Science.gov

Sample records for flood hazard mapping

  1. Global coastal flood hazard mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilander, Dirk; Winsemius, Hessel; Ward, Philip; Diaz Loaiza, Andres; Haag, Arjen; Verlaan, Martin; Luo, Tianyi

    2017-04-01

    Over 10% of the world's population lives in low-lying coastal areas (up to 10m elevation). Many of these areas are prone to flooding from tropical storm surges or extra-tropical high sea levels in combination with high tides. A 1 in 100 year extreme sea level is estimated to expose 270 million people and 13 trillion USD worth of assets to flooding. Coastal flood risk is expected to increase due to drivers such as ground subsidence, intensification of tropical and extra-tropical storms, sea level rise and socio-economic development. For better understanding of the hazard and drivers to global coastal flood risk, a globally consistent analysis of coastal flooding is required. In this contribution we present a comprehensive global coastal flood hazard mapping study. Coastal flooding is estimated using a modular inundation routine, based on a vegetation corrected SRTM elevation model and forced by extreme sea levels. Per tile, either a simple GIS inundation routine or a hydrodynamic model can be selected. The GIS inundation method projects extreme sea levels to land, taking into account physical obstructions and dampening of the surge level land inwards. For coastlines with steep slopes or where local dynamics play a minor role in flood behavior, this fast GIS method can be applied. Extreme sea levels are derived from the Global Tide and Surge Reanalysis (GTSR) dataset. Future sea level projections are based on probabilistic sea level rise for RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. The approach is validated against observed flood extents from ground and satellite observations. The results will be made available through the online Aqueduct Global Flood Risk Analyzer of the World Resources Institute.

  2. Flood Risk and Flood hazard maps - Visualisation of hydrological risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spachinger, Karl; Dorner, Wolfgang; Metzka, Rudolf; Serrhini, Kamal; Fuchs, Sven

    2008-11-01

    Hydrological models are an important basis of flood forecasting and early warning systems. They provide significant data on hydrological risks. In combination with other modelling techniques, such as hydrodynamic models, they can be used to assess the extent and impact of hydrological events. The new European Flood Directive forces all member states to evaluate flood risk on a catchment scale, to compile maps of flood hazard and flood risk for prone areas, and to inform on a local level about these risks. Flood hazard and flood risk maps are important tools to communicate flood risk to different target groups. They provide compiled information to relevant public bodies such as water management authorities, municipalities, or civil protection agencies, but also to the broader public. For almost each section of a river basin, run-off and water levels can be defined based on the likelihood of annual recurrence, using a combination of hydrological and hydrodynamic models, supplemented by an analysis of historical records and mappings. In combination with data related to the vulnerability of a region risk maps can be derived. The project RISKCATCH addressed these issues of hydrological risk and vulnerability assessment focusing on the flood risk management process. Flood hazard maps and flood risk maps were compiled for Austrian and German test sites taking into account existing national and international guidelines. These maps were evaluated by eye-tracking using experimental graphic semiology. Sets of small-scale as well as large-scale risk maps were presented to test persons in order to (1) study reading behaviour as well as understanding and (2) deduce the most attractive components that are essential for target-oriented risk communication. A cognitive survey asking for negative and positive aspects and complexity of each single map complemented the experimental graphic semiology. The results indicate how risk maps can be improved to fit the needs of different user

  3. Flood Hazard Mapping Assessment for Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, Chadi; Darwich, Talal; Hamze, Mouin; Zaarour, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    Of all natural disasters, floods affect the greatest number of people worldwide and have the greatest potential to cause damage. In fact, floods are responsible for over one third of people affected by natural disasters; almost 190 million people in more than 90 countries are exposed to catastrophic floods every year. Nowadays, with the emerging global warming phenomenon, this number is expected to increase, therefore, flood prediction and prevention has become a necessity in many places around the globe to decrease damages caused by flooding. Available evidence hints at an increasing frequency of flooding disasters being witnessed in the last 25 years in Lebanon. The consequences of such events are tragic including annual financial losses of around 15 million dollars. In this work, a hydrologic-hydraulic modeling framework for flood hazard mapping over Lebanon covering 19 watershed was introduced. Several empirical, statistical and stochastic methods to calculate the flood magnitude and its related return periods, where rainfall and river gauge data are neither continuous nor available on a long term basis with an absence of proper river sections that under estimate flows during flood events. TRMM weather satellite information, automated drainage networks, curve numbers and other geometrical characteristics for each basin was prepared using WMS-software and then exported into HMS files to implement the hydrologic modeling (rainfall-runoff) for single designed storm of uniformly distributed depth along each basin. The obtained flow hydrographs were implemented in the hydraulic model (HEC-RAS) where relative water surface profiles are calculated and flood plains are delineated. The model was calibrated using the last flood event of January 2013, field investigation, and high resolution satellite images. Flow results proved to have an accuracy ranging between 83-87% when compared to the computed statistical and stochastic methods. Results included the generation of

  4. Flood fatality hazard and flood damage hazard: combining multiple hazard characteristics into meaningful maps for spatial planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijn, K. M.; Klijn, F.; van de Pas, B.; Slager, C. T. J.

    2015-06-01

    For comprehensive flood risk management, accurate information on flood hazards is crucial. While in the past an estimate of potential flood consequences in large areas was often sufficient to make decisions on flood protection, there is currently an increasing demand to have detailed hazard maps available to be able to consider other risk-reducing measures as well. Hazard maps are a prerequisite for spatial planning, but can also support emergency management, the design of flood mitigation measures, and the setting of insurance policies. The increase in flood risks due to population growth and economic development in hazardous areas in the past shows that sensible spatial planning is crucial to prevent risks increasing further. Assigning the least hazardous locations for development or adapting developments to the actual hazard requires comprehensive flood hazard maps. Since flood hazard is a multi-dimensional phenomenon, many different maps could be relevant. Having large numbers of maps to take into account does not, however, make planning easier. To support flood risk management planning we therefore introduce a new approach in which all relevant flood hazard parameters can be combined into two comprehensive maps of flood damage hazard and flood fatality hazard.

  5. Flood fatality hazard and flood damage hazard: combining multiple hazard characteristics into meaningful maps for spatial planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijn, K. M.; Klijn, F.; van de Pas, B.; Slager, C. T. J.

    2015-01-01

    For comprehensive flood risk management, accurate information on flood hazards is crucial. While in the past an estimate of potential flood consequences in large areas was often sufficient to make decisions on flood protection, there currently is an increasing demand to have detailed hazard maps available to be able to consider other risk reducing measures as well. Hazard maps are a prerequisite for spatial planning, but can also support emergency management, the design of flood mitigation measures, and the setting of insurance policies. The increase in flood risks due to population growth and economic development in hazardous areas in the past shows that sensible spatial planning is crucial to prevent risks increasing further. Assigning the least hazardous locations for development or adapting developments to the actual hazard requires comprehensive flood hazard maps. Since flood hazard is a multi-dimensional phenomenon, many different maps could be relevant. Having large numbers of maps to take into account does, however, not make planning easier. To support flood risk management planning we therefore introduce a new approach in which all relevant flood hazard parameters can be combined into two comprehensive maps of flood damage hazard respectively flood fatality hazard.

  6. Flooding Hazard Maps of Different Land Uses in Subsidence Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yongjun; Chang, Hsiangkuan; Tan, Yihchi

    2017-04-01

    This study aims on flooding hazard maps of different land uses in the subsidence area of southern Taiwan. Those areas are low-lying due to subsidence resulting from over pumping ground water for aquaculture. As a result, the flooding due to storm surges and extreme rainfall are frequent in this area and are expected more frequently in the future. The main land uses there include: residence, fruit trees, and aquaculture. The hazard maps of the three land uses are investigated. The factors affecting hazards of different land uses are listed below. As for residence, flooding depth, duration of flooding, and rising rate of water surface level are factors affecting its degree of hazard. High flooding depth, long duration of flooding, and fast rising rate of water surface make residents harder to evacuate. As for fruit trees, flooding depth and duration of flooding affects its hazard most due to the root hypoxia. As for aquaculture, flooding depth affects its hazard most because the high flooding depth may cause the fish flush out the fishing ponds. An overland flow model is used for simulations of hydraulic parameters for factors such as flooding depth, rising rate of water surface level and duration of flooding. As above-mentioned factors, the hazard maps of different land uses can be made and high hazardous are can also be delineated in the subsidence areas.

  7. Scoping of Flood Hazard Mapping Needs for Penobscot County, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schalk, Charles W.; Dudley, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    Background The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) developed a plan in 1997 to modernize the FEMA flood mapping program. FEMA flood maps delineate flood hazard areas in support of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). FEMA's plan outlined the steps necessary to update FEMA's flood maps for the nation to a seamless digital format and streamline FEMA's operations in raising public awareness of the importance of the maps and responding to requests to revise them. The modernization of flood maps involves conversion of existing information to digital format and integration of improved flood hazard data as needed. To determine flood mapping modernization needs, FEMA has established specific scoping activities to be done on a county-by-county basis for identifying and prioritizing requisite flood-mapping activities for map modernization. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with FEMA and the Maine State Planning Office Floodplain Management Program (MFMP), began scoping work in 2006 for Penobscot County. Scoping activities included assembling existing data and map needs information for communities in Penobscot County, documentation of data, contacts, community meetings, and prioritized mapping needs in a final scoping report (this document), and updating the Mapping Needs Update Support System (MNUSS) Database with information gathered during the scoping process. As of 2007, the average age of the FEMA floodplain maps in Penobscot County, Maine, is 22 years, based on the most recent revisions to the maps. Because the revisions did not affect all the map panels in each town, however, the true average date probably is more than 22 years. Many of the studies were published in the mid-1980s. Since the studies were completed, development has occurred in many of the watersheds, and the characteristics of the watersheds have changed with time. Therefore, many of the older studies may not depict current conditions nor accurately estimate risk in terms

  8. Scoping of Flood Hazard Mapping Needs for Hancock County, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schalk, Charles W.; Dudley, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    Background The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) developed a plan in 1997 to modernize the FEMA flood mapping program. FEMA flood maps delineate flood hazard areas in support of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). FEMA's plan outlined the steps necessary to update FEMA's flood maps for the nation to a seamless digital format and streamline FEMA's operations in raising public awareness of the importance of the maps and responding to requests to revise them. The modernization of flood maps involves conversion of existing information to digital format and integration of improved flood hazard data as needed. To determine flood mapping modernization needs, FEMA has established specific scoping activities to be done on a county-by-county basis for identifying and prioritizing requisite flood-mapping activities for map modernization. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with FEMA and the Maine Floodplain Management Program (MFMP) State Planning Office, began scoping work in 2006 for Hancock County. Scoping activities included assembling existing data and map needs information for communities in Hancock County, documentation of data, contacts, community meetings, and prioritized mapping needs in a final scoping report (this document), and updating the Mapping Needs Update Support System (MNUSS) database with information gathered during the scoping process. The average age of the FEMA floodplain maps (all types) in Hancock County, Maine, is at least 19 years. Most of these studies were published in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and no study is more recent than 1992. Some towns have partial maps that are more recent than their study, indicating that the true average age of the data is probably more than 19 years. Since the studies were done, development has occurred in some of the watersheds and the characteristics of the watersheds have changed. Therefore, many of the older studies may not depict current conditions or accurately estimate

  9. Scoping of Flood Hazard Mapping Needs for Lincoln County, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schalk, Charles W.; Dudley, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    Background The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) developed a plan in 1997 to modernize the FEMA flood mapping program. FEMA flood maps delineate flood hazard areas in support of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). FEMA's plan outlined the steps necessary to update FEMA's flood maps for the nation to a seamless digital format and streamline FEMA's operations in raising public awareness of the importance of the maps and responding to requests to revise them. The modernization of flood maps involves conversion of existing information to digital format and integration of improved flood hazard data as needed. To determine flood mapping modernization needs, FEMA has established specific scoping activities to be done on a county-by-county basis for identifying and prioritizing requisite flood-mapping activities for map modernization. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with FEMA and the Maine Floodplain Management Program (MFMP) State Planning Office, began scoping work in 2006 for Lincoln County. Scoping activities included assembling existing data and map needs information for communities in Lincoln County, documentation of data, contacts, community meetings, and prioritized mapping needs in a final scoping report (this document), and updating the Mapping Needs Update Support System (MNUSS) database with information gathered during the scoping process. The average age of the FEMA floodplain maps in Lincoln County, Maine is at least 17 years. Many of these studies were published in the mid- to late-1980s, and some towns have partial maps that are more recent than their study. However, in the ensuing 15-20 years, development has occurred in many of the watersheds, and the characteristics of the watersheds have changed with time. Therefore, many of the older studies may not depict current conditions nor accurately estimate risk in terms of flood heights or flood mapping.

  10. Scoping of Flood Hazard Mapping Needs for Androscoggin County, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schalk, Charles W.; Dudley, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    Background The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) developed a plan in 1997 to modernize the FEMA flood mapping program. FEMA flood maps delineate flood hazard areas in support of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). FEMA's plan outlined the steps necessary to update FEMA's flood maps for the nation to a seamless digital format and streamline FEMA's operations in raising public awareness of the importance of the maps and responding to requests to revise them. The modernization of flood maps involves conversion of existing information to digital format and integration of improved flood hazard data as needed and as funds allow. To determine flood mapping modernization needs, FEMA has established specific scoping activities to be done on a county-by-county basis for identifying and prioritizing requisite flood-mapping activities for map modernization. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with FEMA and the Maine Floodplain Management Program (MFMP) State Planning Office, began scoping work in 2006 for Androscoggin County. Scoping activities included assembling existing data and map needs information for communities in Androscoggin County, documentation of data, contacts, community meetings, and prioritized mapping needs in a final scoping report (this document), and updating the Mapping Needs Update Support System (MNUSS) Database with information gathered during the scoping process. The average age of the FEMA floodplain maps in Androscoggin County, Maine, is at least 17 years. Most studies were published in the early 1990s, and some towns have partial maps that are more recent than their study date. Since the studies were done, development has occurred in many of the watersheds and the characteristics of the watersheds have changed with time. Therefore, many of the older studies may not depict current conditions nor accurately estimate risk in terms of flood heights or flood mapping.

  11. Advances in pan-European flood hazard mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, P. D.; Alfieri, L.; Salamon, P.; Bianchi, A.; Neal, J. C.; Feyen, L.

    2013-12-01

    Flood hazard maps at trans-national scale have potential for a large number of applications ranging from climate change studies, reinsurance products, aid to emergency operations for major flood crisis, among others. However, at continental scales, only few products are available, due to the difficulty of retrieving large consistent data sets. Moreover, these are produced at relatively coarse grid resolution, which limits their applications to qualitative assessments. At finer resolution, maps are often limited to country boundaries, due to limited data sharing at trans-national level. The creation of a European flood hazard map would currently imply a collection of scattered regional maps, often lacking mutual consistency due to the variety of adopted approaches and quality of the underlying input data. In this work, we derive a pan-European flood hazard map at 100m resolution. The proposed approach is based on expanding a literature cascade model through a physically based approach. A combination of distributed hydrological and hydraulic models was set up for the European domain. Then, an observed meteorological data set is used to derive a long-term streamflow simulation and subsequently coherent design flood hydrographs for a return period of 100years along the pan-European river network. Flood hydrographs are used to simulate areas at risk of flooding and output maps are merged into a pan-European flood hazard map. The quality of this map is evaluated for selected areas in Germany and United Kingdom against national/regional hazard maps. Despite inherent limitations and model resolution issues, simulated maps are in good agreement with reference maps (hit rate between 59% and 78%, critical success index between 43% and 65%), suggesting strong potential for a number of applications at the European scale

  12. Beyond Flood Hazard Maps: Detailed Flood Characterization with Remote Sensing, GIS and 2d Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santillan, J. R.; Marqueso, J. T.; Makinano-Santillan, M.; Serviano, J. L.

    2016-09-01

    Flooding is considered to be one of the most destructive among many natural disasters such that understanding floods and assessing the risks associated to it are becoming more important nowadays. In the Philippines, Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) are two main technologies used in the nationwide modelling and mapping of flood hazards. Although the currently available high resolution flood hazard maps have become very valuable, their use for flood preparedness and mitigation can be maximized by enhancing the layers of information these maps portrays. In this paper, we present an approach based on RS, GIS and two-dimensional (2D) flood modelling to generate new flood layers (in addition to the usual flood depths and hazard layers) that are also very useful in flood disaster management such as flood arrival times, flood velocities, flood duration, flood recession times, and the percentage within a given flood event period a particular location is inundated. The availability of these new layers of flood information are crucial for better decision making before, during, and after occurrence of a flood disaster. The generation of these new flood characteristic layers is illustrated using the Cabadbaran River Basin in Mindanao, Philippines as case study area. It is envisioned that these detailed maps can be considered as additional inputs in flood disaster risk reduction and management in the Philippines.

  13. High resolution mapping of flood hazard for South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sourima; Nzerem, Kechi; Zovi, Francesco; Li, Shuangcai; Mei, Yi; Assteerawatt, Anongnart; Hilberts, Arno; Tillmanns, Stephan; Mitas, Christos

    2015-04-01

    Floods are one of primary natural hazards that affect South Korea. During the past 15 years, catastrophic flood events which mainly have occurred during the rainy and typhoon seasons - especially under condition where soils are already saturated, have triggered substantial property damage with an average annual loss of around US1.2 billion (determined from WAter Management Information System's flood damage database for years 2002-2011) in South Korea. According to Seoul Metropolitan Government, over 16,000 households in the capital city Seoul were inundated during 2010 flood events. More than 10,000 households in Seoul were apparently flooded during one major flood event due to torrential rain in July 2011. Recently in August 2014, a serious flood event due to heavy rainfall hit the Busan region in the south east of South Korea. Addressing the growing needs, RMS has recently released country-wide high resolution combined flood return period maps for post-drainage local "pluvial" inundation and undefended large-scale "fluvial" inundation to aid the government and the insurance industry in the evaluation of comprehensive flood risk. RMS has developed a flood hazard model for South Korea to generate inundation depths and extents for a range of flood return periods. The model is initiated with 30 years of historical meteorological forcing data and calibrated to daily observations at over 100 river gauges across the country. Simulations of hydrologic processes are subsequently performed based on a 2000 year set of stochastic forcing. Floodplain inundation processes are modelled by numerically solving the shallow water equations using finite volume method on GPUs. Taking into account the existing stormwater drainage standards, economic exposure densities, etc., reasonable flood maps are created from inundation model output. Final hazard maps at one arcsec grid resolution can be the basis for both evaluating and managing flood risk, its economic impacts, and insured flood

  14. A method for mapping flood hazard along roads.

    PubMed

    Kalantari, Zahra; Nickman, Alireza; Lyon, Steve W; Olofsson, Bo; Folkeson, Lennart

    2014-01-15

    A method was developed for estimating and mapping flood hazard probability along roads using road and catchment characteristics as physical catchment descriptors (PCDs). The method uses a Geographic Information System (GIS) to derive candidate PCDs and then identifies those PCDs that significantly predict road flooding using a statistical modelling approach. The method thus allows flood hazards to be estimated and also provides insights into the relative roles of landscape characteristics in determining road-related flood hazards. The method was applied to an area in western Sweden where severe road flooding had occurred during an intense rain event as a case study to demonstrate its utility. The results suggest that for this case study area three categories of PCDs are useful for prediction of critical spots prone to flooding along roads: i) topography, ii) soil type, and iii) land use. The main drivers among the PCDs considered were a topographical wetness index, road density in the catchment, soil properties in the catchment (mainly the amount of gravel substrate) and local channel slope at the site of a road-stream intersection. These can be proposed as strong indicators for predicting the flood probability in ungauged river basins in this region, but some care is needed in generalising the case study results other potential factors are also likely to influence the flood hazard probability. Overall, the method proposed represents a straightforward and consistent way to estimate flooding hazards to inform both the planning of future roadways and the maintenance of existing roadways.

  15. Scoping of flood hazard mapping needs for Kennebec County, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, Robert W.; Schalk, Charles W.

    2006-01-01

    This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Maine Water Science Center as the deliverable for scoping of flood hazard mapping needs for Kennebec County, Maine, under Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Inter-Agency Agreement Number HSFE01-05-X-0018. This section of the report explains the objective of the task and the purpose of the report. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) developed a plan in 1997 to modernize the FEMA flood mapping program. FEMA flood maps delineate flood hazard areas in support of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). FEMA's plan outlined the steps necessary to update FEMA's flood maps for the nation to a seamless digital format and streamline FEMA's operations in raising public awareness of the importance of the maps and responding to requests to revise them. The modernization of flood maps involves conversion of existing information to digital format and integration of improved flood hazard data as needed. To determine flood mapping modernization needs, FEMA has established specific scoping activities to be done on a county-by-county basis for identifying and prioritizing requisite flood-mapping activities for map modernization. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with FEMA and the Maine State Planning Office Floodplain Management Program, began scoping work in 2005 for Kennebec County. Scoping activities included assembling existing data and map needs information for communities in Kennebec County (efforts were made to not duplicate those of pre-scoping completed in March 2005), documentation of data, contacts, community meetings, and prioritized mapping needs in a final scoping report (this document), and updating the Mapping Needs Update Support System (MNUSS) Database or its successor with information gathered during the scoping process. The average age of the FEMA floodplain maps in Kennebec County, Maine is 16 years. Most of these studies were in the late 1970's to the mid 1980s

  16. Scoping of flood hazard mapping needs for Cumberland County, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, Robert W.; Schalk, Charles W.

    2006-01-01

    This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Maine Water Science Center as the deliverable for scoping of flood hazard mapping needs for Cumberland County, Maine, under Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Inter-Agency Agreement Number HSFE01-05-X-0018. This section of the report explains the objective of the task and the purpose of the report. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) developed a plan in 1997 to modernize the FEMA flood mapping program. FEMA flood maps delineate flood hazard areas in support of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). FEMA's plan outlined the steps necessary to update FEMA's flood maps for the nation to a seamless digital format and streamline FEMA's operations in raising public awareness of the importance of the maps and responding to requests to revise them. The modernization of flood maps involves conversion of existing information to digital format and integration of improved flood hazard data as needed. To determine flood mapping modernization needs, FEMA has established specific scoping activities to be done on a county-by-county basis for identifying and prioritizing requisite flood-mapping activities for map modernization. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with FEMA and the Maine State Planning Office Floodplain Management Program, began scoping work in 2005 for Cumberland County. Scoping activities included assembling existing data and map needs information for communities in Cumberland County, documentation of data, contacts, community meetings, and prioritized mapping needs in a final scoping report (this document), and updating the Mapping Needs Update Support System (MNUSS) Database or its successor with information gathered during the scoping process. The average age of the FEMA floodplain maps in Cumberland County, Maine is 21 years. Most of these studies were in the early to mid 1980s. However, in the ensuing 20-25 years, development has occurred in many of the

  17. Scoping of flood hazard mapping needs for Somerset County, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, Robert W.; Schalk, Charles W.

    2006-01-01

    This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Maine Water Science Center as the deliverable for scoping of flood hazard mapping needs for Somerset County, Maine, under Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Inter-Agency Agreement Number HSFE01-05-X-0018. This section of the report explains the objective of the task and the purpose of the report. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) developed a plan in 1997 to modernize the FEMA flood mapping program. FEMA flood maps delineate flood hazard areas in support of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). FEMA's plan outlined the steps necessary to update FEMA's flood maps for the nation to a seamless digital format and streamline FEMA's operations in raising public awareness of the importance of the maps and responding to requests to revise them. The modernization of flood maps involves conversion of existing information to digital format and integration of improved flood hazard data as needed. To determine flood mapping modernization needs, FEMA has established specific scoping activities to be done on a county-by-county basis for identifying and prioritizing requisite flood-mapping activities for map modernization. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with FEMA and the Maine State Planning Office Floodplain Management Program, began scoping work in 2005 for Somerset County. Scoping activities included assembling existing data and map needs information for communities in Somerset County (efforts were made to not duplicate those of pre-scoping completed in March 2005), documentation of data, contacts, community meetings, and prioritized mapping needs in a final scoping report (this document), and updating the Mapping Needs Update Support System (MNUSS) Database or its successor with information gathered during the scoping process. The average age of the FEMA floodplain maps in Somerset County, Maine is 18.1 years. Most of these studies were in the late 1970's to the mid 1980

  18. Probabilistic flood hazard mapping: effects of uncertain boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeneghetti, A.; Vorogushyn, S.; Castellarin, A.; Merz, B.; Brath, A.

    2013-08-01

    Comprehensive flood risk assessment studies should quantify the global uncertainty in flood hazard estimation, for instance by mapping inundation extents together with their confidence intervals. This appears of particular importance in the case of flood hazard assessments along dike-protected reaches, where the possibility of occurrence of dike failures may considerably enhance the uncertainty. We present a methodology to derive probabilistic flood maps in dike-protected flood prone areas, where several sources of uncertainty are taken into account. In particular, this paper focuses on a 50 km reach of River Po (Italy) and three major sources of uncertainty in hydraulic modelling and flood mapping: uncertainties in the (i) upstream and (ii) downstream boundary conditions, and (iii) uncertainties in dike failures. Uncertainties in the definition of upstream boundary conditions (i.e. design-hydrographs) are assessed through a copula-based bivariate analysis of flood peaks and volumes. Uncertainties in the definition of downstream boundary conditions are characterised by uncertainty in the rating curve with confidence intervals which reflect discharge measurement and interpolation errors. The effects of uncertainties in boundary conditions and randomness of dike failures are assessed by means of the Inundation Hazard Assessment Model (IHAM), a recently proposed hybrid probabilistic-deterministic model that considers three different dike failure mechanisms: overtopping, piping and micro-instability due to seepage. The results of the study show that the IHAM-based analysis enables probabilistic flood hazard mapping and provides decision-makers with a fundamental piece of information for devising and implementing flood risk mitigation strategies in the presence of various sources of uncertainty.

  19. Flood hazard maps from SAR data and global hydrodynamic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giustarini, Laura; Chini, Marci; Hostache, Renaud; Matgen, Patrick; Pappenberger, Florian; Bally, Phillippe

    2015-04-01

    With flood consequences likely to amplify because of growing population and ongoing accumulation of assets in flood-prone areas, global flood hazard and risk maps are greatly needed for improving flood preparedness at large scale. At the same time, with the rapidly growing archives of SAR images of floods, there is a high potential of making use of these images for global and regional flood management. In this framework, an original method is presented to integrate global flood inundation modeling and microwave remote sensing. It takes advantage of the combination of the time and space continuity of a global inundation model with the high spatial resolution of satellite observations. The availability of model simulations over a long time period offers the opportunity to estimate flood non-exceedance probabilities in a robust way. The probabilities can later be attributed to historical satellite observations. SAR-derived flood extent maps with their associated non-exceedance probabilities are then combined to generate flood hazard maps with a spatial resolution equal to that of the satellite images, which is most of the time higher than that of a global inundation model. The method can be applied to any area of interest in the world, provided that a sufficient number of relevant remote sensing images are available. We applied the method on the Severn River (UK) and on the Zambezi River (Mozambique), where large archives of Envisat flood images can be exploited. The global ECMWF flood inundation model is considered for computing the statistics of extreme events. A comparison with flood hazard maps estimated with in situ measured discharge is carried out. An additional analysis has been performed on the Severn River, using high resolution SAR data from the COSMO-SkyMed SAR constellation, acquired for a single flood event (one flood map per day between 27/11/2012 and 4/12/2012). The results showed that it is vital to observe the peak of the flood. However, a single

  20. Developments in large-scale coastal flood hazard mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vousdoukas, Michalis I.; Voukouvalas, Evangelos; Mentaschi, Lorenzo; Dottori, Francesco; Giardino, Alessio; Bouziotas, Dimitrios; Bianchi, Alessandra; Salamon, Peter; Feyen, Luc

    2016-08-01

    Coastal flooding related to marine extreme events has severe socioeconomic impacts, and even though the latter are projected to increase under the changing climate, there is a clear deficit of information and predictive capacity related to coastal flood mapping. The present contribution reports on efforts towards a new methodology for mapping coastal flood hazard at European scale, combining (i) the contribution of waves to the total water level; (ii) improved inundation modeling; and (iii) an open, physics-based framework which can be constantly upgraded, whenever new and more accurate data become available. Four inundation approaches of gradually increasing complexity and computational costs were evaluated in terms of their applicability to large-scale coastal flooding mapping: static inundation (SM); a semi-dynamic method, considering the water volume discharge over the dykes (VD); the flood intensity index approach (Iw); and the model LISFLOOD-FP (LFP). A validation test performed against observed flood extents during the Xynthia storm event showed that SM and VD can lead to an overestimation of flood extents by 232 and 209 %, while Iw and LFP showed satisfactory predictive skill. Application at pan-European scale for the present-day 100-year event confirmed that static approaches can overestimate flood extents by 56 % compared to LFP; however, Iw can deliver results of reasonable accuracy in cases when reduced computational costs are a priority. Moreover, omitting the wave contribution in the extreme total water level (TWL) can result in a ˜ 60 % underestimation of the flooded area. The present findings have implications for impact assessment studies, since combination of the estimated inundation maps with population exposure maps revealed differences in the estimated number of people affected within the 20-70 % range.

  1. Deriving global flood hazard maps of fluvial floods through a physical model cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, F.; Dutra, E.; Wetterhall, F.; Cloke, H.

    2012-05-01

    Global flood hazard maps can be used in the assessment of flood risk in a number of different applications, including (re)insurance and large scale flood preparedness. Such global hazard maps can be generated using large scale physically based models of rainfall-runoff and river routing, when used in conjunction with a number of post-processing methods. In this study, the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) land surface model is coupled to ERA-Interim reanalysis meteorological forcing data, and resultant runoff is passed to a river routing algorithm which simulates floodplains and flood flow across the global land area. The global hazard map is based on a 30 yr (1979-2010) simulation period. A Gumbel distribution is fitted to the annual maxima flows to derive a number of flood return periods. The return periods are calculated initially for a 25 × 25 km grid, which is then reprojected onto a 1 × 1 km grid to derive maps of higher resolution and estimate flooded fractional area for the individual 25 × 25 km cells. Several global and regional maps of flood return periods ranging from 2 to 500 yr are presented. The results compare reasonably to a benchmark data set of global flood hazard. The developed methodology can be applied to other datasets on a global or regional scale.

  2. Deriving global flood hazard maps of fluvial floods through a physical model cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, F.; Dutra, E.; Wetterhall, F.; Cloke, H. L.

    2012-11-01

    Global flood hazard maps can be used in the assessment of flood risk in a number of different applications, including (re)insurance and large scale flood preparedness. Such global hazard maps can be generated using large scale physically based models of rainfall-runoff and river routing, when used in conjunction with a number of post-processing methods. In this study, the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) land surface model is coupled to ERA-Interim reanalysis meteorological forcing data, and resultant runoff is passed to a river routing algorithm which simulates floodplains and flood flow across the global land area. The global hazard map is based on a 30 yr (1979-2010) simulation period. A Gumbel distribution is fitted to the annual maxima flows to derive a number of flood return periods. The return periods are calculated initially for a 25 × 25 km grid, which is then reprojected onto a 1 × 1 km grid to derive maps of higher resolution and estimate flooded fractional area for the individual 25 × 25 km cells. Several global and regional maps of flood return periods ranging from 2 to 500 yr are presented. The results compare reasonably to a benchmark data set of global flood hazard. The developed methodology can be applied to other datasets on a global or regional scale.

  3. Deriving global flood hazard maps of fluvial floods through a physical model cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, Florian; Dutra, Emanuel; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Cloke, Hannah L.

    2013-04-01

    Global flood hazard maps can be used in the assessment of flood risk in a number of different applications, including (re)insurance and large scale flood preparedness. Such global hazard maps can be generated using large scale physically based models of rainfall-runoff and river routing, when used in conjunction with a number of post-processing methods. In this study, the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) land surface model is coupled to ERA-Interim reanalysis meteorological forcing data, and resultant runoff is passed to a river routing algorithm which simulates floodplains and flood flow across the global land area. The global hazard map is based on a 30 yr (1979-2010) simulation period. A Gumbel distribution is fitted to the annual maxima flows to derive a number of flood return periods. The return periods are calculated initially for a 25 × 25 km grid, which is then reprojected onto a 1 × 1 km grid to derive maps of higher resolution and estimate flooded fractional area for the individual 25 × 25 km cells. Several global and regional maps of flood return periods ranging from 2 to 500 yr are presented. The results compare reasonably to a benchmark data set of global flood hazard. The developed methodology can be applied to other datasets on a global or regional scale.

  4. Flood Hazard Map for Masachapa Urban Area and Maravilla River Flood Plain, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udono, T.; Palacio, L.; Strauch, W.

    2007-05-01

    A flooding hazard study was realized 2004-2006 through technical cooperation of Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) with INETER, upon the request of the Government of Nicaragua. The resulting hazard map shows the inundated area for a 200 years return period flood in a small riverbasin (65 square kilometers) near the Nicaraguan Pacific Coast. This area is affected by heavy rainfall induced by tropical storms in the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. The map results from a study performed by a Nicaraguan-Japanese team that developed a flood hazard approach for a small river basin with scarce hydrometeorological data to be replicated to other basins. The team elaborated 25, 50,100 and 200 year return period flood hydrographs to be applied to a bidimensional mathematic model. The simulation results were transformed into a cartographic map using GIS. The map was handed out to Central, Departmental and Municipal authorities for their use.

  5. 44 CFR 65.11 - Evaluation of sand dunes in mapping coastal flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... mapping coastal flood hazard areas. 65.11 Section 65.11 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood... mapping coastal flood hazard areas. (a) General conditions. For purposes of the NFIP, FEMA will consider...

  6. Flood Hazard Mapping over Large Regions using Geomorphic Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samela, Caterina; Troy, Tara J.; Manfreda, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    Historically, man has always preferred to settle and live near the water. This tendency has not changed throughout time, and today nineteen of the twenty most populated agglomerations of the world (Demographia World Urban Areas, 2015) are located along watercourses or at the mouth of a river. On one hand, these locations are advantageous from many points of view. On the other hand, they expose significant populations and economic assets to a certain degree of flood hazard. Knowing the location and the extent of the areas exposed to flood hazards is essential to any strategy for minimizing the risk. Unfortunately, in data-scarce regions the use of traditional floodplain mapping techniques is prevented by the lack of the extensive data required, and this scarcity is generally most pronounced in developing countries. The present work aims to overcome this limitation by defining an alternative simplified procedure for a preliminary, but efficient, floodplain delineation. To validate the method in a data-rich environment, eleven flood-related morphological descriptors derived from DEMs have been used as linear binary classifiers over the Ohio River basin and its sub-catchments, measuring their performances in identifying the floodplains at the change of the topography and the size of the calibration area. The best performing classifiers among those analysed have been applied and validated across the continental U.S. The results suggest that the classifier based on the index ln(hr/H), named the Geomorphic Flood Index (GFI), is the most suitable to detect the flood-prone areas in data-scarce environments and for large-scale applications, providing good accuracy with low requirements in terms of data and computational costs. Keywords: flood hazard, data-scarce regions, large-scale studies, binary classifiers, DEM, USA.

  7. Evaluation of flood hazard maps in print and web mapping services as information tools in flood risk communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagemeier-Klose, M.; Wagner, K.

    2009-04-01

    Flood risk communication with the general public and the population at risk is getting increasingly important for flood risk management, especially as a precautionary measure. This is also underlined by the EU Flood Directive. The flood related authorities therefore have to develop adjusted information tools which meet the demands of different user groups. This article presents the formative evaluation of flood hazard maps and web mapping services according to the specific requirements and needs of the general public using the dynamic-transactional approach as a theoretical framework. The evaluation was done by a mixture of different methods; an analysis of existing tools, a creative workshop with experts and laymen and an online survey. The currently existing flood hazard maps or web mapping services or web GIS still lack a good balance between simplicity and complexity with adequate readability and usability for the public. Well designed and associative maps (e.g. using blue colours for water depths) which can be compared with past local flood events and which can create empathy in viewers, can help to raise awareness, to heighten the activity and knowledge level or can lead to further information seeking. Concerning web mapping services, a linkage between general flood information like flood extents of different scenarios and corresponding water depths and real time information like gauge levels is an important demand by users. Gauge levels of these scenarios are easier to understand than the scientifically correct return periods or annualities. The recently developed Bavarian web mapping service tries to integrate these requirements.

  8. ON EFFECT OF HAZARD MAP ON CONS CIOUSNESS OF FLOOD DISASTER PREVENSION OF RESIDENTS WHO EXPERIENCED FLOOD RECENTLY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asai, Koji; Koga, Syota; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki

    In this paper, the effect of the flood hazard map distributed to the residents who experienced flood disasters recently and an effective method for improving consciousness of flood di saster prevention are discussed. The questionnaire surveys were conducted on the residents living in the middle basin of the Nishiki River, Iwakuni city, Yamaguchi Prefecture, before and after the distribution of the hazard map. It is found from this investigation that "knowledge", "att achment", and "crisis", are the main factors in the psychological process related to the flood prevention behavior. The effect of the distribution of the hazard map is judged from the probability of the flood prevention behavior. In addition, it is also found that "knowledge", "flood experiment of T0514", "crisis", "eff ectiveness", "load", and "easy reading of the hazard map", are keys to improve the cons ciousness of flood di saster prevention.

  9. Modelling Inland Flood Events for Hazard Maps in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S.; Nzerem, K.; Sassi, M.; Hilberts, A.; Assteerawatt, A.; Tillmanns, S.; Mathur, P.; Mitas, C.; Rafique, F.

    2015-12-01

    Taiwan experiences significant inland flooding, driven by torrential rainfall from plum rain storms and typhoons during summer and fall. From last 13 to 16 years data, 3,000 buildings were damaged by such floods annually with a loss US$0.41 billion (Water Resources Agency). This long, narrow island nation with mostly hilly/mountainous topography is located at tropical-subtropical zone with annual average typhoon-hit-frequency of 3-4 (Central Weather Bureau) and annual average precipitation of 2502mm (WRA) - 2.5 times of the world's average. Spatial and temporal distributions of countrywide precipitation are uneven, with very high local extreme rainfall intensities. Annual average precipitation is 3000-5000mm in the mountainous regions, 78% of it falls in May-October, and the 1-hour to 3-day maximum rainfall are about 85 to 93% of the world records (WRA). Rivers in Taiwan are short with small upstream areas and high runoff coefficients of watersheds. These rivers have the steepest slopes, the shortest response time with rapid flows, and the largest peak flows as well as specific flood peak discharge (WRA) in the world. RMS has recently developed a countrywide inland flood model for Taiwan, producing hazard return period maps at 1arcsec grid resolution. These can be the basis for evaluating and managing flood risk, its economic impacts, and insured flood losses. The model is initiated with sub-daily historical meteorological forcings and calibrated to daily discharge observations at about 50 river gauges over the period 2003-2013. Simulations of hydrologic processes, via rainfall-runoff and routing models, are subsequently performed based on a 10000 year set of stochastic forcing. The rainfall-runoff model is physically based continuous, semi-distributed model for catchment hydrology. The 1-D wave propagation hydraulic model considers catchment runoff in routing and describes large-scale transport processes along the river. It also accounts for reservoir storage

  10. Flood hazard mapping using open source hydrological tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tollenaar, Daniel; Wensveen, Lex; Winsemius, Hessel; Schellekens, Jaap

    2014-05-01

    Commonly, flood hazard maps are produced by building detailed hydrological and hydraulic models. These models are forced and parameterized by locally available, high resolution and preferably high quality data. The models use a high spatio-temporal resolution, resulting in large computational effort. Also, many hydraulic packages that solve 1D (canal) and 2D (overland) shallow water equations, are not freeware nor open source. In this contribution, we evaluate whether simplified open source data and models can be used for a rapid flood hazard assessment and to highlight areas where more detail may be required. The validity of this approach is tested by using four combinations of open-source tools: (1) a global hydrological model (PCR-GLOBWB, Van Beek and Bierkens, 2009) with a static inundation routine (GLOFRIS, Winsemius et al. 2013); (2) a global hydrological model with a dynamic inundation model (Subgrid, Stelling, 2012); (3) a local hydrological model (WFLOW) with a static inundation routine; (4) and a local hydrological model with a dynamic inundation model. The applicability of tools is assessed on (1) accuracy to reproduce the phenomenon, (2) time for model setup and (3) computational time. The performance is tested in a case study in the Rio Mamoré, one of the tributaries of the Amazone River (230,000 km2). References: Stelling, G.S.: Quadtree flood simulations with sub-grid digital elevation models, Proceedings of the ICE - Water Management, Volume 165, Issue 10, 01 November 2012 , pages 567 -580 Winsemius, H. C., Van Beek, L. P. H., Jongman, B., Ward, P. J., and Bouwman, A.: A framework for global river flood risk assessments, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 9, 9611-9659, doi:10.5194/hessd-9-9611-2012, 2012 Van Beek, L. P. H. and Bierkens, M. F. P.: The global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB: conceptualization, parameterization and verification, Dept. of Physical Geography, Utrecht University, Utrecht, available at: http

  11. Values of Flood Hazard Mapping for Disaster Risk Assessment and Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayama, T.; Takara, K. T.

    2015-12-01

    Flood plains provide tremendous benefits for human settlements. Since olden days people have lived with floods and attempted to control them if necessary. Modern engineering works such as building embankment have enabled people to live even in flood prone areas, and over time population and economic assets have concentrated in these areas. In developing countries also, rapid land use change alters exposure and vulnerability to floods and consequently increases disaster risk. Flood hazard mapping is an essential step for any counter measures. It has various objectives including raising awareness of residents, finding effective evacuation routes and estimating potential damages through flood risk mapping. Depending on the objectives and data availability, there are also many possible approaches for hazard mapping including simulation basis, community basis and remote sensing basis. In addition to traditional paper-based hazard maps, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) promotes more interactive hazard mapping such as movable hazard map to demonstrate scenario simulations for risk communications and real-time hazard mapping for effective disaster responses and safe evacuations. This presentation first summarizes recent advancement of flood hazard mapping by focusing on Japanese experiences and other examples from Asian countries. Then it introduces a flood simulation tool suitable for hazard mapping at the river basin scale even in data limited regions. In the past few years, the tool has been practiced by local officers responsible for disaster management in Asian countries. Through the training activities of hazard mapping and risk assessment, we conduct comparative analysis to identify similarity and uniqueness of estimated economic damages depending on topographic and land use conditions.

  12. The Use of Geospatial Technologies in Flood Hazard Mapping and Assessment: Case Study from River Evros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentzafou, Angeliki; Markogianni, Vasiliki; Dimitriou, Elias

    2017-02-01

    Many scientists link climate change to the increase of the extreme weather phenomena frequency, which combined with land use changes often lead to disasters with severe social and economic effects. Especially floods as a consequence of heavy rainfall can put vulnerable human and natural systems such as transboundary wetlands at risk. In order to meet the European Directive 2007/60/EC requirements for the development of flood risk management plans, the flood hazard map of Evros transboundary watershed was produced after a grid-based GIS modelling method that aggregates the main factors related to the development of floods: topography, land use, geology, slope, flow accumulation and rainfall intensity. The verification of this tool was achieved through the comparison between the produced hazard map and the inundation maps derived from the supervised classification of Landsat 5 and 7 satellite imageries of four flood events that took place at Evros delta proximity, a wetland of international importance. The comparison of the modelled output (high and very high flood hazard areas) with the extent of the inundated areas as mapped from the satellite data indicated the satisfactory performance of the model. Furthermore, the vulnerability of each land use against the flood events was examined. Geographically Weighted Regression has also been applied between the final flood hazard map and the major factors in order to ascertain their contribution to flood events. The results accredited the existence of a strong relationship between land uses and flood hazard indicating the flood susceptibility of the lowlands and agricultural land. A dynamic transboundary flood hazard management plan should be developed in order to meet the Flood Directive requirements for adequate and coordinated mitigation practices to reduce flood risk.

  13. The Use of Geospatial Technologies in Flood Hazard Mapping and Assessment: Case Study from River Evros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentzafou, Angeliki; Markogianni, Vasiliki; Dimitriou, Elias

    2016-11-01

    Many scientists link climate change to the increase of the extreme weather phenomena frequency, which combined with land use changes often lead to disasters with severe social and economic effects. Especially floods as a consequence of heavy rainfall can put vulnerable human and natural systems such as transboundary wetlands at risk. In order to meet the European Directive 2007/60/EC requirements for the development of flood risk management plans, the flood hazard map of Evros transboundary watershed was produced after a grid-based GIS modelling method that aggregates the main factors related to the development of floods: topography, land use, geology, slope, flow accumulation and rainfall intensity. The verification of this tool was achieved through the comparison between the produced hazard map and the inundation maps derived from the supervised classification of Landsat 5 and 7 satellite imageries of four flood events that took place at Evros delta proximity, a wetland of international importance. The comparison of the modelled output (high and very high flood hazard areas) with the extent of the inundated areas as mapped from the satellite data indicated the satisfactory performance of the model. Furthermore, the vulnerability of each land use against the flood events was examined. Geographically Weighted Regression has also been applied between the final flood hazard map and the major factors in order to ascertain their contribution to flood events. The results accredited the existence of a strong relationship between land uses and flood hazard indicating the flood susceptibility of the lowlands and agricultural land. A dynamic transboundary flood hazard management plan should be developed in order to meet the Flood Directive requirements for adequate and coordinated mitigation practices to reduce flood risk.

  14. Development and evaluation of a framework for global flood hazard mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dottori, Francesco; Salamon, Peter; Bianchi, Alessandra; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Hirpa, Feyera Aga; Feyen, Luc

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, the development of high-resolution flood hazard models have become feasible at continental and global scale, and their application in developing countries and data-scarce regions can be extremely helpful to increase preparedness of population and reduce catastrophic impacts. The present work describes the development of a novel procedure for global flood hazard mapping, based on the most recent advances in large scale flood modelling. We derive a long-term dataset of daily river discharges from the hydrological simulations of the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). Streamflow data is downscaled on a high resolution river network and processed to provide the input for local flood inundation simulations, performed with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model. All flood-prone areas identified along the river network are then merged to create continental flood hazard maps for different return periods at 30‧‧ resolution. We evaluate the performance of our methodology in several river basins across the globe by comparing simulated flood maps with both official hazard maps and a mosaic of flooded areas detected from satellite images. The evaluation procedure also includes comparisons with the results of other large scale flood models. We further investigate the sensitivity of the flood modelling framework to several parameters and modelling approaches and identify strengths, limitations and possible improvements of the methodology.

  15. Development and evaluation of a framework for global flood hazard mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dottori, Francesco; Salamon, Peter; Bianchi, Alessandra; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Feyen, Luc

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, the development of high-resolution flood hazard models have become feasible at continental and global scale, and their application in developing countries and data-scarce regions can be extremely helpful to increase preparedness of population and reduce catastrophic impacts. The present work describes the development of a novel procedure for global flood hazard mapping, based on the most recent advances in large scale flood modelling. We derive a long-term dataset of daily river discharges from the global hydrological simulations of the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). Streamflow data is downscaled on a high resolution river network and processed to provide the input for local flood inundation simulations, performed with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model. All flood-prone areas identified along the river network are then merged to create continental flood hazard maps for different return periods at 30'' resolution. We evaluate the performance of our methodology in several large river basins by comparing simulated flood maps against both official hazard maps and satellite-derived flood maps. We further investigate the sensitivity of the flood modelling framework to different parameters and modelling approaches and identify strengths, limitations and possible improvements of the methodology.

  16. Applications of remote sensing techniques to county land use and flood hazard mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. B.; Conn, J. S.; Miller, D. A.; Mouat, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    The application of remote sensing in Arizona is discussed. Land use and flood hazard mapping completed by the Applied Remote Sensing Program is described. Areas subject to periodic flood inundation are delineated and land use maps monitoring the growth within specific counties are provided.

  17. Making Coastal Flood Hazard Maps to Support Decision-Making - What End Users Want

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, J.; Cheung, W. H.; Luke, A.; Gallien, T.; Aghakouchak, A.; Feldman, D.; Matthew, R.; Sanders, B. F.

    2015-12-01

    Growing awareness about accelerating Sea Level Rise (SLR) is contributing to coastal resilience initiatives around the world, with an emphasis on coastal planning, infrastructure adaptation, and emergency preparedness. Maps are the primary tool for communicating flood hazard, and their design raises two fundamental challenges: (1) representing the flood hazard in a scientifically defensible manner considering complexity associated with multiple drivers of flooding (e.g., rainfall, streamflow, storm surge, high tides, waves), urban infrastructure, and human interventions (e.g. pumping, sand bags) and (2) effectively communicating hazard information considering the specific needs of decision-makers. In this research we rely on a hydrodynamic model of coastal flooding that can be forced by multiple drivers of flooding (rainfall, high water levels, and waves) to simulate extreme flooding scenarios at street-level resolution. Model scenarios include 20%, 10%, 5%, 2% and 1% annual exceedance probability (AEP) scenarios for each possible driver of flooding and for both present and future sea levels. The resulting flood zones and related flood depths are aggregated using GIS techniques and transformed into a set of maps depicting annual exceedance probability, multi-year flood probability, 1% AEP flooding depth, uncertainty associated with model forcing data, and road network accessibility. The usability of each map is assessed through focus group discussions with local stakeholders who have distinct decision-making needs, such as homeowners, planners, and emergency response managers. Findings from this research reveal the mapped flood risk information and visualizations preferred by different decision-makers.

  18. 44 CFR 65.11 - Evaluation of sand dunes in mapping coastal flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... storm-induced dune erosion potential in its determination of coastal flood hazards and risk mapping efforts. The criterion to be used in the evaluation of dune erosion will apply to primary frontal dunes as...

  19. 44 CFR 65.11 - Evaluation of sand dunes in mapping coastal flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... storm-induced dune erosion potential in its determination of coastal flood hazards and risk mapping efforts. The criterion to be used in the evaluation of dune erosion will apply to primary frontal dunes as...

  20. 44 CFR 65.11 - Evaluation of sand dunes in mapping coastal flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... storm-induced dune erosion potential in its determination of coastal flood hazards and risk mapping efforts. The criterion to be used in the evaluation of dune erosion will apply to primary frontal dunes as...

  1. A national scale flood hazard mapping methodology: The case of Greece - Protection and adaptation policy approaches.

    PubMed

    Kourgialas, Nektarios N; Karatzas, George P

    2017-12-01

    The present work introduces a national scale flood hazard assessment methodology, using multi-criteria analysis and artificial neural networks (ANNs) techniques in a GIS environment. The proposed methodology was applied in Greece, where flash floods are a relatively frequent phenomenon and it has become more intense over the last decades, causing significant damages in rural and urban sectors. In order the most prone flooding areas to be identified, seven factor-maps (that are directly related to flood generation) were combined in a GIS environment. These factor-maps are: a) the Flow accumulation (F), b) the Land use (L), c) the Altitude (A), b) the Slope (S), e) the soil Erodibility (E), f) the Rainfall intensity (R), and g) the available water Capacity (C). The name to the proposed method is "FLASERC". The flood hazard for each one of these factors is classified into five categories: Very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. The above factors are combined and processed using the appropriate ANN algorithm tool. For the ANN training process spatial distribution of historical flooded points in Greece within the five different flood hazard categories of the aforementioned seven factor-maps were combined. In this way, the overall flood hazard map for Greece was determined. The final results are verified using additional historical flood events that have occurred in Greece over the last 100years. In addition, an overview of flood protection measures and adaptation policy approaches were proposed for agricultural and urban areas located at very high flood hazard areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Probabilistic floodplain hazard mapping: managing uncertainty by using a bivariate approach for flood frequency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candela, Angela; Tito Aronica, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    Floods are a global problem and are considered the most frequent natural disaster world-wide. Many studies show that the severity and frequency of floods have increased in recent years and underline the difficulty to separate the effects of natural climatic changes and human influences as land management practices, urbanization etc. Flood risk analysis and assessment is required to provide information on current or future flood hazard and risks in order to accomplish flood risk mitigation, to propose, evaluate and select measures to reduce it. Both components of risk can be mapped individually and are affected by multiple uncertainties as well as the joint estimate of flood risk. Major sources of uncertainty include statistical analysis of extremes events, definition of hydrological input, channel and floodplain topography representation, the choice of effective hydraulic roughness coefficients. The classical procedure to estimate flood discharge for a chosen probability of exceedance is to deal with a rainfall-runoff model associating to risk the same return period of original rainfall, in accordance with the iso-frequency criterion. Alternatively, a flood frequency analysis to a given record of discharge data is applied, but again the same probability is associated to flood discharges and respective risk. Moreover, since flood peaks and corresponding flood volumes are variables of the same phenomenon, they should be, directly, correlated and, consequently, multivariate statistical analyses must be applied. This study presents an innovative approach to obtain flood hazard maps where hydrological input (synthetic flood design event) to a 2D hydraulic model has been defined by generating flood peak discharges and volumes from: a) a classical univariate approach, b) a bivariate statistical analysis, through the use of copulas. The univariate approach considers flood hydrographs generation by an indirect approach (rainfall-runoff transformation using input rainfall

  3. A new approach for deriving Flood hazard maps from SAR data and global hydrodynamic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matgen, P.; Hostache, R.; Chini, M.; Giustarini, L.; Pappenberger, F.; Bally, P.

    2014-12-01

    With the flood consequences likely to amplify because of the growing population and ongoing accumulation of assets in flood-prone areas, global flood hazard and risk maps are needed for improving flood preparedness at large scale. At the same time, with the rapidly growing archives of SAR images of floods, there is a high potential of making use of these images for global and regional flood management. In this framework, an original method that integrates global flood inundation modeling and microwave remote sensing is presented. It takes advantage of the combination of the time and space continuity of a global inundation model with the high spatial resolution of satellite observations. The availability of model simulations over a long time period offers opportunities for estimating flood non-exceedance probabilities in a robust way. These probabilities can be attributed to historical satellite observations. Time series of SAR-derived flood extent maps and associated non-exceedance probabilities can then be combined generate flood hazard maps with a spatial resolution equal to that of the satellite images, which is most of the time higher than that of a global inundation model. In principle, this can be done for any area of interest in the world, provided that a sufficient number of relevant remote sensing images are available. As a test case we applied the method on the Severn River (UK) and the Zambezi River (Mozambique), where large archives of Envisat flood images can be exploited. The global ECMWF flood inundation model is considered for computing the statistics of extreme events. A comparison with flood hazard maps estimated with in situ measured discharge is carried out. The first results confirm the potentiality of the method. However, further developments on two aspects are required to improve the quality of the hazard map and to ensure the acceptability of the product by potential end user organizations. On the one hand, it is of paramount importance to

  4. Importance of Integrating High-Resoultion 2D Flood Hazard Maps in the Flood Disaster Management of Marikina City, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapales, Ben Joseph; Mendoza, Jerico; Uichanco, Christopher; Mahar Francisco Amante Lagmay, Alfredo; Moises, Mark Anthony; Delmendo, Patricia; Eneri Tingin, Neil

    2015-04-01

    Flooding has been a perennial problem in the city of Marikina. These incidences result in human and economic losses. In response to this, the city has been investing in their flood disaster mitigation program in the past years. As a result, flooding in Marikina was reduced by 31% from 1992 to 2004. [1] However, these measures need to be improved so as to mitigate the effects of floods with more than 100 year return period, such as the flooding brought by tropical storm Ketsana in 2009 which generated 455mm of rains over a 24-hour period. Heavy rainfall caused the streets to be completely submerged in water, leaving at least 70 people dead in the area. In 2012, the Southwest monsoon, enhanced by a typhoon, brought massive rains with an accumulated rainfall of 472mm for 22-hours, a number greater than that which was experienced during Ketsana. At this time, the local government units were much more prepared in mitigating the risk with the use of early warning and evacuation measures, resulting to zero casualty in the area. Their urban disaster management program, however, can be further improved through the integration of high-resolution 2D flood hazard maps in the city's flood disaster management. The use of these maps in flood disaster management is essential in reducing flood-related risks. This paper discusses the importance and advantages of integrating flood maps in structural and non-structural mitigation measures in the case of Marikina City. Flood hazard maps are essential tools in predicting the frequency and magnitude of floods in an area. An information that may be determined with the use of these maps is the locations of evacuation areas, which may be accurately positioned using high-resolution 2D flood hazard maps. Evacuation of people in areas that are not vulnerable of being inundated is one of the unnecessary measures that may be prevented and thus optimizing mitigation efforts by local government units. This paper also discusses proposals for a more

  5. Importance of Integrating High-Resoultion 2D Flood Hazard Maps in the Flood Disaster Management of Marikina City, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapales, B. J. M.; Mendoza, J.; Uichanco, C.; Lagmay, A. M. F. A.; Moises, M. A.; Delmendo, P.; Tingin, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding has been a perennial problem in the city of Marikina. These incidences result in human and economic losses. In response to this, the city has been investing in their flood disaster mitigation program in the past years. As a result, flooding in Marikina was reduced by 31% from 1992 to 2004. [1] However, these measures need to be improved so as to mitigate the effects of floods with more than 100 year return period, such as the flooding brought by tropical storm Ketsana in 2009 which generated 455mm of rains over a 24-hour period. Heavy rainfall caused the streets to be completely submerged in water, leaving at least 70 people dead in the area. In 2012, the Southwest monsoon, enhanced by a typhoon, brought massive rains with an accumulated rainfall of 472mm for 22-hours, a number greater than that which was experienced during Ketsana. At this time, the local government units were much more prepared in mitigating the risk with the use of early warning and evacuation measures, resulting to zero casualty in the area. Their urban disaster management program, however, can be further improved through the integration of high-resolution 2D flood hazard maps in the city's flood disaster management. The use of these maps in flood disaster management is essential in reducing flood-related risks. This paper discusses the importance and advantages of integrating flood maps in structural and non-structural mitigation measures in the case of Marikina City. Flood hazard maps are essential tools in predicting the frequency and magnitude of floods in an area. An information that may be determined with the use of these maps is the locations of evacuation areas, which may be accurately positioned using high-resolution 2D flood hazard maps. Evacuation of areas that are not vulnerable of being inundated is one of the unnecessary measures that may be prevented and thus optimizing mitigation efforts by local government units. This paper also discusses proposals for a more efficient

  6. New version of 1 km global river flood hazard maps for the next generation of Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutanudjaja, Edwin; van Beek, Rens; Winsemius, Hessel; Ward, Philip; Bierkens, Marc

    2017-04-01

    The Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer, launched in 2015, is an open-access and free-of-charge web-based interactive platform which assesses and visualises current and future projections of river flood impacts across the globe. One of the key components in the Analyzer is a set of river flood inundation hazard maps derived from the global hydrological model simulation of PCR-GLOBWB. For the current version of the Analyzer, accessible on http://floods.wri.org/#/, the early generation of PCR-GLOBWB 1.0 was used and simulated at 30 arc-minute ( 50 km at the equator) resolution. In this presentation, we will show the new version of these hazard maps. This new version is based on the latest version of PCR-GLOBWB 2.0 (https://github.com/UU-Hydro/PCR-GLOBWB_model, Sutanudjaja et al., 2016, doi:10.5281/zenodo.60764) simulated at 5 arc-minute ( 10 km at the equator) resolution. The model simulates daily hydrological and water resource fluxes and storages, including the simulation of overbank volume that ends up on the floodplain (if flooding occurs). The simulation was performed for the present day situation (from 1960) and future climate projections (until 2099) using the climate forcing created in the ISI-MIP project. From the simulated flood inundation volume time series, we then extract annual maxima for each cell, and fit these maxima to a Gumbel extreme value distribution. This allows us to derive flood volume maps of any hazard magnitude (ranging from 2-year to 1000-year flood events) and for any time period (e.g. 1960-1999, 2010-2049, 2030-2069, and 2060-2099). The derived flood volumes (at 5 arc-minute resolution) are then spread over the high resolution terrain model using an updated GLOFRIS downscaling module (Winsemius et al., 2013, doi:10.5194/hess-17-1871-2013). The updated version performs a volume spreading sequentially from more upstream basins to downstream basins, hence enabling a better inclusion of smaller streams, and takes into account spreading of water

  7. Scoping of flood hazard mapping needs for Merrimack County, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.

    2006-01-01

    This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) New Hampshire/Vermont Water Science Center for scoping of flood-hazard mapping needs for Merrimack County, New Hampshire, under Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Inter-Agency agreement Number HSFE01-05X-0018.

  8. Scoping of flood hazard mapping needs for Belknap County, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.

    2006-01-01

    This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) New Hampshire-Vermont Water Science Center for scoping of flood-hazard mapping needs for Belknap County, New Hampshire, under Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Inter-Agency agreement Number HSFE01-05X-0018.

  9. Global river flood hazard maps: hydraulic modelling methods and appropriate uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townend, Samuel; Smith, Helen; Molloy, James

    2014-05-01

    Flood hazard is not well understood or documented in many parts of the world. Consequently, the (re-)insurance sector now needs to better understand where the potential for considerable river flooding aligns with significant exposure. For example, international manufacturing companies are often attracted to countries with emerging economies, meaning that events such as the 2011 Thailand floods have resulted in many multinational businesses with assets in these regions incurring large, unexpected losses. This contribution addresses and critically evaluates the hydraulic methods employed to develop a consistent global scale set of river flood hazard maps, used to fill the knowledge gap outlined above. The basis of the modelling approach is an innovative, bespoke 1D/2D hydraulic model (RFlow) which has been used to model a global river network of over 5.3 million kilometres. Estimated flood peaks at each of these model nodes are determined using an empirically based rainfall-runoff approach linking design rainfall to design river flood magnitudes. The hydraulic model is used to determine extents and depths of floodplain inundation following river bank overflow. From this, deterministic flood hazard maps are calculated for several design return periods between 20-years and 1,500-years. Firstly, we will discuss the rationale behind the appropriate hydraulic modelling methods and inputs chosen to produce a consistent global scaled river flood hazard map. This will highlight how a model designed to work with global datasets can be more favourable for hydraulic modelling at the global scale and why using innovative techniques customised for broad scale use are preferable to modifying existing hydraulic models. Similarly, the advantages and disadvantages of both 1D and 2D modelling will be explored and balanced against the time, computer and human resources available, particularly when using a Digital Surface Model at 30m resolution. Finally, we will suggest some

  10. Scoping of flood hazard mapping needs for Coos County, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.

    2006-01-01

    This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) New Hampshire/ Vermont Water Science Center for scoping of flood-hazard mapping needs for Coos County, New Hampshire, under Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Inter-Agency agreement Number HSFE01-05X-0018. One of the priorities for FEMA, Region 1, is to develop updated Digital Flood Insurance Rate Maps (DFIRMs) and Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) for Coos County, New Hampshire. The information provided in this report will be used to develop the scope for the first phase of a multiyear project that will ultimately result in the production of new DFIRMs and FIS for the communities and flooding sources in Coos County.

  11. A high-resolution physically-based global flood hazard map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaheil, Y.; Begnudelli, L.; McCollum, J.

    2016-12-01

    We present the results from a physically-based global flood hazard model. The model uses a physically-based hydrologic model to simulate river discharges, and 2D hydrodynamic model to simulate inundation. The model is set up such that it allows the application of large-scale flood hazard through efficient use of parallel computing. For hydrology, we use the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) model. HRR accounts for surface hydrology using Green-Ampt parameterization. The model is calibrated against observed discharge data from the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC) network, among other publicly-available datasets. The parallel-computing framework takes advantage of the river network structure to minimize cross-processor messages, and thus significantly increases computational efficiency. For inundation, we implemented a computationally-efficient 2D finite-volume model with wetting/drying. The approach consists of simulating flood along the river network by forcing the hydraulic model with the streamflow hydrographs simulated by HRR, and scaled up to certain return levels, e.g. 100 years. The model is distributed such that each available processor takes the next simulation. Given an approximate criterion, the simulations are ordered from most-demanding to least-demanding to ensure that all processors finalize almost simultaneously. Upon completing all simulations, the maximum envelope of flood depth is taken to generate the final map. The model is applied globally, with selected results shown from different continents and regions. The maps shown depict flood depth and extent at different return periods. These maps, which are currently available at 3 arc-sec resolution ( 90m) can be made available at higher resolutions where high resolution DEMs are available. The maps can be utilized by flood risk managers at the national, regional, and even local levels to further understand their flood risk exposure, exercise certain measures of mitigation, and/or transfer the residual

  12. Flood-hazard mapping in Honduras in response to Hurricane Mitch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    The devastation in Honduras due to flooding from Hurricane Mitch in 1998 prompted the U.S. Agency for International Development, through the U.S. Geological Survey, to develop a country-wide systematic approach of flood-hazard mapping and a demonstration of the method at selected sites as part of a reconstruction effort. The design discharge chosen for flood-hazard mapping was the flood with an average return interval of 50 years, and this selection was based on discussions with the U.S. Agency for International Development and the Honduran Public Works and Transportation Ministry. A regression equation for estimating the 50-year flood discharge using drainage area and annual precipitation as the explanatory variables was developed, based on data from 34 long-term gaging sites. This equation, which has a standard error of prediction of 71.3 percent, was used in a geographic information system to estimate the 50-year flood discharge at any location for any river in the country. The flood-hazard mapping method was demonstrated at 15 selected municipalities. High-resolution digital-elevation models of the floodplain were obtained using an airborne laser-terrain mapping system. Field verification of the digital elevation models showed that the digital-elevation models had mean absolute errors ranging from -0.57 to 0.14 meter in the vertical dimension. From these models, water-surface elevation cross sections were obtained and used in a numerical, one-dimensional, steady-flow stepbackwater model to estimate water-surface profiles corresponding to the 50-year flood discharge. From these water-surface profiles, maps of area and depth of inundation were created at the 13 of the 15 selected municipalities. At La Lima only, the area and depth of inundation of the channel capacity in the city was mapped. At Santa Rose de Aguan, no numerical model was created. The 50-year flood and the maps of area and depth of inundation are based on the estimated 50-year storm tide.

  13. Scoping of flood hazard mapping needs for Carroll County, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.

    2006-01-01

    This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) New Hampshire/Vermont Water Science Center for scoping of flood-hazard mapping needs for Carroll County, New Hampshire, under Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Inter-Agency agreement Number HSFE01-05X-0018. FEMA is embarking on a map modernization program nationwide to: 1. Gather and develop updated data for all flood prone areas in support of flood plain management. 2. Provide maps and data in a digital format for the improvement in the efficiency and precision of the mapping program. 3. Integrate FEMA's community and state partners into the mapping process One of the priorities for FEMA, Region 1, is to develop updated Digital Flood Insurance Rate Maps (DFIRMs) and Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) for Carroll County, New Hampshire. The information provided in this report will be used to develop the scope for the first phase of a multiyear project that will ultimately result in the production of new DFIRMs and FIS for the communities and flooding sources in Carroll County. The average age of the FEMA flood plain maps in Carroll County, New Hampshire is 18 years. Most of these studies were computed in the late 1970s to the mid 1980s. However, in the ensuing 20-30 years, development has occurred in many of the watersheds, and the rivers and streams and their flood plains have changed as a result. In addition, as development has occurred, peak flooding has increased downstream of the development from increased flows across impervious surfaces. Therefore, many of the older studies may not depict current conditions nor accurately estimate risk in terms of flood heights. Carroll County gained 3,773 residents between 2000 and 2005. This represents a growth of 8.6 percent compared to 6.0 percent for the state as a whole. Carroll County ranks second (from highest to lowest) out of New Hampshire's 10 counties in terms of rate of population increase. Since 1990, Carroll County has gained 12,029 residents

  14. An integrated approach to flood hazard assessment on alluvial fans using numerical modeling, field mapping, and remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pelletier, J.D.; Mayer, L.; Pearthree, P.A.; House, P.K.; Demsey, K.A.; Klawon, J.K.; Vincent, K.R.

    2005-01-01

    Millions of people in the western United States live near the dynamic, distributary channel networks of alluvial fans where flood behavior is complex and poorly constrained. Here we test a new comprehensive approach to alluvial-fan flood hazard assessment that uses four complementary methods: two-dimensional raster-based hydraulic modeling, satellite-image change detection, fieldbased mapping of recent flood inundation, and surficial geologic mapping. Each of these methods provides spatial detail lacking in the standard method and each provides critical information for a comprehensive assessment. Our numerical model simultaneously solves the continuity equation and Manning's equation (Chow, 1959) using an implicit numerical method. It provides a robust numerical tool for predicting flood flows using the large, high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) necessary to resolve the numerous small channels on the typical alluvial fan. Inundation extents and flow depths of historic floods can be reconstructed with the numerical model and validated against field- and satellite-based flood maps. A probabilistic flood hazard map can also be constructed by modeling multiple flood events with a range of specified discharges. This map can be used in conjunction with a surficial geologic map to further refine floodplain delineation on fans. To test the accuracy of the numerical model, we compared model predictions of flood inundation and flow depths against field- and satellite-based flood maps for two recent extreme events on the southern Tortolita and Harquahala piedmonts in Arizona. Model predictions match the field- and satellite-based maps closely. Probabilistic flood hazard maps based on the 10 yr, 100 yr, and maximum floods were also constructed for the study areas using stream gage records and paleoflood deposits. The resulting maps predict spatially complex flood hazards that strongly reflect small-scale topography and are consistent with surficial geology. In

  15. Flood Hazard Mapping Assessment for El-Awali River Catchment-Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hdeib, Rouya; Abdallah, Chadi; Moussa, Roger; Hijazi, Samar

    2016-04-01

    River flooding prediction and flood forecasting has become an essential stage in the major flood mitigation plans worldwide. Delineation of floodplains resulting from a river flooding event requires coupling between a Hydrological rainfall-runoff model to calculate the resulting outflows of the catchment and a hydraulic model to calculate the corresponding water surface profiles along the river main course. In this study several methods were applied to predict the flood discharge of El-Awali River using the available historical data and gauging records and by conducting several site visits. The HEC-HMS Rainfall-Runoff model was built and applied to calculate the flood hydrographs along several outlets on El-Awali River and calibrated using the storm that took place on January 2013 and caused flooding of the major Lebanese rivers and by conducting additional site visits to calculate proper river sections and record witnesses of the locals. The Hydraulic HEC-RAS model was then applied to calculate the corresponding water surface profiles along El-Awali River main reach. Floodplain delineation and Hazard mapping for 10,50 and 100 years return periods was performed using the Watershed Modeling System WMS. The results first show an underestimation of the flood discharge recorded by the operating gauge stations on El-Awali River, whereas, the discharge of the 100 years flood may reach up to 506 m3/s compared by lower values calculated using the traditional discharge estimation methods. Second any flooding of El-Awali River may be catastrophic especially to the coastal part of the catchment and can cause tragic losses in agricultural lands and properties. Last a major floodplain was noticed in Marj Bisri village this floodplain can reach more than 200 meters in width. Overall, performance was good and the Rainfall-Runoff model can provide valuable information about flows especially on ungauged points and can perform a great aid for the floodplain delineation and flood

  16. GIS data for the Seaside, Oregon, Tsunami Pilot Study to modernize FEMA flood hazard maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Florence L.; Venturato, Angie J.; Geist, Eric L.

    2007-01-01

    A Tsunami Pilot Study was conducted for the area surrounding the coastal town of Seaside, Oregon, as part of the Federal Emergency Management's (FEMA) Flood Insurance Rate Map Modernization Program (Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, 2006). The Cascadia subduction zone extends from Cape Mendocino, California, to Vancouver Island, Canada. The Seaside area was chosen because it is typical of many coastal communities subject to tsunamis generated by far- and near-field (Cascadia) earthquakes. Two goals of the pilot study were to develop probabilistic 100-year and 500-year tsunami inundation maps using Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) and to provide recommendations for improving tsunami hazard assessment guidelines for FEMA and state and local agencies. The study was an interagency effort by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Geological Survey, and FEMA, in collaboration with the University of Southern California, Middle East Technical University, Portland State University, Horning Geoscience, Northwest Hydraulics Consultants, and the Oregon Department of Geological and Mineral Industries. The pilot study model data and results are published separately as a geographic information systems (GIS) data report (Wong and others, 2006). The flood maps and GIS data are briefly described here.

  17. Exploring local risk managers' use of flood hazard maps for risk communication purposes in Baden-Württemberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjellgren, S.

    2013-07-01

    In response to the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC), flood hazard maps are currently produced all over Europe, reflecting a wider shift in focus from "flood protection" to "risk management", for which not only public authorities but also populations at risk are seen as responsible. By providing a visual image of the foreseen consequences of flooding, flood hazard maps can enhance people's knowledge about flood risk, making them more capable of an adequate response. Current literature, however, questions the maps' awareness raising capacity, arguing that their content and design are rarely adjusted to laypeople's needs. This paper wants to complement this perspective with a focus on risk communication by studying how these tools are disseminated and marketed to the public in the first place. Judging from communication theory, simply making hazard maps publicly available is unlikely to lead to attitudinal or behavioral effects, since this typically requires two-way communication and material or symbolic incentives. Consequently, it is relevant to investigate whether and how local risk managers, who are well positioned to interact with the local population, make use of flood hazard maps for risk communication purposes. A qualitative case study of this issue in the German state of Baden-Württemberg suggests that many municipalities lack a clear strategy for using this new information tool for hazard and risk communication. Four barriers in this regard are identified: perceived disinterest/sufficient awareness on behalf of the population at risk; unwillingness to cause worry or distress; lack of skills and resources; and insufficient support. These barriers are important to address - in research as well as in practice - since it is only if flood hazard maps are used to enhance local knowledge resources that they can be expected to contribute to social capacity building.

  18. Mapping Urban Risk: Flood Hazards, Race, & Environmental Justice In New York”

    PubMed Central

    Maantay, Juliana; Maroko, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the importance of disaggregating population data aggregated by census tracts or other units, for more realistic population distribution/location. A newly-developed mapping method, the Cadastral-based Expert Dasymetric System (CEDS), calculates population in hyper-heterogeneous urban areas better than traditional mapping techniques. A case study estimating population potentially impacted by flood hazard in New York City compares the impacted population determined by CEDS with that derived by centroid-containment method and filtered areal weighting interpolation. Compared to CEDS, 37 percent and 72 percent fewer people are estimated to be at risk from floods city-wide, using conventional areal weighting of census data, and centroid-containment selection, respectively. Undercounting of impacted population could have serious implications for emergency management and disaster planning. Ethnic/racial populations are also spatially disaggregated to determine any environmental justice impacts with flood risk. Minorities are disproportionately undercounted using traditional methods. Underestimating more vulnerable sub-populations impairs preparedness and relief efforts. PMID:20047020

  19. Seaside, Oregon Tsunami Pilot Study - modernization of FEMA flood hazard maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    FEMA Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) guidelines do not currently exist for conducting and incorporating tsunami hazard assessments that reflect the substantial advances in tsunami research achieved in the last two decades; this conclusion is the result of two FEMA-sponsored workshops and the associated Tsunami Focused Study. Therefore, as part of FEMA's Map Modernization Program, a Tsunami Pilot Study was carried out in the Seaside/Gearhart, Oregon, area to develop an improved Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) methodology and to provide recommendations for improved tsunami hazard assessment guidelines. The Seaside area was chosen because it is typical of many coastal communities in the section of the Pacific Coast from Cape Mendocino to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and because State Agencies and local stakeholders expressed considerable interest in mapping the tsunami threat to this area. The study was an interagency effort by FEMA, U.S. Geological Survey and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, in collaboration with the University of Southern California, Middle East Technical University. Portland State University, Horning Geosciences, Northwest Hydraulics Consultants, and the Oregon Department of Geological and Mineral Industries. Draft copies and a briefing on the contents, results and recommendations of this document were provided to FEMA officials before final publication.

  20. The use of remote sensing imagery for environmental land use and flood hazard mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouat, D. A.; Miller, D. A.; Foster, K. E.

    1976-01-01

    Flood hazard maps have been constructed for Graham, Yuma, and Yavapai Counties in Arizona using remote sensing techniques. Watershed maps of priority areas were selected on the basis of their interest to the county planning staff and represented areas of imminent or ongoing development and those known to be subject to inundation by storm runoff. Landsat color infrared imagery at scales of 1:1,000,000, 1:500,000, and 1:250,000 was used together with high-altitude aerial photography at scales of 1:120,000 and 1:60,000 to determine drainage patterns and erosional features, soil type, and the extent and type of ground cover. The satellite imagery was used in the form of 70 mm chips for enhancement in a color additive viewer and in all available enlargement modes. Field checking served as the main backup to the interpretations. Areas with high susceptibility to flooding were determined with a high level of confidence from the remotely sensed imagery.

  1. The use of remote sensing imagery for environmental land use and flood hazard mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouat, D. A.; Miller, D. A.; Foster, K. E.

    1976-01-01

    Flood hazard maps have been constructed for Graham, Yuma, and Yavapai Counties in Arizona using remote sensing techniques. Watershed maps of priority areas were selected on the basis of their interest to the county planning staff and represented areas of imminent or ongoing development and those known to be subject to inundation by storm runoff. Landsat color infrared imagery at scales of 1:1,000,000, 1:500,000, and 1:250,000 was used together with high-altitude aerial photography at scales of 1:120,000 and 1:60,000 to determine drainage patterns and erosional features, soil type, and the extent and type of ground cover. The satellite imagery was used in the form of 70 mm chips for enhancement in a color additive viewer and in all available enlargement modes. Field checking served as the main backup to the interpretations. Areas with high susceptibility to flooding were determined with a high level of confidence from the remotely sensed imagery.

  2. Automating Flood Hazard Mapping Methods for Near Real-time Storm Surge Inundation and Vulnerability Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, A. M.; Griffin, R.; Gallagher, D.

    2015-12-01

    Storm surge has enough destructive power to damage buildings and infrastructure, erode beaches, and threaten human life across large geographic areas, hence posing the greatest threat of all the hurricane hazards. The United States Gulf of Mexico has proven vulnerable to hurricanes as it has been hit by some of the most destructive hurricanes on record. With projected rises in sea level and increases in hurricane activity, there is a need to better understand the associated risks for disaster mitigation, preparedness, and response. GIS has become a critical tool in enhancing disaster planning, risk assessment, and emergency response by communicating spatial information through a multi-layer approach. However, there is a need for a near real-time method of identifying areas with a high risk of being impacted by storm surge. Research was conducted alongside Baron, a private industry weather enterprise, to facilitate automated modeling and visualization of storm surge inundation and vulnerability on a near real-time basis. This research successfully automated current flood hazard mapping techniques using a GIS framework written in a Python programming environment, and displayed resulting data through an Application Program Interface (API). Data used for this methodology included high resolution topography, NOAA Probabilistic Surge model outputs parsed from Rich Site Summary (RSS) feeds, and the NOAA Census tract level Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI). The development process required extensive data processing and management to provide high resolution visualizations of potential flooding and population vulnerability in a timely manner. The accuracy of the developed methodology was assessed using Hurricane Isaac as a case study, which through a USGS and NOAA partnership, contained ample data for statistical analysis. This research successfully created a fully automated, near real-time method for mapping high resolution storm surge inundation and vulnerability for the

  3. 77 FR 70454 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency... Register a ] proposed flood hazard determination notice at FR 77 44651 that contained a table which included a Web page address through which the Preliminary Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM), and where...

  4. Scoping of Flood Hazard Mapping Needs for Belknap County, New Hampshire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    DEM Digital Elevation Model DFIRM Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map DOQ Digital Orthophoto Quadrangle DOQQ Digital Ortho Quarter Quadrangle DTM ...Ground Sample Distance H&H Hydrologic and Hydraulic LiDAR Light Detection and Ranging LOMA Letter of Map Amendment LOMC Letters of Map Change LOMR Letter...Terrain Model ( DTM ), and (3) Flood Insurance Risk Zones. The spatial accuracy of each of these three categories is fixed by the specifications contained

  5. The Study of Insurance Premium Rate GIS Mapping Considering the Storm and Flood Hazard Risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. S.; Lee, I. S.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, the number of natural disaster occurrence is increasing because of abnormal changes of weather in Korea. In Korea the storm and flood insurance system is in effect to prevent these natural disasters. The national storm and flood insurance Premium rate is very low and the risk of adverse selection resides because of choosing by who lives in high risk area. To solve these problems, the storm and flood insurance rate map are required. In this study, the prototype of storm and flood insurance premium rate map of the Ulsan, Korea was made and the method of GIS analysis for the insurance premium rate calculating and the procedure of the Ulsan storm and flood insurance rate map were researched.

  6. Scoping of Flood Hazard Mapping Needs for Merrimack County, New Hampshire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    DOQ Digital Orthophoto Quadrangle DOQQ Digital Ortho Quarter Quadrangle DTM Digital Terrain Model FBFM Flood Boundary and Floodway Map FEMA Federal...GRANIT Geographically Referenced ANalysis and Information Transfer system GSP Ground Sample Distance H&H Hydrologic and Hydraulic LiDAR Light Detection...DFIRMs are produced from the following three broad categories of geospatial data: (1) Base Map, (2) Digital Terrain Model ( DTM ), and (3) Flood

  7. Flood hazard assessment in areas prone to flash flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvočka, Davor; Falconer, Roger A.; Bray, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    Contemporary climate projections suggest that there will be an increase in the occurrence of high-intensity rainfall events in the future. These precipitation extremes are usually the main cause for the emergence of extreme flooding, such as flash flooding. Flash floods are among the most unpredictable, violent and fatal natural hazards in the world. Furthermore, it is expected that flash flooding will occur even more frequently in the future due to more frequent development of extreme weather events, which will greatly increase the danger to people caused by flash flooding. This being the case, there will be a need for high resolution flood hazard maps in areas susceptible to flash flooding. This study investigates what type of flood hazard assessment methods should be used for assessing the flood hazard to people caused by flash flooding. Two different types of flood hazard assessment methods were tested: (i) a widely used method based on an empirical analysis, and (ii) a new, physically based and experimentally calibrated method. Two flash flood events were considered herein, namely: the 2004 Boscastle flash flood and the 2007 Železniki flash flood. The results obtained in this study suggest that in the areas susceptible to extreme flooding, the flood hazard assessment should be conducted using methods based on a mechanics-based analysis. In comparison to standard flood hazard assessment methods, these physically based methods: (i) take into account all of the physical forces, which act on a human body in floodwater, (ii) successfully adapt to abrupt changes in the flow regime, which often occur for flash flood events, and (iii) rapidly assess a flood hazard index in a relatively short period of time.

  8. Hazard Maps in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Emphasizes the use of geophysical hazard maps and illustrates how they can be used in the classroom from kindergarten to college level. Depicts ways that hazard maps of floods, landslides, earthquakes, volcanoes, and multi-hazards can be integrated into classroom instruction. Tells how maps may be obtained. (SLM)

  9. Hazard Maps in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Emphasizes the use of geophysical hazard maps and illustrates how they can be used in the classroom from kindergarten to college level. Depicts ways that hazard maps of floods, landslides, earthquakes, volcanoes, and multi-hazards can be integrated into classroom instruction. Tells how maps may be obtained. (SLM)

  10. Mapping the Historical Probability of Increased Flood Hazard During ENSO Events Using a New 20th Century River Flow Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emerton, R.; Cloke, H. L.; Stephens, L.; Woolnough, S. J.; Zsoter, E.; Pappenberger, F.

    2016-12-01

    El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a mode of variability which sees fluctuations between anomalously high or low sea surface temperatures in the Pacific, is known to influence river flow and flooding at the global scale. The anticipation and forecasting of floods is crucial for flood preparedness, and this link, alongside the predictive skill of ENSO up to seasons ahead, may provide an early indication of upcoming severe flood events. Information is readily available indicating the likely impacts of El Niño and La Niña on precipitation across the globe, which is often used as a proxy for flood hazard. However, the nonlinearity between precipitation and flood magnitude and frequency means that it is important to assess the impact of ENSO events not only on precipitation, but also on river flow and flooding. Historical probabilities provide key information regarding the likely impacts of ENSO events. We estimate, for the first time, the historical probability of increased flood hazard during El Niño and La Niña through a global hydrological analysis, using a new 20thCentury ensemble river flow reanalysis for the global river network. This dataset was produced by running the ECMWF ERA-20CM atmospheric reanalysis through a research set-up of the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) using the CaMa-Flood hydrodynamic model, to produce a 110-year global reanalysis of river flow. We further evaluate the added benefit of the hydrological analysis over the use of precipitation as a proxy for flood hazard. For example, providing information regarding regions that are likely to experience a lagged influence on river flow compared to the influence on precipitation. Our results map, at the global scale, the probability of abnormally high river flow during any given month during an El Niño or La Niña; information such as this is key for organisations that work at the global scale, such as humanitarian aid organisations, providing a seasons-ahead indicator of potential

  11. Building a flood hazard map due to magma effusion into the caldera lake of the Baekdusan Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.; Kim, S.; Yun, S.; Yu, S.; Kim, I.

    2013-12-01

    Many volcanic craters and calderas are filled with large amounts of water that can pose significant flood hazards to downstream communities due to their high elevation and the potential for catastrophic releases of water. Recent reports pointed out the Baekdusan volcano that is located between the border of China and North Korea as a potential active volcano. Since Millennium Eruption around 1000 AD, smaller eruptions have occurred at roughly 100-year intervals, with the last one in 1903. The volcano is showing signs of waking from a century-long slumber recently and the volcanic ash may spread up to the northeastern of Japan. The development of various forecasting techniques to prevent and minimize economic and social damage is in urgent need. Floods from lake-filled calderas may be particularly large and high. Volcanic flood may cause significant hydrologic hazards for this reason. This study focuses on constructing a flood hazard map triggered by the uplift of lake bottom due to magma effusion in the Baekdusan volcano. A physically-based uplift model was developed to compute the amount of water and time to peak flow. The ordinary differential equation was numerically solved using the finite difference method and Newton-Raphson iteration method was used to solve nonlinear equation. The magma effusion rate into the caldera lake is followed by the past record from other volcanic activities. As a result, the hydrograph serves as an upper boundary condition when hydrodynamic model (Flo-2D) runs to simulate channel routing downstream. The final goal of the study stresses the potential flood hazard represented by the huge volume of water in the caldera lake, the unique geography, and the limited control capability. he study will contribute to build a geohazard map for the decision-makers and practitioners. Keywords: Effusion rate, Volcanic flood, Caldera lake, Uplift, Flood hazard map Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant [NEMA-BAEKDUSAN-2012-1-2] from

  12. 78 FR 52954 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area...

  13. 78 FR 52953 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area...

  14. 78 FR 21143 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area...

  15. 78 FR 5821 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area...

  16. 78 FR 5820 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area...

  17. Mapping hazards from glacier lake outburst floods based on modelling of process cascades at Lake 513, Carhuaz, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, D.; Huggel, C.; Cochachin, A.; Guillén, S.; García, J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent warming has had enormous impacts on glaciers and high-mountain environments. Hazards have changed or new ones have emerged, including those from glacier lakes that form as glaciers retreat. The Andes of Peru have repeatedly been severely impacted by glacier lake outburst floods in the past. An important recent event occurred in the Cordillera Blanca in 2010 when an ice avalanche impacted a glacier lake and triggered an outburst flood that affected the downstream communities and city of Carhuaz. In this study we evaluate how such complex cascades of mass movement processes can be simulated coupling different physically-based numerical models. We furthermore develop an approach that allows us to elaborate corresponding hazard maps according to existing guidelines for debris flows and based on modelling results and field work.

  18. Morphometric analyze for flood hazard map using DTM built with LIDAR and Echo-sounder data in Danube Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinescu, A.; Nichersu, I.; Trifanov, C.; Nichersu, I.; Mierla, M.

    2012-04-01

    will be merged with high quality LIDAR data available for the whole area and the accurate DTM result will help in better understanding of the morphology of the area, with acurate models and flooding scenarios. It is well known that is difficult to determine and delineate on the topographic maps, the floods limit, which is essential in the preparation of hazard maps. To perform a morphometric analysis for real floods is needed to be defined precisely on the 3D model. In this paper, we wish to present an analysis of flooding phenomenon in the Danube Delta, based on the study of digital models.

  19. Seaside, Oregon, Tsunami Pilot Study-Modernization of FEMA Flood Hazard Maps: GIS Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Florence L.; Venturato, Angie J.; Geist, Eric L.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Federal Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) guidelines do not currently exist for conducting and incorporating tsunami hazard assessments that reflect the substantial advances in tsunami research achieved in the last two decades; this conclusion is the result of two FEMA-sponsored workshops and the associated Tsunami Focused Study (Chowdhury and others, 2005). Therefore, as part of FEMA's Map Modernization Program, a Tsunami Pilot Study was carried out in the Seaside/Gearhart, Oregon, area to develop an improved Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) methodology and to provide recommendations for improved tsunami hazard assessment guidelines (Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, 2006). The Seaside area was chosen because it is typical of many coastal communities in the section of the Pacific Coast from Cape Mendocino to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and because State agencies and local stakeholders expressed considerable interest in mapping the tsunami threat to this area. The study was an interagency effort by FEMA, U.S. Geological Survey, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), in collaboration with the University of Southern California, Middle East Technical University, Portland State University, Horning Geoscience, Northwest Hydraulics Consultants, and the Oregon Department of Geological and Mineral Industries. We present the spatial (geographic information system, GIS) data from the pilot study in standard GIS formats and provide files for visualization in Google Earth, a global map viewer.

  20. Stream network analysis and geomorphic flood plain mapping from orbital and suborbital remote sensing imagery application to flood hazard studies in central Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, V. R. (Principal Investigator); Holz, R. K.; Hulke, S. D.; Patton, P. C.; Penteado, M. M.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Development of a quantitative hydrogeomorphic approach to flood hazard evaluation was hindered by (1) problems of resolution and definition of the morphometric parameters which have hydrologic significance, and (2) mechanical difficulties in creating the necessary volume of data for meaningful analysis. Measures of network resolution such as drainage density and basin Shreve magnitude indicated that large scale topographic maps offered greater resolution than small scale suborbital imagery and orbital imagery. The disparity in network resolution capabilities between orbital and suborbital imagery formats depends on factors such as rock type, vegetation, and land use. The problem of morphometric data analysis was approached by developing a computer-assisted method for network analysis. The system allows rapid identification of network properties which can then be related to measures of flood response.

  1. Disseminating near-real-time hazards information and flood maps in the Philippines through Web-GIS.

    PubMed

    A Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar Francisco; Racoma, Bernard Alan; Aracan, Ken Adrian; Alconis-Ayco, Jenalyn; Saddi, Ivan Lester

    2017-09-01

    The Philippines being a locus of tropical cyclones, tsunamis, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, is a hotbed of disasters. These natural hazards inflict loss of lives and costly damage to property. Situated in a region where climate and geophysical tempest is common, the Philippines will inevitably suffer from calamities similar to those experienced recently. With continued development and population growth in hazard prone areas, it is expected that damage to infrastructure and human losses would persist and even rise unless appropriate measures are immediately implemented by government. In 2012, the Philippines launched a responsive program for disaster prevention and mitigation called the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards (Project NOAH), specifically for government warning agencies to be able to provide a 6hr lead-time warning to vulnerable communities against impending floods and to use advanced technology to enhance current geo-hazard vulnerability maps. To disseminate such critical information to as wide an audience as possible, a Web-GIS using mashups of freely available source codes and application program interface (APIs) was developed and can be found in the URLs http://noah.dost.gov.ph and http://noah.up.edu.ph/. This Web-GIS tool is now heavily used by local government units in the Philippines in their disaster prevention and mitigation efforts and can be replicated in countries that have a proactive approach to address the impacts of natural hazards but lack sufficient funds. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Hazard Map in Huaraz-Peru due to a Glacial Lake Outburst Flood from Palcacocha Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somos-Valenzuela, M. A.; Chisolm, R. E.; McKinney, D. C.; Rivas, D.

    2013-12-01

    Palcacocha lake is located in the Ancash Region in the Cordillera Blanca at an elevation of 4,567 m in the Quilcay sub-basin, province of Huaraz, Peru. The lake drains into the Quebrada Cojup, which subsequently drains into the Quilcay River. The Quilcay River passes through the City of Huaraz emptying its water into the Santa River, which is the primary river of the basin. This location has a special interest since the city of Huaraz, which is located at the bottom of the Quilcay sub-basin, was devastated by a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) released from Lake Palcacocha on December 13, 1941. In that event, many lost their lives. In recent years Palcacocha has grown to the point where the lake is once again dangerous. Ice/rock avalanches from the steep surrounding slopes can now directly reach the lake. A process chain of debris flow and hyper-concentrated flow from Lake Palcacocha could easily reach the city of Huaraz with the current lake volume. Local authorities and people living in Huaraz are concerned about the threat posed by Lake Palcacocha, and consequently they have requested technical support in order to investigate the impacts that a GLOF could have in the city of Huaraz. To assess the hazard for the city of Huaraz a holistic approach is used that considers a chain of processes that could interact in a GLOF event from Lake Palcacocha. We assume that an avalanche from Palcaraju glacier, located directly above the lake, could be a GLOF trigger, followed by the formation of waves in the lake that can overtop the damming moraine starting an erosive process. The wave and avalanche simulations are described in another work, and here we use those results to simulate the propagation of the inundation downstream using FLO-2D, a model that allows us to include debris flow. GLOF hydrographs are generated using a dam break module in Mike 11. Empirical equations are used to calculate the hydrograph peaks and calibrate the inundation model. In order to quantify

  3. 78 FR 36212 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  4. 78 FR 20343 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  5. 78 FR 48703 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency... Register a proposed flood hazard determination notice that contained an erroneous table. This notice.... The table provided here represents the proposed flood hazard determinations and communities affected...

  6. 44 CFR 65.11 - Evaluation of sand dunes in mapping coastal flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... formation. (b) Evaluation criterion. Primary frontal dunes will not be considered as effective barriers to base flood storm surges and associated wave action where the cross-sectional area of the primary... storm surges and associated wave action. ...

  7. 77 FR 29678 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... FEMA-2012-0003: Internal Agency Docket No. FEMA-B-1251] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY... flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood depth, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory...

  8. 77 FR 59949 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... are finalized. Each LOMR revises the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and in some cases the Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports, currently in effect for the listed communities. The flood hazard... executive Community State and county Location and case No. officer of community Community map repository...

  9. 78 FR 28887 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... are finalized. Each LOMR revises the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and in some cases the Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports, currently in effect for the listed communities. The flood hazard... executive officer Community map Community State and county Location and case No. of community repository...

  10. 78 FR 35302 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... are finalized. Each LOMR revises the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and in some cases the Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports, currently in effect for the listed communities. The flood hazard... executive State and county Location and case No. officer of Community map repository Effective date of...

  11. Swiss Re Global Flood Hazard Zones: Know your flood risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinukollu, R. K.; Castaldi, A.; Mehlhorn, J.

    2012-12-01

    Floods, among all natural disasters, have a great damage potential. On a global basis, there is strong evidence of increase in the number of people affected and economic losses due to floods. For example, global insured flood losses have increased by 12% every year since 1970 and this is expected to further increase with growing exposure in the high risk areas close to rivers and coastlines. Recently, the insurance industry has been surprised by the large extent of losses, because most countries lack reliable hazard information. One example has been the 2011 Thailand floods where millions of people were affected and the total economic losses were 30 billion USD. In order to assess the flood risk across different regions and countries, the flood team at Swiss Re based on a Geomorphologic Regression approach, developed in house and patented, produced global maps of flood zones. Input data for the study was obtained from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) elevation data, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) and HydroSHEDS. The underlying assumptions of the approach are that naturally flowing rivers shape their channel and flood plain according to basin inherent forces and characteristics and that the flood water extent strongly depends on the shape of the flood plain. On the basis of the catchment characteristics, the model finally calculates the probability of a location to be flooded or not for a defined return period, which in the current study was set to 100 years. The data is produced at a 90-m resolution for latitudes 60S to 60N. This global product is now used in the insurance industry to inspect, inform and/or insure the flood risk across the world.

  12. A framework of integrated hydrological and hydrodynamic models using synthetic rainfall for flash flood hazard mapping of ungauged catchments in tropical zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohpaisankrit, Worapong; Meon, Günter; Tingsanchali, Tawatchai

    2016-05-01

    Flash flood hazard maps provide a scientific support to mitigate flash flood risk. The present study develops a practical framework with the help of integrated hydrological and hydrodynamic modelling in order to estimate the potential flash floods. We selected a small pilot catchment which has already suffered from flash floods in the past. This catchment is located in the Nan River basin, northern Thailand. Reliable meteorological and hydrometric data are missing in the catchment. Consequently, the entire upper basin of the main river was modelled with the help of the hydrological modelling system PANTA RHEI. In this basin, three monitoring stations are located along the main river. PANTA RHEI was calibrated and validated with the extreme flood events in June 2011 and July 2008, respectively. The results show a good agreement with the observed discharge data. In order to create potential flash flood scenarios, synthetic rainfall series were derived from temporal rainfall patterns based on the radar-rainfall observation and different rainfall depths from regional rainfall frequency analysis. The temporal rainfall patterns were characterized by catchment-averaged rainfall series selected from 13 rainstorms in 2008 and 2011 within the region. For regional rainfall frequency analysis, the well-known L-moments approach and related criteria were used to examine extremely climatic homogeneity of the region. According to the L-moments approach, Generalized Pareto distribution was recognized as the regional frequency distribution. The synthetic rainfall series were fed into the PANTA RHEI model. The simulated results from PANTA RHEI were provided to a 2-D hydrodynamic model (MEADFLOW), and various simulations were performed. Results from the integrated modelling framework are used in the ongoing study to regionalize and map the spatial distribution of flash flood hazards with four levels of flood severities. As an overall outcome, the presented framework can be applied in

  13. 78 FR 8175 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area.... City of Ludlow City Office, 51 Elm Street, Ludlow, KY 41016. City of Park Hills 1106 Amsterdam...

  14. 78 FR 48701 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood depth...

  15. 77 FR 18846 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood depth...

  16. 77 FR 18837 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood depth...

  17. 78 FR 5826 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood depth...

  18. 77 FR 18835 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood depth...

  19. 78 FR 21143 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood depth...

  20. 78 FR 49277 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood depth...

  1. 78 FR 5822 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood depth...

  2. 77 FR 18842 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood depth...

  3. 77 FR 18839 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood depth...

  4. 77 FR 18844 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood depth...

  5. 78 FR 49278 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood depth...

  6. 78 FR 5824 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood depth...

  7. 77 FR 18841 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood depth...

  8. 78 FR 52956 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency... Register (78 FR 36220-36222) a proposed flood hazard determination notice that contained an erroneous table... FR 36220. The table provided here represents the proposed flood hazard determinations and communities...

  9. 44 CFR 65.16 - Standard Flood Hazard Determination Form and Instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard Flood Hazard... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.16 Standard Flood Hazard Determination...

  10. 44 CFR 65.16 - Standard Flood Hazard Determination Form and Instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard Flood Hazard... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.16 Standard Flood Hazard Determination...

  11. 44 CFR 65.16 - Standard Flood Hazard Determination Form and Instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard Flood Hazard... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.16 Standard Flood Hazard Determination...

  12. 44 CFR 65.16 - Standard Flood Hazard Determination Form and Instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard Flood Hazard... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.16 Standard Flood Hazard Determination...

  13. 44 CFR 65.16 - Standard Flood Hazard Determination Form and Instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Standard Flood Hazard... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.16 Standard Flood Hazard Determination...

  14. 44 CFR 64.3 - Flood Insurance Maps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood Insurance Maps. 64.3... HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program COMMUNITIES ELIGIBLE FOR THE SALE OF INSURANCE § 64.3 Flood Insurance Maps. (a) The following maps may be prepared by the...

  15. 44 CFR 64.3 - Flood Insurance Maps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flood Insurance Maps. 64.3... HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program COMMUNITIES ELIGIBLE FOR THE SALE OF INSURANCE § 64.3 Flood Insurance Maps. (a) The following maps may be prepared by the...

  16. 44 CFR 64.3 - Flood Insurance Maps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flood Insurance Maps. 64.3... HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program COMMUNITIES ELIGIBLE FOR THE SALE OF INSURANCE § 64.3 Flood Insurance Maps. (a) The following maps may be prepared by the...

  17. 44 CFR 64.3 - Flood Insurance Maps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Flood Insurance Maps. 64.3... HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program COMMUNITIES ELIGIBLE FOR THE SALE OF INSURANCE § 64.3 Flood Insurance Maps. (a) The following maps may be prepared by the...

  18. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  19. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  20. Flood hazards studies in the Mississippi River basin using remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.; Anderson, A. T.

    1974-01-01

    The Spring 1973 Mississippi River flood was investigated using remotely sensed data from ERTS-1. Both manual and automatic analyses of the data indicated that ERTS-1 is extremely useful as a regional tool for flood mamagement. Quantitative estimates of area flooded were made in St. Charles County, Missouri and Arkansas. Flood hazard mapping was conducted in three study areas along the Mississippi River using pre-flood ERTS-1 imagery enlarged to 1:250,000 and 1:100,000 scale. Initial results indicate that ERTS-1 digital mapping of flood prone areas can be performed at 1:62,500 which is comparable to some conventional flood hazard map scales.

  1. 78 FR 43905 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include... management measures that a community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of having in effect...

  2. 78 FR 43904 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include... management measures ] that a community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of having in effect...

  3. 78 FR 43904 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include... management measures that a community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of having in effect...

  4. 78 FR 45938 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include... management measures that a community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of having in effect...

  5. 78 FR 45944 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... Register a proposed flood hazard determination notice that contained an erroneous table. This notice provides corrections to that table, to be used in lieu of the information published at 77 FR 21792. The table provided here represents the proposed flood hazard determinations and communities affected for...

  6. 78 FR 14576 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include... management measures that a community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of having in effect...

  7. 78 FR 43909 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard... Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has provided to the affected communities. The FIRM and FIS report are...

  8. 44 CFR 65.5 - Revision to special hazard area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS.... Geological Survey, Natural Resources Conservation Service, State and local water resource departments, or...

  9. 44 CFR 65.5 - Revision to special hazard area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS.... Geological Survey, Natural Resources Conservation Service, State and local water resource departments, or...

  10. 44 CFR 65.5 - Revision to special hazard area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS.... Geological Survey, Natural Resources Conservation Service, State and local water resource departments, or...

  11. 44 CFR 65.5 - Revision to special hazard area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS.... Geological Survey, Natural Resources Conservation Service, State and local water resource departments, or...

  12. 44 CFR 65.5 - Revision to special hazard area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS.... Geological Survey, Natural Resources Conservation Service, State and local water resource departments, or...

  13. 78 FR 29765 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice lists communities where the addition or modification of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area...

  14. Flood hazard and risk analysis in the southwest region of Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingsanchali, Tawatchai; Fazlul Karim, Mohammed

    2005-06-01

    Flood hazard and risk assessment was conducted to identify the priority areas in the southwest region of Bangladesh for flood mitigation. Simulation of flood flow through the Gorai and Arial Khan river system and its floodplains was done by using a hydrodynamic model. After model calibration and verification, the model was used to simulate the flood flow of 100-year return period for a duration of four months. The maximum flooding depths at different locations in the rivers and floodplains were determined. The process in determining long flooding durations at every grid point in the hydrodynamic model is laborious and time-consuming. Therefore the flood durations were determined by using satellite images of the observed flood in 1988, which has a return period close to 100 years. Flood hazard assessment was done considering flooding depth and duration. By dividing the study area into smaller land units for hazard assessment, the hazard index and the hazard factor for each land unit for depth and duration of flooding were determined. From the hazard factors of the land units, a flood hazard map, which indicates the locations of different categories of hazard zones, was developed. It was found that 54% of the study area was in the medium hazard zone, 26% in the higher hazard zone and 20% in the lower hazard zone. Due to lack of sufficient flood damage data, flood damage vulnerability is simply considered proportional to population density. The flood risk factor of each land unit was determined as the product of the flood hazard factor and the vulnerability factor. Knowing the flood risk factors for the land units, a flood risk map was developed based on the risk factors. These maps are very useful for the inhabitants and floodplain management authorities to minimize flood damage and loss of human lives.

  15. Mapping a flood before it happens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Joseph L.

    2004-01-01

    What's missing from flood forecasts? Maps—The only maps generally available today are maps used for planning. They are maps of theoretical floods, not maps of flooding forecast for an approaching storm. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Weather Service (NWS) have developed a way to bring flood forecasting and flood mapping together, producing flood maps for tomorrow's flood today...and getting them on the Internet in time for those in harm's way to react.

  16. Geomorphologic flood-hazard assessment of alluvial fans and piedmonts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Field, J.J.; Pearthree, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    Geomorphologic studies are an excellent means of flood-hazard assessment on alluvial fans and piedmonts in the southwestern United States. Inactive, flood-free, alluvial fans display well developed soils, desert pavement, rock varnish, and tributary drainage networks. These areas are easily distinguished from flood-prone active alluvial fans on aerial photographs and in the field. The distribution of flood-prone areas associated with alluvial fans is strongly controlled by fanhead trenches dissecting the surface. Where fanhead trenches are permanent features cut in response to long-term conditions such as tectonic quiescence, flood-prone surfaces are situated down-slope from the mountain front and their positions are stable for thousands of years. Since the length and permanency of fanhead trenches can vary greatly between adjacent drainages, it is not appropriate to use regional generalizations to evaluate the distribution and stability of flood-hazard zones. Site-specific geomorphologic studies must be carried out if piedmont areas with a high risk of flooding are to be correctly identified and losses due to alluvial-fan flooding minimized. To meet the growing demand for trained professionals to complete geomorphologic maps of desert piedmonts, undergraduate and graduate geomorphology courses should adopt an instructional unit on alluvial-fan flood hazards that includes: 1) a review of geomorphologic characteristics that vary with surface age; 2) a basic mapping exercise; and 3) a discussion of the causes of fanhead trenching.

  17. Interconnected ponds operation for flood hazard distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putra, S. S.; Ridwan, B. W.

    2016-05-01

    The climatic anomaly, which comes with extreme rainfall, will increase the flood hazard in an area within a short period of time. The river capacity in discharging the flood is not continuous along the river stretch and sensitive to the flood peak. This paper contains the alternatives on how to locate the flood retention pond that are physically feasible to reduce the flood peak. The flood ponds were designed based on flood curve number criteria (TR-55, USDA) with the aim of rapid flood peak capturing and gradual flood retuning back to the river. As a case study, the hydrologic condition of upper Ciliwung river basin with several presumed flood pond locations was conceptually designed. A fundamental tank model that reproducing the operation of interconnected ponds was elaborated to achieve the designed flood discharge that will flows to the downstream area. The flood hazard distribution status, as the model performance criteria, will be computed within Ciliwung river reach in Manggarai Sluice Gate spot. The predicted hazard reduction with the operation of the interconnected retention area result had been bench marked with the normal flow condition.

  18. 78 FR 29762 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations, or regulatory floodways on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) and where applicable, in the supporting Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports have been made final for... (FEMA's) National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). In addition, the FIRM and FIS report are used...

  19. Flood maps in Europe - methods, availability and use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Moel, H.; van Alphen, J.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2009-03-01

    To support the transition from traditional flood defence strategies to a flood risk management approach at the basin scale in Europe, the EU has adopted a new Directive (2007/60/EC) at the end of 2007. One of the major tasks which member states must carry out in order to comply with this Directive is to map flood hazards and risks in their territory, which will form the basis of future flood risk management plans. This paper gives an overview of existing flood mapping practices in 29 countries in Europe and shows what maps are already available and how such maps are used. Roughly half of the countries considered have maps covering as good as their entire territory, and another third have maps covering significant parts of their territory. Only five countries have very limited or no flood maps available yet. Of the different flood maps distinguished, it appears that flood extent maps are the most commonly produced floods maps (in 23 countries), but flood depth maps are also regularly created (in seven countries). Very few countries have developed flood risk maps that include information on the consequences of flooding. The available flood maps are mostly developed by governmental organizations and primarily used for emergency planning, spatial planning, and awareness raising. In spatial planning, flood zones delimited on flood maps mainly serve as guidelines and are not binding. Even in the few countries (e.g. France, Poland) where there is a legal basis to regulate floodplain developments using flood zones, practical problems are often faced which reduce the mitigating effect of such binding legislation. Flood maps, also mainly extent maps, are also created by the insurance industry in Europe and used to determine insurability, differentiate premiums, or to assess long-term financial solvency. Finally, flood maps are also produced by international river commissions. With respect to the EU Flood Directive, many countries already have a good starting point to map

  20. Introduction: Hazard mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baum, Rex L.; Miyagi, Toyohiko; Lee, Saro; Trofymchuk, Oleksandr M

    2014-01-01

    Twenty papers were accepted into the session on landslide hazard mapping for oral presentation. The papers presented susceptibility and hazard analysis based on approaches ranging from field-based assessments to statistically based models to assessments that combined hydromechanical and probabilistic components. Many of the studies have taken advantage of increasing availability of remotely sensed data and nearly all relied on Geographic Information Systems to organize and analyze spatial data. The studies used a range of methods for assessing performance and validating hazard and susceptibility models. A few of the studies presented in this session also included some element of landslide risk assessment. This collection of papers clearly demonstrates that a wide range of approaches can lead to useful assessments of landslide susceptibility and hazard.

  1. Flood Insurance in Canada: Implications for Flood Management and Residential Vulnerability to Flood Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oulahen, Greg

    2015-03-01

    Insurance coverage of damage caused by overland flooding is currently not available to Canadian homeowners. As flood disaster losses and water damage claims both trend upward, insurers in Canada are considering offering residential flood coverage in order to properly underwrite the risk and extend their business. If private flood insurance is introduced in Canada, it will have implications for the current regime of public flood management and for residential vulnerability to flood hazards. This paper engages many of the competing issues surrounding the privatization of flood risk by addressing questions about whether flood insurance can be an effective tool in limiting exposure to the hazard and how it would exacerbate already unequal vulnerability. A case study investigates willingness to pay for flood insurance among residents in Metro Vancouver and how attitudes about insurance relate to other factors that determine residential vulnerability to flood hazards. Findings indicate that demand for flood insurance is part of a complex, dialectical set of determinants of vulnerability.

  2. Flood insurance in Canada: implications for flood management and residential vulnerability to flood hazards.

    PubMed

    Oulahen, Greg

    2015-03-01

    Insurance coverage of damage caused by overland flooding is currently not available to Canadian homeowners. As flood disaster losses and water damage claims both trend upward, insurers in Canada are considering offering residential flood coverage in order to properly underwrite the risk and extend their business. If private flood insurance is introduced in Canada, it will have implications for the current regime of public flood management and for residential vulnerability to flood hazards. This paper engages many of the competing issues surrounding the privatization of flood risk by addressing questions about whether flood insurance can be an effective tool in limiting exposure to the hazard and how it would exacerbate already unequal vulnerability. A case study investigates willingness to pay for flood insurance among residents in Metro Vancouver and how attitudes about insurance relate to other factors that determine residential vulnerability to flood hazards. Findings indicate that demand for flood insurance is part of a complex, dialectical set of determinants of vulnerability.

  3. Flood Hazard Management: British and International Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, L. Douglas

    This proceedings of an international workshop at the Flood Hazard Research Centre (Queensway, Enfield, Middlesex, U.K.) begins by noting how past British research on flood problems concentrated on refining techniques to implement established policy. In contrast, research covered in North American and Australian publications involved normative issues on policy alternatives and administrative implementation. The workshop's participants included 16 widely recognized scientists, whose origins were about equally divided between Britain and overseas; from this group the workshop's organizers expertly drew ideas for refining British urban riverine flood hazard management and for cultivating links among researchers everywhere. Such intellectual exchange should be of keen interest to flood hazard program managers around the world, to students of comparative institutional performance, to those who make policy on protecting people from hazards, and to hydrologists and other geophysicists who must communicate descriptive information for bureaucratic, political, and public decision- making.

  4. 78 FR 43908 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the Flood... Ipswich Town Hall, 25 Green Street, Ipswich, MA 01938. Town of Manchester-By-The-Sea Town Hall, 10 Central Street, Manchester-by-the-Sea, MA 01944. Town of Marblehead Town Hall, 188 Washington Street,...

  5. Flood Hazards - A National Threat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    In the late summer of 2005, the remarkable flooding brought by Hurricane Katrina, which caused more than $200 billion in losses, constituted the costliest natural disaster in U.S. history. However, even in typical years, flooding causes billions of dollars in damage and threatens lives and property in every State. Natural processes, such as hurricanes, weather systems, and snowmelt, can cause floods. Failure of levees and dams and inadequate drainage in urban areas can also result in flooding. On average, floods kill about 140 people each year and cause $6 billion in property damage. Although loss of life to floods during the past half-century has declined, mostly because of improved warning systems, economic losses have continued to rise due to increased urbanization and coastal development.

  6. Publication: Evansville hazard maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The Evansville (Indiana) Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project was completed in February 2012. It was a collaborative effort among the U.S. Geological Survey and regional partners Purdue University; the Center for Earthquake Research and Information at the University of Memphis; the state geologic surveys of Kentucky, Illinois, and Indiana; the Southwest Indiana Disaster Resistant Community Corporation; and the Central U.S. Earthquake Consortium state geologists.

  7. A high-resolution global flood hazard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, Christopher C.; Smith, Andrew M.; Bates, Paul B.; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Freer, Jim E.

    2015-09-01

    Floods are a natural hazard that affect communities worldwide, but to date the vast majority of flood hazard research and mapping has been undertaken by wealthy developed nations. As populations and economies have grown across the developing world, so too has demand from governments, businesses, and NGOs for modeled flood hazard data in these data-scarce regions. We identify six key challenges faced when developing a flood hazard model that can be applied globally and present a framework methodology that leverages recent cross-disciplinary advances to tackle each challenge. The model produces return period flood hazard maps at ˜90 m resolution for the whole terrestrial land surface between 56°S and 60°N, and results are validated against high-resolution government flood hazard data sets from the UK and Canada. The global model is shown to capture between two thirds and three quarters of the area determined to be at risk in the benchmark data without generating excessive false positive predictions. When aggregated to ˜1 km, mean absolute error in flooded fraction falls to ˜5%. The full complexity global model contains an automatically parameterized subgrid channel network, and comparison to both a simplified 2-D only variant and an independently developed pan-European model shows the explicit inclusion of channels to be a critical contributor to improved model performance. While careful processing of existing global terrain data sets enables reasonable model performance in urban areas, adoption of forthcoming next-generation global terrain data sets will offer the best prospect for a step-change improvement in model performance.

  8. A high‐resolution global flood hazard model†

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew M.; Bates, Paul D.; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Freer, Jim E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Floods are a natural hazard that affect communities worldwide, but to date the vast majority of flood hazard research and mapping has been undertaken by wealthy developed nations. As populations and economies have grown across the developing world, so too has demand from governments, businesses, and NGOs for modeled flood hazard data in these data‐scarce regions. We identify six key challenges faced when developing a flood hazard model that can be applied globally and present a framework methodology that leverages recent cross‐disciplinary advances to tackle each challenge. The model produces return period flood hazard maps at ∼90 m resolution for the whole terrestrial land surface between 56°S and 60°N, and results are validated against high‐resolution government flood hazard data sets from the UK and Canada. The global model is shown to capture between two thirds and three quarters of the area determined to be at risk in the benchmark data without generating excessive false positive predictions. When aggregated to ∼1 km, mean absolute error in flooded fraction falls to ∼5%. The full complexity global model contains an automatically parameterized subgrid channel network, and comparison to both a simplified 2‐D only variant and an independently developed pan‐European model shows the explicit inclusion of channels to be a critical contributor to improved model performance. While careful processing of existing global terrain data sets enables reasonable model performance in urban areas, adoption of forthcoming next‐generation global terrain data sets will offer the best prospect for a step‐change improvement in model performance. PMID:27594719

  9. A high-resolution global flood hazard model.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Christopher C; Smith, Andrew M; Bates, Paul D; Neal, Jeffrey C; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Freer, Jim E

    2015-09-01

    Floods are a natural hazard that affect communities worldwide, but to date the vast majority of flood hazard research and mapping has been undertaken by wealthy developed nations. As populations and economies have grown across the developing world, so too has demand from governments, businesses, and NGOs for modeled flood hazard data in these data-scarce regions. We identify six key challenges faced when developing a flood hazard model that can be applied globally and present a framework methodology that leverages recent cross-disciplinary advances to tackle each challenge. The model produces return period flood hazard maps at ∼90 m resolution for the whole terrestrial land surface between 56°S and 60°N, and results are validated against high-resolution government flood hazard data sets from the UK and Canada. The global model is shown to capture between two thirds and three quarters of the area determined to be at risk in the benchmark data without generating excessive false positive predictions. When aggregated to ∼1 km, mean absolute error in flooded fraction falls to ∼5%. The full complexity global model contains an automatically parameterized subgrid channel network, and comparison to both a simplified 2-D only variant and an independently developed pan-European model shows the explicit inclusion of channels to be a critical contributor to improved model performance. While careful processing of existing global terrain data sets enables reasonable model performance in urban areas, adoption of forthcoming next-generation global terrain data sets will offer the best prospect for a step-change improvement in model performance.

  10. Mapping flood and flooding potential indices: a methodological approach to identifying areas susceptible to flood and flooding risk. Case study: the Prahova catchment (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaharia, Liliana; Costache, Romulus; Prăvălie, Remus; Ioana-Toroimac, Gabriela

    2017-04-01

    Given that floods continue to cause yearly significant worldwide human and material damages, flood risk mitigation is a key issue and a permanent challenge in developing policies and strategies at various spatial scales. Therefore, a basic phase is elaborating hazard and flood risk maps, documents which are an essential support for flood risk management. The aim of this paper is to develop an approach that allows for the identification of flash-flood and flood-prone susceptible areas based on computing and mapping of two indices: FFPI (Flash-Flood Potential Index) and FPI (Flooding Potential Index). These indices are obtained by integrating in a GIS environment several geographical variables which control runoff (in the case of the FFPI) and favour flooding (in the case of the FPI). The methodology was applied in the upper (mountainous) and middle (hilly) catchment of the Prahova River, a densely populated and socioeconomically well-developed area which has been affected repeatedly by water-related hazards over the past decades. The resulting maps showing the spatialization of the FFPI and FPI allow for the identification of areas with high susceptibility to flashfloods and flooding. This approach can provide useful mapped information, especially for areas (generally large) where there are no flood/hazard risk maps. Moreover, the FFPI and FPI maps can constitute a preliminary step for flood risk and vulnerability assessment.

  11. Flood hazard and flood risk assessment using a time series of satellite images: a case study in Namibia.

    PubMed

    Skakun, Sergii; Kussul, Nataliia; Shelestov, Andrii; Kussul, Olga

    2014-08-01

    In this article, the use of time series of satellite imagery to flood hazard mapping and flood risk assessment is presented. Flooded areas are extracted from satellite images for the flood-prone territory, and a maximum flood extent image for each flood event is produced. These maps are further fused to determine relative frequency of inundation (RFI). The study shows that RFI values and relative water depth exhibit the same probabilistic distribution, which is confirmed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The produced RFI map can be used as a flood hazard map, especially in cases when flood modeling is complicated by lack of available data and high uncertainties. The derived RFI map is further used for flood risk assessment. Efficiency of the presented approach is demonstrated for the Katima Mulilo region (Namibia). A time series of Landsat-5/7 satellite images acquired from 1989 to 2012 is processed to derive RFI map using the presented approach. The following direct damage categories are considered in the study for flood risk assessment: dwelling units, roads, health facilities, and schools. The produced flood risk map shows that the risk is distributed uniformly all over the region. The cities and villages with the highest risk are identified. The proposed approach has minimum data requirements, and RFI maps can be generated rapidly to assist rescuers and decisionmakers in case of emergencies. On the other hand, limitations include: strong dependence on the available data sets, and limitations in simulations with extrapolated water depth values.

  12. 44 CFR 65.12 - Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed encroachments. 65.12 Section 65.12... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL...

  13. 44 CFR 65.12 - Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed encroachments. 65.12 Section 65.12... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL...

  14. 44 CFR 65.12 - Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed encroachments. 65.12 Section 65.12... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL...

  15. 44 CFR 65.12 - Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed encroachments. 65.12 Section 65.12... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL...

  16. 44 CFR 65.12 - Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed encroachments. 65.12 Section 65.12... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL...

  17. Understanding Flood Hazards and Vulnerabilities: New Approaches To Comprehensive Flood Risk Assessment In The U.k.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelman, I.; Spence, R.

    Flood risk assessment in the U.K. has traditionally considered the hazard to be princi- pally flood depth and the vulnerability to be principally damage resulting from water contact with property for a specified but arbitrary duration. Some efforts have factored in velocity and salinity at a superficial level while other research has recently exam- ined the danger of flood hazard parameters to human life. This work is valuable, but it has tended to ignore both the physical and conceptual processes which lead from flood hazards such as rainfall and sewage to a flood disaster with consequences such as property damage, casualties, and societal disruption. The work presented here uses a detailed analysis to propose a framework describing which flood vulnerabilities are susceptible to which flood hazards and how this fundamental knowledge translates into an understanding of the creation of flood risks. A flood damage scale is produced and a conceptual map of flood risk is drawn through categorising flood hazards and vulnerabilities and exploring their interaction. The physical description of flood haz- ard parameters and the parametersS potential effects form the basis for communication strategies focused on risk and vulnerability reduction.

  18. Flooding scenarios, hazard mapping and damages estimation: what if the 2011 Cinque Terre event had happened in Genoa?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestro, Francesco; Rebora, Nicola; Rossi, Lauro; Dolia, Daniele; Gabellani, Simone; Pignone, Flavio; Masciulli, Cristiano

    2016-04-01

    During the autumn of 2011 two catastrophic very intense rainfall events affected two different parts of the Liguria Region of Italy causing various flash floods, the first occurred in October and the second at the beginning of November. Various studies demonstrated that the two events had a similar genesis and similar triggering elements. In this work we did the exercise of putting the rainfall field of the first event (Cinque Terre area) on the main catchment, stroke by the second event, that has its mouth in correspondence of the biggest city of the Liguria Region: Genoa. A flood forecast framework and a hydraulic model were used as tools to quantitatively carry out a "what if" experiment, a proper methodology for damages estimation is then used to estimate the potential losses and the people affected. The results are interesting, surprising and in such a way worrying: a peak flow with return period larger than 200 years would have occurred with an estimated damage between 120 and 220 million of euros for the city of Genoa, Italy.

  19. What if the 25 October 2011 event that struck Cinque Terre (Liguria) had happened in Genoa, Italy? Flooding scenarios, hazard mapping and damage estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestro, Francesco; Rebora, Nicola; Rossi, Lauro; Dolia, Daniele; Gabellani, Simone; Pignone, Flavio; Trasforini, Eva; Rudari, Roberto; De Angeli, Silvia; Masciulli, Cristiano

    2016-08-01

    During the autumn of 2011 two catastrophic, very intense rainfall events affected two different parts of the Liguria Region of Italy causing various flash floods. The first occurred in October and the second at the beginning of November. Both the events were characterized by very high rainfall intensities (> 100 mm h-1) that persisted on a small portion of territory causing local huge rainfall accumulations (> 400 mm 6 h-1). Two main considerations were made in order to set up this work. The first consideration is that various studies demonstrated that the two events had a similar genesis and similar triggering elements. The second very evident and coarse concern is that two main elements are needed to have a flash flood: a very intense and localized rainfall event and a catchment (or a group of catchments) to be affected. Starting from these assumptions we did the exercise of mixing the two flash flood ingredients by putting the rainfall field of the first event on the main catchment struck by the second event, which has its mouth in the biggest city of the Liguria Region: Genoa. A complete framework was set up to quantitatively carry out a "what if" experiment with the aim of evaluating the possible damages associated with this event. A probabilistic rainfall downscaling model was used to generate possible rainfall scenarios maintaining the main characteristics of the observed rainfall fields while a hydrological model transformed these rainfall scenarios in streamflow scenarios. A subset of streamflow scenarios is then used as input to a 2-D hydraulic model to estimate the hazard maps, and finally a proper methodology is applied for damage estimation. This leads to the estimation of the potential economic losses and of the risk level for the people that stay in the affected area. The results are interesting, surprising and in a way worrying: a rare but not impossible event (it occurred about 50 km away from Genoa) would have caused huge damages estimated between

  20. Seismic hazard maps for Haiti

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, Arthur; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Calais, Eric; Haase, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We have produced probabilistic seismic hazard maps of Haiti for peak ground acceleration and response spectral accelerations that include the hazard from the major crustal faults, subduction zones, and background earthquakes. The hazard from the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden, Septentrional, and Matheux-Neiba fault zones was estimated using fault slip rates determined from GPS measurements. The hazard from the subduction zones along the northern and southeastern coasts of Hispaniola was calculated from slip rates derived from GPS data and the overall plate motion. Hazard maps were made for a firm-rock site condition and for a grid of shallow shear-wave velocities estimated from topographic slope. The maps show substantial hazard throughout Haiti, with the highest hazard in Haiti along the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden and Septentrional fault zones. The Matheux-Neiba Fault exhibits high hazard in the maps for 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, although its slip rate is poorly constrained.

  1. Coproduction of flood hazard assessment with public participation geographic information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, W. H.; Houston, D.; Schubert, J.; Basolo, V.; Feldman, D.; Matthew, R.; Sanders, B. F.; Karlin, B.; Goodrich, K.; Contreras, S.; Reyes, A.; Serrano, K.; Luke, A.

    2015-12-01

    While advances in computing have enabled the development of more precise and accurate flood models, there is growing interest in the role of crowdsourced local knowledge in flood modeling and flood hazard assessment. In an effort to incorporate the "wisdom of the crowd" in the identification and mitigation of flood hazard, this public participation geographic information system (PPGIS) study leveraged tablet computers and cloud computing to collect mental maps of flooding from 166 households in Newport Beach, California. The mental maps were analyzed using GIS techniques and compared with professional hydrodynamic model of coastal flooding. The results revealed varying levels of agreement between residents' mental maps and professional model of flood risk in regions with different personal and contextual characteristics. The quantification of agreement using composite indices can help validate professional models, and can also alert planners and decisionmakers of the need to increase flood awareness among specific populations.

  2. Flood hazard assessment for french NPPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebour, Vincent; Duluc, Claire-Marie; Guimier, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the approach for flood hazard assessment for NPP which is on-going in France in the framework of post-Fukushima activities. These activities were initially defined considering both European "stress tests" of NPPs pursuant to the request of the European Council, and the French safety audit of civilian nuclear facilities in the light of the Fukushima Daiichi accident. The main actors in that process are the utility (EDF is, up to date, the unique NPP's operator in France), the regulatory authority (ASN) and its technical support organization (IRSN). This paper was prepared by IRSN, considering official positions of the other main actors in the current review process, it was not officially endorsed by them. In France, flood hazard to be considered for design basis definition (for new NPPs and for existing NPPs in periodic safety reviews conducted every 10 years) was revised before Fukushima-Daichi accident, due to le Blayais NPP December 1999 experience (partial site flooding and loss of some safety classified systems). The paper presents in the first part an overview of the revised guidance for design basis flood. In order to address design extension conditions (conditions that could result from natural events exceeding the design basis events), a set of flooding scenarios have been defined by adding margins on the scenarios that are considered for the design. Due to the diversity of phenomena to be considered for flooding hazard, the margin assessment is specific to each flooding scenario in terms of parameter to be penalized and of degree of variation of this parameter. The general approach to address design extension conditions is presented in the second part of the paper. The next parts present the approach for five flooding scenarios including design basis scenario and additional margin to define design extension scenarios.

  3. 78 FR 8177 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... applicable, FIS report for each community are available for inspection at both the online location and the... and FIS report for each community are accessible online through the FEMA Map Service Center at www.msc... Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and where applicable, in the supporting Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports...

  4. Probabilistic Flood Maps to support decision-making: Mapping the Value of Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonso, L.; Mukolwe, M. M.; Di Baldassarre, G.

    2016-02-01

    Floods are one of the most frequent and disruptive natural hazards that affect man. Annually, significant flood damage is documented worldwide. Flood mapping is a common preimpact flood hazard mitigation measure, for which advanced methods and tools (such as flood inundation models) are used to estimate potential flood extent maps that are used in spatial planning. However, these tools are affected, largely to an unknown degree, by both epistemic and aleatory uncertainty. Over the past few years, advances in uncertainty analysis with respect to flood inundation modeling show that it is appropriate to adopt Probabilistic Flood Maps (PFM) to account for uncertainty. However, the following question arises; how can probabilistic flood hazard information be incorporated into spatial planning? Thus, a consistent framework to incorporate PFMs into the decision-making is required. In this paper, a novel methodology based on Decision-Making under Uncertainty theories, in particular Value of Information (VOI) is proposed. Specifically, the methodology entails the use of a PFM to generate a VOI map, which highlights floodplain locations where additional information is valuable with respect to available floodplain management actions and their potential consequences. The methodology is illustrated with a simplified example and also applied to a real case study in the South of France, where a VOI map is analyzed on the basis of historical land use change decisions over a period of 26 years. Results show that uncertain flood hazard information encapsulated in PFMs can aid decision-making in floodplain planning.

  5. 44 CFR 65.13 - Mapping and map revisions for areas subject to alluvial fan flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mapping and map revisions for areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. 65.13 Section 65.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood...

  6. 44 CFR 65.13 - Mapping and map revisions for areas subject to alluvial fan flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mapping and map revisions for areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. 65.13 Section 65.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood...

  7. 78 FR 7441 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations Correction In notice document 2012-27366, appearing on pages 67016-67018 in the issue of Thursday, November 8, 2012, make the...

  8. 77 FR 56669 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ...-56670] [FR Doc No: 2012-22504] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency... AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base...

  9. 78 FR 20332 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... or modification of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA..., is appropriate because of new scientific or technical data. The FIRM, and where applicable, portions...

  10. 78 FR 14565 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... or modification of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA..., is appropriate because of new scientific or technical data. The FIRM, and where applicable, portions...

  11. 78 FR 14573 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... or modification of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA..., is appropriate because of new scientific or technical data. The FIRM, and where applicable, portions...

  12. 77 FR 71807 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... or modification of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA..., is appropriate because of new scientific or technical data. The FIRM, and where applicable, portions...

  13. 78 FR 8174 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... or modification of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA..., is appropriate because of new scientific or technical data. The FIRM, and where applicable, portions...

  14. 78 FR 32676 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... or modification of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA..., is appropriate because of new scientific or technical data. The FIRM, and where applicable, portions...

  15. Predicting Flood Hazards in Systems with Multiple Flooding Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luke, A.; Schubert, J.; Cheng, L.; AghaKouchak, A.; Sanders, B. F.

    2014-12-01

    Delineating flood zones in systems that are susceptible to flooding from a single mechanism (riverine flooding) is a relatively well defined procedure with specific guidance from agencies such as FEMA and USACE. However, there is little guidance in delineating flood zones in systems that are susceptible to flooding from multiple mechanisms such as storm surge, waves, tidal influence, and riverine flooding. In this study, a new flood mapping method which accounts for multiple extremes occurring simultaneously is developed and exemplified. The study site in which the method is employed is the Tijuana River Estuary (TRE) located in Southern California adjacent to the U.S./Mexico border. TRE is an intertidal coastal estuary that receives freshwater flows from the Tijuana River. Extreme discharge from the Tijuana River is the primary driver of flooding within TRE, however tide level and storm surge also play a significant role in flooding extent and depth. A comparison between measured flows at the Tijuana River and ocean levels revealed a correlation between extreme discharge and ocean height. Using a novel statistical method based upon extreme value theory, ocean heights were predicted conditioned up extreme discharge occurring within the Tijuana River. This statistical technique could also be applied to other systems in which different factors are identified as the primary drivers of flooding, such as significant wave height conditioned upon tide level, for example. Using the predicted ocean levels conditioned upon varying return levels of discharge as forcing parameters for the 2D hydraulic model BreZo, the 100, 50, 20, and 10 year floodplains were delineated. The results will then be compared to floodplains delineated using the standard methods recommended by FEMA for riverine zones with a downstream ocean boundary.

  16. Rethinking flood hazard at the global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Guy J.-P.; Stampoulis, Dimitrios; Smith, Andrew M.; Sampson, Christopher C.; Andreadis, Konstantinos M.; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Bates, Paul D.

    2016-10-01

    Flooding is governed by the amount and timing of water spilling out of channels and moving across adjacent land, often with little warning. At global scales, flood hazard is typically inferred from streamflow, precipitation or from satellite images, yielding a largely incomplete picture. Thus, at present, the floodplain inundation variables, which define hazard, cannot be accurately predicted nor can they be measured at large scales. Here we present, for the first time, a complete continuous long-term simulation of floodplain water depths at continental scale. Simulations of floodplain inundation were performed with a hydrodynamic model based on gauged streamflow for the Australian continent from 1973 to 2012. We found the magnitude and timing of floodplain storage to differ significantly from streamflow in terms of their distribution. Furthermore, floodplain volume gave a much sharper discrimination of high hazard and low hazard periods than discharge. These discrepancies have implications for characterizing flood hazard at the global scale from precipitation and streamflow records alone, suggesting that simulations and observations of inundation are also needed.

  17. Future flood hazard under climate change in the Mekong Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, H.; Dung, N. V.; Delgado, J. M.; Merz, B.

    2012-04-01

    The main characteristic of flood hazard estimations is the association of a probability of occurrence to a flood event of a defined magnitude. This is usually performed via frequency analysis assuming stationarity and independence of the analyzed time series. This assumption, however, often does not hold true even for historical records and periods and it will be even more challenged under the expected impact of climate change to the water cycle in general and flood probabilities and magnitudes in particular. Thus strategies and methods have to be developed and evaluated for accounting for climate change impacts on flood hazard. In the presented contribution two options are presented and compared for the Mekong Delta, one of the most endangered areas with respect to climate change world-wide. The first method takes non-stationarity explicitly into account by analyzing the observed time series of peak discharge and flood volume at the upper boundary of the Delta with non-stationary extreme value statistics. The two variables and their dependence are modeled by a copula, coupling their marginal distributions to a joint bivariate distribution. Using this copula in combination with characteristic normalized flood hydrographs, probabilistic flood hazard maps for the Mekong Delta are generated via a large scale hydrodynamic model of the Delta embedded in a Monte Carlo framework for the reference year 2009. In order to account for climate change the observed trend in the non-stationary extreme value distribution was simply extrapolated to two future time horizons 2030 and 2050. However, the extrapolations of the trends are certainly associated with high level of uncertainty, in particular for time horizons in the far future. Thus we compare the simple extrapolation approach with an approach deriving future flood hazard in the Mekong Delta by establishing direct correlations between monsoon indexes describing the intensity of the flood triggering monsoon activities and the

  18. Analysis of flood hazard under consideration of dike breaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorogushyn, S.; Apel, H.; Lindenschmidt, K.-E.; Merz, B.

    2009-04-01

    The study focuses on the development and application of a new modelling system which allows a comprehensive flood hazard assessment along diked river reaches under consideration of dike failures. The proposed Inundation Hazard Assessment Model (IHAM) represents a hybrid probabilistic-deterministic model. It comprises three models interactively coupled at runtime. These are: (1) 1D unsteady hydrodynamic model of river channel and floodplain flow between dikes, (2) probabilistic dike breach model which determines possible dike breach locations, breach widths and breach outflow discharges, and (3) 2D raster-based diffusion wave storage cell model of the hinterland areas behind the dikes. Due to the unsteady nature of the 1D and 2D coupled models, the dependence between hydraulic load at various locations along the reach is explicitly considered. The probabilistic dike breach model describes dike failures due to three failure mechanisms: overtopping, piping and slope instability caused by the seepage flow through the dike core (micro-instability). Dike failures for each mechanism are simulated based on fragility functions. The probability of breach is conditioned by the uncertainty in geometrical and geotechnical dike parameters. The 2D storage cell model driven by the breach outflow boundary conditions computes an extended spectrum of flood intensity indicators such as water depth, flow velocity, impulse, inundation duration and rate of water rise. IHAM is embedded in a Monte Carlo simulation in order to account for the natural variability of the flood generation processes reflected in the form of input hydrographs and for the randomness of dike failures given by breach locations, times and widths. The scenario calculations for the developed synthetic input hydrographs for the main river and tributary were carried out for floods with return periods of T = 100; 200; 500; 1000 a. Based on the modelling results, probabilistic dike hazard maps could be generated that

  19. 32 CFR 643.31 - Policy-Flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Flood hazards. 643.31 Section 643.31... ESTATE Policy § 643.31 Policy—Flood hazards. Each Determination of Availability Report will include an evaluation of the flood hazards, if any, relative to the property involved in the proposed outgrant action...

  20. 24 CFR 3285.406 - Flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flood hazard areas. 3285.406... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.406 Flood hazard areas. Refer to § 3285.302 for anchoring requirements in flood hazard areas. ...

  1. 24 CFR 3285.302 - Flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flood hazard areas. 3285.302... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Foundations § 3285.302 Flood hazard areas. In flood hazard areas, foundations, anchorings, and support systems must be capable of resisting...

  2. 34 CFR 75.611 - Avoidance of flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Avoidance of flood hazards. 75.611 Section 75.611... by a Grantee? Construction § 75.611 Avoidance of flood hazards. In planning the construction, a...) Evaluate flood hazards in connection with the construction; and (b) As far as practicable, avoid uneconomic...

  3. 24 CFR 3285.302 - Flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Flood hazard areas. 3285.302... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Foundations § 3285.302 Flood hazard areas. In flood hazard areas, foundations, anchorings, and support systems must be capable of resisting...

  4. 34 CFR 75.611 - Avoidance of flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Avoidance of flood hazards. 75.611 Section 75.611... by a Grantee? Construction § 75.611 Avoidance of flood hazards. In planning the construction, a...) Evaluate flood hazards in connection with the construction; and (b) As far as practicable, avoid uneconomic...

  5. 24 CFR 3285.406 - Flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Flood hazard areas. 3285.406... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.406 Flood hazard areas. Refer to § 3285.302 for anchoring requirements in flood hazard areas. ...

  6. 32 CFR 643.31 - Policy-Flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Policy-Flood hazards. 643.31 Section 643.31... ESTATE Policy § 643.31 Policy—Flood hazards. Each Determination of Availability Report will include an evaluation of the flood hazards, if any, relative to the property involved in the proposed outgrant action...

  7. 32 CFR 643.31 - Policy-Flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Policy-Flood hazards. 643.31 Section 643.31... ESTATE Policy § 643.31 Policy—Flood hazards. Each Determination of Availability Report will include an evaluation of the flood hazards, if any, relative to the property involved in the proposed outgrant action...

  8. 24 CFR 3285.302 - Flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Flood hazard areas. 3285.302... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Foundations § 3285.302 Flood hazard areas. In flood hazard areas, foundations, anchorings, and support systems must be capable of resisting...

  9. 24 CFR 3285.302 - Flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Flood hazard areas. 3285.302... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Foundations § 3285.302 Flood hazard areas. In flood hazard areas, foundations, anchorings, and support systems must be capable of resisting...

  10. 24 CFR 3285.406 - Flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Flood hazard areas. 3285.406... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.406 Flood hazard areas. Refer to § 3285.302 for anchoring requirements in flood hazard areas. ...

  11. 24 CFR 3285.406 - Flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Flood hazard areas. 3285.406... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.406 Flood hazard areas. Refer to § 3285.302 for anchoring requirements in flood hazard areas. ...

  12. 32 CFR 643.31 - Policy-Flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Policy-Flood hazards. 643.31 Section 643.31... ESTATE Policy § 643.31 Policy—Flood hazards. Each Determination of Availability Report will include an evaluation of the flood hazards, if any, relative to the property involved in the proposed outgrant action...

  13. 24 CFR 3285.302 - Flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Flood hazard areas. 3285.302... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Foundations § 3285.302 Flood hazard areas. In flood hazard areas, foundations, anchorings, and support systems must be capable of resisting...

  14. 34 CFR 75.611 - Avoidance of flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Avoidance of flood hazards. 75.611 Section 75.611... by a Grantee? Construction § 75.611 Avoidance of flood hazards. In planning the construction, a...) Evaluate flood hazards in connection with the construction; and (b) As far as practicable, avoid uneconomic...

  15. 32 CFR 643.31 - Policy-Flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Policy-Flood hazards. 643.31 Section 643.31... ESTATE Policy § 643.31 Policy—Flood hazards. Each Determination of Availability Report will include an evaluation of the flood hazards, if any, relative to the property involved in the proposed outgrant action...

  16. 34 CFR 75.611 - Avoidance of flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Avoidance of flood hazards. 75.611 Section 75.611... by a Grantee? Construction § 75.611 Avoidance of flood hazards. In planning the construction, a...) Evaluate flood hazards in connection with the construction; and (b) As far as practicable, avoid uneconomic...

  17. 24 CFR 3285.406 - Flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Flood hazard areas. 3285.406... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.406 Flood hazard areas. Refer to § 3285.302 for anchoring requirements in flood hazard areas. ...

  18. 34 CFR 75.611 - Avoidance of flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Avoidance of flood hazards. 75.611 Section 75.611... by a Grantee? Construction § 75.611 Avoidance of flood hazards. In planning the construction, a...) Evaluate flood hazards in connection with the construction; and (b) As far as practicable, avoid uneconomic...

  19. SEERISK concept: Dealing with climate change related hazards in southeast Europe: A common methodology for risk assessment and mapping focusing on floods, drought, winds, heat wave and wildfire.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papathoma-Koehle, Maria; Promper, Catrin; Glade, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Southeast Europe is a region that suffers often from natural hazards and has experienced significant losses in the recent past due to extreme weather conditions and their side-effects (cold and heat waves, extreme precipitation leading to floods / flash floods, thunderstorms, extreme winds, drought and wildfires). SEERISK ("Joint Disaster Management Risk Assessment and Preparedness in the Danube macro-region") is a European funded SEE (Southeast Europe) project that aims at the harmonisation and consistency among risk assessment practices undertaken by the partner countries at various levels regarding climate change related disasters. A common methodology for risk assessment has been developed that offers alternatives in order to tackle the problem of limited data. The methodology proposes alternative steps for hazard and vulnerability assessment that, according to the data availability, range from detailed modelling to expert judgement. In the present study the common methodology has been adapted for five hazard types (floods, drought, winds, heat wave and wildfire) that are expected to be affected by climate change in the future and are relevant for the specific study areas. The last step will be the application of the methodology in six different case studies in Hungary, Romania, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Slovakia and Serbia followed by field exercises.

  20. 76 FR 72961 - Flood Hazard Determinations (Including Flood Elevation Determinations)-Change in Notification and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... necessary to include specific flood elevations for affected flooding sources in feet/meters in the Code of... Road) or specific flood elevations of the base flood (e.g., + 613 feet) for each flooding source... different levels of risk and the type of flood hazard (e.g., coastal, riverine, ponding areas, etc.). The...

  1. Uncertainty in flood risk mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Luisa M. S.; Fonte, Cidália C.; Gomes, Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    A flood refers to a sharp increase of water level or volume in rivers and seas caused by sudden rainstorms or melting ice due to natural factors. In this paper, the flooding of riverside urban areas caused by sudden rainstorms will be studied. In this context, flooding occurs when the water runs above the level of the minor river bed and enters the major river bed. The level of the major bed determines the magnitude and risk of the flooding. The prediction of the flooding extent is usually deterministic, and corresponds to the expected limit of the flooded area. However, there are many sources of uncertainty in the process of obtaining these limits, which influence the obtained flood maps used for watershed management or as instruments for territorial and emergency planning. In addition, small variations in the delineation of the flooded area can be translated into erroneous risk prediction. Therefore, maps that reflect the uncertainty associated with the flood modeling process have started to be developed, associating a degree of likelihood with the boundaries of the flooded areas. In this paper an approach is presented that enables the influence of the parameters uncertainty to be evaluated, dependent on the type of Land Cover Map (LCM) and Digital Elevation Model (DEM), on the estimated values of the peak flow and the delineation of flooded areas (different peak flows correspond to different flood areas). The approach requires modeling the DEM uncertainty and its propagation to the catchment delineation. The results obtained in this step enable a catchment with fuzzy geographical extent to be generated, where a degree of possibility of belonging to the basin is assigned to each elementary spatial unit. Since the fuzzy basin may be considered as a fuzzy set, the fuzzy area of the basin may be computed, generating a fuzzy number. The catchment peak flow is then evaluated using fuzzy arithmetic. With this methodology a fuzzy number is obtained for the peak flow

  2. Effectiveness of water infrastructure for river flood management - Part 1: Flood hazard assessment using hydrological models in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusyev, M. A.; Kwak, Y.; Khairul, M. I.; Arifuzzaman, M. B.; Magome, J.; Sawano, H.; Takeuchi, K.

    2015-06-01

    This study introduces a flood hazard assessment part of the global flood risk assessment (Part 2) conducted with a distributed hydrological Block-wise TOP (BTOP) model and a GIS-based Flood Inundation Depth (FID) model. In this study, the 20 km grid BTOP model was developed with globally available data on and applied for the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) river basin. The BTOP model was calibrated with observed river discharges in Bangladesh and was applied for climate change impact assessment to produce flood discharges at each BTOP cell under present and future climates. For Bangladesh, the cumulative flood inundation maps were produced using the FID model with the BTOP simulated flood discharges and allowed us to consider levee effectiveness for reduction of flood inundation. For the climate change impacts, the flood hazard increased both in flood discharge and inundation area for the 50- and 100-year floods. From these preliminary results, the proposed methodology can partly overcome the limitation of the data unavailability and produces flood~maps that can be used for the nationwide flood risk assessment, which is presented in Part 2 of this study.

  3. 77 FR 46104 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... rates for new buildings and the contents of those buildings. DATES: Comments are to be submitted on or... the appropriate flood insurance premium rates for new buildings built after the FIRM and FIS report...-team.com/starr/RegionalWorkspaces/RegionX/HomerSpit/Preliminary%20Maps/Forms/AllItems.aspx City...

  4. Cumulative hazard: The case of nuisance flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moftakhari, Hamed R.; AghaKouchak, Amir; Sanders, Brett F.; Matthew, Richard A.

    2017-02-01

    The cumulative cost of frequent events (e.g., nuisance floods) over time may exceed the costs of the extreme but infrequent events for which societies typically prepare. Here we analyze the likelihood of exceedances above mean higher high water and the corresponding property value exposure for minor, major, and extreme coastal floods. Our results suggest that, in response to sea level rise, nuisance flooding (NF) could generate property value exposure comparable to, or larger than, extreme events. Determining whether (and when) low cost, nuisance incidents aggregate into high cost impacts and deciding when to invest in preventive measures are among the most difficult decisions for policymakers. It would be unfortunate if efforts to protect societies from extreme events (e.g., 0.01 annual probability) left them exposed to a cumulative hazard with enormous costs. We propose a Cumulative Hazard Index (CHI) as a tool for framing the future cumulative impact of low cost incidents relative to infrequent extreme events. CHI suggests that in New York, NY, Washington, DC, Miami, FL, San Francisco, CA, and Seattle, WA, a careful consideration of socioeconomic impacts of NF for prioritization is crucial for sustainable coastal flood risk management.

  5. 44 CFR 64.3 - Flood Insurance Maps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., but possible, mudslide hazards E Area of special flood-related erosion hazards. Areas identified as subject to more than one hazard (flood, mudslide (i.e., mudflow), flood-related erosion) or potential...

  6. Visualising interactive flood risk maps in a dynamic Geobrowser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaw Manful, Desmond; He, Yi; Cloke, Hannah; Pappenberger, Florian; Li, Zhijia; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Huang, Yingchun; Hu, Yuzhong

    2010-05-01

    Communicating flood forecast products effectively to end-users is the final step in the flood event simulation process. A prototype of the Novel Flood Early Warning System (NEWS) based on the TIGGE (THORPEX Interactive Grand Global Ensemble) database explores new avenues to visualise flood forecast products in a dynamic and interactive manner. One of the possibilities NEWS is currently assessing is Google Maps. Google Maps is a basic web mapping service application and technology provided by Google, free (for non-commercial use). It powers many map-based services including maps embedded on third-party websites via the Google Maps API. Creating a customized map interface requires adding the Google JavaScript code to a page, and then using Javascript functions to add points to the map. Flood maps allow end-users to visualise and navigate a world that is too large and complex to be seen directly. The NEWS software will attempt to deal with the following issues: • Uncertainty visualization in hazards maps • Visualizing uncertainty for sector specific risk managers • Uncertainty representation of point and linear data The objective is improve the information content of flood risk maps making them more useful to specific end-users.

  7. Creating Probabilistic Multi-Peril Hazard Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holliday, J. R.; Page, N. A.; Rundle, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    An often overlooked component of natural hazards is the element of human involvement. Physical events--such as massive earthquakes--that do not affect society constitute natural phenomena, but are not necessarily natural hazards. Natural phenomena that occur in populated areas constitute hazardous events. Furthermore, hazardous events that cause damage--either in the form of structural damage or the loss or injury of lives--constitute natural disasters. Geographic areas that do not contain human interests, by definition, cannot suffer from hazardous events. Therefore, they do not contain a component of natural hazard. Note that this definition differs from the view of natural hazards as "unavoidable havoc wreaked by the unrestrained forces of nature". On the contrary, the burden of cause is shifted from purely natural processes to the concurrent presence of human society and natural events. Although individuals can do little to change the occurrences or intensities of most natural phenomena, they can mitigate their exposure to natural events and help ensure hazardous events do not become natural disasters. For example, choosing to build new settlements in known flood zones increases the exposure--and therefore risk--to natural flood events. Similarly, while volcanoes do erupt periodically, it is the conscious act of reappropriating the rich soils formed by ejecta as farmland that makes the volcanoes hazardous. Again, this empowers individuals and makes them responsible for their own exposure to natural hazards. Various local and governmental agencies--in particular, the United States Geographical Survey (USGS)--do a good job of identifying and listing various local natural hazards. These listings, however, are often treated individually and independently. Thus, it is often difficult to construct a "big picture" image of total natural hazard exposure. In this presentation, we discuss methods of identifying and combining different natural hazards for a given location

  8. Flood warnings, flood disaster assessments, and flood hazard reduction: the roles of orbital remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brakenridge, G. R.; Anderson, E.; Nghiem, S. V.; Caquard, S.; Shabaneh, T. B.

    2003-01-01

    Orbital remote sensing of the Earth is now poised to make three fundamental contributions towards reducing the detrimental effects of extreme floods. Effective Flood warning requires frequent radar observation of the Earth's surface through cloud cover. In contrast, both optical and radar wavelengths will increasingly be used for disaster assessment and hazard reduction.

  9. Flood warnings, flood disaster assessments, and flood hazard reduction: the roles of orbital remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brakenridge, G. R.; Anderson, E.; Nghiem, S. V.; Caquard, S.; Shabaneh, T. B.

    2003-01-01

    Orbital remote sensing of the Earth is now poised to make three fundamental contributions towards reducing the detrimental effects of extreme floods. Effective Flood warning requires frequent radar observation of the Earth's surface through cloud cover. In contrast, both optical and radar wavelengths will increasingly be used for disaster assessment and hazard reduction.

  10. Method Study of Flood Hazard Analysis for Plain River Network Area, Taihu Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HAN, C.; Liu, S.; Zhong, G.; Zhang, X.

    2015-12-01

    Flood is one of the most common and serious natural calamities. Taihu Basin is located in delta region of the Yangtze River in East China (see Fig. 1). Because of the abundant rainfall and low-lying terrain, the area frequently suffers from flood hazard which have caused serious casualty and economic loss. In order to reduce the severe impacts of floods events, numerous polder areas and hydraulic constructions (including pumps, water gates etc.) were constructed. Flood Hazard Map is an effective non-structural flood mitigation tool measures. Numerical simulation of flood propagation is one of the key technologies of flood hazard mapping. Because of the complexity of its underlying surface characteristics, numerical simulation of flood propagation was faced with some special problems for the plain river network area in Taihu Basin. In this paper, a coupled one and two dimensional hydrodynamic model was established. Densely covered and interconnected river networks, numerous polder areas and complex scheduling hydraulic constructions were generalized in the model. The model was proved to be believable and stable. Based on the results of the simulation of flood propagation, flood hazard map was compiled.

  11. Statistical analysis of the uncertainty related to flood hazard appraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notaro, Vincenza; Freni, Gabriele

    2015-12-01

    The estimation of flood hazard frequency statistics for an urban catchment is of great interest in practice. It provides the evaluation of potential flood risk and related damage and supports decision making for flood risk management. Flood risk is usually defined as function of the probability, that a system deficiency can cause flooding (hazard), and the expected damage, due to the flooding magnitude (damage), taking into account both the exposure and the vulnerability of the goods at risk. The expected flood damage can be evaluated by an a priori estimation of potential damage caused by flooding or by interpolating real damage data. With regard to flood hazard appraisal several procedures propose to identify some hazard indicator (HI) such as flood depth or the combination of flood depth and velocity and to assess the flood hazard corresponding to the analyzed area comparing the HI variables with user-defined threshold values or curves (penalty curves or matrixes). However, flooding data are usually unavailable or piecemeal allowing for carrying out a reliable flood hazard analysis, therefore hazard analysis is often performed by means of mathematical simulations aimed at evaluating water levels and flow velocities over catchment surface. As results a great part of the uncertainties intrinsic to flood risk appraisal can be related to the hazard evaluation due to the uncertainty inherent to modeling results and to the subjectivity of the user defined hazard thresholds applied to link flood depth to a hazard level. In the present work, a statistical methodology was proposed for evaluating and reducing the uncertainties connected with hazard level estimation. The methodology has been applied to a real urban watershed as case study.

  12. Special challenges in assessing and mapping flood risk following a flood-debris flow event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggett, Graeme

    2016-04-01

    Severe rainfall along the Colorado front range in 2013 delivered flood and debris flows to many mountain communities, causing millions of dollars of damage as well as taking several lives. Phase changes in clear-hyperconcentrated-debris flows during the event created challenges in recreating the hydrology post-flood and in estimating and mapping new regulatory floodplains to support ongoing flood recovery efforts. This presentation highlights approaches used to overcome these challenges and to adequately represent the different processes and their uncertainties in updated flood hazard and risk assessments. It also considers the need to educate and involve the community in this process.

  13. Effects of rating-curve uncertainty on probabilistic flood mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeneghetti, A.; Vorogushyn, S.; Castellarin, A.; Merz, B.; Brath, A.

    2012-08-01

    Comprehensive flood risk assessment studies should quantify the global uncertainty in flood hazard estimation, for instance by mapping inundation extents together with their confidence intervals. This appears of particular importance in case of flood hazard assessments along dike-protected reaches where the possibility of occurrence of dike failures may considerably enhance the uncertainty. We present a methodology to derive probabilistic flood maps in dike-protected flood prone areas, where several sources of uncertainty are taken into account. In particular, this paper focuses on a 50 km reach of River Po (Italy) and three major sources of uncertainty in hydraulic modelling and flood mapping: uncertainties in the (i) upstream and (ii) downstream boundary conditions, and (iii) uncertainties in dike failures. Uncertainties in the definition of upstream boundary conditions (i.e. design-hydrographs) are assessed by applying different bivariate copula families to model the frequency regime of flood peaks and volumes. Uncertainties in the definition of downstream boundary conditions are characterised by associating the rating-curve used as downstream boundary condition with confidence intervals which reflect discharge measurements errors and interpolation errors. The effects of uncertainties in boundary conditions and randomness of dike failures are assessed by means of the Inundation Hazard Assessment Model (IHAM), a recently proposed hybrid probabilistic-deterministic model that considers three different failure mechanisms: overtopping, piping and micro-instability due to seepage. The results of the study show that the IHAM-based analysis enables probabilistic flood hazard mapping and provides decision makers with a fundamental piece of information for devising and implementing flood risk mitigation strategies in the presence of various sources of uncertainty.

  14. A fluvial and pluvial probabilistic flood hazard analysis for Can Tho city, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, Heiko; Martinez, Oriol; Thi Chinh, Do; Viet Dung, Nguyen

    2014-05-01

    Can Tho city is the largest city and the economic heart of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Due to its economic importance and envisaged development goals the city grew rapidly in population size and extend over the last two decades. Large parts of the city are located in flood prone areas, and also the central parts of the city recently experienced an increasing number of flood events, both of fluvial and pluvial nature. As the economic power and asset values are constantly increasing, this poses a considerable risk for the city. The the aim of this study is to perform a flood hazard analysis considering both fluvial and pluvial floods and to derive probabilistic flood hazard maps. This requires in a first step an understanding of the typical flood mechanisms. Fluvial floods are triggered by a coincidence of high water levels during the annual flood period in the Mekong Delta with high tidal levels, which cause in combination short term inundations in Can Tho. Pluvial floods are triggered by typical tropical convective rain storms during the monsoon season. These two flood pathways are essentially independent in its sources and can thus be treated in the hazard analysis accordingly. For the fluvial hazard analysis we propose a bivariate frequency analysis of the Mekong flood characteristics, the annual maximum flood discharge Q and the annual flood volume V at the upper boundary of the Mekong Delta, the gauging station Kratie. This defines probabilities of exceedance of different Q-V pairs, which are transferred into synthetic flood hydrographs. The synthetic hydrographs are routed through a quasi-2D hydrodynamic model of the entire Mekong Delta in order to provide boundary conditions for a detailed hazard mapping of Can Tho. This downscaling step is necessary, because the huge complexity of the river and channel network does not allow for a proper definition of boundary conditions for Can Tho city by gauge data alone. In addition the available gauge data around Can Tho

  15. USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, A.D.; Mueller, C.S.; Barnhard, T.P.; Leyendecker, E.V.; Wesson, R.L.; Harmsen, S.C.; Klein, F.W.; Perkins, D.M.; Dickman, N.C.; Hanson, S.L.; Hopper, M.G.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed new probabilistic seismic hazard maps for the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii. These hazard maps form the basis of the probabilistic component of the design maps used in the 1997 edition of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures, prepared by the Building Seismic Safety Council arid published by FEMA. The hazard maps depict peak horizontal ground acceleration and spectral response at 0.2, 0.3, and 1.0 sec periods, with 10%, 5%, and 2% probabilities of exceedance in 50 years, corresponding to return times of about 500, 1000, and 2500 years, respectively. In this paper we outline the methodology used to construct the hazard maps. There are three basic components to the maps. First, we use spatially smoothed historic seismicity as one portion of the hazard calculation. In this model, we apply the general observation that moderate and large earthquakes tend to occur near areas of previous small or moderate events, with some notable exceptions. Second, we consider large background source zones based on broad geologic criteria to quantify hazard in areas with little or no historic seismicity, but with the potential for generating large events. Third, we include the hazard from specific fault sources. We use about 450 faults in the western United States (WUS) and derive recurrence times from either geologic slip rates or the dating of pre-historic earthquakes from trenching of faults or other paleoseismic methods. Recurrence estimates for large earthquakes in New Madrid and Charleston, South Carolina, were taken from recent paleoliquefaction studies. We used logic trees to incorporate different seismicity models, fault recurrence models, Cascadia great earthquake scenarios, and ground-motion attenuation relations. We present disaggregation plots showing the contribution to hazard at four cities from potential earthquakes with various magnitudes and

  16. Communicating the Global Flood Hazard Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    On any given day somewhere on the planet floods threaten communities, livelihoods, and individuals lives, but the location and extent of many of these events are unknown beyond the local community, region or nation. Earth observation, computational models and analysis tools, validated by dedicated flood observatories that leverage the data from earth observing satellites is changing the situation. This presentation will describe the efforts to strengthen global flood modeling and mapping at a scale that complements many of the local hydrometeorology warning and geologic river flow monitoring systems. Examples from NASA's Earth System Science partnerships and the research and application by scientists and engineers monitoring and tracking floods will be examined. The interface between applied science for water resource management and disaster response will be described as well as progress in capacity building. Pilot projects involving collaborations among the Community of Earth Observing Satellites members will be reviewed as well as opportunities described to translate science results into application through new satellite missions over the next decade.

  17. A new methodology for flood hazard assessment considering dike breaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorogushyn, S.; Merz, B.; Lindenschmidt, K.-E.; Apel, H.

    2010-08-01

    This study focuses on development and application of a new modeling approach for a comprehensive flood hazard assessment along protected river reaches considering dike failures. The proposed Inundation Hazard Assessment Model (IHAM) represents a hybrid probabilistic-deterministic model. It comprises three models that are coupled in a dynamic way: (1) 1D unsteady hydrodynamic model for river channel and floodplain between dikes; (2) probabilistic dike breach model which determines possible dike breach locations, breach widths and breach outflow discharges; and (3) 2D raster-based inundation model for the dike-protected floodplain areas. Due to the unsteady nature of the 1D and 2D models and runtime coupling, the interdependence between the hydraulic loads on dikes at various locations along the reach is explicitly considered. This ensures a more realistic representation of the fluvial system dynamics under extreme conditions compared to the steady approaches. The probabilistic dike breach model describes dike failures due to three failure mechanisms: overtopping, piping and slope instability caused by seepage flow through the dike core (micro-instability). The 2D storage cell model computes various flood intensity indicators such as water depth, flow velocity, and inundation duration. IHAM is embedded in a Monte Carlo simulation in order to account for the natural variability of the input hydrograph form and the randomness of dike failures. Besides binary (wet/dry) inundation patterns, IHAM generates new probabilistic flood hazard maps for each intensity indicator and the associated uncertainty bounds. Furthermore, the novel probabilistic dike hazard maps indicate the failure probability of dikes for each considered breach mechanism.

  18. Benchmarking an operational procedure for rapid flood mapping and risk assessment in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dottori, Francesco; Salamon, Peter; Kalas, Milan; Bianchi, Alessandra; Feyen, Luc

    2016-04-01

    The development of real-time methods for rapid flood mapping and risk assessment is crucial to improve emergency response and mitigate flood impacts. This work describes the benchmarking of an operational procedure for rapid flood risk assessment based on the flood predictions issued by the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS). The daily forecasts produced for the major European river networks are translated into event-based flood hazard maps using a large map catalogue derived from high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations, based on the hydro-meteorological dataset of EFAS. Flood hazard maps are then combined with exposure and vulnerability information, and the impacts of the forecasted flood events are evaluated in near real-time in terms of flood prone areas, potential economic damage, affected population, infrastructures and cities. An extensive testing of the operational procedure is carried out using the catastrophic floods of May 2014 in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia. The reliability of the flood mapping methodology is tested against satellite-derived flood footprints, while ground-based estimations of economic damage and affected population is compared against modelled estimates. We evaluated the skill of flood hazard and risk estimations derived from EFAS flood forecasts with different lead times and combinations. The assessment includes a comparison of several alternative approaches to produce and present the information content, in order to meet the requests of EFAS users. The tests provided good results and showed the potential of the developed real-time operational procedure in helping emergency response and management.

  19. Hydrologic versus geomorphic drivers of trends in flood hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Louise J.; Bliss Singer, Michael; Kirchner, James W.

    2016-04-01

    Flooding is a major threat to lives and infrastructure, yet trends in flood hazard are poorly understood. The capacity of river channels to convey flood flows is typically assumed to be stationary, so changes in flood frequency are thought to be driven primarily by trends in streamflow. However, changes in channel capacity will also modify flood hazard, even if the flow frequency distribution does not change. We developed new methods for separately quantifying how trends in both streamflow and channel capacity have affected flood frequency at gauging sites across the United States. Using daily discharge records and manual field measurements of channel cross-sectional geometry for USGS gauging stations that have defined flood stages (water levels), we present novel methods for measuring long-term trends in channel capacity of gauged rivers, and for quantifying how they affect overbank flood frequency. We apply these methods to 401 U.S. rivers and detect measurable trends in flood hazard linked to changes in channel capacity and/or the frequency of high flows. Flood frequency is generally nonstationary across these 401 U.S. rivers, with increasing flood hazard at a statistically significant majority of sites. Changes in flood hazard driven by channel capacity are smaller, but more numerous, than those driven by streamflow, with a slight tendency to compensate for streamflow changes. Our results demonstrate that accurately quantifying changes in flood hazard requires accounting separately for trends in both streamflow and channel capacity, or using water levels directly. They also show that channel capacity trends may have unforeseen consequences for flood management and for estimating flood insurance costs. Slater, L. J., M. B. Singer, and J. W. Kirchner (2015), Hydrologic versus geomorphic drivers of trends in flood hazard, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 370-376, doi:10.1002/2014GL062482.

  20. NASA Global Flood Mapping System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Policelli, Fritz; Slayback, Dan; Brakenridge, Bob; Nigro, Joe; Hubbard, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    Product utility key factors: Near real time, automated production; Flood spatial extent Cloudiness Pixel resolution: 250m; Flood temporal extent; Flash floods short duration on ground?; Landcover--Water under vegetation cover vs open water

  1. Dynamic Flood Vulnerability Mapping with Google Earth Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellman, B.; Kuhn, C.; Max, S. A.; Sullivan, J.

    2015-12-01

    Satellites capture the rate and character of environmental change from local to global levels, yet integrating these changes into flood exposure models can be cost or time prohibitive. We explore an approach to global flood modeling by leveraging satellite data with computing power in Google Earth Engine to dynamically map flood hazards. Our research harnesses satellite imagery in two main ways: first to generate a globally consistent flood inundation layer and second to dynamically model flood vulnerability. Accurate and relevant hazard maps rely on high quality observation data. Advances in publicly available spatial, spectral, and radar data together with cloud computing allow us to improve existing efforts to develop a comprehensive flood extent database to support model training and calibration. This talk will demonstrate the classification results of algorithms developed in Earth Engine designed to detect flood events by combining observations from MODIS, Landsat 8, and Sentinel-1. Our method to derive flood footprints increases the number, resolution, and precision of spatial observations for flood events both in the US, recorded in the NCDC (National Climatic Data Center) storm events database, and globally, as recorded events from the Colorado Flood Observatory database. This improved dataset can then be used to train machine learning models that relate spatial temporal flood observations to satellite derived spatial temporal predictor variables such as precipitation, antecedent soil moisture, and impervious surface. This modeling approach allows us to rapidly update models with each new flood observation, providing near real time vulnerability maps. We will share the water detection algorithms used with each satellite and discuss flood detection results with examples from Bihar, India and the state of New York. We will also demonstrate how these flood observations are used to train machine learning models and estimate flood exposure. The final stage of

  2. Rapid Response Flood Water Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Policelli, Fritz; Brakenridge, G. R.; Coplin, A.; Bunnell, M.; Wu, L.; Habib, Shahid; Farah, H.

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of operation of the MODIS instrument on the NASA Terra satellite at the end of 1999, an exceptionally useful sensor and public data stream have been available for many applications including the rapid and precise characterization of terrestrial surface water changes. One practical application of such capability is the near-real time mapping of river flood inundation. We have developed a surface water mapping methodology based on using only bands 1 (620-672 nm) and 2 (841-890 nm). These are the two bands at 250 m, and the use of only these bands maximizes the resulting map detail. In this regard, most water bodies are strong absorbers of incoming solar radiation at the band 2 wavelength: it could be used alone, via a thresholding procedure, to separate water (dark, low radiance or reflectance pixels) from land (much brighter pixels) (1, 2). Some previous water mapping procedures have in fact used such single band data from this and other sensors that include similar wavelength channels. Adding the second channel of data (band 1), however, allows a band ratio approach which permits sediment-laden water, often relatively light at band 2 wavelengths, to still be discriminated, and, as well, provides some removal of error by reducing the number of cloud shadow pixels that would otherwise be misclassified as water.

  3. Flood hazards in the Seattle-Tacoma urban complex and adjacent areas, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foxworthy, B.L.; Nassar, E.G.

    1975-01-01

    Floods are natural hazards that have complicated man's land-use planning for as long as we have had a history. Although flood hzards are a continuing danger, the year-to-year threat cannot be accurately predicted. Also, on any one stream, the time since the last destructive flood might be so long that most people now living near the stream have not experienced such a flood. Because of the unpredictability and common infrequency of disastrous flooding, or out of ignorance about the danger, or perhaps because of an urge to gamble, man tends to focus his attention on only the advantages of the flood-prone areas, rather than the risk due to the occasional major flood. The purposes of this report are to: (1) briefly describe flood hazards in this region, including some that may be unique to the Puget Sound basin, (2) indicate the parts of the area for which flood-hazard data are available, and (3) list the main sources of hydrologic information that is useful for flood-hazard analysis in conjuction with long-range planning. This map-type report is one of a series being prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey to present basic environmental information and interpretations to assist land-use planning in the Puget Sound region.

  4. Determining the Optimum Post Spacing of LIDAR-Derived Elevation Data in Varying Terrain for Flood Hazard Mapping Purposes in North Carolina and Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berglund, Judith; Davis, Bruce; Estep, Lee

    2004-01-01

    The major flood events in the United States in the past few years have made it apparent that many floodplain maps being used by State governments are outdated and inaccurate. In response, many Stated have begun to update their Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Digital Flood Insurance Rate Maps. Accurate topographic data is one of the most critical inputs for floodplain analysis and delineation. Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) altimetry is one of the primary remote sensing technologies that can be used to obtain high-resolution and high-accuracy digital elevation data suitable for hydrologic and hydraulic (H&H) modeling, in part because of its ability to "penetrate" various cover types and to record geospatial data from the Earth's surface. However, the posting density or spacing at which LIDAR collects the data will affect the resulting accuracies of the derived bare Earth surface, depending on terrain type and land cover type. For example, flat areas are thought to require higher or denser postings than hilly areas to capture subtle changes in the topography that could have a significant effect on flooding extent. Likewise, if an area has dense understory and overstory, it may be difficult to receive LIDAR returns from the Earth's surface, which would affect the accuracy of that bare Earth surface and thus would affect flood model results. For these reasons, NASA and FEMA have partnered with the State of North Carolina and with the U.S./Mexico Foundation in Texas to assess the effect of LIDAR point density on the characterization of topographic variation and on H&H modeling results for improved floodplain mapping. Research for this project is being conducted in two areas of North Carolina and in the City of Brownsville, Texas, each with a different type of terrain and varying land cover/land use. Because of various project constraints, LIDAR data were acquired once at a high posting density and then decimated to coarser postings or densities. Quality

  5. Determining the Optimum Post Spacing of LIDAR-Derived Elevation Data in Varying Terrain for Flood Hazard Mapping Purposes in North Carolina and Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berglund, Judith; Davis, Bruce; Estep, Lee

    2004-01-01

    The major flood events in the United States in the past few years have made it apparent that many floodplain maps being used by State governments are outdated and inaccurate. In response, many Stated have begun to update their Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Digital Flood Insurance Rate Maps. Accurate topographic data is one of the most critical inputs for floodplain analysis and delineation. Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) altimetry is one of the primary remote sensing technologies that can be used to obtain high-resolution and high-accuracy digital elevation data suitable for hydrologic and hydraulic (H&H) modeling, in part because of its ability to "penetrate" various cover types and to record geospatial data from the Earth's surface. However, the posting density or spacing at which LIDAR collects the data will affect the resulting accuracies of the derived bare Earth surface, depending on terrain type and land cover type. For example, flat areas are thought to require higher or denser postings than hilly areas to capture subtle changes in the topography that could have a significant effect on flooding extent. Likewise, if an area has dense understory and overstory, it may be difficult to receive LIDAR returns from the Earth's surface, which would affect the accuracy of that bare Earth surface and thus would affect flood model results. For these reasons, NASA and FEMA have partnered with the State of North Carolina and with the U.S./Mexico Foundation in Texas to assess the effect of LIDAR point density on the characterization of topographic variation and on H&H modeling results for improved floodplain mapping. Research for this project is being conducted in two areas of North Carolina and in the City of Brownsville, Texas, each with a different type of terrain and varying land cover/land use. Because of various project constraints, LIDAR data were acquired once at a high posting density and then decimated to coarser postings or densities. Quality

  6. Hydrologic and geomorphic drivers of changing flood hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, L. J.; Singer, M. B.; Kirchner, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding is a major hazard to lives and infrastructure, but trends in flood hazard are poorly understood. In flood risk analysis and channel design engineering, channel capacity is generally assumed to be constant, and changes in flood frequency are assumed to be driven primarily by changes in streamflow. However, trends in channel capacity will also modify flood hazard, even if the flow frequency distribution does not change. Using daily discharge records and manual field measurements of channel cross-sectional geometry for USGS gauging stations that have defined flood stages (water levels), we present novel methods for measuring long-term trends in channel capacity of gauged rivers, and for quantifying how they affect flood frequency. We apply these methods to 401 U.S. rivers and detect measurable trends in flood hazard linked to changes in channel capacity or the frequency of high flows. We found increases in flood frequency at a statistically significant majority of sites. Trends in channel capacity were smaller, but more numerous, than those in streamflow, with a slight tendency to compensate for streamflow changes. Recognizing and quantifying the joint influence of trends in channel capacity and streamflow on flood frequency is necessary to determine changes in flood hazard accurately.

  7. 78 FR 65107 - Loans in Areas Having Special Flood Hazards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... amend their regulations regarding loans in areas having special flood hazards to implement provisions of... insurance coverage, amended provisions of the Flood Disaster Protection Act (FDPA) \\2\\ that require the... Examination Council (FFIEC), as is required by certain provisions of the flood insurance statutes.\\3\\...

  8. 76 FR 37893 - Loans in Areas Having Special Flood Hazards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Loans in Areas Having Special Flood Hazards AGENCY: Office of Thrift... collection. Title of Proposal: Loans in Areas Having Special Flood Hazards. OMB Number: 1550-0088....

  9. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Tegucigalpa, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Tegucigalpa that would be inundated by a 50-year flood of Rio Choluteca, Rio Grande, Rio Guacerique, and Rio Chiquito. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Tegucigalpa as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for an estimated 50-year-flood on Rio Choluteca, Rio Grande, Rio Guacerique, and Rio Chiquito at Tegucigalpa were determined using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area and ground surveys at bridges. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharges were estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The estimated 50-year-flood discharge is 922 cubic meters per second at Rio Choluteca at downstream end of the study area boundary, 663 cubic meters per second at the mouth of the Rio Grande, 475 cubic meters per second at the mouth of the Rio Guacerique, and 254 cubic meters per second at the mouth of the Rio Chiquito.

  10. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Tocoa, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Tocoa that would be inundated by a 50-year flood of Rio Tocoa. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Tocoa as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for an estimated 50-year-flood on Rio Tocoa at Tocoa were estimated using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area and a ground survey at one bridge. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations on Rio Tocoa; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Tocoa, 552 cubic meters per second, was estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The drainage area and mean annual precipitation estimated for Rio Tocoa at Tocoa are 204 square kilometers and 1,987 millimeters, respectively. It was assumed that a portion of the 50-year flood, 200 cubic meters per second, would escape the main channel and flow down a side channel before re-entering the main channel again near the lower end of the study area.

  11. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Siguatepeque, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Siguatepeque that would be inundated by 50-year floods on Rio Selguapa, Rio Guique, Rio Celan, Rio Calan, and Quebrada Chalantuma. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Siguatepeque as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for 50-year-floods on each of the streams studied were computed using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area and ground surveys at six bridges. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations on any of the streams studied; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharges were estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The 50-year-flood discharges estimated for Rio Selguapa, Rio Guique, Rio Celan, Rio Calan, and Quebrada Chalantuma are 323, 168, 161, 146, and 90 cubic meters per second, respectively.

  12. Integrating Entropy-Based Naïve Bayes and GIS for Spatial Evaluation of Flood Hazard.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Chen, Yun; Wu, Jianping; Gao, Lei; Barrett, Damian; Xu, Tingbao; Li, Xiaojuan; Li, Linyi; Huang, Chang; Yu, Jia

    2017-04-01

    Regional flood risk caused by intensive rainfall under extreme climate conditions has increasingly attracted global attention. Mapping and evaluation of flood hazard are vital parts in flood risk assessment. This study develops an integrated framework for estimating spatial likelihood of flood hazard by coupling weighted naïve Bayes (WNB), geographic information system, and remote sensing. The north part of Fitzroy River Basin in Queensland, Australia, was selected as a case study site. The environmental indices, including extreme rainfall, evapotranspiration, net-water index, soil water retention, elevation, slope, drainage proximity, and density, were generated from spatial data representing climate, soil, vegetation, hydrology, and topography. These indices were weighted using the statistics-based entropy method. The weighted indices were input into the WNB-based model to delineate a regional flood risk map that indicates the likelihood of flood occurrence. The resultant map was validated by the maximum inundation extent extracted from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery. The evaluation results, including mapping and evaluation of the distribution of flood hazard, are helpful in guiding flood inundation disaster responses for the region. The novel approach presented consists of weighted grid data, image-based sampling and validation, cell-by-cell probability inferring and spatial mapping. It is superior to an existing spatial naive Bayes (NB) method for regional flood hazard assessment. It can also be extended to other likelihood-related environmental hazard studies. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Flood hazard, vulnerability, and risk assessment for human life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, T.; Chang, T.; Lai, J.; Hsieh, M.; Tan, Y.; Lin, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Flood risk assessment is an important issue for the countries suffering tropical cyclones and monsoon. Taiwan is located in the hot zone of typhoon tracks in the Western Pacific. There are three to five typhoons landing Taiwan every year. Typhoons and heavy rainfalls often cause inundation disaster rising with the increase of population and the development of social economy. The purpose of this study is to carry out the flood hazard, vulnerability and risk in term of human life. Based on the concept that flood risk is composed by flood hazard and vulnerability, a inundation simulation is performed to evaluate the factors of flood hazard for human life according to base flood (100-year return period). The flood depth, velocity and rising ratio are the three factors of flood hazards. Furthermore, the factors of flood vulnerability are identified in terms of human life that are classified into two main factors, residents and environment. The sub factors related to residents are the density of population and the density of vulnerable people including elders, youngers and disabled persons. The sub factors related to environment include the the number of building floors, the locations of buildings, the and distance to rescue center. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is adopted to determine the weights of these factors. The risk matrix is applied to show the risk from low to high based on the evaluation of flood hazards and vulnerabilities. The Tseng-Wen River watershed is selected as the case study because a serious flood was induced by Typhoon Morakot in 2009, which produced a record-breaking rainfall of 2.361mm in 48 hours in the last 50 years. The results of assessing the flood hazard, vulnerability and risk in term of human life could improve the emergency operation for flood disaster to prepare enough relief goods and materials during typhoon landing.

  14. Delivering integrated HAZUS-MH flood loss analyses and flood inundation maps over the Web.

    PubMed

    Hearn, Paul P; Longenecker, Herbert E; Aguinaldo, John J; Rahav, Ami N

    2013-01-01

    Catastrophic flooding is responsible for more loss of life and damages to property than any other natural hazard. Recently developed flood inundation mapping technologies make it possible to view the extent and depth of flooding on the land surface over the Internet; however, by themselves these technologies are unable to provide estimates of losses to property and infrastructure. The Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) HAZUS-MH software is extensively used to conduct flood loss analyses in the United States, providing a nationwide database of population and infrastructure at risk. Unfortunately, HAZUS-MH requires a dedicated Geographic Information System (GIS) workstation and a trained operator, and analyses are not adapted for convenient delivery over the Web. This article describes a cooperative effort by the US Geological Survey (USGS) and FEMA to make HAZUS-MH output GIS and Web compatible and to integrate these data with digital flood inundation maps in USGS's newly developed Inundation Mapping Web Portal. By running the computationally intensive HAZUS-MH flood analyses offline and converting the output to a Web-GIS compatible format, detailed estimates of flood losses can now be delivered to anyone with Internet access, thus dramatically increasing the availability of these forecasts to local emergency planners and first responders.

  15. Delivering integrated HAZUS-MH flood loss analyses and flood inundation maps over the Web

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearn,, Paul P.; Longenecker, Herbert E.; Aguinaldo, John J.; Rahav, Ami N.

    2013-01-01

    Catastrophic flooding is responsible for more loss of life and damages to property than any other natural hazard. Recently developed flood inundation mapping technologies make it possible to view the extent and depth of flooding on the land surface over the Internet; however, by themselves these technologies are unable to provide estimates of losses to property and infrastructure. The Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA's) HAZUS-MH software is extensively used to conduct flood loss analyses in the United States, providing a nationwide database of population and infrastructure at risk. Unfortunately, HAZUS-MH requires a dedicated Geographic Information System (GIS) workstation and a trained operator, and analyses are not adapted for convenient delivery over the Web. This article describes a cooperative effort by the US Geological Survey (USGS) and FEMA to make HAZUS-MH output GIS and Web compatible and to integrate these data with digital flood inundation maps in USGS’s newly developed Inundation Mapping Web Portal. By running the computationally intensive HAZUS-MH flood analyses offline and converting the output to a Web-GIS compatible format, detailed estimates of flood losses can now be delivered to anyone with Internet access, thus dramatically increasing the availability of these forecasts to local emergency planners and first responders.

  16. Increasing resilience through participative flood risk map design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Spira, Yvonne; Stickler, Therese

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of flood hazards has shown to the European Commission and the Member States of the European Union the importance of flood risk management strategies in order to reduce losses and to protect the environment and the citizens. Exposure to floods as well as flood vulnerability might increase across Europe due to the ongoing economic development in many EU countries. Thus even without taking climate change into account an increase of flood disasters in Europe might be foreseeable. These circumstances have produced a reaction in the European Commission, and a Directive on the Assessment and Management of Flood Risks was issued as one of the three components of the European Action Programme on Flood Risk Management. Floods have the potential to jeopardise economic development, above all due to an increase of human activities in floodplains and the reduction of natural water retention by land use activities. As a result, an increase in the likelihood and adverse impacts of flood events is expected. Therefore, concentrated action is needed at the European level to avoid severe impacts on human life and property. In order to have an effective tool available for gathering information, as well as a valuable basis for priority setting and further technical, financial and political decisions regarding flood risk mitigation and management, it is necessary to provide for the establishment of flood risk maps which show the potential adverse consequences associated with different flood scenarios. So far, hazard and risk maps are compiled in terms of a top-down linear approach: planning authorities take the responsibility to create and implement these maps on different national and local scales, and the general public will only be informed about the outcomes (EU Floods Directive, Article 10). For the flood risk management plans, however, an "active involvement of interested parties" is required, which means at least some kind of multilateral

  17. Influence of dem in Watershed Management as Flood Zonation Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alrajhi, Muhamad; Khan, Mudasir; Afroz Khan, Mohammad; Alobeid, Abdalla

    2016-06-01

    Despite of valuable efforts from working groups and research organizations towards flood hazard reduction through its program, still minimal diminution from these hazards has been realized. This is mainly due to the fact that with rapid increase in population and urbanization coupled with climate change, flood hazards are becoming increasingly catastrophic. Therefore there is a need to understand and access flood hazards and develop means to deal with it through proper preparations, and preventive measures. To achieve this aim, Geographical Information System (GIS), geospatial and hydrological models were used as tools to tackle with influence of flash floods in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia due to existence of large valleys (Wadis) which is a matter of great concern. In this research paper, Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of different resolution (30m, 20m,10m and 5m) have been used, which have proven to be valuable tool for the topographic parameterization of hydrological models which are the basis for any flood modelling process. The DEM was used as input for performing spatial analysis and obtaining derivative products and delineate watershed characteristics of the study area using ArcGIS desktop and its Arc Hydro extension tools to check comparability of different elevation models for flood Zonation mapping. The derived drainage patterns have been overlaid over aerial imagery of study area, to check influence of greater amount of precipitation which can turn into massive destructions. The flow accumulation maps derived provide zones of highest accumulation and possible flow directions. This approach provide simplified means of predicting extent of inundation during flood events for emergency action especially for large areas because of large coverage area of the remotely sensed data.

  18. Rapid Flood Map Generation from Spaceborne SAR Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, S. H.; Liang, C.; Manipon, G.; Jung, J.; Gurrola, E. M.; Owen, S. E.; Hua, H.; Agram, P. S.; Webb, F.; Sacco, G. F.; Rosen, P. A.; Simons, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) team has responded to the January 2016 US Midwest Floods along the Mississippi River. Daily teleconferences with FEMA, NOAA, NGA, and USGS, provided information on precipitation and flood crest migration, based on which we coordinated with the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) through NASA headquarters for JAXA's ALOS-2 timely tasking over two paths. We produced flood extent maps using ALOS-2 SM3 mode Level 1.5 data that were provided through the International Charter and stored at the US Geological Survey's Hazards Data Distribution System (HDDS) archive. On January 6, the first four frames (70 km x 240 km) were acquired, which included the City of Memphis. We registered post-event SAR images to pre-event images, applied radiometric calibration, took a logarithm of the ratio of the two images. Two thresholds were applied to represent flooded areas that became open water (colored in blue) and flooded areas with tall vegetation (colored in red). The second path was acquired on January 11 further down along the Mississippi River. Seven frames (70 km x 420 km) were acquired and flood maps were created in the similar fashion. The maps were delivered to the FEMA as well as posted on ARIA's public website. The FEMA stated that SAR provides inspection priority for optical imagery and ground response. The ALOS-2 data and the products have been a very important source of information during this response as the flood crest has moved down stream. The SAR data continue to be an important resource during times when optical observations are often not useful. In close collaboration with FEMA and USGS, we also work on other flood events including June 2016 China Floods using European Space Agency's (ESA's) Sentienl-1 data, to produce flood extent maps and identify algorithmic needs and ARIA system's requirements to automate and rapidly produce and deliver flood maps for future events. With the addition of Sentinel-1B

  19. Quantifying the combined effects of multiple extreme floods on river channel geometry and on flood hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Mingfu; Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Wright, Nigel G.; Sleigh, P. Andy; Staines, Kate E. H.

    2016-07-01

    Effects of flood-induced bed elevation and channel geometry changes on flood hazards are largely unexplored, especially in the case of multiple floods from the same site. This study quantified the evolution of river channel and floodplain geometry during a repeated series of hypothetical extreme floods using a 2D full hydro-morphodynamic model (LHMM). These experiments were designed to examine the consequences of channel geometry changes on channel conveyance capacity and subsequent flood dynamics. Our results revealed that extreme floods play an important role in adjusting a river channel to become more efficient for subsequent propagation of floods, and that in-channel scour and sediment re-distribution can greatly improve the conveyance capacity of a channel for subsequent floods. In our hypothetical sequence of floods the response of bed elevation was of net degradation, and sediment transport successively weakened even with floods of the same magnitude. Changes in river channel geometry led to significant impact on flood hydraulics and thereby flood hazards. We found that flood-induced in-channel erosion can disconnect the channel from its floodplain resulting in a reduction of floodwater storage. Thus, the frequency and extent of subsequent overbank flows and floodplain inundation decreased, which reduced downstream flood attenuation and increased downstream flood hazard. In combination and in summary, these results suggest that changes in channel capacity due to extreme floods may drive changes in flood hazard. The assumption of unchanging of river morphology during inundation modelling should therefore be open to question for flood risk management.

  20. Effects of uncertainty in boundary-conditions on flood hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeneghetti, A.; Vorogushyn, S.; Castellarin, A.; Merz, B.; Brath, A.

    2012-04-01

    Comprehensive flood-risk assessment studies should quantify the global uncertainty in flood hazard estimation, for instance by mapping inundation extents together with their confidence intervals. This appears of utmost importance, especially in the case of flood hazard assessments along dike-protected reaches, where dike failures have to be considered. This paper focuses on a 50km reach of River Po (Italy) and three major sources of uncertainty in inundation mapping: uncertainties in the (i) upstream and (ii) downstream boundary conditions, and (iii) uncertainties in the dike-failure location and breach morphology. We derive confidence bounds for flood hazard maps by means of the Inundation Hazard Assessment Model (IHAM) - a hybrid probabilistic-deterministic model. IHAM couples in a dynamic way a 1D hydrodynamic model and a 2D raster-based hydraulic model through a probabilistic dike-breaching analysis that considers three different failure mechanisms: overtopping, piping and micro-instability due to seepage. To address the randomness resulting from the variability in boundary conditions and dike-failures the system is run in a Monte Carlo framework. Uncertainties in the definition of upstream boundary conditions (i.e. design-hydrographs) are assessed by applying different bivariate copula families to model the frequency of flood peaks and volumes. Uncertainties in the definition of downstream boundary conditions are characterized by associating the rating-curve used as boundary condition with confidence intervals which reflect discharge measurements errors and interpolation errors. The results of the study are presented in terms of the Monte Carlo-based flood hazard mapping for different flood-intensity indicators (e.g., inundation depth, flow velocity, inundation duration, etc.) together with the corresponding uncertainty bounds. We conclude on the influence of uncertainty in boundary conditions and provide decision makers with an important piece of information

  1. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Sonaguera, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Sonaguera that would be inundated by a 50-year flood of Rio Sonaguera and its tributary, Rio Juan Lazaro. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Sonaguera as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for an estimated 50-year-flood on Rio Sonaguera and Rio Juan Lazaro at Sonaguera were determined using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area and a ground survey at the bridge. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations on Rio Sonaguera or Rio Juan Lazaro; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Sonaguera above the confluence with Rio Juan Lazaro, 194 cubic meters per second; for Rio Juan Lazaro at its mouth, 168 cubic meters per second, and for Rio Sonaguera at the downstream end of the study area, 282 cubic meters per second; were estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation.

  2. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Choloma, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Choloma that would be inundated by a 50-year flood of Rio Choloma. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Choloma as part of the in the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for a 50-year-flood on Rio Choloma at Choloma were determined using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations on Rio Choloma; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Choloma, 370 cubic meters per second, was estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The drainage area and mean annual precipitation estimated for Rio Choloma at Choloma are 89.5 square kilometers and 2,164 millimeters, respectively.

  3. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Catacamas, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Catacamas that would be inundated by a 50-year-flood of Rio Catacamas. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Catacamas as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/ floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for a 50-year-flood on Rio Catacamas at Catacamas were estimated using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. The 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Catacamas at Catacamas, 216 cubic meters per second, was estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation because there are no long-term stream-gaging stations on the river from which to estimate the discharge. The drainage area and mean annual precipitation estimated for Rio Catacamas at Catacamas are 45.4 square kilometers and 1,773 millimeters, respectively.

  4. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Olanchito, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, M.C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Olanchito that would be inundated by a 50-year-flood of Rio Uchapa. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Olanchito as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for a 50-year-flood discharge of 243 cubic meters per second on Rio Uchapa at Olanchito were estimated using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations on Rio Uchapa; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Uchapa was estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The drainage area and mean annual precipitation estimated for Rio Uchapa at Olanchito are 97.1 square kilometers and 1,178 millimeters, respectively.

  5. Accumulation risk assessment for the flooding hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Giorgio; Ghizzoni, Tatiana; Rudari, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    One of the main consequences of the demographic and economic development and of markets and trades globalization is represented by risks cumulus. In most cases, the cumulus of risks intuitively arises from the geographic concentration of a number of vulnerable elements in a single place. For natural events, risks cumulus can be associated, in addition to intensity, also to event's extension. In this case, the magnitude can be such that large areas, that may include many regions or even large portions of different countries, are stroked by single, catastrophic, events. Among natural risks, the impact of the flooding hazard cannot be understated. To cope with, a variety of mitigation actions can be put in place: from the improvement of monitoring and alert systems to the development of hydraulic structures, throughout land use restrictions, civil protection, financial and insurance plans. All of those viable options present social and economic impacts, either positive or negative, whose proper estimate should rely on the assumption of appropriate - present and future - flood risk scenarios. It is therefore necessary to identify proper statistical methodologies, able to describe the multivariate aspects of the involved physical processes and their spatial dependence. In hydrology and meteorology, but also in finance and insurance practice, it has early been recognized that classical statistical theory distributions (e.g., the normal and gamma families) are of restricted use for modeling multivariate spatial data. Recent research efforts have been therefore directed towards developing statistical models capable of describing the forms of asymmetry manifest in data sets. This, in particular, for the quite frequent case of phenomena whose empirical outcome behaves in a non-normal fashion, but still maintains some broad similarity with the multivariate normal distribution. Fruitful approaches were recognized in the use of flexible models, which include the normal

  6. Development of flood risk mapping in Kota Tinggi, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, T. H.

    2014-02-01

    Flood risk maps provide valuable information for development of flood risk management. Geospatial technology and modeling enable us to monitor natural disasters around the world. Flooding is the most severe natural disaster that causing huge economic losses every year. Flood risk maps are an essential tool for assessing the consequences of flooding. The main aim of this study is to initiate a framework to develop a local-based flood risk map. Flood risk maps can be produced by using integration of geospatial technology and hydrodynamic modeling. Results show that a flood risk map for Kota Tinggi is produced with unsatisfactory information in term of flood damage.

  7. Groundwater flood hazards in lowland karst terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naughton, Owen; McCormack, Ted

    2016-04-01

    The spatial and temporal complexity of flooding in karst terrains pose unique flood risk management challenges. Lowland karst landscapes can be particularly susceptible to groundwater flooding due to a combination of limited drainage capacity, shallow depth to groundwater and a high level of groundwater-surface water interactions. Historically the worst groundwater flooding to have occurred in the Rep. of Ireland has been centred on the Gort Lowlands, a karst catchment on the western coast of Ireland. Numerous notable flood events have been recorded throughout the 20th century, but flooding during the winters of 2009 and 2015 were the most severe on record, inundating an area in excess of 20km2 and causing widespread and prolonged disruption and damage to property and infrastructure. Effective flood risk management requires an understanding of the recharge, storage and transport mechanisms during flood conditions, but is often hampered by a lack of adequate data. Using information gathered from the 2009 and 2015 events, the main hydrological and geomorphological factors which influence flooding in this complex lowland karst groundwater system under are elucidated. Observed flood mechanisms included backwater flooding of sinks, overland flow caused by the overtopping of sink depressions, high water levels in turlough basins, and surface ponding in local epikarst watersheds. While targeted small-scale flood measures can locally reduce the flood risk associated with some mechanisms, they also have the potential to exacerbate flooding down-catchment and must be assessed in the context of overall catchment hydrology. This study addresses the need to improve our understanding of groundwater flooding in karst terrains, in order to ensure efficient flood prevention and mitigation in future and thus help achieve the aims of the EU Floods Directive.

  8. Flood inundation map library, Fort Kent, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2012-01-01

    Severe flooding occurred in northern Maine from April 28 to May 1, 2008, and damage was extensive in the town of Fort Kent (Lombard, 2010). Aroostook County was declared a Federal disaster area on May 9, 2008. The extent of flooding on both the Fish and St. John Rivers during this event showed that the current Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Study (FIS) and Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) (Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1979) were out of date. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study to develop a flood inundation map library showing the areas and depths for a range of flood stages from bankfull to the flood of record for Fort Kent to complement an updated FIS (Federal Emergency Management Agency, in press). Hydrologic analyses that support the maps include computer models with and without the levee and with various depths of backwater on the Fish River. This fact sheet describes the methods used to develop the maps and describes how the maps can be accessed.

  9. Flooding of municipal solid waste landfills--an environmental hazard?

    PubMed

    Laner, David; Fellner, Johann; Brunner, Paul H

    2009-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills pose a long-lasting risk for humans and the environment. While landfill emissions under regular operating conditions are well investigated, landfill behaviour and associated emissions in case of flooding are widely unknown, although damages have been documented. This paper aims at developing a methodology for determining the proportion of MSW landfills endangered by flooding, and at evaluating the impact flooded landfills might have on the environment during a flood event. The risk of flooding of MSW landfills is assessed by using information about flood risk zones. Out of 1064 landfills investigated in Austria, 312 sites or about 30% are located in or next to areas flooded on average once in 200 years. Around 5% of these landfills are equipped with flood protection facilities. Material inventories of 147 landfill sites endangered by flooding are established, and potential emissions during a flood event are estimated by assuming the worst case of complete landfill leaching and erosion. The environmental relevance of emissions during flooding is discussed on the basis of a case study in the western part of Austria. Although environmental hazards need to be assessed on a site- and event-specific basis, the results indicate that flooded MSW landfills represent in general small environmental risks for the period of flooding. The longer term consequences of flooding are discussed in a next paper.

  10. Flood mapping with multitemporal MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Nguyen-Thanh; Chen, Chi-Farn; Chen, Cheng-Ru

    2014-05-01

    Flood is one of the most devastating and frequent disasters resulting in loss of human life and serve damage to infrastructure and agricultural production. Flood is phenomenal in the Mekong River Delta (MRD), Vietnam. It annually lasts from July to November. Information on spatiotemporal flood dynamics is thus important for planners to devise successful strategies for flood monitoring and mitigation of its negative effects. The main objective of this study is to develop an approach for weekly mapping flood dynamics with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data in MRD using the water fraction model (WFM). The data processed for 2009 comprises three main steps: (1) data pre-processing to construct smooth time series of the difference in the values (DVLE) between land surface water index (LSWI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) using the empirical mode decomposition (EMD), (2) flood derivation using WFM, and (3) accuracy assessment. The mapping results were compared with the ground reference data, which were constructed from Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) data. As several error sources, including mixed-pixel problems and low-resolution bias between the mapping results and ground reference data, could lower the level of classification accuracy, the comparisons indicated satisfactory results with the overall accuracy of 80.5% and Kappa coefficient of 0.61, respectively. These results were reaffirmed by a close correlation between the MODIS-derived flood area and that of the ground reference map at the provincial level, with the correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.93. Considering the importance of remote sensing for monitoring floods and mitigating the damage caused by floods to crops and infrastructure, this study eventually leads to the realization of the value of using time-series MODIS DVLE data for weekly flood monitoring in MRD with the aid of EMD and WFM. Such an approach that could provide quantitative information on

  11. Flood Mapping Using InSAR Coherence Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selmi, S.; Ben Abdallah, W.; Abdelfatteh, R.

    2014-09-01

    Classic approaches for the detection of flooded areas are based on a static analysis of optical images and/or SAR data during and after the event. In this paper, we aim to extract the flooded zones by using the SAR image coupled with the InSAR coherence. A new formulation of the ratio approach for flood detection is given considering InSAR coherence. Our contribution is to take advantage from the coherence map provided using the InSAR pairs (one before and one after the event) to enhance the detection of flooded areas. We explore the fact that the coherence values during and after the flood are mainly differents on the flooded zones and we give a more suitable flood decision rule using this assumption. The proposed approach is tested and validated in the case of the flood taken place in 2005 in the region of Kef in Tunisia.

  12. Updated Colombian Seismic Hazard Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eraso, J.; Arcila, M.; Romero, J.; Dimate, C.; Bermúdez, M. L.; Alvarado, C.

    2013-05-01

    The Colombian seismic hazard map used by the National Building Code (NSR-98) in effect until 2009 was developed in 1996. Since then, the National Seismological Network of Colombia has improved in both coverage and technology providing fifteen years of additional seismic records. These improvements have allowed a better understanding of the regional geology and tectonics which in addition to the seismic activity in Colombia with destructive effects has motivated the interest and the need to develop a new seismic hazard assessment in this country. Taking advantage of new instrumental information sources such as new broad band stations of the National Seismological Network, new historical seismicity data, standardized global databases availability, and in general, of advances in models and techniques, a new Colombian seismic hazard map was developed. A PSHA model was applied. The use of the PSHA model is because it incorporates the effects of all seismic sources that may affect a particular site solving the uncertainties caused by the parameters and assumptions defined in this kind of studies. First, the seismic sources geometry and a complete and homogeneous seismic catalog were defined; the parameters of seismic rate of each one of the seismic sources occurrence were calculated establishing a national seismotectonic model. Several of attenuation-distance relationships were selected depending on the type of seismicity considered. The seismic hazard was estimated using the CRISIS2007 software created by the Engineering Institute of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México -UNAM (National Autonomous University of Mexico). A uniformly spaced grid each 0.1° was used to calculate the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and response spectral values at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3.0 seconds with return periods of 75, 225, 475, 975 and 2475 years. For each site, a uniform hazard spectrum and exceedance rate curves were calculated. With the results, it is

  13. Overcoming complexities for consistent, continental-scale flood mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Helen; Zaidman, Maxine; Davison, Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    The EU Floods Directive requires all member states to produce flood hazard maps by 2013. Although flood mapping practices are well developed in Europe, there are huge variations in the scale and resolution of the maps between individual countries. Since extreme flood events are rarely confined to a single country, this is problematic, particularly for the re/insurance industry whose exposures often extend beyond country boundaries. Here, we discuss the challenges of large-scale hydrological and hydraulic modelling, using our experience of developing a 12-country model and set of maps, to illustrate how consistent, high-resolution river flood maps across Europe can be produced. The main challenges addressed include: data acquisition; manipulating the vast quantities of high-resolution data; and computational resources. Our starting point was to develop robust flood-frequency models that are suitable for estimating peak flows for a range of design flood return periods. We used the index flood approach, based on a statistical analysis of historic river flow data pooled on the basis of catchment characteristics. Historical flow data were therefore sourced for each country and collated into a large pan-European database. After a lengthy validation these data were collated into 21 separate analysis zones or regions, grouping smaller river basins according to their physical and climatic characteristics. The very large continental scale basins were each modelled separately on account of their size (e.g. Danube, Elbe, Drava and Rhine). Our methodology allows the design flood hydrograph to be predicted at any point on the river network for a range of return periods. Using JFlow+, JBA's proprietary 2D hydraulic hydrodynamic model, the calculated out-of-bank flows for all watercourses with an upstream drainage area exceeding 50km2 were routed across two different Digital Terrain Models in order to map the extent and depth of floodplain inundation. This generated modelling for

  14. Debris flow hazard mapping, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazengarb, Colin; Rigby, Ted; Stevenson, Michael

    2015-04-01

    constrained by aerial photographs to decade precision and many predate regional photography (pre 1940's). We have performed runout modelling, using 2D hydraulic modelling software (RiverFlow2D with Mud and Debris module), in order to calibrate our model against real events and gain confidence in the choice of parameters. Runout modelling was undertaken in valley systems with volumes calibrated to existing flood model likelihoods for each catchment. The hazard outputs from our models require developing a translation to hazard models used in Australia. By linking to flood mapping we aim to demonstrate to emergency managers where existing mitigation measures may be inadequate and how they can be adapted to address multiple hazards.

  15. A framework for the case-specific assessment of Green Infrastructure in mitigating urban flood hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Jochen E.; Burns, Matthew J.; Fletcher, Tim D.; Sanders, Brett F.

    2017-10-01

    This research outlines a framework for the case-specific assessment of Green Infrastructure (GI) performance in mitigating flood hazard in small urban catchments. The urban hydrologic modeling tool (MUSIC) is coupled with a fine resolution 2D hydrodynamic model (BreZo) to test to what extent retrofitting an urban watershed with GI, rainwater tanks and infiltration trenches in particular, can propagate flood management benefits downstream and support intuitive flood hazard maps useful for communicating and planning with communities. The hydrologic and hydraulic models are calibrated based on current catchment conditions, then modified to represent alternative GI scenarios including a complete lack of GI versus a full implementation of GI. Flow in the hydrologic/hydraulic models is forced using a range of synthetic rainfall events with annual exceedance probabilities (AEPs) between 1-63% and durations from 10 min to 24 h. Flood hazard benefits mapped by the framework include maximum flood depths and extents, flow intensity (m2/s), flood duration, and critical storm duration leading to maximum flood conditions. Application of the system to the Little Stringybark Creek (LSC) catchment shows that across the range of AEPs tested and for storm durations equal or less than 3 h, presently implemented GI reduces downstream flooded area on average by 29%, while a full implementation of GI would reduce downstream flooded area on average by 91%. A full implementation of GI could also lower maximum flow intensities by 83% on average, reducing the drowning hazard posed by urban streams and improving the potential for access by emergency responders. For storm durations longer than 3 h, a full implementation of GI lacks the capacity to retain the resulting rainfall depths and only reduces flooded area by 8% and flow intensity by 5.5%.

  16. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Comayagua, Hondura

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Comayagua that would be inundated by 50-year floods on Rio Humuya and Rio Majada. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Comayagua as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for 50-year-floods on Rio Humuya and Rio Majada at Comayagua were estimated using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. The 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Humuya at Comayagua, 1,400 cubic meters per second, was estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The reasonableness of the regression discharge was evaluated by comparing it with drainage-area-adjusted 50-year-flood discharges estimated for three long-term Rio Humuya stream-gaging stations. The drainage-area-adjusted 50-year-flood discharges estimated from the gage records ranged from 946 to 1,365 cubic meters per second. Because the regression equation discharge agrees closely with the high end of the range of discharges estimated from the gaging-station records, it was used for the hydraulic modeling to ensure that the resulting 50-year-flood water-surface elevations would not be underestimated. The 50-year-flood

  17. Efficient pan-European river flood hazard modelling through a combination of statistical and physical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paprotny, Dominik; Morales-Nápoles, Oswaldo; Jonkman, Sebastiaan N.

    2017-07-01

    Flood hazard is currently being researched on continental and global scales, using models of increasing complexity. In this paper we investigate a different, simplified approach, which combines statistical and physical models in place of conventional rainfall-run-off models to carry out flood mapping for Europe. A Bayesian-network-based model built in a previous study is employed to generate return-period flow rates in European rivers with a catchment area larger than 100 km2. The simulations are performed using a one-dimensional steady-state hydraulic model and the results are post-processed using Geographical Information System (GIS) software in order to derive flood zones. This approach is validated by comparison with Joint Research Centre's (JRC) pan-European map and five local flood studies from different countries. Overall, the two approaches show a similar performance in recreating flood zones of local maps. The simplified approach achieved a similar level of accuracy, while substantially reducing the computational time. The paper also presents the aggregated results on the flood hazard in Europe, including future projections. We find relatively small changes in flood hazard, i.e. an increase of flood zones area by 2-4 % by the end of the century compared to the historical scenario. However, when current flood protection standards are taken into account, the flood-prone area increases substantially in the future (28-38 % for a 100-year return period). This is because in many parts of Europe river discharge with the same return period is projected to increase in the future, thus making the protection standards insufficient.

  18. Hazards of Extreme Weather: Flood Fatalities in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, H. O.; Jackson, T.; Bin-Shafique, S.

    2009-12-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) considers flooding “America’s Number One Natural Hazard”. Despite flood management efforts in many communities, U.S. flood damages remain high, due, in large part, to increasing population and property development in flood-prone areas. Floods are the leading cause of fatalities related to natural disasters in Texas. Texas leads the nation in flash flood fatalities. There are three times more fatalities in Texas (840) than the following state Pennsylvania (265). This study examined flood fatalities that occurred in Texas between 1960 and 2008. Flood fatality statistics were extracted from three sources: flood fatality databases from the National Climatic Data Center, the Spatial Hazard Event and Loss Database for the United States, and the Texas Department of State Health Services. The data collected for flood fatalities include the date, time, gender, age, location, and weather conditions. Inconsistencies among the three databases were identified and discussed. Analysis reveals that most fatalities result from driving into flood water (about 65%). Spatial analysis indicates that more fatalities occurred in counties containing major urban centers. Hydrologic analysis of a flood event that resulted in five fatalities was performed. A hydrologic model was able to simulate the water level at a location where a vehicle was swept away by flood water resulting in the death of the driver.

  19. Probabilistic Flood Mapping using Volunteered Geographical Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, S. J.; Girons Lopez, M.; Seibert, J.; Minsker, B. S.

    2016-12-01

    Flood extent maps are widely used by decision makers and first responders to provide critical information that prevents economic impacts and the loss of human lives. These maps are usually obtained from sensory data and/or hydrologic models, which often have limited coverage in space and time. Recent developments in social media and communication technology have created a wealth of near-real-time, user-generated content during flood events in many urban areas, such as flooded locations, pictures of flooding extent and height, etc. These data could improve decision-making and response operations as events unfold. However, the integration of these data sources has been limited due to the need for methods that can extract and translate the data into useful information for decision-making. This study presents an approach that uses volunteer geographic information (VGI) and non-traditional data sources (i.e., Twitter, Flicker, YouTube, and 911 and 311 calls) to generate/update the flood extent maps in areas where no models and/or gauge data are operational. The approach combines Web-crawling and computer vision techniques to gather information about the location, extent, and water height of the flood from unstructured textual data, images, and videos. These estimates are then used to provide an updated flood extent map for areas surrounding the geo-coordinate of the VGI through the application of a Hydro Growing Region Algorithm (HGRA). HGRA combines hydrologic and image segmentation concepts to estimate a probabilistic flooding extent along the corresponding creeks. Results obtained for a case study in Austin, TX (i.e., 2015 Memorial Day flood) were comparable to those obtained by a calibrated hydrologic model and had good spatial correlation with flooding extents estimated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).

  20. Evaluation of various modelling approaches in flood routing simulation and flood area mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaioannou, George; Loukas, Athanasios; Vasiliades, Lampros; Aronica, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    An essential process of flood hazard analysis and mapping is the floodplain modelling. The selection of the modelling approach, especially, in complex riverine topographies such as urban and suburban areas, and ungauged watersheds may affect the accuracy of the outcomes in terms of flood depths and flood inundation area. In this study, a sensitivity analysis implemented using several hydraulic-hydrodynamic modelling approaches (1D, 2D, 1D/2D) and the effect of modelling approach on flood modelling and flood mapping was investigated. The digital terrain model (DTMs) used in this study was generated from Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) point cloud data. The modelling approaches included 1-dimensional hydraulic-hydrodynamic models (1D), 2-dimensional hydraulic-hydrodynamic models (2D) and the coupled 1D/2D. The 1D hydraulic-hydrodynamic models used were: HECRAS, MIKE11, LISFLOOD, XPSTORM. The 2D hydraulic-hydrodynamic models used were: MIKE21, MIKE21FM, HECRAS (2D), XPSTORM, LISFLOOD and FLO2d. The coupled 1D/2D models employed were: HECRAS(1D/2D), MIKE11/MIKE21(MIKE FLOOD platform), MIKE11/MIKE21 FM(MIKE FLOOD platform), XPSTORM(1D/2D). The validation process of flood extent achieved with the use of 2x2 contingency tables between simulated and observed flooded area for an extreme historical flash flood event. The skill score Critical Success Index was used in the validation process. The modelling approaches have also been evaluated for simulation time and requested computing power. The methodology has been implemented in a suburban ungauged watershed of Xerias river at Volos-Greece. The results of the analysis indicate the necessity of sensitivity analysis application with the use of different hydraulic-hydrodynamic modelling approaches especially for areas with complex terrain.

  1. Flood risk assessment and mapping for the Lebanese watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, Chadi; Hdeib, Rouya

    2016-04-01

    Of all natural disasters, floods affect the greatest number of people worldwide and have the greatest potential to cause damage. Nowadays, with the emerging global warming phenomenon, this number is expected to increase. The Eastern Mediterranean area, including Lebanon (10452 Km2, 4.5 M habitant), has witnessed in the past few decades an increase frequency of flooding events. This study profoundly assess the flood risk over Lebanon covering all the 17 major watersheds and a number of small sub-catchments. It evaluate the physical direct tangible damages caused by floods. The risk assessment and evaluation process was carried out over three stages; i) Evaluating Assets at Risk, where the areas and assets vulnerable to flooding are identified, ii) Vulnerability Assessment, where the causes of vulnerability are assessed and the value of the assets are provided, iii) Risk Assessment, where damage functions are established and the consequent damages of flooding are estimated. A detailed Land CoverUse map was prepared at a scale of 1/ 1 000 using 0.4 m resolution satellite images within the flood hazard zones. The detailed field verification enabled to allocate and characterize all elements at risk, identify hotspots, interview local witnesses, and to correlate and calibrate previous flood damages with the utilized models. All filed gathered information was collected through Mobile Application and transformed to be standardized and classified under GIS environment. Consequently; the general damage evaluation and risk maps at different flood recurrence periods (10, 50, 100 years) were established. Major results showed that floods in a winter season (December, January, and February) of 10 year recurrence and of water retention ranging from 1 to 3 days can cause total damages (losses) that reach 1.14 M for crop lands and 2.30 M for green houses. Whereas, it may cause 0.2 M to losses in fruit trees for a flood retention ranging from 3 to 5 days. These numbers differs

  2. An automated approach to flood mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weihua; Mckeown, Donald M.; Messinger, David W.

    2012-10-01

    Heavy rain from Tropical Storm Lee resulted in a major flood event for the southern tier of New York State in early September 2011 causing evacuation of approximately 20,000 people in and around the city of Binghamton. In support of the New York State Office of Emergency Management, a high resolution multispectral airborne sensor (WASP) developed by RIT was deployed over the flooded area to collect aerial images. One of the key benefits of these images is their provision for flood inundation area mapping. However, these images require a significant amount of storage space and the inundation mapping process is conventionally carried out using manual digitization. In this paper, we design an automated approach for flood inundation mapping from the WASP airborne images. This method employs Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) for color RGB or multispectral aerial images to extract the flood binary map; then it uses a set of morphological processing and a boundary vectorization technique to convert the binary map into a shapefile. This technique is relatively fast and only requires the operator to select one pixel on the image. The generated shapefile is much smaller than the original image and can be imported to most GIS software packages. This enables critical flood information to be shared with and by disaster response managers very rapidly, even over cellular phone networks.

  3. 12 CFR 339.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 339.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A bank shall use the standard flood hazard...

  4. 7 CFR 1980.318 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.318... Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. RHS policy is to discourage lending in designated flood and mudslide hazard areas. Loan guarantees shall not be issued in designated flood/mudslide hazard areas unless...

  5. 12 CFR 572.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... TREASURY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 572.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A savings association shall use the standard flood hazard determination...

  6. 12 CFR 22.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 22.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A bank shall use the standard flood hazard determination form developed by the...

  7. 12 CFR 760.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 760.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A credit union shall use the standard flood hazard...

  8. 12 CFR 760.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 760.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A credit union shall use the standard flood hazard...

  9. 7 CFR 1980.318 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.318... Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. RHS policy is to discourage lending in designated flood and mudslide hazard areas. Loan guarantees shall not be issued in designated flood/mudslide hazard areas unless...

  10. 12 CFR 339.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 339.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A bank shall use the standard flood hazard...

  11. 12 CFR 572.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Required use of standard flood hazard... TREASURY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 572.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A savings association shall use the standard flood hazard determination...

  12. 12 CFR 760.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 760.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A credit union shall use the standard flood hazard...

  13. 12 CFR 391.35 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... Special Flood Hazards § 391.35 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A State savings association shall use the standard flood hazard determination form developed by the...

  14. 12 CFR 172.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... TREASURY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 172.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A Federal savings association shall use the standard flood hazard...

  15. 12 CFR 760.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 760.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A credit union shall use the standard flood hazard...

  16. 12 CFR 22.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 22.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A bank shall use the standard flood hazard determination form developed by the...

  17. 12 CFR 22.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 22.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A bank shall use the standard flood hazard determination form developed by the...

  18. 12 CFR 391.35 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... Special Flood Hazards § 391.35 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A State savings association shall use the standard flood hazard determination form developed by the...

  19. 7 CFR 1980.318 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.318... Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. RHS policy is to discourage lending in designated flood and mudslide hazard areas. Loan guarantees shall not be issued in designated flood/mudslide hazard areas unless...

  20. 12 CFR 760.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 760.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A credit union shall use the standard flood hazard...

  1. 12 CFR 572.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... TREASURY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 572.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A savings association shall use the standard flood hazard determination...

  2. 12 CFR 339.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 339.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A bank shall use the standard flood hazard...

  3. 12 CFR 339.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 339.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A bank shall use the standard flood hazard...

  4. 12 CFR 172.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... TREASURY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 172.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A Federal savings association shall use the standard flood hazard...

  5. 7 CFR 1980.318 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.318... Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. RHS policy is to discourage lending in designated flood and mudslide hazard areas. Loan guarantees shall not be issued in designated flood/mudslide hazard areas unless...

  6. 12 CFR 339.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 339.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A bank shall use the standard flood hazard...

  7. 12 CFR 572.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Required use of standard flood hazard... TREASURY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 572.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A savings association shall use the standard flood hazard determination...

  8. 7 CFR 1980.318 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.318... Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. RHS policy is to discourage lending in designated flood and mudslide hazard areas. Loan guarantees shall not be issued in designated flood/mudslide hazard areas unless...

  9. 12 CFR 22.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 22.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A bank shall use the standard flood hazard determination form developed by the...

  10. 12 CFR 172.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... TREASURY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 172.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A Federal savings association shall use the standard flood hazard...

  11. 12 CFR 572.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... TREASURY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 572.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A savings association shall use the standard flood hazard determination...

  12. 12 CFR 391.35 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... Special Flood Hazards § 391.35 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A State savings association shall use the standard flood hazard determination form developed by the...

  13. 12 CFR 22.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 22.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A bank shall use the standard flood hazard determination form developed by the...

  14. ASTER Maps Continued Pakistan Flooding

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-09-07

    On Sept. 3, 2010, when NASA Terra spacecraft captured this image strip over the Indus River in Pakistan, severe flooding was still causing a major humanitarian crisis in Pakistan. The city of Hyderabad is near the middle of the image.

  15. Improving flood risk mapping in Italy: the FloodRisk open-source software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albano, Raffaele; Mancusi, Leonardo; Craciun, Iulia; Sole, Aurelia; Ozunu, Alexandru

    2017-04-01

    management process, enhancing their awareness. This FOSS approach can promotes transparency and accountability through a process of "guided discovery". Moreover, the immediacy with which information is presented by the qualitative flood risk map, can facilitate and speed up the process of knowledge acquisition. An application of FloodRisk model is showed on a pilot case in "Serio" Valley, (North Italy), and its strengths and limits, in terms of additional efforts required in its application compared with EDQ procedure, have been highlighted focusing on the utility of the results provided for the development of FRMPs. Although they still present limits which prevent the FloodRisk application without critically consider the peculiarities of the investigated area in terms of available knowledge on hazard, exposure and vulnerability, the proposed approach surely produces an increase in available knowledge of flood risk and its drivers. This further information cannot be neglected for defining risk mitigation objectives and strategies. Hence, considering the ongoing efforts in the improvement of data availability and quality, FloodRisk could be a suitable tool for the next revision of flood risk maps due by December 2019, supporting effectively Italian and EU practitioners in the delineation of FRMPs (and for flood risk management in general).

  16. 78 FR 32679 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500... notification. This final notice is issued in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...

  17. 78 FR 14316 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500... notification. This final notice is issued in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...

  18. 78 FR 36216 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500... notification. This final notice is issued in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...

  19. 78 FR 36220 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500... notification. This final notice is issued in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...

  20. 78 FR 14318 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500... notification. This final notice is issued in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...

  1. 78 FR 20337 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500... notification. This final notice is issued in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...

  2. 78 FR 43907 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    .../preliminaryfloodhazarddata preliminaryfloodhazarddata City of Manhattan City Hall, 1101 Poyntz Avenue, Manhattan, KS 66502... Plaza, Manhattan, KS 66502. (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance No. 97.022, ``Flood Insurance...

  3. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Nacaome, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, M.C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Nacaome that would be inundated by 50-year floods on Rio Nacaome, Rio Grande, and Rio Guacirope. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Nacaome as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for 50-year-floods on Rio Nacaome, Rio Grande, and Rio Guacirope at Nacaome were computed using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area and ground surveys at two bridges. The estimated 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Nacaome at Nacaome, 5,040 cubic meters per second, was computed as the drainage-area-adjusted weighted average of two independently estimated 50-year-flood discharges for the gaging station Rio Nacaome en Las Mercedes, located about 13 kilometers upstream from Nacaome. One of the discharges, 4,549 cubic meters per second, was estimated from a frequency analysis of the 16 years of peak-discharge record for the gage, and the other, 1,922 cubic meters per second, was estimated from a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The weighted-average of the two discharges is 3,770 cubic meters per second. The 50-year-flood discharges for Rio Grande, 3,890 cubic meters per

  4. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Choluteca, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Choluteca that would be inundated by 50-year floods on Rio Choluteca and Rio Iztoca. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Choluteca as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for 50-year-floods on Rio Choluteca and Rio Iztoca at Choluteca were estimated using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. The estimated 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Choluteca at Choluteca is 4,620 cubic meters per second, which is the drainage-area-adjusted weighted-average of two independently estimated 50-year-flood discharges for the gaging station Rio Choluteca en Puente Choluteca. One discharge, 4,913 cubic meters per second, was estimated from a frequency analysis of the 17 years of peak discharge record for the gage, and the other, 2,650 cubic meters per second, was estimated from a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The weighted-average of the two discharges at the gage is 4,530 cubic meters per second. The 50-year-flood discharge for the study area reach of Rio Choluteca was estimated by multiplying the weighted discharge at the gage by the ratio of the drainage

  5. Flash flood area mapping utilising SENTINEL-1 radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psomiadis, Emmanouil

    2016-10-01

    The new European Observatory radar data of polar orbiting satellite system Sentinel-1 provide a continuous and systematic data acquisition, enabling flood events monitoring and mapping. The study area is the basin of Sperchios River in Fthiotida Prefecture, Central Greece, having an increased ecological, environmental and socio-economic interest. The catchment area and especially the river delta, faces several problems and threats caused by anthropogenic activities and natural processes. The geomorphology of Sperchios catchment area and the drainage network formation provoke the creation of floods. A large flash flood event took place in late January early February 2015 following an intense and heavy rainfall that occurred in the area. Two space born radar images, obtained from Sentinel-1 covering the same area, one before and another one during the flood event, were processed. Two different methods were utilized so as to produce flood hazard maps, which demonstrate the inundated areas. The results of the two methods were similar and the flooded area was detected and delineated ideally.

  6. 78 FR 14578 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood depth.... Township of McCandless McCandless Township Hall, 9955 Grubbs Road, Wexford, PA 15090. Township of Moon Township Office, 1000 Beaver Grade Road, Moon Township, PA 15108. Township of Neville Neville Township...

  7. Combined fluvial and pluvial urban flood hazard analysis: concept development and application to Can Tho city, Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, Heiko; Martínez Trepat, Oriol; Nghia Hung, Nguyen; Thi Chinh, Do; Merz, Bruno; Viet Dung, Nguyen

    2016-04-01

    coincidence into account. All hazards - fluvial, pluvial and combined - were accompanied by an uncertainty estimation taking into account the natural variability of the flood events. This resulted in probabilistic flood hazard maps showing the maximum inundation depths for a selected set of probabilities of occurrence, with maps showing the expectation (median) and the uncertainty by percentile maps. The results are critically discussed and their usage in flood risk management are outlined.

  8. The New Approach for Earhtquake Hazard Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, B.; Karnawati, D.; Anderson, R.

    2008-05-01

    It is the fact the hazard map, such as Earthquake Hazard Map, may not always effectively implemented in the mitigation effort. All of the hazard maps are technical maps which is not always easy to be understood and followed by the community living in the vulnerable areas. Therefore, some effots must be done to guarantee the effectiveness of hazard map. This paper will discuss about the approach and method for developing more appropriate earthquake hazard map in Bantul Regency, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Psychological mapping to identify levels and distributions of community trauma is proposed as the early reference for earhquake hazard mapping. By referring to this trauma zonation and combining with the seismicity and geological mapping, the earthquake hazard mapping can be established. It is also interesting that this approach is not only providing more appropriate hazard map, but also stimulating the community empowerement in the earthquake vulnerable areas. Several training for improving community awareness are also conducted as a part of the mapping process.

  9. Potential flood hazard assessment by integration of ALOS PALSAR and ASTER GDEM: a case study for the Hoa Chau commune, Hoa Vang district, in central Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huong, Do Thi Viet; Nagasawa, Ryota

    2014-01-01

    The potential flood hazard was assessed for the Hoa Chau commune in central Vietnam in order to identify the high flood hazard zones for the decision makers who will execute future rural planning. A new approach for deriving the potential flood hazard based on integration of inundation and flow direction maps is described. Areas inundated in the historical flood event of 2007 were extracted from Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) phased array L-band synthetic aperture data radar (PALSAR) images, while flow direction characteristics were derived from the ASTER GDEM to extract the depressed surfaces. Past flood experience and the flow direction were then integrated to analyze and rank the potential flood hazard zones. The land use/cover map extracted from LANDSAT TM and flood depth point records from field surveys were utilized to check the possibility of susceptible inundated areas, extracting data from ALOS PALSAR and ranking the potential flood hazard. The estimation of potential flood hazard areas revealed that 17.43% and 17.36% of Hoa Chau had high and medium potential flood hazards, respectively. The flow direction and ALOS PALSAR data were effectively integrated for determining the potential flood hazard when hydrological and meteorological data were inadequate and remote sensing images taken during flood times were not available or were insufficient.

  10. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Juticalpa, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, M.C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Juticalpa that would be inundated by a 50-year flood of Rio Juticalpa. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Juticalpa as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for a 50-year-flood on Rio Juticalpa at Juticalpa were estimated using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. The estimated 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Juticalpa at Juticalpa, 1,360 cubic meters per second, was computed as the drainage-area-adjusted weighted average of two independently estimated 50-year-flood discharges for the gaging station Rio Juticalpa en El Torito, located about 2 kilometers upstream from Juticalpa. One discharge, 1,551 cubic meters per second, was estimated from a frequency analysis of the 33 years of peak-discharge record for the gage, and the other, 486 cubic meters per second, was estimated from a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The weighted-average of the two discharges at the gage is 1,310 cubic meters per second. The 50-year flood discharge for the study area reach of Rio Juticalpa was estimated by multiplying the weighted discharge at the gage by the

  11. 78 FR 20338 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... Areas of Knox County.... Knox County Engineering and Public Works Department, 205 West Baxter Avenue, Knoxville, TN 37917. (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance No. 97.022, ``Flood Insurance.'') Roy E....

  12. 78 FR 43906 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    .... Additional information regarding the SRP process can be found online at http://floodsrp.org/pdfs/srp_fact... Riverside Riverside County Flood Control County. and Water Conservation District, 1995 Market...

  13. 77 FR 21791 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... insurance agents and others to calculate appropriate flood insurance premium rates for new buildings and the... New Haven City Hall, 165 Church Street, New Haven, CT 06510. City of West Haven City Hall, 355 Main...

  14. 78 FR 45938 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ..., MI 48174. City of Taylor 25605 Northline Road, Taylor, MI 48180. City of Westland 36601 Ford Road... Domestic Assistance No. 97.022, ``Flood Insurance.'') Dated: July 12, 2013. Roy E. Wright, Deputy...

  15. Flood Hazards: Communicating Hydrology and Complexity to the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, R. R.; Blanchard, S. F.; Mason, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    Floods have a major impact on society and the environment. Since 1952, approximately 1,233 of 1,931 (64%) Federal disaster declarations were due directly to flooding, with an additional 297 due to hurricanes which had associated flooding. Although the overall average annual number of deaths due to flooding has decreased in the United States, the average annual flood damage is rising. According to the Munich Reinsurance Company in their publication “Schadenspiegel 3/2005”, during 1990s the world experienced as much as $500 billion in economic losses due to floods, highlighting the serious need for continued emphasis on flood-loss prevention measures. Flood-loss prevention has two major elements: mitigation (including structural flood-control measures and land-use planning and regulation) and risk awareness. Of the two, increasing risk awareness likely offers the most potential for protecting lives over the near-term and long-term sustainability in the coming years. Flood-risk awareness and risk-aware behavior is dependent on communication, involving both prescriptive and educational measures. Prescriptive measures (for example, flood warnings and stormwater ordinances) are and have been effective, but there is room for improvement. New communications technologies, particularly social media utilizing mobile, smart phones and text devices, for example, could play a significant role in increasing public awareness of long-term risk and near-term flood conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), for example, the Federal agency that monitors the Nation’s rivers, recently released a new service that can better connect the to the public to information about flood hazards. The new service, WaterAlert (URL: http://water.usgs.gov/wateralert/), allows users to set flood notification thresholds of their own choosing for any USGS real-time streamgage. The system then sends emails or text messages to subscribers whenever the threshold conditions are met, as often as the

  16. 77 FR 74856 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... Community map repository modification No. Alabama: Baldwin (FEMA Docket No.: City of Gulf Shores The.... ] (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance No. 97.022, ``Flood Insurance.'') Dated: November 28, 2012. James...

  17. Flood Hazard in Barpeta District, Assam: Environmental Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talukdar, Naba Kumar

    The study deals with various aspects of flood hazard in Barpeta district of Assam, Northeast India. It is broadly confined to three basic themes - general perspectives, environmental perspectives and flood hazard mitigation. The first theme includes the study on flow characteristics of the major rivers of the district during rainy season and zoning of flood prone areas. The second theme deals with some environmental aspects of floods in the district, such as river water quality during floods, effects of floods on soil quality, human health and socioeconomic losses. Flood mitigation study includes discussion on measures adopted for flood mitigation in the district and suggested management strategies. The study covers a wide range of database generated from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data on relevant parameters of soil and water are generated by using proper sampling procedures and standard laboratory methods. Suitable graphical and statistical methods have been used to analyze and interpret different kinds of data. All the relevant data and surveyed information on the perspective of the flood plain dwellers of the district are integrated together in formulating flood management strategies. The Barpeta District of Assam covers an area of 3245 sq. km. comprising 4.2% of the total area of the state. The district has fascinating diversified landscape sloping from north to south which includes highlands covered by forests, plain fertile lands suitable for agricultural activities and low lying areas containing-water bodies and swamps. Flood is a perennial problem and all kinds of common flood damages prevail in the district. Floods cause large-scale damages to the socio-economic life of the people as well as to the ecology and environment of the district to a certain extent. The rivers Manas, Beki, Pahumara and Kaldia and their tributaries, which emerge from Eastern Himalaya, create flood havocs in the district. During monsoon period, these rivers are

  18. 24 CFR 201.28 - Flood and hazard insurance, and Coastal Barriers properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flood and hazard insurance, and... Disbursement Requirements § 201.28 Flood and hazard insurance, and Coastal Barriers properties. (a) Flood... part if the property securing repayment of the loan is located in a special flood hazard area...

  19. 12 CFR 614.4940 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Flood Insurance Requirements § 614.4940 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. System institutions must use the standard flood hazard...

  20. 12 CFR 614.4940 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Flood Insurance Requirements § 614.4940 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. System institutions must use the standard flood hazard...

  1. 12 CFR 614.4940 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Flood Insurance Requirements § 614.4940 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. System institutions must use the standard flood hazard...

  2. 24 CFR 201.28 - Flood and hazard insurance, and Coastal Barriers properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Flood and hazard insurance, and... Disbursement Requirements § 201.28 Flood and hazard insurance, and Coastal Barriers properties. (a) Flood... part if the property securing repayment of the loan is located in a special flood hazard area...

  3. 12 CFR 614.4940 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Flood Insurance Requirements § 614.4940 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. System institutions must use the standard flood hazard...

  4. 24 CFR 201.28 - Flood and hazard insurance, and Coastal Barriers properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Flood and hazard insurance, and... Disbursement Requirements § 201.28 Flood and hazard insurance, and Coastal Barriers properties. (a) Flood... part if the property securing repayment of the loan is located in a special flood hazard area...

  5. 24 CFR 201.28 - Flood and hazard insurance, and Coastal Barriers properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Flood and hazard insurance, and... Disbursement Requirements § 201.28 Flood and hazard insurance, and Coastal Barriers properties. (a) Flood... part if the property securing repayment of the loan is located in a special flood hazard area...

  6. 24 CFR 201.28 - Flood and hazard insurance, and Coastal Barriers properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Flood and hazard insurance, and... Disbursement Requirements § 201.28 Flood and hazard insurance, and Coastal Barriers properties. (a) Flood... part if the property securing repayment of the loan is located in a special flood hazard area...

  7. 12 CFR 614.4940 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Flood Insurance Requirements § 614.4940 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. System institutions must use the standard flood hazard...

  8. A GIS Flood Tool for Rapid Inundation Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdin, K. L.; Verdin, J. P.; Gadain, H.; Mathis, M.; Woodbury, M.; Rusack, E.; Brakenridge, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    Many developing countries lack objectively produced flood inundation mapping around which to build scenarios for mitigation and response planning. Conventional methods, involving costly field surveys and hydraulic modeling, are often beyond the means of sub-national and national units of government. At the same time, organizations with a global perspective on flooding (UN agencies, donor disaster assistance agencies, non-governmental organizations, and insurance companies) lack a globally consistent approach for flood hazard characterization. In order to meet these needs, tools were developed for flood mapping with globally available or locally produced topographic data. The tools were tested in a variety of settings with the assistance of a number of partner organizations. This work was done in cooperation with the U.S. Agency for International Development Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance. The resulting GIS Flood Tool (GFT) was developed to operate on digital elevation model (DEM) data to produce patterns of flood inundation corresponding to a river discharge or stage value specified by the user. The GFT uses the DEM to derive stream networks and stream cross-sections. The Manning equation is then used to construct a stage-discharge relationship for each cross-section. Use of the stage-discharge relationship along with a specially processed Relative DEM allows for rapid mapping of the inundated extent. The resulting inundation patterns can be used in conjunction with additional geographic information describing settlement patterns, transportation networks, land use and land cover to assess vulnerability to flood events and support preparedness planning. Comparison of the GFT results with inundation patterns produced using conventional hydraulic modeling approaches (HEC-RAS) and satellite remote sensing shows good correlation in many settings. Training sessions have been conducted in East Africa, where the tool is in use by national and regional

  9. Integrated flood risk assessment for the Mekong Delta through the combined assessment of flood hazard change and social vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, Heiko; Garschagen, Matthias; Delgado, José Miguel; Viet Dung, Nguyen; Van Tuan, Vo; Thanh Binh, Nguyen; Birkmann, Joern; Merz, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    agro-ecological zones and socio-economic population profiles. The focus herein is particularly on understanding the causal constellations and trajectories of vulnerability patterns. Secondly, key vulnerability parameters identified in step one are translated into quantitative indicators and aggregated into a vulnerability index, allowing for spatial analysis. Thirdly, ways to assess future vulnerability trajectories in the context of the ongoing socio-economic transformation in the Mekong Delta are explored. In effect, this analysis generates an integrated risk assessment that is based not only on an advancement of current flood hazard assessments but also on a detailed vulnerability assessment that goes beyond the mapping of exposure. The study thereby contributes knowledge of great relevance for informing disaster risk management and adaptation policies. In addition, the analysis allows for a dynamic perspective and the examination of key trends in the flood risk of the Mekong Delta.

  10. Application of physical erosion modelling to derive off-site muddy flood hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annika Arevalo, Sarah; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Muddy floods are local inundation events after heavy rain storms. They occur inside watersheds before the runoff reaches a river. The sediment is eroded from agricultural fields and transported with the surface runoff into adjacent residential areas. The environment where muddy floods occur is very small scaled. The damages related to muddy floods are caused by the runoff-water (flooded houses and cellars) and the transported sediment that is deposited on infrastructure and private properties. There are a variety of factors that drive the occurrence of muddy floods. The spatial extend is rather small and the distribution is very heterogeneous. This makes the prediction of the precise locations that are endangered by muddy flooding a challenge. The aim of this investigation is to identify potential hazard areas that might suffer muddy flooding out of modelled soil erosion data. For the German state of Saxony there is a modelled map of soil erosion and particle transport available. The model applied is EROSION 3D. The spatial resolution is a 20 m raster and the conditions assumed are a 10 year rainfall event on uncovered agricultural soils. A digital landuse map is edified, containing the outer borders of potential risk elements (residential and industrial areas, streets, railroads, etc.) that can be damaged by muddy flooding. The landuse map is merged with the transported sediment map calculated with EROSION 3D. The result precisely depicts the locations where high amounts of sediments might be transported into urban areas under worst case conditions. This map was validated with observed muddy flood events that proved to coincide very well with areas predicted to have a potentially high sediment input.

  11. Has land subsidence changed the flood hazard potential? A case example from the Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. L.; Ito, Y.; Sawamukai, M.; Su, T.; Tokunaga, T.

    2015-11-01

    Coastal areas are subject to flood hazards because of their topographic features, social development and related human activities. The Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan, is located nearby the Tokyo metropolitan area and it faces to the Pacific Ocean. In the Kujukuri Plain, widespread occurrence of land subsidence has been caused by exploitation of groundwater, extraction of natural gas dissolved in brine, and natural consolidation of the Holocene and landfill deposits. The locations of land subsidence include areas near the coast, and it may increase the flood hazard potential. Hence, it is very important to evaluate flood hazard potential by taking into account the temporal change of land elevation caused by land subsidence, and to prepare hazard maps for protecting the surface environment and for developing an appropriate land-use plan. In this study, flood hazard assessments at three different times, i.e., 1970, 2004, and 2013 are implemented by using a flood hazard model based on Multicriteria Decision Analysis with Geographical Information System techniques. The model incorporates six factors: elevation, depression area, river system, ratio of impermeable area, detention ponds, and precipitation. Main data sources used are 10 m resolution topography data, airborne laser scanning data, leveling data, Landsat-TM data, two 1:30 000 scale river watershed maps, and precipitation data from observation stations around the study area and Radar data. The hazard assessment maps for each time are obtained by using an algorithm that combines factors with weighted linear combinations. The assignment of the weight/rank values and their analysis are realized by the application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process method. This study is a preliminary work to investigate flood hazards on the Kujukuri Plain. A flood model will be developed to simulate more detailed change of the flood hazard influenced by land subsidence.

  12. Adige river in Trento flooding map, 1892: private or public risk transfer?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranzi, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    For the determination of the flood risk hydrologist and hydraulic engineers focuse their attention mainly to the estimation of physical factors determining the flood hazard, while economists and experts of social sciences deal mainly with the estimation of vulnerability and exposure. The fact that flood zoning involves both hydrological and socio-economic aspects, however, was clear already in the XIX century when the impact of floods on inundated areas started to appear in flood maps, for instance in the UK and in Italy. A pioneering 'flood risk' map for the Adige river in Trento, Italy, was already published in 1892, taking into account in detail both hazard intensity in terms of velocity and depth, frequency of occurrence, vulnerability and economic costs for flood protection with river embankments. This map is likely to be the reinterpreted certainly as a pioneering, and possibly as the first flood risk map for an Italian river and worldwide. Risk levels were divided in three categories and seven sub-categories, depending on flood water depth, velocity, frequency and damage costs. It is interesting to notice the fact that at that time the map was used to share the cost of levees' reparation and enhancement after the severe September 1882 flood as a function of the estimated level of protection of the respective areas against the flood risk. The sharing of costs between public bodies, the railway company and private owners was debated for about 20 years and at the end the public sustained the major costs. This shows how already at that time the economic assessment of structural flood protections was based on objective and rational cost-benefit criteria, that hydraulic risk mapping was perceived by the society as fundamental for the design of flood protection systems and that a balanced cost sharing between public and private was an accepted approach although some protests arose at that time.

  13. Flood Hazard and Risk Analysis in Urban Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chen-Jia; Hsu, Ming-hsi; Teng, Wei-Hsien; Lin, Tsung-Hsien

    2017-04-01

    Typhoons always induce heavy rainfall during summer and autumn seasons in Taiwan. Extreme weather in recent years often causes severe flooding which result in serious losses of life and property. With the rapid industrial and commercial development, people care about not only the quality of life, but also the safety of life and property. So the impact of life and property due to disaster is the most serious problem concerned by the residents. For the mitigation of the disaster impact, the flood hazard and risk analysis play an important role for the disaster prevention and mitigation. In this study, the vulnerability of Kaohsiung city was evaluated by statistics of social development factor. The hazard factors of Kaohsiung city was calculated by simulated flood depth of six different return periods and four typhoon events which result in serious flooding in Kaohsiung city. The flood risk can be obtained by means of the flood hazard and social vulnerability. The analysis results provide authority to strengthen disaster preparedness and to set up more resources in high risk areas.

  14. 77 FR 44650 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42 U.S.C. 4104, and 44 CFR 67.4(a). These... sciences established to review conflicting scientific and technical data and provide recommendations for... Richmond Street, Giddings, TX 78942. Town of Lexington City Hall, 604 Wheatley Street, Lexington, TX...

  15. 78 FR 20344 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ...?choLoco=48&choProj=285 City of Vallejo Public Works, 555 Santa Clara Street, Vallejo, CA 94590. Unincorporated Areas of Solano County.. Public Works Department, 675 Texas Street, Suite 5500, Fairfield, CA... Federal Domestic Assistance No. 97.022, ``Flood Insurance.'') Roy E. Wright, Deputy...

  16. 78 FR 36217 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1325, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42 U.S.C. 4104, and 44 CFR 67.4(a)....

  17. 78 FR 32678 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500... notification. This final notice is issued in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act... Narragansett Town Hall, Engineering Department, 25 5th Avenue, Narragansett, RI 02882. Town of New Shoreham...

  18. 78 FR 32679 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1309, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42 U.S.C. 4104, and 44 CFR 67.4(a)....

  19. 78 FR 20341 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... Docket No. FEMA-B-1303, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and....Rodriguez3@fema.dhs.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management... the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42 U.S.C. 4104, and 44 CFR 67.4(a). These proposed...

  20. 77 FR 55856 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... County. Yavapai County Flood Control District Office, 500 South Marina Street, Prescott, AZ 86303. Yuma.../Pages/Arizona.aspx?choState=Arizona City of Yuma Community Planning Department, 1 City Plaza, Yuma, AZ 85364. Town of Wellton Town Hall, 28634 Oakland Avenue, Wellton, AZ 85356. Unincorporated Areas of Yuma...

  1. 78 FR 64521 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... order to qualify or remain qualified for participation in the Federal Emergency Management Agency's... insurance agents and others to calculate appropriate flood insurance premium rates for buildings and the contents of those buildings. DATES: The effective date of November 20, 2013 which has been established for...

  2. 78 FR 29761 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... order to qualify or remain qualified for participation in the Federal Emergency Management Agency's... insurance ] agents and others to calculate appropriate flood insurance premium rates for buildings and the contents of those buildings. DATES: The effective date of September 27, 2013 which has been established for...

  3. 77 FR 74859 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... Paz County, Arizona, and Incorporated Areas Maps Available for Inspection Online at: http://www.r9map.org/Pages/Arizona.aspx?choState=Arizona Unincorporated Areas of La Paz County.. La Paz County...

  4. 32 CFR 644.352 - Evaluation and reporting of flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Evaluation and reporting of flood hazards. 644... Property to General Services Administration (gsa) § 644.352 Evaluation and reporting of flood hazards... presence of flood hazards. If such hazards are found, a report will be forwarded to HQDA (DAEN-REM...

  5. 32 CFR 644.352 - Evaluation and reporting of flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Evaluation and reporting of flood hazards. 644... Property to General Services Administration (gsa) § 644.352 Evaluation and reporting of flood hazards... presence of flood hazards. If such hazards are found, a report will be forwarded to HQDA (DAEN-REM...

  6. 32 CFR 644.352 - Evaluation and reporting of flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evaluation and reporting of flood hazards. 644... Property to General Services Administration (gsa) § 644.352 Evaluation and reporting of flood hazards... presence of flood hazards. If such hazards are found, a report will be forwarded to HQDA (DAEN-REM...

  7. 32 CFR 644.352 - Evaluation and reporting of flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evaluation and reporting of flood hazards. 644... Property to General Services Administration (gsa) § 644.352 Evaluation and reporting of flood hazards... presence of flood hazards. If such hazards are found, a report will be forwarded to HQDA (DAEN-REM...

  8. 32 CFR 644.352 - Evaluation and reporting of flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Evaluation and reporting of flood hazards. 644... Property to General Services Administration (gsa) § 644.352 Evaluation and reporting of flood hazards... presence of flood hazards. If such hazards are found, a report will be forwarded to HQDA (DAEN-REM...

  9. 78 FR 29768 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... online through the FEMA Map Service Center at www.msc.fema.gov for comparison. You may submit comments... Map Service Center at www.msc.fema.gov for comparison. Community Community Map Repository Address... Borough Hall, 50 Senate Street, Wyalusing, PA 18853. Township of Albany Township of Albany, 817 Dog...

  10. 77 FR 73490 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ...) Maps Available for Inspection Online at: http://www.r9map.org/Pages/countyPage.aspx?choLoco=90&choProj... Inspection Online at: http://www.r9map.org/Pages/countyPage.aspx?choLoco=43&choProj=271 City of...

  11. Flood Hazard and Risk Assessment of Santa Maria, Laguna, Philippines Through Ground Validation and FLO-2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldago, M. C. B.; Ballesteros, C. C.; Ybanez, R. L.

    2016-12-01

    On average, 20 typhoons enter the Philippine area of responsibility annually, 9 of which make landfall. As a result, many areas in the country are highly vulnerable to flooding. Geohazard mapping and assessment are priority programs of the government in order to reduce the impact of these natural disasters This study conducted flood hazard and risk assessment in Santa Maria, a flood prone municipality of the Laguna province. A 10 meter resolution flood map was generated using FLO-2D, a two-dimensional flood routing software. The simulation utilized the rainfall data of Tropical Storm Ketsana in 2009. The resulting flood map was verified by interviewing the residents of Santa Maria about the extent and estimated maximum flood heights during extreme flooding events. The topography, river morphology and structural measures were also considered in the analysis of the flooding scenario. Examining the topography of the area, the urban center of Santa Maria is located in a catchment basin where three major tributaries converge. The simulated map confirms this, showing the area where the rivers converge is under moderate to high flood risk (higher than 0.5 meters flood height). The results of the interviews correspond with the flood map; wherein the residents from the southern part of Santa Maria experienced flood heights of up to 2 meters during Tropical Storm Ketsana. On the other hand, the residents on the northern part of the municipality described comparatively lower flood levels of up to 0.5 meters. Most of them reported that the flood generally subsided within the day. There were also flood control projects started in 2012 by the local government such as a dike construction, widening and de-clogging of rivers. Since then, the residents claimed that the flooding in their area has been reduced. The findings of this study show the potential of flood modeling in hazard mapping in the Philippines. It has minimal cost and can be used to simulate flood even in areas where

  12. Open Source Web-Based Solutions for Disseminating and Analyzing Flood Hazard Information at the Community Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    -Santillan, M. M.-M.; Santillan, J. R.; Morales, E. M. O.

    2017-09-01

    We discuss in this paper the development, including the features and functionalities, of an open source web-based flood hazard information dissemination and analytical system called "Flood EViDEns". Flood EViDEns is short for "Flood Event Visualization and Damage Estimations", an application that was developed by the Caraga State University to address the needs of local disaster managers in the Caraga Region in Mindanao, Philippines in accessing timely and relevant flood hazard information before, during and after the occurrence of flood disasters at the community (i.e., barangay and household) level. The web application made use of various free/open source web mapping and visualization technologies (GeoServer, GeoDjango, OpenLayers, Bootstrap), various geospatial datasets including LiDAR-derived elevation and information products, hydro-meteorological data, and flood simulation models to visualize various scenarios of flooding and its associated damages to infrastructures. The Flood EViDEns application facilitates the release and utilization of this flood-related information through a user-friendly front end interface consisting of web map and tables. A public version of the application can be accessed at http://121.97.192.11:8082/. The application is currently expanded to cover additional sites in Mindanao, Philippines through the "Geo-informatics for the Systematic Assessment of Flood Effects and Risks for a Resilient Mindanao" or the "Geo-SAFER Mindanao" Program.

  13. Utilising social media contents for flood inundation mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröter, Kai; Dransch, Doris; Fohringer, Joachim; Kreibich, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    Data about the hazard and its consequences are scarce and not readily available during and shortly after a disaster. An information source which should be explored in a more efficient way is eyewitness accounts via social media. This research presents a methodology that leverages social media content to support rapid inundation mapping, including inundation extent and water depth in the case of floods. It uses quantitative data that are estimated from photos extracted from social media posts and their integration with established data. Due to the rapid availability of these posts compared to traditional data sources such as remote sensing data, areas affected by a flood, for example, can be determined quickly. Key challenges are to filter the large number of posts to a manageable amount of potentially useful inundation-related information, and to interpret and integrate the posts into mapping procedures in a timely manner. We present a methodology and a tool ("PostDistiller") to filter geo-located posts from social media services which include links to photos and to further explore this spatial distributed contextualized in situ information for inundation mapping. The June 2013 flood in Dresden is used as an application case study in which we evaluate the utilization of this approach and compare the resulting spatial flood patterns and inundation depths to 'traditional' data sources and mapping approaches like water level observations and remote sensing flood masks. The outcomes of the application case are encouraging. Strengths of the proposed procedure are that information for the estimation of inundation depth is rapidly available, particularly in urban areas where it is of high interest and of great value because alternative information sources like remote sensing data analysis do not perform very well. The uncertainty of derived inundation depth data and the uncontrollable availability of the information sources are major threats to the utility of the approach.

  14. St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Robert A.; Steckel, Phyllis; Schweig, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    St. Louis has experienced minor earthquake damage at least 12 times in the past 200 years. Because of this history and its proximity to known active earthquake zones, the St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project will produce digital maps that show variability of earthquake hazards in the St. Louis area. The maps will be available free via the internet. They can be customized by the user to show specific areas of interest, such as neighborhoods or transportation routes.

  15. Toward economic flood loss characterization via hazard simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czajkowski, Jeffrey; Cunha, Luciana K.; Michel-Kerjan, Erwann; Smith, James A.

    2016-08-01

    Among all natural disasters, floods have historically been the primary cause of human and economic losses around the world. Improving flood risk management requires a multi-scale characterization of the hazard and associated losses—the flood loss footprint. But this is typically not available in a precise and timely manner, yet. To overcome this challenge, we propose a novel and multidisciplinary approach which relies on a computationally efficient hydrological model that simulates streamflow for scales ranging from small creeks to large rivers. We adopt a normalized index, the flood peak ratio (FPR), to characterize flood magnitude across multiple spatial scales. The simulated FPR is then shown to be a key statistical driver for associated economic flood losses represented by the number of insurance claims. Importantly, because it is based on a simulation procedure that utilizes generally readily available physically-based data, our flood simulation approach has the potential to be broadly utilized, even for ungauged and poorly gauged basins, thus providing the necessary information for public and private sector actors to effectively reduce flood losses and save lives.

  16. Suitability estimation for urban development using multi-hazard assessment map.

    PubMed

    Bathrellos, George D; Skilodimou, Hariklia D; Chousianitis, Konstantinos; Youssef, Ahmed M; Pradhan, Biswajeet

    2017-01-01

    Preparation of natural hazards maps are vital and essential for urban development. The main scope of this study is to synthesize natural hazard maps in a single multi-hazard map and thus to identify suitable areas for the urban development. The study area is the drainage basin of Xerias stream (Northeastern Peloponnesus, Greece) that has frequently suffered damages from landslides, floods and earthquakes. Landslide, flood and seismic hazard assessment maps were separately generated and further combined by applying the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and utilizing a Geographical Information System (GIS) to produce a multi-hazard map. This map represents the potential suitability map for urban development in the study area and was evaluated by means of uncertainty analysis. The outcome revealed that the most suitable areas are distributed in the southern part of the study area, where the landslide, flood and seismic hazards are at low and very low level. The uncertainty analysis shows small differences on the spatial distribution of the suitability zones. The produced suitability map for urban development proves a satisfactory agreement between the suitability zones and the landslide and flood phenomena that have affected the study area. Finally, 40% of the existing urban pattern boundaries and 60% of the current road network are located within the limits of low and very low suitability zones.

  17. The geomorphic context of flood hazards in Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renwick, W.; Balthazar, S. L.; Boardman, M. R.; Hillaire, J. V.; Laviolette, L. L.; Primack, A. G.; Tardieu, J. F.; Eliacin, J.

    2005-05-01

    Devastating floods struck Fonds Verrettes, Mapou, and Gonaives, Haiti in 2004, killing thousands and calling attention to the threat of catastrophic flooding in that country. That threat provides a focus for expanding collaborations in field and service learning in Haiti. Past field and service-learning collaboration with Universite Notre Dame d'Haiti (UNDH) resulted in an invitation to evaluate the flooding potential of Haiti's largest city - Port-au-Prince. High population densities, land cover change, the geomorphic setting of Port-au-Prince, combine to make that city particularly vulnerable to catastrophic flooding. Climate change and associated sea level rise are also a concern. Port-au-Prince lies at the foot of steeply sloping mountain areas of the Massif de La Selle. Much of the urban area is built on alluvial fans, coastal plains, and recent deltaic deposits. While data are rare to nonexistent, deforestation in the mountain areas upstream from the city and extensive urbanization, especially in the last few decades, is virtually certain to have increased storm runoff volumes and reduced lag times. Different flood hazards can be identified in four geomorphic zones: 1) valleys in steeply sloping areas, where channel erosion and associated slope failures threaten streamside communities; 2) alluvial fans, where rapid aggradation, mudflow deposition and channel avulsion contribute to channel instability; 3) coastal plains, where gentle slopes impede drainage of flood water; and 4) deltaic areas formed and settled in the last few decades subject to storm surge and possibly subsidence in addition to runoff-derived flooding. These zones can serve as a framework for flood hazard identification and management. With the cooperation of the Haitian government and non-profit organizations, students and faculty from Miami University and UNDH will combine talents to measure the flood potential of a single, critical watershed in Port-au-Prince and establish a community

  18. 78 FR 48888 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... Map Service Center at www.msc.fema.gov for comparison. I. Non-watershed-based studies: Community map... the communities listed in the table below. The purpose of this notice is to seek general information... Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has provided to the affected communities. The FIRM and FIS report are...

  19. Safety of Italian dams in the face of flood hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocchiola, Daniele; Rosso, Renzo

    2014-09-01

    Most rivers in Italy are segmented by dams that need rehabilitation because of (1) safety requirements by increasingly risk-averse societies, (2) changes in the downstream river and riparian system after dams building, (3) poor initial design at the time of completion and (4) modified priorities of watershed management. Safe design of flood spillways is a major concern, and requires to cope with low frequency flood hazard. One must estimate flood figures with high return periods (R ⩾ 1000-10,000 years) but statistical methods involve large uncertainties because of the short length of the available records. This paper investigates the return period of the design flood of existing spillways RS of large dams in Italy. We used re-normalized flood frequency approach and regionalization using the Generalized Extreme Value distribution. The estimation of the site specific index flood is carried out by simple scaling with basin area at the regional level. The result show that 55% (245) of the 448 examined dams are equipped by spillway with RS > 10,000; and 71% (315) of the dams have RS > 1000. Conversely, 29% (130) of the dams display RS < 1000 years, lower than acceptable hazard. The spillway of 14% (62) of the dams has RS < 100 years, indicating potential exceedance of spillways capacity. Reservoir routing may dampen the outflow hydrograph, but one should carefully account for the need of achieving accurate dam safety assessment of these dams based on site specific investigations, also accounting for global change forcing.

  20. 77 FR 77082 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... modified flood hazard determinations has been published in newspapers of local circulation and ninety (90...- The Honorable City Hall 4501 Ocean July 13, 2012 125123 (FEMA Docket No.: the-Sea. Roseann Minnet...- Sea, 4501 Ocean Drive, Lauderdale- by-the-Sea, FL 33308. Kentucky: Fayette Lexington-Fayette The...

  1. 77 FR 67016 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... Zoning, 628 Kihekah Avenue, Pawhuska, OK 74056. ] Jefferson County, Colorado, and Incorporated Areas Maps... Department of County. Planning and Zoning, 100 Jefferson County Parkway, Suite 3, Golden, CO 80401....

  2. Use of Geologic and Paleoflood Information for INL Probabilistic Flood Hazard Decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostenaa, D.; O'Connell, D.; Creed, B.

    2009-05-01

    The Big Lost River is a western U.S., closed basin stream which flows through and terminates on the Idaho National Laboratory. Historic flows are highly regulated, and peak flows decline downstream through natural and anthropomorphic influences. Glaciated headwater regions were the source of Pleistocene outburst floods which traversed the site. A wide range of DOE facilities (including a nuclear research reactor) require flood stage estimates for flow exceedance probabilities over a range from 1/100/yr to 1/100,000/yr per DOE risk based standards. These risk management objectives required the integration of geologic and geomorphic paleoflood data into Bayesian non parametric flood frequency analyses that incorporated measurement uncertainties in gaged, historical, and paleoflood discharges and non exceedance bounds to produce fully probabilistic flood frequency estimates for annual exceedance probabilities of specific discharges of interest. Two-dimensional hydraulic flow modeling with scenarios for varied hydraulic parameters, infiltration, and culvert blockages on the site was conducted for a range of discharges from 13-700 m3/s. High-resolution topographic grids and two-dimensional flow modeling allowed detailed evaluation of the potential impacts of numerous secondary channels and flow paths resulting from flooding in extreme events. These results were used to construct stage probability curves for 15 key locations on the site consistent with DOE standards. These probability curves resulted from the systematic inclusion of contributions of uncertainty from flood sources, hydraulic modeling, and flood-frequency analyses. These products also provided a basis to develop weights for logic tree branches associated with infiltration and culvert performance scenarios to produce probabilistic inundation maps. The flood evaluation process was structured using Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee processes (NRC-NUREG/CR-6372) concepts, evaluating and integrating the

  3. 78 FR 45937 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ...-based studies: Community map repository Community address Mason County, West Virginia, and Incorporated... Mason Office of the Mayor, 656 2nd Street, Mason, WV 25260. Town of New Haven Town of New Haven City Hall, 218 5th Street, New Haven, WV 25265. Unincorporated Areas of Mason County... Mason County...

  4. 78 FR 36215 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... Cloud County, Kansas, and Incorporated Areas Maps Available for Inspection Online at: www.fema.gov.... City of Miltonvale City Hall, 107 Starr Avenue, Miltonvale, KS 67466. Unincorporated Areas of Cloud County... Cloud County Courthouse, 811 Washington Street, Concordia, KS 66901. (Catalog of Federal...

  5. 78 FR 14584 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... 200, Hernando, MS 38632. Nash County, North Carolina, and Incorporated Areas Maps Available for Inspection Online at: www.ncfloodmaps.com Town of Middlesex Town Hall, 10232 South Nash Street, Middlesex, NC 27557. Unincorporated Areas of Nash County.... Nash County Planning Department, 120 West...

  6. CADYRI, a dynamic mapping tool of human risk associated with flooding in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanguy, M.; Chokmani, K.; Bernier, M.; Poulin, J.

    2013-12-01

    When a flood affects an urban area, the managers and services responsible for public safety need precise and real time information on the localization of the flooded areas, on the submersion heights in those areas, but also on the vulnerability of people exposed to this hazard. Such information is essential for an effective crisis management. Despite a growing interest in this topic over the last 15 years, the development of flood risk assessment tools mainly focused on quantitative modeling of the monetary damages caused by floods to residential buildings or to critical infrastructures. Little attention was paid to the vulnerability of people exposed to flooding but also to the effects of the failure or destruction of critical infrastructures and residential building on people health and security during the disaster. Moreover, these models do not integrate the dynamic features of the flood (extent, submersion heights) and the evolution of human vulnerability in the same mapping tool. Thus, an accurate and precise evaluation of human risk induced by urban flooding is hardly feasible using such models. This study presents CADYRI, a dynamic mapping tool of human risk associated with flooding in urban areas, which fills the actual needs in terms of flood risk evaluation and management. This innovative tool integrates a methodology of flood hazard mapping that simulates, for a given discharge, the associated water level, and subsequently determines the extent of the flooded area and the submersion heights at each point of the flooded area, using a DEM. The dynamics of human vulnerability is then mapped at the household level, according to the characteristics of the flood hazard. Three key components of human vulnerability have been identified and are integrated to CADYRI: 1, the intrinsic vulnerability of the population, estimated by specific socio-economic indicators; 2, the vulnerability of buildings, assessed by their structural features; 3, the vulnerability of

  7. Development of flood profiles and flood-inundation maps for the Village of Killbuck, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostheimer, Chad J.

    2013-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a reach of Killbuck Creek near the Village of Killbuck, Ohio, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Holmes County, Ohio. The inundation maps depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage Killbuck Creek near Killbuck (03139000) and were completed as part of an update to Federal Emergency Management Agency Flood-Insurance Study. The maps were provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into a Web-based flood-warning system that can be used in conjunction with NWS flood-forecast data to show areas of predicted flood inundation associated with forecasted flood-peak stages. The digital maps also have been submitted for inclusion in the data libraries of the USGS interactive Flood Inundation Mapper. Data from the streamgage can be used by emergency-management personnel, in conjunction with the flood-inundation maps, to help determine a course of action when flooding is imminent. Flood profiles for selected reaches were prepared by calibrating a steady-state step-backwater model to an established streamgage rating curve. The step-backwater model then was used to determine water-surface-elevation profiles for 10 flood stages at the streamgage with corresponding streamflows ranging from approximately the 50- to 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities. The computed flood profiles were used in combination with digital elevation data to delineate flood-inundation areas.

  8. Mapping Near-Earth Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    How can we hunt down all the near-Earth asteroids that are capable of posing a threat to us? A new study looks at whether the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is up to the job.Charting Nearby ThreatsLSST is an 8.4-m wide-survey telescope currently being built in Chile. When it goes online in 2022, it will spend the next ten years surveying our sky, mapping tens of billions of stars and galaxies, searching for signatures of dark energy and dark matter, and hunting for transient optical events like novae and supernovae. But in its scanning, LSST will also be looking for asteroids that approach near Earth.Cumulative number of near-Earth asteroids discovered over time, as of June 16, 2016. [NASA/JPL/Chamberlin]Near-Earth objects (NEOs) have the potential to be hazardous if they cross Earths path and are large enough to do significant damage when they impact Earth. Earths history is riddled with dangerous asteroid encounters, including the recent Chelyabinsk airburst in 2013, the encounter that caused the kilometer-sized Meteor Crater in Arizona, and the impact thought to contribute to the extinction of the dinosaurs.Recognizing the potential danger that NEOs can pose to Earth, Congress has tasked NASA with tracking down 90% of NEOs larger than 140 meters in diameter. With our current survey capabilities, we believe weve discovered roughly 25% of these NEOs thus far. Now a new study led by Tommy Grav (Planetary Science Institute) examines whether LSST will be able to complete this task.Absolute magnitude, H, of asynthetic NEO population. Though these NEOs are all larger than 140 m, they have a large spread in albedos. [Grav et al. 2016]Can LSST Help?Based on previous observations of NEOs and resulting predictions for NEO properties and orbits, Grav and collaborators simulate a synthetic population of NEOs all above 140 m in size. With these improved population models, they demonstrate that the common tactic of using an asteroids absolute magnitude as a

  9. Flood mapping using VHR satellite imagery: a comparison between different classification approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franci, Francesca; Boccardo, Piero; Mandanici, Emanuele; Roveri, Elena; Bitelli, Gabriele

    2016-10-01

    Various regions in Europe have suffered from severe flooding over the last decades. Flood disasters often have a broad extent and a high frequency. They are considered the most devastating natural hazards because of the tremendous fatalities, injuries, property damages, economic and social disruption that they cause. In this context, Earth Observation techniques have become a key tool for flood risk and damage assessment. In particular, remote sensing facilitates flood surveying, providing valuable information, e.g. flood occurrence, intensity and progress of flood inundation, spurs and embankments affected/threatened. The present work aims to investigate the use of Very High Resolution satellite imagery for mapping flood-affected areas. The case study is the November 2013 flood event which occurred in Sardinia region (Italy), affecting a total of 2,700 people and killing 18 persons. The investigated zone extends for 28 km2 along the Posada river, from the Maccheronis dam to the mouth in the Tyrrhenian sea. A post-event SPOT6 image was processed by means of different classification methods, in order to produce the flood map of the analysed area. The unsupervised classification algorithm ISODATA was tested. A pixel-based supervised technique was applied using the Maximum Likelihood algorithm; moreover, the SPOT 6 image was processed by means of object-oriented approaches. The produced flood maps were compared among each other and with an independent data source, in order to evaluate the performance of each method, also in terms of time demand.

  10. Sources of uncertainty in flood inundation maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bales, J.D.; Wagner, C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Flood inundation maps typically have been used to depict inundated areas for floods having specific exceedance levels. The uncertainty associated with the inundation boundaries is seldom quantified, in part, because all of the sources of uncertainty are not recognized and because data available to quantify uncertainty seldom are available. Sources of uncertainty discussed in this paper include hydrologic data used for hydraulic model development and validation, topographic data, and the hydraulic model. The assumption of steady flow, which typically is made to produce inundation maps, has less of an effect on predicted inundation at lower flows than for higher flows because more time typically is required to inundate areas at high flows than at low flows. Difficulties with establishing reasonable cross sections that do not intersect and that represent water-surface slopes in tributaries contribute additional uncertainties in the hydraulic modelling. As a result, uncertainty in the flood inundation polygons simulated with a one-dimensional model increases with distance from the main channel.

  11. Continuous hydrologic simulation and flood-frequency, hydraulic, and flood-hazard analysis of the Blackberry Creek watershed, Kane County, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soong, David T.; Straub, Timothy D.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    Results of hydrologic model, flood-frequency, hydraulic model, and flood-hazard analysis of the Blackberry Creek watershed in Kane County, Illinois, indicate that the 100-year and 500-year flood plains range from approximately 25 acres in the tributary F watershed (a headwater subbasin at the northeastern corner of the watershed) to almost 1,800 acres in Blackberry Creek main stem. Based on 1996 land-cover data, most of the land in the 100-year and 500-year flood plains was cropland, forested and wooded land, and grassland. A relatively small percentage of urban land was in the flood plains. The Blackberry Creek watershed has undergone rapid urbanization in recent decades. The population and urbanized lands in the watershed are projected to double from the 1990 condition by 2020. Recently, flood-induced damage has occurred more frequently in urbanized areas of the watershed. There are concerns about the effect of urbanization on flood peaks and volumes, future flood-mitigation plans, and potential effects on the water quality and stream habitats. This report describes the procedures used in developing the hydrologic models, estimating the flood-peak discharge magnitudes and recurrence intervals for flood-hazard analysis, developing the hydraulic model, and the results of the analysis in graphical and tabular form. The hydrologic model, Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF), was used to perform the simulation of continuous water movements through various patterns of land uses in the watershed. Flood-frequency analysis was applied to an annual maximum series to determine flood quantiles in subbasins for flood-hazard analysis. The Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) hydraulic model was used to determine the 100-year and 500-year flood elevations, and to determine the 100-year floodway. The hydraulic model was calibrated and verified using high water marks and observed inundation maps for the July 17-18, 1996, flood event. Digital

  12. Flood Inundation Mapping in the Logone Floodplain from Multi Temporal Landsat ETM+Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Hahn Chul; Alsdorf, Douglas E.; Moritz, Mark; Lee, Hyongki; Vassolo, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Yearly flooding in the Logone floodplain makes an impact on agricultural, pastoral, and fishery systems in the Lake Chad Basin. Since the flooding extent and depth are highly variable, flood inundation mapping helps us make better use of water resources and prevent flood hazards in the Logone floodplain. The flood maps are generated from 33 multi temporal Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) during three years 2006 to 2008. Flooded area is classified using a short-wave infrared band whereas open water is classified by Iterative Self-organizing Data Analysis (ISODATA) clustering. The maximum flooding extent in the study area increases up to approximately 5.8K km2 in late October 2008. The study also provides strong correlation of the flooding extents with water height variations in both the floodplain and the river based on a second polynomial regression model. The water heights are from ENIVSAT altimetry in the floodplain and gauge measurements in the river. Coefficients of determination between flooding extents and water height variations are greater than 0.91 with 4 to 36 days in phase lag. Floodwater drains back to the river and to the northeast during the recession period in December and January. The study supports understanding of the Logone floodplain dynamics in detail of spatial pattern and size of the flooding extent and assists the flood monitoring and prediction systems in the catchment.

  13. Complex picture for likelihood of ENSO-driven flood hazard

    PubMed Central

    Emerton, R.; Cloke, H. L.; Stephens, E. M.; Zsoter, E.; Woolnough, S. J.; Pappenberger, F.

    2017-01-01

    El Niño and La Niña events, the extremes of ENSO climate variability, influence river flow and flooding at the global scale. Estimates of the historical probability of extreme (high or low) precipitation are used to provide vital information on the likelihood of adverse impacts during extreme ENSO events. However, the nonlinearity between precipitation and flood magnitude motivates the need for estimation of historical probabilities using analysis of hydrological data sets. Here, this analysis is undertaken using the ERA-20CM-R river flow reconstruction for the twentieth century. Our results show that the likelihood of increased or decreased flood hazard during ENSO events is much more complex than is often perceived and reported; probabilities vary greatly across the globe, with large uncertainties inherent in the data and clear differences when comparing the hydrological analysis to precipitation. PMID:28294113

  14. Complex picture for likelihood of ENSO-driven flood hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emerton, R.; Cloke, H. L.; Stephens, E. M.; Zsoter, E.; Woolnough, S. J.; Pappenberger, F.

    2017-03-01

    El Niño and La Niña events, the extremes of ENSO climate variability, influence river flow and flooding at the global scale. Estimates of the historical probability of extreme (high or low) precipitation are used to provide vital information on the likelihood of adverse impacts during extreme ENSO events. However, the nonlinearity between precipitation and flood magnitude motivates the need for estimation of historical probabilities using analysis of hydrological data sets. Here, this analysis is undertaken using the ERA-20CM-R river flow reconstruction for the twentieth century. Our results show that the likelihood of increased or decreased flood hazard during ENSO events is much more complex than is often perceived and reported; probabilities vary greatly across the globe, with large uncertainties inherent in the data and clear differences when comparing the hydrological analysis to precipitation.

  15. Complex picture for likelihood of ENSO-driven flood hazard.

    PubMed

    Emerton, R; Cloke, H L; Stephens, E M; Zsoter, E; Woolnough, S J; Pappenberger, F

    2017-03-15

    El Niño and La Niña events, the extremes of ENSO climate variability, influence river flow and flooding at the global scale. Estimates of the historical probability of extreme (high or low) precipitation are used to provide vital information on the likelihood of adverse impacts during extreme ENSO events. However, the nonlinearity between precipitation and flood magnitude motivates the need for estimation of historical probabilities using analysis of hydrological data sets. Here, this analysis is undertaken using the ERA-20CM-R river flow reconstruction for the twentieth century. Our results show that the likelihood of increased or decreased flood hazard during ENSO events is much more complex than is often perceived and reported; probabilities vary greatly across the globe, with large uncertainties inherent in the data and clear differences when comparing the hydrological analysis to precipitation.

  16. Probabilistic Interpolation of Wind Hazard Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.

    2012-12-01

    Wind hazard maps are widely used to compute design loads and to evaluate insurance risks. While building codes often provide these maps for only a few return periods, wind hazard maps for other return periods are often needed for risk assessments. In this study, we evaluate a probabilistic interpolation approach for deriving wind hazard maps for return periods other than those available. The probabilistic interpolation approach assumes that probabilities of wind values in a wind hazard map follow Gumbel distribution. Although most studies have been performed on data from individual weather stations, it remains to be seen how well the Gumbel distribution-based interpolation performs for wind hazard maps. The Gumbel distribution F(V) =exp{-exp[-α(V - u)]} is assumed for wind speed at a wind map location, where α and u are parameters that vary with location. VT = u + α-1lnT is the wind speed of return period T when T is large. If T0 and T1 are two given return periods and T1 is greater, then VT = (1-θ)VT0 + θVT1 where θ = (lnT - lnT0)/(lnT1 - lnT0). Therefore, VT is a weighted average between VT0 and VT1. Here we select the US and Mexican hazard maps to evaluate the probabilistic interpolation method. In ASCE 7-10 wind maps, the basic wind speed has a single value for most inland areas, which is 54, 51, and 47 m/s for 1700-year, 700-year, and 300-year return periods, respectively. We use the 1700-year and 300-year values to obtain the 700-year value using the Gumbel distribution-based interpolation. The computed 700-year value is 50.4 m/s compared to 51 m/s provided in the code, about 1% difference. For coastal regions subjected to hurricane winds, the relative error between the interpolated 700-year values and the original 700-year values are within 2% for most areas except for areas where hurricane zones transition to inland non-hurricane zones; there the relative errors can increase to 4%. The Mexican wind code includes wind maps of three return periods: 10

  17. United States National Seismic Hazard Maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, M.D.; ,

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey?s maps of earthquake shaking hazards provide information essential to creating and updating the seismic design provisions of building codes and insurance rates used in the United States. Periodic revisions of these maps incorporate the results of new research. Buildings, bridges, highways, and utilities built to meet modern seismic design provisions are better able to withstand earthquakes, not only saving lives but also enabling critical activities to continue with less disruption. These maps can also help people assess the hazard to their homes or places of work and can also inform insurance rates.

  18. Advancements in the global modelling of coastal flood hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muis, Sanne; Verlaan, Martin; Nicholls, Robert J.; Brown, Sally; Hinkel, Jochen; Lincke, Daniel; Vafeidis, Athanasios T.; Scussolini, Paolo; Winsemius, Hessel C.; Ward, Philip J.

    2017-04-01

    Storm surges and high tides can cause catastrophic floods. Due to climate change and socio-economic development the potential impacts of coastal floods are increasing globally. Global modelling of coastal flood hazard provides an important perspective to quantify and effectively manage this challenge. In this contribution we show two recent advancements in global modelling of coastal flood hazard: 1) a new improved global dataset of extreme sea levels, and 2) an improved vertical datum for extreme sea levels. Both developments have important implications for estimates of exposure and inundation modelling. For over a decade, the only global dataset of extreme sea levels was the DINAS-COAST Extreme Sea Levels (DCESL), which uses a static approximation to estimate total water levels for different return periods. Recent advances have enabled the development of a new dynamically derived dataset: the Global Tide and Surge Reanalysis (GTSR) dataset. Here we present a comparison of the DCESL and GTSR extreme sea levels and the resulting global flood exposure for present-day conditions. While DCESL generally overestimates extremes, GTSR underestimates extremes, particularly in the tropics. This results in differences in estimates of flood exposure. When using the 1 in 100-year GTSR extremes, the exposed global population is 28% lower than when using the 1 in 100-year DCESL extremes. Previous studies at continental to global-scales have not accounted for the fact that GTSR and DCESL are referenced to mean sea level, whereas global elevation datasets, such as SRTM, are referenced to the EGM96 geoid. We propose a methodology to correct for the difference in vertical datum and demonstrate that this also has a large effect on exposure. For GTSR, the vertical datum correction results in a 60% increase in global exposure.

  19. Assessment of hazard of chemical accidental releases triggered by floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonova, M.; Danihelka, P.

    2009-04-01

    Recently, the number of accidents happened, when floods trigger the releases of hazardous materials and following environment contamination. Baia Mare (Romania), Spolana Neratovice (Czech Republic) and hurricane Katrina (USA) are well known examples. The importance of this kind of phenomenon as a type of so called NATECH events is expressed among others in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, which reorganises water conservation in Europe. It requires programmes of protection measures to be drawn up not later than 2009, and in sub-article 11 (3) l b) to prevent and/or reduce the impact of accidental pollution incidents, for example as a result of floods. Effective measures demand the assessment of hazard and risk of accidental release triggered by floods and there is a need for the method which can be used for these purposes. Such a method is still missing and this is why the basic method for hazard assessment has been developed. Simple indexes-based method is composed of three segments (natural risks, technological risks and combined risk) and it has flexible, modular structure. First segment estimates the probability of flooding of installation, the second, based on the reference scenarios estimates the possibility of release of chemicals and the third classify consequences. The work on refining of parameters and method continues. Method can be used in prevention of major accidents in the framework of the Council Directive 96/82/EC on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances (Seveso II directive) and can help to complete the safety studies in classified establishments.

  20. Observation-driven understanding and prediction of urban flood hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Daniel B.

    Rapid urbanization has increased exposure to flood hazards in the United States. Flood hazard is the result of complex interactions of spatially and temporally variable extreme rainfall with heterogeneous land surface, subsurface, and drainage network properties. The time and length scales at which these interactions occur in urban watersheds are shorter than in unaltered settings. Existing flood hazard assessment procedures neglect the complexity of these interactions, with unknown implications for resulting flood risk estimates. This dissertation aims to utilize modern high-resolution hydrometeorological observations and computational capabilities to examine urban flood processes at fine temporal and spatial scales, and to use the results to propose a variety of alternative approaches to the estimation of urban flood hazards. A variety of hydrometeorological datasets are introduced, including long-term (ten-year) records of bias-corrected high-resolution (1 km 2, 15-minute) radar rainfall fields developed using the Hydro-NEXRAD processing system for two urban study areas in the Southeastern United States: Charlotte, North Carolina and Atlanta, Georgia. These long-term radar rainfall records are used throughout the dissertation for a variety of hydrometeorological analyses. Their accuracy is evaluated relative to observations from dense urban rain gage networks. Simple bias correction techniques provide high-quality radar rainfall estimates, which have important advantages over coarser-resolution operational radar-based products for urban hydrology applications. Other datasets are used in the analyses, including high-resolution land cover, streamflow, and cloud-to-ground lightning observations. Radar records show evidence of urban rainfall modification for both study sites, though more work is needed to understand the role of topography and other large-scale features on rainfall in urban areas. Increases in annual peak discharges in urban catchments since the 1950

  1. Seismotectonics and seismic Hazard map of Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soumaya, Abdelkader; Ben Ayed, Noureddine; Khayati Ammar, Hayet; Kadri, Ali; Zargouni, Fouad; Ghanmi, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    One natural hazard in Tunisia is caused by earthquakes and one way to measure the shaking risk is the probabilistic seismic-hazard map. The study of seismic hazard and risk assessment in Tunisia started in 1990 within the framework of the National Program for Assessment of Earthquake Risk. Because earthquakes are random events characterized by specific uncertainties, we used a probabilistic method to build the seismic hazard map of Tunisia. Probabilities were derived from the available seismic data and from results of neotectonic, geophysical and geological studies on the main active domains of Tunisia. This map displays earthquake ground motions for various probability levels across Tunisia and it is used in seismic provisions of building codes, insurance rate structures, risk assessment and other public management activities. The product is a seismotectonic map of Tunisia summarizing the available datasets (e.g., active fault, focal mechanism, instrumental and historical seismicity, peak ground acceleration). In addition, we elaborate some thematic seismic hazard maps that represent an important tool for the social and economic development.

  2. Seismotectonic and Seismic Hazard Map of Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soumaya, A.; Ben Ayed, N.; Khayati Ammar, H.; Tayech, M.; Ghanmi, M.

    2016-12-01

    One natural hazard in Tunisia is caused by earthquakes and one way to measure the shaking risk is the probabilistic seismic-hazard map. The study of seismic hazard and risk assessment in Tunisia started in 1990 within the framework of the National Program for Assessment of Earthquake Risk. Because earthquakes are random events characterized by specific uncertainties, we used a probabilistic method to build the seismic hazard map of Tunisia. Probabilities were derived from the available seismic data and from results of neotectonic, geophysical and geological studies on the main active domains of Tunisia. This map displays earthquake ground motions for various probability levels across Tunisia and it is used in seismic provisions of building codes, insurance rate structures, risk assessment and other public management activities. The product is a seismotectonic map of Tunisia summarizing the available datasets (e.g., active fault, focal mechanism, instrumental and historical seismicity, peak ground acceleration). In addition, we elaborate some thematic seismic hazard maps that represent an important tool for the social and economic development.

  3. Fifty-Year Flood-Inundation Maps for Santa Rosa de Aguan, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the coastal municipality of Santa Rosa de Aguan that are prone to oceanic storm-surge flooding and wave action. The 50-year flood on the Rio Aguan (4,270 cubic meters per second), would inundate most of the area surveyed for this municipality and beyond. Therefore a detailed numerical hydraulic model was not developed for this municipality as it was for the others. The 50-year storm surge would likely produce higher water levels than the 50-year flood on the river during normal astronomical tides. The elevation of the 50-year storm surge was estimated to be 4.35 meters above normal sea level, based on hurricane probabilities and published storm-surge elevations associated with various hurricane categories. Flood-inundation maps, including areas of wave-action hazard and a color-shaded elevation map, were created from the available data and the estimated 50-year storm tide. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the hazard areas are available on a computer in the municipality of Santa Rosa de Aguan as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Data Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the maps in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report.

  4. A Sentinel-1 Flood map generation QGIS plugin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, Joan; Lopez, Alex; Romero, Laia; Koudogbo, Fifame

    2016-04-01

    Climate change derived in changing weather patterns making risks very difficult to predict and one very representative example is flood events. Flooding due to overflow from water bodies can be analyzed through change detection techniques with satellite imagery from the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors such as the one on board the ESA Sentinel-1. This analysis will help us have a better understanding of the floodable areas and therefore provide better support and response to these events. The presented open-source Quantum GIS (QGIS) plugin for flood mapping provides this analysis to a growing earth observation user community as described in the following abstract. The flood mapping QGIS plugin has been developed in the context of a FP7 EU funded earth observation project named RASOR (Rapid Analysis and Spatialisation Of Risk), a multi-hazard risk analysis and assessment to support the full cycle of disaster management. The plugin available through QGIS repository enables any user to execute the processing of flood maps based on S1 data in their local work environments. Moreover, results can be uploaded to the RASOR platform in order to be shared with the community. The RASOR Floodmap plugin takes as input two Sentinel-1 SAR images, one taken as reference and another just after the flood event. In parallel, the Area Of Interest (AOI) can be established with one or more polygons in a Shapefile format. The algorithm calibrates and co-registers both images to obtain a change detection RGB GeoTiff file. A K-Means filtering is performed in order to smooth the results and in preparation for the last classification step. Classification is performed by the plugin in which one or more classes are identified as flooded area and therefore polygonise of the extent is conducted, the user can make use of the QGIS workspace in order to supervise results and perform the necessary refinements, for instance by comparing them with different optical images or land cover

  5. Working towards a clearer and more helpful hazard map: investigating the influence of hazard map design on hazard communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, M. A.; Lindsay, J. M.; Gaillard, J.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, geological hazards are communicated using maps. In traditional hazard mapping practice, scientists analyse data about a hazard, and then display the results on a map for stakeholder and public use. However, this one-way, top-down approach to hazard communication is not necessarily effective or reliable. The messages which people take away will be dependent on the way in which they read, interpret, and understand the map, a facet of hazard communication which has been relatively unexplored. Decades of cartographic studies suggest that variables in the visual representation of data on maps, such as colour and symbology, can have a powerful effect on how people understand map content. In practice, however, there is little guidance or consistency in how hazard information is expressed and represented on maps. Accordingly, decisions are often made based on subjective preference, rather than research-backed principles. Here we present the results of a study in which we explore how hazard map design features can influence hazard map interpretation, and we propose a number of considerations for hazard map design. A series of hazard maps were generated, with each one showing the same probabilistic volcanic ashfall dataset, but using different verbal and visual variables (e.g., different colour schemes, data classifications, probabilistic formats). Following a short pilot study, these maps were used in an online survey of 110 stakeholders and scientists in New Zealand. Participants answered 30 open-ended and multiple choice questions about ashfall hazard based on the different maps. Results suggest that hazard map design can have a significant influence on the messages readers take away. For example, diverging colour schemes were associated with concepts of "risk" and decision-making more than sequential schemes, and participants made more precise estimates of hazard with isarithmic data classifications compared to binned or gradational shading. Based on such

  6. Alternating flood and drought hazards in the Drava Plain, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lóczy, Dénes; Dezsö, József; Gyenizse, Péter; Ortmann-Ajkai, Adrienne

    2016-04-01

    Our research project covers the assessment of archive data and monitoring present-day water availability in the floodplain of the Hungarian Drava River. Historically flood hazard has been prevalent in the area. Recently, however, flood and drought hazards occur with equal frequency. Potential floodwater storage is defined from the analyses of soil conditions (grain size, porosity, water conductivity etc.) and GIS-based volumetric estimations of storage capacities in oxbows (including communication with groundwater). With the remarkable rate of river channel incision (2.4 m per century) and predictable climate change trends (increased annual mean temperature and decreased summer precipitation), the growing frequency and intensification of drought hazard is expected. For the assessment of drought hazard the impacts of hydrometeorological events, groundwater table dynamics and capillary rise are modelled, the water demands of natural vegetation and agricultural crops are studied. The project is closely linked to the ongoing Old Drava Programme, a comprehensive government project, which envisions floodplain rehabilitation through major transformations in water governance and land use of the region, and has numerous implications for regional development. Authors are grateful for financial support from the Hungarian National Scientific Research Fund (OTKA, contacts nos K 104552 and K 108755) as well as from the Visegrad Fund (31210058). The contribution is dedicated to the 650th anniversary of the foundation of the University of Pécs, Hungary.

  7. Estimation of flood environmental effects using flood zone mapping techniques in Halilrood Kerman, Iran.

    PubMed

    Boudaghpour, Siamak; Bagheri, Majid; Bagheri, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    High flood occurrences with large environmental damages have a growing trend in Iran. Dynamic movements of water during a flood cause different environmental damages in geographical areas with different characteristics such as topographic conditions. In general, environmental effects and damages caused by a flood in an area can be investigated from different points of view. The current essay is aiming at detecting environmental effects of flood occurrences in Halilrood catchment area of Kerman province in Iran using flood zone mapping techniques. The intended flood zone map was introduced in four steps. Steps 1 to 3 pave the way to calculate and estimate flood zone map in the understudy area while step 4 determines the estimation of environmental effects of flood occurrence. Based on our studies, wide range of accuracy for estimating the environmental effects of flood occurrence was introduced by using of flood zone mapping techniques. Moreover, it was identified that the existence of Jiroft dam in the study area can decrease flood zone from 260 hectares to 225 hectares and also it can decrease 20% of flood peak intensity. As a result, 14% of flood zone in the study area can be saved environmentally.

  8. 12 CFR 391.38 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notice of special flood hazards and... REGULATIONS Loans in Areas Having Special Flood Hazards § 391.38 Notice of special flood hazards and... located in a special flood hazard area, the State savings association shall mail or deliver a written...

  9. 38 CFR 36.4705 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... flood hazard determination form. 36.4705 Section 36.4705 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Sale of Loans, Guarantee of Payment, and Flood Insurance § 36.4705 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. The Secretary...

  10. 7 CFR 1980.433 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.433... Program § 1980.433 Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. (See subpart A, § 1980.42.) Administrative The State Director is responsible for determining if a project is located in a special flood or...

  11. 24 CFR 3285.102 - Installation of manufactured homes in flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... in flood hazard areas. 3285.102 Section 3285.102 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... STANDARDS Pre-Installation Considerations § 3285.102 Installation of manufactured homes in flood hazard... subpart are as defined in 44 CFR 59.1 of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) regulations. (b...

  12. 12 CFR 208.25 - Loans in areas having special flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans in areas having special flood hazards...) Investments and Loans § 208.25 Loans in areas having special flood hazards. (a) Purpose and scope—(1) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to implement the requirements of the National Flood Insurance Act of...

  13. 12 CFR 208.25 - Loans in areas having special flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loans in areas having special flood hazards...) Investments and Loans § 208.25 Loans in areas having special flood hazards. (a) Purpose and scope—(1) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to implement the requirements of the National Flood Insurance Act of...

  14. 24 CFR 3285.102 - Installation of manufactured homes in flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... in flood hazard areas. 3285.102 Section 3285.102 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... STANDARDS Pre-Installation Considerations § 3285.102 Installation of manufactured homes in flood hazard... subpart are as defined in 44 CFR 59.1 of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) regulations. (b...

  15. 38 CFR 36.4705 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... flood hazard determination form. 36.4705 Section 36.4705 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Sale of Loans, Guarantee of Payment, and Flood Insurance § 36.4705 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. The Secretary...

  16. 12 CFR 208.25 - Loans in areas having special flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loans in areas having special flood hazards...) Investments and Loans § 208.25 Loans in areas having special flood hazards. (a) Purpose and scope—(1) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to implement the requirements of the National Flood Insurance Act of...

  17. 12 CFR 208.25 - Loans in areas having special flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Loans in areas having special flood hazards...) Investments and Loans § 208.25 Loans in areas having special flood hazards. (a) Purpose and scope—(1) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to implement the requirements of the National Flood Insurance Act of...

  18. 24 CFR 3285.102 - Installation of manufactured homes in flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... in flood hazard areas. 3285.102 Section 3285.102 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... STANDARDS Pre-Installation Considerations § 3285.102 Installation of manufactured homes in flood hazard... subpart are as defined in 44 CFR 59.1 of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) regulations. (b...

  19. 38 CFR 36.4705 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... flood hazard determination form. 36.4705 Section 36.4705 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Sale of Loans, Guarantee of Payment, and Flood Insurance § 36.4705 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. The Secretary...

  20. 24 CFR 3285.102 - Installation of manufactured homes in flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... in flood hazard areas. 3285.102 Section 3285.102 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... STANDARDS Pre-Installation Considerations § 3285.102 Installation of manufactured homes in flood hazard... subpart are as defined in 44 CFR 59.1 of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) regulations. (b...

  1. 7 CFR 1980.433 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.433... Program § 1980.433 Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. (See subpart A, § 1980.42.) Administrative The State Director is responsible for determining if a project is located in a special flood or...

  2. 7 CFR 1980.433 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.433... Program § 1980.433 Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. (See subpart A, § 1980.42.) Administrative The State Director is responsible for determining if a project is located in a special flood or...

  3. 7 CFR 1980.433 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.433... Program § 1980.433 Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. (See subpart A, § 1980.42.) Administrative The State Director is responsible for determining if a project is located in a special flood or...

  4. 24 CFR 3285.102 - Installation of manufactured homes in flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... in flood hazard areas. 3285.102 Section 3285.102 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... STANDARDS Pre-Installation Considerations § 3285.102 Installation of manufactured homes in flood hazard... subpart are as defined in 44 CFR 59.1 of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) regulations. (b...

  5. 7 CFR 1980.433 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.433... Program § 1980.433 Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. (See subpart A, § 1980.42.) Administrative The State Director is responsible for determining if a project is located in a special flood or...

  6. 38 CFR 36.4705 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... flood hazard determination form. 36.4705 Section 36.4705 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Sale of Loans, Guarantee of Payment, and Flood Insurance § 36.4705 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. The Secretary...

  7. 38 CFR 36.4705 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... flood hazard determination form. 36.4705 Section 36.4705 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Sale of Loans, Guarantee of Payment, and Flood Insurance § 36.4705 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. The Secretary...

  8. Hazard map of agricultural products due to typhoons-an example of Bok-choy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yong-Jun; Ma, Kuo-Chen; Lai, Jihn-Sung; Chang, Tsang-Jung; Tan, Yih-Chi

    2015-04-01

    The torrential rain and strong wind brought by typhoons usually cause huge damages to agricultural products. This study aims at hazard map of agricultural products due to typhoons. The factors affecting the hazard of agricultural products due to typhoons include the duration of flooding, flooding depth, wind speed, and rainfall intensity. High rainfall intensity and high wind speed may knock down the leaves or fruits of the plants. The long-duration of flooding or high flooding depth may chock the plant or rotten the roots. In order to get the information needed for making hazard map due to assumed scenarios, an overland flow simulations is performed for getting the duration of flooding and maximum flooding in the study area. The data of wind speed is obtained from metrological stations. Four levels of hazard are defined due to the characteristic of the chosen agricultural products- Bok-choy (such average height of mature Bok-choy). The final goal of this study is to establish a real-time hazard evaluation system for the specific agricultural products.

  9. Cartographic Design in Flood Risk Mapping - A Challenge for Communication and Stakeholder Involvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, S.; Serrhini, K.; Dorner, W.

    2009-12-01

    In order to mitigate flood hazards and to minimise associated losses, technical protection measures have been additionally and increasingly supplemented by non-technical mitigation, i.e. land-use planning activities. This is commonly done by creating maps which indicate such areas by different cartographic symbols, such as colour, size, shape, and typography. Hazard and risk mapping is the accepted procedure when communicating potential threats to stakeholders, and is therefore required in the European Member States in order to meet the demands of the European Flood Risk Directive. However, available information is sparse concerning the impact of such maps on different stakeholders, i.e., specialists in flood risk management, politicians, and affected citizens. The lack of information stems from a traditional approach to map production which does not take into account specific end-user needs. In order to overcome this information shortage the current study used a circular approach such that feed-back mechanisms originating from different perception patterns of the end user would be considered. Different sets of small-scale as well as large-scale risk maps were presented to different groups of test persons in order to (1) study reading behaviour as well as understanding and (2) deduce the most attractive components that are essential for target-oriented communication of cartographic information. Therefore, the method of eye tracking was applied using a video-oculography technique. This resulted in a suggestion for a map template which fulfils the requirement to serve as an efficient communication tool for specialists and practitioners in hazard and risk mapping as well as for laypersons. Taking the results of this study will enable public authorities who are responsible for flood mitigation to (1) improve their flood risk maps, (2) enhance flood risk awareness, and therefore (3) create more disaster-resilient communities.

  10. Tsunami hazard map in eastern Bali

    SciTech Connect

    Afif, Haunan; Cipta, Athanasius

    2015-04-24

    Bali is a popular tourist destination both for Indonesian and foreign visitors. However, Bali is located close to the collision zone between the Indo-Australian Plate and Eurasian Plate in the south and back-arc thrust off the northern coast of Bali resulted Bali prone to earthquake and tsunami. Tsunami hazard map is needed for better understanding of hazard level in a particular area and tsunami modeling is one of the most reliable techniques to produce hazard map. Tsunami modeling conducted using TUNAMI N2 and set for two tsunami sources scenarios which are subduction zone in the south of Bali and back thrust in the north of Bali. Tsunami hazard zone is divided into 3 zones, the first is a high hazard zones with inundation height of more than 3m. The second is a moderate hazard zone with inundation height 1 to 3m and the third is a low tsunami hazard zones with tsunami inundation heights less than 1m. Those 2 scenarios showed southern region has a greater potential of tsunami impact than the northern areas. This is obviously shown in the distribution of the inundated area in the south of Bali including the island of Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan and Nusa Ceningan is wider than in the northern coast of Bali although the northern region of the Nusa Penida Island more inundated due to the coastal topography.

  11. Tsunami hazard map in eastern Bali

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afif, Haunan; Cipta, Athanasius

    2015-04-01

    Bali is a popular tourist destination both for Indonesian and foreign visitors. However, Bali is located close to the collision zone between the Indo-Australian Plate and Eurasian Plate in the south and back-arc thrust off the northern coast of Bali resulted Bali prone to earthquake and tsunami. Tsunami hazard map is needed for better understanding of hazard level in a particular area and tsunami modeling is one of the most reliable techniques to produce hazard map. Tsunami modeling conducted using TUNAMI N2 and set for two tsunami sources scenarios which are subduction zone in the south of Bali and back thrust in the north of Bali. Tsunami hazard zone is divided into 3 zones, the first is a high hazard zones with inundation height of more than 3m. The second is a moderate hazard zone with inundation height 1 to 3m and the third is a low tsunami hazard zones with tsunami inundation heights less than 1m. Those 2 scenarios showed southern region has a greater potential of tsunami impact than the northern areas. This is obviously shown in the distribution of the inundated area in the south of Bali including the island of Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan and Nusa Ceningan is wider than in the northern coast of Bali although the northern region of the Nusa Penida Island more inundated due to the coastal topography.

  12. Rossitsa River Basin: Flood Hazard and Risk Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavrova-Guirguinova, Maria; Pencheva, Denislava

    2017-04-01

    The process of Flood Risk Management Planning and adaptation of measures for flood risk reduction as the Early Warning provoke the necessity of surveys involving Identification aspects. This project presents risk identification combining two lines of analysis: (1) Creation a mathematical model of rainfall-runoff processes in a watershed based on limited number of observed input and output variables; (2) Procedures for determination of critical thresholds - discharges/water levels corresponding to certain consequences. The pilot region is Rossitsa river basin, Sevlievo, Bulgaria. The first line of analysis follows next steps: (a) Creation and calibration of Unit Hydrograph Models based on limited number of observed data for discharge and precipitation; The survey at the selected region has 22 observations for excess rainfall and discharge. (b) The relations of UHM coefficients from the input parameters have been determined statistically, excluding the ANN model of the run-off coefficient as a function of 3 parameters (amount of precipitation two days before, soil condition, intensity of the rainfall) where a feedforward neural network is used. (c) Additional simulations with UHM aiming at generation of synthetic data for rainfall-runoff events, which extend the range of observed data; (d) Training, validation and testing a generalized regional ANN Model for discharge forecasting with 4 input parameters, where the training data set consists of synthetic data, validation and testing data sets consists of observations. A function between consequences and discharges has been reached in the second line of analysis concerning critical hazard levels determination. Unsteady simulations with the hydraulic model using three typical hydrographs for determination of the existing time for reaction from one to upper critical threshold are made. Correction of the critical thresholds aiming at providing necessary time for reaction between the thresholds and probability analysis of

  13. Storm Surge Flood Hazards of Hurricane Katrina 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Daneshvaran, S.; Jakubowski, S.

    2008-05-01

    . Flooding due to hurricane storm surge is one of the most damaging natural disasters in tropical and sub-tropical coastal regions. Storm surge peril can cause catastrophic loss to coastal properties and loss of life. Estimated hurricane flood risk is often statistically-based and relies on historical data. It provides catastrophic loss and risk information for the event as a whole, but lacks geographical detail. The purpose of this study is to analyze hurricane-induced storm surge flood damage using a grid-based numerical model. Storm surge flood damage due to Hurricane Katrina 2005 is presented as a case study. In order to analyze the resulting hazard from Hurricane Katrina, the United States National Weather Service's operational storm surge model, SLOSH (Sea, Lake and Overland Surges from Hurricanes) was used to predict the maximum storm surge surface using track data from meteorological observations. Local inundation is computed using the flood water depth with the ground elevation above the mean sea level. Residential exposure is estimated using total number of housing units damaged by flood water in each US census block in a grid of 0.01 by 0.01 degrees for hurricane Katrina in 2005. The modeled results for the storm surge inundation and the estimated number of housing units damaged by hurricane Katrina are compared with the extensive field observations by US Geological Survey and FEMA in the counties along the Gulf Coast in the three impacted states of Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana. The modeled surge results are compared and contrasted with high water mark observations, where available. Storm surge losses in residential construction are highly sensitive to location and are best evaluated at a fine spatial resolution. This paper presents the analysis of the catastrophic flood risk based on the magnitude of hurricane storm surge flood depth on a local scale of US census blocks. The framework presented here is analytically-derived and can be used to

  14. Forecasting surface water flooding hazard and impact in real-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Steven J.; Moore, Robert J.; Wells, Steven C.

    2016-04-01

    Across the world, there is increasing demand for more robust and timely forecast and alert information on Surface Water Flooding (SWF). Within a UK context, the government Pitt Review into the Summer 2007 floods provided recommendations and impetus to improve the understanding of SWF risk for both off-line design and real-time forecasting and warning. Ongoing development and trial of an end-to-end real-time SWF system is being progressed through the recently formed Natural Hazards Partnership (NHP) with delivery to the Flood Forecasting Centre (FFC) providing coverage over England & Wales. The NHP is a unique forum that aims to deliver coordinated assessments, research and advice on natural hazards for governments and resilience communities across the UK. Within the NHP, a real-time Hazard Impact Model (HIM) framework has been developed that includes SWF as one of three hazards chosen for initial trialling. The trial SWF HIM system uses dynamic gridded surface-runoff estimates from the Grid-to-Grid (G2G) hydrological model to estimate the SWF hazard. National datasets on population, infrastructure, property and transport are available to assess impact severity for a given rarity of SWF hazard. Whilst the SWF hazard footprint is calculated in real-time using 1, 3 and 6 hour accumulations of G2G surface runoff on a 1 km grid, it has been possible to associate these with the effective rainfall design profiles (at 250m resolution) used as input to a detailed flood inundation model (JFlow+) run offline to produce hazard information resolved to 2m resolution. This information is contained in the updated Flood Map for Surface Water (uFMfSW) held by the Environment Agency. The national impact datasets can then be used with the uFMfSW SWF hazard dataset to assess impacts at this scale and severity levels of potential impact assigned at 1km and for aggregated county areas in real-time. The impact component is being led by the Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL) within the NHP

  15. Volcanic Hazard Maps; the results and progress made by the IAVCEI Hazard Map working group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calder, Eliza; Lindsay, Jan; Wright, Heather

    2017-04-01

    The IAVCEI Commission on Volcanic Hazards and Risk set up a working group on Hazard Maps in 2014. Since then, the group has led or co-organised three major workshops, and organized two thematic conference sessions. In particular we have initiated a series of workshops, named the "State of the Hazard Map" which we plan to continue (the first was held at COV8 (State of the Hazard Map 1) and second at COV9 (State of the Hazard Map 2) and the third will be held at IAVCEI General Assembly in Portland. The broad aim of these activities is to work towards an IAVCEI-endorsed considerations or guidelines document for volcanic hazard map generation. The workshops have brought together people from around the world working on volcanic hazard maps, and have had four primary objectives: 1) to review (and collect further data on) the diverse variety of methods and rationales currently used to develop maps; 2) to openly discuss approaches and experiences regarding how hazard maps are interpreted and used by different groups; 3) to discuss and prepare the IAVCEI Guidelines document; and lastly, 4) Discuss options for finalizing, publishing and disseminating the Guidelines document (e.g. wiki, report, open-source publication). This presentation will provide an update of the results and outcomes of those initiatives. This includes brief outcomes of the reviews undertaken, a survey that has been constructed in order to gather additional data, the planned structure for the guidelines documents and a summary of the key findings to date. The majority of the participants of these activities so far have come from volcano observatories or geological surveys, as these institutions commonly have primary responsibility for making operational hazard map. It is important however that others in the scientific community that work on quantification of volcanic hazard contribute to these guidelines. We therefore invite interested parties to become involved.

  16. Seismic hazard map of the western hemisphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shedlock, K.M.; Tanner, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Vulnerability to natural disasters increases with urbanization and development of associated support systems (reservoirs, power plants, etc.). Catastrophic earthquakes account for 60% of worldwide casualties associated with natural disasters. Economic damage from earthquakes is increasing, even in technologically advanced countries with some level of seismic zonation, as shown by the 1989 Loma Prieta, CA ($6 billion), 1994 Northridge, CA ($ 25 billion), and 1995 Kobe, Japan (> $ 100 billion) earthquakes. The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local governments, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes), emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of the Americas is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful global seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for the western hemisphere. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions specify the

  17. Multisite flooding hazard assessment in the Upper Mississippi River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghizzoni, Tatiana; Roth, Giorgio; Rudari, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    SummaryThis contribution presents an assessment of the joint probability distribution able to describe multi-site multi-basin flood scenarios in a high dimensionality framework. This goal will be pursued through two different approaches: the multivariate skew- t distribution and the Student copula with arbitrary margins. While copulas have been widely used in the modeling of hydrological processes, the use of the skew- t distribution in hydrology has been only recently proposed with reference to a trivariate application (Ghizzoni et al., 2010, Adv. Water Resour., 33, 1243-1255). Both methods are here applied and discussed in a context of considerably higher dimensionality: the Upper Mississippi River floods. In fact, to enhance the characteristics of the correlation structure, eighteen nested and non-nested gauging stations were selected, with significantly different contributing areas. Such conditions represent a challenge for both the skew- t and the copula approach. In perspective, the ability of such approaches in explaining the multivariate aspects of the relevant processes is needed to specify flood hazard scenarios in terms of their intensity, extension and frequency. When this is associated to the knowledge of location, value and vulnerability of exposed elements, comprehensive flood risk scenarios can be produced, and risk cumuli quantified, for given portfolios, composed of wherever located risks.

  18. Building A Database Of Flood Extension Maps Using Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roque, D.; Afonso, N.; Fonseca, A. M.; Heleno, S.

    2013-12-01

    Hydraulic flood models can be used to identify the regions prone to floods. In order to achieve reliable information, the models must be calibrated using data from past floods. In this study, a set of optical and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images are used to obtain flood extension maps in the lower River Tagus, Portugal, from 1992 to 2012. An object-based approach and thresholding operations are used to extract the flood boundaries. While for optical data two thresholding operations are enough, for SAR images, successive thresholding procedures are applied over different data types in order to identify flooded regions with distinct characteristics (smooth water, disturbed water and emerged elements). The proposed method allowed the extraction of flood boundaries for 25 flood dates, with an 88% of correctly detected flood area for both the optical and the SAR data.

  19. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart S of... - Sample Form of Notice of Special Flood Hazards and Availability of Federal Disaster Relief...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and Availability of Federal Disaster Relief Assistance A Appendix A to Subpart S of Part 614 Banks and... Requirements Pt. 614, Subpt. S, App. A Appendix A to Subpart S of Part 614—Sample Form of Notice of Special... Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) as a special flood hazard area using FEMA's Flood Insurance Rate Map or...

  20. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart S of... - Sample Form of Notice of Special Flood Hazards and Availability of Federal Disaster Relief...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Availability of Federal Disaster Relief Assistance A Appendix A to Subpart S of Part 614 Banks and... Requirements Pt. 614, Subpt. S, App. A Appendix A to Subpart S of Part 614—Sample Form of Notice of Special... Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) as a special flood hazard area using FEMA's Flood Insurance Rate Map or...

  1. Developing consistent scenarios to assess flood hazards in mountain streams.

    PubMed

    Mazzorana, B; Comiti, F; Scherer, C; Fuchs, S

    2012-02-01

    The characterizing feature of extreme events in steep mountain streams is the multiplicity of possible tipping process patterns such as those involving sudden morphological changes due to intense local erosion, aggradation as well as clogging of critical flow sections due to wood accumulations. Resolving a substantial part of the uncertainties underlying these hydrological cause-effect chains is a major challenge for flood risk management. Our contribution is from a methodological perspective based on an expert-based methodology to unfold natural hazard process scenarios in mountain streams to retrace their probabilistic structure. As a first step we set up a convenient system representation for natural hazard process routing. In this setting, as a second step, we proceed deriving the possible and thus consistent natural hazard process patterns by means of Formative Scenario Analysis. In a last step, hazard assessment is refined by providing, through expert elicitation, the spatial probabilistic structure of individual scenario trajectories. As complement to the theory the applicability of the method is shown through embedded examples. To conclude we discuss the major advantages of the presented methodological approach for hazard assessment compared to traditional approaches, and with respect to the risk governance process.

  2. Flood and Debris Flow Hazard Predictions in Steep, Burned Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rengers, Francis; McGuire, Luke; Kean, Jason; Staley, Dennis

    2016-04-01

    Post-wildfire natural hazards such as flooding and debris flows threaten infrastructure and can even lead to loss of life. The risk from these natural hazards could be reduced if floods and debris flows could be predicted from modeling. Our ability to test predictive models is primarily constrained by a lack of observational data that can be used for comparison with model predictions. Following the 2009 Station Fire in the San Gabriel Mountains, CA, USA, we conducted a study with high-resolution topography and hydrologic measurements to test the effectiveness of two different hydrologic routing models to predict flood and debris flow timing. Our research focuses on comparing the performance of two hydrologic models with differing levels of complexity and efficiency using high-resolution, lidar-derived digital elevation models. The simpler model uses the kinematic wave approximation to route flows, while the more complex model uses the full shallow water equations. In both models precipitation is spatially uniform and infiltration is simulated using the Green-Ampt infiltration equation. Input data for the numerical models was constrained by time series data of soil moisture, and rainfall collected at field sites as well as high-resolution lidar-derived digital elevation models. We ran the numerical models and varied parameter values for the roughness coefficient and hydraulic conductivity. These parameter values were calibrated by minimizing the difference between the simulated and observed flow timing. Moreover, the two parameters were calibrated in two different watersheds, spanning two orders of magnitude in drainage area. The calibrated parameters were subsequently used to model a third watershed, and the results show a good match with observed timing of flow peaks for both models. Calibrated roughness coefficients are generally higher when using the kinematic wave approximation relative to the full shallow water equations, and decrease with increasing spatial

  3. Probabilistic flood inundation mapping of ungauged rivers: Linking GIS techniques and frequency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarhadi, Ali; Soltani, Saeed; Modarres, Reza

    2012-08-01

    SummaryThis study presents an exhaustive methodology of floodplain mapping at ungauged rivers. To present our methodology, we selected the Halilrud basin and Jiroft city in southeastern Iran as an example of hazardous regions. To estimate flood quantiles in different return periods at ungauged reaches, we used regional flood frequency analysis. By using the well-known L-moments approach and related criteria, a homogeneous region was formed and the 3-parameter Log normal distribution was identified as the robust regional frequency distribution. The hydro-geomorphic characteristics and the land use properties of the catchments were then extracted using RS&GIS techniques to establish multivariate regional regression models between hydro-geomorphic characteristics and flood quantiles. After delineation of the catchments for the ungauged reaches, flood quantiles as an important factor in flood inundation at outlets of these reaches with different probabilities were estimated using the regional regression models. To delineate flood hazard maps and to enhance the accuracy of the hydraulic modeling, we applied satellite stereoscope images of Cartosat-1 along with the Rational Polynomial Coefficients to extract a high resolution DTM and detailed parameterization of the channel required by 1D hydraulic model HEC-RAS. The GIS-based HEC-Geo RAS pre- and post-processor were also used for careful optimization of the geometry features for real visualization of the flood prone areas. Information of some historical flood events was also used to evaluate the hydraulic model performance in predicting flood inundations. Finally, vulnerable areas were crossed with extracted land use mapping from IRS-P6 satellite images to differentiate the critical infrastructures and the valuable land use classes affected by floods in different return periods.

  4. 2008 United States National Seismic Hazard Maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, M.D.; ,

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey recently updated the National Seismic Hazard Maps by incorporating new seismic, geologic, and geodetic information on earthquake rates and associated ground shaking. The 2008 versions supersede those released in 1996 and 2002. These maps are the basis for seismic design provisions of building codes, insurance rate structures, earthquake loss studies, retrofit priorities, and land-use planning. Their use in design of buildings, bridges, highways, and critical infrastructure allows structures to better withstand earthquake shaking, saving lives and reducing disruption to critical activities following a damaging event. The maps also help engineers avoid costs from over-design for unlikely levels of ground motion.

  5. Recommendations for the user-specific enhancement of flood maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, V.; Kuhlicke, C.; Luther, J.; Fuchs, S.; Priest, S.; Dorner, W.; Serrhini, K.; Pardoe, J.; McCarthy, S.; Seidel, J.; Palka, G.; Unnerstall, H.; Viavattene, C.; Scheuer, S.

    2012-05-01

    The European Union Floods Directive requires the establishment of flood maps for high risk areas in all European member states by 2013. However, the current practice of flood mapping in Europe still shows some deficits. Firstly, flood maps are frequently seen as an information tool rather than a communication tool. This means that, for example, local stocks of knowledge are not incorporated. Secondly, the contents of flood maps often do not match the requirements of the end-users. Finally, flood maps are often designed and visualised in a way that cannot be easily understood by residents at risk and/or that is not suitable for the respective needs of public authorities in risk and event management. The RISK MAP project examined how end-user participation in the mapping process may be used to overcome these barriers and enhance the communicative power of flood maps, fundamentally increasing their effectiveness. Based on empirical findings from a participatory approach that incorporated interviews, workshops and eye-tracking tests, conducted in five European case studies, this paper outlines recommendations for user-specific enhancements of flood maps. More specific, recommendations are given with regard to (1) appropriate stakeholder participation processes, which allow incorporating local knowledge and preferences, (2) the improvement of the contents of flood maps by considering user-specific needs and (3) the improvement of the visualisation of risk maps in order to produce user-friendly and understandable risk maps for the user groups concerned. Furthermore, "idealised" maps for different user groups are presented: for strategic planning, emergency management and the public.

  6. Probabilistic flood inundation mapping at ungauged streams due to roughness coefficient uncertainty in hydraulic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaioannou, George; Vasiliades, Lampros; Loukas, Athanasios; Aronica, Giuseppe T.

    2017-04-01

    Probabilistic flood inundation mapping is performed and analysed at the ungauged Xerias stream reach, Volos, Greece. The study evaluates the uncertainty introduced by the roughness coefficient values on hydraulic models in flood inundation modelling and mapping. The well-established one-dimensional (1-D) hydraulic model, HEC-RAS is selected and linked to Monte-Carlo simulations of hydraulic roughness. Terrestrial Laser Scanner data have been used to produce a high quality DEM for input data uncertainty minimisation and to improve determination accuracy on stream channel topography required by the hydraulic model. Initial Manning's n roughness coefficient values are based on pebble count field surveys and empirical formulas. Various theoretical probability distributions are fitted and evaluated on their accuracy to represent the estimated roughness values. Finally, Latin Hypercube Sampling has been used for generation of different sets of Manning roughness values and flood inundation probability maps have been created with the use of Monte Carlo simulations. Historical flood extent data, from an extreme historical flash flood event, are used for validation of the method. The calibration process is based on a binary wet-dry reasoning with the use of Median Absolute Percentage Error evaluation metric. The results show that the proposed procedure supports probabilistic flood hazard mapping at ungauged rivers and provides water resources managers with valuable information for planning and implementing flood risk mitigation strategies.

  7. Mapping technological and biophysical capacities of watersheds to regulate floods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mogollon, Beatriz; Villamagna, Amy M.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.; Angermeier, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Flood regulation is a widely valued and studied service provided by watersheds. Flood regulation benefits people directly by decreasing the socio-economic costs of flooding and indirectly by its positive impacts on cultural (e.g., fishing) and provisioning (e.g., water supply) ecosystem services. Like other regulating ecosystem services (e.g., pollination, water purification), flood regulation is often enhanced or replaced by technology, but the relative efficacy of natural versus technological features in controlling floods has scarcely been examined. In an effort to assess flood regulation capacity for selected urban watersheds in the southeastern United States, we: (1) used long-term flood records to assess relative influence of technological and biophysical indicators on flood magnitude and duration, (2) compared the widely used runoff curve number (RCN) approach for assessing the biophysical capacity to regulate floods to an alternative approach that acknowledges land cover and soil properties separately, and (3) mapped technological and biophysical flood regulation capacities based on indicator importance-values derived for flood magnitude and duration. We found that watersheds with high biophysical (via the alternative approach) and technological capacities lengthened the duration and lowered the peak of floods. We found the RCN approach yielded results opposite that expected, possibly because it confounds soil and land cover processes, particularly in urban landscapes, while our alternative approach coherently separates these processes. Mapping biophysical (via the alternative approach) and technological capacities revealed great differences among watersheds. Our study improves on previous mapping of flood regulation by (1) incorporating technological capacity, (2) providing high spatial resolution (i.e., 10-m pixel) maps of watershed capacities, and (3) deriving importance-values for selected landscape indicators. By accounting for technology that enhances

  8. The Role of Satellite Derived Data for Flood Inundation Mapping Using GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuldeep; Garg, P. K.

    2015-08-01

    River flooding in planar region is the most significant type of natural disaster that modern society is exposed to, affecting several thousand people each year. Recent flood events, population growth concerns have augmented the call for global methods which utilise both spatial and temporal dynamics. Object oriented classification approaches based on the segmentation are being adopted for extraction of variety of thematic information from high resolution satellite images. Generation of landuse/cover map which is one of the important inputs to the model for flood inundation mapping and for accurate assessment of damage due to floods requires advanced methods of image classification. The Cartosat-1 (PAN) satellite data has been fused with the LISS-III (MX) to obtain the color image containing both high spatial and spectral information. The fused image is further classified to obtain the landuse/cover map using object based classification approach. The classification results are assessed by calculating overall accuracy and kappa index with the help of error matrix. The overall accuracy of classification has been obtained 86.00% with kappa index 0.7815. The objective of this study is to develop a GIS aided model for flood inundation mapping of the surrounding of the part of the Yamuna River which flows through the two districts i.e. Yamuna Nagar and Saharanpur in states of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh respectively. The model considers the five parameters viz. topography (slope, elevation) information, landuse/cover, time series data of surface water elevation, river geometry and location of the rain gauge station. Field survey has been conducted to validate the positional accuracy of the DEM and landuse/cover classes using DGPS. A final flood inundation map has been prepared by combining all weighted layers with in GIS environment. The flood inundation maps can further be used for quick identification of areas of potential flood hazard to minimize the flood losses.

  9. Conveying Flood Hazard Risk Through Spatial Modeling: A Case Study for Hurricane Sandy-Affected Communities in Northern New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artigas, Francisco; Bosits, Stephanie; Kojak, Saleh; Elefante, Dominador; Pechmann, Ildiko

    2016-10-01

    The accurate forecast from Hurricane Sandy sea surge was the result of integrating the most sophisticated environmental monitoring technology available. This stands in contrast to the limited information and technology that exists at the community level to translate these forecasts into flood hazard levels on the ground at scales that are meaningful to property owners. Appropriately scaled maps with high levels of certainty can be effectively used to convey exposure to flood hazard at the community level. This paper explores the most basic analysis and data required to generate a relatively accurate flood hazard map to convey inundation risk due to sea surge. A Boolean overlay analysis of four input layers: elevation and slope derived from LiDAR data and distances from streams and catch basins derived from aerial photography and field reconnaissance were used to create a spatial model that explained 55 % of the extent and depth of the flood during Hurricane Sandy. When a ponding layer was added to the previous model to account for depressions that would fill and spill over to nearby areas, the new model explained almost 70 % of the extent and depth of the flood. The study concludes that fairly accurate maps can be created with readily available information and that it is possible to infer a great deal about risk of inundation at the property level, from flood hazard maps. The study goes on to conclude that local communities are encouraged to prepare for disasters, but in reality because of the existing Federal emergency management framework there is very little incentive to do so.

  10. Conveying Flood Hazard Risk Through Spatial Modeling: A Case Study for Hurricane Sandy-Affected Communities in Northern New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Artigas, Francisco; Bosits, Stephanie; Kojak, Saleh; Elefante, Dominador; Pechmann, Ildiko

    2016-10-01

    The accurate forecast from Hurricane Sandy sea surge was the result of integrating the most sophisticated environmental monitoring technology available. This stands in contrast to the limited information and technology that exists at the community level to translate these forecasts into flood hazard levels on the ground at scales that are meaningful to property owners. Appropriately scaled maps with high levels of certainty can be effectively used to convey exposure to flood hazard at the community level. This paper explores the most basic analysis and data required to generate a relatively accurate flood hazard map to convey inundation risk due to sea surge. A Boolean overlay analysis of four input layers: elevation and slope derived from LiDAR data and distances from streams and catch basins derived from aerial photography and field reconnaissance were used to create a spatial model that explained 55 % of the extent and depth of the flood during Hurricane Sandy. When a ponding layer was added to the previous model to account for depressions that would fill and spill over to nearby areas, the new model explained almost 70 % of the extent and depth of the flood. The study concludes that fairly accurate maps can be created with readily available information and that it is possible to infer a great deal about risk of inundation at the property level, from flood hazard maps. The study goes on to conclude that local communities are encouraged to prepare for disasters, but in reality because of the existing Federal emergency management framework there is very little incentive to do so.

  11. Coastal flooding hazard assessment on potentially vulnerable coastal sectors at Varna regional coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eftimova, Petya; Valchev, Nikolay; Andreeva, Nataliya

    2017-04-01

    Storm induced flooding is one of the most significant threats that the coastal communities face. In the light of the climate change it is expected to gain even more importance. Therefore, the adequate assessment of this hazard could increase the capability of mitigation of environmental, social, and economic impacts. The study was accomplished in the frames of the Coastal Risk Assessment Framework (CRAF) developed within the FP7 RISC-KIT Project (Resilience-Increasing Strategies for Coasts - toolkit). The hazard assessment was applied on three potentially vulnerable coastal sectors located at the regional coast of Varna, Bulgarian Black Sea coast. The potential "hotspot" candidates were selected during the initial phase of CRAF which evaluated the coastal risks at regional level. The area of interest comprises different coastal types - from natural beaches and rocky cliffs to man modified environments presented by coastal and port defense structures such as the Varna Port breakwater, groynes, jetties and beaches formed by the presence of coastal structures. The assessment of coastal flooding was done using combination of models -XBeach model and LISFLOOD inundation model applied consecutively. The XBeach model was employed to calculate the hazard intensities at the coast up to the berm crest, while LISFLOOD model was used to calculate the intensity and extent of flooding in the hinterland. At the first stage, 75 extreme storm events were simulated using XBeach model run in "non-hydrostatic" mode to obtain series of flood depth, depth-velocity and overtopping discharges at the predefined coastal cross-shore transects. Extreme value analysis was applied to the calculated hazard parameters series in order to determine their probability distribution functions. This is so called response approach, which is focused on the onshore impact rather than on the deep water boundary conditions. It allows calculation of the hazard extremes probability distribution induced by a

  12. Real-time flood extent maps based on social media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilander, Dirk; van Loenen, Arnejan; Roskam, Ruud; Wagemaker, Jurjen

    2015-04-01

    During a flood event it is often difficult to get accurate information about the flood extent and the people affected. This information is very important for disaster risk reduction management and crisis relief organizations. In the post flood phase, information about the flood extent is needed for damage estimation and calibrating hydrodynamic models. Currently, flood extent maps are derived from a few sources such as satellite images, areal images and post-flooding flood marks. However, getting accurate real-time or maximum flood extent maps remains difficult. With the rise of social media, we now have a new source of information with large numbers of observations. In the city of Jakarta, Indonesia, the intensity of unique flood related tweets during a flood event, peaked at 8 tweets per second during floods in early 2014. A fair amount of these tweets also contains observations of water depth and location. Our hypothesis is that based on the large numbers of tweets it is possible to generate real-time flood extent maps. In this study we use tweets from the city of Jakarta, Indonesia, to generate these flood extent maps. The data-mining procedure looks for tweets with a mention of 'banjir', the Bahasa Indonesia word for flood. It then removes modified and retweeted messages in order to keep unique tweets only. Since tweets are not always sent directly from the location of observation, the geotag in the tweets is unreliable. We therefore extract location information using mentions of names of neighborhoods and points of interest. Finally, where encountered, a mention of a length measure is extracted as water depth. These tweets containing a location reference and a water level are considered to be flood observations. The strength of this method is that it can easily be extended to other regions and languages. Based on the intensity of tweets in Jakarta during a flood event we can provide a rough estimate of the flood extent. To provide more accurate flood extend

  13. Seismic-hazard maps for Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, Fred W.; Frankel, A.D.; Mueller, C.S.; Wesson, R.L.; Okubo, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard maps were prepared for Hawaii portraying peak horizontal ground acceleration and horizontal spectral response acceleration for 0.2, 0.3, and 1.0 second periods with probabilities of exceedance of 10% in 50 years and 2% in 50 years. This particular data set is for horizontal spectral response acceleration for 1.0 second period with a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. All of the maps were prepared by combining hazard derived from spatially- smoothed historic seismicity with hazard from fault-specific sources. The acceleration values contoured are the random horizontal component. The reference site condition is firm rock, defined as having an average shear-wave velocity of 760 m/sec in the top 30 meters corresponding to the boundary between NEHRP site classes B and C. This data set represents the results of calculations of hazard curves for a grid of points with a spacing of 0.02 degrees in latitude and longitude. The grid of points were contoured to produce the final representation of the seismic-hazard.

  14. Hazards, Disasters, and The National Map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.; Newell, Mark R.

    2009-01-01

    Federal, State, and local response and management personnel must have current, reliable, and easily accessible geographic information and maps to prepare for, respond to, or recover from emergency situations. In life-threatening events, such as earthquakes, floods, or wildland fires, geographic information is essential for locating critical infrastructure and carrying out evacuation and rescue operations. The USGS promotes partnerships to ensure that base map data are up to date, readily available, and shareable among local, state, and National users. The National Map enables other government agencies, private industry, and the public to link and share additional data that provide even more information. These efforts with state and local governments have helped standardize the data by reducing data inconsistencies between neighboring jurisdictions and will help fill in the gaps for those places where data are lacking.

  15. A LiDAR based analysis of hydraulic hazard mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazorzi, F.; De Luca, A.; Checchinato, A.; Segna, F.; Dalla Fontana, G.

    2012-04-01

    one by one. Therefore, each segment was split into many reaches, so that within any of them the slope of the piezometric line can be approximated to zero. As a consequence, the hydraulic profile (open channel flow) in every reach is assumed horizontal both downslope and on the cross-section. Each reach can be seen as a polygon, delimited laterally by the hazard mapping boundaries and longitudinally by two successive cross sections, usually orthogonal to the talweg line. Simulating the progressive increase of the river stage, with a horizontal piezometric line, allow the definition of the stage-area and stage-volume relationships. Such relationships are obtained exclusively by the geometric information as provided by the high resolution elevation model. The maximum flooded area resulting from the simulation is finally compared to the potentially floodable area described by the hazard maps, to give a flooding index for every reach. Index values lower than 100% show that the mapped hazard area exceeds the maximum floodable area. Very low index values identify spots where there is a significant incongruity between the hazard map and the topography, and where a specific verification is probably needed. The procedure was successfully used for the validation of many hazard maps across Italy.

  16. Improving Flood Risk Maps as a Capacity Building Activity: Fostering Public Participation and Raising Flood Risk Awareness in the German Mulde Region (project RISK MAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, J.; Meyer, V.; Kuhlicke, C.; Scheuer, S.; Unnerstall, H.

    2012-04-01

    ended in September 2011, focussing on the participatory aspects in one of the German case studies (the Mulde River in Saxony). In short, different map users such as strategic planners, emergency managers or the (affected) public require different maps, with varying information density and complexity. The purpose of participation may therefore have a substantive rationale (i.e. improving the content, including local knowledge) or a more instrumental rationale (i.e. building trust, raising awareness, increasing legitimacy). The degree to which both rationales are accommodated depends on the project objectives and determines the participants and process type. In the Mulde case study, both the process of collaborating with each other and considering the (local) knowledge and different experiences as well as the results were highly appreciated. Hazard and risk maps are thus not an end-product that could be complemented e.g. by emergency management information on existing or planned defences, evacuation routes, assembly points, but they should be embedded into a participatory maintenance/updating framework. Map visualisation could be enhanced by using more common and/or self-explanatory symbols, text and a limited number of colour grades for hazard and risk information. Keywords: Flood mapping, hazard and risk maps, participation, risk communication, flood risk awareness, emergency management

  17. Shallow landslide hazard map of Seattle, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harp, Edwin L.; Michael, John A.; Laprade, William T.

    2008-01-01

    Landslides, particularly debris flows, have long been a significant cause of damage and destruction to people and property in the Puget Sound region. Following the years of 1996 and 1997, the Federal Emergency Management Agency designated Seattle as a “Project Impact” city with the goal of encouraging the city to become more disaster resistant to landslides and other natural hazards. A major recommendation of the Project Impact council was that the city and the U.S. Geological Survey collaborate to produce a landslide hazard map. An exceptional data set archived by the city containing more than 100 yr of landslide data from severe storm events allowed comparison of actual landslide locations with those predicted by slope-stability modeling. We used an infinite-slope analysis, which models slope segments as rigid friction blocks, to estimate the susceptibility of slopes to debris flows, which are water-laden slurries that can form from shallow failures of soil and weathered bedrock and can travel at high velocities down steep slopes. Data used for the analysis consisted of a digital slope map derived from recent light detection and ranging (LiDAR) imagery of Seattle, recent digital geologic mapping of the city, and shear-strength test data for the geologic units found in the surrounding area. The combination of these data layers within a geographic information system (GIS) platform allowed us to create a shallow landslide hazard map for Seattle.

  18. Developing flood-inundation maps for Johnson Creek, Portland, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stonewall, Adam J.; Beal, Benjamin A.

    2017-04-14

    Digital flood-inundation maps were created for a 12.9‑mile reach of Johnson Creek by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The flood-inundation maps depict estimates of water depth and areal extent of flooding from the mouth of Johnson Creek to just upstream of Southeast 174th Avenue in Portland, Oregon. Each flood-inundation map is based on a specific water level and associated streamflow at the USGS streamgage, Johnson Creek at Sycamore, Oregon (14211500), which is located near the upstream boundary of the maps. The maps produced by the USGS, and the forecasted flood hydrographs produced by National Weather Service River Forecast Center can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapper Web site (http://wimcloud.usgs.gov/apps/FIM/FloodInundationMapper.html).Water-surface elevations were computed for Johnson Creek using a combined one-dimensional and two‑dimensional unsteady hydraulic flow model. The model was calibrated using data collected from the flood of December 2015 (including the calculated streamflows at two USGS streamgages on Johnson Creek) and validated with data from the flood of January 2009. Results were typically within 0.6 foot (ft) of recorded or measured water-surface elevations from the December 2015 flood, and within 0.8 ft from the January 2009 flood. Output from the hydraulic model was used to create eight flood inundation maps ranging in stage from 9 to 16 ft. Boundary condition hydrographs were identical in shape to those from the December 2015 flood event, but were scaled up or down to produce the amount of streamflow corresponding to a specific water-surface elevation at the Sycamore streamgage (14211500). Sensitivity analyses using other hydrograph shapes, and a version of the model in which the peak flow is maintained for an extended period of time, showed minimal variation, except for overbank areas near the Foster Floodplain Natural Area.Simulated water-surface profiles were combined with light detection and ranging (lidar

  19. A combined GIS-HEC procedure for flood hazard evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    McLin, S.G.

    1993-09-01

    A technique is described for incorporating a drainage recognition capability into a graphical information system (GIS) database. This capability is then utilized to export digital topographic profiles of stream-channel cross-sectional geometries to the Hydrologic Engineering Center`s Water Surface Profile (HEC-2) model. This model is typically used in conjunction with the Flood Hydrograph (HEC-1) package to define floodplain boundaries in complex watersheds. Once these floodplain boundaries are imported back into the GIS framework, they can be uniquely referenced to the New Mexico state plane coordinate system. A combined GIS-HEC application in ungaged watersheds at Los Alamos National Laboratory is demonstrated. This floodplain mapping procedure uses topographic data from the Laboratory`s MOSS database. Targeted stream channel segments are initially specified in the MOSS system, and topographic profiles along stream-channel cross-sections am extracted automatically. This procedure is initiated at a convenient downstream location within each watershed, and proceeds upstream to a selected termination point. HEC-2 utilizes these MOSS channel data and HEC-1 generated storm hydrographs to uniquely define the floodplain. The computed water surface elevations at each channel section am then read back into the MOSS system. In this particular application, 13 separate elongated watersheds traverse Laboratory lands, with individual channels ranging up to 11 miles in length. The 50, 100, and 500-year floods, and the Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) are quantified in HEC-1. Individual floodplains are then defined for each channel segment in HEC-2 at 250 foot intervals, and detailed 1:4800 scale maps am generated. Over 100 channel miles were mapped using this combined GIS-HEC procedure.

  20. A physically based criterion for hydraulic hazard mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanesi, Luca; Pilotti, Marco; Petrucci, Olga

    2013-04-01

    Hydraulic hazard maps are widely used for land use and emergency planning. Due to their practical consequences, it is important that their meaning is effectively transferred and shared by the stakeholders; to this purpose maps should communicate hazard levels moving from the potential consequences on specified targets. For these reasons flood maps showing only the extension of the inundated areas or flow features as depth and/or velocity may reveal themselves as ineffective instruments. The selection of the specific target to analyse must, in our opinion, be site-specific and reflect land use and/or the hydraulics features of the phenomenon. In case of sudden processes, such as torrential floods or debris flows, hazard levels should be referred to human life, because emergency plans may not mitigate risk; on the contrary, when the time scale of the flood wave propagation is sufficiently larger than the warning system one, the focus might move to the economic value of properties, since human-focused criteria may result in too severe land planning restrictions. This contribution starts exploring, from a theoretical point of view, human hazard levels as drowning, toppling and friction stability limits, which are the main failure mechanisms of human stability in flows. The proposed approach considers the human body, set on a slope and hit by a current of known density, as a combination of cylinders with different dimensions. The drowning threshold is identified through a limiting water depth, while toppling and translation are studied respectively through a moment and momentum balance. The involved forces are the friction at the bottom, the destabilizing drag force exerted by the current, the human weight and buoyancy. Several threshold curves on the velocity-depth plane can be identified as a function of different masses and heights for children and adults. Because of its dependence from the fluid density, this methodology may be applied also to define hazard

  1. Climate-Related Hazards: A Method for Global Assessment of Urban and Rural Population Exposure to Cyclones, Droughts, and Floods

    PubMed Central

    Christenson, Elizabeth; Elliott, Mark; Banerjee, Ovik; Hamrick, Laura; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Global climate change (GCC) has led to increased focus on the occurrence of, and preparation for, climate-related extremes and hazards. Population exposure, the relative likelihood that a person in a given location was exposed to a given hazard event(s) in a given period of time, was the outcome for this analysis. Our objectives were to develop a method for estimating the population exposure at the country level to the climate-related hazards cyclone, drought, and flood; develop a method that readily allows the addition of better datasets to an automated model; differentiate population exposure of urban and rural populations; and calculate and present the results of exposure scores and ranking of countries based on the country-wide, urban, and rural population exposures to cyclone, drought, and flood. Gridded global datasets on cyclone, drought and flood occurrence as well as population density were combined and analysis was carried out using ArcGIS. Results presented include global maps of ranked country-level population exposure to cyclone, drought, flood and multiple hazards. Analyses by geography and human development index (HDI) are also included. The results and analyses of this exposure assessment have implications for country-level adaptation. It can also be used to help prioritize aid decisions and allocation of adaptation resources between countries and within a country. This model is designed to allow flexibility in applying cyclone, drought and flood exposure to a range of outcomes and adaptation measures. PMID:24566046

  2. Climate-related hazards: a method for global assessment of urban and rural population exposure to cyclones, droughts, and floods.

    PubMed

    Christenson, Elizabeth; Elliott, Mark; Banerjee, Ovik; Hamrick, Laura; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-02-21

    Global climate change (GCC) has led to increased focus on the occurrence of, and preparation for, climate-related extremes and hazards. Population exposure, the relative likelihood that a person in a given location was exposed to a given hazard event(s) in a given period of time, was the outcome for this analysis. Our objectives were to develop a method for estimating the population exposure at the country level to the climate-related hazards cyclone, drought, and flood; develop a method that readily allows the addition of better datasets to an automated model; differentiate population exposure of urban and rural populations; and calculate and present the results of exposure scores and ranking of countries based on the country-wide, urban, and rural population exposures to cyclone, drought, and flood. Gridded global datasets on cyclone, drought and flood occurrence as well as population density were combined and analysis was carried out using ArcGIS. Results presented include global maps of ranked country-level population exposure to cyclone, drought, flood and multiple hazards. Analyses by geography and human development index (HDI) are also included. The results and analyses of this exposure assessment have implications for country-level adaptation. It can also be used to help prioritize aid decisions and allocation of adaptation resources between countries and within a country. This model is designed to allow flexibility in applying cyclone, drought and flood exposure to a range of outcomes and adaptation measures.

  3. Hazard maps of Colima volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Escudero Ayala, C. R.

    2011-12-01

    Colima volcano, also known as Volcan de Fuego (19° 30.696 N, 103° 37.026 W), is located on the border between the states of Jalisco and Colima and is the most active volcano in Mexico. Began its current eruptive process in February 1991, in February 10, 1999 the biggest explosion since 1913 occurred at the summit dome. The activity during the 2001-2005 period was the most intense, but did not exceed VEI 3. The activity resulted in the formation of domes and their destruction after explosive events. The explosions originated eruptive columns, reaching attitudes between 4,500 and 9,000 m.a.s.l., further pyroclastic flows reaching distances up to 3.5 km from the crater. During the explosive events ash emissions were generated in all directions reaching distances up to 100 km, slightly affected nearby villages as Tuxpan, Tonila, Zapotlán, Cuauhtemoc, Comala, Zapotitlan de Vadillo and Toliman. During the 2005 this volcano has had an intense effusive-explosive activity, similar to the one that took place during the period of 1890 through 1900. Intense pre-plinian eruption in January 20, 1913, generated little economic losses in the lower parts of the volcano due to low population density and low socio-economic activities at the time. Shows the updating of the volcanic hazard maps published in 2001, where we identify whit SPOT satellite imagery and Google Earth, change in the land use on the slope of volcano, the expansion of the agricultural frontier on the east and southeast sides of the Colima volcano, the population inhabiting the area is approximately 517,000 people, and growing at an annual rate of 4.77%, also the region that has shown an increased in the vulnerability for the development of economic activities, supported by the construction of highways, natural gas pipelines and electrical infrastructure that connect to the Port of Manzanillo to Guadalajara city. The update the hazard maps are: a) Exclusion areas and moderate hazard for explosive events

  4. A methodology for the assessment of flood hazards at the regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallina, Valentina; Torresan, Silvia; Critto, Andrea; Zabeo, Alex; Semenzin, Elena; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, the frequency of water-related disasters has increased and recent flood events in Europe (e.g. 2002 in Central Europe, 2007 in UK, 2010 in Italy) caused physical-environmental and socio-economic damages. Specifically, floods are the most threatening water-related disaster that affects humans, their lives and properties. Within the KULTURisk project (FP7) a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology is proposed to evaluate the benefits of risk prevention in terms of reduced environmental risks due to floods. The method is based on the KULTURisk framework and allows the identification and prioritization of targets (i.e. people, buildings, infrastructures, agriculture, natural and semi-natural systems, cultural heritages) and areas at risk from floods in the considered region by comparing the baseline scenario (i.e. current state) with alternative scenarios (i.e. where different structural and/or non-structural measures are planned). The RRA methodology is flexible and can be adapted to different case studies (i.e. large rivers, alpine/mountain catchments, urban areas and coastal areas) and spatial scales (i.e. from the large river to the urban scale). The final aim of RRA is to help decision-makers in examining the possible environmental risks associated with uncertain future flood hazards and in identifying which prevention scenario could be the most suitable one. The RRA methodology employs Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA functions) in order to integrate stakeholder preferences and experts judgments into the analysis. Moreover, Geographic Information Systems (GISs) are used to manage, process, analyze, and map data to facilitate the analysis and the information sharing with different experts and stakeholders. In order to characterize flood risks, the proposed methodology integrates the output of hydrodynamic models with the analysis of site-specific bio-geophysical and socio-economic indicators (e.g. slope of the territory, land cover

  5. Socio-Economic Appraisal of Flood Hazard among the Riparian Communities: Case Study of Brahmaputra Valley in Assam; India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Nikhil; Wasini Pandey, Bindhy

    2017-04-01

    Brahmaputra valley of Assam is one of the most hazard prone areas of the Indian subcontinent. Recurring floods have severely affected the riparian communities of the region since time immemorial. But, the frequency of the problem has been intensified after the great earthquakes of 1897 and 1950. These two extreme earthquakes have disturbed the geological setting of the basin and the channel morphology has been altered henceforth. The impact of floods on riparian communities in Brahmaputra valley has been abysmal. During the monsoon season almost 30 per cent of the valley has been inundated with floods and the riparian communities are mostly affected. Large chunk of people have been uprooted from their native lands due to recurring floods in the low lying areas of the region. Although it is impossible to quantify the human tragedy during the natural disasters, but one can easily understand the situation by the facts that about 1.8 million people and 200,000 hectares of farmland were affected in the 2016 floods of Assam. In the present study, an attempt has been made to assess the spatio-temporal changes of the morphology of Brahmaputra River and its impact on the livelihood of the riparian communities. For that, LANDSAT and SENTINEL imageries have been used to examine the shifting of bank lines of three decades. CARTOSAT DEM has been used to prepare the FLOOD HAZARD ZONATION map of the Brahmaputra valley to examine the flood vulnerable areas of the region. The present study also tries to explain the livelihood condition of the Internally Displaced Persons and their social cohesion. Keywords: Brahmaputra River, Flood, LANDSAT, CARTOSAT DEM, FLOOD HAZARD ZONATION, Riparian Communities

  6. Flooding, erosion and coastal structures hazards on the Spanish coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Jorge; Losada, Inigo; Mendez, Fernando; Menendez, Melisa; Izaguirre, Cristina; Requejo, Soledad; Abascal, Ana; Tomas, Antonio; Camus, Paula

    2013-04-01

    Coastal flooding, beach erosion and coastal structures can be affected by long-term changes in sea level and in the storminess. Each beach or construction requires a specific study for a proper estimation of coastal hazards. However, high resolution regional studies are useful to decision-makers to focus in the most endangered areas. The aim of this work is to provide an overview of coastal risks along the Spanish coast. Four different databases providing hourly data have been used to study 423 local sites along the Spanish coastline (around 10 Km spatial resolution). 1- The mean sea level was estimated from satellite and tide-gauges based on Church et al. (2004). 2- The astronomical tide was assessed from the Spanish tide-gauge network interpolating 68 tidal constituents to obtain a tide series for each local site. 3- The coastal surge data come from a numerical reanalysis (GOS) with 1/8 degree spatial resolution performed by using the 2-D barotropic Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) model. 4- Nearshore wave time series (at 15-25 m water depth) are provided from a reanalysis obtained from a hybrid downscaling along the Spanish coast (Camus et al., 2013). Flooding can be considered as the combined result of mean sea level, tidal level, surge level and run-up. Run-up has been assessed by the Stockdon et al. (2006) formulation from the wave time series. We reconstructed hourly flood level time series from their components in the selected locations during 60 years (from 1950 to 2009). A time-dependent extreme value model based on Pareto and Poisson probability distributions has been developed for magnitude and frequency respectively. Long-term trends and their statistical significance, and future changes on flooding return levels (e.g. 20 year return level) have been estimated. Two main causes of beach erosion have been analyzed. The shoreline retreat induced by sea level rise has been quantified by using Bruun's rule, and the erosion due to changes in the

  7. Preliminary Earthquake Hazard Map of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, Oliver S.; Mueller, Charles S.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Earthquakes represent a serious threat to the people and institutions of Afghanistan. As part of a United States Agency for International Development (USAID) effort to assess the resource potential and seismic hazards of Afghanistan, the Seismic Hazard Mapping group of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) has prepared a series of probabilistic seismic hazard maps that help quantify the expected frequency and strength of ground shaking nationwide. To construct the maps, we do a complete hazard analysis for each of ~35,000 sites in the study area. We use a probabilistic methodology that accounts for all potential seismic sources and their rates of earthquake activity, and we incorporate modeling uncertainty by using logic trees for source and ground-motion parameters. See the Appendix for an explanation of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and discussion of seismic risk. Afghanistan occupies a southward-projecting, relatively stable promontory of the Eurasian tectonic plate (Ambraseys and Bilham, 2003; Wheeler and others, 2005). Active plate boundaries, however, surround Afghanistan on the west, south, and east. To the west, the Arabian plate moves northward relative to Eurasia at about 3 cm/yr. The active plate boundary trends northwestward through the Zagros region of southwestern Iran. Deformation is accommodated throughout the territory of Iran; major structures include several north-south-trending, right-lateral strike-slip fault systems in the east and, farther to the north, a series of east-west-trending reverse- and strike-slip faults. This deformation apparently does not cross the border into relatively stable western Afghanistan. In the east, the Indian plate moves northward relative to Eurasia at a rate of about 4 cm/yr. A broad, transpressional plate-boundary zone extends into eastern Afghanistan, trending southwestward from the Hindu Kush in northeast Afghanistan, through Kabul, and along the Afghanistan-Pakistan border

  8. Optical and Physical Methods for Mapping Flooding with Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fayne, Jessica Fayne; Bolten, John; Lakshmi, Venkat; Ahamed, Aakash

    2016-01-01

    Flood and surface water mapping is becoming increasingly necessary, as extreme flooding events worldwide can damage crop yields and contribute to billions of dollars economic damages as well as social effects including fatalities and destroyed communities (Xaio et al. 2004; Kwak et al. 2015; Mueller et al. 2016).Utilizing earth observing satellite data to map standing water from space is indispensable to flood mapping for disaster response, mitigation, prevention, and warning (McFeeters 1996; Brakenridge and Anderson 2006). Since the early 1970s(Landsat, USGS 2013), researchers have been able to remotely sense surface processes such as extreme flood events to help offset some of these problems. Researchers have demonstrated countless methods and modifications of those methods to help increase knowledge of areas at risk and areas that are flooded using remote sensing data from optical and radar systems, as well as free publically available and costly commercial datasets.

  9. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for La Ceiba, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, M.C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of La Ceiba that would be inundated by a 50-year-flood of Rio Cangrejal. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of La Ceiba as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for a 50-year-flood discharge of 1,030 cubic meters per second on Rio Cangrejal at La Ceiba were computed using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations on Rio Cangrejal; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Cangrejal at La Ceiba was estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The drainage area and mean annual precipitation estimated for Rio Cangrejal at La Ceiba are 498 square kilometers and 2,306 millimeters, respectively.

  10. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for El Progreso, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of El Progreso that would be inundated by a 50-year flood of Rio Pelo. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of El Progreso as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for a 50-year-flood on Rio Pelo at El Progreso were estimated using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations on Rio Pelo; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Pelo, 235 cubic meters per second, was estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The drainage area and mean annual precipitation estimated for Rio Pelo at El Progreso are 47.4 square kilometers and 1,920 millimeters, respectively.

  11. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart C of... - Notice of Flood, Mudslide Hazard or Wetland Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notice of Flood, Mudslide Hazard or Wetland Area A... Flood, Mudslide Hazard or Wetland Area TO:____ DATE:____ This is to notify you that the real property located at ______ is in a floodplain, wetland or area identified by the Federal Insurance Administration...

  12. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart C of... - Notice of Flood, Mudslide Hazard or Wetland Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Notice of Flood, Mudslide Hazard or Wetland Area A... Flood, Mudslide Hazard or Wetland Area TO:____ DATE:____ This is to notify you that the real property located at ______ is in a floodplain, wetland or area identified by the Federal Insurance Administration...

  13. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart C of... - Notice of Flood, Mudslide Hazard or Wetland Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notice of Flood, Mudslide Hazard or Wetland Area A... Flood, Mudslide Hazard or Wetland Area TO:____ DATE:____ This is to notify you that the real property located at ______ is in a floodplain, wetland or area identified by the Federal Insurance Administration...

  14. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart C of... - Notice of Flood, Mudslide Hazard or Wetland Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notice of Flood, Mudslide Hazard or Wetland Area A... Flood, Mudslide Hazard or Wetland Area TO:____ DATE:____ This is to notify you that the real property located at ______ is in a floodplain, wetland or area identified by the Federal Insurance Administration...

  15. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart C of... - Notice of Flood, Mudslide Hazard or Wetland Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notice of Flood, Mudslide Hazard or Wetland Area A... Flood, Mudslide Hazard or Wetland Area TO:____ DATE:____ This is to notify you that the real property located at ______ is in a floodplain, wetland or area identified by the Federal Insurance Administration...

  16. Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex Natural Phenomena Hazards Flood Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald Sehlke; Paul Wichlacz

    2010-12-01

    This report presents the results of flood hazards analyses performed for the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) and the adjacent Transient Reactor Experiment and Test Facility (TREAT) located at Idaho National Laboratory. The requirements of these analyses are provided in the U.S. Department of Energy Order 420.1B and supporting Department of Energy (DOE) Natural Phenomenon Hazard standards. The flood hazards analyses were performed by Battelle Energy Alliance and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The analyses addressed the following: • Determination of the design basis flood (DBFL) • Evaluation of the DBFL versus the Critical Flood Elevations (CFEs) for critical existing structures, systems, and components (SSCs).

  17. REAL-TIME high-resolution urban surface water flood mapping to support flood emergency management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, M.; Yu, D.; Wilby, R.

    2016-12-01

    Strong evidence has shown that urban flood risks will substantially increase because of urbanisation, economic growth, and more frequent weather extremes. To effectively manage these risks require not only traditional grey engineering solutions, but also a green management solution. Surface water flood risk maps based on return period are useful for planning purposes, but are limited for application in flood emergencies, because of the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of rainfall and complex urban topography. Therefore, a REAL-TIME urban surface water mapping system is highly beneficial to increasing urban resilience to surface water flooding. This study integrated numerical weather forecast and high-resolution urban surface water modelling into a real-time multi-level surface water mapping system for Leicester City in the UK. For rainfall forecast, the 1km composite rain radar from the Met Office was used, and we used the advanced rainfall-runoff model - FloodMap to predict urban surface water at both city-level (10m-20m) and street-level (2m-5m). The system is capable of projecting 3-hour urban surface water flood, driven by rainfall derived from UK Met Office radar. Moreover, this system includes real-time accessibility mapping to assist the decision-making of emergency responders. This will allow accessibility (e.g. time to travel) from individual emergency service stations (e.g. Fire & Rescue; Ambulance) to vulnerable places to be evaluated. The mapping results will support contingency planning by emergency responders ahead of potential flood events.

  18. Building Better Volcanic Hazard Maps Through Scientific and Stakeholder Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, M. A.; Lindsay, J. M.; Calder, E.

    2015-12-01

    All across the world information about natural hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and tsunami is shared and communicated using maps that show which locations are potentially exposed to hazards of varying intensities. Unlike earthquakes and tsunami, which typically produce one dominant hazardous phenomenon (ground shaking and inundation, respectively) volcanic eruptions can produce a wide variety of phenomena that range from near-vent (e.g. pyroclastic flows, ground shaking) to distal (e.g. volcanic ash, inundation via tsunami), and that vary in intensity depending on the type and location of the volcano. This complexity poses challenges in depicting volcanic hazard on a map, and to date there has been no consistent approach, with a wide range of hazard maps produced and little evaluation of their relative efficacy. Moreover, in traditional hazard mapping practice, scientists analyse data about a hazard, and then display the results on a map that is then presented to stakeholders. This one-way, top-down approach to hazard communication does not necessarily translate into effective hazard education, or, as tragically demonstrated by Nevado del Ruiz, Columbia in 1985, its use in risk mitigation by civil authorities. Furthermore, messages taken away from a hazard map can be strongly influenced by its visual design. Thus, hazard maps are more likely to be useful, usable and used if relevant stakeholders are engaged during the hazard map process to ensure a) the map is designed in a relevant way and b) the map takes into account how users interpret and read different map features and designs. The IAVCEI Commission on Volcanic Hazards and Risk has recently launched a Hazard Mapping Working Group to collate some of these experiences in graphically depicting volcanic hazard from around the world, including Latin America and the Caribbean, with the aim of preparing some Considerations for Producing Volcanic Hazard Maps that may help map makers in the future.

  19. A toolbox to visualise benefits resulting from flood hazard mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Thaler, Thomas; Heiser, Micha

    2017-04-01

    In order to visualize the benefits resulting from technical mitigation, a toolbox was developed within an open-source environment that allows for an assessment of gains and losses for buildings exposed to flood hazards. Starting with different scenarios showing the changes in flood magnitude with respect to the considered management options, the computation was based on the amount and value of buildings exposed as well as their vulnerability, following the general concept of risk assessment. As a result, beneficiaries of risk reduction may be identified and - more general - also different mitigation options may be strategically evaluated with respect to the height of risk reduction for different elements exposed. As such, multiple management options can be ranked according to their costs and benefits, and in order of priority. A relational database composed from different modules was created in order to mirror the requirements of an open source application and to allow for future dynamics in the data availability as well as the spatiotemporal dynamics of this data (Fuchs et al. 2013). An economic module was used to compute the monetary value of buildings exposed using (a) the building footprint, (b) the information of the building cadaster such as building type, number of storeys and utilisation, and (c) regionally averaged construction costs. An exposition module was applied to connect the spatial GIS information (X and Y coordinates) of elements at risk to the hazard information in order to achieve information on exposure. An impact module linked this information to vulnerability functions (Totschnig and Fuchs 2013; Papathoma-Köhle et al. 2015) in order to achieve the monetary level of risk for every building exposed. These values were finally computed before and after the implementation of mitigation measure in order to show gains and losses, and visualised. The results can be exported in terms of spread sheets for further computation. References Fuchs S

  20. Flood-inundation maps for White River at Petersburg, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fowler, Kathleen K.

    2015-08-20

    The availability of these maps along with Internet information regarding current stage from the USGS streamgage at White River at Petersburg, Ind., and forecasted stream stages from the NWS provide emergency management personnel and residents with information that is critical for flood response activities such as evacuations and road closures as well as for post-flood recovery efforts.

  1. Hazard function analysis for flood planning under nonstationarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Laura K.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2016-05-01

    The field of hazard function analysis (HFA) involves a probabilistic assessment of the "time to failure" or "return period," T, of an event of interest. HFA is used in epidemiology, manufacturing, medicine, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. For a stationary process, the probability distribution function (pdf) of the return period always follows an exponential distribution, the same is not true for nonstationary processes. When the process of interest, X, exhibits nonstationary behavior, HFA can provide a complementary approach to risk analysis with analytical tools particularly useful for hydrological applications. After a general introduction to HFA, we describe a new mathematical linkage between the magnitude of the flood event, X, and its return period, T, for nonstationary processes. We derive the probabilistic properties of T for a nonstationary one-parameter exponential model of X, and then use both Monte-Carlo simulation and HFA to generalize the behavior of T when X arises from a nonstationary two-parameter lognormal distribution. For this case, our findings suggest that a two-parameter Weibull distribution provides a reasonable approximation for the pdf of T. We document how HFA can provide an alternative approach to characterize the probabilistic properties of both nonstationary flood series and the resulting pdf of T.

  2. Flood hazard studies in Central Texas using orbital and suborbital remote sensing machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, V. R.; Holz, R. K.; Patton, P. C.

    1975-01-01

    Central Texas is subject to infrequent, unusually intense rainstorms which cause extremely rapid runoff from drainage basins developed on the deeply dissected limestone and marl bedrock of the Edwards Plateau. One approach to flood hazard evaluation in this area is a parametric model relating flood hydrograph characteristics to quantitative geomorphic properties of the drainage basins. The preliminary model uses multiple regression techniques to predict potential peak flood discharge from basin magnitude, drainage density, and ruggedness number. After mapping small catchment networks from remote sensing imagery, input data for the model are generated by network digitization and analysis by a computer assisted routine of watershed analysis. The study evaluated the network resolution capabilities of the following data formats: (1) large-scale (1:24,000) topographic maps, employing Strahler's "method of v's," (2) standard low altitude black and white aerial photography (1:13,000 and 1:20,000 scales), (3) NASA - generated aerial infrared photography at scales ranging from 1:48,000 to 1:123,000, and (4) Skylab Earth Resources Experiment Package S-190A and S-190B sensors (1:750,000 and 1:500,000 respectively).

  3. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, O. Q.; Larreynaga, J.; González, M.; Castro, M.; Gavidia, F.; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; González-Riancho, P.; Carreño, E.

    2013-05-01

    El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has approximately a length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there have been 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and hundreds of victims. The hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached from both Probabilistic and Deterministic Methods. A deterministic approximation has been applied in this study as it provides essential information for coastal planning and management. The objective of the research was twofold, on the one hand the characterization of the threat over the entire coast of El Salvador, and on the other the computation of flooding maps for the three main localities of the Salvadorian coast. For the latter we developed high resolution flooding models. For the former, due to the extension of the coastal area, we computed maximum elevation maps and from the elevation in the near-shore we computed an estimation of the run-up and the flooded area using empirical relations. We have considered local sources located in the Middle America Trench, characterized seismotectonically, and distant sources in the rest of Pacific basin, using historical and recent earthquakes and tsunamis. We used a hybrid finite differences - finite volumes numerical model in this work, based on the Linear and Non-linear Shallow Water Equations, to simulate a total of 24 earthquake generated tsunami scenarios. In the western Salvadorian coast, run-up values higher than 5 m are common, while in the eastern area, approximately from La Libertad to the Gulf of Fonseca, the run-up values are lower. The more exposed areas to flooding are the lowlands in the Lempa River delta and the Barra de Santiago Western Plains. The results of the empirical approximation used for the whole country are similar to the results obtained with the high resolution

  4. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, O. Q.; Larreynaga, J.; González, M.; Castro, M.; Gavidia, F.; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; González-Riancho, P.; Carreño, E.

    2013-11-01

    El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has an approximate length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there were 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and resulting in hundreds of victims. Hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached through both probabilistic and deterministic methods. A deterministic approximation has been applied in this study as it provides essential information for coastal planning and management. The objective of the research was twofold: on the one hand the characterization of the threat over the entire coast of El Salvador, and on the other the computation of flooding maps for the three main localities of the Salvadorian coast. For the latter we developed high-resolution flooding models. For the former, due to the extension of the coastal area, we computed maximum elevation maps, and from the elevation in the near shore we computed an estimation of the run-up and the flooded area using empirical relations. We have considered local sources located in the Middle America Trench, characterized seismotectonically, and distant sources in the rest of Pacific Basin, using historical and recent earthquakes and tsunamis. We used a hybrid finite differences-finite volumes numerical model in this work, based on the linear and non-linear shallow water equations, to simulate a total of 24 earthquake-generated tsunami scenarios. Our results show that at the western Salvadorian coast, run-up values higher than 5 m are common, while in the eastern area, approximately from La Libertad to the Gulf of Fonseca, the run-up values are lower. The more exposed areas to flooding are the lowlands in the Lempa River delta and the Barra de Santiago Western Plains. The results of the empirical approximation used for the whole country are similar to the results

  5. Extent of Texas Flooding Shown in New NASA Map

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-30

    The Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, created this Flood Proxy Map depicting areas of Southeastern Texas that are likely flooded as a result of Hurricane Harvey, shown by light blue pixels. The map is derived from synthetic aperture radar amplitude images from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 satellite, taken before (July 30, 2017) and after (August 27, 2017) Hurricane Harvey made landfall. The map covers an area of 135 square miles (350 square kilometers). Each pixel measures about 538 square feet (50 square meters). Local ground observations provided anecdotal preliminary validation. This flood proxy map should be used as guidance to identify areas that are likely flooded, and may be less reliable over urban areas. ALOS-2 data were accessed through the International Charter. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21928

  6. Mapping flood prone areas in southern Brazil: a combination of frequency analysis, HAND algorithm and remote sensing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabris Goerl, Roberto; Borges Chaffe, Pedro Luiz; Marcel Pellerin, Joel Robert; Altamirano Flores, Juan Antonio; Josina Abreu, Janete; Speckhann, Gustavo Andrei; Mattos Sanchez, Gerly

    2015-04-01

    Floods disaster damages several people around the world. There is a worldwide increasing trend of natural disasters frequency and their negative impacts related to the population growth and high urbanization in natural hazards zones. In Santa Catarina state, such as almost all southern Brazilian territory, floods are a frequent hydrological disaster. In this context, flood prone areas map is a important tool to avoid the construction of new settlements in non-urbanizations areas. The present work aimed to map flood prone areas in Palhoça City, Southern Brazil combining high resolution digital elevations data, remote sensing information, frequency analysis and High Above Nearest Drainage (HAND) algorithm. We used 17 years of daily discharge and stage data to calculate flood probability and return period. Remote Sensing (RS) with CBERS HRC image with 2,7m resolution was used. This image was taken one day after one flood occurrence and a band difference was used to extract the flood extent. HAND using DEM to calculate the altimetric difference between channel pixel and adjacent terrain values. All morphometric attributes used in HAND were extracted directly from the high resolution DEM (1m). Through CBERS image areas where flood level was higher than 0.5m were mapped. There is some kind of uncertain in establish HAND classes, since only distance to the channel was take in account. Thus, using other hydrological or spatial information can reduce this uncertain. To elaborate the final flood prone map, all this methods were combined. This map was classified in three main classes based on return period. It was notices that there is a strong spatial correlation between high susceptibility flood areas and geomorphological features like floodplains and Holocene beach ridges, places where water table emerges frequently. The final map was classified using three different colors (red, yellow and green) related to high, medium an law susceptibility flood areas. This mapping

  7. Geologic Maps as the Foundation of Mineral-Hazards Maps in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, C. T.; Churchill, R. K.; Downey, C. I.; Clinkenbeard, J. P.; Fonseca, M. C.

    2010-12-01

    The basic geologic map is essential to the development of products that help planners, engineers, government officials, and the general public make decisions concerning natural hazards. Such maps are the primary foundation that the California Geological Survey (CGS) uses to prepare maps that show potential for mineral-hazards. Examples of clients that request these maps are the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) and California Department of Public Health (CDPH). Largely because of their non-catastrophic nature, mineral hazards have received much less public attention compared to earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, and floods. Nonetheless, mineral hazards can be a major concern locally when considering human health and safety and potential contamination of the environment by human activities such as disposal of earth materials. To address some of these concerns, the CGS has focused its mineral-hazards maps on naturally occurring asbestos (NOA), radon, and various potentially toxic metals as well as certain artificial features such as mines and oil and gas wells. The maps range in scope from statewide to counties and Caltrans districts to segments of selected highways. To develop the hazard maps, the CGS begins with traditional paper and digital versions of basic geologic maps, which are obtained from many sources such as its own files, the USGS, USDA Forest Service, California Department of Water Resources, and counties. For each study area, these maps present many challenges of compilation related to vintage, scale, definition of units, and edge-matching across map boundaries. The result of each CGS compilation is a digital geologic layer that is subsequently reinterpreted and transformed into new digital layers (e.g., lithologic) that focus on the geochemical and mineralogical properties of the area’s earth materials and structures. These intermediate layers are then integrated with other technical data to derive final digital layers

  8. Effect of topographic data, geometric configuration and modeling approach on flood inundation mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Aaron; Merwade, Venkatesh

    2009-10-01

    SummaryTechnological aspects of producing, delivering and updating of flood hazard maps in the US have has gone through a revolutionary change through Federal Emergency Management Agency's Map Modernization program. In addition, the use of topographic information derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) is enabling creation of relatively more accurate flood inundation maps. However, LIDAR is not available for the entire United States. Even for areas, where LIDAR data are available, the effect of other factors such as cross-section configuration in one-dimensional (1D) models, mesh resolution in two-dimensional models (2D), representation of river bathymetry, and modeling approach is not well studied or documented. The objective of this paper is to address some of these issues by comparing newly developed flood inundation maps from LIDAR data to maps that are developed using different topography, geometric description and modeling approach. The methodology involves use of six topographic datasets with different horizontal resolutions, vertical accuracies and bathymetry details. Each topographic dataset is used to create a flood inundation map for twelve different cross-section configurations using 1D HEC-RAS model, and two mesh resolutions using 2D FESWMS model. Comparison of resulting maps for two study areas (Strouds Creek in North Carolina and Brazos River in Texas) show that the flood inundation area reduces with improved horizontal resolution and vertical accuracy in the topographic data. This reduction is further enhanced by incorporating river bathymetry in topography data. Overall, the inundation extent predicted by FESWMS is smaller compared to prediction from HEC-RAS for the study areas, and that the variations in the flood inundation maps arising from different factors are smaller in FESWMS compared to HEC-RAS.

  9. Making Topographical Maps From SAR and Flood-Gauge Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, Marc Lee

    1990-01-01

    Collection of computer programs processes image data obtained by synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) along with measurements of water levels taken at selected points on ground to generate three-dimensional maps of surveyed terrain. Information in maps presented in variety of useful ways suited to study of such phenomena as flooding, damage caused by floods, flow of nutrients from forests to river and marine ecosystems, and effects of subsidence of ground or of rising sea levels.

  10. Probabilistic Flood Mapping and Visualization Issues: Application to the River Ubaye, Barcelonnette (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukolwe, M. M.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Bogaard, T. A.; Malet, J.-P.; Solomatine, D. P.

    2012-04-01

    Potential loss of life and damage to infrastructure is an ever present risk along several rivers globally. Recent floodings in Thailand (2011), Pakistan (2010) and Australia (2010) testify the level of damage experienced. Increasing population levels and migration patterns result in space shortages, and floodplain encroachment. This has increased the vulnerability and exposure of the population. The problem is compounded by the uncertainty in the derived flood risk mitigation parameters and design guidelines, due to unknown behavior of hydrological extremes (Klemes, 1989). Current flood risk management practices acknowledge the inability of hydrological extremes (and resulting floods) to be fully contained by structural flood defense measures (Loat and Petrascheck, 1997). Consequently, decision makers are faced with a challenge in the safeguarding of civil society. Flood mapping provides prior knowledge and aids land-use planning strategies. The EU flood directive (2007) clearly outlines procedures to be followed in the mapping of floodplains, by the production of hazard maps corresponding to specified probabilities of occurrence. The main challenge is the reliability of natural randomness and epistemic uncertainty of the hydraulic flood modeling process (Refsgaard et al., 2007). Several studies over the resent past have investigated methods to estimate (and possibly reduce) the uncertainty (e.g. Montanari, 2007). However, it is acknowledged that the degree of randomness and the incomplete knowledge of natural system behavior contribute to a certitude level in the derived outputs (Di Baldassarre et al., 2010). Several authors pinpointed the need for "honest" portrayal of this uncertainty in modeling output. Nevertheless, the fear of introducing confusion has hampered this endeavour (Pappenberger and Beven, 2006). This study focuses on a flood inundation modeling and a probabilistic mapping carried out along the R. Ubaye (Barcelonnette Basin, South French Alps

  11. 38 CFR 36.4708 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice of special flood... of Payment, and Flood Insurance § 36.4708 Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal... a loan secured by a building or a mobile home located or to be located in a special flood hazard...

  12. 38 CFR 36.4708 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Notice of special flood... of Payment, and Flood Insurance § 36.4708 Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal... a loan secured by a building or a mobile home located or to be located in a special flood hazard...

  13. Hazards, Disasters, and The National Map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2003-01-01

    Governments depend on base geographic information that describes the Earth's surface and locates features. They use this information for economic and community development, land and natural resource management, delivery of health services, and ensuring public safety. It is also the foundation for studying and solving geographically based problems. Geographic information underpins an increasingly large part of the Nation's economy. It is an important part of our national infrastructure in the same way that the Interstate Highway System is an essential element of our transportation network. Federal, State, and local response and management personnel must have current, reliable, and easily accessible geographic information and maps to prepare for, respond to, or recover from emergency situations. In life-threatening events, such as earthquakes, floods, or wildland fires, geographic information is essential for locating critical infrastructure and carrying out evacuation and rescue operations.

  14. Flood Water Level Mapping and Prediction Due to Dam Failures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa, S.; Adnan, M. S.; Ahmad, N. A.; Ayob, S.

    2016-07-01

    Sembrong dam has undergone overflow failure. Flooding has been reported to hit the town, covering an area of up to Parit Raja, located in the district of Batu Pahat. This study aims to identify the areas that will be affected by flood in the event of a dam failure in Sembrong Dam, Kluang, Johor at a maximum level. To grasp the extent, the flood inundation maps have been generated by using the InfoWorks ICM and GIS software. By using these maps, information such as the depth and extent of floods can be identified the main ares flooded. The flood map was created starting with the collection of relevant data such as measuring the depth of the river and a maximum flow rate for Sembrong Dam. The data were obtained from the Drainage and Irrigation Department Malaysia and the Department of Survey and Mapping and HLA Associates Sdn. Bhd. Then, the data were analyzed according to the established Info Works ICM method. The results found that the flooded area were listed at Sri Lalang, Parit Sagil, Parit Sonto, Sri Paya, Parit Raja, Parit Sempadan, Talang Bunut, Asam Bubok, Tanjung Sembrong, Sungai Rambut and Parit Haji Talib. Flood depth obtained for the related area started from 0.5 m up to 1.2 m. As a conclusion, the flood emanating from this study include the area around the town of Ayer Hitam up to Parit Raja approximately of more than 20 km distance. This may give bad implication to residents around these areas. In future studies, other rivers such as Sungai Batu Pahat should be considered for this study to predict and reduce the yearly flood victims for this area.

  15. 12 CFR 339.9 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of special flood hazards and... INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 339.9 Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a...

  16. 12 CFR 572.9 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of special flood hazards and... SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 572.9 Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement. When a...

  17. 12 CFR 339.9 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notice of special flood hazards and... INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 339.9 Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a...

  18. 12 CFR 760.9 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notice of special flood hazards and... ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 760.9 Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement. When...

  19. Current and future pluvial flood hazard analysis for the city of Antwerp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willems, Patrick; Tabari, Hossein; De Niel, Jan; Van Uytven, Els; Lambrechts, Griet; Wellens, Geert

    2016-04-01

    to two types of methods). These were finally transferred into future pluvial flash flood hazard maps for the city together with the uncertainties, and are considered as basis for spatial planning and adaptation.

  20. A software tool for rapid flood inundation mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verdin, James; Verdin, Kristine; Mathis, Melissa L.; Magadzire, Tamuka; Kabuchanga, Eric; Woodbury, Mark; Gadain, Hussein

    2016-06-02

    The GIS Flood Tool (GFT) was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey with support from the U.S. Agency for International Development’s Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance to provide a means for production of reconnaissance-level flood inundation mapping for data-sparse and resource-limited areas of the world. The GFT has also attracted interest as a tool for rapid assessment flood inundation mapping for the Flood Inundation Mapping Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The GFT can fill an important gap for communities that lack flood inundation mapping by providing a first-estimate of inundation zones, pending availability of resources to complete an engineering study. The tool can also help identify priority areas for application of scarce flood inundation mapping resources. The technical basis of the GFT is an application of the Manning equation for steady flow in an open channel, operating on specially processed digital elevation data. The GFT is implemented as a software extension in ArcGIS. Output maps from the GFT were validated at 11 sites with inundation maps produced previously by the Flood Inundation Mapping Program using standard one-dimensional hydraulic modeling techniques. In 80 percent of the cases, the GFT inundation patterns matched 75 percent or more of the one-dimensional hydraulic model inundation patterns. Lower rates of pattern agreement were seen at sites with low relief and subtle surface water divides. Although the GFT is simple to use, it should be applied with the oversight or review of a qualified hydraulic engineer who understands the simplifying assumptions of the approach.

  1. Mapping Flash Flood Severity in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saharia, M.; Kirstetter, P. E.; Gourley, J. J.; Hong, Y.; Vergara, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    Flash floods have been a major natural hazard in terms of both fatalities and property damage. In the United States, flash floods have only been characterized on a case study basis due to the lack of a comprehensive database matching flood characteristics with geospatial and geomorphologic information. To characterize the ability of a basin to produce flash floods, a new variable called "Flashiness" is derived from the slope of the rising limb in hydrograph time series. It is the basis to document and predict the flash flood potential and severity over the U.S. First a representative and long archive of flood events spanning 78 years is used to analyze the spatial and temporal variability of observed flashiness. The areas and seasons prone to flash floods are documented, highlighting the flash flood alley in Texas, Appalachians, West Coast, and North American monsoon in Arizona etc. Then the flashiness is linked to geomorphologic and climatologic attributes to identify the basin characteristics driving the ability to produce flash floods. The significant impact of characteristics such as slope, precipitation, and basin area are quantified. Next the model is used to predict flashiness all over the continental U.S., specifically over regions poorly covered by hydrological observations. It highlights ungauged areas prone to flash floods such as parts of Florida, Southern Wisconsin, Montana and South Dakota etc. Finally these findings are validated using the National Weather Service storm reports and a historical flood fatalities database. This analysis framework will serve as a baseline for evaluating distributed hydrologic model simulations such as the Flooded Locations And Simulated Hydrographs Project (FLASH) (http://flash.ou.edu).

  2. Qualitative approach to residual hazard from the 2013 flood effects in the Garonne River (Val d'Aran, Central Pyrenees)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Silvestre, Marta; Victoriano-Lamariano, Ane; Furdada-Bellavista, Gloria

    2015-04-01

    The Val d'Aran is a region located in the central, axial part of the Pyrenees. The Garona River, the main river that drains it, produces relatively frequent flood events. The last significant flood occurred in June 2013 and it caused extensive damages, as well as a large impact on the media. Based on the 2013 flood effects, a qualitative approach to the residual hazard was performed in order to understand the characteristics of the main zones that were affected and, therefore, may be affected in the future. Two representative sectors along the Garona River were chosen for the study: Arties-Vielha and Era Bordeta-Les stretches. The qualitative approach to the residual hazard has been performed considering that the study of the landforms and the flood effects can give orientation to identify the major flood prone areas. The residual hazard is considered as the hazard that remains even when effective mitigation measures to minimize flood processes are in place. The geomorphology in quasi-natural conditions provides information about the natural dynamic of the river. The geomorphology was studied by analysing the landforms from the 1956 aerial pictures that indicate fluvial processes of the area in quasi-natural conditions. Comparing the effects and flooded areas with the fluvial geomorphology and ancient maps, the most significant flood prone areas can be predicted for future episodes. Administration agencies (CHE, ACA) considered the return-period of this flood lower than 50 years. For this low to medium frequency event, two main types of flood effects were identified: erosions and overflows. Erosions were much more significant than overflows. Regarding to erosions, different cases were found: 1) anthropically narrowed channel stretches recovered their original width; 2) the erosions along the river coincided mostly with landfills that nowadays occupy the floodplain; 3) anthropically deviated stretches recovered their natural paths. Furthermore, these erosions caused

  3. St. Louis area earthquake hazards mapping project; seismic and liquefaction hazard maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cramer, Chris H.; Bauer, Robert A.; Chung, Jae-won; Rogers, David; Pierce, Larry; Voigt, Vicki; Mitchell, Brad; Gaunt, David; Williams, Robert; Hoffman, David; Hempen, Gregory L.; Steckel, Phyllis; Boyd, Oliver; Watkins, Connor M.; Tucker, Kathleen; McCallister, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    We present probabilistic and deterministic seismic and liquefaction hazard maps for the densely populated St. Louis metropolitan area that account for the expected effects of surficial geology on earthquake ground shaking. Hazard calculations were based on a map grid of 0.005°, or about every 500 m, and are thus higher in resolution than any earlier studies. To estimate ground motions at the surface of the model (e.g., site amplification), we used a new detailed near‐surface shear‐wave velocity model in a 1D equivalent‐linear response analysis. When compared with the 2014 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Seismic Hazard Model, which uses a uniform firm‐rock‐site condition, the new probabilistic seismic‐hazard estimates document much more variability. Hazard levels for upland sites (consisting of bedrock and weathered bedrock overlain by loess‐covered till and drift deposits), show up to twice the ground‐motion values for peak ground acceleration (PGA), and similar ground‐motion values for 1.0 s spectral acceleration (SA). Probabilistic ground‐motion levels for lowland alluvial floodplain sites (generally the 20–40‐m‐thick modern Mississippi and Missouri River floodplain deposits overlying bedrock) exhibit up to twice the ground‐motion levels for PGA, and up to three times the ground‐motion levels for 1.0 s SA. Liquefaction probability curves were developed from available standard penetration test data assuming typical lowland and upland water table levels. A simplified liquefaction hazard map was created from the 5%‐in‐50‐year probabilistic ground‐shaking model. The liquefaction hazard ranges from low (60% of area expected to liquefy) in the lowlands. Because many transportation routes, power and gas transmission lines, and population centers exist in or on the highly susceptible lowland alluvium, these areas in the St. Louis region are at significant potential risk from seismically induced liquefaction and associated

  4. Toward a coupled Hazard-Vulnerability Tool for Flash Flood Impacts Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terti, Galateia; Ruin, Isabelle; Anquetin, Sandrine; Gourley, Jonathan J.

    2015-04-01

    Flash floods (FF) are high-impact, catastrophic events that result from the intersection of hydrometeorological extremes and society at small space-time scales, generally on the order of minutes to hours. Because FF events are generally localized in space and time, they are very difficult to forecast with precision and can subsequently leave people uninformed and subject to surprise in the midst of their daily activities (e.g., commuting to work). In Europe, FFs are the main source of natural hazard fatalities, although they affect smaller areas than riverine flooding. In the US, also, flash flooding is the leading cause of weather-related deaths most years, with some 200 annual fatalities. There were 954 fatalities and approximately 31 billion U.S. dollars of property damage due to floods and flash floods from 1995 to 2012 in the US. For forecasters and emergency managers the prediction of and subsequent response to impacts due to such a sudden onset and localized event remains a challenge. This research is motivated by the hypothesis that the intersection of the spatio-temporal context of the hazard with the distribution of people and their characteristics across space and time reveals different paths of vulnerability. We argue that vulnerability and the dominant impact type varies dynamically throughout the day and week according to the location under concern. Thus, indices are appropriate to develop and provide, for example, vehicle-related impacts on active population being focused on the road network during morning or evening rush hours. This study describes the methodological developments of our approach and applies our hypothesis to the case of the June 14th, 2010 flash flood event in the Oklahoma City area (Oklahoma, US). Social (i.e. population socio-economic profile), exposure (i.e. population distribution, land use), and physical (i.e. built and natural environment) data are used to compose different vulnerability products based on the forecast location

  5. 44 CFR 65.13 - Mapping and map revisions for areas subject to alluvial fan flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... conditions (e.g., deforestation of the watershed by fire). The potential for debris flow and sediment... the fan. (5) Engineering analyses that assess the effect of the project on flood hazards, including...

  6. 44 CFR 65.13 - Mapping and map revisions for areas subject to alluvial fan flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... conditions (e.g., deforestation of the watershed by fire). The potential for debris flow and sediment... the fan. (5) Engineering analyses that assess the effect of the project on flood hazards, including...

  7. 44 CFR 65.13 - Mapping and map revisions for areas subject to alluvial fan flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... conditions (e.g., deforestation of the watershed by fire). The potential for debris flow and sediment... the fan. (5) Engineering analyses that assess the effect of the project on flood hazards, including...

  8. Parcel-scale urban coastal flood mapping: Leveraging the multi-scale CoSMoS model for coastal flood forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallien, T.; Barnard, P. L.; Sanders, B. F.

    2011-12-01

    California coastal sea levels are projected to rise 1-1.4 meters in the next century and evidence suggests mean tidal range, and consequently, mean high water (MHW) is increasing along portions of Southern California Bight. Furthermore, emerging research indicates wind stress patterns associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) have suppressed sea level rise rates along the West Coast since 1980, and a reversal in this pattern would result in the resumption of regional sea level rise rates equivalent to or exceeding global mean sea level rise rates, thereby enhancing coastal flooding. Newport Beach is a highly developed, densely populated lowland along the Southern California coast currently subject to episodic flooding from coincident high tides and waves, and the frequency and intensity of flooding is expected to increase with projected future sea levels. Adaptation to elevated sea levels will require flood mapping and forecasting tools that are sensitive to the dominant factors affecting flooding including extreme high tides, waves and flood control infrastructure. Considerable effort has been focused on the development of nowcast and forecast systems including Scripps Institute of Oceanography's Coastal Data Information Program (CDIP) and the USGS Multi-hazard model, the Southern California Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS). However, fine scale local embayment dynamics and overtopping flows are needed to map unsteady flooding effects in coastal lowlands protected by dunes, levees and seawalls. Here, a recently developed two dimensional Godunov non-linear shallow water solver is coupled to water level and wave forecasts from the CoSMoS model to investigate the roles of tides, waves, sea level changes and flood control infrastructure in accurate flood mapping and forecasting. The results of this study highlight the important roles of topographic data, embayment hydrodynamics, water level uncertainties and critical flood processes required for

  9. Seismic hazard mapping of California considering site effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkan, E.; Wills, C.J.; Branum, D.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we have combined the U.S. Geological Survey's National Seismic Hazard Maps model with the California geologic map showing 17 generalized geologic units that can be defined by their VS30. We regrouped these units into seven VS30 values and calculated a probabilistic seismic hazard map for the entire state for each VS30 value. By merging seismic hazard maps based on the seven different V S30 values, a suite of seismic hazard maps was computed for 0.2 and 1.0 s spectral ordinates at 2% probability of exceedance (PE) in 50 years. The improved hazards maps explicitly incorporate the site effects and their spatial variability on ground motion estimates. The spectral acceleration (SA) at 1.0 s map of seismic shaking potential for California has now been published as California Geological Survey Map Sheet 48.

  10. Flood-hazard analysis of four headwater streams draining the Argonne National Laboratory property, DuPage County, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soong, David T.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Straub, Timothy D.; Zeeb, Hannah L.

    2016-11-22

    Results of a flood-hazard analysis conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Argonne National Laboratory, for four headwater streams within the Argonne National Laboratory property indicate that the 1-percent and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability floods would cause multiple roads to be overtopped. Results indicate that most of the effects on the infrastructure would be from flooding of Freund Brook. Flooding on the Northeast and Southeast Drainage Ways would be limited to overtopping of one road crossing for each of those streams. The Northwest Drainage Way would be the least affected with flooding expected to occur in open grass or forested areas.The Argonne Site Sustainability Plan outlined the development of hydrologic and hydraulic models and the creation of flood-plain maps of the existing site conditions as a first step in addressing resiliency to possible climate change impacts as required by Executive Order 13653 “Preparing the United States for the Impacts of Climate Change.” The Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN is the hydrologic model used in the study, and the Hydrologic Engineering Center‒River Analysis System (HEC–RAS) is the hydraulic model. The model results were verified by comparing simulated water-surface elevations to observed water-surface elevations measured at a network of five crest-stage gages on the four study streams. The comparison between crest-stage gage and simulated elevations resulted in an average absolute difference of 0.06 feet and a maximum difference of 0.19 feet.In addition to the flood-hazard model development and mapping, a qualitative stream assessment was conducted to evaluate stream channel and substrate conditions in the study reaches. This information can be used to evaluate erosion potential.

  11. Water Induced Hazard Mapping in Nepal: A Case Study of East Rapti River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupane, N.

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents illustration on typical water induced hazard mapping of East Rapti River Basin under the DWIDP, GON. The basin covers an area of 2398 sq km. The methodology includes making of base map of water induced disaster in the basin. Landslide hazard maps were prepared by SINMAP approach. Debris flow hazard maps were prepared by considering geology, slope, and saturation. Flood hazard maps were prepared by using two approaches: HEC-RAS and Satellite Imagery Interpretation. The composite water-induced hazard maps were produced by compiling the hazards rendered by landslide, debris flow, and flood. The monsoon average rainfall in the basin is 1907 mm whereas maximum 24 hours precipitation is 456.8 mm. The peak discharge of the Rapati River in the year of 1993 at station was 1220 cu m/sec. This discharge nearly corresponds to the discharge of 100-year return period. The landslides, floods, and debris flows triggered by the heavy rain of July 1993 claimed 265 lives, affected 148516 people, and damaged 1500 houses in the basin. The field investigation and integrated GIS interpretation showed that the very high and high landslide hazard zones collectively cover 38.38% and debris flow hazard zone constitutes 6.58%. High flood hazard zone occupies 4.28% area of the watershed. Mitigation measures are recommendated according to Integrated Watershed Management Approach under which the non-structural and structural measures are proposed. The non-structural measures includes: disaster management training, formulation of evacuation system (arrangement of information plan about disaster), agriculture management practices, protection of water sources, slope protections and removal of excessive bed load from the river channel. Similarly, structural measures such as dike, spur, rehabilitation of existing preventive measures and river training at some locations are recommendated. The major factors that have contributed to induce high incidences of various types of mass

  12. Combining criteria for delineating lahar- and flash-flood-prone hazard and risk zones for the city of Arequipa, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouret, J.-C.; Enjolras, G.; Martelli, K.; Santoni, O.; Luque, J. A.; Nagata, M.; Arguedas, A.; Macedo, L.

    2013-02-01

    Arequipa, the second largest city in Peru, is exposed to many natural hazards, most notably earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, lahars (volcanic debris flows), and flash floods. Of these, lahars and flash floods, triggered by occasional torrential rainfall, pose the most frequently occurring hazards that can affect the city and its environs, in particular the areas containing low-income neighbourhoods. This paper presents and discusses criteria for delineating areas prone to flash flood and lahar hazards, which are localized along the usually dry (except for the rainy season) ravines and channels of the Río Chili and its tributaries that dissect the city. Our risk-evaluation study is based mostly on field surveys and mapping, but we also took into account quality and structural integrity of buildings, available socio-economic data, and information gained from interviews with risk-managers officials. In our evaluation of the vulnerability of various parts of the city, in addition to geological and physical parameters, we also took into account selected socio-economic parameters, such as the educational and poverty level of the population, unemployment figures, and population density. In addition, we utilized a criterion of the "isolation factor", based on distances to access emergency resources (hospitals, shelters or safety areas, and water) in each city block. By combining the hazard, vulnerability and exposure criteria, we produced detailed risk-zone maps at the city-block scale, covering the whole city of Arequipa and adjacent suburbs. Not surprisingly, these maps show that the areas at high risk coincide with blocks or districts with populations at low socio-economic levels. Inhabitants at greatest risk are the poor recent immigrants from rural areas who live in unauthorized settlements in the outskirts of the city in the upper parts of the valleys. Such settlements are highly exposed to natural hazards and have little access to vital resources. Our

  13. Flood-Inundation Maps for Sugar Creek at Crawfordsville, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Zachary W.

    2016-06-06

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.5-mile reach of Sugar Creek at Crawfordsville, Indiana, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage 03339500, Sugar Creek at Crawfordsville, Ind. Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at this site (NWS site CRWI3).Flood profiles were computed for the USGS streamgage 03339500, Sugar Creek at Crawfordsville, Ind., reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater hydraulic modeling software developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The hydraulic model was calibrated using the current stage-discharge rating at the USGS streamgage 03339500, Sugar Creek at Crawfordsville, Ind., and high-water marks from the flood of April 19, 2013, which reached a stage of 15.3 feet. The hydraulic model was then used to compute 13 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum ranging from 4.0 ft (the NWS “action stage”) to 16.0 ft, which is the highest stage interval of the current USGS stage-discharge rating curve and 2 ft higher than the NWS “major flood stage.” The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a Geographic Information System digital elevation model (derived from light detection and ranging [lidar]) data having a 0.49-ft root mean squared error and 4.9-ft horizontal resolution) to delineate the area flooded at each stage.The availability

  14. Development of a flood-warning system and flood-inundation mapping in Licking County, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostheimer, Chad J.

    2012-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for selected reaches of South Fork Licking River, Raccoon Creek, North Fork Licking River, and the Licking River in Licking County, Ohio, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Ohio Department of Transportation; U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration; Muskingum Watershed Conservancy District; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service; and the City of Newark and Village of Granville, Ohio. The inundation maps depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to water levels (stages) at the following USGS streamgages: South Fork Licking River at Heath, Ohio (03145173); Raccoon Creek below Wilson Street at Newark, Ohio (03145534); North Fork Licking River at East Main Street at Newark, Ohio (03146402); and Licking River near Newark, Ohio (03146500). The maps were provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into a Web-based flood-warning system that can be used in conjunction with NWS flood-forecast data to show areas of predicted flood inundation associated with forecasted flood-peak stages. As part of the flood-warning streamflow network, the USGS re-installed one streamgage on North Fork Licking River, and added three new streamgages, one each on North Fork Licking River, South Fork Licking River, and Raccoon Creek. Additionally, the USGS upgraded a lake-level gage on Buckeye Lake. Data from the streamgages and lake-level gage can be used by emergency-management personnel, in conjunction with the flood-inundation maps, to help determine a course of action when flooding is imminent. Flood profiles for selected reaches were prepared by calibrating steady-state step-backwater models to selected, established streamgage rating curves. The step-backwater models then were used to determine water-surface-elevation profiles for up to 10 flood stages at a streamgage with corresponding streamflows ranging from approximately

  15. New river flow maxima in Northern England, December 2015: Implications for flood hazard and risk assessment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, James

    2016-04-01

    December 2015 was recently confirmed as the UK's wettest month on record by the Met Office. The most extreme precipitation was associated with three extratropical storm systems, named Desmond, Eva and Frank by the pilot Met Éireann/Met Office "Name our storms" project. In response, river levels reached new maxima at many locations across Northern England. Property damage was widespread, with at least 16,000 homes in England flooded. As with recent predecessors, these events reinvigorated public debate about the extent to which natural weather variability, anthropogenic climate change, increased urbanisation and/or other changes in catchment and river management might be responsible for apparent increases in flood frequency and severity. Change detection and attribution science is required to inform the debate, but is complicated by the short (typically ~ 35 years) river flow records available. Running a large number of coupled climate and hydrological model simulations is a powerful way of addressing the 'attribution question' with respect to the hypothesised climate forcing, for example, albeit one that remains largely in the research domain at present. In the meantime, flood-frequency analysis of available records still forms the bedrock of practice in the water industry; the results are used routinely in the design of new defence structures and in the development of flood hazard maps, amongst other things. In such analyses, it is usual for the records to be assumed stationary. In this context, the specific aims of this research are twofold: • To investigate whether, under the assumption of stationarity, the outputs of standard flood-frequency modelling methods (both 'single-site' and 'spatially pooled' methods) differ significantly depending on whether the new peaks are included or excluded, and; • To assess the sustainability of previous conclusions regarding trends in English river flows by reapplying simple statistical tests, such as the Mann-Kendal test

  16. Strategies for flood hazard adaptation in drought affected regions of Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleupner, Christine

    2010-05-01

    continue to impact upon society by creating stresses for specific vulnerable groups. This study discusses and compares existing policies, legislations and strategies considering flood adaptation planning in Afghanistan. It reviews available Flood Hazard Maps and reflects on regional adaptation options. Present and future vulnerability to flooding is assessed through a GIS-based model by using scenario techniques. A strategy is developed how to implement measures into regional and integrated water resource management planning. In general, not a single but the selection of multiple measures will be successful in pro-active planning for climate change adaptation. In this regard a continuous consultation with stakeholders needs to take place to address their demands. Thus the results of this study cannot give solutions but might build the basis for recommended active planning processes.

  17. Flood Hazard Assessment of the coastal lowland in the Kujukuri Plain of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, using GIS and multicriteria decision analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHEN, Huali; Tokunaga, Tomochika; Ito, Yuka; Sawamukai, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Floods, the most common natural disaster in the world, cause serious loss of life and economic damage. Flood is one of the disasters in the coastal lowland along the Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan. Many natural and human activities have changed the surface environment of the Plain. These include agricultural development, urban and industrial development, change of the drainage patterns of the land surface, deposition and/or erosion of the river valleys, and so on. In addition, wide spread occurrence of land subsidence has been caused by the abstraction of natural gas dissolved in groundwater. The locations of the groundwater extraction include nearby the coast, and it may increase the flood risk. Hence, it is very important to evaluate flood hazard by taking into account the temporal change of land elevation caused by land subsidence, and to develop hazard maps for protecting surface environment and land-use planning. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) provides methodology and techniques for analyzing complex decision problems, which often involve incommensurable data or criteria. Also, Geographical Information System (GIS) is the powerful tool since it manages large amount of spatial data involved in MCDA. The purpose of this study is to present a flood hazard model using MCDA techniques with GIS support in a region where primary data are scare. The model incorporates six parameters: river system, topography, land-use, flood control project, passing flood from coast, and precipitation. Main data sources used are 10 meter resolution topography data, airborne laser scanning data, leveling data, Landsat-TM data, two 1:30,000 scale river watershed map, and precipitation data from precipitation observation stations around the study area. River system map was created by merging the river order, the line density, and the river sink point density layers. Land-use data were derived from Landsat-TM images. A final hazard map for 2004, as an example, was

  18. Assessment of flood hazard areas at a regional scale using an index-based approach and Analytical Hierarchy Process: Application in Rhodope-Evros region, Greece.

    PubMed

    Kazakis, Nerantzis; Kougias, Ioannis; Patsialis, Thomas

    2015-12-15

    The present study introduces a multi-criteria index to assess flood hazard areas in a regional scale. Accordingly, a Flood Hazard Index (FHI) has been defined and a spatial analysis in a GIS environment has been applied for the estimation of its value. The developed methodology processes information of seven parameters namely flow accumulation, distance from the drainage network, elevation, land use, rainfall intensity and geology. The initials of these criteria gave the name to the developed method: "FIGUSED". The relative importance of each parameter for the occurrence and severity of flood has been connected to weight values. These values are calculated following an "Analytical Hierarchy Process", a method originally developed for the solution of Operational Research problems. According to their weight values, information of the different parameters is superimposed, resulting to flood hazard mapping. The accuracy of the method has been supported by a sensitivity analysis that examines a range for the weights' values and corresponding to alternative scenarios. The presented methodology has been applied to an area in north-eastern Greece, where recurring flood events have appeared. Initially FIGUSED method resulted to a Flood Hazard Index (FHI) and a corresponding flood map. A sensitivity analysis on the parameters' values revealed some interesting information on the relative importance of each criterion, presented and commented in the Discussion section. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis concluded to a revised index FHIS (methodology named FIGUSED-S) and flood mapping, supporting the robustness of FIGUSED methodology. A comparison of the outcome with records of historical flood events confirmed that the proposed methodology provides valid results.

  19. Flood-risk mapping: contributions towards an enhanced assessment of extreme events and associated risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büchele, B.; Kreibich, H.; Kron, A.; Thieken, A.; Ihringer, J.; Oberle, P.; Merz, B.; Nestmann, F.

    2006-06-01

    Currently, a shift from classical flood protection as engineering task towards integrated flood risk management concepts can be observed. In this context, a more consequent consideration of extreme events which exceed the design event of flood protection structures and failure scenarios such as dike breaches have to be investigated. Therefore, this study aims to enhance existing methods for hazard and risk assessment for extreme events and is divided into three parts. In the first part, a regionalization approach for flood peak discharges was further developed and substantiated, especially regarding recurrence intervals of 200 to 10 000 years and a large number of small ungauged catchments. Model comparisons show that more confidence in such flood estimates for ungauged areas and very long recurrence intervals may be given as implied by statistical analysis alone. The hydraulic simulation in the second part is oriented towards hazard mapping and risk analyses covering the whole spectrum of relevant flood events. As the hydrodynamic simulation is directly coupled with a GIS, the results can be easily processed as local inundation depths for spatial risk analyses. For this, a new GIS-based software tool was developed, being presented in the third part, which enables estimations of the direct flood damage to single buildings or areas based on different established stage-damage functions. Furthermore, a new multifactorial approach for damage estimation is presented, aiming at the improvement of damage estimation on local scale by considering factors like building quality, contamination and precautionary measures. The methods and results from this study form the base for comprehensive risk analyses and flood management strategies.

  20. The effect of riverine terrain spatial resolution on flood modeling and mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaioannou, George; Loukas, Athanasios; Georgiadis, Charalambos

    2013-08-01

    Spatial resolution of river and riverine area is an important aspect of hydraulic flood modeling that affects the accuracy of flood extent. This study compares the accuracy of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) produced from three methods of land surveying measurements and their effect on the results of river flow modeling and mapping of floodplain. Four data sets have been used for the creation of the DEMs: Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) point cloud data (raw data and processed), classic land surveying and digitization of elevation contours from 1:5000 scale topographic maps. LiDAR offers advantages over traditional methods for representing a terrain. Optech ILRIS-3D (Intelligent Laser Ranging and Imaging System) is a land based LiDAR system and has been used in this study. Separating LiDAR points into ground and non-ground is the most critical and difficult step for DEM generation from LiDAR data. In this study, geomorphologic filters, GIS operations and expert knowledge have been applied to produce the bare earth DEM. The HEC-GeoRAS and HEC-RAS software have been used as pre- and post-processing tools to prepare model inputs, simulate of river flow, and delineate flood inundation maps. The methodology has been applied in the suburban part of Xerias river at Volos-Greece, where typical hydrologic and hydraulic methods for ungauged watersheds have been used for flood modeling and inundation mapping. The results show that flood inundation area is significantly affected by the accuracy of DEM spatial resolution and could have significant impact on the delineation and mapping of flood hazard areas.