Science.gov

Sample records for flood hazard mapping

  1. Flood Hazard Mapping Assessment for Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, Chadi; Darwich, Talal; Hamze, Mouin; Zaarour, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    Of all natural disasters, floods affect the greatest number of people worldwide and have the greatest potential to cause damage. In fact, floods are responsible for over one third of people affected by natural disasters; almost 190 million people in more than 90 countries are exposed to catastrophic floods every year. Nowadays, with the emerging global warming phenomenon, this number is expected to increase, therefore, flood prediction and prevention has become a necessity in many places around the globe to decrease damages caused by flooding. Available evidence hints at an increasing frequency of flooding disasters being witnessed in the last 25 years in Lebanon. The consequences of such events are tragic including annual financial losses of around 15 million dollars. In this work, a hydrologic-hydraulic modeling framework for flood hazard mapping over Lebanon covering 19 watershed was introduced. Several empirical, statistical and stochastic methods to calculate the flood magnitude and its related return periods, where rainfall and river gauge data are neither continuous nor available on a long term basis with an absence of proper river sections that under estimate flows during flood events. TRMM weather satellite information, automated drainage networks, curve numbers and other geometrical characteristics for each basin was prepared using WMS-software and then exported into HMS files to implement the hydrologic modeling (rainfall-runoff) for single designed storm of uniformly distributed depth along each basin. The obtained flow hydrographs were implemented in the hydraulic model (HEC-RAS) where relative water surface profiles are calculated and flood plains are delineated. The model was calibrated using the last flood event of January 2013, field investigation, and high resolution satellite images. Flow results proved to have an accuracy ranging between 83-87% when compared to the computed statistical and stochastic methods. Results included the generation of

  2. Flood fatality hazard and flood damage hazard: combining multiple hazard characteristics into meaningful maps for spatial planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijn, K. M.; Klijn, F.; van de Pas, B.; Slager, C. T. J.

    2015-06-01

    For comprehensive flood risk management, accurate information on flood hazards is crucial. While in the past an estimate of potential flood consequences in large areas was often sufficient to make decisions on flood protection, there is currently an increasing demand to have detailed hazard maps available to be able to consider other risk-reducing measures as well. Hazard maps are a prerequisite for spatial planning, but can also support emergency management, the design of flood mitigation measures, and the setting of insurance policies. The increase in flood risks due to population growth and economic development in hazardous areas in the past shows that sensible spatial planning is crucial to prevent risks increasing further. Assigning the least hazardous locations for development or adapting developments to the actual hazard requires comprehensive flood hazard maps. Since flood hazard is a multi-dimensional phenomenon, many different maps could be relevant. Having large numbers of maps to take into account does not, however, make planning easier. To support flood risk management planning we therefore introduce a new approach in which all relevant flood hazard parameters can be combined into two comprehensive maps of flood damage hazard and flood fatality hazard.

  3. Flood fatality hazard and flood damage hazard: combining multiple hazard characteristics into meaningful maps for spatial planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijn, K. M.; Klijn, F.; van de Pas, B.; Slager, C. T. J.

    2015-01-01

    For comprehensive flood risk management, accurate information on flood hazards is crucial. While in the past an estimate of potential flood consequences in large areas was often sufficient to make decisions on flood protection, there currently is an increasing demand to have detailed hazard maps available to be able to consider other risk reducing measures as well. Hazard maps are a prerequisite for spatial planning, but can also support emergency management, the design of flood mitigation measures, and the setting of insurance policies. The increase in flood risks due to population growth and economic development in hazardous areas in the past shows that sensible spatial planning is crucial to prevent risks increasing further. Assigning the least hazardous locations for development or adapting developments to the actual hazard requires comprehensive flood hazard maps. Since flood hazard is a multi-dimensional phenomenon, many different maps could be relevant. Having large numbers of maps to take into account does, however, not make planning easier. To support flood risk management planning we therefore introduce a new approach in which all relevant flood hazard parameters can be combined into two comprehensive maps of flood damage hazard respectively flood fatality hazard.

  4. Scoping of Flood Hazard Mapping Needs for Penobscot County, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schalk, Charles W.; Dudley, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    Background The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) developed a plan in 1997 to modernize the FEMA flood mapping program. FEMA flood maps delineate flood hazard areas in support of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). FEMA's plan outlined the steps necessary to update FEMA's flood maps for the nation to a seamless digital format and streamline FEMA's operations in raising public awareness of the importance of the maps and responding to requests to revise them. The modernization of flood maps involves conversion of existing information to digital format and integration of improved flood hazard data as needed. To determine flood mapping modernization needs, FEMA has established specific scoping activities to be done on a county-by-county basis for identifying and prioritizing requisite flood-mapping activities for map modernization. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with FEMA and the Maine State Planning Office Floodplain Management Program (MFMP), began scoping work in 2006 for Penobscot County. Scoping activities included assembling existing data and map needs information for communities in Penobscot County, documentation of data, contacts, community meetings, and prioritized mapping needs in a final scoping report (this document), and updating the Mapping Needs Update Support System (MNUSS) Database with information gathered during the scoping process. As of 2007, the average age of the FEMA floodplain maps in Penobscot County, Maine, is 22 years, based on the most recent revisions to the maps. Because the revisions did not affect all the map panels in each town, however, the true average date probably is more than 22 years. Many of the studies were published in the mid-1980s. Since the studies were completed, development has occurred in many of the watersheds, and the characteristics of the watersheds have changed with time. Therefore, many of the older studies may not depict current conditions nor accurately estimate risk in terms

  5. Scoping of Flood Hazard Mapping Needs for Hancock County, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schalk, Charles W.; Dudley, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    Background The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) developed a plan in 1997 to modernize the FEMA flood mapping program. FEMA flood maps delineate flood hazard areas in support of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). FEMA's plan outlined the steps necessary to update FEMA's flood maps for the nation to a seamless digital format and streamline FEMA's operations in raising public awareness of the importance of the maps and responding to requests to revise them. The modernization of flood maps involves conversion of existing information to digital format and integration of improved flood hazard data as needed. To determine flood mapping modernization needs, FEMA has established specific scoping activities to be done on a county-by-county basis for identifying and prioritizing requisite flood-mapping activities for map modernization. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with FEMA and the Maine Floodplain Management Program (MFMP) State Planning Office, began scoping work in 2006 for Hancock County. Scoping activities included assembling existing data and map needs information for communities in Hancock County, documentation of data, contacts, community meetings, and prioritized mapping needs in a final scoping report (this document), and updating the Mapping Needs Update Support System (MNUSS) database with information gathered during the scoping process. The average age of the FEMA floodplain maps (all types) in Hancock County, Maine, is at least 19 years. Most of these studies were published in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and no study is more recent than 1992. Some towns have partial maps that are more recent than their study, indicating that the true average age of the data is probably more than 19 years. Since the studies were done, development has occurred in some of the watersheds and the characteristics of the watersheds have changed. Therefore, many of the older studies may not depict current conditions or accurately estimate

  6. Scoping of Flood Hazard Mapping Needs for Lincoln County, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schalk, Charles W.; Dudley, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    Background The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) developed a plan in 1997 to modernize the FEMA flood mapping program. FEMA flood maps delineate flood hazard areas in support of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). FEMA's plan outlined the steps necessary to update FEMA's flood maps for the nation to a seamless digital format and streamline FEMA's operations in raising public awareness of the importance of the maps and responding to requests to revise them. The modernization of flood maps involves conversion of existing information to digital format and integration of improved flood hazard data as needed. To determine flood mapping modernization needs, FEMA has established specific scoping activities to be done on a county-by-county basis for identifying and prioritizing requisite flood-mapping activities for map modernization. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with FEMA and the Maine Floodplain Management Program (MFMP) State Planning Office, began scoping work in 2006 for Lincoln County. Scoping activities included assembling existing data and map needs information for communities in Lincoln County, documentation of data, contacts, community meetings, and prioritized mapping needs in a final scoping report (this document), and updating the Mapping Needs Update Support System (MNUSS) database with information gathered during the scoping process. The average age of the FEMA floodplain maps in Lincoln County, Maine is at least 17 years. Many of these studies were published in the mid- to late-1980s, and some towns have partial maps that are more recent than their study. However, in the ensuing 15-20 years, development has occurred in many of the watersheds, and the characteristics of the watersheds have changed with time. Therefore, many of the older studies may not depict current conditions nor accurately estimate risk in terms of flood heights or flood mapping.

  7. Scoping of Flood Hazard Mapping Needs for Androscoggin County, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schalk, Charles W.; Dudley, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    Background The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) developed a plan in 1997 to modernize the FEMA flood mapping program. FEMA flood maps delineate flood hazard areas in support of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). FEMA's plan outlined the steps necessary to update FEMA's flood maps for the nation to a seamless digital format and streamline FEMA's operations in raising public awareness of the importance of the maps and responding to requests to revise them. The modernization of flood maps involves conversion of existing information to digital format and integration of improved flood hazard data as needed and as funds allow. To determine flood mapping modernization needs, FEMA has established specific scoping activities to be done on a county-by-county basis for identifying and prioritizing requisite flood-mapping activities for map modernization. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with FEMA and the Maine Floodplain Management Program (MFMP) State Planning Office, began scoping work in 2006 for Androscoggin County. Scoping activities included assembling existing data and map needs information for communities in Androscoggin County, documentation of data, contacts, community meetings, and prioritized mapping needs in a final scoping report (this document), and updating the Mapping Needs Update Support System (MNUSS) Database with information gathered during the scoping process. The average age of the FEMA floodplain maps in Androscoggin County, Maine, is at least 17 years. Most studies were published in the early 1990s, and some towns have partial maps that are more recent than their study date. Since the studies were done, development has occurred in many of the watersheds and the characteristics of the watersheds have changed with time. Therefore, many of the older studies may not depict current conditions nor accurately estimate risk in terms of flood heights or flood mapping.

  8. Advances in pan-European flood hazard mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, P. D.; Alfieri, L.; Salamon, P.; Bianchi, A.; Neal, J. C.; Feyen, L.

    2013-12-01

    Flood hazard maps at trans-national scale have potential for a large number of applications ranging from climate change studies, reinsurance products, aid to emergency operations for major flood crisis, among others. However, at continental scales, only few products are available, due to the difficulty of retrieving large consistent data sets. Moreover, these are produced at relatively coarse grid resolution, which limits their applications to qualitative assessments. At finer resolution, maps are often limited to country boundaries, due to limited data sharing at trans-national level. The creation of a European flood hazard map would currently imply a collection of scattered regional maps, often lacking mutual consistency due to the variety of adopted approaches and quality of the underlying input data. In this work, we derive a pan-European flood hazard map at 100m resolution. The proposed approach is based on expanding a literature cascade model through a physically based approach. A combination of distributed hydrological and hydraulic models was set up for the European domain. Then, an observed meteorological data set is used to derive a long-term streamflow simulation and subsequently coherent design flood hydrographs for a return period of 100years along the pan-European river network. Flood hydrographs are used to simulate areas at risk of flooding and output maps are merged into a pan-European flood hazard map. The quality of this map is evaluated for selected areas in Germany and United Kingdom against national/regional hazard maps. Despite inherent limitations and model resolution issues, simulated maps are in good agreement with reference maps (hit rate between 59% and 78%, critical success index between 43% and 65%), suggesting strong potential for a number of applications at the European scale

  9. Beyond Flood Hazard Maps: Detailed Flood Characterization with Remote Sensing, GIS and 2d Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santillan, J. R.; Marqueso, J. T.; Makinano-Santillan, M.; Serviano, J. L.

    2016-09-01

    Flooding is considered to be one of the most destructive among many natural disasters such that understanding floods and assessing the risks associated to it are becoming more important nowadays. In the Philippines, Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) are two main technologies used in the nationwide modelling and mapping of flood hazards. Although the currently available high resolution flood hazard maps have become very valuable, their use for flood preparedness and mitigation can be maximized by enhancing the layers of information these maps portrays. In this paper, we present an approach based on RS, GIS and two-dimensional (2D) flood modelling to generate new flood layers (in addition to the usual flood depths and hazard layers) that are also very useful in flood disaster management such as flood arrival times, flood velocities, flood duration, flood recession times, and the percentage within a given flood event period a particular location is inundated. The availability of these new layers of flood information are crucial for better decision making before, during, and after occurrence of a flood disaster. The generation of these new flood characteristic layers is illustrated using the Cabadbaran River Basin in Mindanao, Philippines as case study area. It is envisioned that these detailed maps can be considered as additional inputs in flood disaster risk reduction and management in the Philippines.

  10. High resolution mapping of flood hazard for South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sourima; Nzerem, Kechi; Zovi, Francesco; Li, Shuangcai; Mei, Yi; Assteerawatt, Anongnart; Hilberts, Arno; Tillmanns, Stephan; Mitas, Christos

    2015-04-01

    Floods are one of primary natural hazards that affect South Korea. During the past 15 years, catastrophic flood events which mainly have occurred during the rainy and typhoon seasons - especially under condition where soils are already saturated, have triggered substantial property damage with an average annual loss of around US1.2 billion (determined from WAter Management Information System's flood damage database for years 2002-2011) in South Korea. According to Seoul Metropolitan Government, over 16,000 households in the capital city Seoul were inundated during 2010 flood events. More than 10,000 households in Seoul were apparently flooded during one major flood event due to torrential rain in July 2011. Recently in August 2014, a serious flood event due to heavy rainfall hit the Busan region in the south east of South Korea. Addressing the growing needs, RMS has recently released country-wide high resolution combined flood return period maps for post-drainage local "pluvial" inundation and undefended large-scale "fluvial" inundation to aid the government and the insurance industry in the evaluation of comprehensive flood risk. RMS has developed a flood hazard model for South Korea to generate inundation depths and extents for a range of flood return periods. The model is initiated with 30 years of historical meteorological forcing data and calibrated to daily observations at over 100 river gauges across the country. Simulations of hydrologic processes are subsequently performed based on a 2000 year set of stochastic forcing. Floodplain inundation processes are modelled by numerically solving the shallow water equations using finite volume method on GPUs. Taking into account the existing stormwater drainage standards, economic exposure densities, etc., reasonable flood maps are created from inundation model output. Final hazard maps at one arcsec grid resolution can be the basis for both evaluating and managing flood risk, its economic impacts, and insured flood

  11. A method for mapping flood hazard along roads.

    PubMed

    Kalantari, Zahra; Nickman, Alireza; Lyon, Steve W; Olofsson, Bo; Folkeson, Lennart

    2014-01-15

    A method was developed for estimating and mapping flood hazard probability along roads using road and catchment characteristics as physical catchment descriptors (PCDs). The method uses a Geographic Information System (GIS) to derive candidate PCDs and then identifies those PCDs that significantly predict road flooding using a statistical modelling approach. The method thus allows flood hazards to be estimated and also provides insights into the relative roles of landscape characteristics in determining road-related flood hazards. The method was applied to an area in western Sweden where severe road flooding had occurred during an intense rain event as a case study to demonstrate its utility. The results suggest that for this case study area three categories of PCDs are useful for prediction of critical spots prone to flooding along roads: i) topography, ii) soil type, and iii) land use. The main drivers among the PCDs considered were a topographical wetness index, road density in the catchment, soil properties in the catchment (mainly the amount of gravel substrate) and local channel slope at the site of a road-stream intersection. These can be proposed as strong indicators for predicting the flood probability in ungauged river basins in this region, but some care is needed in generalising the case study results other potential factors are also likely to influence the flood hazard probability. Overall, the method proposed represents a straightforward and consistent way to estimate flooding hazards to inform both the planning of future roadways and the maintenance of existing roadways.

  12. Scoping of flood hazard mapping needs for Kennebec County, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, Robert W.; Schalk, Charles W.

    2006-01-01

    This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Maine Water Science Center as the deliverable for scoping of flood hazard mapping needs for Kennebec County, Maine, under Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Inter-Agency Agreement Number HSFE01-05-X-0018. This section of the report explains the objective of the task and the purpose of the report. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) developed a plan in 1997 to modernize the FEMA flood mapping program. FEMA flood maps delineate flood hazard areas in support of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). FEMA's plan outlined the steps necessary to update FEMA's flood maps for the nation to a seamless digital format and streamline FEMA's operations in raising public awareness of the importance of the maps and responding to requests to revise them. The modernization of flood maps involves conversion of existing information to digital format and integration of improved flood hazard data as needed. To determine flood mapping modernization needs, FEMA has established specific scoping activities to be done on a county-by-county basis for identifying and prioritizing requisite flood-mapping activities for map modernization. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with FEMA and the Maine State Planning Office Floodplain Management Program, began scoping work in 2005 for Kennebec County. Scoping activities included assembling existing data and map needs information for communities in Kennebec County (efforts were made to not duplicate those of pre-scoping completed in March 2005), documentation of data, contacts, community meetings, and prioritized mapping needs in a final scoping report (this document), and updating the Mapping Needs Update Support System (MNUSS) Database or its successor with information gathered during the scoping process. The average age of the FEMA floodplain maps in Kennebec County, Maine is 16 years. Most of these studies were in the late 1970's to the mid 1980s

  13. Scoping of flood hazard mapping needs for Cumberland County, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, Robert W.; Schalk, Charles W.

    2006-01-01

    This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Maine Water Science Center as the deliverable for scoping of flood hazard mapping needs for Cumberland County, Maine, under Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Inter-Agency Agreement Number HSFE01-05-X-0018. This section of the report explains the objective of the task and the purpose of the report. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) developed a plan in 1997 to modernize the FEMA flood mapping program. FEMA flood maps delineate flood hazard areas in support of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). FEMA's plan outlined the steps necessary to update FEMA's flood maps for the nation to a seamless digital format and streamline FEMA's operations in raising public awareness of the importance of the maps and responding to requests to revise them. The modernization of flood maps involves conversion of existing information to digital format and integration of improved flood hazard data as needed. To determine flood mapping modernization needs, FEMA has established specific scoping activities to be done on a county-by-county basis for identifying and prioritizing requisite flood-mapping activities for map modernization. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with FEMA and the Maine State Planning Office Floodplain Management Program, began scoping work in 2005 for Cumberland County. Scoping activities included assembling existing data and map needs information for communities in Cumberland County, documentation of data, contacts, community meetings, and prioritized mapping needs in a final scoping report (this document), and updating the Mapping Needs Update Support System (MNUSS) Database or its successor with information gathered during the scoping process. The average age of the FEMA floodplain maps in Cumberland County, Maine is 21 years. Most of these studies were in the early to mid 1980s. However, in the ensuing 20-25 years, development has occurred in many of the

  14. Scoping of flood hazard mapping needs for Somerset County, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, Robert W.; Schalk, Charles W.

    2006-01-01

    This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Maine Water Science Center as the deliverable for scoping of flood hazard mapping needs for Somerset County, Maine, under Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Inter-Agency Agreement Number HSFE01-05-X-0018. This section of the report explains the objective of the task and the purpose of the report. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) developed a plan in 1997 to modernize the FEMA flood mapping program. FEMA flood maps delineate flood hazard areas in support of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). FEMA's plan outlined the steps necessary to update FEMA's flood maps for the nation to a seamless digital format and streamline FEMA's operations in raising public awareness of the importance of the maps and responding to requests to revise them. The modernization of flood maps involves conversion of existing information to digital format and integration of improved flood hazard data as needed. To determine flood mapping modernization needs, FEMA has established specific scoping activities to be done on a county-by-county basis for identifying and prioritizing requisite flood-mapping activities for map modernization. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with FEMA and the Maine State Planning Office Floodplain Management Program, began scoping work in 2005 for Somerset County. Scoping activities included assembling existing data and map needs information for communities in Somerset County (efforts were made to not duplicate those of pre-scoping completed in March 2005), documentation of data, contacts, community meetings, and prioritized mapping needs in a final scoping report (this document), and updating the Mapping Needs Update Support System (MNUSS) Database or its successor with information gathered during the scoping process. The average age of the FEMA floodplain maps in Somerset County, Maine is 18.1 years. Most of these studies were in the late 1970's to the mid 1980

  15. Flood hazard maps from SAR data and global hydrodynamic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giustarini, Laura; Chini, Marci; Hostache, Renaud; Matgen, Patrick; Pappenberger, Florian; Bally, Phillippe

    2015-04-01

    With flood consequences likely to amplify because of growing population and ongoing accumulation of assets in flood-prone areas, global flood hazard and risk maps are greatly needed for improving flood preparedness at large scale. At the same time, with the rapidly growing archives of SAR images of floods, there is a high potential of making use of these images for global and regional flood management. In this framework, an original method is presented to integrate global flood inundation modeling and microwave remote sensing. It takes advantage of the combination of the time and space continuity of a global inundation model with the high spatial resolution of satellite observations. The availability of model simulations over a long time period offers the opportunity to estimate flood non-exceedance probabilities in a robust way. The probabilities can later be attributed to historical satellite observations. SAR-derived flood extent maps with their associated non-exceedance probabilities are then combined to generate flood hazard maps with a spatial resolution equal to that of the satellite images, which is most of the time higher than that of a global inundation model. The method can be applied to any area of interest in the world, provided that a sufficient number of relevant remote sensing images are available. We applied the method on the Severn River (UK) and on the Zambezi River (Mozambique), where large archives of Envisat flood images can be exploited. The global ECMWF flood inundation model is considered for computing the statistics of extreme events. A comparison with flood hazard maps estimated with in situ measured discharge is carried out. An additional analysis has been performed on the Severn River, using high resolution SAR data from the COSMO-SkyMed SAR constellation, acquired for a single flood event (one flood map per day between 27/11/2012 and 4/12/2012). The results showed that it is vital to observe the peak of the flood. However, a single

  16. Developments in large-scale coastal flood hazard mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vousdoukas, Michalis I.; Voukouvalas, Evangelos; Mentaschi, Lorenzo; Dottori, Francesco; Giardino, Alessio; Bouziotas, Dimitrios; Bianchi, Alessandra; Salamon, Peter; Feyen, Luc

    2016-08-01

    Coastal flooding related to marine extreme events has severe socioeconomic impacts, and even though the latter are projected to increase under the changing climate, there is a clear deficit of information and predictive capacity related to coastal flood mapping. The present contribution reports on efforts towards a new methodology for mapping coastal flood hazard at European scale, combining (i) the contribution of waves to the total water level; (ii) improved inundation modeling; and (iii) an open, physics-based framework which can be constantly upgraded, whenever new and more accurate data become available. Four inundation approaches of gradually increasing complexity and computational costs were evaluated in terms of their applicability to large-scale coastal flooding mapping: static inundation (SM); a semi-dynamic method, considering the water volume discharge over the dykes (VD); the flood intensity index approach (Iw); and the model LISFLOOD-FP (LFP). A validation test performed against observed flood extents during the Xynthia storm event showed that SM and VD can lead to an overestimation of flood extents by 232 and 209 %, while Iw and LFP showed satisfactory predictive skill. Application at pan-European scale for the present-day 100-year event confirmed that static approaches can overestimate flood extents by 56 % compared to LFP; however, Iw can deliver results of reasonable accuracy in cases when reduced computational costs are a priority. Moreover, omitting the wave contribution in the extreme total water level (TWL) can result in a ˜ 60 % underestimation of the flooded area. The present findings have implications for impact assessment studies, since combination of the estimated inundation maps with population exposure maps revealed differences in the estimated number of people affected within the 20-70 % range.

  17. 44 CFR 65.11 - Evaluation of sand dunes in mapping coastal flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... mapping coastal flood hazard areas. 65.11 Section 65.11 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood... mapping coastal flood hazard areas. (a) General conditions. For purposes of the NFIP, FEMA will...

  18. 44 CFR 65.11 - Evaluation of sand dunes in mapping coastal flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... mapping coastal flood hazard areas. 65.11 Section 65.11 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood... mapping coastal flood hazard areas. (a) General conditions. For purposes of the NFIP, FEMA will...

  19. 44 CFR 65.11 - Evaluation of sand dunes in mapping coastal flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... mapping coastal flood hazard areas. 65.11 Section 65.11 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood... mapping coastal flood hazard areas. (a) General conditions. For purposes of the NFIP, FEMA will...

  20. 44 CFR 65.11 - Evaluation of sand dunes in mapping coastal flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... mapping coastal flood hazard areas. 65.11 Section 65.11 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood... mapping coastal flood hazard areas. (a) General conditions. For purposes of the NFIP, FEMA will...

  1. 44 CFR 65.11 - Evaluation of sand dunes in mapping coastal flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... mapping coastal flood hazard areas. 65.11 Section 65.11 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood... mapping coastal flood hazard areas. (a) General conditions. For purposes of the NFIP, FEMA will...

  2. Flood Hazard Mapping over Large Regions using Geomorphic Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samela, Caterina; Troy, Tara J.; Manfreda, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    Historically, man has always preferred to settle and live near the water. This tendency has not changed throughout time, and today nineteen of the twenty most populated agglomerations of the world (Demographia World Urban Areas, 2015) are located along watercourses or at the mouth of a river. On one hand, these locations are advantageous from many points of view. On the other hand, they expose significant populations and economic assets to a certain degree of flood hazard. Knowing the location and the extent of the areas exposed to flood hazards is essential to any strategy for minimizing the risk. Unfortunately, in data-scarce regions the use of traditional floodplain mapping techniques is prevented by the lack of the extensive data required, and this scarcity is generally most pronounced in developing countries. The present work aims to overcome this limitation by defining an alternative simplified procedure for a preliminary, but efficient, floodplain delineation. To validate the method in a data-rich environment, eleven flood-related morphological descriptors derived from DEMs have been used as linear binary classifiers over the Ohio River basin and its sub-catchments, measuring their performances in identifying the floodplains at the change of the topography and the size of the calibration area. The best performing classifiers among those analysed have been applied and validated across the continental U.S. The results suggest that the classifier based on the index ln(hr/H), named the Geomorphic Flood Index (GFI), is the most suitable to detect the flood-prone areas in data-scarce environments and for large-scale applications, providing good accuracy with low requirements in terms of data and computational costs. Keywords: flood hazard, data-scarce regions, large-scale studies, binary classifiers, DEM, USA.

  3. Evaluation of flood hazard maps in print and web mapping services as information tools in flood risk communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagemeier-Klose, M.; Wagner, K.

    2009-04-01

    Flood risk communication with the general public and the population at risk is getting increasingly important for flood risk management, especially as a precautionary measure. This is also underlined by the EU Flood Directive. The flood related authorities therefore have to develop adjusted information tools which meet the demands of different user groups. This article presents the formative evaluation of flood hazard maps and web mapping services according to the specific requirements and needs of the general public using the dynamic-transactional approach as a theoretical framework. The evaluation was done by a mixture of different methods; an analysis of existing tools, a creative workshop with experts and laymen and an online survey. The currently existing flood hazard maps or web mapping services or web GIS still lack a good balance between simplicity and complexity with adequate readability and usability for the public. Well designed and associative maps (e.g. using blue colours for water depths) which can be compared with past local flood events and which can create empathy in viewers, can help to raise awareness, to heighten the activity and knowledge level or can lead to further information seeking. Concerning web mapping services, a linkage between general flood information like flood extents of different scenarios and corresponding water depths and real time information like gauge levels is an important demand by users. Gauge levels of these scenarios are easier to understand than the scientifically correct return periods or annualities. The recently developed Bavarian web mapping service tries to integrate these requirements.

  4. Scoping of Flood Hazard Mapping Needs for Coos County, New Hampshire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    DTM Digital Terrain Model FBFM Flood Boundary and Floodway Map FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency FHBM Flood Hazard Boundary Map FIRM Flood...GSP Ground Sample Distance H&H Hydrologic and Hydraulic LiDAR Light Detection and Ranging LOMA Letter of Map Amendment LOMC Letters of Map Change LOMR...produced from the following three broad categories of geospatial data: (1) Base Map, (2) Digital Terrain Model ( DTM ), and (3) Flood Insurance Risk

  5. ON EFFECT OF HAZARD MAP ON CONS CIOUSNESS OF FLOOD DISASTER PREVENSION OF RESIDENTS WHO EXPERIENCED FLOOD RECENTLY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asai, Koji; Koga, Syota; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki

    In this paper, the effect of the flood hazard map distributed to the residents who experienced flood disasters recently and an effective method for improving consciousness of flood di saster prevention are discussed. The questionnaire surveys were conducted on the residents living in the middle basin of the Nishiki River, Iwakuni city, Yamaguchi Prefecture, before and after the distribution of the hazard map. It is found from this investigation that "knowledge", "att achment", and "crisis", are the main factors in the psychological process related to the flood prevention behavior. The effect of the distribution of the hazard map is judged from the probability of the flood prevention behavior. In addition, it is also found that "knowledge", "flood experiment of T0514", "crisis", "eff ectiveness", "load", and "easy reading of the hazard map", are keys to improve the cons ciousness of flood di saster prevention.

  6. Modelling Inland Flood Events for Hazard Maps in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S.; Nzerem, K.; Sassi, M.; Hilberts, A.; Assteerawatt, A.; Tillmanns, S.; Mathur, P.; Mitas, C.; Rafique, F.

    2015-12-01

    Taiwan experiences significant inland flooding, driven by torrential rainfall from plum rain storms and typhoons during summer and fall. From last 13 to 16 years data, 3,000 buildings were damaged by such floods annually with a loss US$0.41 billion (Water Resources Agency). This long, narrow island nation with mostly hilly/mountainous topography is located at tropical-subtropical zone with annual average typhoon-hit-frequency of 3-4 (Central Weather Bureau) and annual average precipitation of 2502mm (WRA) - 2.5 times of the world's average. Spatial and temporal distributions of countrywide precipitation are uneven, with very high local extreme rainfall intensities. Annual average precipitation is 3000-5000mm in the mountainous regions, 78% of it falls in May-October, and the 1-hour to 3-day maximum rainfall are about 85 to 93% of the world records (WRA). Rivers in Taiwan are short with small upstream areas and high runoff coefficients of watersheds. These rivers have the steepest slopes, the shortest response time with rapid flows, and the largest peak flows as well as specific flood peak discharge (WRA) in the world. RMS has recently developed a countrywide inland flood model for Taiwan, producing hazard return period maps at 1arcsec grid resolution. These can be the basis for evaluating and managing flood risk, its economic impacts, and insured flood losses. The model is initiated with sub-daily historical meteorological forcings and calibrated to daily discharge observations at about 50 river gauges over the period 2003-2013. Simulations of hydrologic processes, via rainfall-runoff and routing models, are subsequently performed based on a 10000 year set of stochastic forcing. The rainfall-runoff model is physically based continuous, semi-distributed model for catchment hydrology. The 1-D wave propagation hydraulic model considers catchment runoff in routing and describes large-scale transport processes along the river. It also accounts for reservoir storage

  7. Flood hazard mapping using open source hydrological tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tollenaar, Daniel; Wensveen, Lex; Winsemius, Hessel; Schellekens, Jaap

    2014-05-01

    Commonly, flood hazard maps are produced by building detailed hydrological and hydraulic models. These models are forced and parameterized by locally available, high resolution and preferably high quality data. The models use a high spatio-temporal resolution, resulting in large computational effort. Also, many hydraulic packages that solve 1D (canal) and 2D (overland) shallow water equations, are not freeware nor open source. In this contribution, we evaluate whether simplified open source data and models can be used for a rapid flood hazard assessment and to highlight areas where more detail may be required. The validity of this approach is tested by using four combinations of open-source tools: (1) a global hydrological model (PCR-GLOBWB, Van Beek and Bierkens, 2009) with a static inundation routine (GLOFRIS, Winsemius et al. 2013); (2) a global hydrological model with a dynamic inundation model (Subgrid, Stelling, 2012); (3) a local hydrological model (WFLOW) with a static inundation routine; (4) and a local hydrological model with a dynamic inundation model. The applicability of tools is assessed on (1) accuracy to reproduce the phenomenon, (2) time for model setup and (3) computational time. The performance is tested in a case study in the Rio Mamoré, one of the tributaries of the Amazone River (230,000 km2). References: Stelling, G.S.: Quadtree flood simulations with sub-grid digital elevation models, Proceedings of the ICE - Water Management, Volume 165, Issue 10, 01 November 2012 , pages 567 -580 Winsemius, H. C., Van Beek, L. P. H., Jongman, B., Ward, P. J., and Bouwman, A.: A framework for global river flood risk assessments, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 9, 9611-9659, doi:10.5194/hessd-9-9611-2012, 2012 Van Beek, L. P. H. and Bierkens, M. F. P.: The global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB: conceptualization, parameterization and verification, Dept. of Physical Geography, Utrecht University, Utrecht, available at: http

  8. Values of Flood Hazard Mapping for Disaster Risk Assessment and Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayama, T.; Takara, K. T.

    2015-12-01

    Flood plains provide tremendous benefits for human settlements. Since olden days people have lived with floods and attempted to control them if necessary. Modern engineering works such as building embankment have enabled people to live even in flood prone areas, and over time population and economic assets have concentrated in these areas. In developing countries also, rapid land use change alters exposure and vulnerability to floods and consequently increases disaster risk. Flood hazard mapping is an essential step for any counter measures. It has various objectives including raising awareness of residents, finding effective evacuation routes and estimating potential damages through flood risk mapping. Depending on the objectives and data availability, there are also many possible approaches for hazard mapping including simulation basis, community basis and remote sensing basis. In addition to traditional paper-based hazard maps, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) promotes more interactive hazard mapping such as movable hazard map to demonstrate scenario simulations for risk communications and real-time hazard mapping for effective disaster responses and safe evacuations. This presentation first summarizes recent advancement of flood hazard mapping by focusing on Japanese experiences and other examples from Asian countries. Then it introduces a flood simulation tool suitable for hazard mapping at the river basin scale even in data limited regions. In the past few years, the tool has been practiced by local officers responsible for disaster management in Asian countries. Through the training activities of hazard mapping and risk assessment, we conduct comparative analysis to identify similarity and uniqueness of estimated economic damages depending on topographic and land use conditions.

  9. The Use of Geospatial Technologies in Flood Hazard Mapping and Assessment: Case Study from River Evros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentzafou, Angeliki; Markogianni, Vasiliki; Dimitriou, Elias

    2017-02-01

    Many scientists link climate change to the increase of the extreme weather phenomena frequency, which combined with land use changes often lead to disasters with severe social and economic effects. Especially floods as a consequence of heavy rainfall can put vulnerable human and natural systems such as transboundary wetlands at risk. In order to meet the European Directive 2007/60/EC requirements for the development of flood risk management plans, the flood hazard map of Evros transboundary watershed was produced after a grid-based GIS modelling method that aggregates the main factors related to the development of floods: topography, land use, geology, slope, flow accumulation and rainfall intensity. The verification of this tool was achieved through the comparison between the produced hazard map and the inundation maps derived from the supervised classification of Landsat 5 and 7 satellite imageries of four flood events that took place at Evros delta proximity, a wetland of international importance. The comparison of the modelled output (high and very high flood hazard areas) with the extent of the inundated areas as mapped from the satellite data indicated the satisfactory performance of the model. Furthermore, the vulnerability of each land use against the flood events was examined. Geographically Weighted Regression has also been applied between the final flood hazard map and the major factors in order to ascertain their contribution to flood events. The results accredited the existence of a strong relationship between land uses and flood hazard indicating the flood susceptibility of the lowlands and agricultural land. A dynamic transboundary flood hazard management plan should be developed in order to meet the Flood Directive requirements for adequate and coordinated mitigation practices to reduce flood risk.

  10. The Use of Geospatial Technologies in Flood Hazard Mapping and Assessment: Case Study from River Evros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentzafou, Angeliki; Markogianni, Vasiliki; Dimitriou, Elias

    2016-11-01

    Many scientists link climate change to the increase of the extreme weather phenomena frequency, which combined with land use changes often lead to disasters with severe social and economic effects. Especially floods as a consequence of heavy rainfall can put vulnerable human and natural systems such as transboundary wetlands at risk. In order to meet the European Directive 2007/60/EC requirements for the development of flood risk management plans, the flood hazard map of Evros transboundary watershed was produced after a grid-based GIS modelling method that aggregates the main factors related to the development of floods: topography, land use, geology, slope, flow accumulation and rainfall intensity. The verification of this tool was achieved through the comparison between the produced hazard map and the inundation maps derived from the supervised classification of Landsat 5 and 7 satellite imageries of four flood events that took place at Evros delta proximity, a wetland of international importance. The comparison of the modelled output (high and very high flood hazard areas) with the extent of the inundated areas as mapped from the satellite data indicated the satisfactory performance of the model. Furthermore, the vulnerability of each land use against the flood events was examined. Geographically Weighted Regression has also been applied between the final flood hazard map and the major factors in order to ascertain their contribution to flood events. The results accredited the existence of a strong relationship between land uses and flood hazard indicating the flood susceptibility of the lowlands and agricultural land. A dynamic transboundary flood hazard management plan should be developed in order to meet the Flood Directive requirements for adequate and coordinated mitigation practices to reduce flood risk.

  11. Development and evaluation of a framework for global flood hazard mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dottori, Francesco; Salamon, Peter; Bianchi, Alessandra; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Hirpa, Feyera Aga; Feyen, Luc

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, the development of high-resolution flood hazard models have become feasible at continental and global scale, and their application in developing countries and data-scarce regions can be extremely helpful to increase preparedness of population and reduce catastrophic impacts. The present work describes the development of a novel procedure for global flood hazard mapping, based on the most recent advances in large scale flood modelling. We derive a long-term dataset of daily river discharges from the hydrological simulations of the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). Streamflow data is downscaled on a high resolution river network and processed to provide the input for local flood inundation simulations, performed with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model. All flood-prone areas identified along the river network are then merged to create continental flood hazard maps for different return periods at 30‧‧ resolution. We evaluate the performance of our methodology in several river basins across the globe by comparing simulated flood maps with both official hazard maps and a mosaic of flooded areas detected from satellite images. The evaluation procedure also includes comparisons with the results of other large scale flood models. We further investigate the sensitivity of the flood modelling framework to several parameters and modelling approaches and identify strengths, limitations and possible improvements of the methodology.

  12. Development and evaluation of a framework for global flood hazard mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dottori, Francesco; Salamon, Peter; Bianchi, Alessandra; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Feyen, Luc

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, the development of high-resolution flood hazard models have become feasible at continental and global scale, and their application in developing countries and data-scarce regions can be extremely helpful to increase preparedness of population and reduce catastrophic impacts. The present work describes the development of a novel procedure for global flood hazard mapping, based on the most recent advances in large scale flood modelling. We derive a long-term dataset of daily river discharges from the global hydrological simulations of the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). Streamflow data is downscaled on a high resolution river network and processed to provide the input for local flood inundation simulations, performed with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model. All flood-prone areas identified along the river network are then merged to create continental flood hazard maps for different return periods at 30'' resolution. We evaluate the performance of our methodology in several large river basins by comparing simulated flood maps against both official hazard maps and satellite-derived flood maps. We further investigate the sensitivity of the flood modelling framework to different parameters and modelling approaches and identify strengths, limitations and possible improvements of the methodology.

  13. Applications of remote sensing techniques to county land use and flood hazard mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. B.; Conn, J. S.; Miller, D. A.; Mouat, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    The application of remote sensing in Arizona is discussed. Land use and flood hazard mapping completed by the Applied Remote Sensing Program is described. Areas subject to periodic flood inundation are delineated and land use maps monitoring the growth within specific counties are provided.

  14. Making Coastal Flood Hazard Maps to Support Decision-Making - What End Users Want

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, J.; Cheung, W. H.; Luke, A.; Gallien, T.; Aghakouchak, A.; Feldman, D.; Matthew, R.; Sanders, B. F.

    2015-12-01

    Growing awareness about accelerating Sea Level Rise (SLR) is contributing to coastal resilience initiatives around the world, with an emphasis on coastal planning, infrastructure adaptation, and emergency preparedness. Maps are the primary tool for communicating flood hazard, and their design raises two fundamental challenges: (1) representing the flood hazard in a scientifically defensible manner considering complexity associated with multiple drivers of flooding (e.g., rainfall, streamflow, storm surge, high tides, waves), urban infrastructure, and human interventions (e.g. pumping, sand bags) and (2) effectively communicating hazard information considering the specific needs of decision-makers. In this research we rely on a hydrodynamic model of coastal flooding that can be forced by multiple drivers of flooding (rainfall, high water levels, and waves) to simulate extreme flooding scenarios at street-level resolution. Model scenarios include 20%, 10%, 5%, 2% and 1% annual exceedance probability (AEP) scenarios for each possible driver of flooding and for both present and future sea levels. The resulting flood zones and related flood depths are aggregated using GIS techniques and transformed into a set of maps depicting annual exceedance probability, multi-year flood probability, 1% AEP flooding depth, uncertainty associated with model forcing data, and road network accessibility. The usability of each map is assessed through focus group discussions with local stakeholders who have distinct decision-making needs, such as homeowners, planners, and emergency response managers. Findings from this research reveal the mapped flood risk information and visualizations preferred by different decision-makers.

  15. Probabilistic floodplain hazard mapping: managing uncertainty by using a bivariate approach for flood frequency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candela, Angela; Tito Aronica, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    Floods are a global problem and are considered the most frequent natural disaster world-wide. Many studies show that the severity and frequency of floods have increased in recent years and underline the difficulty to separate the effects of natural climatic changes and human influences as land management practices, urbanization etc. Flood risk analysis and assessment is required to provide information on current or future flood hazard and risks in order to accomplish flood risk mitigation, to propose, evaluate and select measures to reduce it. Both components of risk can be mapped individually and are affected by multiple uncertainties as well as the joint estimate of flood risk. Major sources of uncertainty include statistical analysis of extremes events, definition of hydrological input, channel and floodplain topography representation, the choice of effective hydraulic roughness coefficients. The classical procedure to estimate flood discharge for a chosen probability of exceedance is to deal with a rainfall-runoff model associating to risk the same return period of original rainfall, in accordance with the iso-frequency criterion. Alternatively, a flood frequency analysis to a given record of discharge data is applied, but again the same probability is associated to flood discharges and respective risk. Moreover, since flood peaks and corresponding flood volumes are variables of the same phenomenon, they should be, directly, correlated and, consequently, multivariate statistical analyses must be applied. This study presents an innovative approach to obtain flood hazard maps where hydrological input (synthetic flood design event) to a 2D hydraulic model has been defined by generating flood peak discharges and volumes from: a) a classical univariate approach, b) a bivariate statistical analysis, through the use of copulas. The univariate approach considers flood hydrographs generation by an indirect approach (rainfall-runoff transformation using input rainfall

  16. A new approach for deriving Flood hazard maps from SAR data and global hydrodynamic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matgen, P.; Hostache, R.; Chini, M.; Giustarini, L.; Pappenberger, F.; Bally, P.

    2014-12-01

    With the flood consequences likely to amplify because of the growing population and ongoing accumulation of assets in flood-prone areas, global flood hazard and risk maps are needed for improving flood preparedness at large scale. At the same time, with the rapidly growing archives of SAR images of floods, there is a high potential of making use of these images for global and regional flood management. In this framework, an original method that integrates global flood inundation modeling and microwave remote sensing is presented. It takes advantage of the combination of the time and space continuity of a global inundation model with the high spatial resolution of satellite observations. The availability of model simulations over a long time period offers opportunities for estimating flood non-exceedance probabilities in a robust way. These probabilities can be attributed to historical satellite observations. Time series of SAR-derived flood extent maps and associated non-exceedance probabilities can then be combined generate flood hazard maps with a spatial resolution equal to that of the satellite images, which is most of the time higher than that of a global inundation model. In principle, this can be done for any area of interest in the world, provided that a sufficient number of relevant remote sensing images are available. As a test case we applied the method on the Severn River (UK) and the Zambezi River (Mozambique), where large archives of Envisat flood images can be exploited. The global ECMWF flood inundation model is considered for computing the statistics of extreme events. A comparison with flood hazard maps estimated with in situ measured discharge is carried out. The first results confirm the potentiality of the method. However, further developments on two aspects are required to improve the quality of the hazard map and to ensure the acceptability of the product by potential end user organizations. On the one hand, it is of paramount importance to

  17. Importance of Integrating High-Resoultion 2D Flood Hazard Maps in the Flood Disaster Management of Marikina City, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapales, Ben Joseph; Mendoza, Jerico; Uichanco, Christopher; Mahar Francisco Amante Lagmay, Alfredo; Moises, Mark Anthony; Delmendo, Patricia; Eneri Tingin, Neil

    2015-04-01

    Flooding has been a perennial problem in the city of Marikina. These incidences result in human and economic losses. In response to this, the city has been investing in their flood disaster mitigation program in the past years. As a result, flooding in Marikina was reduced by 31% from 1992 to 2004. [1] However, these measures need to be improved so as to mitigate the effects of floods with more than 100 year return period, such as the flooding brought by tropical storm Ketsana in 2009 which generated 455mm of rains over a 24-hour period. Heavy rainfall caused the streets to be completely submerged in water, leaving at least 70 people dead in the area. In 2012, the Southwest monsoon, enhanced by a typhoon, brought massive rains with an accumulated rainfall of 472mm for 22-hours, a number greater than that which was experienced during Ketsana. At this time, the local government units were much more prepared in mitigating the risk with the use of early warning and evacuation measures, resulting to zero casualty in the area. Their urban disaster management program, however, can be further improved through the integration of high-resolution 2D flood hazard maps in the city's flood disaster management. The use of these maps in flood disaster management is essential in reducing flood-related risks. This paper discusses the importance and advantages of integrating flood maps in structural and non-structural mitigation measures in the case of Marikina City. Flood hazard maps are essential tools in predicting the frequency and magnitude of floods in an area. An information that may be determined with the use of these maps is the locations of evacuation areas, which may be accurately positioned using high-resolution 2D flood hazard maps. Evacuation of people in areas that are not vulnerable of being inundated is one of the unnecessary measures that may be prevented and thus optimizing mitigation efforts by local government units. This paper also discusses proposals for a more

  18. Importance of Integrating High-Resoultion 2D Flood Hazard Maps in the Flood Disaster Management of Marikina City, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapales, B. J. M.; Mendoza, J.; Uichanco, C.; Lagmay, A. M. F. A.; Moises, M. A.; Delmendo, P.; Tingin, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding has been a perennial problem in the city of Marikina. These incidences result in human and economic losses. In response to this, the city has been investing in their flood disaster mitigation program in the past years. As a result, flooding in Marikina was reduced by 31% from 1992 to 2004. [1] However, these measures need to be improved so as to mitigate the effects of floods with more than 100 year return period, such as the flooding brought by tropical storm Ketsana in 2009 which generated 455mm of rains over a 24-hour period. Heavy rainfall caused the streets to be completely submerged in water, leaving at least 70 people dead in the area. In 2012, the Southwest monsoon, enhanced by a typhoon, brought massive rains with an accumulated rainfall of 472mm for 22-hours, a number greater than that which was experienced during Ketsana. At this time, the local government units were much more prepared in mitigating the risk with the use of early warning and evacuation measures, resulting to zero casualty in the area. Their urban disaster management program, however, can be further improved through the integration of high-resolution 2D flood hazard maps in the city's flood disaster management. The use of these maps in flood disaster management is essential in reducing flood-related risks. This paper discusses the importance and advantages of integrating flood maps in structural and non-structural mitigation measures in the case of Marikina City. Flood hazard maps are essential tools in predicting the frequency and magnitude of floods in an area. An information that may be determined with the use of these maps is the locations of evacuation areas, which may be accurately positioned using high-resolution 2D flood hazard maps. Evacuation of areas that are not vulnerable of being inundated is one of the unnecessary measures that may be prevented and thus optimizing mitigation efforts by local government units. This paper also discusses proposals for a more efficient

  19. Global river flood hazard maps: hydraulic modelling methods and appropriate uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townend, Samuel; Smith, Helen; Molloy, James

    2014-05-01

    Flood hazard is not well understood or documented in many parts of the world. Consequently, the (re-)insurance sector now needs to better understand where the potential for considerable river flooding aligns with significant exposure. For example, international manufacturing companies are often attracted to countries with emerging economies, meaning that events such as the 2011 Thailand floods have resulted in many multinational businesses with assets in these regions incurring large, unexpected losses. This contribution addresses and critically evaluates the hydraulic methods employed to develop a consistent global scale set of river flood hazard maps, used to fill the knowledge gap outlined above. The basis of the modelling approach is an innovative, bespoke 1D/2D hydraulic model (RFlow) which has been used to model a global river network of over 5.3 million kilometres. Estimated flood peaks at each of these model nodes are determined using an empirically based rainfall-runoff approach linking design rainfall to design river flood magnitudes. The hydraulic model is used to determine extents and depths of floodplain inundation following river bank overflow. From this, deterministic flood hazard maps are calculated for several design return periods between 20-years and 1,500-years. Firstly, we will discuss the rationale behind the appropriate hydraulic modelling methods and inputs chosen to produce a consistent global scaled river flood hazard map. This will highlight how a model designed to work with global datasets can be more favourable for hydraulic modelling at the global scale and why using innovative techniques customised for broad scale use are preferable to modifying existing hydraulic models. Similarly, the advantages and disadvantages of both 1D and 2D modelling will be explored and balanced against the time, computer and human resources available, particularly when using a Digital Surface Model at 30m resolution. Finally, we will suggest some

  20. Scoping of flood hazard mapping needs for Coos County, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.

    2006-01-01

    This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) New Hampshire/ Vermont Water Science Center for scoping of flood-hazard mapping needs for Coos County, New Hampshire, under Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Inter-Agency agreement Number HSFE01-05X-0018. One of the priorities for FEMA, Region 1, is to develop updated Digital Flood Insurance Rate Maps (DFIRMs) and Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) for Coos County, New Hampshire. The information provided in this report will be used to develop the scope for the first phase of a multiyear project that will ultimately result in the production of new DFIRMs and FIS for the communities and flooding sources in Coos County.

  1. Flood-hazard mapping in Honduras in response to Hurricane Mitch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    The devastation in Honduras due to flooding from Hurricane Mitch in 1998 prompted the U.S. Agency for International Development, through the U.S. Geological Survey, to develop a country-wide systematic approach of flood-hazard mapping and a demonstration of the method at selected sites as part of a reconstruction effort. The design discharge chosen for flood-hazard mapping was the flood with an average return interval of 50 years, and this selection was based on discussions with the U.S. Agency for International Development and the Honduran Public Works and Transportation Ministry. A regression equation for estimating the 50-year flood discharge using drainage area and annual precipitation as the explanatory variables was developed, based on data from 34 long-term gaging sites. This equation, which has a standard error of prediction of 71.3 percent, was used in a geographic information system to estimate the 50-year flood discharge at any location for any river in the country. The flood-hazard mapping method was demonstrated at 15 selected municipalities. High-resolution digital-elevation models of the floodplain were obtained using an airborne laser-terrain mapping system. Field verification of the digital elevation models showed that the digital-elevation models had mean absolute errors ranging from -0.57 to 0.14 meter in the vertical dimension. From these models, water-surface elevation cross sections were obtained and used in a numerical, one-dimensional, steady-flow stepbackwater model to estimate water-surface profiles corresponding to the 50-year flood discharge. From these water-surface profiles, maps of area and depth of inundation were created at the 13 of the 15 selected municipalities. At La Lima only, the area and depth of inundation of the channel capacity in the city was mapped. At Santa Rose de Aguan, no numerical model was created. The 50-year flood and the maps of area and depth of inundation are based on the estimated 50-year storm tide.

  2. Scoping of flood hazard mapping needs for Carroll County, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.

    2006-01-01

    This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) New Hampshire/Vermont Water Science Center for scoping of flood-hazard mapping needs for Carroll County, New Hampshire, under Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Inter-Agency agreement Number HSFE01-05X-0018. FEMA is embarking on a map modernization program nationwide to: 1. Gather and develop updated data for all flood prone areas in support of flood plain management. 2. Provide maps and data in a digital format for the improvement in the efficiency and precision of the mapping program. 3. Integrate FEMA's community and state partners into the mapping process One of the priorities for FEMA, Region 1, is to develop updated Digital Flood Insurance Rate Maps (DFIRMs) and Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) for Carroll County, New Hampshire. The information provided in this report will be used to develop the scope for the first phase of a multiyear project that will ultimately result in the production of new DFIRMs and FIS for the communities and flooding sources in Carroll County. The average age of the FEMA flood plain maps in Carroll County, New Hampshire is 18 years. Most of these studies were computed in the late 1970s to the mid 1980s. However, in the ensuing 20-30 years, development has occurred in many of the watersheds, and the rivers and streams and their flood plains have changed as a result. In addition, as development has occurred, peak flooding has increased downstream of the development from increased flows across impervious surfaces. Therefore, many of the older studies may not depict current conditions nor accurately estimate risk in terms of flood heights. Carroll County gained 3,773 residents between 2000 and 2005. This represents a growth of 8.6 percent compared to 6.0 percent for the state as a whole. Carroll County ranks second (from highest to lowest) out of New Hampshire's 10 counties in terms of rate of population increase. Since 1990, Carroll County has gained 12,029 residents

  3. An integrated approach to flood hazard assessment on alluvial fans using numerical modeling, field mapping, and remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pelletier, J.D.; Mayer, L.; Pearthree, P.A.; House, P.K.; Demsey, K.A.; Klawon, J.K.; Vincent, K.R.

    2005-01-01

    Millions of people in the western United States live near the dynamic, distributary channel networks of alluvial fans where flood behavior is complex and poorly constrained. Here we test a new comprehensive approach to alluvial-fan flood hazard assessment that uses four complementary methods: two-dimensional raster-based hydraulic modeling, satellite-image change detection, fieldbased mapping of recent flood inundation, and surficial geologic mapping. Each of these methods provides spatial detail lacking in the standard method and each provides critical information for a comprehensive assessment. Our numerical model simultaneously solves the continuity equation and Manning's equation (Chow, 1959) using an implicit numerical method. It provides a robust numerical tool for predicting flood flows using the large, high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) necessary to resolve the numerous small channels on the typical alluvial fan. Inundation extents and flow depths of historic floods can be reconstructed with the numerical model and validated against field- and satellite-based flood maps. A probabilistic flood hazard map can also be constructed by modeling multiple flood events with a range of specified discharges. This map can be used in conjunction with a surficial geologic map to further refine floodplain delineation on fans. To test the accuracy of the numerical model, we compared model predictions of flood inundation and flow depths against field- and satellite-based flood maps for two recent extreme events on the southern Tortolita and Harquahala piedmonts in Arizona. Model predictions match the field- and satellite-based maps closely. Probabilistic flood hazard maps based on the 10 yr, 100 yr, and maximum floods were also constructed for the study areas using stream gage records and paleoflood deposits. The resulting maps predict spatially complex flood hazards that strongly reflect small-scale topography and are consistent with surficial geology. In

  4. Flood Hazard Mapping Assessment for El-Awali River Catchment-Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hdeib, Rouya; Abdallah, Chadi; Moussa, Roger; Hijazi, Samar

    2016-04-01

    River flooding prediction and flood forecasting has become an essential stage in the major flood mitigation plans worldwide. Delineation of floodplains resulting from a river flooding event requires coupling between a Hydrological rainfall-runoff model to calculate the resulting outflows of the catchment and a hydraulic model to calculate the corresponding water surface profiles along the river main course. In this study several methods were applied to predict the flood discharge of El-Awali River using the available historical data and gauging records and by conducting several site visits. The HEC-HMS Rainfall-Runoff model was built and applied to calculate the flood hydrographs along several outlets on El-Awali River and calibrated using the storm that took place on January 2013 and caused flooding of the major Lebanese rivers and by conducting additional site visits to calculate proper river sections and record witnesses of the locals. The Hydraulic HEC-RAS model was then applied to calculate the corresponding water surface profiles along El-Awali River main reach. Floodplain delineation and Hazard mapping for 10,50 and 100 years return periods was performed using the Watershed Modeling System WMS. The results first show an underestimation of the flood discharge recorded by the operating gauge stations on El-Awali River, whereas, the discharge of the 100 years flood may reach up to 506 m3/s compared by lower values calculated using the traditional discharge estimation methods. Second any flooding of El-Awali River may be catastrophic especially to the coastal part of the catchment and can cause tragic losses in agricultural lands and properties. Last a major floodplain was noticed in Marj Bisri village this floodplain can reach more than 200 meters in width. Overall, performance was good and the Rainfall-Runoff model can provide valuable information about flows especially on ungauged points and can perform a great aid for the floodplain delineation and flood

  5. Exploring local risk managers' use of flood hazard maps for risk communication purposes in Baden-Württemberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjellgren, S.

    2013-07-01

    In response to the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC), flood hazard maps are currently produced all over Europe, reflecting a wider shift in focus from "flood protection" to "risk management", for which not only public authorities but also populations at risk are seen as responsible. By providing a visual image of the foreseen consequences of flooding, flood hazard maps can enhance people's knowledge about flood risk, making them more capable of an adequate response. Current literature, however, questions the maps' awareness raising capacity, arguing that their content and design are rarely adjusted to laypeople's needs. This paper wants to complement this perspective with a focus on risk communication by studying how these tools are disseminated and marketed to the public in the first place. Judging from communication theory, simply making hazard maps publicly available is unlikely to lead to attitudinal or behavioral effects, since this typically requires two-way communication and material or symbolic incentives. Consequently, it is relevant to investigate whether and how local risk managers, who are well positioned to interact with the local population, make use of flood hazard maps for risk communication purposes. A qualitative case study of this issue in the German state of Baden-Württemberg suggests that many municipalities lack a clear strategy for using this new information tool for hazard and risk communication. Four barriers in this regard are identified: perceived disinterest/sufficient awareness on behalf of the population at risk; unwillingness to cause worry or distress; lack of skills and resources; and insufficient support. These barriers are important to address - in research as well as in practice - since it is only if flood hazard maps are used to enhance local knowledge resources that they can be expected to contribute to social capacity building.

  6. GIS data for the Seaside, Oregon, Tsunami Pilot Study to modernize FEMA flood hazard maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Florence L.; Venturato, Angie J.; Geist, Eric L.

    2007-01-01

    A Tsunami Pilot Study was conducted for the area surrounding the coastal town of Seaside, Oregon, as part of the Federal Emergency Management's (FEMA) Flood Insurance Rate Map Modernization Program (Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, 2006). The Cascadia subduction zone extends from Cape Mendocino, California, to Vancouver Island, Canada. The Seaside area was chosen because it is typical of many coastal communities subject to tsunamis generated by far- and near-field (Cascadia) earthquakes. Two goals of the pilot study were to develop probabilistic 100-year and 500-year tsunami inundation maps using Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) and to provide recommendations for improving tsunami hazard assessment guidelines for FEMA and state and local agencies. The study was an interagency effort by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Geological Survey, and FEMA, in collaboration with the University of Southern California, Middle East Technical University, Portland State University, Horning Geoscience, Northwest Hydraulics Consultants, and the Oregon Department of Geological and Mineral Industries. The pilot study model data and results are published separately as a geographic information systems (GIS) data report (Wong and others, 2006). The flood maps and GIS data are briefly described here.

  7. Seaside, Oregon Tsunami Pilot Study - modernization of FEMA flood hazard maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    FEMA Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) guidelines do not currently exist for conducting and incorporating tsunami hazard assessments that reflect the substantial advances in tsunami research achieved in the last two decades; this conclusion is the result of two FEMA-sponsored workshops and the associated Tsunami Focused Study. Therefore, as part of FEMA's Map Modernization Program, a Tsunami Pilot Study was carried out in the Seaside/Gearhart, Oregon, area to develop an improved Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) methodology and to provide recommendations for improved tsunami hazard assessment guidelines. The Seaside area was chosen because it is typical of many coastal communities in the section of the Pacific Coast from Cape Mendocino to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and because State Agencies and local stakeholders expressed considerable interest in mapping the tsunami threat to this area. The study was an interagency effort by FEMA, U.S. Geological Survey and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, in collaboration with the University of Southern California, Middle East Technical University. Portland State University, Horning Geosciences, Northwest Hydraulics Consultants, and the Oregon Department of Geological and Mineral Industries. Draft copies and a briefing on the contents, results and recommendations of this document were provided to FEMA officials before final publication.

  8. Mapping Urban Risk: Flood Hazards, Race, & Environmental Justice In New York”

    PubMed Central

    Maantay, Juliana; Maroko, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the importance of disaggregating population data aggregated by census tracts or other units, for more realistic population distribution/location. A newly-developed mapping method, the Cadastral-based Expert Dasymetric System (CEDS), calculates population in hyper-heterogeneous urban areas better than traditional mapping techniques. A case study estimating population potentially impacted by flood hazard in New York City compares the impacted population determined by CEDS with that derived by centroid-containment method and filtered areal weighting interpolation. Compared to CEDS, 37 percent and 72 percent fewer people are estimated to be at risk from floods city-wide, using conventional areal weighting of census data, and centroid-containment selection, respectively. Undercounting of impacted population could have serious implications for emergency management and disaster planning. Ethnic/racial populations are also spatially disaggregated to determine any environmental justice impacts with flood risk. Minorities are disproportionately undercounted using traditional methods. Underestimating more vulnerable sub-populations impairs preparedness and relief efforts. PMID:20047020

  9. The use of remote sensing imagery for environmental land use and flood hazard mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouat, D. A.; Miller, D. A.; Foster, K. E.

    1976-01-01

    Flood hazard maps have been constructed for Graham, Yuma, and Yavapai Counties in Arizona using remote sensing techniques. Watershed maps of priority areas were selected on the basis of their interest to the county planning staff and represented areas of imminent or ongoing development and those known to be subject to inundation by storm runoff. Landsat color infrared imagery at scales of 1:1,000,000, 1:500,000, and 1:250,000 was used together with high-altitude aerial photography at scales of 1:120,000 and 1:60,000 to determine drainage patterns and erosional features, soil type, and the extent and type of ground cover. The satellite imagery was used in the form of 70 mm chips for enhancement in a color additive viewer and in all available enlargement modes. Field checking served as the main backup to the interpretations. Areas with high susceptibility to flooding were determined with a high level of confidence from the remotely sensed imagery.

  10. Automating Flood Hazard Mapping Methods for Near Real-time Storm Surge Inundation and Vulnerability Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, A. M.; Griffin, R.; Gallagher, D.

    2015-12-01

    Storm surge has enough destructive power to damage buildings and infrastructure, erode beaches, and threaten human life across large geographic areas, hence posing the greatest threat of all the hurricane hazards. The United States Gulf of Mexico has proven vulnerable to hurricanes as it has been hit by some of the most destructive hurricanes on record. With projected rises in sea level and increases in hurricane activity, there is a need to better understand the associated risks for disaster mitigation, preparedness, and response. GIS has become a critical tool in enhancing disaster planning, risk assessment, and emergency response by communicating spatial information through a multi-layer approach. However, there is a need for a near real-time method of identifying areas with a high risk of being impacted by storm surge. Research was conducted alongside Baron, a private industry weather enterprise, to facilitate automated modeling and visualization of storm surge inundation and vulnerability on a near real-time basis. This research successfully automated current flood hazard mapping techniques using a GIS framework written in a Python programming environment, and displayed resulting data through an Application Program Interface (API). Data used for this methodology included high resolution topography, NOAA Probabilistic Surge model outputs parsed from Rich Site Summary (RSS) feeds, and the NOAA Census tract level Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI). The development process required extensive data processing and management to provide high resolution visualizations of potential flooding and population vulnerability in a timely manner. The accuracy of the developed methodology was assessed using Hurricane Isaac as a case study, which through a USGS and NOAA partnership, contained ample data for statistical analysis. This research successfully created a fully automated, near real-time method for mapping high resolution storm surge inundation and vulnerability for the

  11. 77 FR 70454 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency... Register a ] proposed flood hazard determination notice at FR 77 44651 that contained a table which included a Web page address through which the Preliminary Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM), and...

  12. Scoping of Flood Hazard Mapping Needs for Belknap County, New Hampshire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    DEM Digital Elevation Model DFIRM Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map DOQ Digital Orthophoto Quadrangle DOQQ Digital Ortho Quarter Quadrangle DTM ...Ground Sample Distance H&H Hydrologic and Hydraulic LiDAR Light Detection and Ranging LOMA Letter of Map Amendment LOMC Letters of Map Change LOMR Letter...Terrain Model ( DTM ), and (3) Flood Insurance Risk Zones. The spatial accuracy of each of these three categories is fixed by the specifications contained

  13. The Study of Insurance Premium Rate GIS Mapping Considering the Storm and Flood Hazard Risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. S.; Lee, I. S.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, the number of natural disaster occurrence is increasing because of abnormal changes of weather in Korea. In Korea the storm and flood insurance system is in effect to prevent these natural disasters. The national storm and flood insurance Premium rate is very low and the risk of adverse selection resides because of choosing by who lives in high risk area. To solve these problems, the storm and flood insurance rate map are required. In this study, the prototype of storm and flood insurance premium rate map of the Ulsan, Korea was made and the method of GIS analysis for the insurance premium rate calculating and the procedure of the Ulsan storm and flood insurance rate map were researched.

  14. Scoping of Flood Hazard Mapping Needs for Merrimack County, New Hampshire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    DOQ Digital Orthophoto Quadrangle DOQQ Digital Ortho Quarter Quadrangle DTM Digital Terrain Model FBFM Flood Boundary and Floodway Map FEMA Federal...GRANIT Geographically Referenced ANalysis and Information Transfer system GSP Ground Sample Distance H&H Hydrologic and Hydraulic LiDAR Light Detection...DFIRMs are produced from the following three broad categories of geospatial data: (1) Base Map, (2) Digital Terrain Model ( DTM ), and (3) Flood

  15. 77 FR 56664 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... [Docket ID FEMA-2012-0003; Internal Agency Docket No. FEMA-B-1262] Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations... where the addition or modification of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood... as flood hazard determinations), as shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and...

  16. Hazard Maps in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Emphasizes the use of geophysical hazard maps and illustrates how they can be used in the classroom from kindergarten to college level. Depicts ways that hazard maps of floods, landslides, earthquakes, volcanoes, and multi-hazards can be integrated into classroom instruction. Tells how maps may be obtained. (SLM)

  17. Flood hazard assessment in areas prone to flash flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvočka, Davor; Falconer, Roger A.; Bray, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    Contemporary climate projections suggest that there will be an increase in the occurrence of high-intensity rainfall events in the future. These precipitation extremes are usually the main cause for the emergence of extreme flooding, such as flash flooding. Flash floods are among the most unpredictable, violent and fatal natural hazards in the world. Furthermore, it is expected that flash flooding will occur even more frequently in the future due to more frequent development of extreme weather events, which will greatly increase the danger to people caused by flash flooding. This being the case, there will be a need for high resolution flood hazard maps in areas susceptible to flash flooding. This study investigates what type of flood hazard assessment methods should be used for assessing the flood hazard to people caused by flash flooding. Two different types of flood hazard assessment methods were tested: (i) a widely used method based on an empirical analysis, and (ii) a new, physically based and experimentally calibrated method. Two flash flood events were considered herein, namely: the 2004 Boscastle flash flood and the 2007 Železniki flash flood. The results obtained in this study suggest that in the areas susceptible to extreme flooding, the flood hazard assessment should be conducted using methods based on a mechanics-based analysis. In comparison to standard flood hazard assessment methods, these physically based methods: (i) take into account all of the physical forces, which act on a human body in floodwater, (ii) successfully adapt to abrupt changes in the flow regime, which often occur for flash flood events, and (iii) rapidly assess a flood hazard index in a relatively short period of time.

  18. Building a flood hazard map due to magma effusion into the caldera lake of the Baekdusan Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.; Kim, S.; Yun, S.; Yu, S.; Kim, I.

    2013-12-01

    Many volcanic craters and calderas are filled with large amounts of water that can pose significant flood hazards to downstream communities due to their high elevation and the potential for catastrophic releases of water. Recent reports pointed out the Baekdusan volcano that is located between the border of China and North Korea as a potential active volcano. Since Millennium Eruption around 1000 AD, smaller eruptions have occurred at roughly 100-year intervals, with the last one in 1903. The volcano is showing signs of waking from a century-long slumber recently and the volcanic ash may spread up to the northeastern of Japan. The development of various forecasting techniques to prevent and minimize economic and social damage is in urgent need. Floods from lake-filled calderas may be particularly large and high. Volcanic flood may cause significant hydrologic hazards for this reason. This study focuses on constructing a flood hazard map triggered by the uplift of lake bottom due to magma effusion in the Baekdusan volcano. A physically-based uplift model was developed to compute the amount of water and time to peak flow. The ordinary differential equation was numerically solved using the finite difference method and Newton-Raphson iteration method was used to solve nonlinear equation. The magma effusion rate into the caldera lake is followed by the past record from other volcanic activities. As a result, the hydrograph serves as an upper boundary condition when hydrodynamic model (Flo-2D) runs to simulate channel routing downstream. The final goal of the study stresses the potential flood hazard represented by the huge volume of water in the caldera lake, the unique geography, and the limited control capability. he study will contribute to build a geohazard map for the decision-makers and practitioners. Keywords: Effusion rate, Volcanic flood, Caldera lake, Uplift, Flood hazard map Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant [NEMA-BAEKDUSAN-2012-1-2] from

  19. 78 FR 5821 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  20. 78 FR 21143 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  1. 78 FR 52953 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  2. 78 FR 52954 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  3. 78 FR 5820 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  4. Mapping hazards from glacier lake outburst floods based on modelling of process cascades at Lake 513, Carhuaz, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, D.; Huggel, C.; Cochachin, A.; Guillén, S.; García, J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent warming has had enormous impacts on glaciers and high-mountain environments. Hazards have changed or new ones have emerged, including those from glacier lakes that form as glaciers retreat. The Andes of Peru have repeatedly been severely impacted by glacier lake outburst floods in the past. An important recent event occurred in the Cordillera Blanca in 2010 when an ice avalanche impacted a glacier lake and triggered an outburst flood that affected the downstream communities and city of Carhuaz. In this study we evaluate how such complex cascades of mass movement processes can be simulated coupling different physically-based numerical models. We furthermore develop an approach that allows us to elaborate corresponding hazard maps according to existing guidelines for debris flows and based on modelling results and field work.

  5. Morphometric analyze for flood hazard map using DTM built with LIDAR and Echo-sounder data in Danube Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinescu, A.; Nichersu, I.; Trifanov, C.; Nichersu, I.; Mierla, M.

    2012-04-01

    will be merged with high quality LIDAR data available for the whole area and the accurate DTM result will help in better understanding of the morphology of the area, with acurate models and flooding scenarios. It is well known that is difficult to determine and delineate on the topographic maps, the floods limit, which is essential in the preparation of hazard maps. To perform a morphometric analysis for real floods is needed to be defined precisely on the 3D model. In this paper, we wish to present an analysis of flooding phenomenon in the Danube Delta, based on the study of digital models.

  6. Seaside, Oregon, Tsunami Pilot Study-Modernization of FEMA Flood Hazard Maps: GIS Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Florence L.; Venturato, Angie J.; Geist, Eric L.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Federal Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) guidelines do not currently exist for conducting and incorporating tsunami hazard assessments that reflect the substantial advances in tsunami research achieved in the last two decades; this conclusion is the result of two FEMA-sponsored workshops and the associated Tsunami Focused Study (Chowdhury and others, 2005). Therefore, as part of FEMA's Map Modernization Program, a Tsunami Pilot Study was carried out in the Seaside/Gearhart, Oregon, area to develop an improved Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) methodology and to provide recommendations for improved tsunami hazard assessment guidelines (Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, 2006). The Seaside area was chosen because it is typical of many coastal communities in the section of the Pacific Coast from Cape Mendocino to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and because State agencies and local stakeholders expressed considerable interest in mapping the tsunami threat to this area. The study was an interagency effort by FEMA, U.S. Geological Survey, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), in collaboration with the University of Southern California, Middle East Technical University, Portland State University, Horning Geoscience, Northwest Hydraulics Consultants, and the Oregon Department of Geological and Mineral Industries. We present the spatial (geographic information system, GIS) data from the pilot study in standard GIS formats and provide files for visualization in Google Earth, a global map viewer.

  7. Stream network analysis and geomorphic flood plain mapping from orbital and suborbital remote sensing imagery application to flood hazard studies in central Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, V. R. (Principal Investigator); Holz, R. K.; Hulke, S. D.; Patton, P. C.; Penteado, M. M.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Development of a quantitative hydrogeomorphic approach to flood hazard evaluation was hindered by (1) problems of resolution and definition of the morphometric parameters which have hydrologic significance, and (2) mechanical difficulties in creating the necessary volume of data for meaningful analysis. Measures of network resolution such as drainage density and basin Shreve magnitude indicated that large scale topographic maps offered greater resolution than small scale suborbital imagery and orbital imagery. The disparity in network resolution capabilities between orbital and suborbital imagery formats depends on factors such as rock type, vegetation, and land use. The problem of morphometric data analysis was approached by developing a computer-assisted method for network analysis. The system allows rapid identification of network properties which can then be related to measures of flood response.

  8. Hazard Map in Huaraz-Peru due to a Glacial Lake Outburst Flood from Palcacocha Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somos-Valenzuela, M. A.; Chisolm, R. E.; McKinney, D. C.; Rivas, D.

    2013-12-01

    Palcacocha lake is located in the Ancash Region in the Cordillera Blanca at an elevation of 4,567 m in the Quilcay sub-basin, province of Huaraz, Peru. The lake drains into the Quebrada Cojup, which subsequently drains into the Quilcay River. The Quilcay River passes through the City of Huaraz emptying its water into the Santa River, which is the primary river of the basin. This location has a special interest since the city of Huaraz, which is located at the bottom of the Quilcay sub-basin, was devastated by a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) released from Lake Palcacocha on December 13, 1941. In that event, many lost their lives. In recent years Palcacocha has grown to the point where the lake is once again dangerous. Ice/rock avalanches from the steep surrounding slopes can now directly reach the lake. A process chain of debris flow and hyper-concentrated flow from Lake Palcacocha could easily reach the city of Huaraz with the current lake volume. Local authorities and people living in Huaraz are concerned about the threat posed by Lake Palcacocha, and consequently they have requested technical support in order to investigate the impacts that a GLOF could have in the city of Huaraz. To assess the hazard for the city of Huaraz a holistic approach is used that considers a chain of processes that could interact in a GLOF event from Lake Palcacocha. We assume that an avalanche from Palcaraju glacier, located directly above the lake, could be a GLOF trigger, followed by the formation of waves in the lake that can overtop the damming moraine starting an erosive process. The wave and avalanche simulations are described in another work, and here we use those results to simulate the propagation of the inundation downstream using FLO-2D, a model that allows us to include debris flow. GLOF hydrographs are generated using a dam break module in Mike 11. Empirical equations are used to calculate the hydrograph peaks and calibrate the inundation model. In order to quantify

  9. 77 FR 18842 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  10. 78 FR 5824 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  11. 77 FR 18846 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  12. 78 FR 21143 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  13. 77 FR 18839 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  14. 77 FR 18844 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  15. 78 FR 48701 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  16. 77 FR 18835 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  17. 78 FR 5822 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  18. 77 FR 74859 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  19. 78 FR 5826 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  20. 78 FR 49277 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  1. 78 FR 49278 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  2. 77 FR 18841 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  3. 78 FR 48703 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency... Register a proposed flood hazard determination notice that contained an erroneous table. This notice.... The table provided here represents the proposed flood hazard determinations and communities...

  4. 78 FR 29766 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... are finalized. Each LOMR revises the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and in some cases the Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports, currently in effect for the listed communities. The flood hazard determinations modified by each LOMR will be used to calculate flood insurance premium rates for new...

  5. 78 FR 9714 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... are finalized. Each LOMR revises the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and in some cases the Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports, currently in effect for the listed communities. The flood hazard... . Location and case Chief executive officer Community map Effective date of State and county No. of...

  6. 77 FR 29678 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... FEMA-2012-0003: Internal Agency Docket No. FEMA-B-1251] Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY... flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood depth, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or...

  7. 78 FR 64521 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... community or online through the FEMA Map Service Center at www.msc.fema.gov . The flood hazard... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... the communities listed in the table below. The FIRM and FIS report are the basis of the...

  8. A framework of integrated hydrological and hydrodynamic models using synthetic rainfall for flash flood hazard mapping of ungauged catchments in tropical zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohpaisankrit, Worapong; Meon, Günter; Tingsanchali, Tawatchai

    2016-05-01

    Flash flood hazard maps provide a scientific support to mitigate flash flood risk. The present study develops a practical framework with the help of integrated hydrological and hydrodynamic modelling in order to estimate the potential flash floods. We selected a small pilot catchment which has already suffered from flash floods in the past. This catchment is located in the Nan River basin, northern Thailand. Reliable meteorological and hydrometric data are missing in the catchment. Consequently, the entire upper basin of the main river was modelled with the help of the hydrological modelling system PANTA RHEI. In this basin, three monitoring stations are located along the main river. PANTA RHEI was calibrated and validated with the extreme flood events in June 2011 and July 2008, respectively. The results show a good agreement with the observed discharge data. In order to create potential flash flood scenarios, synthetic rainfall series were derived from temporal rainfall patterns based on the radar-rainfall observation and different rainfall depths from regional rainfall frequency analysis. The temporal rainfall patterns were characterized by catchment-averaged rainfall series selected from 13 rainstorms in 2008 and 2011 within the region. For regional rainfall frequency analysis, the well-known L-moments approach and related criteria were used to examine extremely climatic homogeneity of the region. According to the L-moments approach, Generalized Pareto distribution was recognized as the regional frequency distribution. The synthetic rainfall series were fed into the PANTA RHEI model. The simulated results from PANTA RHEI were provided to a 2-D hydrodynamic model (MEADFLOW), and various simulations were performed. Results from the integrated modelling framework are used in the ongoing study to regionalize and map the spatial distribution of flash flood hazards with four levels of flood severities. As an overall outcome, the presented framework can be applied in

  9. 78 FR 8175 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area.... City of Ludlow City Office, 51 Elm Street, Ludlow, KY 41016. City of Park Hills 1106 Amsterdam...

  10. 78 FR 52956 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency... Register (78 FR 36220-36222) a proposed flood hazard determination notice that contained an erroneous table... FR 36220. The table provided here represents the proposed flood hazard determinations and...

  11. 44 CFR 65.16 - Standard Flood Hazard Determination Form and Instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard Flood Hazard... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.16 Standard Flood Hazard...

  12. 44 CFR 65.16 - Standard Flood Hazard Determination Form and Instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard Flood Hazard... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.16 Standard Flood Hazard...

  13. 44 CFR 65.16 - Standard Flood Hazard Determination Form and Instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard Flood Hazard... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.16 Standard Flood Hazard...

  14. 44 CFR 65.16 - Standard Flood Hazard Determination Form and Instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Standard Flood Hazard... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.16 Standard Flood Hazard...

  15. 44 CFR 65.16 - Standard Flood Hazard Determination Form and Instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard Flood Hazard... MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.16 Standard Flood Hazard...

  16. 44 CFR 64.3 - Flood Insurance Maps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Flood Insurance Maps. 64.3... HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program COMMUNITIES ELIGIBLE FOR THE SALE OF INSURANCE § 64.3 Flood Insurance Maps. (a) The following maps may be prepared by...

  17. 44 CFR 64.3 - Flood Insurance Maps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flood Insurance Maps. 64.3... HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program COMMUNITIES ELIGIBLE FOR THE SALE OF INSURANCE § 64.3 Flood Insurance Maps. (a) The following maps may be prepared by...

  18. 44 CFR 64.3 - Flood Insurance Maps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flood Insurance Maps. 64.3... HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program COMMUNITIES ELIGIBLE FOR THE SALE OF INSURANCE § 64.3 Flood Insurance Maps. (a) The following maps may be prepared by...

  19. 44 CFR 64.3 - Flood Insurance Maps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flood Insurance Maps. 64.3... HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program COMMUNITIES ELIGIBLE FOR THE SALE OF INSURANCE § 64.3 Flood Insurance Maps. (a) The following maps may be prepared by...

  20. 44 CFR 64.3 - Flood Insurance Maps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood Insurance Maps. 64.3... HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program COMMUNITIES ELIGIBLE FOR THE SALE OF INSURANCE § 64.3 Flood Insurance Maps. (a) The following maps may be prepared by...

  1. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  2. Flood hazards studies in the Mississippi River basin using remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.; Anderson, A. T.

    1974-01-01

    The Spring 1973 Mississippi River flood was investigated using remotely sensed data from ERTS-1. Both manual and automatic analyses of the data indicated that ERTS-1 is extremely useful as a regional tool for flood mamagement. Quantitative estimates of area flooded were made in St. Charles County, Missouri and Arkansas. Flood hazard mapping was conducted in three study areas along the Mississippi River using pre-flood ERTS-1 imagery enlarged to 1:250,000 and 1:100,000 scale. Initial results indicate that ERTS-1 digital mapping of flood prone areas can be performed at 1:62,500 which is comparable to some conventional flood hazard map scales.

  3. Flood hazard and risk analysis in the southwest region of Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingsanchali, Tawatchai; Fazlul Karim, Mohammed

    2005-06-01

    Flood hazard and risk assessment was conducted to identify the priority areas in the southwest region of Bangladesh for flood mitigation. Simulation of flood flow through the Gorai and Arial Khan river system and its floodplains was done by using a hydrodynamic model. After model calibration and verification, the model was used to simulate the flood flow of 100-year return period for a duration of four months. The maximum flooding depths at different locations in the rivers and floodplains were determined. The process in determining long flooding durations at every grid point in the hydrodynamic model is laborious and time-consuming. Therefore the flood durations were determined by using satellite images of the observed flood in 1988, which has a return period close to 100 years. Flood hazard assessment was done considering flooding depth and duration. By dividing the study area into smaller land units for hazard assessment, the hazard index and the hazard factor for each land unit for depth and duration of flooding were determined. From the hazard factors of the land units, a flood hazard map, which indicates the locations of different categories of hazard zones, was developed. It was found that 54% of the study area was in the medium hazard zone, 26% in the higher hazard zone and 20% in the lower hazard zone. Due to lack of sufficient flood damage data, flood damage vulnerability is simply considered proportional to population density. The flood risk factor of each land unit was determined as the product of the flood hazard factor and the vulnerability factor. Knowing the flood risk factors for the land units, a flood risk map was developed based on the risk factors. These maps are very useful for the inhabitants and floodplain management authorities to minimize flood damage and loss of human lives.

  4. 78 FR 14576 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include... management measures that a community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of having in effect...

  5. 78 FR 43910 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard... Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has provided to the affected communities. The FIRM and FIS report are...

  6. 78 FR 43909 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard... Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has provided to the affected communities. The FIRM and FIS report are...

  7. 78 FR 43905 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include... management measures that a community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of having in effect...

  8. 78 FR 43904 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include... management measures ] that a community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of having in effect...

  9. 78 FR 43904 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include... management measures that a community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of having in effect...

  10. 78 FR 29763 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include... management measures that a community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of having in effect...

  11. 78 FR 45938 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include... management measures that a community is required either to adopt or to show evidence of having in effect...

  12. Mapping a flood before it happens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Joseph L.

    2004-01-01

    What's missing from flood forecasts? Maps—The only maps generally available today are maps used for planning. They are maps of theoretical floods, not maps of flooding forecast for an approaching storm. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Weather Service (NWS) have developed a way to bring flood forecasting and flood mapping together, producing flood maps for tomorrow's flood today...and getting them on the Internet in time for those in harm's way to react.

  13. Geomorphologic flood-hazard assessment of alluvial fans and piedmonts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Field, J.J.; Pearthree, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    Geomorphologic studies are an excellent means of flood-hazard assessment on alluvial fans and piedmonts in the southwestern United States. Inactive, flood-free, alluvial fans display well developed soils, desert pavement, rock varnish, and tributary drainage networks. These areas are easily distinguished from flood-prone active alluvial fans on aerial photographs and in the field. The distribution of flood-prone areas associated with alluvial fans is strongly controlled by fanhead trenches dissecting the surface. Where fanhead trenches are permanent features cut in response to long-term conditions such as tectonic quiescence, flood-prone surfaces are situated down-slope from the mountain front and their positions are stable for thousands of years. Since the length and permanency of fanhead trenches can vary greatly between adjacent drainages, it is not appropriate to use regional generalizations to evaluate the distribution and stability of flood-hazard zones. Site-specific geomorphologic studies must be carried out if piedmont areas with a high risk of flooding are to be correctly identified and losses due to alluvial-fan flooding minimized. To meet the growing demand for trained professionals to complete geomorphologic maps of desert piedmonts, undergraduate and graduate geomorphology courses should adopt an instructional unit on alluvial-fan flood hazards that includes: 1) a review of geomorphologic characteristics that vary with surface age; 2) a basic mapping exercise; and 3) a discussion of the causes of fanhead trenching.

  14. 78 FR 48880 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... on the indicated Letter of Map Revision (LOMR) for each of the communities listed in the table below... Insurance Study (FIS) reports, currently in effect for the listed communities. The flood hazard...: Each LOMR is available for inspection at both the respective Community Map Repository address listed...

  15. 78 FR 29762 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations, or regulatory floodways on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) and where applicable, in the supporting Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports have been made final for... (FEMA's) National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). In addition, the FIRM and FIS report are used...

  16. 78 FR 29761 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... (SFHA) boundaries or zone designations, or regulatory floodways on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs) and where applicable, in the supporting Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports have been made final for... (FEMA's) National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). In addition, the FIRM and FIS report are used...

  17. Flood Insurance in Canada: Implications for Flood Management and Residential Vulnerability to Flood Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oulahen, Greg

    2015-03-01

    Insurance coverage of damage caused by overland flooding is currently not available to Canadian homeowners. As flood disaster losses and water damage claims both trend upward, insurers in Canada are considering offering residential flood coverage in order to properly underwrite the risk and extend their business. If private flood insurance is introduced in Canada, it will have implications for the current regime of public flood management and for residential vulnerability to flood hazards. This paper engages many of the competing issues surrounding the privatization of flood risk by addressing questions about whether flood insurance can be an effective tool in limiting exposure to the hazard and how it would exacerbate already unequal vulnerability. A case study investigates willingness to pay for flood insurance among residents in Metro Vancouver and how attitudes about insurance relate to other factors that determine residential vulnerability to flood hazards. Findings indicate that demand for flood insurance is part of a complex, dialectical set of determinants of vulnerability.

  18. Flood insurance in Canada: implications for flood management and residential vulnerability to flood hazards.

    PubMed

    Oulahen, Greg

    2015-03-01

    Insurance coverage of damage caused by overland flooding is currently not available to Canadian homeowners. As flood disaster losses and water damage claims both trend upward, insurers in Canada are considering offering residential flood coverage in order to properly underwrite the risk and extend their business. If private flood insurance is introduced in Canada, it will have implications for the current regime of public flood management and for residential vulnerability to flood hazards. This paper engages many of the competing issues surrounding the privatization of flood risk by addressing questions about whether flood insurance can be an effective tool in limiting exposure to the hazard and how it would exacerbate already unequal vulnerability. A case study investigates willingness to pay for flood insurance among residents in Metro Vancouver and how attitudes about insurance relate to other factors that determine residential vulnerability to flood hazards. Findings indicate that demand for flood insurance is part of a complex, dialectical set of determinants of vulnerability.

  19. Flood Hazard Management: British and International Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, L. Douglas

    This proceedings of an international workshop at the Flood Hazard Research Centre (Queensway, Enfield, Middlesex, U.K.) begins by noting how past British research on flood problems concentrated on refining techniques to implement established policy. In contrast, research covered in North American and Australian publications involved normative issues on policy alternatives and administrative implementation. The workshop's participants included 16 widely recognized scientists, whose origins were about equally divided between Britain and overseas; from this group the workshop's organizers expertly drew ideas for refining British urban riverine flood hazard management and for cultivating links among researchers everywhere. Such intellectual exchange should be of keen interest to flood hazard program managers around the world, to students of comparative institutional performance, to those who make policy on protecting people from hazards, and to hydrologists and other geophysicists who must communicate descriptive information for bureaucratic, political, and public decision- making.

  20. 78 FR 43908 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ..., Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) boundary or zone designation, or regulatory floodway on the Flood... Ipswich Town Hall, 25 Green Street, Ipswich, MA 01938. Town of Manchester-By-The-Sea Town Hall, 10 Central Street, Manchester-by-the-Sea, MA 01944. Town of Marblehead Town Hall, 188 Washington Street,...

  1. Publication: Evansville hazard maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The Evansville (Indiana) Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project was completed in February 2012. It was a collaborative effort among the U.S. Geological Survey and regional partners Purdue University; the Center for Earthquake Research and Information at the University of Memphis; the state geologic surveys of Kentucky, Illinois, and Indiana; the Southwest Indiana Disaster Resistant Community Corporation; and the Central U.S. Earthquake Consortium state geologists.

  2. A high‐resolution global flood hazard model†

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew M.; Bates, Paul D.; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Freer, Jim E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Floods are a natural hazard that affect communities worldwide, but to date the vast majority of flood hazard research and mapping has been undertaken by wealthy developed nations. As populations and economies have grown across the developing world, so too has demand from governments, businesses, and NGOs for modeled flood hazard data in these data‐scarce regions. We identify six key challenges faced when developing a flood hazard model that can be applied globally and present a framework methodology that leverages recent cross‐disciplinary advances to tackle each challenge. The model produces return period flood hazard maps at ∼90 m resolution for the whole terrestrial land surface between 56°S and 60°N, and results are validated against high‐resolution government flood hazard data sets from the UK and Canada. The global model is shown to capture between two thirds and three quarters of the area determined to be at risk in the benchmark data without generating excessive false positive predictions. When aggregated to ∼1 km, mean absolute error in flooded fraction falls to ∼5%. The full complexity global model contains an automatically parameterized subgrid channel network, and comparison to both a simplified 2‐D only variant and an independently developed pan‐European model shows the explicit inclusion of channels to be a critical contributor to improved model performance. While careful processing of existing global terrain data sets enables reasonable model performance in urban areas, adoption of forthcoming next‐generation global terrain data sets will offer the best prospect for a step‐change improvement in model performance. PMID:27594719

  3. A high-resolution global flood hazard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, Christopher C.; Smith, Andrew M.; Bates, Paul B.; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Freer, Jim E.

    2015-09-01

    Floods are a natural hazard that affect communities worldwide, but to date the vast majority of flood hazard research and mapping has been undertaken by wealthy developed nations. As populations and economies have grown across the developing world, so too has demand from governments, businesses, and NGOs for modeled flood hazard data in these data-scarce regions. We identify six key challenges faced when developing a flood hazard model that can be applied globally and present a framework methodology that leverages recent cross-disciplinary advances to tackle each challenge. The model produces return period flood hazard maps at ˜90 m resolution for the whole terrestrial land surface between 56°S and 60°N, and results are validated against high-resolution government flood hazard data sets from the UK and Canada. The global model is shown to capture between two thirds and three quarters of the area determined to be at risk in the benchmark data without generating excessive false positive predictions. When aggregated to ˜1 km, mean absolute error in flooded fraction falls to ˜5%. The full complexity global model contains an automatically parameterized subgrid channel network, and comparison to both a simplified 2-D only variant and an independently developed pan-European model shows the explicit inclusion of channels to be a critical contributor to improved model performance. While careful processing of existing global terrain data sets enables reasonable model performance in urban areas, adoption of forthcoming next-generation global terrain data sets will offer the best prospect for a step-change improvement in model performance.

  4. Flood Hazards - A National Threat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    In the late summer of 2005, the remarkable flooding brought by Hurricane Katrina, which caused more than $200 billion in losses, constituted the costliest natural disaster in U.S. history. However, even in typical years, flooding causes billions of dollars in damage and threatens lives and property in every State. Natural processes, such as hurricanes, weather systems, and snowmelt, can cause floods. Failure of levees and dams and inadequate drainage in urban areas can also result in flooding. On average, floods kill about 140 people each year and cause $6 billion in property damage. Although loss of life to floods during the past half-century has declined, mostly because of improved warning systems, economic losses have continued to rise due to increased urbanization and coastal development.

  5. Flood hazard and flood risk assessment using a time series of satellite images: a case study in Namibia.

    PubMed

    Skakun, Sergii; Kussul, Nataliia; Shelestov, Andrii; Kussul, Olga

    2014-08-01

    In this article, the use of time series of satellite imagery to flood hazard mapping and flood risk assessment is presented. Flooded areas are extracted from satellite images for the flood-prone territory, and a maximum flood extent image for each flood event is produced. These maps are further fused to determine relative frequency of inundation (RFI). The study shows that RFI values and relative water depth exhibit the same probabilistic distribution, which is confirmed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The produced RFI map can be used as a flood hazard map, especially in cases when flood modeling is complicated by lack of available data and high uncertainties. The derived RFI map is further used for flood risk assessment. Efficiency of the presented approach is demonstrated for the Katima Mulilo region (Namibia). A time series of Landsat-5/7 satellite images acquired from 1989 to 2012 is processed to derive RFI map using the presented approach. The following direct damage categories are considered in the study for flood risk assessment: dwelling units, roads, health facilities, and schools. The produced flood risk map shows that the risk is distributed uniformly all over the region. The cities and villages with the highest risk are identified. The proposed approach has minimum data requirements, and RFI maps can be generated rapidly to assist rescuers and decisionmakers in case of emergencies. On the other hand, limitations include: strong dependence on the available data sets, and limitations in simulations with extrapolated water depth values.

  6. 44 CFR 65.5 - Revision to special hazard area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation determinations. 65.5 Section 65.5 Emergency... HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.5 Revision to special hazard area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation...

  7. 78 FR 45944 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ..., 2013. ADDRESSES: The Preliminary Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM), and where applicable, the Flood Insurance Study (FIS) report for each community are available for inspection at both the online location and... Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation...

  8. 78 FR 36212 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... Map Service Center at www.msc.fema.gov for comparison. I. Non-watershed-based studies: Community map... Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and where applicable, in the supporting Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports for... and comment regarding the preliminary FIRM, and where applicable, the FIS report that the...

  9. 78 FR 57646 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... Map Service Center at www.msc.fema.gov for comparison. I. Non-Watershed-Based Studies Community map... Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and where applicable, in the supporting Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports for... and comment regarding the preliminary FIRM, and ] where applicable, the FIS report that the...

  10. 78 FR 36220 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... Map Service Center at www.msc.fema.gov for comparison. I. Non-watershed-based studies: Community map... Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and where applicable, in the supporting Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports for... and comment regarding the preliminary FIRM, and where applicable, the FIS report that the...

  11. 44 CFR 65.12 - Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed encroachments. 65.12 Section 65.12... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF...

  12. 44 CFR 65.12 - Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed encroachments. 65.12 Section 65.12... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF...

  13. 44 CFR 65.12 - Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed encroachments. 65.12 Section 65.12... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF...

  14. 44 CFR 65.12 - Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed encroachments. 65.12 Section 65.12... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF...

  15. 44 CFR 65.12 - Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Revision of flood insurance rate maps to reflect base flood elevations caused by proposed encroachments. 65.12 Section 65.12... INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF...

  16. Understanding Flood Hazards and Vulnerabilities: New Approaches To Comprehensive Flood Risk Assessment In The U.k.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelman, I.; Spence, R.

    Flood risk assessment in the U.K. has traditionally considered the hazard to be princi- pally flood depth and the vulnerability to be principally damage resulting from water contact with property for a specified but arbitrary duration. Some efforts have factored in velocity and salinity at a superficial level while other research has recently exam- ined the danger of flood hazard parameters to human life. This work is valuable, but it has tended to ignore both the physical and conceptual processes which lead from flood hazards such as rainfall and sewage to a flood disaster with consequences such as property damage, casualties, and societal disruption. The work presented here uses a detailed analysis to propose a framework describing which flood vulnerabilities are susceptible to which flood hazards and how this fundamental knowledge translates into an understanding of the creation of flood risks. A flood damage scale is produced and a conceptual map of flood risk is drawn through categorising flood hazards and vulnerabilities and exploring their interaction. The physical description of flood haz- ard parameters and the parametersS potential effects form the basis for communication strategies focused on risk and vulnerability reduction.

  17. Seismic hazard maps for Haiti

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, Arthur; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Calais, Eric; Haase, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We have produced probabilistic seismic hazard maps of Haiti for peak ground acceleration and response spectral accelerations that include the hazard from the major crustal faults, subduction zones, and background earthquakes. The hazard from the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden, Septentrional, and Matheux-Neiba fault zones was estimated using fault slip rates determined from GPS measurements. The hazard from the subduction zones along the northern and southeastern coasts of Hispaniola was calculated from slip rates derived from GPS data and the overall plate motion. Hazard maps were made for a firm-rock site condition and for a grid of shallow shear-wave velocities estimated from topographic slope. The maps show substantial hazard throughout Haiti, with the highest hazard in Haiti along the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden and Septentrional fault zones. The Matheux-Neiba Fault exhibits high hazard in the maps for 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, although its slip rate is poorly constrained.

  18. Flooding scenarios, hazard mapping and damages estimation: what if the 2011 Cinque Terre event had happened in Genoa?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestro, Francesco; Rebora, Nicola; Rossi, Lauro; Dolia, Daniele; Gabellani, Simone; Pignone, Flavio; Masciulli, Cristiano

    2016-04-01

    During the autumn of 2011 two catastrophic very intense rainfall events affected two different parts of the Liguria Region of Italy causing various flash floods, the first occurred in October and the second at the beginning of November. Various studies demonstrated that the two events had a similar genesis and similar triggering elements. In this work we did the exercise of putting the rainfall field of the first event (Cinque Terre area) on the main catchment, stroke by the second event, that has its mouth in correspondence of the biggest city of the Liguria Region: Genoa. A flood forecast framework and a hydraulic model were used as tools to quantitatively carry out a "what if" experiment, a proper methodology for damages estimation is then used to estimate the potential losses and the people affected. The results are interesting, surprising and in such a way worrying: a peak flow with return period larger than 200 years would have occurred with an estimated damage between 120 and 220 million of euros for the city of Genoa, Italy.

  19. What if the 25 October 2011 event that struck Cinque Terre (Liguria) had happened in Genoa, Italy? Flooding scenarios, hazard mapping and damage estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestro, Francesco; Rebora, Nicola; Rossi, Lauro; Dolia, Daniele; Gabellani, Simone; Pignone, Flavio; Trasforini, Eva; Rudari, Roberto; De Angeli, Silvia; Masciulli, Cristiano

    2016-08-01

    During the autumn of 2011 two catastrophic, very intense rainfall events affected two different parts of the Liguria Region of Italy causing various flash floods. The first occurred in October and the second at the beginning of November. Both the events were characterized by very high rainfall intensities (> 100 mm h-1) that persisted on a small portion of territory causing local huge rainfall accumulations (> 400 mm 6 h-1). Two main considerations were made in order to set up this work. The first consideration is that various studies demonstrated that the two events had a similar genesis and similar triggering elements. The second very evident and coarse concern is that two main elements are needed to have a flash flood: a very intense and localized rainfall event and a catchment (or a group of catchments) to be affected. Starting from these assumptions we did the exercise of mixing the two flash flood ingredients by putting the rainfall field of the first event on the main catchment struck by the second event, which has its mouth in the biggest city of the Liguria Region: Genoa. A complete framework was set up to quantitatively carry out a "what if" experiment with the aim of evaluating the possible damages associated with this event. A probabilistic rainfall downscaling model was used to generate possible rainfall scenarios maintaining the main characteristics of the observed rainfall fields while a hydrological model transformed these rainfall scenarios in streamflow scenarios. A subset of streamflow scenarios is then used as input to a 2-D hydraulic model to estimate the hazard maps, and finally a proper methodology is applied for damage estimation. This leads to the estimation of the potential economic losses and of the risk level for the people that stay in the affected area. The results are interesting, surprising and in a way worrying: a rare but not impossible event (it occurred about 50 km away from Genoa) would have caused huge damages estimated between

  20. Coproduction of flood hazard assessment with public participation geographic information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, W. H.; Houston, D.; Schubert, J.; Basolo, V.; Feldman, D.; Matthew, R.; Sanders, B. F.; Karlin, B.; Goodrich, K.; Contreras, S.; Reyes, A.; Serrano, K.; Luke, A.

    2015-12-01

    While advances in computing have enabled the development of more precise and accurate flood models, there is growing interest in the role of crowdsourced local knowledge in flood modeling and flood hazard assessment. In an effort to incorporate the "wisdom of the crowd" in the identification and mitigation of flood hazard, this public participation geographic information system (PPGIS) study leveraged tablet computers and cloud computing to collect mental maps of flooding from 166 households in Newport Beach, California. The mental maps were analyzed using GIS techniques and compared with professional hydrodynamic model of coastal flooding. The results revealed varying levels of agreement between residents' mental maps and professional model of flood risk in regions with different personal and contextual characteristics. The quantification of agreement using composite indices can help validate professional models, and can also alert planners and decisionmakers of the need to increase flood awareness among specific populations.

  1. Flood hazard assessment for french NPPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebour, Vincent; Duluc, Claire-Marie; Guimier, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the approach for flood hazard assessment for NPP which is on-going in France in the framework of post-Fukushima activities. These activities were initially defined considering both European "stress tests" of NPPs pursuant to the request of the European Council, and the French safety audit of civilian nuclear facilities in the light of the Fukushima Daiichi accident. The main actors in that process are the utility (EDF is, up to date, the unique NPP's operator in France), the regulatory authority (ASN) and its technical support organization (IRSN). This paper was prepared by IRSN, considering official positions of the other main actors in the current review process, it was not officially endorsed by them. In France, flood hazard to be considered for design basis definition (for new NPPs and for existing NPPs in periodic safety reviews conducted every 10 years) was revised before Fukushima-Daichi accident, due to le Blayais NPP December 1999 experience (partial site flooding and loss of some safety classified systems). The paper presents in the first part an overview of the revised guidance for design basis flood. In order to address design extension conditions (conditions that could result from natural events exceeding the design basis events), a set of flooding scenarios have been defined by adding margins on the scenarios that are considered for the design. Due to the diversity of phenomena to be considered for flooding hazard, the margin assessment is specific to each flooding scenario in terms of parameter to be penalized and of degree of variation of this parameter. The general approach to address design extension conditions is presented in the second part of the paper. The next parts present the approach for five flooding scenarios including design basis scenario and additional margin to define design extension scenarios.

  2. 78 FR 20339 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... applicable, FIS report for each community are available for inspection at both the online location and the... and FIS report for each community are accessible online through the FEMA Map Service Center at www.msc... Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and where applicable, in the supporting Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports...

  3. 78 FR 72920 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... applicable, FIS report for each community are available for inspection at both the online location and the... and FIS report for each community are accessible online through the FEMA Map Service Center at www.msc... Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and where applicable, in the supporting Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports...

  4. 78 FR 8177 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... applicable, FIS report for each community are available for inspection at both the online location and the... and FIS report for each community are accessible online through the FEMA Map Service Center at www.msc... Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and where applicable, in the supporting Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports...

  5. 78 FR 7441 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations Correction In notice document 2012-27366, appearing on pages 67016-67018 in the issue of Thursday, November 8, 2012, make...

  6. Future flood hazard under climate change in the Mekong Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, H.; Dung, N. V.; Delgado, J. M.; Merz, B.

    2012-04-01

    The main characteristic of flood hazard estimations is the association of a probability of occurrence to a flood event of a defined magnitude. This is usually performed via frequency analysis assuming stationarity and independence of the analyzed time series. This assumption, however, often does not hold true even for historical records and periods and it will be even more challenged under the expected impact of climate change to the water cycle in general and flood probabilities and magnitudes in particular. Thus strategies and methods have to be developed and evaluated for accounting for climate change impacts on flood hazard. In the presented contribution two options are presented and compared for the Mekong Delta, one of the most endangered areas with respect to climate change world-wide. The first method takes non-stationarity explicitly into account by analyzing the observed time series of peak discharge and flood volume at the upper boundary of the Delta with non-stationary extreme value statistics. The two variables and their dependence are modeled by a copula, coupling their marginal distributions to a joint bivariate distribution. Using this copula in combination with characteristic normalized flood hydrographs, probabilistic flood hazard maps for the Mekong Delta are generated via a large scale hydrodynamic model of the Delta embedded in a Monte Carlo framework for the reference year 2009. In order to account for climate change the observed trend in the non-stationary extreme value distribution was simply extrapolated to two future time horizons 2030 and 2050. However, the extrapolations of the trends are certainly associated with high level of uncertainty, in particular for time horizons in the far future. Thus we compare the simple extrapolation approach with an approach deriving future flood hazard in the Mekong Delta by establishing direct correlations between monsoon indexes describing the intensity of the flood triggering monsoon activities and the

  7. Predicting Flood Hazards in Systems with Multiple Flooding Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luke, A.; Schubert, J.; Cheng, L.; AghaKouchak, A.; Sanders, B. F.

    2014-12-01

    Delineating flood zones in systems that are susceptible to flooding from a single mechanism (riverine flooding) is a relatively well defined procedure with specific guidance from agencies such as FEMA and USACE. However, there is little guidance in delineating flood zones in systems that are susceptible to flooding from multiple mechanisms such as storm surge, waves, tidal influence, and riverine flooding. In this study, a new flood mapping method which accounts for multiple extremes occurring simultaneously is developed and exemplified. The study site in which the method is employed is the Tijuana River Estuary (TRE) located in Southern California adjacent to the U.S./Mexico border. TRE is an intertidal coastal estuary that receives freshwater flows from the Tijuana River. Extreme discharge from the Tijuana River is the primary driver of flooding within TRE, however tide level and storm surge also play a significant role in flooding extent and depth. A comparison between measured flows at the Tijuana River and ocean levels revealed a correlation between extreme discharge and ocean height. Using a novel statistical method based upon extreme value theory, ocean heights were predicted conditioned up extreme discharge occurring within the Tijuana River. This statistical technique could also be applied to other systems in which different factors are identified as the primary drivers of flooding, such as significant wave height conditioned upon tide level, for example. Using the predicted ocean levels conditioned upon varying return levels of discharge as forcing parameters for the 2D hydraulic model BreZo, the 100, 50, 20, and 10 year floodplains were delineated. The results will then be compared to floodplains delineated using the standard methods recommended by FEMA for riverine zones with a downstream ocean boundary.

  8. Rethinking flood hazard at the global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Guy J.-P.; Stampoulis, Dimitrios; Smith, Andrew M.; Sampson, Christopher C.; Andreadis, Konstantinos M.; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Bates, Paul D.

    2016-10-01

    Flooding is governed by the amount and timing of water spilling out of channels and moving across adjacent land, often with little warning. At global scales, flood hazard is typically inferred from streamflow, precipitation or from satellite images, yielding a largely incomplete picture. Thus, at present, the floodplain inundation variables, which define hazard, cannot be accurately predicted nor can they be measured at large scales. Here we present, for the first time, a complete continuous long-term simulation of floodplain water depths at continental scale. Simulations of floodplain inundation were performed with a hydrodynamic model based on gauged streamflow for the Australian continent from 1973 to 2012. We found the magnitude and timing of floodplain storage to differ significantly from streamflow in terms of their distribution. Furthermore, floodplain volume gave a much sharper discrimination of high hazard and low hazard periods than discharge. These discrepancies have implications for characterizing flood hazard at the global scale from precipitation and streamflow records alone, suggesting that simulations and observations of inundation are also needed.

  9. 24 CFR 3285.406 - Flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flood hazard areas. 3285.406... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.406 Flood hazard areas. Refer to § 3285.302 for anchoring requirements in flood hazard areas....

  10. 34 CFR 75.611 - Avoidance of flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Avoidance of flood hazards. 75.611 Section 75.611... by a Grantee? Construction § 75.611 Avoidance of flood hazards. In planning the construction, a...) Evaluate flood hazards in connection with the construction; and (b) As far as practicable, avoid...

  11. 32 CFR 643.31 - Policy-Flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Flood hazards. 643.31 Section 643.31... ESTATE Policy § 643.31 Policy—Flood hazards. Each Determination of Availability Report will include an evaluation of the flood hazards, if any, relative to the property involved in the proposed outgrant...

  12. 24 CFR 3285.302 - Flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Flood hazard areas. 3285.302... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Foundations § 3285.302 Flood hazard areas. In flood hazard areas, foundations, anchorings, and support systems must be capable of...

  13. 34 CFR 75.611 - Avoidance of flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Avoidance of flood hazards. 75.611 Section 75.611... by a Grantee? Construction § 75.611 Avoidance of flood hazards. In planning the construction, a...) Evaluate flood hazards in connection with the construction; and (b) As far as practicable, avoid...

  14. 24 CFR 3285.406 - Flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Flood hazard areas. 3285.406... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.406 Flood hazard areas. Refer to § 3285.302 for anchoring requirements in flood hazard areas....

  15. 32 CFR 643.31 - Policy-Flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Policy-Flood hazards. 643.31 Section 643.31... ESTATE Policy § 643.31 Policy—Flood hazards. Each Determination of Availability Report will include an evaluation of the flood hazards, if any, relative to the property involved in the proposed outgrant...

  16. 34 CFR 75.611 - Avoidance of flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Avoidance of flood hazards. 75.611 Section 75.611... by a Grantee? Construction § 75.611 Avoidance of flood hazards. In planning the construction, a...) Evaluate flood hazards in connection with the construction; and (b) As far as practicable, avoid...

  17. 34 CFR 75.611 - Avoidance of flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Avoidance of flood hazards. 75.611 Section 75.611... by a Grantee? Construction § 75.611 Avoidance of flood hazards. In planning the construction, a...) Evaluate flood hazards in connection with the construction; and (b) As far as practicable, avoid...

  18. 24 CFR 3285.406 - Flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Flood hazard areas. 3285.406... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.406 Flood hazard areas. Refer to § 3285.302 for anchoring requirements in flood hazard areas....

  19. 24 CFR 3285.406 - Flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Flood hazard areas. 3285.406... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.406 Flood hazard areas. Refer to § 3285.302 for anchoring requirements in flood hazard areas....

  20. 32 CFR 643.31 - Policy-Flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Policy-Flood hazards. 643.31 Section 643.31... ESTATE Policy § 643.31 Policy—Flood hazards. Each Determination of Availability Report will include an evaluation of the flood hazards, if any, relative to the property involved in the proposed outgrant...

  1. 32 CFR 643.31 - Policy-Flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Policy-Flood hazards. 643.31 Section 643.31... ESTATE Policy § 643.31 Policy—Flood hazards. Each Determination of Availability Report will include an evaluation of the flood hazards, if any, relative to the property involved in the proposed outgrant...

  2. 24 CFR 3285.302 - Flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flood hazard areas. 3285.302... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Foundations § 3285.302 Flood hazard areas. In flood hazard areas, foundations, anchorings, and support systems must be capable of...

  3. 24 CFR 3285.406 - Flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Flood hazard areas. 3285.406... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.406 Flood hazard areas. Refer to § 3285.302 for anchoring requirements in flood hazard areas....

  4. 24 CFR 3285.302 - Flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Flood hazard areas. 3285.302... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Foundations § 3285.302 Flood hazard areas. In flood hazard areas, foundations, anchorings, and support systems must be capable of...

  5. 24 CFR 3285.302 - Flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Flood hazard areas. 3285.302... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Foundations § 3285.302 Flood hazard areas. In flood hazard areas, foundations, anchorings, and support systems must be capable of...

  6. 24 CFR 3285.302 - Flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Flood hazard areas. 3285.302... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Foundations § 3285.302 Flood hazard areas. In flood hazard areas, foundations, anchorings, and support systems must be capable of...

  7. 34 CFR 75.611 - Avoidance of flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Avoidance of flood hazards. 75.611 Section 75.611... by a Grantee? Construction § 75.611 Avoidance of flood hazards. In planning the construction, a...) Evaluate flood hazards in connection with the construction; and (b) As far as practicable, avoid...

  8. 32 CFR 643.31 - Policy-Flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Policy-Flood hazards. 643.31 Section 643.31... ESTATE Policy § 643.31 Policy—Flood hazards. Each Determination of Availability Report will include an evaluation of the flood hazards, if any, relative to the property involved in the proposed outgrant...

  9. SEERISK concept: Dealing with climate change related hazards in southeast Europe: A common methodology for risk assessment and mapping focusing on floods, drought, winds, heat wave and wildfire.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papathoma-Koehle, Maria; Promper, Catrin; Glade, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Southeast Europe is a region that suffers often from natural hazards and has experienced significant losses in the recent past due to extreme weather conditions and their side-effects (cold and heat waves, extreme precipitation leading to floods / flash floods, thunderstorms, extreme winds, drought and wildfires). SEERISK ("Joint Disaster Management Risk Assessment and Preparedness in the Danube macro-region") is a European funded SEE (Southeast Europe) project that aims at the harmonisation and consistency among risk assessment practices undertaken by the partner countries at various levels regarding climate change related disasters. A common methodology for risk assessment has been developed that offers alternatives in order to tackle the problem of limited data. The methodology proposes alternative steps for hazard and vulnerability assessment that, according to the data availability, range from detailed modelling to expert judgement. In the present study the common methodology has been adapted for five hazard types (floods, drought, winds, heat wave and wildfire) that are expected to be affected by climate change in the future and are relevant for the specific study areas. The last step will be the application of the methodology in six different case studies in Hungary, Romania, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Slovakia and Serbia followed by field exercises.

  10. Effectiveness of water infrastructure for river flood management - Part 1: Flood hazard assessment using hydrological models in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusyev, M. A.; Kwak, Y.; Khairul, M. I.; Arifuzzaman, M. B.; Magome, J.; Sawano, H.; Takeuchi, K.

    2015-06-01

    This study introduces a flood hazard assessment part of the global flood risk assessment (Part 2) conducted with a distributed hydrological Block-wise TOP (BTOP) model and a GIS-based Flood Inundation Depth (FID) model. In this study, the 20 km grid BTOP model was developed with globally available data on and applied for the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) river basin. The BTOP model was calibrated with observed river discharges in Bangladesh and was applied for climate change impact assessment to produce flood discharges at each BTOP cell under present and future climates. For Bangladesh, the cumulative flood inundation maps were produced using the FID model with the BTOP simulated flood discharges and allowed us to consider levee effectiveness for reduction of flood inundation. For the climate change impacts, the flood hazard increased both in flood discharge and inundation area for the 50- and 100-year floods. From these preliminary results, the proposed methodology can partly overcome the limitation of the data unavailability and produces flood~maps that can be used for the nationwide flood risk assessment, which is presented in Part 2 of this study.

  11. Creating Probabilistic Multi-Peril Hazard Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holliday, J. R.; Page, N. A.; Rundle, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    An often overlooked component of natural hazards is the element of human involvement. Physical events--such as massive earthquakes--that do not affect society constitute natural phenomena, but are not necessarily natural hazards. Natural phenomena that occur in populated areas constitute hazardous events. Furthermore, hazardous events that cause damage--either in the form of structural damage or the loss or injury of lives--constitute natural disasters. Geographic areas that do not contain human interests, by definition, cannot suffer from hazardous events. Therefore, they do not contain a component of natural hazard. Note that this definition differs from the view of natural hazards as "unavoidable havoc wreaked by the unrestrained forces of nature". On the contrary, the burden of cause is shifted from purely natural processes to the concurrent presence of human society and natural events. Although individuals can do little to change the occurrences or intensities of most natural phenomena, they can mitigate their exposure to natural events and help ensure hazardous events do not become natural disasters. For example, choosing to build new settlements in known flood zones increases the exposure--and therefore risk--to natural flood events. Similarly, while volcanoes do erupt periodically, it is the conscious act of reappropriating the rich soils formed by ejecta as farmland that makes the volcanoes hazardous. Again, this empowers individuals and makes them responsible for their own exposure to natural hazards. Various local and governmental agencies--in particular, the United States Geographical Survey (USGS)--do a good job of identifying and listing various local natural hazards. These listings, however, are often treated individually and independently. Thus, it is often difficult to construct a "big picture" image of total natural hazard exposure. In this presentation, we discuss methods of identifying and combining different natural hazards for a given location

  12. Visualising interactive flood risk maps in a dynamic Geobrowser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaw Manful, Desmond; He, Yi; Cloke, Hannah; Pappenberger, Florian; Li, Zhijia; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Huang, Yingchun; Hu, Yuzhong

    2010-05-01

    Communicating flood forecast products effectively to end-users is the final step in the flood event simulation process. A prototype of the Novel Flood Early Warning System (NEWS) based on the TIGGE (THORPEX Interactive Grand Global Ensemble) database explores new avenues to visualise flood forecast products in a dynamic and interactive manner. One of the possibilities NEWS is currently assessing is Google Maps. Google Maps is a basic web mapping service application and technology provided by Google, free (for non-commercial use). It powers many map-based services including maps embedded on third-party websites via the Google Maps API. Creating a customized map interface requires adding the Google JavaScript code to a page, and then using Javascript functions to add points to the map. Flood maps allow end-users to visualise and navigate a world that is too large and complex to be seen directly. The NEWS software will attempt to deal with the following issues: • Uncertainty visualization in hazards maps • Visualizing uncertainty for sector specific risk managers • Uncertainty representation of point and linear data The objective is improve the information content of flood risk maps making them more useful to specific end-users.

  13. 77 FR 46104 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... rates for new buildings and the contents of those buildings. DATES: Comments are to be submitted on or... the appropriate flood insurance premium rates for new buildings built after the FIRM and FIS report...-team.com/starr/RegionalWorkspaces/RegionX/HomerSpit/Preliminary%20Maps/Forms/AllItems.aspx City...

  14. Flood warnings, flood disaster assessments, and flood hazard reduction: the roles of orbital remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brakenridge, G. R.; Anderson, E.; Nghiem, S. V.; Caquard, S.; Shabaneh, T. B.

    2003-01-01

    Orbital remote sensing of the Earth is now poised to make three fundamental contributions towards reducing the detrimental effects of extreme floods. Effective Flood warning requires frequent radar observation of the Earth's surface through cloud cover. In contrast, both optical and radar wavelengths will increasingly be used for disaster assessment and hazard reduction.

  15. Method Study of Flood Hazard Analysis for Plain River Network Area, Taihu Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HAN, C.; Liu, S.; Zhong, G.; Zhang, X.

    2015-12-01

    Flood is one of the most common and serious natural calamities. Taihu Basin is located in delta region of the Yangtze River in East China (see Fig. 1). Because of the abundant rainfall and low-lying terrain, the area frequently suffers from flood hazard which have caused serious casualty and economic loss. In order to reduce the severe impacts of floods events, numerous polder areas and hydraulic constructions (including pumps, water gates etc.) were constructed. Flood Hazard Map is an effective non-structural flood mitigation tool measures. Numerical simulation of flood propagation is one of the key technologies of flood hazard mapping. Because of the complexity of its underlying surface characteristics, numerical simulation of flood propagation was faced with some special problems for the plain river network area in Taihu Basin. In this paper, a coupled one and two dimensional hydrodynamic model was established. Densely covered and interconnected river networks, numerous polder areas and complex scheduling hydraulic constructions were generalized in the model. The model was proved to be believable and stable. Based on the results of the simulation of flood propagation, flood hazard map was compiled.

  16. Special challenges in assessing and mapping flood risk following a flood-debris flow event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggett, Graeme

    2016-04-01

    Severe rainfall along the Colorado front range in 2013 delivered flood and debris flows to many mountain communities, causing millions of dollars of damage as well as taking several lives. Phase changes in clear-hyperconcentrated-debris flows during the event created challenges in recreating the hydrology post-flood and in estimating and mapping new regulatory floodplains to support ongoing flood recovery efforts. This presentation highlights approaches used to overcome these challenges and to adequately represent the different processes and their uncertainties in updated flood hazard and risk assessments. It also considers the need to educate and involve the community in this process.

  17. Statistical analysis of the uncertainty related to flood hazard appraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notaro, Vincenza; Freni, Gabriele

    2015-12-01

    The estimation of flood hazard frequency statistics for an urban catchment is of great interest in practice. It provides the evaluation of potential flood risk and related damage and supports decision making for flood risk management. Flood risk is usually defined as function of the probability, that a system deficiency can cause flooding (hazard), and the expected damage, due to the flooding magnitude (damage), taking into account both the exposure and the vulnerability of the goods at risk. The expected flood damage can be evaluated by an a priori estimation of potential damage caused by flooding or by interpolating real damage data. With regard to flood hazard appraisal several procedures propose to identify some hazard indicator (HI) such as flood depth or the combination of flood depth and velocity and to assess the flood hazard corresponding to the analyzed area comparing the HI variables with user-defined threshold values or curves (penalty curves or matrixes). However, flooding data are usually unavailable or piecemeal allowing for carrying out a reliable flood hazard analysis, therefore hazard analysis is often performed by means of mathematical simulations aimed at evaluating water levels and flow velocities over catchment surface. As results a great part of the uncertainties intrinsic to flood risk appraisal can be related to the hazard evaluation due to the uncertainty inherent to modeling results and to the subjectivity of the user defined hazard thresholds applied to link flood depth to a hazard level. In the present work, a statistical methodology was proposed for evaluating and reducing the uncertainties connected with hazard level estimation. The methodology has been applied to a real urban watershed as case study.

  18. A fluvial and pluvial probabilistic flood hazard analysis for Can Tho city, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, Heiko; Martinez, Oriol; Thi Chinh, Do; Viet Dung, Nguyen

    2014-05-01

    Can Tho city is the largest city and the economic heart of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Due to its economic importance and envisaged development goals the city grew rapidly in population size and extend over the last two decades. Large parts of the city are located in flood prone areas, and also the central parts of the city recently experienced an increasing number of flood events, both of fluvial and pluvial nature. As the economic power and asset values are constantly increasing, this poses a considerable risk for the city. The the aim of this study is to perform a flood hazard analysis considering both fluvial and pluvial floods and to derive probabilistic flood hazard maps. This requires in a first step an understanding of the typical flood mechanisms. Fluvial floods are triggered by a coincidence of high water levels during the annual flood period in the Mekong Delta with high tidal levels, which cause in combination short term inundations in Can Tho. Pluvial floods are triggered by typical tropical convective rain storms during the monsoon season. These two flood pathways are essentially independent in its sources and can thus be treated in the hazard analysis accordingly. For the fluvial hazard analysis we propose a bivariate frequency analysis of the Mekong flood characteristics, the annual maximum flood discharge Q and the annual flood volume V at the upper boundary of the Mekong Delta, the gauging station Kratie. This defines probabilities of exceedance of different Q-V pairs, which are transferred into synthetic flood hydrographs. The synthetic hydrographs are routed through a quasi-2D hydrodynamic model of the entire Mekong Delta in order to provide boundary conditions for a detailed hazard mapping of Can Tho. This downscaling step is necessary, because the huge complexity of the river and channel network does not allow for a proper definition of boundary conditions for Can Tho city by gauge data alone. In addition the available gauge data around Can Tho

  19. USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, A.D.; Mueller, C.S.; Barnhard, T.P.; Leyendecker, E.V.; Wesson, R.L.; Harmsen, S.C.; Klein, F.W.; Perkins, D.M.; Dickman, N.C.; Hanson, S.L.; Hopper, M.G.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed new probabilistic seismic hazard maps for the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii. These hazard maps form the basis of the probabilistic component of the design maps used in the 1997 edition of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures, prepared by the Building Seismic Safety Council arid published by FEMA. The hazard maps depict peak horizontal ground acceleration and spectral response at 0.2, 0.3, and 1.0 sec periods, with 10%, 5%, and 2% probabilities of exceedance in 50 years, corresponding to return times of about 500, 1000, and 2500 years, respectively. In this paper we outline the methodology used to construct the hazard maps. There are three basic components to the maps. First, we use spatially smoothed historic seismicity as one portion of the hazard calculation. In this model, we apply the general observation that moderate and large earthquakes tend to occur near areas of previous small or moderate events, with some notable exceptions. Second, we consider large background source zones based on broad geologic criteria to quantify hazard in areas with little or no historic seismicity, but with the potential for generating large events. Third, we include the hazard from specific fault sources. We use about 450 faults in the western United States (WUS) and derive recurrence times from either geologic slip rates or the dating of pre-historic earthquakes from trenching of faults or other paleoseismic methods. Recurrence estimates for large earthquakes in New Madrid and Charleston, South Carolina, were taken from recent paleoliquefaction studies. We used logic trees to incorporate different seismicity models, fault recurrence models, Cascadia great earthquake scenarios, and ground-motion attenuation relations. We present disaggregation plots showing the contribution to hazard at four cities from potential earthquakes with various magnitudes and

  20. Benchmarking an operational procedure for rapid flood mapping and risk assessment in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dottori, Francesco; Salamon, Peter; Kalas, Milan; Bianchi, Alessandra; Feyen, Luc

    2016-04-01

    The development of real-time methods for rapid flood mapping and risk assessment is crucial to improve emergency response and mitigate flood impacts. This work describes the benchmarking of an operational procedure for rapid flood risk assessment based on the flood predictions issued by the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS). The daily forecasts produced for the major European river networks are translated into event-based flood hazard maps using a large map catalogue derived from high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations, based on the hydro-meteorological dataset of EFAS. Flood hazard maps are then combined with exposure and vulnerability information, and the impacts of the forecasted flood events are evaluated in near real-time in terms of flood prone areas, potential economic damage, affected population, infrastructures and cities. An extensive testing of the operational procedure is carried out using the catastrophic floods of May 2014 in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia. The reliability of the flood mapping methodology is tested against satellite-derived flood footprints, while ground-based estimations of economic damage and affected population is compared against modelled estimates. We evaluated the skill of flood hazard and risk estimations derived from EFAS flood forecasts with different lead times and combinations. The assessment includes a comparison of several alternative approaches to produce and present the information content, in order to meet the requests of EFAS users. The tests provided good results and showed the potential of the developed real-time operational procedure in helping emergency response and management.

  1. Communicating the Global Flood Hazard Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    On any given day somewhere on the planet floods threaten communities, livelihoods, and individuals lives, but the location and extent of many of these events are unknown beyond the local community, region or nation. Earth observation, computational models and analysis tools, validated by dedicated flood observatories that leverage the data from earth observing satellites is changing the situation. This presentation will describe the efforts to strengthen global flood modeling and mapping at a scale that complements many of the local hydrometeorology warning and geologic river flow monitoring systems. Examples from NASA's Earth System Science partnerships and the research and application by scientists and engineers monitoring and tracking floods will be examined. The interface between applied science for water resource management and disaster response will be described as well as progress in capacity building. Pilot projects involving collaborations among the Community of Earth Observing Satellites members will be reviewed as well as opportunities described to translate science results into application through new satellite missions over the next decade.

  2. Hydrologic versus geomorphic drivers of trends in flood hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Louise J.; Bliss Singer, Michael; Kirchner, James W.

    2016-04-01

    Flooding is a major threat to lives and infrastructure, yet trends in flood hazard are poorly understood. The capacity of river channels to convey flood flows is typically assumed to be stationary, so changes in flood frequency are thought to be driven primarily by trends in streamflow. However, changes in channel capacity will also modify flood hazard, even if the flow frequency distribution does not change. We developed new methods for separately quantifying how trends in both streamflow and channel capacity have affected flood frequency at gauging sites across the United States. Using daily discharge records and manual field measurements of channel cross-sectional geometry for USGS gauging stations that have defined flood stages (water levels), we present novel methods for measuring long-term trends in channel capacity of gauged rivers, and for quantifying how they affect overbank flood frequency. We apply these methods to 401 U.S. rivers and detect measurable trends in flood hazard linked to changes in channel capacity and/or the frequency of high flows. Flood frequency is generally nonstationary across these 401 U.S. rivers, with increasing flood hazard at a statistically significant majority of sites. Changes in flood hazard driven by channel capacity are smaller, but more numerous, than those driven by streamflow, with a slight tendency to compensate for streamflow changes. Our results demonstrate that accurately quantifying changes in flood hazard requires accounting separately for trends in both streamflow and channel capacity, or using water levels directly. They also show that channel capacity trends may have unforeseen consequences for flood management and for estimating flood insurance costs. Slater, L. J., M. B. Singer, and J. W. Kirchner (2015), Hydrologic versus geomorphic drivers of trends in flood hazard, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 370-376, doi:10.1002/2014GL062482.

  3. Dynamic Flood Vulnerability Mapping with Google Earth Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellman, B.; Kuhn, C.; Max, S. A.; Sullivan, J.

    2015-12-01

    Satellites capture the rate and character of environmental change from local to global levels, yet integrating these changes into flood exposure models can be cost or time prohibitive. We explore an approach to global flood modeling by leveraging satellite data with computing power in Google Earth Engine to dynamically map flood hazards. Our research harnesses satellite imagery in two main ways: first to generate a globally consistent flood inundation layer and second to dynamically model flood vulnerability. Accurate and relevant hazard maps rely on high quality observation data. Advances in publicly available spatial, spectral, and radar data together with cloud computing allow us to improve existing efforts to develop a comprehensive flood extent database to support model training and calibration. This talk will demonstrate the classification results of algorithms developed in Earth Engine designed to detect flood events by combining observations from MODIS, Landsat 8, and Sentinel-1. Our method to derive flood footprints increases the number, resolution, and precision of spatial observations for flood events both in the US, recorded in the NCDC (National Climatic Data Center) storm events database, and globally, as recorded events from the Colorado Flood Observatory database. This improved dataset can then be used to train machine learning models that relate spatial temporal flood observations to satellite derived spatial temporal predictor variables such as precipitation, antecedent soil moisture, and impervious surface. This modeling approach allows us to rapidly update models with each new flood observation, providing near real time vulnerability maps. We will share the water detection algorithms used with each satellite and discuss flood detection results with examples from Bihar, India and the state of New York. We will also demonstrate how these flood observations are used to train machine learning models and estimate flood exposure. The final stage of

  4. Rapid Response Flood Water Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Policelli, Fritz; Brakenridge, G. R.; Coplin, A.; Bunnell, M.; Wu, L.; Habib, Shahid; Farah, H.

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of operation of the MODIS instrument on the NASA Terra satellite at the end of 1999, an exceptionally useful sensor and public data stream have been available for many applications including the rapid and precise characterization of terrestrial surface water changes. One practical application of such capability is the near-real time mapping of river flood inundation. We have developed a surface water mapping methodology based on using only bands 1 (620-672 nm) and 2 (841-890 nm). These are the two bands at 250 m, and the use of only these bands maximizes the resulting map detail. In this regard, most water bodies are strong absorbers of incoming solar radiation at the band 2 wavelength: it could be used alone, via a thresholding procedure, to separate water (dark, low radiance or reflectance pixels) from land (much brighter pixels) (1, 2). Some previous water mapping procedures have in fact used such single band data from this and other sensors that include similar wavelength channels. Adding the second channel of data (band 1), however, allows a band ratio approach which permits sediment-laden water, often relatively light at band 2 wavelengths, to still be discriminated, and, as well, provides some removal of error by reducing the number of cloud shadow pixels that would otherwise be misclassified as water.

  5. Flood hazards in the Seattle-Tacoma urban complex and adjacent areas, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foxworthy, B.L.; Nassar, E.G.

    1975-01-01

    Floods are natural hazards that have complicated man's land-use planning for as long as we have had a history. Although flood hzards are a continuing danger, the year-to-year threat cannot be accurately predicted. Also, on any one stream, the time since the last destructive flood might be so long that most people now living near the stream have not experienced such a flood. Because of the unpredictability and common infrequency of disastrous flooding, or out of ignorance about the danger, or perhaps because of an urge to gamble, man tends to focus his attention on only the advantages of the flood-prone areas, rather than the risk due to the occasional major flood. The purposes of this report are to: (1) briefly describe flood hazards in this region, including some that may be unique to the Puget Sound basin, (2) indicate the parts of the area for which flood-hazard data are available, and (3) list the main sources of hydrologic information that is useful for flood-hazard analysis in conjuction with long-range planning. This map-type report is one of a series being prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey to present basic environmental information and interpretations to assist land-use planning in the Puget Sound region.

  6. 76 FR 64175 - Loans in Areas Having Special Flood Hazards; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Flood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION Loans in Areas Having Special Flood... on comments received, the Agencies also have significantly revised two questions and answers... title ``Loans in Areas Having Special Flood Hazards; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding...

  7. Hydrologic and geomorphic drivers of changing flood hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, L. J.; Singer, M. B.; Kirchner, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding is a major hazard to lives and infrastructure, but trends in flood hazard are poorly understood. In flood risk analysis and channel design engineering, channel capacity is generally assumed to be constant, and changes in flood frequency are assumed to be driven primarily by changes in streamflow. However, trends in channel capacity will also modify flood hazard, even if the flow frequency distribution does not change. Using daily discharge records and manual field measurements of channel cross-sectional geometry for USGS gauging stations that have defined flood stages (water levels), we present novel methods for measuring long-term trends in channel capacity of gauged rivers, and for quantifying how they affect flood frequency. We apply these methods to 401 U.S. rivers and detect measurable trends in flood hazard linked to changes in channel capacity or the frequency of high flows. We found increases in flood frequency at a statistically significant majority of sites. Trends in channel capacity were smaller, but more numerous, than those in streamflow, with a slight tendency to compensate for streamflow changes. Recognizing and quantifying the joint influence of trends in channel capacity and streamflow on flood frequency is necessary to determine changes in flood hazard accurately.

  8. Determining the Optimum Post Spacing of LIDAR-Derived Elevation Data in Varying Terrain for Flood Hazard Mapping Purposes in North Carolina and Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berglund, Judith; Davis, Bruce; Estep, Lee

    2004-01-01

    The major flood events in the United States in the past few years have made it apparent that many floodplain maps being used by State governments are outdated and inaccurate. In response, many Stated have begun to update their Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Digital Flood Insurance Rate Maps. Accurate topographic data is one of the most critical inputs for floodplain analysis and delineation. Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) altimetry is one of the primary remote sensing technologies that can be used to obtain high-resolution and high-accuracy digital elevation data suitable for hydrologic and hydraulic (H&H) modeling, in part because of its ability to "penetrate" various cover types and to record geospatial data from the Earth's surface. However, the posting density or spacing at which LIDAR collects the data will affect the resulting accuracies of the derived bare Earth surface, depending on terrain type and land cover type. For example, flat areas are thought to require higher or denser postings than hilly areas to capture subtle changes in the topography that could have a significant effect on flooding extent. Likewise, if an area has dense understory and overstory, it may be difficult to receive LIDAR returns from the Earth's surface, which would affect the accuracy of that bare Earth surface and thus would affect flood model results. For these reasons, NASA and FEMA have partnered with the State of North Carolina and with the U.S./Mexico Foundation in Texas to assess the effect of LIDAR point density on the characterization of topographic variation and on H&H modeling results for improved floodplain mapping. Research for this project is being conducted in two areas of North Carolina and in the City of Brownsville, Texas, each with a different type of terrain and varying land cover/land use. Because of various project constraints, LIDAR data were acquired once at a high posting density and then decimated to coarser postings or densities. Quality

  9. 76 FR 37893 - Loans in Areas Having Special Flood Hazards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Loans in Areas Having Special Flood Hazards AGENCY: Office of Thrift... collection. Title of Proposal: Loans in Areas Having Special Flood Hazards. OMB Number: 1550-0088....

  10. 77 FR 77087 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... or modification of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA... Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW., Washington, DC 20472, (202) 646-4064, or (email) Luis.Rodriguez3@fema.dhs... Commerce team.com/lomrs.htm. Mayor, City of Street, 7th San Antonio, 100 Floor, San Military Plaza,...

  11. 77 FR 71807 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... or modification of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA.... 51 South Main Street, http://www.starr- July 11, 2012 550363 areas of Rock Russell Janesville, WI... Board of Supervisors, 51 South Main Street, Janesville, WI 53545. Walworth City of Lake The...

  12. 78 FR 65107 - Loans in Areas Having Special Flood Hazards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... amend their regulations regarding loans in areas having special flood hazards to implement provisions of... insurance coverage, amended provisions of the Flood Disaster Protection Act (FDPA) \\2\\ that require the... Examination Council (FFIEC), as is required by certain provisions of the flood insurance statutes.\\3\\...

  13. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Tocoa, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Tocoa that would be inundated by a 50-year flood of Rio Tocoa. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Tocoa as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for an estimated 50-year-flood on Rio Tocoa at Tocoa were estimated using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area and a ground survey at one bridge. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations on Rio Tocoa; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Tocoa, 552 cubic meters per second, was estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The drainage area and mean annual precipitation estimated for Rio Tocoa at Tocoa are 204 square kilometers and 1,987 millimeters, respectively. It was assumed that a portion of the 50-year flood, 200 cubic meters per second, would escape the main channel and flow down a side channel before re-entering the main channel again near the lower end of the study area.

  14. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Siguatepeque, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Siguatepeque that would be inundated by 50-year floods on Rio Selguapa, Rio Guique, Rio Celan, Rio Calan, and Quebrada Chalantuma. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Siguatepeque as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for 50-year-floods on each of the streams studied were computed using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area and ground surveys at six bridges. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations on any of the streams studied; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharges were estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The 50-year-flood discharges estimated for Rio Selguapa, Rio Guique, Rio Celan, Rio Calan, and Quebrada Chalantuma are 323, 168, 161, 146, and 90 cubic meters per second, respectively.

  15. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Tegucigalpa, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Tegucigalpa that would be inundated by a 50-year flood of Rio Choluteca, Rio Grande, Rio Guacerique, and Rio Chiquito. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Tegucigalpa as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for an estimated 50-year-flood on Rio Choluteca, Rio Grande, Rio Guacerique, and Rio Chiquito at Tegucigalpa were determined using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area and ground surveys at bridges. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharges were estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The estimated 50-year-flood discharge is 922 cubic meters per second at Rio Choluteca at downstream end of the study area boundary, 663 cubic meters per second at the mouth of the Rio Grande, 475 cubic meters per second at the mouth of the Rio Guacerique, and 254 cubic meters per second at the mouth of the Rio Chiquito.

  16. Integrating Entropy-Based Naïve Bayes and GIS for Spatial Evaluation of Flood Hazard.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Chen, Yun; Wu, Jianping; Gao, Lei; Barrett, Damian; Xu, Tingbao; Li, Xiaojuan; Li, Linyi; Huang, Chang; Yu, Jia

    2016-09-24

    Regional flood risk caused by intensive rainfall under extreme climate conditions has increasingly attracted global attention. Mapping and evaluation of flood hazard are vital parts in flood risk assessment. This study develops an integrated framework for estimating spatial likelihood of flood hazard by coupling weighted naïve Bayes (WNB), geographic information system, and remote sensing. The north part of Fitzroy River Basin in Queensland, Australia, was selected as a case study site. The environmental indices, including extreme rainfall, evapotranspiration, net-water index, soil water retention, elevation, slope, drainage proximity, and density, were generated from spatial data representing climate, soil, vegetation, hydrology, and topography. These indices were weighted using the statistics-based entropy method. The weighted indices were input into the WNB-based model to delineate a regional flood risk map that indicates the likelihood of flood occurrence. The resultant map was validated by the maximum inundation extent extracted from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery. The evaluation results, including mapping and evaluation of the distribution of flood hazard, are helpful in guiding flood inundation disaster responses for the region. The novel approach presented consists of weighted grid data, image-based sampling and validation, cell-by-cell probability inferring and spatial mapping. It is superior to an existing spatial naive Bayes (NB) method for regional flood hazard assessment. It can also be extended to other likelihood-related environmental hazard studies.

  17. Increasing resilience through participative flood risk map design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Spira, Yvonne; Stickler, Therese

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of flood hazards has shown to the European Commission and the Member States of the European Union the importance of flood risk management strategies in order to reduce losses and to protect the environment and the citizens. Exposure to floods as well as flood vulnerability might increase across Europe due to the ongoing economic development in many EU countries. Thus even without taking climate change into account an increase of flood disasters in Europe might be foreseeable. These circumstances have produced a reaction in the European Commission, and a Directive on the Assessment and Management of Flood Risks was issued as one of the three components of the European Action Programme on Flood Risk Management. Floods have the potential to jeopardise economic development, above all due to an increase of human activities in floodplains and the reduction of natural water retention by land use activities. As a result, an increase in the likelihood and adverse impacts of flood events is expected. Therefore, concentrated action is needed at the European level to avoid severe impacts on human life and property. In order to have an effective tool available for gathering information, as well as a valuable basis for priority setting and further technical, financial and political decisions regarding flood risk mitigation and management, it is necessary to provide for the establishment of flood risk maps which show the potential adverse consequences associated with different flood scenarios. So far, hazard and risk maps are compiled in terms of a top-down linear approach: planning authorities take the responsibility to create and implement these maps on different national and local scales, and the general public will only be informed about the outcomes (EU Floods Directive, Article 10). For the flood risk management plans, however, an "active involvement of interested parties" is required, which means at least some kind of multilateral

  18. Influence of dem in Watershed Management as Flood Zonation Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alrajhi, Muhamad; Khan, Mudasir; Afroz Khan, Mohammad; Alobeid, Abdalla

    2016-06-01

    Despite of valuable efforts from working groups and research organizations towards flood hazard reduction through its program, still minimal diminution from these hazards has been realized. This is mainly due to the fact that with rapid increase in population and urbanization coupled with climate change, flood hazards are becoming increasingly catastrophic. Therefore there is a need to understand and access flood hazards and develop means to deal with it through proper preparations, and preventive measures. To achieve this aim, Geographical Information System (GIS), geospatial and hydrological models were used as tools to tackle with influence of flash floods in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia due to existence of large valleys (Wadis) which is a matter of great concern. In this research paper, Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of different resolution (30m, 20m,10m and 5m) have been used, which have proven to be valuable tool for the topographic parameterization of hydrological models which are the basis for any flood modelling process. The DEM was used as input for performing spatial analysis and obtaining derivative products and delineate watershed characteristics of the study area using ArcGIS desktop and its Arc Hydro extension tools to check comparability of different elevation models for flood Zonation mapping. The derived drainage patterns have been overlaid over aerial imagery of study area, to check influence of greater amount of precipitation which can turn into massive destructions. The flow accumulation maps derived provide zones of highest accumulation and possible flow directions. This approach provide simplified means of predicting extent of inundation during flood events for emergency action especially for large areas because of large coverage area of the remotely sensed data.

  19. Delivering integrated HAZUS-MH flood loss analyses and flood inundation maps over the Web

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearn,, Paul P.; Longenecker, Herbert E.; Aguinaldo, John J.; Rahav, Ami N.

    2013-01-01

    Catastrophic flooding is responsible for more loss of life and damages to property than any other natural hazard. Recently developed flood inundation mapping technologies make it possible to view the extent and depth of flooding on the land surface over the Internet; however, by themselves these technologies are unable to provide estimates of losses to property and infrastructure. The Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA's) HAZUS-MH software is extensively used to conduct flood loss analyses in the United States, providing a nationwide database of population and infrastructure at risk. Unfortunately, HAZUS-MH requires a dedicated Geographic Information System (GIS) workstation and a trained operator, and analyses are not adapted for convenient delivery over the Web. This article describes a cooperative effort by the US Geological Survey (USGS) and FEMA to make HAZUS-MH output GIS and Web compatible and to integrate these data with digital flood inundation maps in USGS’s newly developed Inundation Mapping Web Portal. By running the computationally intensive HAZUS-MH flood analyses offline and converting the output to a Web-GIS compatible format, detailed estimates of flood losses can now be delivered to anyone with Internet access, thus dramatically increasing the availability of these forecasts to local emergency planners and first responders.

  20. Delivering integrated HAZUS-MH flood loss analyses and flood inundation maps over the Web.

    PubMed

    Hearn, Paul P; Longenecker, Herbert E; Aguinaldo, John J; Rahav, Ami N

    2013-01-01

    Catastrophic flooding is responsible for more loss of life and damages to property than any other natural hazard. Recently developed flood inundation mapping technologies make it possible to view the extent and depth of flooding on the land surface over the Internet; however, by themselves these technologies are unable to provide estimates of losses to property and infrastructure. The Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) HAZUS-MH software is extensively used to conduct flood loss analyses in the United States, providing a nationwide database of population and infrastructure at risk. Unfortunately, HAZUS-MH requires a dedicated Geographic Information System (GIS) workstation and a trained operator, and analyses are not adapted for convenient delivery over the Web. This article describes a cooperative effort by the US Geological Survey (USGS) and FEMA to make HAZUS-MH output GIS and Web compatible and to integrate these data with digital flood inundation maps in USGS's newly developed Inundation Mapping Web Portal. By running the computationally intensive HAZUS-MH flood analyses offline and converting the output to a Web-GIS compatible format, detailed estimates of flood losses can now be delivered to anyone with Internet access, thus dramatically increasing the availability of these forecasts to local emergency planners and first responders.

  1. 77 FR 25490 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... determinations), as shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and where applicable, in the supporting Flood... a Letter of Map Revision (LOMR), in accordance with Title 44, Part 65 of the Code of Federal... inspection at both the online location and the respective community map repository address listed in...

  2. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Sonaguera, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Sonaguera that would be inundated by a 50-year flood of Rio Sonaguera and its tributary, Rio Juan Lazaro. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Sonaguera as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for an estimated 50-year-flood on Rio Sonaguera and Rio Juan Lazaro at Sonaguera were determined using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area and a ground survey at the bridge. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations on Rio Sonaguera or Rio Juan Lazaro; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Sonaguera above the confluence with Rio Juan Lazaro, 194 cubic meters per second; for Rio Juan Lazaro at its mouth, 168 cubic meters per second, and for Rio Sonaguera at the downstream end of the study area, 282 cubic meters per second; were estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation.

  3. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Choloma, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Choloma that would be inundated by a 50-year flood of Rio Choloma. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Choloma as part of the in the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for a 50-year-flood on Rio Choloma at Choloma were determined using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations on Rio Choloma; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Choloma, 370 cubic meters per second, was estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The drainage area and mean annual precipitation estimated for Rio Choloma at Choloma are 89.5 square kilometers and 2,164 millimeters, respectively.

  4. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Catacamas, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Catacamas that would be inundated by a 50-year-flood of Rio Catacamas. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Catacamas as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/ floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for a 50-year-flood on Rio Catacamas at Catacamas were estimated using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. The 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Catacamas at Catacamas, 216 cubic meters per second, was estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation because there are no long-term stream-gaging stations on the river from which to estimate the discharge. The drainage area and mean annual precipitation estimated for Rio Catacamas at Catacamas are 45.4 square kilometers and 1,773 millimeters, respectively.

  5. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Olanchito, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, M.C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Olanchito that would be inundated by a 50-year-flood of Rio Uchapa. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Olanchito as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for a 50-year-flood discharge of 243 cubic meters per second on Rio Uchapa at Olanchito were estimated using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations on Rio Uchapa; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Uchapa was estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The drainage area and mean annual precipitation estimated for Rio Uchapa at Olanchito are 97.1 square kilometers and 1,178 millimeters, respectively.

  6. Flood inundation map library, Fort Kent, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2012-01-01

    Severe flooding occurred in northern Maine from April 28 to May 1, 2008, and damage was extensive in the town of Fort Kent (Lombard, 2010). Aroostook County was declared a Federal disaster area on May 9, 2008. The extent of flooding on both the Fish and St. John Rivers during this event showed that the current Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Study (FIS) and Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) (Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1979) were out of date. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study to develop a flood inundation map library showing the areas and depths for a range of flood stages from bankfull to the flood of record for Fort Kent to complement an updated FIS (Federal Emergency Management Agency, in press). Hydrologic analyses that support the maps include computer models with and without the levee and with various depths of backwater on the Fish River. This fact sheet describes the methods used to develop the maps and describes how the maps can be accessed.

  7. Flood mapping with multitemporal MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Nguyen-Thanh; Chen, Chi-Farn; Chen, Cheng-Ru

    2014-05-01

    Flood is one of the most devastating and frequent disasters resulting in loss of human life and serve damage to infrastructure and agricultural production. Flood is phenomenal in the Mekong River Delta (MRD), Vietnam. It annually lasts from July to November. Information on spatiotemporal flood dynamics is thus important for planners to devise successful strategies for flood monitoring and mitigation of its negative effects. The main objective of this study is to develop an approach for weekly mapping flood dynamics with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data in MRD using the water fraction model (WFM). The data processed for 2009 comprises three main steps: (1) data pre-processing to construct smooth time series of the difference in the values (DVLE) between land surface water index (LSWI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) using the empirical mode decomposition (EMD), (2) flood derivation using WFM, and (3) accuracy assessment. The mapping results were compared with the ground reference data, which were constructed from Envisat Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) data. As several error sources, including mixed-pixel problems and low-resolution bias between the mapping results and ground reference data, could lower the level of classification accuracy, the comparisons indicated satisfactory results with the overall accuracy of 80.5% and Kappa coefficient of 0.61, respectively. These results were reaffirmed by a close correlation between the MODIS-derived flood area and that of the ground reference map at the provincial level, with the correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.93. Considering the importance of remote sensing for monitoring floods and mitigating the damage caused by floods to crops and infrastructure, this study eventually leads to the realization of the value of using time-series MODIS DVLE data for weekly flood monitoring in MRD with the aid of EMD and WFM. Such an approach that could provide quantitative information on

  8. Flood Mapping Using InSAR Coherence Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selmi, S.; Ben Abdallah, W.; Abdelfatteh, R.

    2014-09-01

    Classic approaches for the detection of flooded areas are based on a static analysis of optical images and/or SAR data during and after the event. In this paper, we aim to extract the flooded zones by using the SAR image coupled with the InSAR coherence. A new formulation of the ratio approach for flood detection is given considering InSAR coherence. Our contribution is to take advantage from the coherence map provided using the InSAR pairs (one before and one after the event) to enhance the detection of flooded areas. We explore the fact that the coherence values during and after the flood are mainly differents on the flooded zones and we give a more suitable flood decision rule using this assumption. The proposed approach is tested and validated in the case of the flood taken place in 2005 in the region of Kef in Tunisia.

  9. Overcoming complexities for consistent, continental-scale flood mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Helen; Zaidman, Maxine; Davison, Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    The EU Floods Directive requires all member states to produce flood hazard maps by 2013. Although flood mapping practices are well developed in Europe, there are huge variations in the scale and resolution of the maps between individual countries. Since extreme flood events are rarely confined to a single country, this is problematic, particularly for the re/insurance industry whose exposures often extend beyond country boundaries. Here, we discuss the challenges of large-scale hydrological and hydraulic modelling, using our experience of developing a 12-country model and set of maps, to illustrate how consistent, high-resolution river flood maps across Europe can be produced. The main challenges addressed include: data acquisition; manipulating the vast quantities of high-resolution data; and computational resources. Our starting point was to develop robust flood-frequency models that are suitable for estimating peak flows for a range of design flood return periods. We used the index flood approach, based on a statistical analysis of historic river flow data pooled on the basis of catchment characteristics. Historical flow data were therefore sourced for each country and collated into a large pan-European database. After a lengthy validation these data were collated into 21 separate analysis zones or regions, grouping smaller river basins according to their physical and climatic characteristics. The very large continental scale basins were each modelled separately on account of their size (e.g. Danube, Elbe, Drava and Rhine). Our methodology allows the design flood hydrograph to be predicted at any point on the river network for a range of return periods. Using JFlow+, JBA's proprietary 2D hydraulic hydrodynamic model, the calculated out-of-bank flows for all watercourses with an upstream drainage area exceeding 50km2 were routed across two different Digital Terrain Models in order to map the extent and depth of floodplain inundation. This generated modelling for

  10. Groundwater flood hazards in lowland karst terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naughton, Owen; McCormack, Ted

    2016-04-01

    The spatial and temporal complexity of flooding in karst terrains pose unique flood risk management challenges. Lowland karst landscapes can be particularly susceptible to groundwater flooding due to a combination of limited drainage capacity, shallow depth to groundwater and a high level of groundwater-surface water interactions. Historically the worst groundwater flooding to have occurred in the Rep. of Ireland has been centred on the Gort Lowlands, a karst catchment on the western coast of Ireland. Numerous notable flood events have been recorded throughout the 20th century, but flooding during the winters of 2009 and 2015 were the most severe on record, inundating an area in excess of 20km2 and causing widespread and prolonged disruption and damage to property and infrastructure. Effective flood risk management requires an understanding of the recharge, storage and transport mechanisms during flood conditions, but is often hampered by a lack of adequate data. Using information gathered from the 2009 and 2015 events, the main hydrological and geomorphological factors which influence flooding in this complex lowland karst groundwater system under are elucidated. Observed flood mechanisms included backwater flooding of sinks, overland flow caused by the overtopping of sink depressions, high water levels in turlough basins, and surface ponding in local epikarst watersheds. While targeted small-scale flood measures can locally reduce the flood risk associated with some mechanisms, they also have the potential to exacerbate flooding down-catchment and must be assessed in the context of overall catchment hydrology. This study addresses the need to improve our understanding of groundwater flooding in karst terrains, in order to ensure efficient flood prevention and mitigation in future and thus help achieve the aims of the EU Floods Directive.

  11. Updated Colombian Seismic Hazard Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eraso, J.; Arcila, M.; Romero, J.; Dimate, C.; Bermúdez, M. L.; Alvarado, C.

    2013-05-01

    The Colombian seismic hazard map used by the National Building Code (NSR-98) in effect until 2009 was developed in 1996. Since then, the National Seismological Network of Colombia has improved in both coverage and technology providing fifteen years of additional seismic records. These improvements have allowed a better understanding of the regional geology and tectonics which in addition to the seismic activity in Colombia with destructive effects has motivated the interest and the need to develop a new seismic hazard assessment in this country. Taking advantage of new instrumental information sources such as new broad band stations of the National Seismological Network, new historical seismicity data, standardized global databases availability, and in general, of advances in models and techniques, a new Colombian seismic hazard map was developed. A PSHA model was applied. The use of the PSHA model is because it incorporates the effects of all seismic sources that may affect a particular site solving the uncertainties caused by the parameters and assumptions defined in this kind of studies. First, the seismic sources geometry and a complete and homogeneous seismic catalog were defined; the parameters of seismic rate of each one of the seismic sources occurrence were calculated establishing a national seismotectonic model. Several of attenuation-distance relationships were selected depending on the type of seismicity considered. The seismic hazard was estimated using the CRISIS2007 software created by the Engineering Institute of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México -UNAM (National Autonomous University of Mexico). A uniformly spaced grid each 0.1° was used to calculate the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and response spectral values at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3.0 seconds with return periods of 75, 225, 475, 975 and 2475 years. For each site, a uniform hazard spectrum and exceedance rate curves were calculated. With the results, it is

  12. Debris flow hazard mapping, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazengarb, Colin; Rigby, Ted; Stevenson, Michael

    2015-04-01

    constrained by aerial photographs to decade precision and many predate regional photography (pre 1940's). We have performed runout modelling, using 2D hydraulic modelling software (RiverFlow2D with Mud and Debris module), in order to calibrate our model against real events and gain confidence in the choice of parameters. Runout modelling was undertaken in valley systems with volumes calibrated to existing flood model likelihoods for each catchment. The hazard outputs from our models require developing a translation to hazard models used in Australia. By linking to flood mapping we aim to demonstrate to emergency managers where existing mitigation measures may be inadequate and how they can be adapted to address multiple hazards.

  13. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Comayagua, Hondura

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Comayagua that would be inundated by 50-year floods on Rio Humuya and Rio Majada. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Comayagua as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for 50-year-floods on Rio Humuya and Rio Majada at Comayagua were estimated using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. The 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Humuya at Comayagua, 1,400 cubic meters per second, was estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The reasonableness of the regression discharge was evaluated by comparing it with drainage-area-adjusted 50-year-flood discharges estimated for three long-term Rio Humuya stream-gaging stations. The drainage-area-adjusted 50-year-flood discharges estimated from the gage records ranged from 946 to 1,365 cubic meters per second. Because the regression equation discharge agrees closely with the high end of the range of discharges estimated from the gaging-station records, it was used for the hydraulic modeling to ensure that the resulting 50-year-flood water-surface elevations would not be underestimated. The 50-year-flood

  14. Evaluation of various modelling approaches in flood routing simulation and flood area mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaioannou, George; Loukas, Athanasios; Vasiliades, Lampros; Aronica, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    An essential process of flood hazard analysis and mapping is the floodplain modelling. The selection of the modelling approach, especially, in complex riverine topographies such as urban and suburban areas, and ungauged watersheds may affect the accuracy of the outcomes in terms of flood depths and flood inundation area. In this study, a sensitivity analysis implemented using several hydraulic-hydrodynamic modelling approaches (1D, 2D, 1D/2D) and the effect of modelling approach on flood modelling and flood mapping was investigated. The digital terrain model (DTMs) used in this study was generated from Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) point cloud data. The modelling approaches included 1-dimensional hydraulic-hydrodynamic models (1D), 2-dimensional hydraulic-hydrodynamic models (2D) and the coupled 1D/2D. The 1D hydraulic-hydrodynamic models used were: HECRAS, MIKE11, LISFLOOD, XPSTORM. The 2D hydraulic-hydrodynamic models used were: MIKE21, MIKE21FM, HECRAS (2D), XPSTORM, LISFLOOD and FLO2d. The coupled 1D/2D models employed were: HECRAS(1D/2D), MIKE11/MIKE21(MIKE FLOOD platform), MIKE11/MIKE21 FM(MIKE FLOOD platform), XPSTORM(1D/2D). The validation process of flood extent achieved with the use of 2x2 contingency tables between simulated and observed flooded area for an extreme historical flash flood event. The skill score Critical Success Index was used in the validation process. The modelling approaches have also been evaluated for simulation time and requested computing power. The methodology has been implemented in a suburban ungauged watershed of Xerias river at Volos-Greece. The results of the analysis indicate the necessity of sensitivity analysis application with the use of different hydraulic-hydrodynamic modelling approaches especially for areas with complex terrain.

  15. Flood risk assessment and mapping for the Lebanese watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, Chadi; Hdeib, Rouya

    2016-04-01

    Of all natural disasters, floods affect the greatest number of people worldwide and have the greatest potential to cause damage. Nowadays, with the emerging global warming phenomenon, this number is expected to increase. The Eastern Mediterranean area, including Lebanon (10452 Km2, 4.5 M habitant), has witnessed in the past few decades an increase frequency of flooding events. This study profoundly assess the flood risk over Lebanon covering all the 17 major watersheds and a number of small sub-catchments. It evaluate the physical direct tangible damages caused by floods. The risk assessment and evaluation process was carried out over three stages; i) Evaluating Assets at Risk, where the areas and assets vulnerable to flooding are identified, ii) Vulnerability Assessment, where the causes of vulnerability are assessed and the value of the assets are provided, iii) Risk Assessment, where damage functions are established and the consequent damages of flooding are estimated. A detailed Land CoverUse map was prepared at a scale of 1/ 1 000 using 0.4 m resolution satellite images within the flood hazard zones. The detailed field verification enabled to allocate and characterize all elements at risk, identify hotspots, interview local witnesses, and to correlate and calibrate previous flood damages with the utilized models. All filed gathered information was collected through Mobile Application and transformed to be standardized and classified under GIS environment. Consequently; the general damage evaluation and risk maps at different flood recurrence periods (10, 50, 100 years) were established. Major results showed that floods in a winter season (December, January, and February) of 10 year recurrence and of water retention ranging from 1 to 3 days can cause total damages (losses) that reach 1.14 M for crop lands and 2.30 M for green houses. Whereas, it may cause 0.2 M to losses in fruit trees for a flood retention ranging from 3 to 5 days. These numbers differs

  16. An automated approach to flood mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weihua; Mckeown, Donald M.; Messinger, David W.

    2012-10-01

    Heavy rain from Tropical Storm Lee resulted in a major flood event for the southern tier of New York State in early September 2011 causing evacuation of approximately 20,000 people in and around the city of Binghamton. In support of the New York State Office of Emergency Management, a high resolution multispectral airborne sensor (WASP) developed by RIT was deployed over the flooded area to collect aerial images. One of the key benefits of these images is their provision for flood inundation area mapping. However, these images require a significant amount of storage space and the inundation mapping process is conventionally carried out using manual digitization. In this paper, we design an automated approach for flood inundation mapping from the WASP airborne images. This method employs Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) for color RGB or multispectral aerial images to extract the flood binary map; then it uses a set of morphological processing and a boundary vectorization technique to convert the binary map into a shapefile. This technique is relatively fast and only requires the operator to select one pixel on the image. The generated shapefile is much smaller than the original image and can be imported to most GIS software packages. This enables critical flood information to be shared with and by disaster response managers very rapidly, even over cellular phone networks.

  17. 12 CFR 22.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 22.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A bank shall use the standard flood hazard determination form developed by...

  18. 7 CFR 1980.318 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.318... Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. RHS policy is to discourage lending in designated flood and mudslide hazard areas. Loan guarantees shall not be issued in designated flood/mudslide hazard areas...

  19. 7 CFR 1980.318 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.318... Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. RHS policy is to discourage lending in designated flood and mudslide hazard areas. Loan guarantees shall not be issued in designated flood/mudslide hazard areas...

  20. 12 CFR 22.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 22.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A bank shall use the standard flood hazard determination form developed by...

  1. 12 CFR 22.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 22.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A bank shall use the standard flood hazard determination form developed by...

  2. 12 CFR 22.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 22.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A bank shall use the standard flood hazard determination form developed by...

  3. 7 CFR 1980.318 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.318... Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. RHS policy is to discourage lending in designated flood and mudslide hazard areas. Loan guarantees shall not be issued in designated flood/mudslide hazard areas...

  4. 12 CFR 572.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... TREASURY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 572.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A savings association shall use the standard flood hazard...

  5. 12 CFR 391.35 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... Special Flood Hazards § 391.35 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A State savings association shall use the standard flood hazard determination form developed by...

  6. 12 CFR 572.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Required use of standard flood hazard... TREASURY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 572.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A savings association shall use the standard flood hazard...

  7. 7 CFR 1980.318 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.318... Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. RHS policy is to discourage lending in designated flood and mudslide hazard areas. Loan guarantees shall not be issued in designated flood/mudslide hazard areas...

  8. 12 CFR 22.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 22.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A bank shall use the standard flood hazard determination form developed by...

  9. 12 CFR 391.35 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... Special Flood Hazards § 391.35 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A State savings association shall use the standard flood hazard determination form developed by...

  10. 12 CFR 391.35 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... Special Flood Hazards § 391.35 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A State savings association shall use the standard flood hazard determination form developed by...

  11. 12 CFR 572.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Required use of standard flood hazard... TREASURY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 572.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A savings association shall use the standard flood hazard...

  12. 12 CFR 572.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... TREASURY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 572.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A savings association shall use the standard flood hazard...

  13. 7 CFR 1980.318 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.318... Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. RHS policy is to discourage lending in designated flood and mudslide hazard areas. Loan guarantees shall not be issued in designated flood/mudslide hazard areas...

  14. 12 CFR 572.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... TREASURY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 572.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A savings association shall use the standard flood hazard...

  15. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Choluteca, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Choluteca that would be inundated by 50-year floods on Rio Choluteca and Rio Iztoca. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Choluteca as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for 50-year-floods on Rio Choluteca and Rio Iztoca at Choluteca were estimated using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. The estimated 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Choluteca at Choluteca is 4,620 cubic meters per second, which is the drainage-area-adjusted weighted-average of two independently estimated 50-year-flood discharges for the gaging station Rio Choluteca en Puente Choluteca. One discharge, 4,913 cubic meters per second, was estimated from a frequency analysis of the 17 years of peak discharge record for the gage, and the other, 2,650 cubic meters per second, was estimated from a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The weighted-average of the two discharges at the gage is 4,530 cubic meters per second. The 50-year-flood discharge for the study area reach of Rio Choluteca was estimated by multiplying the weighted discharge at the gage by the ratio of the drainage

  16. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Nacaome, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, M.C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Nacaome that would be inundated by 50-year floods on Rio Nacaome, Rio Grande, and Rio Guacirope. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Nacaome as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for 50-year-floods on Rio Nacaome, Rio Grande, and Rio Guacirope at Nacaome were computed using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area and ground surveys at two bridges. The estimated 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Nacaome at Nacaome, 5,040 cubic meters per second, was computed as the drainage-area-adjusted weighted average of two independently estimated 50-year-flood discharges for the gaging station Rio Nacaome en Las Mercedes, located about 13 kilometers upstream from Nacaome. One of the discharges, 4,549 cubic meters per second, was estimated from a frequency analysis of the 16 years of peak-discharge record for the gage, and the other, 1,922 cubic meters per second, was estimated from a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The weighted-average of the two discharges is 3,770 cubic meters per second. The 50-year-flood discharges for Rio Grande, 3,890 cubic meters per

  17. Flash flood area mapping utilising SENTINEL-1 radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psomiadis, Emmanouil

    2016-10-01

    The new European Observatory radar data of polar orbiting satellite system Sentinel-1 provide a continuous and systematic data acquisition, enabling flood events monitoring and mapping. The study area is the basin of Sperchios River in Fthiotida Prefecture, Central Greece, having an increased ecological, environmental and socio-economic interest. The catchment area and especially the river delta, faces several problems and threats caused by anthropogenic activities and natural processes. The geomorphology of Sperchios catchment area and the drainage network formation provoke the creation of floods. A large flash flood event took place in late January early February 2015 following an intense and heavy rainfall that occurred in the area. Two space born radar images, obtained from Sentinel-1 covering the same area, one before and another one during the flood event, were processed. Two different methods were utilized so as to produce flood hazard maps, which demonstrate the inundated areas. The results of the two methods were similar and the flooded area was detected and delineated ideally.

  18. Combined fluvial and pluvial urban flood hazard analysis: concept development and application to Can Tho city, Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, Heiko; Martínez Trepat, Oriol; Nghia Hung, Nguyen; Thi Chinh, Do; Merz, Bruno; Viet Dung, Nguyen

    2016-04-01

    coincidence into account. All hazards - fluvial, pluvial and combined - were accompanied by an uncertainty estimation taking into account the natural variability of the flood events. This resulted in probabilistic flood hazard maps showing the maximum inundation depths for a selected set of probabilities of occurrence, with maps showing the expectation (median) and the uncertainty by percentile maps. The results are critically discussed and their usage in flood risk management are outlined.

  19. 78 FR 9406 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... Georgetown......... Georgetown Township Office, 1515 Baldwin Street, Jenison, MI 49428. Charter Township of... Domestic Assistance No. 97.022, ``Flood Insurance.'') James A. Walke, Acting Deputy Associate...

  20. 78 FR 43907 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    .../preliminaryfloodhazarddata preliminaryfloodhazarddata City of Manhattan City Hall, 1101 Poyntz Avenue, Manhattan, KS 66502... Plaza, Manhattan, KS 66502. (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance No. 97.022, ``Flood...

  1. 78 FR 32679 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500... notification. This final notice is issued in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...

  2. 78 FR 14316 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500... notification. This final notice is issued in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...

  3. 78 FR 36216 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500... notification. This final notice is issued in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...

  4. 78 FR 36220 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500... notification. This final notice is issued in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...

  5. 78 FR 14318 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500... notification. This final notice is issued in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...

  6. 78 FR 20337 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500... notification. This final notice is issued in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...

  7. The New Approach for Earhtquake Hazard Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, B.; Karnawati, D.; Anderson, R.

    2008-05-01

    It is the fact the hazard map, such as Earthquake Hazard Map, may not always effectively implemented in the mitigation effort. All of the hazard maps are technical maps which is not always easy to be understood and followed by the community living in the vulnerable areas. Therefore, some effots must be done to guarantee the effectiveness of hazard map. This paper will discuss about the approach and method for developing more appropriate earthquake hazard map in Bantul Regency, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Psychological mapping to identify levels and distributions of community trauma is proposed as the early reference for earhquake hazard mapping. By referring to this trauma zonation and combining with the seismicity and geological mapping, the earthquake hazard mapping can be established. It is also interesting that this approach is not only providing more appropriate hazard map, but also stimulating the community empowerement in the earthquake vulnerable areas. Several training for improving community awareness are also conducted as a part of the mapping process.

  8. Potential flood hazard assessment by integration of ALOS PALSAR and ASTER GDEM: a case study for the Hoa Chau commune, Hoa Vang district, in central Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huong, Do Thi Viet; Nagasawa, Ryota

    2014-01-01

    The potential flood hazard was assessed for the Hoa Chau commune in central Vietnam in order to identify the high flood hazard zones for the decision makers who will execute future rural planning. A new approach for deriving the potential flood hazard based on integration of inundation and flow direction maps is described. Areas inundated in the historical flood event of 2007 were extracted from Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) phased array L-band synthetic aperture data radar (PALSAR) images, while flow direction characteristics were derived from the ASTER GDEM to extract the depressed surfaces. Past flood experience and the flow direction were then integrated to analyze and rank the potential flood hazard zones. The land use/cover map extracted from LANDSAT TM and flood depth point records from field surveys were utilized to check the possibility of susceptible inundated areas, extracting data from ALOS PALSAR and ranking the potential flood hazard. The estimation of potential flood hazard areas revealed that 17.43% and 17.36% of Hoa Chau had high and medium potential flood hazards, respectively. The flow direction and ALOS PALSAR data were effectively integrated for determining the potential flood hazard when hydrological and meteorological data were inadequate and remote sensing images taken during flood times were not available or were insufficient.

  9. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for Juticalpa, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, M.C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of Juticalpa that would be inundated by a 50-year flood of Rio Juticalpa. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of Juticalpa as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for a 50-year-flood on Rio Juticalpa at Juticalpa were estimated using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. The estimated 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Juticalpa at Juticalpa, 1,360 cubic meters per second, was computed as the drainage-area-adjusted weighted average of two independently estimated 50-year-flood discharges for the gaging station Rio Juticalpa en El Torito, located about 2 kilometers upstream from Juticalpa. One discharge, 1,551 cubic meters per second, was estimated from a frequency analysis of the 33 years of peak-discharge record for the gage, and the other, 486 cubic meters per second, was estimated from a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The weighted-average of the two discharges at the gage is 1,310 cubic meters per second. The 50-year flood discharge for the study area reach of Rio Juticalpa was estimated by multiplying the weighted discharge at the gage by the

  10. 78 FR 8181 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... Docket No. FEMA-B-1281, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and....Rodriguez3@fema.dhs.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management... Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42 U.S.C. 4104, and 44 CFR 67.4(a). These proposed flood...

  11. 78 FR 20343 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... Docket No. FEMA-B-1304, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and....Rodriguez3@fema.dhs.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management... Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42 U.S.C. 4104, and 44 CFR 67.4(a). These proposed flood...

  12. 44 CFR 65.5 - Revision to special hazard area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... paragraphs (a)(1) through (6) of this section to request a map revision when no physical changes have... area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation determinations. 65.5 Section 65.5 Emergency... § 65.5 Revision to special hazard area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation...

  13. 44 CFR 65.5 - Revision to special hazard area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... paragraphs (a)(1) through (6) of this section to request a map revision when no physical changes have... area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation determinations. 65.5 Section 65.5 Emergency... § 65.5 Revision to special hazard area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation...

  14. 44 CFR 65.5 - Revision to special hazard area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... paragraphs (a)(1) through (6) of this section to request a map revision when no physical changes have... area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation determinations. 65.5 Section 65.5 Emergency... § 65.5 Revision to special hazard area boundaries with no change to base flood elevation...

  15. 78 FR 43906 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    .... Additional information regarding the SRP process can be found online at http://floodsrp.org/pdfs/srp_fact... Riverside Riverside County Flood Control County. and Water Conservation District, 1995 Market...

  16. 77 FR 56669 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation... for each community listed below, in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...

  17. 78 FR 45938 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ..., MI 48174. City of Taylor 25605 Northline Road, Taylor, MI 48180. City of Westland 36601 Ford Road... Domestic Assistance No. 97.022, ``Flood Insurance.'') Dated: July 12, 2013. Roy E. Wright, Deputy...

  18. 78 FR 43900 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... determinations), as shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs), and where applicable, in the supporting Flood Insurance Study (FIS) reports, prepared by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) for each community... Regulations (44 CFR Part 65). The LOMR will be used by insurance agents and others to calculate...

  19. 12 CFR 172.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... TREASURY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 172.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A Federal savings association shall use the standard flood...

  20. 12 CFR 339.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 339.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A bank shall use the standard flood...

  1. 12 CFR 339.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 339.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A bank shall use the standard flood...

  2. 24 CFR 201.28 - Flood and hazard insurance, and Coastal Barriers properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Flood and hazard insurance, and... Disbursement Requirements § 201.28 Flood and hazard insurance, and Coastal Barriers properties. (a) Flood... part if the property securing repayment of the loan is located in a special flood hazard...

  3. 12 CFR 760.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 760.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A credit union shall use the standard flood...

  4. 12 CFR 339.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 339.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A bank shall use the standard flood...

  5. 24 CFR 201.28 - Flood and hazard insurance, and Coastal Barriers properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Flood and hazard insurance, and... Disbursement Requirements § 201.28 Flood and hazard insurance, and Coastal Barriers properties. (a) Flood... part if the property securing repayment of the loan is located in a special flood hazard...

  6. 12 CFR 172.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... TREASURY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 172.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A Federal savings association shall use the standard flood...

  7. 12 CFR 760.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 760.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A credit union shall use the standard flood...

  8. 12 CFR 172.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... TREASURY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 172.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A Federal savings association shall use the standard flood...

  9. 24 CFR 201.28 - Flood and hazard insurance, and Coastal Barriers properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Flood and hazard insurance, and... Disbursement Requirements § 201.28 Flood and hazard insurance, and Coastal Barriers properties. (a) Flood... part if the property securing repayment of the loan is located in a special flood hazard...

  10. 24 CFR 201.28 - Flood and hazard insurance, and Coastal Barriers properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Flood and hazard insurance, and... Disbursement Requirements § 201.28 Flood and hazard insurance, and Coastal Barriers properties. (a) Flood... part if the property securing repayment of the loan is located in a special flood hazard...

  11. 24 CFR 201.28 - Flood and hazard insurance, and Coastal Barriers properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flood and hazard insurance, and... Disbursement Requirements § 201.28 Flood and hazard insurance, and Coastal Barriers properties. (a) Flood... part if the property securing repayment of the loan is located in a special flood hazard...

  12. 12 CFR 760.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 760.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A credit union shall use the standard flood...

  13. 12 CFR 339.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 339.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A bank shall use the standard flood...

  14. 12 CFR 339.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 339.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A bank shall use the standard flood...

  15. 12 CFR 760.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 760.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A credit union shall use the standard flood...

  16. 12 CFR 760.6 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 760.6 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. A credit union shall use the standard flood...

  17. Flood Hazards: Communicating Hydrology and Complexity to the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, R. R.; Blanchard, S. F.; Mason, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    Floods have a major impact on society and the environment. Since 1952, approximately 1,233 of 1,931 (64%) Federal disaster declarations were due directly to flooding, with an additional 297 due to hurricanes which had associated flooding. Although the overall average annual number of deaths due to flooding has decreased in the United States, the average annual flood damage is rising. According to the Munich Reinsurance Company in their publication “Schadenspiegel 3/2005”, during 1990s the world experienced as much as $500 billion in economic losses due to floods, highlighting the serious need for continued emphasis on flood-loss prevention measures. Flood-loss prevention has two major elements: mitigation (including structural flood-control measures and land-use planning and regulation) and risk awareness. Of the two, increasing risk awareness likely offers the most potential for protecting lives over the near-term and long-term sustainability in the coming years. Flood-risk awareness and risk-aware behavior is dependent on communication, involving both prescriptive and educational measures. Prescriptive measures (for example, flood warnings and stormwater ordinances) are and have been effective, but there is room for improvement. New communications technologies, particularly social media utilizing mobile, smart phones and text devices, for example, could play a significant role in increasing public awareness of long-term risk and near-term flood conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), for example, the Federal agency that monitors the Nation’s rivers, recently released a new service that can better connect the to the public to information about flood hazards. The new service, WaterAlert (URL: http://water.usgs.gov/wateralert/), allows users to set flood notification thresholds of their own choosing for any USGS real-time streamgage. The system then sends emails or text messages to subscribers whenever the threshold conditions are met, as often as the

  18. Flood Hazard in Barpeta District, Assam: Environmental Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talukdar, Naba Kumar

    The study deals with various aspects of flood hazard in Barpeta district of Assam, Northeast India. It is broadly confined to three basic themes - general perspectives, environmental perspectives and flood hazard mitigation. The first theme includes the study on flow characteristics of the major rivers of the district during rainy season and zoning of flood prone areas. The second theme deals with some environmental aspects of floods in the district, such as river water quality during floods, effects of floods on soil quality, human health and socioeconomic losses. Flood mitigation study includes discussion on measures adopted for flood mitigation in the district and suggested management strategies. The study covers a wide range of database generated from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data on relevant parameters of soil and water are generated by using proper sampling procedures and standard laboratory methods. Suitable graphical and statistical methods have been used to analyze and interpret different kinds of data. All the relevant data and surveyed information on the perspective of the flood plain dwellers of the district are integrated together in formulating flood management strategies. The Barpeta District of Assam covers an area of 3245 sq. km. comprising 4.2% of the total area of the state. The district has fascinating diversified landscape sloping from north to south which includes highlands covered by forests, plain fertile lands suitable for agricultural activities and low lying areas containing-water bodies and swamps. Flood is a perennial problem and all kinds of common flood damages prevail in the district. Floods cause large-scale damages to the socio-economic life of the people as well as to the ecology and environment of the district to a certain extent. The rivers Manas, Beki, Pahumara and Kaldia and their tributaries, which emerge from Eastern Himalaya, create flood havocs in the district. During monsoon period, these rivers are

  19. 77 FR 74856 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... Community map repository modification No. Alabama: Baldwin (FEMA Docket No.: City of Gulf Shores The.... ] (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance No. 97.022, ``Flood Insurance.'') Dated: November 28, 2012. James...

  20. Integrated flood risk assessment for the Mekong Delta through the combined assessment of flood hazard change and social vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, Heiko; Garschagen, Matthias; Delgado, José Miguel; Viet Dung, Nguyen; Van Tuan, Vo; Thanh Binh, Nguyen; Birkmann, Joern; Merz, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    agro-ecological zones and socio-economic population profiles. The focus herein is particularly on understanding the causal constellations and trajectories of vulnerability patterns. Secondly, key vulnerability parameters identified in step one are translated into quantitative indicators and aggregated into a vulnerability index, allowing for spatial analysis. Thirdly, ways to assess future vulnerability trajectories in the context of the ongoing socio-economic transformation in the Mekong Delta are explored. In effect, this analysis generates an integrated risk assessment that is based not only on an advancement of current flood hazard assessments but also on a detailed vulnerability assessment that goes beyond the mapping of exposure. The study thereby contributes knowledge of great relevance for informing disaster risk management and adaptation policies. In addition, the analysis allows for a dynamic perspective and the examination of key trends in the flood risk of the Mekong Delta.

  1. Adige river in Trento flooding map, 1892: private or public risk transfer?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranzi, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    For the determination of the flood risk hydrologist and hydraulic engineers focuse their attention mainly to the estimation of physical factors determining the flood hazard, while economists and experts of social sciences deal mainly with the estimation of vulnerability and exposure. The fact that flood zoning involves both hydrological and socio-economic aspects, however, was clear already in the XIX century when the impact of floods on inundated areas started to appear in flood maps, for instance in the UK and in Italy. A pioneering 'flood risk' map for the Adige river in Trento, Italy, was already published in 1892, taking into account in detail both hazard intensity in terms of velocity and depth, frequency of occurrence, vulnerability and economic costs for flood protection with river embankments. This map is likely to be the reinterpreted certainly as a pioneering, and possibly as the first flood risk map for an Italian river and worldwide. Risk levels were divided in three categories and seven sub-categories, depending on flood water depth, velocity, frequency and damage costs. It is interesting to notice the fact that at that time the map was used to share the cost of levees' reparation and enhancement after the severe September 1882 flood as a function of the estimated level of protection of the respective areas against the flood risk. The sharing of costs between public bodies, the railway company and private owners was debated for about 20 years and at the end the public sustained the major costs. This shows how already at that time the economic assessment of structural flood protections was based on objective and rational cost-benefit criteria, that hydraulic risk mapping was perceived by the society as fundamental for the design of flood protection systems and that a balanced cost sharing between public and private was an accepted approach although some protests arose at that time.

  2. Application of physical erosion modelling to derive off-site muddy flood hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annika Arevalo, Sarah; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Muddy floods are local inundation events after heavy rain storms. They occur inside watersheds before the runoff reaches a river. The sediment is eroded from agricultural fields and transported with the surface runoff into adjacent residential areas. The environment where muddy floods occur is very small scaled. The damages related to muddy floods are caused by the runoff-water (flooded houses and cellars) and the transported sediment that is deposited on infrastructure and private properties. There are a variety of factors that drive the occurrence of muddy floods. The spatial extend is rather small and the distribution is very heterogeneous. This makes the prediction of the precise locations that are endangered by muddy flooding a challenge. The aim of this investigation is to identify potential hazard areas that might suffer muddy flooding out of modelled soil erosion data. For the German state of Saxony there is a modelled map of soil erosion and particle transport available. The model applied is EROSION 3D. The spatial resolution is a 20 m raster and the conditions assumed are a 10 year rainfall event on uncovered agricultural soils. A digital landuse map is edified, containing the outer borders of potential risk elements (residential and industrial areas, streets, railroads, etc.) that can be damaged by muddy flooding. The landuse map is merged with the transported sediment map calculated with EROSION 3D. The result precisely depicts the locations where high amounts of sediments might be transported into urban areas under worst case conditions. This map was validated with observed muddy flood events that proved to coincide very well with areas predicted to have a potentially high sediment input.

  3. 76 FR 72961 - Flood Hazard Determinations (Including Flood Elevation Determinations)-Change in Notification and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ..., and Letters of Map Revision (LOMRs) that include changes to the technical content of a Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) or FIS as interim and final rules. FEMA now plans to publish these determinations as... also contact the FEMA Map Information exchange (FMIX) toll free at 1 (877) 336-2627 (877-FEMA MAP)...

  4. 32 CFR 644.352 - Evaluation and reporting of flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Evaluation and reporting of flood hazards. 644... Property to General Services Administration (gsa) § 644.352 Evaluation and reporting of flood hazards... presence of flood hazards. If such hazards are found, a report will be forwarded to HQDA...

  5. 32 CFR 644.352 - Evaluation and reporting of flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Evaluation and reporting of flood hazards. 644... Property to General Services Administration (gsa) § 644.352 Evaluation and reporting of flood hazards... presence of flood hazards. If such hazards are found, a report will be forwarded to HQDA...

  6. 32 CFR 644.352 - Evaluation and reporting of flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evaluation and reporting of flood hazards. 644... Property to General Services Administration (gsa) § 644.352 Evaluation and reporting of flood hazards... presence of flood hazards. If such hazards are found, a report will be forwarded to HQDA...

  7. 32 CFR 644.352 - Evaluation and reporting of flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Evaluation and reporting of flood hazards. 644... Property to General Services Administration (gsa) § 644.352 Evaluation and reporting of flood hazards... presence of flood hazards. If such hazards are found, a report will be forwarded to HQDA...

  8. 32 CFR 644.352 - Evaluation and reporting of flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evaluation and reporting of flood hazards. 644... Property to General Services Administration (gsa) § 644.352 Evaluation and reporting of flood hazards... presence of flood hazards. If such hazards are found, a report will be forwarded to HQDA...

  9. 77 FR 44650 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42 U.S.C. 4104, and 44 CFR 67.4(a). These... sciences established to review conflicting scientific and technical data and provide recommendations for... Richmond Street, Giddings, TX 78942. Town of Lexington City Hall, 604 Wheatley Street, Lexington, TX...

  10. 78 FR 78995 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42 U.S.C. 4104, and 44 CFR 67.4(a). These... sciences established to review conflicting scientific and technical data and provide recommendations for... preliminaryfloodhazarddata City of Richmond City Hall, 50 North 5th Street, Richmond, IN 47374. Town of Cambridge City...

  11. 78 FR 36217 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1325, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42 U.S.C. 4104, and 44 CFR 67.4(a)....

  12. 78 FR 32678 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500... notification. This final notice is issued in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act... Narragansett Town Hall, Engineering Department, 25 5th Avenue, Narragansett, RI 02882. Town of New Shoreham...

  13. 78 FR 32679 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1309, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42 U.S.C. 4104, and 44 CFR 67.4(a)....

  14. 78 FR 36222 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1326, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42 U.S.C. 4104, and 44 CFR 67.4(a)....

  15. 78 FR 20341 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... Docket No. FEMA-B-1303, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and....Rodriguez3@fema.dhs.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management... the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42 U.S.C. 4104, and 44 CFR 67.4(a). These proposed...

  16. Suitability estimation for urban development using multi-hazard assessment map.

    PubMed

    Bathrellos, George D; Skilodimou, Hariklia D; Chousianitis, Konstantinos; Youssef, Ahmed M; Pradhan, Biswajeet

    2017-01-01

    Preparation of natural hazards maps are vital and essential for urban development. The main scope of this study is to synthesize natural hazard maps in a single multi-hazard map and thus to identify suitable areas for the urban development. The study area is the drainage basin of Xerias stream (Northeastern Peloponnesus, Greece) that has frequently suffered damages from landslides, floods and earthquakes. Landslide, flood and seismic hazard assessment maps were separately generated and further combined by applying the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and utilizing a Geographical Information System (GIS) to produce a multi-hazard map. This map represents the potential suitability map for urban development in the study area and was evaluated by means of uncertainty analysis. The outcome revealed that the most suitable areas are distributed in the southern part of the study area, where the landslide, flood and seismic hazards are at low and very low level. The uncertainty analysis shows small differences on the spatial distribution of the suitability zones. The produced suitability map for urban development proves a satisfactory agreement between the suitability zones and the landslide and flood phenomena that have affected the study area. Finally, 40% of the existing urban pattern boundaries and 60% of the current road network are located within the limits of low and very low suitability zones.

  17. Utilising social media contents for flood inundation mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröter, Kai; Dransch, Doris; Fohringer, Joachim; Kreibich, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    Data about the hazard and its consequences are scarce and not readily available during and shortly after a disaster. An information source which should be explored in a more efficient way is eyewitness accounts via social media. This research presents a methodology that leverages social media content to support rapid inundation mapping, including inundation extent and water depth in the case of floods. It uses quantitative data that are estimated from photos extracted from social media posts and their integration with established data. Due to the rapid availability of these posts compared to traditional data sources such as remote sensing data, areas affected by a flood, for example, can be determined quickly. Key challenges are to filter the large number of posts to a manageable amount of potentially useful inundation-related information, and to interpret and integrate the posts into mapping procedures in a timely manner. We present a methodology and a tool ("PostDistiller") to filter geo-located posts from social media services which include links to photos and to further explore this spatial distributed contextualized in situ information for inundation mapping. The June 2013 flood in Dresden is used as an application case study in which we evaluate the utilization of this approach and compare the resulting spatial flood patterns and inundation depths to 'traditional' data sources and mapping approaches like water level observations and remote sensing flood masks. The outcomes of the application case are encouraging. Strengths of the proposed procedure are that information for the estimation of inundation depth is rapidly available, particularly in urban areas where it is of high interest and of great value because alternative information sources like remote sensing data analysis do not perform very well. The uncertainty of derived inundation depth data and the uncontrollable availability of the information sources are major threats to the utility of the approach.

  18. 78 FR 29768 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... online through the FEMA Map Service Center at www.msc.fema.gov for comparison. You may submit comments... Map Service Center at www.msc.fema.gov for comparison. Community Community Map Repository Address... Borough Hall, 50 Senate Street, Wyalusing, PA 18853. Township of Albany Township of Albany, 817 Dog...

  19. 77 FR 73490 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ...) Maps Available for Inspection Online at: http://www.r9map.org/Pages/countyPage.aspx?choLoco=90&choProj... Inspection Online at: http://www.r9map.org/Pages/countyPage.aspx?choLoco=43&choProj=271 City of...

  20. St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Robert A.; Steckel, Phyllis; Schweig, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    St. Louis has experienced minor earthquake damage at least 12 times in the past 200 years. Because of this history and its proximity to known active earthquake zones, the St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project will produce digital maps that show variability of earthquake hazards in the St. Louis area. The maps will be available free via the internet. They can be customized by the user to show specific areas of interest, such as neighborhoods or transportation routes.

  1. Toward economic flood loss characterization via hazard simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czajkowski, Jeffrey; Cunha, Luciana K.; Michel-Kerjan, Erwann; Smith, James A.

    2016-08-01

    Among all natural disasters, floods have historically been the primary cause of human and economic losses around the world. Improving flood risk management requires a multi-scale characterization of the hazard and associated losses—the flood loss footprint. But this is typically not available in a precise and timely manner, yet. To overcome this challenge, we propose a novel and multidisciplinary approach which relies on a computationally efficient hydrological model that simulates streamflow for scales ranging from small creeks to large rivers. We adopt a normalized index, the flood peak ratio (FPR), to characterize flood magnitude across multiple spatial scales. The simulated FPR is then shown to be a key statistical driver for associated economic flood losses represented by the number of insurance claims. Importantly, because it is based on a simulation procedure that utilizes generally readily available physically-based data, our flood simulation approach has the potential to be broadly utilized, even for ungauged and poorly gauged basins, thus providing the necessary information for public and private sector actors to effectively reduce flood losses and save lives.

  2. The geomorphic context of flood hazards in Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renwick, W.; Balthazar, S. L.; Boardman, M. R.; Hillaire, J. V.; Laviolette, L. L.; Primack, A. G.; Tardieu, J. F.; Eliacin, J.

    2005-05-01

    Devastating floods struck Fonds Verrettes, Mapou, and Gonaives, Haiti in 2004, killing thousands and calling attention to the threat of catastrophic flooding in that country. That threat provides a focus for expanding collaborations in field and service learning in Haiti. Past field and service-learning collaboration with Universite Notre Dame d'Haiti (UNDH) resulted in an invitation to evaluate the flooding potential of Haiti's largest city - Port-au-Prince. High population densities, land cover change, the geomorphic setting of Port-au-Prince, combine to make that city particularly vulnerable to catastrophic flooding. Climate change and associated sea level rise are also a concern. Port-au-Prince lies at the foot of steeply sloping mountain areas of the Massif de La Selle. Much of the urban area is built on alluvial fans, coastal plains, and recent deltaic deposits. While data are rare to nonexistent, deforestation in the mountain areas upstream from the city and extensive urbanization, especially in the last few decades, is virtually certain to have increased storm runoff volumes and reduced lag times. Different flood hazards can be identified in four geomorphic zones: 1) valleys in steeply sloping areas, where channel erosion and associated slope failures threaten streamside communities; 2) alluvial fans, where rapid aggradation, mudflow deposition and channel avulsion contribute to channel instability; 3) coastal plains, where gentle slopes impede drainage of flood water; and 4) deltaic areas formed and settled in the last few decades subject to storm surge and possibly subsidence in addition to runoff-derived flooding. These zones can serve as a framework for flood hazard identification and management. With the cooperation of the Haitian government and non-profit organizations, students and faculty from Miami University and UNDH will combine talents to measure the flood potential of a single, critical watershed in Port-au-Prince and establish a community

  3. 78 FR 48888 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... Map Service Center at www.msc.fema.gov for comparison. I. Non-watershed-based studies: Community map... the communities listed in the table below. The purpose of this notice is to seek general information... Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has provided to the affected communities. The FIRM and FIS report are...

  4. 78 FR 36213 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... Carleton-Rockwood Road, South Rockwood, MI 48179. Olmsted County, Minnesota, and Incorporated Areas Maps..., Stewartville, MN 55976. Unincorporated Areas of Olmsted County. Olmsted County Government Center, 151 4th... Harvey County, Kansas, and Incorporated Areas Maps Available for Inspection Online at:...

  5. 12 CFR 614.4940 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Flood Insurance Requirements § 614.4940 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. System institutions must use the standard flood...

  6. 12 CFR 614.4940 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Flood Insurance Requirements § 614.4940 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. System institutions must use the standard flood...

  7. 12 CFR 614.4940 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Flood Insurance Requirements § 614.4940 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. System institutions must use the standard flood...

  8. 12 CFR 614.4940 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Flood Insurance Requirements § 614.4940 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. System institutions must use the standard flood...

  9. 12 CFR 614.4940 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Required use of standard flood hazard... LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Flood Insurance Requirements § 614.4940 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. System institutions must use the standard flood...

  10. 77 FR 67016 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... Zoning, 628 Kihekah Avenue, Pawhuska, OK 74056. ] Jefferson County, Colorado, and Incorporated Areas Maps... Department of County. Planning and Zoning, 100 Jefferson County Parkway, Suite 3, Golden, CO 80401....

  11. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart C of... - Notice of Flood, Mudslide Hazard or Wetland Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notice of Flood, Mudslide Hazard or Wetland Area A... Flood, Mudslide Hazard or Wetland Area TO:____ DATE:____ This is to notify you that the real property... of the Federal Emergency Management Agency as having special flood or mudslide hazards....

  12. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart C of... - Notice of Flood, Mudslide Hazard or Wetland Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notice of Flood, Mudslide Hazard or Wetland Area A... Flood, Mudslide Hazard or Wetland Area TO:____ DATE:____ This is to notify you that the real property... of the Federal Emergency Management Agency as having special flood or mudslide hazards....

  13. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart C of... - Notice of Flood, Mudslide Hazard or Wetland Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Notice of Flood, Mudslide Hazard or Wetland Area A... Flood, Mudslide Hazard or Wetland Area TO:____ DATE:____ This is to notify you that the real property... of the Federal Emergency Management Agency as having special flood or mudslide hazards....

  14. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart C of... - Notice of Flood, Mudslide Hazard or Wetland Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notice of Flood, Mudslide Hazard or Wetland Area A... Flood, Mudslide Hazard or Wetland Area TO:____ DATE:____ This is to notify you that the real property... of the Federal Emergency Management Agency as having special flood or mudslide hazards....

  15. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart C of... - Notice of Flood, Mudslide Hazard or Wetland Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notice of Flood, Mudslide Hazard or Wetland Area A... Flood, Mudslide Hazard or Wetland Area TO:____ DATE:____ This is to notify you that the real property... of the Federal Emergency Management Agency as having special flood or mudslide hazards....

  16. Use of Geologic and Paleoflood Information for INL Probabilistic Flood Hazard Decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostenaa, D.; O'Connell, D.; Creed, B.

    2009-05-01

    The Big Lost River is a western U.S., closed basin stream which flows through and terminates on the Idaho National Laboratory. Historic flows are highly regulated, and peak flows decline downstream through natural and anthropomorphic influences. Glaciated headwater regions were the source of Pleistocene outburst floods which traversed the site. A wide range of DOE facilities (including a nuclear research reactor) require flood stage estimates for flow exceedance probabilities over a range from 1/100/yr to 1/100,000/yr per DOE risk based standards. These risk management objectives required the integration of geologic and geomorphic paleoflood data into Bayesian non parametric flood frequency analyses that incorporated measurement uncertainties in gaged, historical, and paleoflood discharges and non exceedance bounds to produce fully probabilistic flood frequency estimates for annual exceedance probabilities of specific discharges of interest. Two-dimensional hydraulic flow modeling with scenarios for varied hydraulic parameters, infiltration, and culvert blockages on the site was conducted for a range of discharges from 13-700 m3/s. High-resolution topographic grids and two-dimensional flow modeling allowed detailed evaluation of the potential impacts of numerous secondary channels and flow paths resulting from flooding in extreme events. These results were used to construct stage probability curves for 15 key locations on the site consistent with DOE standards. These probability curves resulted from the systematic inclusion of contributions of uncertainty from flood sources, hydraulic modeling, and flood-frequency analyses. These products also provided a basis to develop weights for logic tree branches associated with infiltration and culvert performance scenarios to produce probabilistic inundation maps. The flood evaluation process was structured using Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee processes (NRC-NUREG/CR-6372) concepts, evaluating and integrating the

  17. CADYRI, a dynamic mapping tool of human risk associated with flooding in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanguy, M.; Chokmani, K.; Bernier, M.; Poulin, J.

    2013-12-01

    When a flood affects an urban area, the managers and services responsible for public safety need precise and real time information on the localization of the flooded areas, on the submersion heights in those areas, but also on the vulnerability of people exposed to this hazard. Such information is essential for an effective crisis management. Despite a growing interest in this topic over the last 15 years, the development of flood risk assessment tools mainly focused on quantitative modeling of the monetary damages caused by floods to residential buildings or to critical infrastructures. Little attention was paid to the vulnerability of people exposed to flooding but also to the effects of the failure or destruction of critical infrastructures and residential building on people health and security during the disaster. Moreover, these models do not integrate the dynamic features of the flood (extent, submersion heights) and the evolution of human vulnerability in the same mapping tool. Thus, an accurate and precise evaluation of human risk induced by urban flooding is hardly feasible using such models. This study presents CADYRI, a dynamic mapping tool of human risk associated with flooding in urban areas, which fills the actual needs in terms of flood risk evaluation and management. This innovative tool integrates a methodology of flood hazard mapping that simulates, for a given discharge, the associated water level, and subsequently determines the extent of the flooded area and the submersion heights at each point of the flooded area, using a DEM. The dynamics of human vulnerability is then mapped at the household level, according to the characteristics of the flood hazard. Three key components of human vulnerability have been identified and are integrated to CADYRI: 1, the intrinsic vulnerability of the population, estimated by specific socio-economic indicators; 2, the vulnerability of buildings, assessed by their structural features; 3, the vulnerability of

  18. 78 FR 36215 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... Cloud County, Kansas, and Incorporated Areas Maps Available for Inspection Online at: www.fema.gov.... City of Miltonvale City Hall, 107 Starr Avenue, Miltonvale, KS 67466. Unincorporated Areas of Cloud County... Cloud County Courthouse, 811 Washington Street, Concordia, KS 66901. (Catalog of...

  19. 78 FR 45937 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ...-based studies: Community map repository Community address Mason County, West Virginia, and Incorporated... Mason Office of the Mayor, 656 2nd Street, Mason, WV 25260. Town of New Haven Town of New Haven City Hall, 218 5th Street, New Haven, WV 25265. Unincorporated Areas of Mason County... Mason...

  20. 78 FR 14584 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... 200, Hernando, MS 38632. Nash County, North Carolina, and Incorporated Areas Maps Available for Inspection Online at: www.ncfloodmaps.com Town of Middlesex Town Hall, 10232 South Nash Street, Middlesex, NC 27557. Unincorporated Areas of Nash County.... Nash County Planning Department, 120 West...

  1. Flood mapping using VHR satellite imagery: a comparison between different classification approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franci, Francesca; Boccardo, Piero; Mandanici, Emanuele; Roveri, Elena; Bitelli, Gabriele

    2016-10-01

    Various regions in Europe have suffered from severe flooding over the last decades. Flood disasters often have a broad extent and a high frequency. They are considered the most devastating natural hazards because of the tremendous fatalities, injuries, property damages, economic and social disruption that they cause. In this context, Earth Observation techniques have become a key tool for flood risk and damage assessment. In particular, remote sensing facilitates flood surveying, providing valuable information, e.g. flood occurrence, intensity and progress of flood inundation, spurs and embankments affected/threatened. The present work aims to investigate the use of Very High Resolution satellite imagery for mapping flood-affected areas. The case study is the November 2013 flood event which occurred in Sardinia region (Italy), affecting a total of 2,700 people and killing 18 persons. The investigated zone extends for 28 km2 along the Posada river, from the Maccheronis dam to the mouth in the Tyrrhenian sea. A post-event SPOT6 image was processed by means of different classification methods, in order to produce the flood map of the analysed area. The unsupervised classification algorithm ISODATA was tested. A pixel-based supervised technique was applied using the Maximum Likelihood algorithm; moreover, the SPOT 6 image was processed by means of object-oriented approaches. The produced flood maps were compared among each other and with an independent data source, in order to evaluate the performance of each method, also in terms of time demand.

  2. Development of flood profiles and flood-inundation maps for the Village of Killbuck, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostheimer, Chad J.

    2013-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a reach of Killbuck Creek near the Village of Killbuck, Ohio, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Holmes County, Ohio. The inundation maps depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage Killbuck Creek near Killbuck (03139000) and were completed as part of an update to Federal Emergency Management Agency Flood-Insurance Study. The maps were provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into a Web-based flood-warning system that can be used in conjunction with NWS flood-forecast data to show areas of predicted flood inundation associated with forecasted flood-peak stages. The digital maps also have been submitted for inclusion in the data libraries of the USGS interactive Flood Inundation Mapper. Data from the streamgage can be used by emergency-management personnel, in conjunction with the flood-inundation maps, to help determine a course of action when flooding is imminent. Flood profiles for selected reaches were prepared by calibrating a steady-state step-backwater model to an established streamgage rating curve. The step-backwater model then was used to determine water-surface-elevation profiles for 10 flood stages at the streamgage with corresponding streamflows ranging from approximately the 50- to 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities. The computed flood profiles were used in combination with digital elevation data to delineate flood-inundation areas.

  3. Flood Inundation Mapping in the Logone Floodplain from Multi Temporal Landsat ETM+Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Hahn Chul; Alsdorf, Douglas E.; Moritz, Mark; Lee, Hyongki; Vassolo, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Yearly flooding in the Logone floodplain makes an impact on agricultural, pastoral, and fishery systems in the Lake Chad Basin. Since the flooding extent and depth are highly variable, flood inundation mapping helps us make better use of water resources and prevent flood hazards in the Logone floodplain. The flood maps are generated from 33 multi temporal Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) during three years 2006 to 2008. Flooded area is classified using a short-wave infrared band whereas open water is classified by Iterative Self-organizing Data Analysis (ISODATA) clustering. The maximum flooding extent in the study area increases up to approximately 5.8K km2 in late October 2008. The study also provides strong correlation of the flooding extents with water height variations in both the floodplain and the river based on a second polynomial regression model. The water heights are from ENIVSAT altimetry in the floodplain and gauge measurements in the river. Coefficients of determination between flooding extents and water height variations are greater than 0.91 with 4 to 36 days in phase lag. Floodwater drains back to the river and to the northeast during the recession period in December and January. The study supports understanding of the Logone floodplain dynamics in detail of spatial pattern and size of the flooding extent and assists the flood monitoring and prediction systems in the catchment.

  4. Mapping Near-Earth Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    How can we hunt down all the near-Earth asteroids that are capable of posing a threat to us? A new study looks at whether the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is up to the job.Charting Nearby ThreatsLSST is an 8.4-m wide-survey telescope currently being built in Chile. When it goes online in 2022, it will spend the next ten years surveying our sky, mapping tens of billions of stars and galaxies, searching for signatures of dark energy and dark matter, and hunting for transient optical events like novae and supernovae. But in its scanning, LSST will also be looking for asteroids that approach near Earth.Cumulative number of near-Earth asteroids discovered over time, as of June 16, 2016. [NASA/JPL/Chamberlin]Near-Earth objects (NEOs) have the potential to be hazardous if they cross Earths path and are large enough to do significant damage when they impact Earth. Earths history is riddled with dangerous asteroid encounters, including the recent Chelyabinsk airburst in 2013, the encounter that caused the kilometer-sized Meteor Crater in Arizona, and the impact thought to contribute to the extinction of the dinosaurs.Recognizing the potential danger that NEOs can pose to Earth, Congress has tasked NASA with tracking down 90% of NEOs larger than 140 meters in diameter. With our current survey capabilities, we believe weve discovered roughly 25% of these NEOs thus far. Now a new study led by Tommy Grav (Planetary Science Institute) examines whether LSST will be able to complete this task.Absolute magnitude, H, of asynthetic NEO population. Though these NEOs are all larger than 140 m, they have a large spread in albedos. [Grav et al. 2016]Can LSST Help?Based on previous observations of NEOs and resulting predictions for NEO properties and orbits, Grav and collaborators simulate a synthetic population of NEOs all above 140 m in size. With these improved population models, they demonstrate that the common tactic of using an asteroids absolute magnitude as a

  5. Sources of uncertainty in flood inundation maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bales, J.D.; Wagner, C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Flood inundation maps typically have been used to depict inundated areas for floods having specific exceedance levels. The uncertainty associated with the inundation boundaries is seldom quantified, in part, because all of the sources of uncertainty are not recognized and because data available to quantify uncertainty seldom are available. Sources of uncertainty discussed in this paper include hydrologic data used for hydraulic model development and validation, topographic data, and the hydraulic model. The assumption of steady flow, which typically is made to produce inundation maps, has less of an effect on predicted inundation at lower flows than for higher flows because more time typically is required to inundate areas at high flows than at low flows. Difficulties with establishing reasonable cross sections that do not intersect and that represent water-surface slopes in tributaries contribute additional uncertainties in the hydraulic modelling. As a result, uncertainty in the flood inundation polygons simulated with a one-dimensional model increases with distance from the main channel.

  6. Probabilistic Interpolation of Wind Hazard Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.

    2012-12-01

    Wind hazard maps are widely used to compute design loads and to evaluate insurance risks. While building codes often provide these maps for only a few return periods, wind hazard maps for other return periods are often needed for risk assessments. In this study, we evaluate a probabilistic interpolation approach for deriving wind hazard maps for return periods other than those available. The probabilistic interpolation approach assumes that probabilities of wind values in a wind hazard map follow Gumbel distribution. Although most studies have been performed on data from individual weather stations, it remains to be seen how well the Gumbel distribution-based interpolation performs for wind hazard maps. The Gumbel distribution F(V) =exp{-exp[-α(V - u)]} is assumed for wind speed at a wind map location, where α and u are parameters that vary with location. VT = u + α-1lnT is the wind speed of return period T when T is large. If T0 and T1 are two given return periods and T1 is greater, then VT = (1-θ)VT0 + θVT1 where θ = (lnT - lnT0)/(lnT1 - lnT0). Therefore, VT is a weighted average between VT0 and VT1. Here we select the US and Mexican hazard maps to evaluate the probabilistic interpolation method. In ASCE 7-10 wind maps, the basic wind speed has a single value for most inland areas, which is 54, 51, and 47 m/s for 1700-year, 700-year, and 300-year return periods, respectively. We use the 1700-year and 300-year values to obtain the 700-year value using the Gumbel distribution-based interpolation. The computed 700-year value is 50.4 m/s compared to 51 m/s provided in the code, about 1% difference. For coastal regions subjected to hurricane winds, the relative error between the interpolated 700-year values and the original 700-year values are within 2% for most areas except for areas where hurricane zones transition to inland non-hurricane zones; there the relative errors can increase to 4%. The Mexican wind code includes wind maps of three return periods: 10

  7. United States National Seismic Hazard Maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, M.D.; ,

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey?s maps of earthquake shaking hazards provide information essential to creating and updating the seismic design provisions of building codes and insurance rates used in the United States. Periodic revisions of these maps incorporate the results of new research. Buildings, bridges, highways, and utilities built to meet modern seismic design provisions are better able to withstand earthquakes, not only saving lives but also enabling critical activities to continue with less disruption. These maps can also help people assess the hazard to their homes or places of work and can also inform insurance rates.

  8. Complex picture for likelihood of ENSO-driven flood hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emerton, R.; Cloke, H. L.; Stephens, E. M.; Zsoter, E.; Woolnough, S. J.; Pappenberger, F.

    2017-03-01

    El Niño and La Niña events, the extremes of ENSO climate variability, influence river flow and flooding at the global scale. Estimates of the historical probability of extreme (high or low) precipitation are used to provide vital information on the likelihood of adverse impacts during extreme ENSO events. However, the nonlinearity between precipitation and flood magnitude motivates the need for estimation of historical probabilities using analysis of hydrological data sets. Here, this analysis is undertaken using the ERA-20CM-R river flow reconstruction for the twentieth century. Our results show that the likelihood of increased or decreased flood hazard during ENSO events is much more complex than is often perceived and reported; probabilities vary greatly across the globe, with large uncertainties inherent in the data and clear differences when comparing the hydrological analysis to precipitation.

  9. Assessment of hazard of chemical accidental releases triggered by floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonova, M.; Danihelka, P.

    2009-04-01

    Recently, the number of accidents happened, when floods trigger the releases of hazardous materials and following environment contamination. Baia Mare (Romania), Spolana Neratovice (Czech Republic) and hurricane Katrina (USA) are well known examples. The importance of this kind of phenomenon as a type of so called NATECH events is expressed among others in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, which reorganises water conservation in Europe. It requires programmes of protection measures to be drawn up not later than 2009, and in sub-article 11 (3) l b) to prevent and/or reduce the impact of accidental pollution incidents, for example as a result of floods. Effective measures demand the assessment of hazard and risk of accidental release triggered by floods and there is a need for the method which can be used for these purposes. Such a method is still missing and this is why the basic method for hazard assessment has been developed. Simple indexes-based method is composed of three segments (natural risks, technological risks and combined risk) and it has flexible, modular structure. First segment estimates the probability of flooding of installation, the second, based on the reference scenarios estimates the possibility of release of chemicals and the third classify consequences. The work on refining of parameters and method continues. Method can be used in prevention of major accidents in the framework of the Council Directive 96/82/EC on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances (Seveso II directive) and can help to complete the safety studies in classified establishments.

  10. Observation-driven understanding and prediction of urban flood hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Daniel B.

    Rapid urbanization has increased exposure to flood hazards in the United States. Flood hazard is the result of complex interactions of spatially and temporally variable extreme rainfall with heterogeneous land surface, subsurface, and drainage network properties. The time and length scales at which these interactions occur in urban watersheds are shorter than in unaltered settings. Existing flood hazard assessment procedures neglect the complexity of these interactions, with unknown implications for resulting flood risk estimates. This dissertation aims to utilize modern high-resolution hydrometeorological observations and computational capabilities to examine urban flood processes at fine temporal and spatial scales, and to use the results to propose a variety of alternative approaches to the estimation of urban flood hazards. A variety of hydrometeorological datasets are introduced, including long-term (ten-year) records of bias-corrected high-resolution (1 km 2, 15-minute) radar rainfall fields developed using the Hydro-NEXRAD processing system for two urban study areas in the Southeastern United States: Charlotte, North Carolina and Atlanta, Georgia. These long-term radar rainfall records are used throughout the dissertation for a variety of hydrometeorological analyses. Their accuracy is evaluated relative to observations from dense urban rain gage networks. Simple bias correction techniques provide high-quality radar rainfall estimates, which have important advantages over coarser-resolution operational radar-based products for urban hydrology applications. Other datasets are used in the analyses, including high-resolution land cover, streamflow, and cloud-to-ground lightning observations. Radar records show evidence of urban rainfall modification for both study sites, though more work is needed to understand the role of topography and other large-scale features on rainfall in urban areas. Increases in annual peak discharges in urban catchments since the 1950

  11. Fifty-Year Flood-Inundation Maps for Santa Rosa de Aguan, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the coastal municipality of Santa Rosa de Aguan that are prone to oceanic storm-surge flooding and wave action. The 50-year flood on the Rio Aguan (4,270 cubic meters per second), would inundate most of the area surveyed for this municipality and beyond. Therefore a detailed numerical hydraulic model was not developed for this municipality as it was for the others. The 50-year storm surge would likely produce higher water levels than the 50-year flood on the river during normal astronomical tides. The elevation of the 50-year storm surge was estimated to be 4.35 meters above normal sea level, based on hurricane probabilities and published storm-surge elevations associated with various hurricane categories. Flood-inundation maps, including areas of wave-action hazard and a color-shaded elevation map, were created from the available data and the estimated 50-year storm tide. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the hazard areas are available on a computer in the municipality of Santa Rosa de Aguan as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Data Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the maps in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report.

  12. Seismotectonics and seismic Hazard map of Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soumaya, Abdelkader; Ben Ayed, Noureddine; Khayati Ammar, Hayet; Kadri, Ali; Zargouni, Fouad; Ghanmi, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    One natural hazard in Tunisia is caused by earthquakes and one way to measure the shaking risk is the probabilistic seismic-hazard map. The study of seismic hazard and risk assessment in Tunisia started in 1990 within the framework of the National Program for Assessment of Earthquake Risk. Because earthquakes are random events characterized by specific uncertainties, we used a probabilistic method to build the seismic hazard map of Tunisia. Probabilities were derived from the available seismic data and from results of neotectonic, geophysical and geological studies on the main active domains of Tunisia. This map displays earthquake ground motions for various probability levels across Tunisia and it is used in seismic provisions of building codes, insurance rate structures, risk assessment and other public management activities. The product is a seismotectonic map of Tunisia summarizing the available datasets (e.g., active fault, focal mechanism, instrumental and historical seismicity, peak ground acceleration). In addition, we elaborate some thematic seismic hazard maps that represent an important tool for the social and economic development.

  13. Working towards a clearer and more helpful hazard map: investigating the influence of hazard map design on hazard communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, M. A.; Lindsay, J. M.; Gaillard, J.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, geological hazards are communicated using maps. In traditional hazard mapping practice, scientists analyse data about a hazard, and then display the results on a map for stakeholder and public use. However, this one-way, top-down approach to hazard communication is not necessarily effective or reliable. The messages which people take away will be dependent on the way in which they read, interpret, and understand the map, a facet of hazard communication which has been relatively unexplored. Decades of cartographic studies suggest that variables in the visual representation of data on maps, such as colour and symbology, can have a powerful effect on how people understand map content. In practice, however, there is little guidance or consistency in how hazard information is expressed and represented on maps. Accordingly, decisions are often made based on subjective preference, rather than research-backed principles. Here we present the results of a study in which we explore how hazard map design features can influence hazard map interpretation, and we propose a number of considerations for hazard map design. A series of hazard maps were generated, with each one showing the same probabilistic volcanic ashfall dataset, but using different verbal and visual variables (e.g., different colour schemes, data classifications, probabilistic formats). Following a short pilot study, these maps were used in an online survey of 110 stakeholders and scientists in New Zealand. Participants answered 30 open-ended and multiple choice questions about ashfall hazard based on the different maps. Results suggest that hazard map design can have a significant influence on the messages readers take away. For example, diverging colour schemes were associated with concepts of "risk" and decision-making more than sequential schemes, and participants made more precise estimates of hazard with isarithmic data classifications compared to binned or gradational shading. Based on such

  14. A Sentinel-1 Flood map generation QGIS plugin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, Joan; Lopez, Alex; Romero, Laia; Koudogbo, Fifame

    2016-04-01

    Climate change derived in changing weather patterns making risks very difficult to predict and one very representative example is flood events. Flooding due to overflow from water bodies can be analyzed through change detection techniques with satellite imagery from the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors such as the one on board the ESA Sentinel-1. This analysis will help us have a better understanding of the floodable areas and therefore provide better support and response to these events. The presented open-source Quantum GIS (QGIS) plugin for flood mapping provides this analysis to a growing earth observation user community as described in the following abstract. The flood mapping QGIS plugin has been developed in the context of a FP7 EU funded earth observation project named RASOR (Rapid Analysis and Spatialisation Of Risk), a multi-hazard risk analysis and assessment to support the full cycle of disaster management. The plugin available through QGIS repository enables any user to execute the processing of flood maps based on S1 data in their local work environments. Moreover, results can be uploaded to the RASOR platform in order to be shared with the community. The RASOR Floodmap plugin takes as input two Sentinel-1 SAR images, one taken as reference and another just after the flood event. In parallel, the Area Of Interest (AOI) can be established with one or more polygons in a Shapefile format. The algorithm calibrates and co-registers both images to obtain a change detection RGB GeoTiff file. A K-Means filtering is performed in order to smooth the results and in preparation for the last classification step. Classification is performed by the plugin in which one or more classes are identified as flooded area and therefore polygonise of the extent is conducted, the user can make use of the QGIS workspace in order to supervise results and perform the necessary refinements, for instance by comparing them with different optical images or land cover

  15. 12 CFR 391.38 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notice of special flood hazards and... REGULATIONS Loans in Areas Having Special Flood Hazards § 391.38 Notice of special flood hazards and... located in a special flood hazard area, the State savings association shall mail or deliver a...

  16. Hazard map of agricultural products due to typhoons-an example of Bok-choy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yong-Jun; Ma, Kuo-Chen; Lai, Jihn-Sung; Chang, Tsang-Jung; Tan, Yih-Chi

    2015-04-01

    The torrential rain and strong wind brought by typhoons usually cause huge damages to agricultural products. This study aims at hazard map of agricultural products due to typhoons. The factors affecting the hazard of agricultural products due to typhoons include the duration of flooding, flooding depth, wind speed, and rainfall intensity. High rainfall intensity and high wind speed may knock down the leaves or fruits of the plants. The long-duration of flooding or high flooding depth may chock the plant or rotten the roots. In order to get the information needed for making hazard map due to assumed scenarios, an overland flow simulations is performed for getting the duration of flooding and maximum flooding in the study area. The data of wind speed is obtained from metrological stations. Four levels of hazard are defined due to the characteristic of the chosen agricultural products- Bok-choy (such average height of mature Bok-choy). The final goal of this study is to establish a real-time hazard evaluation system for the specific agricultural products.

  17. Alternating flood and drought hazards in the Drava Plain, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lóczy, Dénes; Dezsö, József; Gyenizse, Péter; Ortmann-Ajkai, Adrienne

    2016-04-01

    Our research project covers the assessment of archive data and monitoring present-day water availability in the floodplain of the Hungarian Drava River. Historically flood hazard has been prevalent in the area. Recently, however, flood and drought hazards occur with equal frequency. Potential floodwater storage is defined from the analyses of soil conditions (grain size, porosity, water conductivity etc.) and GIS-based volumetric estimations of storage capacities in oxbows (including communication with groundwater). With the remarkable rate of river channel incision (2.4 m per century) and predictable climate change trends (increased annual mean temperature and decreased summer precipitation), the growing frequency and intensification of drought hazard is expected. For the assessment of drought hazard the impacts of hydrometeorological events, groundwater table dynamics and capillary rise are modelled, the water demands of natural vegetation and agricultural crops are studied. The project is closely linked to the ongoing Old Drava Programme, a comprehensive government project, which envisions floodplain rehabilitation through major transformations in water governance and land use of the region, and has numerous implications for regional development. Authors are grateful for financial support from the Hungarian National Scientific Research Fund (OTKA, contacts nos K 104552 and K 108755) as well as from the Visegrad Fund (31210058). The contribution is dedicated to the 650th anniversary of the foundation of the University of Pécs, Hungary.

  18. Cartographic Design in Flood Risk Mapping - A Challenge for Communication and Stakeholder Involvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, S.; Serrhini, K.; Dorner, W.

    2009-12-01

    In order to mitigate flood hazards and to minimise associated losses, technical protection measures have been additionally and increasingly supplemented by non-technical mitigation, i.e. land-use planning activities. This is commonly done by creating maps which indicate such areas by different cartographic symbols, such as colour, size, shape, and typography. Hazard and risk mapping is the accepted procedure when communicating potential threats to stakeholders, and is therefore required in the European Member States in order to meet the demands of the European Flood Risk Directive. However, available information is sparse concerning the impact of such maps on different stakeholders, i.e., specialists in flood risk management, politicians, and affected citizens. The lack of information stems from a traditional approach to map production which does not take into account specific end-user needs. In order to overcome this information shortage the current study used a circular approach such that feed-back mechanisms originating from different perception patterns of the end user would be considered. Different sets of small-scale as well as large-scale risk maps were presented to different groups of test persons in order to (1) study reading behaviour as well as understanding and (2) deduce the most attractive components that are essential for target-oriented communication of cartographic information. Therefore, the method of eye tracking was applied using a video-oculography technique. This resulted in a suggestion for a map template which fulfils the requirement to serve as an efficient communication tool for specialists and practitioners in hazard and risk mapping as well as for laypersons. Taking the results of this study will enable public authorities who are responsible for flood mitigation to (1) improve their flood risk maps, (2) enhance flood risk awareness, and therefore (3) create more disaster-resilient communities.

  19. Tsunami hazard map in eastern Bali

    SciTech Connect

    Afif, Haunan; Cipta, Athanasius

    2015-04-24

    Bali is a popular tourist destination both for Indonesian and foreign visitors. However, Bali is located close to the collision zone between the Indo-Australian Plate and Eurasian Plate in the south and back-arc thrust off the northern coast of Bali resulted Bali prone to earthquake and tsunami. Tsunami hazard map is needed for better understanding of hazard level in a particular area and tsunami modeling is one of the most reliable techniques to produce hazard map. Tsunami modeling conducted using TUNAMI N2 and set for two tsunami sources scenarios which are subduction zone in the south of Bali and back thrust in the north of Bali. Tsunami hazard zone is divided into 3 zones, the first is a high hazard zones with inundation height of more than 3m. The second is a moderate hazard zone with inundation height 1 to 3m and the third is a low tsunami hazard zones with tsunami inundation heights less than 1m. Those 2 scenarios showed southern region has a greater potential of tsunami impact than the northern areas. This is obviously shown in the distribution of the inundated area in the south of Bali including the island of Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan and Nusa Ceningan is wider than in the northern coast of Bali although the northern region of the Nusa Penida Island more inundated due to the coastal topography.

  20. 12 CFR 208.25 - Loans in areas having special flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans in areas having special flood hazards...) Investments and Loans § 208.25 Loans in areas having special flood hazards. (a) Purpose and scope—(1) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to implement the requirements of the National Flood Insurance Act...

  1. 38 CFR 36.4705 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... flood hazard determination form. 36.4705 Section 36.4705 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Sale of Loans, Guarantee of Payment, and Flood Insurance § 36.4705 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. The...

  2. 38 CFR 36.4705 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... flood hazard determination form. 36.4705 Section 36.4705 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Sale of Loans, Guarantee of Payment, and Flood Insurance § 36.4705 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. The...

  3. 7 CFR 1980.433 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.433... Program § 1980.433 Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. (See subpart A, § 1980.42.) Administrative The State Director is responsible for determining if a project is located in a special flood...

  4. 24 CFR 3285.102 - Installation of manufactured homes in flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... in flood hazard areas. 3285.102 Section 3285.102 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... STANDARDS Pre-Installation Considerations § 3285.102 Installation of manufactured homes in flood hazard... subpart are as defined in 44 CFR 59.1 of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) regulations....

  5. 12 CFR 208.25 - Loans in areas having special flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loans in areas having special flood hazards...) Investments and Loans § 208.25 Loans in areas having special flood hazards. (a) Purpose and scope—(1) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to implement the requirements of the National Flood Insurance Act...

  6. 24 CFR 3285.102 - Installation of manufactured homes in flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... in flood hazard areas. 3285.102 Section 3285.102 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... STANDARDS Pre-Installation Considerations § 3285.102 Installation of manufactured homes in flood hazard... subpart are as defined in 44 CFR 59.1 of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) regulations....

  7. 24 CFR 3285.102 - Installation of manufactured homes in flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... in flood hazard areas. 3285.102 Section 3285.102 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... STANDARDS Pre-Installation Considerations § 3285.102 Installation of manufactured homes in flood hazard... subpart are as defined in 44 CFR 59.1 of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) regulations....

  8. 38 CFR 36.4705 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... flood hazard determination form. 36.4705 Section 36.4705 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Sale of Loans, Guarantee of Payment, and Flood Insurance § 36.4705 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. The...

  9. 7 CFR 1980.433 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.433... Program § 1980.433 Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. (See subpart A, § 1980.42.) Administrative The State Director is responsible for determining if a project is located in a special flood...

  10. 38 CFR 36.4705 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... flood hazard determination form. 36.4705 Section 36.4705 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Sale of Loans, Guarantee of Payment, and Flood Insurance § 36.4705 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. The...

  11. 12 CFR 208.25 - Loans in areas having special flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Loans in areas having special flood hazards...) Investments and Loans § 208.25 Loans in areas having special flood hazards. (a) Purpose and scope—(1) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to implement the requirements of the National Flood Insurance Act...

  12. 24 CFR 3285.102 - Installation of manufactured homes in flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... in flood hazard areas. 3285.102 Section 3285.102 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... STANDARDS Pre-Installation Considerations § 3285.102 Installation of manufactured homes in flood hazard... subpart are as defined in 44 CFR 59.1 of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) regulations....

  13. 7 CFR 1980.433 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.433... Program § 1980.433 Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. (See subpart A, § 1980.42.) Administrative The State Director is responsible for determining if a project is located in a special flood...

  14. 24 CFR 3285.102 - Installation of manufactured homes in flood hazard areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... in flood hazard areas. 3285.102 Section 3285.102 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... STANDARDS Pre-Installation Considerations § 3285.102 Installation of manufactured homes in flood hazard... subpart are as defined in 44 CFR 59.1 of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) regulations....

  15. 12 CFR 208.25 - Loans in areas having special flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Loans in areas having special flood hazards...) Investments and Loans § 208.25 Loans in areas having special flood hazards. (a) Purpose and scope—(1) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to implement the requirements of the National Flood Insurance Act...

  16. 12 CFR 208.25 - Loans in areas having special flood hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loans in areas having special flood hazards...) Investments and Loans § 208.25 Loans in areas having special flood hazards. (a) Purpose and scope—(1) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to implement the requirements of the National Flood Insurance Act...

  17. 7 CFR 1980.433 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.433... Program § 1980.433 Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. (See subpart A, § 1980.42.) Administrative The State Director is responsible for determining if a project is located in a special flood...

  18. 7 CFR 1980.433 - Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. 1980.433... Program § 1980.433 Flood or mudslide hazard area precautions. (See subpart A, § 1980.42.) Administrative The State Director is responsible for determining if a project is located in a special flood...

  19. 38 CFR 36.4705 - Required use of standard flood hazard determination form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... flood hazard determination form. 36.4705 Section 36.4705 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Sale of Loans, Guarantee of Payment, and Flood Insurance § 36.4705 Required use of standard flood hazard determination form. (a) Use of form. The...

  20. Forecasting surface water flooding hazard and impact in real-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Steven J.; Moore, Robert J.; Wells, Steven C.

    2016-04-01

    Across the world, there is increasing demand for more robust and timely forecast and alert information on Surface Water Flooding (SWF). Within a UK context, the government Pitt Review into the Summer 2007 floods provided recommendations and impetus to improve the understanding of SWF risk for both off-line design and real-time forecasting and warning. Ongoing development and trial of an end-to-end real-time SWF system is being progressed through the recently formed Natural Hazards Partnership (NHP) with delivery to the Flood Forecasting Centre (FFC) providing coverage over England & Wales. The NHP is a unique forum that aims to deliver coordinated assessments, research and advice on natural hazards for governments and resilience communities across the UK. Within the NHP, a real-time Hazard Impact Model (HIM) framework has been developed that includes SWF as one of three hazards chosen for initial trialling. The trial SWF HIM system uses dynamic gridded surface-runoff estimates from the Grid-to-Grid (G2G) hydrological model to estimate the SWF hazard. National datasets on population, infrastructure, property and transport are available to assess impact severity for a given rarity of SWF hazard. Whilst the SWF hazard footprint is calculated in real-time using 1, 3 and 6 hour accumulations of G2G surface runoff on a 1 km grid, it has been possible to associate these with the effective rainfall design profiles (at 250m resolution) used as input to a detailed flood inundation model (JFlow+) run offline to produce hazard information resolved to 2m resolution. This information is contained in the updated Flood Map for Surface Water (uFMfSW) held by the Environment Agency. The national impact datasets can then be used with the uFMfSW SWF hazard dataset to assess impacts at this scale and severity levels of potential impact assigned at 1km and for aggregated county areas in real-time. The impact component is being led by the Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL) within the NHP

  1. Seismic hazard map of the western hemisphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shedlock, K.M.; Tanner, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Vulnerability to natural disasters increases with urbanization and development of associated support systems (reservoirs, power plants, etc.). Catastrophic earthquakes account for 60% of worldwide casualties associated with natural disasters. Economic damage from earthquakes is increasing, even in technologically advanced countries with some level of seismic zonation, as shown by the 1989 Loma Prieta, CA ($6 billion), 1994 Northridge, CA ($ 25 billion), and 1995 Kobe, Japan (> $ 100 billion) earthquakes. The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local governments, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes), emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of the Americas is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful global seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for the western hemisphere. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions specify the

  2. Storm Surge Flood Hazards of Hurricane Katrina 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Daneshvaran, S.; Jakubowski, S.

    2008-05-01

    . Flooding due to hurricane storm surge is one of the most damaging natural disasters in tropical and sub-tropical coastal regions. Storm surge peril can cause catastrophic loss to coastal properties and loss of life. Estimated hurricane flood risk is often statistically-based and relies on historical data. It provides catastrophic loss and risk information for the event as a whole, but lacks geographical detail. The purpose of this study is to analyze hurricane-induced storm surge flood damage using a grid-based numerical model. Storm surge flood damage due to Hurricane Katrina 2005 is presented as a case study. In order to analyze the resulting hazard from Hurricane Katrina, the United States National Weather Service's operational storm surge model, SLOSH (Sea, Lake and Overland Surges from Hurricanes) was used to predict the maximum storm surge surface using track data from meteorological observations. Local inundation is computed using the flood water depth with the ground elevation above the mean sea level. Residential exposure is estimated using total number of housing units damaged by flood water in each US census block in a grid of 0.01 by 0.01 degrees for hurricane Katrina in 2005. The modeled results for the storm surge inundation and the estimated number of housing units damaged by hurricane Katrina are compared with the extensive field observations by US Geological Survey and FEMA in the counties along the Gulf Coast in the three impacted states of Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana. The modeled surge results are compared and contrasted with high water mark observations, where available. Storm surge losses in residential construction are highly sensitive to location and are best evaluated at a fine spatial resolution. This paper presents the analysis of the catastrophic flood risk based on the magnitude of hurricane storm surge flood depth on a local scale of US census blocks. The framework presented here is analytically-derived and can be used to

  3. Multisite flooding hazard assessment in the Upper Mississippi River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghizzoni, Tatiana; Roth, Giorgio; Rudari, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    SummaryThis contribution presents an assessment of the joint probability distribution able to describe multi-site multi-basin flood scenarios in a high dimensionality framework. This goal will be pursued through two different approaches: the multivariate skew- t distribution and the Student copula with arbitrary margins. While copulas have been widely used in the modeling of hydrological processes, the use of the skew- t distribution in hydrology has been only recently proposed with reference to a trivariate application (Ghizzoni et al., 2010, Adv. Water Resour., 33, 1243-1255). Both methods are here applied and discussed in a context of considerably higher dimensionality: the Upper Mississippi River floods. In fact, to enhance the characteristics of the correlation structure, eighteen nested and non-nested gauging stations were selected, with significantly different contributing areas. Such conditions represent a challenge for both the skew- t and the copula approach. In perspective, the ability of such approaches in explaining the multivariate aspects of the relevant processes is needed to specify flood hazard scenarios in terms of their intensity, extension and frequency. When this is associated to the knowledge of location, value and vulnerability of exposed elements, comprehensive flood risk scenarios can be produced, and risk cumuli quantified, for given portfolios, composed of wherever located risks.

  4. Building A Database Of Flood Extension Maps Using Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roque, D.; Afonso, N.; Fonseca, A. M.; Heleno, S.

    2013-12-01

    Hydraulic flood models can be used to identify the regions prone to floods. In order to achieve reliable information, the models must be calibrated using data from past floods. In this study, a set of optical and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images are used to obtain flood extension maps in the lower River Tagus, Portugal, from 1992 to 2012. An object-based approach and thresholding operations are used to extract the flood boundaries. While for optical data two thresholding operations are enough, for SAR images, successive thresholding procedures are applied over different data types in order to identify flooded regions with distinct characteristics (smooth water, disturbed water and emerged elements). The proposed method allowed the extraction of flood boundaries for 25 flood dates, with an 88% of correctly detected flood area for both the optical and the SAR data.

  5. Developing consistent scenarios to assess flood hazards in mountain streams.

    PubMed

    Mazzorana, B; Comiti, F; Scherer, C; Fuchs, S

    2012-02-01

    The characterizing feature of extreme events in steep mountain streams is the multiplicity of possible tipping process patterns such as those involving sudden morphological changes due to intense local erosion, aggradation as well as clogging of critical flow sections due to wood accumulations. Resolving a substantial part of the uncertainties underlying these hydrological cause-effect chains is a major challenge for flood risk management. Our contribution is from a methodological perspective based on an expert-based methodology to unfold natural hazard process scenarios in mountain streams to retrace their probabilistic structure. As a first step we set up a convenient system representation for natural hazard process routing. In this setting, as a second step, we proceed deriving the possible and thus consistent natural hazard process patterns by means of Formative Scenario Analysis. In a last step, hazard assessment is refined by providing, through expert elicitation, the spatial probabilistic structure of individual scenario trajectories. As complement to the theory the applicability of the method is shown through embedded examples. To conclude we discuss the major advantages of the presented methodological approach for hazard assessment compared to traditional approaches, and with respect to the risk governance process.

  6. 2008 United States National Seismic Hazard Maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, M.D.; ,

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey recently updated the National Seismic Hazard Maps by incorporating new seismic, geologic, and geodetic information on earthquake rates and associated ground shaking. The 2008 versions supersede those released in 1996 and 2002. These maps are the basis for seismic design provisions of building codes, insurance rate structures, earthquake loss studies, retrofit priorities, and land-use planning. Their use in design of buildings, bridges, highways, and critical infrastructure allows structures to better withstand earthquake shaking, saving lives and reducing disruption to critical activities following a damaging event. The maps also help engineers avoid costs from over-design for unlikely levels of ground motion.

  7. Flood and Debris Flow Hazard Predictions in Steep, Burned Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rengers, Francis; McGuire, Luke; Kean, Jason; Staley, Dennis

    2016-04-01

    Post-wildfire natural hazards such as flooding and debris flows threaten infrastructure and can even lead to loss of life. The risk from these natural hazards could be reduced if floods and debris flows could be predicted from modeling. Our ability to test predictive models is primarily constrained by a lack of observational data that can be used for comparison with model predictions. Following the 2009 Station Fire in the San Gabriel Mountains, CA, USA, we conducted a study with high-resolution topography and hydrologic measurements to test the effectiveness of two different hydrologic routing models to predict flood and debris flow timing. Our research focuses on comparing the performance of two hydrologic models with differing levels of complexity and efficiency using high-resolution, lidar-derived digital elevation models. The simpler model uses the kinematic wave approximation to route flows, while the more complex model uses the full shallow water equations. In both models precipitation is spatially uniform and infiltration is simulated using the Green-Ampt infiltration equation. Input data for the numerical models was constrained by time series data of soil moisture, and rainfall collected at field sites as well as high-resolution lidar-derived digital elevation models. We ran the numerical models and varied parameter values for the roughness coefficient and hydraulic conductivity. These parameter values were calibrated by minimizing the difference between the simulated and observed flow timing. Moreover, the two parameters were calibrated in two different watersheds, spanning two orders of magnitude in drainage area. The calibrated parameters were subsequently used to model a third watershed, and the results show a good match with observed timing of flow peaks for both models. Calibrated roughness coefficients are generally higher when using the kinematic wave approximation relative to the full shallow water equations, and decrease with increasing spatial

  8. Mapping technological and biophysical capacities of watersheds to regulate floods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mogollon, Beatriz; Villamagna, Amy M.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.; Angermeier, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Flood regulation is a widely valued and studied service provided by watersheds. Flood regulation benefits people directly by decreasing the socio-economic costs of flooding and indirectly by its positive impacts on cultural (e.g., fishing) and provisioning (e.g., water supply) ecosystem services. Like other regulating ecosystem services (e.g., pollination, water purification), flood regulation is often enhanced or replaced by technology, but the relative efficacy of natural versus technological features in controlling floods has scarcely been examined. In an effort to assess flood regulation capacity for selected urban watersheds in the southeastern United States, we: (1) used long-term flood records to assess relative influence of technological and biophysical indicators on flood magnitude and duration, (2) compared the widely used runoff curve number (RCN) approach for assessing the biophysical capacity to regulate floods to an alternative approach that acknowledges land cover and soil properties separately, and (3) mapped technological and biophysical flood regulation capacities based on indicator importance-values derived for flood magnitude and duration. We found that watersheds with high biophysical (via the alternative approach) and technological capacities lengthened the duration and lowered the peak of floods. We found the RCN approach yielded results opposite that expected, possibly because it confounds soil and land cover processes, particularly in urban landscapes, while our alternative approach coherently separates these processes. Mapping biophysical (via the alternative approach) and technological capacities revealed great differences among watersheds. Our study improves on previous mapping of flood regulation by (1) incorporating technological capacity, (2) providing high spatial resolution (i.e., 10-m pixel) maps of watershed capacities, and (3) deriving importance-values for selected landscape indicators. By accounting for technology that enhances

  9. The Role of Satellite Derived Data for Flood Inundation Mapping Using GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuldeep; Garg, P. K.

    2015-08-01

    River flooding in planar region is the most significant type of natural disaster that modern society is exposed to, affecting several thousand people each year. Recent flood events, population growth concerns have augmented the call for global methods which utilise both spatial and temporal dynamics. Object oriented classification approaches based on the segmentation are being adopted for extraction of variety of thematic information from high resolution satellite images. Generation of landuse/cover map which is one of the important inputs to the model for flood inundation mapping and for accurate assessment of damage due to floods requires advanced methods of image classification. The Cartosat-1 (PAN) satellite data has been fused with the LISS-III (MX) to obtain the color image containing both high spatial and spectral information. The fused image is further classified to obtain the landuse/cover map using object based classification approach. The classification results are assessed by calculating overall accuracy and kappa index with the help of error matrix. The overall accuracy of classification has been obtained 86.00% with kappa index 0.7815. The objective of this study is to develop a GIS aided model for flood inundation mapping of the surrounding of the part of the Yamuna River which flows through the two districts i.e. Yamuna Nagar and Saharanpur in states of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh respectively. The model considers the five parameters viz. topography (slope, elevation) information, landuse/cover, time series data of surface water elevation, river geometry and location of the rain gauge station. Field survey has been conducted to validate the positional accuracy of the DEM and landuse/cover classes using DGPS. A final flood inundation map has been prepared by combining all weighted layers with in GIS environment. The flood inundation maps can further be used for quick identification of areas of potential flood hazard to minimize the flood losses.

  10. Improving Flood Risk Maps as a Capacity Building Activity: Fostering Public Participation and Raising Flood Risk Awareness in the German Mulde Region (project RISK MAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, J.; Meyer, V.; Kuhlicke, C.; Scheuer, S.; Unnerstall, H.

    2012-04-01

    ended in September 2011, focussing on the participatory aspects in one of the German case studies (the Mulde River in Saxony). In short, different map users such as strategic planners, emergency managers or the (affected) public require different maps, with varying information density and complexity. The purpose of participation may therefore have a substantive rationale (i.e. improving the content, including local knowledge) or a more instrumental rationale (i.e. building trust, raising awareness, increasing legitimacy). The degree to which both rationales are accommodated depends on the project objectives and determines the participants and process type. In the Mulde case study, both the process of collaborating with each other and considering the (local) knowledge and different experiences as well as the results were highly appreciated. Hazard and risk maps are thus not an end-product that could be complemented e.g. by emergency management information on existing or planned defences, evacuation routes, assembly points, but they should be embedded into a participatory maintenance/updating framework. Map visualisation could be enhanced by using more common and/or self-explanatory symbols, text and a limited number of colour grades for hazard and risk information. Keywords: Flood mapping, hazard and risk maps, participation, risk communication, flood risk awareness, emergency management

  11. Conveying Flood Hazard Risk Through Spatial Modeling: A Case Study for Hurricane Sandy-Affected Communities in Northern New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Artigas, Francisco; Bosits, Stephanie; Kojak, Saleh; Elefante, Dominador; Pechmann, Ildiko

    2016-10-01

    The accurate forecast from Hurricane Sandy sea surge was the result of integrating the most sophisticated environmental monitoring technology available. This stands in contrast to the limited information and technology that exists at the community level to translate these forecasts into flood hazard levels on the ground at scales that are meaningful to property owners. Appropriately scaled maps with high levels of certainty can be effectively used to convey exposure to flood hazard at the community level. This paper explores the most basic analysis and data required to generate a relatively accurate flood hazard map to convey inundation risk due to sea surge. A Boolean overlay analysis of four input layers: elevation and slope derived from LiDAR data and distances from streams and catch basins derived from aerial photography and field reconnaissance were used to create a spatial model that explained 55 % of the extent and depth of the flood during Hurricane Sandy. When a ponding layer was added to the previous model to account for depressions that would fill and spill over to nearby areas, the new model explained almost 70 % of the extent and depth of the flood. The study concludes that fairly accurate maps can be created with readily available information and that it is possible to infer a great deal about risk of inundation at the property level, from flood hazard maps. The study goes on to conclude that local communities are encouraged to prepare for disasters, but in reality because of the existing Federal emergency management framework there is very little incentive to do so.

  12. Conveying Flood Hazard Risk Through Spatial Modeling: A Case Study for Hurricane Sandy-Affected Communities in Northern New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artigas, Francisco; Bosits, Stephanie; Kojak, Saleh; Elefante, Dominador; Pechmann, Ildiko

    2016-10-01

    The accurate forecast from Hurricane Sandy sea surge was the result of integrating the most sophisticated environmental monitoring technology available. This stands in contrast to the limited information and technology that exists at the community level to translate these forecasts into flood hazard levels on the ground at scales that are meaningful to property owners. Appropriately scaled maps with high levels of certainty can be effectively used to convey exposure to flood hazard at the community level. This paper explores the most basic analysis and data required to generate a relatively accurate flood hazard map to convey inundation risk due to sea surge. A Boolean overlay analysis of four input layers: elevation and slope derived from LiDAR data and distances from streams and catch basins derived from aerial photography and field reconnaissance were used to create a spatial model that explained 55 % of the extent and depth of the flood during Hurricane Sandy. When a ponding layer was added to the previous model to account for depressions that would fill and spill over to nearby areas, the new model explained almost 70 % of the extent and depth of the flood. The study concludes that fairly accurate maps can be created with readily available information and that it is possible to infer a great deal about risk of inundation at the property level, from flood hazard maps. The study goes on to conclude that local communities are encouraged to prepare for disasters, but in reality because of the existing Federal emergency management framework there is very little incentive to do so.

  13. A LiDAR based analysis of hydraulic hazard mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazorzi, F.; De Luca, A.; Checchinato, A.; Segna, F.; Dalla Fontana, G.

    2012-04-01

    one by one. Therefore, each segment was split into many reaches, so that within any of them the slope of the piezometric line can be approximated to zero. As a consequence, the hydraulic profile (open channel flow) in every reach is assumed horizontal both downslope and on the cross-section. Each reach can be seen as a polygon, delimited laterally by the hazard mapping boundaries and longitudinally by two successive cross sections, usually orthogonal to the talweg line. Simulating the progressive increase of the river stage, with a horizontal piezometric line, allow the definition of the stage-area and stage-volume relationships. Such relationships are obtained exclusively by the geometric information as provided by the high resolution elevation model. The maximum flooded area resulting from the simulation is finally compared to the potentially floodable area described by the hazard maps, to give a flooding index for every reach. Index values lower than 100% show that the mapped hazard area exceeds the maximum floodable area. Very low index values identify spots where there is a significant incongruity between the hazard map and the topography, and where a specific verification is probably needed. The procedure was successfully used for the validation of many hazard maps across Italy.

  14. Seismic-hazard maps for Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, Fred W.; Frankel, A.D.; Mueller, C.S.; Wesson, R.L.; Okubo, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard maps were prepared for Hawaii portraying peak horizontal ground acceleration and horizontal spectral response acceleration for 0.2, 0.3, and 1.0 second periods with probabilities of exceedance of 10% in 50 years and 2% in 50 years. This particular data set is for horizontal spectral response acceleration for 1.0 second period with a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. All of the maps were prepared by combining hazard derived from spatially- smoothed historic seismicity with hazard from fault-specific sources. The acceleration values contoured are the random horizontal component. The reference site condition is firm rock, defined as having an average shear-wave velocity of 760 m/sec in the top 30 meters corresponding to the boundary between NEHRP site classes B and C. This data set represents the results of calculations of hazard curves for a grid of points with a spacing of 0.02 degrees in latitude and longitude. The grid of points were contoured to produce the final representation of the seismic-hazard.

  15. Real-time flood extent maps based on social media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilander, Dirk; van Loenen, Arnejan; Roskam, Ruud; Wagemaker, Jurjen

    2015-04-01

    During a flood event it is often difficult to get accurate information about the flood extent and the people affected. This information is very important for disaster risk reduction management and crisis relief organizations. In the post flood phase, information about the flood extent is needed for damage estimation and calibrating hydrodynamic models. Currently, flood extent maps are derived from a few sources such as satellite images, areal images and post-flooding flood marks. However, getting accurate real-time or maximum flood extent maps remains difficult. With the rise of social media, we now have a new source of information with large numbers of observations. In the city of Jakarta, Indonesia, the intensity of unique flood related tweets during a flood event, peaked at 8 tweets per second during floods in early 2014. A fair amount of these tweets also contains observations of water depth and location. Our hypothesis is that based on the large numbers of tweets it is possible to generate real-time flood extent maps. In this study we use tweets from the city of Jakarta, Indonesia, to generate these flood extent maps. The data-mining procedure looks for tweets with a mention of 'banjir', the Bahasa Indonesia word for flood. It then removes modified and retweeted messages in order to keep unique tweets only. Since tweets are not always sent directly from the location of observation, the geotag in the tweets is unreliable. We therefore extract location information using mentions of names of neighborhoods and points of interest. Finally, where encountered, a mention of a length measure is extracted as water depth. These tweets containing a location reference and a water level are considered to be flood observations. The strength of this method is that it can easily be extended to other regions and languages. Based on the intensity of tweets in Jakarta during a flood event we can provide a rough estimate of the flood extent. To provide more accurate flood extend

  16. Hazards, Disasters, and The National Map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.; Newell, Mark R.

    2009-01-01

    Federal, State, and local response and management personnel must have current, reliable, and easily accessible geographic information and maps to prepare for, respond to, or recover from emergency situations. In life-threatening events, such as earthquakes, floods, or wildland fires, geographic information is essential for locating critical infrastructure and carrying out evacuation and rescue operations. The USGS promotes partnerships to ensure that base map data are up to date, readily available, and shareable among local, state, and National users. The National Map enables other government agencies, private industry, and the public to link and share additional data that provide even more information. These efforts with state and local governments have helped standardize the data by reducing data inconsistencies between neighboring jurisdictions and will help fill in the gaps for those places where data are lacking.

  17. Shallow landslide hazard map of Seattle, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harp, Edwin L.; Michael, John A.; Laprade, William T.

    2008-01-01

    Landslides, particularly debris flows, have long been a significant cause of damage and destruction to people and property in the Puget Sound region. Following the years of 1996 and 1997, the Federal Emergency Management Agency designated Seattle as a “Project Impact” city with the goal of encouraging the city to become more disaster resistant to landslides and other natural hazards. A major recommendation of the Project Impact council was that the city and the U.S. Geological Survey collaborate to produce a landslide hazard map. An exceptional data set archived by the city containing more than 100 yr of landslide data from severe storm events allowed comparison of actual landslide locations with those predicted by slope-stability modeling. We used an infinite-slope analysis, which models slope segments as rigid friction blocks, to estimate the susceptibility of slopes to debris flows, which are water-laden slurries that can form from shallow failures of soil and weathered bedrock and can travel at high velocities down steep slopes. Data used for the analysis consisted of a digital slope map derived from recent light detection and ranging (LiDAR) imagery of Seattle, recent digital geologic mapping of the city, and shear-strength test data for the geologic units found in the surrounding area. The combination of these data layers within a geographic information system (GIS) platform allowed us to create a shallow landslide hazard map for Seattle.

  18. Developing Flood-Inundation Maps for Johnson Creek, Portland, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stonewall, Adam J.; Beal, Benjamin A.

    2017-04-14

    Digital flood-inundation maps were created for a 12.9‑mile reach of Johnson Creek by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The flood-inundation maps depict estimates of water depth and areal extent of flooding from the mouth of Johnson Creek to just upstream of Southeast 174th Avenue in Portland, Oregon. Each flood-inundation map is based on a specific water level and associated streamflow at the USGS streamgage, Johnson Creek at Sycamore, Oregon (14211500), which is located near the upstream boundary of the maps. The maps produced by the USGS, and the forecasted flood hydrographs produced by National Weather Service River Forecast Center can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapper Web site (http://wimcloud.usgs.gov/apps/FIM/FloodInundationMapper.html).Water-surface elevations were computed for Johnson Creek using a combined one-dimensional and two‑dimensional unsteady hydraulic flow model. The model was calibrated using data collected from the flood of December 2015 (including the calculated streamflows at two USGS streamgages on Johnson Creek) and validated with data from the flood of January 2009. Results were typically within 0.6 foot (ft) of recorded or measured water-surface elevations from the December 2015 flood, and within 0.8 ft from the January 2009 flood. Output from the hydraulic model was used to create eight flood inundation maps ranging in stage from 9 to 16 ft. Boundary condition hydrographs were identical in shape to those from the December 2015 flood event, but were scaled up or down to produce the amount of streamflow corresponding to a specific water-surface elevation at the Sycamore streamgage (14211500). Sensitivity analyses using other hydrograph shapes, and a version of the model in which the peak flow is maintained for an extended period of time, showed minimal variation, except for overbank areas near the Foster Floodplain Natural Area.Simulated water-surface profiles were combined with light detection and ranging (lidar

  19. A physically based criterion for hydraulic hazard mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanesi, Luca; Pilotti, Marco; Petrucci, Olga

    2013-04-01

    Hydraulic hazard maps are widely used for land use and emergency planning. Due to their practical consequences, it is important that their meaning is effectively transferred and shared by the stakeholders; to this purpose maps should communicate hazard levels moving from the potential consequences on specified targets. For these reasons flood maps showing only the extension of the inundated areas or flow features as depth and/or velocity may reveal themselves as ineffective instruments. The selection of the specific target to analyse must, in our opinion, be site-specific and reflect land use and/or the hydraulics features of the phenomenon. In case of sudden processes, such as torrential floods or debris flows, hazard levels should be referred to human life, because emergency plans may not mitigate risk; on the contrary, when the time scale of the flood wave propagation is sufficiently larger than the warning system one, the focus might move to the economic value of properties, since human-focused criteria may result in too severe land planning restrictions. This contribution starts exploring, from a theoretical point of view, human hazard levels as drowning, toppling and friction stability limits, which are the main failure mechanisms of human stability in flows. The proposed approach considers the human body, set on a slope and hit by a current of known density, as a combination of cylinders with different dimensions. The drowning threshold is identified through a limiting water depth, while toppling and translation are studied respectively through a moment and momentum balance. The involved forces are the friction at the bottom, the destabilizing drag force exerted by the current, the human weight and buoyancy. Several threshold curves on the velocity-depth plane can be identified as a function of different masses and heights for children and adults. Because of its dependence from the fluid density, this methodology may be applied also to define hazard

  20. Climate-Related Hazards: A Method for Global Assessment of Urban and Rural Population Exposure to Cyclones, Droughts, and Floods

    PubMed Central

    Christenson, Elizabeth; Elliott, Mark; Banerjee, Ovik; Hamrick, Laura; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Global climate change (GCC) has led to increased focus on the occurrence of, and preparation for, climate-related extremes and hazards. Population exposure, the relative likelihood that a person in a given location was exposed to a given hazard event(s) in a given period of time, was the outcome for this analysis. Our objectives were to develop a method for estimating the population exposure at the country level to the climate-related hazards cyclone, drought, and flood; develop a method that readily allows the addition of better datasets to an automated model; differentiate population exposure of urban and rural populations; and calculate and present the results of exposure scores and ranking of countries based on the country-wide, urban, and rural population exposures to cyclone, drought, and flood. Gridded global datasets on cyclone, drought and flood occurrence as well as population density were combined and analysis was carried out using ArcGIS. Results presented include global maps of ranked country-level population exposure to cyclone, drought, flood and multiple hazards. Analyses by geography and human development index (HDI) are also included. The results and analyses of this exposure assessment have implications for country-level adaptation. It can also be used to help prioritize aid decisions and allocation of adaptation resources between countries and within a country. This model is designed to allow flexibility in applying cyclone, drought and flood exposure to a range of outcomes and adaptation measures. PMID:24566046

  1. Climate-related hazards: a method for global assessment of urban and rural population exposure to cyclones, droughts, and floods.

    PubMed

    Christenson, Elizabeth; Elliott, Mark; Banerjee, Ovik; Hamrick, Laura; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-02-21

    Global climate change (GCC) has led to increased focus on the occurrence of, and preparation for, climate-related extremes and hazards. Population exposure, the relative likelihood that a person in a given location was exposed to a given hazard event(s) in a given period of time, was the outcome for this analysis. Our objectives were to develop a method for estimating the population exposure at the country level to the climate-related hazards cyclone, drought, and flood; develop a method that readily allows the addition of better datasets to an automated model; differentiate population exposure of urban and rural populations; and calculate and present the results of exposure scores and ranking of countries based on the country-wide, urban, and rural population exposures to cyclone, drought, and flood. Gridded global datasets on cyclone, drought and flood occurrence as well as population density were combined and analysis was carried out using ArcGIS. Results presented include global maps of ranked country-level population exposure to cyclone, drought, flood and multiple hazards. Analyses by geography and human development index (HDI) are also included. The results and analyses of this exposure assessment have implications for country-level adaptation. It can also be used to help prioritize aid decisions and allocation of adaptation resources between countries and within a country. This model is designed to allow flexibility in applying cyclone, drought and flood exposure to a range of outcomes and adaptation measures.

  2. A combined GIS-HEC procedure for flood hazard evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    McLin, S.G.

    1993-09-01

    A technique is described for incorporating a drainage recognition capability into a graphical information system (GIS) database. This capability is then utilized to export digital topographic profiles of stream-channel cross-sectional geometries to the Hydrologic Engineering Center`s Water Surface Profile (HEC-2) model. This model is typically used in conjunction with the Flood Hydrograph (HEC-1) package to define floodplain boundaries in complex watersheds. Once these floodplain boundaries are imported back into the GIS framework, they can be uniquely referenced to the New Mexico state plane coordinate system. A combined GIS-HEC application in ungaged watersheds at Los Alamos National Laboratory is demonstrated. This floodplain mapping procedure uses topographic data from the Laboratory`s MOSS database. Targeted stream channel segments are initially specified in the MOSS system, and topographic profiles along stream-channel cross-sections am extracted automatically. This procedure is initiated at a convenient downstream location within each watershed, and proceeds upstream to a selected termination point. HEC-2 utilizes these MOSS channel data and HEC-1 generated storm hydrographs to uniquely define the floodplain. The computed water surface elevations at each channel section am then read back into the MOSS system. In this particular application, 13 separate elongated watersheds traverse Laboratory lands, with individual channels ranging up to 11 miles in length. The 50, 100, and 500-year floods, and the Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) are quantified in HEC-1. Individual floodplains are then defined for each channel segment in HEC-2 at 250 foot intervals, and detailed 1:4800 scale maps am generated. Over 100 channel miles were mapped using this combined GIS-HEC procedure.

  3. Hazard maps of Colima volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Escudero Ayala, C. R.

    2011-12-01

    Colima volcano, also known as Volcan de Fuego (19° 30.696 N, 103° 37.026 W), is located on the border between the states of Jalisco and Colima and is the most active volcano in Mexico. Began its current eruptive process in February 1991, in February 10, 1999 the biggest explosion since 1913 occurred at the summit dome. The activity during the 2001-2005 period was the most intense, but did not exceed VEI 3. The activity resulted in the formation of domes and their destruction after explosive events. The explosions originated eruptive columns, reaching attitudes between 4,500 and 9,000 m.a.s.l., further pyroclastic flows reaching distances up to 3.5 km from the crater. During the explosive events ash emissions were generated in all directions reaching distances up to 100 km, slightly affected nearby villages as Tuxpan, Tonila, Zapotlán, Cuauhtemoc, Comala, Zapotitlan de Vadillo and Toliman. During the 2005 this volcano has had an intense effusive-explosive activity, similar to the one that took place during the period of 1890 through 1900. Intense pre-plinian eruption in January 20, 1913, generated little economic losses in the lower parts of the volcano due to low population density and low socio-economic activities at the time. Shows the updating of the volcanic hazard maps published in 2001, where we identify whit SPOT satellite imagery and Google Earth, change in the land use on the slope of volcano, the expansion of the agricultural frontier on the east and southeast sides of the Colima volcano, the population inhabiting the area is approximately 517,000 people, and growing at an annual rate of 4.77%, also the region that has shown an increased in the vulnerability for the development of economic activities, supported by the construction of highways, natural gas pipelines and electrical infrastructure that connect to the Port of Manzanillo to Guadalajara city. The update the hazard maps are: a) Exclusion areas and moderate hazard for explosive events

  4. Building Better Volcanic Hazard Maps Through Scientific and Stakeholder Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, M. A.; Lindsay, J. M.; Calder, E.

    2015-12-01

    All across the world information about natural hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and tsunami is shared and communicated using maps that show which locations are potentially exposed to hazards of varying intensities. Unlike earthquakes and tsunami, which typically produce one dominant hazardous phenomenon (ground shaking and inundation, respectively) volcanic eruptions can produce a wide variety of phenomena that range from near-vent (e.g. pyroclastic flows, ground shaking) to distal (e.g. volcanic ash, inundation via tsunami), and that vary in intensity depending on the type and location of the volcano. This complexity poses challenges in depicting volcanic hazard on a map, and to date there has been no consistent approach, with a wide range of hazard maps produced and little evaluation of their relative efficacy. Moreover, in traditional hazard mapping practice, scientists analyse data about a hazard, and then display the results on a map that is then presented to stakeholders. This one-way, top-down approach to hazard communication does not necessarily translate into effective hazard education, or, as tragically demonstrated by Nevado del Ruiz, Columbia in 1985, its use in risk mitigation by civil authorities. Furthermore, messages taken away from a hazard map can be strongly influenced by its visual design. Thus, hazard maps are more likely to be useful, usable and used if relevant stakeholders are engaged during the hazard map process to ensure a) the map is designed in a relevant way and b) the map takes into account how users interpret and read different map features and designs. The IAVCEI Commission on Volcanic Hazards and Risk has recently launched a Hazard Mapping Working Group to collate some of these experiences in graphically depicting volcanic hazard from around the world, including Latin America and the Caribbean, with the aim of preparing some Considerations for Producing Volcanic Hazard Maps that may help map makers in the future.

  5. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for La Ceiba, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, M.C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of La Ceiba that would be inundated by a 50-year-flood of Rio Cangrejal. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of La Ceiba as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for a 50-year-flood discharge of 1,030 cubic meters per second on Rio Cangrejal at La Ceiba were computed using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations on Rio Cangrejal; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Cangrejal at La Ceiba was estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The drainage area and mean annual precipitation estimated for Rio Cangrejal at La Ceiba are 498 square kilometers and 2,306 millimeters, respectively.

  6. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for El Progreso, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresch, David L.; Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of El Progreso that would be inundated by a 50-year flood of Rio Pelo. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of El Progreso as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for a 50-year-flood on Rio Pelo at El Progreso were estimated using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area. There are no nearby long-term stream-gaging stations on Rio Pelo; therefore, the 50-year-flood discharge for Rio Pelo, 235 cubic meters per second, was estimated using a regression equation that relates the 50-year-flood discharge to drainage area and mean annual precipitation. The drainage area and mean annual precipitation estimated for Rio Pelo at El Progreso are 47.4 square kilometers and 1,920 millimeters, respectively.

  7. Preliminary Earthquake Hazard Map of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, Oliver S.; Mueller, Charles S.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Earthquakes represent a serious threat to the people and institutions of Afghanistan. As part of a United States Agency for International Development (USAID) effort to assess the resource potential and seismic hazards of Afghanistan, the Seismic Hazard Mapping group of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) has prepared a series of probabilistic seismic hazard maps that help quantify the expected frequency and strength of ground shaking nationwide. To construct the maps, we do a complete hazard analysis for each of ~35,000 sites in the study area. We use a probabilistic methodology that accounts for all potential seismic sources and their rates of earthquake activity, and we incorporate modeling uncertainty by using logic trees for source and ground-motion parameters. See the Appendix for an explanation of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and discussion of seismic risk. Afghanistan occupies a southward-projecting, relatively stable promontory of the Eurasian tectonic plate (Ambraseys and Bilham, 2003; Wheeler and others, 2005). Active plate boundaries, however, surround Afghanistan on the west, south, and east. To the west, the Arabian plate moves northward relative to Eurasia at about 3 cm/yr. The active plate boundary trends northwestward through the Zagros region of southwestern Iran. Deformation is accommodated throughout the territory of Iran; major structures include several north-south-trending, right-lateral strike-slip fault systems in the east and, farther to the north, a series of east-west-trending reverse- and strike-slip faults. This deformation apparently does not cross the border into relatively stable western Afghanistan. In the east, the Indian plate moves northward relative to Eurasia at a rate of about 4 cm/yr. A broad, transpressional plate-boundary zone extends into eastern Afghanistan, trending southwestward from the Hindu Kush in northeast Afghanistan, through Kabul, and along the Afghanistan-Pakistan border

  8. A methodology for the assessment of flood hazards at the regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallina, Valentina; Torresan, Silvia; Critto, Andrea; Zabeo, Alex; Semenzin, Elena; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, the frequency of water-related disasters has increased and recent flood events in Europe (e.g. 2002 in Central Europe, 2007 in UK, 2010 in Italy) caused physical-environmental and socio-economic damages. Specifically, floods are the most threatening water-related disaster that affects humans, their lives and properties. Within the KULTURisk project (FP7) a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology is proposed to evaluate the benefits of risk prevention in terms of reduced environmental risks due to floods. The method is based on the KULTURisk framework and allows the identification and prioritization of targets (i.e. people, buildings, infrastructures, agriculture, natural and semi-natural systems, cultural heritages) and areas at risk from floods in the considered region by comparing the baseline scenario (i.e. current state) with alternative scenarios (i.e. where different structural and/or non-structural measures are planned). The RRA methodology is flexible and can be adapted to different case studies (i.e. large rivers, alpine/mountain catchments, urban areas and coastal areas) and spatial scales (i.e. from the large river to the urban scale). The final aim of RRA is to help decision-makers in examining the possible environmental risks associated with uncertain future flood hazards and in identifying which prevention scenario could be the most suitable one. The RRA methodology employs Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA functions) in order to integrate stakeholder preferences and experts judgments into the analysis. Moreover, Geographic Information Systems (GISs) are used to manage, process, analyze, and map data to facilitate the analysis and the information sharing with different experts and stakeholders. In order to characterize flood risks, the proposed methodology integrates the output of hydrodynamic models with the analysis of site-specific bio-geophysical and socio-economic indicators (e.g. slope of the territory, land cover

  9. Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex Natural Phenomena Hazards Flood Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald Sehlke; Paul Wichlacz

    2010-12-01

    This report presents the results of flood hazards analyses performed for the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) and the adjacent Transient Reactor Experiment and Test Facility (TREAT) located at Idaho National Laboratory. The requirements of these analyses are provided in the U.S. Department of Energy Order 420.1B and supporting Department of Energy (DOE) Natural Phenomenon Hazard standards. The flood hazards analyses were performed by Battelle Energy Alliance and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The analyses addressed the following: • Determination of the design basis flood (DBFL) • Evaluation of the DBFL versus the Critical Flood Elevations (CFEs) for critical existing structures, systems, and components (SSCs).

  10. Flood-inundation maps for White River at Petersburg, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fowler, Kathleen K.

    2015-08-20

    The availability of these maps along with Internet information regarding current stage from the USGS streamgage at White River at Petersburg, Ind., and forecasted stream stages from the NWS provide emergency management personnel and residents with information that is critical for flood response activities such as evacuations and road closures as well as for post-flood recovery efforts.

  11. Geologic Maps as the Foundation of Mineral-Hazards Maps in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, C. T.; Churchill, R. K.; Downey, C. I.; Clinkenbeard, J. P.; Fonseca, M. C.

    2010-12-01

    The basic geologic map is essential to the development of products that help planners, engineers, government officials, and the general public make decisions concerning natural hazards. Such maps are the primary foundation that the California Geological Survey (CGS) uses to prepare maps that show potential for mineral-hazards. Examples of clients that request these maps are the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) and California Department of Public Health (CDPH). Largely because of their non-catastrophic nature, mineral hazards have received much less public attention compared to earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, and floods. Nonetheless, mineral hazards can be a major concern locally when considering human health and safety and potential contamination of the environment by human activities such as disposal of earth materials. To address some of these concerns, the CGS has focused its mineral-hazards maps on naturally occurring asbestos (NOA), radon, and various potentially toxic metals as well as certain artificial features such as mines and oil and gas wells. The maps range in scope from statewide to counties and Caltrans districts to segments of selected highways. To develop the hazard maps, the CGS begins with traditional paper and digital versions of basic geologic maps, which are obtained from many sources such as its own files, the USGS, USDA Forest Service, California Department of Water Resources, and counties. For each study area, these maps present many challenges of compilation related to vintage, scale, definition of units, and edge-matching across map boundaries. The result of each CGS compilation is a digital geologic layer that is subsequently reinterpreted and transformed into new digital layers (e.g., lithologic) that focus on the geochemical and mineralogical properties of the area’s earth materials and structures. These intermediate layers are then integrated with other technical data to derive final digital layers

  12. Mapping flood prone areas in southern Brazil: a combination of frequency analysis, HAND algorithm and remote sensing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabris Goerl, Roberto; Borges Chaffe, Pedro Luiz; Marcel Pellerin, Joel Robert; Altamirano Flores, Juan Antonio; Josina Abreu, Janete; Speckhann, Gustavo Andrei; Mattos Sanchez, Gerly

    2015-04-01

    Floods disaster damages several people around the world. There is a worldwide increasing trend of natural disasters frequency and their negative impacts related to the population growth and high urbanization in natural hazards zones. In Santa Catarina state, such as almost all southern Brazilian territory, floods are a frequent hydrological disaster. In this context, flood prone areas map is a important tool to avoid the construction of new settlements in non-urbanizations areas. The present work aimed to map flood prone areas in Palhoça City, Southern Brazil combining high resolution digital elevations data, remote sensing information, frequency analysis and High Above Nearest Drainage (HAND) algorithm. We used 17 years of daily discharge and stage data to calculate flood probability and return period. Remote Sensing (RS) with CBERS HRC image with 2,7m resolution was used. This image was taken one day after one flood occurrence and a band difference was used to extract the flood extent. HAND using DEM to calculate the altimetric difference between channel pixel and adjacent terrain values. All morphometric attributes used in HAND were extracted directly from the high resolution DEM (1m). Through CBERS image areas where flood level was higher than 0.5m were mapped. There is some kind of uncertain in establish HAND classes, since only distance to the channel was take in account. Thus, using other hydrological or spatial information can reduce this uncertain. To elaborate the final flood prone map, all this methods were combined. This map was classified in three main classes based on return period. It was notices that there is a strong spatial correlation between high susceptibility flood areas and geomorphological features like floodplains and Holocene beach ridges, places where water table emerges frequently. The final map was classified using three different colors (red, yellow and green) related to high, medium an law susceptibility flood areas. This mapping

  13. Flood hazard studies in Central Texas using orbital and suborbital remote sensing machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, V. R.; Holz, R. K.; Patton, P. C.

    1975-01-01

    Central Texas is subject to infrequent, unusually intense rainstorms which cause extremely rapid runoff from drainage basins developed on the deeply dissected limestone and marl bedrock of the Edwards Plateau. One approach to flood hazard evaluation in this area is a parametric model relating flood hydrograph characteristics to quantitative geomorphic properties of the drainage basins. The preliminary model uses multiple regression techniques to predict potential peak flood discharge from basin magnitude, drainage density, and ruggedness number. After mapping small catchment networks from remote sensing imagery, input data for the model are generated by network digitization and analysis by a computer assisted routine of watershed analysis. The study evaluated the network resolution capabilities of the following data formats: (1) large-scale (1:24,000) topographic maps, employing Strahler's "method of v's," (2) standard low altitude black and white aerial photography (1:13,000 and 1:20,000 scales), (3) NASA - generated aerial infrared photography at scales ranging from 1:48,000 to 1:123,000, and (4) Skylab Earth Resources Experiment Package S-190A and S-190B sensors (1:750,000 and 1:500,000 respectively).

  14. Hazard function analysis for flood planning under nonstationarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Laura K.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2016-05-01

    The field of hazard function analysis (HFA) involves a probabilistic assessment of the "time to failure" or "return period," T, of an event of interest. HFA is used in epidemiology, manufacturing, medicine, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. For a stationary process, the probability distribution function (pdf) of the return period always follows an exponential distribution, the same is not true for nonstationary processes. When the process of interest, X, exhibits nonstationary behavior, HFA can provide a complementary approach to risk analysis with analytical tools particularly useful for hydrological applications. After a general introduction to HFA, we describe a new mathematical linkage between the magnitude of the flood event, X, and its return period, T, for nonstationary processes. We derive the probabilistic properties of T for a nonstationary one-parameter exponential model of X, and then use both Monte-Carlo simulation and HFA to generalize the behavior of T when X arises from a nonstationary two-parameter lognormal distribution. For this case, our findings suggest that a two-parameter Weibull distribution provides a reasonable approximation for the pdf of T. We document how HFA can provide an alternative approach to characterize the probabilistic properties of both nonstationary flood series and the resulting pdf of T.

  15. Probabilistic Flood Mapping and Visualization Issues: Application to the River Ubaye, Barcelonnette (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukolwe, M. M.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Bogaard, T. A.; Malet, J.-P.; Solomatine, D. P.

    2012-04-01

    Potential loss of life and damage to infrastructure is an ever present risk along several rivers globally. Recent floodings in Thailand (2011), Pakistan (2010) and Australia (2010) testify the level of damage experienced. Increasing population levels and migration patterns result in space shortages, and floodplain encroachment. This has increased the vulnerability and exposure of the population. The problem is compounded by the uncertainty in the derived flood risk mitigation parameters and design guidelines, due to unknown behavior of hydrological extremes (Klemes, 1989). Current flood risk management practices acknowledge the inability of hydrological extremes (and resulting floods) to be fully contained by structural flood defense measures (Loat and Petrascheck, 1997). Consequently, decision makers are faced with a challenge in the safeguarding of civil society. Flood mapping provides prior knowledge and aids land-use planning strategies. The EU flood directive (2007) clearly outlines procedures to be followed in the mapping of floodplains, by the production of hazard maps corresponding to specified probabilities of occurrence. The main challenge is the reliability of natural randomness and epistemic uncertainty of the hydraulic flood modeling process (Refsgaard et al., 2007). Several studies over the resent past have investigated methods to estimate (and possibly reduce) the uncertainty (e.g. Montanari, 2007). However, it is acknowledged that the degree of randomness and the incomplete knowledge of natural system behavior contribute to a certitude level in the derived outputs (Di Baldassarre et al., 2010). Several authors pinpointed the need for "honest" portrayal of this uncertainty in modeling output. Nevertheless, the fear of introducing confusion has hampered this endeavour (Pappenberger and Beven, 2006). This study focuses on a flood inundation modeling and a probabilistic mapping carried out along the R. Ubaye (Barcelonnette Basin, South French Alps

  16. Making Topographical Maps From SAR and Flood-Gauge Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, Marc Lee

    1990-01-01

    Collection of computer programs processes image data obtained by synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) along with measurements of water levels taken at selected points on ground to generate three-dimensional maps of surveyed terrain. Information in maps presented in variety of useful ways suited to study of such phenomena as flooding, damage caused by floods, flow of nutrients from forests to river and marine ecosystems, and effects of subsidence of ground or of rising sea levels.

  17. Flood Water Level Mapping and Prediction Due to Dam Failures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa, S.; Adnan, M. S.; Ahmad, N. A.; Ayob, S.

    2016-07-01

    Sembrong dam has undergone overflow failure. Flooding has been reported to hit the town, covering an area of up to Parit Raja, located in the district of Batu Pahat. This study aims to identify the areas that will be affected by flood in the event of a dam failure in Sembrong Dam, Kluang, Johor at a maximum level. To grasp the extent, the flood inundation maps have been generated by using the InfoWorks ICM and GIS software. By using these maps, information such as the depth and extent of floods can be identified the main ares flooded. The flood map was created starting with the collection of relevant data such as measuring the depth of the river and a maximum flow rate for Sembrong Dam. The data were obtained from the Drainage and Irrigation Department Malaysia and the Department of Survey and Mapping and HLA Associates Sdn. Bhd. Then, the data were analyzed according to the established Info Works ICM method. The results found that the flooded area were listed at Sri Lalang, Parit Sagil, Parit Sonto, Sri Paya, Parit Raja, Parit Sempadan, Talang Bunut, Asam Bubok, Tanjung Sembrong, Sungai Rambut and Parit Haji Talib. Flood depth obtained for the related area started from 0.5 m up to 1.2 m. As a conclusion, the flood emanating from this study include the area around the town of Ayer Hitam up to Parit Raja approximately of more than 20 km distance. This may give bad implication to residents around these areas. In future studies, other rivers such as Sungai Batu Pahat should be considered for this study to predict and reduce the yearly flood victims for this area.

  18. 12 CFR 760.9 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notice of special flood hazards and... ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 760.9 Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement....

  19. 12 CFR 339.9 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notice of special flood hazards and... INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 339.9 Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance....

  20. 12 CFR 339.9 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of special flood hazards and... INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY LOANS IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 339.9 Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance....

  1. Hazards, Disasters, and The National Map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2003-01-01

    Governments depend on base geographic information that describes the Earth's surface and locates features. They use this information for economic and community development, land and natural resource management, delivery of health services, and ensuring public safety. It is also the foundation for studying and solving geographically based problems. Geographic information underpins an increasingly large part of the Nation's economy. It is an important part of our national infrastructure in the same way that the Interstate Highway System is an essential element of our transportation network. Federal, State, and local response and management personnel must have current, reliable, and easily accessible geographic information and maps to prepare for, respond to, or recover from emergency situations. In life-threatening events, such as earthquakes, floods, or wildland fires, geographic information is essential for locating critical infrastructure and carrying out evacuation and rescue operations.

  2. Mapping Flash Flood Severity in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saharia, M.; Kirstetter, P. E.; Gourley, J. J.; Hong, Y.; Vergara, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    Flash floods have been a major natural hazard in terms of both fatalities and property damage. In the United States, flash floods have only been characterized on a case study basis due to the lack of a comprehensive database matching flood characteristics with geospatial and geomorphologic information. To characterize the ability of a basin to produce flash floods, a new variable called "Flashiness" is derived from the slope of the rising limb in hydrograph time series. It is the basis to document and predict the flash flood potential and severity over the U.S. First a representative and long archive of flood events spanning 78 years is used to analyze the spatial and temporal variability of observed flashiness. The areas and seasons prone to flash floods are documented, highlighting the flash flood alley in Texas, Appalachians, West Coast, and North American monsoon in Arizona etc. Then the flashiness is linked to geomorphologic and climatologic attributes to identify the basin characteristics driving the ability to produce flash floods. The significant impact of characteristics such as slope, precipitation, and basin area are quantified. Next the model is used to predict flashiness all over the continental U.S., specifically over regions poorly covered by hydrological observations. It highlights ungauged areas prone to flash floods such as parts of Florida, Southern Wisconsin, Montana and South Dakota etc. Finally these findings are validated using the National Weather Service storm reports and a historical flood fatalities database. This analysis framework will serve as a baseline for evaluating distributed hydrologic model simulations such as the Flooded Locations And Simulated Hydrographs Project (FLASH) (http://flash.ou.edu).

  3. A software tool for rapid flood inundation mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verdin, James; Verdin, Kristine; Mathis, Melissa L.; Magadzire, Tamuka; Kabuchanga, Eric; Woodbury, Mark; Gadain, Hussein

    2016-06-02

    The GIS Flood Tool (GFT) was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey with support from the U.S. Agency for International Development’s Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance to provide a means for production of reconnaissance-level flood inundation mapping for data-sparse and resource-limited areas of the world. The GFT has also attracted interest as a tool for rapid assessment flood inundation mapping for the Flood Inundation Mapping Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The GFT can fill an important gap for communities that lack flood inundation mapping by providing a first-estimate of inundation zones, pending availability of resources to complete an engineering study. The tool can also help identify priority areas for application of scarce flood inundation mapping resources. The technical basis of the GFT is an application of the Manning equation for steady flow in an open channel, operating on specially processed digital elevation data. The GFT is implemented as a software extension in ArcGIS. Output maps from the GFT were validated at 11 sites with inundation maps produced previously by the Flood Inundation Mapping Program using standard one-dimensional hydraulic modeling techniques. In 80 percent of the cases, the GFT inundation patterns matched 75 percent or more of the one-dimensional hydraulic model inundation patterns. Lower rates of pattern agreement were seen at sites with low relief and subtle surface water divides. Although the GFT is simple to use, it should be applied with the oversight or review of a qualified hydraulic engineer who understands the simplifying assumptions of the approach.

  4. Current and future pluvial flood hazard analysis for the city of Antwerp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willems, Patrick; Tabari, Hossein; De Niel, Jan; Van Uytven, Els; Lambrechts, Griet; Wellens, Geert

    2016-04-01

    to two types of methods). These were finally transferred into future pluvial flash flood hazard maps for the city together with the uncertainties, and are considered as basis for spatial planning and adaptation.

  5. Qualitative approach to residual hazard from the 2013 flood effects in the Garonne River (Val d'Aran, Central Pyrenees)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Silvestre, Marta; Victoriano-Lamariano, Ane; Furdada-Bellavista, Gloria

    2015-04-01

    The Val d'Aran is a region located in the central, axial part of the Pyrenees. The Garona River, the main river that drains it, produces relatively frequent flood events. The last significant flood occurred in June 2013 and it caused extensive damages, as well as a large impact on the media. Based on the 2013 flood effects, a qualitative approach to the residual hazard was performed in order to understand the characteristics of the main zones that were affected and, therefore, may be affected in the future. Two representative sectors along the Garona River were chosen for the study: Arties-Vielha and Era Bordeta-Les stretches. The qualitative approach to the residual hazard has been performed considering that the study of the landforms and the flood effects can give orientation to identify the major flood prone areas. The residual hazard is considered as the hazard that remains even when effective mitigation measures to minimize flood processes are in place. The geomorphology in quasi-natural conditions provides information about the natural dynamic of the river. The geomorphology was studied by analysing the landforms from the 1956 aerial pictures that indicate fluvial processes of the area in quasi-natural conditions. Comparing the effects and flooded areas with the fluvial geomorphology and ancient maps, the most significant flood prone areas can be predicted for future episodes. Administration agencies (CHE, ACA) considered the return-period of this flood lower than 50 years. For this low to medium frequency event, two main types of flood effects were identified: erosions and overflows. Erosions were much more significant than overflows. Regarding to erosions, different cases were found: 1) anthropically narrowed channel stretches recovered their original width; 2) the erosions along the river coincided mostly with landfills that nowadays occupy the floodplain; 3) anthropically deviated stretches recovered their natural paths. Furthermore, these erosions caused

  6. Seismic hazard mapping of California considering site effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkan, E.; Wills, C.J.; Branum, D.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we have combined the U.S. Geological Survey's National Seismic Hazard Maps model with the California geologic map showing 17 generalized geologic units that can be defined by their VS30. We regrouped these units into seven VS30 values and calculated a probabilistic seismic hazard map for the entire state for each VS30 value. By merging seismic hazard maps based on the seven different V S30 values, a suite of seismic hazard maps was computed for 0.2 and 1.0 s spectral ordinates at 2% probability of exceedance (PE) in 50 years. The improved hazards maps explicitly incorporate the site effects and their spatial variability on ground motion estimates. The spectral acceleration (SA) at 1.0 s map of seismic shaking potential for California has now been published as California Geological Survey Map Sheet 48.

  7. Parcel-scale urban coastal flood mapping: Leveraging the multi-scale CoSMoS model for coastal flood forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallien, T.; Barnard, P. L.; Sanders, B. F.

    2011-12-01

    California coastal sea levels are projected to rise 1-1.4 meters in the next century and evidence suggests mean tidal range, and consequently, mean high water (MHW) is increasing along portions of Southern California Bight. Furthermore, emerging research indicates wind stress patterns associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) have suppressed sea level rise rates along the West Coast since 1980, and a reversal in this pattern would result in the resumption of regional sea level rise rates equivalent to or exceeding global mean sea level rise rates, thereby enhancing coastal flooding. Newport Beach is a highly developed, densely populated lowland along the Southern California coast currently subject to episodic flooding from coincident high tides and waves, and the frequency and intensity of flooding is expected to increase with projected future sea levels. Adaptation to elevated sea levels will require flood mapping and forecasting tools that are sensitive to the dominant factors affecting flooding including extreme high tides, waves and flood control infrastructure. Considerable effort has been focused on the development of nowcast and forecast systems including Scripps Institute of Oceanography's Coastal Data Information Program (CDIP) and the USGS Multi-hazard model, the Southern California Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS). However, fine scale local embayment dynamics and overtopping flows are needed to map unsteady flooding effects in coastal lowlands protected by dunes, levees and seawalls. Here, a recently developed two dimensional Godunov non-linear shallow water solver is coupled to water level and wave forecasts from the CoSMoS model to investigate the roles of tides, waves, sea level changes and flood control infrastructure in accurate flood mapping and forecasting. The results of this study highlight the important roles of topographic data, embayment hydrodynamics, water level uncertainties and critical flood processes required for

  8. Water Induced Hazard Mapping in Nepal: A Case Study of East Rapti River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupane, N.

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents illustration on typical water induced hazard mapping of East Rapti River Basin under the DWIDP, GON. The basin covers an area of 2398 sq km. The methodology includes making of base map of water induced disaster in the basin. Landslide hazard maps were prepared by SINMAP approach. Debris flow hazard maps were prepared by considering geology, slope, and saturation. Flood hazard maps were prepared by using two approaches: HEC-RAS and Satellite Imagery Interpretation. The composite water-induced hazard maps were produced by compiling the hazards rendered by landslide, debris flow, and flood. The monsoon average rainfall in the basin is 1907 mm whereas maximum 24 hours precipitation is 456.8 mm. The peak discharge of the Rapati River in the year of 1993 at station was 1220 cu m/sec. This discharge nearly corresponds to the discharge of 100-year return period. The landslides, floods, and debris flows triggered by the heavy rain of July 1993 claimed 265 lives, affected 148516 people, and damaged 1500 houses in the basin. The field investigation and integrated GIS interpretation showed that the very high and high landslide hazard zones collectively cover 38.38% and debris flow hazard zone constitutes 6.58%. High flood hazard zone occupies 4.28% area of the watershed. Mitigation measures are recommendated according to Integrated Watershed Management Approach under which the non-structural and structural measures are proposed. The non-structural measures includes: disaster management training, formulation of evacuation system (arrangement of information plan about disaster), agriculture management practices, protection of water sources, slope protections and removal of excessive bed load from the river channel. Similarly, structural measures such as dike, spur, rehabilitation of existing preventive measures and river training at some locations are recommendated. The major factors that have contributed to induce high incidences of various types of mass

  9. Toward a coupled Hazard-Vulnerability Tool for Flash Flood Impacts Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terti, Galateia; Ruin, Isabelle; Anquetin, Sandrine; Gourley, Jonathan J.

    2015-04-01

    Flash floods (FF) are high-impact, catastrophic events that result from the intersection of hydrometeorological extremes and society at small space-time scales, generally on the order of minutes to hours. Because FF events are generally localized in space and time, they are very difficult to forecast with precision and can subsequently leave people uninformed and subject to surprise in the midst of their daily activities (e.g., commuting to work). In Europe, FFs are the main source of natural hazard fatalities, although they affect smaller areas than riverine flooding. In the US, also, flash flooding is the leading cause of weather-related deaths most years, with some 200 annual fatalities. There were 954 fatalities and approximately 31 billion U.S. dollars of property damage due to floods and flash floods from 1995 to 2012 in the US. For forecasters and emergency managers the prediction of and subsequent response to impacts due to such a sudden onset and localized event remains a challenge. This research is motivated by the hypothesis that the intersection of the spatio-temporal context of the hazard with the distribution of people and their characteristics across space and time reveals different paths of vulnerability. We argue that vulnerability and the dominant impact type varies dynamically throughout the day and week according to the location under concern. Thus, indices are appropriate to develop and provide, for example, vehicle-related impacts on active population being focused on the road network during morning or evening rush hours. This study describes the methodological developments of our approach and applies our hypothesis to the case of the June 14th, 2010 flash flood event in the Oklahoma City area (Oklahoma, US). Social (i.e. population socio-economic profile), exposure (i.e. population distribution, land use), and physical (i.e. built and natural environment) data are used to compose different vulnerability products based on the forecast location

  10. Combining criteria for delineating lahar- and flash-flood-prone hazard and risk zones for the city of Arequipa, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouret, J.-C.; Enjolras, G.; Martelli, K.; Santoni, O.; Luque, J. A.; Nagata, M.; Arguedas, A.; Macedo, L.

    2013-02-01

    Arequipa, the second largest city in Peru, is exposed to many natural hazards, most notably earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, lahars (volcanic debris flows), and flash floods. Of these, lahars and flash floods, triggered by occasional torrential rainfall, pose the most frequently occurring hazards that can affect the city and its environs, in particular the areas containing low-income neighbourhoods. This paper presents and discusses criteria for delineating areas prone to flash flood and lahar hazards, which are localized along the usually dry (except for the rainy season) ravines and channels of the Río Chili and its tributaries that dissect the city. Our risk-evaluation study is based mostly on field surveys and mapping, but we also took into account quality and structural integrity of buildings, available socio-economic data, and information gained from interviews with risk-managers officials. In our evaluation of the vulnerability of various parts of the city, in addition to geological and physical parameters, we also took into account selected socio-economic parameters, such as the educational and poverty level of the population, unemployment figures, and population density. In addition, we utilized a criterion of the "isolation factor", based on distances to access emergency resources (hospitals, shelters or safety areas, and water) in each city block. By combining the hazard, vulnerability and exposure criteria, we produced detailed risk-zone maps at the city-block scale, covering the whole city of Arequipa and adjacent suburbs. Not surprisingly, these maps show that the areas at high risk coincide with blocks or districts with populations at low socio-economic levels. Inhabitants at greatest risk are the poor recent immigrants from rural areas who live in unauthorized settlements in the outskirts of the city in the upper parts of the valleys. Such settlements are highly exposed to natural hazards and have little access to vital resources. Our

  11. Flood-hazard analysis of four headwater streams draining the Argonne National Laboratory property, DuPage County, Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soong, David T.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Straub, Timothy D.; Zeeb, Hannah L.

    2016-11-22

    Results of a flood-hazard analysis conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Argonne National Laboratory, for four headwater streams within the Argonne National Laboratory property indicate that the 1-percent and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability floods would cause multiple roads to be overtopped. Results indicate that most of the effects on the infrastructure would be from flooding of Freund Brook. Flooding on the Northeast and Southeast Drainage Ways would be limited to overtopping of one road crossing for each of those streams. The Northwest Drainage Way would be the least affected with flooding expected to occur in open grass or forested areas.The Argonne Site Sustainability Plan outlined the development of hydrologic and hydraulic models and the creation of flood-plain maps of the existing site conditions as a first step in addressing resiliency to possible climate change impacts as required by Executive Order 13653 “Preparing the United States for the Impacts of Climate Change.” The Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN is the hydrologic model used in the study, and the Hydrologic Engineering Center‒River Analysis System (HEC–RAS) is the hydraulic model. The model results were verified by comparing simulated water-surface elevations to observed water-surface elevations measured at a network of five crest-stage gages on the four study streams. The comparison between crest-stage gage and simulated elevations resulted in an average absolute difference of 0.06 feet and a maximum difference of 0.19 feet.In addition to the flood-hazard model development and mapping, a qualitative stream assessment was conducted to evaluate stream channel and substrate conditions in the study reaches. This information can be used to evaluate erosion potential.

  12. Flood-Inundation Maps for Sugar Creek at Crawfordsville, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Zachary W.

    2016-06-06

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.5-mile reach of Sugar Creek at Crawfordsville, Indiana, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage 03339500, Sugar Creek at Crawfordsville, Ind. Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at this site (NWS site CRWI3).Flood profiles were computed for the USGS streamgage 03339500, Sugar Creek at Crawfordsville, Ind., reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater hydraulic modeling software developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The hydraulic model was calibrated using the current stage-discharge rating at the USGS streamgage 03339500, Sugar Creek at Crawfordsville, Ind., and high-water marks from the flood of April 19, 2013, which reached a stage of 15.3 feet. The hydraulic model was then used to compute 13 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum ranging from 4.0 ft (the NWS “action stage”) to 16.0 ft, which is the highest stage interval of the current USGS stage-discharge rating curve and 2 ft higher than the NWS “major flood stage.” The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a Geographic Information System digital elevation model (derived from light detection and ranging [lidar]) data having a 0.49-ft root mean squared error and 4.9-ft horizontal resolution) to delineate the area flooded at each stage.The availability

  13. Development of a flood-warning system and flood-inundation mapping in Licking County, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostheimer, Chad J.

    2012-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for selected reaches of South Fork Licking River, Raccoon Creek, North Fork Licking River, and the Licking River in Licking County, Ohio, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Ohio Department of Transportation; U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration; Muskingum Watershed Conservancy District; U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service; and the City of Newark and Village of Granville, Ohio. The inundation maps depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to water levels (stages) at the following USGS streamgages: South Fork Licking River at Heath, Ohio (03145173); Raccoon Creek below Wilson Street at Newark, Ohio (03145534); North Fork Licking River at East Main Street at Newark, Ohio (03146402); and Licking River near Newark, Ohio (03146500). The maps were provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into a Web-based flood-warning system that can be used in conjunction with NWS flood-forecast data to show areas of predicted flood inundation associated with forecasted flood-peak stages. As part of the flood-warning streamflow network, the USGS re-installed one streamgage on North Fork Licking River, and added three new streamgages, one each on North Fork Licking River, South Fork Licking River, and Raccoon Creek. Additionally, the USGS upgraded a lake-level gage on Buckeye Lake. Data from the streamgages and lake-level gage can be used by emergency-management personnel, in conjunction with the flood-inundation maps, to help determine a course of action when flooding is imminent. Flood profiles for selected reaches were prepared by calibrating steady-state step-backwater models to selected, established streamgage rating curves. The step-backwater models then were used to determine water-surface-elevation profiles for up to 10 flood stages at a streamgage with corresponding streamflows ranging from approximately

  14. Flood Hazard Assessment of the coastal lowland in the Kujukuri Plain of Chiba Prefecture, Japan, using GIS and multicriteria decision analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHEN, Huali; Tokunaga, Tomochika; Ito, Yuka; Sawamukai, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Floods, the most common natural disaster in the world, cause serious loss of life and economic damage. Flood is one of the disasters in the coastal lowland along the Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan. Many natural and human activities have changed the surface environment of the Plain. These include agricultural development, urban and industrial development, change of the drainage patterns of the land surface, deposition and/or erosion of the river valleys, and so on. In addition, wide spread occurrence of land subsidence has been caused by the abstraction of natural gas dissolved in groundwater. The locations of the groundwater extraction include nearby the coast, and it may increase the flood risk. Hence, it is very important to evaluate flood hazard by taking into account the temporal change of land elevation caused by land subsidence, and to develop hazard maps for protecting surface environment and land-use planning. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) provides methodology and techniques for analyzing complex decision problems, which often involve incommensurable data or criteria. Also, Geographical Information System (GIS) is the powerful tool since it manages large amount of spatial data involved in MCDA. The purpose of this study is to present a flood hazard model using MCDA techniques with GIS support in a region where primary data are scare. The model incorporates six parameters: river system, topography, land-use, flood control project, passing flood from coast, and precipitation. Main data sources used are 10 meter resolution topography data, airborne laser scanning data, leveling data, Landsat-TM data, two 1:30,000 scale river watershed map, and precipitation data from precipitation observation stations around the study area. River system map was created by merging the river order, the line density, and the river sink point density layers. Land-use data were derived from Landsat-TM images. A final hazard map for 2004, as an example, was

  15. The effect of riverine terrain spatial resolution on flood modeling and mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaioannou, George; Loukas, Athanasios; Georgiadis, Charalambos

    2013-08-01

    Spatial resolution of river and riverine area is an important aspect of hydraulic flood modeling that affects the accuracy of flood extent. This study compares the accuracy of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) produced from three methods of land surveying measurements and their effect on the results of river flow modeling and mapping of floodplain. Four data sets have been used for the creation of the DEMs: Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) point cloud data (raw data and processed), classic land surveying and digitization of elevation contours from 1:5000 scale topographic maps. LiDAR offers advantages over traditional methods for representing a terrain. Optech ILRIS-3D (Intelligent Laser Ranging and Imaging System) is a land based LiDAR system and has been used in this study. Separating LiDAR points into ground and non-ground is the most critical and difficult step for DEM generation from LiDAR data. In this study, geomorphologic filters, GIS operations and expert knowledge have been applied to produce the bare earth DEM. The HEC-GeoRAS and HEC-RAS software have been used as pre- and post-processing tools to prepare model inputs, simulate of river flow, and delineate flood inundation maps. The methodology has been applied in the suburban part of Xerias river at Volos-Greece, where typical hydrologic and hydraulic methods for ungauged watersheds have been used for flood modeling and inundation mapping. The results show that flood inundation area is significantly affected by the accuracy of DEM spatial resolution and could have significant impact on the delineation and mapping of flood hazard areas.

  16. Assessment of flood hazard areas at a regional scale using an index-based approach and Analytical Hierarchy Process: Application in Rhodope-Evros region, Greece.

    PubMed

    Kazakis, Nerantzis; Kougias, Ioannis; Patsialis, Thomas

    2015-12-15

    The present study introduces a multi-criteria index to assess flood hazard areas in a regional scale. Accordingly, a Flood Hazard Index (FHI) has been defined and a spatial analysis in a GIS environment has been applied for the estimation of its value. The developed methodology processes information of seven parameters namely flow accumulation, distance from the drainage network, elevation, land use, rainfall intensity and geology. The initials of these criteria gave the name to the developed method: "FIGUSED". The relative importance of each parameter for the occurrence and severity of flood has been connected to weight values. These values are calculated following an "Analytical Hierarchy Process", a method originally developed for the solution of Operational Research problems. According to their weight values, information of the different parameters is superimposed, resulting to flood hazard mapping. The accuracy of the method has been supported by a sensitivity analysis that examines a range for the weights' values and corresponding to alternative scenarios. The presented methodology has been applied to an area in north-eastern Greece, where recurring flood events have appeared. Initially FIGUSED method resulted to a Flood Hazard Index (FHI) and a corresponding flood map. A sensitivity analysis on the parameters' values revealed some interesting information on the relative importance of each criterion, presented and commented in the Discussion section. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis concluded to a revised index FHIS (methodology named FIGUSED-S) and flood mapping, supporting the robustness of FIGUSED methodology. A comparison of the outcome with records of historical flood events confirmed that the proposed methodology provides valid results.

  17. New river flow maxima in Northern England, December 2015: Implications for flood hazard and risk assessment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, James

    2016-04-01

    December 2015 was recently confirmed as the UK's wettest month on record by the Met Office. The most extreme precipitation was associated with three extratropical storm systems, named Desmond, Eva and Frank by the pilot Met Éireann/Met Office "Name our storms" project. In response, river levels reached new maxima at many locations across Northern England. Property damage was widespread, with at least 16,000 homes in England flooded. As with recent predecessors, these events reinvigorated public debate about the extent to which natural weather variability, anthropogenic climate change, increased urbanisation and/or other changes in catchment and river management might be responsible for apparent increases in flood frequency and severity. Change detection and attribution science is required to inform the debate, but is complicated by the short (typically ~ 35 years) river flow records available. Running a large number of coupled climate and hydrological model simulations is a powerful way of addressing the 'attribution question' with respect to the hypothesised climate forcing, for example, albeit one that remains largely in the research domain at present. In the meantime, flood-frequency analysis of available records still forms the bedrock of practice in the water industry; the results are used routinely in the design of new defence structures and in the development of flood hazard maps, amongst other things. In such analyses, it is usual for the records to be assumed stationary. In this context, the specific aims of this research are twofold: • To investigate whether, under the assumption of stationarity, the outputs of standard flood-frequency modelling methods (both 'single-site' and 'spatially pooled' methods) differ significantly depending on whether the new peaks are included or excluded, and; • To assess the sustainability of previous conclusions regarding trends in English river flows by reapplying simple statistical tests, such as the Mann-Kendal test

  18. Strategies for flood hazard adaptation in drought affected regions of Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleupner, Christine

    2010-05-01

    continue to impact upon society by creating stresses for specific vulnerable groups. This study discusses and compares existing policies, legislations and strategies considering flood adaptation planning in Afghanistan. It reviews available Flood Hazard Maps and reflects on regional adaptation options. Present and future vulnerability to flooding is assessed through a GIS-based model by using scenario techniques. A strategy is developed how to implement measures into regional and integrated water resource management planning. In general, not a single but the selection of multiple measures will be successful in pro-active planning for climate change adaptation. In this regard a continuous consultation with stakeholders needs to take place to address their demands. Thus the results of this study cannot give solutions but might build the basis for recommended active planning processes.

  19. Special Flood Hazard Evaluation Report, Lone Oak Ditch Village of Whitehouse, Lucas County, Ohio

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    Modify the Impact of Flooding on Individuals and the Community 11 CONCLUSION 11 GLOSSARY 12 REFERENCES 14 TABLES Number Title Page I Summary of...County) I VICINITY MAP Although Flood Insurance Rate Maps have been developed for the community , detailed analyses were not used to study the stream...relationships for each flooding source affecting the community . For this study, Lone Oak Ditch was divided into three hydrologic reaches. Reach 1

  20. Comparative hazard analysis of processes leading to remarkable flash floods (France, 1930-1999)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudou, M.; Lang, M.; Vinet, F.; Cœur, D.

    2016-10-01

    Flash flood events are responsible for large economic losses and lead to fatalities every year in France. This is especially the case in the Mediterranean and oversea territories/departments of France, characterized by extreme hydro-climatological features and with a large part of the population exposed to flood risks. The recurrence of remarkable flash flood events, associated with high hazard intensity, significant damage and socio-political consequences, therefore raises several issues for authorities and risk management policies. This study aims to improve our understanding of the hazard analysis process in the case of four remarkable flood events: March 1930, October 1940, January 1980 and November 1999. Firstly, we present the methodology used to define the remarkability score of a flood event. Then, to identify the factors leading to a remarkable flood event, we explore the main parameters of the hazard analysis process, such as the meteorological triggering conditions, the return period of the rainfall and peak discharge, as well as some additional factors (initial catchment state, flood chronology, cascade effects, etc.). The results contribute to understanding the complexity of the processes leading to flood hazard and highlight the importance for risk managers of taking additional factors into account.

  1. Flooding and Mental Health: A Systematic Mapping Review

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Ana; Black, John; Jones, Mairwen; Wilson, Leigh; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Black, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Background Floods are the most common type of global natural disaster. Floods have a negative impact on mental health. Comprehensive evaluation and review of the literature are lacking. Objective To systematically map and review available scientific evidence on mental health impacts of floods caused by extended periods of heavy rain in river catchments. Methods We performed a systematic mapping review of published scientific literature in five languages for mixed studies on floods and mental health. PUBMED and Web of Science were searched to identify all relevant articles from 1994 to May 2014 (no restrictions). Results The electronic search strategy identified 1331 potentially relevant papers. Finally, 83 papers met the inclusion criteria. Four broad areas are identified: i) the main mental health disorders—post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety; ii] the factors associated with mental health among those affected by floods; iii) the narratives associated with flooding, which focuses on the long-term impacts of flooding on mental health as a consequence of the secondary stressors; and iv) the management actions identified. The quantitative and qualitative studies have consistent findings. However, very few studies have used mixed methods to quantify the size of the mental health burden as well as exploration of in-depth narratives. Methodological limitations include control of potential confounders and short-term follow up. Limitations Floods following extreme events were excluded from our review. Conclusions Although the level of exposure to floods has been systematically associated with mental health problems, the paucity of longitudinal studies and lack of confounding controls precludes strong conclusions. Implications We recommend that future research in this area include mixed-method studies that are purposefully designed, using more rigorous methods. Studies should also focus on vulnerable groups and include analyses of policy and practical

  2. Flood hazard energy in urban areas: a new integrated method for flood risk analysis in synthesizing interactions with urban boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S. Y.; Schmidt, A.

    2015-12-01

    Since urban physical characteristics (such as morphology and land-use/land-cover) are different from those of nature, altered interactions between the surface and atmosphere (especially urban boundary layer, UBL) or surface and subsurface can affect the hydrologic behavior and hence the flood hazards. In this research we focus on three main aspects of the urban surface/atmosphere interactions that affect flood hazard: urban heat island (UHI) effect, increased surface roughness, and accumulated aerosols. These factors, along with the uncertainties in quantifying these components make risk analysis intractable. In order to perform a risk analysis, the impact of these components needs to be mapped to a variable that can be mathematically described in a risk-analysis framework. We propose defining hazard energy as a surrogate for the combined effect of these three components. Perturbations that can change the hazard energy come from diverse sources in the urban areas and these somewhat disconnected things can be combined by the energy concept to characterize the impacts of urban areas in risk assessment. This approach synthesizes across hydrological and hydraulic processes in UBL, land surface, subsurface, and sewer network with scrutinizing energy exchange across places. We can extend our understanding about not only the influence of cities on local climate in rural areas or larger scales but also the interaction of cities and nature affecting each other.

  3. 12 CFR 614.4955 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of special flood hazards and... ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Flood Insurance Requirements § 614.4955 Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement....

  4. 12 CFR 614.4955 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notice of special flood hazards and... ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Flood Insurance Requirements § 614.4955 Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement....

  5. 12 CFR 614.4955 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notice of special flood hazards and... ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Flood Insurance Requirements § 614.4955 Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement....

  6. Using open source data for flood risk mapping and management in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitley, Alison; Malloy, James; Chirouze, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Whitley, A., Malloy, J. and Chirouze, M. Worldwide the frequency and severity of major natural disasters, particularly flooding, has increased. Concurrently, countries such as Brazil are experiencing rapid socio-economic development with growing and increasingly concentrated populations, particularly in urban areas. Hence, it is unsurprising that Brazil has experienced a number of major floods in the past 30 years such as the January 2011 floods which killed 900 people and resulted in significant economic losses of approximately 1 billion US dollars. Understanding, mitigating against and even preventing flood risk is high priority. There is a demand for flood models in many developing economies worldwide for a range of uses including risk management, emergency planning and provision of insurance solutions. However, developing them can be expensive. With an increasing supply of freely-available, open source data, the costs can be significantly reduced, making the tools required for natural hazard risk assessment more accessible. By presenting a flood model developed for eight urban areas of Brazil as part of a collaboration between JBA Risk Management and Guy Carpenter, we explore the value of open source data and demonstrate its usability in a business context within the insurance industry. We begin by detailing the open source data available and compare its suitability to commercially-available equivalents for datasets including digital terrain models and river gauge records. We present flood simulation outputs in order to demonstrate the impact of the choice of dataset on the results obtained and its use in a business context. Via use of the 2D hydraulic model JFlow+, our examples also show how advanced modelling techniques can be used on relatively crude datasets to obtain robust and good quality results. In combination with accessible, standard specification GPU technology and open source data, use of JFlow+ has enabled us to produce large-scale hazard maps

  7. Social media as an information source for rapid flood inundation mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fohringer, J.; Dransch, D.; Kreibich, H.; Schröter, K.

    2015-07-01

    During and shortly after a disaster data about the hazard and its consequences are scarce and not readily available. Information provided by eye-witnesses via social media are a valuable information source, which should be explored in a more effective way. This research proposes a methodology that leverages social media content to support rapid inundation mapping, including inundation extent and water depth in case of floods. The novelty of this approach is the utilization of quantitative data that are derived from photos from eye-witnesses extracted from social media posts and its integration with established data. Due to the rapid availability of these posts compared to traditional data sources such as remote sensing data, for example areas affected by a flood can be determined quickly. The challenge is to filter the large number of posts to a manageable amount of potentially useful inundation-related information as well as their timely interpretation and integration in mapping procedures. To support rapid inundation mapping we propose a methodology and develop a tool to filter geo-located posts from social media services which include links to photos. This spatial distributed contextualized in-situ information is further explored manually. In an application case study during the June 2013 flood in central Europe we evaluate the utilization of this approach to infer spatial flood patterns and inundation depths in the city of Dresden.

  8. Social media as an information source for rapid flood inundation mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fohringer, J.; Dransch, D.; Kreibich, H.; Schröter, K.

    2015-12-01

    During and shortly after a disaster, data about the hazard and its consequences are scarce and not readily available. Information provided by eyewitnesses via social media is a valuable information source, which should be explored in a~more effective way. This research proposes a methodology that leverages social media content to support rapid inundation mapping, including inundation extent and water depth in the case of floods. The novelty of this approach is the utilization of quantitative data that are derived from photos from eyewitnesses extracted from social media posts and their integration with established data. Due to the rapid availability of these posts compared to traditional data sources such as remote sensing data, areas affected by a flood, for example, can be determined quickly. The challenge is to filter the large number of posts to a manageable amount of potentially useful inundation-related information, as well as to interpret and integrate the posts into mapping procedures in a timely manner. To support rapid inundation mapping we propose a methodology and develop "PostDistiller", a tool to filter geolocated posts from social media services which include links to photos. This spatial distributed contextualized in situ information is further explored manually. In an application case study during the June 2013 flood in central Europe we evaluate the utilization of this approach to infer spatial flood patterns and inundation depths in the city of Dresden.

  9. Integrating Community Volcanic Hazard Mapping, Geographic Information Systems, and Modeling to Reduce Volcanic Hazard Vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajo Sanchez, Jorge V.

    This dissertation is composed of an introductory chapter and three papers about vulnerability and volcanic hazard maps with emphasis on lahars. The introductory chapter reviews definitions of the term vulnerability by the social and natural hazard community and it provides a new definition of hazard vulnerability that includes social and natural hazard factors. The first paper explains how the Community Volcanic Hazard Map (CVHM) is used for vulnerability analysis and explains in detail a new methodology to obtain valuable information about ethnophysiographic differences, hazards, and landscape knowledge of communities in the area of interest: the Canton Buenos Aires situated on the northern flank of the Santa Ana (Ilamatepec) Volcano, El Salvador. The second paper is about creating a lahar hazard map in data poor environments by generating a landslide inventory and obtaining potential volumes of dry material that can potentially be carried by lahars. The third paper introduces an innovative lahar hazard map integrating information generated by the previous two papers. It shows the differences in hazard maps created by the communities and experts both visually as well as quantitatively. This new, integrated hazard map was presented to the community with positive feedback and acceptance. The dissertation concludes with a summary chapter on the results and recommendations.

  10. Flood-inundation maps for the St. Marys River at Decatur, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strauch, Kellan R.

    2015-08-24

    The availability of these maps and associated Web mapping tools, along with the current river stage from USGS streamgages and forecasted flood stages from the NWS, provides emergency managers and residents with information that may be critical for flood-emergency planning and flood response activities such as evacuations and road closures, as well as for post-flood recovery efforts.

  11. 38 CFR 36.4708 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice of special flood... of Payment, and Flood Insurance § 36.4708 Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal... a loan secured by a building or a mobile home located or to be located in a special flood...

  12. 38 CFR 36.4708 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Notice of special flood... of Payment, and Flood Insurance § 36.4708 Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal... a loan secured by a building or a mobile home located or to be located in a special flood...

  13. Impacts of dyke development in flood prone areas in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta to downstream flood hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanh Triet Nguyen, Van; Dung Nguyen, Viet; Fujii, Hideto; Kummu, Matti; Merz, Bruno; Apel, Heiko

    2016-04-01

    The Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD) plays an important role in food security and socio-economic development of the country. Being a low-lying coastal region, the VMD is particularly susceptible to both riverine and tidal floods, which provide, on (the) one hand, the basis for the rich agricultural production and the livelihood of the people, but on the other hand pose a considerable hazard depending on the severity of the floods. But despite of potentially hazardous flood, the area remain active as a rice granary due to its nutrient-rich soils and sediment input, and dense waterways, canals and the long standing experience of the population living with floods. In response to both farmers' requests and governmental plans, the construction of flood protection infrastructure in the delta progressed rapidly in the last twenty years, notably at areas prone to deep flooding, i.e. the Plain of Reeds (PoR) and Long Xuyen Quadrangle (LXQ). Triple rice cropping becomes possible in farmlands enclosed by "full-dykes", i.e. dykes strong and high enough to prevent flooding of the flood plains for most of the floods. In these protected flood plains rice can be grown even during the peak flood period (September to November). However, little is known about the possibly (and already alleged) negative impacts of this fully flood protection measure to downstream areas. This study aims at quantifying how the flood regime in the lower part of the VMD (e.g. Can Tho, My Thuan, …) has been changed in the last 2 recent "big flood" events of 2000 and 2011 due to the construction of the full-dyke system in the upper part. First, an evaluation of 35 years of daily water level data was performed in order to detect trends at key gauging stations: Kratie: upper boundary of the Delta, Tan Chau and Chau Doc: areas with full-dyke construction, Can Tho and My Thuan: downstream. Results from the Mann-Kendall (MK) test show a decreasing trend of the annual maximum water level at 3 stations Kratie, Tan

  14. Development of a flood-warning network and flood-inundation mapping for the Blanchard River in Ottawa, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehead, Matthew T.

    2011-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps of the Blanchard River in Ottawa, Ohio, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service and the Village of Ottawa, Ohio. The maps, which correspond to water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Ottawa (USGS streamgage site number 04189260), were provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into a Web-based flood-warning Network that can be used in conjunction with NWS flood-forecast data to show areas of predicted flood inundation associated with forecasted flood-peak stages. Flood profiles were computed by means of a step-backwater model calibrated to recent field measurements of streamflow. The step-backwater model was then used to determine water-surface-elevation profiles for 12 flood stages with corresponding streamflows ranging from less than the 2-year and up to nearly the 500-year recurrence-interval flood. The computed flood profiles were used in combination with digital elevation data to delineate flood-inundation areas. Maps of the Village of Ottawa showing flood-inundation areas overlain on digital orthophotographs are presented for the selected floods. As part of this flood-warning network, the USGS upgraded one streamgage and added two new streamgages, one on the Blanchard River and one on Riley Creek, which is tributary to the Blanchard River. The streamgage sites were equipped with both satellite and telephone telemetry. The telephone telemetry provides dual functionality, allowing village officials and the public to monitor current stage conditions and enabling the streamgage to call village officials with automated warnings regarding flood stage and/or predetermined rates of stage increase. Data from the streamgages serve as a flood warning that emergency management personnel can use in conjunction with the flood-inundation maps by to determine a course of action when flooding is imminent.

  15. Development of a Flood-Warning System and Flood-Inundation Mapping for the Blanchard River in Findlay, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehead, Matthew T.; Ostheimer, Chad J.

    2009-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps of the Blanchard River in Findlay, Ohio, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Findlay, Ohio. The maps, which correspond to water levels at the USGS streamgage at Findlay (04189000), were provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into a Web-based flood-warning system that can be used in conjunction with NWS flood-forecast data to show areas of predicted flood inundation associated with forecasted flood-peak stages. The USGS reestablished one streamgage and added another on the Blanchard River upstream of Findlay. Additionally, the USGS established one streamgage each on Eagle and Lye Creeks, tributaries to the Blanchard River. The stream-gage sites were equipped with rain gages and multiple forms of telemetry. Data from these gages can be used by emergency management personnel to determine a course of action when flooding is imminent. Flood profiles computed by means of a step-backwater model were prepared and calibrated to a recent flood with a return period exceeding 100 years. The hydraulic model was then used to determine water-surface-elevation profiles for 11 flood stages with corresponding streamflows ranging from approximately 2 to 100 years in recurrence interval. The simulated flood profiles were used in combination with digital elevation data to delineate the flood-inundation areas. Maps of Findlay showing flood-inundation areas overlain on digital orthophotographs are presented for the selected floods.

  16. Remote Sensing Based Flood Mapping for Disaster Management Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Policelli, F.; Brakenridge, R.; Ouzounov, D. P.; Sun, J.; Slayback, D. A.; Fatoyinbo, L.

    2010-12-01

    Flooding is among the most destructive and costly natural disasters faced by modern society. The disaster management community requires flood extent information with very little latency and frequent updating. With the advent of near real time satellite data acquisition and rapid processing and distribution techniques, there is every reason to develop and deploy an automated system for near real time flood map production. Funded by a NASA Applied Sciences grant to conduct a “feasibility study”, the authors have developed the algorithms and methodology necessary to automate the production of global near real time flood maps based on remote sensing data from the MODIS instruments on the NASA AQUA and TERRA satellites. A number of challenges to developing a useful product have been addressed by this applied research, including minimizing product latency, identifying water in the data scenes and distinguishing flood water from “normal” water levels, minimizing the impact of data loss due to cloud and cloud shadow, and providing context. We provide an overview of the data sources used, the algorithms employed, the processing techniques, the initial results, and the validation approach.

  17. Aligning Natural Resource Conservation and Flood Hazard Mitigation in California

    PubMed Central

    Calil, Juliano; Beck, Michael W.; Gleason, Mary; Merrifield, Matthew; Klausmeyer, Kirk; Newkirk, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Flooding is the most common and damaging of all natural disasters in the United States, and was a factor in almost all declared disasters in U.S. history. Direct flood losses in the U.S. in 2011 totaled $8.41 billion and flood damage has also been on the rise globally over the past century. The National Flood Insurance Program paid out more than $38 billion in claims since its inception in 1968, more than a third of which has gone to the one percent of policies that experienced multiple losses and are classified as “repetitive loss.” During the same period, the loss of coastal wetlands and other natural habitat has continued, and funds for conservation and restoration of these habitats are very limited. This study demonstrates that flood losses could be mitigated through action that meets both flood risk reduction and conservation objectives. We found that there are at least 11,243km2 of land in coastal California, which is both flood-prone and has natural resource conservation value, and where a property/structure buyout and habitat restoration project could meet multiple objectives. For example, our results show that in Sonoma County, the extent of land that meets these criteria is 564km2. Further, we explore flood mitigation grant programs that can be a significant source of funds to such projects. We demonstrate that government funded buyouts followed by restoration of targeted lands can support social, environmental, and economic objectives: reduction of flood exposure, restoration of natural resources, and efficient use of limited governmental funds. PMID:26200353

  18. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for La Lima, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of La Lima that would be inundated by Rio Chamelecon with a discharge of 500 cubic meters per second, the approximate capacity of the river channel through the city of La Lima. The 50-year flood (2,400 cubic meters per second), the original design flow to be mapped, would inundate the entire area surveyed for this municipality. Because water-surface elevations of the 50-year flood could not be mapped properly without substantially expanding the area of the survey, the available data were used instead to estimate the channel capacity of Rio Chamelecon in La Lima by trial-and-error runs of different flows in a numerical model and to estimate the increase in height of levees needed to contain flows of 1,000 and 2,400 cubic meters per second. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of La Lima as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for various discharges on Rio Chamelecon at La Lima were determined using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area and ground surveys at three bridges. Top-of-levee or top-of-channel-bank elevations and locations at the cross sections were critical to estimating the channel capacity of Rio Chamelecon

  19. Coupling Radar Rainfall Estimation and Hydrological Modelling For Flash-flood Hazard Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borga, M.; Creutin, J. D.

    Flood risk mitigation is accomplished through managing either or both the hazard and vulnerability. Flood hazard may be reduced through structural measures which alter the frequency of flood levels in the area. The vulnerability of a community to flood loss can be mitigated through changing or regulating land use and through flood warning and effective emergency response. When dealing with flash-flood hazard, it is gener- ally accepted that the most effective way (and in many instances the only affordable in a sustainable perspective) to mitigate the risk is by reducing the vulnerability of the involved communities, in particular by implementing flood warning systems and community self-help programs. However, both the inherent characteristics of the at- mospheric and hydrologic processes involved in flash-flooding and the changing soci- etal needs provide a tremendous challenge to traditional flood forecasting and warning concepts. In fact, the targets of these systems are traditionally localised like urbanised sectors or hydraulic structures. Given the small spatial scale that characterises flash floods and the development of dispersed urbanisation, transportation, green tourism and water sports, human lives and property are exposed to flash flood risk in a scat- tered manner. This must be taken into consideration in flash flood warning strategies and the investigated region should be considered as a whole and every section of the drainage network as a potential target for hydrological warnings. Radar technology offers the potential to provide information describing rain intensities almost contin- uously in time and space. Recent research results indicate that coupling radar infor- mation to distributed hydrologic modelling can provide hydrologic forecasts at all potentially flooded points of a region. Nevertheless, very few flood warning services use radar data more than on a qualitative basis. After a short review of current under- standing in this area, two

  20. 77 FR 76494 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... No. Alabama: Baldwin (FEMA Docket No.: B- City of Gulf Shores The Honorable Robert Community.... (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance No. 97.022, ``Flood Insurance.'') James A. Walke, Acting...

  1. Tracking Flooding, Drought, Fire and other Natural Hazards with GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Famiglietti, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    While the NASA GRACE mission has proven adept at tracking rates of ice sheet melting, ocean mass rise, and groundwater depletion, its contributions to understanding regional flooding, drought and fire have received less attention. In this presentation we review the status of GRACE efforts to characterize regional flood potential, quantification of drought parameters, and the occurrence of fire. Examples are used to demonstrate how the use of GRACE data can improve early warning times, or can enhance existing operational methodologies.

  2. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 339 - Sample Form of Notice of Special Flood Hazards and Availability of Federal Disaster Relief...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sample Form of Notice of Special Flood Hazards... SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS Pt. 339, App. A Appendix A to Part 339—Sample Form of Notice of Special Flood... an area with special flood hazards. The area has been identified by the Director of the...

  3. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 339 - Sample Form of Notice of Special Flood Hazards and Availability of Federal Disaster Relief...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sample Form of Notice of Special Flood Hazards... SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS Pt. 339, App. A Appendix A to Part 339—Sample Form of Notice of Special Flood... an area with special flood hazards. The area has been identified by the Director of the...

  4. Probabilistic, Seismically-Induced Landslide Hazard Mapping of Western Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, M. J.; Sharifi Mood, M.; Gillins, D. T.; Mahalingam, R.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake-induced landslides can generate significant damage within urban communities by damaging structures, obstructing lifeline connection routes and utilities, generating various environmental impacts, and possibly resulting in loss of life. Reliable hazard and risk maps are important to assist agencies in efficiently allocating and managing limited resources to prepare for such events. This research presents a new methodology in order to communicate site-specific landslide hazard assessments in a large-scale, regional map. Implementation of the proposed methodology results in seismic-induced landslide hazard maps that depict the probabilities of exceeding landslide displacement thresholds (e.g. 0.1, 0.3, 1.0 and 10 meters). These maps integrate a variety of data sources including: recent landslide inventories, LIDAR and photogrammetric topographic data, geology map, mapped NEHRP site classifications based on available shear wave velocity data in each geologic unit, and USGS probabilistic seismic hazard curves. Soil strength estimates were obtained by evaluating slopes present along landslide scarps and deposits for major geologic units. Code was then developed to integrate these layers to perform a rigid, sliding block analysis to determine the amount and associated probabilities of displacement based on each bin of peak ground acceleration in the seismic hazard curve at each pixel. The methodology was applied to western Oregon, which contains weak, weathered, and often wet soils at steep slopes. Such conditions have a high landslide hazard even without seismic events. A series of landslide hazard maps highlighting the probabilities of exceeding the aforementioned thresholds were generated for the study area. These output maps were then utilized in a performance based design framework enabling them to be analyzed in conjunction with other hazards for fully probabilistic-based hazard evaluation and risk assessment. a) School of Civil and Construction

  5. Floods

    MedlinePlus

    ... quickly, often have a dangerous wall of roaring water. The wall carries rocks, mud, and rubble and can sweep away most things in its path. Be aware of flood hazards no matter where you live, but especially if you live in a low-lying area, near water or downstream from a dam. Although there are ...

  6. Dam-breach analysis and flood-inundation mapping for Lakes Ellsworth and Lawtonka near Lawton, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rendon, Samuel H.; Ashworth, Chad E.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2012-01-01

    Dams provide beneficial functions such as flood control, recreation, and reliable water supplies, but they also entail risk: dam breaches and resultant floods can cause substantial property damage and loss of life. The State of Oklahoma requires each owner of a high-hazard dam, which the Federal Emergency Management Agency defines as dams for which failure or misoperation probably will cause loss of human life, to develop an emergency action plan specific to that dam. Components of an emergency action plan are to simulate a flood resulting from a possible dam breach and map the resulting downstream flood-inundation areas. The resulting flood-inundation maps can provide valuable information to city officials, emergency managers, and local residents for planning the emergency response if a dam breach occurs. Accurate topographic data are vital for developing flood-inundation maps. This report presents results of a cooperative study by the city of Lawton, Oklahoma, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to model dam-breach scenarios at Lakes Ellsworth and Lawtonka near Lawton and to map the potential flood-inundation areas of such dam breaches. To assist the city of Lawton with completion of the emergency action plans for Lakes Ellsworth and Lawtonka Dams, the USGS collected light detection and ranging (lidar) data that were used to develop a high-resolution digital elevation model and a 1-foot contour elevation map for the flood plains downstream from Lakes Ellsworth and Lawtonka. This digital elevation model and field measurements, streamflow-gaging station data (USGS streamflow-gaging station 07311000, East Cache Creek near Walters, Okla.), and hydraulic values were used as inputs for the dynamic (unsteady-flow) model, Hydrologic Engineering Center's River Analysis System (HEC-RAS). The modeled flood elevations were exported to a geographic information system to produce flood-inundation maps. Water-surface profiles were developed for a 75-percent probable maximum

  7. Understanding earthquake hazards in urban areas - Evansville Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, Oliver S.

    2012-01-01

    The region surrounding Evansville, Indiana, has experienced minor damage from earthquakes several times in the past 200 years. Because of this history and the proximity of Evansville to the Wabash Valley and New Madrid seismic zones, there is concern among nearby communities about hazards from earthquakes. Earthquakes currently cannot be predicted, but scientists can estimate how strongly the ground is likely to shake as a result of an earthquake and are able to design structures to withstand this estimated ground shaking. Earthquake-hazard maps provide one way of conveying such information and can help the region of Evansville prepare for future earthquakes and reduce earthquake-caused loss of life and financial and structural loss. The Evansville Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project (EAEHMP) has produced three types of hazard maps for the Evansville area: (1) probabilistic seismic-hazard maps show the ground motion that is expected to be exceeded with a given probability within a given period of time; (2) scenario ground-shaking maps show the expected shaking from two specific scenario earthquakes; (3) liquefaction-potential maps show how likely the strong ground shaking from the scenario earthquakes is to produce liquefaction. These maps complement the U.S. Geological Survey's National Seismic Hazard Maps but are more detailed regionally and take into account surficial geology, soil thickness, and soil stiffness; these elements greatly affect ground shaking.

  8. New Seismic Hazard Maps of the Caucasus region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoladze, T.; Javakhishvili, Z.; Elashvili, M.; Jorjiashvili, N.; Sokhadze, G.

    2014-12-01

    The methodologies for long term probabilistic prognoses in terms of seismic hazard assessment are well developed. Modern seismic hazard assessment is one of the major concepts for sustainable development of the Caucasus region in general. Safety of the civilian population in the region as well as safe implementation of large economic projects must be protected. Prosperity in the Caucasus region, and its successful development, unconditionally depends on international projects aiming to integrate the region into leading economical structure. Earthquake hazard analysis is especially important for economically undeveloped countries, since the recovery period after strong earthquakes is very long. The main objective of our study was to improve the database for hazard calculations and develop modern and new common hazard maps for the region. The primary tasks to obtain our objective were defined as follows: 1. Improvement of the shared regional database, with quality control, to include seismological, geological, geophysical, geodetic, geotechnical and other information, as well as data on critical infrastructure. 2. Seismic hazard assessment based upon the newly improved database and using new methodologies and CRISIS software. 3. Tectonic studies of the region. The improved database facilitated tectonic studies, including the development of physical/mathematical models for regional seismotectonic processes. These models were incorporated active tectonic structures throughout the area, including transborder regions. The National Building codes of Georgia are based on the seismic hazard map developed in 1999. Presented study participants were the key researchers in compiling the 1999 hazard map. Map has been slightly updated in 2006 and adopted in 2009. Based on the world experience national seismic hazard map should be updated periodically (approximately once in every 5 years.). We believe that the results of this study, namely the new probabilistic seismic hazard maps

  9. Development of a Probabilistic Flood Hazard Assessment (PFHA) for the nuclear safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Daoued, Amine; Guimier, Laurent; Hamdi, Yasser; Duluc, Claire-Marie; Rebour, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to lay the basis for a probabilistic evaluation of flood hazard (PFHA). Probabilistic assessment of external floods has become a current topic of interest to the nuclear scientific community. Probabilistic approaches complement deterministic approaches by exploring a set of scenarios and associating a probability to each of them. These approaches aim to identify all possible failure scenarios, combining their probability, in order to cover all possible sources of risk. They are based on the distributions of initiators and/or the variables caracterizing these initiators. The PFHA can characterize the water level for example at defined point of interest in the nuclear site. This probabilistic flood hazard characterization takes into account all the phenomena that can contribute to the flooding of the site. The main steps of the PFHA are: i) identification of flooding phenomena (rains, sea water level, etc.) and screening of relevant phenomena to the nuclear site, ii) identification and probabilization of parameters associated to selected flooding phenomena, iii) spreading of the probabilized parameters from the source to the point of interest in the site, v) obtaining hazard curves and aggregation of flooding phenomena contributions at the point of interest taking into account the uncertainties. Within this framework, the methodology of the PFHA has been developed for several flooding phenomena (rain and/or sea water level, etc.) and then implemented and tested with a simplified case study. In the same logic, our study is still in progress to take into account other flooding phenomena and to carry out more case studies.

  10. Effects of anthropogenic land-subsidence on river flood hazard: a case study in Ravenna, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carisi, Francesca; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio

    2015-04-01

    Can differential land-subsidence significantly alter the river flooding dynamics, and thus flood risk in flood prone areas? Many studies show how the lowering of the coastal areas is closely related to an increase in the flood-hazard due to more important tidal flooding and see level rise. On the contrary, the literature on the relationship between differential land-subsidence and possible alterations to riverine flood-hazard of inland areas is still sparse, while several areas characterized by significant land-subsidence rates during the second half of the 20th century experienced an intensification in both inundation magnitude and frequency. This study investigates the possible impact of a significant differential ground lowering on flood hazard in proximity of Ravenna, which is one of the oldest Italian cities, former capital of the Western Roman Empire, located a few kilometers from the Adriatic coast and about 60 km south of the Po River delta. The rate of land-subsidence in the area, naturally in the order of a few mm/year, dramatically increased up to 110 mm/year after World War II, primarily due to groundwater pumping and a number of deep onshore and offshore gas production platforms. The subsidence caused in the last century a cumulative drop larger than 1.5 m in the historical center of the city. Starting from these evidences and taking advantage of a recent digital elevation model of 10m resolution, we reconstructed the ground elevation in 1897 for an area of about 65 km2 around the city of Ravenna. We referred to these two digital elevation models (i.e. current topography and topographic reconstruction) and a 2D finite-element numerical model for the simulation of the inundation dynamics associated with several levee failure scenarios along embankment system of the river Montone. For each scenario and digital elevation model, the flood hazard is quantified in terms of water depth, speed and dynamics of the flooding front. The comparison enabled us to

  11. The land morphology approach to flood risk mapping: An application to Portugal.

    PubMed

    Cunha, N S; Magalhães, M R; Domingos, T; Abreu, M M; Küpfer, C

    2017-05-15

    metropolitan area, an urbanized basin that suffered heavy flooding in the last decades. This study also contributes to a better understanding of the basin morphology at a local-scale and the effects of soil sealing in downstream flood risks. This work will contribute to the understanding of the morphology, ecology and land use of watersheds that could be used to reduce runoff and downstream flood risk. This can be accomplished by using natural water retention and infiltration methods or higher-level based planning instead of a reaction to local decisions on flood hazards. This morphological approach to map landforms, including wet system, is a valuable tool to assist policy makers and planners in flood risk and land use management, floodplain restoration, agricultural land management practices, and location of human activities according to ecological suitability.

  12. Comparison between changes in flood hazard and risk in Spain using historical information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Mediero, Luis; Garrote, Luis; Gilabert, Joan

    2015-04-01

    Recently, the COST Action ES0901 "European procedures for flood frequency estimation (FloodFreq)" had as objective "the comparison and evaluation of methods for flood frequency estimation under the various climatologic and geographic conditions found in Europe". It was highlighted the improvement of regional analyses on at-site estimates, in terms of the uncertainty of quantile estimates. In the case of Spain, a regional analysis was carried out at a national scale, which allows identifying the flow threshold corresponding to a given return period from the observed flow series recorded at a gauging station. In addition, Mediero et al. (2014) studied the possible influence of non-stationarity on flood series for the period 1942-2009. In parallel, Barnolas and Llasat (2007), among others, collected documentary information of catastrophic flood events in Spain for the last centuries. Traditionally, the first approach ("top-down") usually identifies a flood as catastrophic, when its exceeds the 500-year return period flood. However, the second one ("bottom-up approach") accounts for flood damages (Llasat et al, 2005). This study presents a comparison between both approaches, discussing the potential factors that can lead to discrepancies between them, as well as accounting for information about major changes experienced in the catchment that could lead to changes in flood hazard and risk.

  13. 78 FR 10187 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... modification No. Alabama: Baldwin City of Gulf The Honorable Community Development http:// March 11, 2013... Street, index.php/alabama/ City of Gulf Gulf Shores, AL baldwin/. Shores, P.O. 36547. Box 299, Gulf... Domestic Assistance No. 97.022, ``Flood Insurance.'') James A. Walke, Acting Deputy Associate...

  14. 78 FR 35307 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ...: Wayne (FEMA Docket No.: B- City of Taylor (12-05- The Honorable 23555 Goddard Road, May 30, 2013 260728 1306). 9857P). Jeffrey P. Taylor, MI 48180. Lamarand, Mayor, City of Taylor, 23555 Goddard Road, Taylor... Federal Domestic Assistance No. 97.022, ``Flood Insurance.'') Dated: May 17, 2013. Roy E. Wright,...

  15. Potential flood hazards and hydraulic characteristics of distributary-flow areas in Maricopa County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hjalmarson, H.W.

    1994-01-01

    Flood hazards of distributary-flow areas in Maricopa County, Arizona, can be distinguished on the basis of morphological features. Five distributary-flow areas represent the range of flood-hazard degree in the study area. Descriptive factors, including the presence of desert varnish and the absence of saguaro cactus, are more useful than traditional hydraulic-based methods in defining hazards. The width, depth, and velocity exponents of the hydraulic-geometry relations at the primary diffluences of the sites are similar to theoretical exponents for streams with cohesive bank material and the average exponents of stream channels in other areas in the United States. Because of the unexplained scatter of the values of the exponent of channel width, however, the use of average hydraulic-geometry relations is con- sidered inappropriate for characterizing flood hazards for specific distributary-flow in Maricopa County. No evidence has been found that supports the use of stochastic modeling of flows or flood hazards of many distributary-flow areas. The surface of many distributary-flow areas is stable with many distributary channels eroded in the calcreted surface material. Many distributary- flow areas do not appear to be actively aggrading today, and the paths of flow are not changing.

  16. A Flood Detection and Mapping Algorithm Using MODIS Data: Assessment of Extreme Flooding Events in Eastern Ganga Plains (2000-2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprigg, W. A.; Patel, S.; Prasad, A. K.; Sarkar, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    Flood, a hydrological extreme, is a dominant and frequent phenomena over the eastern Ganga Plains comprising of alluvial plains of Bihar and adjoining Nepal Himalaya. Flood affects major parts of Bihar where Gandak and Koshi are the major tributaries of Ganga River causing inundation during the monsoon season. Due to heavy rainfall in the Eastern Himalaya and adjoining regions, the river discharge increases several folds causing severe flood in plains. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived data at 250 m resolution (year 2000-2015) have been used to identify flood water and calculate daily water fraction (water cover) using model adopted from previous studies. During the monsoon season, cloud cover in daily images is found to be extremely high leading to lot of gaps in the form of missing data. To account for missing grid cell values, an adaptive polynomial filter (Savitzky-Golay) have been used to fit the time series of daily data for each grid cell. The missing values in daily images have been filled with calculated values to create daily time series of flood water. Landsat data at 30 m grid resolution have been used to verify flood water detection algorithm used in this study. Time series analysis of satellite derived data reveal a strong spatial and temporal variation in the extent, duration and frequency (inter-annual and intra-annual) of flooding event over the study region. Statistical analysis of IDF (intensity, duration, and frequency) and trend have been carried out to identify regions which show greater flood risk. Reoccurrence interval and length of flooding event in the study region is found to be high compared to other river basins in the western India. Based on the historical occurrence of flood, the study area have been classified into different flood hazard zones where flood mitigation and management need to be prioritized. MODIS based flood monitoring and mapping model used in this study can be used for monitoring and

  17. Central US earthquake catalog for hazard maps of Memphis, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wheeler, R.L.; Mueller, C.S.

    2001-01-01

    An updated version of the catalog that was used for the current national probabilistic seismic-hazard maps would suffice for production of large-scale hazard maps of the Memphis urban area. Deaggregation maps provide guidance as to the area that a catalog for calculating Memphis hazard should cover. For the future, the Nuttli and local network catalogs could be examined for earthquakes not presently included in the catalog. Additional work on aftershock removal might reduce hazard uncertainty. Graphs of decadal and annual earthquake rates suggest completeness at and above magnitude 3 for the last three or four decades. Any additional work on completeness should consider the effects of rapid, local population changes during the Nation's westward expansion. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Changing Global Patterns of Urban Exposure to Flood and Drought Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guneralp, B.; Guneralp, I.; Liu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The studies that quantify the human and economic costs of increasing exposure of cities to various natural hazards consider climate change and increasing population and economic activity, but assume constant urban extent. Accurate estimates of the potential losses due to changing exposure of cities, however, require that we know where they will grow in the future. Here, we present the first-ever estimates of the changing exposure of urban infrastructure to floods and droughts due to urban land expansion from 2000 to 2030. Although the percent of land that is urban within the Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) increases globally only slightly to 13% by 2030, the amount of urban land is predicted to increase 230% to 234,000 km2. In 2000, about 30% of global urban land (i.e., nearly 200,000 km2) was located in the high-frequency flood zones; by 2030, this will reach 40%, (i.e., over 700,000 km2). The emerging coastal metropolitan regions in Africa and Asia will be larger than those in the developed countries and thus will have larger areas exposed to flooding. The urban extent in drylands will increase nearly 300,000 km2, reaching almost 500,000 km2. Urban land exposed to both floods and droughts is expected to increase over 250%. There are significant geographical variations in the rates and magnitudes of urban expansion exposed to floods or droughts or both. Our findings show that even without factoring in the potential impacts from climate change, the extent of urban areas exposed to flood and drought hazards will increase, respectively, 2.7 and almost 2 times by 2030. Our global view on changing geographical patterns of urban exposure to flood and drought hazards can facilitate effective mitigation and adaptation against these hazards at multiple scales.

  19. Flash flood hazard assessment through modelling in small semi-arid watersheds. The example of the Beni Mellal watershed in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werren, G.; Balin, D.; Reynard, E.; Lane, S. N.

    2012-04-01

    Flood modelling is essential for flood hazard assessment. Modelling becomes a challenge in small, ungauged watersheds prone to flash floods, like the ones draining the town of Beni Mellal (Morocco). Four temporary streams meet in the urban area of Beni Mellal, producing every year sheet floods, harmful to infrastructure and to people. Here, statistical analysis may not give realistic results, but the study of these repeated real flash flood events may provide a better understanding of watershed specific hydrology. This study integrates a larger cooperation project between Switzerland and Morroco, aimed at knowledge transfer in disaster risk reduction, especially through hazard mapping and land-use planning, related to implementation of hazard maps. Hydrologic and hydraulic modelling was carried out to obtain hazard maps. An important point was to find open source data and methods that could still produce a realistic model for the area concerned, in order to provide easy-to-use, cost-effective tools for risk management in developing countries like Morocco, where routine data collection is largely lacking. The data used for modelling is the Web available TRMM 3-Hour 0.25 degree rainfall data provided by the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission Project (TRMM). Hydrologic modelling for discharge estimation was undertaken using methods available in the HEC-HMS software provided by the US Army Corps of Engineers® (USACE). Several transfer models were used, so as to choose the best-suited method available. As no model calibration was possible for no measured flow data was available, a one-at-the-time sensitivity analysis was performed on the parameters chosen, in order to detect their influence on the results. But the most important verification method remained field observation, through post-flood field campaigns aimed at mapping water surfaces and depths in the flooded areas, as well as river section monitoring, where rough discharge estimates could be obtained using

  20. Observed and forecast flood-inundation mapping application-A pilot study of an eleven-mile reach of the White River, Indianapolis, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, Moon H.; Morlock, Scott E.; Arihood, Leslie D.; Kiesler, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Near-real-time and forecast flood-inundation mapping products resulted from a pilot study for an 11-mile reach of the White River in Indianapolis. The study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Indiana Silver Jackets hazard mitigation taskforce members, the National Weather Service (NWS), the Polis Center, and Indiana University, in cooperation with the City of Indianapolis, the Indianapolis Museum of Art, the Indiana Department of Homeland Security, and the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water. The pilot project showed that it is technically feasible to create a flood-inundation map library by means of a two-dimensional hydraulic model, use a map from the library to quickly complete a moderately detailed local flood-loss estimate, and automatically run the hydraulic model during a flood event to provide the maps and flood-damage information through a Web graphical user interface. A library of static digital flood-inundation maps was created by means of a calibrated two-dimensional hydraulic model. Estimated water-surface elevations were developed for a range of river stages referenced to a USGS streamgage and NWS flood forecast point colocated within the study reach. These maps were made available through the Internet in several formats, including geographic information system, Keyhole Markup Language, and Portable Document Format. A flood-loss estimate was completed for part of the study reach by using one of the flood-inundation maps from the static library. The Federal Emergency Management Agency natural disaster-loss estimation program HAZUS-MH, in conjunction with local building information, was used to complete a level 2 analysis of flood-loss estimation. A Service-Oriented Architecture-based dynamic flood-inundation application was developed and was designed to start automatically during a flood, obtain near real-time and forecast data (from the colocated USGS streamgage and NWS flood forecast point within the study reach

  1. Identifying hazard parameter to develop quantitative and dynamic hazard map of an active volcano in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suminar, Wulan; Saepuloh, Asep; Meilano, Irwan

    2016-05-01

    Analysis of hazard assessment to active volcanoes is crucial for risk management. The hazard map of volcano provides information to decision makers and communities before, during, and after volcanic crisis. The rapid and accurate hazard assessment, especially to an active volcano is necessary to be developed for better mitigation on the time of volcanic crises in Indonesia. In this paper, we identified the hazard parameters to develop quantitative and dynamic hazard map of an active volcano. The Guntur volcano in Garut Region, West Java, Indonesia was selected as study area due population are resided adjacent to active volcanoes. The development of infrastructures, especially related to tourism at the eastern flank from the Summit, are growing rapidly. The remote sensing and field investigation approaches were used to obtain hazard parameters spatially. We developed a quantitative and dynamic algorithm to map spatially hazard potential of volcano based on index overlay technique. There were identified five volcano hazard parameters based on Landsat 8 and ASTER imageries: volcanic products including pyroclastic fallout, pyroclastic flows, lava and lahar, slope topography, surface brightness temperature, and vegetation density. Following this proposed technique, the hazard parameters were extracted, indexed, and calculated to produce spatial hazard values at and around Guntur Volcano. Based on this method, the hazard potential of low vegetation density is higher than high vegetation density. Furthermore, the slope topography, surface brightness temperature, and fragmental volcanic product such as pyroclastics influenced to the spatial hazard value significantly. Further study to this proposed approach will be aimed for effective and efficient analyses of volcano risk assessment.

  2. Urban topography for flood modeling by fusion of OpenStreetMap, SRTM and local knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsemius, Hessel; Donchyts, Gennadii; Eilander, Dirk; Chen, Jorik; Leskens, Anne; Coughlan, Erin; Mawanda, Shaban; Ward, Philip; Diaz Loaiza, Andres; Luo, Tianyi; Iceland, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Topography data is essential for understanding and modeling of urban flood hazard. Within urban areas, much of the topography is defined by highly localized man-made features such as roads, channels, ditches, culverts and buildings. This results in the requirement that urban flood models require high resolution topography, and water conveying connections within the topography are considered. In recent years, more and more topography information is collected through LIDAR surveys however there are still many cities in the world where high resolution topography data is not available. Furthermore, information on connectivity is required for flood modelling, even when LIDAR data are used. In this contribution, we demonstrate how high resolution terrain data can be synthesized using a fusion between features in OpenStreetMap (OSM) data (including roads, culverts, channels and buildings) and existing low resolution and noisy SRTM elevation data using the Google Earth Engine platform. Our method uses typical existing OSM properties to estimate heights and topology associated with the features, and uses these to correct noise and burn features on top of the existing low resolution SRTM elevation data. The method has been setup in the Google Earth Engine platform so that local stakeholders and mapping teams can on-the-fly propose, include and visualize the effect of additional features and properties of features, which are deemed important for topography and water conveyance. These features can be included in a workshop environment. We pilot our tool over Dar Es Salaam.

  3. Development of Predictive Relationships for Flood Hazard Assessments in Ungaged Basins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Historically, the first great civilizations evolved from smaller settlements in river valleys ( Diamond 1999); natural hazards, like flooding...McGraw-Hill. Diamond , J. 1999. Guns, germs, and steel. New York: Norton. Downer, C. W., and F. L. Ogden. 2004. GSSHA: A model for simulating

  4. Social vulnerability of rural households to flood hazards in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D. L.; Li, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Evaluating social vulnerability is a crucial issue in risk and disaster management. In this study, a household social vulnerability index (HSVI) to flood hazards was developed and used to assess the social vulnerability of rural households in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China. Eight key indicators were indentified through interactive discussions with multidisciplinary specialists and local farmers, and their weights were determined using principle component analysis (PCA). The results showed that (1) the ratio of perennial working in other places, hazard-related training and illiteracy ratio (15+) were the most dominant factors to social vulnerability. (2) The numbers of high, moderate and low vulnerable households were 14, 64 and 16, respectively, which accounted for 14.9, 68.1, and 17.0 % of the total interviewed rural households, respectively. (3) The correlation coefficient between household social vulnerability scores and casualties in a storm flood in July 2010 was significant at 0.05 significance level (r = 0.248), which indicated that the selected indicators and their weights were valid. (4) Some mitigation strategies to reduce the household social vulnerability to flood hazards were proposed based on the assessment results. The results provide useful information for rural households and local governments to prepare, mitigate and response to flood hazards.

  5. Seismic-hazard maps for the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, Arthur D.; Petersen, Mark D.; Mueller, Charles S.; Haller, Kathleen M.; Wheeler, Russell L.; Leyendecker, E.V.; Wesson, Robert L.; Harmsen, Stephen C.; Cramer, Chris H.; Perkins, David M.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2005-01-01

    This publication consists of six map sheets (titles and text included in this document, below), geospatial datasets, and metadata. The geospatial datasets consist of ArcInfo export files for the seismic-hazard point and polygon data shown on the sheets. Probabilistic seismic-hazard maps were prepared for the conterminous United States portraying peak horizontal acceleration and horizontal spectral response acceleration for 0.2- and 1.0-second periods with probabilities of exceedance of 10 percent in 50 years and 2 percent in 50 years. All of the maps were prepared by combining the hazard derived from spatially smoothed historic seismicity with the hazard from fault-specific sources. The acceleration values contoured are the random horizontal component. The reference site condition is firm rock, defined as having an average shear-wave velocity of 760 m/sec in the top 30 meters corresponding to the boundary between NEHRP (National Earthquake Hazards Reduction program) site classes B and C. This data set represents the results of calculations of hazard curves for a grid of points with a spacing of 0.05 degrees in latitude and longitude. The points were contoured to produce the final representation of the seismic hazard.

  6. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 Emergency... HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.14 Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base...

  7. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 Emergency... HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.14 Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base...

  8. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 Emergency... HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.14 Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base...

  9. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 Emergency... HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.14 Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base...

  10. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 Emergency... HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.14 Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base...

  11. 77 FR 59955 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... Insurance Study (FIS) reports, prepared by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) for each community... Location and case officer of Community map letter of map Effective date of Community No. community...). Borough of West Housing, and Code Chester 401 East Enforcement Gay Street West Department, 401 Chester,...

  12. 78 FR 8169 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... inspection at both the online location and the respective community map repository address listed in the... community in this notice. However, the online location and local community map repository address where the... criteria required by 44 CFR 60.3, are the minimum that are required. They should not be construed to...

  13. 78 FR 8174 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... inspection at both the online location and the respective community map repository address listed in the... each community in this notice. However, the online location and local community map repository address... management criteria required by 44 CFR 60.3, are the minimum that are required. They should not be...

  14. Seismic hazard maps for the central and eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Frankel, A.

    1995-12-31

    The USGS is preparing new national seismic hazard maps depicting probabilistic ground motions from earthquakes. These maps show ground motions with a specified annual probability of being exceeded. Such hazard maps are the basis for design value maps used in building codes. For the eastern and central U.S., we have developed an approach that uses multiple models of seismic hazard. The first model is derived from a spatially-smoothed distribution of magnitude 3 and greater earthquakes in the historic catalog. This model also adds the hazard from characteristic large earthquakes, such as New Madrid Charleston, Wabash Valley and Charlevoix. The second model uses a spatially-smoothed distribution of magnitude 5 and greater events since 1700. This model accounts for the possibility of near-repeats of damaging earthquakes from localized seismogenic structures. The third model is a broad background zone to include the possibility of future earthquakes in areas that have been quiescent in historical times. The models can be combined into a single probabilistic ground-motion map for a given probability of exceedance. We compare the results of this simple approach at 30 nuclear power plant sites with those derived by the study of the Electric Power Research Institute, which used multiple source zone models chosen by several teams of experts. When the same attenuation curves are used for peak acceleration, the probabilities of exceedance and hazard curves derived by both methods show very good agreement.

  15. Hydrodynamic Modeling of Flash Floods in an Andean Stream: Challenges for Assessing Flood Hazards in Mountain Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, M. T.; Escauriaza, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    Rain-induced flash floods are common events in regions close to the southern Andes, in north and central Chile. Rapid urban development combined to the changing climate and ENSO effects have resulted in an alarming proximity of flood-prone streams to densely populated areas in the Andean foothills, increasing the risk for cities and infrastructure. Simulations of rapid floods in these complex watersheds are particularly challenging, especially if there is insufficient geomorphological and hydrometeorological data. In the Quebrada de Ramón, an Andean stream that passes through a highly populated area in the east part of Santiago, Chile, previous events have demonstrated that sediment concentration, flow resistance, and the characteristic temporal and spatial scales of the hydrograph, are important variables to predict the arrival time of the peak discharge, flow velocities and the extension of inundated areas. The objective of this investigation is to improve our understanding of the dynamics of flash floods in the Quebrada de Ramón, quantifying the effects of these factors on the flood propagation. We implement a two-dimensional model based on the shallow water equations (Guerra et al. 2014) modified to account for hyperconcentrated flows over natural topography. We evaluate events of specific return periods and sediment concentrations, using different methodologies to quantify the flow resistance in the channel and floodplains. Through this work we provide a framework for future studies aimed at improving hazard assessment, urban planning, and early warning systems in urban areas near mountain streams with limited data, and affected by rapid flood events. Work supported by Fondecyt grant 1130940 and CONICYT/FONDAP grant 15110017.

  16. Nationwide high-resolution mapping of hazards in the Philippines (Plinius Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar Francisco A.

    2015-04-01

    The Philippines being a locus of typhoons, tsunamis, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions, is a hotbed of disasters. Situated in a region where severe weather and geophysical unrest is common, the Philippines will inevitably suffer from calamities similar to those experienced recently. With continued development and population growth in hazard prone areas, it is expected that damage to infrastructure and human losses would persist and even rise unless appropriate measures are immediately implemented by government. Recently, the Philippines put in place a responsive program called the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards (NOAH) for disaster prevention and mitigation. The efforts of Project NOAH are an offshoot of lessons learned from previous disasters that have inflicted massive loss of lives and costly damage to property. Several components of the NOAH program focus on mapping of landslide, riverine flood and storm surge inundation hazards. By simulating hazards phenomena over IFSAR- and LiDAR-derived digital terrain models (DTMs) using high-performance computers, multi-hazards maps of 1:10,000 scale, have been produced and disseminated to local government units through a variety of platforms. These detailed village-level (barangay-level) maps are useful to identify safe evacuation sites, planning emergency access routes and prepositioning of search and rescue and relief supplies during times of crises. They are also essential for long-term development planning of communities. In the past two years, NOAH was instrumental in providing timely, site-specific, and understandable hazards information to the public, considered as best practice in disaster risk reduction management (DRR). The use of advanced science and technology in the country's disaster prevention efforts is imperative to successfully mitigate the adverse impacts of natural hazards and should be a continuous quest - to find the best products, put forth in the forefront of battle against

  17. A new approach to the assessment of flooding and dampness hazards in cultural heritage, applied to the historic centre of Seville (Spain).

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Rocío; Ortiz, Pilar; Martín, José María; Vázquez, María Auxiliadora

    2016-05-01

    Flooding and dampness have caused considerable damage to historic towns and cities and have become more frequent in recent years. The aim of this paper is to analyse the hazards of flooding and dampness in historic cities to establish a methodology that prioritises preventive conservation actions and restorations. The case study concerns the historic centre of Seville (Spain) and parish churches built between the 13th and 18th centuries. Geographic information system (GIS) software has been used to assess hazards caused by flooding and dampness along with a Delphi consultation process surveying a multidisciplinary group of seven experts-archaeologists, geologists, chemists, architects, engineers and environmentalists-to gain a general overview of the hazards affecting each area of the city. Currently, the historic centre of Seville is at a very low risk of flooding due to the engineering works being undertaken to divert the river course. For flooding to occur, water levels would need to rise over 6 to 12m along the different sections of the defensive walls; as a result, the historic centre has not been flooded since 1961, when these defences broke. However, there is a continual presence of dampness due to the proximity of the river, the presence of underground water and the permeability of the subsoil, resulting in continual damage to the lower sections of the monuments studied. Hence, hazard maps of flooding and dampness need to be dovetailed. This new approach provides tools for decision-makers in the current crisis, allowing them to prioritise strategies that will minimise damage in a town, as the urban unit where territorial policies could be applied.

  18. Arguing for a multi-hazard mapping program in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batterson, Martin; Neil, Stapleton

    2010-05-01

    This poster describes efforts to implement a Provincial multi-hazard mapping program, and will explore the challenges associated with this process. Newfoundland and Labrador is on the eastern edge of North America, has a large land area (405,212 km2) and a small population (510,000; 2009 estimate). The province currently has no legislative framework to control development in hazardous areas, but recent landslides in the communities of Daniel's Harbour and Trout River, both of which forced the relocation of residents, emphasize the need for action. There are two factors which confirm the need for a natural hazard mapping program: the documented history of natural disasters, and the future potential impacts of climate change. Despite being relatively far removed from the impacts of earthquake and volcanic activity, Newfoundland and Labrador has a long history of natural disasters. Rockfall, landslide, avalanche and flood events have killed at least 176 people over the past 225 years, many in their own homes. Some of the fatalities resulted from the adjacency of homes to places of employment, and of communities and roads to steep slopes. Others were likely the result of chance, and were thus unavoidable. Still others were the result of poor planning, albeit unwitting. Increasingly however, aesthetics have replaced pragmatism as a selection criterion for housing developments, with residential construction being contemplated for many coastal areas. The issue is exacerbated by the impacts of climate change, which while not a universal bane for the Province, will likely result in rising sea level and enhanced coastal erosion. Much of the Province's coastline is receding at up to 30 cm (and locally higher) per year. Sea level is anticipated to rise by 70cm to over 100 cm by 2099, based on IPCC predictions, plus the effects of enhanced ice sheet melting, plus (or minus) continued local isostatic adjustment. The history of geological disasters, coupled with pressures on

  19. Evansville Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project (EAEHMP) - Progress Report, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, Oliver S.; Haase, Jennifer L.; Moore, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Maps of surficial geology, deterministic and probabilistic seismic hazard, and liquefaction potential index have been prepared by various members of the Evansville Area Earthquake Hazard Mapping Project for seven quadrangles in the Evansville, Indiana, and Henderson, Kentucky, metropolitan areas. The surficial geologic maps feature 23 types of surficial geologic deposits, artificial fill, and undifferentiated bedrock outcrop and include alluvial and lake deposits of the Ohio River valley. Probabilistic and deterministic seismic hazard and liquefaction hazard mapping is made possible by drawing on a wealth of information including surficial geologic maps, water well logs, and in-situ testing profiles using the cone penetration test, standard penetration test, down-hole shear wave velocity tests, and seismic refraction tests. These data were compiled and collected with contributions from the Indiana Geological Survey, Kentucky Geological Survey, Illinois State Geological Survey, United States Geological Survey, and Purdue University. Hazard map products are in progress and are expected to be completed by the end of 2009, with a public roll out in early 2010. Preliminary results suggest that there is a 2 percent probability that peak ground accelerations of about 0.3 g will be exceeded in much of the study area within 50 years, which is similar to the 2002 USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps for a firm rock site value. Accelerations as high as 0.4-0.5 g may be exceeded along the edge of the Ohio River basin. Most of the region outside of the river basin has a low liquefaction potential index (LPI), where the probability that LPI is greater than 5 (that is, there is a high potential for liquefaction) for a M7.7 New Madrid type event is only 20-30 percent. Within the river basin, most of the region has high LPI, where the probability that LPI is greater than 5 for a New Madrid type event is 80-100 percent.

  20. Social vulnerability of rural households to flood hazards in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Delin; Li, Yue

    2016-05-01

    Evaluating social vulnerability is a crucial issue in risk and disaster management. In this study, a household social vulnerability index (HSVI) to flood hazards was developed and used to assess the social vulnerability of rural households in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China. Eight key indicators were identified using existing literature and discussions with experts from multiple disciplines and local farmers, and their weights were determined using principle component analysis (PCA) and an expert scoring method. The results showed that (1) the ratio of perennial work in other places, hazard-related training and illiteracy ratio (15+) were the most dominant factors of social vulnerability. (2) The numbers of high, moderate and low vulnerability households were 14, 64 and 16, respectively, which accounted for 14.9, 68.1 and 17.0 % of the total interviewed rural households, respectively. (3) The correlation coefficient between household social vulnerability scores and casualties in a storm flood in July 2010 was significant at 0.05 significance level (r = 0.748), which indicated that the selected indicators and their weights were valid. (4) Some mitigation strategies to reduce household social vulnerability to flood hazards were proposed, which included (1) improving the local residents' income and their disaster-related knowledge and evacuation skills, (2) developing emergency plans and carrying out emergency drills and training, (3) enhancing the accuracy of disaster monitoring and warning systems and (4) establishing a specific emergency management department and comprehensive rescue systems. These results can provide useful information for rural households and local governments to prepare, mitigate and respond to flood hazards, and the corresponding strategies can help local households to reduce their social vulnerability and improve their ability to resist flood hazard.

  1. A validated tropical-extratropical flood hazard assessment for New York Harbor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orton, P. M.; Hall, T. M.; Talke, S. A.; Blumberg, A. F.; Georgas, N.; Vinogradov, S.

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies of flood risk at New York Harbor (NYH) have shown disparate results for the 100 year storm tide, providing an uncertain foundation for the flood mitigation response after Hurricane Sandy. Here we present a flood hazard assessment that improves confidence in our understanding of the region's present-day potential for flooding, by separately including the contribution of tropical cyclones (TCs) and extratropical cyclones (ETCs), and validating our modeling study at multiple stages against historical observations. The TC assessment is based on a climatology of 606 synthetic storms developed from a statistical-stochastic model of North Atlantic TCs. The ETC assessment is based on simulations of historical storms with many random tide scenarios. Synthetic TC landfall rates and the final TC and ETC flood exceedance curves are all shown to be consistent with curves computed using historical data, within 95% confidence ranges. Combining the ETC and TC results together, the 100 year return period storm tide at NYH is 2.70 m (2.51-2.92 at 95% confidence), and Hurricane Sandy's storm tide of 3.38 m was a 260 year (170-420) storm tide. Deeper analyses of historical flood reports from estimated Category-3 hurricanes in 1788 and 1821 lead to new estimates and reduced uncertainties for their floods and show that Sandy's storm tide was the largest at NYH back to at least 1700. The flood exceedance curves for ETCs and TCs have sharply different slopes due to their differing meteorology and frequency, warranting separate treatment in hazard assessments.

  2. 77 FR 73480 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... in the table below and revise the FIRM panels and FIS report in effect prior to this determination... The Honorable Jim City Hall, http://www.r9map.org/ December 31, 2012...... 060294 (12-09-1206P)....

  3. Mapping debris-flow hazard in Honolulu using a DEM

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellen, Stephen D.; Mark, Robert K.; ,

    1993-01-01

    A method for mapping hazard posed by debris flows has been developed and applied to an area near Honolulu, Hawaii. The method uses studies of past debris flows to characterize sites of initiation, volume at initiation, and volume-change behavior during flow. Digital simulations of debris flows based on these characteristics are then routed through a digital elevation model (DEM) to estimate degree of hazard over the area.

  4. Management of hazardous waste at RCRA facilities during the flood of `93 -- Methods used and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, T.; Jacko, R.B.

    1996-11-01

    During the summer of 1993, the state of Iowa experienced severe flooding that caused the release of many hazardous materials into the environment. Six months after the flood, the Iowa section of the RCRA branch, US EPA Region 7, sent inspectors to survey every RCRA facility in Iowa. Information was gathered through questionnaires to determine the flood`s impact and to learn potential lessons that could be beneficial in future flood disasters. The objective of this project was to use the information gathered to determine effective storage methods and emergency procedures for handling hazardous material during flood disasters. Additional data were obtained through record searches, phone interviews, and site visits. Data files and statistics were analyzed, then the evident trends and specific insights observed were utilized to create recommendations for RCRA facilities in the flood plain and for the federal EPA and state regulatory agencies. The recommendations suggest that RCRA regulated facilities in the flood plain should: employ the safest storage methods possible; have a flood emergency plan that includes the most effective release prevention available; and take advantage of several general suggestions for flood protection. The recommendations suggest that the federal EPA and state regulatory agencies consider: including a provision requiring large quantity generators of hazardous waste in the flood plain to include flood procedures in the contingency plans; establishing remote emergency storage areas during the flood disasters; encouraging small quantity generators (SQGs) within the flood plain to establish flood contingency plans; and promoting sound flood protection engineering practices for all RCRA facilities in the flood plain.

  5. 38 CFR Appendix A to Part 36 - Sample Form of Notice of Special Flood Hazards and Availability of Federal Disaster Relief...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Special Flood Hazards and Availability of Federal Disaster Relief Assistance A Appendix A to Part 36..., App. A Appendix A to Part 36—Sample Form of Notice of Special Flood Hazards and Availability of... flood hazards. The area has been identified by the Director of the Federal Emergency Management...

  6. 38 CFR Appendix A to Part 36 - Sample Form of Notice of Special Flood Hazards and Availability of Federal Disaster Relief...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Special Flood Hazards and Availability of Federal Disaster Relief Assistance A Appendix A to Part 36..., App. A Appendix A to Part 36—Sample Form of Notice of Special Flood Hazards and Availability of... flood hazards. The area has been identified by the Director of the Federal Emergency Management...

  7. Geological hazards associated with intense rain and flooding in Natal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, M. A.; van Schalkwyk, A.

    1993-02-01

    The combination of rugged topography and climate predisposes the province of Natal to severe floods. Information available since 1856 shows that bridge and slope failures have been recorded in twenty out of twenty-five flood episodes. Bridge failures are caused mostly by geological factors. The mechanism of failure can be classified broadly into foundation failures and changes of river course. Scour and debris build-up have led to failures of foundations located in rock and alluvial sediments. In preparing and replacing bridges the aims have been to increase the area of waterway, increase foundation depths to reach more competent strata and lay protection along banks and abutments to counteract scour. Historically, slope failures have not been well documented but following the 1987/88 storms 223 slope failures were recorded. The classification of the failures allowed the mechanisms of failure to be ascertained, and general design considerations to be reviewed. In areas adjacent to the Drakensberg Mountains slope failures are part of a natural erosion cycle which may be accelerated in periods of heavy rain. Throughout Natal, hummocky ground adjacent to dolerite intrusions reveals the on-going history of failure caused by water ingress and the generation of high pore water pressures on the slip planes. Classic flows occurred throughout the Greater Durban area where residual sandy soils of the Natal Group sandstone became supersaturated. Slumping was common on steep terrain underlain by granite-gneiss in the Kwa-Zulu area. Shales of the Pietermaritzburg Formation are notoriously unstable, yet few failures occurred during the summer storms of 1987/88. Inadequate drainage was responsible for many failures, this was particularly so along the railways.

  8. Settling flood hazard conflict: the Utah Lake and Jordan River experience

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    Whether water resource developers are utility operators, cities, industrialists of agriculturalists, their interests and those of affected landowners must accommodate each other. They must come together as men, and compromise their difficulties. Past disputes and their resolutions are guides to present and future flood-hazard settlement. Utah Lake and the Jordan River were once the setting for an equitable settlement of a flood hazard. In 1885, President John Taylor (President Taylor) of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints played a significant role in bringing about a compromise between downstream water users in Salt Lake County, Utah, and adversely affected upstream landowners in Provo and other parts of Utah County. Subsequent periodic flooding resulted in a second compromise agreement a century later. This paper considers the Utah Lake and Jordan River experiences. It examines the two compromises, how they came about, and their impact upon water resource management. In addition to their historical interest, these settlements provide useful guidance for negotiation and resolution of flood hazard disputes.

  9. Precipitation and floodiness: forecasts of flood hazard at the regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Liz; Day, Jonny; Pappenberger, Florian; Cloke, Hannah

    2016-04-01

    In 2008, a seasonal forecast of an increased likelihood of above-normal rainfall in West Africa led the Red Cross to take early humanitarian action (such as prepositioning of relief items) on the basis that this forecast implied heightened flood risk. However, there are a number of factors that lead to non-linearity between precipitation anomalies and flood hazard, so in this presentation we use a recently developed global-scale hydrological model driven by the ERA-Interim/Land precipitation reanalysis (1980-2010) to quantify this non-linearity. Using these data, we introduce the concept of floodiness to measure the incidence of floods over a large area, and quantify the link between monthly precipitation, river discharge and floodiness anomalies. Our analysis shows that floodiness is not well correlated with precipitation, demonstrating the problem of using seasonal precipitation forecasts as a proxy for forecasting flood hazard. This analysis demonstrates the value of developing hydrometeorological forecasts of floodiness for decision-makers. As a result, we are now working with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts and the Joint Research Centre, as partners of the operational Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS), to implement floodiness forecasts in real-time.

  10. Ecological applications for flood hazard minimization in the Siwaliks region of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhital, Y. P.; Tang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Water-induced disaster problems including soil erosion, debris flow, landslides and flooding are common due to the unstable landscape of Siwaliks region of Nepal. Ecological applications especially focused on soil bioengineering techniques have been used in Nepal for nearly four decades to deal with erosion problems on slopes, in high way construction and riverbank stabilization. In this study, both vegetative check dams and wire net check dams along with vegetation were used for flood hazard minimization. After three growing seasons, the banks of the ephemeral stream were almost fully stabilized. Vegetation based solutions are found to be more effective than the mechanical methods of stream bank stabilization. Bamboo combinations for check dam construction and planting of bamboo behind check dam are both very useful for stream bank stabilization. Vegetation application on flood damaged bare ground was also found to be very successful. Furthermore, some plants species showed almost equal growth performances on both flood-affected and unaffected bare ground. However, more scientific implementation of ecological applications for flood hazard minimization in those affected areas is essential in future.

  11. Fragility analysis of flood protection structures in earthquake and flood prone areas around Cologne, Germany for multi-hazard risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagunov, Sergey; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Munoz Jimenez, Cristina; Parolai, Stefano; Fleming, Kevin; Merz, Bruno; Zschau, Jochen

    2013-04-01

    The work presents a methodology for fragility analyses of fluvial earthen dikes in earthquake and flood prone areas. Fragility estimates are being integrated into the multi-hazard (earthquake-flood) risk analysis being undertaken within the framework of the EU FP7 project MATRIX (New Multi-Hazard and Multi-Risk Assessment Methods for Europe) for the city of Cologne, Germany. Scenarios of probable cascading events due to the earthquake-triggered failure of flood protection dikes and the subsequent inundation of surroundings are analyzed for the area between the gauges Andernach and Düsseldorf along the Rhine River. Along this river stretch, urban areas are partly protected by earthen dikes, which may be prone to failure during exceptional floods and/or earthquakes. The seismic fragility of the dikes is considered in terms of liquefaction potential (factor of safety), estimated by the use of the simplified procedure of Seed and Idriss. It is assumed that initiation of liquefaction at any point throughout the earthen dikes' body corresponds to the failure of the dike and, therefore, this should be taken into account for the flood risk calculations. The estimated damage potential of such structures is presented as a two-dimensional surface (as a function of seismic hazard and water level). Uncertainties in geometrical and geotechnical dike parameters are considered within the framework of Monte Carlo simulations. Taking into consideration the spatial configuration of the existing flood protection system within the area under consideration, seismic hazard curves (in terms of PGA) are calculated for sites along the river segment of interest at intervals of 1 km. The obtained estimates are used to calculate the flood risk when considering the temporal coincidence of seismic and flood events. Changes in flood risk for the considered hazard cascade scenarios are quantified and compared to the single-hazard scenarios.

  12. Documentation for Initial Seismic Hazard Maps for Haiti

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, Arthur; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Calais, Eric; Haase, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In response to the urgent need for earthquake-hazard information after the tragic disaster caused by the moment magnitude (M) 7.0 January 12, 2010, earthquake, we have constructed initial probabilistic seismic hazard maps for Haiti. These maps are based on the current information we have on fault slip rates and historical and instrumental seismicity. These initial maps will be revised and improved as more data become available. In the short term, more extensive logic trees will be developed to better capture the uncertainty in key parameters. In the longer term, we will incorporate new information on fault parameters and previous large earthquakes obtained from geologic fieldwork. These seismic hazard maps are important for the management of the current crisis and the development of building codes and standards for the rebuilding effort. The boundary between the Caribbean and North American Plates in the Hispaniola region is a complex zone of deformation. The highly oblique ~20 mm/yr convergence between the two plates (DeMets and others, 2000) is partitioned between subduction zones off of the northern and southeastern coasts of Hispaniola and strike-slip faults that transect the northern and southern portions of the island. There are also thrust faults within the island that reflect the compressional component of motion caused by the geometry of the plate boundary. We follow the general methodology developed for the 1996 U.S. national seismic hazard maps and also as implemented in the 2002 and 2008 updates. This procedure consists of adding the seismic hazard calculated from crustal faults, subduction zones, and spatially smoothed seismicity for shallow earthquakes and Wadati-Benioff-zone earthquakes. Each one of these source classes will be described below. The lack of information on faults in Haiti requires many assumptions to be made. These assumptions will need to be revisited and reevaluated as more fieldwork and research are accomplished. We made two sets of

  13. 78 FR 743 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    .../. 4990, Orlando, FL FL 32302. 32808. Sarasota Town of Longboat The Honorable Jim Planning, Zoning, http..., Goodyear, AZ 85338. Maricopa Town of Cave Creek The Honorable 37622 North Cave http:// January 4, 2013 040129 (12-09-1536P). Vincent Francia, Creek, Cave www.r9map.org/ Mayor, Town of Creek, AZ 85331....

  14. 78 FR 52943 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... Angeles, CA 90012. Riverside Unincorporated The Honorable John Riverside County http://www.r9map.org... Unincorporated The Honorable John Eagle County http:// October 25, 2013..... 080051 areas of Eagle Stavney...). Duane Gardner, North Broome www.ncfloodmaps.com/ Mayor, Town of Street, Waxhaw, fhd.htm. Waxhaw,...

  15. 78 FR 43901 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering ] Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation... 060729 Clarita (12-09- Kellar, Mayor, Valencia www.r9map.org/ 2819P). City of Santa Boulevard, Suite Docs/12-09-2819P- Clarita, 23920 300, Santa 060729- Valencia Clarita, CA 102IAC.pdf. Boulevard,...

  16. 77 FR 59950 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ..., Fair Street, AZ 86303. Prescott, AZ 86305. California: Napa City of St. Helena The Honorable Del.... Street, St. Helena, CA 94574. Napa Unincorporated The Honorable Napa County Public http://www.r9map.org/ November 5, 2012..... 060205 areas of Napa Keith Caldwell, Works Department, Docs/12-09-0871P- County...

  17. Comparing the Performance of Japan's Earthquake Hazard Maps to Uniform and Randomized Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, E. M.; Stein, S. A.; Spencer, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    The devastating 2011 magnitude 9.1 Tohoku earthquake and the resulting shaking and tsunami were much larger than anticipated in earthquake hazard maps. Because this and all other earthquakes that caused ten or more fatalities in Japan since 1979 occurred in places assigned a relatively low hazard, Geller (2011) argued that "all of Japan is at risk from earthquakes, and the present state of seismological science does not allow us to reliably differentiate the risk level in particular geographic areas," so a map showing uniform hazard would be preferable to the existing map. Defenders of the maps countered by arguing that these earthquakes are low-probability events allowed by the maps, which predict the levels of shaking that should expected with a certain probability over a given time. Although such maps are used worldwide in making costly policy decisions for earthquake-resistant construction, how well these maps actually perform is unknown. We explore this hotly-contested issue by comparing how well a 510-year-long record of earthquake shaking in Japan is described by the Japanese national hazard (JNH) maps, uniform maps, and randomized maps. Surprisingly, as measured by the metric implicit in the JNH maps, i.e. that during the chosen time interval the predicted ground motion should be exceeded only at a specific fraction of the sites, both uniform and randomized maps do better than the actual maps. However, using as a metric the squared misfit between maximum observed shaking and that predicted, the JNH maps do better than uniform or randomized maps. These results indicate that the JNH maps are not performing as well as expected, that what factors control map performance is complicated, and that learning more about how maps perform and why would be valuable in making more effective policy.

  18. Assessing Flood Risks and Planning for Resiliency in New Jersey: A Case Study on the Use of Online Flood Mapping and Resilience Planning Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auermuller, L. M.; Gatto, J.; Huch, C.

    2015-12-01

    The highly developed nature of New Jersey's coastline, barrier island and lagoon communities make them particularly vulnerable to storm surge, sea level rise and flooding. The impacts of Hurricane Sandy have enlightened coastal communities to these realities. Recognizing these vulnerabilities, the Jacques Cousteau National Research Reserve (JC NERR), Rutgers Center for Remote Sensing and Spatial Analysis (CRSSA), Rutgers Bloustein School and the Barnegat Bay Partnership (BBP) have developed web-based tools to assist NJ's coastal communities in visualizing and planning for future local impacts. NJFloodMapper and NJAdapt are two complementary interactive mapping websites that visualize different current and future flood hazards. These hazard layers can be combined with additional data including critical facilities, evacuation routes, socioeconomic and environmental data. Getting to Resilience is an online self-assessment tool developed to assist communities reduce vulnerability and increase preparedness by linking planning, mitigation, and adaptation. Through this interactive process communities will learn how their preparedness can yield valuable points through voluntary programs like FEMA's Community Rating System and Sustainable Jersey. The assessment process can also increase the community's understanding of where future vulnerabilities should be addressed through hazard mitigation planning. Since Superstorm Sandy, more than thirty communities in New Jersey have been provided technical assistance in assessing their risks and vulnerabilities to coastal hazards, and have begun to understand how to better plan and prepare for short and long-term changes along their shorelines.

  19. Volcanic hazard communication using maps: an evaluation of their effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, Katharine; Barclay, Jenni; Pidgeon, Nick

    2007-11-01

    Hazard maps are considered essential tools in the communication of volcanic risk between scientists, the local authorities and the public. This study investigates the efficacy of such maps for the volcanic island of Montserrat in the West Indies using both quantitative and qualitative research techniques. Normal plan view maps, which have been used on the island over the last 10 years of the crisis, are evaluated against specially produced three-dimensional (3D) maps and perspective photographs. Thirty-two demographically representative respondents of mixed backgrounds, sex, education and location were interviewed and asked to complete a range of tasks and identification on the maps and photographs. The overall results show that ordinary people have problems interpreting their environment as a mapped representation. We found respondents’ ability to locate and orientate themselves as well as convey information relating to volcanic hazards was improved when using aerial photographs rather than traditional plan view contour maps. There was a slight improvement in the use of the 3D maps, especially in terms of topographic recognition. However, the most striking increase in effectiveness was found with the perspective photographs, which enabled people to identify features and their orientation much more readily. For Montserrat it appears that well labelled aerial and perspective photographs are the most effective geo-spatial method of communicating volcanic risks.

  20. Updating flood maps efficiently using existing hydraulic models, very-high-accuracy elevation data, and a geographic information system; a pilot study on the Nisqually River, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Joseph L.; Haluska, Tana L.; Kresch, David L.

    2001-01-01

    A method of updating flood inundation maps at a fraction of the expense of using traditional methods was piloted in Washington State as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Urban Geologic and Hydrologic Hazards Initiative. Large savings in expense may be achieved by building upon previous Flood Insurance Studies and automating the process of flood delineation with a Geographic Information System (GIS); increases in accuracy and detail result from the use of very-high-accuracy elevation data and automated delineation; and the resulting digital data sets contain valuable ancillary information such as flood depth, as well as greatly facilitating map storage and utility. The method consists of creating stage-discharge relations from the archived output of the existing hydraulic model, using these relations to create updated flood stages for recalculated flood discharges, and using a GIS to automate the map generation process. Many of the effective flood maps were created in the late 1970?s and early 1980?s, and suffer from a number of well recognized deficiencies such as out-of-date or inaccurate estimates of discharges for selected recurrence intervals, changes in basin characteristics, and relatively low quality elevation data used for flood delineation. FEMA estimates that 45 percent of effective maps are over 10 years old (FEMA, 1997). Consequently, Congress has mandated the updating and periodic review of existing maps, which have cost the Nation almost 3 billion (1997) dollars. The need to update maps and the cost of doing so were the primary motivations for piloting a more cost-effective and efficient updating method. New technologies such as Geographic Information Systems and LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) elevation mapping are key to improving the efficiency of flood map updating, but they also improve the accuracy, detail, and usefulness of the resulting digital flood maps. GISs produce digital maps without manual estimation of inundated areas between