm distance.

  11. Crustal seismic structure beneath the source area of the Columbia River flood basalt: Bifurcation of the Moho driven by lithosphere delamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Haiying

    2015-11-01

    The source area of the ~16 Ma Columbia River flood basalt eruptions originated beneath the Wallowa Mountains in northeast Oregon, with a distinct circular pattern of topographic uplift. Teleseismic receiver functions reveal two layers between latitude 45.5° and 46.5° beneath north of the Wallowas, one at 25 km depth and the other one at 45 km depth. A new full-wave ambient noise tomography model shows a circular anomaly, which is seismically fast in the upper crust and slow from lower crust to uppermost mantle in comparison with the surroundings, coincident with the circular pattern of the Wallowas. The seismic structures suggest that delamination of the Farallon lithosphere initiated the basalt eruptions and, consequently, modified the lowermost crust, forming a new shallow Moho. The Farallon slab is probably detached directly beneath the Wallowas while being maintained at the northern edge of the Wallowas, corresponding to the deeper interface.

  12. Increased thyroid cancer incidence in a basaltic volcanic area is associated with non-anthropogenic pollution and biocontamination.

    PubMed

    Malandrino, Pasqualino; Russo, Marco; Ronchi, Anna; Minoia, Claudio; Cataldo, Daniela; Regalbuto, Concetto; Giordano, Carla; Attard, Marco; Squatrito, Sebastiano; Trimarchi, Francesco; Vigneri, Riccardo

    2016-08-01

    The increased thyroid cancer incidence in volcanic areas suggests an environmental effect of volcanic-originated carcinogens. To address this problem, we evaluated environmental pollution and biocontamination in a volcanic area of Sicily with increased thyroid cancer incidence. Thyroid cancer epidemiology was obtained from the Sicilian Regional Registry for Thyroid Cancer. Twenty-seven trace elements were measured by quadrupole mass spectrometry in the drinking water and lichens (to characterize environmental pollution) and in the urine of residents (to identify biocontamination) in the Mt. Etna volcanic area and in adjacent control areas. Thyroid cancer incidence was 18.5 and 9.6/10(5) inhabitants in the volcanic and the control areas, respectively. The increase was exclusively due to the papillary histotype. Compared with control areas, in the volcanic area many trace elements were increased in both drinking water and lichens, indicating both water and atmospheric pollution. Differences were greater for water. Additionally, in the urine of the residents of the volcanic area, the average levels of many trace elements were significantly increased, with values higher two-fold or more than in residents of the control area: cadmium (×2.1), mercury (×2.6), manganese (×3.0), palladium (×9.0), thallium (×2.0), uranium (×2.0), vanadium (×8.0), and tungsten (×2.4). Urine concentrations were significantly correlated with values in water but not in lichens. Our findings reveal a complex non-anthropogenic biocontamination with many trace elements in residents of an active volcanic area where thyroid cancer incidence is increased. The possible carcinogenic effect of these chemicals on the thyroid and other tissues cannot be excluded and should be investigated. PMID:26438396

  13. Increased thyroid cancer incidence in a basaltic volcanic area is associated with non-anthropogenic pollution and biocontamination.

    PubMed

    Malandrino, Pasqualino; Russo, Marco; Ronchi, Anna; Minoia, Claudio; Cataldo, Daniela; Regalbuto, Concetto; Giordano, Carla; Attard, Marco; Squatrito, Sebastiano; Trimarchi, Francesco; Vigneri, Riccardo

    2016-08-01

    The increased thyroid cancer incidence in volcanic areas suggests an environmental effect of volcanic-originated carcinogens. To address this problem, we evaluated environmental pollution and biocontamination in a volcanic area of Sicily with increased thyroid cancer incidence. Thyroid cancer epidemiology was obtained from the Sicilian Regional Registry for Thyroid Cancer. Twenty-seven trace elements were measured by quadrupole mass spectrometry in the drinking water and lichens (to characterize environmental pollution) and in the urine of residents (to identify biocontamination) in the Mt. Etna volcanic area and in adjacent control areas. Thyroid cancer incidence was 18.5 and 9.6/10(5) inhabitants in the volcanic and the control areas, respectively. The increase was exclusively due to the papillary histotype. Compared with control areas, in the volcanic area many trace elements were increased in both drinking water and lichens, indicating both water and atmospheric pollution. Differences were greater for water. Additionally, in the urine of the residents of the volcanic area, the average levels of many trace elements were significantly increased, with values higher two-fold or more than in residents of the control area: cadmium (×2.1), mercury (×2.6), manganese (×3.0), palladium (×9.0), thallium (×2.0), uranium (×2.0), vanadium (×8.0), and tungsten (×2.4). Urine concentrations were significantly correlated with values in water but not in lichens. Our findings reveal a complex non-anthropogenic biocontamination with many trace elements in residents of an active volcanic area where thyroid cancer incidence is increased. The possible carcinogenic effect of these chemicals on the thyroid and other tissues cannot be excluded and should be investigated.

  14. Unrest at Bárdarbunga: Preparations for possible flooding due to subglacial volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardardottir, Jorunn; Roberts, Matthew; Pagneux, Emmanuel; Einarsson, Bergur; Thorarinsdottir, Tinna; Johannesson, Tomas; Sigurdsson, Oddur; Egilson, David; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Imo hydrological-monitoring-team

    2015-04-01

    Located partly beneath northwest Vatnajökull, Iceland, the Bárdarbunga volcanic system comprises an ice-capped central volcano and a fissure swarm extending beyond the ice margin. During the last 1100 years the volcano has erupted on at least 26 occasions. Outburst floods (jökulhlaups) on a scale of >100,000 m3 s-1 are known to have occurred during major explosive eruptions. Repeated jökulhlaups from Bárdarbunga have inundated the Jökulsá á Fjöllum River, which drains over 200 km northwards from the Dyngjujökull outlet glacier to the north coast of Iceland. Depending on the location of the eruption within the 80 km2 caldera, jökulhlaups could also flow northwards along Skjálfandafljót River and towards west and southwest into present-day tributaries of the extensively hydropower-harnessed Thjórsá River. On 16 August 2014, an intense earthquake swarm began within the Bárdarbunga caldera. Seismicity propagated from the caldera, extending ~10 km northwards of the ice margin where a fissure eruption developed in late August and remains ongoing in early January 2015. In connection with the lateral migration of magma from the caldera, the ice surface of Bárdarbunga has lowered by over 60 m; also associated with increased geothermal heat on the caldera rim, as manifested by the development of ice-surface depressions. In preparation for a subglacial eruption in the Bárdarbunga volcanic system, the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) has made several assessments of likely hydrological hazards. Assessments were undertaken on Jökulsá á Fjöllum and Skjálfandafljót at key locations where preliminary evacuation plans for populated areas were made in cooperation with the local police. Floodwater extent was estimated for key infrastructures, such as bridges, telecommunication and power lines for maximum discharge levels ranging from 3,000 to 20,000 m3 s-1. The estimations were made using either simple Manning's calculations or HEC-RAS modelling

  15. Exceptionally high Water, Other Volatile and LILE Concentrations in Olivine-Hosted Melt Inclusions from the Yellowstone Hotspot and Columbia River Flood Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukasa, S. B.; Stefano, C.; Leeman, W. P.; Shimizu, N.

    2009-12-01

    The Yellowstone hotspot track, comprising the Snake River Plain (SRP) and Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field, is widely attributed to mantle melting in response to impingement of a deep seated mantle plume on the southwesterly migrating North American Plate. Origin of the mid-Miocene Columbia River Basalts (CRB) and coeval basalts in Oregon and northern Nevada is also attributed by many to effects of the Yellowstone plume, although the lithosphere in that region consists of accreted Permian to Cretaceous oceanic terranes. Propagation of Basin & Range extension into this region raises the possibility that some of these basalts may be melts of lithospheric rather than plume mantle. Other complicating factors such as lateral variation in lithosphere age, composition, and thickness may also contribute. Water and other volatiles (S, F, Cl), as well as major and trace elements have been analyzed in over 150 olivine-hosted melt inclusions from 15 basalt samples taken throughout the CRB-SRP region and covering both lavas contemporaneous with formation of the local caldera - during passage of the North American Plate over the hypothesized plume - and post-caldera lavas erupted well after that event. H2O concentrations as high as 3.3 wt% have been observed in melt inclusions in a syn-caldera Gerritt Basalt at Mesa Falls, Idaho. Some melt inclusions from the Malheur Gorge area of east central Oregon preserve H2O concentrations as high as 4.2 wt%. The highest H2O concentrations are in all cases found in the most primitive melt inclusions, and thus are interpreted as magmatic minima. These values significantly exceed the maximum H2O concentrations observed in Hawaiian melt inclusions of 0.9 wt%. Maximum observed concentrations of other volatiles are 2854 ppm S in the Malheur Gorge, 2606 ppm F in Picture Gorge Basalt (within the CRB), and 1100 ppm F in a Gerritt Basalt flow. High large-ion lithophile-element (LILE) concentrations in these melt inclusions - particularly Ba - and

  16. Lead and strontium isotopic evidence for crustal interaction and compositional zonation in the source regions of Pleistocene basaltic and rhyolitic magmas of the Coso volcanic field, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, C.R.; Kurasawa, H.; Delevaux, M.H.; Kistler, R.W.; Doe, B.R.

    1984-01-01

    The isotopic compositions of Pb and Sr in Pleistocene basalt, high-silica rhyolite, and andesitic inclusions in rhyolite of the Coso volcanic field indicate that these rocks were derived from different levels of compositionally zoned magmatic systems. The 2 earliest rhyolites probably were tapped from short-lived silicic reservoirs, in contrast to the other 36 rhyolite domes and lava flows which the isotopic data suggest may have been leaked from the top of a single, long-lived magmatic system. Most Coso basalts show isotopic, geochemical, and mineralogic evidence of interaction with crustal rocks, but one analyzed flow has isotopic ratios that may represent mantle values (87Sr/86Sr=0.7036,206Pb/204Pb=19.05,207Pb/204Pb=15.62,208Pb/204Pb= 38.63). The (initial) isotopic composition of typical rhyolite (87Sr/86Sr=0.7053,206Pb/204Pb=19.29,207Pb/204Pb= 15.68,208Pb/204Pb=39.00) is representative of the middle or upper crust. Andesitic inclusions in the rhyolites are evidently samples of hybrid magmas from the silicic/mafic interface in vertically zoned magma reservoirs. Silicic end-member compositions inferred for these mixed magmas, however, are not those of erupted rhyolite but reflect the zonation within the silicic part of the magma reservoir. The compositional contrast at the interface between mafic and silicic parts of these systems apparently was greater for the earlier, smaller reservoirs. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Basaltic melt evolution of the Hengill volcanic system, SW Iceland, and evidence for clinopyroxene assimilation in primitive tholeiitic magmas

    SciTech Connect

    Troennes, R.G. )

    1990-09-10

    The thick oceanic crust of Iceland is formed by tholeiitic central volcanoes arranged in en echelon patterns along the 40-50 km wide rift zones. The Hengill central volcano in the southwestern rift zone has produced 25-30 km{sup 3} of hyaloclastites and lava during the last 0.11 m.y., with maximum productivity during the isostatic rebound following the degalciations 0.13 and 0.01 m.y. ago. The petrographic relations of pillow rim and hyaloclastite glass indicate that the basaltic melts were saturated with olivine and plagioclase, except for the most primitive ones that were undersaturated with plagioclase. Saturation with clinopyroxene was reached in some of the intermediate and evolved basaltic melts. Corroded and partly resorbed crystals of clinopyroxene and partly disintegrated gabbro nodules with resorbed clinopyroxene indicate that selective assimilation contributed to the evolution of the most primitive melts. The intermediate and evolved basaltic glass compositions fall along the low-pressure cotectic for mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) compositions saturated with olivine, plagioclase, and clinopyroxene, but the primitive glasses fall well inside the low-pressure olivine + plagioclase primary phase volume. The dense picritic magmas were driven to the surface by magmatic overpressure in the mantle at an early deglaciation stage characterized by the absence of large, trapping magma chambers in the lower crust. The assimilation of clinopyroxene in these melts could proceed by direct contact with the solidified cumulate sequences and gabbro intrusions. Clinopyroxene assimilation in combination with olivine fractionation may also contribute to the chemical evolution of some of the most primitive MORB magmas.

  18. Venus volcanism

    SciTech Connect

    Head, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Eruption styles and processes on the planets are known to be strongly influenced by such factors as gravity, temperature, and atmospheric characteristics. The ascent and eruption of magma on Venus in the current Venus environment must take into account the influence of the extreme surface temperatures (650-750 K) and pressures (40-100 bars) on these processes. Conditions on Venus will reduce the subsurface exsolution of volatiles and lead to a reduction of the possible range of explosive interactions with the atmosphere. Pyroclastic eruptions will be severely inhibited and continuous magma disruption by gas bubble growth may not occur at all unless the exsolved magma volatile content exceeds several weight percent. Recent US and USSR spacecraft missions and Earth-based radar observations are beginning to provide a view of the range of Venus volcanic features, including domes, cones, calderas, shields, and flows. The nature of many lava flows suggests that numerous eruptions have effusion rates exceeding common terrestrial rates and lying more in the range inferred for lunar basaltic flood eruptions (10/sup 4/-10/sup 5/m/sup 3//s). Shield volcanoes are often wide but are low (<2 km elevation) relative to those on Mars and the Earth. Volcano height depends in part on the depth of origin of the magma and the density contrast between the lava and the rocks between the source and the surface, both of which may be different on Venus. Correlations between volcanic style and tectonic structure are emerging.

  19. Hf isotope compositions and chronology of magmatic zircons from Tarim continental flood basalts: implications for magmatic evolution of the Early Permian Tarim Large Igneous Province in NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Li, Z.; Yu, X.; Langmuir, C. H.; Yang, S.; Chen, H.

    2013-12-01

    The Early Permian Tarim Large Igneous Province (TLIP) in the Tarim cratonic block of northwestern China has been largely regarded to be genetically linked with a mantle plume. Recently, some euhedral zircon crystals with magmatic growth zoning have been obtained from the Tarim continental flood basalts (TCFB) for detailed U-Pb chronological and genetic study. The zircons have the concordant 206Pb/238U ages of 297~283 Ma, coinciding with the previously reported whole-rock 40K/39Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages (292~283 Ma) of their host basalts. In-situ LA-MC-ICPMS Lu-Hf isotopic analyses of Early Permian zircons from the Keping area of the TCFB reveal that the zircons from two basalt sub-groups (Groups 1a, 1b) have a narrow range of 176Hf/177Hf ratios between 0.282422 and 0.282568. Their corresponding ɛHf(t) (t = 290 Ma) values (-6.8~-1.4) are generally lower than their host basalts (-2.3~2.1), and distinctively different from the intrusive rocks (3.0~7.1) and their zircons (4.9~8.8) from the TLIP and the Precambrian crustal rocks (<-18) in the Tarim block. Combined with their embayed margins produced by magmatic corrosion, these zircons may have crystallized in a concealed pluton shortly prior to the extrusion of basalts and been captured as xenocrysts by the rapidly erupted basaltic lavas. Almost the same ɛHf(t) values between the corroded and uncorroded zircons suggest that the zircons have preserved the initial Hf isotopic compositions from their original source region. Moreover, the very close but relatively higher ɛHf(t) values from the zircons than the inferred sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath Tarim in the Early Permian [ɛHf(t) = -8.7~-5.2; t = 290 Ma] indicate that the zircons were probably originated from the SCLM with minor addition of depleted mantle magmas during the mantle source partial melting. Both the zircons and their host basalts have almost the same formation ages (~290 Ma) and Hf TDM model ages (ca. 1300~1000 Ma), suggesting that

  20. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  1. Basaltic Magmatism: The Dominant Factor in the Petrologic and Tectonic Evolution of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Silicate bodies such as the Moon, Mars, probably Mercury, and possibly Venus, appear to have evolved in three main stages: a first (felsic) differentiation, a late heavy bombardment, and a second (basaltic) differentiation. It has been proposed that the Earth underwent a similar sequence. This paper argues that the second differentiation, basaltic magmatism, has dominated the petrologic and tectonic evolution of the Earth for four billion years. A global andesitic crust, formed during and after accretion of the planet, was disrupted by major impacts that triggered mantle upwelling and sea-floor spreading about 4 billion years ago. The oceanic crust collectively has since been formed by basaltic volcanism, from spreading centers and mantle plumes. However, the continental crust has also been greatly affected. Basaltic underplating has promoted anatexis and diapiric intrusion of granitoids in granite-greenstone terrains, as well as providing heat for regional metamorphism. Basaltic intrusions, such as the Nipissing diabase of the Sudbury area, have added to the thickness of continental crust. Satellite magnetic surveys suggest that there are more such basaltic intrusions than previously realized; examples include the Bangui anomaly of central Africa and the Kentucky anomaly. Basaltic overplating from mafic dike swarms has repeatedly flooded continents; had it not been for erosion, they would be covered with basalt as Venus is today. The tectonic effects of basaltic volcanism on continents have only recently been realized. The World Stress Map project has discovered that continents are under horizontal compressive stress, caused by push from mid-ocean ridges, i.e., by basaltic volcanism. The stress fields are generally uniform over large intraplate areas, and could contribute to intraplate tectonism. Seafloor spreading has demonstrably been effective for at least 200 million years, and ridge push thus a contributor to tectonic activity for that long. Collectively, the

  2. Basaltic rocks from the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone: Insights from the comparison of along-strike and small-scale geochemical variations and their sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey-Vargas, Rosemary; Holbik, Sven; Tormey, Daniel; Frey, Frederick A.; Moreno Roa, Hugo

    2016-08-01

    The origin of spatial variations in the geochemical characteristics of volcanic rocks erupted in the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ) has been studied by numerous researchers over the past 40 years. Diverse interpretations for along-strike, across-strike, and small-scale variations have been proposed. In this paper, we review geochemical data showing along-strike geochemical variations and address the processes causing such trends. We compare large- and small-scale changes of the same geochemical parameters in basaltic rocks in order to use spatial scale as a tool for isolating processes that may have the same result. Along-strike geochemical variations in the SVZ are expected, due to 1) greater thickness or age of the sub-arc continental crust and mantle lithosphere in the Northern SVZ (NSVZ; 33°S-34°30‧S) and Transitional SVZ (TSVZ; 34°30‧S-37°S) compared with the Central SVZ (CSVZ; 37°S-41.5°S) and Southern SVZ (SSVZ: 41.5°S-46°S); and 2) along-strike changes of the subducting Nazca plate and overlying asthenosphere. Basalts and basaltic andesites erupted at volcanic front stratovolcanoes define several along-strike geochemical trends: 1) higher 87Sr/86Sr and lower 143Nd/144Nd at volcanoes in the NSVZ compared with the TSVZ, CSVZ, and SSVZ; 2) higher and more variable La/Yb at volcanoes in the NSVZ and TSVZ compared with the CSVZ and SSVZ; 3) lower 87Sr/86Sr for a given 143Nd/144Nd at volcanoes in the TSVZ compared with the CSVZ and SSVZ; and 4) large values for time-sensitive subduction tracers such as 10Be/9Be and (238U/230Th) at some volcanoes in the CSVZ, but not in the NSVZ and TSVZ. Geochemical parameters that distinguish the TSVZ from the CSVZ and SSVZ are also found within the CSVZ at small basaltic eruptive centers (SEC) aligned with the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault System (LOFS), which extends from 38°S to the southernmost SVZ. Our interpretation is that CSVZ magmas with strong time-sensitive subduction tracers represent the ambient subduction

  3. Subduction zone mantle enrichment by fluids and Zr-Hf-depleted crustal melts as indicated by backarc basalts of the Southern Volcanic Zone, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Paul M.; Søager, Nina; Alfastsen, Mads; Bertotto, Gustavo W.

    2016-10-01

    We aim to identify the components metasomatizing the mantle above the subducting Nazca plate under part of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ). We present new major and ICP-MS trace element and Sr, Nd and high-precision Pb isotope analyses of primitive olivine-phyric alkali basalts from the Northern Segment Volcanic Field, part of the Payenia province in the backarc of the Transitional SVZ. One new 40Ar-39Ar age determination confirms the Late Pleistocene age of this most northerly part of the province. All analysed rocks have typical subduction zone type incompatible element enrichment, and the rocks of the Northern Segment, together with the neighbouring Nevado Volcanic Field, have isotopic compositions intermediate between adjacent Transitional SVZ arc rocks and southern Payenia OIB-type basaltic rocks. Modelling the Ba-Th-Sm variation we demonstrate that fluids as well as 1-2% melts of upper continental crust (UCC) enriched their mantle sources, and La-Nb-Sm variations additionally indicate that the pre-metasomatic sources ranged from strongly depleted to undepleted mantle. Low Eu/Eu* and Sr/Nd also show evidence for a UCC component in the source. The contribution of Chile Trench sediments to the magmas seems insignificant. The Zr/Sm and Hf/Sm ratios are relatively low in many of the Northern Segment rocks, ranging down to 17 and 0.45, respectively, which, together with relatively high Th/U, is argued to indicate that the metasomatizing crustal melts were derived by partial melting of subducted UCC that had residual zircon, in contrast to the UCC melts added to Transitional SVZ arc magmas. Mixing between depleted and undepleted mantle, enriched by UCC and fluids, is suggested by Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes of the Northern Segment and Nevado magmas. The metasomatized undepleted mantle south of the Northern Segment is suggested to be part of upwelling OIB-type mantle, whereas the pre-metasomatically depleted mantle also can be found as a component in some arc

  4. Complementary trace-element fractionation in volcanic and plutonic rocks: imperfect examples from ocean-floor basalts and gabbros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delong, Stephen E.; Chatelain, Carole

    1989-06-01

    A simple trace-element model that is generalized from one devised by Albarede (1976) can be used to treat plutonic rocks as mixtures of cumulate phases and trapped liquid. The model is based on the Rayleigh fractionation law, mass balance, and modal data and, with certain assumptions, can give estimates of the mass fraction of the liquid component ( X l) in a cumulate rock and of some of the characteristics of that liquid, including trace-element concentrations and the mass fraction of the original liquid ( F) that remained in the magma chamber when some of it was trapped. Application of the model to Cr and Zr data for ten dredged gabbros from the Oceanographer Fracture Zone (OFZ) in the North Atlantic yields results in the range X l=0.014 0.17 and F=0.04 0.22. A more complex model extends the equations developed by Greenland (1970) and combines them with constraints from 1-atm experiments on ocean-floor basalts to effectively map phase-saturation boundaries onto trace-element variation diagrams. On a Zr-Sr plot, the model is capable of mimicking mixing chords and differences in liquid lines of descent (or parental compositions) inferred from major-element chemistry for several OFZ basalts. Qualitatively, the associated gabbros can also be rationalized as cumulate/melt mixtures on this diagram, although the allowable range of liquid compositions is large. In addition, there is some suggestion that the Zr-Sr liquid line of descent fitted to the OFZ basalts may have more general relevance to other ocean-floor rocks (e.g., Galapagos and FAMOUS glasses).

  5. The first description and confirmation of the Vista Alegre impact structure in the Paraná flood basalts of southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crósta, Alvaro P.; Koeberl, Christian; Furuie, Rafael A.; Kazzuo-Vieira, Cesar

    2010-02-01

    The Vista Alegre structure, centered at 25°57'S and 52°41'W, has been recently proposed as a meteorite impact structure. The 9.5km-diameter structure is located in the Paraná state of southern Brazil, within the Paraná Basin, which contains one of the largest and most extensive flood basalt provinces on Earth. The Paraná flood basalts belong to the Serra Geral Formation and are temporally related to the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean, having been dated at about 133-132Ma. Tholeiitic basalts dominate the western portion of Paraná state, with some minor rhyodacites. Morphologically, Vista Alegre has a prominent circular outline, in the form of an incomplete ring of escarpments, and an inner depression. The presence of a central uplift is not obvious, but it is inferred by the occurrence of deformed sandstone blocks near the center of the structure. These sandstones are possibly related to the Triassic Pirambóia Formation and/or to the Cretaceous Botucatu Formation. These units are normally at stratigraphic depths of about 700-800m below the present surface in this portion of the Paraná Basin. The structure appears to be in an advanced erosion stage and its interior is occupied by a soil cover several meters thick, extensively used for agriculture. As a result there are limited outcrops in the interior of the structure, all of polymict breccias, some of them melt-bearing. We report the extensive occurrence of shatter cones, in the form of fine-grained rock clasts within the polymict breccias. The shatter cone-bearing breccias occur at different locations within the structure, separated by several kilometers. The nested shatter cones range in size from about 0.5 to 20cm for individual cones, and up to half a meter for complete assemblages. The shatter cones formed in fine-grained Parana flood basalt and might be the first examples of shatter cones in such a rock type. In addition, planar deformation features (PDFs) were found in quartz grains within

  6. Elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic geochemistry of Permian Emeishan flood basalts in Zhaotong, Yunnan Province, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Juan; Zhong, Hong; Zhu, Wei-Guang; Bai, Zhong-Jie; Hu, Wen-Jun

    2016-05-01

    This study presents new whole-rock elemental and isotopic data for the basalts from the Zhaotong area, located in the intermediate zone of the ~260 Ma Emeishan large igneous province (ELIP). The Zhaotong basalts belong to high-Ti series with TiO2 from 2.93 to 5.26 % and Ti/Y from 519 to 974. The parental magma was subjected to minor crustal contamination as indicated by slight Nb-Ta depletion (Nb/La: 0.72-1.10). Meanwhile, the relatively invariable Sr-Nd isotopes (ɛNd(t): -0.74 to +2.86, mostly +1.10 to +2.86; (87Sr/86Sr)i: 0.7050-0.7072) and the light rare earth elements (LREE) enrichment (La/Yb: 10.3-19.1) of the basalts prefer a mantle plume origin. A garnet-dominated peridotite mantle source was further suggested on the basis of the REE distribution patterns and high Sm/Yb and high La/Yb ratios. This study further confirms the geochemical zoning of the high-Ti basalts in the ELIP, which is in accordance with both the spatial distribution and the thickness of the basalts. The high-Ti basalts in the intermediate and outer zones of ELIP (e.g., Zhaotong and Guizhou) share similar Sr-Nd isotopic and elemental compositions, suggesting that they originated directly from the Emeishan mantle plume. By contrast, the high-Ti basalts in the inner zone (e.g., Longzhoushan and Binchuan) have variable compositions, indicating a rather heterogeneous mantle source possibly involved with subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) components.

  7. Chemical weathering rate, denudation rate, and atmospheric and soil CO2 consumption of Paraná flood basalts in São Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição, Fabiano Tomazini; dos Santos, Carolina Mathias; de Souza Sardinha, Diego; Navarro, Guillermo Rafael Beltran; Godoy, Letícia Hirata

    2015-03-01

    The chemical weathering rate and atmospheric/soil CO2 consumption of Paraná flood basalts in the Preto Stream basin, São Paulo State, Brazil, were evaluated using major elements as natural tracers. Surface and rain water samples were collected in 2006, and analyses were performed to assess pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS), including SO42-, NO3-, PO43 -, HCO3-, Cl-, SiO2, Ca2 +, Mg2 +, Na+ and K+. Fresh rocks and C horizon samples were also collected, taking into account their geological context, abundance and spatial distribution, to analyze major elements and mineralogy. The Preto Stream, downstream from the city of Ribeirão Preto, receives several elements/compounds as a result of anthropogenic activities, with only sulfate yielding negative flux values. The negative flux of SO42 - can be attributed to atmospheric loading that is mainly related to anthropogenic inputs. After corrections were made for atmospheric inputs, the riverine transport of dissolved material was found to be 30 t km- 2 y- 1, with the majority of the dissolved material transported during the summer (wet) months. The chemical weathering rate and atmospheric/soil CO2 consumption were 6 m/Ma and 0.4 · 106 mol km- 2 y- 1, respectively. The chemical weathering rate falls within the lower range of Paraná flood basalt denudation rates between 135 and 35 Ma previously inferred from chronological studies. This comparison suggests that rates of basalt weathering in Brazil's present-day tropical climate differ by at most one order of magnitude from those prevalent at the time of hothouse Earth. The main weathering process is the monosiallitization of anorthoclase, augite, anorthite and microcline. Magnetite is not weathered and thus remains in the soil profile.

  8. A conceptual model of geological risk in the Ischia Island (Italy): highlights on volcanic history, seismicity and flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlino, Stefano; Cubellis, Elena; Iannuzzi, Raffaello; Luongo, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    During the last eight centuries the island of Ischia was hit by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and floods producing heavy damages and numerous fatalities. Since the last twenty century the Ischia population is grown very fast, nowadays more than 56.000 people live in the island and 4 million of people visit it during the year, thus this area is characterised as an high geological risk territory. The island is here presented as an interesting "laboratory" for volcanic, seismic and hydrogeological risks assessment, from which to draw lessons for planning in risk areas. Ischia is a volcanic field, formed by the succession of effusive and explosive eruptions which formed lavas, welded and loose pyroclastic rocks. The succession of rock layers, with different permeability, promotes, during heavy rainfall, the formation of flows with high kinetic energy, which can produce devastating landslides. In this context, the remarkable development of settlements in the island, occurred in recent times, and the lack of planning that bring attention to the vulnerability of the area, have produced an exponential risk increase. Eruptions, earthquakes, flooding occurred in the island of Ischia in the past, have produced a wealth literature about catastrophic natural events. In general, the accounts of the events were recorded by various means, such as: newspaper, property disputes, historical and sociological analysis, poetic or artistic works, scientific analysis. As regard volcanism, earthquakes, tsunamis, there are myths, legends, historical documents, archaeological findings and results of recent surveys. Documented descriptions of historical eruptive events are only available for the last eruption of 1301-1302, while there are records for eruptive events in the early centuries of the Christian Age. More comprehensive accounts are available about historical seismicity. Information and documentations are available since the 1228 earthquake. However, more detailed and useful

  9. Petrogenesis of basaltic volcanic rocks from the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, by melting of metasomatically enriched depleted lithosphere, crystallization differentiation, and magma mixing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chang, J.M.; Feeley, T.C.; Deraps, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    The Pribilof Islands, Alaska, are located in the Bering Sea in a continental intraplate setting. In this study we examine the petrology and geochemistry of volcanic rocks from St. Paul (0??54-0??003 Ma) and St. George (2??8-1??4 Ma) Islands, the two largest Pribilof Islands. Rocks from St. George can be divided into three groups: group 1 is a high-MgO, low-SiO. 2 suite composed primarily of basanites; group 2 is a high-MgO, high-SiO 2 suite consisting predominantly of alkali basalts; group 3 is an intermediate- to low-MgO suite that includes plagioclase-phyric subalkali basalts and hawaiites. Major and trace element geochemistry suggests that groups 1 and 2 formed by small-degree partial melting of amphibole-bearing to amphibole-free garnet peridotite. Group 1 rocks were the earliest melts produced from the most hydrous parts of the mantle, as they show the strongest geochemical signature of amphibole in their source. The suite of rocks from St. Paul ranges from 14??4 to 4??2 wt % MgO at relatively constant SiO 2 contents (43??1-47??3 wt %). The most primitive St. Paul rocks are modeled as mixtures between magmas with compositions similar to groups 1 and 2 from St. George Island, which subsequently fractionated olivine, clinopyroxene, and spinel to form more evolved rocks. Plagioclase-phyric group 3 rocks from St. George are modeled as mixtures between an evolved melt similar to the evolved magmas on St. Paul and a fractionated group 2 end-member from St. George. Mantle potential temperatures estimated for primitive basanites and alkali basalts are ???1400??C and are similar to those of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). Similarly, 87Sr/. 86Sr and 143Nd/. 144Nd values for all rocks are MORB-like, in the range of 0??702704-0??703035 and 0??513026-0??513109, respectively. 208Pb/. 204Pb vs 206Pb/. 204Pb values lie near the MORB end-member but show a linear trend towards HIMU (high time-integrated 238U/. 204Pb). Despite isotopic similarities to MORB, many of the major and

  10. Sub-Ice Processes at Hlodufell Basaltic Tuya, Iceland: Geomorphic Clues for the Recognition of Sub-Ice Volcanism on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skilling, I. P.

    2002-12-01

    Hlodufell is a 1186m high, 12km2, basaltic tuya volcano, located about 9km south of the Langkjokull ice-cap in south-west Iceland, that preserves a 650m-thick sub-ice to emergent succession. The basal exposures of the main edifice and peripheral areas provide important evidence for sub-ice processes at basaltic tuya volcanoes. This includes at least seven, overlapping, fissure-fed pillow mounds, which are <100m to 1km across and 40-300m high. They are steep-sided, slightly elongate and have convex upper surfaces with local crests of steep narrow ridges of pillow lava. Pillow lavas along the margins of the mounds commonly display ice-contact features, including steeply-oriented flat chill surfaces that are common to several pillow lobes, and distinctive open cavities to several metres across. Some of these cavities contain partial in-fills of in-situ and fluvially-redeposited hyaloclastite. The cavities are interpreted as due to melt-out of ice-blocks incorporated in the margins of pillow lobes during sub-ice construction of the mounds. The mounds are commonly draped by Surtseyan tephra, which was deposited by meltwater stream flows in (probable) sub-ice drainage channels. The ice-contact features and associated meltwater-deposited tephra indicate that sub-ice construction of the tuya involved a leaky water vault. Numerous dike, sill-like and irregular intrusive bodies, many of which display evidence of interaction with wet unconsolidated sediment at their margins, indicate that endogenous construction and modification of the edifice was important during subice growth. Recognition of elongate resistant mounds peripheral to larger edifices will aid recognition of putative tuyas and other areas of sub-ice volcanism on Mars. Recognition of cavities within these edifices and magma-sediment mixing textures associated with sub-ice construction will have to await higher-resolution imagery.

  11. Silicic Volcanism at the Northern and Western Extent of the Columbia River Basalt Rhyolite Flare-up: Rhyolites of Dooley Mountain and Buchanan, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Large, A.; Streck, M. J.; Jenkins, E. N.; Ferns, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Mid-Miocene (16.5-15 Ma) rhyolite volcanism associated with the eruption of lavas of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) stretches from NE Nevada to SW Idaho to NE Oregon over an area with about a 400 km diameter. Dooley Mountain and Buchanan rhyolite complexes are located along the northern termination near Baker City and along the western periphery near Burns of this rhyolite flare-up, respectively. Despite their importance for understanding co-genetic rhyolite volcanism to CRBG magmatism prior data on both complexes are sparse. Limited geochemical data exist only for Dooley Mountain and there is only one age date for either complex. Our ongoing study of both complexes is targeted to establish eruptive units and stratigraphy, to determine activity span, and to detail the petrology of rhyolite units by mapping or remapping key areas building on prior work (e.g., Evans, J. G., 1992, U.S.G.S. Map GQ-1694), by petrographic analysis and whole rock geochemistry, and by Ar-Ar geochronology. Both complexes are multi-phase, apparently long-lived centers that erupted mostly rhyolite lava flows and domes but locally derived pyroclastic units occur as well but are subordinate in volume. Rhyolite activity is currently pinned at 15.5-14.7 Ma at Dooley Mountain and at 16.1 Ma at Buchanan but is expected to be extending with more dating. Rhyolites range from aphyric to containing ~ 15% phenocrysts dominated by feldspar or quartz. Rhyolites range from low- to high-silica varieties and indicate variable degrees of differentiation as established by the following ranges for Ba, Sr, and Eu/Eu*, respectively: 1500-500, 200-75, 0.6-0.15 for Dooley Mountain and 1700-100, 250-8, 0.88-0.19 for Buchanan. In addition, preliminary data indicate rhyolites range in their affinity from calc-alkaline to more A-type rhyolites. We speculate that A-type varieties coincide in these peripheral rhyolite complexes with the peak of Grande Ronde Basalt activity that impacted the greater area.

  12. The Relative Rates of Secondary Hydration in Basalt and Rhyolite, and the use of δD as a Paleoclimate Indicator: Implications for Paleoenvironmental and Volcanic Degassing Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seligman, A. N.; Bindeman, I. N.

    2014-12-01

    The δD-H2O correlation is important for volcanic degassing and secondary hydration trends. We utilize the caibration of the TC/EA - MAT 253 continuous flow system, which permits us to analyze wt.% H2O and its δD extracted from 1-8 mg of glass with as little as 0.1 wt% H2O. Tephra that has been secondarily hydrated with meteoric water is widely used as a paleoenvironmental tool, but the rate of secondary hydration, the relative amounts of primary magmatic (degassed) and secondary meteoric water, and the retention of primary and secondary δD values are not well understood. To quantify these processes, we use a natural experiment involving dated Holocene tepha in Kamchatka and Oregon. Our research illustrates the drastic difference in hydration rates between silicic (hydrated after ~1.5 ka) and mafic tephra, which is not hydrated in the Holocene (similar to results for submarine volcanic glasses), and andesitic tephra with intermediate degrees of hydration. The 0.05-7.3 ka basaltic scoria from Klyuchevskoy volcano retains ≤0.45 wt.% primary magmatic H2O, with δD values from -99 to -121 ‰. Four other 0.05-7.6 ka basaltic tephra units from Kamchatka with <57 wt.% SiO2 all have wt.% H2O 0.21-0.84 and δD values ranging from -90 - -145 ‰. The 1.0-7.6 ka andesitic tephra have slightly higher water contents (0.9-3.0 %) and slightly lower δD values (-113 - -146 ‰). Seven 0.3-7.9 ka silicic samples with SiO2 >65 wt.% have higher (1.5 -3.4) wt.% H2O and δD values between -115 - -160 ‰. We interpret the lower δD values and higher water contents (opposite of the magmatic degassing trend) to be a characteristic of secondary hydration in regions of higher latitude such as Kamchatka and Oregon. We are also investigating 7.7 ka Mt. Mazama tephra in Oregon that are known to be fully hydrated and cover nearly 5000 km2 northeast of Crater Lake and range in elevation from ~1.3-1.9 km to understand the δD and δ18O details of the hydrated water's correspondence with

  13. On the potential for CO2 mineral storage in continental flood basalts - PHREEQC batch- and 1D diffusion-reaction simulations.

    PubMed

    Van Pham, Thi Hai; Aagaard, Per; Hellevang, Helge

    2012-06-14

    Continental flood basalts (CFB) are considered as potential CO2 storage sites because of their high reactivity and abundant divalent metal ions that can potentially trap carbon for geological timescales. Moreover, laterally extensive CFB are found in many place in the world within reasonable distances from major CO2 point emission sources.Based on the mineral and glass composition of the Columbia River Basalt (CRB) we estimated the potential of CFB to store CO2 in secondary carbonates. We simulated the system using kinetic dependent dissolution of primary basalt-minerals (pyroxene, feldspar and glass) and the local equilibrium assumption for secondary phases (weathering products). The simulations were divided into closed-system batch simulations at a constant CO2 pressure of 100 bar with sensitivity studies of temperature and reactive surface area, an evaluation of the reactivity of H2O in scCO2, and finally 1D reactive diffusion simulations giving reactivity at CO2 pressures varying from 0 to 100 bar.Although the uncertainty in reactive surface area and corresponding reaction rates are large, we have estimated the potential for CO2 mineral storage and identified factors that control the maximum extent of carbonation. The simulations showed that formation of carbonates from basalt at 40 C may be limited to the formation of siderite and possibly FeMg carbonates. Calcium was largely consumed by zeolite and oxide instead of forming carbonates. At higher temperatures (60 - 100 C), magnesite is suggested to form together with siderite and ankerite. The maximum potential of CO2 stored as solid carbonates, if CO2 is supplied to the reactions unlimited, is shown to depend on the availability of pore space as the hydration and carbonation reactions increase the solid volume and clog the pore space. For systems such as in the scCO2 phase with limited amount of water, the total carbonation potential is limited by the amount of water present for hydration of basalt.

  14. Chemostratigraphic evidence of Deccan volcanism from the marine osmium isotope record.

    PubMed

    Ravizza, G; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B

    2003-11-21

    Continental flood basalt (CFB) volcanism is hypothesized to have played a causative role in global climate change and mass extinctions. Uncertainties associated with radiometric dating preclude a clear chronological assessment of the environmental consequences of CFB volcanism. Our results document a 25% decline in the marine 187Os/188Os record that predates the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (KTB) and coincides with late Maastrichtian warming. We argue that this decline provides a chemostratigraphic marker of Deccan volcanism and thus constitutes compelling evidence that the main environmental consequence of Deccan volcanism was a transient global warming event of 3 degrees to 5 degrees C that is fully resolved from the KTB mass extinction.

  15. Emplacement history and inflation evidence of a long basaltic lava flow located in Southern Payenia Volcanic Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardi, Mauro I.; Bertotto, Gustavo W.; Jalowitzki, Tiago L. R.; Orihashi, Yuji; Ponce, Alexis D.

    2015-02-01

    The El Corcovo lava flow, from the Huanul shield volcano in the southern Mendoza province (central-western Argentina) traveled a distance of 70 km and covered a minimum area of ~ 415 km2. The flow emplacement was controlled both by extrinsic (e.g., topography) and intrinsic (e.g., lava supply rate, lava physicochemical characteristics) factors. The distal portion of the lava flow reached the Colorado River Valley, in La Pampa Province, where it spread and then was confined by earlier river channels. Cross-sections through the flow surveyed at several localities show two vesicular layers surrounding a dense central section, where vesicles are absent or clustered in sheet-shaped and cylindrical-shaped structures. Lavas of the El Corcovo flow are alkaline basalts with low values of viscosity. The morphological and structural characteristics of the flow and the presence of landforms associated with lava accumulation are the evidence of inflation. This process involved the formation of a tabular sheet flow up to 4 m of thick with a large areal extent in the proximal sectors, while at terminal sectors frontal lobes reached inflation values up to 10 m. The numerous swelling structures present at these portions of the flow suggest the movement of lava in lava tubes. We propose that this aspect and the low viscosity of the lava allowed the flow travel to a great distance on a gentle slope relief.

  16. Using AVIRIS Data to Map and Characterize Subaerially and Subaqueously Erupted BasalticVolcanic Tephras: The Challenge of Mapping Low-Albedo Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrand, William H.

    2004-01-01

    Increases in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in AVIRIS has enabled the mapping and characterization of low albedo materials. Low albedo materials of interest include certain soils, man-made materials (asphalt, certain building materials, tires, etc.), and basaltic lava flows and ashes. Early in its history, the response of the AVIRIS sensor was not sensitive enough so that these low albedo materials could be reliably mapped. However, as indicated by Green and Pavri (2002) the noise equivalent delta radiance (NEdL) of AVIRIS in the 2001 flight season was below 0.010 in all but the shortest wavelength channels. This is approximately a ten-fold improvement from the 1989 flight season when NEdL was closer to 0.1 (Green et al., 1990). In the current investigation, AVIRIS data from the 2002 flight season collected over the Pavant Butte tuff cone, Tabernacle Hill tuff ring, and an associated lava flow in the Black Rock Desert of west central Utah were examined to determine how well these generally low albedo volcanic lavas and tephras could be discriminated from background materials. The Pavant Butte tuff cone was examined by the author in an earlier study with a 1989 AVIRIS dataset (Farrand and Singer,

  17. Longevity of Yellowstone hotspot volcanism: Isotopic evidence linking the Siletzia LIP (56 Ma) and early Columbia River Basalt Group (17 Ma) mantle sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, D. G.; Duncan, R. A.; Wells, R. E.; Graham, D. W.; Hanan, B. B.; Harrison, B. K.; Haileab, B.

    2015-12-01

    Siletzia is a Paleocene-Eocene accreted terrane of submarine and subaerially erupted mafic lavas exposed in the Cascadia forearc. This large igneous province [LIP] is exposed in multiple volcanic sections from Vancouver Island, B.C., to southern Oregon [~700 km]. We estimate Siletzia magmatism at ~2.3 x 106 km3 west of the Cascades and may reach 4.6 x 106 km3 if correlative with Alaskan Yakutat terrane and significant portions of the LIP filled the Oregon Embayment. 40Ar-39Ar ages show the bulk of Siletzia erupted over a 6-7 Myr interval beginning at 56 Ma, implying eruption rates of 0.3-0.7 km3/yr. In Oregon, Siletz River volcanism began in the south [56-53 Ma] and migrated northward [54-50 Ma]. Concurrent eruptions of Metchosin and Crescent basalts do not show a southerly age progression. Therefore, Siletzia likely erupted south of the Kula-Farallon spreading center with ridge collision at or north of the Metchosin igneous complex. Isotopic data for 29 Siletzia lavas have initial 7/6Sr 0.7030-0.7037, ΕNd +4.9 - +7.7, 6/4Pb 18.70-19.94, 7/4Pb 15.49-15.63 and 8/4Pb 38.27-39.53. Olivine yield 3He/4He from 9.4 to 13.7 (R/Ra) and high MgO lavas display a narrow 187Os/188Os range (0.131-0.134) when age corrected. Both He and Os tracers are elevated above typical depleted MORB mantle and indicate plume involvement. Pb-Pb and Pb-Nd arrays suggest 3 mantle components for Siletzia volcanism: a depleted source with isotopic and trace element characteristics expected for spreading center lavas (i.e., Ku-Fa) influenced by a plume, a HIMU contaminant (i.e., high 6/4Pb; low 7/6Sr) confined to southern Siletzia, and a plume source (6/4Pb 19.00; 7/4Pb 15.55; 8/4Pb 38.60; 7/6Sr; 0.7033; ΕNd +6.4; γOs +5.0). Siletzia plume mantle is a close match to recent Yellowstone plume estimates based on early CRBG lavas. Mounting geophysical and geochemical evidence supports the contention that Siletzia is an early product of the Yellowstone hot spot in a sub-oceanic setting.

  18. InSAR observations of aseismic slip associated with an earthquake swarm in the Columbia River flood basalts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wicks, C.; Thelen, W.; Weaver, C.; Gomberg, J.; Rohay, A.; Bodin, P.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 a swarm of small shallow earthquakes occurred within the basalt flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). The swarm occurred within a dense seismic network in the U.S. Department of Energys Hanford Site. Data from the seismic network along with interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data from the European Space Agencys (ESA) ENVISAT satellite provide insight into the nature of the swarm. By modeling the InSAR deformation data we constructed a model that consists of a shallow thrust fault and a near horizontal fault. We suggest that the near horizontal lying fault is a bedding-plane fault located between basalt flows. The geodetic moment of the modeled fault system is about eight times the cumulative seismic moment of the swarm. Precise location estimates of the swarm earthquakes indicate that the area of highest slip on the thrust fault, ???70mm of slip less than ???0.5km depth, was not located within the swarm cluster. Most of the slip on the faults appears to have progressed aseismically and we suggest that interbed sediments play a central role in the slip process. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. InSAR observations of aseismic slip associated with an earthquake swarm in the Columbia River flood basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicks, Charles; Thelen, Weston; Weaver, Craig; Gomberg, Joan; Rohay, Alan; Bodin, Paul

    2011-12-01

    In 2009 a swarm of small shallow earthquakes occurred within the basalt flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). The swarm occurred within a dense seismic network in the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Data from the seismic network along with interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data from the European Space Agency's (ESA) ENVISAT satellite provide insight into the nature of the swarm. By modeling the InSAR deformation data we constructed a model that consists of a shallow thrust fault and a near horizontal fault. We suggest that the near horizontal lying fault is a bedding-plane fault located between basalt flows. The geodetic moment of the modeled fault system is about eight times the cumulative seismic moment of the swarm. Precise location estimates of the swarm earthquakes indicate that the area of highest slip on the thrust fault, ˜70 mm of slip less than ˜0.5 km depth, was not located within the swarm cluster. Most of the slip on the faults appears to have progressed aseismically and we suggest that interbed sediments play a central role in the slip process.

  20. Geochronology and geochemistry of late Cenozoic basalts from the Leiqiong area, southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Kung-suan; Chen, Ju-chin; Juang, Wen-shing

    2000-06-01

    The Leiqiong area, which includes the Leizhou Peninsula and the northern part of the Hainan Island, is the largest province of exposed basalts in southern China. Ar-Ar and K-Ar dating indicates that incipient volcanism in the Leiqiong area may have taken place in late Oligocene time and gradually increased in tempo toward the Miocene and Pliocene Epoch. Volcanic activities were most extensive during Pleistocene, and declined and ended in Holocene. Based on radiometric age dating and geographic distribution, Pliocene and Quaternary volcanism in Hainan Island can be grouped into two stages and six eruptive regions. The early volcanism is dominated by flood type fissure eruption of quartz tholeiites and olivine tholeiites whereas the later phase is dominated by central type eruption of alkali olivine basalts and olivine tholeiites. The systematic decrease of MgO, ΣFeO and TiO 2 with increasing SiO 2 content for basalts from Hainan Island indicates that fractional crystallization of olivine, clinopyroxene and Ti-bearing opaques may have occurred during magmatic evolution. From coexisting Fe-Ti oxide minerals, it is estimated that the equilibrium temperatures range from 895-986°C and oxygen fugacities range from 10 -13.4 to 10 -10.7 atmospheres in the basaltic magmas. The incompatible element ratios and the chondrite-normalized REE patterns of basalts from the Leiqiong area are generally similar to OIB. The Nb/U ratios (less than 37) in most of the tholeiitic rocks and the negative Nb anomaly observed in the spidergram of some basalts indicated that the influence of a paleo-subduction zone derived component can not be excluded in considering the genesis of the basalts from the Leiqiong area. The tholeiites in the Leiqiong area may have mixed with a more enriched lithospheric mantle component as well as undergone relatively larger percentages of partial melting than the alkali basalts.

  1. Floods

    MedlinePlus

    Floods are common in the United States. Weather such as heavy rain, thunderstorms, hurricanes, or tsunamis can ... is breached, or when a dam breaks. Flash floods, which can develop quickly, often have a dangerous ...

  2. Pre-eruptive volatile and erupted gas phase characterization of the 2014 basalt of Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddadi, Baptiste; Moune, Séverine; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Gauthier, Pierre-Jean; Gouhier, Mathieu

    2015-04-01

    The 2014 Holuhraun eruption on the Bárðarbunga Volcanic System is the largest fissure eruption in Iceland since the 1783 Laki eruption. The eruption started end of August 2014 and has been characterized by large emission of SO2 into the atmosphere. It provides a rare opportunity to study in details magmatic and degassing processes during a large-volume fissure eruption. In order to characterize the pre-eruptive magmatic composition and to assess the plume chemistry at the eruption site, lava and tephra were sampled together with the eruption plume. The basalt composition is olivine tholeiite with MgO close to 7 wt%. It is phenocryst-poor with plagioclase as the dominant mineral phase but olivine and clinopyroxene are also present together with sulphide globules composed principally of pyrite and chalcopyrite. The volatile (S, Cl and F) and major element concentrations were measured by the electron microprobe in melt inclusions (MIs) trapped in plagioclase and clinopyroxene and groundmass glass. The MIs composition ranges from fairly primitive basaltic compositions (MgO: 9.03 wt%) down to evolved qz-tholeiites (MgO: 5.57 wt%), with estimated pre-eruptive S concentrations of 1500 ppm. Tephra groundmass glass contains 400 ppm S, whereas Cl and F concentrations are respectively slightly lower and indistinguishable from those in the MIs. This implies limited exsolution of halogens but 75% of the initial sulphur content. Relatively to their total iron content, MIs are sulphur saturated, and their oxygen fugacity close to the FMQ buffer. The difference between the estimated initial volatile concentrations measured in the MIs and in the tephra groundmass (i.e. the so-called petrological method) yields 7.2 Mt SO2, limited HCl and no HF atmospheric mass loading from the Holuhraun 2014 eruption. The SO2/HCl molar ratio of the gas phase, calculated from the MIs, is 13 and 14, respectively, using average and estimated pre-eruptive S and Cl concentrations in the MIs. Filter

  3. Gas slug rise in open versus plugged basaltic conduits: the transition from Strombolian to sustained volcanic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llewellin, Ed; Mathias, Simon; Del Bello, Elisabetta; Lane, Steve; Taddeucci, Jacopo

    2010-05-01

    Strombolian eruptions are characterized by low-energy explosive activity, which may repeat, at fairly regular intervals, for long periods of time. Explosions at the vent are thought to result from the arrival of discrete slugs of magmatic gas that have risen through the magmatic plumbing system. We develop a one dimensional, analytical model of gas slug rise in a volcanic conduit which we use to investigate the controls on the dynamics of Strombolian eruptions. We consider a partially-filled, cylindrical conduit containing degassed magma, that is initially in magma-static equilibrium with a constant pressure magma reservoir at depth. We introduce a slug of gas at the base of the conduit and consider the temporal evolution of the pressure distribution in the conduit, and the motion of the magma above and below the slug, as the slug rises, decompresses, and expands isothermally. We validate our model against published data for gas slugs rising and decompressing in a vertical pipe [James et al., 2008, Geological Society of London, Special Publications 307, 147-167] by imposing the condition of zero magma-flux at the base of the conduit, and constant pressure at the top; we find excellent agreement. If we impose the more geologically-sound condition of constant pressure at the base of the conduit, we can consider two scenarios of volcanological relevance: 1) Vent plugged with cooler, more-viscous magma. In this case, as the slug rises and expands beneath the plug, it pushes the degassed magma below it down the conduit, consequently, magma re-enters the chamber from the base of the conduit. The slug reaches the viscous plug at the top of the conduit with a significant over-pressure; this may be sufficient to disrupt the plug, causing a Strombolian explosion, or the gas may percolate away. Fresh magma then moves up from the chamber, into the conduit to restore magma-static equilibrium. 2) Open vent. As the slug rises and expands, the volume of magma held in the falling

  4. Hydrous basalt-limestone interaction at crustal conditions: Implications for generation of ultracalcic melts and outflux of CO2 at volcanic arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Laura B.; Dasgupta, Rajdeep

    2015-10-01

    High degassing rates for some volcanoes, typically in continental arcs, (e.g., Colli Albani Volcanic District, Etna, Vesuvius, Italy; Merapi, Indonesia; Popocatepetl, Mexico) are thought to be influenced by magma-carbonate interaction in the crust. In order to constrain the nature of reaction and extent of carbonate breakdown, we simulated basalt-limestone wall-rock interactions at 0.5-1.0 GPa, 1100-1200 °C using a piston cylinder and equal mass fractions of calcite (CaCO3) and a hydrous (∼4 wt.% H2O) basalt in a layered geometry contained in AuPd capsules. All experiments produce melt + fluid + calcite ± clinopyroxene ± plagioclase ± calcic-scapolite ± spinel. With increasing T, plagioclase is progressively replaced by scapolite, clinopyroxene becomes CaTs-rich, and fluid proportion, as inferred from vesicle population, increases. At 1.0 GPa, 1200 °C our hydrous basalt is superliquidus, whereas in the presence of calcite, the experiment produces calcite + clinopyroxene + scapolite + melt. With the consumption of calcite with increasing T and decreasing P, melt, on a volatile-free basis, becomes silica-poor (58.1 wt.% at 1.0 GPa, 1100 °C to 34.9 wt.% at 0.5 GPa, 1200 °C) and CaO-rich (6.7 wt.% at 1.0 GPa, 1100 °C to 43.7 wt.% at 0.5 GPa, 1200 °C), whereas Al2O3 drops (e.g., 19.7 at 1100 °C to 12.8 wt.% at 1200 °C at 1.0 GPa) as clinopyroxene becomes more CaTs-rich. High T or low P melt compositions are 'ultracalcic,' potentially presenting a new hypothesis for the origin of ultracalcic melt inclusions in arc lava olivines. Wall-rock calcite consumption is observed to increase with increasing T and decreasing P. At 0.5 GPa, our experiments yield carbonate assimilation from 21.6 to 47.6% between 1100 and 1200 °C. Using measured CO2 outflux rates for Mts. Vesuvius, Merapi, Etna and Popocatepetl over a T variation of 1100 to 1200 °C at 0.5 GPa, we calculate 6-92% of magmatic input estimates undergo this extent of assimilation, suggesting that up to ∼3

  5. Characterization of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle beneath the Cameroon volcanic line inferred from alkaline basalt hosted peridotite xenoliths from Barombi Mbo and Nyos Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintér, Zsanett; Patkó, Levente; Tene Djoukam, Joëlle Flore; Kovács, István; Tchouankoue, Jean Pierre; Falus, György; Konc, Zoltán; Tommasi, Andréa; Barou, Fabrice; Mihály, Judith; Németh, Csaba; Jeffries, Teresa

    2015-11-01

    We carried out detailed petrographic, major and trace element geochemical, microstructural and FTIR analyses on eight characteristic ultramafic xenoliths from Nyos and Barombi Mbo Lakes in the continental sector of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL). The studied xenoliths are spinel lherzolites showing lithologies similar to the other xenoliths reported previously along the CVL. They have protogranular and porphyroclastic textures. One of the Barombi xenolith contains amphibole, which had not been previously reported in this locality. Amphibole is common in the Nyos xenoliths suite. Peridotite xenoliths from both localities show some chemical heterogeneity, but Barombi xenoliths generally are less depleted in basaltic elements with respect to Nyos xenoliths. Trace element compositions of Nyos spinel lherzolites show a moderately depleted initial (premetasomatic) composition and variable enrichment in REE. Evidence for both modal and cryptic metasomatism is present in Nyos xenoliths. Rare earth element patterns of clinopyroxene suggest that interaction between mafic melts and the upper mantle occurred beneath the Nyos locality. Barombi Mbo xenoliths, on the other hand, record a small degree of partial melting. The Barombi Mbo xenoliths have weak, dominantly orthorhombic olivine crystal preferred orientations, whereas Nyos ones have strong axial-[010] patterns, which may have formed in response to transpression. Nominally anhydrous mantle minerals (NAMs) of the Barombi Mbo xenoliths show generally higher bulk concentrations of 'water' (70-127 ppm) than Nyos xenoliths (32-81 ppm). The Barombi Mbo xenoliths could originate from a juvenile segment of the lithospheric mantle, which had been originally part of the asthenosphere. It became a part of the lithosphere in response to thermal relaxation following the extension, forming a weakly deformed lower lithospheric mantle region along the CVL. The Nyos xenoliths, however, represent a shallow lithospheric mantle bearing

  6. Paleomagnetism and multi-model stereo photogrammetry of the West Greenland flood volcanic province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riisager, J.; Riisager, P.; Pedersen, A. K.

    2002-12-01

    We present new paleomagnetic and multi-model photogrammetry data from the West Greenland part of the North Atlantic igneous province (NAIP). During fieldwork the paleomagnetic sampling sites were photographed from helicopter with stereoscopic overlap and in colour. The photographs have been set up for multi-model photogrammetry allowing three-dimensional lithological mapping, giving us important information for interpreting the paleomagnetic data in their stratigraphic context. Another advantage of the multi-model photogrammetry coverage is that individual lavas can be traced in three-dimensional space allowing very precise measurements of the attitude of strata (+/-0.5°) to be made for tectonic correction of the paleomagnetic data. The paleomagnetic study is based on a large collection of 586 oriented paleomagnetic drill cores collected from 81 lava flows. All sampled flows carry stable thermoremanent magnetization of reversed polarity. The earliest part of the volcanic sequence (i.e. Vaigat Fm.) is characterized by several consecutive flows recording statistically indistinguishable paleomagnetic field directions. The thickest Vaigat Fm. directional group consists of 37 lava flows (combined thickness 104 meter), which based on photogrammetry and XRF observations we interpret to represent a single flow field (i.e. one eruption consisting of several lavas erupted in a short period of time). If Paleocene paleosecular variation was similar to Holocene variations, the thick directional groups would form within 100 years implying an extreme volcanic activity at the onset of NAIP volcanism on West Greenland. Based on directional groups we obtain a new well-defined paleomagnetic pole for Greenland, which is statistically similar to a recently published NAIP pole from Faroe Islands (Riisager et al., 2002) rotated to Greenland. The corresponding paleolatitude of the central NAIP in Paleocene is ~20° south of the present latitude of the Iceland hotspot, indicating that the

  7. Volcanism, impact and mass extinctions: incredible or credible coincidences?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Rosalind V.; Saunders, Andrew D.

    2005-02-01

    Massive continental volcanism and/or bolide impacts are considered by many authors to have caused three major mass extinction events during the last 300 million years: the end-Permian, end-Cretaceous and end-Triassic extinctions. However, re-evaluation of the frequency of bolide impacts and plume-related flood basalt provinces indicates that both types of event occur much more frequently than mass extinctions, and so, in isolation, may not be responsible for the largest extinctions. Furthermore, the kill mechanisms associated with either flood basalts or impacts do not appear to be sufficiently powerful to cause worldwide collapse of ecosystems leading to the largest mass extinctions. Contemporaneous flood basalts and bolide impact may be prerequisites for the largest mass extinctions. We present a statistical analysis of the probability of coincidence between volcanism and impact, and show that three random coincidences of these events in the last 300 m.y. are likely. No causal relationship between impact and volcanism is necessary. The lesser mass extinctions, on the other hand, may not require juxtaposition of two such catastrophic events; such coincidences occurring on more than three occasions during the last 300 m.y. become increasingly unlikely.

  8. Basaltic Ring Structures as an Analog for Ring Features in Athabasca Valles, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaeger, W. L.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Burr, D. M.; Emery, J. P.; Baker, V. R.; McEwen, A. S.; Miyamoto, H.

    2005-01-01

    Basaltic ring structures (BRSs) are enigmatic, quasi-circular landforms in eastern Washington State that were first recognized in 1965. They remained a subject of geologic scrutiny through the 1970 s and subsequently faded from the spotlight, but recent Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images showing morphologically similar structures in Athabasca Valles, Mars, have sparked renewed interest in BRSs. The only known BRSs occur in the Channeled Scabland, a region where catastrophic Pleistocene floods from glacial Lake Missoula eroded into the Miocene flood basalts of the Columbia Plateau. The geologic setting of the martian ring structures (MRSs) is similar; Athabasca Valles is a young channel system that formed when catastrophic aqueous floods carved into a volcanic substrate. This study investigates the formation of terrestrial BRSs and examines the extent to which they are appropriate analogs for the MRSs in Athabasca Valles.

  9. Rapid eruption of Siberian flood-volcanic rocks and evidence for coincidence with the Permian-Triassic boundary and mass extinction at 251 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamo, Sandra L.; Czamanske, Gerald K.; Amelin, Yuri; Fedorenko, Valeri A.; Davis, D. W.; Trofimov, V. R.

    2003-09-01

    The Siberian flood-volcanic event is the most voluminous and explosive, continental, volcanic event known in the Phanerozoic record. U-Pb perovskite and zircon ages were obtained for lavas of the lowermost unit (251.7±0.4 Ma) and near-uppermost unit (251.1±0.3 Ma), respectively, of the volcanic sequence in the Maymecha-Kotuy area, Russia. Along with stratigraphic correlations and paleomagnetic evidence, these ages suggest that rapid extrusion of the entire ˜6500 m thick composite sequence occurred in less than 1 million years. The time of extrusion coincides precisely with an age of 251.4±0.3 Ma previously obtained for the Permian-Triassic mass-extinction event, the most devastating biotic crisis known. Emplacement of the Noril'sk-Talnakh ore-bearing intrusions, notable for their prodigious Cu-Ni-PGE deposits, was synchronous with these two major geologic events at 251.2±0.3 Ma. The Guli volcanic-intrusive complex in the Maymecha-Kotuy area appears to represent the final mafic magmatism of the entire Siberian flood-volcanic event. Baddeleyite from a carbonatite that intrudes the complex gives an age of 250.2±0.3 Ma, and shows possible 231Pa excess. The Bolgokhtokh granodiorite stock has a zircon age of 229.0±0.4 Ma, and represents the youngest known magmatism in the region.

  10. Highly siderophile element behaviour during flood basalt genesis and evidence for melts from intrusive chromitite formation in the Mackenzie large igneous province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, James M. D.; Pearson, D. Graham; Hulbert, Larry J.

    2013-12-01

    The 1.27 Ga Coppermine continental flood basalt (CFB) province in northern Canada represents the extrusive manifestation of the 2.7 Mkm2 Mackenzie large igneous province (LIP) that includes the Mackenzie dyke swarm and the Muskox layered intrusion. New Re-Os isotope and highly siderophile element (HSE: Re, Pd, Pt, Ru, Ir, Os) abundance data are reported together with whole-rock major- and trace-element abundances and Nd isotopes to examine the behaviour of the HSE during magmatic differentiation and to place constraints on the extent of crustal interaction with mantle-derived melts. Mineral chemistry and petrography are also reported for an unusual andesite glass flow (CM19; 4.9 wt.% MgO) found in close proximity to newly recognised picrites (> 20 wt.% MgO) in the lowermost stratigraphy of the Coppermine CFB. Compositions of mineral phases in CM19 are similar to the same phases found in Muskox Intrusion chromitites and the melt composition is equivalent to inclusions trapped within Muskox chromites. The apparently conflicting elevated HSE contents (e.g., 3.8 ppb Os) and mantle-like initial 187Os/188Os (γOs = + 2.2), versus stable isotope (δ18O = + 12‰) and lithophile element evidence (εNdi = - 12.8) for extensive crustal contamination, implicate an origin for CM19 as a magma mingling product formed within the Muskox Intrusion during chromitite genesis. Combined with Nd isotope data that places the feeder for lower Coppermine CFB picrites and basalts within the Muskox Intrusion, this result provides compelling evidence for direct processing of some CFB within upper-crustal magma chambers. The Coppermine CFB defines a 187Re-187Os isochron with an age of 1263 + 16/- 20 Ma and initial γOs = + 2.2 ± 0.8. The initial Os isotope composition for the Coppermine CFB is slightly higher than the near-primitive-mantle initial 187Os/188Os for the Muskox Intrusion (γOs = + 1.2 ± 0.3). This result is interpreted to reflect greater crustal contamination in extrusive CFB

  11. Paleomagnetic Correlation of Late Miocene-Pliocene Basalt Flows in the Northwestern Basin and Range: Documenting Timing of Faulting, Volcanism and Vertical-axis Rotation in Surprise Valley, Northeastern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritzinger, B. T.; Glen, J. M. G.; Egger, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    Examining the temporal and spatial relationship between basaltic volcanism and extensional faulting can help delineate the influence of faulting on the location of source vents and distribution of subsequent lava flows. Young extensional environments offer a unique opportunity to resolve the interdependence of faulting and volcanism as faults have not yet been buried and precise ages can be acquired on volcanic rocks. The Larkspur Hills, located along the northwestern margin of the Basin and Range in northeastern California preserve flow-on-flow basalt sequences exposed in the footwalls of numerous normal faults. The eruption of these 3 to 8 Ma flows was coeval with the development and progression of extensional faulting, but the detailed relationship was not clear. Although several flows have previously been dated using 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, individual flows cannot easily be identified in outcrop or geochemically. Paleomagnetic analyses have allowed us to differentiate individual flows possessing unique remanence directions, and to correlate flow sequences. Nearly 1,300 paleomagnetic core samples from 167 flows were collected within the Larkspur Hills. Generalized magnetostratigraphy and detailed remanent magnetic directions were analyzed in conjunction with the existing geochronology to correlate flows and constrain the relative timing of faulting and volcanism. Results indicate that volcanic activity occurred during four distinct episodes between 3 to 8 Ma, and suggest that contemporaneous faulting likely influenced the distribution of subsequent flows by producing topographic barriers or pathways to the flows. In addition, when compared to the expected reference direction for stable North America, the paleomagnetic data indicate that the region has undergone 11.9 ± 4.5˚ of clockwise rotation. This result agrees favorably with studies that have inferred appreciable rotation of our study area associated with clockwise rotation of the Oregon coastal block.

  12. Planetary Volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonenko, I.; Head, J. W.; Pieters, C. W.

    1998-01-01

    The final report consists of 10 journal articles concerning Planetary Volcanism. The articles discuss the following topics: (1) lunar stratigraphy; (2) cryptomare thickness measurements; (3) spherical harmonic spectra; (4) late stage activity of volcanoes on Venus; (5) stresses and calderas on Mars; (6) magma reservoir failure; (7) lunar mare basalt volcanism; (8) impact and volcanic glasses in the 79001/2 Core; (9) geology of the lunar regional dark mantle deposits; and (10) factors controlling the depths and sizes of magma reservoirs in Martian volcanoes.

  13. Land use and Hydrological Characteristics of Volcanic Urban Soils for Flood Susceptibility Modeling, Ciudad de Colima (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez Gonzalez, M. L.; Capra, L.; Borselli, L.; Ortiz, A.

    2015-12-01

    The fast population rate growth and the unplanned urban development has created an increase of urban floods in the City of Colima. Land use change has transformed the hydrological behavior of the watersheds that participates on the runoff-infiltration processes that governs the pluvial concentrations. After the urban areas enlargement, 13% from 2010 to 2015, rainfall has caused significant damages to the downtown community. Therefore it is important to define the main hydraulic properties of the soils surrounding the city. The soil of the region is derived from the debris avalanche deposits of the Volcano of Colima. The volcanic soil cover is only 10 to 15 cm depth. To test the soils of the region, sampling locations were chosen after making a land use map from a Landsat image. The map was done by selecting and dividing similar surface images patterns into three main classifications: Natural (N1), Agricultural (N5) and Urban (N4) surfaces. Thirty-Three soil samples were collected and grouped in nine out of ten land use subdivisions. The 10thsubdivision, represents the completed urbanized area. The land use model is made using spot 4 1A images from the year 2010 up to year 2015. This land use evolutionary analysis will be a base to evaluate the change of the runoff-infiltration rate, direction, and concentration areas for the future flood susceptibility model. To get the parameters above, several soil analysis were performed. The results were that all the soil samples tested were classified as sandy soils. The water content values were from 7% (N4) to 45% (N1) while bulk density values for the same sample were form 0.65 (N1) to 1.50 (N4) g/cm3. The particle density and the porosity values were from 1.65 g/cm3 /5.5% (N4) - 2.65 g/cm3/ 75.40% (N1). The organic matter content was around 0.1% for urban soils and up to 6% on natural and agricultural soils. Some other test like electric conductivity and pH were performed. The obtained parameters were used to get other

  14. The quality of our Nation's waters: groundwater quality in the Columbia Plateau and Snake River Plain basin-fill and basaltic-rock aquifers and the Hawaiian volcanic-rock aquifers, Washington, Idaho, and Hawaii, 1993-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.; Hunt, Charles D.; Skinner, Kenneth D.; Frans, Lonna M.; Mahler, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    The Columbia Plateau, Snake River Plain, and Hawaii are large volcanic areas in the western United States and mid-Pacific ocean that contain extensive regional aquifers of a hard, gray, volcanic rock called basalt. Residents of the Columbia Plateau, the Snake River Plain, and the island of Oahu depend on groundwater as their primary source of drinking water. Although the depth to the water table can be several hundred feet, the groundwater is highly vulnerable to contamination because the permeable sediments and rocks allow contaminants to move readily down to the water table. Intense agricultural and urban activities occur above the drinking-water supply and are increasing in some areas. Contaminants, such as nitrate, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds, associated with agricultural and urban activities, have adversely affected groundwater quality.

  15. Peeking below Columbia River flood basalts with high-resolution aeromagnetic data: implications for central Washington earthquake hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakely, R. J.; Sherrod, B. L.; Wells, R. E.; Weaver, C. S.

    2012-12-01

    The largest crustal earthquake in Washington's recorded history (M 6.8) occurred in 1872 in the vicinity of Lake Chelan. Numerous smaller earthquakes (>1000 earthquakes since 1971 with 1.0 ≤ MW ≤ 4.3) continue to occur 20 km south of Lake Chelan near the town of Entiat, yet little is known about active structures responsible for this ongoing deformation. A 2011 aeromagnetic survey may provide insights. The survey was flown with a fixed-wing aircraft along flight lines spaced 400 m apart and at an altitude 250 m above terrain or as low as safely possible. The survey illuminates two distinct magnetic patterns. Northwest of Entiat, broad, subdued magnetic anomalies are caused by weakly magnetic, pre-Tertiary basement rocks striking generally NW. Magnetic lineaments are associated, for example, with the NW-striking Entiat fault, the structural margin of the Chiwaukum graben, which is well represented by gravity anomalies. Southeast of Entiat, high-amplitude, short-wavelength magnetic anomalies are caused by strongly magnetic rocks of the Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) exposed throughout this region. Northwest-striking basement anomalies, so clear NW of Entiat, are not obvious SE of Entiat, yet there is no reason to believe basement structures do not extend beneath CRBG. We used matched filtering methods to illuminate the crustal framework of the Entiat earthquakes beneath CRBG. We selected two sub regions, one over pre-Tertiary basement NW of Entiat (sub region 1), the other over CRBG SE of Entiat (sub region 2). We modeled each sub region by fitting layer parameters to power spectra determined from magnetic anomalies (Phillips, 2007). A strongly magnetic layer was determined 470 m below the aircraft in sub region 2, which we interpret as the average top of CRBG. This interpretation is supported by the absence of a similar magnetic layer in sub region 1, where CRBG is in fact absent. Using this determination, we designed a matched filter to subdue

  16. Volcanic Flooding Experiments in Impact Basins and Heavily Cratered Terrain Using LOLA Data: Patterns of Resurfacing and Crater Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, Jennifer L.; Head, James W.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial planetary bodies are characterized by extensive, largely volcanic deposits covering their surfaces. On Earth large igneous provinces (LIPs) abound, maria cover the nearside of the Moon, and volcanic plains cover large portions of Venus, Mars and Mercury.

  17. The architecture of tholeiitic lava flows in the Neogene flood basalt piles of eastern Iceland: constraints on the mode of emplacemement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskarsson, B. V.; Riishuus, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Tholeiites comprise 50-70% of the Neogene lava piles of eastern Iceland and have been described largely as flood basalts erupted from fissures (Walker, 1958). This study incorporates lava piles found in the Greater Reydarfjördur area and emprises the large-scale architecture of selected flows and flow groups, their internal structure and textures with the intention of assessing their mode of emplacement. A range of lava morphologies have been described and include: simple (tabular) flows with a'a and rubbly flow tops, simple flows with pahoehoe crust and compound pahoehoe flows, with simple flows being most common. Special attention is given here to the still poorly understood simple flows, which are characterized by extensive sheet lobes with individual sheet lengths frequently exceeding 2 km and reaching thicknesses of ~40 m (common aspect ratios <0.01). The sheets in individual flow fields are emplaced side by side with an overlapping contact and are free of tubes. Their internal structure generally constitutes an upper vesicular crust with no or minor occurrences of horizontal vesicle zones, a poorly vesicular core and a thin basal vesicular zone. The normalized core/crust thickness ratios resemble modern compound pahoehoe flows in many instances (0.4-0.7), but with the thicker flows reaching ratios of 0.9. Flow crusts are either pahoehoe, rubbly or scoriaceous with torn and partially welded scoria and clinker. Frequently, any given flow morphology is repeated in sequences of three to four flows with direct contacts. Preliminary assessments suggest that simple flows are the product of high and sustained effusion rates from seemingly short-lived fissures. Simple flows with a'a flow tops may comprise the annealed emplacement mode of sheet flows and channeled a'a, in which the flow propagated as a single unit, whereas the brecciated flow top formed by continuous tearing and brecciation as occurs in channeled lava flowing at high velocity. The absence of a

  18. Magma flow-direction indicators in the diabase feeder dike to the first flood basalt in the Mesozoic Hartford basin, Connecticut

    SciTech Connect

    Philpotts, A.R.; Asher, P.M. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-03-01

    Recent kinematic analysis has indicated that magma may have been emplaced horizontally rather than vertically in some large regional diabase dikes. Such analysis, however, has commonly relied on a single flow indicator, such as anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, which may reflect only late stage adjustments in a body of crystallizing magma. This study of kinematic indicators in a Mesozoic diabase dike in southern New England indicates that the direction of flow in large dikes may change during emplacement, and that a single flow indicator cannot give a complete picture of the flow history. The 250-km-long Higganum dike fed the first flood basalt in the Hartford basin of Connecticut. The margins of this dike contain 8 independent magma flow indicators, which involve the imbrication and deformation of phenocrysts, the shearing of felsic wisps, and the segregation of residual liquids. The felsic wisps, which were derived by partial melting of the wallrock, preserve the most complete record of flow in the dike. Early felsic liquids exchanged alkalis with the still largely molten diabase magma and consequently are K-poor; ones that entered after the diabase was largely solid are relatively K-rich. Most K-poor felsic wisps were deformed into recumbent folds by back-flowing magma. Later K-rich felsic streaks parallel the axial planes of these folds. The shear of magma past phenocrysts near the dike margins also caused K-rich felsic liquids to segregate in low-pressure zones on the opposing ends of these crystals. All of these flow indicators record a complex history of dike emplacement, with periods of upward intrusion always being followed by periods of back-flow.

  19. How Volcanism Controls Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, P. L.

    2013-12-01

    km decrease in tropopause height. Changes in the rates and types of volcanism have been the primary cause of climate change throughout geologic time. Large explosive volcanoes erupting as frequently as once per decade increment the world into ice ages. Extensive, effusive basaltic volcanism warms the world out of ice ages. Twelve of the 13 dated basaltic table mountains in Iceland experienced their final eruptive phase during the last deglaciation when deposits of sulfate and volcanic ash fell over Greenland at their highest rates. Massive flood basalts are typically accompanied by extreme warming, ozone depletion, and major mass extinctions. The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum occurred when subaerial extrusion of basalts related to the opening of the Greenland-Norwegian Sea suddenly increased to rates greater than 3000 cubic km per km of rift per million years. Dansgaard-Oeschger sudden warming events are contemporaneous with increased volcanism especially in Iceland and last longer when that volcanism lasts longer. Sudden influxes of fresh water often observed in the North Atlantic during these events are most likely caused by extensive sub-glacial volcanism. The Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age, major droughts, and many sudden changes in human civilization began with substantial increases in volcanism. Extensive submarine volcanism does not affect climate directly but is linked with increases in ocean acidity and anoxic events.

  20. Lunar volcanism in space and time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W., III

    1976-01-01

    The role of lunar volcanism in the history of the moon is documented using lunar-orbit and earth-based data along with characterizations derived from Apollo and Luna sample-return missions. Characteristics of mare and highland volcanic features are described, Apollo and Luna results are discussed, and the characteristics of other mare deposits and of other highland features of possible volcanic origin are summarized. Major conclusions are that: (1) there is little unequivocal morphologic evidence for highland volcanism, (2) lunar mare lavas appear to have originated from depths of 100 to 500 km, (3) impact melting does not appear to have been a factor in the generation of mare lavas, (4) mare volcanism was characterized by massive outpourings of very fluid volatile-poor lava analogous to terrestrial flood basalts, (5) mare volcanism took place from 3.83 to about 2.5 billion years ago, (6) the preferential occurrence of mare deposits in large impact basins appears to be generically unrelated to basin formation, and (7) a thicker farside crust may be responsible for the distinctive nearside-farside asymmetry of mare deposits.

  1. Geochemical discrimination of five pleistocene Lava-Dam outburst-flood deposits, western Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenton, C.R.; Poreda, R.J.; Nash, B.P.; Webb, R.H.; Cerling, T.E.

    2004-01-01

    Pleistocene basaltic lava dams and outburst-flood deposits in the western Grand Canyon, Arizona, have been correlated by means of cosmogenic 3He (3Hec) ages and concentrations of SiO2, Na2O, K2O, and rare earth elements. These data indicate that basalt clasts and vitroclasts in a given outburst-flood deposit came from a common source, a lava dam. With these data, it is possible to distinguish individual dam-flood events and improve our understanding of the interrelations of volcanism and river processes. At least five lava dams on the Colorado River failed catastrophically between 100 and 525 ka; subsequent outburst floods emplaced basalt-rich deposits preserved on benches as high as 200 m above the current river and up to 53 km downstream of dam sites. Chemical data also distinguishes individual lava flows that were collectively mapped in the past as large long-lasting dam complexes. These chemical data, in combination with age constraints, increase our ability to correlate lava dams and outburst-flood deposits and increase our understanding of the longevity of lava dams. Bases of correlated lava dams and flood deposits approximate the elevation of the ancestral river during each flood event. Water surface profiles are reconstructed and can be used in future hydraulic models to estimate the magnitude of these large-scale floods.

  2. Sulfide Stability of Planetary Basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caiazza, C. M.; Righter, K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Chesley, J. T.; Ruiz, J.

    2004-01-01

    The isotopic system, 187Re 187Os, can be used to determine the role of crust and mantle in magma genesis. In order to apply the system to natural samples, we must understand variations in Re/Os concentrations. It is thought that low [Os] and [Re] in basalts can be attributed to sulfide (FeS) saturation, as Re behaves incompatibly to high degrees of evolution until sulfide saturation occurs [1]. Previous work has shown that lunar basalts are sulfide under-saturated, and mid-ocean ridge, ocean-island and Martian (shergottites) basalts are saturated [2,3]. However, little is known about arc basalts. In this study, basaltic rocks were analyzed across the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt.

  3. Potassium-argon geochronology of a basalt-andesite-dacite arc system: the Mount Adams volcanic field, Cascade Range of southern Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, W.; Lanphere, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    High-precision K-Ar dating and detailed mapping have established an eruptive chronology for a Cascade stratovolcano and its surrounding array of coeval basaltic centers. The time-volume-composition data bear upon several fundamental questions concerning the long-term behavior of arc volcanoes. -from Authors

  4. Gish Bar Patera, Io: Geology and Volcanic Activity, 1996-2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jason; Radebaugh, Jani; Lopes, Rosaly; McEwen, Alfred; Keszthelyi, Laszlo

    2003-01-01

    Since the two Voyagers passed by Jupiter in 1979, it has been known that volcanic activity is ubiquitous on the surface of Io. With over 400 volcanic centers, Io is even more volcanically active than the earth with massive flood basalt-style eruptions and komatitite lavas a common occurrence. Additionally, some volcanoes appear to be giant lava lakes, with violent activity churning the crust of the lake for periods of 20 years or more. Finally, sulfur is believed to play a large role in Io's volcanism, be it as a primary lava or as a secondary product of large, high-temperature eruptions. By studying one volcano in particular, Gish Bar Patera, one can observe many of these characteristics in one volcanic center.

  5. Chemical and Isotopic Constraints on the Origin of Cenozoic Pacific Northwest Volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, R. W.; Hart, W. K.; Grove, T. L.; Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Barr, J. A.; Till, C. B.

    2009-12-01

    Though there is little debate about the connection of Cascade volcanism to subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate, the cause of extensive Neogene volcanism east of the Cascades is not as well understood. Volumetrically, the most significant component of this volcanism, the flood basalts of the Columbia Plateau and Steens Mountain, are dominated by lavas that have suffered extensive crystal fractionation in crustal magma chambers. The evolved, crustally contaminated, nature of most of these basalts makes identification of the primary magma difficult, confounding interpretation of the background cause of the volcanism. Some Steens lavas are relatively undifferentiated (Johnson et al., USGS Open File report 98-0482). These Steens basalts have compositions that are distinguished from younger primitive basalts on the High Lava Plains (HLP) by distinctly lower Al and higher FeO, Ti, Zr and Nb concentrations, but also Mg#s that are too low to be in equilibrium with mantle that has Fo90 olivine. If these are primary magmatic characteristics, they suggest either a more fertile, FeO-rich source, or lower, not higher, degrees of melting at greater depth during the flood basalt era as opposed to the much smaller-volume younger HLP volcanism. Experimental results on primitive Quaternary HLP and Newberry Volcano lavas suggest last equilibration at pressures corresponding to just below the Moho (30-40 km) with water contents that range from substantial (up to 4 wt %) at Newberry to low (<0.3 wt %) at the eastern-most HLP activity at the Jordan Valley volcanic center. The high water contents, high Ba/Nb and other features of Newberry lavas suggest that this volcano is a Cascades volcano, not the western terminus of an HLP hot-spot. All the young HLP lavas, however, have at least somewhat elevated Ba/Nb and Pb isotopic compositions approaching those of Pacific Northwest oceanic sediments suggesting a subduction overprint on most of the young HLP magmatism. In contrast to the small

  6. Lava and Life: New investigations into the Carson Volcanics, lower Kimberley Basin, north Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orth, Karin; Phillips, Chris; Hollis, Julie

    2014-05-01

    The Carson Volcanics are the only volcanic unit in the Paleoproterozoic Kimberley Basin and are part of a poorly studied Large Igneous Province (LIP) that was active at 1790 Ma. New work focussing on this LIP in 2012 and 2013 involved helicopter-supported traverses and sampling of the Carson Volcanics in remote areas near Kalumburu in far north Western Australia's Kimberley region. The succession is widespread and flat lying to gently dipping. It consists of three to six basalt units with intercalated sandstone and siltstone. The basalts are 20-40 m thick, but can be traced up to 60 km along strike. The basalt can be massive or amygdaloidal and commonly display polygonal to subhorizontal and rare vertical columnar jointing. Features of the basalt include ropy lava tops and basal pipe vesicles consistent with pahoehoe lavas. The intercalated cross-bedded quartzofeldspathic sandstone and siltstone vary in thickness up to 40 m and can be traced up to 40 km along strike. Peperite is common and indicates interaction between wet, unconsolidated sediment and hot lava. Stromatolitic chert at the top of the formation represents the oldest life found within the Kimberley region. Mud cracks evident in the sedimentary rocks, and stromatolites suggest an emergent broad tidal flat environment. The volcanics were extruded onto a wide marginal margin setting subject to frequent flooding events. Thickening of the volcanic succession south and the palaeocurrents in the underlying King Leopold Sandstone and the overlying Warton Sandstone suggest that this shelf sloped to the south. The type of basalt and the basalt morphology indicate a low slope gradient of about 1°.

  7. Possible Juventae Chasma subice volcanic eruptions and Maja Valles ice outburst floods on Mars: Implications of Mars Global surveyor crater densities, geomorphology, and topography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, M.G.; Gudmundsson, M.T.; Russell, A.J.; Hare, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses image, topographic, and spectral data from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission that provide new information concerning the surface age, geomorphology, and topography of the Juventae Chasma/Maja Valles system. Our study utilizes data from two instruments on board MGS: images from the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and topography from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA). Within Maja Valles we can now observe depositional bars with megaripples that unequivocally show catastrophic floods occurred in the channel. Viking impact crater densities indicated the chasma and channel floor areas were all one age (late Hesperian to Amazonian); however, MOC data indicate a marked difference in densities of small craters between Juventae Chasma, Maja Valles, and the channel debouchment area in Chryse Planitia basin. Although other processes may contribute to crater variability, young resurfacing events in the chasma and episodes of recent erosion at Maja Valles channel head may possibly account for the disparate crater densities along the chasma/channel system. Relatively young volcanic eruptions may have contributed to resurfacing; as in Juventae Chasma, a small possible volcanic cone of young dark material is observed. MOC data also indicate previously unknown interior layered deposit mounds in the chasma that indicate at least two periods of mound formation. Finally, MOLA topography shows that the entire floor of the chasma lies at the same elevation as the channel debouchment area in Chryse basin, resulting in a 3-km-high barrier to water flow out of the chasma. Blocked ponded water would rapidly freeze in the current (and likely past) climate of Mars. For catastrophic flow to occur in Maja Valles, some process is required to melt ice and induce floods out of the chasma. We suggest subice volcanic eruption and calculate estimates of water discharges and volumes that these eruptions might have produced.

  8. "New 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Grande Ronde lavas, Columbia River Basalts, USA: Implications for duration of flood basalt eruption episodes" by Barry et al. (2010) - Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baksi, Ajoy K.

    2012-08-01

    Barry et al. (2010) presented 40Ar/39Ar ages to argue for a very limited duration (~ 0.4 m.y.) for the eruption of the Grande Ronde lavas. Critical examination of their data sets shows (1) a number of their plateau ages are statistically invalid and (2) many of their groundmass matrix samples were altered, and did not yield valid estimates of the time of crystallization. In general, their ages err on the young side, reflecting partial 40Ar * loss, due to alteration, and there is no compelling evidence therein, to argue for very limited duration for the Grande Ronde Basalt. The Imnaha, Grande Ronde and Wanapum Basalt erupted within ~ 0.7 m.y., starting at ~ 16.4 Ma. By contrast, the "ages" of Barry et al. (2010) span the interval ~ 16.6 to ~ 14.7 Ma and, in some instances, are out of stratigraphic sequence.

  9. F, Cl, and S contents of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in mafic dikes and the environmental impact of flood volcanism in the Paraná-Etendeka LIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Linda; Trumbull, Robert; Keiding, Jakob; Veksler, Ilya; Wenzel, Thomas; Markl, Gregor; Wiedenbeck, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) have been proposed to trigger mass-extinction events by the release of large quantities of volcanic gases which results in major climatic perturbations causing worldwide ecological stress and collapse. A prerequisite for understanding the proposed link between LIP volcanism and biological crisis is reliable information about the total gas emissions during these events. We present the first estimations of total F, Cl and S emissions from the Paraná-Etendeka LIP in the South Atlantic. Data from this province are of special interest because it is among the world's largest LIPs but is not associated to a mass extinction event. We have determined pre-eruption concentrations of F, Cl and S by in-situ analysis of melt inclusions preserved in olivine phenocrysts from basaltic dikes in the Etendeka province of NW Namibia. The melt inclusions have Mg-rich basaltic bulk compositions with about 8 to 18 wt.% MgO, overlapping the compositional range of the host rocks. A major feature of the melt inclusions is their wide variation in major and minor element concentrations, including F, Cl and S. This is attributed to trapping of variably-mixed melt fractions during crystallization of olivine in the roots of the dike system. Fluorine concentrations vary from about 190 to 450 ppm, Cl from <10 to 125 ppm and S from <30 to 1100 ppm. All inclusions were rehomogenized in heating experiments and the lowest concentrations may be due to partial leakage of S and halogens. Therefore, the maximum values are considered best estimates of the true melt concentrations. These melt inclusion data are combined with the volume of extruded magma in the province (2.2 to 2.35 million cubic km) and with published degassing efficiencies to calculate total emissions from the Paraná-Etendeka LIP of 600-1200 Gt fluorine, 200-500 Gt chlorine and 3100-5400 Gt sulfur. The estimated sulfur emissions are similar to those from the similar-sized Deccan and Siberian LIPs, both of

  10. Isotope geochemistry of caliche developed on basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knauth, L. Paul; Brilli, Mauro; Klonowski, Stan

    2003-01-01

    Enormous variations in oxygen and carbon isotopes occur in caliche developed on < 3 Ma basalts in 3 volcanic fields in Arizona, significantly extending the range of δ 18O and δ 13C observed in terrestrial caliche. Within each volcanic field, δ 18O is broadly co-variant with δ 13C and increases as δ 13C increases. The most 18O and 13C enriched samples are for subaerial calcite developed on pinnacles, knobs, and flow lobes that protrude above tephra and soil. The most 18O and 13C depleted samples are for pedogenic carbonate developed in soil atmospheres. The pedogenic caliche has δ 18O fixed by normal precipitation in local meteoric waters at ambient temperatures and has low δ 13C characteristic of microbial soil CO 2. Subaerial caliche has formed from 18O-rich evapoconcentrated meteoric waters that dried out on surfaces after local rains. The associated 13C enrichment is due either to removal of 12C by photosynthesizers in the evaporating drops or to kinetic isotope effects associated with evaporation. Caliche on basalt lava flows thus initially forms with the isotopic signature of evaporation and is subsequently over-layered during burial by calcite carrying the isotopic signature of the soil environment. The large change in carbon isotope composition in subsequent soil calcite defines an isotopic biosignature that should have developed in martian examples if Mars had a "warm, wet" early period and photosynthesizing microbes were present in the early soils. The approach can be similarly applied to terrestrial Precambrian paleocaliche in the search for the earliest record of life on land. Large variations reported for δ 18O of carbonate in Martian meteorite ALH84001 do not necessarily require high temperatures, playa lakes, or flood runoff if the carbonate is an example of altered martian caliche.

  11. Volatile emissions from Central Atlantic Magmatic Province Basalts: Mass assumptions and environmental consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHone, J. Gregory

    Mesozoic basins that contain extrusive basalts of the 200 Ma Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) presently total about 320,000 km2. However, CAMP dikes and sills similar to those that fed the basin basalts are also spread widely across an area greater than 10 million km2 within four continents. In addition, basalts of the east coast margin igneous province (ECMIP) of North America, which cause the east coast magnetic anomaly, covered about 110,000 km2 with 1.3 million km3 of extrusive lavas. If only half of the continental CAMP area was originally covered by 200 m of surface flows, the total volume of CAMP and ECMIP lavas exceeded 2.3 million km3. Weighted averages for the volatile contents of 686 CAMP tholeiitic dikes and sills, in weight %, are: CO2 = 0.117; S = 0.052; F = 0.035; and Cl = 0.050. Atmospheric emissions of volatiles from flood basalts are conservatively estimated as 50% to 70% of the volatile content of the sub-volcanic magmas, mainly exsolved into gaseous plumes from lava curtains at the erupting fissures. Total volcanic emissions of these gases therefore ranged between 1.11×1012 and 5.19×1012 metric tons, enough for major worldwide environmental problems. Radiometric and stratigraphic dates indicate that most CAMP volcanic activity was brief, widespread, and close to the Tr-J boundary, which is marked by a profound mass extinction. More precise information about the timing, duration, and chemical emissions of volcanic episodes is needed to support a model for CAMP in the extinction event.

  12. Geochemistry of quaternary volcanism in the Sunda-Banda arc, Indonesia, and three-component genesis of island-arc basaltic magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheller, G. E.; Varne, R.; Foden, J. D.; Abbott, M. J.

    1987-06-01

    Volcanic rocks of the Sunda and Banda arcs range from tholeiitic through calcalkaline and shoshonitic to leucititic, the widest compositional span of mafic magmatism known from an active arc setting. Mafic rocks in our data set, which includes 315 new analyses of volcanic rocks from twelve Quaternary volcanoes, including Batu Tara in the previously geochemically unknown Flores-Lembata arc sector, are generally similar to those from other island arcs: most contain <1.3 wt. % TiO 2 and 16-22 wt. % Al 2O 3, and have characteristically high K/Nb and La/Nb values. Abundances of P, Ba, Rb, Sr, La, Ce, Nd, Zr and Nb increase sympathetically with increasing K 2O contents of mafic rocks but those of Na, Ti, Y and Sc vary little throughout the geochemical continuum from low-K tholeiitic to high-K leucititic rocks. Excluding Sumatra and Wetar, which possess mainly dacitic and rhyolitic volcanics, the Sunda-Banda arc is divisible into four geochemical arc sectors with boundaries that correlate with major changes in regional tectonic setting and geological history. From west to east, the West Java, Bali and Flores arc sectors each comprise volcanoes which become progressively more K-rich eastwards, culminating in the leucitite volcanoes Muriah, Soromundi and Sangenges, and Batu Tara, respectively. In the most easterly Banda sector, the volcanics vary from high- to low-K eastwards around the arc. Correlations between geochemistry and 87Sr/ 86Sr values show separate trends for each of the four arc sectors, believed to be the result of involvement of at least three geochemically and isotopically distinct components in the source regions of the arc magmatism. A dominant source component with a low K content and a low 87Sr/ 86Sr value, and common to all sectors, is probably peridotitic mantle. A second component, with low K content but high 87Sr/ 86Sr value, appears to be crustal material. This component is most apparent in the Banda sector, in keeping with that sector's tectonic

  13. The Karoo igneous province — A problem area for inferring tectonic setting from basalt geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Andrew R.

    1987-06-01

    Tholeiitic basalts and associated intrusives are the major component of the Karoo igneous province. They are of Mesozoic age and constitute one of the world's classic continental flood basalt (CFB) provinces. It has been argued that most Karoo basalts have not undergone significant contamination with continental crust and that their lithospheric mantle source areas were enriched in incompatible minor and trace elements during the Proterozoic. The only exceptions to this are late-stage MORB-like dolerites near the present-day continental margins which are considered to be of asthenospheric origin. When data for the "southern" Karoo basalts are plotted on many of the geochemical discriminant diagrams which have been used to infer tectonic setting, essentially all of them would be classified as calc-alkali basalts (CAB's) or low-K tholeiites. Virtually none of them plot in the compositional fields designated as characteristic of "within-plate" basalts. There is little likelihood that the compositions of the Karoo basalts can be controlled by active subduction at the time of their eruption and no convincing evidence that a "subduction component" has been added to the subcontinental lithospheric mantle under the entire area in which the basalts crop out. It must be concluded that the mantle source areas for CAB's and the southern Karoo basalts have marked similarities. In contrast, the data for "northern" Karoo basalts largely plot in the "within-plate" field on geochemical discriminant diagrams. Available data suggest that the source composition and/or the restite mineralogy and degree of partial melting are different for southern and northern Karoo basalts. There is no evidence for any difference in tectonic setting between the southern and northern Karoo basalts at the time they were erupted. This appears to be clear evidence that specific mantle source characteristics and/or magmatic processes can vary within a single CFB province to an extent that renders at least

  14. The roles of fractional crystallization, magma mixing, crystal mush remobilization and volatile-melt interactions in the genesis of a young basalt-peralkaline rhyolite suite, the greater Olkaria volcanic complex, Kenya Rift valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macdonald, R.; Belkin, H.E.; Fitton, J.G.; Rogers, N.W.; Nejbert, K.; Tindle, A.G.; Marshall, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    The Greater Olkaria Volcanic Complex is a young (???20 ka) multi-centred lava and dome field dominated by the eruption of peralkaline rhyolites. Basaltic and trachytic magmas have been erupted peripherally to the complex and also form, with mugearites and benmoreites, an extensive suite of magmatic inclusions in the rhyolites. The eruptive rocks commonly represent mixed magmas and the magmatic inclusions are themselves two-, three- or four-component mixes. All rock types may carry xenocrysts of alkali feldspar, and less commonly plagioclase, derived from magma mixing and by remobilization of crystal mushes and/or plutonic rocks. Xenoliths in the range gabbro-syenite are common in the lavas and magmatic inclusions, the more salic varieties sometimes containing silicic glass representing partial melts and ranging in composition from anorthite ?? corundum- to acmite-normative. The peralkaline varieties are broadly similar, in major element terms, to the eruptive peralkaline rhyolites. The basalt-trachyte suite formed by a combination of fractional crystallization, magma mixing and resorption of earlier-formed crystals. Matrix glass in metaluminous trachytes has a peralkaline rhyolitic composition, indicating that the eruptive rhyolites may have formed by fractional crystallization of trachyte. Anomalous trace element enrichments (e.g. ??? 2000 ppm Y in a benmoreite) and negative Ce anomalies may have resulted from various Na- and K-enriched fluids evolving from melts of intermediate composition and either being lost from the system or enriched in other parts of the reservoirs. A small group of nepheline-normative, usually peralkaline, magmatic inclusions was formed by fluid transfer between peralkaline rhyolitic and benmoreitic magmas. The plumbing system of the complex consists of several independent reservoirs and conduits, repeatedly recharged by batches of mafic magma, with ubiquitous magma mixing. ?? The Author 2008. Published by Oxford University Press. All

  15. Differentiation and volcanism in the lunar highlands: photogeologic evidence and Apollo 16 implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trask, N.J.; McCauley, J.F.

    1972-01-01

    Materials of possible volcanic origin in the lunar highlands include (1) highland plains materials, (2) materials forming closely spaced hills in which summit furrows and chains of craters are common and (3) materials forming closely spaced hills (some of which parallel the lunar grid) on which summit furrows and chain craters are rare. The highland plains materials probably are basaltic lavas with less Fe and Ti than the mare plains materials. The two hilly units appear to consist of materials that, if volcanic, were more viscous in the molten state than any of the lunar plains units; thus these materials may be significantly enriched in felsic components. Most of the highland materials of possible volcanic origin formed after the Imbrium multi-ring basin but before mare material completed flooding parts of the moon; they therefore postdate accretion of the moon and may represent several episodes of premare volcanism. ?? 1972.

  16. Evidence for Noachian flood volcanism in Noachis Terra, Mars, and the possible role of Hellas impact basin tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, A. D.; Nazarian, A. H.

    2013-05-01

    Spectral and imaging data sets from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Mars Odyssey, as well as spectral and topographic data from Mars Global Surveyor, are used to understand the origin of in-place rock units found in the intercrater plains and Hellas circumferential graben floors of Noachis Terra, Mars. The rocky units are interpreted as effusive volcanic plains on the basis of broad areal extent, structural competence, association with topographic lows, distinct mineralogy from regolith, and lack of sedimentary textures or minerals associated with aqueous processes. Some rocky expanses contain at least two compositionally distinct units. The relatively light-toned unit exhibits a higher plagioclase/pyroxene ratio than the lower, dark-toned unit. Both units exhibit ~10% olivine enrichment compared to surrounding regolith. These units are heavily degraded and exhibit crater model ages between ~3.80 and 4.0 Ga, making these some of the oldest preserved volcanic plains accessible by remote sensing. They are found in association with Hellas ring structures, where the westward extent of these rocky units is limited to the outermost ring structure. Fracturing associated with the Hellas impact may have enabled magmas to ascend from the base of the crust in the circum-Hellas region. Identification of these units as volcanic materials extends previous estimates for volume of outgassed volatiles. Though the estimated volcanic volume increase is minor, the local effects could have been significant. The role of multi-ring impact basins in providing a spatial control on Martian highlands volcanism and subsurface mineralization may have been underestimated in the past.

  17. Onset of Yellowstone-related volcanism due to propagating rupture of the Farallon slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Stegman, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    The origin of Yellowstone volcanism, presumed to initiate with the Steens-Columbia River flood basalts, has remained controversial, with the proposed conceptual models involving either a mantle plume or back-arc processes. Recent tomographic inversions based on the USArray data reveal unprecedented details on upper mantle structures of western United States. Geodynamic models simulating Farallon subduction constrained by these seismic images depict an episode of slab tear starting ~17 Myr ago in eastern Oregon, with strong oceanic asthenosphere upwelling occurring inside the slab gap at shallow depth due to a gradient of dynamic pressure. The tear ruptured quickly north and south and within ~2 Myr covered a distance of ~900 km along the entire eastern Oregon and northern Nevada, consistent with the sequence of major volcanic dikes during the Steens-Columbia River-North Nevada Rift flood basalt event. The predicted flood basalt formation is similar to processes at a mid-oceanic ridge (MOR), but with melting first starting from the base of the oceanic lithosphere. Assuming a melt fraction of ~2%, a value for MOR, the model can also reproduce the observed magma volume erupted during this event. Our study, therefore, suggests a new mechanism for the formation of large igneous provinces.

  18. A catastrophic flood caused by drainage of a caldera lake at Aniakchak Volcano, Alaska, and implications for volcanic hazards assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, C.F.; Walder, J.S.; McGimsey, R.G.; Neal, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    Aniakchak caldera, located on the Alaska Peninsula of southwest Alaska, formerly contained a large lake (estimated volume 3.7 ?? 109 m3) that rapidly drained as a result of failure of the caldera rim sometime after ca. 3400 yr B.P. The peak discharge of the resulting flood was estimated using three methods: (1) flow-competence equations, (2) step-backwater modeling, and (3) a dam-break model. The results of the dam-break model indicate that the peak discharge at the breach in the caldera rim was at least 7.7 ?? 104 m3 s-1, and the maximum possible discharge was ???1.1 ?? 106 m3 s-1. Flow-competence estimates of discharge, based on the largest boulders transported by the flood, indicate that the peak discharge values, which were a few kilometers downstream of the breach, ranged from 6.4 ?? 105 to 4.8 ?? 106 m3 s-1. Similar but less variable results were obtained by step-backwater modeling. Finally, discharge estimates based on regression equations relating peak discharge to the volume and depth of the impounded water, although limited by constraining assumptions, provide results within the range of values determined by the other methods. The discovery and documentation of a flood, caused by the failure of the caldera rim at Aniakchak caldera, underscore the significance and associated hydrologic hazards of potential large floods at other lake-filled calderas.

  19. The relation of catastrophic flooding of Mangala Valles, Mars, to faulting of Memnonia Fossae and Tharsis volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Chapman, Mary G.

    1990-08-01

    Detailed 1:500,000-scale geological maps and regional 1:15,000,000-scale compilations of the Mangala region were constructed and used to examine the relative timing of major flood events of Mangala Valles and to compare it to the timing of the emplacement of local lava flows and of faulting episodes of Memnonia Fossae. It is shown that two catastrophic floods at Mangala Valles are correlative in time with faulting events at Memnonia Fossae during Late Hesperian and Late Hesperian/Early Amazonian and that faulting also corresponds to the Pavonis I and II episodes of Tharsis-centered radial faulting when lava flows were emplaced in and east of the channel system.

  20. Geochronological, morphometric and geochemical constraints on the Pampas Onduladas long basaltic flow (Payún Matrú Volcanic Field, Mendoza, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espanon, Venera R.; Chivas, Allan R.; Phillips, David; Matchan, Erin L.; Dosseto, Anthony

    2014-12-01

    The Pampas Onduladas flow in southern Mendoza, Argentina, is one of the four longest Quaternary basaltic flows on Earth. Such flows (> 100 km) are relatively rare on Earth as they require special conditions in order to travel long distances and there are no recent analogues. Favourable conditions include: a gentle topographic slope, an insulation process to preserve the melt at high temperature, and a large volume of lava with relatively low viscosity. This study investigates the rheological and geochemical characteristics of the ~ 170 km long Pampas Onduladas flow, assessing conditions that facilitated its exceptional length. The study also reports the first geochronological results for the Pampas Onduladas flow. 40Ar/39Ar step-heating analyses of groundmass reveal an eruption age of 373 ± 10 ka (2σ), making the Pampas Onduladas flow the oldest Quaternary long flow. The methods used to assess the rheological properties include the application of several GIS tools to a digital elevation model (DEM) to determine the length, width, thickness, volume and topographic slope of the flow as well as algorithms to determine its density, viscosity and temperature. The slope of the Pampas Onduladas flow determined from the initial part of the flow on the eastern side of La Carbonilla Fracture to its end point in the province of La Pampa is 0.84% (0.29°), the steepest substrate amongst long Quaternary flows. The rheological properties, such as density viscosity and temperature from the Pampas Onduladas flow are similar to values reported for other long Quaternary flows. However, the minimum volume calculated is relatively low for its length compared with other long Quaternary flows. Therefore, the extension of the Pampas Onduladas flow was probably controlled by a steep slope, combined with an insulating mechanism, which helped in providing optimal conditions for a travel length of almost 170 km.

  1. The Quaternary volcanic rocks of the northern Afar Depression (northern Ethiopia): Perspectives on petrology, geochemistry, and tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagos, Miruts; Koeberl, Christian; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    The northern Afar Depression is one of the most volcano-tectonically active parts of the East African Rift system, a place where oceanic rifting may be beginning to form an incipient oceanic crust. In its center, over an area that is ∼80 km long and ∼50 km wide, there are seven major NNW-SSE-aligned shield volcanoes/volcanic edifices surrounded by compositionally distinct fissure-fed basalts. The Quaternary lavas in this area range from transitional to tholeiitic basalts, with significant across-axis variation both in mineralogy and chemistry. The variation in the contents of the major elements (TiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3), incompatible trace elements (Nd, Hf, Th, Ta), and the contents and ratios of the rare earth elements (REE) (e.g., (La/Yb)n = 5.3-8.9) indicate some variation in the petrogenetic processes responsible for the formation of these basalts. However, the variation in isotopic compositions of the mafic lavas is minimal (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7036-0.7041, 143Nd/144Nd = 0.51286-0.51289), which suggests only one source for all the Danakil Depression basalts. These basalts have isotope and incompatible trace element ratios that overlap with those of the Oligocene High-Ti2 flood basalts from the Ethiopian Plateau, interpreted as being derived from the last phase/tail of the Afar mantle plume source. Moreover, the Ce/Pb, Ba/U ratios indicate that the involvement of continental crust in the petrogenesis of the basaltic rocks is minimal; instead, both depth and degree of melting of the source reservoir underneath the northern Afar Depression played a major role for the production of incompatible element-enriched basalts (e.g., AleBagu Shield basalts) and the incompatible element-depleted tholeiitic basalts (e.g., Erta'Ale and Alu Shield basalts).

  2. Pahoehoe-a‧a transitions in the lava flow fields of the western Deccan Traps, India-implications for emplacement dynamics, flood basalt architecture and volcanic stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duraiswami, Raymond A.; Gadpallu, Purva; Shaikh, Tahira N.; Cardin, Neha

    2014-04-01

    Unlike pahoehoe, documentation of true a‧a lavas from a modern volcanological perspective is a relatively recent phenomenon in the Deccan Trap (e.g. Brown et al., 2011, Bull. Volcanol. 73(6): 737-752) as most lava flows previously considered to be a‧a (e.g. GSI, 1998) have been shown to be transitional (e.g. Rajarao et al., 1978, Geol. Soc. India Mem. 43: 401-414; Duraiswami et al., 2008 J. Volcanol. Geothermal. Res. 177: 822-836). In this paper we demonstrate the co-existence of autobrecciation products such as slabby pahoehoe, rubbly pahoehoe and a‧a in scattered outcrops within the dominantly pahoehoe flow fields. Although volumetrically low in number, the pattern of occurrence of the brecciating lobes alongside intact ones suggests that these might have formed in individual lobes along marginal branches and terminal parts of compound flow fields. Complete transitions from typical pahoehoe to 'a‧a lava flow morphologies are seen on length scales of 100-1000 m within road and sea-cliff sections near Uruli and Rajpuri. We consider the complex interplay between local increase in the lava supply rates due to storage or temporary stoppage, local increase in paleo-slope, rapid cooling and localized increase in the strain rates especially in the middle and terminal parts of the compound flow field responsible for the transitional morphologies. Such transitions are seen in the Thakurwadi-, Bushe- and Poladpur Formation in the western Deccan Traps. These are similar to pahoehoe-a‧a transitions seen in Cenozoic long lava flows (Undara ˜160 km, Toomba ˜120 km, Kinrara ˜55 km) from north Queensland, Australia and Recent (1859) eruption of Mauna Loa, Hawaii (a‧a lava flow ˜51 km) suggesting that flow fields with transitional tendencies cannot travel great lengths despite strong channelisation. If these observations are true, then it arguably limits long distance flow of Deccan Traps lavas to Rajahmundry suggesting polycentric eruptions at ˜65 Ma in Peninsular India.

  3. The Cenozoic volcanic province of Tibesti (Sahara of Chad): major units, chronology, and structural features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deniel, C.; Vincent, P. M.; Beauvilain, A.; Gourgaud, A.

    2015-09-01

    Using both field relationships and some absolute ages, the sequence of volcanic units in the Cenozoic Tibesti Volcanic Province (TVP) (Chad) is established as follows: (1) plateau volcanism, between at least 17 and 8 Ma, consisting of flood basalts and silicic lava plugs, with intercalated ignimbritic sheets in the upper basalt succession increasing in amount upwards. Ages decrease from NE to SW, following the migration of the small NW-SE flexures concentrating the feeding dike swarms; (2) Late Miocene large central composite volcanoes exhibiting diverse and original structures. Some of them (Tarso Toon, Ehi Oyé, and Tarso Yéga) are located along a major NNE fault, representing the main tectonic direction in Tibesti since Precambrian times; (3) construction of three large ignimbritic volcanoes, associated with significant updoming of the basement, ending with the collapse of large calderas: Voon (about 5-7 Ma), Emi Koussi (2.4-1.33 Ma), and Yirrigué (0.43 Ma); (4) basaltic activity, starting at about 5-7 Ma, and essentially consisting of cinder cones and associated lava flows (Tarso Tôh, Tarso Ahon, and Tarso Emi Chi); and (5) final volcanic activity represented by post-Yirrigué caldera activity in the Tarso Toussidé Volcanic Complex, and especially Ehi Toussidé (the only active volcano in Tibesti), plus Ehi Timi and Ehi Mousgou volcanoes, similar to Ehi Toussidé. The two tectonic directions controlling some volcanic features of the province correspond to the major old lithospheric structures delimiting the volcanic province, namely, the great NW-SE Tassilian flexure to the SW and a major NE-NNE fault zone to the E. Unusual conditions of uplift and erosion in the TVP enable exceptional exposure of the internal structure of its volcanoes.

  4. Investigating the Formation and Subsurface Structure of a Large Water-Filled Basaltic Maar Volcano Using Constrained Potential Field Modelling, Lake Purrumbete Maar, Newer Volcanics Province.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Hove, J. C.; Ailleres, L.; Betts, P. G.; Cas, R. A. F.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Purrumbete Maar of the Newer Volcanics Province, south-eastern Australia is one of the largest maar volcanoes in the world with a near circular crater up to 2800 m in diameter and hosting a 45 m deep crater lake. Surrounding tephra ring deposits are comprised of cross-bedded fine ash and lapilli-ash deposits typical of efficient subsurface phreatomagmatic eruptive activity. Erupted accessory lithics suggest subsurface phreatomagmatic activity occurred to a depth no greater than 250 m, whilst irregular clast shapes and peperitic textures observed in marl lithics suggest the host rock was poorly consolidated during eruptive activity. To further understand factors controlling Lake Purrumbete Maars immense size, high resolution lake and land-based gravity and magnetic data were collected for use in forward modelling of the subsurface architecture associated with the maar. Collection of gravity data presented a unique challenge due to the nature of measuring small changes in gravitational forces (<1 mGal) associated with the geology of the maar, on an inherently unstable water body. The magnetic anomaly over the maar shows irregular shaped high magnetic anomalies associated with several coalesced eruption points. 2.5-D forward models include five coalesced eruption points and an undulating shallow bowl-shaped diatreme structure, consistent with maars hosted within poorly consolidated sediments. 2.5-D forward models were used to produce a 3-D reference model for property and geometry inversions, to test and optimise the modelled features. Inversions suggest the major vents likely occur to a greater depth than 240 m as suggested in the initial reference model.

  5. The basalts of Mare Frigoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, G. Y.; Jaiswal, B.; Hawke, B. R.; Öhman, T.; Giguere, T. A.; Johnson, K.

    2015-10-01

    This paper discusses the methodology and results of a detailed investigation of Mare Frigoris using remote sensing data from Clementine, Lunar Prospector, and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, with the objective of mapping and characterizing the compositions and eruptive history of its volcanic units. With the exception of two units in the west, Mare Frigoris and Lacus Mortis are filled with basalts having low-TiO2 to very low TiO2, low-FeO, and high-Al2O3 abundances. These compositions indicate that most of the basalts in Frigoris are high-Al basalts—a potentially undersampled, yet important group in the lunar sample collection for its clues about the heterogeneity of the lunar mantle. Thorium abundances of most of the mare basalts in Frigoris are also low, although much of the mare surface appears elevated due to contamination from impact gardening with the surrounding high-Th Imbrium ejecta. There are, however, a few regional thorium anomalies that are coincident with cryptomare units in the east, the two youngest mare basalt units, and some of the scattered pyroclastic deposits and volcanic constructs. In addition, Mare Frigoris lies directly over the northern extent of the major conduit for a magma plumbing system that fed many of the basalts that filled Oceanus Procellarum, as interpreted by Andrews-Hanna et al. (2014) using data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory mission. The relationship between this deep-reaching magma conduit and the largest extent of high-Al basalts on the Moon makes Mare Frigoris an intriguing location for further investigation of the lunar mantle.

  6. Temperature dependence of basalt weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gaojun; Hartmann, Jens; Derry, Louis A.; West, A. Joshua; You, Chen-Feng; Long, Xiaoyong; Zhan, Tao; Li, Laifeng; Li, Gen; Qiu, Wenhong; Li, Tao; Liu, Lianwen; Chen, Yang; Ji, Junfeng; Zhao, Liang; Chen, Jun

    2016-06-01

    The homeostatic balance of Earth's long-term carbon cycle and the equable state of Earth's climate are maintained by negative feedbacks between the levels of atmospheric CO2 and the chemical weathering rate of silicate rocks. Though clearly demonstrated by well-controlled laboratory dissolution experiments, the temperature dependence of silicate weathering rates, hypothesized to play a central role in these weathering feedbacks, has been difficult to quantify clearly in natural settings at landscape scale. By compiling data from basaltic catchments worldwide and considering only inactive volcanic fields (IVFs), here we show that the rate of CO2 consumption associated with the weathering of basaltic rocks is strongly correlated with mean annual temperature (MAT) as predicted by chemical kinetics. Relations between temperature and CO2 consumption rate for active volcanic fields (AVFs) are complicated by other factors such as eruption age, hydrothermal activity, and hydrological complexities. On the basis of this updated data compilation we are not able to distinguish whether or not there is a significant runoff control on basalt weathering rates. Nonetheless, the simple temperature control as observed in this global dataset implies that basalt weathering could be an effective mechanism for Earth to modulate long-term carbon cycle perturbations.

  7. Deccan volcanism and K-T boundary signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murali, A. V.; Schuraytz, B. C.; Parekh, P. P.

    1988-01-01

    The Deccan Traps in the Indian subcontinent represent one of the most extensive flood basalt provinces in the world. These basalts occur mainly as flat-lying, subaerially erupted tholeiitic lava flows, some of which are traceable for distances of more than 100 km. Offshore drilling and geophysical surveys indicate that a part of the Deccan subsided or was downfaulted to the west beneath the Arabian Sea. The presence of 1 to 5 m thick intertrappean sediments deposited by lakes and rivers indicates periods of quiescence between eruptions. The occurrence of numerous red bole beds among the flows suggests intense weathering of flow tops between eruptive intervals. Although the causative relationship of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) biotic extinctions to Deccan volcanism is debatable, the fact that the main Deccan eruptions straddle the K-T event appears beyond doubt from the recent Ar-40/Ar-39 ages of various Deccan flows. This temporal relationship of the K-T event with Deccan volcanism makes the petrochemical signatures of the entire Deccan sequence (basalt flows, intercalated intertrappean sediments, infratrappean Lameta beds (with dinosaur fossils), and the bole beds) pertinent to studies of the K-T event. The results of ongoing study is presented.

  8. Morphology and development of pahoehoe flow-lobe tumuli and associated features from a monogenetic basaltic volcanic field, Bahariya Depression, Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalaf, Ezz El Din Abdel Hakim; Hammed, Mohamed Saleh

    2016-01-01

    The dimensions, landforms, and structural characteristics of pahoehoe flow-lobe tumuli from Bahariya Depression are collectively reported here for the first time. The flow-lobe tumuli documented here characterize hummocky flow surfaces. These tumuli are characterized by low, dome-like mounds, lava-inflation clefts, and squeeze ups. Flow-lobe tumuli are of various shapes and sizes, which are affected by the mechanism of inflation because they formed in response to the increase of pressure within the flow when the flow's crust becomes thicker. The tumuli often appear isolated or in small groups in the middle sectors of the lava flows, whereas in the distal sectors they form large concentration, suggesting the presence of complex lava tubes inside of the flow. Tumuli exhibited by El Bahariya lava flows are between 3.0 and 50 m in length and up to 5.0 m in height with lenticular geometry in aerial view. The flow emplacement of flow-lobe tumuli is controlled by variations in local characteristics such as nature of the substrate, flow orientation, slope, interferrence with other lobes, and rate of lava supply. Their presence generally towards the terminal ends of flow fields suggests that they seldom form over the clogged portions of distributary tubes or pathways. Thus, localized inflations that formed over blockages in major lava tubes result in formation of flow-lobe tumuli. The three-tiered (crust-core-basal zone) internal structure of the flow-lobe tumuli, resembling the typical distribution of vesicles in P-type lobes, confirms emplacement by the mechanism of inflation. All the available data show that the morphology and emplacement mechanism of the studied flow-lobe tumuli may be analogous to similar features preserved within topographically confined areas of the Hawaiian and Deccan hummocky lava flows. Considering the age of the studied volcanic fields (˜22 Ma) it is most probable that the structures described here may be amongst the oldest recognized examples

  9. The Spokane flood controversy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, V. R.

    1978-01-01

    An enormous plexus of proglacial channels that eroded into the loess and basalt of the Columbia Plateau, eastern Washington is studied. This channeled scabland contained erosional and depositional features that were unique among fluvial phenomena. Documentation of the field relationships of the region explains the landforms as the product of a relatively brief, but enormous flood, then so-called the Spokane flood.

  10. The largest volcanic eruptions on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Scott E.; Peate, Ingrid Ukstins; Peate, David W.; Self, Stephen; Jerram, Dougal A.; Mawby, Michael R.; Marsh, J. S. (Goonie); Miller, Jodie A.

    2010-10-01

    silicic eruptions, however, are moderately to highly explosive, producing co-current pyroclastic fountains (rarely Plinian) with discharge rates of 10 9-10 11 kg s -1 that emplace welded to rheomorphic ignimbrites. At present, durations for the large-magnitude silicic eruptions are unconstrained; at discharge rates of 10 9 kg s -1, equivalent to the peak of the 1991 Mt Pinatubo eruption, the largest silicic eruptions would take many months to evacuate > 5000 km 3 of magma. The generally simple deposit structure is more suggestive of short-duration (hours to days) and high intensity (~ 10 11 kg s -1) eruptions, perhaps with hiatuses in some cases. These extreme discharge rates would be facilitated by multiple point, fissure and/or ring fracture venting of magma. Eruption frequencies are much elevated for large-magnitude eruptions of both magma types during LIP-forming episodes. However, in basalt-dominated provinces (continental and ocean basin flood basalt provinces, oceanic plateaus, volcanic rifted margins), large magnitude (> M8) basaltic eruptions have much shorter recurrence intervals of 10 3-10 4 years, whereas similar magnitude silicic eruptions may have recurrence intervals of up to 10 5 years. The Paraná-Etendeka province was the site of at least nine > M8 silicic eruptions over an ~ 1 Myr period at ~ 132 Ma; a similar eruption frequency, although with a fewer number of silicic eruptions is also observed for the Afro-Arabian Province. The huge volumes of basaltic and silicic magma erupted in quick succession during LIP events raises several unresolved issues in terms of locus of magma generation and storage (if any) in the crust prior to eruption, and paths and rates of ascent from magma reservoirs to the surface. Available data indicate four end-member magma petrogenetic pathways in LIPs: 1) flood basalt magmas with primitive, mantle-dominated geochemical signatures (often high-Ti basalt magma types) that were either transferred directly from melting regions in

  11. Composition of basalts from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engel, A.E.J.; Engel, C.G.

    1964-01-01

    Studies of volcanic rocks in dredge hauls from the submerged parts of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge suggest that it consists largely of tholeiitic basalt with low values of K, Ti, and P. In contrast, the volcanic islands which form the elevated caps on the Ridge are built of alkali basalt with high values of Ti, Fe3+, P, Na, and K. This distinct correlation between the form of the volcanic structures, elevation above the sea floor, and composition suggests that the islands of alkali basalt are derived from a parent tholeiitic magma by differentiation in shallow reservoirs. The volume of low-potassium tholeiites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and elsewhere in the oceans appears to be many times that of the alkali basalts exposed on oceanic islands. Tholeiitic basalts with about 0.2 K2O appear to be the primary and predominant magma erupted on the oceanic floor.

  12. Spectroscopic Analysis of Flooded Craters from Oceanus Procellarum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besse, Sebastien; Staid, Matthew; Hiesinger, Harald

    2013-04-01

    The last major phases of lunar volcanism produced compositionally unique, high-titanium basalts that are not observed elsewhere on the Moon's surface or earlier in its history. These volcanic deposits include some of the Moon's most extensive flows and age estimates suggest that these basalts are among the youngest. These flows are concentrated in Oceanus Procellarum, a very large volcanic province on the lunar near side. Investigations using the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data have shown that these basalts exhibit strong mineralogical variations, with compositions strongly dominated by either high -Ca pyroxene, or low-Ca pyroxene, or olivine, and even a combination of these minerals. Following the surprising high olivine content of the crater Marius, we examine other flooded craters of the large Oceanus Procellarum (O.P.) province to characterize the uniquess, or not, of Marius. If a large number of flooded craters within O.P. exhibits similar high-olivine content, this will help us to constrain the magmatic history of the last major phases of lunar volcanism. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) onboard the Indian Space Research Organization's (ISRO) Chandrayaan-1 Spacecraft is an imaging spectrometer that imaged the Moon in 85 spectral channels with a combination of high spectral and spatial mapping, enabling spectra to be placed in a geological context. M3 data have a spectral range from 460 to 3000 nm, and a spectral resolution of 20 to 40 nm. This range allows detailed investigations of the 1 and 2 μm absorption bands characteristic of mafic minerals on the lunar surface. A selection of flooded craters has been performed to investigate their spectral properties. Craters with unbreached walls have been selected as much as possible in order to better constrain the origin of the volcanic flows. Preliminary results show that few craters share the high-olivine content properties of Marius. Compositionally, crater Billy seems to be the closest one, and to a certain

  13. Flood Lavas of the r2 Magnetostratigraphic Interval of the Grande Ronde Basalt: New Investigations Into Stratigraphy, Eruption Mechanisms and Volatile Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, K.; Wolff, J. A.; Rowe, M. C.; Boroughs, S.; Self, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Grande Ronde Basalt makes up 71% of the ~210,000 km3 Columbia River Basalt Group. The largest identified unit within the Columbia River lavas is the Wapshilla Ridge Member of the R2 magnetostratigraphic interval of the GRB, with a volume of 40,350 km3 [1]. In the vent area in NE Oregon, it is under- and overlain by the Mt. Horrible and Grouse Creek Members of the GRB. Field relations and chemical correlation indicate that the 8,150 km3 Mt. Horrible lava was extruded during the same eruptive episode as the Wapshilla. The Grouse Creek Member may also be part of the same eruptive sequence ; if so the total volume of this event is in excess of 50,000 km3. Here we present field observations and petrologic data, including analyses of glassy melt inclusions in microphenocrysts, from several locations within the source region for the Wapshilla Ridge Member. Coarse phreatomagmatic tephra of the Wapshilla Ridge Member is found over a 500 km2 area of NE Oregon which we identify as a vent field. Both glassy lapilli and melt inclusions exhibit a broader range in compositions than do tightly-clustered whole-rock compositions of dense lava collected from throughout the Columbia plateau, indicating that the perceived homogeneity of Columbia River lavas is due in part to syn-eruptive, within-flow homogenization. Glassy lapilli have highly variable S contents between 100 and 1260 ppm with an average of 540 ppm. This is consistent with quenching before degassing was complete, a common feature of phreatomagmatic eruptions. S concentrations in melt inclusions in plagioclase, pyroxene, and magnetite microphenocrysts are 1100 - 2900 ppm. Scaling these results to the total volume, atmospheric S release from this giant event is estimated at 161 × 37 Gt, approximately 3,000 times that from the Tambora 1815 event. Preliminary SIMS analysis indicates water concentrations as high as 2.6 wt% in glassy melt inclusions. References: [1] Reidel and Tolan (2013) GSA Special Paper 497.

  14. Late stage Imbrium volcanism on the Moon: Evidence for two source regions and implications for the thermal history of Mare Imbrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F.; Zhu, M.-H.; Zou, Y. L.

    2016-07-01

    Large open fissures or volcanic rifts can form in volcanic terrain and they are also conduits for magma ascending through the lunar crust. On the Moon, we investigated two volcanic source regions within Mare Imbrium by tracking surface morphologic features and compositional information. The Euler source region is situated at the southwest edge of the basin, while the Lambert source region lies off the south margin of the Imbrium mascon. Survey of dike surface manifestations in Euler source site suggest that dikes are the possible source of the local upper basaltic flows and the last lava phases with well developed scarps near the Euler crater, which extend northeast to the basin center. The Euler dike swarm are radial to the basin and reveal possible dike-to-conduit transition mechanism. They reveal radial subsurface fractures which may be tensional cracks preceding to the emplacement of the last stage of the mare fill. Of these, the largest dike has a more than 100 km length. The spatial arrangement of tectonic and volcanic features in Lambert source site is directly or indirectly controlled by the regional compression and extension stresses associated with flexure in response to mascon and basalt loading. In addition, compositional variation trends show a general southwest-to-northeast flooding direction of the exposed high-Ti basalts. This will have important implications for both the Imbrium basin's mare volcanism and for the thermal evolution of Mare Imbrium and the Moon.

  15. On the Age, Duration and Eruptive History of the Karoo Flood Basalt: new results from the Oxbow-Moteng Pass Sections (South Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulin, M.; Fluteau, F.; Courtillot, V.; Marsh, J.; Delpech, G.; Quidelleur, X.; Gerard, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Karoo traps in southern Africa have been linked to the (relatively small) Pliensbachian-Toarcian extinctions. In an attempt to understand why the extinction was far less severe than the one at the KT boundary (related to the Deccan traps and Chicxulub impact), we have undertaken a large sampling program for mainly paleomagnetism and geochronology. A first 800 m thick section of the traps at Naude's Nek (NN), near the southern border of Lesotho, has been published (Moulin et al, 2011). We have next investigated the Moteng Pass and Oxbow sections some 200 km to the North, where lava thickness reaches almost 1500 m. Our age determinations (40K-40Ar Cassignol-Gillot and 40Ar/39Ar techniques) show that the whole lava pile was emplaced in a relatively short time around the Pliensbachian-Toarcian boundary. Detailed flow-by-flow magnetostratigraphy shows that the eruptive sequences can be divided into several volcanic pulses and interbedded individual lava flows. Based on archeomagnetic estimates of the velocity of secular variation, we estimate that total eruption time may have been as short as a few thousand years. However, we cannot determine the amount of time elapsed between successive volcanic pulses, which is of course required to fully reconstruct the eruptive sequence. Combined with previously published sections covering much of Lesotho (NN, Bushmen's Pass - Prévot et al, 2003 -, Mafika Lisiu and Sani Pass - Kosterov and Perrin, 1996), these new results allow the correlation of numerous directional groups and allow one to partly reconstruct and constrain the eruptive history of the Drakensberg group of the Karoo LIP.

  16. The Environmental Impact of Siberian Traps Volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, A. D.; Reichow, M. K.

    2008-12-01

    volcanism began. Arguably, the earth system was much more vulnerable to the additional carbon loading from volcanism. The environmental impact of flood basalt eruptions may thus be strongly influenced by the prevailing global climate conditions and atmosphere-ocean composition.

  17. U-Pb age and Hf isotopes of zircon from basaltic andesite and geochemical fingerprinting of the associated picrites in the Emeishan large igneous province, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qingyan; Li, Chusi; Zhang, Mingjie; Lin, Yao

    2015-02-01

    The ages of many picrites associated with Permian flood basalts in the Emeishan large igneous province, SW China have been debated for a long time. Some researchers believe that these picrites are co-magmatic with the flood basalts whereas others believe that they are Triassic picritic porphyrites or Cenozoic olivine-rich dikes. We report a U-Pb age of 256.2 ± 1.4 Ma for the youngest zircon grains from the Binchuan volcanic sequence which contains the disputed picrites. This age is within the range of values reported for the intrusive and extrusive rocks of the Emeishan large igneous province. The ɛHf values (-0.3 to 6.6) of the youngest zircon crystals from the Binchuan volcanic sequence are similar to those (-5 to 10) of co-magmatic zircon crystals from the intrusive rocks of the Emeishan large igneous province. Our new data confirm that the Binchuan volcanic sequence is an integral part of the Emeishan large igneous province. The disputed and undisputed picrites in Sichuan and Yunnan have similar olivine Fo-Ni-Mn compositions and whole-rock incompatible trace element ratios such as Th/Nb and Ti/Dy. This, together with their spatially close association with the Emeishan flood basalts, indicates that the disputed picrites also belong to the Emeishan large igneous province. The confusing Cenozoic olivine-rich dikes in the region can be distinguished from the picrites of the Emeishan large igneous province by their different olivine Fo-Ni-Mn compositions and whole-rock incompatible trace element ratios such as Th/Nb and Ti/Dy. The results from this study vindicate the use of the previously-disputed picrites as evidences for Permian mantle plume activity in SW China.

  18. Basalts Dredged from the Northeastern Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Engel, C G; Engel, A E

    1963-06-21

    Volcanic rocks dredged from seamounts, fault ridges, and other major geological features of the northeast Pacific Ocean include a wide variety of basalts. Most of these are vesicular, porphyritic types with near analogues in the Hawaiian and other oceanic islands. In addition, aluminous basalts and diabasic theoleiites impoverished in potassium also occur. There is no simple correlation of composition, degree of oxidation, vesiculation, or hydration of these basalts with texture, or depth of dredge site. Most samples appear to have been extruded at much shallower depths than those now pertaining at the dredge site. The distribution of these basalts suggests that the andesite line coincides with or lies on the continent side of the foot of the continental slope.

  19. Basalts Dredged from the Northeastern Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Engel, C G; Engel, A E

    1963-06-21

    Volcanic rocks dredged from seamounts, fault ridges, and other major geological features of the northeast Pacific Ocean include a wide variety of basalts. Most of these are vesicular, porphyritic types with near analogues in the Hawaiian and other oceanic islands. In addition, aluminous basalts and diabasic theoleiites impoverished in potassium also occur. There is no simple correlation of composition, degree of oxidation, vesiculation, or hydration of these basalts with texture, or depth of dredge site. Most samples appear to have been extruded at much shallower depths than those now pertaining at the dredge site. The distribution of these basalts suggests that the andesite line coincides with or lies on the continent side of the foot of the continental slope. PMID:17802173

  20. Basalts dredged from the northeastern Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engel, C.G.; Engel, A.E.J.

    1963-01-01

    Volcanic rocks dredged from seamounts, fault ridges, and other major geological features of the northeast Pacific Ocean include a wide variety of basalts. Most of these are vesicular, porphyritic types with near analogues in the Hawaiian and other oceanic islands. in addition, aluminous basalts and diabasic tholeiites impoverished in potassium also occur. There is no simple correlation of composition, degree of oxidation, vesiculation, or hydration of these basalts with texture, or depth of dredge site. Most samples appear to have been extruded at much shallower depths than those now pertaining at the dredge site. the distribution of these basalts suggests that the andesite line coincides with or lies on the continent side of the foot of the continental slope.

  1. Climate Throughout Geologic Time Was Cooled by Sequences of Explosive Volcanic Eruptions Forming Aerosols That Reflect and Scatter Ultraviolet Solar Radiation and Warmed by Relatively Continuous Extrusion of Basaltic Lava that Depletes Ozone, Allowing More Solar Ultraviolet Radiation to Reach Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, P. L.

    2015-12-01

    Active volcanoes of all sizes and eruptive styles, emit chlorine and bromine gases observed to deplete ozone. Effusive, basaltic volcanic eruptions, typical in Hawaii and Iceland, extrude large lava flows, depleting ozone and causing global warming. Major explosive volcanoes also deplete ozone with the same emissions, causing winter warming, but in addition eject megatons of water and sulfur dioxide into the lower stratosphere where they form sulfuric-acid aerosols whose particles grow large enough to reflect and scatter ultraviolet sunlight, causing net global cooling for a few years. The relative amounts of explosive and effusive volcanism are determined by the configuration of tectonic plates moving around Earth's surface. Detailed studies of climate change throughout geologic history, and since 1965, are not well explained by greenhouse-gas theory, but are explained quite clearly at OzoneDepletionTheory.info. Ozone concentrations vary substantially by the minute and show close relationships to weather system highs and lows (as pointed out by Dobson in the 1920s), to the height of the tropopause, and to the strength and location of polar vortices and jet streams. Integrating the effects of volcanism on ozone concentrations and the effects of ozone concentrations on synoptic weather patterns should improve weather forecasting. For example, the volcano Bárðarbunga, in central Iceland, extruded 85 km2 of basaltic lava between August 29, 2014, and February 28, 2015, having a profound effect on weather. Most surprising, more than a week before the March 4 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010, substantial amounts of ozone were released in the vicinity of the volcano precisely when surface deformation showed that magma first began moving up from sills below 4 km depth. Ozone similarly appears to have been emitted 3.5 months before the Pinatubo eruption in 1991. Readily available daily maps of ozone concentrations may allow early warning of an imminent volcanic

  2. The Rhyolite Flare-up of the Columbia River Basalt Province and its Bearing on Plume vs. Non-plume Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streck, M. J.; Ferns, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    The decades-long controversy as to whether the Columbia River Basalt province results from arrival of a deep mantle plume is far from over, as new non-plume models are proposed. Age-progressive rhyolites of the Snake River Plain are a centerpiece to a migrating plume model that ties mid-Miocene flood basalt magmatism to the present location of the Yellowstone hotspot. However voluminous mid-Miocene rhyolites coeval with the flood basalts of the Columbia River Basalt province have received little attention. These long-known but relatively underappreciated rhyolite occurrences in eastern Oregon and neighboring areas erupted across the province over a narrow time window making the Columbia River province a strongly bimodal (basalt-rhyolite) Large Igneous Province. The entire rhyolite distribution area has roughly a circular area of about a diameter of 300 km and stretches from rhyolite centers near the towns of Baker City and John Day, Oregon in the north to rhyolite centers of the High Rock Desert, Nevada in the SW and the Jarbidge Rhyolite, Idaho in the SE. Oldest rhyolites are ~16.5 Ma in age and occur both along the southern E-W tangent (including McDermitt) and, in lesser volumes, in the central to northern sector. The considerable data that have been generated over the last few years on rhyolites of the southern sector is now being supplemented by new data that we have begun collecting on rhyolites further north. Province-wide rhyolite volcanism was strongest between ~16.4 and 15.4 Ma coincident with eruptions of the most voluminous member of the CRBG - the Grande Ronde Basalt. This widespread rhyolite volcanism indicates that CRBG crustal inputs were focused during this narrow time window over a large area. Magmas in the upper Grande Ronde Basalt that compositionally correlate with glassy mafic inclusions in the rhyolitic Dinner Creek Tuff effectively place one CRBG crustal storage site below a major silicic center. Youngest rhyolites range from ~14.5 to 12

  3. Columbia River Basalt Chemistry, Degassing, and Eruption Dynamics: Insights From Quenched Glassy Lapilli and Tuffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, K.; Wolff, J.; Rowe, M. C.; Neill, O. K.

    2015-12-01

    Primary eruptive vent areas for several lavas in the Imnaha and Grande Ronde Formations of the Columbia River Basalt exhibit phreatomagmatic character, due to the interaction of rising flood basalt magma with groundwater and/or surface water. Vent constructional forms range from extensive (>1 km) maar complexes with abundant basement lithics to small (<<1 km), lithic-poor low-angle cones. Phreatomagmatic tephra is lithified and variably palagonitized, but glassy basaltic lapilli can be recovered from many locations. Many lapilli have experienced variable degrees of Na leaching but preserve magmatic abundances of most other elements; nonetheless in many cases pristine, unmodified glass is amenable to analysis. In addition, phenocrysts in lapilli have fully glassy melt inclusions. Glassy lapilli have highly variable S contents between ~100 and ~1300 ppm. This is consistent with quenching before degassing was complete, a common feature of phreatomagmatic eruptions. Melt inclusions have ≤2900 ppm S, ≤3400 ppm CO2 and ≤2.6 wt% H2O, allowing estimates of atmospheric input from the main phase of Columbia River volcanism. In addition, the lithophile trace element contents, and petrogenetically significant ratios such as Ba/Nb, of glassy lapilli exhibit differ from those in the equivalent 'stony' lava flows by up to a factor of 2. This suggests that processes in the flow and crystallization of lava serve to modify trace element abundances, and may place limits on the petrogenetic significance of trace element data from crystalline lava samples.

  4. Characteristics of terrestrial basaltic rock populations: Implications for Mars lander and rover science and safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craddock, Robert A.; Golombek, Matthew P.

    2016-08-01

    We analyzed the morphometry of basaltic rock populations that have been emplaced or affected by a variety of geologic processes, including explosive volcanic eruptions (as a proxy for impact cratering), catastrophic flooding, frost shattering, salt weathering, alluvial deposition, and chemical weathering. Morphometric indices for these rock populations were compared to an unmodified population of rocks that had broken off a solidified lava flow to understand how different geologic processes change rock shape. We found that a majority of rocks have an sphericity described as either a disc or sphere in the Zingg classification system and posit that this is a function of cooling fractures in the basalt (Zingg [1935] Schweiz. Miner. Petrogr. Mitt., 15, 39-140). Angularity (roundness) is the most diagnostic morphometric index, but the Corey Shape Factor (CSF), Oblate-Prolate Index (OPI) and deviation from compactness (D) also sometimes distinguished weathering processes. Comparison of our results to prior analyses of rock populations found at the Mars Pathfinder, Spirit, and Curiosity landing sites support previous conclusions. The observation that the size-frequency distribution of terrestrial rock populations follow exponential functions similar to lander and orbital measurements of rocks on Mars, which is expected from fracture and fragmentation theory, indicates that these distributions are being dominantly controlled by the initial fracture and fragmentation of the basalt.

  5. An estimate of the juvenile sulfur content of basalt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, J.G.; Fabbi, Brent P.

    1971-01-01

    Sulfur analyses by X-ray fluorescence give an average content of 107 ppm for 9 samples of fresh subaerially-erupted oceanic basalt and 680 ppm for 38 samples of submarine erupted basalt. This difference is the result of retention of sulfur in basalt quenched on the sea floor and loss of sulfur in basalt by degassing at the surface. The outer glassy part of submarine erupted basalt contains 800??150 ppm sulfur, and this amount is regarded as an estimate of the juvenile sulfur content of the basalt melt from the mantle. The slower cooled interiors of basalt pillows are depleted relative to the rims owing to degassing and escape through surface fractures. Available samples of deep-sea basalts do not indicate a difference in original sulfur content between low-K tholeiite, Hawaiian tholeiite, and alkali basalt. The H2O/S ratio of analyzed volcanic gases is generally lower than the H2O/S ratio of gases presumed lost from surface lavas as determined by chemical differences between pillow rims and surface lavas. This enrichment of volcanic gases in sulfur relative to water may result from a greater degassing of sulfur relative to water from shallow intrusive bodies beneath the volcano. ?? 1971 Springer-Verlag.

  6. Great Holocene floods along Jokulsa a Fjollum, north Iceland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waitt, R.B.

    2002-01-01

    Jokulsa a Fjollum, Iceland's largest glacial river, drains from Vatnajokull icecap northward to the sea along a broad low that includes an active volcanic belt. Geomorphic features along this path reveal an ancient discharge of water large enough to fill the river valley and spill among a plexus of lows in the volcanic landscape. Stratigraphy in most places reveals just one late Holocene great flood down Jokulsa a Fjollum, between 2500 and 2000 yr ago. Step-back water computation suggests its peak flow was 0.7 million m3/s or more. An early scabland-carving great flood had swept down the Asbyrgi area of lowermost Jokulsa just after deglaciation, 9000-8000 yr ago. Stratigraphy near Vesturdalur reveals at least 16 additional floods, perhaps of moderate discharge, between about 8000 and 4000 yr ago. Dispersed field evidence of the late Holocene great flood-anastomosing channels whose basalt surfaces are water fluted and half-potholed, in places plucked down to small-scale scabland replete with dry cataracts, huge boulders, long gravel bars, giant current dunes-is traced the length of Jokulsa valley. From Vatnajokull's north margin at Kverkfjoll, water anastomosed through diverse lows of a high-relief landscape. Thus swift release of meltwater from subglacial Kverkfjoll caldera must have been a source of flood. But even this catastrophic outflow was insufficient to constitute the huge discharges evident farther down-valley. Field evidence reveals a yet greater discharge directly from the large outlet glacier Dyngjujokull. There is no evidence that subglacial Baraoarbunga caldera was involved, but subglacial melting during eruption of a more eastern fissure system could be a source of flood.

  7. Rare earth element contents and multiple mantle sources of the transform-related Mount Edgecumbe basalts, southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riehle, J.R.; Budahn, J.R.; Lanphere, M.A.; Brew, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Pleistocene basalt of the Mount Edgecumbe volcanic field (MEF) is subdivided into a plagioclase type and an olivine type. Th/La ratios of plagioclase basalt are similar to those of mid-ocean-ridge basalt (MORB), whereas those of olivine basalt are of continental affinity. Rare earth element (REE) contents of the olivine basalt, which resemble those of transitional MORB, are modelled by 10-15% partial melting of fertile spinel-plagioclase lherzolite followed by removal of 8-13% olivine. It is concluded that olivine basalt originated in subcontinental spinel lherzolite and that plagioclase basalt may have originated in suboceanic lithosphere of the Pacific plate. -from Authors

  8. The oxygen-hafnium isotope paradox in the early post Columbia River Basalt silicic volcanism: Evidence for complex batch assembly of upper crustal, lower crustal and low-δ18O silicic magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colon, D.; Bindeman, I. N.; Ellis, B. S.; Schmitt, A. K.; Fisher, C. M.; Vervoort, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Eruptions of the Columbia River flood basalts were immediately followed by large eruptions of silicic magmas; some may have been coeval, others genetically-linked to the CRB. Among the most voluminous of these eruptions was the Jarbidge Rhyolite, which comprises ~500 km3 of lava erupted from 16.1-15.0 Ma in northern Nevada. Activity at Jarbidge was followed at 15.0 Ma by a series of rhyolitic ignimbrites and lavas in the J-P Desert of Idaho ~50 km NW of the Jarbidge Rhyolite center. To constrain magmatic origins and upper crustal magma storage conditions of these two silicic magmatic systems, we conducted bulk and high spatial resolution analysis of whole rocks and minerals (quartz, feldspar, and zircon). Bulk quartz and plagioclase δ18O values of the J-P Desert units are only moderately lower than mantle values, with δ18O-quartz of 5.0-5.5‰ and plagioclase δ18O of ~3.9-5.8‰, along with slightly unradiogenic Nd and Hf whole rock values (average ɛHf and ɛNd of -13.1 and -10.0, respectively), while quartz from the Jarbidge Rhyolite has normal δ18O (+8.4‰), but very unradiogenic ɛHf-ɛNd (ɛHf = -34.7, ɛNd = -24.0), fingerprinting Archean upper crust. SIMS analysis of J-P Desert zircons reveals considerably diverse δ18O values, ranging from -0.6‰ to +6.5‰ in a single unit. The same zircon spots yielded U-Pb SIMS ages which generally agree with the 40Ar/39Ar eruption ages, with no evidence of inheritance of pre-Miocene zircons. Combined with LA-MC-ICP-MS analysis of Hf isotopes overlapping the earlier SIMS spots, these zircons show a clear near-linear correlation between ɛHf and δ18O values observed in individual zircons. This relationship suggests variable mixing of two distinct silicic magmas prior to eruption of the J-P Desert rhyolites. One of these, characterized by extremely low ɛHf values and normal δ18O values, is likely a mantle magma strongly contaminated with shallow Archean crust, represented by the Jarbidge Rhyolite. The other is

  9. Volcanic Stratigraphy of the Quaternary Rhyolite Plateau in Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christiansen, Robert L.; Blank, H. Richard

    1972-01-01

    The volcanic sequence of the Quaternary Yellowstone plateau consists of rhyolites and basalts representing three volcanic cycles. The major events of each cycle were eruption of a voluminous ash-flow sheet and formation of a large collapse caldera. Lesser events of each cycle were eruption of precaldera and postcaldera rhyolitic lava flows and marginal basaltic lavas. The three major ash-flow sheets are named and designated in this report as formations within the Yellowstone Group. The lavas are assigned to newly named formations organized around the three ash-flow sheets of the Yellowstone Group to represent the volcanic cycles. Rocks of the first volcanic cycle comprise the precaldera Junction Butte Basalt and rhyolite of Broad Creek; the Huckleberry Ridge Tuff of the Yellowstone Group; and the postcaldera Lewis Canyon Rhyolite and basalt of The Narrows. Rocks of the second volcanic cycle do not crop out within Yellowstone National Park, and only the major unit, the Mesa Falls Tuff of the Yellowstone Group, is named here. The third volcanic cycle is represented by the precaldera Mount Jackson Rhyolite and Undine Falls Basalt; the Lava Creek Tuff of the Yellowstone Group; and the postcaldera Plateau Rhyolite and five post-Lava Creek basaltic sequences. Collapse to form the compound and resurgent Yellowstone caldera was related to eruption of the Lava Creek Tuff. The Plateau Rhyolite is divided into six members - the Mallard Lake, Upper Basin, Obsidian Creek, Central Plateau, Shoshone Lake Tuff, and Roaring Mountain Members; all but the Mallard Lake postdate resurgent doming of the caldera. The basalts are divided into the Swan Lake Flat Basalt, Falls River Basalt, basalt of Mariposa Lake, Madison River Basalt, and Osprey Basalt. Sediments are intercalated in the volcanic section below the Huckleberry Ridge and Mesa Falls Tuffs and within the Junction Butte Basalt, sediments and basalts of The Narrows, Undine Falls Basalt, Plateau Rhyolite, and Osprey Basalt.

  10. Closer look at lunar volcanism

    SciTech Connect

    Vaniman, D.T.; Heiken, G.; Taylor, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Although the American Apollo and Soviet Luna missions concentrated on mare basalt samples, major questions remain about lunar volcanism. Lunar field work will be indispensable for resolving the scientific questions about ages, compositions, and eruption processes of lunar volcanism. From a utilitarian standpoint, a better knowledge of lunar volcanism will also yield profitable returns in lunar base construction (e.g., exploitation of rille or lava-tube structures) and in access to materials such as volatile elements, pure glass, or ilmenite for lunar industry.

  11. Zeolite parageneses in the North Atlantic igneous province: Implications for geotectonics and groundwater quality of basaltic crust

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhoff, P.S.; Fridriksson, T.; Bird, D.K.

    2000-01-01

    Zeolites are among the most common products of chemical interaction between groundwaters and the Earth's crust during diagenesis and low-grade metamorphism. The unique crystal structures of zeolites result in large molar volumes, high cation-exchange capacities, and reversible dehydration. These properties influence both the stability and chemistry of zeolites in geologic systems, leading to complex parageneses and compositional relationships that provide sensitive indicators of physicochemical conditions in the crust. Observations of zeolite occurrence in Tertiary basaltic lavas in the North Atlantic region indicate that individual zeolite minerals are distributed in distinct, depth-controlled zones that parallel the paleosurface of the plateau basalts and transgress the lava stratigraphy. The zeolite zones are interpreted to have formed at the end of burial metamorphism of the lavas. Relative timing relations between various mineral parageneses and crustal-scale deformal features indicate that the minerals indicative of the zeolite zones formed within 1 million years after cessation of volcanism. Empirical correlation between the depth distribution of zeolite zones and the temperatures of formation of zeolites in geothermal systems provides estimates of regional thermal gradients and heat flow in flood-basalt provinces. Similarly, the orientations of zeolite zones can be used to distinguish synvolcanic and post-volcanic crustal deformation. Because zeolites that characterize the individual zones display different ion-exchange selectivities for various cations, reactions between groundwaters and zeolites in basaltic aquifers can result in depth-controlled zones where individual elements are concentrated in the crust. This is established for Sr, which is concentrated by at least an order of magnitude in heulandite, resulting in an overall SR enrichment of lavas in the heulandite-stilbite zeolite zone.

  12. A Plume Head and Tail in the Bengal Basin and Bay of Bengal: Rajmahal and Sylhet Traps with Surrounding Alkalic Volcanism and the Ninetyeast Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, A. R.; Weaver, K. L.; Sengupta, S.

    2001-12-01

    Although the 116-113 Ma-old Rajmahal-Sylhet Traps of the Bengal basin, potentially covering an area > 2x105 km2, can be directly linked via Ninetyeast Ridge to the Kerguelen Plume, more than 5,000 kms away, it is generally believed that this flood basalt volcanism originated from a normal MORB-type mantle at the boundary of a mantle plume. This model, primarily based on geochemical analysis of a limited number of Rajmahal basalts, requires initiation of rifting of the eastern Indian margin by a smaller thermal flux than necessary for creating a large igneous province. Here we show that the extent of volcanism associated with the Rajmahal-Sylhet Traps is far greater than usually assumed, thus requiring a direct involvement of the Kerguelen Plume. In addition to the surface exposures of the flood basalts in Rajmahal-Sylhet, the basaltic rocks have been encountered in many parts of the Bengal Basin in bore holes reaching a maximum thickness of 600 m in the western margin of the Basin (Sengupta, Bull. AAPG, 1966) Most importantly, several suites of ultrapotassic and alkalic intrusive complexes, similar to those associated with the Deccan and Siberia Traps, occur over wide areas within and outside the Basin: i) southwest of the surface exposures of Rajmahal basalts, distance 200km, intrusive in Lower Gondwana coalbeds, Ar-Ar age 114 Ma (P.R. Renne, personal communication), ii) 400 km north of Rajmahal, exposed in Sikkim, intrusive into metamorphic crystalline nappes of the Himalayas; distance here is not real and must be a minimum as the nappes have been transported from the north, iii) northeast of Rajmahal in Meghalaya State, distance 550 km, intrusive into metamorphic Precambrian basement rocks. Nd-Sr isotopic ratios and trace element characteristics of these above ultrapotassic and alkaline rocks are consistent with their origin associated with the Kerguelen Plume. The wide range in Nd-Sr array for these rocks, including the Sylhet and Rajmahal basalts, shows

  13. Investigating the Processes of Crust Formation and Intraplate Continental Volcanism in the High Lava Plains, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, R. W.; James, D. E.; Fouch, M. J.; Grove, T. L.; Hart, W. K.; Grunder, A. L.; Duncan, R. A.; Keller, G. R.; Harder, S. H.; Kincaid, C. R.

    2006-12-01

    East of the southern Cascades is an area of voluminous Late-Cenozoic volcanism built on an immature crustal section accreted to North America in the Mesozoic. With the exception of the Snake River Plain, the High Lava Plains (HLP) of eastern Oregon has been the most volcanically active area in the western United States in the late Cenozoic. Through much of this area, the oldest exposed basement is early Miocene intermediate composition volcanic rocks. Beginning at approximately 16.5 Ma, the HLP was blanketed with flood basalts from both the Steens and Columbia River eruptive centers. The flood basalt era was followed by a time- progressive migration of large silicic centers beginning near the Oregon-Nevada-Idaho borders and extending to the present day activity at Newberry volcano. Quaternary basaltic volcanism is scattered along this whole trend, making the HLP more of a hot-line than a hot-spot. A variety of mechanisms have been proposed to explain this activity including: outflow of the Yellowstone plume-head, back-arc spreading, lithosphere delamination, Basin and Range extension, and asthenospheric inflow around the northward migrating edge of the subducting Juan de Fuca plate. These models make distinct predictions about the flow patterns and temperature structure of the shallow mantle underlying this area, but geophysical information capable of discriminating these models is sparse to absent. To remedy this situation and better define the causes of the voluminous volcanism in this area, the HLP project, funded by the NSF Continental Dynamics program, has initiated a multi-level broadband and active-source seismic study combined with field geology, geochemistry, petrology, geochronology and 3D geodynamic modeling of an area reaching from the southern Cascades across eastern Oregon into Idaho and northernmost Nevada. The seismic part of the project employs very dense station spacing that will provide high-resolution images of the crust and upper 100 km of the

  14. Revisiting the Paleomagnetism of the Antrim Plateau Volcanics of Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, M.; Li, Z. X.

    2003-04-01

    The Antrim Plateau volcanics, Australia's largest Phanerozoic flood-basalt province, crop out extensively in the East Kimberley, Victoria River and Daly River Basin areas, with a maximum thickness of the formation estimated to exceed 1000 m to the west. Interbedded sedimentary rocks indicate that the basalts were extruded in an area near sea level and subject to marine incursions. In general, the volcanics exhibit only very gentle dips and do not appear to have been tectonically disturbed very much. An ion microprobe U-Pb zircon age of 513 ± 12 Ma was recently obtained from the Milliwindi dolerite dyke, considered as a feeder dyke of the Antrim Plateau volcanics. Natural remanent magnetization of samples from these volcanics was first studied by Irving and Green in the fifties. The results were somewhat inconclusive and samples failed to respond satisfactorily to alternating field demagnetization. Ten years later, geological mapping of the area covered by the volcanics and improved accessibility enabled McElhinny and Luck to undertake a new collection from this formation. 26 basalt flows and 3 interbedded sandstone horizons were sampled throughout an area of approximately 250,000 Km2. Only samples from 14 sites could be used to define a mean paleomagnetic pole. However, the site-mean directions are fairly scattered and the mean pole position has also a fairly large scatter with a A95 of 17°. Part of this dispersion could be related to partly unremoved secondary components of magnetizations, which are very widespread in the tropics due to weathering. The Antrim Plateau Volcanics, being virtually the only basic igneous rocks from the lower Palaeozoic of Australia, possess particular paleomagnetic significance in order to determine more precisely the position of Australia in Late Proterozoic - Early Paleozoic reconstructions. Modern paleomagnetic techniques and demagnetization analysis allowing a better separation of multi-component magnetization, a new sampling was

  15. Plagioclase mineralogy of olivine alkaline basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffer, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    A geological and mineralogical study of the Potrillo volcanics is reported. The investigation consisted first of field mapping to establish and identify the different rock types and volcanic features in order to determine the geological history. Next, samples were collected and analyzed petrographically to determine suitable rocks from the various stratigraphic units for study of plagioclase. Samples selected for further study were crushed and the plagioclase extracted for the determination of composition and structural state. These results were then related to the petrology and crystallization of the basalt.

  16. Geochemistry of 24 Ma Basalts from Northeast Egypt: Implications for Small-Scale Convection Beneath the East African Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endress, C. A.; Furman, T.; Ali Abu El-Rus, M.

    2009-12-01

    . However, measured 207Pb/204Pb and 87Sr/86Sr values are higher than those observed in the Ethiopian flood basalts (Pik et al., 1999) and suites from the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden (Schilling et al., 1992; Volker and McCulloch, 1993; Volker et al., 1997), consistent with trace element evidence of crustal contamination. We aim to develop a broad framework for understanding tectono-magmatic activity throughout northern Africa since the Miocene. The NE Egyptian basalts show evidence of both lithospheric and sublithospheric contributions and represent a time period that is critical to ongoing debate surrounding the relationship between shallow magmatism, crustal extension, and deep mantle processes exemplified by the features within and beneath the African Plate. A plausible model for the widespread volcanism during the early Miocene is that each local magmatic event was related to small scale convection rising above a plume or plumes.

  17. Flooding and Flood Management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, K.N.; Fallon, J.D.; Lorenz, D.L.; Stark, J.R.; Menard, Jason; Easter, K.W.; Perry, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Floods result in great human disasters globally and nationally, causing an average of $4 billion of damages each year in the United States. Minnesota has its share of floods and flood damages, and the state has awarded nearly $278 million to local units of government for flood mitigation projects through its Flood Hazard Mitigation Grant Program. Since 1995, flood mitigation in the Red River Valley has exceeded $146 million. Considerable local and state funding has been provided to manage and mitigate problems of excess stormwater in urban areas, flooding of farmlands, and flood damages at road crossings. The cumulative costs involved with floods and flood mitigation in Minnesota are not known precisely, but it is safe to conclude that flood mitigation is a costly business. This chapter begins with a description of floods in Minneosta to provide examples and contrasts across the state. Background material is presented to provide a basic understanding of floods and flood processes, predication, and management and mitigation. Methods of analyzing and characterizing floods are presented because they affect how we respond to flooding and can influence relevant practices. The understanding and perceptions of floods and flooding commonly differ among those who work in flood forecasting, flood protection, or water resource mamnagement and citizens and businesses affected by floods. These differences can become magnified following a major flood, pointing to the need for better understanding of flooding as well as common language to describe flood risks and the uncertainty associated with determining such risks. Expectations of accurate and timely flood forecasts and our ability to control floods do not always match reality. Striving for clarity is important in formulating policies that can help avoid recurring flood damages and costs.

  18. Mylonitic volcanics near Puging, Upper Siang district, Arunachal Pradesh: Evidence of oblique-slip thrusting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, T. K.; Bhattacharyya, P.; Bezbaruah, D.

    2016-08-01

    The Abor volcanics of the continental flood basalt affinity are extensively exposed in different parts of the Siang valley. These are associated with Yinkiong Group of rocks of Paleocene-Eocene age and represent syn-sedimentary volcanism in a rift setting. Subsequent folding and thrusting of the Siyom and Rikor sequences above the Yinkiong Group of rocks represent changes from syn-to-post collisional brittle-ductile tectonic episodes. Mylonitic Abor volcanics in the thrust contacts are studied at several locations in the north and south of Puging in the Siang valley. Both the Abor volcanics and associated Rikor and Yinkiong Group of rocks preserve meso to micro-scale fabric asymmetries indicating that the thrust contacts are shear zones of brittle-ductile nature containing mylonitic textures of high shear strain. Two distinct hitherto unrecognised shear zones in the north and south of Puging are named as North Puging Shear Zone (NPSZ) and South Puging Shear Zone (SPSZ). The kinematic indicators along the thrust contact indicate oblique slip thrusting of the Rikor and Siyom thrust sheets above the Yinkiong Group of rocks. This paper provides field evidence proving that the compression due the Burmese plate made oblique slip thrusting and zones of mylonitised volcanics possible and associated metasediments were formed. The kinematic indicators in the NPSZ and SPSZ respectively indicate top-to-SSE and top-to-NNW sense of shears.

  19. Volcanic Gas

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hazards Tephra/Ash Lava Flows Lahars Volcanic Gas Climate Change Pyroclastic Flows Volcanic Landslides Preparedness Volcano Hazard Zones ... Please see our discussion of volcanic gases and climate change for additional information. Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) is ...

  20. Basaltic injections into floored silicic magma chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, R. A.

    Recent studies have provided compelling evidence that many large accumulations of silicic volcanic rocks erupted from long-lasting, floored chambers of silicic magma that were repeatedly injected by basaltic magma. These basaltic infusions are commonly thought to play an important role in the evolution of the silicic systems: they have been proposed as a cause for explosive silicic eruptions [Sparks and Sigurdsson, 1977], compositional variation in ash-flow sheets [Smith, 1979], mafic magmatic inclusions in silicic volcanic rocks [Bacon, 1986], and mixing of mafic and silicic magmas [Anderson, 1976; Eichelberger, 1978]. If, as seems likely, floored silicic magma chambers have frequently been invaded by basalt, then plutonic bodies should provide records of these events. Although plutonic evidence for mixing and commingling of mafic and silicic magmas has been recognized for many years, it has been established only recently that some intrusive complex originated through multiple basaltic injections into floored chambers of silicic magma [e.g., Wiebe, 1974; Michael, 1991; Chapman and Rhodes, 1992].

  1. Tsunami flooding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, Eric; Jones, Henry; McBride, Mark; Fedors, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Panel 5 focused on tsunami flooding with an emphasis on Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) as derived from its counterpart, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) that determines seismic ground-motion hazards. The Panel reviewed current practices in PTHA and determined the viability of extending the analysis to extreme design probabilities (i.e., 10-4 to 10-6). In addition to earthquake sources for tsunamis, PTHA for extreme events necessitates the inclusion of tsunamis generated by submarine landslides, and treatment of the large attendant uncertainty in source characterization and recurrence rates. Tsunamis can be caused by local and distant earthquakes, landslides, volcanism, and asteroid/meteorite impacts. Coastal flooding caused by storm surges and seiches is covered in Panel 7. Tsunamis directly tied to earthquakes, the similarities with (and path forward offered by) the PSHA approach for PTHA, and especially submarine landslide tsunamis were a particular focus of Panel 5.

  2. Basaltic cannibalism at Thrihnukagigur volcano, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudak, M. R.; Feineman, M. D.; La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.

    2014-12-01

    cannibalism, we suggest that it is not limited to this volcanic system. Rather it is a process that likely occurs throughout Iceland and may contribute to the evolution of the crust in other predominately basaltic settings.

  3. Geophysical expression of caldera related volcanism, structures and mineralization in the McDermitt volcanic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rytuba, J. J.; Blakely, R. J.; Moring, B.; Miller, R.

    2013-12-01

    The High Rock, Lake Owyhee, and McDermitt volcanic fields, consisting of regionally extensive ash flow tuffs and associated calderas, developed in NW Nevada and SE Oregon following eruption of the ca. 16.7 Ma Steens flood basalt. The first ash flow, the Tuff of Oregon Canyon, erupted from the McDermitt volcanic field at 16.5Ma. It is chemically zoned from peralkaline rhyolite to dacite with trace element ratios that distinguish it from other ash flow tuffs. The source caldera, based on tuff distribution, thickness, and size of lithic fragments, is in the area in which the McDermitt caldera (16.3 Ma) subsequently formed. Gravity and magnetic anomalies are associated with some but not all of the calderas. The White Horse caldera (15.6 Ma), the youngest caldera in the McDermitt volcanic field has the best geophysical expression, with both aeromagnetic and gravity lows coinciding with the caldera. Detailed aeromagnetic and gravity surveys of the McDermitt caldera, combined with geology and radiometric surveys, provides insight into the complexities of caldera collapse, resurgence, post collapse volcanism, and hydrothermal mineralization. The McDermitt caldera is among the most mineralized calderas in the world, whereas other calderas in these three Mid Miocene volcanic fields do not contain important hydrothermal ore deposits, despite having similar age and chemistry. The McDermitt caldera is host to Hg, U, and Li deposits and potentially significant resources of Ga, Sb, and REE. The geophysical data indicate that post-caldera collapse intrusions were important in formation of the hydrothermal systems. An aeromagnetic low along the E caldera margin reflects an intrusion at a depth of 2 km associated with the near-surface McDermitt-hot-spring-type Hg-Sb deposit, and the deeper level, high-sulfidation Ga-REE occurrence. The Li deposits on the W side of the caldera are associated with a series of low amplitude, small diameter aeromagnetic anomalies that form a continuous

  4. Origin of High-Alumina Basalt, Andesite, and Dacite Magmas.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, W

    1964-10-30

    The typical volcanic rocks of most island arcs and eugeosynclines, and of some continental environments, are basalt, andesite, and dacite, of high alumina content. The high-alumina basalt differs from tholeiitic basalt primarily in having a greater content of the components of calcic plagioclase. Laboratory data indicate that in the upper mantle, below the level at which the basaltic component of mantle rock is transformed by pressure to eclogite or pyroxenite, the entire basaltic portion probably is melted within a narrow temperature range, but that above the level of that transformation plagioclase is melted selectively before pyroxene over a wide temperature range. The broad spectrum of high-alumina magmas may represent widely varying degrees of partial melting above the transformation level, whereas narrow-spectrum tholeiite magma may represent more complete melting beneath it.

  5. Origin of High-Alumina Basalt, Andesite, and Dacite Magmas.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, W

    1964-10-30

    The typical volcanic rocks of most island arcs and eugeosynclines, and of some continental environments, are basalt, andesite, and dacite, of high alumina content. The high-alumina basalt differs from tholeiitic basalt primarily in having a greater content of the components of calcic plagioclase. Laboratory data indicate that in the upper mantle, below the level at which the basaltic component of mantle rock is transformed by pressure to eclogite or pyroxenite, the entire basaltic portion probably is melted within a narrow temperature range, but that above the level of that transformation plagioclase is melted selectively before pyroxene over a wide temperature range. The broad spectrum of high-alumina magmas may represent widely varying degrees of partial melting above the transformation level, whereas narrow-spectrum tholeiite magma may represent more complete melting beneath it. PMID:17794034

  6. Origin of high-alumina basalt, andesite, and dacite magmas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, W.

    1964-01-01

    The typical volcanic rocks of most island arcs and eugeosynclines, and of some continental environments, are basalt, andesite, and dacite, of high alumina content. The high-alumina basalt differs from tholeiitic basalt primarily in having a greater content of the components of calcic plagioclase. Laboratory data indicate that in the upper mantle, below the level at which the basaltic component of mantle rock is transformed by pressure to eclogite or pyroxenite, the entire basaltic portion probably is melted within a narrow temperature range, but that above the level of that transformation plagioclase is melted selectively before pyroxene over a wide temperature range. The broad spectrum of high-alumina magmas may represent widely varying degrees of partial melting above the transformation level, whereas narrow-spectrum tholeiite magma may represent more complete melting beneath it.

  7. Can we identify source lithology of basalt?

    PubMed

    Yang, Zong-Feng; Zhou, Jun-Hong

    2013-01-01

    The nature of source rocks of basaltic magmas plays a fundamental role in understanding the composition, structure and evolution of the solid earth. However, identification of source lithology of basalts remains uncertainty. Using a parameterization of multi-decadal melting experiments on a variety of peridotite and pyroxenite, we show here that a parameter called FC3MS value (FeO/CaO-3*MgO/SiO2, all in wt%) can identify most pyroxenite-derived basalts. The continental oceanic island basalt-like volcanic rocks (MgO>7.5%) (C-OIB) in eastern China and Mongolia are too high in the FC3MS value to be derived from peridotite source. The majority of the C-OIB in phase diagrams are equilibrium with garnet and clinopyroxene, indicating that garnet pyroxenite is the dominant source lithology. Our results demonstrate that many reputed evolved low magnesian C-OIBs in fact represent primary pyroxenite melts, suggesting that many previous geological and petrological interpretations of basalts based on the single peridotite model need to be reconsidered.

  8. Can we identify source lithology of basalt?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zong-Feng; Zhou, Jun-Hong

    2013-01-01

    The nature of source rocks of basaltic magmas plays a fundamental role in understanding the composition, structure and evolution of the solid earth. However, identification of source lithology of basalts remains uncertainty. Using a parameterization of multi-decadal melting experiments on a variety of peridotite and pyroxenite, we show here that a parameter called FC3MS value (FeO/CaO-3*MgO/SiO2, all in wt%) can identify most pyroxenite-derived basalts. The continental oceanic island basalt-like volcanic rocks (MgO>7.5%) (C-OIB) in eastern China and Mongolia are too high in the FC3MS value to be derived from peridotite source. The majority of the C-OIB in phase diagrams are equilibrium with garnet and clinopyroxene, indicating that garnet pyroxenite is the dominant source lithology. Our results demonstrate that many reputed evolved low magnesian C-OIBs in fact represent primary pyroxenite melts, suggesting that many previous geological and petrological interpretations of basalts based on the single peridotite model need to be reconsidered. PMID:23676779

  9. Recurrence models of volcanic events: Applications to volcanic risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, B.M.; Picard, R.; Valentine, G.; Perry, F.V.

    1992-03-01

    An assessment of the risk of future volcanism has been conducted for isolation of high-level radioactive waste at the potential Yucca Mountain site in southern Nevada. Risk used in this context refers to a combined assessment of the probability and consequences of future volcanic activity. Past studies established bounds on the probability of magmatic disruption of a repository. These bounds were revised as additional data were gathered from site characterization studies. The probability of direct intersection of a potential repository located in an eight km{sup 2} area of Yucca Mountain by ascending basalt magma was bounded by the range of 10{sup {minus}8} to 10{sup {minus}10} yr{sup {minus}1 2}. The consequences of magmatic disruption of a repository were estimated in previous studies to be limited. The exact releases from such an event are dependent on the strike of an intruding basalt dike relative to the repository geometry, the timing of the basaltic event relative to the age of the radioactive waste and the mechanisms of release and dispersal of the waste radionuclides in the accessible environment. The combined low probability of repository disruption and the limited releases associated with this event established the basis for the judgement that the risk of future volcanism was relatively low. It was reasoned that that risk of future volcanism was not likely to result in disqualification of the potential Yucca Mountain site.

  10. The June 27, 2001 landslide on volcanic cones in Limbe, Mount Cameroon, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayonghe, S. N.; Ntasin, E. B.; Samalang, P.; Suh, C. E.

    2004-06-01

    On 27 June 2001, between 12:00 and 14:00 hours GMT, the worst ever recorded landslides and floods in the history of Cameroon occurred on volcanic cones in Limbe, killing 24 people. This brisk event, which from eyewitness reports, lasted for about 30 min, produced more than 43 landslide scars, several tension cracks, destroyed 120 houses and rendered over 2800 people homeless. Field studies indicated the alignment of the landslide scars along a northwest-southeast zone antithetic to the Mabeta fault previously identified by a linear pattern of earthquake epicentres along its length, although volcanic rocks cover this fault. The landslides occurred on slopes with dips ranging from 35° to 80°. The regolith from the slide surfaces destroyed trees and houses, and blocked gutters producing floods along the low-lying coastal parts of Limbe. The mechanism of sliding ranged from planar sliding or mud flows on impermeable surfaces of basaltic flows and/or compacted clayey volcanic tuff, to rotational sliding, or toppling failure on the steeper slopes. Intensive rainfall which preceded the event for two days as well as human intervention on slopes in the form of farming and terracing to build houses, were important contributory factors. On the basis of these findings, measures aimed at reducing the impact of future landslides on the population in the area are proposed.

  11. Use and Features of Basalt Formations for Geologic Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    McGrail, B. Peter; Ho, Anita M.; Reidel, Steve P.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2003-01-01

    Extrusive lava flows of basalt are a potential host medium for geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2. Flood basalts and other large igneous provinces occur worldwide near population and power-producing centers and could securely sequester a significant fraction of global CO2 emissions. We describe the location, extent, and general physical and chemical characteristics of large igneous provinces that satisfy requirements as a good host medium for CO2 sequestration. Most lava flows have vesicular flow tops and bottoms as well as interflow zones that are porous and permeable and serve as regional aquifers. Additionally, basalt is iron-rich, and, under the proper conditions of groundwater pH, temperature, and pressure, injected CO2 will react with iron released from dissolution of primary minerals in the basalt to form stable ferrous carbonate minerals. Conversion of CO2 gas into a solid form was confirmed in laboratory experiments with supercritical CO2 in contact with basalt samples from Washington state.

  12. Volcanic Debris Flows of the Latest Paleozoic Arbasay Formation: Geomorphological Characters and Paleoenvironment Reconstruction of Northern Tian Shan, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W.; Liu, D.; Guo, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Texturally well-preserved volcanic debris flows (also called lahars) are exposed in the Latest Paleozoic Arbasay Formation, Northern Tian Shan. LA-ICP-MS zircon dating of the intercalated fallout tuff sample provided an age of 314.4±3.4 Ma (MSWD=1.6), suggesting they were deposited at Latest Carboniferous. The lahars consist primarily of two lithofacies: massive, poorly lithified diamictites and stratified, moderately lithified gravelly sandstones. The diamictites can be generally divided into two subfacies, i.e., the matrix-supported and the clast-supported diamictites. Most diamictites are structureless and nongraded. They are thick in beds and contain large clasts up to 3 m in dimension. The gravelly sandstones display much finer particle size and have wedge or lenticular geometries. Large clasts are absent within them and the sorting characters are much better than the diamictites. Despite the different size grading, the matrix and the clasts of the two lithofacies appear to be homogeneous. The matrix is generally sandy mudstone. The clasts comprise rhyolites, dacites, andesites, andesitic basalts and basalts, same to the co-existing volcanic rocks, suggesting they originate from the cognate volcanics. The disorganized diamictites are supposed to deposit from a turbulent flood or pyroclastic surge. The gravelly sandstone lithofacies are interpreted as sand-rich flood flows or hyperconcentrated flood flows during the waning stage of a mass-flow event. The overall characteristics of the deposits suggest a mass-flow dominated alluvial fan environment. It's noteable that several syn- sedimentary normal faults occurred within these lahar deposits, indicating that the Southern Junggar Basin was in an extensional regime during the lahars' deposition. Structure is dominated by normal faulting, allowing the existence of relatively small, highly compartmentalized depocenters. This is also supported by geochemistry and detrital zircon studies.

  13. H 2O in basalt and basaltic andesite glass inclusions from four subduction-related volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisson, T. W.; Layne, G. D.

    1993-06-01

    Total dissolved H 2O and major element abundances were measured in basalt and basaltic andesite glass inclusions in olivine phenocrysts from Quaternary eruptions of four subduction-related volcanoes to test the hypothesis that low-MgO high-alumina basalts contain high H 2O at depth [1] and to reveal any petrogenetically significant correlations between arc basalt compositions and H 2O contents. Total dissolved H 2O (combined molecular H 2O and OH groups) measured by ion microprobe in mafic glass inclusions from the 1974 eruption of Fuego, Guatemala, reaches 6.2 wt.%. Dissolved H 2O contents decrease in more evolved Fuego glasses. Correlations of H 2O with MgO, Na 2O, K 2O, S and Cl indicate that aqueous fluid exsolution during magma ascent forced crystallization and differentiation of residual liquids. Low-K 2O magnesian high-alumina basalt glass inclusions from the 3 ka eruption of Black Crater (Medicine Lake volcano, California) have low H 2O contents, near 0.2 wt.%, which are consistent with the MORB-like character of these and other primitive lavas of the Medicine Lake region. Basalt and basaltic andesite glass inclusions from Copco Cone and Goosenest volcano on the Cascade volcanic front north of Mt. Shasta have H 2O contents of up to 3.3 wt.%. The range of H 2O contents in Cascade mafic magmas is too large to have resulted solely from enrichment by crystallization and indicates the participation of an H 2O-rich component in magma generation or crustal-level modification. Whereas fluid-absent melting of amphibole-bearing peridotite can account for the H 2O in most mafic arc liquids, the very high H 2O/alkali ratios of the 1974 Fuego eruptives suggest that an aqueous fluid was involved in the generation of Fuego basalts.

  14. Paraná-Etendeka basalts in Misiones, Argentina; characterization and petrogenetic inferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rämö, O. T.; Heikkilä, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Early Cretaceous (ca. 130 Ma) Paraná-Etendeka flood basalts constitute one of the major Phanerozoic LIP sequences with an original volume probably in excess of 2.3 Mkm3.The bulk of this volcanic system is preserved in South America (Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay, Argentina), where it manifests the onset of South Atlantic opening at present 25 degrees Southern Latitude. The sequence is overwhelmingly basaltic (ca. 90%), but also includes contemporaneous silicic volcanic rocks. Known as the Serra Geral Suite (e.g., Bellieni et al., 1984), it fills the Paraná Basin with a northward deepening strata of lavas with a maximum thickness of ca. 1500 m. We have collected and examined basalt samples from the west-central part (western flank) of the Paraná Basin in Misiones State, northeastern Argentina (54-55 degrees Western Longitude), where the estimated thickness of the basalt succession decreases from ca. 700 m in the east to ca. 300 m in the west. The examined samples are massive, aphyric (or microphyric with plagioclase and altered olivine microphenocrysts), and geochemically relatively evolved (Mg number 50-35) basalts and basaltic andesites. Their MgO values are between 6 and 3.7 wt.% and Ni content is relatively low (65-20 ppm). Incompatible trace element values increase with increasing fractionation (decreasing Mg number), e.g., Zr from 135 to 290 ppm, Ce from 45 to 105 ppm, Nd from 20 to 50 ppm, Sm from 5 to 11 ppm, Ba from 280 to 600 ppm, and Y from 25 to 50 ppm. In terms of Ti, the samples fall into two groups (1.9-2.3 and ca. 3.8 wt.% TiO2). These values conform, respectively, to the high-Ti, high-Ti/Y Paranapanema and Pitanga magma types of Peate et al. (1992) that govern the northern half of the Paraná basalt succession. Initial Nd and Sr isotope compositions of the two groups are remarkably uniform. Our analyzed ten samples have an average initial (at 134.6 Ma) epsilon-Nd value of -4.2 × 0.3 (1 SD) and an average initial 87Sr/86Sr of 0.70570 × 0

  15. Naming Lunar Mare Basalts: Quo Vadimus Redux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, G.

    1999-01-01

    and ordering. Classification functions as a primary tool of perception, opening up ways of seeing things and sealing off others. Lacking a classification, mare-basalt petrology appears immature with little consensual perception of the qualities and signifigances of the basalts. The appearance may or may not be the reality, but it demonstrates a need for a functioning, communicatory classification, in particular for the dissemination of ideas and the furtherance of studies. Names are inconsistent both among lunar rocks and between lunar and terrestrial rocks. Samples are labeled by elements, chemistry with tags, chemistry cast into mineralogy, or a mineralogical attribute (respective examples A 14 VHK A 17 high-Ti Group B 1, A 15 quartz-normative, A-12 pigeonite). Such inconsistency is bound to lead to confusion. Chemical descriptions mean different things in mildly different contexts: A low-K Fra Mauro basalt (not a basalt!) contains slightly more K than an Apollo 11 high-K basalt. High-alumina means more than about 11% Al2O3 for mare basalts, but 21% for highlands "basalts." Volcanic KREEP basalts, about 18% Al2O3, are not (usually) qualified with "high-alumina." Yet for terrestrial basalts, high-alumina means more than about 17% Al2O3, Further, even very-low-Ti mare basalts have Ti abundances (about 0.5-1.5% Ti02) as great as typical terrestrial basalts. Thus, parallels between lunar and terrestrial nomenclatures are nonexistent (reinforced by the fact that a mare-basalt composition found on Earth would be too ultramafic to name basalt at all). A separate type of name exists for mare-basalt glasses, which are identified by site, color, and a letter for any subsequent distinctions, e.g., A15 Green Glass C. While the inconsistencies cited above by themselves make nomenclature arcane, a greater source of difficulty is the common use of acronyms such as VHK and VLT. Most of these are partly chemical acronyms, but degrading the symbol Ti to T (for instance) makes them

  16. Volcanism Studies: Final Report for the Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce M. Crowe; Frank V. Perry; Greg A. Valentine; Lynn M. Bowker

    1998-12-01

    This report synthesizes the results of volcanism studies conducted by scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and collaborating institutions on behalf of the Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project. An assessment of the risk of future volcanic activity is one of many site characterization studies that must be completed to evaluate the Yucca Mountain site for potential long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste. The presence of several basaltic volcanic centers in the Yucca Mountain region of Pliocene and Quaternary age indicates that there is a finite risk of a future volcanic event occurring during the 10,000-year isolation period of a potential repository. Chapter 1 introduces the volcanism issue for the Yucca Mountain site and provides the reader with an overview of the organization, content, and significant conclusions of this report. The risk of future basaltic volcanism is the primary topic of concern including both events that intersect a potential repository and events that occur near or within the waste isolation system of a repository. Future volcanic events cannot be predicted with certainty but instead are estimated using formal methods of probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment (PVHA). Chapter 2 describes the volcanic history of the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) and emphasizes the Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic record, the interval of primary concern for volcanic risk assessment. The distribution, eruptive history, and geochronology of Plio-Quaternary basalt centers are described by individual center emphasizing the younger postcaldera basalt (<5 Ma). The Lathrop Wells volcanic center is described in detail because it is the youngest basalt center in the YMR. The age of the Lathrop Wells center is now confidently determined to be about 75 thousand years old. Chapter 3 describes the tectonic setting of the YMR and presents and assesses the significance of multiple alternative tectonic models. The Crater Flat volcanic zone is

  17. Geology, geochronology, and potential volcanic hazards in the Lava Ridge-Hells Half Acre area, eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuntz, Mel A.; Dalrymple, G. Brent

    1979-01-01

    The evaluation of volcanic hazards for the proposed Safety Test Reactor Facility (STF) at the Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANLW) site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho, involves an analysis of the geology of the Lava Ridge-Hells Half Acre area and of K-At age determinations on lava flows in cored drill holes. The ANLW site at INEL lies in a shallow topographic depression bounded on the east and south by volcanic rift zones that are the locus of past shield-type basalt volcanism and by rhyolite domes erupted along the ring fracture of an inferred rhyolite caldera. The K-At age data indicate that the ANLW site has been flooded by basalt lava flows at irregular intervals from perhaps a few thousand years to as much as 300,000-400,000 years, with an average recurrence interval between flows of approximately 80,000-100,000 years. At least five major lava flows have covered the ANLW site within the past 500,000 years.

  18. Signal from noise: Insights into volcanic system processes from ambient noise correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson-Hedgecock, Sara

    This first section of dissertation concerns the imaging of the crust and upper most mantle structure of the mid-Miocene volcanic provinces of the Northwestern United States using ambient noise tomography. Chapter 1 introduces the complex tectonic history of the northwestern United States and describes the development of volcanism from the ignimbrite sweep that occurred with the extension of the Basin and Range province, initiation and evolution of the mid-Miocene volcanism of the Steens/Columbia River flood basalts, and mirror-image volcanic tracks of the High Lava Plains, Oregon and Yellowstone-Snake River Plains. Chapter 2 describes in detail the concepts and methods for determining the 3D shear velocity structure in the crust and uppermost mantle from ambient noise correlations. Chapter 3 contains the text and supplementary materials of Hanson-Hedgecock et al. [2012] published in the Geophysical Research Letters that describes the application of the ambient noise methods to the imaging of the Western United States. The second section of this work discusses the results of measuring velocity changes associated with three episodes of increased eruptive activity at Tungurahua in 2010 using ambient noise correlations. The third section of this work discusses the results of using the H/V ratio to measure the level of equipartition of the ambient noise wavefield at Tungurahua in 2010.

  19. Thermoluminescence dating of Hawaiian basalt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Rodd James

    1979-01-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) properties of plagioclase separates from 11 independently dated alkalic basalts 4,500 years to 3.3 million years old and 17 tholeiitic basalts 16 years to 450,000 years old from the Hawaiian Islands were investigated for the purpose of developing a TL dating method for young volcanic rocks. Ratios of natural to artificial TL intensity, when normalized for natural radiation dose rates, were used to quantify the thermoluminescence response of individual samples for age-determination purposes. The TL ratios for the alkalic basalt plagioclase were found to increase with age at a predictable exponential rate that permits the use of the equation for the best-fit line through a plot of the TL ratios relative to known age as a TL age equation. The equation is applicable to rocks ranging in composition from basaltic andesite to trachyte over the age range from about 2,000 to at least 250,000 years before present (B.P.). The TL ages for samples older than 50,000 years have a calculated precision of less than :t 10 percent and a potential estimated accuracy relative to potassium-argon ages of approximately :t 10 percent. An attempt to develop a similar dating curve for the tholeiitic basalts was not as successful, primarily because the dose rates are on the average lower than those for the alkalic basalts by a factor of 6, resulting in lower TL intensities in the tholeiitic basalts for samples of equivalent age, and also because the age distribution of dated material is inadequate. The basic TL properties of the plagioclase from the two rock types are similar, however, and TL dating of tholeiitic basalts should eventually be feasible over the age range 10,000 to at least 200,000 years B.P. The average composition of the plagioclase separates from the alkalic basalts ranges from oligoclase to andesine; compositional variations within this range have no apparent effect on the TL ratios. The average composition of the plagioclase from the tholeiitic

  20. The Nature of Mare Basalts in the Procellarum KREEP Terrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, Larry A.; Gillis, Jeffrey J.; Korotev, Randy L.; Jolliff, Bradley L.

    2000-01-01

    Unlike Apollo 12 and 15 basalts, many mare lavas of the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT) have Th concentrations of 2.5-6 ppm and perhaps greater, as well as high TiO2. Lunar "picritic" volcanic glasses from the PKT have a similar range.

  1. Controls on the PGE distribution of Permian Emeishan alkaline and peralkaline volcanic rocks in Longzhoushan, Sichuan Province, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Liang; Wang, Christina Yan; Zhou, Mei-Fu

    2008-12-01

    The ~ 260-Ma Emeishan large igneous province in SW China and northern Vietnam contains low-Ti tholeiitic basalts, high-Ti alkaline basalts and minor peralkaline volcanic rocks. The flood basalts in Longzhoushan, Sichuan Province, SW China, comprise four units, each of which has volcanic breccia at the base. From the base upward, rocks of Units 1 and 2 are high-Ti basalts with relatively high MgO (7.6-11.0 wt.%), TiO 2 (1.7-4.5 wt.%) and Ti/Y ratios (420-790). Unit 3 is composed of tephrites with lower MgO (0.87-6.2 wt.%), TiO 2 (0.96-2.14 wt.%) and Ti/Y ratios (190-530), whereas Unit 4 consists of basaltic andesites with moderate MgO (3.5-4.8 wt.%), TiO 2 (2.2-3.1 wt.%) and Ti/Y ratios (383-606). The high-Ti basalts may have been derived from an OIB-like mantle source and the basaltic andesites were probably generated by crustal contamination and fractionation of high-Ti basaltic magmas. The tephrites show high Nb/Y (1.2 to 2.7) and Th/Y (0.31 to 0.55) ratios, variable Zr/Hf ratios (40 to 49) and relatively low ɛNd( t) (- 0.7 to + 0.28) values, suggesting an asthenospheric mantle contribution modified by carbonate-rich fluids. The high-Ti basalts contain relatively high and variable PGE and their Cu/Pd ratios are relatively constant (compared to the tephrites) and vary from 8,500 to 86,000. We attribute such relative constancy of the Cu/Pd ratios to the presence of residual sulphide in the source of the high-Ti rocks and subsequent crystallization from S-undersaturated melts. The basaltic andesites have relatively high and constant Cu/Pd ratios (130,000-370,492) and the lowest PGE contents (average 0.12 ppb for Pd, 0.20 ppb for Pt), suggesting an earlier removal of sulfide due to crustal contamination before emplacement. The tephrites have PGE abundances (0.057 to 1.89 ppb for Pt and 0.11 to 2.10 ppb for Pd) higher than those for basaltic andesites, however, the Cu/Pd ratios (33,300 to 429,000) of the rocks are more variable than those for the basaltic andesites

  2. The mantle sources beneath the Afar volcanic province and their interplay with extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pik, Raphael; Stab, Martin; Ancellin, Marie-Anne; Medynski, Sarah; Cloquet, Christophe; Ayalew, Dereje; Yirgu, Gezahegn; Chazot, Gilles; Vye-Brown, Charlotte; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Leroy, Sylvie

    2015-04-01

    The evolution of mantle sources beneath the Ethiopian volcanic province has long been discussed and debated with a long-lived controversy in identifying mantle reservoirs and locating them in the mantle. One interpretation of the isotopic composition of erupted lavas considers that the Afar mantle plume composition is best expressed by recent lavas from Afar and Gulf of Aden (e.g. Erta Ale, Manda Inakir and the 45°E torus anomaly on the Gulf of Aden) implying that all other volcanics (including other active segments and the initial flood basalt province) result from mixing of this plume component with additional lithospheric and asthenospheric components. A completely opposite view considers that the initial Oligocene continental flood basalts best represent the isotopic composition of the Afar mantle plume, which is subsequently mixed in various proportions with continental lithospheric mantle for generating some of the specific signature of Miocene and Quaternary volcanics. The precise and correct identification of mantle components involved in the generation of magmas is of particular importance because this is the only way to document the participation of mantle during extension and its potential role in break-up processes. In this contribution we provide new isotopic data for central Afar and we revisit the whole data set of the Ethiopian volcanic province and African/Arabian intraplate volcanics in order to: (i) precisely identify the distinct mantle components implicated, (ii) discuss their location and evolution in space and time, and (3) link the evolution of mantle with extensional processes beneath the Afar province. This new interpretation of geochemical data allows reconsidering the evolution of mantle in the course of rift evolution. In terms of mantle sources, two populations of active segments are frontally opposed in the volcanic province: those that share exactly the same composition with plume related CFBs (e.g. the Manda Hararo and the Main

  3. Origin of the Early Permian zircons in Keping basalts and magma evolution of the Tarim Large Igneous Province (northwestern China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yin-Qi; Li, Zi-Long; Yu, Xing; Langmuir, Charles H.; Santosh, M.; Yang, Shu-Feng; Chen, Han-Lin; Tang, Zhong-Li; Song, Biao; Zou, Si-Yuan

    2014-09-01

    The Tarim continental flood basalts (CFBs) provide important clues about the genesis and magmatic evolution of the Early Permian Tarim Large Igneous Province (Tarim LIP) in northwestern China. Here we present results of LA-MC-ICPMS Lu-Hf isotope analysis on Early Permian (ca. 290 Ma) zircons extracted from the Tarim CFBs in the Keping area, northwest of the Tarim Basin. Zircons from two sub-groups of Keping basalts (Groups 1a and 1b) have similar Lu-Hf isotopic compositions and exhibit a relatively large range of 176Hf/177Hf ratios between 0.282422 and 0.282568. Their negative εHf(t) values (- 6.8-- 1.4) are generally lower than the whole-rock εHf(t) values of their host basalts (- 2.8-2.1), and are distinct from other known intrusive rocks (- 0.3-7.1) in the Tarim LIP and their hosted zircons (4.9-8.8). Systematic studies of Hf isotopic data from Tarim and its adjacent regions reveal that these zircons are probably xenocrysts, sourced from coeval igneous rocks in the South Tianshan Orogen (e.g., the Lower Permian Xiaotikanlike Formation volcanic and pyroclastic rock suite). This, together with the presence of Precambrian zircons in Keping basalts, clearly indicates crustal contamination during their eruptions and provides hints about the potential contaminant sources. Geochemical modeling further suggests that the earlier erupted Group 1b basalts experienced more contamination, predominantly by some high Th-U-Pb rock components, most likely from the South Tianshan Orogen. The later erupted Group 1a basalts in the Keping area have been less contaminated with mainly the Tarim Precambrian rocks. Another group of the Tarim CFBs in the Northern Tarim Uplift (Group 2) appears to have undergone negligible crustal contamination but possesses evidence for variable source compositions. The modeling also indicates that the uncontaminated parental magmas of various Tarim LIP rocks (from the picrites and basalts to ultramafic-mafic and syenitic intrusive rocks) exhibit a

  4. The volcanic and tectonic history of Enceladus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kargel, J.S.; Pozio, S.

    1996-01-01

    reaccretion of Enceladus. Another area of cratered plains has modified craters (e.g., Ali Baba and Aladdin), which some workers have explained by anomalous heat flow and viscous relaxation; lateral shear and shield-building volcanism also may have been important. A young rift-like structure (northern Samarkand Sulci) has few craters and a concentration of cracks or grabens and flattened, flooded, and rifted craters. Pit chains and cratered domes suggest explosive volcanism. Smooth plains may have formed by cryovolcanic equivalents of flood-basalt volcanism. Pure H2O would be difficult to extrude through an icy crust and is cosmochemically improbable as a cryovolcanic agent. Density relations rule out eutectic brine lavas on Enceladus, but NH3-H2O volcanism is possible. Current steady-state tidal dissipation may cause melting of ammonia hydrate at a depth of ???25 km if the crust is made of ammonia hydrate or ???100 km if it is made of water ice. ?? 1996 Academic Press, Inc.

  5. Determination of trace elements in volcanic rock samples collected from cenozoic lava eruption sites using LIBS.

    PubMed

    Gondal, Mohammed A; Nasr, Mohamed M; Ahmed, Zulfiqar; Yamani, Zain H

    2009-04-01

    Trace elements of environmental significance present in the volcanic rock samples collected from sites of the Cenozoic era flood basalt flows and eruptions were detected using locally developed laser-induced breakdown spectrometer. For spectro-chemical analysis of these samples, the plasma was generated by focusing a pulsed Nd: YAG laser radiation at 1064 nm wavelength on the target rock samples. These samples were collected from four widely separated locations surrounding the volcanic eruption sites belonging to the Harrat Hutaymah volcanic field in the vicinity of Taba town, situated to the east of Hail city of northern Saudi Arabia. These samples represent the scoria basalt lava flows as well as a large tuff-ring crater and it contains xenoliths. These flows occur widespread over the Earth's surface in this region, and their contained xenoliths are brought up from depths of a few tens of kilometers. This volcanic field has received much less attention in the previous geological studies; and consequently, its effects on the environment are not well defined. The concentration of different elements of environmental significance like Cr, Pb, Mn, Cd, Sr and other trace metals like Cu, Al, Ca, Mg, Zn, Ti and Fe in these rock samples were determined by spectral analysis. Parametric dependence for improvement of LIBS sensitivity for detection of these elements was also carried out. The highest concentration detected of environmentally significant elements like Cr, Mn, Pb, Sr and Ni are 1910, 1399, 90.5, 12412 and 461.5 ppm, respectively in four different lava samples which are considered to be much higher than the safe permissible limits. The LIBS results were compared with the results obtained using other analytical techniques such as the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES).

  6. The history of mare volcanism in the Orientale Basin: Mare deposit ages, compositions and morphologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadel, S. D.; Greeley, R.; Neukum, G.; Wagner, R.

    1993-01-01

    The eruptive history of mare basalts in the Orientale Basin has been studied, using Lunar Orbiter 4 high-resolution photographs, Zond 8 photographs, and recently acquired Galileo EM-1 multispectral images. This work represents a refined set of compositional data incorporating the use of a linear mixing model for mare compositions, crater count data, and a comprehensive morphologic analysis of Orientale Basin mare deposits. Evidence for multiple eruptive episodes has been found, with compositions ranging from medium- to high-Ti basalt (less than 4 to greater than 6 wt. percent TiO2). Eruptive styles included flood, rille-forming, and shield-forming eruptions. Impact crater densities of mare units in the Orientale Basin enable determination of the ages of these deposits, using the method of Neukum et al. Earliest eruptions of mare basalt in the basin occurred at greater than or equal to 3.80 Ga and the latest eruptions occurred at about 2.3-2.5 Ga. Hence, mare volcanism occurred over a period of nearly 1.5 Ga.

  7. Geology and geochronology of the Tana Basin, Ethiopia: LIP volcanism, super eruptions and Eocene-Oligocene environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prave, A. R.; Bates, C. R.; Donaldson, C. H.; Toland, H.; Condon, D. J.; Mark, D.; Raub, T. D.

    2016-06-01

    New geological and geochronological data define four episodes of volcanism for the Lake Tana region in the northern Ethiopian portion of the Afro-Arabian Large Igneous Province (LIP): pre-31 Ma flood basalt that yielded a single 40Ar/39Ar age of 34.05 ± 0.54 / 0.56 Ma; thick and extensive felsic ignimbrites and rhyolites (minimum volume of 2- 3 ×103 km3) erupted between 31.108 ± 0.020 / 0.041 Ma and 30.844 ± 0.027 / 0.046 Ma (U-Pb CA-ID-TIMS zircon ages); mafic volcanism bracketed by 40Ar/39Ar ages of 28.90 ± 0.12 / 0.14 Ma and 23.75 ± 0.02 / 0.04 Ma; and localised scoraceous basalt with an 40Ar/39Ar age of 0.033 ± 0.005 / 0.005 Ma. The felsic volcanism was the product of super eruptions that created a 60-80 km diameter caldera marked by km-scale caldera-collapse fault blocks and a steep-sided basin filled with a minimum of 180 m of sediment and the present-day Lake Tana. These new data enable mapping, with a finer resolution than previously possible, Afro-Arabian LIP volcanism onto the timeline of the Eocene-Oligocene transition and show that neither the mafic nor silicic volcanism coincides directly with perturbations in the geochemical records that span that transition. Our results reinforce the view that it is not the development of a LIP alone but its rate of effusion that contributes to inducing global-scale environmental change.

  8. Sulfur, Chlorine and Fluorine Degassing and Atmospheric Loading by the Roza eruption, Columbia River Basalt Group, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thordarson, Th.; Self, S

    1996-01-01

    In this study we attempt to quantify the amount of S, Cl and F released by the 1300 cu km Roza member (approximately 14.7 Ma) of the Columbia River Basalt Group, which was produced by a moderate-size flood basalt eruption in the mid-Miocene. Our results are the first indication of the potential atmospheric SO2 yield from a flood basalt eruption, and indicate the mechanism by which flood basalt eruptions may have seriously affected the environment. Glass inclusions in phenocrysts and quenched glass in products from various stages of the eruption were analyzed for concentrations of S, Cl and F and major elements. Glass inclusions contain 1965 +/- 110 ppm S, 295 +/- 65 ppm Cl and 1310 +/- 110 ppm F. Groundmass glass of Roza dike selvages contains considerably lower concentrations: 1110 +/- 90 ppm S, 245 +/- 30 ppm Cl and 1020 +/- 25 ppm F. Scoria clasts from near vent deposits contain 665 +/- 75 ppm S, 175 +/- 5 ppm Cl and 950 +/- 20 ppm F, and the groundmass glass of lava selvages contains 520 +/- 30 ppm S, 190 +/- 30 ppm Cl and 890 +/- 55 ppm F. In crystalline lava, the concentrations are 195 ppm S, 100 ppm Cl and 830 ppm F. Volatile element concentrations in these samples represent the progress of degassing through the eruption and can be used to estimate the potential amount of the volatiles S, Cl and F released by the magma into the atmosphere, as well as to evaluate the amount liberated by various phases of the eruption. The total amount of volatiles released by the Roza eruption is estimated to have been approximately 12,420 MtSO2, approximately 710 MtHCI and approximately 1780 MtHF. The Roza magma liberated approximately 9620 MtSO, (77% of the total volatile mass released), approximately 400 MtHCI (56%) and approximately 1450 MtHF (81%) at the vents and lofted by the eruption columns to altitudes of 7-13 km. Degassing of the lava is estimated to have released an additional approximately 2810 MtSO2, approximately 310 MtHCI and approximately 330 MtHF. The Roza

  9. A Strongly Calc-alkaline Suite in the Midst of the Tholeiitic Columbia River Basalt Province: Implications for Generating the Calc-alkaline Trend Without Subduction Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, A. R.; Streck, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    The mid-Miocene lavas of the Strawberry Volcanics (SV), distributed over 3,400 km2 in NE Oregon, comprise a diverse volcanic suite, which span the range of compositions from basalt to rhyolite. The volcanic suite is mainly composed of calc-alkaline (CA) basaltic andesite and andesite, yet tholeiitic (TH) lavas of basalt to andesite occur as well. The SV lies in the heart of nearly coeval flood basalts of the Columbia River province of the Pacific Northwest. The unique combination of strongly CA rocks of the SV in a non-subduction setting provide an excellent opportunity to study controls on inducing CA evolution in the midst of a TH province and independent of processes taking places at an active subduction zone. New 40Ar/39Ar ages indicate CA basaltic andesites to andesites of the SV erupted at least from 14.78±0.13 Ma to 12.44±0.12 Ma demonstrating that CA magmatism of the SV was ongoing during the eruptions of the tholeiitic Wanapum Basalt member of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). This range will likely be extended to even older ages in the future because existent age dates did not include samples from near the base of the SV. Thickness of intermediate lavas flows of the SV range from 15 m to as thin as 2 m and lavas are characterized by mostly phenocryst poor lithologies. When phenocrysts are abundant they are very small suggesting growth late during eruption. Single lava flow sections can include on the order of 30 conformable flows, testifying to a vigorous eruption history. The thickest andesitic sections are located in the glacially carved mountains of the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness (i.e. Strawberry Mountain, High Lake, and Slide Lake) where several vent complexes are exposed, which are delineated by dikes and plugs with finely interlocking plutonic textures, cross-cutting SV lava flows. Dikes generally strike NW-SE. Subtle variations in major and trace element compositions exist between TH and CA lavas of the SV. The CA lavas of the SV are

  10. Basalt Magma, Whisky and Tequila: finely-crafted mixes of small liquid batches that defy the parent liquid concept but whose complexities teach us much

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, K. H.; Sinton, J. M.; Perfit, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    Basalt is the most ubiquitous magma type we know of in the solar system. It comes in various varieties manifested as compositional sub groups, erupts from a wide variety of volcanic systems and tectonic settings, and its eruptions span many order of magnitude in duration and volume. Igneous petrology, thermodynamics, geochemistry, and geodynamical modelling have been used to develop a sophisticated understanding of source lithologies, compositions and formation conditions (e.g., pressure and temperature) for parent melts and their subsequent transport, storage and evolution. These demonstrate some striking systematics as a function of volcano tectonic setting (on Earth). Yet much like Whisky, what makes it into the bottle, or the eruption, is a mixture of different liquids with unique characteristics, sometimes stirred so well that successive batches are indistinguishable, and sometimes stirred more incompletely, preserving small batch characters that are unique. Recently, geochemical and petrological studies in high spatial density within the products of individual eruptions have shown chemical and mineralogical evidence for incompletely mixed heterogeneous magmas in a majority of systems examined, begging the question of when, if ever, is it realistic to speak of a single parent magma composition, and even in cases where it apparently is, if these are instead just more thoroughly stirred multi-parent magmas. For instance, do monogenetic fields really erupt basalts of more varied parent melt compositions than large hot spot and flood basalt eruptions, or are they just more poorly stirred? This presentation will focus on work by ourselves and others constraining spatial and temporal single-eruption basaltic magma histories at different settings, using them to unravel the time and space scales of magma formation and mixing, how these translate to the assembly of an erupted basalt magma, and the implications for deducing things about and from presumed parents.

  11. Tectonic implications of space-time patterns of Cenozoic volcanism in the Palo Verde Mountain volcanic field, southeastern California

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, K.S.

    1981-01-01

    Variations in Cenozoic volcanism in the western United States are believed to correlate closely with changes in tectonic setting. A transition in volcanic association from calc-alkaline to fundamentally basaltic volcanism and subsequent crustal extension, appears to have coincided temporally with the initial collision of the East Pacific Rise with the continental margin trench off western North America, between 28 and 25 Ma. The volcanic stratigraphy of the Palo Verde Mountain volcanic field is broadly similar to other volcanic centers in southeastern California and can be divided into tripartite regional stratigraphy. A basal sequence of andesitic to rhyolitic lava flows, plugs, domes, and extensive pyroclastic deposits rests unconformably on pre-Cenozoic basement rocks. The basal sequence is intruded by cogenetic Cenozoic plutonic rocks and overlain by basaltic to rhyolitic lava flows, dikes, and a second widespread assemblage of pyroclastic deposits, cumulatively referred to as the silicic sequence. The youngest volcanic rocks of the field include olivine basalt flows and breccia which occur at scattered localities in the Palo Verde Mountains. The age, stratigraphy, and chemistry of the intermediate and basaltic composition volcanic rocks broadly supports previously cited volcanic-tectonic models, if modified to incorporate modern plate reconstruction theory. This modification results in a southeast migration of the transition to basaltic volcanism to southeastern California occurring significantly later in time than the previously cited ages of transition. Moreover, this southeast migration of the volcanic transition is coincident with the inception of Basin and Range faulting and the initiation of movement on the San Andreas fault south of the Transverse Ranges, corresponding to the southward migration of the Pacific-Cocos Ridge.

  12. Migration of volcanism in the San Francisco volcanic field, Arizona.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, K.L.; Shoemaker, E.M.; Ulrich, G.E.; Wolfe, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    The remanent magnetization of volcanic rocks has been determined at 650 sites in this volcanic field in the S part of the Colorado plateau. The polarity of remanent magnetization, combined with K/Ar age determinations, spatial and petrographic association, stratigraphic relations and state of preservation of the cinder cones, provides a basis of assignment to a known magnetic polarity epoch of 610 mafic vents and >100 intermediate to silicic flows, flow sequences and vents. Basaltic volcanism migrated NE before Matoyama time (2.48-5.0 m.y.) at a rate of approx 1.2 cm/yr and eastward over the past 2.5 m.y. at a rate of 2.9 cm/yr. Total magma production and frequency of basaltic eruption accelerated between 5 and 0.25 m.y. and have decreased thereafter; this evolutionary sequence, coupled with the Sr-isotopic composition of the rocks, can be explained by magmatism caused by shear heating at the base of the lithosphere. The eastward drift of volcanism represents the absolute westward motion of the North America plate.-L.C.H.

  13. Modeling Central American basalts using the Arc Basalt Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigenson, M.; Carr, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    We have used the Arc Basalt Simulator (ABS), developed by JI Kimura, to explore the conditions and components of melting beneath the Central American volcanic front. ABS is a comprehensive forward model that incorporates slab dehydration and melting and mantle wedge fluxing and melting using realistic P-T conditions and experimentally determined phase relations. We have applied ABS versions 3 and 4 to model representative magma types in Nicaragua, which span a broad geochemical range including proximal high- and low-Ti lavas in Nicaragua. Sr-Nd-Pb data require appropriate selection of previously identified sources, including: separate carbonate and hemipelagic sediments, DMM, an enriched mantle isotopically similar to the alkaline basalts of Yojoa, a Himu-influenced mantle derived from Galapagos material and altered oceanic crust (AOC) derived from both MORB and Galapagos seamounts. Following the dry solidus, the dominant arc basalts, exemplified by Cerro Negro lavas, can be generated at about 80-90 km where lawsonite and zoisite break down, releasing LILEs into a hydrous fluid that travels into the wedge. The fluid-triggered melting occurs just above the garnet stability field in the wedge to fit the HREEs. Below 90 Km, slab melting begins and the AOC component dominates, generating a fluid with little or no HFSE depletions, consistent with the unusual high-Ti lavas found in Nicaragua. However, the isotopic data require a much lower sediment input for the high-Ti lavas (consistent with 10Be results on the high-Ti lavas) and an enriched component for the AOC and/or mantle wedge. Following the wet solidus, fits to the Cerro Negro magma only occur in the absence of phengite in the AOC and with the presence of HFSE attracting minerals, rutile, zircon and allanite. The depth of the best fit is 135 km, consistent with current best estimates of the depth to the seismic zone beneath Cerro Negro. Below 150 km, the high-Ti lavas can be generated if the HFSE retaining

  14. Additive Construction using Basalt Regolith Fines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Hintze, Paul E.; Lippitt, Thomas C.; Mantovani, James G.; Nugent, Matthew W.; Townsend, Ivan I.

    2014-01-01

    Planetary surfaces are often covered in regolith (crushed rock), whose geologic origin is largely basalt. The lunar surface is made of small-particulate regolith and areas of boulders located in the vicinity of craters. Regolith composition also varies with location, reflecting the local bedrock geology and the nature and efficiency of the micrometeorite-impact processes. In the lowland mare areas (suitable for habitation), the regolith is composed of small granules (20 - 100 microns average size) of mare basalt and volcanic glass. Impacting micrometeorites may cause local melting, and the formation of larger glassy particles, and this regolith may contain 10-80% glass. Studies of lunar regolith are traditionally conducted with lunar regolith simulant (reconstructed soil with compositions patterned after the lunar samples returned by Apollo). The NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Granular Mechanics & Regolith Operations (GMRO) lab has identified a low fidelity but economical geo-technical simulant designated as Black Point-1 (BP-1). It was found at the site of the Arizona Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) analog field test site at the Black Point lava flow in adjacent basalt quarry spoil mounds. This paper summarizes activities at KSC regarding the utilization of BP-1 basalt regolith and comparative work with lunar basalt simulant JSC-1A as a building material for robotic additive construction of large structures. In an effort to reduce the import or in-situ fabrication of binder additives, we focused this work on in-situ processing of regolith for construction in a single-step process after its excavation. High-temperature melting of regolith involves techniques used in glassmaking and casting (with melts of lower density and higher viscosity than those of metals), producing basaltic glass with high durability and low abrasive wear. Most Lunar simulants melt at temperatures above 1100 C, although melt processing of terrestrial regolith at 1500 C is not

  15. The Volcanic and Tectonic History of Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Pozio, Stefania

    1996-02-01

    reaccretion of Enceladus. Another area of cratered plains has modified craters (e.g., Ali Baba and Aladdin), which some workers have explained by anomalous heat flow and viscous relaxation; lateral shear and shield-building volcanism also may have been important. A young rift-like structure (northern Samarkand Sulci) has few craters and a concentration of cracks or grabens and flattened, flooded, and rifted craters. Pit chains and cratered domes suggest explosive volcanism. Smooth plains may have formed by cryovolcanic equivalents of flood-basalt volcanism. Pure H2O would be difficult to extrude through an icy crust and is cosmochemically improbable as a cryovolcanic agent. Density relations rule out eutectic brine lavas on Enceladus, but NH3-H2O volcanism is possible. Current steady-state tidal dissipation may cause melting of ammonia hydrate at a depth of ∼25 km if the crust is made of ammonia hydrate or ∼100 km if it is made of water ice.

  16. Status of volcanic hazard studies for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, B.M.; Vaniman, D.T.; Carr, W.J.

    1983-03-01

    Volcanism studies of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) region are concerned with hazards of future volcanism with respect to underground disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The hazards of silicic volcanism are judged to be negligible; hazards of basaltic volcanism are judged through research approaches combining hazard appraisal and risk assessment. The NTS region is cut obliquely by a N-NE trending belt of volcanism. This belt developed about 8 Myr ago following cessation of silicic volcanism and contemporaneous with migration of basaltic activity toward the southwest margin of the Great Basin. Two types of fields are present in the belt: (1) large-volume, long-lived basalt and local rhyolite fields with numerous eruptive centers and (2) small-volume fields formed by scattered basaltic scoria cones. Late Cenozoic basalts of the NTS region belong to the second field type. Monogenetic basalt centers of this region were formed mostly by Strombolian eruptions; Surtseyean activity has been recognized at three centers. Geochemically, the basalts of the NTS region are classified as straddle A-type basalts of the alkalic suite. Petrological studies indicate a volumetric dominance of evolved hawaiite magmas. Trace- and rare-earth-element abundances of younger basalt (<4 Myr) of the NTS region and southern Death Valley area, California, indicate an enrichment in incompatible elements, with the exception of rubidium. The conditional probability of recurring basaltic volcanism and disruption of a repository by that event is bounded by the range of 10{sup -8} to 10{sup -10} as calculated for a 1-yr period. Potential disruptive and dispersal effects of magmatic penetration of a repository are controlled primarily by the geometry of basalt feeder systems, the mechanism of waste incorporation in magma, and Strombolian eruption processes.

  17. Rapid formation of Ontong Java Plateau by Aptian mantle plume volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarduno, J.A.; Sliter, W.V.; Kroenke, L.; Leckie, M.; Mayer, H.; Mahoney, J.J.; Musgrave, R.; Storey, M.; Winterer, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    The timing of flood basalt volcanism associated with formation of the Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) is estimated from paleomagnetic and paleontologic data. Much of OJP formed rapidly in less than 3 million years during the early Aptian, at the beginning of the Cretaceous Normal Polarity Superchron. Crustal emplacement rates are inferred to have been several times those of the Deccan Traps. These estimates are consistent with an origin of the OJP by impingement at the base of the oceanic lithosphere by the head of a large mantle plume. Formation of the OJP may have led to a rise in sea level that induced global oceanic anoxia. Carbon dioxide emissions likely contributed to the mid-Cretaceous greenhouse climate but did not provoke major biologic extinctions.

  18. Timeline of Martian Volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.

    2011-05-01

    A recent study of Martian volcanism presents a timeline of the last major eruptions from 20 large volcanoes, based on the relative ages of caldera surfaces determined by crater counting. Stuart Robbins, Gaetano Di Achille, and Brian Hynek (University of Colorado) counted craters on high-resolution images from the the Context Camera (CTX) on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter to date individual calderas, or terraces within calderas, on the 20 major Martian volcanoes. Based on their timeline and mapping, rates and durations of eruptions and transitions from explosive to effusive activity varied from volcano to volcano. The work confirms previous findings by others that volcanism was continuous throughout Martian geologic history until about one to two hundred million years ago, the final volcanic events were not synchronous across the planet, and the latest large-scale caldera activity ended about 150 million years ago in the Tharsis province. This timing correlates well with the crystallization ages (~165-170 million years) determined for the youngest basaltic Martian meteorites.

  19. Volcanic hazard studies for the Yucca Mountain project

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, B.; Turrin, B.; Wells, S.; Perry, F.; McFadden, L.; Renault, C.E.; Champion, D.; Harrington, C.

    1989-05-01

    Volcanic hazard studies are ongoing to evaluate the risk of future volcanism with respect to siting of a repository for disposal of high-level radioactive waste at the Yucca Mountain site. Seven Quaternary basaltic volcanic centers are located a minimum distance of 12 km and a maximum distance of 47 km from the outer boundary of the exploration block. The conditional probability of disruption of a repository by future basaltic volcanism is bounded by the range of 10{sup {minus}8} to 10{sup {minus}10} yr{sup {minus}1}. These values are currently being reexamined based on new developments in the understanding of the evaluation of small volume, basaltic volcanic centers including: (1) Many, perhaps most, of the volcanic centers exhibit brief periods of eruptive activity separated by longer periods of inactivity. (2) The centers may be active for time spans exceeding 10{sup 5} yrs, (3) There is a decline in the volume of eruptions of the centers through time, and (4) Small volume eruptions occurred at two of the Quaternary centers during latest Pleistocene or Holocene time. We classify the basalt centers as polycyclic, and distinguish them from polygenetic volcanoes. Polycyclic volcanism is characterized by small volume, episodic eruptions of magma of uniform composition over time spans of 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 5} yrs. Magma eruption rates are low and the time between eruptions exceeds the cooling time of the magma volumes. 25 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Reappraisal of the significance of volcanic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañón-Tapia, Edgardo

    2016-01-01

    "Volcanic field" is a term commonly used to loosely describe a group of volcanoes. Often, it is implicitly assumed that the volcanoes on a volcanic field are small, monogenetic and dominantly basaltic, but none of those attributes is indispensable on some definitions of the term. Actually, the term "volcanic field" can be used to describe a group of purely monogenetic edifices, a group of mixed monogenetic and polygenetic edifices, or even a group formed only by purely polygenetic edifices. Differences between each of those alternatives might be important, but the extent to which those differences are truly relevant remains still to be explored. Furthermore, there are several limitations on the current knowledge of this type of volcanic activity that explain the lack of a comprehensive effort to study volcanic fields in global contexts. In this work, issues concerning current definitions of a volcanic field are examined, and some criteria that can be used to distinguish volcanic fields from non-field volcanoes are suggested. Special attention is given to the role played by spatial scale on such a distinction. Also, the tectonic implications of their spatial distribution are explored. In particular, it is shown that volcanic fields are an important component of volcanic activity at a global scale that is closely associated to diffuse plate boundaries, and might well be considered the archetypical volcanic form of such tectonic scenarios.