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Sample records for flood control reservoir

  1. Intelligent Real-Time Reservoir Operation for Flood Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, L.; Hsu, H.

    2008-12-01

    Real-time flood control of a multi-purpose reservoir should consider decreasing the flood peak stage downstream and storing floodwaters for future usage during typhoon seasons. It is a continuous and instant decision-making process based on relevant operating rules, policy and water laws, in addition the immediate rainfall and the hydrology information; however, it is difficult to learn the intelligent experience from the elder operators. The main purpose of this study is to establish the automatic reservoir flood control model to achieve the goal of a reservoir operation during flood periods. In this study, we propose an intelligent reservoir operating methodology for real-time flood control. First, the genetic algorithm is used to search the optimal solutions, which can be considered as extracting the knowledge of reservoir operation strategies. Then, the adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), which uses a hybrid learning procedure for extracting knowledge in the form of fuzzy if-then rules, is used to learn the input-output patterns and then to estimate the optimal flood operation. The Shihmen reservoir in Northern Taiwan was used as a case study, where its 26 typhoon events are investigated by the proposed method. The results demonstrate that the proposed control model can perform much better than the original reservoir operator in 26 flood events and effectively achieve decreasing peak flood stage downstream and storing floodwaters for future usage.

  2. Assessing sedimentation issues within aging of flood-control reservoirs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flood control reservoirs designed and built by federal agencies have been extremely effective in reducing the ravages of floods nationwide. Yet some structures are being removed for a variety of reasons, while other structures are aging rapidly and require either rehabilitation or decommissioning. ...

  3. BIOAVAILABILITY OF MERCURY IN SEDIMENTS FROM A FLOOD CONTROL RESERVOIR TO HYALELLA AZTECA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the last three years, mercury contamination in North Mississippi flood control reservoirs has become a growing concern. Previous data indicate that three flood control reservoirs have similar total mercury sediment concentrations and that fish collected from one reservoir cont...

  4. The Impact of Corps Flood Control Reservoirs in the June 2008 Upper Mississippi Flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charley, W. J.; Stiman, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers is responsible for a multitude of flood control project on the Mississippi River and its tributaries, including levees that protect land from flooding, and dams to help regulate river flows. The first six months of 2008 were the wettest on record in the upper Mississippi Basin. During the first 2 weeks of June, rainfall over the Midwest ranged from 6 to as much as 16 inches, overwhelming the flood protection system, causing massive flooding and damage. Most severely impacted were the States of Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, and Wisconsin. In Iowa, flooding occurred on almost every river in the state. On the Iowa River, record flooding occurred from Marshalltown, Iowa, downstream to its confluence with the Mississippi River. At several locations, flooding exceeded the 500-year event. The flooding affected agriculture, transportation, and infrastructure, including homes, businesses, levees, and other water-control structures. It has been estimated that there was at least 7 billion dollars in damages. While the flooding in Iowa was extraordinary, Corps of Engineers flood control reservoirs helped limit damage and prevent loss of life, even though some reservoirs were filled beyond their design capacity. Coralville Reservoir on the Iowa River, for example, filled to 135% of its design flood storage capacity, with stage a record five feet over the crest of the spillway. In spite of this, the maximum reservoir release was limited to 39,500 cfs, while a peak inflow of 57,000 cfs was observed. CWMS, the Corps Water Management System, is used to help regulate Corps reservoirs, as well as track and evaluate flooding and flooding potential. CWMS is a comprehensive data acquisition and hydrologic modeling system for short-term decision support of water control operations in real time. It encompasses data collection, validation and transformation, data storage, visualization, real time model simulation for decision-making support, and data

  5. 18 CFR 1304.407 - Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs. 1304.407 Section 1304.407 Conservation of Power and Water... OF STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.407 Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs. (a) Activities involving development within the flood control storage zone...

  6. 18 CFR 1304.407 - Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs. 1304.407 Section 1304.407 Conservation of Power and Water... OF STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.407 Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs. (a) Activities involving development within the flood control storage zone...

  7. 18 CFR 1304.407 - Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs. 1304.407 Section 1304.407 Conservation of Power and Water... OF STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.407 Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs. (a) Activities involving development within the flood control storage zone...

  8. 18 CFR 1304.407 - Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs. 1304.407 Section 1304.407 Conservation of Power and Water... OF STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.407 Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs. (a) Activities involving development within the flood control storage zone...

  9. Assessing Sedimentation Issues Within Aging Flood Control Reservoirs in Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennet, Sean J.; Cooper, Charles M.; Ritchie, Jerry C.; Dunbar, John A.; Allen, Peter M.; Caldwell, Larry W.; McGee, Thomas M.

    2002-10-01

    Since 1948, the USDA-NRCS has constructed nearly 11,000 flood control dams across the United States, and many of the reservoirs are rapidly filling with sediment. To rehabilitate these structures, the impounded sediment must be assessed to determine the volume of accumulated sediment and the potential hazard this sediment may pose if reintroduced to the environment. An assessment of sedimentation issues within two reservoirs, Sugar Creek No. 12, Hinton, Oklahoma, and Sergeant Major No. 4, Cheyenne, Oklahoma, is presented. Sediment cores obtained using a vibracoring system were composed of alternating layers of gravel, sand, silt, and clay. Stratigraphic analysis coupled with 137Cs dating techniques enabled the discrimination of pre-construction sediment from post-construction deposition. An acoustic profiling system was unencumbered by the relatively shallow water depth at Sugar Creek No. 12 and the seismic horizons agreed well with the sediment core data. Total sediment volume determined from the acoustic survey and the sediment core data for comparable areas differed by only 1.4 percent. The seismic profiling system worked well in the relatively deeper lake of Sergeant Major No. 4 and showed good correspondence to the collected core data. Detailed chemical analyses showed that overall sediment quality was good at both locations and that chemical composition was spatially invariant. Implementation of these techniques will aid action agencies such as the USDA-NRCS in their assessment and effective management of aging flood control reservoirs.

  10. Water levels shape fishing participation in flood-control reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Meals, K. O.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relationship between fishing effort (hours fished) and average March–May water level in 3 flood control reservoirs in Mississippi. Fishing effort increased as water level rose, peaked at intermediate water levels, and decreased at high water levels. We suggest that the observed arched-shaped relationship is driven by the shifting influence of fishability (adequacy of the fishing circumstances from an angler's perspective) and catch rate along a water level continuum. Fishability reduces fishing effort during low water, despite the potential for higher catch rates. Conversely, reduced catch rates and fishability at high water also curtail effort. Thus, both high and low water levels seem to discourage fishing effort, whereas anglers seem to favor intermediate water levels. Our results have implications for water level management in reservoirs with large water level fluctuations.

  11. Developing an Intelligent Reservoir Flood Control Decision Support System through Integrating Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, L. C.; Kao, I. F.; Tsai, F. H.; Hsu, H. C.; Yang, S. N.; Shen, H. Y.; Chang, F. J.

    2015-12-01

    Typhoons and storms hit Taiwan several times every year and cause serious flood disasters. Because the mountainous terrain and steep landform rapidly accelerate the speed of flood flow, rivers cannot be a stable source of water supply. Reservoirs become one of the most important and effective floodwater storage facilities. However, real-time operation for reservoir flood control is a continuous and instant decision-making process based on rules, laws, meteorological nowcast, in addition to the immediate rainfall and hydrological data. The achievement of reservoir flood control can effectively mitigate flood disasters and store floodwaters for future uses. In this study, we construct an intelligent decision support system for reservoir flood control through integrating different types of neural networks and the above information to solve this problem. This intelligent reservoir flood control decision support system includes three parts: typhoon track classification, flood forecast and adaptive water release models. This study used the self-organizing map (SOM) for typhoon track clustering, nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous inputs (NARX) for multi-step-ahead reservoir inflow prediction, and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for reservoir flood control. Before typhoons landfall, we can estimate the entire flood hydrogragh of reservoir inflow by using SOM and make a pre-release strategy and real-time reservoir flood operating by using ANFIS. In the meanwhile, NARX can be constantly used real-time five-hour-ahead inflow prediction for providing the newest flood information. The system has been successfully implemented Typhoons Trami (2013), Fitow (2013) and Matmo (2014) in Shihmen Reservoir.

  12. 18 CFR 1304.407 - Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Development within flood... OF STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.407 Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs. (a) Activities involving development within the flood control storage zone...

  13. Credibility theory based dynamic control bound optimization for reservoir flood limited water level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhiqiang; Sun, Ping; Ji, Changming; Zhou, Jianzhong

    2015-10-01

    The dynamic control operation of reservoir flood limited water level (FLWL) can solve the contradictions between reservoir flood control and beneficial operation well, and it is an important measure to make sure the security of flood control and realize the flood utilization. The dynamic control bound of FLWL is a fundamental key element for implementing reservoir dynamic control operation. In order to optimize the dynamic control bound of FLWL by considering flood forecasting error, this paper took the forecasting error as a fuzzy variable, and described it with the emerging credibility theory in recent years. By combining the flood forecasting error quantitative model, a credibility-based fuzzy chance constrained model used to optimize the dynamic control bound was proposed in this paper, and fuzzy simulation technology was used to solve the model. The FENGTAN reservoir in China was selected as a case study, and the results show that, compared with the original operation water level, the initial operation water level (IOWL) of FENGTAN reservoir can be raised 4 m, 2 m and 5.5 m respectively in the three division stages of flood season, and without increasing flood control risk. In addition, the rationality and feasibility of the proposed forecasting error quantitative model and credibility-based dynamic control bound optimization model are verified by the calculation results of extreme risk theory.

  14. Soil and Sediment Properties Affecting the Transport and Accumulations of Mercury in a Flood Control Reservoir

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mercury accumulations in some fish species from Grenada Lake in north Mississippi exceed the Food and Drug Administration standards for human consumption. This large flood control reservoir serves as a sink for the Skuna and Yalobusha River watersheds whose highly erodible soils contribute to exces...

  15. Application of Decision Tree to Obtain Optimal Operation Rules for Reservoir Flood Control Considering Sediment Desilting-Case Study of Tseng Wen Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ShiouWei, L.

    2014-12-01

    Reservoirs are the most important water resources facilities in Taiwan.However,due to the steep slope and fragile geological conditions in the mountain area,storm events usually cause serious debris flow and flood,and the flood then will flush large amount of sediment into reservoirs.The sedimentation caused by flood has great impact on the reservoirs life.Hence,how to operate a reservoir during flood events to increase the efficiency of sediment desilting without risk the reservoir safety and impact the water supply afterward is a crucial issue in Taiwan.  Therefore,this study developed a novel optimization planning model for reservoir flood operation considering flood control and sediment desilting,and proposed easy to use operating rules represented by decision trees.The decision trees rules have considered flood mitigation,water supply and sediment desilting.The optimal planning model computes the optimal reservoir release for each flood event that minimum water supply impact and maximum sediment desilting without risk the reservoir safety.Beside the optimal flood operation planning model,this study also proposed decision tree based flood operating rules that were trained by the multiple optimal reservoir releases to synthesis flood scenarios.The synthesis flood scenarios consists of various synthesis storm events,reservoir's initial storage and target storages at the end of flood operating.  Comparing the results operated by the decision tree operation rules(DTOR) with that by historical operation for Krosa Typhoon in 2007,the DTOR removed sediment 15.4% more than that of historical operation with reservoir storage only8.38×106m3 less than that of historical operation.For Jangmi Typhoon in 2008,the DTOR removed sediment 24.4% more than that of historical operation with reservoir storage only 7.58×106m3 less than that of historical operation.The results show that the proposed DTOR model can increase the sediment desilting efficiency and extend the

  16. Flood mitigation through optimal control of a network of multi-purpose reservoirs by using Model Predictive Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MyoLin, Nay; Rutten, Martine; van de Giesen, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Flooding is a common natural disaster in the world. Construction of reservoirs, sluice gates, dikes, embankments and sea walls are implemented to minimize loss of life and property in a flood event. Rather than completely relying on large structural measures, non-structural measures such as real time control of a reservoir system can also improve flood prevention and water supply in a river basin. In this paper, we present the optimal operation of a multi-reservoir system by using Model Predictive Control (MPC) and particular attention is focused on flood mitigation of the Sittaung River Basin, Myanmar. The main challenges are non-linearity in the dynamic behavior of the water system and exponential growth of computational complexity with the state and control dimension. To deal with an issue related to non-linearity, we applied simplified internal model based on linearization scheme with a large grid length. For solving curse of dimensionality, we utilize the reduced model in which the states of the system are reduced by considering outflows from uncontrolled catchments as disturbances in the water system. We also address the computational time for real time control by using large time step scheme. Simulation results indicate that this model is able to use for real time control of a reservoir system addressing trade-offs between the multiple objectives.

  17. Effects of a Kentucky flood-control reservoir on macroinvertebrates in the tailwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Novotny, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of a flood-control reservoir on downstream macroinvertebrates were assessed by comparing the tailwater community with that of a natural stream. Samples were collected 1.6 and 21.1 km below Barren River Lake dam in 1979, 1980, and 1981 and in a reservoir tributary in 1980 and 1981. An indication of environmental stress in the macroinvertebrate community was observed at both tailwater stations, whereas macroinvertebrates in the natural tributary stream had the characteristics commonly associated with a ‘healthy’ community. Densities of macroinvertebrates in tailwaters were highest during periods of low-stable flows and lowest during fluctuating and high-stable flows. Changes in temperature cycles and water quality were also considered factors in reducing macroinvertebrate abundance in the tailwater. Dominant macroinvertebrate taxa in tailwaters were primarily small organisms with a high tolerance for dynamic living conditions. Of these, aquatic Diptera, Oligochaeta, Caenis, Cheumatopsyche, and Planariidae were most common. The effects of reservoir discharge were most evident near the dam, where macroinvertebrate densities were relatively high and taxonomic diversity was low. Downstream, the impact of the reservoir was moderated, but recovery was judged incomplete.

  18. Conjunctively optimizing flash flood control and water quality in urban water reservoirs by model predictive control and dynamic emulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galelli, Stefano; Goedbloed, Albert; Schmitter, Petra; Castelletti, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Urban water reservoirs are a viable adaptation option to account for increasing drinking water demand of urbanized areas as they allow storage and re-use of water that is normally lost. In addition, the direct availability of freshwater reduces pumping costs and diversifies the portfolios of drinking water supply. Yet, these benefits have an associated twofold cost. Firstly, the presence of large, impervious areas increases the hydraulic efficiency of urban catchments, with short time of concentration, increased runoff rates, losses of infiltration and baseflow, and higher risk of flash floods. Secondly, the high concentration of nutrients and sediments characterizing urban discharges is likely to cause water quality problems. In this study we propose a new control scheme combining Model Predictive Control (MPC), hydro-meteorological forecasts and dynamic model emulation to design real-time operating policies that conjunctively optimize water quantity and quality targets. The main advantage of this scheme stands in its capability of exploiting real-time hydro-meteorological forecasts, which are crucial in such fast-varying systems. In addition, the reduced computational requests of the MPC scheme allows coupling it with dynamic emulators of water quality processes. The approach is demonstrated on Marina Reservoir, a multi-purpose reservoir located in the heart of Singapore and characterized by a large, highly urbanized catchment with a short (i.e. approximately one hour) time of concentration. Results show that the MPC scheme, coupled with a water quality emulator, provides a good compromise between different operating objectives, namely flood risk reduction, drinking water supply and salinity control. Finally, the scheme is used to assess the effect of source control measures (e.g. green roofs) aimed at restoring the natural hydrological regime of Marina Reservoir catchment.

  19. In the Way of Peacemaker Guide Curve between Water Supply and Flood Control for Short Term Reservoir Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uysal, G.; Sensoy, A.; Yavuz, O.; Sorman, A. A.; Gezgin, T.

    2012-04-01

    Effective management of a controlled reservoir system where it involves multiple and sometimes conflicting objectives is a complex problem especially in real time operations. Yuvacık Dam Reservoir, located in the Marmara region of Turkey, is built to supply annual demand of 142 hm3 water for Kocaeli city requires such a complex management strategy since it has relatively small (51 hm3) effective capacity. On the other hand, the drainage basin is fed by both rainfall and snowmelt since the elevation ranges between 80 - 1548 m. Excessive water must be stored behind the radial gates between February and May in terms of sustainability especially for summer and autumn periods. Moreover, the downstream channel physical conditions constraint the spillway releases up to 100 m3/s although the spillway is large enough to handle major floods. Thus, this situation makes short term release decisions the challenging task. Long term water supply curves, based on historical inflows and annual water demand, are in conflict with flood regulation (control) levels, based on flood attenuation and routing curves, for this reservoir. A guide curve, that is generated using both water supply and flood control of downstream channel, generally corresponds to upper elevation of conservation pool for simulation of a reservoir. However, sometimes current operation necessitates exceeding this target elevation. Since guide curves can be developed as a function of external variables, the water potential of a basin can be an indicator to explain current conditions and decide on the further strategies. Besides, releases with respect to guide curve are managed and restricted by user-defined rules. Although the managers operate the reservoir due to several variable conditions and predictions, still the simulation model using variable guide curve is an urgent need to test alternatives quickly. To that end, using HEC-ResSim, the several variable guide curves are defined to meet the requirements by

  20. Effect of multiyear drought on upland sediment yield and subsequent impacts on flood control reservoir storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, John A.; Allen, Peter M.; Bennett, Sean J.

    2010-05-01

    Since the early 1950s, the U.S. Soil Conservation Service (SCS) and later the U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service has built over 11,000 flood control reservoirs (FCR) in 47 states. FCR built in Texas and Oklahoma in the early 1950s to mid-1950s were impounded during the most severe drought on record in the region. In this study, the sediment trapped in FCR is used to reconstruct the variation in sediment yield through the drought years to the present. New sediment surveys of four FCR in McCulloch County, Texas, are combined with three previous surveys by the SCS. The new surveys are conducted using acoustic profiling to map water depth and sediment thickness in submerged areas of the reservoirs and real-time kinematic GPS in the dry areas. Sediment coring is used to determine sediment dry bulk density. The survey results are used to construct a composite history of the normalized sediment yield for the study area. Normalized sediment yield is the annual sediment yield normalized by the soil erodability factor K and the combined slope length and steepness factor LS of the watershed. The results indicate that sediment yield was lowest during the relatively drought-free period from 1971 to 2007, averaging 4.2 t/ha/yr/unit K/unit LS and over 70 times higher during the early part of the 1950s drought from 1951 to 1953, averaging 300.3 t/ha/yr/unit K/unit LS. These results have important implications for predicting the remaining useful life of FCR in the region and planning for future droughts.

  1. A novel multi-objective electromagnetism-like mechanism algorithm with applications in reservoir flood control operation.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Shuo; Zhou, Jianzhong; Qin, Hui; Liao, Xiang; Wang, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Reservoir flood control operation (RFCO) is a complex problem that involves various constraints and purposes, which include the safety of the dam, watershed flood control and navigation. These objectives often conflict with each other. Thus, traditional methods have difficulty in solving the multi-objective problem efficiently. In this paper, a multi-objective self-adaptive electromagnetism-like mechanism (MOSEM) algorithm is introduced in the local searching operation of the proposed method. To enhance the optimization ability of EM, a self-adaptive parameter is applied in the local search operation of MOSEM for adjusting the values of parameters dynamically. Moreover, MOSEM is tested by several benchmark test problems and compared with some well-known multi-objective evolutionary algorithms. A case study is also used for solving RFCO problems of the Three Georges Reservoir by using the multi-objective cultured differential evolution (MOCDE), non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II) and proposed MOSEM methods. The study results reveal that MOSEM can provide alternative Pareto-optimal solutions (POS) with better convergence properties and diversification.

  2. Physical controls on CH4 emissions from a newly flooded subtropical freshwater hydroelectric reservoir: Nam Theun 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, C.; Serça, D.; Delon, C.; Tardif, R.; Demarty, M.; Jarnot, C.; Meyerfeld, Y.; Chanudet, V.; Guédant, P.; Rode, W.; Descloux, S.; Guérin, F.

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we measured independently CH4 ebullition and diffusion in the footprint of an eddy covariance system (EC) measuring CH4 emissions in the Nam Theun 2 Reservoir, a recently impounded (2008) subtropical hydroelectric reservoir located in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), Southeast Asia. The EC fluxes were very consistent with the sum of the two terms measured independently (diffusive fluxes + ebullition = EC fluxes), indicating that the EC system picked up both diffusive fluxes and ebullition from the reservoir. We showed a diurnal bimodal pattern of CH4 emissions anti-correlated with atmospheric pressure. During daytime, a large atmospheric pressure drop triggers CH4 ebullition (up to 100 mmol m-2 d-1), whereas at night, a more moderate peak of CH4 emissions was recorded. As a consequence, fluxes during daytime were twice as high as during nighttime. Additionally, more than 4800 discrete measurements of CH4 ebullition were performed at a weekly/fortnightly frequency, covering water depths ranging from 0.4 to 16 m and various types of flooded ecosystems. Methane ebullition varies significantly seasonally and depends mostly on water level change during the warm dry season, whereas no relationship was observed during the cold dry season. On average, ebullition was 8.5 ± 10.5 mmol m-2 d-1 and ranged from 0 to 201.7 mmol m-2 d-1. An artificial neural network (ANN) model could explain up to 46% of seasonal variability of ebullition by considering total static pressure (the sum of hydrostatic and atmospheric pressure), variations in the total static pressure, and bottom temperature as controlling factors. This model allowed extrapolation of CH4 ebullition on the reservoir scale and performance of gap filling over four years. Our results clearly showed a very high seasonality: 50% of the yearly CH4 ebullition occurs within four months of the warm dry season. Overall, ebullition contributed 60-80% of total emissions from the surface of the

  3. Collecting a multi-disciplinary field dataset to model the interactions between a flood control reservoir and the underlying porous aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgatti, L.; Corsini, A.; Chiapponi, L.; D'Oria, M.; Giuffredi, F.; Lancellotta, R.; Mignosa, P.; Moretti, G.; Orlandini, S.; Pellegrini, M.; Remitti, F.; Ronchetti, F.; Tanda, M.; Zanini, A.

    2008-12-01

    During the last decades, a large number of flood control reservoirs were developed in Northern Italy, in order to mitigate flood risk in urban areas. The city of Parma, located on the large alluvial fan of the Parma River, is served by a flood control reservoir (i.e., dry dam), completed in 2004. The reservoir can store a volume of 12·106 m3 over an area of 1.2 km2 surrounded by about 4 km of artificial levees and closed downstream by a concrete dam 15 m high, equipped with 3 movable floodgates. The structure has the purpose to store the excess water in the case of high return period flood events, releasing it downstream at a controlled rate. A stilling basin is located downstream the dam in order to dissipate the kinetic energy of the discharged flow. The stilling basin is made up of 2 m thick concrete slabs, on which 3 dissipating blocks are located. The deposits below the stilling basin are surrounded by a grout wall (20 m deep) with the aim of realizing a confined "box". Groundwater levels inside the box are controlled by a 110 m long drainage trench located upstream the stilling basin, 3 m below its floor. In the perspective of a long-term management of the reservoir, after the completion of the works, a phase of investigation, control and monitoring of the efficiency of the entire system has been carried out, mainly to highlight the interactions between the reservoir and the underlying aquifer. This task was accomplished filling the reservoir at the maximum retaining level by means of capturing the tails of spring 2008 flood events. The aquifer beneath and surrounding the structure has been investigated by means of several tests, such analysis. Moreover, a groundwater monitoring system made up by 44 piezometers with dataloggers and real- time data transmission to a dedicated website has been set up. Monitoring data before, during, and after the infilling of the reservoir show that the aquifer below the structure is multilayered, with prevailing silty gravels

  4. Improved Efficiency of Miscible CO2 Floods and Enhanced Prospects for CO2 Flooding Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Grigg, Reid B.; Schechter, David S.

    1999-10-15

    The goal of this project is to improve the efficiency of miscible CO2 floods and enhance the prospects for flooding heterogeneous reservoirs. This report provides results of the second year of the three-year project that will be exploring three principles: (1) Fluid and matrix interactions (understanding the problems). (2) Conformance control/sweep efficiency (solving the problems. 3) Reservoir simulation for improved oil recovery (predicting results).

  5. Effects of flood control and other reservoir operations on the water quality of the lower Roanoke River, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Ana Maria

    2012-01-01

    The Roanoke River is an important natural resource for North Carolina, Virginia, and the Nation. Flood plains of the lower Roanoke River, which extend from Roanoke Rapids Dam to Batchelor Bay near Albemarle Sound, support a large and diverse population of nesting birds, waterfowl, freshwater and anadromous fish, and other wildlife, including threatened and endangered species. The flow regime of the lower Roanoke River is affected by a number of factors, including flood-management operations at the upstream John H. Kerr Dam and Reservoir. A three-dimensional, numerical water-quality model was developed to explore links between upstream flows and downstream water quality, specifically in-stream dissolved-oxygen dynamics. Calibration of the hydrodynamics and dissolved-oxygen concentrations emphasized the effect that flood-plain drainage has on water and oxygen levels, especially at locations more than 40 kilometers away from the Roanoke Rapids Dam. Model hydrodynamics were calibrated at three locations on the lower Roanoke River, yielding coefficients of determination between 0.5 and 0.9. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were calibrated at the same sites, and coefficients of determination ranged between 0.6 and 0.8. The model has been used to quantify relations among river flow, flood-plain water level, and in-stream dissolved-oxygen concentrations in support of management of operations of the John H. Kerr Dam, which affects overall flows in the lower Roanoke River. Scenarios have been developed to mitigate the negative effects that timing, duration, and extent of flood-plain inundation may have on vegetation, wildlife, and fisheries in the lower Roanoke River corridor. Under specific scenarios, the model predicted that mean dissolved-oxygen concentrations could be increased by 15 percent by flow-release schedules that minimize the drainage of anoxic flood-plain waters. The model provides a tool for water-quality managers that can help identify options that improve

  6. Physical controls on CH4 emissions from a newly flooded subtropical freshwater hydroelectric reservoir: Nam Theun 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, C.; Serça, D.; Delon, C.; Tardif, R.; Demarty, M.; Jarnot, C.; Meyerfeld, Y.; Chanudet, V.; Guédant, P.; Rode, W.; Descloux, S.; Guérin, F.

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, we measured CH4 ebullition and diffusion with funnels and floating chambers in the footprint of an eddy-covariance system measuring CH4 emissions at high frequency (30 mn) in the Nam Theun 2 Reservoir, a recently impounded (in 2008) subtropical hydroelectric reservoir located in Lao PDR, southeast Asia. The EC fluxes were very consistent with the sum of the two terms measured independently (diffusive fluxes + ebullition = EC fluxes), indicating that the EC system picked-up both diffusive fluxes and ebullition from the reservoir. The EC system permitted to evidence a diurnal bimodal pattern of CH4 emissions anti-correlated with atmospheric pressure. During daytime, a large atmospheric pressure drop triggers CH4 ebullition (up to 100 mmol m-2 d-1) whereas at night, a more moderate peak of CH4 emission was recorded. As a consequence, fluxes during daytime were twice higher than during nighttime. A total of 4811 measurements of CH4 ebullition with submerged funnels at a weekly/fortnightly frequency were performed. The data set covers a water depth ranging from 0.4 to 16 m, and all types of flooded ecosystems. This dataset allowed to determine that ebullition depends mostly on water level change among many other variables tested. On average, ebullition was 8.5 ± 10.5 mmol m-2 d-1 (10-90 percentile range: 0.03-21.5 mmol m-2 d-1) and ranged from 0-201.7 mmol m-2 d-1. An artificial neural network model could explain up to 45% of variability of ebullition using total static pressure (sum of hydrostatic and atmospheric pressure), variations in the water level and atmospheric pressure, and bottom temperature as inputs. This model allowed extrapolation of CH4 ebullition at the reservoir scale and performing gap-filling over four years. Our results clearly showed a very high seasonality: 50% of the yearly CH4 ebullition occurs within four months of the warm dry season. Overall, ebullition contributed 60-80% of total emissions from the surface of the

  7. Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding: Spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Annual report, September 30, 1992--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Somasundaran, P.

    1994-07-01

    The aim of this research project is to investigate mechanisms underlying adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. Effects of surfactant structure, surfactant combinations, various inorganic and polymeric species, and solids mineralogy will be determined. A multi-pronged approach consisting of micro & nano spectroscopy, microcalorimetry, electrokinetics, surface tension and wettability; is used in this study. The results obtained should help in controlling surfactant loss in chemical flooding and in developing optimum structures and conditions for efficient chemical flooding processes. During the first year of this three year contract, adsorption of single surfactants and select surfactant mixtures was studied at the solid-liquid and gas-liquid interfaces. Surfactants studied include alkyl xylene sulfonates, polyethoxylated alkyl phenols, octaethylene glycol mono n-decyl ether, and tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride. Adsorption of surfactant mixtures of varying composition was also investigated. The microstructure of the adsorbed layer was characterized using fluorescence spectroscopy. Changes interfacial properties such as wettability, electrokinetics and stability of reservoir minerals were correlated with the amount of reagent adsorbed. Strong effects of the structure of the surfactant and position of functional groups were revealed.

  8. Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Annual report, September 30, 1992--September 30 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Casteel, J.

    1996-07-01

    The aim of this research project was to investigate mechanisms governing adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. Effects of surfactant structure, surfactant combinations, various inorganic and polymeric species, and solids mineralogy have been determined. A multi-pronged approach consisting of micro & nano spectroscopy, electrokinetics, surface tension and wettability is used in this study. The results obtained should help in controlling surfactant loss in chemical flooding and in developing optimum structures and conditions for efficient chemical flooding processes. During the three years contract period, adsorption of single surfactants and select surfactant mixtures was studied at the solid-liquid and gas-liquid interfaces. Alkyl xylene sulfonates, polyethoxylated alkyl phenols, octaethylene glycol mono n-decyl ether, and tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride were the surfactants studied. Adsorption of surfactant mixtures of varying composition was also investigated. The microstructure of the adsorbed layer was characterized using fluorescence spectroscopy. Changes in interfacial properties such as wettability, electrokinetics and stability of reservoir minerals were correlated with the amounts of reagent adsorbed. Strong effects of the structure of the surfactant and position of functional groups were revealed. Changes of microstructure upon dilution (desorption) were also studied. Presence of the nonionic surfactants in mixed aggregate leads to shielding of the charge of ionic surfactants which in turn promotes aggregation but reduced electrostatic attraction between the charged surfactant and the mineral surface. Strong consequences of surfactant interactions in solution on adsorption as well as correlations between monomer concentration in mixtures and adsorption were revealed.

  9. Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding: Spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Somasundaran, P.

    1993-05-01

    The aim of this project is to elucidate the mechanisms of adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. Effect of surfactant structure, surfactant combinations and other inorganic and polymeric species will be determined using solids of relevant mineralogy. A multi-pronged approach consisting of micro & nano spectroscopy, microcalorimetry, electrokinetics, surface tension and wettability win be used to achieve the goals. The results of this study should help in controlling surfactant loss in chemical flooding and also in developing optimum structures and conditions for efficient chemical flooding processes. Adsorption of selected individual surfactants on oxide minerals was studied. The aim was to determine the effect of structure on surfactant adsorption at the solid-liquid as well as at the liquid-air interface. Nonionic polyethoxylated alkyl phenols and anionic meta xylene sulfonates (MXS) were the surfactants studied. Electrokinetic behavior was also determined along with adsorption in order to determine the role of electrostatic forces in determining the adsorption. In addition, the effect of varying the number of ethylene oxide groups on the adsorption of polyethoxylated alkyl phenols on silica was determined since the ethoxyl groups offer unique opportunities to control adsorption as well as wettability. Effect of pH was studied both because it is a parameter with first order effect and also because pH effects can help in developing mechanisms.

  10. Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Annual report, September 30, 1993--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Somasundaran, P.

    1995-06-01

    The aim of this project is to elucidate the mechanisms underlying adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. Effect of surfactant structure, surfactant combinations, other inorganic and polymeric species is being studied. A multi-pronged approach consisting of micro and nano spectroscopy, microcalorimetry, electrokinetics, surface tension and wettability is used to achieve the goals. The results of this study should help in controlling surfactant loss in chemical flooding and also in developing optimum structures and conditions for efficient chemical flooding processes. During the second year of this three year contract, adsorption/desorption of single surfactants and select surfactant mixtures on alumina and silica was studied. Surfactants studied include the anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cationic tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (TTAC), nonionic pentadecylethoxylated nonyl phenol (NP-15) and the nonionic octaethylene glycol n-dodecyl ether (C{sub 12}EO{sub 8}) of varying hydrocarbon chain length. The microstructure of the adsorbed layer in terms of micropolarity and aggregation numbers was probed using fluorescence spectroscopy. Changes of microstructure upon dilution (desorption) were also studied. Presence of the nonionic surfactant in the mixed aggregate led to shielding of the charge of the ionic surfactant which in-turn promoted aggregation but reduced electrostatic attraction between the charged surfactant and the mineral surface. Strong consequences of surfactant interactions in solution upon adsorption as well as correlations between monomer concentrations in mixtures and adsorption were revealed.

  11. Water-level fluctuations influence sediment porewater chemistry and methylmercury production in a flood-control reservoir.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reservoirs typically have elevated fish mercury (Hg) levels compared to natural lakes and rivers. A unique feature of reservoirs is water-level management which can result in sediment exposure to the air. The objective of this study is to identify how reservoir water-level fluct...

  12. Floods, flood control, and bottomland vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, Jonathan M.; Auble, Gregor T.

    2000-01-01

    Bottomland plant communities are typically dominated by the effects of floods. Floods create the surfaces on which plants become established, transport seeds and nutrients, and remove establish plants. Floods provide a moisture subsidy that allows development of bottomland forests in arid regions and produce anoxic soils, which can control bottomland plant distribution in humid regions. Repeated flooding produces a mosaic of patches of different age, sediment texture, and inundation duration; this mosaic fosters high species richness.

  13. Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding: Spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Somasundaran, P.

    1994-02-22

    The aim of this contract is to elucidate the mechanisms underlying adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. Effect of surfactant structure, surfactant combinations and other inorganic and polymeric species and solids of relevant mineralogy will also be determined. A multi-pronged approach consisting of micro & nano spectroscopy, microcalorimetry, electrokinetics, surface tension and wettability win be used to achieve the goals. The results of this study should help in controlling surfactant loss in chemical flooding and also in developing optimum structures and conditions for efficient chemical flooding processes. Adsorption/desorption of tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (TTAC) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/octaethylene glycol mono n-decyl ether (C{sub 12}EO{sub 8}) surfactant mixtures at the kaolinite-water and alumina-water interfaces was studied during this quarter. The microstructure of the adsorbed layer was investigated using spectroscopic techniques. Effect of the hydrocarbon chain length of octaethylene glycol mono n-alkyl ether (C{sub n}EO{sub 8}) type nonionic surfactants on the adsorption of 1:1 mixtures of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/C{sub n}EO{sub 8} at the kaolinite/water interface was studied. The adsorption of SDS was enhanced by the presence of C{sub 10}EO{sub 8} but this effect was not as significant as those by C{sub 12--16}EO{sub 8}. Interestingly, once the hydrocarbon chain length of the nonionic surfactant exceeded that of the SDS (12) there was no further enhancement of SDS adsorption.

  14. Improved efficiency of miscible CO{sub 2} floods and enhanced prospects for CO{sub 2} flooding heterogeneous reservoirs. Annual report, April 14, 1994--April 13, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Grigg, R.; Heller, J.; Schechter, D.

    1995-09-01

    The overall goal of this project is to improve the efficiency of miscible CO{sub 2} floods and enhance the prospects for flooding heterogeneous reservoirs. This objective is being accomplished by extending experimental research in three task areas: (1) foams for selective mobility control in heterogeneous reservoirs, (2) reduction of the amount of CO{sub 2} required in CO{sub 2} floods, and (3) miscible CO{sub 2} flooding in fractured reservoirs. This report provides results of the first year of the three-year project for each of the three task areas.

  15. Water-level fluctuations influence sediment porewater chemistry and methylmercury production in a flood-control reservoir.

    PubMed

    Eckley, Chris S; Luxton, Todd P; Goetz, Jennifer; McKernan, John

    2017-03-01

    Reservoirs typically have elevated fish mercury (Hg) levels compared to natural lakes and rivers. A unique feature of reservoirs is water-level management which can result in sediment exposure to the air. The objective of this study is to identify how reservoir water-level fluctuations impact Hg cycling, particularly the formation of the more toxic and bioaccumulative methylmercury (MeHg). Total-Hg (THg), MeHg, stable isotope methylation rates and several ancillary parameters were measured in reservoir sediments (including some in porewater and overlying water) that are seasonally and permanently inundated. The results showed that sediment and porewater MeHg concentrations were over 3-times higher in areas experiencing water-level fluctuations compared to permanently inundated sediments. Analysis of the data suggest that the enhanced breakdown of organic matter in sediments experiencing water-level fluctuations has a two-fold effect on stimulating Hg methylation: 1) it increases the partitioning of inorganic Hg from the solid phase into the porewater phase (lower log Kd values) where it is more bioavailable for methylation; and 2) it increases dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the porewater which can stimulate the microbial community that can methylate Hg. Sulfate concentrations and cycling were enhanced in the seasonally inundated sediments and may have also contributed to increased MeHg production. Overall, our results suggest that reservoir management actions can have an impact on the sediment-porewater characteristics that affect MeHg production. Such findings are also relevant to natural water systems that experience wetting and drying cycles, such as floodplains and ombrotrophic wetlands.

  16. Improved Efficiency of Miscible CO{sub 2} Floods and Enhanced Prospects for CO{sub 2} Flooding Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Boyun Guo; David S. Schechter; Jyun-Syung Tsau; Reid B. Grigg; Shih-Hsien Chang

    1997-10-31

    This work will examine three major areas in which CO{sub 2} flooding can be improved: fluid and matrix interactions, conformance control/sweep efficiency, and reservoir simulation for improved oil recovery. The first full quarter of this project has been completed. We began examining synergistic affects of mixed surfactant versus single surfactant systems to enhance the properties of foams used for improving oil recovery in CO{sub 2} floods. The purpose is to reduce the concentration of surfactants or finding less expensive surfactants. Also, we are examining the effect of oil saturation on the development of foam in CO{sub 2}-surfactant solution systems. CO{sub 2} flooding of low permeability, vugular, and fracture reservoirs are another major thrust of this project. Work conducted this quarter involved simulating gravity stable floods using large core samples; results showed excellent recovery in a low permeability vugular core.

  17. Water treatment by aquatic ecosystem: Nutrient removal by reservoirs and flooded fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, K. R.; Sacco, P. D.; Graetz, D. A.; Campbell, K. L.; Sinclair, L. R.

    1982-05-01

    Potential use of reservoirs and flooded fields stocked with aquatic plants for reduction of the nutrient levels of organic soil drainage water was evaluated. The treatment systems include 1) a large single reservoir (R1) stocked with waterhyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes), elodea ( Egeria densa), and cattails ( Typha sp.) in series; 2) three small reservoirs in series with waterhyacinth (R2), elodea (R3), and cattails (R4), grown in independent reservoirs; 3) a control reservoir (R5) with no cultivated plants; 4) a large single flooded field planted to cattails; 5) three small flooded fields in a series planted to cattails; and 6) a flooded field with no cultivated plants. Drainage water was pumped daily (6 hours a day, and 6 days a week) into these systems for a period of 27 months at predetermined constant flow rates. Water samples were collected at the inlet and outlet of each treatment system and analyzed for N and P forms. The series of reservoirs stocked with aquatic plants functioned effectively in the removal of N and P from agricultural drainage water, compared to a single large reservoir. Allowing the water to flow through the reservoir stocked with waterhyacinth plants with a residence time of 3.6 days was adequate to remove about 50% of the incoming inorganic N. Allowing the water to flow through a series of two small reservoirs, R2 and R3, with a residence time of 7.3 days was necessary to remove about 60% of the incoming ortho-P. Flooded fields were effective in the removal of inorganic N, but showed poor efficiency in the removal of ortho-P.

  18. Optimized polymer enhanced foam flooding for ordinary heavy oil reservoir after cross-linked polymer flooding.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chen; Hou, Jian; Pan, Guangming; Xia, Zhizeng

    2016-01-01

    A successful cross-linked polymer flooding has been implemented in JD reservoir, an ordinary heavy oil reservoir with high permeability zones. For all that, there are still significant volumes of continuous oil remaining in place, which can not be easily extracted due to stronger vertical heterogeneity. Considering selective plugging feature, polymer enhanced foam (PEF) flooding was taken as following EOR technology for JD reservoir. For low cost and rich source, natural gas was used as foaming gas in our work. In the former work, the surfactant systems CEA/FSA1 was recommended as foam agent for natural gas foam flooding after series of compatibility studies. Foam performance evaluation experiments showed that foaming volume reached 110 mL, half-life time reached 40 min, and dimensionless filter coefficient reached 1.180 when CEA/FSA1 reacted with oil produced by JD reservoir. To compare the recovery efficiency by different EOR technologies, series of oil displacement experiments were carried out in a parallel core system which contained cores with relatively high and low permeability. EOR technologies concerned in our work include further cross-linked polymer (C-P) flooding, surfactant-polymer (S-P) flooding, and PEF flooding. Results showed that PEF flooding had the highest enhanced oil recovery of 19.2 % original oil in place (OOIP), followed by S-P flooding (9.6 % OOIP) and C-P flooding (6.1 % OOIP). Also, produced liquid percentage results indicated PEF flooding can efficiently promote the oil recovery in the lower permeability core by modifying the injection profile.

  19. Exploring increase of flood attenuation potential of reservoirs through simple gates operations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoero, A.; Claps, P.; Ganora, D.; Petaccia, A.

    2012-04-01

    Along with other flood risk mitigation measures, artificial flood storage has been considered as a mean to control flood peaks in mountainous basins, particularly as part of the flood management practices. Classical studies attain the evaluation of the 'natural' flood attenuation potential driven by the portion of volume available above the spillway crest level. These studies allow to reconstruct modified flood frequency curves in sections downstream as modified by this unconditioned type of attenuation. Less understood is the possibility to quantify the additional attenuation potential of reservoirs deriving by simple and standardized gates operations. Unconditioned gates opening in advance with respect to the incoming flood are the typical operations considered in this work. The study has been carried out using a system of 63 artificial reservoirs located in the Northwestern part of Italy, for which a comprehensive set of hydrological and hydraulic data has been collected with the help of the Italian Dams Authority (Registro Italiano Dighe, RID). The main aim of the study is to select the most interesting cases in which gates operation is able to consistently improve flood attenuation, and provide an overview of the effect that these dams exercise on the flood frequency curves of the river sections downstream. For what the 'natural' attenuation potential is concerned, an attenuation index named SFA (Synthetic Flood Attenuation) has been computed on all dams and subsequently used to modify the original frequency curve of the incoming floods. A recent regional statistical method for flood estimation has been used for this purpose. With the help of the same model and of additional information required to describe flood volumes, triangular and power-law synthetic flood hydrographs have been simulated. Gates operation is addressed to a preemptive drawdown, and is conceived as a fixed opening in defined conditions at the flood arrival. Consequently, the maximum

  20. Foam flooding reservoir simulation algorithm improvement and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yining; Wu, Xiaodong; Wang, Ruihe; Lai, Fengpeng; Zhang, Hanhan

    2014-05-01

    As one of the important enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technologies, Foam flooding is being used more and more widely in the oil field development. In order to describe and predict foam flooding, experts at domestic and abroad have established a number of mathematical models of foam flooding (mechanism, empirical and semi-empirical models). Empirical models require less data and apply conveniently, but the accuracy is not enough. The aggregate equilibrium model can describe foam generation, burst and coalescence by mechanism studying, but it is very difficult to accurately describe. The research considers the effects of critical water saturation, critical concentration of foaming agent and critical oil saturation on the sealing ability of foam and considers the effect of oil saturation on the resistance factor for obtaining the gas phase relative permeability and the results were amended by laboratory test, so the accuracy rate is higher. Through the reservoir development concepts simulation and field practical application, the calculation is more accurate and higher.

  1. Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding: Spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Quarterly technical progress report. October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Somasundaran, P.

    1995-03-01

    The aim of this research is to elucidate the mechanisms underling adsorption and surface precipitation of flooding surfactants on reservoir minerals. The adsorption and desorption behaviors of tetradecyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (TTAC) and pentadecylethoxylated nonylphenol (NP-15) mixtures as reported earlier were rather complex and to better understand the interactions involved fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrafiltration were used during this report period to probe the microstructure of the adsorbed layer and to determine individual surfactant monomer concentration respectively. It was observed that pyrene was solubilized in mixed aggregates (hemimicelles) of a 1:1 TTAC:NP-15 mixture at the alumina-water interface over a wider concentration range than for TTAC alone. It was also observed that the adsorbed aggregate of a 1:1 TTAC:NP-15 mixture is as hydrophobic as the mixed micelle in solution. This is contrary to what was observed for the adsorption of TTAC alone: pyrene was preferentially solubilized in the TTAC micelles rather than the adsorbed aggregate. The preference of pyrene for the mixed adsorbed aggregates over individual aggregates is relevant to the application of surfactant mixtures in enhanced oil recovery and solubilization. The adsorption/desorption behavior of surfactants is directly related to the monomer concentration of the surfactant, hence it is important to monitor changes in monomer concentration during the adsorption and desorption processes. Ultrafiltration techniques were used to monitor the monomer concentration in solution and at the interface to determine the partitioning of the surfactants to the solid-liquid interface.

  2. ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER FLOODING AND RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE BRIDGEPORT AND CYPRESS RESERVOIRS OF THE LAWRENCE FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm Pitts; Ron Damm; Bev Seyler

    2003-03-01

    Feasibility of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood for the Lawrence Field in Lawrence County, Illinois is being studied. Two injected formulations are being designed; one for the Bridgeport A and Bridgeport B reservoirs and one for Cypress and Paint Creek reservoirs. Fluid-fluid and coreflood evaluations have developed a chemical solution that produces incremental oil in the laboratory from the Cypress and Paint Creek reservoirs. A chemical formulation for the Bridgeport A and Bridgeport B reservoirs is being developed. A reservoir characterization study is being done on the Bridgeport A, B, & D sandstones, and on the Cypress sandstone. The study covers the pilot flood area and the Lawrence Field.

  3. ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER FLOODING AND RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE BRIDGEPORT AND CYPRESS RESERVOIRS OF THE LAWRENCE FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm Pitts; Ron Damm; Bev Seyler

    2003-04-01

    Feasibility of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood for the Lawrence Field in Lawrence County, Illinois is being studied. Two injected formulations are being designed; one for the Bridgeport A and Bridgeport B reservoirs and one for Cypress and Paint Creek reservoirs. Fluid-fluid and coreflood evaluations have developed a chemical solution that produces incremental oil in the laboratory from the Cypress and Paint Creek reservoirs. A chemical formulation for the Bridgeport A and Bridgeport B reservoirs is being developed. A reservoir characterization study is being done on the Bridgeport A, B, & D sandstones, and on the Cypress sandstone. The study covers the pilot flood area and the Lawrence Field.

  4. Flood control problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Maddock, Thomas

    1955-01-01

    Throughout the world, alluvial soils are among the most fertile and easiest cultivated. Alluvial valleys are routes for transportation either by water or by road and railroad. Rivers are sources of water, a necessity of life. But these river valleys and alluvial deposits, which have so many desirable characteristics and which have increased so greatly in population, are periodically occupied by the river in performing its task of removing the excess of precipitation from the land area and carrying away the products of erosion.How a river behaves and how the river flood plain appears depend on the relationships between water and sediment combined with the existing topography. Thus rivers and their alluvial deposits provide an endless variety of forms which are shaped, to a large extent, by the river flow during periods of rapid removal of debris and of excessive rainfall. The mechanics of river formation are such, however, that the highest discharges are not contained within a limited channel. How much water a channel will carry depends upon the frequency of occurrence of a flow. Low flows, which occur very frequently, are not important in channel formation. Neither are the infrequent discharges of very great magnitude which, although powerful, do not occur often enough to shape the channel. Channel characteristics, are dependent on those discharges of moderate size which combine power with frequency of occurrence to modify the channel from. In the highest discharges of a stream, water rises above the confines of its banks and flows over the flood plain.It must be considered, therefore, that floods are natural phenomena which are characteristic of all rivers. They perform a vital function in the maintenance of river forms and out of bank flow may be expected with a reasonable degree of regularity.

  5. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Flood Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Bruce D.

    1983-01-01

    Describes events leading to a flood in the Wehr Chemistry Laboratory at Marquette University, discussing steps taken to minimize damage upon discovery. Analyzes the problem of flooding in the chemical laboratory and outlines seven steps of flood control: prevention; minimization; early detection; stopping the flood; evaluation; clean-up; and…

  6. Prediction of the flooding of a mining reservoir in NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, R; Ordóñez, A; De Miguel, E; Loredo, C

    2016-12-15

    Abandoned and flooded mines constitute underground reservoirs which must be managed. When pumping is stopped in a closed mine, the process of flooding should be anticipated in order to avoid environmentally undesirable or unexpected mine water discharges at the surface, particularly in populated areas. The Candín-Fondón mining reservoir in Asturias (NW Spain) has an estimated void volume of 8 million m(3) and some urban areas are susceptible to be flooded if the water is freely released from the lowest mine adit/pithead. A conceptual model of this reservoir was undertaken and the flooding process was numerically modelled in order to estimate the time that the flooding would take. Additionally, the maximum safe height for the filling of the reservoir is discussed.

  7. Does reservoir always decrease flood risk? A case study of the Three Gorges Reservoir for middle Yangtze River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.; Liu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    This study is aimed to quantify the effects of the hydrologic alteration of the middle Yangtze River due to the operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), the largest dam in China. The streamflows of three downstream stations, Yichang, Shashi and Luoshan are studied to quantify the effect of TGR. Three schemes, including without TGR operation, with conventional and optimal TGR operating rules respectively, are compared of the Yichang station. The multi-input single-output systems models (MISO) are used to simulate the streamflows at Shashi and Luoshan stations with three different inputs of Yichang station, respectively. These streamflows are then analyzed by using the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) and the Range of Variability Approach (RVA) to evaluate the hydrologic changes associated with TGR operation. Results indicate that: (1) The 1-day maximum flows of Yichang and Shashi stations are decreased significantly, while their 1-day minimum flows are increased with TGR operation. (2) On the contrary with the maximum flows at Yichang and Shashi stations, the 1-day maximum flow of Luoshan station can be increased caused by encountering between the intervening flood and the post-flood release of the TGR. These findings are beneficial to evaluate the hydrologic systems in the middle Yangtze River after the TGR construction, and provide a scientific foundation for deriving the TGR flood control rules.

  8. Flood-related, organic-carbon anomalies as possible temporal markers in reservoir bottom sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, K.E.

    2004-01-01

    Results of a study of sediment cores from four reservoirs in the upper Mississippi River Basin, USA, indicated that anomalous organic carbon concentrations associated with flood deposits may provide detectable temporal markers in reservoir bottom sediments. Temporal markers are needed for reservoir sediment studies to date sediment layers deposited between the 1963-64 cesium-137 peak and the present. For two of four reservoirs studied, anomalously low organic carbon concentrations were measured for a sample interval in the upper part of a sediment core. The anomalous interval was interpreted to have been deposited during the July 1993 flood that affected a large area of the upper Mississippi River Basin. Potentially, the July 1993 flood deposit may be used as a temporal marker in reservoir bottom sediments in parts of the basin affected by the flood. Several uncertainties remain regarding the viability of organic carbon as a temporal marker including the combination of flood, basin, and reservoir characteristics required to produce a recognizable organic carbon marker in the bottom sediment and the optimal sampling strategy needed to detect the marker in a sediment core. It is proposed that flood duration and basin size may be important factors as to whether or not an anomalous and detectable organic carbon layer is deposited in a reservoir. ?? Copyright by the North American Lake Management Society 2004.

  9. Improved efficiency of miscible CO{sub 2} floods and enhanced prospects for CO{sub 2} flooding heterogeneous reservoirs. Annual report, June 1, 1997--May 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Grigg, R.B.; Schechter, D.S.

    1998-07-01

    The goal of this project is to improve the efficiency of miscible CO{sub 2} floods and enhance the prospects for flooding heterogeneous reservoirs. This report provides results of the first year of the three-year project that will be exploring three principle areas: (1) Fluid and matrix interactions (understanding the problems): interfacial tension (IFT), phase behavior, miscibility, capillary number, injectivity, wettability, and gravity drainage; (2) Conformance control/sweep efficiency (solving the problems): reduction of mobility using foam, diversion by selective mobility reduction (SMR) using foam, improved injectivity, alternating water and gas injection, and using horizontal wells; and (3) Reservoir simulation for improved oil recovery (predicting results): gravity drainage, SMR, CO{sub 2}-foam flooding, interfacial tension, injectivity profile, horizontal wells, and naturally fractured reservoirs. Studies of surfactant foam quality were performed during this first year. Simulation studies on a foam pilot area resulted in an acceptable history match model. The results confirm that the communication path between the foam injection well and a production well had a strong impact on the production performance. A laboratory study to aid in the development of a gravity drainage reservoir was undertaken on the Wellman Unit. Experiments were begun meant to duplicate situations of injectivity loss in WAG flooding and identify factors affecting the injectivity loss. The preliminary results indicate that for a given rock the injectivity loss depends on oil saturation in the core during WAG flooding. The injectivity loss is higher in cores with high in-situ oil saturations during WAG flooding. This effect is being verified by more experimental data.

  10. Improved efficiency of miscible CO{sub 2} floods and enhanced prospects for CO{sub 2} flooding heterogeneous reservoirs. Annual report, April 18, 1995--April 17, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Grigg, R.B.; Schechter, D.S.

    1996-10-01

    The overall goal of this project is to improve the efficiency of miscible CO{sub 2} floods and enhance the prospects for flooding heterogeneous reservoirs. This objective is being accomplished by extending experimental and modeling research in three task areas: (1) foams for selective mobility control in heterogeneous reservoirs, (2) reduction of the amount of CO{sub 2} required in CO{sub 2} floods, and (3) low IFT processes and the possibility of CO{sub 2} flooding in fractured reservoirs. This report provides results of the second year of the three-year project for each of the three task areas. In the first task, we are investigating a desirable characteristic of CO{sub 2}-foam called Selective Mobility Reduction (SMR) that results in an improvement in displacement efficiency by reducing the effects of reservoir heterogeneity. Research on SMR of foam during the past year has focused on three subjects: (1) to verify SMR in different rock permeabilities that are in capillary contact; (2) to test additional surfactants for the SMR property; and (3) to develop a modeling approach to assess the oil recovery efficiency of SMR in CO{sub 2}-foam on a reservoir scale. The experimental results from the composite cores suggest that the rock heterogeneity has significant effect on two phase (CO{sub 2}/brine) flow behavior in porous media, and that foam can favorably control CO{sub 2} mobility. The numerical modeling results suggest that foam with SMR can substantially increase the sweep efficiency and therefore improve oil recovery.

  11. Flood hydrology and dam-breach hydraulic analyses of five reservoirs in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, Michael R.; Hoogestraat, Galen K.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service has identified hazard concerns for areas downstream from five Colorado dams on Forest Service land. In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Forest Service, initiated a flood hydrology analysis to estimate the areal extent of potential downstream flood inundation and hazard to downstream life, property, and infrastructure if dam breach occurs. Readily available information was used for dam-breach assessments of five small Colorado reservoirs (Balman Reservoir, Crystal Lake, Manitou Park Lake, McGinnis Lake, and Million Reservoir) that are impounded by an earthen dam, and no new data were collected for hydraulic modeling. For each reservoir, two dam-breach scenarios were modeled: (1) the dam is overtopped but does not fail (break), and (2) the dam is overtopped and dam-break occurs. The dam-breach scenarios were modeled in response to the 100-year recurrence, 500-year recurrence, and the probable maximum precipitation, 24-hour duration rainstorms to predict downstream flooding. For each dam-breach and storm scenario, a flood inundation map was constructed to estimate the extent of flooding in areas of concern downstream from each dam. Simulation results of the dam-break scenarios were used to determine the hazard classification of the dam structure (high, significant, or low), which is primarily based on the potential for loss of life and property damage resulting from the predicted downstream flooding.

  12. Multi-objective scheduling mode utilization of cascaded reservoir group in upper Yellow River during ice jam flood prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shichun; Dong, Qianjin; Fu, Xiang; Ai, Ze

    2010-05-01

    The cascaded reservoir group in upper Yellow River has the integrated function of ice jam flood prevention and power generation. The main factors which affect the utilization of the ice jam flood prevention volume of Liujiaxia reservoir are analyzed during the period of ice jam flood prevention, based on the input of new power station in upper Yellow River, the method of cascaded compensating scheduling are applied and the relation curve between the ice jam flood prevention volume and the cascaded output power of Liujiaxia reservoir is calculated, and the scheduling multi-objective solution set for the reservoir is obtained. On this basis, the new scheduling mode solving the reservoir integrated scheduling problem in upper Yellow River during the period of ice jam flood prevention is discussed. Comparing with the regular scheduling results, the new scheduling mode based on multi-objective solution set has the outstanding advantage in solving the problem of multi-objective scheduling of cascaded reservoir group.

  13. Surfactant loss control in chemical flooding: Spectroscopic and calorimetric study of adsorption and precipitation on reservoir minerals. Quarterly progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Somasundaran, P.

    1995-08-31

    Previously, adsorption and desorption behaviors of tetradecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (TTAC) and pentadecylethoxylated nonyl phenol (NP-15) mixtures have been reported. It was observed that there was either synergistic or competitive adsorption between these two surfactants depending on the mixture ratios and the concentrations studied and that their adsorption/desorption behaviors were also rather complex. To better elucidate the mechanisms involved in these adsorption and desorption processes it is important to the understand the exact nature of the physico-chemical interactions between various components in mixtures and, how this in turn, controls the performance of the surfactant systems. Recently we have adapted the ultrafiltration technique to determine monomer concentrations in surfactant mixtures and to study the aggregation phenomenon between TTAC and NP-15. During the current report period, monomer concentrations of TTAC and NP-15 were measured for different mixing ratios at a constant ionic strength of 0.03 M NaCl and after adsorption for 4:1 TTAC:NP-15 mixture system. Possible behaviors of mixed micellization processes in solution are proposed and the relationship between monomer concentration and adsorption density is discussed.

  14. Major influencing factors of water flooding in abnormally high-pressure carbonate reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qingying, Hou; Kaiyuan, Chen; Zifei, Fan; Libing, Fu; Yefei, Chen

    2017-01-01

    The higher pressure coefficient is the major characteristics of the abnormal high pressure carbonate reservoirs, which the pressure coefficient generally exceeds 1.2 and the initial formation pressure is higher than normal sandstone reservoirs. Due to the large pressure difference between initial formation and saturated pressure, oil wells are capable to production with high flow rate by the natural energy at early production stage. When the formation pressure drops to the saturation pressure, the water or gas is usually injected to stabilize the well productivity and sustain the formation pressure. Based on the characteristics of Kenkiak oilfield, a typical abnormal high pressure carbonate reservoir, a well group model is designed to simulate and analyze the influence factors on water flooding. The conclusion is that permeability, interlayer difference and reserve abundance are the main three factors on the water flooding development in these reservoirs.

  15. A Framework for Flood Risk Analysis and Benefit Assessment of Flood Control Measures in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chaochao; Cheng, Xiaotao; Li, Na; Du, Xiaohe; Yu, Qian; Kan, Guangyuan

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk analysis is more complex in urban areas than that in rural areas because of their closely packed buildings, different kinds of land uses, and large number of flood control works and drainage systems. The purpose of this paper is to propose a practical framework for flood risk analysis and benefit assessment of flood control measures in urban areas. Based on the concept of disaster risk triangle (hazard, vulnerability and exposure), a comprehensive analysis method and a general procedure were proposed for urban flood risk analysis. Urban Flood Simulation Model (UFSM) and Urban Flood Damage Assessment Model (UFDAM) were integrated to estimate the flood risk in the Pudong flood protection area (Shanghai, China). S-shaped functions were adopted to represent flood return period and damage (R-D) curves. The study results show that flood control works could significantly reduce the flood risk within the 66-year flood return period and the flood risk was reduced by 15.59%. However, the flood risk was only reduced by 7.06% when the flood return period exceeded 66-years. Hence, it is difficult to meet the increasing demands for flood control solely relying on structural measures. The R-D function is suitable to describe the changes of flood control capacity. This frame work can assess the flood risk reduction due to flood control measures, and provide crucial information for strategy development and planning adaptation. PMID:27527202

  16. A Framework for Flood Risk Analysis and Benefit Assessment of Flood Control Measures in Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaochao; Cheng, Xiaotao; Li, Na; Du, Xiaohe; Yu, Qian; Kan, Guangyuan

    2016-08-05

    Flood risk analysis is more complex in urban areas than that in rural areas because of their closely packed buildings, different kinds of land uses, and large number of flood control works and drainage systems. The purpose of this paper is to propose a practical framework for flood risk analysis and benefit assessment of flood control measures in urban areas. Based on the concept of disaster risk triangle (hazard, vulnerability and exposure), a comprehensive analysis method and a general procedure were proposed for urban flood risk analysis. Urban Flood Simulation Model (UFSM) and Urban Flood Damage Assessment Model (UFDAM) were integrated to estimate the flood risk in the Pudong flood protection area (Shanghai, China). S-shaped functions were adopted to represent flood return period and damage (R-D) curves. The study results show that flood control works could significantly reduce the flood risk within the 66-year flood return period and the flood risk was reduced by 15.59%. However, the flood risk was only reduced by 7.06% when the flood return period exceeded 66-years. Hence, it is difficult to meet the increasing demands for flood control solely relying on structural measures. The R-D function is suitable to describe the changes of flood control capacity. This frame work can assess the flood risk reduction due to flood control measures, and provide crucial information for strategy development and planning adaptation.

  17. Land Use Land Cover Impact on Probable Maximum Flood and Sedimentation for Artificial Reservoirs: A Case Study in Western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yigzaw, W. Y.; Hossain, F.

    2014-12-01

    Unanticipated peak inflows that can exceed the inflow design flood (IDF) for spillways and result in possible storage loss in reservoirs from increased sedimentation rates lead to a greater risk for downstream floods. Probable maximum precipitation (PMP) and probable maximum flood (PMF) are mostly used to determine IDF. Any possible change of PMP and PMF due to future land use and land cover (LULC) change therefore requires a methodical investigation. However, the consequential sediment yield, due to altered precipitation and flow patterns into the reservoir has not been addressed in literature. Thus, this study answers the following question: "What is the combined impact of a modified PMP on PMF and sediment yield for an artificial reservoir? The Owyhee dam of Owyhee River watershed (ORW) in Oregon is selected as a case study area for understanding the impact of LULC change on PMF and sedimentation rates. Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) is used for simulating stream flow (PMF) and the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) to estimate sediment yield over ORW as a result of change in precipitation intensity and LULC. Scenarios that represent pre-Owyhee dam (Pre-Dam) and post Owyhee dam (Non-Irrigation, Control, 1992, 2001, 2006) are used to simulate PMF's and consequential sediment yield. Peak PMF result for Pre-Dam scenarios is found to increase by 26m3s-1 (1%) and 81m3s-1 (3%) from Non-Irrigation and Control scenario, respectively. Considering only LULC change, sediment yield decreased over ORW due to the transformation of LULC from grassland to shrubland (from Pre-Dam period to the post-Dam years). However, increase in precipitation intensity caused a significant (0.1% storage loss over 21days storm period) increase in sediment yield resulting in largely reservoir sedimentation. This study underscores the need to consider future impact of LULC change on IDF calculation as well as sedimentation rates for more robust reservoir operations and planning.

  18. Application of hydrological models for flood forecasting and flood control in India and Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refsgaard, J. C.; Havnø, K.; Ammentorp, H. C.; Verwey, A.

    A general mathematical modelling system for real-time flood forecasting and flood control planning is described. The system comprises a lumped conceptual rainfall-runoff model, a hydrodynamic model for river routing, reservoir and flood plain simulation, an updating procedure for real-time operation and a comprehensive data management system. The system is presently applied for real-time forecasting of the two 20 000 km 2 (Yamuna and Damodar) catchments in India as well as for flood control modelling at the same two catchments in India. In another project the system is being established for the entire Bangladesh with a coarse discretization and for the South East Region of Bangladesh with a fine model discretization. The objectives of the modelling application in Bangladesh are to enable predictions of the effects of alternative river regulation structures in terms of changes in water levels, inundations, siltration and salinity. The modelling system has been transferred to the Central Water Commission of India and the Master Plan Organization of Bangladesh in connection with comprehensive training programmes. The models are presently being operated by Indian and Bangladeshi engineers in the two countries.

  19. Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Lake Darling Flood Control Project, Souris River, North Dakota and Draft Feature Environmental Impact Statement Velva Flood Control, Velva, North Dakota.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    fishery are eutrophication and related algal blooms, siltation, occasional winterkills, and reservoir drawdown for flood control. 4.14 Fish species which...from ions adsorbed on the sediments, which could aggravate the already eutrophic conditions. 5.04 The reservoir would continue to dilute dissolved salts...future development of lignite, oil , gas, or salt. The raise of Lake Darling would not inundate large land areas around the lake. Because this area is

  20. The tele-connections of long duration floods and their implications for dynamically updating the Flood Control Pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devineni, Naresh; Najibi, Nasser; Lall, Upmanu

    2016-04-01

    Traditional approaches to flood risk assessment are typically indexed to an instantaneous peak flow event at a specific recording gage on a river, and then extrapolated through hydraulic modeling of that peak flow to the potential area that is likely to be inundated. However, property losses tend to be determined as much by the duration and volume of flooding as by the depth and velocity of inundation. We argue that the existing notion of a flood risk assessment and consequent reservoir flood control operations needs to be revisited, especially for floods due to persistent rainfall (>30 day duration). Our interest lies in explicitly understanding the dependence of the likelihood or frequency and intensity of extreme regional floods on a causal chain of ocean-atmosphere processes whose slow variation and regime-like changes translate into significant and persistent changes in the probability of major floods in the large river basins. An understanding and mapping of these factors into a dynamic risk framework is important for establishing a process by which flood risk for large basins could be systematically updated reflecting changing climate conditions, whether due to human influence, or as part of the natural cycles of climate variation. In this study, we developed an inference system for climate informed flood risk assessment using an integrated statistical modeling approach. We first develop multivariate flood attributes and classify their characteristic spatial variability using the hierarchical clustering approach. Depending on the flood event type, different rainfall inducing mechanisms (e.g. tropical storm, local convection, frontal system, recurrent tropical waves) may be involved with characteristic spatial scales and statistical properties. Hence, we identify the antecedent rainfall conditions for the flood types and map their corresponding specific atmospheric circulation patterns using compositing of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and the storm tracks

  1. Redistribution of filtration flows by thermogel at boundary water flooding of oil reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsakova, N. K.; Penkovsky, V. I.; Altunina, L. K.; Kuvshinov, V. A.

    2016-11-01

    The results of physical simulation by a two-dimensional reservoir model and numerical calculation by a finite element method for the GALKA-NT thermogel influence on the redistribution of filtration flows of injected water in the oil production by boundary water flooding are presented. The reserve development by this method, especially in the case of viscose oil pools, occurs with an unstable displacement front that causes growing water fingers, which finally transform into the network of water-conducting channels in the direction of the least filtration resistance between well rows. Here the most amount of oil remains in the nonmobile capillary-locked state, which is in dynamic equilibrium with the flow of displacing water. The injection of thermogel into the reservoir area between the wells is shown to widen the displacement front and to increase the reservoir coverage by water flooding at a later stage in order to enhance oil recovery.

  2. Numerical Well Testing Interpretation Model and Applications in Crossflow Double-Layer Reservoirs by Polymer Flooding

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hui; He, Youwei; Li, Lei; Du, Song; Cheng, Shiqing

    2014-01-01

    This work presents numerical well testing interpretation model and analysis techniques to evaluate formation by using pressure transient data acquired with logging tools in crossflow double-layer reservoirs by polymer flooding. A well testing model is established based on rheology experiments and by considering shear, diffusion, convection, inaccessible pore volume (IPV), permeability reduction, wellbore storage effect, and skin factors. The type curves were then developed based on this model, and parameter sensitivity is analyzed. Our research shows that the type curves have five segments with different flow status: (I) wellbore storage section, (II) intermediate flow section (transient section), (III) mid-radial flow section, (IV) crossflow section (from low permeability layer to high permeability layer), and (V) systematic radial flow section. The polymer flooding field tests prove that our model can accurately determine formation parameters in crossflow double-layer reservoirs by polymer flooding. Moreover, formation damage caused by polymer flooding can also be evaluated by comparison of the interpreted permeability with initial layered permeability before polymer flooding. Comparison of the analysis of numerical solution based on flow mechanism with observed polymer flooding field test data highlights the potential for the application of this interpretation method in formation evaluation and enhanced oil recovery (EOR). PMID:25302335

  3. Numerical well testing interpretation model and applications in crossflow double-layer reservoirs by polymer flooding.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haiyang; Guo, Hui; He, Youwei; Xu, Hainan; Li, Lei; Zhang, Tiantian; Xian, Bo; Du, Song; Cheng, Shiqing

    2014-01-01

    This work presents numerical well testing interpretation model and analysis techniques to evaluate formation by using pressure transient data acquired with logging tools in crossflow double-layer reservoirs by polymer flooding. A well testing model is established based on rheology experiments and by considering shear, diffusion, convection, inaccessible pore volume (IPV), permeability reduction, wellbore storage effect, and skin factors. The type curves were then developed based on this model, and parameter sensitivity is analyzed. Our research shows that the type curves have five segments with different flow status: (I) wellbore storage section, (II) intermediate flow section (transient section), (III) mid-radial flow section, (IV) crossflow section (from low permeability layer to high permeability layer), and (V) systematic radial flow section. The polymer flooding field tests prove that our model can accurately determine formation parameters in crossflow double-layer reservoirs by polymer flooding. Moreover, formation damage caused by polymer flooding can also be evaluated by comparison of the interpreted permeability with initial layered permeability before polymer flooding. Comparison of the analysis of numerical solution based on flow mechanism with observed polymer flooding field test data highlights the potential for the application of this interpretation method in formation evaluation and enhanced oil recovery (EOR).

  4. Biological implications of the 1996 controlled flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdez, Richard A.; Shannon, Joseph P.; Blinn, Dean W.

    The 1996 controlled flood provided evidence that elevated releases from Glen Canyon Dam can enhance short-term primary and secondary production of aquatic resources of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. The flood scoured substantial proportions of benthic algae and macroinvertebrates and removed fine sediments from the channel, which ultimately stimulated primary productivity and consumer biomass. Channel margin sand deposits buried riparian vegetation and leaf litter, entraining nutrients for later incorporation into the upper trophic levels. The flood restructured high-stage sand bars and associated eddy return channels (i.e., backwaters used as nurseries by native and non-native fish), but many were short-lived because reattachment bars were eroded shortly after the flood. The flood was of insufficient magnitude to permanently suppress non-native fish populations, even though there was significant population depletion at some collecting sites. Pre-spawning aggregations, spawning ascents of tributaries, and habitat use by native fishes were unaffected by the flood. Adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Lees Ferry tailwater fishery were also unaffected, but the proportion of juveniles <152 mm total length decreased by 10% a strong year class following the flood indicated replacement through successful reproduction.

  5. Perspectives on Screening Winter-Flood-Tolerant Woody Species in the Riparian Protection Forests of the Three Gorges Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ). Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora) might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress and recover well

  6. Perspectives on screening winter-flood-tolerant woody species in the riparian protection forests of the three gorges reservoir.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ). Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora) might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress and recover well

  7. Fire flood method for recovering petroleum from oil reservoirs of low permeability and temperature

    DOEpatents

    Kamath, Krishna

    1984-08-14

    The present invention is directed to a method of enhanced oil recovery by fire flooding petroleum reservoirs characterized by a temperature of less than the critical temperature of carbon dioxide, a pore pressure greater than the saturated vapor pressure of carbon dioxide at said temperature (87.7.degree. F. at 1070 psia), and a permeability in the range of about 20 to 100 millidarcies. The in situ combustion of petroleum in the reservoir is provided by injecting into the reservoir a combustion supporting medium consisting essentially of oxygen, ozone, or a combination thereof. The heat of combustion and the products of this combustion which consist essentially of gaseous carbon dioxide and water vapor sufficiently decrease the viscosity of oil adjacent to fire front to form an oil bank which moves through the reservoir towards a recovery well ahead of the fire front. The gaseous carbon dioxide and the water vapor are driven into the reservoir ahead of the fire front by pressure at the injection well. As the gaseous carbon dioxide cools to less than about 88.degree. F. it is converted to liquid which is dissolved in the oil bank for further increasing the mobility thereof. By using essentially pure oxygen, ozone, or a combination thereof as the combustion supporting medium in these reservoirs the permeability requirements of the reservoirs are significantly decreased since the liquid carbon dioxide requires substantially less voidage volume than that required for gaseous combustion products.

  8. The effects of Missouri River mainstem reservoir system operations on 2011 flooding using a Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model: Chapter K in 2011 Floods of the Central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haj, Adel E.; Christiansen, Daniel E.; Viger, Roland J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011 the Missouri River Mainstem Reservoir System (Reservoir System) experienced the largest volume of flood waters since the initiation of record-keeping in the nineteenth century. The high levels of runoff from both snowpack and rainfall stressed the Reservoir System’s capacity to control flood waters and caused massive damage and disruption along the river. The flooding and resulting damage along the Missouri River brought increased public attention to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) operation of the Reservoir System. To help understand the effects of Reservoir System operation on the 2011 Missouri River flood flows, the U.S. Geological Survey Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System was used to construct a model of the Missouri River Basin to simulate flows at streamgages and dam locations with the effects of Reservoir System operation (regulation) on flow removed. Statistical tests indicate that the Missouri River Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model is a good fit for high-flow monthly and annual stream flow estimation. A comparison of simulated unregulated flows and measured regulated flows show that regulation greatly reduced spring peak flow events, consolidated two summer peak flow events to one with a markedly decreased magnitude, and maintained higher than normal base flow beyond the end of water year 2011. Further comparison of results indicate that without regulation, flows greater than those measured would have occurred and been sustained for much longer, frequently in excess of 30 days, and flooding associated with high-flow events would have been more severe.

  9. Scale-up of miscible flood processes for heterogeneous reservoirs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, F.M. Jr.

    1996-04-01

    Results of a wide-ranging investigation of the scaling of gas injection processes are reported. The research examines how the physical mechanisms at work during a gas injection project interact to determine process performance. In particular, the authors examine: the interactions of equilibrium phase behavior and two-phase flow that determine local displacement efficiency and minimum miscibility pressure, the combined effects of viscous fingering, gravity segregation and heterogeneity that control sweep efficiency in 2- and 3-dimensional porous media, the use of streamtube/streamline methods to create very efficient simulation technique for multiphase compositional displacements, the scaling of viscous, capillary and gravity forces for heterogeneous reservoirs, and the effects of the thin films and spreading behavior on three-phase flow. The following key results are documented: rigorous procedures for determination of minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) or minimum miscibility enrichment (MME) for miscibility have been developed for multicomponent systems; the complex dependence of MMP`s for nitrogen/methane floods on oil and injection gas composition observed experimentally is explained for the first time; the presence of layer-like heterogeneities strongly influences the interplay of gravity segregation and viscous fingering, as viscous fingers adapt to preferential flow paths and low permeability layers restrict vertical flow; streamtube/streamline simulation techniques are demonstrated for a variety of injection processes in 2 and 3 dimensions; quantitative scaling estimates for the transitions from capillary-dominated to gravity-dominated to viscous-dominated flows are reported; experimental results are given that demonstrate that high pressure CO{sub 2} can be used to generate low IFT gravity drainage in fractured reservoirs if fractures are suitably connected; and the effect of wetting and spreading behavior on three-phase flow is described. 209 refs.

  10. Improved Efficiency of Miscible CO2 Floods and Enhanced Prospects for CO2 Flooding Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Grigg, Reid B.

    1999-10-28

    Continued testing the horizontal-well capabilities of MASTER, the DOE's pseudomiscible reservoir simulator, by running simulation tests with several combinations of horizontal and vertical wells and various alternative reservoir descriptions. These sensitivity tests were compared and validated using simulation results from a commercial simulator. This sensitivity study was used in conjunction with our numerical tests on the comparison of foam injection processes and horizontal well injection processes. In addition, a preprocessor used to set up the input file to MASTER and a postprocessor for plotting the well performance were completed. Tests were progressed and the official version of MASTER will be released in the next few months.

  11. RAPID Assessment of Extreme Reservoir Sedimentation Resulting from the September 2013 Flood, North St. Vrain Creek, CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathburn, S. L.; McElroy, B. J.; Wohl, E.; Sutfin, N. A.; Huson, K.

    2014-12-01

    During mid-September 2013, approximately 360 mm of precipitation fell in the headwaters of the North St. Vrain drainage basin, Front Range, CO. Debris flows on steep hillslopes and extensive flooding along North St. Vrain Creek resulted in extreme sedimentation within Ralph Price Reservoir, municipal water supply for the City of Longmont. The event allows comparison of historical sedimentation with that of an unusually large flood because 1) no reservoir flushing has been conducted since dam construction, 2) reservoir stratigraphy chronicles uninterrupted delta deposition, and 3) this is the only on-channel reservoir with unimpeded, natural sediment flux from the Continental Divide to the mountain front in a basin with no significant historic flow modifications and land use impacts. Assessing the flood-related sedimentation prior to any dredging activities included coring the reservoir delta, a bathymetric survey of the delta, resistivity and ground penetrating radar surveys of the subaerial inlet deposit, and surveying tributary deposits. Over the 44-year life of the reservoir, two-thirds of the delta sedimentation is attributed to extreme discharges from the September 2013 storm. Total storm-derived reservoir sedimentation is approximately 275,000 m3, with 81% of that within the gravel-dominated inlet and 17% in the delta. Volumes of deposition within reservoir tributary inlets is negatively correlated with contributing area, possibly due to a lack of storage in these small basins (1-5 km2). Flood-related reservoir sedimentation will be compared to other research quantifying volumes from slope failures evident on post-storm lidar. Analysis of delta core samples will quantify organic carbon flux associated with the extreme discharge and develop a chronology of flood and fire disturbances for North St. Vrain basin. Applications of similar techniques are planned for two older Front Range reservoirs affected by the September flooding to fill knowledge gaps about

  12. Optimal and centralized reservoir management for drought and flood protection via Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming on the Upper Seine-Aube River system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiavico, Mattia; Raso, Luciano; Dorchies, David; Malaterre, Pierre-Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Seine river region is an extremely important logistic and economic junction for France and Europe. The hydraulic protection of most part of the region relies on four controlled reservoirs, managed by EPTB Seine-Grands Lacs. Presently, reservoirs operation is not centrally coordinated, and release rules are based on empirical filling curves. In this study, we analyze how a centralized release policy can face flood and drought risks, optimizing water system efficiency. The optimal and centralized decisional problem is solved by Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP) method, minimizing an operational indicator for each planning objective. SDDP allows us to include into the system: 1) the hydrological discharge, specifically a stochastic semi-distributed auto-regressive model, 2) the hydraulic transfer model, represented by a linear lag and route model, and 3) reservoirs and diversions. The novelty of this study lies on the combination of reservoir and hydraulic models in SDDP for flood and drought protection problems. The study case covers the Seine basin until the confluence with Aube River: this system includes two reservoirs, the city of Troyes, and the Nuclear power plant of Nogent-Sur-Seine. The conflict between the interests of flood protection, drought protection, water use and ecology leads to analyze the environmental system in a Multi-Objective perspective.

  13. Peak Discharge, Flood Profile, Flood Inundation, and Debris Movement Accompanying the Failure of the Upper Reservoir at the Taum Sauk Pump Storage Facility near Lesterville, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rydlund, Jr., Paul H.

    2006-01-01

    The Taum Sauk pump-storage hydroelectric power plant located in Reynolds County, Missouri, uses turbines that operate as pumps and hydraulic head generated by discharging water from an upper to a lower reservoir to produce electricity. A 55-acre upper reservoir with a 1.5- billion gallon capacity was built on top of Proffit Mountain, approximately 760 feet above the floodplain of the East Fork Black River. At approximately 5:16 am on December 14, 2005, a 680-foot wide section of the upper reservoir embankment failed suddenly, sending water rushing down the western side of Proffit Mountain and emptying into the floodplain of East Fork Black River. Flood waters from the upper reservoir flowed downstream through Johnson's Shut-Ins State Park and into the lower reservoir of the East Fork Black River. Floods such as this present unique challenges and opportunities to analyze and document peak-flow characteristics, flood profiles, inundation extents, and debris movement. On December 16, 2005, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data were collected and used to support hydraulic analyses, forensic failure analyses, damage extent, and mitigation of future disasters. To evaluate the impact of sedimentation in the lower reservoir, a bathymetric survey conducted on December 22 and 23, 2005, was compared to a previous bathymetric survey conducted in April, 2005. Survey results indicated the maximum reservoir capacity difference of 147 acre-feet existed at a pool elevation of 730 feet. Peak discharge estimates of 289,000 cubic feet per second along Proffit Mountain and 95,000 cubic feet per second along the East Fork Black River were determined through indirect measurement techniques. The magnitude of the embankment failure flood along the East Fork Black River was approximately 4 times greater than the 100-year flood frequency estimate of 21,900 cubic feet per second, and approximately 3 times greater than the 500-year flood frequency estimate of 30,500 cubic feet per second

  14. Phosphorous control in a eutrophied reservoir.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Pacheco, H; Hansen, A M; Falcón-Rojas, A

    2013-12-01

    Water in lakes and reservoirs accumulate phosphorous (P) from both internal and external loads. The external P load (EPL) coming from the watershed is considered to be the main cause of eutrophication of water bodies, and control strategies therefore focus on its reduction. However, algae blooms and anoxic conditions often continue even after EPL have been controlled, being the internal P load (IPL) originating from the sediment the main sources of P. To assess the efficiency of the adsorbent Phoslock (a modified bentonite) in controlling P concentrations in water and immobilize releasable P in sediments, mesocosm trials were carried out in a eutrophied reservoir and a model was described and applied that determines the amount of adsorbent and the application frequency necessary to control P concentrations in a eutrophied reservoir. The mesocosm trials confirm that Phoslock reduced P concentrations to or below the limits that define water in mesotrophic state, in approximately 2 weeks. The modeling results suggest that periodic reapplications of the adsorbent are required, unless EPL is reduced by 36 %, which allows the P concentrations in the water column to be constant. Such reduction in EPL would allow future applications of the adsorbent to be required only for control of IPL. The developed model allows planning remediation actions by determining quantities and frequencies for application of adsorbents for P control in eutrophied lakes and reservoirs.

  15. Post waterflood CO{sub 2} miscible flood in light oil, fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoir. FY 1993 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.W.

    1995-03-01

    The project is a Class 1 DOE-sponsored field demonstration project of a CO{sub 2} miscible flood project at the Port Neches Field in Orange County, Texas. The project will determine the recovery efficiency of CO{sub 2} flooding a waterflooded and a partial waterdrive sandstone reservoir at a depth of 5,800. The project will also evaluate the use of a horizontal CO{sub 2} injection well placed at the original oil-water contact of the waterflooded reservoir. A PC-based reservoir screening model will be developed by Texaco`s research lab in Houston and Louisiana State University will assist in the development of a database of fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs where CO{sub 2} flooding may be applicable. This technology will be transferred throughout the oil industry through a series of technical papers and industry open forums.

  16. How to update design floods after the construction of small reservoirs and check dams: A case study from the Daqinghe river basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianzhu; Sun, Huafeng; Feng, Ping

    2016-06-01

    Several small reservoirs and a large number of check dams had been constructed in the Wangkuai reservoir watershed after 1970s, and flood time series lacked stationarity, which affected the original design flood hydrographs for the Wangkuai reservoir. Since the location, storage capacity and drainage area of the large number of check dams were unknown, we present a method to estimate their total storage capacities (TSC) and total drainage areas (TDA) by using the recorded rainstorm and flood data. On the basis of TSC and TDA, the flood events which occurred in an undisturbed period were reconstructed under current conditions to obtain a stationary flood series. A frequency analysis was subsequently performed to assess the design flood peak and volume for both small and medium design floods with a 10-200 year return period. For large and catastrophic floods, it was assumed that the upstream check dams and small reservoirs would be destroyed, and water stored in these hydraulic structures were re-routed to the Wangkuai reservoir by unit hydrograph. The modified flood peak and volume decreased for floods with a 10-200 year return period when compared to the current design flood. But for large design floods with a return period exceeding 500 years, peak discharge increased. This study provides a new method for design flood calculation or modification of the original design flood in watersheds with a large number of check dams.

  17. Cascade Reservoirs Floodwater Resources Utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A reasonable floodwater resources utilization method is put forward by dynamic controlling of cascade reservoirs flood control limited level in this paper. According to the probability distribution of the beginning time of the first flood and the ending time of the final flood from July to September, the Fuzzy Statistic Analysis was used to divide the main flood season. By fitting the flood season membership functions of each period, the cascade reservoirs flood control limited water level for each period were computed according to the characteristic data of reservoirs. In terms of the benefit maximization and risk minimum principle, the reasonable combination of flood control limited water level of cascade reservoirs was put forward.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF MORE-EFFICIENT GAS FLOODING APPLICABLE TO SHALLOW RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    William R. Rossen; Russell T. Johns; Gary A. Pope

    2003-08-21

    The objective of this research is to widen the applicability of gas flooding to shallow oil reservoirs by reducing the pressure required for miscibility using gas enrichment and increasing sweep efficiency with foam. Task 1 examines the potential for improved oil recovery with enriched gases. Subtask 1.1 examines the effect of dispersion processes on oil recovery and the extent of enrichment needed in the presence of dispersion. Subtask 1.2 develops a fast, efficient method to predict the extent of enrichment needed for crude oils at a given pressure. Task 2 develops improved foam processes to increase sweep efficiency in gas flooding. Subtask 2.1 comprises mechanistic experimental studies of foams with N2 gas. Subtask 2.2 conducts experiments with CO{sub 2} foam. Subtask 2.3 develops and applies a simulator for foam processes in field application.

  19. Use of nanoparticles to improve the performance of sodium dodecyl sulfate flooding in a sandstone reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad Ali

    2016-12-01

    One of the prominent enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods in oil reservoirs is surfactant flooding. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of nanoparticles on the surfactant adsorption. Real reservoir sandstone rock samples were implemented in adsorption tests. The ranges of the initial surfactant and nano silica concentrations were from 500 to 5000 ppm and 500 ppm to 2000 ppm, respectively. The commercial surfactant used is sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as an ionic surfactant and two different types of nano silica were employed. The rate of surfactant losses extremely depends on the concentration of surfactant in the system, and it was found that the adsorption of surfactant decreased with increasing the concentration of nano silica. Also, it was found that hydrophobic nano silica is more effective than hydrophilic nanoparticles.

  20. Daily Time Step Refinement of Optimized Flood Control Rule Curves for a Global Warming Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Fitzgerald, C.; Hamlet, A. F.; Burges, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    Pacific Northwest temperatures have warmed by 0.8 °C since 1920 and are predicted to further increase in the 21st century. Simulated streamflow timing shifts associated with climate change have been found in past research to degrade water resources system performance in the Columbia River Basin when using existing system operating policies. To adapt to these hydrologic changes, optimized flood control operating rule curves were developed in a previous study using a hybrid optimization-simulation approach which rebalanced flood control and reservoir refill at a monthly time step. For the climate change scenario, use of the optimized flood control curves restored reservoir refill capability without increasing flood risk. Here we extend the earlier studies using a detailed daily time step simulation model applied over a somewhat smaller portion of the domain (encompassing Libby, Duncan, and Corra Linn dams, and Kootenai Lake) to evaluate and refine the optimized flood control curves derived from monthly time step analysis. Moving from a monthly to daily analysis, we found that the timing of flood control evacuation needed adjustment to avoid unintended outcomes affecting Kootenai Lake. We refined the flood rule curves derived from monthly analysis by creating a more gradual evacuation schedule, but kept the timing and magnitude of maximum evacuation the same as in the monthly analysis. After these refinements, the performance at monthly time scales reported in our previous study proved robust at daily time scales. Due to a decrease in July storage deficits, additional benefits such as more revenue from hydropower generation and more July and August outflow for fish augmentation were observed when the optimized flood control curves were used for the climate change scenario.

  1. Microbial diversity and abundance in the Xinjiang Luliang long-term water-flooding petroleum reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Peike; Tian, Huimei; Li, Guoqiang; Sun, Hongwen; Ma, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Microbial populations associated with microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) and their abundance in the Xinjiang Luliang water-flooding petroleum reservoir were investigated using 16S rRNA, nitrate reductases, dissimilatory sulfate reductase, and methyl coenzyme-M reductase-encoded genes to provide ecological information for the potential application of MEOR. 16S rRNA gene miseq sequencing revealed that this reservoir harbored large amounts of taxa, including 155 bacterial and 7 archeal genera. Among them, Arcobacter, Halomonas, Marinobacterium, Marinobacter, Sphingomonas, Rhodococcus, Pseudomonas, Dietzia, Ochrobactrum, Hyphomonas, Acinetobacter, and Shewanella were dominant, and have the potential to grow using hydrocarbons as carbon sources. Metabolic gene clone libraries indicated that the nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) mainly belonged to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, Bradyrhizobium, Thauera, Magnetospirillum, Sinorhizobium, Azoarcus, and Rhodobacter; the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were Desulfarculus, Desulfomonile, Desulfosarcina, Desulfotignum, Desulfacinum, Desulfatibacillum, Desulfatibacillum, Desulfomicrobium, and Desulfovibrio; while the methanogens were archaea and belonged to Methanomethylovorans, Methanosaeta, Methanococcus, Methanolobus, and Methanobacterium. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the number of bacterial 16S rRNA reached 106 copies/mL, while the metabolic genes of NRB, SRB, and methanogens reached 104 copies/mL. These results show that the Luliang reservoir has abundant microbial populations associated with oil recovery, suggesting that the reservoir has potential for MEOR. PMID:25641701

  2. Geological aspects of drilling horizontal wells in steam flood reservoirs, west side, southern San Joaquin Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Crough, D.D.; Holman, M.L.; Sande, J.J. )

    1994-04-01

    Shell Western E P Inc. has drilled 11 horizontal wells in four mature steam floods in the Coalinga, South Belridge, and Midway-Sunset fields. Two medium radius wells are producing from the Pliocene Etchegoin Formation in Coalinga. One medium radius well is producing from the Pleistocene Tulare Formation in South Belridge field. Three short radius and five medium radius wells are producing from the upper Miocene, Sub-Hoyt and Potter sands in Midway-Sunset field. Horizontal wells at the base of these reservoirs and/or structurally downdip near the oil-water contact are ideally suited to take advantage of the gravity drainage production mechanism. Reservoir studies and production experience have shown these horizontal wells should increase reserves, improve recovery efficiency, improve the oil-steam ratio, and improve project profitability. Geological considerations of targeting the wells vary between fields because of the different depositional environments and resulting reservoir characteristics. The thin sands and semicontinuous shales in the Tulare Formation and the Etchegoin Formation require strict structural control on the top and base of the target sand. In the Sub-Hoyt and Potter sands, irregularities of the oil-water contact and sand and shale discontinuities must be understood. Logging and measurement while drilling provide geosteering capability in medium radius wells. Teamwork between all engineering disciplines and drilling and producing operations has been critical to horizontal well success.

  3. 33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. (a) Regulations for the operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved by the Secretary of the Army under...

  4. 33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. (a) Regulations for the operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved by the Secretary of the Army under...

  5. 33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. (a) Regulations for the operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved by the Secretary of the Army under...

  6. 33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. (a) Regulations for the operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved by the Secretary of the Army under...

  7. 33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. (a) Regulations for the operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved by the Secretary of the Army under...

  8. What are the hydro-meteorological controls on flood characteristics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nied, Manuela; Schröter, Kai; Lüdtke, Stefan; Nguyen, Viet Dung; Merz, Bruno

    2017-02-01

    Flood events can be expressed by a variety of characteristics such as flood magnitude and extent, event duration or incurred loss. Flood estimation and management may benefit from understanding how the different flood characteristics relate to the hydrological catchment conditions preceding the event and to the meteorological conditions throughout the event. In this study, we therefore propose a methodology to investigate the hydro-meteorological controls on different flood characteristics, based on the simulation of the complete flood risk chain from the flood triggering precipitation event, through runoff generation in the catchment, flood routing and possible inundation in the river system and floodplains to flood loss. Conditional cumulative distribution functions and regression tree analysis delineate the seasonal varying flood processes and indicate that the effect of the hydrological pre-conditions, i.e. soil moisture patterns, and of the meteorological conditions, i.e. weather patterns, depends on the considered flood characteristic. The methodology is exemplified for the Elbe catchment. In this catchment, the length of the build-up period, the event duration and the number of gauges undergoing at least a 10-year flood are governed by weather patterns. The affected length and the number of gauges undergoing at least a 2-year flood are however governed by soil moisture patterns. In case of flood severity and loss, the controlling factor is less pronounced. Severity is slightly governed by soil moisture patterns whereas loss is slightly governed by weather patterns. The study highlights that flood magnitude and extent arise from different flood generation processes and concludes that soil moisture patterns as well as weather patterns are not only beneficial to inform on possible flood occurrence but also on the involved flood processes and resulting flood characteristics.

  9. 33 CFR 208.33 - Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.33 Cheney Dam and Reservoir... the Cheney Dam and Reservoir in the interest of flood control as follows: (a) Flood control storage...

  10. 33 CFR 208.33 - Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.33 Cheney Dam and Reservoir... the Cheney Dam and Reservoir in the interest of flood control as follows: (a) Flood control storage...

  11. 33 CFR 208.26 - Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Altus Dam and Reservoir, North..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.26 Altus Dam and Reservoir... Dam and Reservoir in the interest of flood control as follows: (a) Flood control storage in...

  12. 33 CFR 208.33 - Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.33 Cheney Dam and Reservoir... the Cheney Dam and Reservoir in the interest of flood control as follows: (a) Flood control storage...

  13. 33 CFR 208.33 - Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.33 Cheney Dam and Reservoir... the Cheney Dam and Reservoir in the interest of flood control as follows: (a) Flood control storage...

  14. 33 CFR 208.26 - Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Altus Dam and Reservoir, North..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.26 Altus Dam and Reservoir... Dam and Reservoir in the interest of flood control as follows: (a) Flood control storage in...

  15. 33 CFR 208.26 - Altus Dam and Reservoir, North Fork Red River, Okla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Altus Dam and Reservoir, North..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.26 Altus Dam and Reservoir... Dam and Reservoir in the interest of flood control as follows: (a) Flood control storage in...

  16. 33 CFR 208.33 - Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North Fork of Ninnescah River, Kans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cheney Dam and Reservoir, North..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.33 Cheney Dam and Reservoir... the Cheney Dam and Reservoir in the interest of flood control as follows: (a) Flood control storage...

  17. Microbial diversity in long-term water-flooded oil reservoirs with different in situ temperatures in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; She, Yue-Hui; Chai, Lu-Jun; Banat, Ibrahim M.; Zhang, Xiao-Tao; Shu, Fu-Chang; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Yu, Long-Jiang; Hou, Du-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Water-flooded oil reservoirs have specific ecological environments due to continual water injection and oil production and water recycling. Using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the microbial communities present in injected waters and produced waters from four typical water-flooded oil reservoirs with different in situ temperatures of 25°C, 40°C, 55°C and 70°C were examined. The results obtained showed that the higher the in situ temperatures of the oil reservoirs is, the less the effects of microorganisms in the injected waters on microbial community compositions in the produced waters is. In addition, microbes inhabiting in the produced waters of the four water-flooded oil reservoirs were varied but all dominated by Proteobacteria. Moreover, most of the detected microbes were not identified as indigenous. The objective of this study was to expand the pictures of the microbial ecosystem of water-flooded oil reservoirs. PMID:23094135

  18. Reservoir Characterization of Bridgeport and Cypress Sandstones in Lawrence Field Illinois to Improve Petroleum Recovery by Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Flood

    SciTech Connect

    Seyler, Beverly; Grube, John; Huff, Bryan; Webb, Nathan; Damico, James; Blakley, Curt; Madhavan, Vineeth; Johanek, Philip; Frailey, Scott

    2012-12-21

    were used to better understand porosity and permeability trends in the region and to characterize barriers and define flow units. Diagenetic alterations that impact porosity and permeability include development of quartz overgrowths, sutured quartz grains, dissolution of feldspar grains, formation of clay mineral coatings on grains, and calcite cementation. Many of these alterations are controlled by facies. Mapping efforts identified distinct flow units in the northern part of the field showing that the Pennsylvanian Bridgeport consists of a series of thick incised channel fill sequences. The sandstones are about 75-150 feet thick and typically consist of medium grained and poorly sorted fluvial to distributary channel fill deposits at the base. The sandstones become indistinctly bedded distributary channel deposits in the main part of the reservoir before fining upwards and becoming more tidally influenced near their top. These channel deposits have core permeabilities ranging from 20 md to well over 1000 md. The tidally influenced deposits are more compartmentalized compared to the thicker and more continuous basal fluvial deposits. Fine grained sandstones that are laterally equivalent to the thicker channel type deposits have permeabilities rarely reaching above 250 md. Most of the unrecovered oil in Lawrence Field is contained in Pennsylvanian Age Bridgeport sandstones and Mississippian Age Cypress sandstones. These reservoirs are highly complex and compartmentalized. Detailed reservoir characterization including the development of 3-D geologic and geocellular models of target areas in the field were completed to identify areas with the best potential to recover remaining reserves including unswept and by-passed oil. This project consisted of tasks designed to compile, interpret, and analyze the data required to conduct reservoir characterization for the Bridgeport and Cypress sandstones in pilot areas in anticipation of expanded implementation of ASP flooding in

  19. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion, Class II

    SciTech Connect

    Czirr, K.L.; Gaddis, M.P.; Moshell, M.K.

    2002-02-21

    The principle objective of this project is to demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of an innovative reservoir management and carbon dioxide (CO2) flood project development approach for improving CO2 flood project economics in shallow shelf carbonate (SSC) reservoirs.

  20. Improved efficiency of miscible CO2 floods and enhanced prospects for CO2 flooding heterogeneous reservoirs. Final report, April 17, 1991--May 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Grigg, R.B.; Schechter, D.S.

    1998-02-01

    From 1986 to 1996, oil recovery in the US by gas injection increased almost threefold, to 300,000 bbl/day. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection projects make up three-quarters of the 191,139 bbl/day production increase. This document reports experimental and modeling research in three areas that is increasing the number of reservoirs in which CO{sub 2} can profitably enhance oil recovery: (1) foams for selective mobility reduction (SMR) in heterogeneous reservoirs, (2) reduction of the amount of CO{sub 2} required in CO{sub 2} floods, and (3) low interfacial tension (97) processes and the possibility of CO{sub 2} flooding in naturally fractured reservoirs. CO{sub 2} injection under miscible conditions can effectively displace oil, but due to differences in density and viscosity the mobility of CO{sub 2} is higher than either oil or water. High CO{sub 2} mobility causes injection gas to finger through a reservoir, causing such problems as early gas breakthrough, high gas production rates, excessive injection gas recycling, and bypassing of much of the reservoir oil. These adverse effects are exacerbated by increased reservoir heterogeneity, reaching an extreme in naturally fractured reservoirs. Thus, many highly heterogeneous reservoirs have not been considered for CO{sub 2} injection or have had disappointing recoveries. One example is the heterogeneous Spraberry trend in west Texas, where only 10% of its ten billion barrels of original oil in place (OOIP) are recoverable by conventional methods. CO{sub 2} mobility can be reduced by injecting water (brine) alternated with CO{sub 2} (WAG) and then further reduced by adding foaming agents-surfactants. In Task 1, we studied a unique foam property, selective mobility reduction (SMR), that effectively reduces the effects of reservoir heterogeneity. Selective mobility reduction creates a more uniform displacement by decreasing CO{sub 2} mobility in higher permeability zones more than in lower permeability zones.

  1. Evaluation on an original resistivity inversion method of water flooding a conglomerate reservoir based on petrophysical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Renqiang; Duan, Yonggang; Tan, Fengqi; Wang, Guochang; Qin, Jianhua; Neupane, Bhupati

    2015-10-01

    An accurate inversion of original reservoir resistivity is an important problem for waterflood development in oilfields in the middle-late development period. This paper describes the theoretical model of original resistivity recovery for a conglomerate reservoir established by petrophysical models, based on the stratigraphic model of reservoir vertical invasion of the conglomerate reservoir of an oilfield. Likewise two influencing factors of the resistivity change with a water-flooded reservoir were analyzed. The first one is the clay volume decrease due to an injected water wash argillaceous particle and the reservoir resistivity changes are influenced by it, and the other is to inject water to displace crude oil in the pore space leading to the increase of the water-bearing volume. Moreover the conductive ions of the injected water and the original formation water exchange and balance because of their salinity difference, and the reservoir resistivity changes are also influenced by them. Through the analysis of the above influential factors based on the fine identification of conglomerate lithologies the inversion models of three variables, including changes in the amount of clay, the resistivity of the irreducible water and the increase of the water bearing volume, were established by core analysis data, production performance and well logging curves information, and accurately recovered the original reservoir resistivity of the conglomerate. The original oil saturation of the reservoir was calculated according to multiple linear regression models. Finally, the produced index is defined as the difference of the original oil saturation and current oil saturation to the original oil saturation ratio, and it eliminates the effects of conglomerate lithologies and heterogeneity for the quantitative evaluation of flooded layers by the use of the principle of relative value. Compared with traditional flooding sensitive parameters which are oil saturation and water

  2. Flooding

    MedlinePlus

    ... flooding Prepare for flooding For communities, companies, or water and wastewater facilities: Suggested activities to help facilities ... con monóxido de carbono. Limit contact with flood water. Flood water may have high levels of raw ...

  3. Comprehensive flood control involving citizens in a Japanese watershed.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Sampei; Shimatani, Yukihiro; Watanabe, Ryoichi; Moriyama, Toshiyuki; Minagawa, Tomoko; Kakudo, Kumiko; Yamashita, Terukazu

    2013-01-01

    In July 2009, the city of Fukuoka, Japan experienced a flood disaster along the Hii River, which runs through densely populated, concrete-covered areas of the city. The drainage system was overwhelmed and the river overflowed due to heavy rainfall and rapid runoff. The event led citizens in its watershed to plan and implement comprehensive flood control. The plan aims not only to mitigate floods but also to revitalize the river environment and populated communities in urban areas. This study reports the activities led by the citizens. They organized and carried out civic forums, workshops, and fieldwork to share views as to how the flood disaster was caused, how floods in the watershed should be controlled, and how the river environment should be rehabilitated. This study illuminates how people, including the flood victims and municipal engineers, can change drastically and communicate effectively in the course of discussing and implementing the comprehensive flood control measures.

  4. A simulation-optimization approach to retrieve reservoir releasing strategies under the trade-off objectives considering flooding, sedimentation, turbidity and water supply during typhoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C. L.; Hsu, N. S.; Yeh, W. W. G.; You, G. J. Y.

    2014-12-01

    This study develops a simulation-optimization approach for retrieving optimal multi-layer reservoir conjunctive release strategies considering the natural hazards of sedimentation, turbidity and flooding during typhoon invasion. The purposes of the developed approach are: (1) to apply WASP-based fluid dynamic sediment concentration simulation model and the developed extracting method of ideal releasing practice to search the optimal initial solution for optimization; and (2) to construct the replacing sediment concentration simulation model which embedded in the optimization model. In this study, the optimization model is solved by tabu search, and the optimized releasing hydrograph is then used for construction of the decision model. This study applies Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Real-time Recurrent Learning Neural Network (RTRLNN) as construction tool of the concentration simulation model for total suspended solids. This developed approach is applied to the Shihmen Reservoir basin, Taiwan. The assessment index of operational outcome of multi-purpose multi-layer conjunctive releasing are maximum sediment concentration at Yuan-Shan weir, sediment removed ratio, highest water level at Shan-Yin Bridge, and final water level in Shihmen reservoir. The analyzed and optimizing results shows the following: (1) The multi-layer releasing during the stages before flood coming and before peak flow possess high potential for flood detention and sedimentation control; and during the stages after peak flow, for turbidity control and storage; (2) The ability of error toleration and adaption of ANFIS is superior, so ANFIS-based sediment concentration simulation model surpass RTRLNN-based model on simulating the mechanism and characteristics of sediment transport; and (3) The developed approach can effectively and automatically retrieve the optimal multi-layer releasing strategies under the trade-off control between flooding, sedimentation, turbidity

  5. Improving riparian wetland conditions based on infiltration and drainage behavior during and after controlled flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Tess A.; Fisher, Andrew T.; Roche, James W.

    2012-04-01

    SummaryWe present results of an observational and modeling study of the hydrologic response of a riparian wetland to controlled flooding. The study site is located in Poopenaut Valley, Yosemite National Park (USA), adjacent to the Tuolumne River. This area is flooded periodically by releases from the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir, and was monitored during one flood sequence to assess the relative importance of inundation versus groundwater rise in establishing and maintaining riparian wetland conditions, defined on the basis of a minimum depth and duration of soil saturation, and to determine how restoration benefits might be achieved while reducing total flood discharge. Soil moisture data show how shallow soils were wetted by both inundation and a rising water table as the river hydrograph rose repeatedly during the controlled flood. The shallow groundwater aquifer under wetland areas responded quickly to conditions in the adjacent river, demonstrating a good connection between surface and subsurface regimes. The observed soil drainage response helped to calibrate a numerical model that was used to test scenarios for controlled flood releases. Modeling of this groundwater-wetland system suggests that inundation of surface soils is the most effective mechanism for developing wetland conditions, although an elevated water table helps to extend the duration of soil saturation. Achievement of wetland conditions can be achieved with a smaller total flood release, provided that repeated cycling of higher and lower river elevations is timed to benefit from the characteristic drainage behavior of wetland soils. These results are robust to modest variations in the initial water table elevation, as might result from wetter or dryer conditions prior to a flood. However, larger changes to initial water table elevation, as could be associated with long term climate change or drought conditions, would have a significant influence on wetland development. An ongoing controlled flooding

  6. A simulation research on evaluation of development in shale oil reservoirs by near-miscible CO2 flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Fengpeng; Li, Zhiping; Fu, Yingkun; Yang, Zhihao; Li, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Shale oil is a key resource that could mitigate the impending energy shortage in the future. Despite its abundance in China, studies on shale oil are still at the preliminary stage. Shale oil development through CO2 flooding has been successfully implemented in the United States. Therefore, the mechanics of CO2 flooding in shale oil reservoirs should be investigated. This study applies a simulation method to evaluate the development efficiency of CO2 flooding in shale oil reservoirs. Near-miscible CO2 flooding can effectively develop shale oil. After 20 years, recovery could improve by up to 9.56% as a result of depletion development under near-miscible CO2 flooding with 0.5% pore volume gas injection. Horizontal well injection is better than vertical well injection in terms of sweep efficiency and recovery. Cyclic gas injection is superior to continuous gas injection because the former reduces gas channelling. Thus, the use of horizontal wells with near-miscible cyclic gas injections has the potential to effectively develop shale oil reservoirs.

  7. [Influence of perennial flooding and drought on growth restoration of Acorus calamus in water-level-fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Gao, Xiang; Ding, Wu-quan; Zhu, Qi-hong; Ou, Yuan; Liu, Yu

    2012-08-01

    Acorus calamus L. is a common kind of wetland plant species in the Three Gorges Reservoir. In this study, we investigated the influence of perennial flooding on growth restoration of A. calamus in the lightless conditions and the drought stress on this plant species' growth after flooding. Our research provided the scientific basis for the selection of candidate species for vegetations restoration in water-level-fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir. A. calamus plants were exposed to waters in the lightless conditions in September 2009 and September 2010 respectively and taken away from the waters and grew in natural conditions in the following March, April and May (named as S1, S2, S3). All plants in the control, S1 and S2 groups were challenged with drought stress in May for 20 days. During the experiment, the plant number and leaf number were recorded regularly, as well as leaf length and leaf width. The results showed that flooding restrained the germination of the plants with much less plant in flooding groups than the control, and the plant germination rate had inverse relation to the flooding time. Flooding promoted formation and elongation of the leaves in S1 and S2 groups, which showed higher leaf growth parameters, such as leaf length, leaf number, total leaf length of one plant and total leaf length of all plants than the control. However, all of these growth parameters in S3 group had significantly lower values compared to the control. The survival rate of the plants after flooding decreased significantly with longer flooding time. Besides, the leaf length and leaf width in S1 and S2 groups increased significantly but with decreased leaf number. Additionally, all growth parameters (leaf length, leaf width, leaf number, total leaf number, total leaf length of one plant, total leaf length of all plants) in S3 group decreased remarkably. Furthermore, drought decreased the values of all growth parameters and the plant number in the control, S1 and

  8. Hydroclimate drivers and atmospheric teleconnections of long duration floods: An application to large reservoirs in the Missouri River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najibi, Nasser; Devineni, Naresh; Lu, Mengqian

    2017-02-01

    A comprehensive framework is developed to assess the flood types, their spatiotemporal characteristics and causes based on the rainfall statistics, antecedent flow conditions, and atmospheric teleconnections. The Missouri River Basin (MRB) is used as a case study for the application of the framework. Floods are defined using the multivariate characteristics of annual peak, volume, duration, and timing. The temporal clustering of flood durations is assessed using a hierarchical clustering analysis, and low-frequency modes are identified using wavelet decomposition. This is followed by an identification of the synoptic scale atmospheric processes and an analysis of storm tracks that entered the basin and their moisture releases. Atmospheric teleconnections are distinctively persistent and well developed for long duration flood events. Long duration floods are triggered by high antecedent flow conditions which are in turn caused by high moisture release from the tracks. For short duration floods, these are insignificant and appear to occur random across the MRB in the recent half-century. The relative importance of hydroclimatic drivers (rainfall duration, rainfall intensity and antecedent flow conditions) in explaining the variance in flood duration and volume is discussed using an empirical log-linear regression model. The implication of analyzing the duration and volume of the floods in the context of flood frequency analysis for dams is also presented. The results demonstrate that the existing notion of the flood risk assessment and consequent reservoir operations based on the instantaneous peak flow rate at a stream gage needs to be revisited, especially for those flood events caused by persistent rainfall events, high antecedent flow conditions and synoptic scale atmospheric teleconnections.

  9. Reservoir System Regulation for Water Quality Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    Davis, California 95616. [PHASE I!- 1979 SINGLE RESERVOIR SIMULATION FOR WATER TEMPERATURE PHASE 31- 1980 TWO RESERVOIR SIMULATION FOR WATER TEMPERATURE...AND SEVEN CONSTITUENTS 1981 FIELD TESTING AND MINOR MODIFICATIONS ’IFI PHASE 3nm- 1982 TEN RESERVOIR SIMULATION FOR WATER TEMPERATURE AND SEVEN

  10. Regional flood frequency analysis in Triveneto (Italy): climate and scale controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persiano, Simone; Castellarin, Attilio; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Brath, Armando

    2016-04-01

    The growing concern about the possible effects of climate change on flood frequency regime is leading Authorities to review previously proposed procedures for design-flood estimation, such as national regionalization approaches. Our study focuses on the Triveneto region, a broad geographical area in North-eastern Italy consisting of the administrative regions of Trentino-Alto Adige, Veneto and Friuli-Venezia Giulia. A reference procedure for design flood estimation in Triveneto is available from the Italian NCR research project "VA.PI.", which developed a regional model using annual maximum series (AMS) of peak discharges that were collected up to the 80s by the former Italian Hydrometeorological Service. We consider a very detailed AMS database that we recently compiled for ~80 catchments located in Triveneto. Our dataset includes the historical data mentioned above, together with more recent data obtained from Regional Services and annual maximum peak streamflows extracted from inflow series to artificial reservoirs and provided by dam managers. All ~80 study catchments are characterized in terms of several geomorphologic and climatic descriptors. The main objectives of our study are: (1) to check whether climatic and scale controls on flood frequency regime in Triveneto are similar to the controls that were recently found in Europe; (2) to verify the possible presence of trends as well as abrupt changes in the intensity and frequency of flood extremes by looking at changes in time of regional L-moments of annual maximum floods; (3) to assess the reliability and representativeness of the reference procedure for design flood estimation relative to flood data that were not included in the VA.PI. dataset (i.e. more recent data collected after the 80s and historical data provided by dam managers); (4) to develop an updated reference procedure for design flood estimation in Triveneto by using a focused-pooling approach (i.e. Region of Influence, RoI).

  11. Quality control of the RMS US flood model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankowfsky, Sonja; Hilberts, Arno; Mortgat, Chris; Li, Shuangcai; Rafique, Farhat; Rajesh, Edida; Xu, Na; Mei, Yi; Tillmanns, Stephan; Yang, Yang; Tian, Ye; Mathur, Prince; Kulkarni, Anand; Kumaresh, Bharadwaj Anna; Chaudhuri, Chiranjib; Saini, Vishal

    2016-04-01

    The RMS US flood model predicts the flood risk in the US with a 30 m resolution for different return periods. The model is designed for the insurance industry to estimate the cost of flood risk for a given location. Different statistical, hydrological and hydraulic models are combined to develop the flood maps for different return periods. A rainfall-runoff and routing model, calibrated with observed discharge data, is run with 10 000 years of stochastic simulated precipitation to create time series of discharge and surface runoff. The 100, 250 and 500 year events are extracted from these time series as forcing for a two-dimensional pluvial and fluvial inundation model. The coupling of all the different models which are run on the large area of the US implies a certain amount of uncertainty. Therefore, special attention is paid to the final quality control of the flood maps. First of all, a thorough quality analysis of the Digital Terrain model and the river network was done, as the final quality of the flood maps depends heavily on the DTM quality. Secondly, the simulated 100 year discharge in the major river network (600 000 km) is compared to the 100 year discharge derived using extreme value distribution of all USGS gauges with more than 20 years of peak values (around 11 000 gauges). Thirdly, for each gauge the modelled flood depth is compared to the depth derived from the USGS rating curves. Fourthly, the modelled flood depth is compared to the base flood elevation given in the FEMA flood maps. Fifthly, the flood extent is compared to the FEMA flood extent. Then, for historic events we compare flood extents and flood depths at given locations. Finally, all the data and spatial layers are uploaded on geoserver to facilitate the manual investigation of outliers. The feedback from the quality control is used to improve the model and estimate its uncertainty.

  12. Trap-efficiency study, Highland Creek flood-retarding reservoir near Kelseyville, California, water years 1966-77

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trujillo, L.F.

    1982-01-01

    This investigation is part of a nationwide study of trap efficiency of detention reservoirs. In this report, trap efficiency was computed from reservoir inflow and outflow sediment data and from reservoir survey and outflow data. Highland Creek Reservoir is a flood-retarding reservoir located in Lake County, near Kelseyville, California. This reservoir has a maximum storage capacity of 3,199 acre-feet and permanent pool storage of 921 acre-feet. Mean annual rainfall for the 14.1 square-mile drainage area above Highland Creek Dam was 29 inches during the December 1965 to September 1977 study period. Resultant mean annual runoff was 17,100 acre-feet. Total reservoir inflow for the 11.8 yea r study period was 202,000 acre-feet, transporting an estimated 126,000 tons (10,700 tons per year) of suspended sediment. Total reservoir outflow for the same period was 188,700 acre-feet, including 15 ,230 tons (1,290 tons per year) of sediment. Estimated trap efficiency for the study period was 88 percent, based on estimated sediment inflow and measured sediment outflow.

  13. Vector and reservoir control for preventing leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    González, Urbà; Pinart, Mariona; Sinclair, David; Firooz, Alireza; Enk, Claes; Vélez, Ivan D; Esterhuizen, Tonya M; Tristan, Mario; Alvar, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is caused by the Leishmania parasite, and transmitted by infected phlebotomine sandflies. Of the two distinct clinical syndromes, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) affects the skin and mucous membranes, and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) affects internal organs. Approaches to prevent transmission include vector control by reducing human contact with infected sandflies, and reservoir control, by reducing the number of infected animals. Objectives To assess the effects of vector and reservoir control interventions for cutaneous and for visceral leishmaniasis. Search methods We searched the following databases to 13 January 2015: Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and WHOLIS, Web of Science, and RePORTER. We also searched trials registers for ongoing trials. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of vector and reservoir control interventions in leishmaniasis-endemic regions. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently searched for trials and extracted data from included RCTs. We resolved any disagreements by discussion with a third review author. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results We included 14 RCTs that evaluated a range of interventions across different settings. The study methods were generally poorly described, and consequently all included trials were judged to be at high or unclear risk of selection and reporting bias. Only seven trials reported clinical outcome data which limits our ability to make broad generalizations to different epidemiological settings and cultures. Cutaneous leishmaniasis One four-arm RCT from Afghanistan compared indoor residual spraying (IRS), insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs), and insecticide-treated bedsheets, with no intervention. Over 15 months follow-up, all three insecticide-based interventions had a lower incidence of CL than the control area (IRS: risk

  14. 33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection.... Regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Army for the maintenance and operation of local...

  15. 33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection.... Regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Army for the maintenance and operation of local...

  16. 33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection.... Regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Army for the maintenance and operation of local...

  17. 33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection.... Regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Army for the maintenance and operation of local...

  18. 33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection.... Regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Army for the maintenance and operation of local...

  19. Operational Precipitation prediction in Support of Real-Time Flash Flood Prediction and Reservoir Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakakos, K. P.

    2006-05-01

    The presentation will outline the implementation and performance evaluation of a number of national and international projects pertaining to operational precipitation estimation and prediction in the context of hydrologic warning systems and reservoir management support. In all cases, uncertainty measures of the estimates and predictions are an integral part of the precipitation models. Outstanding research issues whose resolution is likely to lead to improvements in the operational environment are presented. The presentation draws from the experience of the Hydrologic Research Center (http://www.hrc-lab.org) prototype implementation projects at the Panama Canal, Central America, Northern California, and South-Central US. References: Carpenter, T.M, and K.P. Georgakakos, "Discretization Scale Dependencies of the Ensemble Flow Range versus Catchment Area Relationship in Distributed Hydrologic Modeling," Journal of Hydrology, 2006, in press. Carpenter, T.M., and K.P. Georgakakos, "Impacts of Parametric and Radar Rainfall Uncertainty on the Ensemble Streamflow Simulations of a Distributed Hydrologic Model," Journal of Hydrology, 298, 202-221, 2004. Georgakakos, K.P., Graham, N.E., Carpenter, T.M., Georgakakos, A.P., and H. Yao, "Integrating Climate- Hydrology Forecasts and Multi-Objective Reservoir Management in Northern California," EOS, 86(12), 122,127, 2005. Georgakakos, K.P., and J.A. Sperfslage, "Operational Rainfall and Flow Forecasting for the Panama Canal Watershed," in The Rio Chagres: A Multidisciplinary Profile of a Tropical Watershed, R.S. Harmon, ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, Chapter 16, 323-334, 2005. Georgakakos, K. P., "Analytical results for operational flash flood guidance," Journal of Hydrology, doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.05.009, 2005.

  20. Improved efficiency of miscible CO{sub 2} floods and enhanced prospects for CO{sub 2} flooding heterogeneous reservoirs. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Grigg, R.B.; Heller, J.P.; Schechter, D.S.

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this experimental research is to improve the effectiveness of CO{sub 2} flooding in heterogeneous reservoirs. Activities are being conducted in three closely related areas: (1) exploring further the applicability of selective mobility reduction (SMR) in the use of foam flooding, (2) exploring the possibility of higher economic viability of floods at slightly reduced CO{sub 2} injection pressures, and (3) taking advantage of gravitational forces during low interfacial tension (IFT), CO{sub 2} flooding in tight, vertically fractured reservoirs. Progress made this quarter in the following tasks is described: Task 1 CO{sub 2}-foams for selective mobility reduction; task 2 reduction of the amount of CO{sub 2} required in CO{sub 2} flooding; and Task 3 low IFT processes and gas injection in fractured reservoirs.

  1. Scale-up of miscible flood processes for heterogeneous reservoirs. Quarterly report, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, F.M. Jr.

    1994-07-01

    The current project is a systematic research effort to quantify relationships between process mechanisms that can lead to improved recovery from gas injection processes performed in heterogeneous Class 1 and Class 2 reservoirs. It will provide a rational basis for the design of displacement processes that take advantage of crossflow due to capillary, gravity and viscous forces to offset partially the adverse effects of heterogeneity. In effect, the high permeability zones are used to deliver fluid by crossflow to zones that would otherwise be flooded only very slowly. Thus, the research effort is divided into five areas: (a) Development of miscibility in multicomponent systems, (b) Design estimates for nearly miscible displacements, (c) Design of miscible floods for fractured reservoirs (d), Compositional flow visualization experiments, and (e) Simulation of near-miscible flow in heterogeneous systems. The status of the research effort in each area is reviewed briefly in the following section.

  2. Predictive Methods for Real-Time Control of Flood Operation of a Multireservoir System: Methodology and Comparative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niewiadomska-Szynkiewicz, Ewa; Malinowski, Krzysztof; Karbowski, Andrzej

    1996-04-01

    Predictive methods for real-time flood operation of water systems consisting of reservoirs located in parallel on tributaries to the main river are presented and discussed. The aspect of conflicting individual goals of the local decision units and other objectives important from an overall point of view is taken into account. The particular attention is focused on hierarchical control structure which provides framework for organization of an on-line reservoir management problem. The important factor involved in flood control the uncertainty with respect to future inflows is taken into consideration. A case study of the upper Vistula river basin system in the southern part of Poland is presented. Simulation results based on 11 historical floods are briefly described and discussed.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF MORE-EFFICIENT GAS FLOODING APPLICABLE TO SHALLOW RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    William R. Rossen; Russell T. Johns; Gary A. Pope

    2003-01-28

    The objective of this research is to widen the applicability of gas flooding to shallow oil reservoirs by reducing the pressure required for miscibility using gas enrichment and increasing sweep efficiency with foam. Task 1 examines the potential for improved oil recovery with enriched gases. Subtask 1.1 examines the effect of dispersion processes on oil recovery and the extent of enrichment needed in the presence of dispersion. Subtask 1.2 develops a fast, efficient method to predict the extent of enrichment needed for crude oils at a given pressure. Task 2 develops improved foam processes to increase sweep efficiency in gas flooding. Subtask 2.1 comprises mechanistic experimental studies of foams with N{sup 2} gas. Subtask 2.2 conducts experiments with CO{sup 2} foam. Subtask 2.3 develops and applies a simulator for foam processes in field application. Regarding Task 1, several key results are described in this report relating to subtask 1.1. In particular, we show how for slimtube experiments, oil recoveries do not increase significantly with enrichments greater than the MME. For field projects, however, the optimum enrichment required to maximize recovery on a pattern scale may be different from the MME. The optimum enrichment is likely the result of greater mixing in reservoirs than in slimtubes. In addition, 2-D effects such as channeling, gravity tonguing, and crossflow can impact the enrichment selected. We also show the interplay between various mixing mechanisms, enrichment level, and numerical dispersion. The mixing mechanisms examined are mechanical dispersion, gravity crossflow, and viscous crossflow. UTCOMP is used to evaluate the effect of these mechanisms on recovery for different grid refinements, reservoir heterogeneities, injection boundary conditions, relative permeabilities, and numerical weighting methods including higher-order methods. For all simulations, the reservoir fluid used is a twelve-component oil displaced by gases enriched above

  4. High-Performance Integrated Control of water quality and quantity in urban water reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galelli, S.; Castelletti, A.; Goedbloed, A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper contributes a novel High-Performance Integrated Control framework to support the real-time operation of urban water supply storages affected by water quality problems. We use a 3-D, high-fidelity simulation model to predict the main water quality dynamics and inform a real-time controller based on Model Predictive Control. The integration of the simulation model into the control scheme is performed by a model reduction process that identifies a low-order, dynamic emulator running 4 orders of magnitude faster. The model reduction, which relies on a semiautomatic procedural approach integrating time series clustering and variable selection algorithms, generates a compact and physically meaningful emulator that can be coupled with the controller. The framework is used to design the hourly operation of Marina Reservoir, a 3.2 Mm3 storm-water-fed reservoir located in the center of Singapore, operated for drinking water supply and flood control. Because of its recent formation from a former estuary, the reservoir suffers from high salinity levels, whose behavior is modeled with Delft3D-FLOW. Results show that our control framework reduces the minimum salinity levels by nearly 40% and cuts the average annual deficit of drinking water supply by about 2 times the active storage of the reservoir (about 4% of the total annual demand).

  5. Trap-efficiency study, Highland Creek flood retarding reservoir near Kelseyville, California, water years 1966-77

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trujillo, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    This investigation is part of a nationwide study of trap efficiency of detention reservoirs. In this report, trap efficiency was computed from reservoir inflow and outflow sediment data and from reservoir survey and outflow data. Highland Creek Reservoir is a flood retarding reservoir located in Lake County, near Kelseyville, California. This reservoir has a maximum storage capacity of 3,199 acre-feet and permanent pool storage of 921 acre-feet. Mean annual rainfall for the 14.1-square-mile drainage area above Highland Creek Dam was 29 inches during the December 1965 to September 1977 study period. Resultant mean annual runoff was 17,100 acre-feet. Total reservoir inflow for the 11.8-year study period was 202,000 acre-feet, transporting an estimated 126,000 tons (10,700 tons per year) of suspended sediment. Total reservoir outflow for the same period was 188,700 acre-feet, including 15,230 tons (1,290 tons per year) of sediment. Estimated trap efficiency for the study period was 88%, based on estimated sediment inflow and measured sediment outflow. Reservoir surveys made in December 1965 and April 1972 revealed a storage capacity loss of 35.8 acre-feet during the 6.3-year period. Computed by using an estimated specific weight, this loss represents 54,600 tons of deposited sediment. Sediment outflow during the same period was 8,890 tons. Trap efficiency for the survey period was 86%. (USGS)

  6. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Phytoplankton Structure in a Southeastern U.S. Reservoir Determined by HPLC and Light Microscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spatial and temporal variation in phytoplankton community characteristics within a large flood-control reservoir (Sardis Reservoir, MS, USA) were investigated in relation to variation in physicochemical properties, location within the reservoir, hydraulic residence time (HRT), nutrient concentration...

  7. Rebuilding Habitat and Shoreline Resilience through Improved Flood Control Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Rebuilding Habitat and Shoreline Resilience through Improved Flood Control Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  8. Colorado River Basin Hover Dam - Review of Flood Control Regulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    AD-A132 464 COLORADO RIVER BASIN HOVER DAM - REVIEW OF FLOOD1f CONTROL REGULATION(U) ARMY ENGINEER DISTRICT LOS ANGELES CALIF JUL- 82 UNCLAIFIEDF/G3...Lower Colorado River Regional Office of the Bureau of Reclamation and the Los Angeles District, Corps of Engineers . The detailed investigations... Engineers , Regarding Flood Control Operation of Hoover Dam and Lake Mead, Colorado River , Nevada- Arizona; and, in addition, agency views and responses

  9. Food web structure in the recently flooded Sep Reservoir as inferred from phytoplankton population dynamics and living microbial biomass.

    PubMed

    Tadonléké, R D; Jugnia, L B; Sime-Ngando, T; Devaux, J; Romagoux, J C

    2002-01-01

    Phytoplankton dynamics, bacterial standing stocks and living microbial biomass (derived from ATP measurements, 0.7-200 mm size class) were examined in 1996 in the newly flooded (1995) Sep Reservoir ('Massif Central,' France), for evidence of the importance of the microbial food web relative to the traditional food chain. Phosphate concentrations were low, N:P ratios were high, and phosphate losses converted into carbon accounted for <50% of phytoplankton biomass and production, indicating that P was limiting phytoplankton development during the study. The observed low availability of P contrasts with the high release of "directly" assimilable P often reported in newly flooded reservoirs, suggesting that factors determining nutrient dynamics in such ecosystems are complex. The phosphate availability, but also the water column stability, seemed to be among the major factors determining phytoplankton dynamics, as (i) large-size phytoplankton species were prominent during the period of increasing water column stability, whereas small-size species dominated phytoplankton assemblages during the period of decreasing stability, and (ii) a Dinobryon divergens bloom occurred during a period when inorganic P was undetectable, coinciding with the lowest values of bacterial standing stocks. Indication of grazing limitation of bacterial populations by the mixotrophic chrysophyte D. divergens (in late spring) and by other potential grazers (mainly rotifers in summer) seemed to be confirmed by the Model II or functional slopes of the bacterial vs phytoplankton regressions, which were always <0.63. Phytoplankton biomass was not correlated with phosphorus sources and its contribution was remarkably low relative to the living microbial biomass which, in contrast, was positively correlated with total phosphorus in summer. We conclude that planktonic microheterotrophs are strongly implicated in the phosphorus dynamics in the Sep Reservoir, and thus support the idea that an important

  10. Linkages between controlled floods, eddy sandbar dynamics, and riparian vegetation along the Colorado River in Marble Canyon, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, E. R.; Grams, P. E.; Hazel, J. E., Jr.; Schmeeckle, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    Controlled floods are released from Glen Canyon Dam to build and maintain eddy sandbars along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. Long-term monitoring shows that the topographic response to controlled floods varies considerably between eddies, likely reflecting different geometric configurations and flow hydraulics. Differences in eddy sandbar response also reflect the degree of vegetation establishment since the 1980s when reservoir spills more than double the magnitude of controlled floods cleared most sandbars of vegetation. Here we explore the geomorphology of sandbar responses in the context of controlled floods, debris fan-eddy geometry, and riparian vegetation establishment. In Marble Canyon, the proportion of eddy area stabilized by vegetation is negatively correlated with water surface slope and the rate of stage change with discharge. Less vegetated sites are more dynamic; they tend to build open sandbars during controlled floods and show greater topographic variability in the eddy compared to the main channel. In contrast, deposition of open sandbars is limited where vegetation establishment has decreased channel width, altering the pattern of eddy recirculation and sediment redistribution. In these locations, deposition during controlled floods is more akin to floodplain sedimentation, and the elevation of vegetated bar surfaces increases with successive floods. Changes in sand storage in the main channel are greater than storage change in the eddy at these lower gradient sites, and controlled floods tend to evacuate sand that has accumulated on the bed. The degree to which vegetation has stabilized sandbar surfaces may thus provide a proxy for different hydraulic conditions and a better canyon-wide assessment of controlled flood response. Our results apply primarily to large eddies in Marble Canyon, and ongoing flow modeling and vegetation composition mapping will allow further assessment of eddy sandbar-riparian vegetation interactions

  11. Simulated monthly hydrologic data and estimated flood characteristics for Cherry Creek at a proposed reservoir site near Terry, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrett, Charles; Johnson, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    A monthly hydrologic budget for water years 1937- 92 was developed for the proposed Cherry Creek Reservoir (maximum volume about 14,100 acre-feet). Monthly suspended-sediment loads and dissolved- solids concentrations in the reservoir and flood hydrographs and volumes having recurrence intervals of 25-, 50-, and 100-years were estimated. Monthly streamflow and precipitation were estimated using a mixed-station, record-extension procedure. Monthly suspended-sediment and dissolved-solids concentrations in the reservoir were estimated from regression relations between logarithms of concen- tration and streamflow. The simulation showed that flows that Cherry Creek generally were adequate to maintain the reservoir elevation above the minimum operating level for a seepage loss of 0 cubic ft per square. With a seepage loss rate of 3 cubic ft per square, diversions from the Yellowstone River were required for about on third of the months. Cumulative sediment deposition during the 56-year simulation period was about 138 acre-ft from Cherry Creek alone and was about 149 acre-ft when additional water was imported from the Yellowstone River. The concentration of dissolved solids in the reservoir reached a maximum value of about 2,540 mg/L for a seepage loss of 0 cubic ft per square. For a seepage loss of 3 cubic ft per square, water was imported from the Yellowstone River and the maximum concentration of dissolved solids was about 1,200 mg/L. Volumes for flood discharges were estimated from synthetic 24-hour duration storms that were used in a rainfall-runoff model (HEC-1).

  12. Geology of the Roswell artesian basin, New Mexico, and its relation to the Hondo Reservoir and Effect on artesian aquifer storage of flood water in Hondo Reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bean, Robert T.; Theis, Charles V.

    1949-01-01

    In the Roswell Basin in southeastern New Mexico artesian water is produced from cavernous zones in the carbonate rocks of the San Andres formation and the lower part of the Chalk Bluff formation, both of Permian age. The Hondo Reservoir, 9 miles west-southwest of Roswell, was completed by the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation in 1907, to store waters of the Rio Hondo for irrigation. The project was not successful, as the impounded water escaped rapidly through holes in the gypsum and limestone of the San Andres formation constituting its floor. Of 27,000 acre~feet that entered the reservoir between 1908 and 1913, only 1,100 acre-feet was drawn Ollt for use, the remainder escaping through the floor of the reservoir. Since 1939, plans have been drawn up by the State Engineer and by Federal agencies to utilize the reservoir to protect Roswell from floods. It has also been suggested that water from the Pecos River might be diverted into underground storage through the reservoir. Sinkholes in the Roswell Basin are largely clustered in areas where gypsum occurs in the bedrock. Collapse of strata is due to solution of underlying rock commonly containing gypsum. Domes occur in gypsiferous strata near Salt Creek. The Bottomless Lakes, sinkhole lakes in the escarpment on the east side of the Pecos, are believed to have developed in north-south hinge-line fractures opened when the westernmost beds in the escarpment collapsed. Collapse was due to solution and removal of gypsiferous rock by artesian water which now fills the lakes.

  13. Hospital infection prevention and control issues relevant to extensive floods.

    PubMed

    Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Mundy, Linda M; Khawcharoenporn, Thana; Glen Mayhall, C

    2013-02-01

    The devastating clinical and economic implications of floods exemplify the need for effective global infection prevention and control (IPC) strategies for natural disasters. Reopening of hospitals after excessive flooding requires a balance between meeting the medical needs of the surrounding communities and restoration of a safe hospital environment. Postflood hospital preparedness plans are a key issue for infection control epidemiologists, healthcare providers, patients, and hospital administrators. We provide recent IPC experiences related to reopening of a hospital after extensive black-water floods necessitated hospital closures in Thailand and the United States. These experiences provide a foundation for the future design, execution, and analysis of black-water flood preparedness plans by IPC stakeholders.

  14. Controls on reservoir development in Devonian Chert: Permian Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppel, S.C.; Hovorka, S.D.

    1995-12-01

    Chert reservoirs of the Lower Devonian Thirtyone Formation contain a significant portion of the hydrocarbon resource in the Permian basin. More than 700 million bbl of oil have been produced from these rocks, and an equivalent amount of mobile oil remains. Effective exploitation of this sizable remaining resource, however, demands a comprehensive appreciation of the complex factors that have contributed to reservoir development. Analysis of Thirtyone Formation chert deposits in Three Bar field and elsewhere in the Permian basin indicates that reservoirs display substantial heterogeneity resulting from depositional, diagenetic, and structural processes. Large-scale reservoir geometries and finer scale, intra-reservoir heterogeneity are primarily attributable to original depositional processes. Despite facies variations, porosity development in these cherts is principally a result of variations in rates and products of early silica diagenesis. Because this diagenesis was in part a function of depositional facies architecture, porosity development follows original depositional patterns. In reservoirs such as Three Bar field, where the Thirtyone Formation has been unroofed by Pennsylvanian deformation, meteoric diagenesis has created additional heterogeneity by causing dissolution of chert and carbonate, especially in areas of higher density fracturing and faulting and along truncated reservoir margins. Structural deformation also has exerted direct controls on heterogeneity that are particularly noteworthy in reservoirs under waterflood. High-density fracture zones create preferred flow paths that result in nonuniform sweep through the reservoir. Faulting locally creates compartments by offsetting reservoir flow units. As such, the processes and models defined here improve understanding of the causes of heterogeneity in all Thirtyone chert reservoirs in the Permian basin and aid recovery of the sizable hydrocarbon resource remaining in these rocks.

  15. Flood Control, Mississippi River, La Crosse, Wisconsin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-01

    Features 2 2. ENVIROMENTAL SLTfTING WITHOUT THE PROJECT 5 Authority 5 Introduction 5 Climate 6 Topography and Geology 8 Groundwater and Water Supply 9...Fundametals of Ecology ( 3d Edition) W. B. Sanders, Philadelphia. (2) Kuchler, A. W., 1964. Potential Natural Vegetation of the Conterminous United...affected, however compensating benefits are derived by the reduction of flood damages to their property. Evacuation of about 40 permanent and seasonal

  16. 33 CFR 203.50 - Nonstructural alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... rehabilitation of flood control works. 203.50 Section 203.50 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm... of flood control works. (a) Authority. Under Public Law 84-99, the Chief of Engineers is...

  17. 33 CFR 203.50 - Nonstructural alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... rehabilitation of flood control works. 203.50 Section 203.50 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm... of flood control works. (a) Authority. Under Public Law 84-99, the Chief of Engineers is...

  18. 33 CFR 239.7 - Separation of flood control works from urban drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Separation of flood control works... COVERED FLOOD CONTROL CHANNELS § 239.7 Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. Covered channels are likely to be considered in boundary areas demarking urban drainage and flood...

  19. 33 CFR 239.7 - Separation of flood control works from urban drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Separation of flood control works... COVERED FLOOD CONTROL CHANNELS § 239.7 Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. Covered channels are likely to be considered in boundary areas demarking urban drainage and flood...

  20. 33 CFR 239.7 - Separation of flood control works from urban drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Separation of flood control works... COVERED FLOOD CONTROL CHANNELS § 239.7 Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. Covered channels are likely to be considered in boundary areas demarking urban drainage and flood...

  1. 33 CFR 239.7 - Separation of flood control works from urban drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Separation of flood control works... COVERED FLOOD CONTROL CHANNELS § 239.7 Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. Covered channels are likely to be considered in boundary areas demarking urban drainage and flood...

  2. 33 CFR 239.7 - Separation of flood control works from urban drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Separation of flood control works... COVERED FLOOD CONTROL CHANNELS § 239.7 Separation of flood control works from urban drainage. Covered channels are likely to be considered in boundary areas demarking urban drainage and flood...

  3. 33 CFR 203.50 - Nonstructural alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... rehabilitation of flood control works. 203.50 Section 203.50 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm... of flood control works. (a) Authority. Under Public Law 84-99, the Chief of Engineers is...

  4. 33 CFR 203.50 - Nonstructural alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... rehabilitation of flood control works. 203.50 Section 203.50 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm... of flood control works. (a) Authority. Under Public Law 84-99, the Chief of Engineers is...

  5. 33 CFR 203.50 - Nonstructural alternatives to rehabilitation of flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... rehabilitation of flood control works. 203.50 Section 203.50 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm... of flood control works. (a) Authority. Under Public Law 84-99, the Chief of Engineers is...

  6. Flooding and Flood Management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, K.N.; Fallon, J.D.; Lorenz, D.L.; Stark, J.R.; Menard, Jason; Easter, K.W.; Perry, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Floods result in great human disasters globally and nationally, causing an average of $4 billion of damages each year in the United States. Minnesota has its share of floods and flood damages, and the state has awarded nearly $278 million to local units of government for flood mitigation projects through its Flood Hazard Mitigation Grant Program. Since 1995, flood mitigation in the Red River Valley has exceeded $146 million. Considerable local and state funding has been provided to manage and mitigate problems of excess stormwater in urban areas, flooding of farmlands, and flood damages at road crossings. The cumulative costs involved with floods and flood mitigation in Minnesota are not known precisely, but it is safe to conclude that flood mitigation is a costly business. This chapter begins with a description of floods in Minneosta to provide examples and contrasts across the state. Background material is presented to provide a basic understanding of floods and flood processes, predication, and management and mitigation. Methods of analyzing and characterizing floods are presented because they affect how we respond to flooding and can influence relevant practices. The understanding and perceptions of floods and flooding commonly differ among those who work in flood forecasting, flood protection, or water resource mamnagement and citizens and businesses affected by floods. These differences can become magnified following a major flood, pointing to the need for better understanding of flooding as well as common language to describe flood risks and the uncertainty associated with determining such risks. Expectations of accurate and timely flood forecasts and our ability to control floods do not always match reality. Striving for clarity is important in formulating policies that can help avoid recurring flood damages and costs.

  7. Response of benthos and organic drift to a controlled flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinn, Dean W.; Shannon, Joseph P.; Wilson, Kevin P.; O'Brien, Chris; Benenati, Peggy L.

    The controlled flood in the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, provided valuable information on short-term responses for both the riverine system and the biotic community, but the long-term effects of the flood on the aquatic food base were more difficult to assess. The 1274 m3/s discharge flushed the silt/clay fraction from the channel bottom throughout the river corridor. There were no significant differences in dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and pH before and after the flood compared to during the flood. However, water clarity was dramatically reduced during the first 2 days of the flood event, but cleared after 7 days. Over 90% of the phytobenthos and ≥50% of the benthic invertebrates were scoured from the Lees Ferry reach, with biota associated with unstable fine sediment most vulnerable. Most of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) that passed through the river corridor was entrained in the initial hydrostatic wave; values for DOC and POC were significantly lower throughout the remainder of the flood. Stable isotope analyses indicated that riparian and upland vegetation made up most of the stream drift during the experimental flood, whereas phytobenthos was the dominant drift constituent during normal dam operations. Recovery rates to preflood levels were fast for phytobenthos (1 mon) and invertebrates (2 mon). We propose that the rapid recover rates and current high standing stock of aquatic benthos in the river corridor is more a function of higher water clarity, due to higher relatively constant dam releases, rather than solely related to the controlled flood. Our data indicate that consistent high discharges (≥400 m3/s) from Glen Canyon Dam mitigate the influence of suspended sediments delivered from tributaries on water clarity. Therefore, optimum conditions for management of the present exotic food base below Glen Canyon Dam may be achieved by steady discharges (˜450 m3/s) with minimal

  8. 33 CFR 203.43 - Inspection of Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspection of Federal flood... PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.43 Inspection of Federal flood control works. (a)...

  9. 33 CFR 203.43 - Inspection of Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inspection of Federal flood... PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.43 Inspection of Federal flood control works. (a)...

  10. 33 CFR 203.42 - Inspection of non-Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inspection of non-Federal flood... PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.42 Inspection of non-Federal flood control works. (a)...

  11. 33 CFR 203.44 - Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... flood control works. 203.44 Section 203.44 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.44 Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood...

  12. 33 CFR 203.45 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Federal flood... PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.45 Rehabilitation of Federal flood control works. Rehabilitation...

  13. 33 CFR 203.47 - Modifications to non-Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... flood control works. 203.47 Section 203.47 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.47 Modifications to non-Federal flood...

  14. 33 CFR 203.44 - Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... flood control works. 203.44 Section 203.44 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.44 Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood...

  15. 33 CFR 203.47 - Modifications to non-Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... flood control works. 203.47 Section 203.47 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.47 Modifications to non-Federal flood...

  16. 33 CFR 203.44 - Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... flood control works. 203.44 Section 203.44 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.44 Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood...

  17. 33 CFR 203.43 - Inspection of Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inspection of Federal flood... PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.43 Inspection of Federal flood control works. (a)...

  18. 33 CFR 203.47 - Modifications to non-Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... flood control works. 203.47 Section 203.47 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.47 Modifications to non-Federal flood...

  19. 33 CFR 203.45 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Federal flood... PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.45 Rehabilitation of Federal flood control works. Rehabilitation...

  20. 33 CFR 203.42 - Inspection of non-Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inspection of non-Federal flood... PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.42 Inspection of non-Federal flood control works. (a)...

  1. 33 CFR 203.43 - Inspection of Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inspection of Federal flood... PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.43 Inspection of Federal flood control works. (a)...

  2. 33 CFR 203.45 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Federal flood... PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.45 Rehabilitation of Federal flood control works. Rehabilitation...

  3. 33 CFR 203.45 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Federal flood... PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.45 Rehabilitation of Federal flood control works. Rehabilitation...

  4. 33 CFR 203.44 - Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... flood control works. 203.44 Section 203.44 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.44 Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood...

  5. 33 CFR 203.47 - Modifications to non-Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... flood control works. 203.47 Section 203.47 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.47 Modifications to non-Federal flood...

  6. 33 CFR 203.45 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Federal flood... PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.45 Rehabilitation of Federal flood control works. Rehabilitation...

  7. 33 CFR 203.42 - Inspection of non-Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inspection of non-Federal flood... PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.42 Inspection of non-Federal flood control works. (a)...

  8. 33 CFR 203.43 - Inspection of Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inspection of Federal flood... PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.43 Inspection of Federal flood control works. (a)...

  9. 33 CFR 203.42 - Inspection of non-Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspection of non-Federal flood... PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.42 Inspection of non-Federal flood control works. (a)...

  10. 33 CFR 203.47 - Modifications to non-Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... flood control works. 203.47 Section 203.47 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.47 Modifications to non-Federal flood...

  11. 33 CFR 203.42 - Inspection of non-Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inspection of non-Federal flood... PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.42 Inspection of non-Federal flood control works. (a)...

  12. 33 CFR 203.44 - Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... flood control works. 203.44 Section 203.44 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.44 Rehabilitation of non-Federal flood...

  13. Shoreline to Height (S2H): an algorithm to monitor reservoirs' water height from satellite images. A flood risk management application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenci, Luca; Boni, Giorgio; Pulvirenti, Luca; Gabellani, Simone; Gardella, Fabio; Squicciarino, Giuseppe; Pierdicca, Nazzareno; Benedetto, Catia

    2016-04-01

    In a reservoir, water level monitoring is important for emergency management purposes. This information can be used to estimate the degree of filling of the water body, thus helping decision makers in flood control operations. Furthermore, if assimilated in hydrological models and coupled with rainfall forecasts, this information can be used for flood forecast and early warning. In many cases, water level is not known (e.g. data-scarce environments), or not shared by operators. Remote sensing may allow overcoming these limitations, enabling its estimation. The objective of this work is to present the Shoreline to Height (S2H) algorithm, developed to retrieve the height of the water stored in reservoirs from satellite images. To this aim, some auxiliary data are needed: a DEM and the maximum/minimum height that can be reached by the water. In data-scarce environments, these information can be easily obtained on the Internet (e.g. free, worldwide DEM and design data for artificial reservoirs). S2H was tested with different satellite data, both optical and SAR (Landsat and Cosmo SkyMed®-CSK®) in order to assess the impact of different sensors on the final estimates. The study area was the Place-Moulin Lake (Valle d'Aosta-VdA, Italy), where it is present a monitoring network that can provide reliable ground-truths for validating the algorithm and assessing its accuracy. When the algorithm was developed, it was assumed to be in absence of any "official"-auxiliary data. Therefore, two DEMs (SRTM 1 arc-second and ASTER GDEM) were used to evaluate their performances. The maximum/minimum water height values were found on the website of VdA Region. The S2H is based on three steps: i) satellite data preprocessing (Landsat: atmospheric correction; CSK®: geocoding and speckle filtering); ii) water mask generation (using a thresholding and region growing algorithm) and shoreline extraction; iii) retrieval of the shoreline height according to the reference DEMs (adopting a

  14. Improving riparian wetland conditions through evaluation of infiltration and drainage behavior during and after a controlled flood event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, T. A.; Fisher, A. T.; Roche, J. W.

    2009-12-01

    We are conducting an observational and modeling study of a riparian wetland system adjacent to the Tuolumne River, downstream of the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir in Yosemite National Park. The study area is located along the bottom of Poopenaut Valley, a 25 hectare region that contains a diverse mixture of soil, vegetation, and wetland types. The Hetch Hetchy reservoir is part of a water supply system for 2.4 million residents in the San Francisco Bay area. Spring and summer releases of excess water from the reservoir can benefit riparian wetlands within the Poopenaut Valley, but little is known about how shallow wetland soils in the valley respond to rapid inundation and exposure associated with a controlled flood hydrograph. Instruments were deployed within wetlands, along and adjacent to a 300-m stretch of the Tuolumne River in the Poopenaut Valley, to assess soil and shallow wetland response to a controlled flood in Spring 2009. Instruments included stream stage recorders, shallow piezometers, water content sensors, and vertical thermal probe arrays used to assess streambed seepage. Instruments were arranged in vertical clusters along profiles oriented perpendicular and parallel to the river channel. The controlled flood lasted for about four weeks, and increased channel discharge from about 4 cms to a peak near 225 cms, with typical flood discharge of 30 cms. Water content sensors show the influence of soil inundation and penetration of a wetting front within the upper 1 m of soil. Piezometers show a water table response to shallow ground water recharge. Thermal probes show river water seeping into the streambed at the upstream end of the instrumented stretch, and returning to the channel at the downstream end of the stretch, prior to the flood. During the flood event, stream seepage was downward at both locations. We are completing soil grain size analyses in preparation for numerical modeling of unsaturated-saturated conditions to assess controls on the

  15. Control of reservoir porosity and permeability by original depositional fabric

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppel, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    The Emma San Andres field exhibits many of the classic signs of a depleted reservoir including declining annual production rates and high water cuts. By the end of 1986, oil production from the Emma reservoir, more than 19 million bbl, totaled nearly 100% of the estimated ultimate recovery. Recent studies, however, indicate that as much as 25 million bbl of recoverable mobile oil still remain in the reservoir. These studies also indicate that the observed poor recovery efficiency (32%, typical for San Andres/Grayburg reservoirs) is due to reservoir heterogeneity caused primarily by variations in original depositional fabric. Two distinct porosity intervals are recognized in the Emma reservoir. The lower interval is composed of fusulinid packstone/wackestone that contains moldic and intercrystalline porosity and low (average 2 md) permeabilities. These deposits are continuous and relatively uniform throughout the area; net pay in this zone is controlled primarily by the field structure, a low-relief northwest-trending anticline. Comparison of production data with faces mapping suggests that most oil production has been controlled by the distribution of skeletal grainstone and not by structure. Effective exploitation of this remaining mobile oil must include selective completion and injection programs based on variations in the distribution of skeletal grainstone. The absence of significant production from local grainstone thicks, for example, points to inefficient drainage in several parts of the field.

  16. 43 CFR 418.24 - Precautionary drawdown and spills from Lahontan Reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Lahontan Reservoir. 418.24 Section 418.24 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... Reservoir. (a) Even though flood control is not a specifically authorized purpose of the Project, at the..., precautionary drawdown of Lahontan Reservoir may be made to limit potential flood damage along the Carson...

  17. 43 CFR 418.24 - Precautionary drawdown and spills from Lahontan Reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Lahontan Reservoir. 418.24 Section 418.24 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... Reservoir. (a) Even though flood control is not a specifically authorized purpose of the Project, at the..., precautionary drawdown of Lahontan Reservoir may be made to limit potential flood damage along the Carson...

  18. 43 CFR 418.24 - Precautionary drawdown and spills from Lahontan Reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Lahontan Reservoir. 418.24 Section 418.24 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... Reservoir. (a) Even though flood control is not a specifically authorized purpose of the Project, at the..., precautionary drawdown of Lahontan Reservoir may be made to limit potential flood damage along the Carson...

  19. 43 CFR 418.24 - Precautionary drawdown and spills from Lahontan Reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Lahontan Reservoir. 418.24 Section 418.24 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... Reservoir. (a) Even though flood control is not a specifically authorized purpose of the Project, at the..., precautionary drawdown of Lahontan Reservoir may be made to limit potential flood damage along the Carson...

  20. 43 CFR 418.24 - Precautionary drawdown and spills from Lahontan Reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Lahontan Reservoir. 418.24 Section 418.24 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... Reservoir. (a) Even though flood control is not a specifically authorized purpose of the Project, at the..., precautionary drawdown of Lahontan Reservoir may be made to limit potential flood damage along the Carson...

  1. Analysis of floods, including the tropical storm Irene inundation, of the Ottauquechee River in Woodstock, Bridgewater, and Killington and of Reservoir Brook in Bridgewater and Plymouth, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    In addition to the two digital flood inundation maps, flood profiles were created that depict the study reach flood elevation of tropical storm Irene of August 2011 and the 10-, 2-, 1-, and 0.2-percent AEP floods, also known as the 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods, respectively. The 10-, 2-, 1-, and 0.2-percent AEP flood discharges were determined using annual peak flow data from the USGS Ottauquechee River near West Bridgewater, Vt. streamgage (station 01150900). Flood profiles were computed for the Ottauquechee River and Reservoir Brook by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated using documented high-water marks of the peak of the tropical storm Irene flood of August 2011 as well as stage discharge data as determined for USGS Ottauquechee River near West Bridgewater, Vt. streamgage (station 01150900). The simulated water-surface profiles were combined with a digital elevation model within a geographic information system to delineate the areas flooded during tropical storm Irene and for the 1-percent AEP water-surface profile. The digital elevation model data were derived from light detection and ranging (lidar) data obtained for a 3,281-foot (1,000-meter) corridor along the Ottauquechee River study reach and were augmented with 33-foot (10- meter) contour interval data in the modeled flood-inundation areas outside the lidar corridor. The 33-foot (10-meter) contour interval USGS 15-minute quadrangle topographic digital raster graphics map used to augment lidar data was produced at a scale of 1:24,000. The digital flood inundation maps and flood profiles along with information regarding current stage from USGS streamgages on the Internet provide emergency management personnel and residents with information that is critical for flood response activities, such as evacuations and road closures, as well as for post-flood recovery efforts.

  2. Improved Miscible Nitrogen Flood Performance Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Laterals in a Class I Reservoir - East Binger (Marchand) Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Joe Sinner

    2004-06-30

    The DOE-sponsored project at the East Binger Unit is an investigation into the benefits of reservoir characterization and horizontal wells in this particular setting of geologic and recovery method. The geologic setting is a tight (average porosity of 7% and average permeability of less than 1 millidarcy) Pennsylvanian-age sandstone at about 10,000 feet, and the recovery method is a miscible nitrogen flood. The projected oil recovery of the East Binger Unit, prior to the initiation of this project, was about 25%. Gravity segregation of nitrogen and crude oil was believed to be the principal cause of the poor sweep efficiency, and it was envisioned that with horizontal producing wells in the lower portion of the reservoir and horizontal injection wells near the top, the process could be converted from a lateral displacement process to a vertical displacement/gravity assisted process. Through the characterization and field development work completed in Budget Periods 1 and 2, Binger Operations, LLC (BOL) has developed a different interpretation of the sweep problem as well as a different approach to improving recovery. The sweep problem is now believed to be one of an areal nature, due to a combination of natural and hydraulic fracturing. Vertical wells have provided a much better economic return than have the horizontal wells. The natural and hydraulic fracturing manifests itself as a direction of higher permeability, and the flood is being converted to a line drive flood aligned with this orientation. Consistent with this concept, horizontal wells have been drilled along the line of the fracture orientation, such that hydraulic fracturing leads to 'longitudinal' fractures, in line with the wellbore. As such, the hydraulically fractured horizontal wells are not significantly different than hydraulically fractured vertical wells - save for the potential for a much longer fracture face. This Topical Report contains data from new wells, plus new and updated production

  3. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion, Class II

    SciTech Connect

    Wier, Don R. Chimanhusky, John S.; Czirr, Kirk L.; Hallenbeck, Larry; Gerard, Matthew G.; Dollens, Kim B.; Owen, Rex; Gaddis, Maurice; Moshell, M.K.

    2002-11-18

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO2) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO2 horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields.

  4. Changes in bottom-surface elevations in three reservoirs on the lower Susquehanna River, Pennsylvania and Maryland, following the January 1996 flood; implications for nutrient and sediment loads to Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langland, Michael J.; Hainly, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    ,000 and 5,000 mg/kg. About 96 percent of the concentrations of total nitrogen consisted of organic nitrogen. Concentrations of total phosphorus in bottom sediments ranged from 286 to 1,390 mg/kg. About 84 percent of the concentrations of total phosphorus were comprised of inorganic phosphorus. The ratio of concentrations of plant-available phosphorus to concentrations of total phosphorus ranged from 0.6 to 3.5 percent; ratios generally decreased in a downstream direction. About 29,000 acre-feet, or 42,000,000 tons, of sediment can be deposited before Conowingo Reservoir reaches sediment-storage capacity. Assuming the average annual sediment-deposition rate remains unchanged and no scour occurs due to floods, the reservoir system could reach sediment-storage capacity in about 17 years. The reservoir system currently is trapping about 2 percent of the nitrogen, 45 percent of the phosphorus, and 70 percent of the suspended sediment transported by the river to the upper Chesapeake Bay. Once the reservoir reaches sediment-storage capacity, an estimated 250-percent increase in the current annual loads of suspended sediment, a 2-percent increase in the current annual loads of total nitrogen, and a 70-percent increase in the current annual loads of total phosphorus from the Susquehanna River to Chesapeake Bay can be expected. If the goal of a 40-percent reduction in controllable phosphorus load from the Susquehanna River Basin is met before the reservoirs reach sediment-storage capacity, the 40-percent reduction goal will probably be exceeded when the reservoir system reaches sediment-storage capacity.

  5. On the Integration of Risk Aversion and Average-Performance Optimization in Reservoir Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardini, Andrea; Piccardi, Carlo; Soncini-Sessa, Rodolfo

    1992-02-01

    The real-time operation of a reservoir is a matter of trade-off between the two criteria of risk aversion (to avoid dramatic failures) and average-performance optimization (to yield the best long-term average performance). A methodology taking into account both criteria is presented m this paper to derive "off-line" infinite-horizon control policies for a single multipurpose reservoir, where the management goals are water supply and flood control. According to this methodology, the reservoir control policy is derived in two steps: First, a (min-max) risk aversion problem is formulated, whose solution is not unique, but rather a whole set of policies, all equivalent from the point of view of the risk-aversion objectives. Second, a stochastic average-performance optimization problem is solved, to select from the set previously obtained the best policy from the point of view of the average-performance objectives. The methodology has several interesting features: the rnin-max (or "guaranteed performance") approach, which is particularly suited whenever "weak" users are affected by the consequences of the decision-making process; the flexible definition of a "risk aversion degree," by the selection of those inflow sequences which are particularly feared; and the two-objective analysis which provides the manager with a whole set of alternatives among which he (she) will select the one that yields the desired trade-off between the management goals.

  6. New petrophysical magnetic methods MACC and MAFM in permeability characterisation of petroleum reservoir rock cleaning, flooding modelling and determination of fines migration in formation damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivakhnenko, O. P.

    2012-04-01

    Potential applications of magnetic techniques and methods in petroleum engineering and petrophysics (Ivakhnenko, 1999, 2006; Ivakhnenko & Potter, 2004) reveal their vast advantages for the petroleum reservoir characterisation and formation evaluation. In this work author proposes for the first time developed systematic methods of the Magnetic Analysis of Core Cleaning (MACC) and Magnetic Analysis of Fines Migration (MAFM) for characterisation of reservoir core cleaning and modelling estimations of fines migration for the petroleum reservoir formations. Using example of the one oil field we demonstrate results in application of these methods on the reservoir samples. Petroleum reservoir cores samples have been collected within reservoir using routine technique of reservoir sampling and preservation for PVT analysis. Immediately before the MACC and MAFM studies samples have been exposed to atmospheric air for a few days. The selected samples have been in detailed way characterised after fluid cleaning and core flooding by their mineralogical compositions and petrophysical parameters. Mineralogical composition has been estimated utilizing XRD techniques. The petrophysical parameters, such as permeability and porosity have been measured on the basis of total core analysis. The results demonstrate effectiveness and importance of the MACC and MAFM methods for the routine core analysis (RCAL) and the special core analysis (SCAL) in the reservoir characterisation, core flooding and formation damage analysis.

  7. Post Waterflood CO2 Miscible Flood in Light Oil, Fluvial-Dominated Deltaic Reservoir, Class I

    SciTech Connect

    Bou-Mikael, Sami

    2002-02-05

    This report demonstrates the effectiveness of the CO2 miscible process in Fluvial Dominated Deltaic reservoirs. It also evaluated the use of horizontal CO2 injection wells to improve the overall sweep efficiency. A database of FDD reservoirs for the gulf coast region was developed by LSU, using a screening model developed by Texaco Research Center in Houston. The results of the information gained in this project is disseminated throughout the oil industry via a series of SPE papers and industry open forums.

  8. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING DREDGING OF THE FLOOD CONTROL CANAL. Report ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING DREDGING OF THE FLOOD CONTROL CANAL. Report to the Governor, Territory of Hawaii, by the Superintendent of Public Works, Year ending June 30, 1938. - Waikele Canal Bridge and Highway Overpass, Farrington Highway and Waikele Stream, Waipahu, Honolulu County, HI

  9. ERTS-1 study of reservoirs in Kansas.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarger, H. L.; James, G. W.; Magnuson, L. M.; Coiner, J. C.; Mccauley, J. R.; Marzolf, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    Single pass coverage over Cedar Bluff, Webster, Tuttle Creek, Milford, and Council Groves reservoirs is analyzed. The long-range goal of the study is to test the feasibility of monitoring reservoirs by satellite. It is hoped that results may eventually help to optimize reservoir management for use in flood control, agriculture, urban areas, and recreation. ERTS-1 imagery promises to be a very useful tool for studying reservoir turbidity patterns. Initial coverage indicates a strong qualitative correlation between film density and turbidity.

  10. Structural master plan of flood mitigation measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidari, A.

    2009-01-01

    Flood protection is one of the practical methods in damage reduction. Although it not possible to be completely protected from flood disaster but major part of damages can be reduced by mitigation plans. In this paper, the optimum flood mitigation master plan is determined by economic evaluation in trading off between the construction costs and expected value of damage reduction as the benefits. Size of the certain mitigation alternative is also be obtained by risk analysis by accepting possibility of flood overtopping. Different flood mitigation alternatives are investigated from various aspects in the Dez and Karun river floodplain areas as a case study in south west of IRAN. The results show that detention dam and flood diversion are the best alternatives of flood mitigation methods as well as enforcing the flood control purpose of upstream multipurpose reservoirs. Dyke and levees are not mostly justifiable because of negative impact on down stream by enhancing routed flood peak discharge magnitude and flood damages as well.

  11. Post Waterflood CO2 Miscible Flood in Light Oil, Fluvial-Dominated Deltaic Reservoir (Pre-Work and Project Proposal - Appendix)

    SciTech Connect

    Bou-Mikael, Sami

    2002-02-05

    The main objective of the Port Neches Project was to determine the feasibility and producibility of CO2 miscible flooding techniques enhanced with horizontal drilling applied to a Fluvial Dominated Deltaic reservoir. The second was to disseminate the knowledge gained through established Technology Transfer mechanisms to support DOE's programmatic objectives of increasing domestic oil production and reducing abandonment of oil fields.

  12. Post Waterflood CO2 Miscible Flood in Light Oil, Fluvial-Dominated Deltaic Reservoir (Pre-Work and Project Proposal), Class I

    SciTech Connect

    Bou-Mikael, Sami

    2002-02-05

    This project outlines a proposal to improve the recovery of light oil from waterflooded fluvial dominated deltaic (FDD) reservoir through a miscible carbon dioxide (CO2) flood. The site is the Port Neches Field in Orange County, Texas. The field is well explored and well exploited. The project area is 270 acres within the Port Neches Field.

  13. A centralized real-time controller for the reservoir's management on the Seine River using ensemble weather forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficchi, Andrea; Raso, Luciano; Jay-Allemand, Maxime; Dorchies, David; Malaterre, Pierre-Olivier; Pianosi, Francesca; Van Overloop, Peter-Jules

    2013-04-01

    The reservoirs on the Seine River, upstream of Paris, are regulated with the objective of reducing floods and supporting low flows. The current management of these reservoirs is empirical, reactive, and decentralized, mainly based on filling curves, constructed from an analysis of historical floods and low flows. When inflows are significantly different from their seasonal average, this management strategy proves inefficient. Climate change is also a challenge, for the possible modification of future hydrologic conditions. To improve such management strategy, in this study we investigate the use of Tree-Based Model Predictive Control (TB-MPC), a proactive and centralized method that uses all the information available in real-time, including ensemble weather forecasting. In TB-MPC, a tree is generated from an ensemble of weather forecast. The tree structure summarizes the information contained in the ensemble, specifying the time, along the optimization horizon, when forecast trajectories diverge and thus uncertainty is expected to be resolved. This information is then used in the model predictive control framework. The TB-MPC controller is implemented in combination with the integrated model of the water system, including a semi-distributed hydrologic model of the watershed, a simplified hydraulic model of the river network, and the four reservoir models. Optimization takes into account the cost associated to floods and low-flows, and a penalty cost based on the final reservoir storages. The performances of the TB-MPC controller will be simulated and compared with those of deterministic MPC and with the actual management performances. This work is part of the Climaware European project (2010-2013) set up to develop and to assess measures for sustainable water resources management regarding adaptation to climate change.

  14. Using Chemicals to Optimize Conformance Control in Fractured Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Seright, Randall S.; Liang, Jenn-Tai; Schrader, Richard; Hagstrom II, John; Wang, Ying; Kumar, Ananad; Wavrik, Kathryn

    2001-10-29

    This report describes work performed during the third and final year of the project, Using Chemicals to Optimize Conformance Control in Fractured Reservoirs. This research project had three objectives. The first objective was to develop a capability to predict and optimize the ability of gels to reduce permeability to water more than that to oil or gas. The second objective was to develop procedures for optimizing blocking agent placement in wells where hydraulic fractures cause channeling problems. The third objective was to develop procedures to optimize blocking agent placement in naturally fractured reservoirs.

  15. Floods

    MedlinePlus

    ... quickly, often have a dangerous wall of roaring water. The wall carries rocks, mud, and rubble and can sweep away most things in its path. Be aware of flood hazards no matter where you live, but especially if you live in a low-lying area, near water or downstream from a dam. Although there are ...

  16. Assessing the role of large wood entrained in the 2013 Colorado Front Range flood in ongoing channel response and reservoir management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Georgina; Rathburn, Sara; Ryan, Sandra; Wohl, Ellen; Blair, Aaron

    2016-04-01

    Considerable quantities of large wood (LW) may be entrained during floods with long lasting impacts on channel morphology, sediment and LW export, and downstream reservoir management. Here we present an analysis of LW entrained by an extensive flood in Colorado, USA. Over a 5 day period commencing 9th September 2013, up to 450 mm of rain, or ~1000% of the monthly average, fell in catchments spanning a 100-km-wide swath of the Colorado Front Range resulting in major flooding. Catchment response was dramatic, with reports of 100s - 1000s of years of erosion, destruction of infrastructure and homes, and sediment and LW loading within reservoirs. One heavily impacted catchment is the North St Vrain, draining 250km2 of the South Platte drainage basin. In addition to widespread channel enlargement, remote imagery reveals hundreds of landslides that delivered sediment and LW to the channel and ultimately to Ralph Price Reservoir, which provides municipal water to Longmont. The City of Longmont facilitated the removal of ~1050 m3 of wood deposited at the reservoir inlet by the flood but the potential for continued movement of large wood in the catchment presents an on-going concern for reservoir management. In collaboration with the City of Longmont, our objectives are (1) to quantify the volume of wood entrained by the flood and still stored along the channel, (2) characterize the size and distribution of LW deposits and (3) determine their role in ongoing catchment flood response and recovery. We utilize freely available pre and post flood NAIP 4-band imagery to calculate a normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI) difference map with which we calculate the area of vegetation entrained by the flood. We combine this with field assessments and a map of vegetation type automatically classified from optical satellite imagery to estimate the total flood-entrained volume of wood. Preliminary testing of 'stream selfies' - structure from motion imaging of LW deposits using

  17. 33 CFR 263.23 - Small flood control project authority (Section 205).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Small flood control project..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.23 Small flood control project authority (Section 205). (a) Legislative authority. Section 205 of the...

  18. 33 CFR 263.23 - Small flood control project authority (Section 205).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Small flood control project..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.23 Small flood control project authority (Section 205). (a) Legislative authority. Section 205 of the...

  19. 33 CFR 263.24 - Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... clearing for flood control (Section 208). 263.24 Section 263.24 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.24 Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208). (a)...

  20. 33 CFR 263.23 - Small flood control project authority (Section 205).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Small flood control project..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.23 Small flood control project authority (Section 205). (a) Legislative authority. Section 205 of the...

  1. 33 CFR 263.23 - Small flood control project authority (Section 205).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Small flood control project..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.23 Small flood control project authority (Section 205). (a) Legislative authority. Section 205 of the...

  2. 33 CFR 263.24 - Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... clearing for flood control (Section 208). 263.24 Section 263.24 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.24 Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208). (a)...

  3. 33 CFR 263.23 - Small flood control project authority (Section 205).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Small flood control project..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.23 Small flood control project authority (Section 205). (a) Legislative authority. Section 205 of the...

  4. 33 CFR 263.24 - Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... clearing for flood control (Section 208). 263.24 Section 263.24 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.24 Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208). (a)...

  5. 33 CFR 263.24 - Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... clearing for flood control (Section 208). 263.24 Section 263.24 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.24 Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208). (a)...

  6. 33 CFR 263.24 - Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... clearing for flood control (Section 208). 263.24 Section 263.24 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTINUING AUTHORITIES PROGRAMS Flood Control Policy § 263.24 Authority for snagging and clearing for flood control (Section 208). (a)...

  7. Was all that Los Angeles River flood control concrete necessary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patzert, W. C.; Regalado, S. S.; LaDochy, S.; Ramirez, P. C.; Willis, J. K.

    2014-12-01

    In 1938, heavy rains over the Los Angeles Basin resulted in widespread and costly flooding of the Los Angeles River floodplain. In response to the resultant damage, 51 miles of the River was concreted from the San Fernando Valley to the Pacific Ocean. Today proposals to modify the river to capture more water and to restore it to a more natural state have been approved. Through comparison of rainfall data, we test whether channelization can adequately handle the extreme flooding events occurring since 1938. Between February 27th to March 3rd 1938, two major storms resulted in 14.1 inches of rain in Pasadena, CA leading to the flooding of the Los Angeles River, 115 fatalities, the destruction of 5,601 buildings, and to $627 million (2011 dollars) in damages. Downtown Los Angeles averages 15 inches of precipitation a year, while the San Gabriel Mountains, where most of the Los Angeles River watershed rainfall is collected, typically receive more than 40 inches of rain annually. Eight record storms, each with rainfall totals over 11 inches, since the 1938 flood could have created devastating deluges were it not for channelization. Presently, at full stage the channelized Los Angeles River can accommodate a discharge of 129,000 cfs. During the 1938 flood event the discharge peaked at 68,000 cfs above Arroyo Seco and 79,000 cfs below Firestone Blvd. A similar storm event today would have led to increased discharge due to urbanization. Since 1938, the greatest discharge recorded at the same stations was 52,200 and 74,400 cfs during the February 16th 1980 storm. Although damage was substantial during this storm, river channelization prevented fatalities and much damage. To date, the channelization of the Los Angeles River has been successful in flood control. However, our research shows that southern California precipitation is becoming more intense which may result in increased flooding. Any future modifications to the river must be prepared to handle the extreme flooding

  8. Selection of reservoirs amenable to micellar flooding. First annual report, October 1978-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Goldburg, A.; Price, H.

    1980-12-01

    The overall project objective is to build a solid engineering base upon which the Department of Energy (DOE) can improve and accelerate the application of micellar-polymer recovery technology to Mid-Continent and California sandstone reservoirs. The purpose of the work carried out under these two contracts is to significantly aid, both DOE and the private sector, in gaining the following Project Objectives: to select the better micellar-polymer prospects in the Mid-Continent and California regions; to assess all of the available field and laboratory data which has a bearing on recovering oil by micellar-polymer projects in order to help identify and resolve both the technical and economic constraints relating thereto; and to design and analyze improved field pilots and tests and to develop a micellar-polymer applications matrix for use by the potential technology users; i.e., owner/operators. The report includes the following: executive summary and project objectives; development of a predictive model for economic evaluation of reservoirs; reservoir data bank for micellar-polymer recovery evaluation; PECON program for preliminary economic evaluation; ordering of candidate reservoirs for additional data acquisition; validation of predictive model by numerical simulation; and work forecast. Tables, figures and references are included.

  9. Effects of flood controls proposed for West Branch Brandywine Creek, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour rainfall, distributed over time according to the U.S. Soil Conservation Service type II rainfall distribution, was used as input to calibrated rainfall-runoff models of three subbasins in the West Branch Brandywine Creek watershed. The effects of four proposed flood controls were evaluated by using these rainfalls to simulate discharge hydrographs with and without the flood controls and comparing the simulated peak discharges. In the Honey Brook subbasin, 2-, 10-, and 100-year flood-discharge hydrographs were generated for station West Branch Brandywine Creek at Coatesville. For the 2- and 10-year floods, proposed flood controls would reduce the peak discharge from 1 to 8 percent. The combination of all three flood controls proposed for the Coatesville subbasin would reduce the 100-year peak discharge 44 percent. In the Modena subbasin, 2-, 10-, and 100-year flood-discharge hydrographs were generated for station West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena. A flood control proposed for Sucker Run, a tributary, would reduce the peak discharge of Sucker Run at State Route 82 by 22, 25, and 27 percent and the peak discharge of West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena by 10, 6, and less than 1 percent for the 2-, 10-, and 100-year floods, respectively. For the 2- and 10- year floods, flood control proposed for the Coatesville subbasin would have little effect on the peak discharge of West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena. For the 100-year flood, the combination of all three flood controls proposed for the Coatesville subbasin would reduce the peak discharge at Modena 25 percent. When flood control in the Modena subbasin was combined with flood control in the Coatesville subbasin, the 10-percent reduction in the 2-year flood peak of West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena was due almost entirely to flood control in the Modena subbasin. For the 10-year flood, flood control in the Modena subbasin would reduce the peak discharge 6 percent, and any single flood

  10. Investigation of biosurfactant-producing indigenous microorganisms that enhance residue oil recovery in an oil reservoir after polymer flooding.

    PubMed

    She, Yue-Hui; Zhang, Fan; Xia, Jing-Jing; Kong, Shu-Qiong; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Shu, Fu-Chang; Hu, Ji-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Three biosurfactant-producing indigenous microorganisms (XDS1, XDS2, XDS3) were isolated from a petroleum reservoir in the Daqing Oilfield (China) after polymer flooding. Their metabolic, biochemical, and oil-degradation characteristics, as well as their oil displacement in the core were studied. These indigenous microorganisms were identified as short rod bacillus bacteria with white color, round shape, a protruding structure, and a rough surface. Strains have peritrichous flagella, are able to produce endospores, are sporangia, and are clearly swollen and terminal. Bacterial cultures show that the oil-spreading values of the fermentation fluid containing all three strains are more than 4.5 cm (diameter) with an approximate 25 mN/m surface tension. The hydrocarbon degradation rates of each of the three strains exceeded 50%, with the highest achieving 84%. Several oil recovery agents were produced following degradation. At the same time, the heavy components of crude oil were degraded into light components, and their flow characteristics were also improved. The surface tension and viscosity of the crude oil decreased after being treated by the three strains of microorganisms. The core-flooding tests showed that the incremental oil recoveries were 4.89-6.96%. Thus, XDS123 treatment may represent a viable method for microbial-enhanced oil recovery.

  11. Scale-up of miscible flood processes for heterogeneous reservoirs. Second annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, F.M. Jr.

    1995-03-01

    Progress is reported for a comprehensive investigation of the scaling behavior of gas injection processes in heterogeneous reservoirs. The interplay of phase behavior, viscous fingering, gravity segregation, capillary imbibition and drainage, and reservoir heterogeneity is examined in a series of simulations and experiments. Use of streamtube to model multiphase flow is demonstrated to be a fast and accurate approach for displacements that are dominated by reservoir heterogeneity. The streamtube technique is particularly powerful for multiphase compositional displacements because it represents the effects of phase behavior with a one-dimensional flow and represents the effects of heterogeneity through the locations of streamtubes. A new approach for fast calculations of critical tie-lines directly from criticality conditions is reported. A global triangular structure solution for four-component flow systems, whose tie-lies meet at the edge of a quaternary phase diagram or lie in planes is presented. Also demonstrated is the extension of this solution to multicomponent systems under the same assumptions. The interplay of gravity, capillary and viscous forces on final residual oil saturation is examined experimentally and theoretically. The analysis of vertical equilibrium conditions for three-phase gravity drainage shows that almost all oil can be recovered from the top part of a reservoir. The prediction of spreading and stability of thin film is performed to investigate three-phase gravity drainage mechanisms. Finally, experimental results from gravity drainage of crude oil in the presence of CO{sub 2} suggest that gravity drainage could be an efficient oil recovery process for vertically fractured reservoirs.

  12. Phylogenetic diversity of the archaeal community in a continental high-temperature, water-flooded petroleum reservoir.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2007-11-01

    The diversity of an archaeal community was analyzed in the water from a continental high-temperature, long-term water-flooded petroleum reservoir in Huabei Oilfield in China. The archaea were characterized by their 16S rRNA genes. An archaeal 16S rDNA clone library was constructed from the DNA isolated from the formation water, and 237 randomly selected positive clones were clustered in 28 phylotypes by sequencing analyses. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences indicated that the dominant members of the archaeal phylotypes were affiliated with the order Methanomicrobiales. Totally, the archaeal community was composed of methanogens belonging to four orders: Methanobacteriales, Methanococcales, Methanomicrobiales, and Methanosarcinales. Most of the clones clustered with sequences previously described for methanogens, but there was a difference in the relative distribution of sequences detected here as compared to that of previous studies. Some thermophilic methanogens detected had been previously isolated from a number of high-temperature petroleum reservoirs worldwide; thus, they might exhibit adaptations to the environments and be the common habitants of geothermally heated subsurface environments.

  13. Post Waterflood CO{sub 2} Miscible Flood in Light Oil Fluvial-Dominated Deltaic Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-30

    Texaco terminated the CO{sub 2} purchase agreement with Cardox due to the declining production from the project during 1995. This decision was supported by the DOE and the Exploration and Production Technology Department (EPTD) who developed the model to simulate reservoir performance. Texaco is planning to continue recycling produced CO{sub 2} to recover the remaining 400 MBO from the Marg Area 1 reservoir. Currently one well is remaining on production Kuhn {number_sign}15R after the second producing well Kuhn {number_sign}38 sanded up. Changing the water and CO{sub 2} injection patterns should improve the sweep efficiency and restore production from other existing wells.

  14. Effects of inorganic turbidity and reservoir floods on the feeding and population dynamics of Cladoceran zooplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Shuman, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Clearance rates of {sup 32}P-labeled yeast cell tracer particles and gravimetric seston analysis were used to estimate in situ seston ingestion rates of Daphnia parvula and Bosmina along the seston gradient in Tuttle Creek Reservoir, near Manhattan, Kansas. An ingestion rate depression occurred for both species at the highest seston concentration. The smallest animals, Bosmina, had a lower incipient limiting concentration and exhibited a stronger ingestion rate depression. The fecundity and abundance of Daphnia parvula, grown in enclosures along the seston gradient prior to the ingestion rate measurements, were highest at the river inflow region. Reservoir Bosmina, however, were least abundant and had the lowest fecundity at the river inflow region. The abundance of Bosmina, calanoid copepods, and cyclopoid copepods were lower following large storm inflows in the late spring of 1983 and 1984, while the abundance of Diaphanosoma and Moina were similar. Both open reservoir and in situ enclosure populations of Daphnia pulex were reduced following the storm inflow, while only enclosure populations of Daphnia parvula were lower. Diaphanosoma and calanoid copepods dominated the zooplankton during sampling from spring through fall 1984, particularly in midsummer when temperatures were greater than 25{degree}C. Daphnids dominated numerically during the fall baseflow period.

  15. 33 CFR 203.85 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Federal flood... PROCEDURES Local Interests/Cooperation Agreements § 203.85 Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects. Some sponsors of Federal flood control projects are not required to furnish written assurances of...

  16. 33 CFR 203.48 - Inspection guidelines for non-Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Federal flood control works. 203.48 Section 203.48 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.48 Inspection guidelines for non-Federal...

  17. 33 CFR 203.85 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Federal flood... PROCEDURES Local Interests/Cooperation Agreements § 203.85 Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects. Some sponsors of Federal flood control projects are not required to furnish written assurances of...

  18. 33 CFR 203.85 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Federal flood... PROCEDURES Local Interests/Cooperation Agreements § 203.85 Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects. Some sponsors of Federal flood control projects are not required to furnish written assurances of...

  19. 33 CFR 203.85 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Federal flood... PROCEDURES Local Interests/Cooperation Agreements § 203.85 Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects. Some sponsors of Federal flood control projects are not required to furnish written assurances of...

  20. 33 CFR 203.85 - Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rehabilitation of Federal flood... PROCEDURES Local Interests/Cooperation Agreements § 203.85 Rehabilitation of Federal flood control projects. Some sponsors of Federal flood control projects are not required to furnish written assurances of...

  1. 33 CFR 203.48 - Inspection guidelines for non-Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Federal flood control works. 203.48 Section 203.48 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... DISASTER PROCEDURES Rehabilitation Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and Inspection Program § 203.48 Inspection guidelines for non-Federal...

  2. 33 CFR 203.48 - Inspection guidelines for non-Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., construction, and maintenance of non-Federal flood control works. The guidelines are not intended to establish... provided by the flood control work, to include the level of maintenance being performed on the flood... cross-section at these points. (3) Maintenance. Project maintenance analysis will evaluate...

  3. 33 CFR 203.48 - Inspection guidelines for non-Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., construction, and maintenance of non-Federal flood control works. The guidelines are not intended to establish... provided by the flood control work, to include the level of maintenance being performed on the flood... cross-section at these points. (3) Maintenance. Project maintenance analysis will evaluate...

  4. 33 CFR 203.48 - Inspection guidelines for non-Federal flood control works.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., construction, and maintenance of non-Federal flood control works. The guidelines are not intended to establish... provided by the flood control work, to include the level of maintenance being performed on the flood... cross-section at these points. (3) Maintenance. Project maintenance analysis will evaluate...

  5. PH Sensitive Polymers for Improving Reservoir Sweep and Conformance Control in Chemical Flooring

    SciTech Connect

    Mukul Sharma; Steven Bryant; Chun Huh

    2008-03-31

    There is an increasing opportunity to recover bypassed oil from depleted, mature oilfields in the US. The recovery factor in many reservoirs is low due to inefficient displacement of the oil by injected fluids (typically water). The use of chemical flooding methods to increase recovery efficiencies is severely constrained by the inability of the injected chemicals to contact the bypassed oil. Low sweep efficiencies are the primary cause of low oil recoveries observed in the field in chemical flooding operations even when lab studies indicate high oil recovery efficiency. Any technology that increases the ability of chemical flooding agents to better contact the remaining oil and reduce the amount of water produced in conjunction with the produced oil will have a significant impact on the cost of producing oil domestically in the US. This translates directly into additional economically recoverable reserves, which extends the economic lives of marginal and mature wells. The objective of this research project was to develop a low-cost, pH-triggered polymer for use in IOR processes to improve reservoir sweep efficiency and reservoir conformance in chemical flooding. Rheological measurements made on the polymer solution, clearly show that it has a low viscosity at low pH and exhibits a sudden increase in viscosity (by 2 orders of magnitude or more) at a pH of 3.5 to 4. This implies that the polymer would preferentially flow into zones containing water since the effective permeability to water is highest in these zones. As the pH of the zone increases due to the buffering capacity of the reservoir rock, the polymer solution undergoes a liquid to gel transition causing a sharp increase in the viscosity of the polymer solution in these zones. This allows operationally robust, in-depth conformance treatment of such water bearing zones and better mobility control. The rheological properties of HPAM solutions were measured. These include: steady-shear viscosity and

  6. A real-time control framework for urban water reservoirs operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galelli, S.; Goedbloed, A.; Schwanenberg, D.

    2012-04-01

    computational requests and the capability of exploiting real-time hydro-meteorological information, which are crucial for an effective operation of these fast-varying hydrological systems. The framework is here demonstrated on the operation of Marina Reservoir (Singapore), whose recent construction in late 2008 increased the effective catchment area to about 50% of the total available. Its operation, which accounts for drinking water supply, flash floods control and water quality standards, is here designed by combining the MPC scheme with the process-based hydrological model SOBEK. Extensive simulation experiments show the validity of the proposed framework.

  7. Analysis of microbial communities in the oil reservoir subjected to CO2-flooding by using functional genes as molecular biomarkers for microbial CO2 sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin-Feng; Sun, Xiao-Bo; Yang, Guang-Chao; Mbadinga, Serge M.; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Sequestration of CO2 in oil reservoirs is considered to be one of the feasible options for mitigating atmospheric CO2 building up and also for the in situ potential bioconversion of stored CO2 to methane. However, the information on these functional microbial communities and the impact of CO2 storage on them is hardly available. In this paper a comprehensive molecular survey was performed on microbial communities in production water samples from oil reservoirs experienced CO2-flooding by analysis of functional genes involved in the process, including cbbM, cbbL, fthfs, [FeFe]-hydrogenase, and mcrA. As a comparison, these functional genes in the production water samples from oil reservoir only experienced water-flooding in areas of the same oil bearing bed were also analyzed. It showed that these functional genes were all of rich diversity in these samples, and the functional microbial communities and their diversity were strongly affected by a long-term exposure to injected CO2. More interestingly, microorganisms affiliated with members of the genera Methanothemobacter, Acetobacterium, and Halothiobacillus as well as hydrogen producers in CO2 injected area either increased or remained unchanged in relative abundance compared to that in water-flooded area, which implied that these microorganisms could adapt to CO2 injection and, if so, demonstrated the potential for microbial fixation and conversion of CO2 into methane in subsurface oil reservoirs. PMID:25873911

  8. Developing and Managing a Comprehensive Reservoir Analysis Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    a flood control only, single event reservoir simulation model to a generalized hydrologic and economic reservoir simulation model with capabilities...The first release of HEC-5, May 1973, gave the Corps of Engineers a mainframe based, reservoir simulation model which automated the traditional manual

  9. Effect of Antiretroviral Therapy on HIV Reservoirs in Elite Controllers

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Tae-Wook; Shawn Justement, J.; Murray, Danielle; Kim, Connie J.; Blazkova, Jana; Hallahan, Claire W.; Benko, Erika; Costiniuk, Cecilia T.; Kandel, Gabor; Ostrowski, Mario; Kaul, Rupert; Moir, Susan; Casazza, Joseph P.; Koup, Richard A.; Kovacs, Colin; Fauci, Anthony S.

    2013-01-01

    Elite controllers suppress human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viremia to below the limit of detection in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, precise frequencies of CD4+ T cells carrying replication-competent HIV and/or the dynamics of the infectious viral reservoirs in response to initiation and discontinuation of ART in elite controllers are unknown. We show that the size of the pool of CD4+ T cells harboring infectious HIV diminished significantly after initiation of ART and rebounded to baseline upon cessation of therapy. Our data provide compelling evidence that persistent viral replication occurs in untreated elite controllers even in the absence of detectable plasma viremia. PMID:23847057

  10. 33 CFR 208.22 - Twin Buttes Dam and Reservoir, Middle and South Concho Rivers, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Twin Buttes Dam and Reservoir... ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.22 Twin Buttes Dam..., shall operate the Twin Buttes Dam and Reservoir in the interest of flood control as follows:...

  11. Impact of treated wastewater reuse and floods on water quality and fish health within a water reservoir in an arid climate.

    PubMed

    Zaibel, Inbal; Zilberg, Dina; Groisman, Ludmila; Arnon, Shai

    2016-07-15

    Treated wastewater (TWW) reuse for agricultural irrigation is a well-established approach to coping with water shortages in semi-arid and arid environments. Recently, additional uses of TWW have emerged, including streamflow augmentation and aquatic ecosystem restoration. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the water quality and fish health, in an artificial reservoir located in an arid climate (the Yeruham Reservoir, Israel), which regularly receives TWW and sporadic winter floods. The temporal distribution of water levels, nutrients and organic micropollutants (OMPs) were measured during the years 2013-2014. OMPs were also measured in sediment and fish tissues. Finally, the status of fish health was evaluated by histopathology. Water levels and quality were mainly influenced by seasonal processes such as floods and evaporation, and not by the discharge of TWW. Out of 16 tested OMPs, estrone, carbamazepine, diclofenac and bezafibrate were found in the reservoir water, but mostly at concentrations below the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) for fish. Concentrations of PCBs and dioxins in fish muscle and liver were much lower than the EU maximal permitted concentrations, and similar to concentrations that were found in food fish in Israel and Europe. In the histopathological analysis, there were no evident tissue abnormalities, and low to moderate infection levels of fish parasites were recorded. The results from the Yeruham Reservoir demonstrated a unique model for the mixture effect between TWW reuse and natural floods to support a unique stable and thriving ecosystem in a water reservoir located in an arid region. This type of reservoir can be widely used for recreation, education, and the social and economic development of a rural environment, such as has occurred in the Yeruham region.

  12. Scale-up of miscible flood processes for heterogeneous reservoirs. 1993 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, F.M. Jr.

    1994-05-01

    Progress is reported for a comprehensive investigation of the scaling behavior of gas injection processes in heterogeneous reservoirs. The interplay of phase behavior, viscous fingering, gravity segregation, capillary imbibition and drainage, and reservoir heterogeneity is examined in a series of simulations and experiments. Compositional and first-contact miscable simulations of viscous fingering and gravity segregation are compared to show that the two techniques can give very different results. Also, analyzed are two-dimensional and three-dimensional flows in which gravity segregation and viscous fingering interact. The simulations show that 2D and 3D flows can differ significantly. A comparison of analytical solutions for three-component two-phase flow with experimental results for oil/water/alcohol systems is reported. While the experiments and theory show reasonable agreement, some differences remain to be explained. The scaling behavior of the interaction of gravity segregation and capillary forces is investigated through simulations and through scaling arguments based on analysis of the differential equations. The simulations show that standard approaches do not agree well with results of low IFT displacements. The scaling analyses, however, reveal flow regimes where capillary, gravity, or viscous forces dominate the flow.

  13. Design and Implementation of a CO(2) Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells in Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The work reported herein covers select tasks in Budget Phase 11. The principle Task in Budget Phase 11 included in this report is Field Demonstration. Completion of many of the Field Demonstration tasks during the last report period enabled an optimum carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood project to be designed, economically evaluated, and implemented in the field. Field implementation of the project commenced during late 1995, with actual C0{sub 2} injection commencing in mid-July, 1996. This report summarizes activities incurred following initial project start-up, towards the goal of optimizing project performance. The current project has focused on reducing initial investment cost by utilizing horizontal injection wells and concentrating the project in the best productivity area of the field. An innovative C0{sub 2} purchase agreement (no take-or-pay provisions, C0{sub 2} purchase price tied to West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil price) and gas recycle agreement (expensing costs as opposed to a large upfront capital investment for compression) were negotiated to further improve the project economics. The Grayburg-San Andres section had previously been divided into multiple zones based on the core study and gamma ray markers that correlate wells within the Unit. Each zone was mapped as continuous across the field. Previous core studies concluded that the reservoir quality in the South Cowden Unit (SCU) is controlled primarily by the distribution of a bioturbated and diagenetically-altered rock type with a distinctive chaotic texture. The chaotic modifier is derived from the visual effect of pervasive, small-scale intermixing of tan oil-stained reservoir rock with tight gray non- reservoir rock. The chaotic reservoir rock extends from Zone C (4780`-4800`) to the lower part of Zone F (4640`-4680`). Zones D (4755`-4780`) and E (4680`-4755`) are considered the main floodable zones, though Zone F is also productive and Zone C is productive above the oil- water contact

  14. Sedimentary infill dynamic and associated trace element temporal trends in a dam reservoir: evidence of high polluted sediment storage after major flood events (Upper Loire river, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhivert, Elie; Grosbois, Cécile; Desmet, Marc; Coynel, Alexandra; Lefevre, Irène

    2014-05-01

    The Villerest Dam, was built in the Upper Loire river during the early 1980's, 80 km downstream of the most important industrial and coal mining area of the basin. It constitutes an important trap of sediments and associated pollutants since its operation in 1984. A 154 cm long core was sampled in 2010, in a former channel levee in the reservoir. This study highlights (i) important sediment accumulation rate during flood events in the reservoir, (ii) the influence of high discharge events in sedimentary infill in terms of stored sediment quality, geochemical markers and anthropogenic sources influence. Coupling sedimentological analyses and 137Cs datation allows to define 3 sedimentary units in this core. The deepest unit corresponds to transported and/or reworked fluvial sediments undated, the uppermost unit to lacustrine sediments post 1984 and between, to a transition unit resulting from the reservoir water infilling in 1983-1984. In addition, the upper unit shows 3 turbiditic-like layers (of 6, 20 and 13 cm thick) corresponding respectively to 1996, 2003 and 2008 major flood events (more than 20-year flood average daily outflow). These flood sequences result from underflow sedimentary inputs and contribute to 43% of the 151 kg/m² of accumulated sediments since 1984. Over the 1984-2010 period, sediments show a general contamination decrease but major flood events transport highly impacted sediments (highest enrichment factor > 20 for Hg and >10 for Cd and Bi), never reached during interflood periods. During these events, trace elements (TE) are mostly associated to organic fraction and clays. Rich-TE solid sources appear to be only solicited, and/or severely amplified, during important flood events over the recording period. In addition to these pollutants inputs, floods also bring an important detrital fraction, diluting anthropogenic TE signal. In details, flood deposits show variations of sedimentological and geochemical signals delimiting two distinct

  15. The Urban Drainage Network and its Control on Flood Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meierdiercks, K. L.; Smith, J. A.; Miller, A. J.

    2006-05-01

    The hydrologic and hydraulic processes that control urban flooding are examined through analyses of flood response in the Baltimore Metropolitan area. These analyses focus on warm season thunderstorm systems and their impact on Dead Run, a 14.3 km2 tributary of the Gwynns Falls watershed, which is the principal study region of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study. Field observations of rainfall from a network of 18 rain gage stations and discharge from a network of 6 stream gaging stations have been collected during "warm season" observing periods in 2003, 2004, and 2005. Field observations are used in conjunction with the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) to examine the spatially and temporally varying hydrological response of Dead Run. Model implementation incorporates a complete representation of the storm drain network (digitized from engineering drawings) and the network of stormwater detention basins. Analyses highlight the role of differences in density and distribution of impervious surfaces and in the urban drainage infrastructure (the storm pipe network and stormwater management facilities) for spatial heterogeneities of flood response.

  16. Using Chemicals to Optimize Conformance Control in Fractured Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Seright, Randall S.; Liang, Jenn-Tai; Schrader, Richard; Hagstrom II, John; Liu, Jin; Wavrik, Kathryn

    1999-09-27

    This report describes work performed during the first year of the project, ''Using Chemicals to Optimize Conformance Control in Fractured Reservoirs.'' This research project has three objectives. The first objective is to develop a capability to predict and optimize the ability of gels to reduce permeability to water more than that to oil or gas. The second objective is to develop procedures for optimizing blocking agent placement in wells where hydraulic fractures cause channeling problems. The third objective is to develop procedures to optimize blocking agent placement in naturally fractured reservoirs. This research project consists of three tasks, each of which addresses one of the above objectives. Our work is directed at both injection wells and production wells and at vertical, horizontal, and highly deviated wells.

  17. Nonstructural Flood Control Measures: A Sociological Study of Innovation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    The literature commonly identifies "riverine" and "coastal" flooding; flash floods and those of slower onset, and flood probability. These and other...undating any given place. On the other hand, flash floods occur with such rapidity that there is little opportunity to anticipate them or to warn the popu...observers. A study of their role in the Thompson Canyon flash flood of July 31-August 1, 1976 is indicative of the great dependence of communities upon

  18. Controls on the breach geometry and flood hydrograph during overtopping of non-cohesive earthen dams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walder, Joseph S.; Iverson, Richard M.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Logan, Matthew; Solovitz, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Overtopping failure of non-cohesive earthen dams was investigated in 13 large-scale experiments with dams built of compacted, damp, fine-grained sand. Breaching was initiated by cutting a notch across the dam crest and allowing water escaping from a finite upstream reservoir to form its own channel. The channel developed a stepped profile, and upstream migration of the steps, which coalesced into a headcut, led to the establishment of hydraulic control (critical flow) at the channel head, or breach crest, an arcuate erosional feature that functions hydraulically as a weir. Novel photogrammetric methods, along with underwater videography, revealed that the retreating headcut maintained a slope near the angle of friction of the sand, while the cross section at the breach crest maintained a geometrically similar shape through time. That cross-sectional shape was nearly unaffected by slope failures, contrary to the assumption in many models of dam breaching. Flood hydrographs were quite reproducible--for sets of dams ranging in height from 0.55 m to 0.98 m--when the time datum was chosen as the time that the migrating headcut intersected the breach crest. Peak discharge increased almost linearly as a function of initial dam height. Early-time variability between flood hydrographs for nominally identical dams is probably a reflection of subtle experiment-to-experiment differences in groundwater hydrology and the interaction between surface water and groundwater.

  19. Evaluation method to floodwater amount of difficult control and utilization in flood season for hyperconcentration rivers and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.

    2013-05-01

    The severe soil erosion in the Chinese Loess Plateau has resulted in high sediment concentration in runoff, which can cause tremendous pressure to the development and utilization of regional floodwater resources as well as the regional flood control and disaster mitigation. The floodwater amount of difficult control and utilization in flood season (FADCUFS) is an important part of the available amount of surface water resources. It also has a critical role in the sustainable development of water resources, especially for those hyperconcentration rivers (HRs) in the Loess Plateau. The evaluation of FADCUFS for HRs is an important issue in the field of hydrology and water resources. However, the understandings of its connotation, evaluation method, and nature are limited. Combined engineering measures with non-engineering ones, the evaluation method of FADCUFS for HRs was presented based on the angles of water quantity and quality. The method divides the FADCUFS into two parts in terms of the flood control operation characteristics of reservoir in HR and the relationship between water resources utilization and sediment in runoff, respectively. One is the amount of difficult regulation-control floodwater (DRCF), and the other is the volume of difficult utilization floodwater (DUF). A case study of the Bajiazui Reservoir, located in the typical Jinghe River (the second tributary of the Chinese Yellow River with high sediment concentration) was performed. Three typical years, wet year (1988), average year (1986), and dry years (1995 and 2000), were employed. According to the daily optimal operation model of Bajiazui Reservoir, the DRCF occurs for only the wet year instead of the average and the dry years. There are four times of DRCF with the amount of 26.74 m3/s (July 14), 14.58 m3/s (August 5), 10.27 m3/s (August 9), and 1.23 m3/s (August 12) in 1988, respectively, with a total amount of 4.56 million m3. A certain close relationship exists between the amount of DRCF

  20. Phylogenetic diversity of microbial communities associated with the crude-oil, large-insoluble-particle and formation-water components of the reservoir fluid from a non-flooded high-temperature petroleum reservoir.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hajime; Endo, Keita; Sakata, Susumu; Mayumi, Daisuke; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Ikarashi, Masayuki; Miyagawa, Yoshihiro; Maeda, Haruo; Sato, Kozo

    2012-02-01

    The diversity of microbial communities associated with non-water-flooded high-temperature reservoir of the Niibori oilfield was characterized. Analysis of saturated hydrocarbons revealed that n-alkanes in crude oil from the reservoir were selectively depleted, suggesting that crude oil might be mildly biodegraded in the reservoir. To examine if any specific microorganism(s) preferentially attached to the crude oil or the other components (large insoluble particles and formation water) of the reservoir fluid, 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed from each component of the reservoir fluid. The clones in the archaeal libraries (414 clones in total) represented 16 phylotypes, many of which were closely related to methanogens. The bacterial libraries (700 clones in total) were composed of 49 phylotypes belonging to one of 16 phylum-level groupings, with Firmicutes containing the greatest diversity of the phylotypes. In the crude-oil- and large-insoluble-particle-associated communities, a Methanosaeta-related phylotype dominated the archaeal sequences, whereas hydrogenotrophic methanogens occupied a major portion of sequences in the library of the formation-water-associated community. The crude-oil associated bacterial community showed the largest diversity, containing 35 phylotypes, 16 of which were not detected in the other bacterial communities. Thus, although the populations associated with the reservoir-fluid components largely shared common phylogenetic context, a specific fraction of microbial species preferentially attached to the crude oil and insoluble particles.

  1. Reservoir floodplains support distinct fish assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Wigen, S. L.; Dagel, Jonah D.

    2014-01-01

    Reservoirs constructed on floodplain rivers are unique because the upper reaches of the impoundment may include extensive floodplain environments. Moreover, reservoirs that experience large periodic water level fluctuations as part of their operational objectives seasonally inundate and dewater floodplains in their upper reaches, partly mimicking natural inundations of river floodplains. In four flood control reservoirs in Mississippi, USA, we explored the dynamics of connectivity between reservoirs and adjacent floodplains and the characteristics of fish assemblages that develop in reservoir floodplains relative to those that develop in reservoir bays. Although fish species richness in floodplains and bays were similar, species composition differed. Floodplains emphasized fish species largely associated with backwater shallow environments, often resistant to harsh environmental conditions. Conversely, dominant species in bays represented mainly generalists that benefit from the continuous connectivity between the bay and the main reservoir. Floodplains in the study reservoirs provided desirable vegetated habitats at lower water level elevations, earlier in the year, and more frequently than in bays. Inundating dense vegetation in bays requires raising reservoir water levels above the levels required to reach floodplains. Therefore, aside from promoting distinct fish assemblages within reservoirs and helping promote diversity in regulated rivers, reservoir floodplains are valued because they can provide suitable vegetated habitats for fish species at elevations below the normal pool, precluding the need to annually flood upland vegetation that would inevitably be impaired by regular flooding. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Climate, orography and scale controls on flood frequency in Triveneto (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persiano, Simone; Castellarin, Attilio; Salinas, Jose Luis; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Brath, Armando

    2016-05-01

    The growing concern about the possible effects of climate change on flood frequency regime is leading Authorities to review previously proposed reference procedures for design-flood estimation, such as national flood frequency models. Our study focuses on Triveneto, a broad geographical region in North-eastern Italy. A reference procedure for design flood estimation in Triveneto is available from the Italian NCR research project "VA.PI.", which considered Triveneto as a single homogeneous region and developed a regional model using annual maximum series (AMS) of peak discharges that were collected up to the 1980s by the former Italian Hydrometeorological Service. We consider a very detailed AMS database that we recently compiled for 76 catchments located in Triveneto. All 76 study catchments are characterized in terms of several geomorphologic and climatic descriptors. The objective of our study is threefold: (1) to inspect climatic and scale controls on flood frequency regime; (2) to verify the possible presence of changes in flood frequency regime by looking at changes in time of regional L-moments of annual maximum floods; (3) to develop an updated reference procedure for design flood estimation in Triveneto by using a focused-pooling approach (i.e. Region of Influence, RoI). Our study leads to the following conclusions: (1) climatic and scale controls on flood frequency regime in Triveneto are similar to the controls that were recently found in Europe; (2) a single year characterized by extreme floods can have a remarkable influence on regional flood frequency models and analyses for detecting possible changes in flood frequency regime; (3) no significant change was detected in the flood frequency regime, yet an update of the existing reference procedure for design flood estimation is highly recommended and we propose the RoI approach for properly representing climate and scale controls on flood frequency in Triveneto, which cannot be regarded as a single

  3. Flood control and loss estimation for paddy field at midstream of Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cham, T. C.; Mitani, Y.

    2015-09-01

    2011 Thailand flood has brought serious impact to downstream of Chao Phraya River Basin. The flood peak period started from August, 2011 to the end of October, 2011. This research focuses on midstream of Chao Phraya River Basin, which is Nakhon Sawan area includes confluence of Nan River and Yom River, also confluence of Ping River and Nan River. The main purpose of this research is to understand the flood generation, estimate the flood volume and loss of paddy field, also recommends applicable flood counter measurement to ease the flood condition at downstream of Chao Phraya River Basin. In order to understand the flood condition, post-analysis is conducted at Nakhon Sawan. The post-analysis consists of field survey to measure the flood marks remained and interview with residents to understand living condition during flood. The 2011 Thailand flood generation at midstream is simulated using coupling of 1D and 2D hydrodynamic model to understand the flood generation during flood peak period. It is calibrated and validated using flood marks measured and streamflow data received from Royal Irrigation Department (RID). Validation of results shows good agreement between simulated result and actual condition. Subsequently, 3 scenarios of flood control are simulated and Geographic Information System (GIS) is used to assess the spatial distribution of flood extent and reduction of loss estimation at paddy field. In addition, loss estimation for paddy field at midstream is evaluated using GIS with the calculated inundation depth. Results show the proposed flood control at midstream able to minimize 5% of the loss of paddy field in 26 provinces.

  4. Controls on the Karaha-Telaga Bodas geothermal reservoir, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nemcok, M.; Moore, J.N.; Christensen, Carl; Allis, R.; Powell, T.; Murray, B.; Nash, G.

    2007-01-01

    Karaha-Telaga Bodas is a partially vapor-dominated, fracture-controlled geothermal system located adjacent to Galunggung Volcano in western Java, Indonesia. The geothermal system consists of: (1) a caprock, ranging from several hundred to 1600 m in thickness, and characterized by a steep, conductive temperature gradient and low permeability; (2) an underlying vapor-dominated zone that extends below sea level; and (3) a deep liquid-dominated zone with measured temperatures up to 353 ??C. Heat is provided by a tabular granodiorite stock encountered at about 3 km depth. A structural analysis of the geothermal system shows that the effective base of the reservoir is controlled either by the boundary between brittle and ductile deformational regimes or by the closure and collapse of fractures within volcanic rocks located above the brittle/ductile transition. The base of the caprock is determined by the distribution of initially low-permeability lithologies above the reservoir; the extent of pervasive clay alteration that has significantly reduced primary rock permeabilities; the distribution of secondary minerals deposited by descending waters; and, locally, by a downward change from a strike-slip to an extensional stress regime. Fluid-producing zones are controlled by both matrix and fracture permeabilities. High matrix permeabilities are associated with lacustrine, pyroclastic, and epiclastic deposits. Productive fractures are those showing the greatest tendency to slip and dilate under the present-day stress conditions. Although the reservoir appears to be in pressure communication across its length, fluid, and gas chemistries vary laterally, suggesting the presence of isolated convection cells. ?? 2006 CNR.

  5. [Responses of Cynodon dactylon population in hydro-fluctuation belt of Three Gorges Reservoir area to flooding-drying habitat change].

    PubMed

    Hong, Ming; Guo, Quan-Shu; Nie, Bi-Hong; Kang, Yi; Pei, Shun-Xiang; Jin, Jiang-Qun; Wang, Xiang-Fu

    2011-11-01

    This paper studied the population density, morphological characteristics, and biomass and its allocation of Cynodon dactylon at different altitudinal sections of the hydro-fluctuation belt in Three Gorges Reservoir area, based on located observations. At the three altitudinal sections, the population density of C. dactylon was in the order of shallow water section (165-170 m elevation) > non-flooded section (above 172 m elevation) > deep water section (145-150 m elevation), the root diameter and root length were in the order of deep water section > shallow water section > non-flooded section, the total biomass, root biomass, stem biomass, leaf biomass, and stem biomass allocation ratio were in the order of the shallow water section > non-flooded section > deep water section, and the root biomass allocation ratio, leaf biomass allocation ratio, and underground biomass/aboveground biomass were in the order of deep water section > shallow water section > non-flooded section. The unique adaption strategies of C. dactylon to the flooding-drying habitat change in the shallow water section were the accelerated elongation growth and the increased stem biomass allocation, those in the deep water section were the increased node number of primary and secondary branches, increased number of the branches, and increased leaf biomass allocation, whereas the common strategies in the shallow and deep water sections were the accelerated root growth and the increased tillering and underground biomass allocation for preparing nutrition and energy for the rapid growth in terrestrial environment.

  6. Mechanistic Processes Controlling Gas Sorption in Shale Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaef, T.; Loring, J.; Ilton, E. S.; Davidson, C. L.; Owen, T.; Hoyt, D.; Glezakou, V. A.; McGrail, B. P.; Thompson, C.

    2014-12-01

    Utilization of CO2 to stimulate natural gas production in previously fractured shale-dominated reservoirs where CO2 remains in place for long-term storage may be an attractive new strategy for reducing the cost of managing anthropogenic CO2. A preliminary analysis of capacities and potential revenues in US shale plays suggests nearly 390 tcf in additional gas recovery may be possible via CO2 driven enhanced gas recovery. However, reservoir transmissivity properties, optimum gas recovery rates, and ultimate fate of CO2 vary among reservoirs, potentially increasing operational costs and environmental risks. In this paper, we identify key mechanisms controlling the sorption of CH4 and CO2 onto phyllosilicates and processes occurring in mixed gas systems that have the potential of impacting fluid transfer and CO2 storage in shale dominated formations. Through a unique set of in situ experimental techniques coupled with molecular-level simulations, we identify structural transformations occurring to clay minerals, optimal CO2/CH4 gas exchange conditions, and distinguish between adsorbed and intercalated gases in a mixed gas system. For example, based on in situ measurements with magic angle spinning NMR, intercalation of CO2 within the montmorillonite structure occurs in CH4/CO2 gas mixtures containing low concentrations (<5 mol%) of CO2. A stable montmorillonite structure dominates during exposure to pure CH4 (90 bar), but expands upon titration of small fractions (1-3 mol%) of CO2. Density functional theory was used to quantify the difference in sorption behavior between CO2 and CH4 and indicates complex interactions occurring between hydrated cations, CH4, and CO2. The authors will discuss potential impacts of these experimental results on CO2-based hydrocarbon recovery processes.

  7. Optimal control of diarrhea transmission in a flood evacuation zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erwina, N.; Aldila, D.; Soewono, E.

    2014-03-01

    Evacuation of residents and diarrhea disease outbreak in evacuation zone have become serious problem that frequently happened during flood periods. Limited clean water supply and infrastructure in evacuation zone contribute to a critical spread of diarrhea. Transmission of diarrhea disease can be reduced by controlling clean water supply and treating diarrhea patients properly. These treatments require significant amount of budget, which may not be fulfilled in the fields. In his paper, transmission of diarrhea disease in evacuation zone using SIRS model is presented as control optimum problem with clean water supply and rate of treated patients as input controls. Existence and stability of equilibrium points and sensitivity analysis are investigated analytically for constant input controls. Optimum clean water supply and rate of treatment are found using optimum control technique. Optimal results for transmission of diarrhea and the corresponding controls during the period of observation are simulated numerically. The optimum result shows that transmission of diarrhea disease can be controlled with proper combination of water supply and rate of treatment within allowable budget.

  8. Controls on the Breach Geometry and Flood Hydrograph During Overtopping of Non-cohesive Earthen Dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walder, J. S.; Iverson, R. M.; Godt, J.; Logan, M.; Solovitz, S.

    2015-12-01

    To gain insight into overtopping failure of natural and constructed earthen dams, large-scale experiments were done with dams built of damp, compacted, fine-grained sand with nearly trapezoidal cross sections. Both the height and top width were varied, so that the cross-sectional shape ranged approximately from that of embankment or moraine dams to that of landslide dams. Breaching was initiated by cutting a shallow notch across the dam crest and allowing water escaping from a finite upstream reservoir to form its own channel. The channel invariably developed a stepped profile, with steps migrating upstream and coalescing into a headcut. Hydraulic control became established at the channel head, or breach crest, an arcuate erosional feature. Intersection of the migrating headcut with the breach crest triggered rapid, runaway downcutting. Step development and headcut retreat proceeded much more slowly in low dams with wide tops than in tall dams with narrow tops. Photogrammetry and underwater videography showed that the slope of the retreating headcut stayed near the friction angle of the sand and that the evolving flow cross section at the breach crest maintained a geometrically similar shape in 3D. Contrary to a common assumption in dam-breach models, the hydraulic control section was rarely perturbed by slope failures. The idea that hydraulic control reflects tradeoff between sediment delivery by slope failures and sediment removal by fluvial processes is wrong. Hydrographs were quite reproducible when the time datum was chosen as the time that the migrating headcut reached the breach crest. Peak discharge increased systematically with the initial reservoir water level Z0, a puzzling fact given that that flow depth at the breach crest was nearly always much smaller than Z0, implying that the hydraulics at the breach crest, and thus the local shear stress, should have been nearly independent of Z0. This conundrum may be resolved if breach-crest erosion rate, and

  9. Climatic and geomorphic controls on flash flood response in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchi, Lorenzo; Borga, Marco; Preciso, Emanuele; Gaume, Eric

    2010-05-01

    High-resolution data enabling identification and analysis of the hydrometeorological causative processes of flash floods have been collected and analysed for 25 extreme flash floods (60 drainage basins) across Europe. Criteria for flood selection were high intensity of triggering rainfall and flood response and availability of reliable high-resolution data. Hydrometeorological data collected for each event were checked by using a hydrological model. The derivation and analysis of summarising variables has made it possible to outline some characteristics of flash floods in various morphoclimatic regions of Europe. Peak discharge data for more than 50% of the studied watersheds derive from post-flood surveys in ungauged streams. This stresses both the significance of post-flood surveys in building and extending flash flood databases, and the need to develop new methods for flash-flood hazard assessment able to take into account data from post-event analysis. Catchments do not need to be particularly steep to favour flash flooding. However, relief is important since it may affect flash flood occurrence in specific catchments by combination of two main mechanisms: orographic effects augmenting precipitation and anchoring convection, and topographic relief promoting rapid concentration of streamflow. Examination of data shows a peculiar seasonality effect on flash flood occurrence, with events in the Mediterranean and Alpine-Mediterranean regions mostly occurring in autumn, whereas events in the inland Continental region commonly occur in summer, revealing different climatic forcing. Consistently with this seasonality effect, spatial extent and duration of the events is generally smaller for the Continental events with respect to those occurring in the Mediterranean region. Furthermore, the flash flood regime is usually more intense in the Mediterranean Region than in the Continental areas. The runoff coefficients of the studied flash floods are usually rather low (mean

  10. Fault controlled geochemical properties in Lahendong geothermal reservoir Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehme, Maren; Deon, Fiorenza; Haase, Christoph; Wiegand, Bettina; Kamah, Yustin; Sauter, Martin; Regenspurg, Simona

    2016-03-01

    Rock and fluid geochemical data from Lahendong, Indonesia, were analyzed to evaluate the influence of fault zones on reservoir properties. It was found that these properties depend on fault-permeability controlled fluid flow. Results from measurements of spring and well water as well as rocks and their hydraulic properties were combined with hydrochemical numerical modeling. The models show that the geothermal field consists of two geochemically distinct reservoir sections. One section is characterized by acidic water, considerable gas discharge and high geothermal-power productivity—all related to increased fault zone permeability. The other section is characterized by neutral water and lower productivity. Increased fluid flow in the highly fractured and permeable areas enhances chemical reaction rates. This results in strong alteration of their surrounding rocks. Numerical models of reactions between water and rock at Lahendong indicate the main alteration products are clay minerals. A geochemical conceptual model illustrates the relation between geochemistry and permeability and their distribution within the area. Our conceptual model illustrates the relation between geochemistry and fault-zone permeability within the Lahendong area. Further mapping of fault-related permeability would support sustainable energy exploitation by avoiding low-productive wells or the production of highly corroding waters, both there and elsewhere in the world.

  11. Crash tests for forward-looking flood control in the city of Zürich (Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappa, M.; Andres, N.; Kienzler, P.; Näf-Huber, D.; Marti, C.; Oplatka, M.

    2015-06-01

    Floods in the city of Zürich (Switzerland) were already reported in the 13th century. The most severe threat are floods from the Sihl river (336 km2, including also an hydropower reservoir) with peaks exceeding 350 m3 s-1. An assessment using a rainfall-runoff model has been completed to evaluate extreme flood situations by combining 18 precipitation scenarios with different initial conditions. These scenarios identified deficits for the safety of Zürich. For the improvement of flood management several measures are possible. Crash-tests with 41 472 combinations of measures and scenarios have been evaluated. According to the results, the spillway channel option in the downstream reach of the Sihl is a promising structural measure to ensure flood relief for Zürich. Lowering the artificial reservoir lake before the event consistently increases safety also in the upstream part, but causes financial losses in terms of hydroelectricity. The combination of measures can lead to an optimal safety also in case of unfavourable initial conditions. Pending questions concern the costs, political decisions and the environmental sustainability.

  12. Redwood River at Marshall, Minnesota; Feasibility Report for Flood Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    would be converted to open- space recreational and other pub- lic use areas. The displacement of existing development in addition to being totally...State policy that permanently habitable space below the regulatory flood elevation should not be flood proofed. Similarly, evacuation and flood- proofing...Recreation and open space Added recreational Additional recrea- opportunities with tional opportunities trail system and with trail system other

  13. Tsetse Fly Control in Kenya's Spatially and Temporally Dynamic Control Reservoirs: A Cost Analysis

    PubMed Central

    McCord, Paul F.; Messina, Joseph P.; Campbell, David J.; Grady, Sue C.

    2011-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) and animal African trypanosomiasis (AAT) are significant health concerns throughout much of sub-Saharan Africa. Funding for tsetse fly control operations has decreased since the 1970s, which has in turn limited the success of campaigns to control the disease vector. To maximize the effectiveness of the limited financial resources available for tsetse control, this study develops and analyzes spatially and temporally dynamic tsetse distribution maps of Glossina subgenus Morsitans populations in Kenya from January 2002 to December 2010, produced using the Tsetse Ecological Distribution Model. These species distribution maps reveal seasonal variations in fly distributions. Such variations allow for the identification of “control reservoirs” where fly distributions are spatially constrained by fluctuations in suitable habitat and tsetse population characteristics. Following identification of the control reservoirs, a tsetse management operation is simulated in the control reservoirs using capital and labor control inputs from previous studies. Finally, a cost analysis, following specific economic guidelines from existing tsetse control analyses, is conducted to calculate the total cost of a nationwide control campaign of the reservoirs compared to the cost of a nationwide campaign conducted at the maximum spatial extent of the fly distributions from January 2002 to December 2010. The total cost of tsetse management within the reservoirs sums to $14,212,647, while the nationwide campaign at the maximum spatial extent amounts to $33,721,516. This savings of $19,508,869 represents the importance of identifying seasonally dynamic control reservoirs when conducting a tsetse management campaign, and, in the process, offers an economical means of fly control and disease management for future program planning. PMID:22581989

  14. Mobility control in oil recovery by chemical flooding: State-of-the-art review: Topical report. [177 references

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, H.W.

    1987-01-01

    Mobility control in oil recovery by chemical flooding (polymer, micellar-polymer, and alkaline-polymer) can be achieved through the use of low-concentration water-soluble polymers in water or in chemical slugs. Since the late 1950's, water-soluble polymers have been studied extensively in laboratories by many researchers and widely used in many chemical flooding projects to improve sweep efficiency and increase ultimate oil recovery. Effective use of polymers as mobility control agents requires the understanding of the stability of polymers and their rheological behavior in reservoirs. An overview of the scientific literature on the application of water-soluble polymers in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is presented. The processes, factors, and mechanisms that influence the stability of polymers and those that cause a reduction in water mobility are discussed. Existing knowledge of polymer flow behavior in porous media, and of surfactant-polymer interactions is reviewed. Also discussed are the case histories of 23 chemical flooding field projects. 177 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Controlling heat flows among three reservoirs asymmetrically coupled to two two-level systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, Zhong-Xiao; An, Nguyen Ba; Xia, Yun-Jie

    2016-10-01

    We study heat flows among three thermal reservoirs via two two-level systems (TLSs). Two reservoirs are coupled to one TLS and the third reservoir to the second TLS. The two TLSs are also coupled to each other, thus bridging the third reservoir with the two other reservoirs. We show that the magnitudes and directions of the reservoirs' heat currents can be controlled by varying the various damping rates of the two TLSs due to coupling with the corresponding reservoirs. First, it is shown that by changing the damping rate due to one reservoir, magnitudes of heat currents of the other two reservoirs can behave in completely different manners, namely, although one may be enhanced, the other may instead be suppressed, and vice versa. Second, the sign of the heat current of one reservoir may change (i.e., crossover from heat absorption to heat release, or vice versa) if a damping rate or the coupling strength between the two TLSs is swept through a critical value, which depends on the temperature settings for the three reservoirs. Due to the asymmetric couplings of the two TLSs to the three reservoirs, the thermal rectification occurs without introducing any additional asymmetry to the systems.

  16. Controlling heat flows among three reservoirs asymmetrically coupled to two two-level systems.

    PubMed

    Man, Zhong-Xiao; An, Nguyen Ba; Xia, Yun-Jie

    2016-10-01

    We study heat flows among three thermal reservoirs via two two-level systems (TLSs). Two reservoirs are coupled to one TLS and the third reservoir to the second TLS. The two TLSs are also coupled to each other, thus bridging the third reservoir with the two other reservoirs. We show that the magnitudes and directions of the reservoirs' heat currents can be controlled by varying the various damping rates of the two TLSs due to coupling with the corresponding reservoirs. First, it is shown that by changing the damping rate due to one reservoir, magnitudes of heat currents of the other two reservoirs can behave in completely different manners, namely, although one may be enhanced, the other may instead be suppressed, and vice versa. Second, the sign of the heat current of one reservoir may change (i.e., crossover from heat absorption to heat release, or vice versa) if a damping rate or the coupling strength between the two TLSs is swept through a critical value, which depends on the temperature settings for the three reservoirs. Due to the asymmetric couplings of the two TLSs to the three reservoirs, the thermal rectification occurs without introducing any additional asymmetry to the systems.

  17. Mobility Controlled Flooding (MCF) Technology for Enhanced Sweeping and NAPL Remediation in Heterogeneous Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, L.; Oostrom, M.; Wietsma, T.

    2005-12-01

    Heterogeneity is often encountered in subsurface contamination characterization and remediation. Low-permeability zones are bypassed when remedial fluid is injected into heterogeneous systems. The contaminant in the bypassed areas is therefore untouched by the remedial fluid, which can prolong the remediation operations significantly. Methods of forcing fluids into low-permeability flow paths have been developed and widely implemented to solve the heterogeneity-induced bypassing problem encountered during oil recovery in the petroleum industry over the past 40 years. Since the intent of the petroleum reservoir engineers is to control the mobility of the injected fluid in the high-permeable zones so that the fluid can be pushed through the low-permeable zones to contact and mobilize the remaining oil in these zones, this method are referred as mobility controlled flooding (MCF) technology in the petroleum engineering literature. Two methods of mobility control have been developed. One method is to use a water-soluble polymer to increase the viscosity of the injectate so that the in situ pore pressure is raised, and cross-flow between layers with different permeability occurs. The other method is to use surfactant-foam flood to generate foam in high permeable zones in situ; therefore, the injected fluid is forced into the low-permeable areas. A water-soluble polymer, xanthan gum, and surfactant MA-80 was used to formulate MCF remedial fluids to remediate nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminated heterogonous systems in two-dimensional (2-D) flow-cell (40 by 50 by 5 cm) experiments. It was demonstrated that the MCF technology is capable of sweeping the low-permeability flow paths. The bypassing of low-permeable zones was significantly reduced. The removal of NAPL trapped in the low-perm zones was remarkable enhanced attributed to more efficient NAPL mobilization. The results also indicate that the MCF technology is able to manage the fluid density effects. The

  18. Carbonate petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Roehl, P.O.; Choquette, P.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the geology of petroleum deposits. Topics considered include diagenesis, porosity, dolomite reservoirs, deposition, reservoir rock, reefs, morphology, fracture-controlled production, Cenozoic reservoirs, Mesozoic reservoirs, and Paleozoic reservoirs.

  19. The effect of controlled floods on decadal-scale changes in channel morphology and fine sediment storage in a debris-fan affected river canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, E. R.; Grams, P. E.; Schmidt, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, a large magnitude flow release from Flaming Gorge Reservoir resulted in the third highest recorded discharge of the Green River downstream from Flaming Gorge Dam subsequent to its closure in 1963. Following this event, we made measurements of channel geometry, tracer gravel displacement, and sandbar sedimentology at four long-term monitoring reaches within the Canyon of Lodore in Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado. Here we integrate these data with nearly two decades of channel monitoring at these sites, encompassing five controlled floods, and providing a coarse resolution, but coherent, picture of channel response and changes in fine sediment storage in a canyon-bound river. We discuss these results in the context of long-term monitoring of controlled flood response along the Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons, Arizona. In Canyon of Lodore, moderate, short-duration controlled floods have had little effect on channel morphology or fine sediment storage. Alternatively, higher magnitude floods approaching the pre-dam mean annual flood, such as in 1999 and 2011, tended to be long duration and scoured fine sediment from the channel bed, in some places up to 5 m, while building eddy sandbars to within a meter of flood stage. This resulted in a net export of sediment from the monitored reaches. Between floods, eddy sand bars erode and the pools fill with fine sediment. We have observed only minor erosion or reworking of gravel bars and channel margin deposits stabilized by vegetation encroachment. The Green River in Canyon of Lodore is a scaled-down version of the Colorado River in debris fan-affected Marble and Grand Canyons. Both rivers now exist in varying degrees of sediment deficit due to upstream reservoirs. Coarse sediment from debris fans and hillslopes limits vertical incision and channel migration, focusing the post-dam geomorphic response to sediment imbalance on fine sediment located in eddy sandbars, pools, and channel margin deposits. In

  20. When and how long to flood for insect control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flooding in late spring (late May or early July) can remove tremendous numbers of arthropods from cranberry beds. For over 100 years, the Wisconsin cranberry industry has used flooding as a way to suppress arthropod populations. One critical element of this strategy is the trade-off between lethalit...

  1. Shades of Green: Flood control study focused on Duluth, Minnesota

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the aftermath of the economically and environmentally painful flood of 2012, the city of Duluth and the CSC examined ecologically based options to reduce runoff velocities and flood volume in the watershed with assistance and input of Minnesota Duluth's Natural Resources Resea...

  2. Early-season flooding for insect pest control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Wisconsin, there is much interest in the spring flood as a means to not only reduce pest populations, but also to facilitate marsh sanitation and provide frost protection. A large-scale field study was undertaken in 2011 to examine how a 30-40 hour spring flood (late May) would affect key insect ...

  3. 33 CFR 208.28 - Foss Dam and Reservoir, Washita River, Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foss Dam and Reservoir, Washita... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.28 Foss Dam and Reservoir, Washita River, Oklahoma. The Bureau of Reclamation shall operate the Foss Dam and Reservoir in the interest...

  4. 33 CFR 208.27 - Fort Cobb Dam and Reservoir, Pond (Cobb) Creek, Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fort Cobb Dam and Reservoir, Pond..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.27 Fort Cobb Dam and Reservoir, Pond (Cobb) Creek, Oklahoma. The Bureau of Reclamation shall operate the Fort Cobb Dam and Reservoir...

  5. 33 CFR 208.28 - Foss Dam and Reservoir, Washita River, Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foss Dam and Reservoir, Washita... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.28 Foss Dam and Reservoir, Washita River, Oklahoma. The Bureau of Reclamation shall operate the Foss Dam and Reservoir in the interest...

  6. 33 CFR 208.25 - Pensacola Dam and Reservoir, Grand (Neosho) River, Okla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pensacola Dam and Reservoir..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.25 Pensacola Dam and Reservoir... Dam, referred to in this section as the Representative shall operate the dam and reservoir in...

  7. 33 CFR 208.25 - Pensacola Dam and Reservoir, Grand (Neosho) River, Okla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pensacola Dam and Reservoir..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.25 Pensacola Dam and Reservoir... Dam, referred to in this section as the Representative shall operate the dam and reservoir in...

  8. 33 CFR 208.28 - Foss Dam and Reservoir, Washita River, Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foss Dam and Reservoir, Washita... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.28 Foss Dam and Reservoir, Washita River, Oklahoma. The Bureau of Reclamation shall operate the Foss Dam and Reservoir in the interest...

  9. 33 CFR 208.22 - Twin Buttes Dam and Reservoir, Middle and South Concho Rivers, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Twin Buttes Dam and Reservoir... and Reservoir, Middle and South Concho Rivers, Tex. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate the Twin Buttes Dam and Reservoir in the interest of flood control as follows:...

  10. 33 CFR 208.25 - Pensacola Dam and Reservoir, Grand (Neosho) River, Okla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pensacola Dam and Reservoir..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.25 Pensacola Dam and Reservoir... Dam, referred to in this section as the Representative shall operate the dam and reservoir in...

  11. 33 CFR 208.28 - Foss Dam and Reservoir, Washita River, Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foss Dam and Reservoir, Washita... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.28 Foss Dam and Reservoir, Washita River, Oklahoma. The Bureau of Reclamation shall operate the Foss Dam and Reservoir in the interest...

  12. 33 CFR 208.28 - Foss Dam and Reservoir, Washita River, Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foss Dam and Reservoir, Washita... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.28 Foss Dam and Reservoir, Washita River, Oklahoma. The Bureau of Reclamation shall operate the Foss Dam and Reservoir in the interest...

  13. 33 CFR 208.25 - Pensacola Dam and Reservoir, Grand (Neosho) River, Okla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pensacola Dam and Reservoir..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.25 Pensacola Dam and Reservoir... Dam, referred to in this section as the Representative shall operate the dam and reservoir in...

  14. 33 CFR 208.27 - Fort Cobb Dam and Reservoir, Pond (Cobb) Creek, Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fort Cobb Dam and Reservoir, Pond..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.27 Fort Cobb Dam and Reservoir, Pond (Cobb) Creek, Oklahoma. The Bureau of Reclamation shall operate the Fort Cobb Dam and Reservoir...

  15. 33 CFR 208.22 - Twin Buttes Dam and Reservoir, Middle and South Concho Rivers, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Twin Buttes Dam and Reservoir... and Reservoir, Middle and South Concho Rivers, Tex. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate the Twin Buttes Dam and Reservoir in the interest of flood control as follows:...

  16. 33 CFR 208.22 - Twin Buttes Dam and Reservoir, Middle and South Concho Rivers, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Twin Buttes Dam and Reservoir... and Reservoir, Middle and South Concho Rivers, Tex. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate the Twin Buttes Dam and Reservoir in the interest of flood control as follows:...

  17. 33 CFR 208.27 - Fort Cobb Dam and Reservoir, Pond (Cobb) Creek, Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fort Cobb Dam and Reservoir, Pond..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.27 Fort Cobb Dam and Reservoir, Pond (Cobb) Creek, Oklahoma. The Bureau of Reclamation shall operate the Fort Cobb Dam and Reservoir...

  18. 33 CFR 208.25 - Pensacola Dam and Reservoir, Grand (Neosho) River, Okla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pensacola Dam and Reservoir..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.25 Pensacola Dam and Reservoir... Dam, referred to in this section as the Representative shall operate the dam and reservoir in...

  19. 33 CFR 208.27 - Fort Cobb Dam and Reservoir, Pond (Cobb) Creek, Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fort Cobb Dam and Reservoir, Pond..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.27 Fort Cobb Dam and Reservoir, Pond (Cobb) Creek, Oklahoma. The Bureau of Reclamation shall operate the Fort Cobb Dam and Reservoir...

  20. 33 CFR 208.27 - Fort Cobb Dam and Reservoir, Pond (Cobb) Creek, Oklahoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fort Cobb Dam and Reservoir, Pond..., DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FLOOD CONTROL REGULATIONS § 208.27 Fort Cobb Dam and Reservoir, Pond (Cobb) Creek, Oklahoma. The Bureau of Reclamation shall operate the Fort Cobb Dam and Reservoir...

  1. 33 CFR 208.22 - Twin Buttes Dam and Reservoir, Middle and South Concho Rivers, Tex.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Twin Buttes Dam and Reservoir... and Reservoir, Middle and South Concho Rivers, Tex. The Bureau of Reclamation, or its designated agent, shall operate the Twin Buttes Dam and Reservoir in the interest of flood control as follows:...

  2. Diversity and above-ground biomass patterns of vascular flora induced by flooding in the drawdown area of China's Three Gorges Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Yuan, Xingzhong; Willison, J H Martin; Zhang, Yuewei; Liu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hydrological alternation can dramatically influence riparian environments and shape riparian vegetation zonation. However, it was difficult to predict the status in the drawdown area of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), because the hydrological regime created by the dam involves both short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter impoundment for half a year. In order to examine the effects of hydrological alternation on plant diversity and biomass in the drawdown area of TGR, twelve sites distributed along the length of the drawdown area of TGR were chosen to explore the lateral pattern of plant diversity and above-ground biomass at the ends of growing seasons in 2009 and 2010. We recorded 175 vascular plant species in 2009 and 127 in 2010, indicating that a significant loss of vascular flora in the drawdown area of TGR resulted from the new hydrological regimes. Cynodon dactylon and Cyperus rotundus had high tolerance to short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter flooding. Almost half of the remnant species were annuals. Species richness, Shannon-Wiener Index and above-ground biomass of vegetation exhibited an increasing pattern along the elevation gradient, being greater at higher elevations subjected to lower submergence stress. Plant diversity, above-ground biomass and species distribution were significantly influenced by the duration of submergence relative to elevation in both summer and previous winter. Several million tonnes of vegetation would be accumulated on the drawdown area of TGR in every summer and some adverse environmental problems may be introduced when it was submerged in winter. We conclude that vascular flora biodiversity in the drawdown area of TGR has dramatically declined after the impoundment to full capacity. The new hydrological condition, characterized by long-term winter flooding and short periods of summer flooding, determined vegetation biodiversity and above-ground biomass patterns along the elevation gradient in

  3. Diversity and Above-Ground Biomass Patterns of Vascular Flora Induced by Flooding in the Drawdown Area of China's Three Gorges Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang; Yuan, Xingzhong; Willison, J.H.Martin; Zhang, Yuewei; Liu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hydrological alternation can dramatically influence riparian environments and shape riparian vegetation zonation. However, it was difficult to predict the status in the drawdown area of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), because the hydrological regime created by the dam involves both short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter impoundment for half a year. In order to examine the effects of hydrological alternation on plant diversity and biomass in the drawdown area of TGR, twelve sites distributed along the length of the drawdown area of TGR were chosen to explore the lateral pattern of plant diversity and above-ground biomass at the ends of growing seasons in 2009 and 2010. We recorded 175 vascular plant species in 2009 and 127 in 2010, indicating that a significant loss of vascular flora in the drawdown area of TGR resulted from the new hydrological regimes. Cynodon dactylon and Cyperus rotundus had high tolerance to short periods of summer flooding and long-term winter flooding. Almost half of the remnant species were annuals. Species richness, Shannon-Wiener Index and above-ground biomass of vegetation exhibited an increasing pattern along the elevation gradient, being greater at higher elevations subjected to lower submergence stress. Plant diversity, above-ground biomass and species distribution were significantly influenced by the duration of submergence relative to elevation in both summer and previous winter. Several million tonnes of vegetation would be accumulated on the drawdown area of TGR in every summer and some adverse environmental problems may be introduced when it was submerged in winter. We conclude that vascular flora biodiversity in the drawdown area of TGR has dramatically declined after the impoundment to full capacity. The new hydrological condition, characterized by long-term winter flooding and short periods of summer flooding, determined vegetation biodiversity and above-ground biomass patterns along the elevation gradient in

  4. Snagging and Clearing for Flood Control, Snake River, Minnesota.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    range from a high of 1080F to a low of -490F. Frost-free days, as observed at the University of Minnesota Experiment Station at Crookston, Minnesota...American plum, and black willow (Salix nigra). Further away from the river a shrub layer is present consisting of chokecherry, raspberry (Rubus strigosus...flood-prone areas or erection of emergency * flood protection. 6.04 The National Weather Service currently provides area officials and local news

  5. Polymer flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Littmann, W.

    1988-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of polymer flooding, an enhanced oil recovery method using water soluble polymers to increase the viscosity of flood water, for the displacement of crude oil from porous reservoir rocks. Although this method is becoming increasingly important, there is very little literature available for the engineer wishing to embark on such a project. In the past, polymer flooding was mainly the subject of research. The results of this research are spread over a vast number of single publications, making it difficult for someone who has not kept up-to-date with developments during the last 10-15 years to judge the suitability of polymer flooding to a particular field case. This book tries to fill that gap. An indispensable book for reservoir engineers, production engineers and lab. technicians within the petroleum industry.

  6. Applications of ASFCM(Assessment System of Flood Control Measurement) in Typhoon Committee Members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, C.

    2013-12-01

    Due to extreme weather environment such as global warming and greenhouse effect, the risks of having flood damage has been increased with larger scale of flood damages. Therefore, it became necessary to consider modifying climate change, flood damage and its scale to the previous dimension measurement evaluation system. In this regard, it is needed to establish a comprehensive and integrated system to evaluate the most optimized measures for flood control through eliminating uncertainties of socio-economic impacts. Assessment System of Structural Flood Control Measures (ASFCM) was developed for determining investment priorities of the flood control measures and establishing the social infrastructure projects. ASFCM consists of three modules: 1) the initial setup and inputs module, 2) the flood and damage estimation module, and 3) the socio-economic analysis module. First, we have to construct the D/B for flood damage estimation, which is the initial and input data about the estimation unit, property, historical flood damages, and applied area's topographic & hydrological data. After that, it is important to classify local characteristic for constructing flood damage data. Five local characteristics (big city, medium size city, small city, farming area, and mountain area) are classified by criterion of application (population density). Next step is the floodplain simulation with HEC-RAS which is selected to simulate inundation. Through inputting the D/B and damage estimation, it is able to estimate the total damage (only direct damage) that is the amount of cost to recover the socio-economic activities back to the safe level before flood did occur. The last module suggests the economic analysis index (B/C ratio) with Multidimensional Flood Damage Analysis. Consequently, ASFCM suggests the reference index in constructing flood control measures and planning non-structural systems to reduce water-related damage. It is possible to encourage flood control planners and

  7. IMPROVED MISCIBLE NITROGEN FLOOD PERFORMANCE UTILIZING ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND HORIZONTAL LATERALS IN A CLASS I RESERVOIR - EAST BINGER (MARCHAND) UNIT

    SciTech Connect

    Joe Sinner

    2002-03-26

    The objective of this project is two-fold. It will demonstrate use of nitrogen as a widely available, cost-effective and environmentally superior injectant for miscible floods. It will also demonstrate the effectiveness of horizontal wellbores in reducing gas breakthrough and cycling. It is expected that the demonstration will lead to implementation of nitrogen injection projects in areas without readily available carbon dioxide sources. Technology transfer will occur throughout the project.

  8. Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion. Annual Report, July 1, 1995--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Chimahusky, J.S.; Hallenbeck, L.D.; Harpole, K.J.; Dollens, K.B.

    1997-05-01

    The work reported herein covers select tasks remaining in Budget Phase I and many of the tasks of Budget Phase II. The principal Tasks in Budget Phase I included in this report are Reservoir Analysis and Characterization; Advanced Technical Studies; and Technology Transfer, Reporting and Project Management Activities for Budget Phase I. The principle Task in Budget Phase II included in this report is Field Demonstration. Completion of these tasks has enabled an optimum carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood project to be designed, economically evaluated, and implemented in the field. Field implementation of the project commenced during late 1995, with actual CO{sub 2} injection scheduled for start-up in mid-July, 1996. The current project has focused on reducing initial investment cost by utilizing horizontal injection wells and concentrating the project in the best productivity area of the field. An innovative CO{sub 2} purchase agreement (no take-or-pay provisions, CO{sub 2} purchase price tied to West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil price) and gas recycle agreements (expensing costs as opposed to a large upfront capital investment for compression) were negotiated to further improve the project economics. The Grayburg-San Andres section had previously been divided into multiple zones based on the core study and gamma ray markers that correlate wells within the Unit. Each zone was mapped as continuous across the field. Previous core studies concluded that the reservoir quality in the South Cowden Unit (SCU) is controlled primarily by the distribution of a bioturbated and diagenetically-altered rock type with a distinctive {open_quotes}chaotic{close_quotes} texture. The {open_quotes}chaotic{close_quotes} modifier is derived from the visual effect of pervasive, small-scale intermixing of tan oil-stained reservoir rock with tight gray non-reservoir rock.

  9. Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, M.

    1995-12-01

    This research studied the oil recovery potential of flooding light oil reservoirs by combining interfacial tension reducing agent(s) with a mobility control agent. The specific objectives were: To define the mechanisms and limitations of co-injecting interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent to recover incremental oil. Specifically, the study focused on the fluid-fluid and fluid-rock interactions. To evaluate the economics of the combination technology and investigate methods to make the process more profitable. Specific areas of study were to evaluate different chemical concentration tapers and the volume of chemical injection required to give optimal oil recovery.

  10. Core flooding tests to investigate the effects of IFT reduction and wettability alteration on oil recovery during MEOR process in an Iranian oil reservoir.

    PubMed

    Rabiei, Arash; Sharifinik, Milad; Niazi, Ali; Hashemi, Abdolnabi; Ayatollahi, Shahab

    2013-07-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) refers to the process of using bacterial activities for more oil recovery from oil reservoirs mainly by interfacial tension reduction and wettability alteration mechanisms. Investigating the impact of these two mechanisms on enhanced oil recovery during MEOR process is the main objective of this work. Different analytical methods such as oil spreading and surface activity measurements were utilized to screen the biosurfactant-producing bacteria isolated from the brine of a specific oil reservoir located in the southwest of Iran. The isolates identified by 16S rDNA and biochemical analysis as Enterobacter cloacae (Persian Type Culture Collection (PTCC) 1798) and Enterobacter hormaechei (PTCC 1799) produce 1.53 g/l of biosurfactant. The produced biosurfactant caused substantial surface tension reduction of the growth medium and interfacial tension reduction between oil and brine to 31 and 3.2 mN/m from the original value of 72 and 29 mN/m, respectively. A novel set of core flooding tests, including in situ and ex situ scenarios, was designed to explore the potential of the isolated consortium as an agent for MEOR process. Besides, the individual effects of wettability alteration and IFT reduction on oil recovery efficiency by this process were investigated. The results show that the wettability alteration of the reservoir rock toward neutrally wet condition in the course of the adsorption of bacteria cells and biofilm formation are the dominant mechanisms on the improvement of oil recovery efficiency.

  11. Karst-controlled reservoir heterogeneity in Ellenburger group carbonates of west Texas: Reply

    SciTech Connect

    Kerans, C. )

    1990-07-01

    A reply to a comment made on Kerans' paper (AAGP Bull. 1988) by S.J. Mazzullo is presented. The author takes exception that Mazzullo's contention that he left out important types of hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Permian basin of west Texas and points out that his original intention was to model karst-controlled reservoir rocks only.

  12. General Reevaluation Supporting Documentation for Flood Control and Related Purposes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    taxes are less than MITI- committee five years ago , and flood, the earth must be stable, fight the floods when they nesota taxes, be said If uproot...Floods at East Grand Forks Since 1882 Rank Stage Year Peak Discharge (cfs) 1 50.2 1897 85,000 2 48.81 1979 82,000 3 48.0 1882 75,000 4 45.73 1978...8217 Water Flow Plotting Water F0ow . Rank Year - in cfs Position Rank Year n 3fa P-’ir 1 1826 135,00 .0065 51 1� 15,230 .514 2 1852 95,000 .0129 52 1932

  13. Probable maximum flood control; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeGabriele, C.E.; Wu, C.L.

    1991-11-01

    This study proposes preliminary design concepts to protect the waste-handling facilities and all shaft and ramp entries to the underground from the probable maximum flood (PMF) in the current design configuration for the proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) repository protection provisions were furnished by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR) or developed from USSR data. Proposed flood protection provisions include site grading, drainage channels, and diversion dikes. Figures are provided to show these proposed flood protection provisions at each area investigated. These areas are the central surface facilities (including the waste-handling building and waste treatment building), tuff ramp portal, waste ramp portal, men-and-materials shaft, emplacement exhaust shaft, and exploratory shafts facility.

  14. Dominant geomorphic controls on channel capacity and flood risk in a hydrologically variable fluvial system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, James; Croke, Jacky; Thompson, Chris; Cohen, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, particular emphasis has been placed on the hydrological characteristics of rivers to understand the role of channel morphology in flood risk. However, in regions of high hydrological variability, the relationship between channel characteristics and flood conveyance is often highly complex. Consequently in these settings, the applicability of stream discharge or steady-state form-process relationships, may be of less use to understanding flood conveyance. In the subtropical region of southeast Queensland, Australia, rivers are characterized by highly variable flows and entrenched channel morphologies. The latter are such dramatic features, they are termed 'macrochannels'. Following the extreme flood of 2011 in the Lockyer Creek in this region, longitudinal variations in the macrochannel form were found to be a significant factor in flood conveyance. Nine reaches were identified on a basis of flood inundation extent, with significant non-linear changes in channel capacity and discharge, alternating between flood expansion and contraction zones with associated increases and decreases in flood risk. Detailed geomorphic and chronostratigraphic analyses presented here indicate that macrochannel capacity is being strongly influenced by the antecedent bedrock topography, resistant valley-fill and abrupt downstream changes in sediment delivery. A large proportion of the valley fill represents a major Late Pleistocene aggradation phase of fine-grained alluvium that overlies older Pleistocene basal sediments. Subsequent channel incision at 10 ka reoccupied a pre-existing bedrock valley and resistant Pleistocene alluvium imposed substantial controls on the capacity for lateral adjustment. Abrupt changes in sediment supply associated with the location of tributaries provide further evidence for geomorphic controls on macrochannel form and capacity. Identification of the dominant geomorphic factors influencing the overall macrochannel form highlights the relative

  15. Well logging evaluation of water-flooded layers and distribution rule of remaining oil in marine sandstone reservoirs of the M oilfield in the Pearl River Mouth basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiongyan; Qin, Ruibao; Gao, Yunfeng; Fan, Hongjun

    2017-03-01

    In the marine sandstone reservoirs of the M oilfield the water cut is up to 98%, while the recovery factor is only 35%. Additionally, the distribution of the remaining oil is very scattered. In order to effectively assess the potential of the remaining oil, the logging evaluation of the water-flooded layers and the distribution rule of the remaining oil are studied. Based on the log response characteristics, the water-flooded layers can be qualitatively identified. On the basis of the mercury injection experimental data of the evaluation wells, the calculation model of the initial oil saturation is built. Based on conventional logging data, the evaluation model of oil saturation is established. The difference between the initial oil saturation and the residual oil saturation can be used to quantitatively evaluate the water-flooded layers. The evaluation result of the water-flooded layers is combined with the ratio of the water-flooded wells in the marine sandstone reservoirs. As a result, the degree of water flooding in the marine sandstone reservoirs can be assessed. On the basis of structural characteristics and sedimentary environments, the horizontal and vertical water-flooding rules of the different types of reservoirs are elaborated upon, and the distribution rule of the remaining oil is disclosed. The remaining oil is mainly distributed in the high parts of the structure. The remaining oil exists in the top of the reservoirs with good physical properties while the thickness of the remaining oil ranges from 2–5 m. However, the thickness of the remaining oil of the reservoirs with poor physical properties ranges from 5–8 m. The high production of some of the drilled horizontal wells shows that the above distribution rule of the remaining oil is accurate. In the marine sandstone reservoirs of the M oilfield, the research on the well logging evaluation of the water-flooded layers and the distribution rule of the remaining oil has great practical significance

  16. Development of a new control device for stabilizing blood level in reservoir during extracorporeal circulation.

    PubMed

    Momose, Naoki; Yamakoshi, Rie; Kokubo, Ryo; Yasuda, Toru; Iwamoto, Norio; Umeda, Chinori; Nakajima, Itsuro; Yanagisawa, Mitsunobu; Tomizawa, Yasuko

    2010-03-01

    We developed a simple device that stabilizes the blood level in the reservoir of the extracorporeal circulation open circuit system by measuring the hydrostatic pressure of the reservoir to control the flow rate of the arterial pump. When the flow rate of the venous return decreases, the rotation speed of the arterial pump is automatically slowed down. Consequently, the blood level in the reservoir is stabilized quickly between two arbitrarily set levels and never falls below the pre-set low level. We conducted a basic experiment to verify the operation of the device, using a mock circuit with water. Commercially available pumps and reservoir were used without modification. The results confirmed that the control method effectively regulates the reservoir liquid level and is highly reliable. The device possibly also functions as a safety device.

  17. Green-blue water in the city: quantification of impact of source control versus end-of-pipe solutions on sewer and river floods.

    PubMed

    De Vleeschauwer, K; Weustenraad, J; Nolf, C; Wolfs, V; De Meulder, B; Shannon, K; Willems, P

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization and climate change trends put strong pressures on urban water systems. Temporal variations in rainfall, runoff and water availability increase, and need to be compensated for by innovative adaptation strategies. One of these is stormwater retention and infiltration in open and/or green spaces in the city (blue-green water integration). This study evaluated the efficiency of three adaptation strategies for the city of Turnhout in Belgium, namely source control as a result of blue-green water integration, retention basins located downstream of the stormwater sewers, and end-of-pipe solutions based on river flood control reservoirs. The efficiency of these options is quantified by the reduction in sewer and river flood frequencies and volumes, and sewer overflow volumes. This is done by means of long-term simulations (100-year rainfall simulations) using an integrated conceptual sewer-river model calibrated to full hydrodynamic sewer and river models. Results show that combining open, green zones in the city with stormwater retention and infiltration for only 1% of the total city runoff area would lead to a 30 to 50% reduction in sewer flood volumes for return periods in the range 10-100 years. This is due to the additional surface storage and infiltration and consequent reduction in urban runoff. However, the impact of this source control option on downstream river floods is limited. Stormwater retention downstream of the sewer system gives a strong reduction in peak discharges to the receiving river. However due to the difference in response time between the sewer and river systems, this does not lead to a strong reduction in river flood frequency. The paper shows the importance of improving the interface between urban design and water management, and between sewer and river flood management.

  18. Abiotic & biotic responses of the Colorado River to controlled floods at Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korman, Josh; Melis, Ted; Kennedy, Theodore A.

    2012-01-01

    Closure of Glen Canyon Dam reduced sand supply to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park by about 94% while its operation has also eroded the park's sandbar habitats. Three controlled floods released from the dam since 1995 suggest that sandbars might be rebuilt and maintained, but only if repeated floods are timed to follow tributary sand deliveries below the dam. Monitoring data show that sandbars are dynamic and that their erosion after bar building is positively related with mean daily discharge and negatively related with tributary sand production after controlled floods. The March 2008 flood affected non-native rainbow trout abundance in the Lees Ferry tailwater, which supports a blue ribbon fishery. Downstream trout dispersal from the tailwater results in negative competitive interactions and predation on endangered humpback chub. Early survival rates of age-0 trout increased more than fourfold following the 2008 flood, and twofold in 2009, relative to prior years (2006-2007). Hatch-date analysis indicated that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that emerged about 2 months after the 2008 flood relative to cohorts that emerged earlier that year. The 2009 survival data suggest that tailwater habitat improvements persisted for at least a year, but apparently decreased in 2010. Increased early survival rates for trout coincided with the increased availability of higher quality drifting food items after the 2008 flood owing to an increase in midges and black flies, preferred food items of rainbow trout. Repeated floods from the dam might sustainably rebuild and maintain sandbars if released when new tributary sand is available below the tailwater. Spring flooding might also sustain increased trout abundance and benefit the tailwater fishery, but also be a potential risk to humpback chub in Grand Canyon.

  19. Simulation of Runoff and Reservoir Inflow for Use in a Flood-Analysis Model for the Delaware River, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goode, Daniel J.; Koerkle, Edward H.; Hoffman, Scott A.; Regan, R. Steve; Hay, Lauren E.; Markstrom, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    A model was developed to simulate inflow to reservoirs and watershed runoff to streams during three high-flow events between September 2004 and June 2006 for the main-stem subbasin of the Delaware River draining to Trenton, N.J. The model software is a modified version of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), a modular, physically based, distributed-parameter modeling system developed to evaluate the impacts of various combinations of precipitation, climate, and land use on surface-water runoff and general basin hydrology. The PRMS model simulates time periods associated with main-stem flooding that occurred in September 2004, April 2005, and June 2006 and uses both daily and hourly time steps. Output from the PRMS model was formatted for use as inflows to a separately documented reservoir and riverrouting model, the HEC-ResSim model, developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center to evaluate flooding. The models were integrated through a graphical user interface. The study area is the 6,780 square-mile watershed of the Delaware River in the states of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York that drains to Trenton, N.J. A geospatial database was created for use with a geographic information system to assist model discretization, determine land-surface characterization, and estimate model parameters. The USGS National Elevation Dataset at 100-meter resolution, a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), was used for model discretization into streams and hydrologic response units. In addition, geospatial processing was used to estimate initial model parameters from the DEM and other data layers, including land use. The model discretization represents the study area using 869 hydrologic response units and 452 stream segments. The model climate data for point stations were obtained from multiple sources. These sources included daily data for 22 National Weather Service (NWS) Cooperative Climate Station network

  20. Backwaters in the upper reaches of reservoirs produce high densities of age-0 crappies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dagel, Jonah D.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2012-01-01

    Reservoir backwaters are aquatic habitats in floodplains of reservoir tributaries that are permanently or periodically flooded by the reservoir. Like many reservoir arms, backwaters are commonly shallow, littoral habitats, but they differ from arms in various respects, including their support of primarily wetland plant assemblages that are tolerant to flooding. Elsewhere, the reservoir floods mainly upland plants that are less tolerant to flooding, producing a band of barren shoreline along the fluctuation zone. We investigated differences in relative abundance of age-0 crappies Pomoxis spp. in backwaters and arms of widely fluctuating flood control reservoirs, examined the effect of water level, and estimated the likelihood and timing with which these habitats are flooded annually. Higher catch rates of age-0 crappies were obtained in backwater habitats than in arm habitats. When inundated during the crappie spawning season, backwaters provided vegetated habitat at lower water levels than arms. Backwaters flooded earlier than arms and remained flooded longer to provide prolonged nursery habitat. Whereas vegetated habitat was inundated almost yearly in backwaters and arms, inundation that was timed to the onset of spawning occurred less regularly. Because of differences in water elevation, vegetated habitats were flooded in time for crappie spawning about every other year in backwaters but only every third year in arms. Recruitment of age-0 crappies was inversely correlated with high water levels during the months preceding the spawning period, perhaps because early flooding degraded the vegetation. Our results suggest that water levels may be managed during late winter and spring to regularly flood wetland vegetation communities in backwaters; however, water levels should be maintained at or below normal pool and should only irregularly flood upland vegetation in reservoir arms to promote the preservation of such vegetation. Furthermore, management efforts to

  1. Spatio-temporal clustering of cholera: the impact of flood control in Matlab, Bangladesh, 1983-2003.

    PubMed

    Carrel, Margaret; Emch, Michael; Streatfield, Peter K; Yunus, Mohammad

    2009-09-01

    Introducing flood control to an area of endemic waterborne diseases could have significant impacts on spatio-temporal occurrence of cholera. Using 21-year data from Bangladesh, we conducted cluster analysis to explore changes in spatial and temporal distribution of cholera incidence since the construction of flood control structures. Striking changes in temporal cluster patterns emerged, including a shift from dry-season to rainy-season clusters following flood protection and delayed clustering inside the protected areas. Spatial differences in pre-flood protection and post-protection cholera clusters are weaker. Changes in spatio-temporal cholera clustering, associated with implementation of flood protection strategies, could affect local cholera prevention efforts.

  2. Flood Control Project Lac Qui Parle, Emergency Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    ncn operations Center .. Provides a 24-hour telephone contact with the District Office. Responsible for keeping the Dam Safety Officer, the Commander...situations. Also contact for matters involving national security, disasters, mobilization or NwS flood forecasts. Center wilt contact Dam Safety Officer, the...Commaander/District Engineer and NCD. District Emergency Operations Center (612)220-0208 Contact Hastings David Christenson, Chief, Emergency

  3. Devils Lake Flood Control Project. Section 205. Detailed Project Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    an alternitive after the initial survey work was completed. Since plan C is not considered feasible, further cultural resources work is unnecessary... pesticides and other pollutants into the bay. Pesticides and other toxic substances would affect fish resources directly. High nutrient loads would...flood plain of the former lakebed at the head of Creel Bay. Such a restriction would prevent the release of nutrients, pesticides and other pollutants

  4. Using Chemicals to Optimize Conformance Control in Fractured Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Seright, Randall; Liang, Jenn-Tai; Schrader, Richard; Hagstrom II, John; Wang, Ying; Kumar, Anand; Wavrik, Kathryn

    2001-09-07

    The objectives of this project are: (1) to develop a capability to predict and optimize the ability of gels to reduce permeability to water more than that to oil or gas, (2) to develop procedures for optimizing blocking agent placement in wells where hydraulic fractures cause channeling problems, and (3) to develop procedures to optimize blocking agent placement in naturally fractured reservoirs. Work was directed at both injection wells and production wells and at vertical, horizontal, and highly deviated wells.

  5. Understanding cratonic flood basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Paul G.; Behn, Mark D.; Kelley, Katherine; Schmitz, Mark; Savage, Brian

    2006-05-01

    The origin of continental flood basalts has been debated for decades. These eruptions often produce millions of cubic kilometers of basalt on timescales of only a million years. Although flood basalts are found in a variety of settings, no locale is more puzzling than cratonic areas such as southern Africa or the Siberian craton, where strong, thick lithosphere is breached by these large basaltic outpourings. Conventionally, flood basalts have been interpreted as melting events produced by one of two processes: 1) elevated temperatures associated with mantle plumes and/or 2) adiabatic-decompression melting associated with lithospheric thinning. In southern Africa, however, there are severe problems with both of these mechanisms. First, the rifting circumstances of several well-known basaltic outpourings clearly reflect lithospheric control rather than the influence of a deep-seated plume. Specifically, rift timing and magmatism are correlated with stress perturbations to the lithosphere associated with the formation of collisional rifts. Second, the substantial lithospheric thinning required for adiabatic decompression melting is inconsistent with xenolith evidence for the continued survival of thick lithosphere beneath flood basalt domains. As an alternative to these models, we propose a new two-stage model that interprets cratonic flood basalts not as melting events, but as short-duration drainage events that tap previously created sublithospheric reservoirs of molten basalt formed over a longer time scale. Reservoir creation/existence (Stage I) requires long-term (e.g. ≫ 1 Ma) supersolidus conditions in the sublithospheric mantle that could be maintained by an elevated equilibrium geotherm (appropriate for the Archean), a slow thermal perturbation (e.g. thermal blanketing or large-scale mantle upwelling), or a subduction-related increase in volatile content. The drainage event (Stage II) occurs in response to an abrupt stress change in the lithosphere, which

  6. Sequence stratigraphic control on prolific HC reservoir development, Southwest Iran

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lasemi, Y.; Kondroud, K.N.

    2008-01-01

    An important carbonate formation in the Persian Gulf and the onshore oil fields of Southwest Iran is the Lowermost Cretaceous Fahliyan formation. The formation in Darkhowain field consists of unconformity-bounded depositional sequences containing prolific hydrocarbon reservoirs of contrasting origin. Located in the high stand systems tract (HST) of the lower sequence encompassing over 200m of oil column are the most prolific reservoir. Another reservoir is over 80m thick consisting of shallowing-upward cycles that are best developed within the transgressive systems tract of the upper sequence. Vertical facies distribution and their paleobathymetry and geophysical log signatures of the Fahliyan formation in the Darkhowain platform reveal the presence of two unconformity-bounded depositional sequences in Vail et al., Van Wagoner et al., and Sarg. The Fahliyan formation mainly consists of platform carbonates composed of restricted bioclastic lime mudstone to packstone of the platform interior, Lithocodium boundstone or ooid-intraclast-bioclast grainstone of the high energy platform margin and the bioclast packstone to lime mudstone related to the off-platform setting.

  7. Zeta potential in oil-water-carbonate systems and its impact on oil recovery during controlled salinity water-flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Matthew D.; Al-Mahrouqi, Dawoud; Vinogradov, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Laboratory experiments and field trials have shown that oil recovery from carbonate reservoirs can be increased by modifying the brine composition injected during recovery in a process termed controlled salinity water-flooding (CSW). However, CSW remains poorly understood and there is no method to predict the optimum CSW composition. This work demonstrates for the first time that improved oil recovery (IOR) during CSW is strongly correlated to changes in zeta potential at both the mineral-water and oil-water interfaces. We report experiments in which IOR during CSW occurs only when the change in brine composition induces a repulsive electrostatic force between the oil-brine and mineral-brine interfaces. The polarity of the zeta potential at both interfaces must be determined when designing the optimum CSW composition. A new experimental method is presented that allows this. Results also show for the first time that the zeta potential at the oil-water interface may be positive at conditions relevant to carbonate reservoirs. A key challenge for any model of CSW is to explain why IOR is not always observed. Here we suggest that failures using the conventional (dilution) approach to CSW may have been caused by a positively charged oil-water interface that had not been identified.

  8. Zeta potential in oil-water-carbonate systems and its impact on oil recovery during controlled salinity water-flooding.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Matthew D; Al-Mahrouqi, Dawoud; Vinogradov, Jan

    2016-11-23

    Laboratory experiments and field trials have shown that oil recovery from carbonate reservoirs can be increased by modifying the brine composition injected during recovery in a process termed controlled salinity water-flooding (CSW). However, CSW remains poorly understood and there is no method to predict the optimum CSW composition. This work demonstrates for the first time that improved oil recovery (IOR) during CSW is strongly correlated to changes in zeta potential at both the mineral-water and oil-water interfaces. We report experiments in which IOR during CSW occurs only when the change in brine composition induces a repulsive electrostatic force between the oil-brine and mineral-brine interfaces. The polarity of the zeta potential at both interfaces must be determined when designing the optimum CSW composition. A new experimental method is presented that allows this. Results also show for the first time that the zeta potential at the oil-water interface may be positive at conditions relevant to carbonate reservoirs. A key challenge for any model of CSW is to explain why IOR is not always observed. Here we suggest that failures using the conventional (dilution) approach to CSW may have been caused by a positively charged oil-water interface that had not been identified.

  9. Zeta potential in oil-water-carbonate systems and its impact on oil recovery during controlled salinity water-flooding

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Matthew D.; Al-Mahrouqi, Dawoud; Vinogradov, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory experiments and field trials have shown that oil recovery from carbonate reservoirs can be increased by modifying the brine composition injected during recovery in a process termed controlled salinity water-flooding (CSW). However, CSW remains poorly understood and there is no method to predict the optimum CSW composition. This work demonstrates for the first time that improved oil recovery (IOR) during CSW is strongly correlated to changes in zeta potential at both the mineral-water and oil-water interfaces. We report experiments in which IOR during CSW occurs only when the change in brine composition induces a repulsive electrostatic force between the oil-brine and mineral-brine interfaces. The polarity of the zeta potential at both interfaces must be determined when designing the optimum CSW composition. A new experimental method is presented that allows this. Results also show for the first time that the zeta potential at the oil-water interface may be positive at conditions relevant to carbonate reservoirs. A key challenge for any model of CSW is to explain why IOR is not always observed. Here we suggest that failures using the conventional (dilution) approach to CSW may have been caused by a positively charged oil-water interface that had not been identified. PMID:27876833

  10. Effects on water quality due to flood-water detention by Barker and Addicks Reservoirs, Houston, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liscum, Fred; Goss, R.L.; Paul, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    The third approach was a comparison at each site of the mean, maximum, and minimum values computed for seven constituents that did not correlate with discharge. These constituents or properties of water were temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, dissolved oxygen percent saturation, total-coliform bacteria, fecal-conform bacteria, and fecal-streptococci bacteria. The only consistent water-quality changes observed were with the three bacteria groups, which were decreased by flood-water detention.

  11. High-Performance Integrated Control of water quality and quantity in urban water reservoirs by dynamic emulation and model predictive control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelletti, A.; Galelli, S.; Goedbloed, A.

    2015-12-01

    Retention basins and urban reservoirs are increasingly used to support drinking water supply in large metropolitan contexts, since they make use of a resource, i.e., stormwater, that would be otherwise wasted, thus limiting the amount of water extracted from natural systems or produced with energy-intensive techniques. Yet, the operation of these infrastructures faces a twofold challenge. First, the presence of large impervious areas in urban catchments results in high discharge peaks and runoff volumes and a fast runoff response to rainfall, with consequent very short times of concentration. Second, stormwater transports large amount of pollutants to the receiving water bodies. This paper contributes a novel High-Performance Integrated Control framework to support the real-time operation of urban water supply storages affected by water quality problems. We use a 3D hydrodynamic, high-fidelity, simulation model to predict the main water quality dynamics and inform a real-time controller based on Model Predictive Control. We integrate the simulation model into the control scheme by a model reduction process, where the high-fidelity simulator is first used to identify and then replaced by a low-order dynamic emulator, which runs orders of magnitude faster. The framework is used to design the hourly operation of Marina Reservoir, a 3.2 Mm3 stormwater-fed reservoir located in the centre of Singapore operated for drinking water supply and flood control. Because of its recent formation from a former estuary, the reservoir suffers from high salinity levels, whose dynamics is modelled with Delft3D-FLOW. Results show that the real-time operation designed by our framework drops the minimum salinity levels of nearly 30% while reducing the average annual deficit of drinking water supply by about two times the active storage of the reservoir. Such a win-win solution is obtained by means of a model reduction process that reduced the dimensionality of Delft3D-FLOW by three orders

  12. Flood Control, Mississippi River at Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    cont- ., iNOV 16 1982 3 .i be I blaOk and iAtarch 1977 ,- ........... , - s a le ; i 0 t UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (Wften Data...There has been one death directly related to flooding. Other threats to public health and safety are related to traffic congestion, contamination of food ...larger animals, a more diversified subsLstaOc, was L o.cJ bascd on the hunting of smaller mammals and gathering of local pi’int foods on a seasonal basis

  13. Flood information for flood-plain planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bue, Conrad D.

    1967-01-01

    Floods are natural and normal phenomena. They are catastrophic simply because man occupies the flood plain, the highwater channel of a river. Man occupies flood plains because it is convenient and profitable to do so, but he must purchase his occupancy at a price-either sustain flood damage, or provide flood-control facilities. Although large sums of money have been, and are being, spent for flood control, flood damage continues to mount. However, neither complete flood control nor abandonment of the flood plain is practicable. Flood plains are a valuable resource and will continue to be occupied, but the nature and degree of occupancy should be compatible with the risk involved and with the degree of protection that is practicable to provide. It is primarily to meet the needs for defining the risk that the flood-inundation maps of the U.S. Geological Survey are prepared.

  14. Using Chemicals to Optimize Conformance Control in Fractured Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Seright, R.S.

    1999-06-08

    This technical progress report describes work performed from October 1, 1998 through December 31, 1998, for the project, ''Using Chemicals to Optimize Conformance in Fractured Reservoirs.'' In our first task area, disproportionate permeability reduction, a literature survey and analysis are underway to identify options for reducing permeability to water much more than that to oil. In our second task area, we are encouraging the use of our recently developed software for sizing gelant treatments in hydraulically fractured production wells. In several field applications, we noted the importance of obtaining accurate values of the static reservoir pressure before using our program. In our third task area, we examined gel properties as they extruded through fractures. We found stable pressure gradients during injection of a large volume of a one-day-old Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel into a 0.04-in.-wide, four-ft-long fracture. This finding confirms that gel injection (under our specific circumstances) did not lead to continuously increasing pressure gradients and severely limited gel propagation. Our experiments also provided insights into the mechanism for gel propagation during extrusion through fractures.

  15. Understanding satellite-based monthly-to-seasonal reservoir outflow estimation as a function of hydrologic controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnema, Matthew; Sikder, Safat; Miao, Yabin; Chen, Xiaodong; Hossain, Faisal; Ara Pervin, Ismat; Mahbubur Rahman, S. M.; Lee, Hyongki

    2016-05-01

    Growing population and increased demand for water is causing an increase in dam and reservoir construction in developing nations. When rivers cross international boundaries, the downstream stakeholders often have little knowledge of upstream reservoir operation practices. Satellite remote sensing in the form of radar altimetry and multisensor precipitation products can be used as a practical way to provide downstream stakeholders with the fundamentally elusive upstream information on reservoir outflow needed to make important and proactive water management decisions. This study uses a mass balance approach of three hydrologic controls to estimate reservoir outflow from satellite data at monthly and annual time scales: precipitation-induced inflow, evaporation, and reservoir storage change. Furthermore, this study explores the importance of each of these hydrologic controls to the accuracy of outflow estimation. The hydrologic controls found to be unimportant could potentially be neglected from similar future studies. Two reservoirs were examined in contrasting regions of the world, the Hungry Horse Reservoir in a mountainous region in northwest U.S. and the Kaptai Reservoir in a low-lying, forested region of Bangladesh. It was found that this mass balance method estimated the annual outflow of both reservoirs with reasonable skill. The estimation of monthly outflow from both reservoirs was however less accurate. The Kaptai basin exhibited a shift in basin behavior resulting in variable accuracy across the 9 year study period. Monthly outflow estimation from Hungry Horse Reservoir was compounded by snow accumulation and melt processes, reflected by relatively low accuracy in summer and fall, when snow processes control runoff. Furthermore, it was found that the important hydrologic controls for reservoir outflow estimation at the monthly time scale differs between the two reservoirs, with precipitation-induced inflow being the most important control for the Kaptai

  16. The Unare lagoon - A recent example of sequence stratigraphic control in reservoir patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Bejarano, C. )

    1993-02-01

    The Unare lagoon constitutes a barred coastal lagoon formed during the Holocene transgression on a moderate wave energy, microtidal coast. An extensive surface sampling and core drill program has been carried out in the lagoon in order to develop a reservoir sedimentology and sequence stratigraphic model applicable to similar subsurface deposits. During the rapid Halocene sea level rise, more than 70 m of fluvial and delta plain sediments have aggraded behind the landward stepping coastal barrier. These sediments are truncated seaward by a transgressive wave ravinement surface, and are capped by widespread lagoonal muds which accumulated between 8300 and 7250 yBP. These muds constitute the Holocene Maximum Flooding Surface which preceded the onset of the post Holocene stillstand (c. 500[approximately] yBP), probably as a result of the high rate of sediment supply and the confined nature of the lagoon which acted as an efficient sediment trap. During the post Holocene stillstand, a fluvial-dominated delta has prograded across the lagoon and attained the coastal barrier. This delta constitutes a Highstand Systems Tract. The major reservoir sands comprise distributary channel meanderbelts and the transgressive barrier. The channels form sand ribbons 5-7 m thick, and up to 2 km wide. The barrier and shoreface sands forms a strike-elongate deposits less than 5 m thick, up to 150-600 m wide, and 5-10 km long. The lagoonal facies of the Maximum Flooding Surface form a good reservoir seal overlying the aggrading transgressive fluvial and delta plain sands and muds.

  17. The geomorphic effectiveness of a large flood on the Rio Grande in the Big Bend region: insights on geomorphic controls and post-flood geomorphic response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, David J.; Schmidt, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1940s, the Rio Grande in the Big Bend region has undergone long periods of channel narrowing, which have been occasionally interrupted by rare, large floods that widen the channel (termed a channel reset). The most recent channel reset occurred in 2008 following a 17-year period of extremely low stream flow and rapid channel narrowing. Flooding was caused by precipitation associated with the remnants of tropical depression Lowell in the Rio Conchos watershed, the largest tributary to the Rio Grande. Floodwaters approached 1500 m3/s (between a 13 and 15 year recurrence interval) and breached levees, inundated communities, and flooded the alluvial valley of the Rio Grande; the wetted width exceeding 2.5 km in some locations. The 2008 flood had the 7th largest magnitude of record, however, conveyed the largest volume of water than any other flood. Because of the narrow pre-flood channel conditions, record flood stages occurred. We used pre- and post-flood aerial photographs, channel and floodplain surveys, and 1-dimensional hydraulic models to quantify the magnitude of channel change, investigate the controls of flood-induced geomorphic changes, and measure the post-flood response of the widened channel. These analyses show that geomorphic changes included channel widening, meander migration, avulsions, extensive bar formation, and vertical floodplain accretion. Reach-averaged channel widening between 26 and 52% occurred, but in some localities exceeded 500%. The degree and style of channel response was related, but not limited to, three factors: 1) bed-load supply and transport, 2) pre-flood channel plan form, and 3) rapid declines in specific stream power downstream of constrictions and areas of high channel bed slope. The post-flood channel response has consisted of channel contraction through the aggradation of the channel bed and the formation of fine-grained benches inset within the widened channel margins. The most significant post-flood geomorphic

  18. Hydraulic Model Investigation: Walnut Creek Flood-Control Project Contra Costa County, California.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT HL-87-14 WALNUT CREEK FLOOD-CONTROL PROJECT CONTRA COSTA COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Hydraulic Model Investigation by W. G. Davis O11C tLE...34’ : AA Ii iA e d S O a :::: SCALE IN MILES 5 0 5 10 Figure 1. Vicinity map 4~ 4.. %- . " . " %____ WALNUT CREEK FLOOD-CONTROL PROJECT CONTRA COSTA COUNTY...Pleasant Hi-1, nd Martinez, California, on its way to the Suisin Bay. All of th.e planned imcrovements are located in Contra Costa County, California

  19. Geological control on the reservoir characteristics of Olkaria West Geothermal Field, Kenya

    SciTech Connect

    Omenda, Peter A.

    1994-01-20

    The reservoir of the West Olkaria Geothermal Field is hosted within tuffs and the reservoir fluid is characterized by higher concentrations of reservoir CO{sub 2} (10,000-100,000 mg/kg) but lower chloride concentrations of about 200 mg/kg than the East and North East Fields. The West Field is in the outflow and main recharge area of the Olkaria geothermal system. Permeability is generally low in the West Field and its distribution is strongly controlled by the structures. Fault zones show higher permeability with wells drilled within the structures havin larger total mass outputs. However, N-S and NW-SE faults are mainly channels for cold water downflow into the reservoir. Well feeder zones occur mostly at lava-tuff contacts; within fractured lava flows and at the contacts of intrusives and host rocks.

  20. Visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil: rationale and concerns related to reservoir control

    PubMed Central

    Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro

    2014-01-01

    The control of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis is a challenge, particularly in Brazil, where the disease has been gradually spreading across the country over the past 30 years. Strategies employed for decreasing the transmission risk are based on the control of vector populations and reservoirs; since humans are considered unnecessary for the maintenance of transmission. Among the adopted strategies in Brazil, the sacrifice of infected dogs is commonly performed and has been the most controversial measure. In the present study, we provide the rationale for the implementation of different control strategies targeted at reservoir populations and highlight the limitations and concerns associated with each of these strategies. PMID:25372177

  1. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A CO2 FLOOD UTILIZING ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND HORIZONTAL INJECTION WELLS IN A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE APPROACHING WATERFLOOD DEPLETION

    SciTech Connect

    K.J. Harpole; Ed G. Durrett; Susan Snow; J.S. Bles; Carlon Robertson; C.D. Caldwell; D.J. Harms; R.L. King; B.A. Baldwin; D. Wegener; M. Navarrette

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO{sub 2} horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields. The Unit was a mature waterflood with water cut exceeding 95%. Oil must be mobilized through the use of a miscible or near-miscible fluid to recover significant additional reserves. Also, because the unit was relatively small, it did not have the benefit of economies of scale inherent in normal larger scale projects. Thus, new and innovative methods were required to reduce investment and operating costs. Two primary methods used to accomplish improved economics were use of reservoir characterization to restrict the flood to the higher quality rock in the unit and use of horizontal injection wells to cut investment and operating costs. The project consisted of two budget phases. Budget Phase I started in June 1994 and ended late June 1996. In this phase Reservoir Analysis, Characterization Tasks and Advanced Technology Definition Tasks were completed. Completion enabled the project to be designed, evaluated, and an Authority for Expenditure (AFE) for project implementation submitted to working interest owners for approval. Budget Phase II consisted of the implementation and execution of the project in the field. Phase II was completed in July 2001. Performance monitoring, during Phase II, by mid 1998 identified the majority of producing wells which under performed their anticipated withdrawal rates. Newly drilled and re-activated wells had lower offtake rates than originally forecasted. As a result of poor offtake, higher reservoir pressure was a concern

  2. Flood frequency analysis of historical flood data under stationary and non-stationary modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, M. J.; Botero, B. A.; López, J.; Francés, F.; Díez-Herrero, A.; Benito, G.

    2015-06-01

    Historical records are an important source of information on extreme and rare floods and fundamental to establish a reliable flood return frequency. The use of long historical records for flood frequency analysis brings in the question of flood stationarity, since climatic and land-use conditions can affect the relevance of past flooding as a predictor of future flooding. In this paper, a detailed 400 yr flood record from the Tagus River in Aranjuez (central Spain) was analysed under stationary and non-stationary flood frequency approaches, to assess their contribution within hazard studies. Historical flood records in Aranjuez were obtained from documents (Proceedings of the City Council, diaries, chronicles, memoirs, etc.), epigraphic marks, and indirect historical sources and reports. The water levels associated with different floods (derived from descriptions or epigraphic marks) were computed into discharge values using a one-dimensional hydraulic model. Secular variations in flood magnitude and frequency, found to respond to climate and environmental drivers, showed a good correlation between high values of historical flood discharges and a negative mode of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. Over the systematic gauge record (1913-2008), an abrupt change on flood magnitude was produced in 1957 due to constructions of three major reservoirs in the Tagus headwaters (Bolarque, Entrepeñas and Buendia) controlling 80% of the watershed surface draining to Aranjuez. Two different models were used for the flood frequency analysis: (a) a stationary model estimating statistical distributions incorporating imprecise and categorical data based on maximum likelihood estimators, and (b) a time-varying model based on "generalized additive models for location, scale and shape" (GAMLSS) modelling, which incorporates external covariates related to climate variability (NAO index) and catchment hydrology factors (in this paper a reservoir index; RI). Flood frequency

  3. Flood frequency analysis of historical flood data under stationary and non-stationary modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, M. J.; Botero, B. A.; López, J.; Francés, F.; Díez-Herrero, A.; Benito, G.

    2015-01-01

    Historical records are an important source of information about extreme and rare floods with a great value to establish a reliable flood return frequency. The use of long historic records for flood frequency analysis brings in the question of flood stationarity, since climatic and land-use conditions can affect the relevance of past flooding as a predictor of future flooding. In this paper, a detailed 400 year flood record from the Tagus River in Aranjuez (Central Spain) was analysed under stationary and non-stationary flood frequency approaches, to assess their implications on hazard studies. Historical flood records in Aranjuez were obtained from documents (Proceedings of the City Council, diaries, chronicles, memoirs, etc.), epigraphic marks, and indirect historical sources and reports. The water levels associated with different floods (derived from descriptions or epigraphic marks) were computed into discharge values using a one-dimensional hydraulic model. Secular variations on flood magnitude and frequency, found to respond to climate and environmental drivers, showed a good correlation between high values of historical flood discharges and a negative mode of the North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO index). Over the systematic gauge record (1913-2008), an abrupt change on flood magnitude was produced in 1957 due to constructions of three major reservoirs in the Tagus headwaters (Bolarque, Entrepeñas and Buendia) controlling 80% of the watershed surface draining to Aranjuez. Two different models were used for the flood frequency analysis: (a) a stationary model estimating statistical distributions incorporating imprecise and categorical data based on maximum likelihood estimators; (b) a time-varying model based on "generalized additive models for location, scale and shape" (GAMLSS) modelling, that incorporates external covariates related to climate variability (NAO index) and catchment hydrology factors (in this paper a reservoir index; RI). Flood frequency

  4. Floods and Flash Flooding

    MedlinePlus

    Floods and flash flooding Now is the time to determine your area’s flood risk. If you are not sure whether you ... If you are in a floodplain, consider buying flood insurance. Do not drive around barricades. If your ...

  5. 76 FR 39091 - San Luis Obispo Flood Control and Water Conservation District; Notice of Effectiveness of Surrender

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... for a Conduit Hydroelectric Project \\1\\ to the San Luis Obispo Flood Control and Water Conservation District (District) for the Lopez Water Treatment Plant Hydropower Generation Unit Project No. 4804. The... Energy Regulatory Commission San Luis Obispo Flood Control and Water Conservation District; Notice...

  6. 76 FR 19753 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the `Īao Stream Flood Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... ` ao Stream Flood Control Project, Wailuku, Maui, HI AGENCY: Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps of... design deficiency in the existing ` ao Stream Flood Control Project, Wailuku, Maui, HI. This effort is..., Civil and Public Works Branch (CEPOH-PP-C), Building 230, Fort Shafter, HI 96858- 5440....

  7. Seasonal and Spatial Distribution of Zooplankton in a Food Control Reservoir and Tailwater.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    Zooplankton, when available, may be an important food source for fish fry in lotic habitats. The effects of flood control reservior operation on the...not be warranted since the complexity of factors determining reservior zooplankton dynamics precludes their use as a reliable food source for tailwater biota.

  8. Dating sediment in a fast sedimentation reservoir using 137Cs and 210Pb

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 10,000 reservoirs have been constructed in agricultural watersheds in the United States since the 1940s to control floods and sediments. Reservoir sedimentation records provide a unique opportunity to retrospectively study the effects of land use changes and climate variations on sediment produ...

  9. Vector-control response in a post-flood disaster setting, Honiara, Solomon Islands, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Musto, Jennie; Bugoro, Hugo; Butafa, Charles; Sio, Alison; Joshua, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Problem The close quartering and exposed living conditions in evacuation centres and the potential increase in vector density after flooding in Solomon Islands resulted in an increased risk of exposure for the occupants to vectorborne diseases. Context In April 2014, Solomon Islands experienced a flash flooding event that affected many areas and displaced a large number of people. In the capital, Honiara, nearly 10 000 people were housed in emergency evacuation centres at the peak of the post-flood emergency. At the time of the floods, the number of dengue cases was increasing, following a record outbreak in 2013. Action The National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme with the assistance of the World Health Organization implemented an emergency vector-control response plan to provide protection to the at-risk populations in the evacuation centres. The National Surveillance Unit also activated an early warning disease surveillance system to monitor communicable diseases, including dengue and malaria. Outcome Timely and strategic application of the emergency interventions probably prevented an increase in dengue and malaria cases in the affected areas. Discussion Rapid and appropriate precautionary vector-control measures applied in a post-natural disaster setting can prevent and mitigate vectorborne disease incidences. Collecting vector surveillance data allows better analysis of vector-control operations’ effectiveness. PMID:27757255

  10. [Effect of the Runoff-sediment Control of the Xiaolangdi Reservoir on DOC Transport].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-ling; Wang, Ming-shi; Dong, Yu-long

    2015-04-01

    The sampling was carried out in Sanmenxia hydrological station, Xiaolangdi hydrological station and Huayuankou hydrological station from November 2011 to October 2012. The impact of the runoff-sediment control of the Xiaolangdi reservoir on DOC transport,was analyzed. The results were as follows. DOC contents in Sanmenxia station, Xiaolangdi station and Huayuankou station were 1.97-2.71 mg-L(-1), 1.87-2.76 mg x L(-1) and 2.07-2.93 mg x L(-1), respectively, during the normal operation period of Xiaolangdi Reservoir and Sanmenxia reservoir, and the DOC content in the three reservoirs had obvious seasonal change. DOC contents in the three stations were 2.14-3.32 mg x L(-1), 2.21-2.84 mg x L(-1) and 2.11-2.84 mg x L(-1), respectively, during the runoff-sediment control, and the DOC content in the sediment-releasing period of reservoir was higher than that in the water-releasing period of reservoir. DOC content had no significant correlation with TSS and flow either during the normal operation or during the water-sediment regulation of the reservoir. But the DOC content had significant correlation with water temperature during the normal operation of the reservoir. DOC flux in Sanmenxia station was similar to that in Xiaolangdi station from November to March. DOC flux in Sanmenxia station was obviously less than that in Xiaolangdi station from April to July. And the DOC flux in Sanmenxia station was much higher than that in Xiaolangdi station from August to October. The result showed that DOC was retained from August to October by Xiaolangdi reservoir and discharged from Xiaolangdi reservoir from April to July. The yearly DOC fluxes were 8.6 x 10(10), 9.0 x 10(10) and 9.7 x 10(10) g respectively in Sanmenxia station, Xiaolangdi station and Huayuankou station. The DOC flux of Sanmenxia station was the highest in September, which accounted for 22.0% of the yearly DOC flux, and the DOC flux of Xiaolangdi station was the highest in June, which accounted for 17.6% of the

  11. Flood control projects in Bangladesh: reasons for failure and recommendations for improvement.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M M; Siddique, M A

    1995-09-01

    Flood control and drainage projects in Bangladesh are intended to give protection from main river floods, flash floods in the east and northeast of the country, and saline intrusion in the lower delta and to improve drainage in order to avoid crop damage. While in some cases such projects have had positive results, in many others their benefits have fallen well below expectations. One of the major reasons for the poor performance of projects is embankment failure, brought about by poor planning, design, construction, operation and maintenance. Recommended measures to improve the efficiency of projects include the involvement of local people in the planning and operation of projects, better training of management staff and the allocation of adequate funds for maintenance.

  12. Improving Gas Flooding Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Reid Grigg; Robert Svec; Zheng Zeng; Alexander Mikhalin; Yi Lin; Guoqiang Yin; Solomon Ampir; Rashid Kassim

    2008-03-31

    This study focuses on laboratory studies with related analytical and numerical models, as well as work with operators for field tests to enhance our understanding of and capabilities for more efficient enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Much of the work has been performed at reservoir conditions. This includes a bubble chamber and several core flood apparatus developed or modified to measure interfacial tension (IFT), critical micelle concentration (CMC), foam durability, surfactant sorption at reservoir conditions, and pressure and temperature effects on foam systems.Carbon dioxide and N{sub 2} systems have been considered, under both miscible and immiscible conditions. The injection of CO2 into brine-saturated sandstone and carbonate core results in brine saturation reduction in the range of 62 to 82% brine in the tests presented in this paper. In each test, over 90% of the reduction occurred with less than 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected, with very little additional brine production after 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected. Adsorption of all considered surfactant is a significant problem. Most of the effect is reversible, but the amount required for foaming is large in terms of volume and cost for all considered surfactants. Some foams increase resistance to the value beyond what is practical in the reservoir. Sandstone, limestone, and dolomite core samples were tested. Dissolution of reservoir rock and/or cement, especially carbonates, under acid conditions of CO2 injection is a potential problem in CO2 injection into geological formations. Another potential change in reservoir injectivity and productivity will be the precipitation of dissolved carbonates as the brine flows and pressure decreases. The results of this report provide methods for determining surfactant sorption and can be used to aid in the determination of surfactant requirements for reservoir use in a CO{sub 2}-foam flood for mobility control. It also provides data to be used to determine rock permeability

  13. Depositional, diagenetic, and tectonic controls on Frontier Formation reservoir characteristics: Moxa Arch, southwestern Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    The Frontier Formation of the Moxa Arch in Southwestern Wyoming provides an excellent example of the interplay among sedimentation, diagenesis, and tectonics on reservoir quality and performance. During the Cretaceous, thrust uplift and crustal loading occurred in the Sevier Orogenic Belt to the west of the foreland basin. The thrust sheets provided ample sediment to the Moxa Arch area during Frontier time. These sediments accumulated in wave-dominated deltaic, strandplain, coastalplain, and incised valley-fill depositional environments. The tectonic activity in the Sevier Orogenic Belt caused recurrent differential movement of orthogonally-shaped basement blocks along the Moxa Arch. These Movements created fractured lineaments at block boundaries. In addition, the recurrent movements of basement blocks influenced paleostructuring, diagenetic fluid migration paths, and sediment dispersal patterns of the Frontier. The depositional facies of Frontier sediments control the primary porosity and permeability trends of Frontier reservoirs along the Moxa Arch. Post depositional fractures caused by recurrent differential movements along zones of weakness at basement block boundaries secondarily enhance permeability and performance characteristics of Frontier reservoirs. Both the depositional facies and post-depositional fracturing of the Frontier influence the diagenetic trends affecting secondary porosity and permeability characteristics of Frontier reservoirs along the Moxa Arch. It is this complicated interplay of depositional, tectonic, and diagenetic influences that control the characteristics of Frontier reservoirs along the Moxa Arch.

  14. Model Study on Potential Contributions of the Proposed Huangpu Gate to Flood Control in Taihu Lake Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Zhang, H.; Ye, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Taihu Lake basin, one of the most developed and dynamic regions, is located in the hinterland of the Yangtze River Delta, Eastern China. The largest flood in history is the 1999 flood event with a return period of 1 in 200 years, which is above the current capacity of flooding defense in the basin with a return period of 1 in 50 years. Due to its flat saucer-like terrain, the capacity of the flood control system is dependent on the flood defense infrastructure and the peripheral tidal conditions. The Huangpu River, connecting the Taihu Lake and the Yangtze River, is one of the major drains, which is strongly influenced by high tide conditions in the coastal waters of the Yangtze River. Hence, constructing an estuary gate is considered one of the effective solutions to the flooding problem in the basin. This paper aims to quantitatively analyze the potential contributions of the proposed Huangpu gate to flood control capacity of the basin under various flooding scenarios. It is concluded that the Huangpu gate is an effective mean to evacuate the floodwaters, by reducing peak levels in the upper part of the tide-affected river. It's beneficiaries include the Taihu Lake, the related surrounding areas along the Taipu Canal and the Huangpu River basin. Keywords: Flood control, Estuary gate, Taihu Lake Basin, Scenario analysis, Tide intrusion

  15. Subtask 1.17 - Measurement of Hydrocarbon Evolution from Coal and Petroleum Reservoirs Under Carbon Dioxide Floods

    SciTech Connect

    Steven B. Hawthorne

    2006-12-31

    The project developed, built, and tested three apparatuses for studying different interactions of carbon dioxide with geologic materials. In Year 1, an online instrument was constructed by coupling a high-pressure carbon dioxide extraction system with a flame ionization detector that can yield a real-time profile and quantitative measurements of hydrocarbons removed from materials such as coal and petroleum reservoir rock. In Years 2 and 3, one instrument was built to measure the excess sorption of carbon dioxide in geologic materials such as coal and showed that measurable uptake of carbon dioxide into the coal matrix is rapid. The final apparatus was built to expose geologic materials to carbon dioxide for long periods of time (weeks to months) under the range of pressures and temperatures relevant to carbon dioxide sequestration. The apparatus allows as many as twenty gram-sized samples of geologic materials to be exposed simultaneously and can also include exposures with geologic brines. The system was used to demonstrate complete conversion of magnesium silicate to magnesium carbonate in less than 4 weeks when exposed to clean water or brine, compared to no measurable conversion of dry magnesium carbonate.

  16. Growing magma chambers control the distribution of small-scale flood basalts.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xun; Chen, Li-Hui; Zeng, Gang

    2015-11-19

    Small-scale continental flood basalts are a global phenomenon characterized by regular spatio-temporal distributions. However, no genetic mechanism has been proposed to explain the visible but overlooked distribution patterns of these continental basaltic volcanism. Here we present a case study from eastern China, combining major and trace element analyses with Ar-Ar and K-Ar dating to show that the spatio-temporal distribution of small-scale flood basalts is controlled by the growth of long-lived magma chambers. Evolved basalts (SiO2 > 47.5 wt.%) from Xinchang-Shengzhou, a small-scale Cenozoic flood basalt field in Zhejiang province, eastern China, show a northward younging trend over the period 9.4-3.0 Ma. With northward migration, the magmas evolved only slightly ((Na2O + K2O)/MgO = 0.40-0.66; TiO2/MgO = 0.23-0.35) during about 6 Myr (9.4-3.3 Ma). When the flood basalts reached the northern end of the province, the magmas evolved rapidly (3.3-3.0 Ma) through a broad range of compositions ((Na2O + K2O)/MgO = 0.60-1.28; TiO2/MgO = 0.30-0.57). The distribution and two-stage compositional evolution of the migrating flood basalts record continuous magma replenishment that buffered against magmatic evolution and induced magma chamber growth. Our results demonstrate that the magma replenishment-magma chamber growth model explains the spatio-temporal distribution of small-scale flood basalts.

  17. Growing magma chambers control the distribution of small-scale flood basalts

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xun; Chen, Li-Hui; Zeng, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Small-scale continental flood basalts are a global phenomenon characterized by regular spatio-temporal distributions. However, no genetic mechanism has been proposed to explain the visible but overlooked distribution patterns of these continental basaltic volcanism. Here we present a case study from eastern China, combining major and trace element analyses with Ar–Ar and K–Ar dating to show that the spatio-temporal distribution of small-scale flood basalts is controlled by the growth of long-lived magma chambers. Evolved basalts (SiO2 > 47.5 wt.%) from Xinchang–Shengzhou, a small-scale Cenozoic flood basalt field in Zhejiang province, eastern China, show a northward younging trend over the period 9.4–3.0 Ma. With northward migration, the magmas evolved only slightly ((Na2O + K2O)/MgO = 0.40–0.66; TiO2/MgO = 0.23–0.35) during about 6 Myr (9.4–3.3 Ma). When the flood basalts reached the northern end of the province, the magmas evolved rapidly (3.3–3.0 Ma) through a broad range of compositions ((Na2O + K2O)/MgO = 0.60–1.28; TiO2/MgO = 0.30–0.57). The distribution and two-stage compositional evolution of the migrating flood basalts record continuous magma replenishment that buffered against magmatic evolution and induced magma chamber growth. Our results demonstrate that the magma replenishment–magma chamber growth model explains the spatio-temporal distribution of small-scale flood basalts. PMID:26581905

  18. Bassett Creek Watershed, Hennepin County, Minnesota. Feasibility Report for Flood Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-01

    adopted by most of the communities in the Bassett Creek watershed. In addition, all of the communities in the watershed are in the process of preparing...control on Bassett Creek. I h. A limited Archaeological Reconnaissance for the Bassett Creek watershed flood control area was conducted in November, 1975...by the St. Paul District Corps of Engineers. Nothing of historical or archaeological significance was found. However, a potential for culturally

  19. A Constrained Differential Evolution Algorithm for Reservoir Management: Optimal Placement and Control of Wells for Geological Carbon Storage with Uncertainty in Reservoir Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cihan, A.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Bianchi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Injection of large volume of CO2 into deep geological reservoirs for geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) is expected to cause significant pressure perturbations in subsurface. Large-scale pressure increases in injection reservoirs during GCS operations, if not controlled properly, may limit dynamic storage capacity and increase risk of environmental impacts. The high pressure may impact caprock integrity, induce fault slippage, and cause leakage of brine and/or CO2 into shallow fresh groundwater resources. Thus, monitoring and controlling pressure buildup are critically important for environmentally safe implementation of GCS projects. Extraction of native brine during GCS operations is a pressure management approach to reduce significant pressure buildup. Extracted brine can be transferred to the surface for utilization or re-injected into overlying/underlying saline aquifers. However, pumping, transportation, treatment and disposal of extracted brine can be challenging and costly. Therefore, minimizing volume of extracted brine, while maximizing CO2 storage, is an essential objective of the pressure management with brine extraction schemes. Selection of optimal well locations and extraction rates are critical for maximizing storage and minimizing brine extraction during GCS. However, placing of injection and extraction wells is not intuitive because of heterogeneity in reservoir properties and complex reservoir geometry. Efficient computerized algorithms combining reservoir models and optimization methods are needed to make proper decisions on well locations and control parameters. This study presents a global optimization methodology for pressure management during geologic CO2 sequestration. A constrained differential evolution (CDE) algorithm is introduced for solving optimization problems involving well placement and injection/extraction control. The CDE methodology is tested and applied for realistic CO2 storage scenarios with the presence of uncertainty in

  20. Life in the balance: a signaling network controlling survival of flooding.

    PubMed

    Bailey-Serres, Julia; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J

    2010-10-01

    Recent reports on responses to flooding, submergence, and low-oxygen stress have connected components in an essential regulatory network that underlies plasticity in growth and metabolism essential for the survival of distinct flooding regimes. Here, we discuss growth under severe oxygen-limited conditions (anaerobic growth) and less oxygen-deficient underwater conditions (ethylene-driven underwater growth). Low-oxygen stress causes an energy and carbohydrate crisis that must be controlled through regulated consumption of carbohydrates and energy reserves. In rice (Oryza sativa L.), low-oxygen stress, energy homeostasis and growth are connected by a calcineurin B-like interacting binding kinase (CIPK) in seeds germinated under water. In shoots, two opposing adaptive strategies to submergence, elongation (escape) and inhibition of elongation (quiescence), are controlled by related ethylene response factor (ERF) DNA binding proteins that act downstream of ethylene and modulate gibberellin-mediated shoot growth. Increased resolution of the flooding signaling network will require more precise investigation of the interactions between oxygen tension and cellular energy status in regulation of anaerobic metabolism and ethylene-driven growth, both essential to survival in variable flooding environments.

  1. Optimal nonpoint source pollution control strategies for a reservoir watershed in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Cheng-Daw; Yang, Wan-Fa

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a model for optimal nonpoint source pollution control for the Fei-Tsui Reservoir watershed in Northern Taiwan. Several structural best management practices (BMPs) are selected to treat stormwater runoff. The complete model consists of two interacting components: an optimization model based on discrete differential dynamic programming (DDDP) and a zero-dimensional reservoir water quality model. A predefined procedure is used to locate suitable sites for construction of various selected BMPs in the watershed. In the optimization model, the objective function is to find the best combination of BMP type and placement, which minimizes the total construction and operation, maintenance, and repair (OMR) costs of the BMPs. The constraints are the water quality standards for total phosphorus (TP) and total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations in the reservoir. A zero-dimensional reservoir water quality model of the Vollenweider type is embedded in the optimization framework to simulate pollutant concentrations in Fei-Tsui Reservoir. The resulting optimal cost and benefit of water quality improvement are depicted by the model-derived trade-off curves. The modeling framework developed in the present study could be used as an efficient tool for planning a watershed-wide implementation of BMPs for mitigating stormwater pollution impact on the receiving water bodies.

  2. Structural controls on fractured coal reservoirs in the southern Appalachian Black Warrior foreland basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groshong, R.H.; Pashin, J.C.; McIntyre, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Coal is a nearly impermeable rock type for which the production of fluids requires the presence of open fractures. Basin-wide controls on the fractured coal reservoirs of the Black Warrior foreland basin are demonstrated by the variability of maximum production rates from coalbed methane wells. Reservoir behavior depends on distance from the thrust front. Far from the thrust front, normal faults are barriers to fluid migration and compartmentalize the reservoirs. Close to the thrust front, rates are enhanced along some normal faults, and a new trend is developed. The two trends have the geometry of conjugate strike-slip faults with the same ??1 direction as the Appalachian fold-thrust belt and are inferred to be the result of late pure-shear deformation of the foreland. Face cleat causes significant permeability anisotropy in some shallow coal seams but does not produce a map-scale production trend. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Structurally controlled and aligned tight gas reservoir compartmentalization in the San Juan and Piceance Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, A.D.; Kuuskraa, V.A.; Klawitter, A.L.

    1995-10-01

    Recurrent basement faulting is the primary controlling mechanism for aligning and compartmentalizing upper Cretaceous aged tight gas reservoirs of the San Juan and Piceance Basins. Northwest trending structural lineaments that formed in conjunction with the Uncompahgre Highlands have profoundly influenced sedimentation trends and created boundaries for gas migration; sealing and compartmentalizing sedimentary packages in both basins. Fractures which formed over the structural lineaments provide permeability pathways which allowing gas recovery from otherwise tight gas reservoirs. Structural alignments and associated reservoir compartments have been accurately targeted by integrating advanced remote sensing imagery, high resolution aeromagnetics, seismic interpretation, stratigraphic mapping and dynamic structural modelling. This unifying methodology is a powerful tool for exploration geologists and is also a systematic approach to tight gas resource assessment in frontier basins.

  4. Flood control embankments contribute to the improvement of the health status of children in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Myaux, J A; Ali, M; Chakraborty, J; de Francisco, A

    1997-01-01

    Every year, Bangladesh experiences major floods that inundate about one-third of the country. Therefore, flood control projects that comprise earthen dikes and irrigation/drainage systems are built along the major rivers to protect the people living in low-lying areas, stabilize the river banks and improve agricultural productivity. However, the adverse effects of these projects are regularly emphasized, such as environmental degradation and reduction of fishing supplies. The Demographic Surveillance System of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) was used to assess the effect of a flood control programme on the mortality of 0-4-year-old children residing in the Matlab study area. Adjusted mortality rates were used in comparing four adjacent child populations residing either inside or outside a flood-control embankment and according to the type of health services provided in this area. Between the periods 1983-86 and 1989-92, the crude child mortality in the total study area decreased by 37%, from 185.9 per 1000 live births to 117.9 per 1000 live births. Following the construction of the embankment, death rates outside were up to 29% higher in 1-4-year-old children and 9% higher for 0-4-year age group compared to the flood-protected area (P < 0.001). Simultaneously, in the same study area, health interventions contributed to a 40% reduction in mortality among children less than 5 years of age in all causes of deaths (P < 0.001). Migration patterns and the effect of distances to the hospital are discussed.

  5. An Analytical Framework for Flood Water Conservation Considering Forecast Uncertainty and Acceptable Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, W.; Zhang, C.

    2015-12-01

    Reservoir water levels are usually not allowed to exceed the flood limited water level (FLWL) during flood season, which neglects the meteorological and real-time forecast information and leads to the great waste of water resources. With the development of weather forecasting, hydrologic modeling, and hydro-climatic teleconnection, the streamflow forecast precision have improved a lot, which provides the technical support for the flood water utilization. This paper addresses how much flood water can be conserved for use after the flood season through the operation of reservoir based on uncertain forecast information by taking into account the residual flood control capacity (the difference between flood conveyance capacity and the expected inflow in a lead time). A two-stage model for dynamic control of the flood limited water level (the maximum allowed water level during the flood season, DC-FLWL) is established considering forecast uncertainty and acceptable flood risk. It is found that DC-FLWL is applicable when the reservoir inflow ranges from small to medium levels of the historical records, while both forecast uncertainty and acceptable risk in the downstream affect the feasible space of DC-FLWL. As forecast uncertainty increases (under a given risk level) or as acceptable risk level decreases (under a given forecast uncertainty level), the minimum required safety margin for flood control increases, and the chance for DC-FLWL decreases. The derived hedging rules from the modeling framework illustrate either the dominant role of water conservation or flood control or the tradeoff between the two objectives under different levels of forecast uncertainty and acceptable risk. These rules may provide useful guidelines for conserving water from flood, especially in the area with heavy water stress.

  6. Operational flood control of a low-lying delta system using large time step Model Predictive Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xin; van Overloop, Peter-Jules; Negenborn, Rudy R.; van de Giesen, Nick

    2015-01-01

    The safety of low-lying deltas is threatened not only by riverine flooding but by storm-induced coastal flooding as well. For the purpose of flood control, these deltas are mostly protected in a man-made environment, where dikes, dams and other adjustable infrastructures, such as gates, barriers and pumps are widely constructed. Instead of always reinforcing and heightening these structures, it is worth considering making the most of the existing infrastructure to reduce the damage and manage the delta in an operational and overall way. In this study, an advanced real-time control approach, Model Predictive Control, is proposed to operate these structures in the Dutch delta system (the Rhine-Meuse delta). The application covers non-linearity in the dynamic behavior of the water system and the structures. To deal with the non-linearity, a linearization scheme is applied which directly uses the gate height instead of the structure flow as the control variable. Given the fact that MPC needs to compute control actions in real-time, we address issues regarding computational time. A new large time step scheme is proposed in order to save computation time, in which different control variables can have different control time steps. Simulation experiments demonstrate that Model Predictive Control with the large time step setting is able to control a delta system better and much more efficiently than the conventional operational schemes.

  7. CO2 Injection Into CH4 Hydrate Reservoirs: Quantifying Controls of Micro-Scale Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigalke, N. K.; Deusner, C.; Kossel, E.; Haeckel, M.

    2014-12-01

    The exchangeability of methane for carbon dioxide in gas hydrates opens the possibility of producing emission-neutral hydrocarbon energy. Recent field tests have shown that the production of natural gas from gas hydrates is feasible via injection of carbon dioxide into sandy, methane-hydrate-bearing sediment strata. Industrial-scale application of this method requires identification of thermo- and fluid-dynamic as well as kinetic controls on methane yield from and carbon dioxide retention within the reservoir. Extraction of gas via injection of carbon dioxide into the hydrate reservoir triggers a number of macroscopic effects, which are revealed for example by changes of the hydraulic conductivity and geomechanical stability. Thus far, due to analytical limitations, localized reactions and fluid-flow phenomena held responsible for these effects remain unresolved on the microscale (1 µm - 1 mm) and at near-natural reservoir conditions. We address this deficit by showing results from high-resolution, two-dimensional Raman spectroscopy mappings of an artificial hydrate reservoir during carbon dioxide injection under realistic reservoir conditions. The experiments allow us to resolve hydrate conversion rate and efficiency as well as activation of fluid pathways in space and time and their effect on methane yield, carbon-dioxide retention and hydraulic conductivity of the reservoir. We hypothesize that the conversion of single hydrate grains is a diffusion-controlled process which starts at the grain surface before continuing into the grain interior and show that the conversion can be modeled simply by using published permeation coefficients for CO2 and CH4 in hydrate and grain size as only input parameters.

  8. A methodology to evaluate regional hydraulic controls on flow from hydrocarbon reservoirs into overlying aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Fryar, A.E.; Kreitler, C.W.; Akhter, M.C.

    1994-09-01

    Because drilling, completion, and abandonment practices for oil and gas wells have improved over the past century, some older abandoned wells may be mechanically deficient or inadequately plugged, thus posing a risk of contamination to underground sources of drinking water. The risk of saltwater contamination of freshwater aquifers through inadequately plugged, abandoned wells increases if the hydraulic potential of the oil- and-gas-bearing brine formations is higher than that in the overlying freshwater aquifers. First, average regional potentiometric surfaces of aquifers and reservoirs are generated from aquifer water-level measurements and the conversion of bottom-hole pressure measurements from oil and gas reservoirs to hydraulic heads. Next, differences in hydraulic heads between aquifers and reservoirs are calculated to delineate regional residual areas of upward (positive) or downward (negative) hydraulic gradients. Third, locations of abandoned wells and class II injection wells are plotted relative to residuals to examine where water flooding, pressure maintenance, and saltwater disposal may cause or exacerbate the potential for upward flow. Three areas were used as case studies for testing the method. Positive residuals in the South Texas basin (informally defined to include the Val Verde basin, Maverick basin, part of the Rio Grande Salt basin, and the Austin Chalk trend) result from natural geopressuring in formations deeper than 6000 ft, which are negligibly affected by class II injection wells. Positive residuals in the greater Permian basin (including the northwestern shelf, Delaware basin, part of the Palo Duro basin, Central Basin platform, Midland basin, southern shelf, and Fort Worth basin) may reflect injection for enhanced recovery in the west and natural hydrologic processes in the eastern shelf region. Residual surfaces for the San Juan basin indicate several areas with a natural potential for upward migration of brine.

  9. Rhizosphere dynamics of two riparian plant species from the water fluctuation zone of Three Gorges Reservoir, P.R. China - pH, oxygen and LMWOA monitoring during short flooding events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Christina M.; Schurr, Ulrich; Zeng, Bo; Höltkemeier, Agnes; Kuhn, Arnd J.

    2010-05-01

    Since the construction of the Three Gorges Dam at the Yangtze River in China, the reservoir management created a new 30m water fluctuation zone 45-75m above the original water level. Only species well adapted to long-time flooding (up to several months) will be able to vegetate the river banks and replace the original vegetation. To investigate how common species of the riverbanks cope with submergence, Alternanthera philoxeroides Mart. and Arundinella anomala Steud., two flooding resistant riparian species, have been examined in a rhizotron environment. Short-time (2 days waterlogging, 2 days flooding, 2 days recovery) flooding cycles in the original substrate and long time (14 days waterlogging, flooding, recovery) flooding cycles, in original substrate and sterile glass bead substrate, have been simulated in floodable two-way access rhizotrons. Oxygen- and pH-sensitive foils (planar optodes, PreSens) automatically monitored root reaction in a confined space (2cm2 each) on the backside of the rhizotron, while soil solution samples were taken 2 times a day from the other side of the rhizotron at the corresponding area through filter and steel capillaries. The samples were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis for low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA, i.e. oxalic, formic, succinic, malic, acetic, glyoxylic, lactic and citric acid). Results show diurnal rhythms of rhizospheric acidification for both species in high resolution, combined with oxygen entry into the root surrounding during waterlogged state. Flooding caused stronger acidification in the rhizosphere, that were however not accompanied by increased occurrence of LMWOA except for acetic and glyoxylic acid. First results from longer flooding periods show stable diurnal rhythms during waterlogging, but no strongly increased activity during the flooding event. Performance of the two species is not hampered by being waterlogged, and they follow a silencing strategy during a longer phase of anoxia without

  10. Hydrologic Flood Routing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heggen, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses a short classroom-based BASIC program which routes stream flow through a system of channels and reservoirs. The program is suitable for analyses of open channel conveyance systems, flood detention reservoirs, and combinations of the two. (Author/JN)

  11. Dam Safety Program Flood Control Project Pine River Dam and Reservoir

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Hay, Ox, Loon , and Pig. These lakes are generally connected by shallow, narrow channels, maintained to allow boat passage. a. Pine River Dam Pine...the inundation area during the PMF includes areas adjacent to Velvet Lake, Big Bird Lake, Greer Lake, Big Pine Lake, Bass Lake, and Google Lake. The

  12. Reservoir Storage Determination by Computer Simulation of Flood Control and Conservation Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    L. R. Beard (Aug 1972) #35 COMPUTER MODELS FOR RAINFAt.L-RU11OFF AND RIVER HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS, Darryl W. Davis (Mar 1973) #36 EVALUATION OF DROUGHT ... EFFECTS AT LAKE ATITLAN, Arlen D. Feldman (Sep 1972) #37 DOWNSTREAM EFFECTS OF THE LEVEE OVERTOPPING AT WILKES-BARRE, PA, DURING TROPICAL STORM AGNES

  13. POLLUTION PREVENTION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT AT THE U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS JOHN H. KERR DAM AND RESERVOIR - BOYDTON, VIRGINIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the results of pollution prevention opportunity assessments conducted at a representative U.S. Army Corps of Engineers civil works facilities including a flood control reservoir and associated public use areas. ecommended methods for reducing pollution result...

  14. The influence of controlled floods on fine sediment storage in debris fan-affected canyons of the Colorado River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, Erich R.; Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Alexander, Jason S.; Kaplinski, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Prior to the construction of large dams on the Green and Colorado Rivers, annual floods aggraded sandbars in lateral flow-recirculation eddies with fine sediment scoured from the bed and delivered from upstream. Flows greater than normal dam operations may be used to mimic this process in an attempt to increase time-averaged sandbar size. These controlled floods may rebuild sandbars, but sediment deficit conditions downstream from the dams restrict the frequency that controlled floods produce beneficial results. Here, we integrate complimentary, long-term monitoring data sets from the Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons downstream from Glen Canyon dam and the Green River in the Canyon of Lodore downstream from Flaming Gorge dam. Since the mid-1990s, several controlled floods have occurred in these canyon rivers. These controlled floods scour fine sediment from the bed and build sandbars in eddies, thus increasing channel relief. These changes are short-lived, however, as interflood dam operations erode sandbars within several months to years. Controlled flood response and interflood changes in bed elevation are more variable in Marble Canyon and Grand Canyon, likely reflecting more variable fine sediment supply and stronger transience in channel bed sediment storage. Despite these differences, neither system shows a trend in fine-sediment storage during the period in which controlled floods were monitored. These results demonstrate that controlled floods build eddy sandbars and increase channel relief for short interflood periods, and this response may be typical in other dam-influenced canyon rivers. The degree to which these features persist depends on the frequency of controlled floods, but careful consideration of sediment supply is necessary to avoid increasing the long-term sediment deficit.

  15. The influence of controlled floods on fine sediment storage in debris fan-affected canyons of the Colorado River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Erich R.; Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Alexander, Jason S.; Kaplinski, Matt

    2014-12-01

    Prior to the construction of large dams on the Green and Colorado Rivers, annual floods aggraded sandbars in lateral flow-recirculation eddies with fine sediment scoured from the bed and delivered from upstream. Flows greater than normal dam operations may be used to mimic this process in an attempt to increase time-averaged sandbar size. These controlled floods may rebuild sandbars, but sediment deficit conditions downstream from the dams restrict the frequency that controlled floods produce beneficial results. Here, we integrate complimentary, long-term monitoring data sets from the Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons downstream from Glen Canyon dam and the Green River in the Canyon of Lodore downstream from Flaming Gorge dam. Since the mid-1990s, several controlled floods have occurred in these canyon rivers. These controlled floods scour fine sediment from the bed and build sandbars in eddies, thus increasing channel relief. These changes are short-lived, however, as interflood dam operations erode sandbars within several months to years. Controlled flood response and interflood changes in bed elevation are more variable in Marble Canyon and Grand Canyon, likely reflecting more variable fine sediment supply and stronger transience in channel bed sediment storage. Despite these differences, neither system shows a trend in fine-sediment storage during the period in which controlled floods were monitored. These results demonstrate that controlled floods build eddy sandbars and increase channel relief for short interflood periods, and this response may be typical in other dam-influenced canyon rivers. The degree to which these features persist depends on the frequency of controlled floods, but careful consideration of sediment supply is necessary to avoid increasing the long-term sediment deficit.

  16. Geochemical and geological control on filling history of Eocene reservoirs, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Alberdi, M.; Maguregui, J.; Toro, C.; Marquina, M.

    1996-08-01

    Crude oils of Eocene fluvio-deltaic reservoirs in {open_quotes}Bloque V{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Centro Lago{close_quotes} fields in the center of the Maracaibo Lake show many differences in composition, which are due to stratigraphically and structurally controlled reservoir geometry and a low rate of in-reservoir mixing of at least two successive petroleum charges. Oils produced from the top of structural highs contain 18(H) oleanane, higher Pr/Ph and C{sub 23-3}/C{sub 24-4} ratios, a lower proportion of DBT/P compounds, and clearly different fingerprint patterns in the C{sub 6}-C{sub 15} range, than those observed in oils produced from the lower parts of the structures. These compositional differences suggest that two source rocks, or two distinctive organic facies within the same Cretaceous La Luna Formation, generated and filled vertically poorly connected Eocene reservoirs. On the other hand, saturate-biomarkers ratios, triaromatics (C{sub 21}/C{sub 21}+C{sub 28}), n-paraffins (n-C{sub 20}/n-C{sub 29}) and n-heptane index suggest that oils in upper reservoirs are slightly less mature than oils in lower reservoirs and, consequently filled the structure first. Additional evidence from formation water analysis and tectonic basin evolution allow us to interpret at least two petroleum pulses from Cretaceous source rocks during Upper Miocene to present day kitchens located in the Andes foredeep at the southeast of the study area.

  17. STUDY ON FLOOD CONTROL PROPERTIES OF PERMEABLE PAVEMENT USING SATURATED-UNSATURATED SEEPAGE ANALYSIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Takao; Nishiyama, Satoshi; Ohnishi, Yuzo; Nakashima, Shinichiro; Moriishi, Kazushi; Wada, Minoru

    The rainfall storage and infiltration facility of permeable pavement have been attracted attention as a control measure of flood and an environmental improvement measure in urban areas. However, rainfall infiltration of permeable pavement is unsteady flow and strongly dependent on the behavior of unsaturated zones in the pavement. Moreover, the wet condition of subbase course also has a great influence on the rainfall infiltration of the pavement. That's why previous studies have not made clear the precise the facility of permeable pavement as a flood control. In this paper, experimental studies and simulated analyses were performed to measure the overflow from the pavement under various conditions of rainfall intensities and estimate the rainfall infiltration of the pavement using the measurement data and unsaturated infiltration characteristics of porous asphalt materials. It is clear that this study shows the methods to have a quantitative estimation of the rainfall storage and infiltration facility of permeable pavement.

  18. Measurements, patterns, and controls of nitrogen flux in a cranberry bed during the harvest flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient for cranberry production but also a source of freshwater eutrophication in southeastern Massachusetts. Surface application of N fertilizer is pervasive throughout the cranberry industry, accounting for 93% of total annual N export from farms. The agricultural practice of "wet harvesting", involving the flooding of farms with ~1 ft of water, may promote the vertical transport and transformation of nitrogen in cranberry beds. A cranberry bed at the University of Massachusetts Cranberry Station (East Wareham, MA) has been instrumented with a network of hydrological monitoring equipment for quantifying patterns and controls of nitrogen dynamics during the harvest flood. Here, data of (1) hydraulic head gradient between floodwater and groundwater (J), (2) hydraulic conductivity (K), and (3) N concentration in groundwater (C) collected from multiple points on the cranberry bed will be presented, and used to evaluate the patterns and controls N fluxes (f = JKC) in the cranberry bed.

  19. Understanding Satellite-based Monthly-to-Seasonal Reservoir Outflow Estimation as a function of Hydrologic Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnema, M.; Sikder, M. S.; Hossain, F.; Chen, X.; Miao, Y.; Lee, H.

    2015-12-01

    Growing population and increased demand for water in developing nations is causing an increase in dam construction in these regions. Entities and stakeholders downstream of dams experience drastically altered river flows. When rivers cross international boundaries, these downstream stakeholders often have little knowledge of upstream reservoir operation practices. Satellite remote sensing in the form of radar altimetry and multi-sensor precipitation products can be used as a way to provide downstream stakeholders with the upstream information needed to make important water management decisions. This study uses a mass balance between three hydraulic controls, precipitation induced inflow, evaporation, and reservoir storage change, to estimate reservoir outflow at a monthly time scale. Two reservoirs were examined in differing regions of the world, the Hungry Horse Reservoir in a mountainous region in northwest U.S. and the Kaptai Reservoir in a low-lying, forested region of Bangladesh. It was found that this mass balance method estimated the outflow of Kaptai Reservoir with reasonable skill when compared with observed flows. The estimation of outflow from Hungry Horse Reservoir was similarly skillful for outflows in winter and fall months, but summer and spring outflow estimates had high errors due to snowmelt effects. Furthermore, it was found that the important hydrologic controls for reservoir outflow estimation at the monthly time scale differs between the two reservoirs, with precipitation induced inflow being the most important control for the Kaptai Reservoir and storage change being the most important for Hungry Horse Reservoir. In both cases, a standard energy balance approach of evaporation estimation appeared to have little effect on the accuracy of outflow estimation.

  20. Reservoir controling factors in the Karaha-Telaga Bodas geothermal field, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nemcok, M.; Moore, J.N.; Christensen, Carl; Allis, R.; Powell, T.; Murray, B.; Nash, G.

    2005-01-01

    Karaha - Telaga Bodas geothermal system consists of: 1) a caprock, ranging from several hundred meters to 1600 m thick that is characterized by steep, conductive temperature gradients and low permeabilities; 2) an underlying vapor-dominated zone that extends below sea level; and 3) a deep liquid-dominated zone with measured temperatures up to 353??C. Heat is provided by a 3 km deep tabular granodiorite stock. The effective base of the reservoir is controlled by the stress regime's effect on fractures within volcanic rocks located above the brittle/ductile deformation boundary. The base of the caprock is controlled by the distribution of initially low-permeability lithologies above the reservoir; the extent of pervasive clay alteration that has reduced initial permeabilities; the distribution of secondary minerals deposited by descending waters; and by a downward change from a strike-slip to an extensional stress regime. Producing zones are controlled by both matrix and fracture permeabilities.

  1. Controlling Catalyst Bulk Reservoir Effects for Monolayer Hexagonal Boron Nitride CVD

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Highly controlled Fe-catalyzed growth of monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) films is demonstrated by the dissolution of nitrogen into the catalyst bulk via NH3 exposure prior to the actual growth step. This “pre-filling” of the catalyst bulk reservoir allows us to control and limit the uptake of B and N species during borazine exposure and thereby to control the incubation time and h-BN growth kinetics while also limiting the contribution of uncontrolled precipitation-driven h-BN growth during cooling. Using in situ X-ray diffraction and in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy combined with systematic growth calibrations, we develop an understanding and framework for engineering the catalyst bulk reservoir to optimize the growth process, which is also relevant to other 2D materials and their heterostructures. PMID:26756610

  2. Flood Control, Roseau River, Roseau and Kittson Counties, Minnesota. Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    agricultural base of the area by mitigating agricultural losses due to flooding, by encouraging farmers to bring more land under culti- vation and, perhaps, by...Additional mitigative features for habitat losses have been incorporated into the plan and other possible measures are being discussed with the...structures would be constructed to control erosion. Mitigative features have been incorporated into the project to ameliorate habitat losses and damage to

  3. Effects of Flood Control Works Failure in the Missouri River Basin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    responsibility for North Dakota , South Dakota , Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah (Federal Emergency Management Agency 2014a). 3 The United States...Missouri River basin to the north and west, including portions of Missouri, Colorado, Nebraska, Iowa, Minnesota, South Dakota , North Dakota , Montana...USACEFEMA CommunityPartnership.aspx ( accessed 12 February 2014). 5 Flood control works operated and maintained by non-federal sponsors may

  4. Sacramento River Flood Control Project, California Mid-Valley Area, Phase 3. Design Memorandum Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-06-01

    hydraulic excavator, crane, concrete pumps , loader, transit mixer, water trucks, and miscellaneous equipment. g. For other construction items, drainage...Flood Control Acts of December 1944 and May 1950 and incorporated under Sacramento River and Major and Minor Tributaries. Although construction of the...project was initiated in 1918, many of the levees were originally constructed by local interests prior to that time and subsequently modified and

  5. Control of Microbial Sulfide Production with Biocides and Nitrate in Oil Reservoir Simulating Bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yuan; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Oil reservoir souring by the microbial reduction of sulfate to sulfide is unwanted, because it enhances corrosion of metal infrastructure used for oil production and processing. Reservoir souring can be prevented or remediated by the injection of nitrate or biocides, although injection of biocides into reservoirs is not commonly done. Whether combined application of these agents may give synergistic reservoir souring control is unknown. In order to address this we have used up-flow sand-packed bioreactors injected with 2 mM sulfate and volatile fatty acids (VFA, 3 mM each of acetate, propionate and butyrate) at a flow rate of 3 or 6 pore volumes (PV) per day. Pulsed injection of the biocides glutaraldehyde (Glut), benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and cocodiamine was used to control souring. Souring control was determined as the recovery time (RT) needed to re-establish an aqueous sulfide concentration of 0.8-1 mM (of the 1.7-2 mM before the pulse). Pulses were either for a long time (120 h) at low concentration (long-low) or for a short time (1 h) at high concentration (short-high). The short-high strategy gave better souring control with Glut, whereas the long-low strategy was better with cocodiamine. Continuous injection of 2 mM nitrate alone was not effective, because 3 mM VFA can fully reduce both 2 mM nitrate to nitrite and N2 and, subsequently, 2 mM sulfate to sulfide. No synergy was observed for short-high pulsed biocides and continuously injected nitrate. However, use of continuous nitrate and long-low pulsed biocide gave synergistic souring control with BAC and Glut, as indicated by increased RTs in the presence, as compared to the absence of nitrate. Increased production of nitrite, which increases the effectiveness of souring control by biocides, is the most likely cause for this synergy.

  6. Control of Microbial Sulfide Production with Biocides and Nitrate in Oil Reservoir Simulating Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yuan; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Oil reservoir souring by the microbial reduction of sulfate to sulfide is unwanted, because it enhances corrosion of metal infrastructure used for oil production and processing. Reservoir souring can be prevented or remediated by the injection of nitrate or biocides, although injection of biocides into reservoirs is not commonly done. Whether combined application of these agents may give synergistic reservoir souring control is unknown. In order to address this we have used up-flow sand-packed bioreactors injected with 2 mM sulfate and volatile fatty acids (VFA, 3 mM each of acetate, propionate and butyrate) at a flow rate of 3 or 6 pore volumes (PV) per day. Pulsed injection of the biocides glutaraldehyde (Glut), benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and cocodiamine was used to control souring. Souring control was determined as the recovery time (RT) needed to re-establish an aqueous sulfide concentration of 0.8–1 mM (of the 1.7–2 mM before the pulse). Pulses were either for a long time (120 h) at low concentration (long-low) or for a short time (1 h) at high concentration (short-high). The short-high strategy gave better souring control with Glut, whereas the long-low strategy was better with cocodiamine. Continuous injection of 2 mM nitrate alone was not effective, because 3 mM VFA can fully reduce both 2 mM nitrate to nitrite and N2 and, subsequently, 2 mM sulfate to sulfide. No synergy was observed for short-high pulsed biocides and continuously injected nitrate. However, use of continuous nitrate and long-low pulsed biocide gave synergistic souring control with BAC and Glut, as indicated by increased RTs in the presence, as compared to the absence of nitrate. Increased production of nitrite, which increases the effectiveness of souring control by biocides, is the most likely cause for this synergy. PMID:26696994

  7. California's Yolo Bypass: Evidence that flood control can be compatible with fisheries, wetlands, wildlife, and agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sommer, T.; Harrell, B.; Nobriga, M.; Brown, R.; Moyle, P.B.; Kimmerer, W.; Schemel, Laurence E.

    2001-01-01

    Unlike conventional flood control systems that frequently isolate rivers from ecologically-essential floodplain habitat, California's Yolo Bypass has been engineered to allow Sacramento Valley floodwaters to inundate a broad floodplain. From a flood control standpoint, the 24,000 ha leveed floodplain has been exceptionally successful based on its ability to convey up to 80% of the flow of the Sacramento River basin during high water events. Agricultural lands and seasonal and permanent wetlands within the bypass provide key habitat for waterfowl migrating through the Pacific Flyway. Our field studies demonstrate that the bypass seasonally supports 42 fish species, 15 of which are native. The floodplain appears to be particularly valuable spawning and rearing habitat for the splittail (Pogonichthys macrolepidotus), a federally-listed cyprinid, and for young chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), which use the Yolo Bypass as a nursery area. The system may also be an important source to the downstream food web of the San Francisco Estuary as a result of enhanced production of phytoplankton and detrital material. These results suggest that alternative flood control systems can be designed without eliminating floodplain function and processes, key goals of the 1996 Draft AFS Floodplain Management Position Statement.

  8. Anthropogenic impact on flood-risk: a large-scale assessment for planning controlled inundation strategies along the River Po

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeneghetti, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio; Brath, Armando

    2013-04-01

    The European Flood Directive (2007/60/EC) has fostered the development of innovative and sustainable approaches and methodologies for flood-risk mitigation and management. Furthermore, concerning flood-risk mitigation, the increasing awareness of how the anthropogenic pressures (e.g. demographic and land-use dynamics, uncontrolled urban and industrial expansion on flood-prone area) could strongly increase potential flood damages and losses has triggered a paradigm shift from "defending the territory against flooding" (e.g. by means of levee system strengthening and heightening) to "living with floods" (e.g. promoting compatible land-uses or adopting controlled flooding strategies of areas located outside the main embankments). The assessment of how socio-economic dynamics may influence flood-risk represents a fundamental skill that should be considered for planning a sustainable industrial and urban development of flood-prone areas, reducing their vulnerability and therefore minimizing socio-economic and ecological losses due to large flood events. These aspects, which are of fundamental importance for Institutions and public bodies in charge of Flood Directive requirements, need to be considered through a holistic approach at river basin scale. This study focuses on the evaluation of large-scale flood-risk mitigation strategies for the middle-lower reach of River Po (~350km), the longest Italian river and the largest in terms of streamflow. Due to the social and economical importance of the Po River floodplain (almost 40% of the total national gross product results from this area), our study aims at investigating the potential of combining simplified vulnerability indices with a quasi-2D model for the definition of sustainable and robust flood-risk mitigation strategies. Referring to past (1954) and recent (2006) land-use data sets (e.g. CORINE) we propose simplified vulnerability indices for assessing potential flood-risk of industrial and urbanized flood prone

  9. THE YALOBUSHA RIVER - GRENADA RESERVOIR WATERSHED: SEDIMENT MOVEMENT, ACCUMULATION AND QUALITY IN A MISSISSIPPI INTENSIVE AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined sedimentation rates, watershed contamination contributions and potential impacts of row cropping (cotton, corn, soybeans, and sweet potato) on a small river and a large downstream flood control reservoir in the loess hills of Mississippi, USA. Grenada Reservoir has a total watershed dra...

  10. Synopsis of integrated science to support the assessment of conservation practices in the Fort Cobb reservoir watershed, southwestern Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Fort Cobb Reservoir in southwestern Oklahoma is an artificial impoundment constructed by the Bureau of Reclamation for water supplies, flood control, and recreation. Success of best-management practices in reducing inflows of sediments and phosphorus to the reservoir prompted the U.S. Departmen...

  11. Reservoir monitoring of enhanced oil recovery using marine CSEM methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, N.; Wilson, G. A.; Zhdanov, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    Effective reservoir management requires time-lapse reservoir information throughout the interwell volume. The use of seismic data for monitoring is very challenging because of the small variation of seismic velocities over time, and of the difficulty of survey repeatability. At the same time, significant differences in the resistivities of oil and the water filling the reservoir during production allows for the possibility to monitor the flooding front by electromagnetic (EM) methods. In this paper, we perform a recoverability analysis of reservoir properties using marine controlled-source electromagnetic (MCSEM) methods. We compute the EM fields for models of partially depleted reservoirs representing different positions of the oil-water contact over time. The oil-water contact can be clearly seen in several field components, even with the presence of bathymetry. Our analysis demonstrates that MCSEM data can provide an accurate position of the oil-water contact inside the reservoir over time.

  12. Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion. Annual report, June 3, 1994--October 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hallenbeck, L.D.; Harpole, K.J.; Gerard, M.G.

    1996-05-01

    The work reported here covers Budget Phase I of the project. The principal tasks in Budget Phase I are the Reservoir Analysis and Characterization Task and the Advanced Technology Definition Task. Completion of these tasks have enabled an optimum carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood project to be designed and evaluated from an economic and risk analysis standpoint. Field implementation of the project has been recommended to the working interest owner of the South Cowden Unit (SCU) and approval has been obtained. The current project has focused on reducing initial investment cost by utilizing horizontal injection wells and concentrating the project in the best productivity area of the field. An innovative CO{sub 2} purchase agreement (no take or pay requirements, CO{sub 2} purchase price tied to West Texas Intermediate crude oil price) and gas recycle agreements (expensing cost as opposed to large capital investments for compression) were negotiated to further improve project economics. A detailed reservoir characterization study was completed by an integrated team of geoscientists and engineers. The study consisted of detailed core description, integration of log response to core descriptions, mapping of the major flow units, evaluation of porosity and permeability relationships, geostatistical analysis of permeability trends, and direct integration of reservoir performance with the geological interpretation. The study methodology fostered iterative bidirectional feedback between the reservoir characterization team and the reservoir engineering/simulation team to allow simultaneous refinement and convergence of the geological interpretation with the reservoir model. The fundamental conclusion from the study is that South Cowden exhibits favorable enhanced oil recovery characteristics, particularly reservoir quality and continuity.

  13. Reliable conjunctive use rules for sustainable irrigated agriculture and reservoir spill control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoups, Gerrit; Addams, C. Lee; Minjares, Jose Luis; Gorelick, Steven M.

    2006-12-01

    We develop optimal conjunctive use water management strategies that balance two potentially conflicting objectives: sustaining irrigated agriculture during droughts and minimizing unnecessary spills and resulting water losses from the reservoir during wet periods. Conjunctive use is specified by a linear operating rule, which determines the maximum surface water release as a function of initial reservoir storage. Optimal strategies are identified using multiobjective interannual optimization for sustainability and spill control, combined with gradient-based annual profit maximization. Application to historical conditions in the irrigated system of the Yaqui Valley, Mexico, yields a Pareto curve of solutions illustrating the trade-off between sustaining agriculture and minimizing spills and water losses. Minimal water losses are obtained by maximizing surface water use and limiting groundwater pumping, such that reservoir levels are kept sufficiently low. Maximum agricultural sustainability, on the other hand, results from increased groundwater use and keeping surface water reservoir levels high during wet periods. Selected optimal operating rules from the multiobjective optimization are tested over a large number of equally probable streamflow time series, generated with a stochastic time series model. In this manner, statistical properties, such as the mean sustainability and sustainability percentiles, are determined for each optimal rule. These statistical properties can be used to select rules for water management that are reliable over a wide range of streamflow conditions.

  14. Geologic model of San Andres reservoir, Roberts Unit CO sub 2 Phase III area, Wasson field, Yoakum County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, J.V. Jr. )

    1992-04-01

    Roberts unit is a mature San Andres waterflood project located in Wasson field, Yoakum County, Texas. Texaco, as operator, has evaluated the reservoir for CO{sub 2} flooding, and a four-phased CO{sub 2} project has been designed for the unit. A critical aspect of CO{sub 2} flood design is the development of geologic reservoir management, such as flood monitoring and evaluation of infill drilling. The geologic reservoir model established for the southeastern part of the unit (the CO{sub 2} Phase III area) is an example of this design. The reservoir consists of stacked carbonate depositional sequences. The cyclic nature of these depositional sequences is reflected in both core-defined lithofacies and porosity log character. Sequences consist of basal mudstones, restricted-shelf skeletal wackestones, open-shelf skeletal wackestones and packstones, solution and brecciated zones, and peloidal packstone caps. Intertidal mudstones and wackestones occur at the top of the reservoir and in the overlying reservoir seal. Porosity distribution is controlled by diagenetic events, but these events are closely related to depositional facies. Reservoir geometry and reservoir quality are interpreted from study of carbonate lithofacies, porosity and permeability relationships, and injection characteristics. Depositional sequences are subdivided into layers (flow units) for use in reservoir simulation. Log normalization, core description, porosity interpretation, reservoir mapping, three-dimensional modeling, and joint effort between project geologists and engineers contributed to development of the reservoir model.

  15. Tectonic controls on fault-zone permeability in a geothermal reservoir at Dixie Valley, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickman, Stephen; Zoback, Mark; Benoit, Richard

    1998-01-01

    To determine factors controlling permeability variations within and adjacent to a fault-hosted geothermal reservoir at Dixie Valley, Nevada, we conducted borehole televiewer observations of wellbore failure (breakouts and cooling cracks) together with hydraulic fracturing stress measurements in six wells drilled into the Stillwater fault zone at depths of 2 to 3 km. Measurements in highly permeable wells penetrating the main geothermal reservoir indicate that the local orientation of the least horizontal principal stress, Shmin, is nearly optimal for normal faulting on the Stillwater fault. Hydraulic fracturing tests from these wells further show that the magnitude of Shmin is low enough to lead to frictional failure on the Stillwater and nearby subparallel faults, suggesting that fault slip is responsible for the high reservoir productivity. Similar measurements were conducted in two wells penetrating a relatively impermeable segment of the Stillwater fault zone, located approx. 8 and 20 km southwest of the geothermal reservoir (wells 66-21 and 45-14, respectively). The orientation of Shmin in well 66-21 is near optimal for normal faulting on the nearby Stillwater fault, but the magnitude of Shmin is too high to result in incipient frictional failure. In contrast, although the magnitude of Shmin in well 45-14 is low enough to lead to normal faulting on optimally oriented faults, the orientation of the Stillwater fault near this well is rotated by approx. 40?? from the optimal orientation for normal faulting. This misorientation, coupled with an apparent increase in the magnitude of the greatest horizontal principal stress in going from the producing to nonproducing wells, acts to inhibit frictional failure on the Stillwater fault zone in proximity to well 45-14. Taken together, data from the nonproducing and producing wells thus suggest that a necessary condition for high reservoir permeability is that the Stillwater fault zone be critically stressed for

  16. Development of a model-based flood emergency management system in Yujiang River Basin, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yong; Cai, Yanpeng; Jia, Peng; Mao, Jiansu

    2014-06-01

    Flooding is the most frequent disaster in China. It affects people's lives and properties, causing considerable economic loss. Flood forecast and operation of reservoirs are important in flood emergency management. Although great progress has been achieved in flood forecast and reservoir operation through using computer, network technology, and geographic information system technology in China, the prediction accuracy of models are not satisfactory due to the unavailability of real-time monitoring data. Also, real-time flood control scenario analysis is not effective in many regions and can seldom provide online decision support function. In this research, a decision support system for real-time flood forecasting in Yujiang River Basin, South China (DSS-YRB) is introduced in this paper. This system is based on hydrological and hydraulic mathematical models. The conceptual framework and detailed components of the proposed DSS-YRB is illustrated, which employs real-time rainfall data conversion, model-driven hydrologic forecasting, model calibration, data assimilation methods, and reservoir operational scenario analysis. Multi-tiered architecture offers great flexibility, portability, reusability, and reliability. The applied case study results show the development and application of a decision support system for real-time flood forecasting and operation is beneficial for flood control.

  17. Quantification of Libby Reservoir Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1983-1987 Methods and Data Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Chisholm, Ian

    1989-12-01

    Libby Reservoir was created under an International Columbia River Treaty between the United States and Canada for cooperative water development of the Columbia River Basin. The authorized purpose of the dam is to provide power, flood control, and navigation and other benefits. Research began in May 1983 to determine how operations of Libby dam impact the reservoir fishery and to suggest ways to lessen these impacts. This study is unique in that it was designed to accomplish its goal through detailed information gathering on every trophic level in the reservoir system and integration of this information into a quantitative computer model. The specific study objectives are to: quantify available reservoir habitat, determine abundance, growth and distribution of fish within the reservoir and potential recruitment of salmonids from Libby Reservoir tributaries within the United States, determine abundance and availability of food organisms for fish in the reservoir, quantify fish use of available food items, develop relationships between reservoir drawdown and reservoir habitat for fish and fish food organisms, and estimate impacts of reservoir operation on the reservoir fishery. 115 refs., 22 figs., 51 tabs.

  18. Model-controlled flooding with applications to image reconstruction and segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Quanli; West, Mike

    2012-01-01

    We discuss improved image reconstruction and segmentation in a framework we term model-controlled flooding (MCF). This extends the watershed transform for segmentation by allowing the integration of a priori information about image objects into flooding simulation processes. Modeling the initial seeding, region growing, and stopping rules of the watershed flooding process allows users to customize the simulation with user-defined or default model functions incorporating prior information. It also extends a more general class of transforms based on connected attribute filters by allowing the modification of connected components of a grayscale image, thus providing more flexibility in image reconstruction. MCF reconstruction defines images with desirable features for further segmentation using existing methods and can lead to substantial improvements. We demonstrate the MCF framework using a size transform that extends grayscale area opening and attribute thickening/thinning, and give examples from several areas: concealed object detection, speckle counting in biological single cell studies, and analyses of benchmark microscopic image data sets. MCF achieves benchmark error rates well below those reported in the recent literature and in comparison with other algorithms, while being easily adapted to new imaging contexts. PMID:23049229

  19. Model-controlled flooding with applications to image reconstruction and segmentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quanli; West, Mike

    2012-06-22

    We discuss improved image reconstruction and segmentation in a framework we term model-controlled flooding (MCF). This extends the watershed transform for segmentation by allowing the integration of a priori information about image objects into flooding simulation processes. Modeling the initial seeding, region growing, and stopping rules of the watershed flooding process allows users to customize the simulation with user-defined or default model functions incorporating prior information. It also extends a more general class of transforms based on connected attribute filters by allowing the modification of connected components of a grayscale image, thus providing more flexibility in image reconstruction. MCF reconstruction defines images with desirable features for further segmentation using existing methods and can lead to substantial improvements. We demonstrate the MCF framework using a size transform that extends grayscale area opening and attribute thickening/thinning, and give examples from several areas: concealed object detection, speckle counting in biological single cell studies, and analyses of benchmark microscopic image data sets. MCF achieves benchmark error rates well below those reported in the recent literature and in comparison with other algorithms, while being easily adapted to new imaging contexts.

  20. Strategies to diagnose and control microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, E.A.; Derr, R.M.; Pope, D.H.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrogen sulfide production (souring) in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems is a safety and environmental problem that can lead to operational shutdown when local hydrogen sulfide standards are exceeded. Systems affected by microbial souring have historically been treated using biocides that target the general microbial community. However, requirements for more environmentally friendly solutions have led to treatment strategies in which sulfide production can be controlled with minimal impact to the system and environment. Some of these strategies are based on microbial and/or nutritional augmentation of the sour environment. Through research sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) in Chicago, Illinois, methods have been developed for early detection of microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs, and a variety of mitigation strategies have been evaluated. The effectiveness of traditional biocide treatment in gas storage reservoirs was shown to depend heavily on the methods by which the chemical is applied. An innovative strategy using nitrate was tested and proved ideal for produced water and wastewater systems. Another strategy using elemental iodine was effective for sulfide control in evaporation ponds and is currently being tested in microbially sour natural gas storage wells.

  1. Controls on hydrocarbon production from Lower Silurian Clinton sandstone reservoir in Portage County, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.T.; Coogan, A.H. )

    1989-08-01

    The Lower Silurian Clinton section (Ordovician Queenston Shale to Packer Shell/Brassfield Limestone) represents a deltaic sequence in Portage County where it occurs approximately 25 mi east of the delta edge and 50 mi east of the sandstone depositional limit. In Portage County, the Clinton section is approximately 190 ft thick. The mean sandstone thickness is 53 ft (range from > 100 to < 10 ft). The mean sandstone thickness is much greater than it is for the Clinton sandstone reservoir closer to the delta edge, where hydrocarbon production is comparable to, or surpasses that in Portage County. It is now evident that the occurrence of thick, clean Clinton sandstone is not the only primary geologic factor for high production from the reservoir. Two productive areas were studied to isolate controls on hydrocarbon occurrence and production. One area is structurally low, the other is structurally high, but both have about the same mean Clinton sandstone thickness.

  2. Processes occurring in reservoirs receiving biogenic and polluting substances

    SciTech Connect

    Vasil'ev, Yu.S.; Rolle, N.N.

    1988-04-01

    Various aspects of biogenic pollution on the water quality of reservoirs and its effect on ichthyofauna were analyzed. The effects of fertilizer runoffs and other pollutant pathways, such as the decay of flooded vegetation, into reservoirs were addressed. The dependence of fish survival times on nitrite concentrations was charted. On the basis of an optimization model for the economic development of drainage basins with ecological limitations, the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute developed instructions for calculating the removal of biogenic elements and selecting water protection measures which were tested on a number of streams of the Lake Ladoga Basin and other areas and which provide engineering means for evaluating and controlling the eutrophication of reservoirs.

  3. Controls on reservoir development in a shelf carbonate: Upper Jurassic smackover formation of Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Kopaska-Merkel, D.C.; Mann, S.D.; Schmoker, J.W.

    1994-06-01

    Hydrocarbon reservoirs of the Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation in Alabama are predominately oolitic and pelletal dolostone. Pore systems are dominated by moldic and secondary intraparticle pores, intercrystalline pores, or mixtures of these pore types. All Smackover reservoirs in Alabama have been strongly affected by early cementation, dissolution of calcium-carbonate allochems, and dolomitization. Dolomitization of the Smackover in Alabama included penecontemporaneous, early burial, and late (deep) burial episodes. Fabric-selective dolomitization yielded reservoirs strongly influenced by both depositional fabric and diagenesis. Nonselective dolomitization yielded reservoirs with intercrystalline pore systems shaped primarily by diagenesis. Thermal exposure is inversely related to porosity, but the relationship is weak (r{sup 2} < 0.5). Fabric-selective dolostone is slightly more porous than nonselective dolostone when averaged over the entire study area (averages of 18.1% and 15.1%, respectively; p = 0.0001), but nonselective dolostone is more porous at a given level of equivalent vitrinite reflectance. Smackover fields on the north flank of the Wiggins arch are unusually porous given their level of thermal maturity, and are unusual in other ways as well. Local porosity variation was controlled by depositional fabric, early cementation, dissolution, and burial compaction and cementation. Regional permeability variation cannot be explained using existing data. Permeability is locally controlled by pore-throat size, the effects of dolomite crystal-size distribution, early cementation, fracturing, and burial compaction and cementation. Pore-throat size exhibits the strongest overall correlation with permeability (r{sup 2} = 0.54). Permeability and porosity are strongly correlated locally, but the regional correlation is weak.

  4. Union soluble oil flood in El Dorado cores

    SciTech Connect

    Chiou, C.S.

    1983-02-01

    Results are presented of laboratory experiments using Union's soluble oil flood process in El Dorado cores. The core flood is to provide complete information on fluid compositions and phase behavior of the effluents such that adequate core flood match using the chemical flood simulator can be made. This step is essential for evaluating reservoir performance on the South Pattern of the El Dorado Micellar-Polymer Project. The results show the caustic preflush in the flood process causes face plugging of the field cores. The problem was controlled by using chelating agents along with the caustic fluid to keep divalent cations in solution. The required amount of chelating agent was determined to be ca 25 times as strong as the original design for the field test. Liquid chromatography analysis of sulfonate provides valuable information on selective fractionation of monosulfonate in the micellar fluid. 10 references.

  5. Channel response to extreme floods: Insights on controlling factors from six mountain rivers in northern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surian, Nicola; Righini, Margherita; Lucía, Ana; Nardi, Laura; Amponsah, William; Benvenuti, Marco; Borga, Marco; Cavalli, Marco; Comiti, Francesco; Marchi, Lorenzo; Rinaldi, Massimo; Viero, Alessia

    2016-11-01

    This work addresses the geomorphic response of mountain rivers to extreme floods, exploring the relationships between morphological changes and controlling factors. The research was conducted on six tributaries of the Magra River (northern Apennines, Italy) whose catchments were affected by an extreme flood (estimated recurrence interval > 100 years in most of the basins) on 25 October 2011. An integrated approach was deployed to study this flood, including (i) analysis of channel width changes by comparing aerial photographs taken before and after the flood, (ii) estimate of peak discharges in ungauged streams, (iii) detailed mapping of landslides and analysis of their connectivity with the channel network. Channel widening occurred in 35 reaches out of 39. In reaches with channel slope < 4% (here defined as nonsteep reaches), average and maximum ratios of post-flood and pre-flood channel width were 5.2 and 19.7 (i.e., channel widened from 4 to 82 m), respectively. In steep reaches (slope ≥ 4%), widening was slightly less intense (i.e., average width ratio = 3.4, maximum width ratio = 9.6). The relationships between the degree of channel widening and seven controlling factors were explored at subreach scale by using multiple regression models. In the steep subreaches characterized by higher confinement, the degree of channel widening (i.e., width ratio) showed relatively strong relationships with cross-sectional stream power, unit stream power (calculated based on pre-flood channel width), and lateral confinement, with coefficients of multiple determination (R2) ranging between 0.43 and 0.67. The models for the nonsteep subreaches provided a lower explanation of widening variability, with R2 ranging from 0.30 to 0.38; in these reaches a significant although weak relation was found between the degree of channel widening and the hillslope area supplying sediment to the channels. Results indicate that hydraulic variables alone are not sufficient to satisfactorily

  6. Compositions and Abundances of Sulfate-Reducing and Sulfur-Oxidizing Microorganisms in Water-Flooded Petroleum Reservoirs with Different Temperatures in China

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Huimei; Gao, Peike; Chen, Zhaohui; Li, Yanshu; Li, Yan; Wang, Yansen; Zhou, Jiefang; Li, Guoqiang; Ma, Ting

    2017-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have been studied extensively in the petroleum industry due to their role in corrosion, but very little is known about sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB), which drive the oxidization of sulfur-compounds produced by the activity of SRB in petroleum reservoirs. Here, we surveyed the community structure, diversity and abundance of SRB and SOB simultaneously based on 16S rRNA, dsrB and soxB gene sequencing, and quantitative PCR analyses, respectively in petroleum reservoirs with different physicochemical properties. Similar to SRB, SOB were found widely inhabiting the analyzed reservoirs with high diversity and different structures. The dominant SRB belonged to the classes Deltaproteobacteria and Clostridia, and included the Desulfotignum, Desulfotomaculum, Desulfovibrio, Desulfobulbus, and Desulfomicrobium genera. The most frequently detected potential SOB were Sulfurimonas, Thiobacillus, Thioclava, Thiohalomonas and Dechloromonas, and belonged to Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Epsilonproteobacteria. Among them, Desulfovibrio, Desulfomicrobium, Thioclava, and Sulfurimonas were highly abundant in the low-temperature reservoirs, while Desulfotomaculum, Desulfotignum, Thiobacillus, and Dechloromonas were more often present in high-temperature reservoirs. The relative abundances of SRB and SOB varied and were present at higher proportions in the relatively high-temperature reservoirs. Canonical correspondence analysis also revealed that the SRB and SOB communities in reservoirs displayed high niche specificity and were closely related to reservoir temperature, pH of the formation brine, and sulfate concentration. In conclusion, this study extends our knowledge about the distribution of SRB and SOB communities in petroleum reservoirs. PMID:28210252

  7. Compositions and Abundances of Sulfate-Reducing and Sulfur-Oxidizing Microorganisms in Water-Flooded Petroleum Reservoirs with Different Temperatures in China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Huimei; Gao, Peike; Chen, Zhaohui; Li, Yanshu; Li, Yan; Wang, Yansen; Zhou, Jiefang; Li, Guoqiang; Ma, Ting

    2017-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have been studied extensively in the petroleum industry due to their role in corrosion, but very little is known about sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB), which drive the oxidization of sulfur-compounds produced by the activity of SRB in petroleum reservoirs. Here, we surveyed the community structure, diversity and abundance of SRB and SOB simultaneously based on 16S rRNA, dsrB and soxB gene sequencing, and quantitative PCR analyses, respectively in petroleum reservoirs with different physicochemical properties. Similar to SRB, SOB were found widely inhabiting the analyzed reservoirs with high diversity and different structures. The dominant SRB belonged to the classes Deltaproteobacteria and Clostridia, and included the Desulfotignum, Desulfotomaculum, Desulfovibrio, Desulfobulbus, and Desulfomicrobium genera. The most frequently detected potential SOB were Sulfurimonas, Thiobacillus, Thioclava, Thiohalomonas and Dechloromonas, and belonged to Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Epsilonproteobacteria. Among them, Desulfovibrio, Desulfomicrobium, Thioclava, and Sulfurimonas were highly abundant in the low-temperature reservoirs, while Desulfotomaculum, Desulfotignum, Thiobacillus, and Dechloromonas were more often present in high-temperature reservoirs. The relative abundances of SRB and SOB varied and were present at higher proportions in the relatively high-temperature reservoirs. Canonical correspondence analysis also revealed that the SRB and SOB communities in reservoirs displayed high niche specificity and were closely related to reservoir temperature, pH of the formation brine, and sulfate concentration. In conclusion, this study extends our knowledge about the distribution of SRB and SOB communities in petroleum reservoirs.

  8. An implicit control-volume finite element method for well-reservoir modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlidis, Dimitrios; Salinas, Pablo; Xie, Zhihua; Pain, Christopher; Matar, Omar

    2016-11-01

    Here a novel implicit approach (embodied within the IC-Ferst) is presented for modelling wells with potentially a large number of laterals within reservoirs. IC-Ferst is a conservative and consistent, control-volume finite element method (CV-FEM) model and fully unstructured/geology conforming meshes with anisotropic mesh adaptivity. As far as the wells are concerned, a multi-phase/multi-well approach, where well systems are represented as phases, is taken here. Phase volume fraction conservation equations are solved for in both the reservoir and the wells, in addition, the field within wells is also solved for. A second novel aspect of the work is the combination of modelling and resolving of the motherbore and laterals. In this case wells do not have to be explicitly discretised in space. This combination proves to be accurate (in many situations) as well as computationally efficient. The method is applied to a number of multi-phase reservoir problems in order to gain an insight into the effectiveness, in terms of production rate, of perforated laterals. Model results are compared with semi-analytical solutions for simple cases and industry-standard codes for more complicated cases. EPSRC UK Programme Grant MEMPHIS (EP/K003976/1).

  9. Tectonic control of the crustal organic carbon reservoir during the Precambrian.

    PubMed

    Des Marais, D J

    1994-01-01

    Carbon isotopic trends indicate that the crustal reservoir of reduced, organic carbon increased during the Proterozoic, particularly during periods of widespread continental rifting and orogeny. No long-term trends are apparent in the concentration of organic carbon in shales, cherts and carbonates. The age distribution of 261 sample site localities sampled for well-preserved sedimentary rocks revealed a 500-700-Ma periodicity which coincided with tectonic cycles. It is assumed that the numbers of sites are a proxy for mass of sediments. A substantial increase in the number of sites in the late Archean correlates with the first appearance between 2.9 and 2.5 Ga of extensive continental platforms and their associated sedimentation. It is proposed that the size of the Proterozoic crustal organic carbon reservoir has been modulated by tectonic control of the volume of sediments deposited in environments favorable for the burial and preservation of organic matter. Stepwise increases in this reservoir would have caused the oxidation state of the Proterozoic environment to increase in a stepwise fashion.

  10. Tectonic control of the crustal organic carbon reservoir during the Precambrian

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Des Marais, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    Carbon isotopic trends indicate that the crustal reservoir of reduced, organic carbon increased during the Proterozoic, particularly during periods of widespread continental rifting and orogeny. No long-term trends are apparent in the concentration of organic carbon in shales, cherts and carbonates. The age distribution of 261 sample site localities sampled for well-preserved sedimentary rocks revealed a 500-700-Ma periodicity which coincided with tectonic cycles. It is assumed that the numbers of sites are a proxy for mass of sediments. A substantial increase in the number of sites in the late Archean correlates with the first appearance between 2.9 and 2.5 Ga of extensive continental platforms and their associated sedimentation. It is proposed that the size of the Proterozoic crustal organic carbon reservoir has been modulated by tectonic control of the volume of sediments deposited in environments favorable for the burial and preservation of organic matter. Stepwise increases in this reservoir would have caused the oxidation state of the Proterozoic environment to increase in a stepwise fashion.

  11. Problems related to water quality and algal control in Lopez Reservoir, San Luis Obispo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, Richard H.; Averett, Robert C.; Hines, Walter G.

    1975-01-01

    A study to determine the present enrichment status of Liopez Reservoir in San Luis Obispo county, California, and to evaluate copper sulfate algal treatment found that stratification in the reservoir regulates nutrient release and that algal control has been ineffective. Nuisance algal blooms, particularly from March to June, have been a problem in the warm multipurpose reservoir since it was initially filled following intense storms in 1968-69. The cyanophyte Anabaena unispora has been dominant; cospecies are the diatoms Stephanodiscus astraea and Cyclotella operculata, and the chlorophytes Pediastrum deplex and Sphaerocystis schroeteri. During an A. unispora bloom in May 1972 the total lake surface cell count was nearly 100,000 cells/ml. Thermal stratification from late spring through autumn results in oxygen deficiency in the hypolimnion and metalimnion caused by bacterial oxidation of organic detritus. The anaerobic conditions favor chemical reduction of organic matter, which constitute 10-14% of the sediment. As algae die, sink to the bottom, and decompose, nutrients are released to the hypolimnion , and with the autumn overturn are spread to the epilimnion. Algal blooms not only hamper recreation, but through depletion of dissolved oxygen in the epilimnion may have caused periodic fishkills. Copper sulfate mixed with sodium citrate and applied at 1.10-1.73 lbs/acre has not significantly reduced algal growth; a method for determining correct dosage is presented. (Lynch-Wisconsin)

  12. Longitudinal Floating Ice Control Structures: A New Concept for Reducing Ice Jam Flood Levels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    friction factor is taken as 1.25 based on data from several ice jams I % . ( Beltaos 1983), and the ice properties g = 1.2 and S , = 0.92 are held...as much as Beltaos , S . (1983) River ice jams: Theory, case 8 studies, and applications. Journal of the Hydraulics sign. Journal of Waterway, Port...DOTIC S NOV 15 1990O. 0’~’FL P Longitudinal Floating Ice Control Structures A New Concept for Reducing Ice Jam Flood Levels 00NDarryl J. Calkins

  13. Diagnostic Assessment of the Difficulty Using Direct Policy Search in Many-Objective Reservoir Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatarain-Salazar, J.; Reed, P. M.; Herman, J. D.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.

    2014-12-01

    Globally reservoir operations provide fundamental services to water supply, energy generation, recreation, and ecosystems. The pressures of expanding populations, climate change, and increased energy demands are motivating a significant investment in re-operationalizing existing reservoirs or defining operations for new reservoirs. Recent work has highlighted the potential benefits of exploiting recent advances in many-objective optimization and direct policy search (DPS) to aid in addressing these systems' multi-sector demand tradeoffs. This study contributes to a comprehensive diagnostic assessment of multi-objective evolutionary optimization algorithms (MOEAs) efficiency, effectiveness, reliability, and controllability when supporting DPS for the Conowingo dam in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin. The Lower Susquehanna River is an interstate water body that has been subject to intensive water management efforts due to the system's competing demands from urban water supply, atomic power plant cooling, hydropower production, and federally regulated environmental flows. Seven benchmark and state-of-the-art MOEAs are tested on deterministic and stochastic instances of the Susquehanna test case. In the deterministic formulation, the operating objectives are evaluated over the historical realization of the hydroclimatic variables (i.e., inflows and evaporation rates). In the stochastic formulation, the same objectives are instead evaluated over an ensemble of stochastic inflows and evaporation rates realizations. The algorithms are evaluated in their ability to support DPS in discovering reservoir operations that compose the tradeoffs for six multi-sector performance objectives with thirty-two decision variables. Our diagnostic results highlight that many-objective DPS is very challenging for modern MOEAs and that epsilon dominance is critical for attaining high levels of performance. Epsilon dominance algorithms epsilon-MOEA, epsilon-NSGAII and the auto adaptive Borg

  14. Flow structures and sandbar dynamics in a canyon river during a controlled flood, Colorado River, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, S.A.; Kaplinski, M.

    2011-01-01

    In canyon rivers, debris fan constrictions create rapids and downstream pools characterized by secondary flow structures that are closely linked to channel morphology. In this paper we describe detailed measurements of the three-dimensional flow structure and sandbar dynamics of two pools along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon during a controlled flood release from Glen Canyon Dam. Results indicate that the pools are characterized by large lateral recirculation zones (eddies) resulting from flow separation downstream from the channel constrictions, as well as helical flow structures in the main channel and eddy. The lateral recirculation zones are low-velocity areas conducive to fine sediment deposition, particularly in the vicinity of the separation and reattachment points and are thus the dominant flow structures controlling sandbar dynamics. The helical flow structures also affect morphology but appear secondary in importance to the lateral eddies. During the controlled flood, sandbars in the separation and reattachment zones at both sites tended to build gradually during the rising limb and peak flow. Deposition in shallow water on the sandbars was accompanied by erosion in deeper water along the sandbar slope at the interface with the main channel. Erosion occurred via rapid mass failures as well as by gradual boundary shear stress driven processes. The flow structures and morphologic links at our study sites are similar to those identified in other river environments, in particular sharply curved meanders and channel confluences where the coexistence of lateral recirculation and helical flows has been documented. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Loop Heat Pipe Transient Behavior Using Heat Source Temperature for Set Point Control with Thermoelectric Converter on Reservoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Paiva, Kleber; Mantelli, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    The LHP operating temperature is governed by the saturation temperature of its reservoir. Controlling the reservoir saturation temperature is commonly done by cold biasing the reservoir and using electrical heaters to provide the required control power. With this method, the loop operating temperature can be controlled within 0.5K or better. However, because the thermal resistance that exists between the heat source and the LHP evaporator, the heat source temperature will vary with its heat output even if the LHP operating temperature is kept constant. Since maintaining a constant heat source temperature is of most interest, a question often raised is whether the heat source temperature can be used for LHP set point temperature control. A test program with a miniature LHP was carried out to investigate the effects on the LHP operation when the control temperature sensor was placed on the heat source instead of the reservoir. In these tests, the LHP reservoir was cold-biased and was heated by a control heater. Test results show that it was feasible to use the heat source temperature for feedback control of the LHP operation. In particular, when a thermoelectric converter was used as the reservoir control heater, the heat source temperature could be maintained within a tight range using a proportional-integral-derivative or on/off control algorithm. Moreover, because the TEC could provide both heating and cooling to the reservoir, temperature oscillations during fast transients such as loop startup could be eliminated or substantially reduced when compared to using an electrical heater as the control heater.

  16. Evaluating changes to reservoir rule curves using historical water-level data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mower, Ethan; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2013-01-01

    Flood control reservoirs are typically managed through rule curves (i.e. target water levels) which control the storage and release timing of flood waters. Changes to rule curves are often contemplated and requested by various user groups and management agencies with no information available about the actual flood risk of such requests. Methods of estimating flood risk in reservoirs are not easily available to those unfamiliar with hydrological models that track water movement through a river basin. We developed a quantile regression model that uses readily available daily water-level data to estimate risk of spilling. Our model provided a relatively simple process for estimating the maximum applicable water level under a specific flood risk for any day of the year. This water level represents an upper-limit umbrella under which water levels can be operated in a variety of ways. Our model allows the visualization of water-level management under a user-specified flood risk and provides a framework for incorporating the effect of a changing environment on water-level management in reservoirs, but is not designed to replace existing hydrological models. The model can improve communication and collaboration among agencies responsible for managing natural resources dependent on reservoir water levels.

  17. Frameworks for amending reservoir water management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mower, Ethan; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2013-01-01

    Managing water storage and withdrawals in many reservoirs requires establishing seasonal targets for water levels (i.e., rule curves) that are influenced by regional precipitation and diverse water demands. Rule curves are established as an attempt to balance various water needs such as flood control, irrigation, and environmental benefits such as fish and wildlife management. The processes and challenges associated with amending rule curves to balance multiuse needs are complicated and mostly unfamiliar to non-US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) natural resource managers and to the public. To inform natural resource managers and the public we describe the policies and process involved in amending rule curves in USACE reservoirs, including 3 frameworks: a general investigation, a continuing authority program, and the water control plan. Our review suggests that water management in reservoirs can be amended, but generally a multitude of constraints and competing demands must be addressed before such a change can be realized.

  18. Evaluating resilience of DNP3-controlled SCADA systems against event buffer flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Guanhua; Nicol, David M; Jin, Dong

    2010-12-16

    The DNP3 protocol is widely used in SCADA systems (particularly electrical power) as a means of communicating observed sensor state information back to a control center. Typical architectures using DNP3 have a two level hierarchy, where a specialized data aggregator device receives observed state from devices within a local region, and the control center collects the aggregated state from the data aggregator. The DNP3 communication between control center and data aggregator is asynchronous with the DNP3 communication between data aggregator and relays; this leads to the possibility of completely filling a data aggregator's buffer of pending events, when a relay is compromised or spoofed and sends overly many (false) events to the data aggregator. This paper investigates how a real-world SCADA device responds to event buffer flooding. A Discrete-Time Markov Chain (DTMC) model is developed for understanding this. The DTMC model is validated by a Moebius simulation model and data collected on real SCADA testbed.

  19. Classification and assessment of water bodies as adaptive structural measures for flood risk management planning.

    PubMed

    McMinn, William R; Yang, Qinli; Scholz, Miklas

    2010-09-01

    Severe rainfall events have become increasingly common in Europe. Flood defence engineering works are highly capital intensive and can be limited by land availability, leaving land and communities exposed to repeated flooding. Any adaptive drainage structure must have engineered inlets and outlets that control the water level and the rate of release. In Scotland, there are a relatively high number of drinking water reservoirs (operated by Scottish Water), which fall within this defined category and could contribute to flood management control. Reducing the rate of runoff from the upper reaches of a catchment will reduce the volume and peak flows of flood events downstream, thus allowing flood defences to be reduced in size, decreasing the corresponding capital costs. A database of retention basins with flood control potential has been developed for Scotland. The research shows that the majority of small and former drinking water reservoirs are kept full and their spillways are continuously in operation. Utilising some of the available capacity to contribute to flood control could reduce the costs of complying with the EU Flood Directive. Furthermore, the application of a previously developed classification model for Baden in Germany for the Scottish data set showed a lower diversity for basins in Scotland due to less developed infrastructure. The principle value of this approach is a clear and unambiguous categorisation, based on standard variables, which can help to promote communication and understanding between stakeholders.

  20. Wildlife reservoirs of bovine tuberculosis worldwide: hosts, pathology, surveillance, and control.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, S D; Kaneene, J B

    2013-05-01

    Bovine tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis is a zoonotic disease classically carried by cattle and spilling over into humans primarily by the ingestion of milk. However, in recent decades, there have been many endemic geographic localities where M. bovis has been detected infecting wildlife reservoirs, limiting the progress toward eradication of this disease from cattle. These include cervids in North America, badgers in Great Britain, feral pigs in Europe, brushtailed possums in New Zealand, and buffalo in South Africa. An overview of these wildlife hosts will provide insight into how these reservoirs maintain and spread the disease. In addition, the authors summarize the pathology, current ongoing methods for surveillance, and control. In many instances, it has proven to be more difficult to control or eradicate bovine tuberculosis in wild free-ranging species than in domesticated cattle. Furthermore, human influences have often contributed to the introduction and/or maintenance of the disease in wildlife species. Finally, some emerging themes regarding bovine tuberculosis establishment in wildlife hosts, as well as conclusions regarding management practices to assist in bovine tuberculosis control and eradication in wildlife, are offered.

  1. Environmental Effects of Storage Preservation Practices: Controlled Flushing of Fine Sediment from a Small Hydropower Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espa, Paolo; Castelli, Elena; Crosa, Giuseppe; Gentili, Gaetano

    2013-07-01

    Sediment flushing may be effective in mitigating loss of reservoir storage due to siltation, but flushing must be controlled to limit the impact on the downstream environment. A reliable prediction of the environmental effects of sediment flushing is hindered by the limited scientific information currently available. Consequently, there may be some controversy as regards to management decisions, planning the work, and monitoring strategies. This paper summarizes the main results of a monitoring campaign on the stream below a small alpine hydropower reservoir subjected to annual flushing between 2006 and 2009. The removed sediment was essentially silt, and the suspended solid concentration (SSC) of the discharged water was controlled to alleviate downstream impact. Control was achieved through hydraulic regulation and mechanical digging, alternating daytime sediment evacuation, and nocturnal clear water release. The four operations lasted about two weeks each and had an average SSC of about 4 g L-1. Maximum values of SSC were generally kept below 10 g L-1. Downstream impact was quantified through sampling of fish fauna (brown trout) and macroinvertebrate in the final reach of the effluent stream. The benthic community was severely impaired by the flushing operations, but recovered to pre-flushing values in a few months. As expected, the impact on brown trout was heavier on juveniles. While data biasing due to fish removal and re-stocking cannot be ruled out, the fish community seems to have reached a state of equilibrium characterized by a lower density than was measured before the flushing operations.

  2. Cultural Resources Investigation: Boscobel Flood Control Project along Sanders Creek, Grant County, Wisconsin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-19

    6 4. Stone-Arch Bridge over Sanders Creek at Bluff Street .... 8 5. Oak Street Footbridge over Sanders Creek and Flood Area (Survey...Unit 1)....................................... 8 6. Oak Street Footbridge over Sanders Creek and Flood Area (Survey Unit 2...9 7. Superior Street Footbridge over Sanders Creek and Flood Area (Survey Unit 3) ............................... 9 8. LaBelle Street

  3. Flow Focusing as a Control on the Width of Canyons Formed by Outburst Floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapotre, M. G.; Lamb, M. P.; Halliday, C. K.

    2012-12-01

    Spectacular canyons exist on the surfaces of Earth and Mars that were carved by ancient outburst megafloods. These canyons often have steep headwalls and were eroded into jointed rock. This suggests that canyon formation is driven by upstream retreat of waterfalls through toppling failure. Discharge reconstructions remain difficult, however, because we do not understand quantitatively the links between canyon formation and canyon morphology. Here we propose that the width of canyon headwalls is set by the shear stress distribution around the rim of the canyon, which governs the propensity for toppling failure, and that this distribution is controlled by focusing of flood water into the canyon head. To test this hypothesis, we performed a series of numerical simulations of 2-D, depth-averaged, turbulent flow using the hydraulic numerical modeling suite ANUGA Hydro and mapped the shear stresses along the rim of canyons of various geometries. The numerical simulations were designed to explore three dimensionless variables: the aspect ratio of the canyon (length normalized by width), the canyon width relative to the normal flow depth, and the Froude number. Preliminary results show that flow focusing at the head of a canyon can lead to heightened shear stresses there compared to the sides of the canyon. Flow focusing is most efficient for subcritical flows with large canyon aspect ratios, suggesting that canyons grow in all directions until they reach a critical length which depends on the Froude number only. Canyons longer than this critical length maintain a uniform width during canyon formation. Earth-analog canyons, where flood depths were constrained from previous paleo-hydraulic studies, show good agreement with our numerical predictions, suggesting that flow focusing may set the width of canyons during megafloods. Model results allow a link between process and form that will enable us to constrain better flood discharges on Earth and Mars, where other robust

  4. Mobility control and scaleup for chemical flooding. Annual report, October 1981-September 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, G.A.

    1984-11-01

    The ongoing objectives of this project are: (1) to determine quantitatively the effects of dispersion, relative permeabilities, apparent viscosity and inaccessible pore volume on micellar/polymer flooding, and (2) to develop numerical simulators which incorporate these and other features of the process, so that mobility control design and scaleup of the micellar/polymer flooding process can be better accomplished. Section 2 of this report includes the results for capillary desaturation experiments for low tension fluids in Berea. These results show that some residual brine remains during microemulsion flooding even at the highest capillary number obtained in this experiment. Section 2 also includes more extensive results from the dispersion and relative permeability experiments. This section also includes data which extends the dispersion and relative permeability results from the case of two-phase flow to include initial results of three-phase flow at steady state. Section 3 is a complete description of our updated simulator. Section 4 describes and gives the results of an oil recovery experiment. Section 5 compares the results of this oil recovery experiment with our simulator. The agreement is the best obtained so far. Section 6 compares our simulator with a Sloss experiment reported by Gupta. Again, the agreement is good and demonstrates the capability of the improved simulator to account for the separation of alcohol and surfactant. Section 7 contains the results of several 2-D areal simulations involving new features of the 2-D simulator reported last year. Section 8 is a list of some of the major conclusions of this simulation research. Section 9 is an SPE paper combining the results of Senol with Walsh, a Ph.D. student of Lake and Schechter. Her polymer experiments were interpreted using Walsh's geochemical simulator. 133 references, 118 figures, 21 tables.

  5. Mobility control and scaleup for chemical flooding. Final report, October 1983-September 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, G.A.

    1986-02-01

    The objectives of this project were: (1) to determine quantitatively the effects of dispersion, relative permeabilities, apparent viscosity and inaccessible pore volume on micellar/polymer flooding, and (2) to develop numerical simulators which incorporate these and other features of the process, so that mobility control design and scaleup of the micellar/polymer flooding process can be better accomplished. This final report is divided into four major parts. Part A contains a rather complete description of our current three-dimensional simulator as well as some of the simulation studies in both one and three dimensions. This report emphasizes the development, testing and use of the three-dimensional version of our chemical flood simulator. Although its development was based on the two-dimensional version of C.H. Hong previously reported, the thre-dimensional version of A. Datta Gupta contains several significant new features in addition to its three dimensional capability as well as a complete incorporation of the latest physical property models used in the current one-dimensional version of T. Satoh. The most significant of these is the improved phase behavior model developed and tested in part by Satoh and in part by Prouvost. Part B of this report contains the theoretical description of this phase behavior model and comparison with our experimental data. Part C contains our most recent three-phase relative permeability data and the tracer data taken during these same experiments along with the theoretical interpretation of these tracer data with a capacitance-dispersion model developed by Mojdeh Delshad. Finally, Part D contains our rheology data on polymer solutions. 141 refs., 150 figs., 23 tabs.

  6. Floods of 1952 in California. Flood of January 1952 in the south San Francisco Bay region; Snowmelt flood of 1952 in Kern River, Tulare Lake, and San Joaquin River basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rantz, S.E.; Stafford, H.M.

    1956-01-01

    Two major floods occurred in California in 1952. The first was the flood of January 11-13 in the south San Francisco Bay region that resulted from heavy rains which began on the morning of January 11 and ended about noon January 13. This flood was notable for the magnitude of the peak discharges, although these discharges were reduced by the controlling effect of reservoirs for conservation and flood-control purposes. The flood damage was thereby reduced, and no lives were lost; damage, nevertheless, amounted to about $1.400.000. The second flood was due, not to the immediate runoff of heavy rain, but to the melting of one of the largest snow packs ever recorded in the Sierra Nevada range. In the spring and summer of 1952, flood runoff occurred on all the major streams draining the Sierra Nevada. In the northern half of the Central Valley basin?the Sacramento River basin?flood volumes and maximum daily discharges were not exceptional. and flood damage was not appreciable. However, in the southern half, which is formed by the Kern River, Tulare Lake, and San Joaquin River basins, new records for snowmelt runoff were established for some streams; but for below-normal temperatures and shorter, less warm hot spells, record flood discharges would have occurred on many others. In the three basins an area of 200,000 acres. largely cropland. was inundated, and damage was estimated at $11,800,000.

  7. Environmental impact assessments of the Xiaolangdi Reservoir on the most hyperconcentrated laden river, Yellow River, China.

    PubMed

    Kong, Dongxian; Miao, Chiyuan; Wu, Jingwen; Borthwick, Alistair G L; Duan, Qingyun; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2017-02-01

    The Yellow River is the most hyperconcentrated sediment-laden river in the world. Throughout recorded history, the Lower Yellow River (LYR) experienced many catastrophic flood and drought events. To regulate the LYR, a reservoir was constructed at Xiaolangdi that became operational in the early 2000s. An annual water-sediment regulation scheme (WSRS) was then implemented, aimed at flood control, sediment reduction, regulated water supply, and power generation. This study examines the eco-environmental and socioenvironmental impacts of Xiaolangdi Reservoir. In retrospect, it is found that the reservoir construction phase incurred huge financial cost and required large-scale human resettlement. Subsequent reservoir operations affected the local geological environment, downstream riverbed erosion, evolution of the Yellow River delta, water quality, and aquatic biodiversity. Lessons from the impact assessment of the Xiaolangdi Reservoir are summarized as follows: (1) The construction of large reservoirs is not merely an engineering challenge but must also be viewed in terms of resource exploitation, environmental protection, and social development; (2) long-term systems for monitoring large reservoirs should be established, and decision makers involved at national policy and planning levels must be prepared to react quickly to the changing impact of large reservoirs; and (3) the key to solving sedimentation in the LYR is not Xiaolangdi Reservoir but instead soil conservation in the middle reaches of the Yellow River basin. Proper assessment of the impacts of large reservoirs will help promote development strategies that enhance the long-term sustainability of dam projects.

  8. Quantification of Libby Reservoir Water Levels Needed to Maintain or Enhance Reservoir Fisheries, 1983 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, Bradley B.

    1984-07-01

    The first six months of the fishery investigations in Libby Reservoir were aimed at developing suitable methodology for sampling physical-chemical limnology, fish food availability, fish food habits, and seasonal distribution and abundance of fish populations. Appropriate methods have been developed for all aspects with minor modification of original proposed methodologies. Purse seining has yet to be tested. Physical-chemical limnologic sampling could be reduced or subcontracted with the U.S. Geologic Survey to allow for more intensive sampling of fish food or fish distribution portions of the investigation. Final sample design will be determined during 1983-84. Future directions of the study revolve around two central issues, the potential for flexibility in reservoir operation and determination of how reservoir operation affects fish populations. Simulated maximum drawdown levels during a 40-year period were controlled by power in seven out of eight years. Drawdowns were generally within 10 feet of the flood control rule curve, however. There may be more flexibility with regards to timing of refill and evacuation. This aspect needs to be evaluated further. Production and availability of fish food, suitability of reservoir habitat, and accessibility of off-reservoir spawning and rearing habitat were identified as components of fish ecology which reservoir operation could potentially impact. Two models based on trophic dynamics and habitat suitabilities were suggested as a framework for exploring the relationship of reservoir operation on the fish community.

  9. Sequential CCR5-Tropic HIV-1 Reactivation from Distinct Cellular Reservoirs following Perturbation of Elite Control

    PubMed Central

    Watters, Sarah A.; Mlcochova, Petra; Maldarelli, Frank; Goonetilleke, Nilu; Pillay, Deenan; Gupta, Ravindra K.

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV Elite Controllers may reveal insights into virus persistence given they harbour small reservoir sizes, akin to HIV non-controllers treated early with combination antiretroviral therapy. Both groups of patients represent the most promising candidates for interventions aimed at sustained remission or ‘cure’. Analytic treatment interruption (ATI) in the latter group leads to stochastic rebound of virus, though it is unclear whether loss of elite control is also associated with similar rebound characteristics. Methods We studied three discrete periods of virus rebound during myeloma related immune disruption over 2.5 years in an elite controller who previously underwent autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in the absence of any antiretroviral therapy. Single genome sequencing of the V1-V4 region of env in PBMC and plasma was performed and phylogenies reconstructed. Average pairwise distance (APD) was calculated and non-parametric methods used to assess compartmentalisation. Coreceptor usage was predicted based on genotypic algorithms. Results 122 single genome sequences were obtained (median 26 sequences per rebound). The initial rebounding plasma env sequences following ASCT represented two distinct lineages, and clustered with proviral DNA sequences isolated prior to ASCT. One of the lineages was monophyletic, possibly indicating reactivation from clonally expanded cells. The second rebound occurred 470 days after spontaneous control of the first rebound and was phylogenetically distinct from the first, confirmed by compartmentalisation analysis, with a different cellular origin rather than ongoing replication. By contrast, third rebound viruses clustered with second rebound viruses, with evidence for ongoing evolution that was associated with lymphopenia and myeloma progression. Following ASCT a shift in tropism from CXCR4-tropic viruses to a CCR5-tropic population was observed to persist through to the third rebound. Conclusions Our data

  10. [Usage of flocculation in emergent control of algal bloom in drinking water supplying reservoir].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Li-juan; Han, Bo-ping; Lin, Qiu-qi; Lei, La-mei

    2007-10-01

    An Anabaena circinalis bloom appeared in a reservoir for supplying drinking water in the south of China, in April 2006. Phytoplankton scums gathered and floated on the surface of the whole reservoir especially on the area of water intake, and the cell density of phytoplankton, cyanobacteria and Anabaena circinalis was as high as 7.3 x 10(7), 7.2 x 10(7), 4.1 x 10(7) cells x L(-1) respectively. To maintain drinking water supplying, an emergency program was initiated to control the cyanobacterial bloom. The zone immediately adjacent to the water intake was divided into two small zones by fishing nets and waterproof curtains to modify the water flow. Iron-based flocculants were then applied to control the algal bloom. As a result, the density of the phytoplankton decreased greatly, and at the first day the cell densities of phytoplankton, cyanobacterial, Anabaena circinalis decreased to 5.3 x 10(6), 4.7 x 10(6), 2 x 10(6) cells x L(-1) respectively, and the removal of them reached up to 93%, 94%, 95% respectively. The average of phytoplankton cell density was 1.2 x 10(7) cells x L(-1) and a highest density was 2.0 x 10(7) cells x L(-1) during the treatment from 22 to 30 April, while Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta slightly increased. These encouraging results suggest that the flocculants used are efficient at removing Cyanobacteria.

  11. Geochemical tracers of dolomitizing fluids: A tool for predicting diagenetically controlled porosity on a reservoir scale

    SciTech Connect

    Major, R.P.; Lucia, F.J.; Ruppel, S.C. )

    1992-04-01

    Mole-per-mole replacement of calcite by dolomite yields an approximately 12% increase in porosity because dolomite is denser than calcite. However, data from the Pliocene-Pleistocene Seroe Domi Formation of Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles, demonstrate the dolomitization of these rocks resulted in porosity reduction. Rocks proximal to the source of dolomitizing fluids exhibit a greater amount of porosity occlusion than more distal rocks, indicating that dolomitization is a porosity-destroying process and that the degree of destruction can be calibrated to the flow path of dolomitizing fludis. Porosity observed in Bonaire dolomite varies over a distance of hundreds of meters along fluid-flow paths. In three examples of dolomites in which the pathways of dolomitizing fluids can be interpreted from the spatial geometry of dolomite compositions, the distances over which these changes occur are pertinent to interpreting diagenetically controlled reservoir heterogeneity in oil and gas fields. These include the Bonaire Dolomite, the Lower Ordovician Ranger Peak Formation of west Texas, and the Permian Clear Fork Formation of west Texas. Tracing dolomitizing fluid pathways may predict diagenetically controlled porosity trends in ancient rocks. Because porosity trends are associated with significant changes in petrophysical characteristics and fluid storage capacity at a between-well scale, this interpretation scheme may aid mapping of flow units in hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  12. Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-09

    The first objective is to utilize reservoir characterization and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing, waterflood depletion. The second objective is to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field. This report includes work on the reservoir characterization and project design objective and the demonstration project objective.

  13. Ecosystem ecology meets adaptive management: food web response to a controlled flood on the Colorado River, Glen Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, Wyatt F.; Baxter, Colden V.; Donner, Kevin C.; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Hall, Robert O.; Wellard Kelly, Holly A.; Rogers, R. Scott

    2011-01-01

    Large dams have been constructed on rivers to meet human demands for water, electricity, navigation, and recreation. As a consequence, flow and temperature regimes have been altered, strongly affecting river food webs and ecosystem processes. Experimental high-flow dam releases, i.e., controlled floods, have been implemented on the Colorado River, USA, in an effort to reestablish pulsed flood events, redistribute sediments, improve conditions for native fishes, and increase understanding of how dam operations affect physical and biological processes. We quantified secondary production and organic matter flows in the food web below Glen Canyon dam for two years prior and one year after an experimental controlled flood in March 2008. Invertebrate biomass and secondary production declined significantly following the flood (total biomass, 55% decline; total production, 56% decline), with most of the decline driven by reductions in two nonnative invertebrate taxa, Potamopyrgus antipodarum and Gammarus lacustris. Diatoms dominated the trophic basis of invertebrate production before and after the controlled flood, and the largest organic matter flows were from diatoms to the three most productive invertebrate taxa (P. antipodarum, G. lacustris, and Tubificida). In contrast to invertebrates, production of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) increased substantially (194%) following the flood, despite the large decline in total secondary production of the invertebrate assemblage. This counterintuitive result is reconciled by a post-flood increase in production and drift concentrations of select invertebrate prey (i.e., Chironomidae and Simuliidae) that supported a large proportion of trout production but had relatively low secondary production. In addition, interaction strengths, measured as species impact values, were strongest between rainbow trout and these two taxa before and after the flood, demonstrating that the dominant consumer—resource interactions were not

  14. Ecosystem ecology meets adaptive management: food web response to a controlled flood on the Colorado River, Glen Canyon.

    PubMed

    Cross, Wyatt F; Baxter, Colden V; Donner, Kevin C; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J; Kennedy, Theodore A; Hall, Robert O; Kelly, Holly A Wellard; Rogers, R Scott

    2011-09-01

    Large dams have been constructed on rivers to meet human demands for water, electricity, navigation, and recreation. As a consequence, flow and temperature regimes have been altered, strongly affecting river food webs and ecosystem processes. Experimental high-flow dam releases, i.e., controlled floods, have been implemented on the Colorado River, U.S.A., in an effort to reestablish pulsed flood events, redistribute sediments, improve conditions for native fishes, and increase understanding of how dam operations affect physical and biological processes. We quantified secondary production and organic matter flows in the food web below Glen Canyon dam for two years prior and one year after an experimental controlled flood in March 2008. Invertebrate biomass and secondary production declined significantly following the flood (total biomass, 55% decline; total production, 56% decline), with most of the decline driven by reductions in two nonnative invertebrate taxa, Potamopyrgus antipodarum and Gammarus lacustris. Diatoms dominated the trophic basis of invertebrate production before and after the controlled flood, and the largest organic matter flows were from diatoms to the three most productive invertebrate taxa (P. antipodarum, G. lacustris, and Tubificida). In contrast to invertebrates, production of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) increased substantially (194%) following the flood, despite the large decline in total secondary production of the invertebrate assemblage. This counterintuitive result is reconciled by a post-flood increase in production and drift concentrations of select invertebrate prey (i.e., Chironomidae and Simuliidae) that supported a large proportion of trout production but had relatively low secondary production. In addition, interaction strengths, measured as species impact values, were strongest between rainbow trout and these two taxa before and after the flood, demonstrating that the dominant consumer-resource interactions were not

  15. Reconnaissance Report for Section 205 Flood Damage Reduction Study, Mississippi River, Hull, Illinois

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    River , Coon Rapids Dam to the Ohio River , Final Report, dated July 1986. This Corps of Engineers report presents the results of investigations into the...Mississippi River in Adams, Pike, and Calhoun Counties, Illinois. The Corps of Engineers improved this flood control system in the 1960’s. This system was...retarding/ desilting reservoirs. Various Corps of Engineers reports address the planning and engineering of this project. Flood Insurance Study. Village of

  16. Automated Liquid-Level Control of a Nutrient Reservoir for a Hydroponic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Boris; Asumadu, Johnson A.; Dogan, Numan S.

    1997-01-01

    A microprocessor-based system for control of the liquid level of a nutrient reservoir for a plant hydroponic growing system has been developed. The system uses an ultrasonic transducer to sense the liquid level or height. A National Instruments' Multifunction Analog and Digital Input/Output PC Kit includes NI-DAQ DOS/Windows driver software for an IBM 486 personal computer. A Labview Full Development system for Windows is the graphical programming system being used. The system allows liquid level control to within 0.1 cm for all levels tried between 8 and 36 cm in the hydroponic system application. The detailed algorithms have been developed and a fully automated microprocessor based nutrient replenishment system has been described for this hydroponic system.

  17. HEC Activities in Reservoir Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    June 1979. Now, HEC-5, "Simulation of Flood Con- trol and Conservation Systems," (9) is our primary reservoir simulation program. Since its June release...are being incorporated into the reservoir simulation model HEC-5. The objective is to provide a computer program and methodology for total water

  18. Post waterflood CO{sub 2} miscible flood in light oil, fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoir. Annual report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Bou-Mikael, S.

    1995-07-01

    Texaco Exploration and Production Inc. (TEPI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a cost sharing cooperative agreement to conduct an Enhanced Oil Recovery demonstration project at Port Neches. The field is located in Orange County near Beaumont, Texas. The project will demonstrate the effectiveness of the CO{sub 2}, miscible process in Fluvial Dominated Deltaic reservoirs. It will also evaluate the use of horizontal CO{sub 2} injection wells to improve the overall sweep efficiency. A data base of FDD reservoirs for the gulf coast region will be developed by LSU, using a screening model developed by Texaco Research Center in Houston. Finally, the results and the information gained from this project will be disseminated throughout the oil industry via a series of SPE papers and industry open forums. Reservoir characterization efforts for the Marginulina sand, are in progress utilizing conventional and advanced technologies including 3-D seismic. Sidewall and conventional. cores were cut and analyzed, lab tests were conducted on reservoir fluids, reservoir BHP pressure and reservoir voidage were monitored as shown. Texaco is utilizing the above data to develop a Stratamodel to best describe and characterize the reservoir and to use it as an input for the compositional simulator. The current compositional model is being revised to integrate the new data from the 3-D seismic and field performance under CO{sub 2} injection, to ultimately develop an accurate economic model. All facilities work has been completed and placed in service including the CO{sub 2} pipeline and metering equipment, CO{sub 2} injection and production equipment, water injection equipment, well work and injection/production lines. The horizontal injection well was drilled and completed on January 15, 1994. CO{sub 2} purchases from Cardox continue at an average rate of 3600 MCFD. The CO{sub 2} is being injected at line pressure of 1350 psi.

  19. River channel network design for drought and flood control: A case study of Xiaoqinghe River basin, Jinan City, China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Baoshan; Wang, Chongfang; Tao, Wendong; You, Zheyuan

    2009-08-01

    Vulnerability of river channels to urbanization has been lessened by the extensive construction of artificial water control improvements. The challenge, however, is that traditional engineering practices on isolated parts of a river may disturb the hydrologic continuity and interrupt the natural state of ecosystems. Taking the Xiaoqinghe River basin as a whole, we developed a river channel network design to mitigate river risks while sustaining the river in a state as natural as possible. The river channel risk from drought during low-flow periods and flood during high-flow periods as well as the potential for water diversion were articulated in detail. On the basis of the above investigation, a network with "nodes" and "edges" could be designed to relieve drought hazard and flood risk respectively. Subsequently, the shortest path algorithm in the graph theory was applied to optimize the low-flow network by searching for the shortest path. The effectiveness assessment was then performed for the low-flow and high-flow networks, respectively. For the former, the network connectedness was evaluated by calculating the "gamma index of connectivity" and "alpha index of circuitry"; for the latter, the ratio of flood-control capacity to projected flood level was devised and calculated. Results show that the design boosted network connectivity and circuitry during the low-flow periods, indicating a more fluent flow pathway, and reduced the flood risk during the high-flow periods.

  20. Proceedings of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Workshop on Reservoir Shoreline Erosion: A National Problem, Held in McAlester, Oklahoma on 26-30 October 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    others serve as cooling reservoirs for power plants , industrial water supplies, and flood control reservoirs (IEPA 1992a). Sources and Causes of...86-1, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. Whitlow, T . H., and Harris, R. W. (1979). "Flood tolerance in plants : a state...Populus canadensis), and Robust Poplar (Populus robusta). A small power auger was the most effective planting method on shorelines without riprap. "The

  1. A Global Hydrological Model with Reservoir Operation Scheme: Global and Regional Applications (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanasaki, N.; Masaki, Y.; Mateo, C.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2013-12-01

    More than 45000 large dams have been constructed all over the world, and their total storage capacity exceeds 7000 km3 which corresponds to approximately 20% of the total annual global river discharge. Explicit incorporation of reservoir operation is indispensable for global-/macro-scale hydrological models, since their storage capacity and potential of altering flow regime are too large to neglect. Our presentation consists of three parts. In the first part, the H08 model, a global hydrological model with reservoir operation scheme is introduced. The H08 model includes an algorithm to estimate reservoir operating rules of individual reservoirs. This enables us to apply the model to the regions and periods with no recorded reservoir operation. The key concepts and challenges of the model are discussed. In the second part, the role of reservoirs in water scarcity is globally assessed. In many parts of the world, local people are suffered from temporal variability in precipitation and river flow. The contribution of reservoirs to water scarcity alleviation is quantitatively and globally assessed. The assessment is extended to the future periods utilizing the latest climate and socio-economic scenarios. In the last part, a regional model application is introduced. The Chao Phraya River in Thailand was suffered from a severe flood in 2011. Vast area was inundated for months and the economic damages reached 40 billion USD. The Chao Phraya River has two major reservoirs and their role is crucial for both water use and flood control. The H08 model is substantially enhanced and applied to the basin to reproduce the 2011 floods. The tradeoff between water use and flood control was investigated by changing reservoir operation options.

  2. [Research progress on phosphorus budgets and regulations in reservoirs].

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao; Li, Xu; Zhang, Wang-shou

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorus is an important limiting factor of water eutrophication. A clear understanding of its budget and regulated method is fundamental for reservoir ecological health. In order to pro- mote systematic research further and improve phosphorus regulation system, the budget balance of reservoir phosphorus and its influencing factors were concluded, as well as conventional regulation and control measures. In general, the main phosphorus sources of reservoirs include upstream input, overland runoff, industrial and domestic wastewater, aquaculture, atmospheric deposition and sediment release. Upstream input is the largest phosphorus source among them. The principal output path of phosphorus is the flood discharge, the emission load of which is mainly influenced by drainage patterns. In addition, biological harvest also can export a fraction of phosphorus. There are some factors affecting the reservoir phosphorus balance, including reservoirs' function, hydrological conditions, physical and chemical properties of water, etc. Therefore, the phosphorus budgets of different reservoirs vary greatly, according to different seasons and regions. In order to reduce the phosphorus loading in reservoirs, some methods are carried out, including constructed wetlands, prefix reservoir, sediment dredging, biomanipulation, etc. Different methods need to be chosen and combined according to different reservoirs' characteristics and water quality management goals. Thus, in the future research, it is reasonable to highlight reservoir ecological characteristics and proceed to a complete and systematic analysis of the inherent complexity of phosphorus budget and its impact factors for the reservoirs' management. Besides, the interaction between phosphorus budget and other nutrients in reservoirs also needs to be conducted. It is fundamental to reduce the reservoirs' phosphorus loading to establish a scientific and improved management system based on those researches.

  3. The aging of America's reservoirs: In-reservoir and downstream physical changes and habitat implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2015-01-01

    Reservoirs are important for various purposes including flood control, water supply, power generation, and recreation. The aging of America's reservoirs and progressive loss of water storage capacity resulting from ongoing sedimentation, coupled with increasing societal needs, will cause the social, economic, environmental, and political importance of reservoirs to continually increase. The short- and medium-term (<50 years) environmental consequences of reservoir construction and operation are well known and include an altered flow regime, lost connectivity (longitudinal, floodplain), an altered sediment regime, substrate compositional change, and downstream channel degradation. In general, reservoir-related changes have had adverse consequences for the natural ecosystem. Longer term (>50 years) environmental changes as reservoirs enter “old” age are less understood. Additional research is needed to help guide the future management of aging reservoir systems and support the difficult decisions that will have to be made. Important research directions include assessment of climate change effects on aging and determination of ecosystem response to ongoing aging and various management actions that may be taken with the intent of minimizing or reversing the physical effects of aging.

  4. Using GEFS ensemble forecasts for decision making in reservoir management in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuerer, M.; Hamill, T.; Webb, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    Reservoirs such as Lake Mendocino in California's Russian River Basin provide flood control, water supply, recreation, and environmental stream flow regulation. Many of these reservoirs are operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) according to water control manuals that specify elevations for an upper volume of reservoir storage that must be kept available for capturing storm runoff and reducing flood risk, and a lower volume of storage that may be used for water supply. During extreme rainfall events, runoff is captured by these reservoirs and released as quickly as possible to create flood storage space for another potential storm. These flood control manuals are based on typical historical weather patterns - wet during the winter, dry otherwise - but are not informed directly by weather prediction. Alternative reservoir management approaches such as Forecast-Informed Reservoir Operations (FIRO), which seek to incorporate advances in weather prediction, are currently being explored as means to improve water supply availability while maintaining flood risk reduction and providing additional ecosystem benefits.We present results from a FIRO proof-of-concept study investigating the reliability of post-processed GEFS ensemble forecasts to predict the probability that day 6-to-10 precipitation accumulations in certain areas in California exceed a high threshold. Our results suggest that reliable forecast guidance can be provided, and the resulting probabilities could be used to inform decisions to release or hold water in the reservoirs. We illustrate the potential of these forecasts in a case study of extreme event probabilities for the Russian River Basin in California.

  5. Environmental effects of storage preservation practices: controlled flushing of fine sediment from a small hydropower reservoir.

    PubMed

    Espa, Paolo; Castelli, Elena; Crosa, Giuseppe; Gentili, Gaetano

    2013-07-01

    Sediment flushing may be effective in mitigating loss of reservoir storage due to siltation, but flushing must be controlled to limit the impact on the downstream environment. A reliable prediction of the environmental effects of sediment flushing is hindered by the limited scientific information currently available. Consequently, there may be some controversy as regards to management decisions, planning the work, and monitoring strategies. This paper summarizes the main results of a monitoring campaign on the stream below a small alpine hydropower reservoir subjected to annual flushing between 2006 and 2009. The removed sediment was essentially silt, and the suspended solid concentration (SSC) of the discharged water was controlled to alleviate downstream impact. Control was achieved through hydraulic regulation and mechanical digging, alternating daytime sediment evacuation, and nocturnal clear water release. The four operations lasted about two weeks each and had an average SSC of about 4 g L(-1). Maximum values of SSC were generally kept below 10 g L(-1). Downstream impact was quantified through sampling of fish fauna (brown trout) and macroinvertebrate in the final reach of the effluent stream. The benthic community was severely impaired by the flushing operations, but recovered to pre-flushing values in a few months. As expected, the impact on brown trout was heavier on juveniles. While data biasing due to fish removal and re-stocking cannot be ruled out, the fish community seems to have reached a state of equilibrium characterized by a lower density than was measured before the flushing operations.

  6. A chemical EOR benchmark study of different reservoir simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudarzi, Ali; Delshad, Mojdeh; Sepehrnoori, Kamy

    2016-09-01

    Interest in chemical EOR processes has intensified in recent years due to the advancements in chemical formulations and injection techniques. Injecting Polymer (P), surfactant/polymer (SP), and alkaline/surfactant/polymer (ASP) are techniques for improving sweep and displacement efficiencies with the aim of improving oil production in both secondary and tertiary floods. There has been great interest in chemical flooding recently for different challenging situations. These include high temperature reservoirs, formations with extreme salinity and hardness, naturally fractured carbonates, and sandstone reservoirs with heavy and viscous crude oils. More oil reservoirs are reaching maturity where secondary polymer floods and tertiary surfactant methods have become increasingly important. This significance has added to the industry's interest in using reservoir simulators as tools for reservoir evaluation and management to minimize costs and increase the process efficiency. Reservoir simulators with special features are needed to represent coupled chemical and physical processes present in chemical EOR processes. The simulators need to be first validated against well controlled lab and pilot scale experiments to reliably predict the full field implementations. The available data from laboratory scale include 1) phase behavior and rheological data; and 2) results of secondary and tertiary coreflood experiments for P, SP, and ASP floods under reservoir conditions, i.e. chemical retentions, pressure drop, and oil recovery. Data collected from corefloods are used as benchmark tests comparing numerical reservoir simulators with chemical EOR modeling capabilities such as STARS of CMG, ECLIPSE-100 of Schlumberger, REVEAL of Petroleum Experts. The research UTCHEM simulator from The University of Texas at Austin is also included since it has been the benchmark for chemical flooding simulation for over 25 years. The results of this benchmark comparison will be utilized to improve

  7. 4D seismic to image a thin carbonate reservoir during a miscible C02 flood: Hall-Gurney Field, Kansas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raef, A.E.; Miller, R.D.; Franseen, E.K.; Byrnes, A.P.; Watney, W.L.; Harrison, W.E.

    2005-01-01

    The movement of miscible CO2 injected into a shallow (900 m) thin (3.6-6m) carbonate reservoir was monitored using the high-resolution parallel progressive blanking (PPB) approach. The approach concentrated on repeatability during acquisition and processing, and use of amplitude envelope 4D horizon attributes. Comparison of production data and reservoir simulations to seismic images provided a measure of the effectiveness of time-lapse (TL) to detect weak anomalies associated with changes in fluid concentration. Specifically, the method aided in the analysis of high-resolution data to distinguish subtle seismic characteristics and associated trends related to depositional lithofacies and geometries and structural elements of this carbonate reservoir that impact fluid character and EOR efforts.

  8. 33 CFR 211.6 - Rights which may be granted by the Secretary of the Army in river and harbor and flood control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rights which may be granted by the Secretary of the Army in river and harbor and flood control property. 211.6 Section 211.6... and flood control property. (a) Leases. (1) The Secretary of the Army is authorized, whenever he...

  9. Sequence stratigraphic and synsedimentary tectonic controls on reservoir compartmentalization in a transgressive sequence set: Almond formation, southwest Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Krystinik, L.F.; Mead, R.H.

    1996-12-31

    The Campanian upper Almond Formation in Southwestern Wyoming contains at least 15 aggradational to backstepping microtidal to low mesotidal barrier/shoreline complexes laid down during a period of net transgression from 72 to 70.5 million years ago. Reservoir compartmentalization in the upper Almond occurs at several scales, including an aggradational to retrogradations sequence set composed of 3 retrogradational parasequence sets; numerous parasequences, and diverse barrier sub-facies units. The lowstand shorelines of these sequence sets stack aggradationally prior to transgression by a really extensive, marine mudstone horizons which separate the sequences. Highstand systems tracts are poorly preserved, often completely removed below fourth of fifth order sequence boundaries which cause seaward jumps of facies in excess of 30 Km and place fluvial sediment, coal and lagoonal deposits abruptly over marine mudstone. Each sequence in the upper Almond is composed of several parasequences (sanding-upward, storm-dominated barrier shorefaces) which intercalate with marine mudstone to the east and grade into oyster-bearing, organic-rich lagoonal mudstone to the west. Compartmentalization in the barrier complexes occurs at most parasequence boundaries and in association with major sub-facies; boundaries (barrier margins, tidal inlets, flood-tidal deltas, washover fans). Further reservoir compartmentalization is induced by synsedimentary faulting and subsidence which locally preserve isolated reservoir-quality barrier/shoreline sandstone bodies by dropping them below the depth of ravinement (5-30 m). The recognition of synsedimentary faulting and subsequent ravinement is critical to accurate sequence stratigraphic analysis and for prediction of reservoir compartments.

  10. Sequence stratigraphic and synsedimentary tectonic controls on reservoir compartmentalization in a transgressive sequence set: Almond formation, southwest Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Krystinik, L.F.; Mead, R.H. )

    1996-01-01

    The Campanian upper Almond Formation in Southwestern Wyoming contains at least 15 aggradational to backstepping microtidal to low mesotidal barrier/shoreline complexes laid down during a period of net transgression from 72 to 70.5 million years ago. Reservoir compartmentalization in the upper Almond occurs at several scales, including an aggradational to retrogradations sequence set composed of 3 retrogradational parasequence sets; numerous parasequences, and diverse barrier sub-facies units. The lowstand shorelines of these sequence sets stack aggradationally prior to transgression by a really extensive, marine mudstone horizons which separate the sequences. Highstand systems tracts are poorly preserved, often completely removed below fourth of fifth order sequence boundaries which cause seaward jumps of facies in excess of 30 Km and place fluvial sediment, coal and lagoonal deposits abruptly over marine mudstone. Each sequence in the upper Almond is composed of several parasequences (sanding-upward, storm-dominated barrier shorefaces) which intercalate with marine mudstone to the east and grade into oyster-bearing, organic-rich lagoonal mudstone to the west. Compartmentalization in the barrier complexes occurs at most parasequence boundaries and in association with major sub-facies; boundaries (barrier margins, tidal inlets, flood-tidal deltas, washover fans). Further reservoir compartmentalization is induced by synsedimentary faulting and subsidence which locally preserve isolated reservoir-quality barrier/shoreline sandstone bodies by dropping them below the depth of ravinement (5-30 m). The recognition of synsedimentary faulting and subsequent ravinement is critical to accurate sequence stratigraphic analysis and for prediction of reservoir compartments.

  11. Litter and nutrient flows in tropical upland forest flooded by a hydropower plant in the Amazonian basin.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Guilherme Henrique A; Jordão, Henos Carlos K; Silva, Vanessa Francieli V; Pereira, Marcos Gervasio

    2016-12-01

    Extensive areas in the Brazilian Amazon have been flooded for the construction of hydroelectric dams. However, the water regime of these areas affects the dynamics of igarapés (streams) in adjacent terra firme (upland forests). When the reservoirs are filled, the water levels of streams rise above the normal levels and upland bank forests are flooded. We investigated how this flooding affects the litterfall and nutrient input in the upland forests upstream of a hydroelectric dam reservoir in the Central Amazonia. When the reservoir was filled, the forests were flooded and produced more than twice the litter (8.80Mg·ha(-1)yr(-1)), with three times more leaves (6.36Mg·ha(-1)yr(-1)) than when they were not flooded (4.20 and 1.92Mg·ha(-1)yr(-1), respectively). During flooding, the decomposition rate was four times lower in flooded forests (0.328g·g(-1)yr(-1)) than in control forests (1.460g·g(-1)yr(-1)). Despite this, the flooding did not favor litter or nutrient accumulation. Therefore, dam construction changes the organic matter and nutrient cycling in upland Amazon rainforests. This may influence the important role that they play in organic matter dynamics and could have consequences for the regional carbon balance and, ultimately, global climate.

  12. Methods of Control of the Leishmania infantum Dog Reservoir: State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Podaliri Vulpiani, Michele; Iannetti, Luigi; Paganico, Daniela; Iannino, Filomena; Ferri, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Leishmania infantum is a protozoan parasite causing severe vector-borne visceral diseases both in humans and dogs. The latter are the most important natural reservoir and therefore should be the main target of control measures. The real efficacy of seropositive dogs culling as a direct control method is still debated, and the new sensitivity of large part of population considers ethically unacceptable this kind of approach. Treatment of infectious dogs with one of the available therapeutic protocols is recommendable as it allows to reduce parasite burdens and therefore the possibility of transmission of Leishmania infantum to vectors. Vaccination has been proven to be a very effective control tool, but the absence of a commonly recognized diagnostic method able to distinguish vaccinate from seropositive individuals is still an important limit. Concerning indirect control methods, a number of studies have demonstrated the efficacy of topical insecticides treatment (collars, spot-on, and sprays) in reducing incidence and prevalence of L. infantum. Also, the reduction of the odds of seroconversion in humans in endemic areas has been reported after the application of indirect control measures on dogs. The contemporary use of direct and indirect methods is even more effective in reducing seroprevalence in dogs. PMID:21772963

  13. General Design Memorandum. Phase I and Environmental Impact Statement for Flood Control and Related Purposes, Sheyenne River, North Dakota.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    not increase down- stream flood problems and that existing drainage projects be reassessed to determine if additional controls are needed. The North...More Land Treatment Use of more land treatment measures throughout the basin could provide water quality and erosion control benefits. Encouragement of...National Grasslands is managed under the multiple-use concept with emphasis on grazing and erosion control . In the future, increased emphasis will be

  14. Lidar-based mapping of flood control levees in south Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thatcher, Cindy; Lim, Samsung; Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Kimbrow, Dustin R.

    2016-01-01

    Flood protection in south Louisiana is largely dependent on earthen levees, and in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina the state’s levee system has received intense scrutiny. Accurate elevation data along the levees are critical to local levee district managers responsible for monitoring and maintaining the extensive system of non-federal levees in coastal Louisiana. In 2012, high resolution airborne lidar data were acquired over levees in Lafourche Parish, Louisiana, and a mobile terrestrial lidar survey was conducted for selected levee segments using a terrestrial lidar scanner mounted on a truck. The mobile terrestrial lidar data were collected to test the feasibility of using this relatively new technology to map flood control levees and to compare the accuracy of the terrestrial and airborne lidar. Metrics assessing levee geometry derived from the two lidar surveys are also presented as an efficient, comprehensive method to quantify levee height and stability. The vertical root mean square error values of the terrestrial lidar and airborne lidar digital-derived digital terrain models were 0.038 m and 0.055 m, respectively. The comparison of levee metrics derived from the airborne and terrestrial lidar-based digital terrain models showed that both types of lidar yielded similar results, indicating that either or both surveying techniques could be used to monitor geomorphic change over time. Because airborne lidar is costly, many parts of the USA and other countries have never been mapped with airborne lidar, and repeat surveys are often not available for change detection studies. Terrestrial lidar provides a practical option for conducting repeat surveys of levees and other terrain features that cover a relatively small area, such as eroding cliffs or stream banks, and dunes.

  15. Managing the Arroyo Seco for Flood Prevention, Erosion Control, Waterway and Habitat Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, L; Wang, C; Laurant, J

    2003-02-06

    One of the most important tasks for a site facility manager is to ensure that appropriate channel erosion controls are applied to on-site drainage channels. These erosion controls must minimize risks to the public and structures. Water and sediment loads commonly originate from off-site sources and many of the traditional reactionary measures (installing rip-rap or some other form of bed or bank armor) simply transfer or delay the problem. State and federal agency requirements further complicate the management solution. One case in point is the Arroyo Seco, an intermittent stream that runs along the southwest corner of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. In 2001, LLNL contracted Questa Engineering Corporation to conduct hydraulic, geomorphic, and biological investigations and to prepare an alternatives and constraints analysis. From these investigations, LLNL has selected a water management plan that encompasses overall flood prevention, erosion control, and waterway and habitat restoration and enhancement elements. The most unique aspect of the Arroyo Seco management plan is its use of non-traditional and biotechnical techniques.

  16. Coupled hydrogeomorphic and woody-seedling responses to controlled flood releases in a dryland river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, Andrew C.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2013-05-01

    Interactions among flow, geomorphic processes, and riparian vegetation can strongly influence both channel form and vegetation communities. To investigate such interactions, we took advantage of a series of dam-managed flood releases that were designed in part to maintain a native riparian woodland system on a sand-bed, dryland river, the Bill Williams River, Arizona, USA. Our resulting multiyear flow experiment examined differential mortality among native and nonnative riparian seedlings, associated flood hydraulics and geomorphic changes, and the temporal evolution of feedbacks among vegetation, channel form, and hydraulics. We found that floods produced geomorphic and vegetation responses that varied with distance downstream of a dam, with scour and associated seedling mortality closer to the dam and aggradation and burial-induced mortality in a downstream reach. We also observed significantly greater mortality among nonnative tamarisk (Tamarix) seedlings than among native willow (Salix gooddingii) seedlings, reflecting the greater first-year growth of willow relative to tamarisk. When vegetation was small early in our study period, the effects of vegetation on flood hydraulics and on mediating flood-induced channel change were minimal. Vegetation growth in subsequent years resulted in stronger feedbacks, such that vegetation's stabilizing effect on bars and its drag effect on flow progressively increased, muting the geomorphic effects of a larger flood release. These observations suggest that the effectiveness of floods in producing geomorphic and ecological changes varies not only as a function of flood magnitude and duration, but also of antecedent vegetation density and size.

  17. Coupled hydrogeomorphic and woody-seedling responses to controlled flood releases in a dryland river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, Andrew C.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2013-01-01

    Interactions among flow, geomorphic processes, and riparian vegetation can strongly influence both channel form and vegetation communities. To investigate such interactions, we took advantage of a series of dam-managed flood releases that were designed in part to maintain a native riparian woodland system on a sand-bed, dryland river, the Bill Williams River, Arizona, USA. Our resulting multiyear flow experiment examined differential mortality among native and nonnative riparian seedlings, associated flood hydraulics and geomorphic changes, and the temporal evolution of feedbacks among vegetation, channel form, and hydraulics. We found that floods produced geomorphic and vegetation responses that varied with distance downstream of a dam, with scour and associated seedling mortality closer to the dam and aggradation and burial-induced mortality in a downstream reach. We also observed significantly greater mortality among nonnative tamarisk (Tamarix) seedlings than among native willow (Salix gooddingii) seedlings, reflecting the greater first-year growth of willow relative to tamarisk. When vegetation was small early in our study period, the effects of vegetation on flood hydraulics and on mediating flood-induced channel change were minimal. Vegetation growth in subsequent years resulted in stronger feedbacks, such that vegetation's stabilizing effect on bars and its drag effect on flow progressively increased, muting the geomorphic effects of a larger flood release. These observations suggest that the effectiveness of floods in producing geomorphic and ecological changes varies not only as a function of flood magnitude and duration, but also of antecedent vegetation density and size.

  18. How secure is subsurface CO2 storage? Controls on leakage in natural CO2 reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miocic, Johannes; Gilfillan, Stuart; McDermott, Christopher; Haszeldine, Stuart

    2014-05-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is the only industrial scale technology available to directly reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuelled power plants and large industrial point sources to the atmosphere. The technology includes the capture of CO2 at the source and transport to subsurface storage sites, such as depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs or saline aquifers, where it is injected and stored for long periods of time. To have an impact on the greenhouse gas emissions it is crucial that there is no or only a very low amount of leakage of CO2 from the storage sites to shallow aquifers or the surface. CO2 occurs naturally in reservoirs in the subsurface and has often been stored for millions of years without any leakage incidents. However, in some cases CO2 migrates from the reservoir to the surface. Both leaking and non-leaking natural CO2 reservoirs offer insights into the long-term behaviour of CO2 in the subsurface and on the mechanisms that lead to either leakage or retention of CO2. Here we present the results of a study on leakage mechanisms of natural CO2 reservoirs worldwide. We compiled a global dataset of 49 well described natural CO2 reservoirs of which six are leaking CO2 to the surface, 40 retain CO2 in the subsurface and for three reservoirs the evidence is inconclusive. Likelihood of leakage of CO2 from a reservoir to the surface is governed by the state of CO2 (supercritical vs. gaseous) and the pressure in the reservoir and the direct overburden. Reservoirs with gaseous CO2 is more prone to leak CO2 than reservoirs with dense supercritical CO2. If the reservoir pressure is close to or higher than the least principal stress leakage is likely to occur while reservoirs with pressures close to hydrostatic pressure and below 1200 m depth do not leak. Additionally, a positive pressure gradient from the reservoir into the caprock averts leakage of CO2 into the caprock. Leakage of CO2 occurs in all cases along a fault zone, indicating that

  19. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, Lake Darling Flood Control Project, Souris River, North Dakota and Final Feature Environmental Impact Statement, Velva Flood Control, Velva, North Dakota.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    eutrophication and related algal blooms, silta- 11...nutrient loading from ions adsorbed on the sediments, which could aggravate the already eutrophic conditions. 5.011 The reservoir would continue to dilute...lignite, oil , gas, or salt. The raise of Lake Darling would not inundate large land areas around the lake. Because this area is a national wildlife

  20. Reservoir Control Center: Activities and Accomplishments of the Southwestern Division of the Army Corps of Engineers Related to Reservoir Regulation and Water Management. Part 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    within the division, including multiple level outlet facilities, reservoir simulation studies, reregulation structures, and release reoxy- genation...through a careful evaluation of their problems a study was designed including data collection, mathematical reservoir simulation models, and a physical...model. In the reservoir simulation , the Eiker model and a modified version of the WESTEX model which included a suspended particle settling routine were

  1. [Community Structure Characteristics of Diatom in Reservoirs Located in the South of Jiangsu Province, China and Its Control Factors].

    PubMed

    Ren, Jie; Zhou, Tao; Zhu, Guang-wei; Jin, Ying-wei; Cui, Yang; Xu, Hai; Zhu, Meng-yuan; Xia, Ming-fang; Chen, Wei-min

    2016-05-15

    In order to understand the community structure characteristics of Bacillariophyta and its controlling factors in reservoirs located in the Southeast, China, in the geographic background of hills landscape and humid climate, 18 reservoirs were investigated in June, 2015, during the period with high risk of diatom bloom, covering water quality, and the community structures of phytoplankton. The correlations between Bacillariophyta and other planktons with nutrients, water depth, storage capacity, etc. were analyzed. The results showed that, 10 reservoirs reached the light extent of diatom bloom ( density between 100 x 10⁴-1,000 x 10⁴ cells · L⁻¹ reservoirs in this area were generally in mesotrophic or eutrophic state with considerably high total nitrogen concentrations; total phosphorus and trophic level index were both closely correlated with Bacillariophyta biomass. Phormidium in Cyanophyta was the dominating generus among phytoplankton in terms of density; with respect to biomass, Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta were the top three phylum, and Bacillariophyta accounted for 46. 8% of the total phytoplankton biomass, becoming the most important one resulting in abnormal propagation of algae; Synedra (51.5%) and Cyclotella (21.4%) were the main dominating genera in Bacillariophyta, together with Achnanthes and Melosira. Deep water was favored by Bacillariophyta to dominate among different phyla. Larger ratio between catchment and reservoir storage capacity, on the other hand, caused the increase of trophic level and chlorophyll, and benefited the shift of dominating phytoplankton from Bacillariophyta to Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta, by which, the risk of algae bloom would be increased. It reveals that to alleviate the risk of algae bloom and protect drinking water resources, catchment management is crucial for the studied reservoirs. And the establishment of nutrient reduction strategies needs to consider the features of each individual reservoir, i

  2. Beaver dams, hydrological thresholds, and controlled floods as a management tool in a desert riverine ecosystem, Bill Williams River, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, D.C.; Shafroth, P.B.

    2010-01-01

    Beaver convert lotic stream habitat to lentic through dam construction, and the process is reversed when a flood or other event causes dam failure. We investigated both processes on a regulated Sonoran Desert stream, using the criterion that average current velocity is < 0.2 m s-1 in a lentic reach. We estimated temporal change in the lotic:lentic stream length ratio by relating beaver pond length (determined by the upstream lentic-lotic boundary position) to dam size, and coupling that to the dam-size frequency distribution and repeated censuses of dams along the 58-km river. The ratio fell from 19:1 when no beaver dams were present to < 3:1 after 7 years of flows favourable for beaver. We investigated the dam failure-flood intensity relationship in three independent trials (experimental floods) featuring peak discharge ranging from 37 to 65 m3 s-1. Major damage (breach ??? 3-m wide) occurred at ??? 20% of monitored dams (n = 7-86) and a similar or higher proportion was moderately damaged. We detected neither a relationship between dam size and damage level nor a flood discharge threshold for initiating major damage. Dam constituent materials appeared to control the probability of major damage at low (attenuated) flood magnitude. We conclude that environmental flows prescribed to sustain desert riparian forest will also reduce beaver-created lentic habitat in a non-linear manner determined by both beaver dam and flood attributes. Consideration of both desirable and undesirable consequences of ecological engineering by beaver is important when optimizing environmental flows to meet ecological and socioeconomic goals. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Meandering stream reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J.G.; Sangree, J.B.; Sneider, R.M.

    1987-12-01

    Braided stream deposits, described in a previous article in this series, and meandering stream deposits commonly are excellent reservoirs. Meandering high-sinuousity channels are found on flat alluvial plains with slopes less than 1 1/2/sup 0/ (0.026 rad). These rivers have wide ranges of discharges from low-water flow to flood stage. Two main processes are responsible for development of sand bodies. These are point-bar deposits left by channel migration, and oxbow-lake deposits left in loops of the river course abandoned when the stream cuts a new course during flooding. Extremely high floods spill over the banks and deposit sheets of very fine sand, silt, and clay onto the flood plain.

  4. Investigating physical controls on methane and carbon dioxide fluxes over reservoirs using the eddy covariance method

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reservoirs are a globally important source of carbon to the atmosphere. Several recent studies have found that both carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions from reservoirs are currently being underestimated by up to 50%. This underestimation is due to inadequate characte...

  5. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Czirr, Kirk

    1999-10-28

    The first project objective is to utilize reservoir characterization and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a carbon dioxide (CO2) project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing waterflood depletion. The second project objective is to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field. All work during the second quarter falls within the demonstration project.

  6. Post waterflood CO{sub 2} miscible flood in light oil fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs. Second quarterly technical progress report, [January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Production from the Marg Area 1 at Port Neches is averaging 392 barrels of oil per day (BOPD) for this quarter. The production drop is due to fluctuation in both GOR and BS&W on various producing well, coupled with low water injectivity in the reservoir. We were unable to inject any tangible amount of water in the reservoir since late January. Both production and injection problems are currently being evaluated to improve reservoir performance. Well Kuhn (No. 6) was stimulated with 120 MMCF of CO{sub 2}, and was placed on production in February 1, 1995. The well was shut in for an additional month after producing dry CO{sub 2} initially. The well was opened again in early April and is currently producing about 40 BOPD. CO{sub 2} injection averaged 11.3 MMCFD including 4100 MMCFD purchased from Cardox, while water injection averaged 1000 BWPD with most of the injection occurring in the month of January.

  7. Mechanistic study of microbial control of hydrogen sulfide production in oil reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Nemati, M; Jenneman, G E; Voordouw, G

    2001-09-05

    Microbial control of biogenic production of hydrogen sulfide in oil fields was studied in a model system consisting of pure cultures of the nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacterium (NR-SOB) Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO and the sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac6, as well as in microbial cultures enriched from produced water of a Canadian oil reservoir. The presence of nitrate at concentrations up to 20 mM had little effect on the rate of sulfate reduction by a pure culture of Lac6. Addition of CVO imposed a strong inhibition effect on production of sulfide. In the absence of added nitrate SRB we were able to overcome this effect after an extended lag phase. Simultaneous addition of CVO and nitrate stopped the production of H2S immediately. The concentration of sulfide decreased to a negligible level due to nitrate-dependent sulfide oxidation activity of CVO. This was not prevented by raising the concentration of Na-lactate, the electron donor for sulfate reduction. Similar results were obtained with enrichment cultures. Enrichments of produced water with sulfide and nitrate were dominated by CVO, whereas enrichments with sulfate and Na-lactate were dominated by SRB. Addition of an NR-SOB enrichment to an SRB enrichment inhibited the production of sulfide. Subsequent addition of sufficient nitrate caused the sulfide concentration to drop to zero. A similar response was seen in the presence of nitrate alone, although after a pronounced lag time, it was needed for emergence of a sizable CVO population. The results of the present study show that two mechanisms are involved in microbial control of biogenic sulfide production. First, addition of NR-SOB imposes an inhibition effect, possibly by increasing the environmental redox potential to levels which are inhibitory for SRB. Second, in the presence of sufficient nitrate, NR-SOB oxidize sulfide, leading to its complete removal from the environment. Successful microbial control of H2S in

  8. Bathymetry and capacity of Shawnee Reservoir, Oklahoma, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashworth, Chad E.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Smith, Kevin A.

    2017-02-13

    Shawnee Reservoir (locally known as Shawnee Twin Lakes) is a man-made reservoir on South Deer Creek with a drainage area of 32.7 square miles in Pottawatomie County, Oklahoma. The reservoir consists of two lakes connected by an equilibrium channel. The southern lake (Shawnee City Lake Number 1) was impounded in 1935, and the northern lake (Shawnee City Lake Number 2) was impounded in 1960. Shawnee Reservoir serves as a municipal water supply, and water is transferred about 9 miles by gravity to a water treatment plant in Shawnee, Oklahoma. Secondary uses of the reservoir are for recreation, fish and wildlife habitat, and flood control. Shawnee Reservoir has a normal-pool elevation of 1,069.0 feet (ft) above North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88). The auxiliary spillway, which defines the flood-pool elevation, is at an elevation of 1,075.0 ft.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the City of Shawnee, has operated a real-time stage (water-surface elevation) gage (USGS station 07241600) at Shawnee Reservoir since 2006. For the period of record ending in 2016, this gage recorded a maximum stage of 1,078.1 ft on May 24, 2015, and a minimum stage of 1,059.1 ft on April 10–11, 2007. This gage did not report reservoir storage prior to this report (2016) because a sufficiently detailed and thoroughly documented bathymetric (reservoir-bottom elevation) survey and corresponding stage-storage relation had not been published. A 2011 bathymetric survey with contours delineated at 5-foot intervals was published in Oklahoma Water Resources Board (2016), but that publication did not include a stage-storage relation table. The USGS, in cooperation with the City of Shawnee, performed a bathymetric survey of Shawnee Reservoir in 2016 and released the bathymetric-survey data in 2017. The purposes of the bathymetric survey were to (1) develop a detailed bathymetric map of the reservoir and (2) determine the relations between stage and reservoir storage

  9. Age at Virologic Control Influences Peripheral Blood HIV Reservoir Size and Serostatus in Perinatally-Infected Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Persaud, Deborah; Patel, Kunjal; Karalius, Brad; Rainwater-Lovett, Kaitlin; Ziemniak, Carrie; Ellis, Angela; Chen, Ya Hui; Richman, Douglas; Siberry, George K.; Van Dyke, Russell B.; Burchett, Sandra; Seage, George R.; Luzuriaga, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Importance Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiated within several weeks of HIV infection in adults limits proviral reservoirs that preclude HIV cure. Biomarkers of restricted proviral reservoirs may aid in the monitoring of HIV remission or cure. Objectives To quantify peripheral blood proviral reservoir size in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents and to identify correlates of limited proviral reservoirs. Design, Setting, and Participants A cross-sectional study including 144 perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) youth (median age: 14.3 years), enrolled in the US-based Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study, on durable (median: 10.2 years) cART, stratified by age at virologic control. Main Outcome and Measures The primary endpoint was peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proviral load following virologic control at different ages. Correlations between proviral load and markers of active HIV production (HIV-specific antibodies, 2-long terminal repeat (2-LTR) circles), and markers of immune activation and inflammation were also assessed. Results Proviral reservoir size was markedly reduced in the PHIV+ youth who achieved virologic control by age 1 year (4.2 [interquartile range, 2.6-8 6] copies per 1 million PBMCs) compared to those who achieved virologic control between 1-5 years of age (19.4 [interquartile range, 5.5-99.8] copies per 1 million PBMCs) or after age 5 years (−(70.7 [interquartile range, 23.2-209.4] copies per 1 million PBMCs; P < .00l). A proviral burden <10 copies/million PBMCs was measured in 11 (79%), 20 (40%), and 13 (18%) participants with virologic control at ages <1 year, 1-5 years, and >5 years, respectively (p<0.001). Lower proviral load was associated with undetectable 2-LTR circles (p<0.001) and HIV negative or indeterminate serostatus (p<0.001), but not with concentrations of soluble immune activation markers CD14 and CD163. Conclusions and Relevance Early effective cART along with prolonged virologic suppression after perinatal HIV

  10. Reservoir-flooded river mouth areas as sediment traps revealing erosion from peat mining areas - Jukajoki case study in eastern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahvanainen, Teemu; Meriläinen, Henna-Kaisa; Haraguchi, Akira; Simola, Heikki

    2016-04-01

    Many types of soil-disturbing land use have caused excess sedimentation in Finnish lakes. Identification and quantification of catchment sources of sediment material is crucial in cases where demands for remediation measures are considered. We studied recent (50 yr) sediments of four small rivers, all draining to a reservoir impounded in 1971. Catchments of two of the rivers had had peat mining activities from early 1980s until recently, exposing large areas of peat surfaces to erosion. The water level of the reservoir had risen to the river mouth areas of all rivers, while in each case, the river mouth areas still form riverine narrows separable from the main reservoir, hence collecting sedimentation from their own catchments. The original soils under the reservoir water level could readily be observed in core samples, providing a dated horizon under recent sediments. In addition, we used 137Cs-stratigraphies for dating of samples from original river bed locations. As expected, recent sediments of rivers with peat mining influence differed from others e.g. by high organic content and C:N ratios. Stable isotopes 13C and 15N both correlated with C:N (r = 0.799 and r = -0.717, respectively) and they also differentiated the peat-mining influenced samples from other river sediments. Principal components of the physical-chemical variables revealed clearer distinction than any variables separately. Light-microscopy revealed abundance of leafs of Sphagnum mosses in peat-mining influenced river sediments that were nearly absent from other rivers. Spores of Sphagnum were, however, abundant in all river sediments indicating their predominantly airborne origin. We find that combination of several physical-chemical characters rather than any single variable and microscopy of plant remains can result in reliable recognition of peatland-origin of sediment material when non-impacted sites are available for comparison. Dating of disturbed recent sediments is challenging. River

  11. Unconformity structures controlling stratigraphic reservoirs in the north-west margin of Junggar basin, North-west China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kongyou; Paton, Douglas; Zha, Ming

    2013-03-01

    Tectonic movements formed several unconformities in the north-west margin of the Junggar basin. Based on data of outcrop, core, and samples, the unconformity is a structural body whose formation associates with weathering, leaching, and onlap. At the same time, the structural body may be divided into three layers, including upper layer, mid layer, and lower layer. The upper layer with good primary porosity serves as the hydrocarbon migration system, and also accumulates the hydrocarbon. The mid layer with compactness and ductility can play a role as cap rock, the strength of which increases with depth. The lower layer with good secondary porosity due to weathering and leaching can form the stratigraphic truncation traps. A typical stratigraphic reservoir lying in the unconformity between the Jurassic and Triassic in the north-west margin of the Junggar basin was meticulously analyzed in order to reveal the key controlling factors. The results showed that the hydrocarbon distribution in the stratigraphic onlap reservoirs was controlled by the onlap line, the hydrocarbon distribution in the stratigraphic truncation reservoirs was confined by the truncation line, and the mid layer acted as the key sealing rock. So a conclusion was drawn that "two lines (onlap line and truncation line) and a body (unconformity structural body)" control the formation and distribution of stratigraphic reservoirs.

  12. Floods of January-February 1963 in California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rantz, S.E.; Harris, E.E.

    1963-01-01

    Widespread flooding occurred in central California and northwestern Nevada during January 31 - February 1, 1963, as a result of intense precipitation of about 72 hours duration. The flood-producing storm was of the warm type, with precipitation falling as rain at altitudes as high as 8,000 feet. The heavy precipitation, totaling as much as 20 inches or more in the Sierra Nevada, fell on frozen ground or on the sparse snowpack that existed in the higher altitudes. The response of runoff to rainfall was dramatic, as streams throughout the area rose rapidly. Hardest hit were the basins of the American, Yuba, and Truckee Rivers, where flood peaks either reached record-breaking heights or rivalled the discharges attained in the memorable floods of November 1950 and December 1955. Because of the relatively short duration of the storm, the volume of flood flow in 1963 was not outstanding. Ten deaths were attributed to the storm or flood. Preliminary estimates indicate damage in excess of $16 million in foothill and valley areas, but no attempt has yet been made to assess the heavy damage to highways and drainage structures in the mountain areas. The U. S. Army, Corps of Engineirs estimates that its operation of flood-control facilities prevented additional damage of $236 million. Other reservoirs, operated primarily for water conservation or power production, were also instrumental in preventing damage.

  13. Controls on Flood Event Frequencies Recorded in Stalagmites from Cave KNI-51, Australian Tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denniston, Rhawn; Gonzales, Angelique; Villarini, Gabriele; Polyak, Victor; Asmerom, Yemane; Wanamaker, Alan, Jr.; Lachniet, Matthew; Ummenhofer, Caroline; Cugley, John; Woods, David; Humphreys, William

    2016-04-01

    Extreme rainfall events in the central Australia tropics are largely driven by tropical cyclones and the Australian summer monsoon, both of which are sensitive to external forcing. To better understand baseline variability in extreme rainfall, we produced a record of cave flooding events spanning the last two millennia from a suite of precisely-dated and fast-growing aragonite stalagmites from cave KNI-51 (Denniston et al., 2015, PNAS, 112, 4576). During cave flooding events, sediment deposited on stalagmite surfaces becomes preserved within the stalagmite when floodwaters recede and stalagmite growth resumes. Ages of individual flood events are determined using growth models constructed from linear interpolation of 230Th-dated intervals of stalagmite carbonate (2 s.d. errors of ±1-30 yr in most cases). The robustness of this stalagmite flood record was tested, in part, by comparing accumulations of sediment layers in coeval stalagmites. Absolute values and temporal trends in flood recurrence rates were generally quite similar between stalagmites, arguing that each stalagmite was equally sensitive to flood events. We have now extended this cave flooding record back to 3600 yr BP using three additional stalagmites, each of which contains multi-decadal to centennial variations in flood frequency. The longest duration (1000 yr) and tallest (1.1m) of these stalagmites, KNI-51-7, is marked by a secular trend toward reduced flood occurrence rates, with the 30 yr running mean of floods/yr reaching 0.0, a value lower than in any other of the other nine samples analyzed in this study. However, KNI-51-N, which overlaps with KNI-51-7 for 300 yr, contains nearly identical sub-centennial variations to KNI-51-7 but KNI-51-N does not trend toward lower values. We argue that the decreasing average number of flood events with time in KNI-51-7 is a result of the stalagmite having grown above average flood height, thereby restricting its ability to record more frequent, smaller

  14. Sediment pollution characteristics and in situ control in a deep drinking water reservoir.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zizhen; Huang, Tinglin; Li, Yang; Ma, Weixing; Zhou, Shilei; Long, Shenghai

    2017-02-01

    Sediment pollution characteristics, in situ sediment release potential, and in situ inhibition of sediment release were investigated in a drinking water reservoir. Results showed that organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in sediments increased from the reservoir mouth to the main reservoir. Fraction analysis indicated that nitrogen in ion exchangeable form and NaOH-extractable P (Fe/Al-P) accounted for 43% and 26% of TN and TP in sediments of the main reservoir. The Risk Assessment Code for metal elements showed that Fe and Mn posed high to very high risk. The results of the in situ reactor experiment in the main reservoir showed the same trends as those observed in the natural state of the reservoir in 2011 and 2012; the maximum concentrations of total OC, TN, TP, Fe, and Mn reached 4.42mg/L, 3.33mg/L, 0.22mg/L, 2.56mg/L, and 0.61mg/L, respectively. An in situ sediment release inhibition technology, the water-lifting aerator, was utilized in the reservoir. The results of operating the water-lifting aerator indicated that sediment release was successfully inhibited and that OC, TN, TP, Fe, and Mn in surface sediment could be reduced by 13.25%, 15.23%, 14.10%, 5.32%, and 3.94%, respectively.

  15. Development of improved-mobility control agents for surfactant/polymer flooding. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, F D; Donaruma, L G; Hatch, M J

    1982-02-23

    During the first year, the initial phase of the project included a literature survey of surfactant/polymer flooding, a summary of the current status of DOE-sponsored polymer and surfactant/polymer field projects, and a survey of oil industry personnel regarding difficulties encountered in the use of commercially available polymers. Major problems in the use of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamides were identified. Purpose of Phase 1 was to delineate the strengths and weaknesses of commercial polymers. Laboratory tests in the second phase then were designed to measure and compare the factors considered to be of greatest importance. During the second year of the project, the Phase 2 baseline screening tests were completed, and Phase 3 work commenced on the synthesis, characterization, and preliminary screening of new or modified polymers. During the final year of the project, the preliminary screening tests were completed and polymers of interest were evaluated in more detail. This final report contains highlights of the significant accomplishments of the project and presents our conclusions regarding the development of improved mobility control agents. The work has shown that moderate changes in the basic structure of acrylamide polymers can produce significant effects on performance in oil recovery applications. Better viscosity retention in brine can be obtained by stiffening the polymer chain of acrylamide-type materials. Enhanced shear stability can be attained by increasing the polymer hydrophilicity.

  16. Tonawanda Creek, Genesee County, New York, Regional Flood Control. Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    several hours. Turbidity and 3uspended solids concentrations lower than those necessary to cause death or physiological injury may also produce other...water, DC proved to be more effective since the fish were attracted to the anode and could be seen and captured by the netters . One person carried the...intermittent flooding. Teskey and Hinckley (1977)1/ give a good review of both short-term and long-term impacts of flooding on vegetation. Physiological

  17. Experience in operating the Bratsk Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarov, A.V.

    1984-04-01

    The Bratsk reservoir is the largest in the USSR and second largest in the world. Initially, the reservoir was expected to be filled by the end of 1966. However, the actual filling was not completed until September of 1967. During filling and in the first years of operation it was constantly necessary to deal with floating timber in order to ensure normal operation of the hydrostation, navigation safety, conditions for fishery, and fulfillment of the sanitary requirements. During seasonal variations of the reservoir level about 160 sq km of the shore zone was subjected to variable flooding and waterlogging. Maximum erosion occurred on expanded stretches, and within their limits on slopes composed of loam and sand deposits. Within the narrows, where the banks are composed mainly of hard and soft rocks and wave action is weak, erosion is negligible. Wind setup and setdown cause maximum denivellation of the water surface. The maximum increase of the level during setup reaches 232 cm and the maximum decrease during setdown is 24 cm. Seiche oscillations with various amplitudes and periods are observed on the reservoir surface. The main uses of the complex are hydropower, water transport, timber floating, water supply, and fishery. For the successful development of the shores of reservoirs it is necessary to select the construction sites with consideration of possible occurrence of karstic and landslide processes; the construction of heavy structures requires special karst-control measures. 3 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  18. Assessing the impacts of reservoir operation to floodplain inundation by combining hydrological, reservoir management, and hydrodynamic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo, Cherry May; Hanasaki, Naota; Komori, Daisuke; Tanaka, Kenji; Kiguchi, Masashi; Champathong, Adisorn; Sukhapunnaphan, Thada; Yamazaki, Dai; Oki, Taikan

    2014-09-01

    A catastrophic flood event which caused massive economic losses occurred in Thailand, in 2011. Several studies have already been conducted to analyze the Thai floods, but none of them have assessed the impacts of reservoir operation on flood inundation. This study addresses this gap by combining physically based hydrological models to explicitly simulate the impacts of reservoir operation on flooding in the Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand. H08, an integrated water resources model with a reservoir operation module, was combined with CaMa-Flood, a river routing model with representation of flood dynamics. The combined H08-CaMa model was applied to simulate and assess the historical and alternative reservoir operation rules in the two largest reservoirs in the basin. The combined H08-CaMa model effectively simulated the 2011 flood: regulated flows at a major gauging station have high daily NSE-coefficient of 92% as compared with observed discharge; spatiotemporal extent of simulated flood inundation match well with those of satellite observations. Simulation results show that through the operation of reservoirs in 2011, flood volume was reduced by 8.6 billion m3 and both depth and area of flooding were reduced by 40% on the average. Nonetheless, simple modifications in reservoir operation proved to further reduce the flood volume by 2.4 million m3 and the depth and area of flooding by 20% on the average. By modeling reservoir operation with a hydrodynamic model, a more realistic simulation of the 2011 Thai flood was made possible, and the potential of reducing flood inundation through improved reservoir management was quantified.

  19. Response of ground-water levels of flood control operations in three basins, south-eastern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitt, William A.J.

    1974-01-01

    Three basins in southeastern Florida were investigated to determine the changes in ground-water levels and canal flows that occurred in response to operation of coastal water-control structures in each canal. All three basins are underlain by the Biscayne aquifer. They are, Snapper Creek Canal basin, where the Biscayne aquifer is of high permeability; the Snake Creek Canal basin, where the aquifer is of moderate permeability; and the Pompano-Cypress Canal basin, where the aquifer is of low permeability. In each basin, drainage is a function of permeability; thus, where the permeability of the aquifer is high, drainage is excellent. The coastal water-conrol structures are intended to afford flood protection in the three basins. In general the control operation criteria for flood control in newly developing areas in southeastern Florida do not provide adequate protection from flooding because of the time required for the aquifer to respond to changes in the controls. Adequate protection would require increasing the density of secondary drainage canals, but this could achieved only by reducing the quantity of water available for recharging those segments of the Biscayne aquifer adjacent to the canals. (Woodrad-USGS)

  20. Microbial diversity in methanogenic hydrocarbon-degrading enrichment cultures isolated from a water-flooded oil reservoir (Dagang oil field, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Núria; Cai, Minmin; Straaten, Nontje; Yao, Jun; Richnow, Hans H.; Krüger, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Microbial transformation of oil to methane is one of the main degradation processes taking place in oil reservoirs, and it has important consequences as it negatively affects the quality and economic value of the oil. Nevertheless, methane could constitute a recovery method of carbon from exhausted reservoirs. Previous studies combining geochemical and isotopic analysis with molecular methods showed evidence for in situ methanogenic oil degradation in the Dagang oil field, China (Jiménez et al., 2012). However, the main key microbial players and the underlying mechanisms are still relatively unknown. In order to better characterize these processes and identify the main microorganisms involved, laboratory biodegradation experiments under methanogenic conditions were performed. Microcosms were inoculated with production and injection waters from the reservoir, and oil or 13C-labelled single hydrocarbons (e.g. n-hexadecane or 2-methylnaphthalene) were added as sole substrates. Indigenous microbiota were able to extensively degrade oil within months, depleting most of the n-alkanes in 200 days, and producing methane at a rate of 76 ± 6 µmol day-1 g-1 oil added. They could also produce heavy methane from 13C-labeled 2-methylnaphthalene, suggesting that further methanogenesis may occur from the aromatic and polyaromatic fractions of Dagang reservoir fluids. Microbial communities from oil and 2-methyl-naphthalene enrichment cultures were slightly different. Although, in both cases Deltaproteobacteria, mainly belonging to Syntrophobacterales (e.g. Syntrophobacter, Smithella or Syntrophus) and Clostridia, mostly Clostridiales, were among the most represented taxa, Gammaproteobacteria could be only identified in oil-degrading cultures. The proportion of Chloroflexi, exclusively belonging to Anaerolineales (e.g. Leptolinea, Bellilinea) was considerably higher in 2-methyl-naphthalene degrading cultures. Archaeal communities consisted almost exclusively of representatives of

  1. Controlling Eutrophication in A Mediterranean Shallow Reservoir by Phosphorus Loading Reduction: The Need for an Integrated Management Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaragüeta, Mikel; Acebes, Pablo

    2017-04-01

    Increased nutrient enrichment in Mediterranean standing waters has enhanced the risk of being affected by cyanobacterial blooms. Because phosphorus abatement is shaped as a crucial strategy for controlling eutrophication, this study introduces a structural thinking, experiential learning laboratory with animation dynamic model elaborated for Cazalegas Reservoir (Spain) to assess the feasibility of implementing a set of internal and external control measures and hydromorphological adjustments to meet the goal of oligotrophication. This shallow reservoir is another case where recurrent eutrophication has led to reach annual mean total phosphorus concentrations (0.16 ± 0.08 mg total phosphorus/L) over the threshold of current water policies, triggering cyanobacterial growth up to undesirable levels in summer time (approximately 50,000 cells/mL). Modeling results showed that (i) after upgrading water treatment in the main tributary, (ii) applying a lanthanum-modified bentonite into the water column and sediment, and (iii) increasing reservoir water level, in-lake P concentrations and cyanobacterial abundance decreased in an 88% (below 0.01 mg total phosphorus/L) and 84% (below 6000 cells/mL), respectively in the most critical periods. However, the constraints of the proposed management strategies are associated with their costs of implementation and the time span for a stable trophic recovery of the reservoir. In that end, integrated management approaches are aimed to be adopted by water managers to reach adequate ecological status of freshwater bodies.

  2. Controlling Eutrophication in A Mediterranean Shallow Reservoir by Phosphorus Loading Reduction: The Need for an Integrated Management Approach.

    PubMed

    Zaragüeta, Mikel; Acebes, Pablo

    2017-04-01

    Increased nutrient enrichment in Mediterranean standing waters has enhanced the risk of being affected by cyanobacterial blooms. Because phosphorus abatement is shaped as a crucial strategy for controlling eutrophication, this study introduces a structural thinking, experiential learning laboratory with animation dynamic model elaborated for Cazalegas Reservoir (Spain) to assess the feasibility of implementing a set of internal and external control measures and hydromorphological adjustments to meet the goal of oligotrophication. This shallow reservoir is another case where recurrent eutrophication has led to reach annual mean total phosphorus concentrations (0.16 ± 0.08 mg total phosphorus/L) over the threshold of current water policies, triggering cyanobacterial growth up to undesirable levels in summer time (approximately 50,000 cells/mL). Modeling results showed that (i) after upgrading water treatment in the main tributary, (ii) applying a lanthanum-modified bentonite into the water column and sediment, and (iii) increasing reservoir water level, in-lake P concentrations and cyanobacterial abundance decreased in an 88% (below 0.01 mg total phosphorus/L) and 84% (below 6000 cells/mL), respectively in the most critical periods. However, the constraints of the proposed management strategies are associated with their costs of implementation and the time span for a stable trophic recovery of the reservoir. In that end, integrated management approaches are aimed to be adopted by water managers to reach adequate ecological status of freshwater bodies.

  3. Controlled sediment flushing at the Cancano Reservoir (Italian Alps): Management of the operation and downstream environmental impact.

    PubMed

    Espa, Paolo; Brignoli, Maria Laura; Crosa, Giuseppe; Gentili, Gaetano; Quadroni, Silvia

    2016-11-01

    Sediment flushing may be effective to preserve reservoir storage, but concerns arise about sustainability for downstream freshwater ecosystems. We report on the controlled flushing of approximately 110,000 tons of silt from a 120 Mm(3) reservoir on the Adda River, the main tributary of Lake Como, Italy. Technical constraints prevented flushing during high flows, and the operation had to be spread out over three consecutive years (2010-2012) and, for each year, over a rather long time span (40-50 days). To mitigate the downstream impact, the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) of the evacuated water was controlled by regulating the dislodging works inside the reservoir, increasing the streamflow in the regulated tributaries, and operating an instream settling basin. SSC and water flow as well as benthic macroinvertebrates and trout were monitored as far as 28 km below the reservoir. At the most upstream gauging station, SSC peaked up to 100 g/l and ranged from 3.5 to 8 g/l on average per each operation. Stream quality metrics based on macroinvertebrate data evidenced the impairment due to flushing; however, the benthic community showed high resilience, recovering to pre-flushing conditions in 6-9 months. Trout data were biased by stocking and sport fishing and were more difficult to be interpreted. The trout population wouldn't seem remarkably altered, even if a non-negligible impact could be deduced through pre/post-event sample comparison.

  4. A grassed waterway and earthen dams to control muddy floods from a cultivated catchment of the Belgian loess belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, Olivier; Vandaele, Karel; van Wesemael, Bas; Bielders, Charles L.

    2008-08-01

    Muddy floods, i.e. runoff from cultivated areas carrying large quantities of soil, are frequent and widespread in the European loess belt. They are mainly generated in dry zero-order valleys and are nowadays considered as the most likely process transferring material eroded from cultivated hillslopes during the Holocene to the flood plain. The huge costs of muddy flood damages justify the urgent installation of control measures. In the framework of the 'Soil Erosion Decree' of the Belgian Flemish region, a 12 ha-grassed waterway and three earthen dams have been installed between 2002-2004 in the thalweg of a 300-ha cultivated dry valley in the Belgian loess belt. The measures served their purpose by preventing any muddy flood in the downstream village, despite the occurrence of several extreme rainfall events (with a maximum return period of 150 years). The catchment has been intensively monitored from 2005-2007 and 39 runoff events were recorded in that period. Peak discharge (per ha) was reduced by 69% between the upstream and the downstream extremities of the grassed waterway (GWW). Furthermore, runoff was buffered for 5-12 h behind the dams, and the lag time at the outlet of the catchment was thereby increased by 75%. Reinfiltration was also observed within the waterway, runoff coefficients decreasing by a mean of 50% between both extremities of the GWW. Sediment discharge was also reduced by 93% between the GWW's inflow and the outlet. Before the installation of the control measures, specific sediment yield (SSY) of the catchment reached 3.5 t ha - 1 yr - 1 and an ephemeral gully was observed nearly each year in the catchment. Since the control measures have been installed, no (ephemeral) gully has developed and the SSY of the catchment dropped to a mean of 0.5 t ha - 1 yr - 1 . Hence, sediment transfer from the cultivated dry valley to the alluvial plain should dramatically decrease. Total cost of the control measures that are built for a 20 year-period is

  5. Control on reservoir distribution and quality in regressive member of an Upper Pennsylvanian cyclothem

    SciTech Connect

    Prather, B.E.

    1983-08-01

    Isopach maps and diagenetic features may be used to predict the distribution of reservoir-quality rock in the D-zone cyclothem of the Lansing-Kansas City Groups in southwestern Nebraska. The D-zone cyclothem was deposited during one major oscillation of the epeiric sea in late Pennsylvanian (Missourian). This cyclothem records a transgression of sea level followed by a major regression. During the regressive phase there was a brief sea level transgression. The D-zone cyclothem consists of the four basic lithofacies common to most cyclic deposits of this age in northwestern Kansas and southwestern Nebraska: 1) a thin lower carbonate unit deposited in a shallow-marine environment; 2) a laterally extensive lower shale unit of marine origin resulting from a terrigenous influx from the north; 3) a complex upper carbonate unit deposited in shoaling water during waning terrigenous influx; and 4) an upper shale unit deposited in tidal flat to nonmarine environments. Conclusions: 1) paleobathymetery is reflected in an isopach map of the upper shale unit; 2) distribution of grain-supported rock is controlled in part by formation of bathymetric highs while underlying shales compacted around preexisting topographic highs; 3) enhancement of porosity by dissolution in the grain-supported rocks occurred in the freshwater phreatic and vadose zoes; and 4) recognition of diagenetic features associated with formation of paleowater tables may be used to predict the distribution of porosity in these grainstones.

  6. Karst-controlled reservoir heterogeneity in Ellenburger group carbonates of west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Kerans, C.

    1988-10-01

    Petroleum production from restricted shelf carbonates of the Lower Ordovician Ellenburger group is commonly considered to have been a result of a pervasive, relatively homogeneous tectonic fracture system within the reservoir rock. However, regional facies and diagenetic (paleokarst) studies of Ellenburger strata, based on cores and wireline logs, have demonstrated that significant reservoir compartmentalization was caused by karst modification in the upper part of the unit. 19 figures.

  7. Reservoir controls on the occurrence and production of gas hydrates in nature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy Scott

    2014-01-01

    modeling has shown that concentrated gas hydrate occurrences in sand reservoirs are conducive to existing well-based production technologies. The resource potential of gas hydrate accumulations in sand-dominated reservoirs have been assessed for several polar terrestrial basins. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assigned an in-place resource of 16.7 trillion cubic meters of gas for hydrates in sand-dominated reservoirs on the Alaska North Slope. In a more recent assessment, the USGS indicated that there are about 2.42 trillion cubic meters of technically recoverable gas resources within concentrated, sand-dominated, gas hydrate accumulations in northern Alaska. Estimates of the amount of in-place gas in the sand dominated gas hydrate accumulations of the Mackenzie Delta Beaufort Sea region of the Canadian arctic range from 1.0 to 10 trillion cubic meters of gas. Another prospective gas hydrate resources are those of moderate-to-high concentrations within sandstone reservoirs in marine environments. In 2008, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management estimated that the Gulf of Mexico contains about 190 trillion cubic meters of gas in highly concentrated hydrate accumulations within sand reservoirs. In 2008, the Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation reported on a resource assessment of gas hydrates in which they estimated that the volume of gas within the hydrates of the eastern Nankai Trough at about 1.1 trillion cubic meters, with about half concentrated in sand reservoirs. Because conventional production technologies favor sand-dominated gas hydrate reservoirs, sand reservoirs are considered to be the most viable economic target for gas hydrate production and will be the prime focus of most future gas hydrate exploration and development projects.

  8. Flood control project selection using an interval type-2 entropy weight with interval type-2 fuzzy TOPSIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamri, Nurnadiah; Abdullah, Lazim

    2014-06-01

    Flood control project is a complex issue which takes economic, social, environment and technical attributes into account. Selection of the best flood control project requires the consideration of conflicting quantitative and qualitative evaluation criteria. When decision-makers' judgment are under uncertainty, it is relatively difficult for them to provide exact numerical values. The interval type-2 fuzzy set (IT2FS) is a strong tool which can deal with the uncertainty case of subjective, incomplete, and vague information. Besides, it helps to solve for some situations where the information about criteria weights for alternatives is completely unknown. Therefore, this paper is adopted the information interval type-2 entropy concept into the weighting process of interval type-2 fuzzy TOPSIS. This entropy weight is believed can effectively balance the influence of uncertainty factors in evaluating attribute. Then, a modified ranking value is proposed in line with the interval type-2 entropy weight. Quantitative and qualitative factors that normally linked with flood control project are considered for ranking. Data in form of interval type-2 linguistic variables were collected from three authorised personnel of three Malaysian Government agencies. Study is considered for the whole of Malaysia. From the analysis, it shows that diversion scheme yielded the highest closeness coefficient at 0.4807. A ranking can be drawn using the magnitude of closeness coefficient. It was indicated that the diversion scheme recorded the first rank among five causes.

  9. Flood vulnerability of the Karun river system and short-term mitigation measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidari, Ali

    2013-04-01

    The Karun river basin has accommodated a large number of hydro projects, including reservoirs, hydropower plants (HPPs), water conveyance systems, and irrigation networks. Recent extreme floods in the basin have resulted in damage to the vulnerable floodplain areas and have devastated dam sites that are under construction. Structural and non-structural approaches were pursued to reduce flood damage in the region, after extreme floods in 2005 and 2006. Resistible cofferdams, along with an early flood forecasting system (EFFS) and emergency action plan (EAP), have been identified as short-term solutions in this paper. The EFFS incorporates a regional numerical weather forecast system, rainfall-runoff models, a reservoir flood control simulation model, flood routing, and two-dimensional inundation models. The maximum lead time of the forecast is 4 to 5 days, depending on the location of the sites, which is sufficient to evacuate the area and the possible damage centers. In addition to the EFFS, an EAP for dam break and extreme flood events was made after identifying hazardous zones and potential damage to vulnerable areas. Moreover, the EAP includes maps of hazardous zones and access maps to safe areas in the damage centers, mainly in the large cities of the floodplain area.

  10. Long-term flood controls on semi-arid river form: evidence from the Sabie and Olifants rivers, eastern South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heritage, G.; Tooth, S.; Entwistle, N.; Milan, D.

    2015-03-01

    Rivers in the Kruger National Park, eastern South Africa, are characterised by bedrock-influenced "macrochannels" containing variable alluvial thicknesses and riparian vegetation assemblages. Evidence from the Sabie and Olifants rivers suggests that flows up to moderate floods (<3500 m3 s-1) tend to result in net alluviation, with sediments gradually covering the underlying bedrock. More extreme floods strip alluvium and erode bedrock, effectively exerting the primary control over long-term river morphologic development. On the Olifants River, post-flood aerial LIDAR imagery reveals that the 2012 extreme flood (~14000 m3 s-1) resulted in extensive stripping of stored alluvial sediment, exposing and eroding the underlying weathered bedrock. On the Sabie River, preliminary optically stimulated luminescence ages for remnant alluvium are all less than 1000 years, highlighting typical timescales of sediment storage. Together, these results suggest that while periods of general alluviation occur on these systems, long-term river development results from extreme flood-generated bedrock erosion.

  11. Post waterflood CO2 miscible flood in light oil fluvial - dominated deltaic reservoirs. Technical progress report, October 1, 1994--December 30, 1994. 1st Quarter, fiscal year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-15

    Production is averaging about 450 BOPD for the quarter. The fluctuation was primarily due to a temporary shutdown of CO{sub 2} delivery and maturing of the first WAG cycle. CO{sub 2} and water injection were reversed again in order to optimize changing yields and water cuts in the producing wells. Measured BHP was close to the anticipated value. A limited CO{sub 2} volume of 120 MMCF was injected to stimulate well Kuhn No. 6 to test the Huff-Puff process, since the well did not respond to CO{sub 2} injection from the main reservoir. The well will be placed on February 1, 1995. Total CO{sub 2} injection averaged this quarter about 8.8 MMCFD, including 3.6 MMCFD purchased CO{sub 2} from Cardox. The stratigraphy of the sand deposits is also discussed.

  12. [Mercury dynamics of several plants collected from the water-level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir area during flooding and its impact on water body].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Cheng; Sun, Rong-guo; Wang, Ding-yong

    2014-12-01

    Submerged plants are a major source for the abnormal elevation of methylmercury in reservoir. Several specific plants (Echinochloa crusgalli, Cynodondactylon and Corn stover) were collected and inundated in a simulated aquatic environment in the laboratory for investigating the mercury (Hg) dynamics in plants and the release process into water, aiming to find out the properties of Hg dynamics of plants under inundation conditions and its impact on water body in the Water-Level Fluctuation Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The results showed that the contents of total mercury in several plants were in the range of 9. 21-12.07 ng x g(-1), and the percentage content of methylmercury (MeHg) was about 1%-2%. The content of total mercury (THg) in plants gradually decreased, by 35.81%-55.96%, whereas that of the dissolved mercury (DHg) increased sharply, by 103.23% -232.15%, which indicated an emission of Hg from plants to water in the process of decomposition. Furthermore, the state of inundation provided sufficient conditions for the methylation process in plants and therefore caused an increase of the content of methylmercury in the plant residues, which was 3.04-6.63 times as much as the initial content. The concentration of dissolved methylmercury (DMeHg) in the overlying water also increased significantly by 14.84- 16.05 times compared with the initial concentration. Meanwhile, the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the overlying water was significantly and negatively correlated with DMeHg. On the other hand, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the overlying water was significantly and positively correlated with DMeHg. During the whole inundation period, the increase of DHg in the overlying water accounted for 41.74% -47.01% of the total amount of THg emission, and there was a negative correlation between the content of THg in plant residues and that of DHg in the overlying water.

  13. Floods of November 1978 to March 1979 in Arizona and west-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aldridge, Byron Neil; Hales, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    Severe flooding occurred in parts of the Little Colorado and Gila River basins as a result of a storm that occurred December 17-20, 1978. The central highlands received 3 to 10 inches of precipitation that was augmented by snowmelt to altitudes of 10,000 feet. The storm was preceded by extremely large amounts of rainfall and runoff in November and was followed by other periods of high runoff in January and March 1979. In some areas flood peaks in November, January, or March were higher than the peak of December 1978. At Winslow, the discharge of the Little Colorado River in December 1978 was the highest since at least 1952. The discharge of the Gila River above the San Francisco River was probably the highest since at least 1891, and in the Safford Valley, the peak was the highest since 1916. The Agua Fria River below Waddell Dam had the highest discharge since 1919. The flood of December 1978 caused 12 deaths and caused damage that was probably in excess of $150 million in Arizona and west-central New Mexico. Damage was estimated to be $51.8 million in Maricopa County, Arizona. Floods caused extensive agricultural damage along the Gila River in Virden Valley in New Mexico and in Duncan, York, and Safford Valleys in Arizona. Duncan, Arizona, was flooded with as much as 7 feet of water. The flood crest on the Gila River in December 1978 moved from Redrock, New Mexico, to Duncan, Arizona, in about 6 hours, which is more rapid than during other recent floods but is comparable to the travel-time recorded in 1941. Travel-time in the reach varies with discharge and is about 14 hours for discharges of 10,000 cubic feet per second and 5 hours for discharges of more than 40,000 cubic feet per second. Water-conservation reservoirs on the Gila, Salt, Verde, and Agua Fria Rivers and a flood-control reservoir on the Gila River had a major influence on the magnitude of floods downstream from the reservoirs. All runoff from the Gila River basin upstream from Coolidge Dam, Arizona

  14. Influence of ENSO on Flood Frequency Along the California Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, E. D.; Antweiler, R. C.; Neiman, P. J.; Ralph, F. M.

    2002-12-01

    The influence of the El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon on flooding in California coastal streams is investigated by analyzing the annual peak floods, Qpk, recorded at 38 gaging stations. The state of ENSO prior to and during flooding is characterized by the multivariate ENSO index (MEI), where MEI < - 0.5 is La Niña and MEI > 0.5 is El Niño. Flood magnitude, as represented by log Qpk in all 20 streams located south of 35°N has a significant positive correlation, (r = 0.3 to 0.6), whereas in 3 of the 4 streams located north of 41°N flood magnitude has a significant negative correlation with increasing MEI from -2.2 to +3.2. Correlations are uniformly weak and insignificant, however, when the floods are subdivided into El Niño, neutral, and La Niña periods. South of 35°N, El Niño floods are significantly larger than non-El Niño floods. The geometric mean Qpk (El Niño) is 2-16 times the geometric mean Qpk (non-El Niño). During an El Niño, however, the relative strength of El Niño has, at most, a weak influence on flood magnitude. Flood exceedance probabilities for the El Niño and non-El Niño periods were calculated for all gaging stations using the log - Pearson Type III distribution. For exceedance probabilities from pe = 0.50 to 0.02, the ratio of the El Niño to non-El Niño floods varies from greater than 10 near 32°N to less than 0.7 near 42°N. Latitude explains 76 to 90 percent of the observed variation in the relative magnitude of El Niño versus non-El Niño floods over the range of exceedance probabilities. Drainage basin aspect and upwind topography are, also, significant and account for most of the remaining variability. Given our current ability to predict ENSO phase many months before the December to March storm season, there are numerous opportunities to modify water management and natural hazard procedures in coastal basins south of 35°N to reflect the prevailing flood frequency. For example, the portion of reservoir

  15. REEVALUATION OF THE FLOOD AND THE FLOOD CONTROL PLAN AROUND THE DAIJUU WEIR IN THE YOSHINO RIVER BY USING THE WATER LEVEL DATA AND THE RIVER SURVEY MAP IN THE MEIJI ERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Yuji; Yatunaga, Kazuo; Nakano, Susumu

    The authors analyzed the hydraulic features of the Daijuu Weir and neighboring levee of the Yoshino River in the historical perspective, as the structures are important factors of flood control for the river. Firstly, the authors analyzed the precious data of water level observations around the Weir started by De Rijke, a Dutch engineer in 1883. Then using a river survey map surveyed in 1901, they restored the status of levees of the Yoshino River before modern improvement works. Thirdly they analyzed a relationship between the Yoshino River Levee and the Daijuu Weir based on the newspaper articles of the fifty years of period from 1878 through 1927. As the conclusion they reevaluated the flood and flood control plan of the Yoshino River around the Daijuu Weir.

  16. Monitoring and research to describe geomorphic effects of the 2011 controlled flood on the Green River in the Canyon of Lodore, Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, Erich R.; Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Kaplinski, Matt; Alexander, Jason A.; Kohl, Keith

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, a large magnitude flow release from Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Wyoming and Utah, occurred in response to high snowpack in the middle Rocky Mountains. This was the third highest recorded discharge along the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah, since its initial closure in November 1962 and motivated a research effort to document effects of these flows on channel morphology and sedimentology at four long-term monitoring sites within the Canyon of Lodore in Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado and Utah. Data collected in September 2011 included raft-based bathymetric surveys, ground-based surveys of banks, channel cross sections and vegetation-plot locations, sand-bar stratigraphy, and painted rock recovery on gravel bars. As part of this surveying effort, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data were collected at benchmarks on the canyon rim and along the river corridor to establish a high-resolution survey control network. This survey control network allows for the collection of repeatable spatial and elevation data necessary for high accuracy geomorphic change detection. Nearly 10,000 ground survey points and more than 20,000 bathymetric points (at 1-meter resolution) were collected over a 5-day field campaign, allowing for the construction of reach-scale digital elevation models (DEMs). Additionally, we evaluated long-term geomorphic change at these sites using repeat topographic surveys of eight monumented cross sections at each of the four sites. Analysis of DEMs and channel cross sections show a spatially variable pattern of erosion and deposition, both within and between reaches. As much as 5 meters of scour occurred in pools downstream from flow constrictions, especially in channel segments where gravel bars were absent. By contrast, some channel cross sections were stable during the 2011 floods, and have shown almost no change in over a decade of monitoring. Partial mobility of gravel bars occurred, and although in some locations

  17. Factors controlling reservoir quality in tertiary sandstones and their significance to geopressured geothermal production

    SciTech Connect

    Loucks, R.G.; Richmann, D.L.; Milliken, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    Variable intensity of diagenesis is the factor primarily responsible for contrasting regional reservoir quality of Tertiary sandstones from the upper and lower Texas coast. Detailed comparison of Frio sandstone from the Chocolate Bayou/Danbury Dome area, Brazoria County, and Vicksburg sandstones from the McAllen Ranch Field area, Hidalgo County, reveals that extent of diagenetic modification is most strongly influenced by (1) detrital mineralogy and (2) regional geothermal gradients. The regional reservoir quality of Frio sandstones from Brazoria County is far better than that characterizing Vicksburg sandstones from Hidalgo County, especially at depths suitable for geopressured geothermal energy production. However, in predicting reservoir quality on a site-specific basis, locally variable factors such as relative proportions for porosity types, pore geometry as related to permeability, and local depositional environment must also be considered. Even in an area of regionally favorable reservoir quality, such local factors can significantly affect reservoir quality and, hence, the geothermal production potential of a specific sandstone unit.

  18. Controls on porosity development in the Devonian Reservoir at Dolarhide Field

    SciTech Connect

    Saller, A.; Miller, J. ); Van Horn, D. )

    1990-05-01

    Devonian strata in the Dollarhide anticline originally contained 138 million bbl of oil. Porosity distribution is controlled by depositional facies. Devonian shata contain five main lithologies (from bottom to top). (1) Nonporous, microcrystalline chert and dolomite deposited as carbonate and siliceous mud in a basinal enviroment. (2) Burrowed chert-dolomite (10-35 ft thick) with variable porosity accumulated as siliceous sponge spicules and carbonate mud in a low-energy slope environment. (3) Laminated tripolitic chert (0-65 ft) deposited as a spiculitic sand in submarine channels in a slope environment. It has excellent porosity, mainly molds of sponge spicules. (4) Bioclastic limestone (47-92 ft) accumulated as a crinoidal grainstone in a moderate- to high-energy, outer shelf environment. Calcite cementation occluded virtually all porosity. (5) Upper dolomite (50-90 ft) consists of 1-3-ft-thick sequences of dolomitized peloidal grainstone capped by fine-grained chert. The grainstone was deposited in high-energy, shallow-subtidal and tidal-flat environments and has variable porosity. Deposition of the 200-ft-thick Devonian section occurred during a major progradation of shelf and slope facies. Porosity occurs in two stratigraphic zones separated by tight bioclastic limestone. The upper porosity zone (0-90 ft in upper dolomite) is heterogeneous with stratified porosity that bifurcates, coalesces, and pinches out. The lower porosity zone (laminated tripolitic chert and burrowed chert-dolomite) is homogeneous, with high porosity (commonly 25-35%), moderate permeability (5-20 md), and, in the southern part of the field, no distinct vertical permeability barriers. Thickness of the lower reservoir is variable (0-100 ft) with elongate thicks where sponge spicule sands filled channels.

  19. Geological and production characteristics of strandplain/barrier island reservoirs in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.; Jackson, S.; Madden, M.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Young, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) primary mission in the oil research program is to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. The Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program supports DOE`s mission through cost-shared demonstrations of improved Oil Recovery (IOR) processes and reservoir characterization methods. In the past 3 years, the DOE has issued Program Opportunity Notices (PONs) seeking cost-shared proposals for the three highest priority, geologically defined reservoir classes. The classes have been prioritized based on resource size and risk of abandonment. This document defines the geologic, reservoir, and production characteristics of the fourth reservoir class, strandplain/barrier islands. Knowledge of the geological factors and processes that control formation and preservation of reservoir deposits, external and internal reservoir heterogeneities, reservoir characterization methodology, and IOR process application can be used to increase production of the remaining oil-in-place (IOR) in Class 4 reservoirs. Knowledge of heterogeneities that inhibit or block fluid flow is particularly critical. Using the TORIS database of 330 of the largest strandplain/barrier island reservoirs and its predictive and economic models, the recovery potential which could result from future application of IOR technologies to Class 4 reservoirs was estimated to be between 1.0 and 4.3 billion barrels, depending on oil price and the level of technology advancement. The analysis indicated that this potential could be realized through (1) infill drilling alone and in combination with polymer flooding and profile modification, (2) chemical flooding (sufactant), and (3) thermal processes. Most of this future potential is in Texas, Oklahoma, and the Rocky Mountain region. Approximately two-thirds of the potentially recoverable resource is at risk of abandonment by the year 2000.

  20. Camorim Field, Brazil: facies and oil qualities controlling reservoir behavior and well performances

    SciTech Connect

    Nascimento, O.S.; Menezes, S.X.; Bandeira, A. Jr.; Pimental, A.M.; Oliveira, C.M.P.

    1982-05-01

    Camorim Field is located offshore Sergipe State, Brazil. The producing section includes 150 M of Cretaceous conglomerates and coarse to very fine-grained sandstones, interbedded with siltstones and shales. Within this interval, 6 pools are recognized based on log correlation and facies analysis. The field has an area of 25 sq km and the reservoir average depth is 1900 m. Twenty-eight development wells were drilled. Reservoir geology and performance were analyzed by a multidisciplinary group. The reservoirs were fully cored in 5 wells and the correlation between rock and log responses allowed facies mapping throughout the field. The depositional model is interpreted as an alluvial-fan complex prograding toward a lacustrine environment.

  1. What factors control the percentage of nitrogen that gets exported downstream from man-made reservoirs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonpane, J. M.; Wollheim, W. M.; Whitney, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    Man-made dams influence more than just the flow of water in a river. The build up of sediments and organic matter, increased residence times, and elevated nutrient inputs from upstream can result in increased algal growth and blooms, altered DO patterns, and can also influence the flux of nutrients from watersheds. Many of the effects of dams vary in intensity based on the geomorphology of their resulting reservoirs. In this study, we examined eight reservoirs located in four different coastal watersheds in New England, USA, to analyze the role that characteristics such as depth, width, volume, and residence time play in regards to metabolism (GPP and Respiration) and nutrient retention. At the inflows and outflow of each reservoir, we measured conductivity, dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids, nitrate, phosphate, chlorophyll, and dissolved organic carbon. Using conductivity, which is conservative, and watershed area, we created a mass balance for each watershed. In most cases the conductivity mass balance indicated that water inputs and outputs were at equilibrium during sampling, allowing us to assess the alteration of non-conservative material fluxes. Dissolved oxygen and TSS were not balanced, indicating that the reservoirs acted as both a source and a sink for DO and sediments depending upon the time of day and amount of algal activity. Similar analyses will be conducted for nutrients. The net change of each variable across the reservoirs will be related to geomorphological characteristics of the reservoirs. With nutrient loading from anthropogenic sources, and increased push for small dam removal, this study provides useful information regarding the consequences of dam removal to downstream aquatic ecosystems.

  2. Biocompetitive exclusion technology: A field system to control reservoir souring and increasing production

    SciTech Connect

    Sandbeck, K.A.; Hitzman, D.O.

    1995-12-31

    Biogenic formation of sulfide in reservoirs by Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) causes serious plugging, corrosion, and environmental safety problems. The production of sulfide can be decreased, and its concentration reduced, by the establishment and growth of an indigenous microbial population which results in a replacement of the SRB population. This approach to modify the reservoir ecology utilizing preexisting carbon sources coupled with the introduction of an alternate electron acceptor forms the basis of a new Biocompetitive Exclusion technology which has the potential to enhance oil recovery and decrease paraffin deposition and corrosion. Preliminary field results from an ongoing DOE-sponsored research program will be discussed.

  3. 75 FR 18238 - United States Section; Final Environmental Impact Statement, Flood Control Improvements and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO United States Section; Final Environmental Impact Statement... portions of the Presidio FCP levees. An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) was prepared to evaluate... USIBWC to minimize potential environmental impacts and fulfill the project goal of flood protection....

  4. Floods in Indiana, June-August 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gold, Robert L.; Wolcott, Stephen W.

    1980-01-01

    This report documents rainstorms and resultant floods in central and southern Indiana during the summer of 1979. Major flooding was caused by three storms, one in June and two in July 1979, centered primarily in central and southern Indiana. Peak discharge exceeded the 100-year recurrence interval at 16 sites in this area. State Civil Defense officials estimated that almost 50-million dollars damage was attributable to the July floods. Hydrologic data have been tabulated for streamflow sites in the areas of flooding. Reservoir storage volumes, observation-well data, rainfall totals, and discharge hydrographs are presented to show the intensity and time of the storms and resultant floods. (USGS)

  5. 33 CFR 208.19 - Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas. 208.19 Section 208.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas. In the interest of flood control, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) shall operate the Marshall Ford Dam...

  6. Post waterflood CO{sub 2} miscible flood in light oil, fluvial-dominated deltaic reservoirs. 3rd Quarterly report, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-15

    Production from the Port Neches CO{sub 2} continue to improve. five wells responded to CO{sub 2} injection and currently are flowing with the exception of well No. 6, which has been placed on gas lift to draw the CO{sub 2} to the vicinity. Current production is about 400 BOPD from the five producing wells. Total CO{sub 2} injection is averaging 10 MMCFD, including 4 MMCFD purchased from Cardox and 6 MMCFD of recycled gas. Reservoir pressure increased from 2697 psi in May, to 2890 psi in June due to over-injection. An additional water injection pump was installed to handle the increasing volume of produced water. Also a workover was performed on Well No. 33 to take out the gas lift valves and eliminate communication. Two papers were presented at the SPE/DOE symposium that was held in Tulsa this April. The screening model has been released to the DOE and was made public during the month of May.

  7. Classification of different sustainable flood retention basin types.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Michelle; Scholz, Miklas; Bastien, Nicolas; Carfrae, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Using a revised version of a previously published expert classification system, a database of potential Sustainable Flood Retention Basins has been developed for Scotland. The research shows that the majority of small and former (often old) drinking water reservoirs are kept full and their spillways are continuously in operation. Utilising some of the available capacity to contribute to flood control could significantly reduce the costs of complying with the European Union Flood Directive. Furthermore, the application of a previously developed classification model for Baden in Germany for the Scottish data set showed a lower diversity for basins in Scotland due to less developed infrastructure. The classification system appears to be robust and has the potential, with minor modifications, to be applied across Europe. The principle value of this approach is a clear and unambiguous categorisation, based on standard variables, which can help to promote communication and understanding between stakeholders.

  8. Controls on diagenesis of Lower Cretaceous reservoir sandstones in the western Sable Subbasin, offshore Nova Scotia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Atika; Pe-Piper, Georgia; Piper, David J. W.

    2010-03-01

    Lower Cretaceous deltaic sandstones of the Scotian Basin, offshore eastern Canada, are important gas reservoirs. The influence of several factors on diagenesis has been investigated: depositional lithofacies, sea level changes, chemistry of basinal sediments and basinal fluid flux during burial. The distribution and chemistry of diagenetic minerals was determined from nine wells located along a dip section of the Sable Subbasin. Mineral type and paragenesis were characterized using a combination of optical petrography, back-scattered electron images, and electron microprobe analyses. Siderite is unusually abundant in marine sediments of the Scotian Basin and has thus been studied in detail. Siderite occurs in several generations. Early and late siderites are similar in chemical composition, suggesting buffering by pre-existing siderite, but rare low-Mg siderite is related to a greater contribution of meteoric water. Siderite has locally dissolved to create microporosity and has suppressed quartz overgrowths. Siderite is most common in those muddy prodeltaic lithofacies where there is the highest availability of detrital ilmenite. Reactive Fe released by breakdown of this ilmenite is responsible for the unusual presence of early siderite in marine sediments, with the Ca and Mg content of the siderite indicating fully marine waters. Lithofacies have a strong influence on early diagenetic mineral assemblages. Lithofacies deposited in the transgressive system tract have abundant early Fe-calcite and siderite. Early kaolinite occurs principally in proximal (fluvial and river mouth) lithofacies, where meteoric water was most likely available during the deposition. Contrary to other studies, we find little impact of sequence stratigraphy on diagenetic minerals except in the transgressive system tract. Mesogenetic minerals are related to flux of formation water and maturing hydrocarbon products, resulting first in pyrite and siderite and later in ankerite and ferroan

  9. Phytoplankton dynamics of a subtropical reservoir controlled by the complex interplay among hydrological, abiotic, and biotic variables.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yi-Ming; Wu, Jiunn-Tzong

    2016-12-01

    This study was conducted to identify the key factors related to the spatiotemporal variations in phytoplankton abundance in a subtropical reservoir from 2006 to 2010 and to assist in developing strategies for water quality management. Dynamic factor analysis (DFA), a dimension-reduction technique, was used to identify interactions between explanatory variables (i.e., environmental variables) and abundance (biovolume) of predominant phytoplankton classes. The optimal DFA model significantly described the dynamic changes in abundances of predominant phytoplankton groups (including dinoflagellates, diatoms, and green algae) at five monitoring sites. Water temperature, electrical conductivity, water level, nutrients (total phosphorus, NO3-N, and NH3-N), macro-zooplankton, and zooplankton were the key factors affecting the dynamics of aforementioned phytoplankton. Therefore, transformations of nutrients and reactions between water quality variables and aforementioned processes altered by hydrological conditions may also control the abundance dynamics of phytoplankton, which may represent common trends in the DFA model. The meandering shape of Shihmen Reservoir and its surrounding rivers caused a complex interplay between hydrological conditions and abiotic and biotic variables, resulting in phytoplankton abundance that could not be estimated using certain variables. Additional water quality and hydrological variables at surrounding rivers and monitoring plans should be executed a few days before and after reservoir operations and heavy storm, which would assist in developing site-specific preventive strategies to control phytoplankton abundance.

  10. A diagnostic assessment of evolutionary algorithms for multi-objective surface water reservoir control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zatarain Salazar, Jazmin; Reed, Patrick M.; Herman, Jonathan D.; Giuliani, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Globally, the pressures of expanding populations, climate change, and increased energy demands are motivating significant investments in re-operationalizing existing reservoirs or designing operating policies for new ones. These challenges require an understanding of the tradeoffs that emerge across the complex suite of multi-sector demands in river basin systems. This study benchmarks our current capabilities to use Evolutionary Multi-Objective Direct Policy Search (EMODPS), a decision analytic framework in which reservoirs' candidate operating policies are represented using parameterized global approximators (e.g., radial basis functions) then those parameterized functions are optimized using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms to discover the Pareto approximate operating policies. We contribute a comprehensive diagnostic assessment of modern MOEAs' abilities to support EMODPS using the Conowingo reservoir in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin, Pennsylvania, USA. Our diagnostic results highlight that EMODPS can be very challenging for some modern MOEAs and that epsilon dominance, time-continuation, and auto-adaptive search are helpful for attaining high levels of performance. The ɛ-MOEA, the auto-adaptive Borg MOEA, and ɛ-NSGAII all yielded superior results for the six-objective Lower Susquehanna benchmarking test case. The top algorithms show low sensitivity to different MOEA parameterization choices and high algorithmic reliability in attaining consistent results for different random MOEA trials. Overall, EMODPS poses a promising method for discovering key reservoir management tradeoffs; however algorithmic choice remains a key concern for problems of increasing complexity.

  11. Controls on nitrous oxide production and consumption in reservoirs of the Ohio River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic ecosystems are a globally significant source of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas, but estimates are largely based on studies conducted in streams and rivers with relatively less known about N2O dynamics in lakes and reservoirs. Due to long water residence tim...

  12. Feedbacks among Floods, Pioneer Woody Vegetation, and Channel Change in Sand-Bed Rivers: Insights from Field Studies of Controlled Flood Releases and Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, A. C.; Shafroth, P. B.; Lightbody, A.; Stella, J. C.; Bywater-Reyes, S.; Kiu, L.; Skorko, K.

    2012-04-01

    To investigate feedbacks between flow, geomorphic processes, and pioneer riparian vegetation in sand-bed rivers, we are combining field, hydraulic modeling, and laboratory simulations. Field studies have examined the response of woody riparian seedlings and channel morphology to prescribed dam-released floods that have been designed in part to maintain a native riparian woodland system on the Bill Williams River, Arizona, USA. Through monitoring of floods over a 7-year period, we have observed temporal and spatial variations in channel response. Floods have produced geomorphic and vegetation responses that varied with distance downstream of a dam, with scour and associated seedling mortality closer to the dam and aggradation and burial-induced mortality in a downstream reach with greater sediment supply. We also have observed that as vegetation grows beyond the seedling stage, its stabilizing effect on bars and its drag effect on flow progressively increases, such that floods of similar sizes but at different times may produce markedly different downstream responses as a function of vegetation characteristics. We also observed greater mortality among nonnative Tamarix spp. (tamarisk) seedlings than among native Salix gooddingii (Goodding's willow) seedlings, likely as a result of the greater first-year growth of willow relative to tamarisk. Combining field observations with modeling predictions of local hydraulics for the flood events we have studied is being used to draw linkages between hydraulics, channel change, and plant response at the patch and bar scale. In addition, mechanistic linkages are being examined using a field-scale laboratory stream channel, where seedlings of Tamarix spp. (tamarisk) and Populus fremontii (cottonwood) were planted and subjected to floods with varying sediment feed rate and plant configurations. The floods conveyed by our model channel were generally insufficient to scour the woody seedlings we planted, but changes in bar size and

  13. Flood Preparedness Planning: Metropolitan Phoenix Area,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    were to illustrate preparedness planning concepts for non- flash flood metropolitan areas and to advance the state-of-the-art in the analysis procedures...rivers and washes, in particular those of a flash flood nature, are not addressed herein. Specifically, the study is bounded by: the Salt River from...from flash floods in small tributary streams and washes below the reservoirs, low flow releases, and developmental disturbances. Salt cedars and

  14. Anthropic Modification of The Alluvial Plain and Flood Control In Some Marchean Rivers (central Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farabollini, P.; Materazzi, M.

    The fluvial axis of the marchean rivers display an essentially sinuate character, whereas in its terminal portion, where it runs through a wide valley, it assumes an anastomosed form. In the initial portion, where it runs inside the Umbro-Marchean calcareous ridge, the regime is prevalently stream like, while in the arenaceous and clayey hilly belt, it follows a more regular trend. In the middle-lower portion, and especially in summer, the hydrological regime is significantly influenced by the water drawn off for hydroelectric and irrigation purposes. The particular hydrographic and orographic setting of the study territory and the considerable amount of anthropic activity, both in the past and present, are responsible for the frequent and disastrous flooding and flash flooding phenomena that, during intense rainfall, affected vast areas of the middle-terminal portion of the alluvial plain. An analysis of the flooding events of the last years has in fact led to the observation that flooding and flash flooding phenomena, and the damage deriving from them, are connected especially with mistaken management of the territory and subordinately with abundant rainfalls in a short span of time. This includes the following factors: insufficient, or complete absence of works for maintaining natural levees and river beds; the obstruction of watercourses due to building with no respect for adequate hydraulic criteria; an excessive narrowing or straightening of the main river axis, above all in those portions near the mouth; runoff difficulties in the works connecting the main hydrographic network with the secondary one; insufficient disposal capacity or efficiency of the rain water outlet network; insufficient measures, or a lack of planning of measures and/or works for emergency protection systems; widespread situations of hydrogeological accident and slope instability, accentuated by the progressive abandoning of agriculture and repeated occurrence of forest fires. In

  15. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  16. Bassett Creek Watershed, Hennepin County, Minnesota. Feasibility Report for Flood Control. Main Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    conduit and the flooding that could) result with its failure . In addition, evaucation is unacceptable to the people who would be directly affected...structure has a smaller chance of catastrophic failure than the design presented in D.M. No. 1. The previous structure was designed to have all flow...overtopping, there would be a risk of catastrophic failure . The presently proposed structure should be safer since it is designed to not fail when

  17. Decomposing the rainfall control on flash flood hydrograph shape into spatial, temporal and storm motion components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolopoulos, Efthymios I.; Zoccatelli, Davide; Anagnostou, Emmanouil

    2013-04-01

    Space-time variability of rainfall, drainage network structure and local runoff generation properties, including land use/cover and geologic characteristics, shape the catchment response to storms. A way to describe the complexity of the interaction between these factors is to quantify their relative contribution on flood hydrograph shape. Quantifying the contribution of each factor is of great importance because this can identify which sources of variability are crucial for understanding and predicting catchment response. In this work we focus our analysis on the role of space-time variability of rainfall and drainage structure on flash flood hydrographs. An extended version of the concept of "spatial moments of catchment rainfall" which accounts for hillslope/channel velocity differentiation forms the basis of the analytical framework used in our analysis. The framework is used to quantify the contribution of each source of variability in flood<