Science.gov

Sample records for flood protection levees

  1. Mount St. Helens Project. Cowlitz River Levee Systems, 2009 Level of Flood Protection Update Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-04

    mountainous region between Mount St. Helens and Mt. Rainier to the Columbia River at Longview, WA. The upstream-most levee is at Castle Rock where a... Mount St. Helens Project Cowlitz River Levee Systems 2009 Level of Flood Protection Update Summary Cowlitz River at Longview... Mount St. Helens Project. Cowlitz River Levee Systems, 2009 Level of Flood Protection Update Summary 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  2. Evaluation of levee setbacks for flood-loss reduction, Middle Mississippi River, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierauer, Jennifer; Pinter, Nicholas; Remo, Jonathan W. F.

    2012-07-01

    SummaryOne-dimensional hydraulic modeling and flood-loss modeling were used to test the effectiveness of levee setbacks for flood-loss reduction along the Middle Mississippi River (MMR). Four levee scenarios were assessed: (1) the present-day levee configuration, (2) a 1000 m levee setback, (3) a 1500 m levee setback, and (4) an optimized setback configuration. Flood losses were estimated using FEMA's Hazus-MH (Hazards US Multi-Hazard) loss-estimation software on a structure-by-structure basis for a range of floods from the 2- to the 500-year events. These flood-loss estimates were combined with a levee-reliability model to calculate probability-weighted damage estimates. In the simplest case, the levee setback scenarios tested here reduced flood losses compared to current conditions for large, infrequent flooding events but increased flood losses for smaller, more frequent flood events. These increases occurred because levee protection was removed for some of the existing structures. When combined with buyouts of unprotected structures, levee setbacks reduced flood losses for all recurrence intervals. The "optimized" levee setback scenario, involving a levee configuration manually planned to protect existing high-value infrastructure, reduced damages with or without buyouts. This research shows that levee setbacks in combination with buyouts are an economically viable approach for flood-risk reduction along the study reach and likely elsewhere where levees are widely employed for flood control. Designing a levee setback around existing high-value infrastructure can maximize the benefit of the setback while simultaneously minimizing the costs. The optimized levee setback scenario analyzed here produced payback periods (costs divided by benefits) of less than 12 years. With many aging levees failing current inspections across the US, and flood losses spiraling up over time, levee setbacks are a viable solution for reducing flood exposure and flood levels.

  3. Climate and floods still govern California levee breaks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Florsheim, J.L.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Even in heavily engineered river systems, climate still governs flood variability and thus still drives many levee breaks and geomorphic changes. We assemble a 155-year record of levee breaks for a major California river system to find that breaks occurred in 25% of years during the 20th Century. A relation between levee breaks and river discharge is present that sets a discharge threshold above which most levee breaks occurred. That threshold corresponds to small floods with recurrence intervals of ???2-3 years. Statistical analysis illustrates that levee breaks and peak discharges cycle (broadly) on a 12-15 year time scale, in time with warm-wet storm patterns in California, but more slowly or more quickly than ENSO and PDO climate phenomena, respectively. Notably, these variations and thresholds persist through the 20th Century, suggesting that historical flood-control effects have not reduced the occurrence or frequency of levee breaks. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Levee Scour Protection for Storm Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, E.; Sustainable; Resiliency in Levee Scour Protection

    2011-12-01

    Earnest Johnson, Firat Y. Testik *, Nadarajah Ravichandran Civil Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA * Contact author ftestik@clemson.edu Levee failure due to scouring has been a prominent occurrence among intense storm surges and waves, giving rise to the implementation of various scour protection measures over the years. This study is to investigate the levee scour and to compare different scour protection measures on a model-levee system in a laboratory wave tank. The protection measures that are tested and compared for their effectiveness in this study include turf reinforcement mats, woven geotextiles, and core-locs. This is an ongoing research effort and experiments are currently being conducted with model levees constructed based upon the United States Army Corps of Engineers' levee design and construction guidelines under various simulated storm conditions. Parameters such as wave elevations, deformation time history of the floodwall, and the scour depth are measured in each test. The finding of this research will be translated to provide effective scour protection measures for robust levee designs.

  5. Lidar-based mapping of flood control levees in south Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thatcher, Cindy; Lim, Samsung; Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Kimbrow, Dustin R.

    2016-01-01

    Flood protection in south Louisiana is largely dependent on earthen levees, and in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina the state’s levee system has received intense scrutiny. Accurate elevation data along the levees are critical to local levee district managers responsible for monitoring and maintaining the extensive system of non-federal levees in coastal Louisiana. In 2012, high resolution airborne lidar data were acquired over levees in Lafourche Parish, Louisiana, and a mobile terrestrial lidar survey was conducted for selected levee segments using a terrestrial lidar scanner mounted on a truck. The mobile terrestrial lidar data were collected to test the feasibility of using this relatively new technology to map flood control levees and to compare the accuracy of the terrestrial and airborne lidar. Metrics assessing levee geometry derived from the two lidar surveys are also presented as an efficient, comprehensive method to quantify levee height and stability. The vertical root mean square error values of the terrestrial lidar and airborne lidar digital-derived digital terrain models were 0.038 m and 0.055 m, respectively. The comparison of levee metrics derived from the airborne and terrestrial lidar-based digital terrain models showed that both types of lidar yielded similar results, indicating that either or both surveying techniques could be used to monitor geomorphic change over time. Because airborne lidar is costly, many parts of the USA and other countries have never been mapped with airborne lidar, and repeat surveys are often not available for change detection studies. Terrestrial lidar provides a practical option for conducting repeat surveys of levees and other terrain features that cover a relatively small area, such as eroding cliffs or stream banks, and dunes.

  6. 44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... those levee systems that meet, and continue to meet, minimum design, operation, and maintenance... operation and maintenance systems are in place to provide reasonable assurance that protection from the base... exterior flooding and the capacity of facilities (such as drainage lines and pumps) for evacuating...

  7. 44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... those levee systems that meet, and continue to meet, minimum design, operation, and maintenance... operation and maintenance systems are in place to provide reasonable assurance that protection from the base... exterior flooding and the capacity of facilities (such as drainage lines and pumps) for evacuating...

  8. Reconnaissance Report for Section 205 Flood Damage Reduction Study. The SNY Island Levee Drainage District, Adams, Pike, and Calhoun Counties, Illinois.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    The SILDD is protected from the Mississippi River by a Corps of Engineers local flood protection levee most recently raised in 1969. The SILDD would...District, Corps of Engineers , report entitled, Upper Mississippi River Basin, Mississippi River -Nine Foot Channel, Appendix 22, Master Reservoir...pumping stations, diversions for five upland streams, retarding/ desilting reservoirs, and a closing levee to prevent Mississippi River backup in the lower

  9. Flood protection for the Kansas City bannister federal complex

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, J.J.; Williams, R.H.; Betzen, G.A.

    1995-08-01

    The Bannister Federal Complex is bordered on the east by the Blue River and on the south by Indian Creek. After a flood in 1961 and several near-miss floods, flood protection has been installed. The protection consists of 2,916 feet of concrete flood walls, 8,769 feet of levee, five rolling gates, four stoplog gaps, one hinged pedestrian gate, and one sandbag gap. The flood walls are over 14 feet tall. Construction was started on August 3, 1992 and was completed in early 1995. Architectural treatment was incorporated in the flood walls as well as landscaping to enhance the appearance of the flood protection.

  10. Evidence of an Emerging Disturbance of Earthen Levees Causing Disastrous Floods in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlandini, S.; Moretti, G.; Albertson, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    A levee failure occurred along the Secchia River, Northern Italy, on January 19, 2014, resulting in flood damage in excess of $500 Million (Figure). In response to this failure, immediate surveillance of other levees in the region led to the identification of a second breach developing on the neighboring Panaro River, where rapid mitigation efforts were successful in averting a full levee failure. The paired breach events that occurred along the Secchia and Panaro Rivers provided an excellent window on an emerging disturbance of levees and related failure mechanism. In the Secchia River, by combining the information content of photographs taken from helicopters in the early stage of breach development and 10-cm resolution aerial photographs taken in 2010 and 2012, animal burrows were found to exist in the precise levee location where the breach originated. In the Panaro River, internal erosion was observed to occur at a location where a crested porcupine den was known to exist and this erosion led to the collapse of the levee top. Evidence collected suggested that it is quite likely that the levee failure of the Secchia River was of a similar mechanism as the observed failure of the Panaro River. Detailed numerical modeling of rainfall, river flow, and variably saturated flow occurring in disturbed levees in response to complex hydroclimatic forcing indicated that the levee failure of the Secchia River may have been triggered by direct river inflow into the den system or collapse of a hypothetical den separated by a 1-m earthen wall from the levee riverside, which saturated during the hydroclimatic event. It is important to bring these processes to the attention of hydrologists and geotechnical engineers as well as to trigger an interdisciplinary discussion on habitat fragmentation and wildlife shifts due to development and climate pressures. These disturbances come together with changes in extreme events to inform the broader concern of risk analysis due to floods.

  11. Evidence of an emerging levee failure mechanism causing disastrous floods in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlandini, Stefano; Moretti, Giovanni; Albertson, John D.

    2015-10-01

    A levee failure occurred along the Secchia River, Northern Italy, on 19 January 2014, resulting in flood damage in excess of $500 million. In response to this failure, immediate surveillance of other levees in the region led to the identification of a second breach developing on the neighboring Panaro River, where rapid mitigation efforts were successful in averting a full levee failure. The paired breach events that occurred along the Secchia and Panaro Rivers provided an excellent window on an emerging levee failure mechanism. In the Secchia River, by combining the information content of photographs taken from helicopters in the early stage of breach development and 10 cm resolution aerial photographs taken in 2010 and 2012, animal burrows were found to exist in the precise levee location where the breach originated. In the Panaro River, internal erosion was observed to occur at a location where a crested porcupine den was known to exist and this erosion led to the collapse of the levee top. This paper uses detailed numerical modeling of rainfall, river flow, and variably saturated flow in the levee to explore the hydraulic and geotechnical mechanisms that were triggered along the Secchia and Panaro Rivers by activities of burrowing animals leading to levee failures. As habitats become more fragmented and constrained along river corridors, it is possible that this failure mechanism could become more prevalent and, therefore, will demand greater attention in both the design and maintenance of earthen hydraulic structures as well as in wildlife management.

  12. Monitoring of levees, bridges, pipelines, and other critical infrastructure during the 2011 flooding in the Mississippi River Basin: Chapter J in 2011 floods of the central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, Brenda K.; Burton, Bethany L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Cannia, James C.; Huizinga, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    During the 2011 Mississippi River Basin flood, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated aspects of critical river infrastructure at the request of and in support of local, State, and Federal Agencies. Geotechnical and hydrographic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at numerous locations were able to provide needed information about 2011 flood effects to those managing the critical infrastructure. These data were collected and processed in a short time frame to provide managers the ability to make a timely evaluation of the safety of the infrastructure and, when needed, to take action to secure and protect critical infrastructure. Critical infrastructure surveyed by the U.S. Geological Survey included levees, bridges, pipeline crossings, power plant intakes and outlets, and an electrical transmission tower. Capacitively coupled resistivity data collected along the flood-protection levees surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City power plant (Missouri River Levee Unit R573), mapped the near-subsurface electrical properties of the levee and the materials immediately below it. The near-subsurface maps provided a better understanding of the levee construction and the nature of the lithology beneath the levee. Comparison of the capacitively coupled resistivity surveys and soil borings indicated that low-resistivity value material composing the levee generally is associated with lean clay and silt to about 2 to 4 meters below the surface, overlying a more resistive layer associated with sand deposits. In general, the resistivity structure becomes more resistive to the south and the southern survey sections correlate well with the borehole data that indicate thinner clay and silt at the surface and thicker sand sequences at depth in these sections. With the resistivity data Omaha Public Power District could focus monitoring efforts on areas with higher resistivity values (coarser-grained deposits or more loosely compacted section), which typically are

  13. Aggradation of Leveed Channels and Their Flood Plains in Arroyo Bottoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, K. R.

    2005-12-01

    the emerging flood plain became dominated by silt (or clay) while the levees next to the channel remained dominated by fine or very fine sand. Furthermore, the channel and floodplain aggraded at similar rates and thus had come into geomorphic equilibrium. Vertical accretion of the channel banks, which are the flanks of channel-margin levees, was accomplished by deposition of inclined lamina and very thin beds dominated by silt that have fairly uniform thickness. This may have been promoted by rapid infiltration of stream water into the banks, filtering fine suspended sediment at the solid interface.

  14. Application of the TDR technique for the detection of changes in the internal structure of an earthen flood levee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janik, Grzegorz; Dawid, Małgorzata; Walczak, Amadeusz; Słowińska-Osypiuk, Joanna; Skierucha, Wojciech; Wilczek, Andrzej; Daniel, Anna

    2017-03-01

    Failures of earthen flood protection structures cause enormous material loss. Despite this, in the majority these are structures that were built decades ago. As an example, in Poland, the time of operation of approximately three quarters of existing levees and embankments is over 40 years. A similar situation exists in many other European countries. In the period 1998–2009 the economic losses caused by floods amounted to over 60 thousand million Euro. This accounts for approximately one third of the total losses caused by environmental factors. Ruptures of embankments or levees occur as a result of long-lasting elevated water levels in rivers, and such events are always preceded by changes in their internal structure. Such changes cannot be detected from the outside. This paper presents a new method, never used before, for the determination of changes in the internal structure of the body of a levee. The dynamics of the displacements is described by means of new mathematical formulae. The input data necessary for their application include the dynamics of changes in the value of volumetric moisture that is measured with a freely selected short time step by means of the time-domain-reflectrometry technique. The formulae were created on the basis of hitherto unnoticed and uninterpreted drops in moisture a moment before and a moment after the saturation of inner spaces of the levee body. The results obtained from calculations were compared with data from measurements on a physical model of a levee. The settlement values calculated using the method proposed are convergent with those of the true settlement. The maximum relative error was as low as 19%. The method proposed permits the location of changes in the internal structure of a levee before its rupture. Its application is the main component of a system of early warning against floods.

  15. Risk-based planning analysis for a single levee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Rui; Jachens, Elizabeth; Lund, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Traditional risk-based analysis for levee planning focuses primarily on overtopping failure. Although many levees fail before overtopping, few planning studies explicitly include intermediate geotechnical failures in flood risk analysis. This study develops a risk-based model for two simplified levee failure modes: overtopping failure and overall intermediate geotechnical failure from through-seepage, determined by the levee cross section represented by levee height and crown width. Overtopping failure is based only on water level and levee height, while through-seepage failure depends on many geotechnical factors as well, mathematically represented here as a function of levee crown width using levee fragility curves developed from professional judgment or analysis. These levee planning decisions are optimized to minimize the annual expected total cost, which sums expected (residual) annual flood damage and annualized construction costs. Applicability of this optimization approach to planning new levees or upgrading existing levees is demonstrated preliminarily for a levee on a small river protecting agricultural land, and a major levee on a large river protecting a more valuable urban area. Optimized results show higher likelihood of intermediate geotechnical failure than overtopping failure. The effects of uncertainty in levee fragility curves, economic damage potential, construction costs, and hydrology (changing climate) are explored. Optimal levee crown width is more sensitive to these uncertainties than height, while the derived general principles and guidelines for risk-based optimal levee planning remain the same.

  16. Environmental Statement for Local Flood Protection Project at Three Rivers, Texas. Supplement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-28

    Oak County, Texas Nueces River Three Rivers Local Flood Protection Project 20. AD6TRACT (C-Iut. u m ~ "d if ne~em and ~ideif by block nutbr...Environmental impact statement/report purposes to construct a levee system to protect the city of Three Rivers, Texas from flooding of Frio and Nueces Rivers. No...Construct levee system to protect the city of Three Rivers, Texas, from flooding of Frio and Nueces Rivers. 3. a. Environmental Impacts: The project

  17. Elemental chemistry of sand-boil discharge used to trace variable pathways of seepage beneath levees during the 2011 Mississippi River flood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water samples were collected from the Mississippi River, from sand boils near the toe of the levee on the Mississippi side of the river, and from actively flowing relief wells shortly after peak stage of the 2011 Mississippi River flood. Two distinct pathways for seepage under the levee were identif...

  18. 33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section... Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent...) Existing flood protection. Each Project Implementation Report shall include appropriate analyses,...

  19. 33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section... Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent...) Existing flood protection. Each Project Implementation Report shall include appropriate analyses,...

  20. 33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section... Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent...) Existing flood protection. Each Project Implementation Report shall include appropriate analyses,...

  1. 33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section... Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent...) Existing flood protection. Each Project Implementation Report shall include appropriate analyses,...

  2. 33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section... Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent...) Existing flood protection. Each Project Implementation Report shall include appropriate analyses,...

  3. Development of Floating Wave Barriers for Cost Effective Protection of Irrigation Pond Levees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The earth levees commonly used for irrigation reservoirs are subjected to significant embankment erosion due to wind-generated waves. Large seasonal fluctuations in water level make vegetative bank protection impractical, and other stabilization methods, such as the use of stone or discarded tires, ...

  4. Morphological Analyses and Simulated Flood Elevations in a Watershed with Dredged and Leveed Stream Channels, Wheeling Creek, Eastern Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherwood, James M.; Huitger, Carrie A.; Ebner, Andrew D.; Koltun, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    The USGS, in cooperation with the Ohio Emergency Management Agency, conducted a study in the Wheeling Creek Basin to (1) evaluate and contrast land-cover characteristics from 2001 with characteristics from 1979 and 1992; (2) compare current streambed elevation, slope, and geometry with conditions present in the late 1980s; (3) look for evidence of channel filling and over widening in selected undredged reaches; (4) estimate flood elevations for existing conditions in both undredged and previously dredged reaches; (5) evaluate the height of the levees required to contain floods with selected recurrence intervals in previously dredged reaches; and (6) estimate flood elevations for several hypothetical dredging and streambed aggradation scenarios in undredged reaches. The amount of barren land in the Wheeling Creek watershed has decreased from 20 to 1 percent of the basin area based on land-cover characteristics from 1979 and 2001. Barren lands appear to have been converted primarily to pasture, presumably as a result of surface-mine reclamation. Croplands also decreased from 13 to 8 percent of the basin area. The combined decrease in barren lands and croplands is approximately offset by the increase in pasture. Stream-channel surveys conducted in 1987 and again in 2006 at 21 sites in four previously dredged reaches of Wheeling Creek indicate little change in the elevation, slope, and geometry of the channel at most sites. The mean change in width-averaged bed and thalweg elevations for the 21 cross sections was 0.1 feet. Bankfull widths, mean depths, and cross-sectional areas measured at 12 sites in undredged reaches were compared to estimates determined from regional equations. The mean percentage difference between measured and estimated bankfull widths was -0.2 percent, suggesting that bankfull widths in the Wheeling Creek Basin are generally about the same as regional averages for undisturbed basins of identical drainage area. For bankfull mean depth and cross

  5. A Cultural Resources Survey of the St. Charles Parish Hurricane Protection Levee, St. Charles Parish, Louisiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    LOUISIANA 70160-0267 REPLY TO SrTEN TION OF Planning Division Environmental Analysis Branch To The Reader: This cultural resources effort was designed...November 1987. Analysis of the collected data and report preparation took place in December 1987 and January 1988. Although the hurricane protection levee...for radiocarbon dating and that the analysis should attempt a "geomorphic reconstruction for tile project area" and develop a "time-depth" estimate

  6. National Levee Database: monitoring, vulnerability assessment and management in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbetta, Silvia; Camici, Stefania; Maccioni, Pamela; Moramarco, Tommaso

    2015-04-01

    A properly designed and constructed levees system can often be an effective device for repelling floodwaters and provide barriers against inundation to protect urbanized and industrial areas. However, the delineation of flooding-prone areas and the related hydraulic hazard mapping taking account of uncertainty (Apel et al., 2008) are usually developed with a scarce consideration of the possible occurrence of levee failures along river channels (Mazzoleni et al., 2014). Indeed, it is well known that flooding is frequently the result of levee failures that can be triggered by several factors, as: (1) overtopping, (2) scouring of the foundation, (3) seepage/piping of levee body/foundation, and (4) sliding of the foundation. Among these failure mechanisms that are influenced by the levee's geometrical configuration, hydraulic conditions (e.g. river level and seepage), and material properties (e.g. permeability, cohesion, porosity, compaction), the piping caused by seepage (ICOLD, http://www.icold-cigb.org) is considered one of the most dominant levee failure mechanisms (Colleselli F., 1994; Wallingford H. R., 2003). The difficulty of estimating the hydraulic parameters to properly describe the seepage line within the body and foundation of the levee implies that the study of the critical flood wave routing is typically carried out by assuming that the levee system is undamaged during the flood event. In this context, implementing and making operational a National Levee Database (NLD), effectively structured and continuously updated, becomes fundamental to have a searchable inventory of information about levees available as a key resource supporting decisions and actions affecting levee safety. The ItaliaN LEvee Database (INLED) has been recently developed by the Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection (IRPI) for the Civil Protection Department of the Presidency of Council of Ministers. INLED has the main focus of collecting comprehensive information about

  7. Geophysical applications for levee assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chlaib, Hussein Khalefa

    Levees are important engineering structures that build along the rivers to protect the human lives and shield the communities as well as agriculture lands from the high water level events. Animal burrows, subsurface cavities, and low density (high permeability) zones are weakness features within the levee body that increase its risk of failure. To prevent such failure, continuous monitoring of the structure integrity and early detection of the weakness features must be conducted. Application of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Capacitively Coupled Resistivity (CCR) methods were found to be very effective in assessing the levees and detect zones of weakness within the levee body. GPR was implemented using multi-frequency antennas (200, 400, and 900 MHz) with survey cart/wheel and survey vehicle. The (CCR) method was applied by using a single transmitter and three receivers. Studying the capability and the effectiveness of these methods in levee monitoring, subsurface weakness feature detection, and studying the structure integrity of levees were the main tasks of this dissertation. A set of laboratory experiments was conducted at the Geophysics Laboratory of the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR) to analyze the polarity change in GPR signals in the presence of subsurface voids and water-filled cavities. Also three full scale field expeditions at the Big Dam Bridge (BDB) Levee, Lollie Levee, and Helena Levee in Arkansas were conducted using the GPR technique. This technique was effective in detecting empty, water, and clay filled cavities as well as small scale animal burrows (small rodents). The geophysical work at BDB and Lollie Levees expressed intensive subsurface anomalies which might decrease their integrity while the Helena Levee shows less subsurface anomalies. The compaction of levee material is a key factor affecting piping phenomenon. The structural integrity of the levee partially depends on the density/compaction of the soil layers. A

  8. Draft Environmental Impact Statement, West Bank Hurricane Protection Levee, Jefferson Parish, Louisiana.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    protection represents 51 percent of the population of the project area or about 34,000 people . The proposed plans will not prevent flooding from rain- fall...developable, of people . Increased community cohesion Increased noise levels during from increased hurricane flood construction and maintenance...urbanized area-some displacement of people . Stimulation of economic base with continued area growth Increased noise levels during 3-14 Table 3.3

  9. Large-scale flooding analysis in the suburbs of Tokyo Metropolis caused by levee breach of the Tone River using a 2D hydrodynamic model.

    PubMed

    Hai, Pham T; Magome, J; Yorozuya, A; Inomata, H; Fukami, K; Takeuchi, K

    2010-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of climate change on flood disasters in urban areas, we applied a two dimensional finite element hydrodynamic model (2D-FEM) to simulate flood processes for the case analysis of levee breach caused by Kathleen Typhoon on 16 September 1947 in Kurihashi reach of Tone River, upstream of Tokyo area. The purpose is to use the model to simulate flood inundation processes under the present topography and land-use conditions with impending extreme flood scenarios due to climate change for mega-urban areas like Tokyo. Simulation used 100 m resolution topographic data (in PWRI), which was derived from original LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data, and levee breach hydrographic data in 1947. In this paper, we will describe the application of the model with calibration approach and techniques when applying for such fine spatial resolution in urban environments. The fine unstructured triangular FEM mesh of the model appeared to be the most capable of introducing of constructions like roads/levees in simulations. Model results can be used to generate flood mapping, subsequently uploaded to Google Earth interface, making the modeling and presentation process much comprehensible to the general public.

  10. On mechanisms triggering the levees failure along the Foenna stream on 1st January 2006 and which caused the flooding in the urban area of Sinalunga, Tuscany Region (Italy). A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camici, Stefania; Moramarco, Tommaso; Brocca, Luca; Melone, Florisa; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Perrone, Angela; Loperte, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    On 1st January 2006, during an ordinary flood event, a levee failure along the Foenna stream caused the flooding in the urban area of Sinalunga, a small town located in Tuscany region (Italy). The event was monitored by a public agency with the responsibility for the control and maintenance of the natural channel networks. Long time before of flooding, people living in the surrounding area of the stream blamed the presence of wild animals and of numerous burrows along the levees. Although the numerous actions of maintenance along the levees mainly for removing the burrows, a levee seepage occurred during that flood. The presence of an outflow located on the downstream face, almost 2 m below the levee top, caused the spurt of brown water denoting the presence of sediment erosion. On the upstream face of levee, a little hole of about 30 cm at the same height of the outflow was discovered. Although the agency workers tried to close the hole by using appropriate blankets, in short time the top of the levee subsided and the overtopping flow caused a trapezoidal breach typical for an earth-fill embankment. The formation of breach was so fast that in a little more of one hour the urban area near to the Foenna stream was flooded causing high economic damages. Mechanisms triggered the levees failure are the object of this work. The analysis of the event has been first addressed to assess the state of-fact of levees conditions along the Foenna stream, thus to understand how much the activity of wild animals, in particular that of porcupine, may have affected the hydraulic safety of the embankment. At the purpose, after the event, topographical surveys of cross sections have been done along with tomographic surveys by geoelectric technique for investigating the possible presence, besides of burrows, also of tunnels dug into the levees by animals. Then, the analysis of hydrometeorological conditions of the event has allowed to better understand the evolution of the flood and

  11. Development of Floating Wave Barriers for Cost Effective Protection of Irrigation and Catfish Pond Levees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeren, Y.; Wren, D. G.; Alonso, C. V.

    2007-12-01

    Earth levees for catfish ponds and irrigation water storage experience significant embankment erosion due to wind generated waves. Large seasonal fluctuations in water level make vegetative bank protection impractical, and other stabilization methods such as the use of old tires or riprap are not acceptable due to ecological and economic concerns. The goal of the present work is to define configurations and construction techniques for inexpensive floating breakwaters made of polyethylene irrigation tubing. Based on wave characteristics measured in an irrigation pond near Lonoke, Arkansas, a laboratory scale wave generating flume was designed, constructed, and used to test multiple wave barrier configurations for regular waves in deep and transitional water depths. Wave transmission characteristics were investigated for the following breakwater arrangements: (1) fully restrained, (2) vertically restrained with a single mooring line, (3) horizontally restrained with a rigid arm hinged at one end, and (4) horizontally restrained with piles at both sides of the breakwater. The test results show that cylindrical pipes can be used effectively as floating breakwaters and that wave transmission characteristics strongly depend on the draft of the breakwater and the mooring configuration. The use of multiple small cylinders instead of a single large one can reduce cost while maintaining the same level of wave attenuation. The wave characteristics measured in the field and the results of laboratory testing resulted in a final design that is to be tested at the prototype scale in an irrigation pond.

  12. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 Emergency... HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.14 Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base...

  13. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 Emergency... HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.14 Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base...

  14. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 Emergency... HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.14 Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base...

  15. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 Emergency... HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.14 Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base...

  16. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 Emergency... HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.14 Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base...

  17. Spatiotemporal characteristics of flood protection level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanoue, M.; Ikeuchi, H.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Flooding is the most frequent natural hazard and its global impacts will be rising associated with climate change and socioeconomic growth. So, the understanding of the physical and spatial-temporal patterns of risk drivers (exposure, damage, and flood protection level) are required to conduct effective adaptation and reduce the negative impacts of flooding. Although the understanding of exposure and damage has greatly improved using a combination of numerical model simulation and spatiotemporal distributions of population and asset, that of flood protection level is still lacking in particular spatial patterns. Previous research clarifies its temporal variation and relationship with per-capita income, however they do not consider its spatial variation. Flood protection level was associated with geographical characteristics (e.g., soil type and tectonic zone etc). This study tried to estimate spatiotemporal of flood protection level at country level and discuss about relationship between its spatial patterns and geographical characteristics. Mortality rate (percentage of fatalities in modeled exposed population) and loss rate (percentage of losses in modeled exposed GDP) to fluvial river flooding across the world suggested by Jongmann et al. (2015) were estimated from modeled flood exposure and damage statistics taken from the International Emergency Disasters Database. The result indicated that mortality rate reduced across the world from 1990 to 2005. The degree of its reduction decreased with increasing per-capita income level. On the other hand, loss rate at high income and middle low income levels reduced, while that at middle high income and low income levels drastically increased between 1995 and 2000 due to growth economic and occurrence of serious fluvial river flooding. Spatial distribution of mortality and loss rates were high in East Asia, the western part of South America, and the eastern part of Europe. These regions seem to be corresponded to the

  18. Condition Assessment of Levees, U.S. Section of the International Boundary and Water Commission. Report 5: Flood Simulation Study of Retamal Levee, Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas, Using Seismic and Electrical Geophysical Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    site visit at site #2 ( oxbow lake site). Notable changes in both com- pressional and shear velocity can be associated with the infiltration of water...through-levee tomography receiver locations at the oxbow lake site (Figure 39). The location of the pond meant no through-levee tomography was possible...and very shallow water table as evident by the oxbow lake just 100 ft north of the levee (Figure 3). Open fissures along the surface on the levee

  19. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Flood plain management... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands along waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause loss of...

  20. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Flood plain management... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands along waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause loss of...

  1. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Flood plain management... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands along waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause loss of...

  2. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flood plain management... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands along waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause loss of...

  3. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Flood plain management... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands along waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause loss of...

  4. Flood protection diversification to reduce probabilities of extreme losses.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qian; Lambert, James H; Karvetski, Christopher W; Keisler, Jeffrey M; Linkov, Igor

    2012-11-01

    Recent catastrophic losses because of floods require developing resilient approaches to flood risk protection. This article assesses how diversification of a system of coastal protections might decrease the probabilities of extreme flood losses. The study compares the performance of portfolios each consisting of four types of flood protection assets in a large region of dike rings. A parametric analysis suggests conditions in which diversifications of the types of included flood protection assets decrease extreme flood losses. Increased return periods of extreme losses are associated with portfolios where the asset types have low correlations of economic risk. The effort highlights the importance of understanding correlations across asset types in planning for large-scale flood protection. It allows explicit integration of climate change scenarios in developing flood mitigation strategy.

  5. 25 CFR 286.9 - Environmental and flood disaster protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Environmental and flood disaster protection. 286.9... BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.9 Environmental and flood disaster protection. Grant funds will not be advanced until there is assurance of compliance with any applicable provisions of the Flood...

  6. 25 CFR 286.9 - Environmental and flood disaster protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental and flood disaster protection. 286.9... BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.9 Environmental and flood disaster protection. Grant funds will not be advanced until there is assurance of compliance with any applicable provisions of the Flood...

  7. 24 CFR 574.640 - Flood insurance protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Flood insurance protection. 574.640... Requirements § 574.640 Flood insurance protection. No property to be assisted under this part may be located in... flood hazards, unless: (a)(1) The community in which the area is situated is participating in...

  8. 24 CFR 574.640 - Flood insurance protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Flood insurance protection. 574.640... Requirements § 574.640 Flood insurance protection. No property to be assisted under this part may be located in... flood hazards, unless: (a)(1) The community in which the area is situated is participating in...

  9. 24 CFR 574.640 - Flood insurance protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Flood insurance protection. 574.640... Requirements § 574.640 Flood insurance protection. No property to be assisted under this part may be located in... flood hazards, unless: (a)(1) The community in which the area is situated is participating in...

  10. 24 CFR 574.640 - Flood insurance protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flood insurance protection. 574.640... Requirements § 574.640 Flood insurance protection. No property to be assisted under this part may be located in... flood hazards, unless: (a)(1) The community in which the area is situated is participating in...

  11. 25 CFR 286.9 - Environmental and flood disaster protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental and flood disaster protection. 286.9... BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.9 Environmental and flood disaster protection. Grant funds will not be advanced until there is assurance of compliance with any applicable provisions of the Flood...

  12. 25 CFR 286.9 - Environmental and flood disaster protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Environmental and flood disaster protection. 286.9 Section... BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.9 Environmental and flood disaster protection. Grant funds will not be advanced until there is assurance of compliance with any applicable provisions of the Flood...

  13. 25 CFR 286.9 - Environmental and flood disaster protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental and flood disaster protection. 286.9... BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.9 Environmental and flood disaster protection. Grant funds will not be advanced until there is assurance of compliance with any applicable provisions of the Flood...

  14. 24 CFR 574.640 - Flood insurance protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Flood insurance protection. 574.640... Requirements § 574.640 Flood insurance protection. No property to be assisted under this part may be located in... flood hazards, unless: (a)(1) The community in which the area is situated is participating in...

  15. Screening of Earthen Levees Using Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aanstoos, J. V.; O'Hara, C.; Prasad, S.; Dabbiru, L.; Nobrega, R.; Lee, M.

    2009-12-01

    Earthen levees protect large areas of populated and cultivated land in the US from flooding. As shown recently with hurricanes Katrina and Ike and the recent floods in the Midwest, the potential loss of life and property associated with the catastrophic failure of levees can be extremely large. Over the entire US, there are over 100,000 miles of levee structures of varying designs and conditions. Currently, there are limited processes in place to prioritize the monitoring of large numbers of dam and levee structures. Levee managers and federal agencies need to assess levee health rapidly with robust techniques that identify, classify and prioritize levee vulnerabilities with lower costs than traditional soil-boring programs, which can cost many of millions of dollars and provide information about the subsurface only in the immediate vicinity of a small-diameter borehole. This paper reports preliminary results of a project studying the use of airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) as an aid to the levee screening process. The SAR sensor being studied is the NASA UAVSAR (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle SAR), a fully polarimetric L-band SAR which is specifically designed to acquire airborne repeat track SAR data for differential interferometric measurements. The instrument is capable of sub-meter ground sample distance. NASA has imaged with this instrument 230 km of levees along the lower Mississippi River for use in this study. SAR interferometric mode is capable of identifying vertical displacements on the order of a few millimeters. Its multipolarization measurements can penetrate soil to as much as one meter depth. Thus it is valuable in detecting changes in levees that will be key inputs to a levee vulnerability classification system. Once vulnerable levee reaches have been identified, further actions such as more detailed examination or repairs can be focused on these higher-priority sections. We report on the use of various feature detection algorithms being applied

  16. Combined Resistivity and Shear Wave Velocity Soil-type Estimation Beneath a Coastal Protection Levee.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo, J. M.; Goff, D.; Hayashi, K.

    2015-12-01

    Unconsolidated Holocene deltaic sediments comprise levee foundation soils in New Orleans, USA. Whereas geotechnical tests at point locations are indispensable for evaluating soil stability, the highly variable sedimentary facies of the Mississippi delta create difficulties to predict soil conditions between test locations. Combined electrical resistivity and seismic shear wave studies, calibrated to geotechnical data, may provide an efficient methodology to predict soil types between geotechnical sites at shallow depths (0- 10 m). The London Avenue Canal levee flank of New Orleans, which failed in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, 2005, presents a suitable site in which to pioneer these geophysical relationships. Preliminary cross-plots show electrically resistive, high-shear-wave velocity areas interpreted as low-permeability, resistive silt. In brackish coastal environments, low-resistivity and low-shear-wave-velocity areas may indicate both saturated, unconsolidated sands and low-rigidity clays. Via a polynomial approximation, soil sub-types of sand, silt and clay can be estimated by a cross-plot of S-wave velocity and resistivity. We confirm that existent boring log data fit reasonably well with the polynomial approximation where 2/3 of soil samples fall within their respective bounds—this approach represents a new classification system that could be used for other mid-latitude, fine-grained deltas.

  17. Directionally drilled crossing constructed under river levee

    SciTech Connect

    Skonberg, E.R.; Berry, C.W.

    1996-06-01

    Shell Pipe Line Corp. recently commenced construction of its 20-inch Delta Loop Pipeline Project in south Louisiana. This line will transport crude oil from Main Pass No. 69 to the existing Shell pump station at Nairn in Plaquemines Parish. NBH, Inc. of New Orleans is prime contractor for this project which involves offshore pipe lay, shallow water marsh lay and a 4,100-foot horizontal directional crossing of the Mississippi River at Nairn which was undertaken by Land and Marine, Inc. of Houston. For past directionally drilled crossings, the New Orleans district of the US Army Corps of Engineers has only allowed drilling operations inside its Mississippi River flood protection levees. No drilling has been undertaken beneath the levees out of concern that the drilling operations could in some way damage their structural integrity. Unfortunately, at this particular location, the drill profile could not be designed placing drilling equipment inside the levee and achieve sufficient burial depth for the installed pipeline. If not allowed to bore beneath the levee, significant additional costs would have been incurred in routing the pipeline to a more suitable location. This paper reviews the design of this drilling operation showing the locations and construction of relief wells and piezometers used to monitor the directional drilling.

  18. Literature Review - Vegetation on Levees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    significant dam safety issue in the United States . The purpose of this Technical Manual on the Effects of Tree and Woody Vegetation Root Penetrations on...nationwide inspection of levee systems in 2007, many deficiencies were attributed to woody vegetation located within 15-ft of the levee toe as required...maintenance, operation, or flood-fight activities. International guidance documents and manuals Several countries other than the United States have guidance

  19. Mississippi River Flood of 2011 and the Activation of the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway: Observations and Modeling of a Levee Breach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, R. R.; Koenig, T. A.; McDonald, R. R.; Nelson, J. M.; Simoes, F. J.

    2011-12-01

    During 2011, record flooding has occurred in many parts of the central United States. As the flooding reached record levels for the Mississippi-Ohio River confluence at Cairo, Illinois, the 61 kilometer long and 8 kilometer wide Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway (Floodway) was activated to provide a lowering of upstream water levels through a controlled demolition of approximately 3,300 meters of levee at 10:00 PM on May 2, 2011. Prior to activation of the Floodway, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed 38 self-contained stage sensors throughout the Floodway to capture the change in water elevation through time at various locations. From April 29, 2011 to May 24, 2011, daily streamflow measurements were made upstream of the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, within the Floodway opening and outlets, and on the Mississippi River downstream of the Floodway opening. Additionally, velocity and bathymetric data were collected immediately downstream of the Floodway opening at Birds Point to characterize scour in the Floodway. The data provide a unique look at the impact of a controlled levee breach on river flows and hydraulics. The activation of the Floodway lowered the water level at Cairo, Illinois by 0.44 meters in the first 14 hours, while increasing the streamflow of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers in vicinity of Cairo, Illinois by 9,200 cubic meters per second. On May 2, prior to the activation of the Floodway, the measured combined streamflow of the upper Mississippi and Ohio Rivers at Cairo, Illinois was 52,900 cubic meters per second with the Ohio River contributing 27,700 cubic meters per second. Following the controlled breach of the Birds Point levee (immediately downstream of Cairo, Illinois on the right descending bank) the night of May 2, 2011, the measured combined streamflow at Cairo, Illinois on May 3, 2011 increased to 62,100 cubic meters per second with the Ohio River increasing to 38,100 cubic meters per second, an increase of 10

  20. FLOPROS: an evolving global database of flood protection standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scussolini, Paolo; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.; Jongman, Brenden; Bouwer, Laurens M.; Winsemius, Hessel C.; de Moel, Hans; Ward, Philip J.

    2016-05-01

    With projected changes in climate, population and socioeconomic activity located in flood-prone areas, the global assessment of flood risk is essential to inform climate change policy and disaster risk management. Whilst global flood risk models exist for this purpose, the accuracy of their results is greatly limited by the lack of information on the current standard of protection to floods, with studies either neglecting this aspect or resorting to crude assumptions. Here we present a first global database of FLOod PROtection Standards, FLOPROS, which comprises information in the form of the flood return period associated with protection measures, at different spatial scales. FLOPROS comprises three layers of information, and combines them into one consistent database. The design layer contains empirical information about the actual standard of existing protection already in place; the policy layer contains information on protection standards from policy regulations; and the model layer uses a validated modelling approach to calculate protection standards. The policy layer and the model layer can be considered adequate proxies for actual protection standards included in the design layer, and serve to increase the spatial coverage of the database. Based on this first version of FLOPROS, we suggest a number of strategies to further extend and increase the resolution of the database. Moreover, as the database is intended to be continually updated, while flood protection standards are changing with new interventions, FLOPROS requires input from the flood risk community. We therefore invite researchers and practitioners to contribute information to this evolving database by corresponding to the authors.

  1. FLOPROS: an evolving global database of flood protection standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scussolini, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Jongman, B.; Bouwer, L. M.; Winsemius, H. C.; de Moel, H.; Ward, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    With the projected changes in climate, population and socioeconomic activity located in flood-prone areas, the global assessment of the flood risk is essential to inform climate change policy and disaster risk management. Whilst global flood risk models exist for this purpose, the accuracy of their results is greatly limited by the lack of information on the current standard of protection to floods, with studies either neglecting this aspect or resorting to crude assumptions. Here we present a first global database of FLOod PROtection Standards, FLOPROS, which comprises information in the form of the flood return period associated with protection measures, at different spatial scales. FLOPROS comprises three layers of information, and combines them into one consistent database. The Design layer contains empirical information about the actual standard of existing protection already in place, while the Policy layer and the Model layer are proxies for such protection standards, and serve to increase the spatial coverage of the database. The Policy layer contains information on protection standards from policy regulations; and the Model layer uses a validated modeling approach to calculate protection standards. Based on this first version of FLOPROS, we suggest a number of strategies to further extend and increase the resolution of the database. Moreover, as the database is intended to be continually updated, while flood protection standards are changing with new interventions, FLOPROS requires input from the flood risk community. We therefore invite researchers and practitioners to contribute information to this evolving database by corresponding to the authors.

  2. Geotechnical reconnaissance of the Mississippi River Delta flood-protection system after Hurricane Katrina: Chapter 3C in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luna, Ronaldo; Summers, David; Hoffman, David; Rogers, J. David; Sevi, Adam; Witt, Emitt C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the post-Hurricane Katrina conditions of the flood-protection system of levees and floodwalls that failed in the environs of the Mississippi River Delta and New Orleans, La. Damage conditions and suggested mechanisms of failure are presented from the geotechnical point of view.

  3. Flood-Side Wave Erosion of Earthen Levees: Present State of Knowledge and Assessment of Armoring Necessity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    Advisory Committee for Flood Defence in the Netherlands. TAW. 2004. De veiligheid van de primaire waterkeringen in Nederland . Voorschrift Toetsen op...Netherlands. TAW VTV. 2004. De veiligheid van de primaire waterkeringen in Nederland . Voorschrift Toetsen op Veiligheid voor de tweede toetsronde 2001

  4. Technical Basis for Flood Protection at Nuclear Power Plants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    ER D C/ CH L SR -1 5- 3 Technical Basis for Flood Protection at Nuclear Power Plants Co as ta l a nd H yd ra ul ic s La bo ra to ry...2015 Technical Basis for Flood Protection at Nuclear Power Plants James R. Leech, Loren L. Wehmeyer, David A. Margo, Landris T. Lee, Aaron R. Byrd...39180-6199 ERDC/CHL SR-15-3 ii Abstract Current flood- protection regulatory guidance for nuclear power plants is contained in the Regulatory Guide

  5. Levee Design Profiles for the Williamson, West Virginia, Flood Protection Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    Herrmann , former and present Chiefs of the Hydraulics Laboratory, and M. B. Boyd, Chief of the Hydraulic Analysis Division. The project engineer for this...scale of 200 ft/in. Spot elevations were added in flat areas and at points of interest. ORH hydraulic design personnel determ! ned appropriate

  6. 33 CFR 203.51 - Levee owner's manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Levee owner's manual. 203.51... Program § 203.51 Levee owner's manual. (a) Authority. In accordance with section 202(f) of Public Law 104-303, the Corps will provide a levee owner's manual to the non-Federal sponsor of all flood...

  7. Flood Cleanup to Protect Indoor Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    During a flood cleanup, the indoor air quality in your home or office may appear to be the least of your problems. However, failure to remove contaminated materials and to reduce moisture and humidity can present serious long-term health risks.

  8. Using ground penetrating radar in levee assessment to detect small scale animal burrows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chlaib, Hussein K.; Mahdi, Hanan; Al-Shukri, Haydar; Su, Mehmet M.; Catakli, Aycan; Abd, Najah

    2014-04-01

    Levees are civil engineering structures built to protect human lives, property, and agricultural lands during flood events. To keep these important structures in a safe condition, continuous monitoring must be performed regularly and thoroughly. Small rodent burrows are one of the major defects within levees; however, their early detection and repair helps in protecting levees during flooding events. A set of laboratory experiments was conducted to analyze the polarity change in GPR signals in the presence of subsurface voids and water-filled cavities. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys using multi frequency antennas (400 MHz and 900 MHz) were conducted along an 875 meter section of the Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, USA, to assess the levee's structural integrity. Many subsurface animal burrows, water-filled cavities, clay clasts, and metallic objects were investigated and identified. These anomalies were located at different depths and have different sizes. To ground truth the observations, hand dug trenches were excavated to confirm several anomalies. Results show an excellent match between GPR interpreted anomalies and the observed features. In-situ dielectric constant measurements were used to calculate the feature depths. The results of this research show that the 900 MHz antenna has more advantages over the 400 MHz antenna.

  9. Structural master plan of flood mitigation measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidari, A.

    2009-01-01

    Flood protection is one of the practical methods in damage reduction. Although it not possible to be completely protected from flood disaster but major part of damages can be reduced by mitigation plans. In this paper, the optimum flood mitigation master plan is determined by economic evaluation in trading off between the construction costs and expected value of damage reduction as the benefits. Size of the certain mitigation alternative is also be obtained by risk analysis by accepting possibility of flood overtopping. Different flood mitigation alternatives are investigated from various aspects in the Dez and Karun river floodplain areas as a case study in south west of IRAN. The results show that detention dam and flood diversion are the best alternatives of flood mitigation methods as well as enforcing the flood control purpose of upstream multipurpose reservoirs. Dyke and levees are not mostly justifiable because of negative impact on down stream by enhancing routed flood peak discharge magnitude and flood damages as well.

  10. Information support systems for cultural heritage protection against flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedvedova, K.; Pergl, R.

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this paper is to present use of different kind of software applications to create complex support system for protection of cultural heritage against flooding. The project is very complex and it tries to cover the whole area of the problem from prevention to liquidation of aftermath effects. We used GIS for mapping the risk areas, ontology systems for vulnerability assessment application and the BORM method (Business Object Relation Modelling) for flood protection system planning guide. Those modern technologies helped us to gather a lot of information in one place and provide the knowledge to the broad audience.

  11. Changes in Benefits of Flood Protection Standard under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, W. H.; Koirala, S.; Yamazaki, D.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Kanae, S.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding potential risk of river flooding under future climate scenarios might be helpful for developing risk management strategies (including mitigation, adaptation). Such analyses are typically performed at the macro scales (e.g., regional, global) where the climate model output could support (e.g., Hirabayashi et al., 2013, Arnell and Gosling, 2014). To understand the potential benefits of infrastructure upgrading as part of climate adaptation strategies, it is also informative to understand the potential impact of different flood protection standards (in terms of return periods) on global river flooding under climate change. In this study, we use a baseline period (forced by observed hydroclimate conditions) and CMIP5 model output (historic and future periods) to drive a global river routing model called CaMa-Flood (Yamazaki et al., 2011) and simulate the river water depth at a spatial resolution of 15 min x 15 min. From the simulated results of baseline period, we use the annual maxima river water depth to fit the Gumbel distribution and prepare the return period-flood risk relationship (involving population and GDP). From the simulated results of CMIP5 model, we also used the annual maxima river water depth to obtain the Gumbel distribution and then estimate the exceedance probability (historic and future periods). We apply the return period-flood risk relationship (above) to the exceedance probability and evaluate the potential risk of river flooding and changes in the benefits of flood protection standard (e.g., 100-year flood of the baseline period) from the past into the future (represented by the representative concentration pathways). In this presentation, we show our preliminary results. References: Arnell, N.W, Gosling, S., N., 2014. The impact of climate change on river flood risk at the global scale. Climatic Change 122: 127-140, doi: 10.1007/s10584-014-1084-5. Hirabayashi et al., 2013. Global flood risk under climate change. Nature Climate

  12. General Reevaluation Report and Environmental Impact Statement for the Blanchard River, Ottawa, Ohio Flood Protection Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    through the levees or even pump stations would be required to handle high-magnitude floods. The Preliminary Assessment Report plan was dropped from further...elevations for existing conditions and the resulting differences due to the various alternatives, as determined at the Index River Station 22.82...Alternative I is shown on Figure 2. For the 2-year event, the cumulative decrease computed at the Index Station 22.82 is -0.7 feet. At the same station

  13. Flood Risk and Global Change: Future Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra-Llobet, A.

    2014-12-01

    Global flood risk is increasing in response to population growth in flood-prone areas, human encroachment into natural flood paths (exacerbating flooding in areas formerly out of harm's way), and climate change (which alters variables driving floods). How will societies respond to and manage flood risk in coming decades? Analysis of flood policy evolution in the EU and US demonstrates that changes occurred in steps, in direct response to disasters. After the flood produced by the collapse of Tous Dam in 1982, Spain initiated a systematic assessment of areas of greatest flood risk and civil protection response. The devastating floods on the Elbe and elsewhere in central Europe in 2002 motivated adoption of the EU Floods Directive (2007), which requires member states to develop systematic flood risk maps (now due) and flood risk management plans (due in 2015). The flooding of New Orleans by Hurricane Katrina in 2005 resulted in a nationwide levee-safety assessment and improvements in communicating risk, but overall less fundamental change in US flood management than manifest in the EU since 2007. In the developing world, large (and increasing) concentrations of populations in low-lying floodplains, deltas, and coasts are increasingly vulnerable, and governments mostly ill-equipped to implement fundamental changes in land use to prevent future increases in exposure, nor to develop responses to the current threats. Even in the developed world, there is surprisingly little research on how well residents of flood-prone lands understand their true risk, especially when they are 'protected' by '100-year' levees. Looking ahead, researchers and decision makers should prioritize improvements in flood risk perception, river-basin-scale assessment of flood runoff processes (under current and future climate and land-use conditions) and flood management alternatives, and bridging the disconnect between national and international floodplain management policies and local land

  14. Levee Health Monitoring With Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. E.; Bawden, G. W.; Deverel, S. J.; Dudas, J.; Hensley, S.; Yun, S.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing offers the potential to augment current levee monitoring programs by providing rapid and consistent data collection over large areas irrespective of the ground accessibility of the sites of interest, at repeat intervals that are difficult or costly to maintain with ground-based surveys, and in rapid response to emergency situations. While synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has long been used for subsidence measurements over large areas, applying this technique directly to regional levee monitoring is a new endeavor, mainly because it requires both a wide imaging swath and fine spatial resolution to resolve individual levees within the scene, a combination that has not historically been available. Application of SAR remote sensing directly to levee monitoring has only been attempted in a few pilot studies. Here we describe how SAR remote sensing can be used to assess levee conditions, such as seepage, drawing from the results of two levee studies: one of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta levees in California that has been ongoing since July 2009 and a second that covered the levees near Vicksburg, Mississippi, during the spring 2011 floods. These studies have both used data acquired with NASA's UAVSAR L-band synthetic aperture radar, which has the spatial resolution needed for this application (1.7 m single-look), sufficiently wide imaging swath (22 km), and the longer wavelength (L-band, 0.238 m) required to maintain phase coherence between repeat collections over levees, an essential requirement for applying differential interferometry (DInSAR) to a time series of repeated collections for levee deformation measurement. We report the development and demonstration of new techniques that employ SAR polarimetry and differential interferometry to successfully assess levee health through the quantitative measurement of deformation on and near levees and through detection of areas experiencing seepage. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta levee study, which covers

  15. Using geophysics to characterize levee stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, Laura M.

    Shallow slough slides have occurred along the river side slope of Mississippi River Levees for over sixty years. Shallow slough slides also occur along smaller levees that protect tributaries of the Mississippi River. This investigation takes place along a section of the Coldwater River Levee, a tributary levee of the Mississippi River. Field observation, soil samples, and geophysical data were collected at two field sites located on the border of Tate and Tunica County, MS. The first site consists of a developed shallow slough slide that had occurred that has not yet been repaired and the second site is a potential slide area. Electromagnetic induction and electrical resistivity tomography were the geophysical methods used to define subsurface conditions that make a levee vulnerable to failure. These electrical methods are sensitive to the electrical conductivity of the soil and therefore depend upon: soil moisture, clay content, pore size distribution as well as larger scale structures at depth such as cracks and fissures. These same physical properties of the soil are also important to assessing the vulnerability of a levee to slough slides. Soil tests and field observations were also implemented in this investigation to describe and classify the soil composition of the levee material. The problem of slough slide occurrence can potentially be reduced if vulnerabilities are located with the help of geophysical techniques.

  16. Game theory and risk-based leveed river system planning with noncooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Rui; Lund, Jay R.; Madani, Kaveh

    2016-01-01

    Optimal risk-based levee designs are usually developed for economic efficiency. However, in river systems with multiple levees, the planning and maintenance of different levees are controlled by different agencies or groups. For example, along many rivers, levees on opposite riverbanks constitute a simple leveed river system with each levee designed and controlled separately. Collaborative planning of the two levees can be economically optimal for the whole system. Independent and self-interested landholders on opposite riversides often are willing to separately determine their individual optimal levee plans, resulting in a less efficient leveed river system from an overall society-wide perspective (the tragedy of commons). We apply game theory to simple leveed river system planning where landholders on each riverside independently determine their optimal risk-based levee plans. Outcomes from noncooperative games are analyzed and compared with the overall economically optimal outcome, which minimizes net flood cost system-wide. The system-wide economically optimal solution generally transfers residual flood risk to the lower-valued side of the river, but is often impractical without compensating for flood risk transfer to improve outcomes for all individuals involved. Such compensation can be determined and implemented with landholders' agreements on collaboration to develop an economically optimal plan. By examining iterative multiple-shot noncooperative games with reversible and irreversible decisions, the costs of myopia for the future in making levee planning decisions show the significance of considering the externalities and evolution path of dynamic water resource problems to improve decision-making.

  17. Flooding

    MedlinePlus

    ... flooding Prepare for flooding For communities, companies, or water and wastewater facilities: Suggested activities to help facilities ... con monóxido de carbono. Limit contact with flood water. Flood water may have high levels of raw ...

  18. 44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Rates based on a flood... EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.12 Rates based on a flood protection system...

  19. 44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rates based on a flood... EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.12 Rates based on a flood protection system...

  20. 44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rates based on a flood... EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.12 Rates based on a flood protection system...

  1. 44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rates based on a flood... EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.12 Rates based on a flood protection system...

  2. 44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rates based on a flood... EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.12 Rates based on a flood protection system...

  3. Mapping Flood Protection Benefits from Restored Wetlands at the Urban-Suburban Interface

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urbanization exacerbates flooding by increasing runoff and decreasing surface water storage. Restoring wetlands can enhance flood protection while providing a suite of co-benefits such as temperature regulation and access to open space. Spatial modeling of the delivery of flood p...

  4. The use of airborne geophysics for levee classification and assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, Joseph B.

    2011-12-01

    This research is the first known application into using airborne geophysical methods to evaluate and classify levees. This research is an important step toward developing new technologies and methods to rapidly screen and evaluate earthen flood control levees for safety against flooding. An investigation of airborne geophysical methods was conducted on levees in the lower Rio Grande Valley and involved electromagnetic induction, magnetometer, and LiDAR surveys of the levee system. Airborne EM signatures were analyzed by geologic mapping of floodplain depositional environments, examination of published soils data, and drilling of borings. A geographic information system was developed to manage the various data sets and evaluate historic land use changes and development of the flood control systems to better understand the signatures using airborne methods. This research presents information about the historic basis for evaluating and classifying levees, which is based primarily on the federal perspective and flood control experiences in the lower Mississippi River Valley, where national floodplain engineering methods and standards were developed. This research examines the evolution of today's flood control policy, and the development of engineering assessment procedures, and the application of geophysical methods to provide critical information about levee failure mechanisms and assessment of flood control systems. This research demonstrates that topographic base maps and Sengpiel sections showing the results of electrical conductivity or resistivity surveys at different frequencies along the levee corridor provide accurate and valuable information to determine the composition of floodplain soils and the foundation stratigraphy to assess modes of levee failure, to aid in the placement of borings to obtain material properties of the levee and foundation, and to determine the extent of levee reaches with similar properties for the engineering analysis. The main

  5. Experiences of using UAVs for monitoring levee breaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauneck, J.; Pohl, R.; Juepner, R.

    2016-11-01

    During floods technical protection facilities are subjected to high loads and might fail as several examples have shown in the past. During the major 2002 and 2013 floods in the catchment area of the Elbe River (Germany), some breaching levees caused large inundations in the hinterland. In such situations the emergency forces need comprehensive and reliable realtime information about the situation, especially the breach enlargement and discharge, the spatial and temporal development of the inundation and the damages. After an impressive progress meanwhile unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) also called remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) are highly capable to collect and transmit precise information from not accessible areas to the task force very quickly. Using the example of the Breitenhagen levee failure near the Saale-Elbe junction in Germany in June 2013 the processing steps will be explained that are needed to come from the visual UAV-flight information to a hydronumeric model. Modelling of the breach was implemented using photogrammetric ranging methods, such as structure from motion and dense image matching. These methods utilize conventional digital multiple view images or videos recorded by either a moving aerial platform or terrestrial photography and allow the construction of 3D point clouds, digital surface models and orthophotos. At Breitenhagen, a UAV recorded the beginning of the levee failure. Due to the dynamic character of the breach and the moving areal platform, 4 different surface models show valid data with extrapolated breach widths of 9 to 40 meters. By means of these calculations the flow rate through the breach has been determined. In addition the procedure has been tested in a physical model, whose results will be presented too.

  6. Woody Vegetation on Levees? - Research Experiences and Design Suggestions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammeranner, Walter

    2013-04-01

    Recent flood events in Austria have reawakened practical and scientific interest in the stability of levees. One focus amongst others has been taken on the relationship between vegetation and levee stability with special reference to the role of woody plants. The effects of woody plants are undoubtedly manifold: On the one hand they can potentially have a negative influence and endanger levees, which is why many guidelines ban woody vegetation to preserve stability, visual inspection and unhindered flood-fight access. On the other hand woody vegetation can have several positive impacts on soil stability and which effects prevail depends largely on types and characteristics of plants. This shows how controversially woody plants on levees can be discussed and the strong need for further research in this field. In order to obtain new insights and widen horizons for this controversial issue, a research project carried out by the Institute of Soil Bioengineering and Landscape Construction - at the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna - was launched. This project deals with several aspects of effects of woody plants have on levees and focuses particularly on shrubby woody plants. The examined vegetation type is a dense stand of willows - Purple-Willows (Salix purpurea L.) - commonly used for stabilization of river embankments. The proposed contribution discusses the gained results with reference to levee stability and existing levee vegetation guidelines and gives design suggestions for compatible woody vegetation on levees.

  7. Tree growth and recruitment in a leveed floodplain forest in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, Hugo K.W.; King, Sammy L.; Keim, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Flooding is a defining disturbance in floodplain forests affecting seed germination, seedling establishment, and tree growth. Globally, flood control, including artificial levees, dams, and channelization has altered flood regimes in floodplains. However, a paucity of data are available in regards to the long-term effects of levees on stand establishment and tree growth in floodplain forests. In this study, we used dendrochronological techniques to reconstruct tree recruitment and tree growth over a 90-year period at three stands within a ring levee in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (MAV) and to evaluate whether recruitment patterns and tree growth changed following levee construction. We hypothesized that: (1) sugarberry is increasing in dominance and overcup oak (Quercus lyrata) is becoming less dominant since the levee, and that changes in hydrology are playing a greater role than canopy disturbance in these changes in species dominance; and (2) that overcup oak growth has declined following construction of the levee and cessation of overbank flooding whereas that of sugarberry has increased. Recruitment patterns shifted from flood-tolerant overcup oak to flood-intolerant sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) after levee construction. None of the 122 sugarberry trees cored in this study established prior to the levee, but it was the most common species established after the levee. The mechanisms behind the compositional change are unknown, however, the cosmopolitan distribution of overcup oak during the pre-levee period and sugarberry during the post-levee period, the lack of sugarberry establishment in the pre-levee period, and the confinement of overcup oak regeneration to the lowest areas in each stand after harvest in the post-levee period indicate that species-specific responses to flooding and light availability are forcing recruitment patterns. Overcup oak growth was also affected by levee construction, but in contrast to our hypothesis, growth actually

  8. Flooding and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, flooding is the nation's most common natural disaster. Some floods develop slowly during an extended period of rain or in a warming trend following a heavy snow. Flash floods can occur quickly, without any visible sign of rain. Catastrophic floods are associated with burst dams and levees,…

  9. Game Theory and Risk-Based Levee System Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.; Madani, K.

    2014-12-01

    Risk-based analysis has been developed for optimal levee design for economic efficiency. Along many rivers, two levees on opposite riverbanks act as a simple levee system. Being rational and self-interested, land owners on each river bank would tend to independently optimize their levees with risk-based analysis, resulting in a Pareto-inefficient levee system design from the social planner's perspective. Game theory is applied in this study to analyze decision making process in a simple levee system in which the land owners on each river bank develop their design strategies using risk-based economic optimization. For each land owner, the annual expected total cost includes expected annual damage cost and annualized construction cost. The non-cooperative Nash equilibrium is identified and compared to the social planner's optimal distribution of flood risk and damage cost throughout the system which results in the minimum total flood cost for the system. The social planner's optimal solution is not feasible without appropriate level of compensation for the transferred flood risk to guarantee and improve conditions for all parties. Therefore, cooperative game theory is then employed to develop an economically optimal design that can be implemented in practice. By examining the game in the reversible and irreversible decision making modes, the cost of decision making myopia is calculated to underline the significance of considering the externalities and evolution path of dynamic water resource problems for optimal decision making.

  10. The Protection of China's Ancient Cities from Flood Damage.

    PubMed

    Qingzhou, W

    1989-09-01

    Over many centuries, the repeated and serious flooding of many of China's ancient cities has led to the development of various measures to mitigate the impact of floods. These have included structural measures, such as the construction of walls, dams and dykes, with tree planting for soil consolidation; installation of drainage systems and water storage capacity; the raising of settlement levels and the strengthening of building materials. Non-structural measures include warning systems and planning for emergency evacuation. Urban planning and architectural design have evolved to reduce flood damage, and government officials have been appointed with specific responsibilities for managing the flood control systems. In view of the serious consequences of modern neglect of these well-tried methods, this paper examines China's historical experience of flooding and demonstrates its continuing relevance for today. A brief historical survey is followed by a detailed discussion of various flood prevention measures. The paper is illustrated by city plans from ancient local chronicles.

  11. Citizens' Perceptions of Flood Hazard Adjustments: An Application of the Protective Action Decision Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terpstra, Teun; Lindell, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Although research indicates that adoption of flood preparations among Europeans is low, only a few studies have attempted to explain citizens' preparedness behavior. This article applies the Protective Action Decision Model (PADM) to explain flood preparedness intentions in the Netherlands. Survey data ("N" = 1,115) showed that…

  12. Unit 6, STA. 207+00+RB, dikedetail Johnstown Local Flood Protection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 6, STA. 207+00+RB, dike-detail - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  13. Unit 6, STA. 207+00+RB, dikecontext Johnstown Local Flood Protection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 6, STA. 207+00+RB, dike-context - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  14. Health protection and risks for rescuers in cases of floods.

    PubMed

    Janev Holcer, Nataša; Jeličić, Pavle; Grba Bujević, Maja; Važanić, Damir

    2015-03-01

    Floods can pose a number of safety and health hazards for flood-affected populations and rescuers and bring risk of injuries, infections, and diseases due to exposure to pathogenic microorganisms and different biological and chemical contaminants. The risk factors and possible health consequences for the rescuers involved in evacuation and rescuing operations during the May 2014 flood crisis in Croatia are shown, as well as measures for the prevention of injuries and illnesses. In cases of extreme floods, divers play a particularly important role in rescuing and first-response activities. Rescuing in contaminated floodwaters means that the used equipment such as diving suits should be disinfected afterwards. The need for securing the implementation of minimal health and safety measures for involved rescuers is paramount. Data regarding injuries and disease occurrences among rescuers are relatively scarce, indicating the need for medical surveillance systems that would monitor and record all injuries and disease occurrences among rescuers in order to ensure sound epidemiological data. The harmful effects of flooding can be reduced by legislation, improvement of flood forecasting, establishing early warning systems, and appropriate planning and education.

  15. Flooding and Flood Management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, K.N.; Fallon, J.D.; Lorenz, D.L.; Stark, J.R.; Menard, Jason; Easter, K.W.; Perry, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Floods result in great human disasters globally and nationally, causing an average of $4 billion of damages each year in the United States. Minnesota has its share of floods and flood damages, and the state has awarded nearly $278 million to local units of government for flood mitigation projects through its Flood Hazard Mitigation Grant Program. Since 1995, flood mitigation in the Red River Valley has exceeded $146 million. Considerable local and state funding has been provided to manage and mitigate problems of excess stormwater in urban areas, flooding of farmlands, and flood damages at road crossings. The cumulative costs involved with floods and flood mitigation in Minnesota are not known precisely, but it is safe to conclude that flood mitigation is a costly business. This chapter begins with a description of floods in Minneosta to provide examples and contrasts across the state. Background material is presented to provide a basic understanding of floods and flood processes, predication, and management and mitigation. Methods of analyzing and characterizing floods are presented because they affect how we respond to flooding and can influence relevant practices. The understanding and perceptions of floods and flooding commonly differ among those who work in flood forecasting, flood protection, or water resource mamnagement and citizens and businesses affected by floods. These differences can become magnified following a major flood, pointing to the need for better understanding of flooding as well as common language to describe flood risks and the uncertainty associated with determining such risks. Expectations of accurate and timely flood forecasts and our ability to control floods do not always match reality. Striving for clarity is important in formulating policies that can help avoid recurring flood damages and costs.

  16. Archeology and Ethnology on the Edges of the Atchafalaya Basin, South Central Louisiana. A Cultural Resources Survey of the Atchafalaya Basin Protection Levees.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    prayers, herbs and ritual behavior to cure. The former reported that she received her training from an Indian man who lived on Bayou Sauvage many years...once existed (Cagliano and Van Beak 1975:58). This natural levee habitat, complete with edible herbs , vegetables, young shoots, ripening weeds ind...competance was greater for woody constituents than for grasses and herbs . Animal components were identified by direct sightings, by calls, and by tracks

  17. 75 FR 18238 - United States Section; Final Environmental Impact Statement, Flood Control Improvements and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO United States Section; Final Environmental Impact Statement... portions of the Presidio FCP levees. An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) was prepared to evaluate... USIBWC to minimize potential environmental impacts and fulfill the project goal of flood protection....

  18. Design of flood protection for transportation alignments on alluvial fans

    SciTech Connect

    French, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    The method of floodplain delineation on alluvial fans developed for the national flood insurance program is modified to provide estimates of peak flood flows at transportation alignments crossing an alluvial fan. The modified methodology divides the total alignment length into drainage design segments and estimates the peak flows that drainage structures would be required to convey as a function of the length of the drainage design segment, the return period of the event, and the location of the alignment on the alluvial fan. An example of the application of the methodology is provided. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Developing a Graphical User Interface to Automate the Estimation and Prediction of Risk Values for Flood Protective Structures using Artificial Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, M.; Helal, A.; Gabr, M.

    2014-12-01

    In this project, we focus on providing a computer-automated platform for a better assessment of the potential failures and retrofit measures of flood-protecting earth structures, e.g., dams and levees. Such structures play an important role during extreme flooding events as well as during normal operating conditions. Furthermore, they are part of other civil infrastructures such as water storage and hydropower generation. Hence, there is a clear need for accurate evaluation of stability and functionality levels during their service lifetime so that the rehabilitation and maintenance costs are effectively guided. Among condition assessment approaches based on the factor of safety, the limit states (LS) approach utilizes numerical modeling to quantify the probability of potential failures. The parameters for LS numerical modeling include i) geometry and side slopes of the embankment, ii) loading conditions in terms of rate of rising and duration of high water levels in the reservoir, and iii) cycles of rising and falling water levels simulating the effect of consecutive storms throughout the service life of the structure. Sample data regarding the correlations of these parameters are available through previous research studies. We have unified these criteria and extended the risk assessment in term of loss of life through the implementation of a graphical user interface to automate input parameters that divides data into training and testing sets, and then feeds them into Artificial Neural Network (ANN) tool through MATLAB programming. The ANN modeling allows us to predict risk values of flood protective structures based on user feedback quickly and easily. In future, we expect to fine-tune the software by adding extensive data on variations of parameters.

  20. Towards modelling flood protection investment as a coupled human and natural system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, P. E.; O'Donnell, G.

    2013-06-01

    Due to a number of recent high profile flood events and the apparent threat from global warming, governments and their agencies are under pressure to make proactive investments to protect people living in floodplains. However, adopting a proactive approach as a universal strategy is not affordable. It has been argued that delaying expensive and essentially irreversible capital decisions could be a prudent strategy in situations with high future uncertainty. This paper firstly uses Monte Carlo simulation to explore the performance of proactive and reactive investment strategies using a rational cost-benefit approach in a natural system with varying levels of persistence/interannual variability in Annual Maximum Floods. It is found that, as persistence increases, there is a change in investment strategy optimality from proactive to reactive. This could have implications for investment strategies under the increasingly variable climate that is expected with global warming. As part of the emerging holistic approaches to flood risk management, there is increasing emphasis on stakeholder participation in determining where and when flood protection investments are made, and so flood risk management is becoming more people-centred. As a consequence, multiple actors are involved in the decision-making process, and the social sciences are assuming an increasingly important role in flood risk management. There is a need for modelling approaches which can couple the natural and human system elements. It is proposed that Coupled Human and Natural System (CHANS) modelling could play an important role in understanding the motivations, actions and influence of citizens and institutions and how these impact on the effective delivery of flood protection investment. A framework for using Agent Based Modelling of human activities leading to flood investments is outlined, and some of the challenges associated with implementation are discussed.

  1. Towards modelling flood protection investment as a coupled human and natural system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, P. E.; O'Donnell, G.

    2014-01-01

    Due to a number of recent high-profile flood events and the apparent threat from global warming, governments and their agencies are under pressure to make proactive investments to protect people living in floodplains. However, adopting a proactive approach as a universal strategy is not affordable. It has been argued that delaying expensive and essentially irreversible capital decisions could be a prudent strategy in situations with high future uncertainty. This paper firstly uses Monte Carlo simulation to explore the performance of proactive and reactive investment strategies using a rational cost-benefit approach in a natural system with varying levels of persistence/interannual variability in annual maximum floods. It is found that, as persistence increases, there is a change in investment strategy optimality from proactive to reactive. This could have implications for investment strategies under the increasingly variable climate that is expected with global warming. As part of the emerging holistic approaches to flood risk management, there is increasing emphasis on stakeholder participation in determining where and when flood protection investments are made, and so flood risk management is becoming more people-centred. As a consequence, multiple actors are involved in the decision-making process, and the social sciences are assuming an increasingly important role in flood risk management. There is a need for modelling approaches which can couple the natural and human system elements. It is proposed that coupled human and natural system (CHANS) modelling could play an important role in understanding the motivations, actions and influence of citizens and institutions and how these impact on the effective delivery of flood protection investment. A framework for using agent-based modelling of human activities leading to flood investments is outlined, and some of the challenges associated with implementation are discussed.

  2. Geospatial Information Relevant to the Flood Protection Available on The Mainstream Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliment, Tomáš; Gálová, Linda; Ďuračiová, Renata; Fencík, Róbert; Kliment, Marcel

    2014-03-01

    Flood protection is one of several disciplines where geospatial data is very important and is a crucial component. Its management, processing and sharing form the foundation for their efficient use; therefore, special attention is required in the development of effective, precise, standardized, and interoperable models for the discovery and publishing of data on the Web. This paper describes the design of a methodology to discover Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) services on the Web and collect descriptive information, i.e., metadata in a geocatalogue. A pilot implementation of the proposed methodology - Geocatalogue of geospatial information provided by OGC services discovered on Google (hereinafter "Geocatalogue") - was used to search for available resources relevant to the area of flood protection. The result is an analysis of the availability of resources discovered through their metadata collected from the OGC services (WMS, WFS, etc.) and the resources they provide (WMS layers, WFS objects, etc.) within the domain of flood protection.

  3. Based on GIS technology flood disaster assessment study of Fuhe River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dingding; Zhao, Xinyu; Chen, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Flood protection of Fuhe river basin has been payed high attention after Changkai-levee crevasse in 2010. This paper constructions a model of flood disaster lose calculation considering flood disaster and social economic developing based on GIS. Firstly social economic indexes have been selected according to characteristics of the urban and the rural. Secondly a mathematical model of flood routing using Finite Volume Method has been made in spacial information grids, the data of inundated depth and flood duration can be extracted from the grids. In the end ,wo calculate the loss by flood disaster losses calculation process model. This paper solves the stacking problem of flood characteristic and administrative boundaries effectively, which makes a development on accuracy of flood disaster assessment.

  4. Flood Management and Protection from the Social Point of View: Case Study from Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manukalo, V.; Gerasymenko, H.

    2012-12-01

    to their regions of residence (low- or high- flood risk areas, cities or villages), education level; c) a lot of peoples don't know distribution of duties between governmental bodies on central and local levels in the field of flood management and protection; d) the most of peoples don't know which Ukrainian governmental bodies are responsible for the elaboration of National adaptation strategy to the expected climate change; e) many recipient estimate as inefficient activities of Ukrainian authorities on local, national and international levels as well as a public participation in the flood management and protection policy. The results of this study have been rather unexpected for Ukrainian central and local governmental bodies responsible for flood management and protection policies. This underlines the importance of having the alternative flood risk management and protection policies studied not only from aspects of technical and economic rational, but also from that of social acceptability, before any decision is made. Practical Application Results of study have been used in preparation of: a) the State Program on the protection against floods in the Dniester, Prut and Siret river basins; b) of the "National Action Plan for Adaptation to Climate Change for period 2011-2015".

  5. Global assessment of river flood protection benefits and corresponding residual risks under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Wee Ho; Yamazaki, Dai; Koirala, Sujan; Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Kanae, Shinjiro; Dadson, Simon J.; Hall, Jim W.

    2016-04-01

    Global warming increases the water-holding capacity of the atmosphere and this could lead to more intense rainfalls and possibly increasing natural hazards in the form of flooding in some regions. This implies that traditional practice of using historical hydrological records alone is somewhat limited for supporting long-term water infrastructure planning. This has motivated recent global scale studies to evaluate river flood risks (e.g., Hirabayashi et al., 2013, Arnell and Gosling, 2014, Sadoff et al., 2015) and adaptations benefits (e.g., Jongman et al., 2015). To support decision-making in river flood risk reduction, this study takes a further step to examine the benefits and corresponding residual risks for a range of flood protection levels. To do that, we channelled runoff information of a baseline period (forced by observed hydroclimate conditions) and each CMIP5 model (historic and future periods) into a global river routing model called CaMa-Flood (Yamazaki et al., 2011). We incorporated the latest global river width data (Yamazaki et al., 2014) into CaMa-Flood and simulate the river water depth at a spatial resolution of 15 min x 15 min. From the simulated results of baseline period, we use the annual maxima river water depth to fit the Gumbel distribution and prepare the return period-flood risk relationship (involving population and GDP). From the simulated results of CMIP5 model, we also used the annual maxima river water depth to obtain the Gumbel distribution and then estimate the exceedance probability (historic and future periods). We apply the return period-flood risk relationship (above) to the exceedance probability and evaluate the flood protection benefits. We quantify the corresponding residual risks using a mathematical approach that is consistent with the modelling structure of CaMa-Flood. Globally and regionally, we find that the benefits of flood protection level peak somewhere between 20 and 500 years; residual risks diminish

  6. Classification of Soil Moisture on Vegetated Earthen Levees Using X and L Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahrooghy, M.; Aanstoos, J. V.; Hasan, K.; Nobrega, R. A.; Younan, N. H.

    2011-12-01

    Earthen levees protect large areas of land in the US from flooding. Timely inspection and repairs can reduce the potential for catastrophic failures. Changes in spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture can reveal signs of instability and help identify zones of weakness. Since analytical and empirical models have shown a relationship between SAR backscatter and soil moisture, we are using SAR to classify soil moisture on levees. Estimation of soil moisture from SAR is challenging when the surface has any significant vegetation. For the levee application, the soil is typically covered with a uniform layer of grass. Our methodology is based on a supervised soil moisture classification using a back propagation neural network with four classes of low, medium, high, and very high soil moisture. Our methodology consists of the following steps: 1) segmentation of the levee area from background and exclusion of tree-covered areas; 2) extracting the backscattering and texture features such as GLCM (Grey-Level Co-occurrence Matrix) and wavelet features; 3) training the back propagation neural network classifier; and 4) testing the area of interest and validation of the results using ground truth data. Two sources of SAR imagery are tested with this method: (1) fully polarimetric L-band data from NASA's UAVSAR; and (2) dual-polarimetric X-band data from the German TerraSAR-X satellite. The study area is a 4 km stretch of levee along the lower Mississippi River in the United States. Field data collected simultaneously with image acquisition are utilized for training and validation. Preliminary results show classification accuracies of about 50% for the UAVSAR image and 30% for the TerraSAR-X image in vegetated areas. The figure below shows a soil moisture classification using UAVSAR on April 28, 2011.

  7. 33 CFR 208.10 - Local flood protection works; maintenance and operation of structures and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; maintenance and operation of structures and facilities. 208.10 Section 208.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Local flood protection works; maintenance and operation of structures and facilities. (a) General. (1... responsible for the development and maintenance of, and directly in charge of, an organization responsible...

  8. 33 CFR 208.10 - Local flood protection works; maintenance and operation of structures and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; maintenance and operation of structures and facilities. 208.10 Section 208.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Local flood protection works; maintenance and operation of structures and facilities. (a) General. (1... responsible for the development and maintenance of, and directly in charge of, an organization responsible...

  9. 33 CFR 208.10 - Local flood protection works; maintenance and operation of structures and facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; maintenance and operation of structures and facilities. 208.10 Section 208.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Local flood protection works; maintenance and operation of structures and facilities. (a) General. (1... responsible for the development and maintenance of, and directly in charge of, an organization responsible...

  10. Floods

    MedlinePlus

    ... quickly, often have a dangerous wall of roaring water. The wall carries rocks, mud, and rubble and can sweep away most things in its path. Be aware of flood hazards no matter where you live, but especially if you live in a low-lying area, near water or downstream from a dam. Although there are ...

  11. Effects of rock riprap design parameters on flood protection costs for uranium tailings impoundments

    SciTech Connect

    Ecker, R.M.

    1984-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is studying the problem of long-term protection of earthen covers on decommissioned uranium tailings impoundments. The major erosive forces acting on these covers will be river flooding and overland flow from rainfall-runoff. For impoundments adjacent to rivers, overbank flooding presents the greater potential for significant erosion. To protect the earthen covers against flood erosion, rock riprap armoring will be placed over the cover surface. Because of the large size rock usually required for riprap, the quarrying, transport, and placement of the rock could be a significant part of the decommissioning cost. This report examines the sensitivity of riprap protection costs to certain design parameters at tailings impoundments. The parameters include flood discharge, riprap materials, impoundment side slopes, and an added safety factor. Two decommissioned tailings impoundments are used as case studies for the evaluation. These are the Grand Junction, Colorado, impoundment located adjacent to the Colorado River and the Slickrock, Colorado, impoundment located adjacent to the Dolores River. The evaluation considers only the cost of riprap protection against flood erosion. The study results show that embankment side slope and rock specific gravity can have optimum values or ranges at a specific site. For both case study sites the optimum side slope is about 5H:1V. Of the rock sources considered at Grand Junction, the optimum specific gravity would be about 2.50; however, an optimum rock specific gravity for the Slickrock site could not be determined. Other results indicate that the arbitrary safety factor usually added in riprap design can lead to large increases in protection costs. 22 references, 19 figures, 15 tables.

  12. Estimation of Discharge from Breached Earthfill Levee with Elapsed Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sooyoung; Yang, Jiro; Song, Chang Geun; Lee, Seung Oh

    2014-05-01

    Lack of the freeboard of levee has been occurred due to abnormally peaked flood events. Thus, the risk from overtopping of earthfill levee has been remarkably increased. When overflow on levee starts to occur, the breaching gap suddenly grows up at initial stage. As the breach width is extended, the discharge from breached section is also nonlinearly increased. Moreover, if the levee is located through multiple cities, the related damage cannot be predictable. However, researches about the breach mechanism have been focused on the breached shape of levee on the equilibrium state and the study on the development of levee breach is not enough to utilize the prediction of damage itself and select its countermeasure. In this study, the formula for breach discharge was presented to be able to predict that based on hydraulic experimental results. All experiments have been conducted with the movable levee which was the crown width of 0.3 m, the height of 0.3 m, the landside slope of 2:1 (H:V). Breach was induced by the lateral overflow for Froude numbers in main channel from 0.15 to 0.35 with the increment of 0.05. Based on the dimensional analysis with significant parameters such as main channel depth, breach width and discharge coefficient, temporal variation of each parameter was estimated with 25 experimental cases. Finally, the formula for prediction of breach flow due to overtopping failure of levee was presented considering the elapsed time for each Froude number after combing all significant parameters. When Froude number was less than 0.3, the breach discharge occurred to increase with Froude number while it became decreased with Froude number exceeding 0.3, which means the maximum breach discharge was occurred at Froude number = 0.3. It would be explained with the flow diversion caused by the collision of breach flow on the breached section downstream, which decreased the breach discharge into landside for higher Froude number of 0.3. As a future works, when the

  13. Methods for Estimating Magnitude and Frequency of Floods in Rural Basins in the Southeastern United States: South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feaster, Toby D.; Gotvald, Anthony J.; Weaver, J. Curtis

    2009-01-01

    For more than 50 years, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been developing regional regression equations that can be used to estimate flood magnitude and frequency at ungaged sites. Flood magnitude relates to the volume of flow that occurs over some period of time and usually is presented in cubic feet per second. Flood frequency relates to the probability of occurrence of a flood; that is, on average, what is the likelihood that a flood with a specified magnitude will occur in any given year (1 percent chance, 10 percent chance, 50 percent chance, and so on). Such flood estimates are needed for the efficient design of bridges, highway embankments, levees, and other structures near streams. In addition, these estimates are needed for the effective planning and management of land and water resources, to protect lives and property in flood-prone areas, and to determine flood-insurance rates.

  14. Fragility analysis of flood protection structures in earthquake and flood prone areas around Cologne, Germany for multi-hazard risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagunov, Sergey; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Munoz Jimenez, Cristina; Parolai, Stefano; Fleming, Kevin; Merz, Bruno; Zschau, Jochen

    2013-04-01

    The work presents a methodology for fragility analyses of fluvial earthen dikes in earthquake and flood prone areas. Fragility estimates are being integrated into the multi-hazard (earthquake-flood) risk analysis being undertaken within the framework of the EU FP7 project MATRIX (New Multi-Hazard and Multi-Risk Assessment Methods for Europe) for the city of Cologne, Germany. Scenarios of probable cascading events due to the earthquake-triggered failure of flood protection dikes and the subsequent inundation of surroundings are analyzed for the area between the gauges Andernach and Düsseldorf along the Rhine River. Along this river stretch, urban areas are partly protected by earthen dikes, which may be prone to failure during exceptional floods and/or earthquakes. The seismic fragility of the dikes is considered in terms of liquefaction potential (factor of safety), estimated by the use of the simplified procedure of Seed and Idriss. It is assumed that initiation of liquefaction at any point throughout the earthen dikes' body corresponds to the failure of the dike and, therefore, this should be taken into account for the flood risk calculations. The estimated damage potential of such structures is presented as a two-dimensional surface (as a function of seismic hazard and water level). Uncertainties in geometrical and geotechnical dike parameters are considered within the framework of Monte Carlo simulations. Taking into consideration the spatial configuration of the existing flood protection system within the area under consideration, seismic hazard curves (in terms of PGA) are calculated for sites along the river segment of interest at intervals of 1 km. The obtained estimates are used to calculate the flood risk when considering the temporal coincidence of seismic and flood events. Changes in flood risk for the considered hazard cascade scenarios are quantified and compared to the single-hazard scenarios.

  15. After the flood is before the next flood - post event review of the Central European Floods of June 2013. Insights, recommendations and next steps for future flood prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szoenyi, Michael; Mechler, Reinhard; McCallum, Ian

    2015-04-01

    perception and understanding of risk in the population. • Residual risk and the levee shadow effect - why the population "felt safe." • What is the overload case and how to implement it in flood protection systems? • Decision-making for the future under uncertainty - how to design to acceptable flood protection levels if we haven't seen yet what's physically possible. 3. How to protect - practical examples Finally, we outline practical examples for reducing the loss burden and risk over time. • "Flood protection hierarchy" - from location choice under a hazard perspective to mobile flood protection. • Risk-based approach and identification of critical infrastructure. • Integrated flood risk management in theory and practical application. • Role of insurance.

  16. Estimation of Combined Wave and Storm Surge Overtopping at Earthen Levees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    result for the shape factor was the relationship 343.0 0 10.8 ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ = pm s THg qb (5) where qs is estimated from the broad - crest weir ...needed for more effective design of levee slope protection alternatives. The time series measurements of overtopping flow discharge acquired near...the landward-side edge of the levee crest were analyzed to determine the cumulative distribution of instantaneous discharge over the levee crest . The

  17. Refuge management analyses: levee alternatives at Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Auble, Gregor T.; Hamilton, David B.; Roelle, James E.

    1984-01-01

    Do not maintain a levee so that the Refuge will flood directly with river stage. Repair of the major breaks in the levee, but not the more general wave damage, was considered as a short term alternative. Participants first specified the habitats and management controls desired at Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge. These were centered around attaining the maximum feasible development and management of moist soil units. Levee alternatives were evaluated in terms of their ability to provide the desired habitats and management controls. Preliminary cost estimates were prepared for each alternative, and the qualitative consequences of each alternative identified for the full set of outputs from the Refuge Master Plan. The alternative of improving the existing levee by raising the height was unanimously preferred on purely “biological” grounds (with cost not considered). Repairing the levee with no change in elevation was unanimously selected as the most cost effective alternative.

  18. Floods of December 1961 in Mississippi and adjoining states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shell, James D.

    1962-01-01

    Widespread floods occurred over parts of Mississippi, Louisiana, and Alabama after heavy rains during December 18, 1961. A series of low-pressure systems produced as much as 19 inches of rainfall in some areas. Heavy rainfall, 7 to 11 inches, on December 10 resulted in outstanding floods on small streams in southern Mississippi and southwestern Alabama. Subsequent rains produced multiple floods on small streams and outstanding floods of prolonged duration along the Big Black, upper Pearl, and lower Tombigbee Rivers in Mississippi. At Jackson, Miss., the Pearl River reached the highest stage known. Along the east bank, flood waters topped or breached some of the levee system protecting the Flowood industrial area, but other parts were saved by extensive reinforcement and by emergency operation of the partially completed dam 10 miles upstream. Additional heavy damage to commercial and industrial property was prevented as a result of these measures. Elsewhere, damage was restricted primarily to secondary highways and bridges. Two lives were lost.

  19. The Impact of Corps Flood Control Reservoirs in the June 2008 Upper Mississippi Flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charley, W. J.; Stiman, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers is responsible for a multitude of flood control project on the Mississippi River and its tributaries, including levees that protect land from flooding, and dams to help regulate river flows. The first six months of 2008 were the wettest on record in the upper Mississippi Basin. During the first 2 weeks of June, rainfall over the Midwest ranged from 6 to as much as 16 inches, overwhelming the flood protection system, causing massive flooding and damage. Most severely impacted were the States of Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, and Wisconsin. In Iowa, flooding occurred on almost every river in the state. On the Iowa River, record flooding occurred from Marshalltown, Iowa, downstream to its confluence with the Mississippi River. At several locations, flooding exceeded the 500-year event. The flooding affected agriculture, transportation, and infrastructure, including homes, businesses, levees, and other water-control structures. It has been estimated that there was at least 7 billion dollars in damages. While the flooding in Iowa was extraordinary, Corps of Engineers flood control reservoirs helped limit damage and prevent loss of life, even though some reservoirs were filled beyond their design capacity. Coralville Reservoir on the Iowa River, for example, filled to 135% of its design flood storage capacity, with stage a record five feet over the crest of the spillway. In spite of this, the maximum reservoir release was limited to 39,500 cfs, while a peak inflow of 57,000 cfs was observed. CWMS, the Corps Water Management System, is used to help regulate Corps reservoirs, as well as track and evaluate flooding and flooding potential. CWMS is a comprehensive data acquisition and hydrologic modeling system for short-term decision support of water control operations in real time. It encompasses data collection, validation and transformation, data storage, visualization, real time model simulation for decision-making support, and data

  20. A statistical method to estimate outflow volume in case of levee breach due to overtopping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandimarte, Luigia; Martina, Mario; Dottori, Francesco; Mazzoleni, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to propose a statistical method to assess the outflowing water volume through a levee breach, due to overtopping, in case of three different types of grass cover quality. The first step in the proposed methodology is the definition of the reliability function, a the relation between loading and resistance conditions on the levee system, in case of overtopping. Secondly, the fragility curve, which relates the probability of failure with loading condition over the levee system, is estimated having defined the stochastic variables in the reliability function. Thus, different fragility curves are assessed in case of different scenarios of grass cover quality. Then, a levee breach model is implemented and combined with a 1D hydrodynamic model in order to assess the outflow hydrograph given the water level in the main channel and stochastic values of the breach width. Finally, the water volume is estimated as a combination of the probability density function of the breach width and levee failure. The case study is located in the in 98km-braided reach of Po River, Italy, between the cross-sections of Cremona and Borgoforte. The analysis showed how different counter measures, different grass cover quality in this case, can reduce the probability of failure of the levee system. In particular, for a given values of breach width good levee cover qualities can significantly reduce the outflowing water volume, compared to bad cover qualities, inducing a consequent lower flood risk within the flood-prone area.

  1. Reducing the effects of dredged material levees on coastal marsh function: sediment deposition and nekton utilization.

    PubMed

    Reed, Denise J; Peterson, Mark S; Lezina, Brian J

    2006-05-01

    Dredged material levees in coastal Louisiana are normally associated with pipeline canals or, more frequently, canals dredged through the wetlands to allow access to drilling locations for mineral extraction. The hydrologic impact on marshes behind the levee is of concern to coastal resource managers because of the potential impact on sediment transport and deposition, and the effect on estuarine organism access to valuable nursery habitat. This study examined the effects of gaps in dredged material levees, compared to continuous levees and natural channel banks, on these two aspects of marsh function. Field studies for sediment deposition were conducted biweekly for a year, and nekton samples were collected in spring and fall. Variation in nekton density among study areas and landscape types was great in part because of the inherent sampling gear issues and in part because of differences in characteristics among areas. Nekton densities were generally greater in natural compared to leveed and gapped landscapes. Differences in landscape type did not explain patterns in sediment deposition. The gaps examined appear to be too restrictive of marsh flooding to provide efficient movements of floodwaters onto the marsh during moderate flooding events. The "trapping" effect of the levees increases sediment deposition during extreme events. Gapping material levees may be an effective method of partially restoring upper marsh connection to nekton, but this method may work best in lower elevation marshes where nekton use is greater.

  2. Flood Protection Decision Making Within a Coupled Human and Natural System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Greg; O'Connell, Enda

    2013-04-01

    Due to the perceived threat from climate change, prediction under changing climatic and hydrological conditions has become a dominant theme of hydrological research. Much of this research has been climate model-centric, in which GCM/RCM climate projections have been used to drive hydrological system models to explore potential impacts that should inform adaptation decision-making. However, adaptation fundamentally involves how humans may respond to increasing flood and drought hazards by changing their strategies, activities and behaviours which are coupled in complex ways to the natural systems within which they live and work. Humans are major agents of change in hydrological systems, and representing human activities and behaviours in coupled human and natural hydrological system models is needed to gain insight into the complex interactions that take place, and to inform adaptation decision-making. Governments and their agencies are under pressure to make proactive investments to protect people living in floodplains from the perceived increasing flood hazard. However, adopting this as a universal strategy everywhere is not affordable, particularly in times of economic stringency and given uncertainty about future climatic conditions. It has been suggested that the assumption of stationarity, which has traditionally been invoked in making hydrological risk assessments, is no longer tenable. However, before the assumption of hydrologic nonstationarity is accepted, the ability to cope with the uncertain impacts of global warming on water management via the operational assumption of hydrologic stationarity should be carefully examined. Much can be learned by focussing on natural climate variability and its inherent changes in assessing alternative adaptation strategies. A stationary stochastic multisite flood hazard model has been developed that can exhibit increasing variability/persistence in annual maximum floods, starting with the traditional assumption of

  3. An assessment of two methods for identifying undocumented levees using remotely sensed data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czuba, Christiana R.; Williams, Byron K.; Westman, Jack; LeClaire, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Many undocumented and commonly unmaintained levees exist in the landscape complicating flood forecasting, risk management, and emergency response. This report describes a pilot study completed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to assess two methods to identify undocumented levees by using remotely sensed, high-resolution topographic data. For the first method, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers examined hillshades computed from a digital elevation model that was derived from light detection and ranging (lidar) to visually identify potential levees and then used detailed site visits to assess the validity of the identifications. For the second method, the U.S. Geological Survey applied a wavelet transform to a lidar-derived digital elevation model to identify potential levees. The hillshade method was applied to Delano, Minnesota, and the wavelet-transform method was applied to Delano and Springfield, Minnesota. Both methods were successful in identifying levees but also identified other features that required interpretation to differentiate from levees such as constructed barriers, high banks, and bluffs. Both methods are complementary to each other, and a potential conjunctive method for testing in the future includes (1) use of the wavelet-transform method to rapidly identify slope-break features in high-resolution topographic data, (2) further examination of topographic data using hillshades and aerial photographs to classify features and map potential levees, and (3) a verification check of each identified potential levee with local officials and field visits.

  4. Robust, multifunctional flood protection zones in the Dutch Rural Riverine area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon-Steensma, J. M.; Vellinga, P.

    2013-08-01

    This paper reviews the possible functions of robust dikes in the rural riverine areas of the Netherlands. It furthermore reviews and analyses strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats associated with robust, multifunctional flood defense zones in rural riverine zones. The study focused on recent plans and ideas for innovative dike reinforcement at five locations in the Netherlands, supplemented with information obtained in semi-structured interviews with experts and stakeholders. At each of the five locations, suitable robust flood defenses could be identified that would contribute to the envisaged functions and ambitions for the respective areas. Primary strengths of the robust, multifunctional approach were identified as combined uses of limited space, a longer-term focus, and greater safety. The new approach offers opportunities as well, in particular, with regard to tasks, problems, and objectives related to infrastructure, land-use planning, nature and landscape protection, and development. These provide possibilities for co-financing as well.

  5. Cultural Resources Assessment of Selected Sites to be Affected by Flood Protection Activities, Kaskaskia Island Levee Raise Project, Randolph County, Illinois. Phase I and II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    unidentified sherds 5 chert flakes 1 biface mid section Historic 3 stoneware 3 whiteware 3 redware; 2 coarse with caramel colored slip, 1 coarse with white...bowl sherds (?), Total I I I . R e d w a r e ----.. . . . A. Body sherds 3 Coarse redware with caramel colored slip; 18th century (Good 1972:72) and...2 A. Coarse earthenware. Redware. White slip with green tin glaze B. Coarse earthenware. Caramel colored glaze R-357 C. Redware D. Refined earthenware

  6. Application of InSAR to detection of localized subsidence and its effects on flood protection infrastructure in the New Orleans area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Cathleen; Blom, Ronald; Latini, Daniele

    2014-05-01

    The vulnerability of the United States Gulf of Mexico coast to inundation has received increasing attention in the years since hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Flood protection is a challenge throughout the area, but the population density and cumulative effect of historic subsidence makes it particularly difficult in the New Orleans area. Analysis of historical and continuing geodetic measurements identifies a surprising degree of complexity in subsidence (Dokka 2011), including regions that are subsiding at rates faster than those considered during planning for hurricane protection and for coastal restoration projects. Improved measurements are possible through combining traditional single point, precise geodetic data with interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) observations for to obtain geographically dense constraints on surface deformation. The Gulf Coast environment is very challenging for InSAR techniques, especially with systems not designed for interferometry. We are applying pair-wise InSAR to longer wavelength (L-band, 24 cm) synthetic aperture radar data acquired with the airborne UAVSAR instrument (http://uavsar.jpl.nasa.gov/) to detect localized change impacting flood protection infrastructure in the New Orleans area during the period from 2009 - 2013. Because aircraft motion creates large-scale image artifacts across the scene, we focus on localized areas on and near flood protection infrastructure to identify anomalous change relative to the surrounding area indicative of subsidence, structural deformation, and/or seepage (Jones et al., 2011) to identify areas where problems exist. C-band and particularly X-band radar returns decorrelate over short time periods in rural or less urbanized areas and are more sensitive to atmospheric affects, necessitating more elaborate analysis techniques or, at least, a strict limit on the temporal baseline. The new generation of spaceborne X-band SAR acquisitions ensure relatively high frequency of

  7. 77 FR 9637 - Process for Requesting a Variance From Vegetation Standards for Levees and Floodwalls; Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ..., channels, or shore-line or river-bank protection systems such as revetments, sand dunes, and barrier islands. b. New federally authorized cost-shared levee projects shall be designed to meet the...

  8. Agricultural aircraft and thermal imaging - from detecting sand boils at the levee to irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal imaging has many potential uses from aerial platforms. A thermal imaging camera was brought into service to detect potential leakage and sand boils at the Mississippi River levee during the flood period of April and May, 2011. This camera was mounted on an agricultural aircraft and operated ...

  9. Perspectives on Screening Winter-Flood-Tolerant Woody Species in the Riparian Protection Forests of the Three Gorges Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ). Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora) might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress and recover well

  10. Perspectives on screening winter-flood-tolerant woody species in the riparian protection forests of the three gorges reservoir.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ). Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora) might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress and recover well

  11. Cost estimates for flood resilience and protection strategies in New York City.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Jeroen C J H; Botzen, W J Wouter; de Moel, Hans; Bowman, Malcolm

    2013-08-01

    In the aftermaths of Hurricanes Irene, in 2011, and Sandy, in 2012, New York City has come to recognize the critical need to better prepare for future storm surges and to anticipate future trends, such as climate change and socio-economic developments. The research presented in this report assesses the costs of six different flood management strategies to anticipate long-term challenges the City will face. The proposed strategies vary from increasing resilience by upgrading building codes and introducing small scale protection measures, to creating green infrastructure as buffer zones and large protective engineering works such as storm surge barriers. The initial investment costs of alternative strategies vary between $11.6 and $23.8 bn, maximally. We show that a hybrid solution, combining protection of critical infrastructure and resilience measures that can be upgraded over time, is less expensive. However, with increasing risk in the future, storm surge barriers may become cost-effective, as they can provide protection to the largest areas in both New York and New Jersey.

  12. Stakeholders and public involvement for flood protection: traditional river management organisations for a better consideration of local knowledge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utz, Stephan; Lane, Stuart; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    This research explores participatory processes in the domain of river management in Switzerland. The main objective is to understand how traditional, highly participatory, local organisations for flood protection have been institutionalised into current river management policy, and to what extent this has impacted on wider participatory processes of producing knowledge. Traditionally, flood protection strategies have been based upon scientific knowledge but have often ignored the capacities of local actors to contribute to the development of the policy. Thus, there may be a gap between scientists, stakeholders and the public that favours controversies and leads to opposition to flood protection projects. In order to reduce this gap and to increase incorporation of local knowledge, participatory processes are set up. They are considered as allowing the integration of all the actors concerned by flood risks to discuss their positions and to develop alternative solutions. This is a particularly important goal in the Swiss political system where direct democracy (the possibility of calling the decision of any level of government into question through a popular vote) means that a reasonable level of project acceptance is a necessary element of project. In order to support implementation of participatory processes, federal funding includes a special grant to cover the additional costs due to these actions. It is considered that, since its introduction in 2008, this grant certainly furthered participatory processes for flood protection projects and fostered water management policy implementation. However, the implication of stakeholders and public in decision-making processes is much well-established than modern river management often assumes. In some regions, flood protection tasks have been traditionally assumed by local organisations such as dyke corporations (DCs). These comprise land and property owners who are DC members and have to participate in flood protection

  13. Operational tools to help stakeholders to protect and alert municipalities facing uncertainties and changes in karst flash floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrell Estupina, V.; Raynaud, F.; Bourgeois, N.; Kong-A-Siou, L.; Collet, L.; Haziza, E.; Servat, E.

    2015-06-01

    Flash floods are often responsible for many deaths and involve many material damages. Regarding Mediterranean karst aquifers, the complexity of connections, between surface and groundwater, as well as weather non-stationarity patterns, increase difficulties in understanding the basins behaviour and thus warning and protecting people. Furthermore, given the recent changes in land use and extreme rainfall events, knowledge of the past floods is no longer sufficient to manage flood risks. Therefore the worst realistic flood that could occur should be considered. Physical and processes-based hydrological models are considered among the best ways to forecast floods under diverse conditions. However, they rarely match with the stakeholders' needs. In fact, the forecasting services, the municipalities, and the civil security have difficulties in running and interpreting data-consuming models in real-time, above all if data are uncertain or non-existent. To face these social and technical difficulties and help stakeholders, this study develops two operational tools derived from these models. These tools aim at planning real-time decisions given little, changing, and uncertain information available, which are: (i) a hydrological graphical tool (abacus) to estimate flood peak discharge from the karst past state and the forecasted but uncertain intense rainfall; (ii) a GIS-based method (MARE) to estimate the potential flooded pathways and areas, accounting for runoff and karst contributions and considering land use changes. Then, outputs of these tools are confronted to past and recent floods and municipalities observations, and the impacts of uncertainties and changes on planning decisions are discussed. The use of these tools on the recent 2014 events demonstrated their reliability and interest for stakeholders. This study was realized on French Mediterranean basins, in close collaboration with the Flood Forecasting Services (SPC Med-Ouest, SCHAPI, municipalities).

  14. Adige river in Trento flooding map, 1892: private or public risk transfer?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranzi, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    For the determination of the flood risk hydrologist and hydraulic engineers focuse their attention mainly to the estimation of physical factors determining the flood hazard, while economists and experts of social sciences deal mainly with the estimation of vulnerability and exposure. The fact that flood zoning involves both hydrological and socio-economic aspects, however, was clear already in the XIX century when the impact of floods on inundated areas started to appear in flood maps, for instance in the UK and in Italy. A pioneering 'flood risk' map for the Adige river in Trento, Italy, was already published in 1892, taking into account in detail both hazard intensity in terms of velocity and depth, frequency of occurrence, vulnerability and economic costs for flood protection with river embankments. This map is likely to be the reinterpreted certainly as a pioneering, and possibly as the first flood risk map for an Italian river and worldwide. Risk levels were divided in three categories and seven sub-categories, depending on flood water depth, velocity, frequency and damage costs. It is interesting to notice the fact that at that time the map was used to share the cost of levees' reparation and enhancement after the severe September 1882 flood as a function of the estimated level of protection of the respective areas against the flood risk. The sharing of costs between public bodies, the railway company and private owners was debated for about 20 years and at the end the public sustained the major costs. This shows how already at that time the economic assessment of structural flood protections was based on objective and rational cost-benefit criteria, that hydraulic risk mapping was perceived by the society as fundamental for the design of flood protection systems and that a balanced cost sharing between public and private was an accepted approach although some protests arose at that time.

  15. Time-lapse seismic study of levees in southern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivanov, J.; Miller, R.D.; Stimac, N.; Ballard, R.F.; Dunbar, J. Joseph; Smullen, S. Steve

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of this work was to measure changes in compressional- (Vp) and shear-wave (Vs) velocities in an earthen levee during a ponding experiment designed to simulate flood conditions on the Rio Grande in south New Mexico. Although similar to such experiment, performed an year earlier on the Rio Grande in south Texas, the levee seismic response results are different. This work was similar to previous Preliminary testing at three levee sites, all within a 1 km radius and each with unique physical, EM, and core characteristics, was completed and a single low-conductivity, highly fractured site was selected for investigation. Several different types of seismic data were recorded. Seismic data analysis techniques appraised included P-refraction tomography and Rayleigh surface-wave analysis using multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW). P-wave velocity change (decrease) was rapid and isolated to one section within the pool confines, which already had anomalously high velocity most likely related to burrowing animals modification of the levee structure. S-wave velocity change was gradual and could be observed along the whole width of the pond within and below the levee. The results within the levee sand core were consistent with the observations of sand S-wave velocity changed due to saturation. ?? 2005 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  16. Levee crest elevation profiles derived from airborne lidar-based high resolution digital elevation models in south Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Thatcher, Cindy A.; Barras, John A.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the feasibility of using airborne lidar surveys to construct high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) and develop an automated procedure to extract levee longitudinal elevation profiles for both federal levees in Atchafalaya Basin and local levees in Lafourche Parish, south Lousiana. This approach can successfully accommodate a high degree of levee sinuosity and abrupt changes in levee orientation (direction) in planar coordinates, variations in levee geometries, and differing DEM resolutions. The federal levees investigated in Atchafalaya Basin have crest elevations between 5.3 and 12 m while the local counterparts in Lafourche Parish are between 0.76 and 2.3 m. The vertical uncertainty in the elevation data is considered when assessing federal crest elevation against the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers minimum height requirements to withstand the 100-year flood. Only approximately 5% of the crest points of the two federal levees investigated in the Atchafalaya Basin region met this requirement.

  17. California Levee Risk, Now and in the Future:Identifying Research and Tool Development Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Newmark, R L; Hanemann, M; Farber, D

    2006-11-28

    The Center for Catastrophic Risk Management (CCRM) and the California Center for Environmental Law and Policy (CCELP) at UC Berkeley and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) joined together to cosponsor a workshop to define research requirements to mitigate the hazards facing the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Levee system. The Workshop was intended to provide a forum to (1) Report assessments of current vulnerabilities facing the levees, such as structural failure, seismic loading, flooding, terrorism; (2) Consider longer term challenges such as climate change, sea level rise; and (3) Define research requirements to fill gaps in knowledge and reduce uncertainties in hazard assessments.

  18. Seepage and Piping through Levees and Dikes using 2D and 3D Modeling Codes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    Modeling Codes Co as ta l a nd H yd ra ul ic s La bo ra to ry Hwai-Ping Cheng, Stephen M. England, and Clarissa M. Murray June 2016...Flood & Coastal Storm Damage Reduction Program ERDC/CHL TR-16-6 June 2016 Seepage and Piping through Levees and Dikes Using 2D and 3D Modeling Codes ...TYPE Final Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Seepage and Piping through Levees and Dikes using 2D and 3D Modeling Codes

  19. Local Flood Proofing Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    100-year flood. Selecting an appropriate flood protection level is discussed on page 63. Human Intervention: the need for one or more people to be...this publication, communities were asked “Why did your community select flood proofing as a damage reduction measure?” Six broad reasons were cited...Flood Proofing Programs – 10 – February 2005 External impact: Sometimes flood proofing is selected because the other flood protection measures

  20. Geomorphic Response to Global Warming in the Anthropocene: Levee Breaches in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florsheim, J. L.; Dettinger, M.; Malamud-Roam, F.; Ingram, B.; Mount, J.

    2006-12-01

    Geomorphic processes in rivers are likely to be influenced by global warming through alterations of flood, erosion, and sedimentation processes and rates. In California's Sierra Nevada, warming scenarios imply future increases in magnitudes and durations (and changes in timing) of floods as snow packs diminish and rainfall runoff increasingly dominates flow into the Central Valley fluvial system. Geomorphic processes are likely to differ from processes that dominated during the Holocene due to the influence both of projected global warming and land use alterations including levee construction that narrows and separates Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers and tributaries from floodplains and flow regulation downstream of numerous large dams. Whereas Holocene floods induced overbank flow and avulsion processes that led to vertical floodplain accretion and variability of stages in aggrading multiple-channel systems, modern floods largely transport flow and sediment within incised channels confined by levees. Because the scenarios of warming are developed at coarse scales, only an understanding of the relations between large-scale hydrology and climate on the one hand, and the incidence of levee breaches on the other, will make it possible to project likely geomorphic responses to future warming and flooding. A historical record of catastrophic levee breaks on the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers has been developed to allow analyses of these connections. In the current work, we develop statistical relations between historical levee break events and flow discharge, as well as with climatic phenomena such as El Nino and La Nina phases of the ENSO cycle, positive and negative phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and seasonal propensities towards "pineapple-express" storms. Preliminary results suggest strong relations between levee breaches and discharge, but poor relations to ENSO. Further investigation of these data will provide insight to help inform models and river

  1. Socio-economic Evaluation Of Different Alternatives For Flood Protection Within The Rivierenland-project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boot, S. P.; van Ast, J. A.

    The Netherlands have a tradition of protecting land against flooding from the main rivers Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt by means of an extensive system of dikes. In recent years, however, this approach to protection has been increasingly questioned with re- gard to its sustainability and cost-effectiveness. The argument is that although the continued elevation of dikes may be technically feasible, there are several disadvan- tages to this approach. Firstly, a vast network of dikes requires a very high degree of organisation of water management, in which mistakes can not be afforded. Such a high degree of organisation may not always be maintainable in the future, due to changed economic or political circumstances. Secondly, it may not be the most cost- effective system for maintaining safety in the long term. Thirdly, it may not be the most desirable approach in terms of sustainability. One of the alternatives to contin- ued dike-elevation is the concept 'room for the river' ('ruimte voor de rivier'), which aims to give more space to rivers in the horizontal in stead of the vertical dimen- sion. This approach would reduce the risk of flooding, defined as the product of the probability and the consequences of flooding. In order to explore the long term con- sequences of both alternatives ('dike elevation' and 'room for the river'), the ministry of Verkeer en Waterstaat (Public Works, Transport and Water Management) started the 'Rivierenland'-project. The comparison of the alternatives mentioned was based on a fictitious project to adjust a region of The Netherlands, between the rivers Rhine and Meuse, to the concept of 'room for water'. The consequence of this adjustment would be that safety within that region would no longer be safeguarded by dikes, but by adjusting daily life to the 'demands of the water'. Part of the 'Rivierenland'-project was an analysis of the socio-economic costs and benefits of the alternative approaches. Within this analysis, a study was performed

  2. Integrating adaptive behaviour in large-scale flood risk assessments: an Agent-Based Modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haer, Toon; Aerts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    Between 1998 and 2009, Europe suffered over 213 major damaging floods, causing 1126 deaths, displacing around half a million people. In this period, floods caused at least 52 billion euro in insured economic losses making floods the most costly natural hazard faced in Europe. In many low-lying areas, the main strategy to cope with floods is to reduce the risk of the hazard through flood defence structures, like dikes and levees. However, it is suggested that part of the responsibility for flood protection needs to shift to households and businesses in areas at risk, and that governments and insurers can effectively stimulate the implementation of individual protective measures. However, adaptive behaviour towards flood risk reduction and the interaction between the government, insurers, and individuals has hardly been studied in large-scale flood risk assessments. In this study, an European Agent-Based Model is developed including agent representatives for the administrative stakeholders of European Member states, insurers and reinsurers markets, and individuals following complex behaviour models. The Agent-Based Modelling approach allows for an in-depth analysis of the interaction between heterogeneous autonomous agents and the resulting (non-)adaptive behaviour. Existing flood damage models are part of the European Agent-Based Model to allow for a dynamic response of both the agents and the environment to changing flood risk and protective efforts. By following an Agent-Based Modelling approach this study is a first contribution to overcome the limitations of traditional large-scale flood risk models in which the influence of individual adaptive behaviour towards flood risk reduction is often lacking.

  3. Integrated Assessment Methodologies For Land Use Changes and Flood Plain Restoration As Alternative Flood Protection Strategies In The River Basins of Rhine and Meuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouwer, Roy; van Ek, Remco; Bouma, Jetske

    Water policy and management decisions become increasingly better informed. Often a large number of studies is carried out before a decision is taken. In the Netherlands, some of these studies, such as environmental impact assessment, are obligatory by law if serious environmental impacts are expected. However, an integrated assessment based on these separate studies is lacking. In this study, an attempt was made to combine and where possible integrate procedures and methods from environmental, social and economic impact assessment. The main objective of the study is to assess, separately and in combination, the ecological, social and economic consequences of land use changes and floodplain restoration as alternative flood protection strategies in the river basins of the rivers Rhine and Meuse in the Netherlands. Based on scenarios of climate change, land subsidence and sea level rise over the next fifty years the associated hy drological changes are translated into the corresponding ecological, economic and social impacts, using a combination of expert judgement and advanced modelling techniques. These impacts are assessed and evaluated with the help of integrated assessment methods such as cost-benefit and multi-criteria analysis in order to support decision-making towards the implementation of new policy regarding flood protection. The outcome of the integrated assessment is related to other water policy objectives, including restoration of the resilience of water systems and nature conservation.

  4. Advanced Unsupervised Classification Methods to Detect Anomalies on Earthen Levees Using Polarimetric SAR Imagery.

    PubMed

    Marapareddy, Ramakalavathi; Aanstoos, James V; Younan, Nicolas H

    2016-06-16

    Fully polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (polSAR) data analysis has wide applications for terrain and ground cover classification. The dynamics of surface and subsurface water events can lead to slope instability resulting in slough slides on earthen levees. Early detection of these anomalies by a remote sensing approach could save time versus direct assessment. We used L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to screen levees for anomalies. SAR technology, due to its high spatial resolution and soil penetration capability, is a good choice for identifying problematic areas on earthen levees. Using the parameters entropy (H), anisotropy (A), alpha (α), and eigenvalues (λ, λ₁, λ₂, and λ₃), we implemented several unsupervised classification algorithms for the identification of anomalies on the levee. The classification techniques applied are H/α, H/A, A/α, Wishart H/α, Wishart H/A/α, and H/α/λ classification algorithms. In this work, the effectiveness of the algorithms was demonstrated using quad-polarimetric L-band SAR imagery from the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL's) Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR). The study area is a section of the lower Mississippi River valley in the Southern USA, where earthen flood control levees are maintained by the US Army Corps of Engineers.

  5. Advanced Unsupervised Classification Methods to Detect Anomalies on Earthen Levees Using Polarimetric SAR Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Marapareddy, Ramakalavathi; Aanstoos, James V.; Younan, Nicolas H.

    2016-01-01

    Fully polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (polSAR) data analysis has wide applications for terrain and ground cover classification. The dynamics of surface and subsurface water events can lead to slope instability resulting in slough slides on earthen levees. Early detection of these anomalies by a remote sensing approach could save time versus direct assessment. We used L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to screen levees for anomalies. SAR technology, due to its high spatial resolution and soil penetration capability, is a good choice for identifying problematic areas on earthen levees. Using the parameters entropy (H), anisotropy (A), alpha (α), and eigenvalues (λ, λ1, λ2, and λ3), we implemented several unsupervised classification algorithms for the identification of anomalies on the levee. The classification techniques applied are H/α, H/A, A/α, Wishart H/α, Wishart H/A/α, and H/α/λ classification algorithms. In this work, the effectiveness of the algorithms was demonstrated using quad-polarimetric L-band SAR imagery from the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s (JPL’s) Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR). The study area is a section of the lower Mississippi River valley in the Southern USA, where earthen flood control levees are maintained by the US Army Corps of Engineers. PMID:27322270

  6. Delivery of Ecosystem Benefits at the Urban-Suburban Interface: A Case Study of Flood Protection in the Woonasquatucket River Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urbanization exacerbates flooding by increasing surface runoff and decreasing surface roughness. Restoring wetlands can enhance flood protection while providing a suite of co-benefits such as temperature regulation and access to open space. Spatial modeling of the delivery of flo...

  7. Pittsfield Local Flood Protection, West Branch and Southwest Branch, Housatonic River, Pittsfield, Massachusetts. Detailed Project Report for Water Resources Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    includes an Environmental Assessment and finding of no significant impact for a recommended plan of flood protection. The recommended plan calls for...Branch addresses all of the channel restrictions along the reach between Wahconah Park and the Tel-Electric Dam. Basically, the plan calls for widening...benefit cost ratio to 2.69 to 1.00. Public Views Plan A originally called for installation of the auxiliary conduit only. At the time of the public

  8. Flood information for flood-plain planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bue, Conrad D.

    1967-01-01

    Floods are natural and normal phenomena. They are catastrophic simply because man occupies the flood plain, the highwater channel of a river. Man occupies flood plains because it is convenient and profitable to do so, but he must purchase his occupancy at a price-either sustain flood damage, or provide flood-control facilities. Although large sums of money have been, and are being, spent for flood control, flood damage continues to mount. However, neither complete flood control nor abandonment of the flood plain is practicable. Flood plains are a valuable resource and will continue to be occupied, but the nature and degree of occupancy should be compatible with the risk involved and with the degree of protection that is practicable to provide. It is primarily to meet the needs for defining the risk that the flood-inundation maps of the U.S. Geological Survey are prepared.

  9. Estimated post-flood effects through Sentinel and Landsat data to support civil protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicala, Luca; Angelino, Cesario Vincenzo; Fiscante, Nicomino; Focareta, Mariano

    2016-10-01

    On October 15, 2015, a severe and devastating flood hit the region of Sannio, Southern Italy, and the city of Benevento. Benevento and the hilly area of Sannio, have already experienced similar disasters, but the natural disasters occurred in the past did not help to better cope with current ones. The flood in this almost unknown area of Campania reached its climax with the flooding of the Tammaro and Calore rivers. The extent of the damage to the region, businesses and people was very heavy. Benevento is the most affected area. Utilizing a combination of remote-sensing techniques, Geographic Information System (GIS) data, this project employed Sentinel-1/2 and Landsat 8 imagery taken before and during the floods to calculate total inundated area and delineate flood extent. This data was then used to assess pre-existing flood hazard maps of the area. The resulting maps and methodologies from this project were delivered to the local governments and organizations as they work to better understand this historic event and plan for recovery throughout the region. The main goal of this study is to map flood inundation using principally open, free and full data acquired by Sentinel and Landsat satellite platforms operated by European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) respectively.

  10. Possible Weakening Processes Imposed on California's Earthen Levees under Protracted Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, J. D.; Vahedifard, F.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2015-12-01

    California is currently suffering from a multiyear extreme drought and the impacts of the drought are anticipated to worsen in a warming climate. The resilience of critical infrastructure under extreme drought conditions is a major concern which has not been well understood. Thus, there is a crucial need to improve our understanding about the potential threats of drought on infrastructure and take subsequent actions in a timely manner to mitigate these threats and adopt our infrastructure for forthcoming extreme events. The need is more pronounced for earthen levees, since their functionality to protect limited water resources and dryland is more critical during drought. A significant amount of California's levee systems are currently operating under a high risk condition. Protracted drought can further threaten the structural competency of these already at-risk levee systems through several thermo-hydro mechanical weakening processes that undermine their stability. Viable information on the implications of these weakening processes, particularly on California's earthen levees, is relatively incomplete. This article discusses, from a geotechnical engineering perspective, how California's protracted drought might threaten the integrity of levee systems through the imposition of several thermo-hydro mechanical weakening processes. Pertinent facts and statistics regarding the drought in California are presented and discussed. Catastrophic levee failures and major damages resulting from drought-induce weakening processes such as shear strength reduction, desiccation cracking, land subsidence and surface erosion, fissuring and soil softening, and soil carbon oxidation are discussed to illustrate the devastating impacts that the California drought might impose on existing earthen levees. This article calls for further research in light of these potential drought-inducing weakening mechanisms to support mitigation strategies for reducing future catastrophic levee failures.

  11. Use of geophysical methods to map subsurface features at levee seepage locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brackett, Thomas C.

    The Great Flood of 2011 caused moderate to severe seepage and piping along the Mississippi River levees in Northwest Mississippi. The aim of this thesis was to implement geophysical techniques at two seepage locations in order to give a better understanding of the causes of underseepage and information on how to mitigate the problem. Sites near Rena Lara in Coahoma County and near Francis in Bolivar County were chosen to conduct this survey. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Electromagnetic Induction (EM) surveys were conducted on and adjacent to levees to identify seepage pathways and any dominant geological features at the sites. Results from geophysical surveys revealed that Francis and Rena Laura each had a prominent geomorphologic feature that was attributing to underseepage. Seepage at Francis was the result of a sand filled channel capped by a clay overburden. Permeable materials at the base of the channel served as a conduit for transporting river water beneath the levee. The seepage surfaced as sand boils where the overlying clay overburden was thin or non-existent. Investigations at the Rena Lara site revealed a large, clay-filled swale extending beneath the levee. The clay within the swale has relatively low horizontal permeability, and concentrated the seepage flow towards more permeable zones on the flanks of the swale. This resulted in the formation of sand boils at the base of the levee. Both geomorphic features at Francis and Rena Lara were identified as surface drainages using remote sensing data. With the assistance of borehole and elevation data, geophysics was successfully used to characterize the features at each site. Properties such as permeability and clay content were derived from responses in electrical conductivity and used to build seepage models at each site. These models will hopefully be considered when determining seepage conditions and mitigation techniques at other sites along the levee.

  12. 11-14 November 2012 Umbria Region (Central Italy) flood event: from prediction to management for civil protection purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berni, Nicola; Pandolfo, Claudia; Stelluti, Marco; Zauri, Renato; Ponziani, Francesco; Francioni, Marco; Governatori Leonardi, Federico; Formica, Alessandro; Natazzi, Loredana; Costantini, Sandro

    2013-04-01

    Following laws and regulations concerning extreme natural events management, the Italian national hydrometeorological early warning system is composed by 21 regional offices (Functional Centres - CF). Umbria Region CF is located in Central Italy and provides early warning, monitoring and decision support systems (DSS) when significant flood/landslide events occur. The alert system is based on hydrometric and rainfall thresholds with detailed procedures for the management of critical events in which different roles of authorities and institutions involved are defined. For the real time flood forecasting system, at the CF several operational hydrological and hydraulic models were developed and implemented for a "dynamic" hazard/risk scenario assessment for Civil Protection DSS, useful also for the development of Flood Risk Management Plans according to the European "Floods Directive" 2007/60. In the period 11th-14th November 2012, a significant flood event occurred in Umbria (as well as Tuscany and northern Lazio). The territory was interested by intense and persistent rainfall; the hydro-meteorological monitoring network recorded locally rainfall depth over 300 mm in 72 hours and, generally, values greater than the seasonal averages all over the region. In the most affected area the recorded rainfall depths correspond to centenarian return period: one-third of the annual mean precipitation occurred in 2-3 days. Almost all rivers in Umbria have been involved, exceeding hydrometric thresholds, and several ones overflowed. Furthermore, in some cases, so high water levels have never been recorded by the hydrometric network. As in the major flood events occurred in the last years, dams (Montedoglio and Corbara dams along Tiber River and Casanuova dam along Chiascio River) and other hydraulic works for flood defense (e.g. along Chiani stream) played a very important mitigation role, storing high water volumes and avoiding the overlap of peak discharges downstream. During

  13. Floods and Flash Flooding

    MedlinePlus

    Floods and flash flooding Now is the time to determine your area’s flood risk. If you are not sure whether you ... If you are in a floodplain, consider buying flood insurance. Do not drive around barricades. If your ...

  14. Insights from socio-hydrology modelling on dealing with flood risk: roles of collective memory, risk-taking attitude and trust (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viglione, A.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Brandimarte, L.; Kuil, L.; Carr, G.; Salinas, J.; Scolobig, A.

    2013-12-01

    The risk coping culture of a community plays a major role in decision making in urban flood plains. While flood awareness is not necessarily linked to being prepared to face flooding at an individual level, the connection at the community level seems to be stronger through creating policy and initiating protection works. In this work we analyse, in a conceptual way, the interplay of community risk coping culture, flooding damage and economic growth. We particularly focus on three aspects: (i) collective memory, i.e., the capacity of the community to keep the awareness of flooding high; (ii) risk-taking attitude, i.e., the amount of risk a community is collectively willing to expose themselves to; and (iii) trust of people in risk protection measures. We use a dynamic model that represents the feedbacks between the hydrological and social system components. The model results indicate that, on one hand, by under perceiving the risk of flooding (because of short collective memory and too much trust in flood protection structures) in combination with a high risk-attitude, community survival is severely limited because of destruction caused by flooding. On the other hand, high perceived risk (long memory and lack of trust in flood protection structures) relative to the actual risk leads to lost economic opportunities and recession. There are many optimal scenarios for survival and economic growth, but greater certainty of survival plus economic growth can be achieved by ensuring community has accurate risk perception (memory neither too long nor too short and trust in flood protection neither too great nor too low) combined with a low to moderate risk-taking attitude. Interestingly, the model gives rise to situations in which the development of the community in the floodplain is path dependent, i.e., the history of flooding may lead to its growth or recession. Schematic of human adjustments to flooding: (a) settling away from the river; (b) raising levees/dikes.

  15. Risk to life due to flooding in post-Katrina New Orleans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, A.; Jonkman, S. N.; Van Ledden, M.

    2015-01-01

    Since the catastrophic flooding of New Orleans due to Hurricane Katrina in 2005, the city's hurricane protection system has been improved to provide protection against a hurricane load with a 1/100 per year exceedance frequency. This paper investigates the risk to life in post-Katrina New Orleans. In a flood risk analysis the probabilities and consequences of various flood scenarios have been analyzed for the central area of the city (the metro bowl) to give a preliminary estimate of the risk to life in the post-Katrina situation. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model has been used to simulate flood characteristics of various breaches. The model for estimation of fatality rates is based on the loss of life data for Hurricane Katrina. Results indicate that - depending on the flood scenario - the estimated loss of life in case of flooding ranges from about 100 to nearly 500, with the highest life loss due to breaching of the river levees leading to large flood depths. The probability and consequence estimates are combined to determine the individual risk and societal risk for New Orleans. When compared to risks of other large-scale engineering systems (e.g., other flood prone areas, dams and the nuclear sector) and acceptable risk criteria found in literature, the risks for the metro bowl are found to be relatively high. Thus, despite major improvements to the flood protection system, the flood risk to life of post-Katrina New Orleans is still expected to be significant. Indicative effects of reduction strategies on the risk level are discussed as a basis for further evaluation and discussion.

  16. The inherent instability of leveed seafloor channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorrell, Robert M.; Burns, Alan D.; McCaffrey, William D.

    2015-05-01

    New analytical models demonstrate that under aggradational flow conditions, seafloor channel-levee systems are inherently unstable; both channel area and stability necessarily decrease at long timescales. In time such systems must avulse purely through internal (autogenic) forcing. Although autogenic instabilities likely arise over long enough time for additional allogenic forcing to be expected, channel-levee sensitivity to variations in flow character depends on the prior degree of system evolution. Recalibrated modern Amazon Fan avulsion timings are consistent with this model, challenging accepted interpretations of avulsion triggering.

  17. Parcel-scale urban coastal flood mapping: Leveraging the multi-scale CoSMoS model for coastal flood forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallien, T.; Barnard, P. L.; Sanders, B. F.

    2011-12-01

    California coastal sea levels are projected to rise 1-1.4 meters in the next century and evidence suggests mean tidal range, and consequently, mean high water (MHW) is increasing along portions of Southern California Bight. Furthermore, emerging research indicates wind stress patterns associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) have suppressed sea level rise rates along the West Coast since 1980, and a reversal in this pattern would result in the resumption of regional sea level rise rates equivalent to or exceeding global mean sea level rise rates, thereby enhancing coastal flooding. Newport Beach is a highly developed, densely populated lowland along the Southern California coast currently subject to episodic flooding from coincident high tides and waves, and the frequency and intensity of flooding is expected to increase with projected future sea levels. Adaptation to elevated sea levels will require flood mapping and forecasting tools that are sensitive to the dominant factors affecting flooding including extreme high tides, waves and flood control infrastructure. Considerable effort has been focused on the development of nowcast and forecast systems including Scripps Institute of Oceanography's Coastal Data Information Program (CDIP) and the USGS Multi-hazard model, the Southern California Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS). However, fine scale local embayment dynamics and overtopping flows are needed to map unsteady flooding effects in coastal lowlands protected by dunes, levees and seawalls. Here, a recently developed two dimensional Godunov non-linear shallow water solver is coupled to water level and wave forecasts from the CoSMoS model to investigate the roles of tides, waves, sea level changes and flood control infrastructure in accurate flood mapping and forecasting. The results of this study highlight the important roles of topographic data, embayment hydrodynamics, water level uncertainties and critical flood processes required for

  18. The flood of 2011 in the lower Chao Phraya valley, Thailand: Study of a long-duration flood through satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, Soo Chin; Gupta, Avijit; Chia, Aik Song; Ang, Wu Chye

    2016-06-01

    The paper illustrates application of satellite images for studying the anatomy of a long-duration, extensive, and slow flood on the Chao Phraya River in 2011 that inundated Bangkok in its lower reach. The spread of floods in the valley was mapped with MODIS, month by month, from July 2011 to February 2012. A subsampled WorldView-2 mosaic was used to observe part of the valley in detail. The flood in Bangkok was studied with four higher-resolution images from Spot 4, WorldView-2, and GeoEye-1 satellites. We suspect that the floodwaters jumped the banks of the Chao Phraya south of Chai Nat, and then travelled overland and along river channels. The overland passage made it difficult to protect settlements. We also studied sedimentation from the images of this shallow overland flow across the country, which was complicated by the presence of preexisting embankments, other anthropogenic structures, and smaller stream channels. This is a descriptive study but it highlights the nature of flooding that is likely to be repeated in this low flat valley from high rainfall. The pattern of flooding was similar to that of a previous large flood in 1996 recorded in a SPOT 2 image. These floods impact Bangkok periodically, a city of about 10 million people, which started on a levee in a low flat delta, then expanded into backswamps, and is marked with local depressions from groundwater extraction. These slow extensive floods can be mapped from satellite images and properly recorded as an early step in analysis of large floods. Mapping of such floods on ground is logistically impossible. Slow, extensive, and long-lasting floods affect lower valleys and deltas of a number of major rivers, impacting agricultural fields and large populations. These floods are especially disastrous for cities located on low deltas. We submit that basic exercises on satellite images provide valuable introductory information for understanding geomorphology of such floods, and also for structuring plans

  19. Effect of bank protection measures, Stehekin River, Chelan County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    An investigation of the lower Stehekin River was conducted to study the effects on flood elevations and velocities from four bank protection and flood prevention measures that are being contemplated as a means of reducing erosional losses of river bank property. These measures are: bank armoring, armored revetment levees, spur dikes, and redevelopment of old cutoff channels. The banks at seven study sites could be armored without adverse effect on the flood velocities and elevations. The largest increases due to armoring--up to 1.6 ft/sec in velocity and 1 ft in elevation--occurred in the vicinity of sites 5, 6, and 7 where the gradient of the river channel is about 50 ft/mi and the velocities are high to begin with (about 6 to 13 ft/sec). The use of a levee in conjunction with armoring on the northeast bank from sites 5 to 7 would increase the velocities as much as 2.8 ft/sec and increase the elevation as much as 1 ft, but it would also provide some flood protection to the east bank, which is frequently inundated. Spur dikes were considered a practical alternative only at site 3, where reduced bank erosion may occur without aggravating flood inundation or erosion elsewhere. The rerouting of flood flow through an old cutoff channel near site 1 increased the velocity by 3.2 ft/sec and the elevation by 1 ft for the 100-year flood; however, it would move floodwater away from residential property where bank erosion is a problem. The few other old channels that shortcut river bends where much erosion occurs are apparently already part of the channel during floods. (Author 's abstract)

  20. Flood Hazards - A National Threat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    In the late summer of 2005, the remarkable flooding brought by Hurricane Katrina, which caused more than $200 billion in losses, constituted the costliest natural disaster in U.S. history. However, even in typical years, flooding causes billions of dollars in damage and threatens lives and property in every State. Natural processes, such as hurricanes, weather systems, and snowmelt, can cause floods. Failure of levees and dams and inadequate drainage in urban areas can also result in flooding. On average, floods kill about 140 people each year and cause $6 billion in property damage. Although loss of life to floods during the past half-century has declined, mostly because of improved warning systems, economic losses have continued to rise due to increased urbanization and coastal development.

  1. Personal protective equipment, hygiene behaviours and occupational risk of illness after July 2011 flood in Copenhagen, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Wójcik, O P; Holt, J; Kjerulf, A; Müller, L; Ethelberg, S; Mølbak, K

    2013-08-01

    Incidence of various diseases can increase following a flood. We aimed to identify professionals in Copenhagen who became ill after contact with 2 July 2011 floodwater/sediment and determine risks and protective factors associated with illness. We conducted a cohort study of employees engaged in post-flood management activities. Participants completed a questionnaire collecting information about demographics, floodwater/sediment exposure, compliance with standard precautions, and symptoms of illness. Overall, 257 professionals participated, with 56 (22%) cases. Risk of illness was associated with not washing hands after floodwater/sediment contact [relative risk (RR) 2∙45], exposure to floodwater at work and home (RR 2∙35), smoking (RR 1∙92), direct contact with floodwater (RR 1∙86), and eating/drinking when in contact with floodwater (RR 1∙77). Professionals need to follow standard precautions when in contact with floodwater/sediment, especially proper hand hygiene after personal protective equipment use and before eating/drinking and smoking.

  2. Risk to life due to flooding in post-Katrina New Orleans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, A.; Jonkman, S. N.; Van Ledden, M.

    2014-01-01

    After the catastrophic flooding of New Orleans due to hurricane Katrina in the year 2005, the city's hurricane protection system has been improved to provide protection against a hurricane load with a 1/100 per year exceedance frequency. This paper investigates the risk to life in post-Katrina New Orleans. In a risk-based approach the probabilities and consequences of various flood scenarios have been analyzed for the central area of the city (the metro bowl) to give a preliminary estimate of the risk to life in the post-Katrina situation. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model has been used to simulate flood characteristics of various breaches. The model for estimation of fatality rates is based on the loss of life data for Hurricane Katrina. Results indicate that - depending on the flood scenario - the estimated loss of life in case of flooding ranges from about 100 to nearly 500, with the highest life loss due to breaching of the river levees leading to large flood depths. The probability and consequence estimates are combined to determine the individual risk and societal risk for New Orleans. When compared to risks of other large scale engineering systems (e.g. other flood prone areas, dams and the nuclear sector) and acceptable risk criteria found in literature, the risks for the metro bowl are found to be relatively high. Thus, despite major improvements to the flood protection system, the flood risk of post-Katrina New Orleans is still expected to be significant. Effects of reduction strategies on the risk level are discussed as a basis for further evaluation.

  3. A New Approach to Monitoring Coastal Marshes for Persistent Flooding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalcic, M. T.; Undersood, Lauren W.; Fletcher, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Many areas in coastal Louisiana are below sea level and protected from flooding by a system of natural and man-made levees. Flooding is common when the levees are overtopped by storm surge or rising rivers. Many levees in this region are further stressed by erosion and subsidence. The floodwaters can become constricted by levees and trapped, causing prolonged inundation. Vegetative communities in coastal regions, from fresh swamp forest to saline marsh, can be negatively affected by inundation and changes in salinity. As saltwater persists, it can have a toxic effect upon marsh vegetation causing die off and conversion to open water types, destroying valuable species habitats. The length of time the water persists and the average annual salinity are important variables in modeling habitat switching (cover type change). Marsh type habitat switching affects fish, shellfish, and wildlife inhabitants, and can affect the regional ecosystem and economy. There are numerous restoration and revitalization projects underway in the coastal region, and their effects on the entire ecosystem need to be understood. For these reasons, monitoring persistent saltwater intrusion and inundation is important. For this study, persistent flooding in Louisiana coastal marshes was mapped using MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series of a Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). The time series data were derived for 2000 through 2009, including flooding due to Hurricane Rita in 2005 and Hurricane Ike in 2008. Using the NDWI, duration and extent of flooding can be inferred. The Time Series Product Tool (TSPT), developed at NASA SSC, is a suite of software developed in MATLAB(R) that enables improved-quality time series images to be computed using advanced temporal processing techniques. This software has been used to compute time series for monitoring temporal changes in environmental phenomena, (e.g. NDVI times series from MODIS), and was modified and used to

  4. A New Approach to Monitoring Coastal Marshes for Persistent Flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalcic, M. T.; Underwood, L. W.; Fletcher, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    Many areas in coastal Louisiana are below sea level and protected from flooding by a system of natural and man-made levees. Flooding is common when the levees are overtopped by storm surge or rising rivers. Many levees in this region are further stressed by erosion and subsidence. The floodwaters can become constricted by levees and trapped, causing prolonged inundation. Vegetative communities in coastal regions, from fresh swamp forest to saline marsh, can be negatively affected by inundation and changes in salinity. As saltwater persists, it can have a toxic effect upon marsh vegetation causing die off and conversion to open water types, destroying valuable species habitats. The length of time the water persists and the average annual salinity are important variables in modeling habitat switching (cover type change). Marsh type habitat switching affects fish, shellfish, and wildlife inhabitants, and can affect the regional ecosystem and economy. There are numerous restoration and revitalization projects underway in the coastal region, and their effects on the entire ecosystem need to be understood. For these reasons, monitoring persistent saltwater intrusion and inundation is important. For this study, persistent flooding in Louisiana coastal marshes was mapped using MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series of a Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). The time series data were derived for 2000 through 2009, including flooding due to Hurricane Rita in 2005 and Hurricane Ike in 2008. Using the NDWI, duration and extent of flooding can be inferred. The Time Series Product Tool (TSPT), developed at NASA SSC, is a suite of software developed in MATLAB® that enables improved-quality time series images to be computed using advanced temporal processing techniques. This software has been used to compute time series for monitoring temporal changes in environmental phenomena, (e.g. NDVI times series from MODIS), and was modified and used to

  5. Water and Solute Transport in the Shallow Subsurface of a Natural Levee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, A.; Keim, R.

    2008-12-01

    In riverine wetlands, river channels are separated from backswamps by natural levees that form adjacent to the channel by sediment deposition during floods. The conventional conceptual framework is that backswamp water is impounded and disconnected from surface flow; however, layered sediments, shrink-swell clays, roots and decayed organic matter, and animal burrows likely form preferential pathways for subsurface flow and may substantially affect water and solute exchange between wetlands and river channels. To test the hypothesis that preferential flow is an important pathway of subsurface water movement through natural levees, we measured hydraulic gradients and solute tracers in a 5 x 5 m grid of 19 shallow (2m) monitoring wells within a large representative elementary volume (300 m3) of natural levee in the Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana. In addition to measuring transient responses to precipitation, we constructed a small reservoir on the backswamp side of the levee to simulate a seasonal hydraulic gradient from the swamp to the adjacent river channel. Results indicate rapid response of water levels in all monitoring wells to the imposed hydraulic gradient as well as rain events, which included two tropical cyclones. In contrast, tracer response was highly variable, both spatially and across events, indicating a complex relationship between subsurface flow processes and water chemistry. Groundwater chemistry indicated spatially variable flowpaths. In some wells, hydraulic response coincided with a chemical shift toward low-conductivity surface water; however, other wells showed similar hydraulic responses but no change in tracer concentrations or even a shift toward higher-conductivity water that was presumably stored in the soil matrix. This spatial variation in tracer response indicates multiple mechanisms of hydraulic response, each of which has important implications for biogeochemical interactions between backswamps and channels in the shallow subsurface

  6. Flood trends and river engineering on the Mississippi River system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pinter, N.; Jemberie, A.A.; Remo, J.W.F.; Heine, R.A.; Ickes, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    Along >4000 km of the Mississippi River system, we document that climate, land-use change, and river engineering have contributed to statistically significant increases in flooding over the past 100-150 years. Trends were tested using a database of >8 million hydrological measurements. A geospatial database of historical engineering construction was used to quantify the response of flood levels to each unit of engineering infrastructure. Significant climate- and/or land use-driven increases in flow were detected, but the largest and most pervasive contributors to increased flooding on the Mississippi River system were wing dikes and related navigational structures, followed by progressive levee construction. In the area of the 2008 Upper Mississippi flood, for example, about 2 m of the flood crest is linked to navigational and flood-control engineering. Systemwide, large increases in flood levels were documented at locations and at times of wing-dike and levee construction. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Mesoscale connectivity through a natural levee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, A. E.; Keim, R. F.

    2013-02-01

    Natural levees are potentially locally important zones of lateral seepage between stream channels and floodplain backswamps, because their relatively coarser soils provide pathways of high hydraulic conductivity in an otherwise low conductivity system. Therefore, understanding the rates and mechanisms of subsurface exchange of water and solutes through natural levees may be necessary for understanding biogeochemical cycling in floodplains. We measured imposed hydraulic gradients and solute tracers in 19 shallow monitoring wells within a 580 m3 volume of natural levee in the Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana. We modeled residence time distributions of pressure and tracers using a simple linear system to quantify spatially variable transport velocities and infer dominant flow mechanisms at a mesoscale. The spatial mean velocity of pressure transport was faster than the mean velocity of tracer transport by two orders of magnitude (1.7 × 10-2 and 4.6 × 10-4 m s-1, respectively), and the variance of pressure velocities was less than the variance of tracer velocities by seven orders of magnitude (1.4 × 104 min2 and 7.9 × 1011 min2, respectively). Higher spatial variability of tracer velocities compared to pressure velocities indicates different functioning mechanisms of mass versus energy transport and suggests preferential flow. Effective hydraulic conductivities, which ranged in magnitude from 10-1 to 103 m d-1, were higher than would be predicted by soil texture. We conclude that, in this fine-grained system, preferential flow paths control water and solute exchange through natural levees. These findings are important for future studies of water and solute cycling in riverine wetlands, and rates of exchange may be particularly useful for modeling water and nutrient budgets in similar systems.

  8. Mesoscale connectivity through a natural levee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, A. E.; Keim, R. F.

    2012-06-01

    Natural levees are potentially locally important zones of lateral seepage between stream channels and floodplain backswamps because their relatively coarser soils provide pathways of high hydraulic conductivity in an otherwise low conductivity system. Therefore, understanding the rates and mechanisms of subsurface exchange of water and solutes through natural levees may be necessary for understanding biogeochemical cycling in floodplains. We measured imposed hydraulic gradients and solute tracers in 19 shallow monitoring wells within a 580 m3 volume of natural levee in the Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana. We modeled residence time distributions of pressure and tracers using a simple linear system to quantify spatially variable transport velocities and infer dominant flow mechanisms at a mesoscale. The spatial mean velocity of pressure transport was faster than the mean velocity of tracer transport by two orders of magnitude (1.7 × 10-2 and 4.6 × 10-4 m s-1, respectively), and the variance of pressure velocities was less than the variance of tracer velocities by seven orders of magnitude (1.4 × 104 min2 and 7.9 × 1011 min2, respectively). Higher spatial variability of tracer velocities compared to pressure velocities indicates different functioning mechanisms of mass versus energy transport and suggests preferential flow. Effective hydraulic conductivities, which ranged in magnitude from 10-1 to 106 and from 10-1 to 103 m d-1 for pressure and tracers, respectively, were higher than would be predicted by soil texture. We conclude that, in this fine-grained system, preferential flowpaths control water and solute exchange through natural levees. These findings are important for future studies of water and solute cycling in riverine wetlands, and rates of exchange may be particularly useful for modeling water and nutrient budgets in similar systems.

  9. One health and force health protection during foreign humanitarian assistance operations: 2010 Pakistan flood relief.

    PubMed

    Burke, Ronald L

    2013-01-01

    Restrictions on the number of troops that could enter Pakistan in support of the 2010 flood relief efforts limited the type and number of deployed medical personnel. Although this created the potential for mission gaps, the assigned personnel were able to perform additional functions beyond those normally associated with their particular health specialty to help close these gaps, which was largely made possible due to prior cross-training and predeployment refresher training. Given the rapid and unpredictable nature of disaster response, future foreign humanitarian assistance operations may face similar issues with assigned personnel. Promotion of the One Health concept through instruction and training will help to increase awareness among US Army Medical Department personnel about the roles and functions of health specialties, facilitate the identification of critical gaps during deployments, and provide personnel with the knowledge and skills needed to address them.

  10. Assessment of the effectiveness of flood adaptation strategies for HCMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasage, R.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; de Moel, H.; Van, T. C.; Phi, H. L.; Vellinga, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2014-06-01

    Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, Asian cities in particular are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reduction measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea-level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood-prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet proofing of buildings and elevating roads and buildings). A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. The model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in expected annual damage (EAD). Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea-level scenarios and land-use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modelling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is USD 0.31 million per year, increasing up to USD 0.78 million per year in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5 % range from USD -107 to -1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit-cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet-proofing and dry-proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information

  11. The Central European Flood in June 2013: Experiences from a Near-Real Time Disaster Analysis in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröter, Kai; Khazai, Bijan; Mühr, Bernhard; Elmer, Florian; Bessel, Tina; Möhrle, Stella; Dittrich, André; Kreibich, Heidi; Fohringer, Joachim; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Trieselmann, Werner; Kunz, Michael; Merz, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    The central European flood in June 2013 once again revealed that complete flood protection is not possible. Inundations caused severe damage to buildings, infrastructure and agricultural lands. Official estimates of total damage in Germany amount to approx. 8bn € which is lower than the damage caused by the August 2002 flood - the most expensive natural hazard experienced so far in Germany. Repeated and long lasting precipitation in combination with extremely adverse preconditions induced a large scale flood event. In Germany, particularly the catchment areas of the Danube and Elbe were affected. The June 2013 flood has been the most severe flood event in terms of spatial extent and magnitude of flood peaks in Germany during the last 60 years. Large scale inundation occurred as a consequence of levee breaches near Deggendorf (Danube), Groß Rosenau and Fischbeck (Elbe). The flood has had a great impact on people, transportation and the economy. In many areas more than 50,000 thousand people were evacuated. Electrical grid and local water supply utilities failed during the floods. Furthermore, traffic was disrupted in the interregional transportation network including federal highways and long distance railways. CEDIM analysed and assessed the flood event within its current research activity on near real time forensic disaster analysis (CEDIM FDA: www.cedim.de). This contribution gives an overview about the CEDIM FDA analyses' results. It describes the key hydro-meteorological factors that triggered this extraordinary event and draws comparisons to major flood events in August 2002 and July 1954. Further, it shows the outcomes of a rapid initial impact assessment on the district level using social, economic and institutional indicators which are supplemented with information on the number of people evacuated and transportation disruptions and combined with the magnitude of the event.

  12. Relationship between canal and levee density and coastal land loss in Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.E.

    1987-12-01

    Nearly 1% of Louisiana's coastal land becomes water each year. This land loss affects everything from wildlife, fisheries, and recreation to the economy and culture. A part of this loss results from natural, unmanageable factors, but manageable factors are also responsible. This report discusses one of the manageable factors: canals and their dredged-material levees. In coastal Louisiana wetlands, canals are constructed primarily to facilitate navigation and oil and gas recovery. The density of canals in this region is now about equal to the natural network of bayous and creeks. The primary effect of these canals and associated levees is to alter the process of flooding and drainage. The influence of canals and their levees on coastal Louisiana erosion rates are modified by local geologic, hydrologic, and biologic interactions. The empirical relationship between canals and erosion is, however, clear; land loss is directly related to canal density. Comparisons with mosquito ditches, which are smaller analogues of canals, reveal similar patterns of wetland changes and suggest management options.

  13. Satellite imagery maps Hurricane Katrina-induced flooding and oil slicks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rykhus, Russell P.

    In the early morning of 29 August 2005, Hurricane Katrina made landfall near Buras, Louisiana, as a Category 4 hurricane. With wind speeds of about 233 kilometers per hour, a storm surge of 8.5 meters, and heavy rains, Katrina pounded the U.S. Gulf Coast states of Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi with lifethreatening flooding and destruction. Katrina's high winds and storm surge breached the levees protecting New Orleans, a city located below sea level, and flooded approximately 80% of the city.Katrina also caused major damage to the region's oil and natural gas production and refining capabilities. On 2 September 2005, the Associated Press reported that Katrina had damaged 58 oil platforms, 30 of which were reported lost; one damaged platform had been blown nearly 100 km from its original location.

  14. Is there really "nothing you can do"? Pathways to enhanced flood-risk preparedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox-Rogers, Linda; Devitt, Catherine; O'Neill, Eoin; Brereton, Finbarr; Clinch, J. Peter

    2016-12-01

    Whilst policy makers have tended to adopt an 'information-deficit model' to bolster levels of flood-risk preparedness primarily though communication strategies promoting awareness, the assumed causal relation between awareness and preparedness is empirically weak. As such, there is a growing interest amongst scholars and policy makers alike to better understand why at-risk individuals are underprepared. In this vein, empirical studies, typically employing quantitative methods, have tended to focus on exploring the extent to which flood-risk preparedness levels vary depending not only on socio-demographic variables, but also (and increasingly so) the perceptual factors that influence flood risk preparedness. This study builds upon and extends this body of research by offering a more solution-focused approach that seeks to identify how pathways to flood-risk preparedness can be opened up. Specifically, through application of a qualitative methodology, we seek to explore how the factors that negatively influence flood-risk preparedness can be addressed to foster a shift towards greater levels of mitigation behaviour. In doing so, we focus our analysis on an urban community in Ireland that is identified as 'at risk' of flash flooding and is currently undergoing significant flood relief works. In this regard, the case study offers an interesting laboratory to explore how attitudes towards flood-risk preparedness at the individual level are being influenced within the context of a flood relief scheme that is only partially constructed. In order to redress the dearth of theoretically informed qualitative studies in this field, we draw on Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to help guide our analysis and make sense of our results. Our findings demonstrate that flood-risk preparedness can be undermined by low levels of efficacy amongst individuals in terms of the preparedness measures available to them and their own personal capacity to implement them. We also elucidate that

  15. Extent and frequency of floods on Delaware River in vicinity of Belvidere, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farlekas, George M.

    1966-01-01

    A stream overflowing its banks is a natural phenomenon. This natural phenomenon of flooding has occurred on the Delaware River in the past and will occur in the future. T' o resulting inundation of large areas can cause property damage, business losses and possible loss of life, and may result in emergency costs for protection, rescue, and salvage work. For optimum development of the river valley consistent with the flood risk, an evaluation of flood conditions is necessary. Basic data and the interpretation of the data on the regimen of the streams, particularly the magnitude of floods to be expected, the frequency of their occurrence, and the areas inundated, are essential for planning and development of flood-prone areas.This report presents information relative to the extent, depth, and frequency of floods on the Delaware River and its tributaries in the vicinity of Belvidere, N.J. Flooding on the tributaries detailed in the report pertains only to the effect of backwater from the Delaware River. Data are presented for several past floods with emphasis given to the floods of August 19, 1955 and May 24, 1942. In addition, information is given for a hypothetical flood based on the flood of August 19, 1955 modified by completed (since 1955) and planned flood-control works.By use of relations presented in this report the extent, depth, and frequency of flooding can be estimated for any site along the reach of the Delaware River under study. Flood data and the evaluation of the data are presented so that local and regional agencies, organizations, and individuals may have a technical basis for making decisions on the use of flood-prone areas. The Delaware River Basin Commission and the U.S. Geological Survey regard this program of flood-plain inundation studies as a positive step toward flood-damage prevention. Flood-plain inundation studies, when followed by appropriate land-use regulations, are a valuable and economical supplement to physical works for flood

  16. Optimal and centralized reservoir management for drought and flood protection via Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming on the Upper Seine-Aube River system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiavico, Mattia; Raso, Luciano; Dorchies, David; Malaterre, Pierre-Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Seine river region is an extremely important logistic and economic junction for France and Europe. The hydraulic protection of most part of the region relies on four controlled reservoirs, managed by EPTB Seine-Grands Lacs. Presently, reservoirs operation is not centrally coordinated, and release rules are based on empirical filling curves. In this study, we analyze how a centralized release policy can face flood and drought risks, optimizing water system efficiency. The optimal and centralized decisional problem is solved by Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP) method, minimizing an operational indicator for each planning objective. SDDP allows us to include into the system: 1) the hydrological discharge, specifically a stochastic semi-distributed auto-regressive model, 2) the hydraulic transfer model, represented by a linear lag and route model, and 3) reservoirs and diversions. The novelty of this study lies on the combination of reservoir and hydraulic models in SDDP for flood and drought protection problems. The study case covers the Seine basin until the confluence with Aube River: this system includes two reservoirs, the city of Troyes, and the Nuclear power plant of Nogent-Sur-Seine. The conflict between the interests of flood protection, drought protection, water use and ecology leads to analyze the environmental system in a Multi-Objective perspective.

  17. Erosional Equivalences of Levees: Steady and Intermittent Wave Overtopping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    significant wave height at the toe of the slope, Hmo, the Iribarren number, xo, and various coefficients relating to the roughness and other levee character...factor for influence of levee roughness, gb the reduction factor for influence of oblique wave attack, xo the Iribarren number ¼ tana

  18. The assessment of river basin and flood management from early twentieth century to the present on the lower Siret River (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salit, F.; Beltrando, B.; Zaharia, L.

    2012-04-01

    The river basin management and flood depends on the politico-historical, economic and environmental context in which it is thought. There is a similar evolution in Romania, where political developments have had as much impact on flood management than hydro-climatic events. The aim of this work is to understand of management systems in a diachronic logic in Romania from the beginning of the 20th century to the Communist period and to accession to the European Union. This work focuses on the lower Siret River. The Siret catchment is one of the last major tributaries of the Danube River east of the Carpathians and the most important of Romania in terms of flow and drainage area. To study the assessment of river basin management, a GIS was constructed using a series of Romanian and Russian topographic maps extending over the period 1916-1990 and Google earth images from 2009 and 2010. The study of the current period was enhanced by field observations (records of existing dykes, testimonials ...) from 2010-2011. Finally, this study is based on the technical literature for the regularization of rivers and the various reports made over this period. Three periods were identified: the major floods of 1970 and 2005 marked a turning point in the logical management of river basin and especially in the fight against flood. From the beginning of the period to 1970, dyke protection was sporadic: they are intended primarily to protect the villages directly threatened by recurrent flood. In 1970 a major flood (3500 m3/s) occurred on the lower Siret and other minor floods in succession from 1970 to 1975. By 1976 a national plan was drawn up to fight against the harmful effects of water. The entire sector of the lower Siret River and its major tributaries is arranged, a network of levees protects not only the villages but also all economic assets in this sector, namely the agricultural land, the main wealth of the region. In 2005 an exceptionally large flood (4650 m3/s) affected the

  19. Optimized Radar Remote Sensing for Levee Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Cathleen E.

    2013-01-01

    Radar remote sensing offers great potential for high resolution monitoring of ground surface changes over large areas at one time to detect movement on and near levees and for location of seepage through levees. Our NASA-funded projects to monitor levees in the Sacramento Delta and the Mississippi River have developed and demonstrated methods to use radar remote sensing to measure quantities relevant to levee health and of great value to emergency response. The DHS-funded project will enable us is to define how to optimally monitor levees in this new way and set the stage for transition to using satellite SAR (synthetic aperture radar) imaging for better temporal and spatial coverage at lower cost to the end users.

  20. Three-dimensional imaging, change detection, and stability assessment during the centerline trench levee seepage experiment using terrestrial light detection and ranging technology, Twitchell Island, California, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bawden, Gerald W.; Howle, James; Bond, Sandra; Shriro, Michelle; Buck, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A full scale field seepage test was conducted on a north-south trending levee segment of a now bypassed old meander belt on Twitchell Island, California, to understand the effects of live and decaying root systems on levee seepage and slope stability. The field test in May 2012 was centered on a north-south trench with two segments: a shorter control segment and a longer seepage test segment. The complete length of the trench area measured 40.4 meters (m) near the levee centerline with mature trees located on the waterside and landside of the levee flanks. The levee was instrumented with piezometers and tensiometers to measure positive and negative porewater pressures across the levee after the trench was flooded with water and held at a constant hydraulic head during the seepage test—the results from this component of the experiment are not discussed in this report. We collected more than one billion three-dimensional light detection and ranging (lidar) data points before, during, and after the centerline seepage test to assess centimeter-scale stability of the two trees and the levee crown. During the seepage test, the waterside tree toppled (rotated 20.7 degrees) into the water. The landside tree rotated away from the levee by 5 centimeters (cm) at a height of 2 m on the tree. The paved surface of the levee crown had three regions that showed subsidence on the waterside of the trench—discussed as the northern, central, and southern features. The northern feature is an elongate region that subsided 2.1 cm over an area with an average width of 1.35 m that extends 15.8 m parallel to the trench from the northern end of the trench to just north of the trench midpoint, and is associated with a crack 1 cm in height that formed during the seepage test on the trench wall. The central subsidence feature is a semicircular region on the waterside of the trench that subsided by as much as 6.2 cm over an area 3.4 m wide and 11.2 m long. The southern feature is an elongate

  1. Minnesota River at Chaska, Minnesota. Technical Appendixes. Limited Reevaluation Report and Final Supplement to the Final Environmental Impact Statement for Flood Control and Related Purposes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    PROJECT With passage of the Water Resources Development Act of 1976 (Public Law 94-587), Congress authorized the Chaska flood control project. As approved...miles of levee along the MinnCota River. DEGREE OF PROTECTION Minnes.ota li e r - i he P roposld lekVe on th -innesota livr would provide protcction a...the channel uli.;n- nent has been changed. (2) I’here is a high SLt r 11 bank coo biled sith a nar row, passage be .t,’c_’,, to the north, ’ii:i 21

  2. Flood Stress as a Technique to Assess Preventive Insecticide and Fungicide Treatments for Protecting Trees against Ambrosia Beetles.

    PubMed

    Ranger, Christopher M; Schultz, Peter B; Reding, Michael E; Frank, Steven D; Palmquist, Debra E

    2016-08-18

    Ambrosia beetles tunnel into the heartwood of trees where they cultivate and feed upon a symbiotic fungus. We assessed the effectiveness of flood stress for making Cercis canadensis L. and Cornus florida L. trees attractive to attack as part of insecticide and fungicide efficacy trials conducted in Ohio and Virginia. Since female ambrosia beetles will not begin ovipositing until their symbiotic fungus is established within the host, we also assessed pre-treatment of trees with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite on fungal establishment and beetle colonization success. Permethrin reduced attacks on flooded trees, yet no attacks occurred on any of the non-flooded trees. Fewer galleries created within flooded trees pre-treated with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite contained the purported symbiotic fungus; foundress' eggs were only detected in flooded but untreated trees. While pre-treatment with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite can disrupt colonization success, maintaining tree health continues to be the most effective and sustainable management strategy.

  3. Complete Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) Analyses of I-walls Embedded in Level Ground During Flood Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    ft section of floodwall con- structed on the landside berm of the Item E-99 East Atchafalaya Basin Protection Levee (EABPL) on Avoca Island, just...section of floodwall con- structed on the landside berm of the Item E-99 East Atchafalaya Basin Protection Levee (EABPL) on Avoca Island just south...structed on the landside berm of the Item E-99 East Atchafalaya Basin Protection Levee (EABPL) on Avoca Island just south of Morgan City, Louisiana. The

  4. Retention of Afforestation Areas as Part of Flood Protection - Research Site and Methodology for Headwater Watershad in Poland / Retencja Leśna Zlewni Jako Element Ochrony Przeciwpowodziowej

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orczykowski, Tomasz; Tiukało, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Land use is considered as a non-structural, ecologically beneficial flood protection measure. Forest as one of the land use types has many useful applications which can be observed in detail on www.nwrm.eu website project. It is scientifically proved that afforestation influences flood events with high probability of occurrence. However, it is still to be argued how to measure land use impact on the hydrological response of watershed and how it should be measured in an efficient and quantifiable way. Having the tool for such an impact measurement, we can build efficient land management strategies. It is difficult to observe the impact of land use on flood events in the field.Therefore, one of the possible solutions is to observe this impact indirectly by means of hydrological rainfall-runoff models as a proxy for the reality. Such experiments were conducted in the past. Our study aims to work on the viability assessment, methodology and tools that allow to observe this impact with use of selected hydrological models and readily available data in Poland. Our first reaserch site is located within headwaters of the Kamienna river watershed. This watershed has been affected by ecological disaster, which resulted in loss of 65% of forest coverage. Our proposed methodology is to observe this transformation and its effect on the watershed response to heavy precipitation and therefore change in the flood risk.

  5. Design Memorandum with Environmental Assessment for Raccoon River and Walnut Creek, West Des Moines and Des Moines, Iowa Local Flood Protection Project. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    urban arces, including 904 residet .ial, 227 businesses, and 11 public structures, The plan includ-s 4.0 miles of earthen levee, 1854 feet of concrete ...and to Iowa Concrete Products. The levee continues to follow the railroad tracks until it reaches STA 70+00 (plates 7-9). At this location the levee...activity in the area. The spur line is used to tring in bulk materials that are supplied to local concrete companies. A ramp had been propost.d in this area

  6. Shallow (0-10) seismic investigation of a distressed earthen levee, New Orleans, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo, J. M.; Hicks, J.; Vera, E. E.

    2009-12-01

    Both deep- and near-surface hydrogeologic processes can contribute to the structural failure of artificial earthen levees. Recently, seismic geophysical methods have attempted to develop a proxy for engineering shear strength, by mapping changes in the transmission velocity of shear waves. High fluid content may indicate both weak, under-compacted materials and/or organic-rich sediments. In the absence of electromagnetic methods, Vp/Vs ratios can be used as good indicators of variations in the fluid (water, and air or gas) saturation. Cone penetration borehole tests measure the resistance of soils to penetration of the cone tip and its frictional sliding that can be correlated to sediment types and their physical properties. A distressed section of an artificial earthen levee, suitable for seismic investigation, lies ~15 km S of the city of New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Open curvilinear fissures, 10 cm wide, 30 cm deep, and up to 100 m in length, exist along the crest at two sites. Between September 2007 and February 2008 we collect horizontally (SH) polarized shear and compressional wave (P) data in pseudo-walkaway tests for the upper 100 m of the subsurface along the protected (west) side of the earthen levee, within 30 m of its crest. One profile lies parallel and adjacent to the damaged levee crest and, for reference, two profiles lie nearby adjacent to undamaged portions of the artificial earthen levee. In the first ~30 m of sediment below the lower delta plain of the Greater New Orleans area, a complex and dynamic interaction of freshwater and marine sedimentary environments juxtaposes a diverse set of facies. We combine of Vp and Vs velocity maps, sedimentary environment interpretations, and cone-penetration-derived sediment/soil and laboratory-derived physical properties to locate possible zones of high fluid concentration, (and perhaps seepage), weak engineering materials, and natural foundation soil shear strength. Under the distressed portion of the

  7. The President`s Floodplan Management Action Plan: Formulating a watershed and ecosystem approach to flood hazard mitigation and resource protection

    SciTech Connect

    McShane, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Great Midwest Flood of 1993 focused the attention of the Nation on the human and environmental costs associated with decades of efforts to control flooding, unwise land-use decisions, and the loss and degradation of the natural resources and functions of floodplains. The disaster can also be attributed to the single purpose decision-making process and fragmented planning at all levels of government, inconsistent statutory madates, and conflicting jurisdictional responsibilities. The Executive Office of the President established a Floodplain Management Review Committee to determine the major causes and consequences of the flood and to evaluate the performance of existing floodplain management and related watershed programs. The report, Sharing the Challenge: Floodplain Management into the 21st Century, included 90 recommendations to improve floodplain management and water resources planning including the need for a more comprehensive, coordinated approach to floodplain and watershed management. Preparation of the 1994 document A Unified National Program for Floodplain Management commenced prior to the Midwest Flood of 1993 and was completed, coincidentally, concurrently with the Review Committee`s report Sharing the Challenge. Both reports urge the formulation of a more comprehensive, watershed approach to managing human activities and protecting natural systems to ensure the long term viability of riparian ecosystems and the sustainable development of riverine communities. Both reports recognize that effective floodplain management will reduce the financial burdens placed upon all levels of government to compensate property owners and governments for flood losses caused by unwise land use decisions by individuals, as well as governments. This paper focuses on the fundamental changes in Federal floodplain management policies and programs that are emerging that will affect how as a Nation manage and use our floodplain resources into the 21st Century.

  8. Overtopping breaching of river levees constructed with cohesive sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hongyan; Yu, Minghui; Wang, Dangwei; Li, Yitian

    2016-07-01

    Experiments were conducted in a bend flume to study the overtopping breaching process and the corresponding overflow rates of river levees constructed with cohesive sediments. The river and land regions were separated by the constructed levee in the bend flume. Results showed that the levee breaching process can be subdivided into a slope erosion stage, a headcut retreat stage and a breach widening stage. Mechanisms such as flow shear erosion, impinging jet erosion, side slope erosion and cantilever collapse were discovered in the breaching process. The erosion characteristics were determined by both flow and soil properties. Finally, a depth-averaged 2-D flow model was used to simulate the levee breaching flow rates, which is well expressed by the broad-crested weir flow formula. The deduced discharge coefficient was smaller than that of common broad-crested rectangular weirs because of the shape and roughness of the breach.

  9. Cibola High Levee Pond Annual Report 2003. Interim Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, G.A.; Carpenter, J.; Marsh, P.C.; Minckley, C.O.

    2003-01-01

    Bonytail and razorback sucker have once again spawned and produced swim-up larvae in Cibola High Levee Pond (CHLP). CHLP continues to support annual recruitment of bonytail while recent razorback sucker recruitment remains elusive. Thus far, razorbacks have experienced intermittent years of spawning success. Both native species were observed spawning on, or near, the riprap on the river levee. Razorbacks spawned from late January until mid-March over gravel and large cobble along the levee toe (2-3 m depth) and bonytail spawned along the levee shoreline during mid-April. Razorback suckers rapidly fin during the reproductive act, which flushes fines from the substrate and leaves gravel relatively clean. Bonytail on the other hand, appear to spawn over or on substrate that has been disturbed by beaver activity. Substrate scour or disturbance appears to be an important factor in spawning site selectiona?|

  10. Quantifying Floods of a Flood Regime in Space and Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whipple, A. A.; Fleenor, W. E.; Viers, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Interaction between a flood hydrograph and floodplain topography results in spatially and temporally variable conditions important for ecosystem process and function. Individual floods whose frequency and dimensionality comprise a river's flood regime contribute to that variability and in aggregate are important drivers of floodplain ecosystems. Across the globe, water management actions, land use changes as well as hydroclimatic change associated with climate change have profoundly affected natural flood regimes and their expression within the floodplain landscape. Homogenization of riverscapes has degraded once highly diverse and productive ecosystems. Improved understanding of the range of flood conditions and spatial variability within floodplains, or hydrospatial conditions, is needed to improve water and land management and restoration activities to support the variable conditions under which species adapted. This research quantifies the flood regime of a floodplain site undergoing restoration through levee breaching along the lower Cosumnes River of California. One of the few lowland alluvial rivers of California with an unregulated hydrograph and regular floodplain connectivity, the Cosumnes River provides a useful test-bed for exploring river-floodplain interaction. Representative floods of the Cosumnes River are selected from previously-established flood types comprising the flood regime and applied within a 2D hydrodynamic model representing the floodplain restoration site. Model output is analyzed and synthesized to quantify and compare conditions in space and time, using metrics such as depth and velocity. This research establishes methods for quantifying a flood regime's floodplain inundation characteristics, illustrates the role of flow variability and landscape complexity in producing heterogeneous floodplain conditions, and suggests important implications for managing more ecologically functional floodplains.

  11. Flood Stress as a Technique to Assess Preventive Insecticide and Fungicide Treatments for Protecting Trees against Ambrosia Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Ranger, Christopher M.; Schultz, Peter B.; Reding, Michael E.; Frank, Steven D.; Palmquist, Debra E.

    2016-01-01

    Ambrosia beetles tunnel into the heartwood of trees where they cultivate and feed upon a symbiotic fungus. We assessed the effectiveness of flood stress for making Cercis canadensis L. and Cornus florida L. trees attractive to attack as part of insecticide and fungicide efficacy trials conducted in Ohio and Virginia. Since female ambrosia beetles will not begin ovipositing until their symbiotic fungus is established within the host, we also assessed pre-treatment of trees with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite on fungal establishment and beetle colonization success. Permethrin reduced attacks on flooded trees, yet no attacks occurred on any of the non-flooded trees. Fewer galleries created within flooded trees pre-treated with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite contained the purported symbiotic fungus; foundress’ eggs were only detected in flooded but untreated trees. While pre-treatment with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite can disrupt colonization success, maintaining tree health continues to be the most effective and sustainable management strategy. PMID:27548230

  12. Sulforhodamine B interacts with albumin to lower surface tension and protect against ventilation injury of flooded alveoli.

    PubMed

    Kharge, Angana Banerjee; Wu, You; Perlman, Carrie E

    2015-02-01

    In the acute respiratory distress syndrome, alveolar flooding by proteinaceous edema liquid impairs gas exchange. Mechanical ventilation is used as a supportive therapy. In regions of the edematous lung, alveolar flooding is heterogeneous, and stress is concentrated in aerated alveoli. Ventilation exacerbates stress concentrations and injuriously overexpands aerated alveoli. Injury degree is proportional to surface tension, T. Lowering T directly lessens injury. Furthermore, as heterogeneous flooding causes the stress concentrations, promoting equitable liquid distribution between alveoli should, indirectly, lessen injury. We present a new theoretical analysis suggesting that liquid is trapped in discrete alveoli by a pressure barrier that is proportional to T. Experimentally, we identify two rhodamine dyes, sulforhodamine B and rhodamine WT, as surface active in albumin solution and investigate whether the dyes lessen ventilation injury. In the isolated rat lung, we micropuncture a surface alveolus, instill albumin solution, and obtain an area with heterogeneous alveolar flooding. We demonstrate that rhodamine dye addition lowers T, reduces ventilation-induced injury, and facilitates liquid escape from flooded alveoli. In vitro we show that rhodamine dye is directly surface active in albumin solution. We identify sulforhodamine B as a potential new therapeutic agent for the treatment of the acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  13. Flooding: A unique year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Putnam, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Floods have been and continue to be one of the most destructive hazards facing the people of the United States. Of all the natural hazards, floods are the most widespread and the most ruinous to life and property. Today, floods are a greater menace to our welfare than ever before because we live in large numbers near water and have developed a complex reliance upon it. From large rivers to country creeks, from mountain rills to the trickles that occasionally dampen otherwise arid wastelands, every stream in the United States is subject to flooding at some time. Floods strike in myriad forms, including sea surges driven by wild winds or tsunamis churned into fury by seismic activity. By far the most frequent, however, standing in a class by themselves, are the inland, freshwater floods that are caused by rain, by melting snow and ice, or by the bursting of structures that man has erected to protect himself and his belongings from angry waters.

  14. Three dimensional numerical modeling of flow and pollutant transport in a flooding area of 2008 US Midwest Flood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents the development and application of a three-dimensional numerical model for simulating the flow field and pollutant transport in a flood zone near the confluence of the Mississippi River and Iowa River in Oakville, Iowa. Due to a levee breaching along the Iowa River during the US ...

  15. Flood stress as a technicque to assess preventive insecticide and fungicide treatments for protecting trees against ambrosia beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exotic ambrosia beetles Xylosandrus germanus, Xylosandrus crassiusculus, and Xylosandrus compactus tunnel into the heartwood of trees where they cultivate and feed upon a symbiotic fungus. We assessed the effectiveness of flood stress as a tactic for making trees attractive and vulnerable to att...

  16. 76 FR 13570 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY...) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42...

  17. 76 FR 13571 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY...) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42...

  18. 75 FR 5930 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations AGENCY...% annual-chance) Flood Elevations (BFEs) and modified BFEs for communities participating in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act...

  19. Flood-inundation maps for a 6.5-mile reach of the Kentucky River at Frankfort, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lant, Jeremiah G.

    2013-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.5-mile reach of Kentucky River at Frankfort, Kentucky, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Frankfort Office of Emergency Management. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage Kentucky River at Lock 4 at Frankfort, Kentucky (station no. 03287500). Current conditions for the USGS streamgage may be obtained online at the USGS National Water Information System site (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/inventory?agency_code=USGS&site_no=03287500). In addition, the information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often colocated at USGS streamgages. The forecasted peak-stage information, also available on the Internet, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the Kentucky River reach by using HEC–RAS, a one-dimensional step-backwater model developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current (2013) stage-discharge relation for the Kentucky River at Lock 4 at Frankfort, Kentucky, in combination with streamgage and high-water-mark measurements collected for a flood event in May 2010. The calibrated model was then used to calculate 26 water-surface profiles for a sequence of flood stages, at 1-foot intervals, referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from a stage near bankfull to the elevation that breached the levees protecting the City of Frankfort. To delineate the flooded area at

  20. Analyses of water, core material, and elutriate samples collected near New Orleans, Louisiana (Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, and vicinity hurricane protection project)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leone, Harold L.

    1976-01-01

    When a hurricane approaches the New Orleans, Louisiana area, the accompanying tides and heavy rainfall increase the level of water in Lake Borgne, Mississippi Sound, and Lake Pontchartrain and pose a major threat of water damage to the populated areas. During Hurricane Betsy (1965), for example, the level of Lake Pontchartrain rose as much as 13 feet. Nineteen core-material-sampling sites were chosen by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers as possible borrow areas for fill material to be used in levee construction for flood protection around Lake Pontchartrain. Twenty-three receiving-water sites were also selected to represent the water that will contact the proposed levees. Selected nutrients, metals, pesticides, and other organic constituents were analyzed from bed-material and native-water samples as well as upon elutriate samples of specific core material-receiving water systems. The results of these analyses are presented without interpretation. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Watershed basin management and agriculture practices: an application case for flooding areas in Piemonte.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, G.; Franzi, L.; Valvassore, U.

    2009-04-01

    Watershed basin management in Piemonte (Italy) is a challenging issue that forces the local Authorities to a careful land planning in the frame of a sustainable economy. Different and contrasting objectives should be taken into account and balanced in order to find the best or the most "reasonable" choice under many constraints. Frequently the need for flood risk reduction and the demand for economical exploitation of floodplain areas represent the most conflicting aspects that influence watershed management politics. Actually, flood plains have been the preferred places for socio-economical activities, due to the availability of water, fertility of soil and the easiness of agricultural soil exploitation. Sometimes the bed and planform profile adjustments of a river, as a consequence of natural processes, can impede some anthropogenic activities in agriculture, such as the erosion of areas used for crops, the impossibility of water diversion, the deposition of pollutants on the ground, with effects on the economy and on the social life of local communities. In these cases watershed basin management should either balance the opposite demands, as the protection of economic activities (that implies generally canalized rivers and levees construction) and the need of favouring the river morphological stability, allowing the flooding in the inundation areas. In the paper a case study in Piemonte region (Tortona irrigation district) is shown and discussed. The effects of the Scrivia river planform adjustment on water diversion and soil erodibility force the local community and the authority of the irrigation district to ask for flood protection and river bed excavation. A mathematical model is also applied to study the effects of local river channel excavation on flood risk. Some countermeasures are also suggested to properly balance the opposite needs in the frame of a watershed basin management.

  2. Coastal flood protection by a combined nature-based and engineering approach: Modeling the effects of marsh geometry and surrounding dikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Jeroen; Plancke, Yves; Ides, Stefaan; Meire, Patrick; Temmerman, Stijn

    2016-06-01

    As ecosystem-based adaptation to global change is gaining ground, strategies to protect coastal and estuarine areas from increasing flood hazards are starting to consist of natural tidal wetland conservation and restoration in addition to conventional coastal defense structures. In this study, the capacity of tidal wetlands to locally attenuate peak water levels during storm tides is analyzed using a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model (TELEMAC2D) for a 3000 ha intertidal marsh (SW Netherlands). Model results indicate that peak water level reduction largely varies between individual flooding events and between different locations in the marsh. Model scenarios with variable dike positions show that attenuation rates can be minimized by blockage and set up of water levels against dikes or other structures confining the marsh size. This blockage only affects peak water level attenuation across wetlands if the duration of the flood wave is long compared to the marsh size. A minimum marsh width of 6-10 km is required to completely avoid blockage effects for the storm tidal cases assessed in this study. If blockage does not affect flood wave propagation, variations in attenuation rates between different locations in the marsh and between tides with varying high water levels can be explained with a single relationship based on the ratio between the water volume on the marsh platform and the total water volume on the platform and in the channels. Attenuation starts to occur when this ratio exceeds 0.2-0.4 and increases from there on up to a maximum of 29 cm/km for a ratio of about 0.85. Furthermore, model scenarios with varying marsh channel depth show that marsh scale attenuation rates increase by up to 4 cm/km if the channel elevation is raised by 0.7 m on average. Conversely, marsh scale attenuation rates decrease by up to 2 cm/km for scenarios in which the channels are lowered by 0.9 m on average. The marsh platform elevation has little effect on the maximum attenuation

  3. Anthropogenic impact on flood-risk: a large-scale assessment for planning controlled inundation strategies along the River Po

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeneghetti, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio; Brath, Armando

    2013-04-01

    The European Flood Directive (2007/60/EC) has fostered the development of innovative and sustainable approaches and methodologies for flood-risk mitigation and management. Furthermore, concerning flood-risk mitigation, the increasing awareness of how the anthropogenic pressures (e.g. demographic and land-use dynamics, uncontrolled urban and industrial expansion on flood-prone area) could strongly increase potential flood damages and losses has triggered a paradigm shift from "defending the territory against flooding" (e.g. by means of levee system strengthening and heightening) to "living with floods" (e.g. promoting compatible land-uses or adopting controlled flooding strategies of areas located outside the main embankments). The assessment of how socio-economic dynamics may influence flood-risk represents a fundamental skill that should be considered for planning a sustainable industrial and urban development of flood-prone areas, reducing their vulnerability and therefore minimizing socio-economic and ecological losses due to large flood events. These aspects, which are of fundamental importance for Institutions and public bodies in charge of Flood Directive requirements, need to be considered through a holistic approach at river basin scale. This study focuses on the evaluation of large-scale flood-risk mitigation strategies for the middle-lower reach of River Po (~350km), the longest Italian river and the largest in terms of streamflow. Due to the social and economical importance of the Po River floodplain (almost 40% of the total national gross product results from this area), our study aims at investigating the potential of combining simplified vulnerability indices with a quasi-2D model for the definition of sustainable and robust flood-risk mitigation strategies. Referring to past (1954) and recent (2006) land-use data sets (e.g. CORINE) we propose simplified vulnerability indices for assessing potential flood-risk of industrial and urbanized flood prone

  4. Rethinking the relationship between flood risk perception and flood management.

    PubMed

    Birkholz, S; Muro, M; Jeffrey, P; Smith, H M

    2014-04-15

    Although flood risk perceptions and their concomitant motivations for behaviour have long been recognised as significant features of community resilience in the face of flooding events, there has, for some time now, been a poorly appreciated fissure in the accompanying literature. Specifically, rationalist and constructivist paradigms in the broader domain of risk perception provide different (though not always conflicting) contexts for interpreting evidence and developing theory. This contribution reviews the major constructs that have been applied to understanding flood risk perceptions and contextualises these within broader conceptual developments around risk perception theory and contemporary thinking around flood risk management. We argue that there is a need to re-examine and re-invigorate flood risk perception research, in a manner that is comprehensively underpinned by more constructivist thinking around flood risk management as well as by developments in broader risk perception research. We draw attention to an historical over-emphasis on the cognitive perceptions of those at risk to the detriment of a richer understanding of a wider range of flood risk perceptions such as those of policy-makers or of tax-payers who live outside flood affected areas as well as the linkages between these perspectives and protective measures such as state-supported flood insurance schemes. Conclusions challenge existing understandings of the relationship between risk perception and flood management, particularly where the latter relates to communication strategies and the extent to which those at risk from flooding feel responsible for taking protective actions.

  5. 25 CFR 256.24 - Will I need flood insurance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Will I need flood insurance? 256.24 Section 256.24... Will I need flood insurance? You will need flood insurance if your dwelling is located in an area identified as having special flood hazards under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Pub. L....

  6. 25 CFR 256.24 - Will I need flood insurance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Will I need flood insurance? 256.24 Section 256.24... Will I need flood insurance? You will need flood insurance if your dwelling is located in an area identified as having special flood hazards under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Pub. L....

  7. 25 CFR 256.24 - Will I need flood insurance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will I need flood insurance? 256.24 Section 256.24... Will I need flood insurance? You will need flood insurance if your dwelling is located in an area identified as having special flood hazards under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Pub. L....

  8. 25 CFR 256.24 - Will I need flood insurance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Will I need flood insurance? 256.24 Section 256.24 Indians... need flood insurance? You will need flood insurance if your dwelling is located in an area identified as having special flood hazards under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Pub. L. 93-234,...

  9. 25 CFR 256.24 - Will I need flood insurance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Will I need flood insurance? 256.24 Section 256.24... Will I need flood insurance? You will need flood insurance if your dwelling is located in an area identified as having special flood hazards under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Pub. L....

  10. A Framework for Flood Risk Analysis and Benefit Assessment of Flood Control Measures in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chaochao; Cheng, Xiaotao; Li, Na; Du, Xiaohe; Yu, Qian; Kan, Guangyuan

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk analysis is more complex in urban areas than that in rural areas because of their closely packed buildings, different kinds of land uses, and large number of flood control works and drainage systems. The purpose of this paper is to propose a practical framework for flood risk analysis and benefit assessment of flood control measures in urban areas. Based on the concept of disaster risk triangle (hazard, vulnerability and exposure), a comprehensive analysis method and a general procedure were proposed for urban flood risk analysis. Urban Flood Simulation Model (UFSM) and Urban Flood Damage Assessment Model (UFDAM) were integrated to estimate the flood risk in the Pudong flood protection area (Shanghai, China). S-shaped functions were adopted to represent flood return period and damage (R-D) curves. The study results show that flood control works could significantly reduce the flood risk within the 66-year flood return period and the flood risk was reduced by 15.59%. However, the flood risk was only reduced by 7.06% when the flood return period exceeded 66-years. Hence, it is difficult to meet the increasing demands for flood control solely relying on structural measures. The R-D function is suitable to describe the changes of flood control capacity. This frame work can assess the flood risk reduction due to flood control measures, and provide crucial information for strategy development and planning adaptation. PMID:27527202

  11. A Framework for Flood Risk Analysis and Benefit Assessment of Flood Control Measures in Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaochao; Cheng, Xiaotao; Li, Na; Du, Xiaohe; Yu, Qian; Kan, Guangyuan

    2016-08-05

    Flood risk analysis is more complex in urban areas than that in rural areas because of their closely packed buildings, different kinds of land uses, and large number of flood control works and drainage systems. The purpose of this paper is to propose a practical framework for flood risk analysis and benefit assessment of flood control measures in urban areas. Based on the concept of disaster risk triangle (hazard, vulnerability and exposure), a comprehensive analysis method and a general procedure were proposed for urban flood risk analysis. Urban Flood Simulation Model (UFSM) and Urban Flood Damage Assessment Model (UFDAM) were integrated to estimate the flood risk in the Pudong flood protection area (Shanghai, China). S-shaped functions were adopted to represent flood return period and damage (R-D) curves. The study results show that flood control works could significantly reduce the flood risk within the 66-year flood return period and the flood risk was reduced by 15.59%. However, the flood risk was only reduced by 7.06% when the flood return period exceeded 66-years. Hence, it is difficult to meet the increasing demands for flood control solely relying on structural measures. The R-D function is suitable to describe the changes of flood control capacity. This frame work can assess the flood risk reduction due to flood control measures, and provide crucial information for strategy development and planning adaptation.

  12. New Orleans and Hurricane Katrina. IV: Orleans East Bank (Metro) protected basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seed, R.B.; Bea, R.G.; Athanasopoulos-Zekkos, A.; Boutwell, G.P.; Bray, J.D.; Cheung, C.; Cobos-Roa, D.; Cohen-Waeber, J.; Collins, B.D.; Harder, L.F.; Kayen, R.E.; Pestana, J.M.; Riemer, M.F.; Rogers, J.D.; Storesund, R.; Vera-Grunauer, X.; Wartman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses damage caused by Hurricane Katrina to the main Orleans East Bank protected basin. This basin represented the heart of New Orleans, and contained the main downtown area, the historic French Quarter, the Garden District, and the sprawling Lakefront and Canal Districts. Nearly half of the loss of life during this hurricane, and a similar fraction of the overall damages, occurred in this heavily populated basin. There are a number of important geotechnical lessons, as well as geo-forensic lessons, associated with the flooding of this basin. These include the difficulties associated with the creation and operation of regional-scale flood protection systems requiring federal and local cooperation and funding over prolonged periods of time. There are also a number of engineering and policy lessons regarding (1) the accuracy and reliability of current analytical methods; (2) the shortcomings and potential dangers involved in decisions that reduced short-term capital outlays in exchange for increased risk of potential system failures; (3) the difficulties associated with integrating local issues with a flood risk reduction project; and (4) the need to design and maintain levees as systems; with each of the many individual project elements being required to mesh seamlessly. These lessons are of interest and importance for similar flood protection systems throughout numerous other regions of the United States and the world. ?? 2008 ACSE.

  13. Effectiveness of water infrastructure for river flood management - Part 1: Flood hazard assessment using hydrological models in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusyev, M. A.; Kwak, Y.; Khairul, M. I.; Arifuzzaman, M. B.; Magome, J.; Sawano, H.; Takeuchi, K.

    2015-06-01

    This study introduces a flood hazard assessment part of the global flood risk assessment (Part 2) conducted with a distributed hydrological Block-wise TOP (BTOP) model and a GIS-based Flood Inundation Depth (FID) model. In this study, the 20 km grid BTOP model was developed with globally available data on and applied for the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) river basin. The BTOP model was calibrated with observed river discharges in Bangladesh and was applied for climate change impact assessment to produce flood discharges at each BTOP cell under present and future climates. For Bangladesh, the cumulative flood inundation maps were produced using the FID model with the BTOP simulated flood discharges and allowed us to consider levee effectiveness for reduction of flood inundation. For the climate change impacts, the flood hazard increased both in flood discharge and inundation area for the 50- and 100-year floods. From these preliminary results, the proposed methodology can partly overcome the limitation of the data unavailability and produces flood~maps that can be used for the nationwide flood risk assessment, which is presented in Part 2 of this study.

  14. 76 FR 70745 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; National Flood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ...; Comment Request; National Flood Insurance Program--Mortgage Portfolio Protection Program AGENCY: Federal... comments concerning the National Flood Insurance Program Mortgage Portfolio Protection program, which is an... mortgage loan portfolios into compliance with the flood insurance purchase requirements. To participate...

  15. Methodology for Establishment of Integrated Flood Analysis System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B.; Sanders, B. F.; Kim, K.; Han, K.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    Flood risk management efforts face considerable uncertainty in flood hazard delineation as a consequence of changing climatic conditions including shifts in precipitation, soil moisture, and land uses. These changes can confound efforts to characterize flood impacts over decadal time scales and thus raise questions about the true benefits and drawbacks of alternative flood management projects including those of a structural and non-structural nature. Here we report an integrated flood analysis system that is designed to bring climate change information into flood risk context and characterize flood hazards in both rural and urban areas. Distributed rainfall-runoff model, one-dimensional (1D) NWS-FLDWAV model, 1D Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) and two-dimensional (2D) BreZo model are coupled. Distributed model using the multi-directional flow allocation and real time updating is used for rainfall-runoff analysis in ungauged watershed and its outputs are taken as boundary conditions to the FLDWAV model which was employed for 1D river hydraulic routing and predicting the overflow discharge at levees which were overtopped. In addition, SWMM is chosen to analyze storm sewer flow in urban areas and BreZo is used to estimate the inundation zones, depths and velocities due to the surcharge flow at sewer system or overflow at levees on the land surface. The overflow at FLDWAV or surcharged flow at SWMM becomes point sources in BreZo. Applications in Korea and California are presented.

  16. Flood inundation map library, Fort Kent, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2012-01-01

    Severe flooding occurred in northern Maine from April 28 to May 1, 2008, and damage was extensive in the town of Fort Kent (Lombard, 2010). Aroostook County was declared a Federal disaster area on May 9, 2008. The extent of flooding on both the Fish and St. John Rivers during this event showed that the current Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Study (FIS) and Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) (Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1979) were out of date. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study to develop a flood inundation map library showing the areas and depths for a range of flood stages from bankfull to the flood of record for Fort Kent to complement an updated FIS (Federal Emergency Management Agency, in press). Hydrologic analyses that support the maps include computer models with and without the levee and with various depths of backwater on the Fish River. This fact sheet describes the methods used to develop the maps and describes how the maps can be accessed.

  17. Review of Instrumentation and Monitoring for USACE Levees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    Levees By Joseph B. Dunbar, Gustavo Galan- Comas , Lucas A. Walshire, Ronald E. Wahl, Donald Yule, Maureen K. Corcoran, Jose Llopis, and Amber L...by Dr. Joseph B. Dunbar, Gustavo Galan- Comas , Lucas A. Walshire, Ronald E. Wahl, Donald Yule, Dr. Maureen K. Corcoran, Jose Llopis, and Amber L...and Coastal Storm Damage Reduction Program. This technical note should be cited as follows: Dunbar, J.B., G. Galan- Comas , L. A. Walshire, R. E. Wahl

  18. Flood management on the lower Yellow River: hydrological and geomorphological perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Li; Finlayson, Brian

    1993-05-01

    The Yellow River, known also as "China's Sorrow", has a long history of channel changes and disastrous floods in its lower reaches. Past channel positions can be identified from historical documentary records and geomorphological and sedimentological evidence. Since 1947, government policy has been aimed at containing the floods within artificial levees and preventing the river from changing its course. Flood control is based on flood-retarding dams and off-stream retention basins as well as artificial levees lining the channel. The design flood for the system has a recurrence interval of only around 60 years and floods of this and larger magnitudes can be generated downstream of the main flood control dams at Sanmenxia and Xiaolangdi. Rapid sedimentation along the river causes problems for storage and has raised the bed of the river some 10 m above the surrounding floodplain. The present management strategy is probably not viable in the long term and to avoid a major disaster a new management approach is required. The most viable option would appear to be to breach the levees at predetermined points coupled with advanced warning and evacuation of the population thus put at risk.

  19. REEVALUATION OF THE FLOOD AND THE FLOOD CONTROL PLAN AROUND THE DAIJUU WEIR IN THE YOSHINO RIVER BY USING THE WATER LEVEL DATA AND THE RIVER SURVEY MAP IN THE MEIJI ERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Yuji; Yatunaga, Kazuo; Nakano, Susumu

    The authors analyzed the hydraulic features of the Daijuu Weir and neighboring levee of the Yoshino River in the historical perspective, as the structures are important factors of flood control for the river. Firstly, the authors analyzed the precious data of water level observations around the Weir started by De Rijke, a Dutch engineer in 1883. Then using a river survey map surveyed in 1901, they restored the status of levees of the Yoshino River before modern improvement works. Thirdly they analyzed a relationship between the Yoshino River Levee and the Daijuu Weir based on the newspaper articles of the fifty years of period from 1878 through 1927. As the conclusion they reevaluated the flood and flood control plan of the Yoshino River around the Daijuu Weir.

  20. 78 FR 32679 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500... notification. This final notice is issued in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...

  1. 78 FR 14316 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500... notification. This final notice is issued in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...

  2. 78 FR 36216 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500... notification. This final notice is issued in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...

  3. 78 FR 36220 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500... notification. This final notice is issued in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...

  4. 78 FR 14318 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500... notification. This final notice is issued in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...

  5. 78 FR 20337 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500... notification. This final notice is issued in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...

  6. Floods n' Dams: A Watershed Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Andrew; Etches, John

    1996-01-01

    Describes an activity meant to illustrate flooding in a watershed as it impinges on human activities. Shows how flood protection can be provided using the natural holding capacity of basins elsewhere in the water system to reduce the impact on the settled flood plain. The activity works well with intermediate and senior level students but can be…

  7. 13 CFR 120.170 - Flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section... to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.170 Flood insurance. Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Sec. 205(b) of Pub. L. 93-234; 87 Stat. 983 (42...

  8. 13 CFR 120.170 - Flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section... to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.170 Flood insurance. Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Sec. 205(b) of Pub. L. 93-234; 87 Stat. 983 (42...

  9. 13 CFR 120.170 - Flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section... to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.170 Flood insurance. Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Sec. 205(b) of Pub. L. 93-234; 87 Stat. 983 (42...

  10. 13 CFR 120.170 - Flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section... to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.170 Flood insurance. Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Sec. 205(b) of Pub. L. 93-234; 87 Stat. 983 (42...

  11. Reconciling Environmental and Flood Control Goals on an Arid-Zone River: Case Study of the Limitrophe Region of the Lower Colorado River in the United States and Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, Edward P.; Hucklebridge, Kate; Hinojosa-Huerta, Osvel; Nagler, Pamela L.; Pitt, Jennifer

    2008-03-01

    Arid zone rivers have highly variable flow rates, and flood control projects are needed to protect adjacent property from flood damage. On the other hand, riparian corridors provide important wildlife habitat, especially for birds, and riparian vegetation is adapted to the natural variability in flows on these rivers. While environmental and flood control goals might appear to be at odds, we show that both goals can be accommodated in the Limitrophe Region (the shared border between the United States and Mexico) on the Lower Colorado River. In 1999, the International Boundary and Water Commission proposed a routine maintenance project to clear vegetation and create a pilot channel within the Limitrophe Region to improve flow capacity and delineate the border. In 2000, however, Minute 306 to the international water treaty was adopted, which calls for consideration of environmental effects of IBWC actions. We conducted vegetation and bird surveys within the Limitrophe and found that this river segment is unusually rich in native cottonwood and willow trees, marsh habitat, and resident and migratory birds compared to flow-regulated segments of river. A flood-frequency analysis showed that the existing levee system can easily contain a 100 year flood even if vegetation is not removed, and the existing braided channel system has greater carrying capacity than the proposed pilot channel.

  12. Reconciling environmental and flood control goals on an arid-zone river: case study of the limitrophe region of the lower colorado river in the United States and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Edward P; Hucklebridge, Kate; Hinojosa-Huerta, Osvel; Nagler, Pamela L; Pitt, Jennifer

    2008-03-01

    Arid zone rivers have highly variable flow rates, and flood control projects are needed to protect adjacent property from flood damage. On the other hand, riparian corridors provide important wildlife habitat, especially for birds, and riparian vegetation is adapted to the natural variability in flows on these rivers. While environmental and flood control goals might appear to be at odds, we show that both goals can be accommodated in the Limitrophe Region (the shared border between the United States and Mexico) on the Lower Colorado River. In 1999, the International Boundary and Water Commission proposed a routine maintenance project to clear vegetation and create a pilot channel within the Limitrophe Region to improve flow capacity and delineate the border. In 2000, however, Minute 306 to the international water treaty was adopted, which calls for consideration of environmental effects of IBWC actions. We conducted vegetation and bird surveys within the Limitrophe and found that this river segment is unusually rich in native cottonwood and willow trees, marsh habitat, and resident and migratory birds compared to flow-regulated segments of river. A flood-frequency analysis showed that the existing levee system can easily contain a 100 year flood even if vegetation is not removed, and the existing braided channel system has greater carrying capacity than the proposed pilot channel.

  13. Propagation and composition of the flood wave on the upper Mississippi River, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, John A.

    1995-01-01

    The flood wave on the upper Mississippi River started downstream near St. Paul, Minnesota, in June 1993. The maximum discharge propagated downstream at about 50 kilometers per day and was 5 to 7 times the mean daily discharge at streamgaging sites on the river. The propagation speed of the flood wave was influenced more by hydrologic factors such as tributary inflow and flood-plain storage than by hydraulic factors. The maximum discharge at St. Louis, Missouri (29,700 m3/s) occurred on August 1, 1993; but because of flood-plain storage resulting from levee failures and seepage through and under levees downstream, the maximum discharge at Thebes, Illinois, (27,700 m>3/s) did not occur until August 7 which was about 4 days later than normal.

  14. Floods in the United States: Magnitude and Frequency

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarvis, Clarence S.; ,

    1936-01-01

    promoted by the adoption of measures for protection and control. It should be borne clearly in mind, however, that probably no single method of flood control will insure the protection of a large drainage basin. 'The improvement of natural channels; the building of reservoirs - sometimes well adapted for purposes of irrigation and power; the construction of levees, such as now exist along the lower Mississippi; reforestation and a Change in certain areas from tilled crops to grass crops, may all playa part in slowing down the rush of water to the sea, or in keeping it away from cities, towns, and valuable lands.' (Mississippi Valley Committee Report, 2d ed., p. 3, 1934.) 'Consideration of a national flood-control policy must necessarily recognize that the flood-control aspects of a project, be it a major purpose or an incidental one, must be evaluated in the light of a broad study which takes into account all other purposes or possibilities involved. Among such other purposes may be power, navigation, irrigation; may be low-water control, water supply, sewage, or waste disposal. Wherever more than one purpose is indicated, each must be considered in its full relation to all the others. Only by such procedure can a well-coordinated project be evolved.' (Idem, p. 27.) In planning public works for the con trol of floods, and in relating such works to effective utilization of river waters for the various purposes enumerated above, two basic requirements are (1) accurate and reliable records of the stage and discharge of past floods, and (2) development of methods for the analysis of such data, to determine the frequency of floods heretofore experienced and to estimate the magnitude and frequency of future floods. It is the purpose of this study to present for certain rivers in the United States much of the basic information of this sort now available. Engineers generally agree that a large part of the flood destruction in this country could have been pre

  15. Processing of laser radar data for the extraction of an along-the-levee-crown elevation profile for levee remediation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Michael J.; McGill, Thomas E.; Taylor, Stacy R.

    2004-09-01

    Using LiDAR data collected on the levees along the Rio Grande River in New Mexico and Texas, an algorithm has been developed to automatically extract longitudinal elevation profiles. This algorithm consists of a series of filters, interpretation of geophysical properties, and digitized levee centerlines. The series of filters, in order of operation, include an alignment buffer filter, bare-earth filter, sampling filter and a maximum value filter. The result of the filter configuration is a 3-D polyline that models the levee crest. This algorithm allows for efficient identification of portions of levee that are lower than original design specifications. A comparison between the LiDAR levee crown extraction filter and a least-cost-path technique are offered.

  16. Ice Jam Flooding and Mitigation: Lower Platte River Basin, Nebraska,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    data transfer from branch site to home base ............................... 36 20. Schematic of on-line data retrieval at branch site...abandon their ing as well as ice-related flooding. Because there homes as a huge ice gorge was forming six miles is no gage or large settlement near...east bank (Sarpy 21 February 1982. According to Civil Defense re- County) and a levee on the west bank (Saunders ports, a number of homes were

  17. Flood management along the Lower Mississippi and Rhine Rivers (The Netherlands) and the continuum of geomorphic adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Paul F.; Middelkoop, Hans; Stouthamer, Esther

    2008-10-01

    Flood management alters fundamental fluvial processes that have geomorphic consequences for rivers and floodplains. The Lower Mississippi and Rhine Rivers (The Netherlands) are two important examples of intensively regulated large rivers. Understanding the magnitude and direction of change caused by flood management requires a long-term perspective. This is particularly true of large lowland fluvial systems because of substantial lag-times required for adjustment to be manifest in the floodplain geomorphology. This study is a historical analysis and synthesis of the impacts of flood management on the Lower Mississippi and Rhine Rivers (The Netherlands), and investigates the interrelations of flood management with floodplain geomorphology. Although flood management varies between the Rhine and Mississippi on many accounts, the actual techniques of flood (and river) management are somewhat similar, and primarily include dikes, groynes, cutoffs, and bank protection. The implementation and history of these specific types of activities, however, varies considerably. Historical flood management along the Lower Mississippi can be characterized as abrupt, with the major options imposed within about five decades, while historical flood management along the Rhine River in The Netherlands is characterized as incremental and adaptive, with the major options imposed over about eight centuries. Conversely, modern flood management plans are implemented much more promptly along the Dutch Rhine than the Lower Mississippi. Changes to the Lower Mississippi include channel adjustment (width and incision) caused by meander bend cutoffs. The majority of the knickpoint incision in response to cutoffs occurred by 1963. Channel adjustment in some reaches is likely constrained by the presence of resistant alluvium and lithology. Floodplain geomorphic changes include the creation of new oxbow lakes within an embanked floodplain. Embanked floodplain sedimentation of oxbow lakes created from

  18. Effect of a levee setback on aquatic resources using two-dimensional flow and bioenergetics models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Black, Robert W.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Magirl, Christopher S.; McCarthy, Sarah; Berge, Hans; Comanor, Kyle

    2016-04-05

    Watershed restoration is the focus of many resource managers and can include a multitude of restoration actions each with specific restoration objectives. For the White River flowing through the cities of Pacific and Sumner, Washington, a levee setback has been proposed to reconnect the river with its historical floodplain to help reduce flood risks, as well as provide increased habitat for federally listed species of salmonids. The study presented here documents the use of a modeling framework that integrates two-dimensional hydraulic modeling with process-based bioenergetics modeling for predicting how changes in flow from reconnecting the river with its floodplain affects invertebrate drift density and the net rate of energy intake of juvenile salmonids. Modeling results were calculated for flows of 25.9 and 49.3 cubic meters per second during the spring, summer, and fall. Predicted hypothetical future mean velocities and depths were significantly lower and more variable when compared to current conditions. The abundance of low energetic cost and positive growth locations for salmonids were predicted to increase significantly in the study reach following floodplain reconnection, particularly during the summer. This modeling framework presents a viable approach for evaluating the potential fisheries benefits of reconnecting a river to its historical floodplain that integrates our understanding of hydraulic, geomorphology, and organismal biology.

  19. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions of... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44...

  20. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions of... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44...

  1. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions of... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44...

  2. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions of... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44...

  3. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions of... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44...

  4. McGee Creek Drainage and Levee District, Illinois.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-04-01

    P.O. Box 678, 200 W. Church St., C::a:.v-;ux, i- Colonel Gay E. Jester District Engineer U. S. Army Corps of Engineers 210 North 12th Street St. Louis...Missouri 63101 Dear Colonel Jester : We have reviewed the Draft Ew7Tronmental ?tateueuo; McGee Creek Drainage and Levee District, i] n , , warded...8217-_.. ..... .... . ... ... ,i "Ř. ., Cdlone! Guy E. Jester , 9/> /72 We appreciate the opportwdity to review and corme .t proposed project. Sincerely, Howard W. Busch , State

  5. Sediment characteristics of an extreme flood: 1993 upper Mississippi River valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Basil; Mertes, L. A. K.; Phillips, J. D.; Magilligan, F. J.; James, L. A.

    1995-11-01

    The 1993 Mississippi River flood was notable for its high magnitude, long duration, summer occurrence, and low sediment discharge. A field survey of a 70-km-long reach in the vicinity of Quincy, Illinois, revealed that the event was characterized by <4 mm of vertical accretion on leveed and unleveed parts of the flood plain. Regional patterns of overbank suspended sediment transport and deposition were discerned from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. This >100 yr flood had remarkably little sedimentological or geomorphological impact on the flood plain within the study reach because the transport effectiveness of floods in large drainage basins is influenced by event sequencing in the same manner as floods in small watersheds, and the cohesive flood-plain soils were not susceptible to erosion.

  6. CONSEQUENCES OF HUMAN-ALTERED FLOODS: LEVEES, FLOODS, AND FLOODPLAIN FORESTS ALONG THE WISCONSIN RIVER. (R826600)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  7. Uncorrected land-use planning highlighted by flooding: the Alba case study (Piedmont, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luino, F.; Turconi, L.; Petrea, C.; Nigrelli, G.

    2012-07-01

    more recent urbanisation. Despite recurrent severe flooding of the Tanaro River and its tributaries, areas along the riverbed and its paleochannels have been increasingly used for infrastructure and building (e.g., roads, a municipal dump, a prison, natural aggregate plants, a nomad camp), which has often interfered with the natural spread of the floodwaters. Since the 1994 flood, many remedial projects have been completed along the Tanaro and its tributaries, including levees, bank protection, concrete walls and floodway channels. In spite of these costly projects, some areas remain at high risk for flooding. The method used, which considered historical data, river corridors identified by hydraulic calculations, geomorphological aspects and land-use planning, can indicate with good accuracy flood-prone areas and in consequence to be an useful tool for the coherent planning of urban expansion and the mitigation of flood risk.

  8. The Impact of Perceived Flood Exposure on Flood-Risk Perception: The Role of Distance.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Eoin; Brereton, Finbarr; Shahumyan, Harutyun; Clinch, J Peter

    2016-11-01

    Natural hazards, such as major flood events, are occurring with increasing frequency and inflicting increasing levels of financial damages upon affected communities. The experience of such major flood events has brought about a significant change in attitudes to flood-risk management, with a shift away from built engineering solutions alone towards a more multifaceted approach. Europe's experience with damaging flood episodes provided the impetus for the introduction of the European Floods Directive, requiring the establishment of flood-risk management plans at the river-basin scale. The effectiveness of such plans, focusing on prevention, protection, and preparedness, is dependent on adequate flood awareness and preparedness, and this is related to perception of flood risk. This is an important factor in the design and assessment of flood-risk management. Whilst there is a modern body of literature exploring flood perception issues, there have been few examples that explore its spatial manifestations. Previous literature has examined perceived and real distance to a hazard source (such as a river, nuclear facility, landfill, or incinerator, etc.), whereas this article advances the literature by including an objectively assessed measure of distance to a perceived flood zone, using a cognitive mapping methodology. The article finds that distance to the perceived flood zone (perceived flood exposure) is a crucial factor in determining flood-risk perception, both the cognitive and affective components. Furthermore, we find an interesting phenomenon of misperception among respondents. The article concludes by discussing the implications for flood-risk management.

  9. Polymer flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Littmann, W.

    1988-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of polymer flooding, an enhanced oil recovery method using water soluble polymers to increase the viscosity of flood water, for the displacement of crude oil from porous reservoir rocks. Although this method is becoming increasingly important, there is very little literature available for the engineer wishing to embark on such a project. In the past, polymer flooding was mainly the subject of research. The results of this research are spread over a vast number of single publications, making it difficult for someone who has not kept up-to-date with developments during the last 10-15 years to judge the suitability of polymer flooding to a particular field case. This book tries to fill that gap. An indispensable book for reservoir engineers, production engineers and lab. technicians within the petroleum industry.

  10. Flood Risk and Climate Change: The Contributions of Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brakenridge, R.; Slayback, D. A.; Kettner, A. J.; Cohen, S.; Syvitski, J. A.; Overeem, I.; de Groeve, T.

    2015-12-01

    Since the mid-1970s, satellite observation has gathered an exceptionally valuable but largely un-harvested record of flood inundation world-wide. Commencing in late 1999, the two MODIS sensors also obtained daily surveillance of all of the Earth's surface waters. These data are analogous to the record of earthquake seismicity provided by seismographic stations; they provide the only objective characterization of many extreme, damaging flood events. This information should be deployed to its maximum utility in defining areas of flood risk. In the developing nations, the remote sensing archive provides the immediate opportunity, without hydrological data infrastructure, to directly identify hazardous land areas. As well, satellite passive microwave radiometry, commencing with near-daily global coverage in 1998, has the ability to characterize at-a-site flood hydrographs. When combined with the satellite record of mapped inundation, this allows exceedance probabilities to be placed on observed inundation limits. The coupled data set can then be used to validate predictive flood modeling. As climate changes, flood statistics change. Yet hazard evaluation has for many decades proceeded using assumed stationarity of flood frequency distributions. New floods-of-record at any location thereby present a dilemma to policy makers and to hydrologists: immediately include the new extreme flood in the flow series, and thus increase the size of the regulatory floodplain, or use the pre-flood flow records to label the exceptional new event as, for example, "the 1000 yr flood". The remote sensing record also includes defended floodplains where levees have failed, sometimes even during relatively common floods. We can use the powerful observations provided by remote sensing to confront the old probability estimates directly: by arguing that the recent observed record of inundation from actual floods must take priority in guiding public policy.

  11. Urban sprawl and flooding in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rantz, S.E.

    1970-01-01

    The floods of January 1969 in south-coastal California provide a timely example of the effect of urban sprawl on flood damage. Despite recordbreaking, or near recordbreaking, stream discharges, damage was minimal in the older developed areas that are protected against inundation and debris damage by carefully planned flood-control facilities, including debris basins and flood-conveyance channels. By contrast, heavy damage occurred in areas of more recent urban sprawl, where the hazards of inundation and debris or landslide damage have not been taken into consideration, and where the improvement and development of drainage or flood-control facilities have not kept pace with expanding urbanization.

  12. Balancing Play, Meaning and Reality: The Design Philosophy of LEVEE PATROLLER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harteveld, Casper; Guimaraes, Rui; Mayer, Igor S.; Bidarra, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Most serious games have been developed without a proper and comprehensive design theory. To contribute to the development of such a theory, this article presents the underlying design philosophy of LEVEE PATROLLER, a game to train levee patrollers in the Netherlands. This philosophy stipulates that the design of a digital serious game is a…

  13. A Model for Variable Levee Formation Rates in an Active Lava Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaze, L. S.; Baloga, S. M.; Mouginis-Mark, P.; Crisp, J.

    2004-01-01

    Channelized lava flows on Mars and the Earth often feature levees and collateral margins that change in volume along the path of the flow. Consistent with field observations of terrestrial flows, this suggests that the rate of levee formation varies with distance and other factors. Previous models have assumed a constant rate of levee growth, specified by a single parameter, lambda. The rate of levee formation for lava flows is a good indicator of the mass eruption rate and rheology of the flow. Insight into levee formation will help us better understand whether or not the effusion rate was constant during an eruption, and once local topography is considered, allows us to look at cooling and/or rheology changes downslope. Here we present a more realistic extension of the levee formation model that treats the rate of levee growth as a function of distance along the flow path. We show how this model can be used with a terrestrial flow and a long lava flow on Mars. The key statement of the new formulation is the rate of transfer from the active component to the levees (or other passive components) through an element dx along the path of the flow. This volumetric transfer equation is presented.

  14. Assessment of big floods in the Eastern Black Sea Basin of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yüksek, Ömer; Kankal, Murat; Üçüncü, Osman

    2013-01-01

    In this study, general knowledge and some details of the floods in Eastern Black Sea Basin of Turkey are presented. Brief hydro-meteorological analysis of selected nine floods and detailed analysis of the greatest flood are given. In the studied area, 51 big floods have taken place between 1955-2005 years, causing 258 deaths and nearly US $500,000,000 of damage. Most of the floods have occurred in June, July and August. It is concluded that especially for the rainstorms that have caused significantly damages, the return periods of the rainfall heights and resultant flood discharges have gone up to 250 and 500 years, respectively. A general agreement is observed between the return periods of rains and resultant floods. It is concluded that there has been no significant climate change to cause increases in flood harms. The most important human factors to increase the damage are determined as wrong and illegal land use, deforestation and wrong urbanization and settlement, psychological and technical factors. Some structural and non-structural measures to mitigate flood damages are also included in the paper. Structural measures include dykes and flood levees. Main non-structural measures include flood warning system, modification of land use, watershed management and improvement, flood insurance, organization of flood management studies, coordination between related institutions and education of the people and informing of the stakeholders.

  15. Assessment of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2013-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Therefore, investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of adaptation strategy for future climate change. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published 'Statistics of flood', which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. By using these flood data, we estimated damage by inundation inside a levee for each prefecture based on a statistical method. On the basis of estimated damage, we developed flood risk curves in the Tokyo metropolitan area, representing relationship between damage and exceedance probability of flood for the period 1976-2008 for each prefecture. Based on the flood risk curve, we attempted evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause for regional difference of flood risk. By analyzing flood risk curves, we found out regional differences of flood risk. We identified high flood risk in Tokyo and Saitama prefecture. On the other hand, flood risk was relatively low in Ibaraki and Chiba prefecture. We found that these regional differences of flood risk can be attributed to spatial distribution of entire property value and ratio of damaged housing units in each prefecture.We also attempted to evaluate influence of climate change on potential flood risk by considering variation of precipitation amount and precipitation intensity in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Results shows that we can evaluate potential impact of precipitation change on flood risk with high accuracy by using our methodology. Acknowledgments

  16. Study of Movement and Seepage Along Levees Using DINSAR and the Airborne UAVSAR Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Cathleen E.; Bawden, Gerald; Deverel, Steven; Dudas, Joel; Hensley, Scott

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the utility of high resolution SAR (synthetic aperture radar) for levee monitoring using UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar) data collected along the dikes and levees in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and along the lower Mississippi River. Our study has focused on detecting and tracking changes that are indicative of potential problem spots, namely deformation of the levees, subsidence along the levee toe, and seepage through the levees, making use of polarimetric and interferometric SAR techniques. Here was present some results of those studies, which show that high resolution, low noise SAR imaging could supplement more traditional ground-based monitoring methods by providing early indicators of seepage and deformation.

  17. Crowdsourcing detailed flood data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walliman, Nicholas; Ogden, Ray; Amouzad*, Shahrzhad

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade the average annual loss across the European Union due to flooding has been 4.5bn Euros, but increasingly intense rainfall, as well as population growth, urbanisation and the rising costs of asset replacements, may see this rise to 23bn Euros a year by 2050. Equally disturbing are the profound social costs to individuals, families and communities which in addition to loss of lives include: loss of livelihoods, decreased purchasing and production power, relocation and migration, adverse psychosocial effects, and hindrance of economic growth and development. Flood prediction, management and defence strategies rely on the availability of accurate information and flood modelling. Whilst automated data gathering (by measurement and satellite) of the extent of flooding is already advanced it is least reliable in urban and physically complex geographies where often the need for precise estimation is most acute. Crowdsourced data of actual flood events is a potentially critical component of this allowing improved accuracy in situations and identifying the effects of local landscape and topography where the height of a simple kerb, or discontinuity in a boundary wall can have profound importance. Mobile 'App' based data acquisition using crowdsourcing in critical areas can combine camera records with GPS positional data and time, as well as descriptive data relating to the event. This will automatically produce a dataset, managed in ArcView GIS, with the potential for follow up calls to get more information through structured scripts for each strand. Through this local residents can provide highly detailed information that can be reflected in sophisticated flood protection models and be core to framing urban resilience strategies and optimising the effectiveness of investment. This paper will describe this pioneering approach that will develop flood event data in support of systems that will advance existing approaches such as developed in the in the UK

  18. Regional Similarity of Leveed Lava Flows on the Mars Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baloga, Steve M.; Glaze, Lori, S.

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of lava flow movement are controlled by the fluid interior. Crust, solids, and nondeformable material can only retard the advance or spreading of a lava flow. Figure 1 shows a typical large, channelized lava flow found on the Mars plains. It has been suggested in [I] that such large leveed flows on the Mars plains were emplaced by a balance between the formation and shedding of crust as the flow advances. For the prototypical flow north of Pavonis Mons (Fig. I), such a balance leads to a flow morphology that approximately self-replicates at all locations along the flow path [2,3]. Moreover, most quantitative characteristics of emplacement (e.g., viscosity, volumetric flow rate) of the prototype flow at Pavonis Mons resembled those of large channelized lava flows on Earth. The exception was the relatively long, sustained supply of lava, on the order of a year as opposed to hours or days for terrestrial analogs.

  19. Residual flood-risk: assessing the effectiveness of alternative large-scale mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carisi, Francesca; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio

    2016-04-01

    The EU Flood Directive (2007/60/CE) requires institutions and public bodies, in order to formulate robust flood-risk management strategies for large European rivers, to address several fundamental tasks. For instance, they have to address the problem of flood-risk mitigation from a global perspective (i.e., entire middle-lower river reaches) by identifying critical reaches, inundation areas and corresponding overflow volumes. To this aim, we focus on the identification of large-scale flood risk mitigation strategies for the middle-lower reach of the Po river, the longest Italian river and the largest in terms of streamflow. We refer to the so-called residual flood-risk and in particular to its portion referring to the possibility to experience events associated with larger return periods than the reference one (e.g. ~200 years in our case). In particular, being a further levee heightening not technically viable nor economically conceivable for the case study, the study develops and tests the applicability of a quasi-2D hydraulic model for the identification of large-scale flood-risk mitigation strategies relative to a 500-year flood event. In particular, we consider and model in the study different geometrical configurations of the main embankment system for a ~400km reach stretching from Isola S.Antonio to the Po river delta in the Adriatic Sea: overtopping without levee breaching, overtopping and natural levee breaching, overtopping and forced levee breaching. The simulations enable the assessment of the overflowed volumes and water depths on flooded areas. Expected damages are estimated using simplified graphical tools, which we termed "Vulnerability Hypsometric Curves" (HVCs) and report the extent of the area for a given land use category that is located below a certain elevation. The analysis aims at finding the optimal configuration that minimizes the expected damages in the areas prone to flood. The outcomes of our study indicate that coupling a large

  20. Hydraulic modelling for flood mapping and prevention: the case study of Cerfone River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Francesco, Silvia; Venturi, Sara; Manciola, Piergiorgio

    2016-04-01

    The research focuses on the hydraulic risk evaluation and danger estimation for different extreme flood events, in order to correctly implement mitigation measures in an anthropized basin. The Cerfone River (Tuscany, Italy), due to the several floods that have affected the neighbouring villages in recent years, is selected as case of study. A finite volume numerical model that solves the shallow water equations all over the computational domain, was used to simulate the unsteady evolution of the maximum extent of flooded areas for different scenarios. The one - dimensional approach (still widespread in engineering projects) can be inaccurate in complex flows, which are often two or three dimensional and sometimes does not manage to capture the flood spatial extents in terms of flow depth and velocity. The use of a two-dimensional numerical model seems to be the suitable instrument in terms of computational efficiency and adequacy of results. In fact it overcomes the limits of a one-dimensional modeling in terms of prediction of hydraulic variables with a less computational effort respect to a full 3d model. An accurate modeling of the river basin leads to the evaluation of the present hydraulic risk. Structural and non- structural measures are then studied, simulated and compared in order to define the optimal risk reduction plan for the area of study. At this aim, different flooding scenarios were simulated through the 2D mathematical model: i) existing state of the river and floodplain areas; ii) design of a levee to protect the most vulnerable populated areas against the flooding risk; iii) use of off - stream detention basins that strongly amplify the lamination capacity of floodplains. All these scenarios were simulated for different return periods: 50, 100, 200 and 500 years. The inputs of the hydraulic models are obtained in accordance with the legislative requirement of Tuscany Region; in particular discharge hydrographs are evaluate through the ALTo

  1. West Magnesia Canyon Channel, City of Rancho Mirage, Riverside County, California. Detailed Project Report. Rancho Mirage Flood Control. Technical Appendixes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    approximately 35 feet high and 750 feet long. A concrete-lined broad - crested spillway capable of discharging a maximum probable flood would be built on the...The effectiveness of the upstream levee is questionable, however. During the September 1976 flood, an estimated peak discharge of - 800 cfs broke...cover and surface characteristics affecting basin response to effective rainfall. Synthetic unit hydrographs were determined from the S-graph shown on

  2. Assessment of floodplain vulnerability during extreme Mississippi River flood 2011.

    PubMed

    Goodwell, Allison E; Zhu, Zhenduo; Dutta, Debsunder; Greenberg, Jonathan A; Kumar, Praveen; Garcia, Marcelo H; Rhoads, Bruce L; Holmes, Robert R; Parker, Gary; Berretta, David P; Jacobson, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    Regional change in the variability and magnitude of flooding could be a major consequence of future global climate change. Extreme floods have the capacity to rapidly transform landscapes and expose landscape vulnerabilities through highly variable spatial patterns of inundation, erosion, and deposition. We use the historic activation of the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway during the Mississippi and Ohio River Flooding of 2011 as a scientifically unique stress experiment to analyze indicators of floodplain vulnerability. We use pre- and postflood airborne Light Detection and Ranging data sets to locate erosional and depositional hotspots over the 540 km(2) agricultural Floodway. While riparian vegetation between the river and the main levee breach likely prevented widespread deposition, localized scour and deposition occurred near the levee breaches. Eroded gullies nearly 1 km in length were observed at a low ridge of a relict meander scar of the Mississippi River. Our flow modeling and spatial mapping analysis attributes this vulnerability to a combination of erodible soils, flow acceleration associated with legacy fluvial landforms, and a lack of woody vegetation to anchor soil and enhance flow resistance. Results from this study could guide future mitigation and adaptation measures in cases of extreme flooding.

  3. Assessment of floodplain vulnerability during extreme Mississippi River flood 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodwell, Allison E.; Zhu, Zhenduo; Dutta, Debsunder; Greenberg, Jonathan A.; Kumar, Praveen; Garcia, Marcelo H.; Rhoads, Bruce L.; Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Parker, Gary; Berretta, David P.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Regional change in the variability and magnitude of flooding could be a major consequence of future global climate change. Extreme floods have the capacity to rapidly transform landscapes and expose landscape vulnerabilities through highly variable spatial patterns of inundation, erosion, and deposition. We use the historic activation of the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway during the Mississippi and Ohio River Flooding of 2011 as a scientifically unique stress experiment to analyze indicators of floodplain vulnerability. We use pre- and postflood airborne Light Detection and Ranging data sets to locate erosional and depositional hotspots over the 540 km2 agricultural Floodway. While riparian vegetation between the river and the main levee breach likely prevented widespread deposition, localized scour and deposition occurred near the levee breaches. Eroded gullies nearly 1 km in length were observed at a low ridge of a relict meander scar of the Mississippi River. Our flow modeling and spatial mapping analysis attributes this vulnerability to a combination of erodible soils, flow acceleration associated with legacy fluvial landforms, and a lack of woody vegetation to anchor soil and enhance flow resistance. Results from this study could guide future mitigation and adaptation measures in cases of extreme flooding.

  4. The Global Flood Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P.; Huddelston, M.; Michel, G.; Thompson, S.; Heynert, K.; Pickering, C.; Abbott Donnelly, I.; Fewtrell, T.; Galy, H.; Sperna Weiland, F.; Winsemius, H.; Weerts, A.; Nixon, S.; Davies, P.; Schiferli, D.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, a Global Flood Model (GFM) initiative has been proposed by Willis, UK Met Office, Esri, Deltares and IBM. The idea is to create a global community platform that enables better understanding of the complexities of flood risk assessment to better support the decisions, education and communication needed to mitigate flood risk. The GFM will provide tools for assessing the risk of floods, for devising mitigation strategies such as land-use changes and infrastructure improvements, and for enabling effective pre- and post-flood event response. The GFM combines humanitarian and commercial motives. It will benefit: - The public, seeking to preserve personal safety and property; - State and local governments, seeking to safeguard economic activity, and improve resilience; - NGOs, similarly seeking to respond proactively to flood events; - The insurance sector, seeking to understand and price flood risk; - Large corporations, seeking to protect global operations and supply chains. The GFM is an integrated and transparent set of modules, each composed of models and data. For each module, there are two core elements: a live "reference version" (a worked example) and a framework of specifications, which will allow development of alternative versions. In the future, users will be able to work with the reference version or substitute their own models and data. If these meet the specification for the relevant module, they will interoperate with the rest of the GFM. Some "crowd-sourced" modules could even be accredited and published to the wider GFM community. Our intent is to build on existing public, private and academic work, improve local adoption, and stimulate the development of multiple - but compatible - alternatives, so strengthening mankind's ability to manage flood impacts. The GFM is being developed and managed by a non-profit organization created for the purpose. The business model will be inspired from open source software (eg Linux): - for non-profit usage

  5. Floods in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Follansbee, Robert; Sawyer, Leon R.

    1948-01-01

    resulting from a cloudburst rises so quickly that it is usually described as a 'wall of water.' It has a peak duration of only a few minutes, followed by a rapid subsidence. Nearly 90 cloudburst floods in Colorado are described in varying detail in this report. The earliest recorded cloudburst--called at that time a waterspout--occurred in Golden Gate Gulch, July 14, 1872. The 'wall of water' was described as a 'perpendicular breast of 10 or 12 feet.' A cloudburst flood on Kiowa Creek in May 1878 caused the loss of a standard-gage locomotive, and although search was made by means of long metallic rods, the locomotive was never recovered, as bedrock was about 50 feet below the creek bed. All available information relative to floods in Colorado, beginning with the flood of 1826 on the Arkansas River, is presented in this report, although for many of the earlier floods estimates of discharge are lacking. Floods throughout a large part of the State have occurred in 1844, June 1864, June 1884, May 1894, and June 1921. The highest floods of record were on the larger streams and occurred as follows: South Platte River, June 1921; Rio Grande, June 1927; Colorado River, June and July 1884; San Juan River, October 1911. The greatest floods on the plains streams occurred during May and June 1935 and were caused by cloudbursts. Ranchers living in the vicinity noted rainfalls as high as 24 inches in a 13-hour period, measurements being made in a stock tank. The effect of settlement on channel capacities can be clearly traced. When settlement began, and with it the beginning of the livestock industry, the plains were thickly covered with a luxuriant growth of grasses. With the development of the livestock industry the grass cover was grazed so closely that it afforded little protection against erosion during the violent rains and resulting floods. The intensive grazing packed the soil so hard as to increase greatly the percentage of rainfall that entered the streams. This co

  6. Urban flood risk assessment using sewer flooding databases.

    PubMed

    Caradot, Nicolas; Granger, Damien; Chapgier, Jean; Cherqui, Frédéric; Chocat, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable water management is a global challenge for the 21st century. One key aspect remains protection against urban flooding. The main objective is to ensure or maintain an adequate level of service for all inhabitants. However, level of service is still difficult to assess and the high-risk locations difficult to identify. In this article, we propose a methodology, which (i) allows water managers to measure the service provided by the urban drainage system with regard to protection against urban flooding; and (ii) helps stakeholders to determine effective strategies for improving the service provided. One key aspect of this work is to use a database of sewer flood event records to assess flood risk. Our methodology helps urban water managers to assess the risk of sewer flooding; this approach does not seek to predict flooding but rather to inform decision makers on the current level of risk and on actions which need to be taken to reduce the risk. This work is based on a comprehensive definition of risk, including territorial vulnerability and perceptions of urban water stakeholders. This paper presents the results and the methodological contributions from implementing the methodology on two case studies: the cities of Lyon and Mulhouse.

  7. Erosion and sedimentation during the September 2015 flooding of the Kinu River, central Japan.

    PubMed

    Dan Matsumoto; Sawai, Yuki; Yamada, Masaki; Namegaya, Yuichi; Shinozaki, Tetsuya; Takeda, Daisuke; Fujino, Shigehiro; Tanigawa, Koichiro; Nakamura, Atsunori; Pilarczyk, Jessica E

    2016-09-28

    Erosional and sedimentary features associated with flooding have been documented in both modern and past cases. However, only a few studies have demonstrated the relationship between these features and the corresponding hydraulic conditions that produced them, making it difficult to evaluate the magnitude of paleo-flooding. This study describes the characteristics associated with inundation depth and flow direction, as well as the erosional and sedimentary features resulting from the disastrous flooding of the Kinu River, central Japan, in September 2015. Water levels rose rapidly due to heavy rainfall that eventually overtopped, and subsequently breached, a levee in Joso City, causing destructive flooding on the surrounding floodplain. Distinctive erosional features are found next to the breached levee, while depositional features, such as a sandy crevasse-splay deposit are found further away from the breach. The deposit can be divided into three units based on sedimentary facies. The vertical and lateral changes of these sedimentary facies may be the result of temporal and spatial changes associated with flow during the single flooding event. These observations and quantitative data provide information that can be used to reveal the paleohydrology of flood deposits in the stratigraphic record, leading to improved mitigation of future flooding disasters.

  8. Erosion and sedimentation during the September 2015 flooding of the Kinu River, central Japan

    PubMed Central

    Dan Matsumoto; Sawai, Yuki; Yamada, Masaki; Namegaya, Yuichi; Shinozaki, Tetsuya; Takeda, Daisuke; Fujino, Shigehiro; Tanigawa, Koichiro; Nakamura, Atsunori; Pilarczyk, Jessica E.

    2016-01-01

    Erosional and sedimentary features associated with flooding have been documented in both modern and past cases. However, only a few studies have demonstrated the relationship between these features and the corresponding hydraulic conditions that produced them, making it difficult to evaluate the magnitude of paleo-flooding. This study describes the characteristics associated with inundation depth and flow direction, as well as the erosional and sedimentary features resulting from the disastrous flooding of the Kinu River, central Japan, in September 2015. Water levels rose rapidly due to heavy rainfall that eventually overtopped, and subsequently breached, a levee in Joso City, causing destructive flooding on the surrounding floodplain. Distinctive erosional features are found next to the breached levee, while depositional features, such as a sandy crevasse-splay deposit are found further away from the breach. The deposit can be divided into three units based on sedimentary facies. The vertical and lateral changes of these sedimentary facies may be the result of temporal and spatial changes associated with flow during the single flooding event. These observations and quantitative data provide information that can be used to reveal the paleohydrology of flood deposits in the stratigraphic record, leading to improved mitigation of future flooding disasters. PMID:27677769

  9. Erosion and sedimentation during the September 2015 flooding of the Kinu River, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan Matsumoto; Sawai, Yuki; Yamada, Masaki; Namegaya, Yuichi; Shinozaki, Tetsuya; Takeda, Daisuke; Fujino, Shigehiro; Tanigawa, Koichiro; Nakamura, Atsunori; Pilarczyk, Jessica E.

    2016-09-01

    Erosional and sedimentary features associated with flooding have been documented in both modern and past cases. However, only a few studies have demonstrated the relationship between these features and the corresponding hydraulic conditions that produced them, making it difficult to evaluate the magnitude of paleo-flooding. This study describes the characteristics associated with inundation depth and flow direction, as well as the erosional and sedimentary features resulting from the disastrous flooding of the Kinu River, central Japan, in September 2015. Water levels rose rapidly due to heavy rainfall that eventually overtopped, and subsequently breached, a levee in Joso City, causing destructive flooding on the surrounding floodplain. Distinctive erosional features are found next to the breached levee, while depositional features, such as a sandy crevasse-splay deposit are found further away from the breach. The deposit can be divided into three units based on sedimentary facies. The vertical and lateral changes of these sedimentary facies may be the result of temporal and spatial changes associated with flow during the single flooding event. These observations and quantitative data provide information that can be used to reveal the paleohydrology of flood deposits in the stratigraphic record, leading to improved mitigation of future flooding disasters.

  10. Terrestrial Lidar Datasets of New Orleans, Louisiana, Levee Failures from Hurricane Katrina, August 29, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Brian D.; Kayen, Robert; Minasian, Diane L.; Reiss, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina made landfall with the northern Gulf Coast on August 29, 2005, as one of the strongest hurricanes on record. The storm damage incurred in Louisiana included a number of levee failures that led to the inundation of approximately 85 percent of the metropolitan New Orleans area. Whereas extreme levels of storm damage were expected from such an event, the catastrophic failure of the New Orleans levees prompted a quick mobilization of engineering experts to assess why and how particular levees failed. As part of this mobilization, civil engineering members of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) performed terrestrial lidar topographic surveys at major levee failures in the New Orleans area. The focus of the terrestrial lidar effort was to obtain precise measurements of the ground surface to map soil displacements at each levee site, the nonuniformity of levee height freeboard, depth of erosion where scour occurred, and distress in structures at incipient failure. In total, we investigated eight sites in the New Orleans region, including both earth and concrete floodwall levee breaks. The datasets extend from the 17th Street Canal in the Orleans East Bank area to the intersection of the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (GIWW) with the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet (MRGO) in the New Orleans East area. The lidar scan data consists of electronic files containing millions of surveyed points. These points characterize the topography of each levee's postfailure or incipient condition and are available for download through online hyperlinks. The data serve as a permanent archive of the catastrophic damage of Hurricane Katrina on the levee systems of New Orleans. Complete details of the data collection, processing, and georeferencing methodologies are provided in this report to assist in the visualization and analysis of the data by future users.

  11. Late Pleistocene channel-levee development on Monterey submarine fan, central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Normark, W.R.

    1999-01-01

    Much of the modern upper (proximal) Monterey fan is a channel-levee complex, the Upper Turbidite Sequence (UTS), that was deeply eroded after the channel breached a volcanic ridge to reach a deeper base level. Ages of sediment samples collected with the ALVIN submersible from the deepest outcrop within the channel-levee system, 390 m below the adjacent western levee crest, indicate that the UTS deposits accumulated at ???1 m ka-1 during the last 500 ka. Neogene and Early Pleistocene sediment accumulation on the fan prior to the UTS was much slower (<0.03 m ka-1), and underlying turbidite systems(?) had substantially different morphologic expression(s).

  12. Somerset County Flood Information System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Summer, William M.

    1998-01-01

    IntroductionThe timely warning of a flood is crucial to the protection of lives and property. One has only to recall the flood of August 2, 1973, in Somerset County, New Jersey, in which six lives were lost and major property damage occurred, to realize how unexpected and costly, especially in terms of human life, a flood can be. Accurate forecasts and warnings cannot be made, however, without detailed information about precipitation and streamflow in the drainage basin.Recognizing the need for detailed hydrologic information for Somerset County, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Somerset County, installed the Somerset County Flood Information System (SCFIS) in 1990. The availability of data provided by this system will improve the flood forecasting ability of the National Weather Service (NWS), and has assisted Somerset County and municipal agencies in planning and execution of flood-preparation and emergency evacuation procedures in the county.This fact sheet describes the Somerset County Flood Information System and identifies its benefits.

  13. 46 CFR 28.580 - Unintentional flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unintentional flooding. 28.580 Section 28.580 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Stability § 28.580 Unintentional flooding. (a) Applicability. Except for an open boat that operates on protected waters and...

  14. 78 FR 8181 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... Docket No. FEMA-B-1281, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and....Rodriguez3@fema.dhs.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management... Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42 U.S.C. 4104, and 44 CFR 67.4(a). These proposed flood...

  15. 78 FR 20343 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... Docket No. FEMA-B-1304, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and....Rodriguez3@fema.dhs.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management... Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42 U.S.C. 4104, and 44 CFR 67.4(a). These proposed flood...

  16. Ecological response to and management of increased flooding caused by climate change.

    PubMed

    Poff, N LeRoy

    2002-07-15

    River channels and their flood plains are among the most naturally dynamic ecosystems on earth, in large part due to periodic flooding. The components of a river's natural flood regime (magnitude, frequency, duration and timing of peak flows) interact to maintain great habitat heterogeneity and to promote high species diversity and ecosystem productivity. Flood regimes vary within and among rivers, depending on catchment size, geology and regional hydroclimatology. Geographic variation in contemporary flood regimes results in river-to-river variation in ecosystem structure, and therefore in potential river ecosystem response to increased future flooding. The greater the deviation in flood regime from contemporary or recent historical conditions, the greater the expected ecological alteration. Ecological response will also depend on how extensively humans have altered natural river dynamics through land-use practices. Examples of human-caused changes in flood regime (e.g. urbanization, agricultural practices) provide analogues to explore the ecological implications of region-specific climate change. In many settings where humans have severely modified rivers (e.g. through leveeing), more frequent larger floods will work to re-establish connections with severed flood-plain and riparian wetlands in human-dominated river valleys. Developing and implementing non-structural flood-management policies based on ecological principles can benefit river ecosystems, as well as human society.

  17. Somerset County Flood Information System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoppe, Heidi L.

    2007-01-01

    The timely warning of a flood is crucial to the protection of lives and property. One has only to recall the floods of August 2, 1973, September 16 and 17, 1999, and April 16, 2007, in Somerset County, New Jersey, in which lives were lost and major property damage occurred, to realize how costly, especially in terms of human life, an unexpected flood can be. Accurate forecasts and warnings cannot be made, however, without detailed information about precipitation and streamflow in the drainage basin. Since the mid 1960's, the National Weather Service (NWS) has been able to forecast flooding on larger streams in Somerset County, such as the Raritan and Millstone Rivers. Flooding on smaller streams in urban areas was more difficult to predict. In response to this problem the NWS, in cooperation with the Green Brook Flood Control Commission, installed a precipitation gage in North Plainfield, and two flash-flood alarms, one on Green Brook at Seeley Mills and one on Stony Brook at Watchung, in the early 1970's. In 1978, New Jersey's first countywide flood-warning system was installed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Somerset County. This system consisted of a network of eight stage and discharge gages equipped with precipitation gages linked by telephone telemetry and eight auxiliary precipitation gages. The gages were installed throughout the county to collect precipitation and runoff data that could be used to improve flood-monitoring capabilities and flood-frequency estimates. Recognizing the need for more detailed hydrologic information for Somerset County, the USGS, in cooperation with Somerset County, designed and installed the Somerset County Flood Information System (SCFIS) in 1990. This system is part of a statewide network of stream gages, precipitation gages, weather stations, and tide gages that collect data in real time. The data provided by the SCFIS improve the flood forecasting ability of the NWS and aid Somerset County and municipal agencies in

  18. Downstream Effects of the Levee Overtopping at Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania During Tropical Storm Agnes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-04-01

    Davis, March 1973 36. Evaluation of Drought Effects at Lake Atitlan, Arlen D. Feldman 37. Downstream Effects of the Levee Overtopping at Wilkes-Barre, Pa., During Tropical Storm Agnes, Arlen D. Feldman, April 1973

  19. Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies. Environmental Features for Streamside Levee Projects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    woodlands with pasture and hayland in Iowa greatly reduced bird species S diversity, while Geier and Best (1980) determined that conversion of a tall...areas in Iowa to pasture led to a decline in wildlife .. species diversity, while a number of other studies in riparian woodlands indicate that grazing...trees preserved on the landside of the Clinton, Iowa , levee .. .......... . 27 6 : 4 Tree screen preserved through careful consideration of levee

  20. Application of High Resolution Multispectral Imagery for Levee Slide Detection and Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hossain, A. K. M. Azad; Easson, Greg

    2007-01-01

    The objective is to develop methods to detect and monitor levee slides using commercially available high resolution multispectral imagery. High resolution multispectral imagery like IKONOS and QuickBird are suitable for detecting and monitoring levee slides. IKONOS is suitable for visual inspection, image classification and Tasseled Cap transform based slide detection. Tasseled Cap based model was found to be the best method for slide detection. QuickBird was suitable for visual inspection and image classification.

  1. Tsunami flooding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, Eric; Jones, Henry; McBride, Mark; Fedors, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Panel 5 focused on tsunami flooding with an emphasis on Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) as derived from its counterpart, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) that determines seismic ground-motion hazards. The Panel reviewed current practices in PTHA and determined the viability of extending the analysis to extreme design probabilities (i.e., 10-4 to 10-6). In addition to earthquake sources for tsunamis, PTHA for extreme events necessitates the inclusion of tsunamis generated by submarine landslides, and treatment of the large attendant uncertainty in source characterization and recurrence rates. Tsunamis can be caused by local and distant earthquakes, landslides, volcanism, and asteroid/meteorite impacts. Coastal flooding caused by storm surges and seiches is covered in Panel 7. Tsunamis directly tied to earthquakes, the similarities with (and path forward offered by) the PSHA approach for PTHA, and especially submarine landslide tsunamis were a particular focus of Panel 5.

  2. 24 CFR 570.605 - National Flood Insurance Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false National Flood Insurance Program... Requirements § 570.605 National Flood Insurance Program. Notwithstanding the date of HUD approval of the... accordance with 24 CFR part 91), section 202(a) of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (42 U.S.C....

  3. 24 CFR 570.605 - National Flood Insurance Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false National Flood Insurance Program... Requirements § 570.605 National Flood Insurance Program. Notwithstanding the date of HUD approval of the... accordance with 24 CFR part 91), section 202(a) of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (42 U.S.C....

  4. 33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. (a) Regulations for the operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved by the Secretary of the Army under...

  5. 33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. (a) Regulations for the operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved by the Secretary of the Army under...

  6. 33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. (a) Regulations for the operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved by the Secretary of the Army under...

  7. 33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. (a) Regulations for the operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved by the Secretary of the Army under...

  8. 24 CFR 570.605 - National Flood Insurance Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true National Flood Insurance Program... Requirements § 570.605 National Flood Insurance Program. Notwithstanding the date of HUD approval of the... accordance with 24 CFR part 91), section 202(a) of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (42 U.S.C....

  9. 24 CFR 570.605 - National Flood Insurance Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true National Flood Insurance Program... Requirements § 570.605 National Flood Insurance Program. Notwithstanding the date of HUD approval of the... accordance with 24 CFR part 91), section 202(a) of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (42 U.S.C....

  10. 24 CFR 570.605 - National Flood Insurance Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false National Flood Insurance Program... Requirements § 570.605 National Flood Insurance Program. Notwithstanding the date of HUD approval of the... accordance with 24 CFR part 91), section 202(a) of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (42 U.S.C....

  11. 33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. (a) Regulations for the operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved by the Secretary of the Army under...

  12. 78 FR 65107 - Loans in Areas Having Special Flood Hazards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... amend their regulations regarding loans in areas having special flood hazards to implement provisions of... insurance coverage, amended provisions of the Flood Disaster Protection Act (FDPA) \\2\\ that require the... Examination Council (FFIEC), as is required by certain provisions of the flood insurance statutes.\\3\\...

  13. Flood risk changes over centuries in Rome: an empirical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Saccà, Smeralda; Tito Aronica, Giuseppe; Grimaldi, Salvatore; Crisci, Massimiliano

    2015-04-01

    Over centuries, the development of the historical city of Rome -close to one of the largest Italian rivers, the Tiber- has been intertwined with the magnitude and frequency of flooding events. The ancient Rome mostly developed on the (seven) hills, while the Tiber's floodplain was mainly exploited for agricultural purposes. A few small communities did settle in the riparian areas of the Tiber, but they had a relatively peaceful relationships with the frequent occurrence of flooding events. Nowadays, numerous people live in modern districts in the Tiber's floodplain, unaware of their exposure to potentially catastrophic flooding. The main goal of this research is to explore the dynamics of changing flood risk over the centuries between these two extreme pictures of the ancient and contemporary Rome. To this end, we carried out a socio-hydrological study by exploiting long time series of physical (flooding, river morphology) and social (urbanization, population dynamics) processes together with information about human interactions with the environment (flood defense structures). This empirical analysis showed how human and physical systems have been co-evolving over time, while being abruptly altered by the occurrence of extreme events. For instance, a large flooding event occurred in 1870 and contributed to the constructions of levees, which in turn facilitated the development of new urban areas in the Tiber's floodplain, while changed the societal memory of floods as well as the communities' perception of risk. This research work was also used to test the hypotheses of recent-developed models conceptualizing the interplay between floods and societies and simulating the long-term behavior of coupled human-water systems. The outcomes of this test provided interesting insights about the dynamics of flood risk, which are expected to support a better anticipation of future changes.

  14. Perception of floods as an important aspect of quality of life and territorial changes in flood areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemešová, Kamila; Andráško, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    The quality of life in many municipalities in the Czech Republic is affected by coming floods. Since 1997 when a great part of Moravia was affected by an extreme flood situation, much closer attention is paid to floods and flood protection. Flood management is based, besides others, on European flood legislation but it still does not reflect the social perception of flood situations as a common part of the evaluation of flood risk. However, this very perception strongly influences future implementation of flood measures, territorial and social development of the municipality and indirectly the quality of life in the municipality. One of the main problems in flood issue is the financing of anti-flood measures. In view of the fact that financial resources in environmental sphere are limited, preventive anti-flood measures, that can eliminate the impacts of future floods and are not so expensive, assume more importance. Such kind of measures is often suggested for local needs. The necessity to research the social perception of flood in this context is supported by some studies pointing out a still insufficient use of preventive anti-flood measures in the Czech Republic in spite of several extreme floods in the past 20 years. This paper aims at presenting the results of a research which has been done in a model area affected by floods. The aim of this research was to point out the main factors that influence the life in the municipality after flood (including suggested anti-flood measures) and the possibilities and willingness of the inhabitants to change them. The research results have subsequently been supplemented with the same evaluation by the members of local administrations who are important players in post-flood development of the municipality and in dealings with citizens about the suggested anti-flood measures.

  15. 77 FR 56669 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation... for each community listed below, in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection...

  16. Performance and capacity of river dykes of protection against the floods", through elaboration of performance indicators and decision aid tool in view of the patrimonial assessment of river dykes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuillet, Marc; Peyras, Laurent; Serre, Damien; Diab, Youssef

    2010-05-01

    France and more generally the World have to face frequent episodes of devastating floods. The human and material damages are multiplied during the failure of a protection structure. In France the length of dykes is estimated to 7500 kilometers, protecting around 15 000 to 18 000 km² and an estimated population between 1.6 to 2 millions. Regrettably, these structures are most of the time old, unidentified, badly maintained, showing signs of weaknesses on numerous occasions. The management of these dikes raises then considerable problems to the decision-makers who are in charge of guaranteeing a maximal safety to the populations at a rational and acceptable management cost. The ambition of the project "Performance and capacity in the service of river dykes of protection against the floods" is to propose to Administrator scientific methods and technical tools for the management of river dykes. These tools will be capable of estimating the capacity in the service of dykes, and to define and organize into a hierarchy the actions of inspection, maintenance and repair. Scientific objectives: • To suggest a methodology of evaluation of the performance of river dykes • To identify and to understand the causes of variability (spatial and temporal) • To analyze the relation between the quality of the data and the quality of the profile of performance • To propose a methodology of auscultation and confortation of the information The research work consists in adapting functional analysis based on safety engineering method, in order to precise the role of each rivers dyke's component in regard to the mechanisms of degradation they suffer. It will allow us to identify failure indicators and decision criteria for evaluating the performance of dykes. The criteria will be the basis to develop a multicriteria decision aid tool allowing to determine the hierarchical organization and the selection of the sections of a park of dykes of protection against the floods, according

  17. Quantification of flash flood economic risk using ultra-detailed stage-damage functions and 2-D hydraulic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrote, J.; Alvarenga, F. M.; Díez-Herrero, A.

    2016-10-01

    The village of Pajares de Pedraza (Segovia, Spain) is located in the floodplain of the Cega River, a left bank tributary of the Douro River. Repeated flash flood events occur in this small village because of its upstream catchment area, mountainous character and impermeable lithology, which reduce concentration time to just a few hours. River overbank flow has frequently caused flooding and property damage to homes and rural properties, most notably in 1927, 1991, 1996, 2001, 2013 and 2014. Consequently, a detailed analysis was carried out to quantify the economic risk of flash floods in peri-urban and rural areas. Magnitudes and exceedance probabilities were obtained from a flood frequency analysis of maximum discharges. To determine the extent and characteristics of the flooded area, we performed 2D hydraulic modeling (Iber 2.0 software) based on LIDAR (1 m) topography and considering three different scenarios associated with the initial construction (1997) and subsequent extension (2013) of a linear defense structure (rockfill dike or levee) to protect the population. Specific stage-damage functions were expressly developed using in situ data collection for exposed elements, with special emphasis on urban-type categories. The average number of elements and their unit value were established. The relationship between water depth and the height at which electric outlets, furniture, household goods, etc. were located was analyzed; due to its effect on the form of the function. Other nonspecific magnitude-damage functions were used in order to compare both economic estimates. The results indicate that the use of non-specific magnitude-damage functions leads to a significant overestimation of economic losses, partly linked to the use of general economic cost data. Furthermore, a detailed classification and financial assessment of exposed assets is the most important step to ensure a correct estimate of financial losses. In both cases, this should include a

  18. Sacramento River Flood Control Project, California Mid-Valley Area, Phase 3. Design Memorandum Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-06-01

    hydraulic excavator, crane, concrete pumps , loader, transit mixer, water trucks, and miscellaneous equipment. g. For other construction items, drainage...Flood Control Acts of December 1944 and May 1950 and incorporated under Sacramento River and Major and Minor Tributaries. Although construction of the...project was initiated in 1918, many of the levees were originally constructed by local interests prior to that time and subsequently modified and

  19. A Dutch Perspective on Coastal Louisiana Flood Risk Reduction and Landscape Stabilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-13

    where possible in a belt of fresh water cypress tree swamps of between 1 and 6 miles wide (wetland revitalization and creation of 140...and waves and to close the proposed belt of fresh water swamps. July 2007 Second Interim Report A Dutch Perspective on Coastal Louisiana Flood Risk...The stabilization and creation of wetlands, and in particular the restoration of a belt of fresh-water cypress swamps around the levee rings

  20. Space geodesy: subsidence and flooding in New Orleans.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Timothy H; Amelung, Falk; Ferretti, Alessandro; Novali, Fabrizio; Rocca, Fabio; Dokka, Roy; Sella, Giovanni; Kim, Sang-Wan; Wdowinski, Shimon; Whitman, Dean

    2006-06-01

    It has long been recognized that New Orleans is subsiding and is therefore susceptible to catastrophic flooding. Here we present a new subsidence map for the city, generated from space-based synthetic-aperture radar measurements, which reveals that parts of New Orleans underwent rapid subsidence in the three years before Hurricane Katrina struck in August 2005. One such area is next to the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet (MRGO) canal, where levees failed during the peak storm surge: the map indicates that this weakness could be explained by subsidence of a metre or more since their construction.

  1. Implementing the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC) in Austria: Flood Risk Management Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhold, Clemens

    2013-04-01

    he Directive 2007/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2007 on the assessment and management of flood risks (EFD) aims at the reduction of the adverse consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activity associated with floods in the Community. This task is to be achieved based on three process steps (1) preliminary flood risk assessment (finalised by the end of 2011), (2) flood hazard maps and flood risk maps (due 2013) and (3) flood risk management plans (due 2015). Currently, an interdisciplinary national working group is defining the methodological framework for flood risk management plans in Austria supported by a constant exchange with international bodies and experts. Referring to the EFD the components of the flood risk management plan are (excerpt): 1. conclusions of the preliminary flood risk assessment 2. flood hazard maps and flood risk maps and the conclusions that can be drawn from those maps 3. a description of the appropriate objectives of flood risk management 4. a summary of measures and their prioritisation aiming to achieve the appropriate objectives of flood risk management The poster refers to some of the major challenges in this process, such as the legal provisions, coordination of administrative units, definition of public relations, etc. The implementation of the EFD requires the harmonisation of legal instruments of various disciplines (e.g. water management, spatial planning, civil protection) enabling a coordinated - and ideally binding - practice of flood risk management. This process is highly influenced by the administrative organisation in Austria - federal, provincial and municipality level. The Austrian approach meets this organisational framework by structuring the development of the flood risk management plan into 3 time-steps: (a) federal blueprint, (b) provincial editing and (c) federal finishing as well as reporting to the European Commission. Each time

  2. Time scales of change in chemical and biological parameters after engineered levee breaches adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Wood, Tamara M.; Parcheso, Francis; Cameron, Jason M.; Asbill, Jessica R.; Carlson, Rick A.; Fend, Steven V.

    2012-01-01

    Eight sampling trips were coordinated after engineered levee breaches hydrologically reconnected both Upper Klamath Lake and Agency Lake, Oregon, to adjacent wetlands. The reconnection, by a series of explosive blasts, was coordinated by The Nature Conservancy to reclaim wetlands that had for approximately seven decades been leveed for crop production. Sets of nonmetallic porewater profilers (U.S. Patent 8,051,727 B1; November 8, 2011; http://www.uspto.gov/web/patents/patog/ week45/OG/html/1372-2/US08051727-20111108.html.) were deployed during these trips in November 2007, June 2008, May 2009, July 2009, May 2010, August 2010, June 2011, and July 2011 (table 1). Deployments temporally spanned the annual cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and spatially involved three lake and four wetland sites. Spatial and temporal variation in solute benthic flux was determined by the field team, using the profilers, over an approximately 4-year period beginning 3 days after the levee breaches. The highest flux to the water column of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was detected in the newly flooded wetland, contrasting negative or insignificant DOC fluxes at adjacent lake sites. Over the multiyear study, DOC benthic fluxes dissipated in the reconnected wetlands, converging to values similar to those for established wetlands and to the adjacent lake (table 2). In contrast to DOC, benthic sources of soluble reactive phosphorus, ammonium, dissolved iron and manganese from within the reconnected wetlands were consistently elevated (that is, significant in magnitude relative to riverine and established-wetland sources) indicating a multi-year time scale for certain chemical changes after the levee breaches (table 2). Colonization of the reconnected wetlands by aquatic benthic invertebrates during the study trended toward the assemblages in established wetlands, providing further evidence of a multiyear transition of this area to permanent aquatic habitat (table 3). Both the

  3. 44 CFR 65.13 - Mapping and map revisions for areas subject to alluvial fan flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. 65.13 Section 65.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL... areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. This section describes the procedures to be followed and the... provides protection from the base flood in an area subject to alluvial fan flooding. This information...

  4. 44 CFR 65.13 - Mapping and map revisions for areas subject to alluvial fan flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. 65.13 Section 65.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL... areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. This section describes the procedures to be followed and the... provides protection from the base flood in an area subject to alluvial fan flooding. This information...

  5. 44 CFR 65.13 - Mapping and map revisions for areas subject to alluvial fan flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. 65.13 Section 65.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL... areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. This section describes the procedures to be followed and the... provides protection from the base flood in an area subject to alluvial fan flooding. This information...

  6. 44 CFR 65.13 - Mapping and map revisions for areas subject to alluvial fan flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. 65.13 Section 65.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL... areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. This section describes the procedures to be followed and the... provides protection from the base flood in an area subject to alluvial fan flooding. This information...

  7. 44 CFR 65.13 - Mapping and map revisions for areas subject to alluvial fan flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. 65.13 Section 65.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL... areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. This section describes the procedures to be followed and the... provides protection from the base flood in an area subject to alluvial fan flooding. This information...

  8. Methods to quantify seepage beneath Levee 30, Miami-Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonenshein, R.S.

    2001-01-01

    A two-dimensional, cross-sectional, finite-difference, ground-water flow model and a simple application of Darcy?s law were used to quantify ground-water flow (from a wetlands) beneath Levee 30 in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Geologic and geophysical data, vertical seepage data from the wetlands, canal discharge data, ground-water-level data, and surface-water-stage data collected during 1995 and 1996 were used as boundary conditions and calibration data for the ground-water flow model and as input for the analytical model. Vertical seepage data indicated that water from the wetlands infiltrated the subsurface, near Levee 30, at rates ranging from 0.033 to 0.266 foot per day when the gates at the control structures along Levee 30 canal were closed. During the same period, stage differences between the wetlands (Water Conservation Area 3B) and Levee 30 canal ranged from 0.11 to 1.27 feet. A layer of low-permeability limestone, located 7 to 10 feet below land surface, restricts vertical flow between the surface water in the wetlands and the ground water. Based on measured water-level data, ground-water flow appears to be generally horizontal, except in the direct vicinity of the canal. The increase in discharge rate along a 2-mile reach of the Levee 30 canal ranged from 9 to 30 cubic feet per second per mile and can be attributed primarily to ground-water inflow. Flow rates in Levee 30 canal were greatest when the gates at the control structures were open. The ground-water flow model data were compared with the measured ground-water heads and vertical seepage from the wetlands. Estimating the horizontal ground-water flow rate beneath Levee 30 was difficult owing to the uncertainty in the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the main flow zone of the Biscayne aquifer. Measurements of ground-water flows into Levee 30 canal, a substantial component of the water budget, were also uncertain, which lessened the ability to validate the model results. Because of vertical

  9. Root Development of Salix purpurea L. on Heavily Compacted Levee Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammeranner, W.

    2012-04-01

    The effect of woody vegetation on levee stability is discussed controversially. On the one hand woody plants improve slope stability, prevent erosion failures and may aid in levee stability. On the other hand it is believed that woody vegetation has negative impacts which are largely related to the rooting system. Hence, root penetration can facilitate water movement - seepage or piping - as well as living and decaying roots can lead to voids and threaten the structural integrity of levees. In general root architecture is known for many plant species, but specific root characteristics and their interaction with soils are influenced by many factors, and therefore poorly understood. Consequently the current research investigates the rooting performance of woody vegetation by singling out a special type of vegetation which is often used within soil bioengineering techniques at river embankments. This vegetation type is a dense stand of shrubby willows (Salix purpurea L.), implemented with brush mattresses. The data is collected from a test site constructed in 2007, 5 km northeast of Vienna, Austria. Part of the test site is a research levee built true to natural scale. The fill material of the levee is a mineral silt-sand-gravel compound classified as silty sand, which was compacted to a dry density of 1.86 g/cm3. The planting of vegetation was applied directly to the compacted levee body using only a thin layer (2-4 cm) of humus topsoil. In 2009 the studies were supplemented with a lysimeter-like setup consisting of a total of 20 containers. The lysimeters were filled homogenously with the same soil as the levees and were consolidated to the same degree of compaction. They were planted similar to the research levees. Within the investigations a comprehensive annual vegetation monitoring program was carried out. Measured aboveground parameters were shoot diameter, shoot length, biomass and leaf area index (LAI). Monitored rooting parameters - examined by excavation

  10. Flood risks and willingness to purchase flood insurance.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karlinger, M.R.; Attanasi, E.D.

    1980-01-01

    Computer simulation experiments were conducted to determine the effects of alternative sources of uncertainty on the willingness to pay for flood insurance. Two alternative insurance protection schemes were investigated: coinsurance and fixed coverage. The question investigated is to what extent does the insurance scheme influence how purchasers respond to risks? Floods were assumed to be log normally distributed and the effects on the purchase of insurance of uncertainties in the parameters of the distribution were explored using response surface analysis. Results indicate that fixed coverage insurance provisions shift most of the uncertainty in the physical parameters governing natural disaster occurrences away from the insuree and onto the insurer. The results also show that the form of the damage function has little effect on the demand for flood insurance.- Authors

  11. Floods, flood control, and bottomland vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, Jonathan M.; Auble, Gregor T.

    2000-01-01

    Bottomland plant communities are typically dominated by the effects of floods. Floods create the surfaces on which plants become established, transport seeds and nutrients, and remove establish plants. Floods provide a moisture subsidy that allows development of bottomland forests in arid regions and produce anoxic soils, which can control bottomland plant distribution in humid regions. Repeated flooding produces a mosaic of patches of different age, sediment texture, and inundation duration; this mosaic fosters high species richness.

  12. Geophysical characterization of the Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, using capacitively coupled resistivity, coring, and direct push logging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillip, Jonathan A.; Payne, Jason

    2011-01-01

    A geophysical characterization of Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, was conducted in February 2011. A capacitively coupled resistivity survey (using Geometric's OhmMapper) was completed along the top and toe of the 6.7-mile levee. Two-dimensional inversions were conducted on the geophysical data. As a quality-control measure, cores and direct push logs were taken at approximately 1-mile intervals along the levee. The capacitively coupled resistivity survey, the coring, and the direct push logs were used to characterize the geologic materials. Comparison of the cores and the direct push log data, along with published resistivity values, indicates that resistivity values of 200 Ohm-meters or greater represent relatively clean sand, with decreasing resistivity values occurring with increasing silt and clay content. The cores indicated that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of sand, silt, and clay. The capacitively coupled resistivity sections confirm that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of high and low resistivity materials and show that the composition of the levee varies spatially. The geologic materials underlying the levee vary spatially as a result of the geologic processes that deposited them. In general, the naturally deposited geologic materials underlying the levee contain a greater amount of low resistivity materials in the southern extent of the levee.

  13. A Hybrid Model for Leveed Lava Flows: Implications for Eruption Styles on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Baloga, Stephen M.; Garry, W. Brent; Fagents, Sarah A.; Parcheta, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Many cehannelized lava flows on the plains of Mars have substantial embanking margins and levees inferred to have been stationary while the central channel was active. Levee formation can be attributed to two end-member processes during emplacement; construction during passage of the flow front and growth along the entire length of the flow while it is active. It is shown here that the amount of lava that can be deposited by the flow front alone is limited. Estimates of the levee volume for many Mars plains flows exceed this limit and must have formed by processes that continued after the passage of the front. Experimental studies of analogous laboratory flows also indicate a combination of both modes of emplacement. A model that combines both modes of levee formation. is presented, including a method for estimating volumetric flow rate, eruption duration, and viscosity. Six lava flows on the plains of the Tharsis volcanic province are used as illustrative examples. Crustal thicknesses for the six flows examined range from 9 to 23 m. Estimated emplacement times required to cool crusts of these thicknesses range from I year to 10 years. Correspondini viscosities are on the order of 10 5-106 Pa s. Effusion rates range from 25 to 840 m 3 s - and are all within the range of terrestrial observations. Therefore, the large leveed plains flows on Mars are not dramatically different in eruption rate or lava viscosity from large terrestrial analogs.

  14. Technical Note: Stability of a Levee Made of Bottom Sediments From a Dam Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koś, Karolina; Zawisza, Eugeniusz

    2015-02-01

    Stability analysis of a levee made of the bottom sediments from Czorsztyn-Niedzica Reservoir is presented in the paper. These sediments were classified as silty sands and, based on the authors' own research, their geotechnical parameters were beneficial, so the possibility of using this material for the hydraulic embankments was considered. Stability and filtration calculations were carried out for a levee that had the same top width - 3 m, slope inclinations 1:2 and different heights: 4, 6 and 8 m. Two methods were used: analytical and numerical. Calculations were carried out without and with a steady and unsteady seepage filtration. Based on the analysis carried out it was stated that the levee made of the bottom sediments is stable even at the height of 8.0 m, although because of the seepage on the downstream side it is recommended to use a drainage at the toe of the slope.

  15. Simulations of Flooding on Pea River and Whitewater Creek in the Vicinity of the Proposed Elba Bypass at Elba, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedgecock, T. Scott

    2003-01-01

    A two-dimensional finite-element surface-water model was used to study the effects of proposed modifications to the State Highway 203 corridor (proposed Elba Bypass/relocated U.S. Highway 84) on water-surface elevations and flow distributions during flooding in the Pea River and Whitewater Creek Basins at Elba, Coffee County, Alabama. Flooding was first simulated for the March 17, 1990, flood, using the 1990 flood-plain conditions to calibrate the model to match measured data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers after the flood. After model calibration, the effects of flooding were simulated for four scenarios: (1) floods having the 50- and 100-year recurrence intervals for the existing flood-plain, bridge, highway, and levee conditions; (2) floods having the 50- and 100-year recurrence intervals for the existing flood-plain and levee conditions with the State Highway 203 embankment and bridge removed; (3) floods having the 50- and 100-year recurrence intervals for the existing flood-plain, bridge, and highway conditions with proposed modifications (elevating) to the levee; and (4) floods having the 50- and 100-year recurrence intervals for the proposed conditions reflecting the Elba Bypass and modified levee. The simulation of floodflow for the Pea River and Whitewater Creek flood of March 17, 1990, in the study reach compared closely to flood profile data obtained after the flood. The flood of March 17, 1990, had an estimated peak discharge of 58,000 cubic feet per second at the gage (just below the confluence) and was estimated to be between a 50-year and 100-year flood event. The estimated peak discharge for Pea River and Whitewater Creek was 40,000 and 42,000 cubic feet per second, respectively. Simulation of floodflows for the 50-year flood (51,400 cubic feet per second) at the gage for existing flood-plain, bridge, highway, and levee conditions indicated that about 31 percent of the peak flow was conveyed by the State

  16. Anthropic Modification of The Alluvial Plain and Flood Control In Some Marchean Rivers (central Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farabollini, P.; Materazzi, M.

    The fluvial axis of the marchean rivers display an essentially sinuate character, whereas in its terminal portion, where it runs through a wide valley, it assumes an anastomosed form. In the initial portion, where it runs inside the Umbro-Marchean calcareous ridge, the regime is prevalently stream like, while in the arenaceous and clayey hilly belt, it follows a more regular trend. In the middle-lower portion, and especially in summer, the hydrological regime is significantly influenced by the water drawn off for hydroelectric and irrigation purposes. The particular hydrographic and orographic setting of the study territory and the considerable amount of anthropic activity, both in the past and present, are responsible for the frequent and disastrous flooding and flash flooding phenomena that, during intense rainfall, affected vast areas of the middle-terminal portion of the alluvial plain. An analysis of the flooding events of the last years has in fact led to the observation that flooding and flash flooding phenomena, and the damage deriving from them, are connected especially with mistaken management of the territory and subordinately with abundant rainfalls in a short span of time. This includes the following factors: insufficient, or complete absence of works for maintaining natural levees and river beds; the obstruction of watercourses due to building with no respect for adequate hydraulic criteria; an excessive narrowing or straightening of the main river axis, above all in those portions near the mouth; runoff difficulties in the works connecting the main hydrographic network with the secondary one; insufficient disposal capacity or efficiency of the rain water outlet network; insufficient measures, or a lack of planning of measures and/or works for emergency protection systems; widespread situations of hydrogeological accident and slope instability, accentuated by the progressive abandoning of agriculture and repeated occurrence of forest fires. In

  17. Improvements on flood alleviation in Germany: lessons learned from the Elbe flood in August 2002.

    PubMed

    Petrow, Theresia; Thieken, Annegret H; Kreibich, Heidi; Bahlburg, Cord Heinrich; Merz, Bruno

    2006-11-01

    The increase in damage due to natural disasters is directly related to the number of people who live and work in hazardous areas and continuously accumulate assets. Therefore, land use planning authorities have to manage effectively the establishment and development of settlements in flood-prone areas in order to avoid the further increase of vulnerable assets. Germany faced major destruction during the flood in August 2002 in the Elbe and Danube catchments, and many changes have been suggested in the existing German water and planning regulations. This article presents some findings of a "Lessons Learned" study that was carried out in the aftermath of the flood and discusses the following topics: 1) the establishment of comprehensive hazard maps and flood protection concepts, 2) the harmonization of regulations of flood protection at the federal level, 3) the communication of the flood hazard and awareness strategies, and 4) how damage potential can be minimized through measures of area precaution such as resettlement and risk-adapted land use. Although attempts towards a coordinated and harmonized creation of flood hazard maps and concepts have been made, there is still no uniform strategy at all planning levels and for all states (Laender) of the Federal Republic of Germany. The development and communication of possible mitigation strategies for "unthinkable extreme events" beyond the common safety level of a 100-year flood are needed. In order to establish a sustainable and integrated flood risk management, interdisciplinary and catchment-based approaches are needed.

  18. 100-Year Flood-It's All About Chance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Dinicola, Karen

    2010-01-01

    In the 1960's, the United States government decided to use the 1-percent annual exceedance probability (AEP) flood as the basis for the National Flood Insurance Program. The 1-percent AEP flood was thought to be a fair balance between protecting the public and overly stringent regulation. Because the 1-percent AEP flood has a 1 in 100 chance of being equaled or exceeded in any 1 year, and it has an average recurrence interval of 100 years, it often is referred to as the '100-year flood'. The term '100-year flood' is part of the national lexicon, but is often a source of confusion by those not familiar with flood science and statistics. This poster is an attempt to explain the concept, probabilistic nature, and inherent uncertainties of the '100-year flood' to the layman.

  19. Laboratory Modeling of Self-Formed Leveed Channels From Sediment-Laden Flows Entering Still Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, J. C.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2004-12-01

    Self-formed leveed channels constructed by deposition of suspended sediment from sediment-laden flows entering still water are common features in nature. Such channels drive delta progradation, develop at tidal inlets and occur where mainstem river flows empty into oxbows and blocked valley lakes. Presently there is no theory for the formation of such channels. This lack of theory is partly due to a lack of field or laboratory studies that provide insight about the mechanism controlling these self-formed, propagating channels. The creation of such features in the laboratory, have proved illusive to date. Our ongoing experiments aimed at modeling the formation of floodplain tie channels provide insight into the necessary conditions for levee formation and channel growth. Under conditions of steady water discharge, constant sediment feed rate, unimodal sediment distribution and invariant basin stage we are able to create subaqueous lateral bars (submerged levees) along the margins of a sediment laden jet. Our results highlight the sensitivity of channel formation to issues of scaling and experimental design. In the laboratory, levee formation has only been possible with the use of plastic particles (specific gravity ~1.5); complete bed alluviation and dune formation results from the use of particles with specific gravities of ~ 2.65 across a range grain diameters and shapes. We hypothesize this effect is related to high entrainment thresholds relative to suspension thresholds of small (< 100 mm) natural particles under conditions of reduced turbulence in laboratory scaled flows. Additionally, both the width to depth ratio and the form of the outlet channel introducing the sediment laden flow into the experimental basin exert a strong control on sedimentation pattern and levee growth. Continuing experiments are focused on generating emergent channel levees and a basin ward propagation of the channel by adjusting the form of the feed channel, varying basin stage, and

  20. Red River of the North Main Stem: Technical Information Report (with Special Emphasis on Agricultural Levees).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    18 DISCHARGE-SETBACK CURVE 129 19 DISCHARGE VS. LEVEE HEIGHT CURVE 130 20 SETBACK VS. LEVEE HEIGHT CURVE 131 21 ROTATIONAL LANDSLIDE 135 22 POTENTIAL...ftOO G% F0 OSO -64NDFOK 29L C _z __W- -m-C C -- - -- - - - - :7__ _ __ __ ---- ---- sew -0 n DRY - SL Ir - LV-RA00 3z’ 33~. T-^ = Fiure 2a Naxziumare...bottom and very low river elevation). Landslides of the type in question are usually deep-seated. When the failing earth mass breaks away from the lake

  1. 3-D hydrodynamic modelling of flood impacts on a building and indoor flooding processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gems, Bernhard; Mazzorana, Bruno; Hofer, Thomas; Sturm, Michael; Gabl, Roman; Aufleger, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Given the current challenges in flood risk management and vulnerability assessment of buildings exposed to flood hazards, this study presents three-dimensional numerical modelling of torrential floods and its interaction with buildings. By means of a case study application, the FLOW-3D software is applied to the lower reach of the Rio Vallarsa torrent in the village of Laives (Italy). A single-family house on the flood plain is therefore considered in detail. It is exposed to a 300-year flood hydrograph. Different building representation scenarios, including an entire impervious building envelope and the assumption of fully permeable doors, light shafts and windows, are analysed. The modelling results give insight into the flooding process of the building's interior, the impacting hydrodynamic forces on the exterior and interior walls, and further, they quantify the impact of the flooding of a building on the flow field on the surrounding flood plain. The presented study contributes to the development of a comprehensive physics-based vulnerability assessment framework. For pure water floods, this study presents the possibilities and limits of advanced numerical modelling techniques within flood risk management and, thereby, the planning of local structural protection measures.

  2. Martin County, FL, Case Study: Physical and Economic Performance of Martin County Federal Shore Protection Project During 2004 Tropical Season. Flood and Coastal Storm Damage Reduction Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    2004, 9.2 million dollars in emergency protective actions including seawalls , revetments and construction of emergency dune features are estimated to...season was notable as one of the deadliest and most costly Atlantic hurricane seasons on record, with at least 3,132 deaths (over 3,000 lives lost in...condition. In hindcasting the without project condition from 1996-2004, 9.2 million dollars in emergency protective actions including seawalls

  3. Floods in Colombia (2009-2011): rethinking our response to climatic variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canon Barriga, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    predict or forecast; 4) levees and invasive channel works create a false sense of security and require better local specifications and studies (i.e., of discharge, sediment loads and geomorphological evolution in a non-stationary framework), as well as maintenance, constant monitoring and law enforcement to protect floodplain areas; 5) mountain reforestation is essential to mitigate these impacts, along with river-friendly solutions, including the relocation of communities and incentives for changes in the vocational use of land toward practices that harmonize with the ecosystems and with the seasonal nature of floods. These lessons would likely also apply to other countries in tropical regions characterized by similar weather patterns and levels of social development.

  4. Sand boils induced by the 1993 Mississippi River flood: Could they one day be misinterpreted as earthquake-induced liquefaction?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Y.; Craven, J.; Schweig, E.S.; Obermeier, S.F.

    1996-01-01

    In areas that are seismically active but lacking clear surficial faulting, many paleoearthquake studies depend on the interpretation of ancient liquefaction features (sand blows) as indicators of prehistoric seismicity. Sand blows, however, can be mimicked by nonseismic sand boils formed by water seeping beneath levees during floods. We examined sand boils induced by the Mississippi River flood of 1993 in order to compare their characteristics with sand blows of the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-1812. We found a number of criteria that allow a distinction between the two types of deposits. (1) Earthquake-induced liquefaction deposits are broadly distributed about an epicentral area, whereas flood-induced sand boils are limited to a narrow band along a river's levee. (2) The conduits of most earthquake-induced sand blows are planar dikes, whereas the conduits of flood-induced sand boils are most commonly tubular. (3) Depression of the preearthquake ground surface is usual for sand blows, not for sand boils. (4) Flood-induced sand boils tend to be better sorted and much finer than sand-blow deposits. (5) Source beds for earthquake-induced deposits occur at a wide range of depths, whereas the source bed for sand boils is always near surface. (6) Materials removed from the walls surrounding the vent of a sand blow are seen inside sand blows, but are rarely seen inside sand boils. In general, flood-induced sand boils examined are interpreted to represent a less-energetic genesis than earthquake-induced liquefaction.

  5. Cultural Resources Survey of the East Atchafalaya Basin Protection Levee Item E-44, Iberville Parish, Louisiana.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-18

    lnviw Mape wit cops n- ae OAK TI TALL GRASaES HACKBERRY TREE 41 240 METERS TO PIPELINE N 161V13 %MOUND 2" 0 2 4 meters Figure 23. 16IV13 mound 2 plan...Recent deltaic deposits of the Mississippi: their development and chronology. Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Trans -cti- 7:287-315

  6. 44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., the freeboard must be established at one foot above the height of the one percent wave or the maximum wave runup (whichever is greater) associated with the 100-year stillwater surge elevation at the site.... Particular emphasis must be placed on the effects of wave attack and overtopping on the stability of...

  7. 44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., the freeboard must be established at one foot above the height of the one percent wave or the maximum wave runup (whichever is greater) associated with the 100-year stillwater surge elevation at the site.... Particular emphasis must be placed on the effects of wave attack and overtopping on the stability of...

  8. 44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., the freeboard must be established at one foot above the height of the one percent wave or the maximum wave runup (whichever is greater) associated with the 100-year stillwater surge elevation at the site.... Particular emphasis must be placed on the effects of wave attack and overtopping on the stability of...

  9. Feedback on flood risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, K.; Roumagnac, A.

    2009-09-01

    For several years, as floods were increasing in South of France, local communities felt deprive to assume their mission of protection and information of citizens, and were looking for assistance in flood management. In term of flood disaster, the fact is that physical protection is necessary but inevitably limited. Tools and structures of assistance to anticipation remain slightly developed. To manage repeated crisis, local authorities need to be able to base their policy against flood on prevention, warnings, post-crisis analysis and feedback from former experience. In this objective, after 3 years of test and improvement since 2003, the initiative Predict-Services was developed in South of France: it aims at helping communities and companies to face repeated flood crisis. The principle is to prepare emergency plans, to organize crisis management and reduce risks; to help and assist communities and companies during crisis to activate and adapt their emergency plans with enough of anticipation; and to analyse floods effects and improve emergency plans afterwards. With the help of Meteo France datas and experts, Predict services helps local communities and companies in decision making for flood management. In order to reduce risks, and to keep the benefits of such an initiative, local communities and companies have to maintain the awareness of risk of the citizens and employees. They also have to maintain their safety plans to keep them constantly operational. This is a part of the message relayed. Companies, Local communities, local government authorities and basin stakeholders are the decision makers. Companies and local communities have to involve themselves in the elaboration of safety plans. They are also completely involved in their activation that is their own responsability. This applies to other local government authorities, like districts one's and basin stakeholders, which participle in the financing community safety plans and adminitrative district which

  10. The use of seismic tomograms for the identification of internal problems with earthen dams and levees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    According to the National Inventory of dams (NID, 2009), out of the 84,134 dams in the US, more than 87% (73,423) are earthen dams. The majority of these earthen dams are past or approaching their design life expectancy of 50 years. According to the National committee on Levee Safety (NCLS, 2009),...

  11. 76 FR 78015 - Revised Analysis and Mapping Procedures for Non-Accredited Levees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... terms of its feasibility, flexibility, and collaborative nature. DATES: Comments must be received by... revise the mapping procedures for non-accredited levees. This approach works within the confines of existing federal regulations, yet is more flexible, collaborative and feasible. FEMA is replacing...

  12. Geophysical Surveys for Detecting Anomalous Conditions, Algiers Canal Levees, New Orleans, Louisiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    with grout. An electromagnetic (EM) induction survey using a Geonics EM31 terrain conductivity meter was conducted along the crest, slopes, and...other New Orleans levees, was the electromagnetic (EM) induction survey method. The general process employed for field data collection was to... Electromagnetic terrain conductivity measurements at low induction numbers. Technical Note TN-6. Mississauga, Ontario, Canada:Geonics Limited. Llopis, J

  13. 75 FR 6364 - Process for Requesting a Variance From Vegetation Standards for Levees and Floodwalls

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... requesting a variance from vegetation standards for levees and floodwalls to reflect organizational changes... docket number COE-2010-0007. All comments received will be included in the public docket without change... change based on the comments received through this public notice and should not be viewed...

  14. Level-I Trauma Center Effects on Return-to-Work Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prada, Sergio I.; Salkever, David; MacKenzie, Ellen J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Injury is the leading cause of death for persons aged 1-44 years in the United States. Injuries have a substantial economic cost. For that reason, regional systems of trauma care in which the more acutely injured patients are transported to Level-I (L-I) trauma centers (TCs) has been widely advocated. However, the cost of TC care is…

  15. Monitoring the tidal response of a sea levee with ambient seismic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planès, Thomas; Rittgers, Justin B.; Mooney, Michael A.; Kanning, Wim; Draganov, Deyan

    2017-03-01

    Internal erosion, a major cause of failure of earthen dams and levees, is often difficult to detect at early stages using traditional visual inspection. The passive seismic-interferometry technique could enable the early detection of internal changes taking place within these structures. We test this technique on a portion of the sea levee of Colijnsplaat, Netherlands, which presents signs of concentrated seepage in the form of sandboils. Applying seismic interferometry to ambient noise collected over a 12-hour period, we retrieve surface waves propagating along the levee. We identify the contribution of two dominant ambient seismic noise sources: the traffic on the Zeeland bridge and a nearby wind turbine. Here, the sea-wave action does not constitute a suitable noise source for seismic interferometry. Using the retrieved surface waves, we compute time-lapse variations of the surface-wave group velocities during the 12-hour tidal cycle for different frequency bands, i.e., for different depth ranges. The estimated group-velocity variations correlate with variations in on-site pore-water pressure measurements that respond to tidal loading. We present lateral profiles of these group-velocity variations along a 180-meter section of the levee, at four different depth ranges (0m-40m). On these profiles, we observe some spatially localized relative group-velocity variations of up to 5% that might be related to concentrated seepage.

  16. Outside the Bankfull Realm: Challenges in Developing a Flood-based Management and Restoration Strategy for a Large, Semi-arid River System: Santa Clara River, Ventura County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, P. W.; Dusterhoff, S. R.; Sears, W. A.

    2006-12-01

    geomorphic context, the management of flood risk might be achieved most cost-effectively using a strategy of `vulnerability modification' (land acquisition, setback levees, easements, zoning) rather than the near-universal strategy of `event modification' (bank-edge levees, bank protection, channelization) that often results in significant impairment of riverine ecosystems. Vulnerability modification also has the potential to provide wide-ranging opportunities for river-floodplain ecosystem restoration including the recovery of species imperiled by regional losses in riparian habitat and, overall, seems especially well- suited to river management in large, semi-arid river systems.

  17. Plant defense after flooding

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Fu-Chiun; Shih, Ming-Che

    2013-01-01

    Since the first study of hypoxic response in plants with cDNA microarray in 2002, the number of hypoxia-responsive genes has grown to more than 2000. However, to date, only small numbers of hypoxia-responsive genes are known to confer hypoxic resistance. Most investigations in this area have focused on identifying which genes are responsive and then characterized how these genes are induced during hypoxia, but the roles of numerous genes in hypoxic response are still unknown. In our recent study, we demonstrated that a group of genes are induced by submergence to trigger plant immunity, which is a response to protect plants against a higher probability of pathogen infection during or after flooding. This work offered a brand new perspective, i.e., that hypoxia-responsive genes can be induced for reasons other than conferring hypoxic resistance. Possible reasons why these responses were triggered are discussed herein. PMID:24300693

  18. Biogeochemical and metabolic responses to the flood pulse in a semiarid floodplain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valett, H.M.; Baker, M.A.; Morrice, J.A.; Crawford, C.S.; Molles, M.C.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Moyer, D.L.; Thibault, J.R.; Ellis, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    Flood pulse inundation of riparian forests alters rates of nutrient retention and organic matter processing in the aquatic ecosystems formed in the forest interior. Along the Middle Rio Grande (New Mexico, USA), impoundment and levee construction have created riparian forests that differ in their inter-flood intervals (IFIs) because some floodplains are still regularly inundated by the flood pulse (i.e., connected), while other floodplains remain isolated from flooding (i.e., disconnected). This research investigates how ecosystem responses to the flood pulse relate to forest IFI by quantifying nutrient and organic matter dynamics in the Rio Grande floodplain during three years of experimental flooding of the disconnected floodplain and during a single year of natural flooding of the connected floodplain. Surface and subsurface conditions in paired sites (control, flood) established in the two floodplain types were monitored to address metabolic and biogeochemical responses. Compared to dry controls, rates of respiration in the flooded sites increased by up to three orders of magnitude during the flood pulse. In the disconnected forest, month-long experimental floods produced widespread anoxia of four-week duration during each of the three years of flooding. In contrast, water in the connected floodplain remained well oxygenated (3-8 ppm). Material budgets for experimental floods showed the disconnected floodplain to be a sink for inorganic nitrogen and suspended solids, but a potential source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Compared to the main stem of the Rio Grande, flood-water on the connected floodplain contained less nitrate, but comparable concentrations of DOC, phosphate-phosphorus, and ammonium-nitrogen. Results suggest that floodplain IFI drives metabolic and biogeochemical responses during the flood pulse. Impoundment and fragmentation have altered floodplains from a mosaic of patches with variable IFI to a bimodal distribution. Relatively predictable

  19. Grain-size segregation and levee formation in geophysical mass flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.G.; Kokelaar, B.P.; Iverson, R.M.; Logan, M.; LaHusen, R.G.; Gray, J.M.N.T.

    2012-01-01

    Data from large-scale debris-flow experiments are combined with modeling of particle-size segregation to explain the formation of lateral levees enriched in coarse grains. The experimental flows consisted of 10 m3 of water-saturated sand and gravel, which traveled ~80 m down a steeply inclined flume before forming an elongated leveed deposit 10 m long on a nearly horizontal runout surface. We measured the surface velocity field and observed the sequence of deposition by seeding tracers onto the flow surface and tracking them in video footage. Levees formed by progressive downslope accretion approximately 3.5 m behind the flow front, which advanced steadily at ~2 m s-1 during most of the runout. Segregation was measured by placing ~600 coarse tracer pebbles on the bed, which, when entrained into the flow, segregated upwards at ~6–7.5 cm s-1. When excavated from the deposit these were distributed in a horseshoe-shaped pattern that became increasingly elevated closer to the deposit termination. Although there was clear evidence for inverse grading during the flow, transect sampling revealed that the resulting leveed deposit was strongly graded laterally, with only weak vertical grading. We construct an empirical, three-dimensional velocity field resembling the experimental observations, and use this with a particle-size segregation model to predict the segregation and transport of material through the flow. We infer that coarse material segregates to the flow surface and is transported to the flow front by shear. Within the flow head, coarse material is overridden, then recirculates in spiral trajectories due to size-segregation, before being advected to the flow edges and deposited to form coarse-particle-enriched levees.

  20. Grain-size segregation and levee formation in geophysical mass flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.G.; Kokelaar, B.P.; Iverson, Richard M.; Logan, M.; LaHusen, R.G.; Gray, J.M.N.T.

    2012-01-01

    Data from large-scale debris-flow experiments are combined with modeling of particle-size segregation to explain the formation of lateral levees enriched in coarse grains. The experimental flows consisted of 10 m3 of water-saturated sand and gravel, which traveled ∼80 m down a steeply inclined flume before forming an elongated leveed deposit 10 m long on a nearly horizontal runout surface. We measured the surface velocity field and observed the sequence of deposition by seeding tracers onto the flow surface and tracking them in video footage. Levees formed by progressive downslope accretion approximately 3.5 m behind the flow front, which advanced steadily at ∼2 m s−1during most of the runout. Segregation was measured by placing ∼600 coarse tracer pebbles on the bed, which, when entrained into the flow, segregated upwards at ∼6–7.5 cm s−1. When excavated from the deposit these were distributed in a horseshoe-shaped pattern that became increasingly elevated closer to the deposit termination. Although there was clear evidence for inverse grading during the flow, transect sampling revealed that the resulting leveed deposit was strongly graded laterally, with only weak vertical grading. We construct an empirical, three-dimensional velocity field resembling the experimental observations, and use this with a particle-size segregation model to predict the segregation and transport of material through the flow. We infer that coarse material segregates to the flow surface and is transported to the flow front by shear. Within the flow head, coarse material is overridden, then recirculates in spiral trajectories due to size-segregation, before being advected to the flow edges and deposited to form coarse-particle-enriched levees.

  1. Hydraulic analyses of water-surface profiles in the vicinity of the Coamo Dam and Highway 52 Bridge, southern Puerto Rico; flood analyses as related to the flood of October 7, 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, K.G.; Quinones-Marquez, Ferdinand; Gonzalez, Ralph

    1987-01-01

    The magnitude, frequency and extent of the flood of October 7, 1985 at the Rio Coamo in the vicinity of the Coamo Dam and Highway 52 bridge in southern Puerto Rico, were investigated. The observed flood profiles were used to calibrate a step-backwater model. The calibrated model was then used to investigate several alternative flow conditions in the vicinity of the bridge. The peak discharge of the flood at the Highway 52 bridge was 72,000 cu ft/sec. This peak discharge was determined from the peak computed at a reach in the vicinity of the Banos de Coamo, about 1.2 mi upstream from the bridge. The computed discharge at the Banos de Coamo of 66,000 cu ft/sec was adjusted to the dam and bridge location by multiplying it by the ratio of the drainage areas raised to the 0.83 power. The flood had a recurrence interval of about 100 yr, exceeding all previously known floods at the site. The flood overtopped the spillway and levee of the Coamo Dam just upstream of Highway 52. The flow over the spillway was 54,000 cu ft/sec. Flow over the levee was about 18,000 cu ft/sec. About 10,000 cu ft/sec of the flow over the levee returned to the main channel at the base of the embankment at the northeast approach to the bridge. The remaining 8,000 cu ft/sec flowed south through the underpass on Highway 153. The embankment and shoulder on the northern span of the bridge were eroded with the eventual collapse of the approach slab. (Author 's abstract)

  2. Production and decomposition of forest litter fall on the Apalachicola River flood plain, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elder, J.F.; Cairns, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of litter fall (leaves and other particulate organic material) and leaf decomposition were made on the Apalachicola River flood plain in 1979-80. Litter fall was collected monthly in five different forest types in swamp and levee areas. Leaves from 42 species of trees and other plants accounted for 58 percent of total litter fall. The remaining 42 percent was nonleaf material. Average litter fall was 800 grams per square meter per year in the flood plain. Tupelo (Nyssa), baldcypress (Taxodium), and ash (Fraxinus), all swamp-adapted trees, produce over 50 percent of the leaf fall. Common levee species such as sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and diamond-leaf oak (Quercus laurifolia) are also major contributors to total flood-plain litter fall. Annual flooding of the river provides an important mechanism for mobilization of the litter-fall products. Leaf decomposition rates were greatly reduced in dry environments. Carbon loss was nearly linear over a 6-month period, but nitrogen and phosphorus loss was exponential and nearly complete within 1 month. (USGS)

  3. Feedback on flood risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, K.; Roumagnac, A.

    2009-09-01

    For several years, as floods were increasing in South of France, local communities felt deprive to assume their mission of protection and information of citizens, and were looking for assistance in flood management. In term of flood disaster, the fact is that physical protection is necessary but inevitably limited. Tools and structures of assistance to anticipation remain slightly developed. To manage repeated crisis, local authorities need to be able to base their policy against flood on prevention, warnings, post-crisis analysis and feedback from former experience. In this objective, after 3 years of test and improvement since 2003, the initiative Predict-Services was developped in South of France: it aims at helping communities and companies to face repeated flood crisis. The principle is to prepare emergency plans, to organize crisis management and reduce risks; to help and assist communities and companies during crisis to activate and adapt their emergency plans with enough of anticipation; and to analyse floods effects and improve emergency plans afterwards. In order to reduce risks, and to keep the benefits of such an initiative, local communities and companies have to maintain the awareness of risk of the citizens and employees. They also have to maintain their safety plans to keep them constantly operational. This is a part of the message relayed. Companies, Local communities, local government authorities and basin stakeholders are the decision makers. Companies and local communities have to involve themselves in the elaboration of safety plans. They are also completely involved in their activation that is their own responsability. This applies to other local government authorities, like districts one's and basin stakeholders, which participle in the financing community safety plans and adminitrative district which are responsible of the transmission of meteorological alert and of rescue actions. In the crossing of the géo-information stemming from the

  4. Flood fatality hazard and flood damage hazard: combining multiple hazard characteristics into meaningful maps for spatial planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijn, K. M.; Klijn, F.; van de Pas, B.; Slager, C. T. J.

    2015-06-01

    For comprehensive flood risk management, accurate information on flood hazards is crucial. While in the past an estimate of potential flood consequences in large areas was often sufficient to make decisions on flood protection, there is currently an increasing demand to have detailed hazard maps available to be able to consider other risk-reducing measures as well. Hazard maps are a prerequisite for spatial planning, but can also support emergency management, the design of flood mitigation measures, and the setting of insurance policies. The increase in flood risks due to population growth and economic development in hazardous areas in the past shows that sensible spatial planning is crucial to prevent risks increasing further. Assigning the least hazardous locations for development or adapting developments to the actual hazard requires comprehensive flood hazard maps. Since flood hazard is a multi-dimensional phenomenon, many different maps could be relevant. Having large numbers of maps to take into account does not, however, make planning easier. To support flood risk management planning we therefore introduce a new approach in which all relevant flood hazard parameters can be combined into two comprehensive maps of flood damage hazard and flood fatality hazard.

  5. Flood fatality hazard and flood damage hazard: combining multiple hazard characteristics into meaningful maps for spatial planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijn, K. M.; Klijn, F.; van de Pas, B.; Slager, C. T. J.

    2015-01-01

    For comprehensive flood risk management, accurate information on flood hazards is crucial. While in the past an estimate of potential flood consequences in large areas was often sufficient to make decisions on flood protection, there currently is an increasing demand to have detailed hazard maps available to be able to consider other risk reducing measures as well. Hazard maps are a prerequisite for spatial planning, but can also support emergency management, the design of flood mitigation measures, and the setting of insurance policies. The increase in flood risks due to population growth and economic development in hazardous areas in the past shows that sensible spatial planning is crucial to prevent risks increasing further. Assigning the least hazardous locations for development or adapting developments to the actual hazard requires comprehensive flood hazard maps. Since flood hazard is a multi-dimensional phenomenon, many different maps could be relevant. Having large numbers of maps to take into account does, however, not make planning easier. To support flood risk management planning we therefore introduce a new approach in which all relevant flood hazard parameters can be combined into two comprehensive maps of flood damage hazard respectively flood fatality hazard.

  6. Spatio-temporal clustering of cholera: the impact of flood control in Matlab, Bangladesh, 1983-2003.

    PubMed

    Carrel, Margaret; Emch, Michael; Streatfield, Peter K; Yunus, Mohammad

    2009-09-01

    Introducing flood control to an area of endemic waterborne diseases could have significant impacts on spatio-temporal occurrence of cholera. Using 21-year data from Bangladesh, we conducted cluster analysis to explore changes in spatial and temporal distribution of cholera incidence since the construction of flood control structures. Striking changes in temporal cluster patterns emerged, including a shift from dry-season to rainy-season clusters following flood protection and delayed clustering inside the protected areas. Spatial differences in pre-flood protection and post-protection cholera clusters are weaker. Changes in spatio-temporal cholera clustering, associated with implementation of flood protection strategies, could affect local cholera prevention efforts.

  7. Products of a Subglacial Flood Basalt Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorny, C. F.; White, J. D. L.; Gudmundsson, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    The Snæbýlisheiði unit, SE Iceland, is a ca. 26 km³ elongate, flat-topped ridge of volcaniclastic debris coupled with and intruded by coherent basalt stretching over 34 km from the eruption site perpendicular to the rift fissure source. It formed from a single subglacial flood basalt eruption during a recent glaciation, and its elongation reflects glacial control on dispersal via the hydraulic potential gradient at the glacier's base, which drove towards the glacier terminus the meltwater+debris formed during the eruption by quenching and fragmentation. High magma discharge and outgassing drove segregation of magma into down-flow propagating intrusions. Edifice growth was mediated by the extent of ice melting, extent and efficiency of meltwater+debris drainage, and hydraulic gradients locally favoring meltwater accumulation. Eruption style reflected magma flux, edifice stability, and accessibility of water to the vent area via flooding or infiltration. Deposits reflect these competing factors in their chaotic internal organization and stratigraphy, limited lithofacies continuity, and diverse particle populations from multiple source vents. Linear growth of the ridge down-gradient from the eruption site was driven primarily by propagation and continuous fragmentation of shoaling intrusions that formed an interconnected intrusive complex with extensive peperites. Advance was along gently meandering and locally bifurcating sub-ice conduits within hyaloclastite with sheet-lobe levees and lobate fingered intrusions. Irregular dikes, apophyses, horns, and tendrils extended from the main body and generated voluminous lapilli tuff and contorticlasts while providing additional heat to the system. Prolonged transport and deposition of debris produced complexly bedded volcaniclastic deposits derived from and intruded by the basalt sheet. The bedding and depositional features of volcaniclastic debris and relationship to their adjacent intrusions suggest transport and

  8. Global River Flood Exposure Assessment Under Climate Change: How Many Asians Are Affected By Flood in the Future?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Y.; Iwami, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Physical exposure assessment in this study shows a methodological possibility to be used as a preliminary case study based on a global approach for flood risk assessment consisting of hazard, exposure, and vulnerability. The purpose of this preliminary study is to estimate potential flood inundation areas as a hazard (both present and future condition), and flood exposure change over the Asia region with consideration of climate change impacts. A flood hazard was characterized by inundation area at the high-resolution of 500 m, location (lowland around rivers), and probability (floods with the 50-year return period). This study introduced a new approach to moderate the global flood hazard and the exposure calculation with significant limitations of current models for continental-scale flood risk assessment by using the flood inundation depth (FID) model based on Manning's steady, uniform flow resistance formula in extreme case during 25-year simulations based on the global BTOP distributed hydrological model using precipitations from the MRI-AGCM 3.2S with SRES A1B emissions scenarios for present-day (daily data from 1980 to 2004), and end-of-the-21st century (daily data from 2075 to 2099). It effectively simplified the complexity between hydrological and topological variables in a flood risk-prone area with assumption of the effects of natural or artificial levees. Exposure was obtained by combining the hazards at the same resolution to identify affected population by calculating with urbanization ratio and population change ratio of Asian countries from a distributed data of global population (Landscan by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory). As a result of the physical exposure assessment from present to the end-of-the-21st century, potential hazards area and affected population are projected to increase 4.2 % (approximately 75,900 km2) and 3.4 % (approximately 35.1 million people) respectively, because Asian population increases about 43% in the future. We found

  9. Overbank Sedimentation from the 2011 Flood along the Lower Mississippi River: Characterization and Comparison of Two Extreme Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, P. H.; Heitmuller, F. T.; Kesel, R. H.

    2012-04-01

    The geomorphic effectiveness of extreme events has long been a fundamental topic within Earth sciences. The 2011 flood along the lower Mississippi River (3.2 x 10-6 km2) was an extreme event and presented an ideal opportunity to consider controls on the magnitude and pattern of floodplain sedimentation. The study reach was located between Natchez, Mississippi and St. Francisville, Louisiana, the lowermost reaches of the alluvial valley, and the same location utilized in a well documented sedimentation study from a comparable flood event in 1973. Thus, the 2011 field study provided a rare opportunity to directly compare floodplain sedimentation from two extreme events on Earth's third largest fluvial system. Although flood stage along the Lower Mississippi River is influenced by an extensive levee system the field setting is distinctive because it is not embanked by main-line levees. The field site was flooded for nearly two months, from early May to late June 2011. The flood crest exceeded long standing (> 100 yr) stage heights, including the infamous 1927, 1937, and 1973 events. The maximum discharge at Vicksburg, Mississippi, upstream of the study sites, was 65,695 m3/s, one of the larger discharge events along the Lower Mississippi River. Field work was conducted soon after flood waters receded and before bioturbation disrupted the integrity of the flood deposits. We sampled flood deposits at fifty-five locations within a range of floodplain depositional environments to quantify and qualify the sedimentary, hydrologic, and hydraulic characteristics of the flood, and to make explicit comparison with the 1973 study. The average thickness of flood deposits ranged from < 1 mm to 650 mm, but was highly variable. Although natural levees had the thickest flood deposits several reaches along natural levees had no measureable deposits, despite being inundated by ~4 m of flood water. In such cases the angle of the upstream channel relative to the downstream cutbank is

  10. Impact Assessment of Large Scale Floods Using Imaging Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, D.; Goodwell, A. E.; Umar, M.; Greenberg, J.; Kumar, P.; Darmody, R.; Garvey, J. E.; Jacobson, R. B.; Berretta, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Lower Mississippi River experienced an extreme flood event during April-May 2011 due to springtime snowmelt and excessive rainfall. In order to protect the city of Cairo the US Army Corps of Engineers breached a two mile long levee on the Birds Point New Madrid (BPNM) floodway inundating about 527 sq. kms of farmland. The entire operation was coordinated with a number of data collection activities in terms of stage and discharge measurements at inflow and outflow points and various other locations in the floodway. Subsequently LiDAR, Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) flights and soil sample were collected after the floodwaters receded. IKONOS and Worldview 2 images show large plumes of sediments originating in the O'Bryan's ridge of the BPNM floodway and extending to more than 20 km downstream. We postulate imaging spectroscopy will enable us to identify various surface constituents and help us in characterizing a flooding event of such a large spatial extent in extensive detail. This has not been explored before. In this study we have used AVIRIS remote sensing data to explore and quantify the landscape characteristics of the floodway using different indices and spectral signatures of materials. Atmospherically corrected surface reflectance values were obtained from the AVIRIS at sensor radiance values using ATCOR 4 incorporating the MODTRAN radiative transfer model. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and moisture stress index values computed from the AVIRIS data shows strong signals of high moisture stress and very low NDVI values in the zones of heavy scouring such as O Bryan's ridge and it is possible to spatially map those locations even in absence of topographic data. This is further substantiated by the available post flood topographic LiDAR data. Laboratory physical and chemical characterization of soil samples and their GIS analyses indicate soils most vulnerable to erosion were along a straight flow path from the

  11. Subsurface imaging of flood embankment erosional-piping collapse using a combined MASW and ERI approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Martin

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, non-destructive investigations and management of civil engineering structures is increasingly improving, and assessments are now supported by national and international standards. However, the literature on the applicability of different geophysical techniques to the problem of levee and river embankment monitoring is still limited. Accurate flood levee embankment stability assessment is critically important because embankments and earth dams are subject to water infiltration and internal erosion, which may lead to mechanical weakness and breaching. This study includes a 2D analysis of the instability of an earthen levee, using multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and electrical resistivity imaging (ERI), along with direct observations of the site engineering geology and geomorphology. Both the modeled Vs and Ω indicate a horizontally-layered subsurface with rapid vertical transitions in both stiffness and conductivity. This conclusion is supported by a covariance analysis of Vs and Ω at varying depths and chainages along the levee. Together with a geomorphic assessment, this indicates that the structure is being destabilized by water infiltration, which is causing erosional-piping, leading to surface subsidence. While the key reason for applying various types of geophysical methods to embankment stability assessment is to undertake a safety examination of the embankment, a secondary reason is to compare and contrast the efficacy of the geophysical methods. To this end, it was found that the integration of covariance analysis of 2D geophysical datasets, alongside sedimentary and topographic data, can help the rapid location of anomalous zones in sub-levee soils between geotechnical boreholes.

  12. Channel, floodplain, and wetland responses to floods and overbank sedimentation, 1846-2006, Halfway Creek Marsh, Upper Mississippi Valley, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, F.A.; Knox, J.C.; Schubauer-Berigan, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Conversion of upland forest and prairie vegetation to agricultural land uses, following Euro-American settlement in the Upper Mississippi River System, led to accelerated runoff and soil erosion that subsequently transformed channels, floodplains, and wetlands on bottomlands. Halfway Creek Marsh, at the junction of Halfway Creek and the Mississippi River on Wisconsin's western border, is representative of such historical transformation. This marsh became the focus of a 2005-2006 investigation by scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, the University of Wisconsin- Madison, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, who used an understanding of the historical transformation to help managers identify possible restoration alternatives for Halfway Creek Marsh. Field-scale topographic surveys and sediment cores provided data for reconstructing patterns and rates of historical overbank sedimentation in the marsh. Information culled from historical maps, aerial photographs, General Land Offi ce Survey notes, and other historical documents helped establish the timing of anthropogenic disturbances and document changes in channel patterns. Major human disturbances, in addition to agricultural land uses, included railroad and road building, construction of artifi cial levees, drainage alterations, and repeated dam failures associated with large floods. A volume of approximately 1,400,000 m3, involving up to 2 m of sandy historical overbank deposition, is stored through the upper and lower marshes and along the adjacent margins of Halfway Creek and its principal tributary, Sand Lake Coulee. The estimated overbank sedimentation rate for the entire marsh is ??3,000 m3 yr-1 for the recent period 1994-2006. In spite of reduced surface runoff and soil erosion in recent years, this recent sedimentation rate still exceeds by ??4 times the early settlement (1846-1885) rate of 700 m3 yr-1, when anthropogenic acceleration of upland surface runoff and soil erosion was beginning

  13. Flood Hazard Management: British and International Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, L. Douglas

    This proceedings of an international workshop at the Flood Hazard Research Centre (Queensway, Enfield, Middlesex, U.K.) begins by noting how past British research on flood problems concentrated on refining techniques to implement established policy. In contrast, research covered in North American and Australian publications involved normative issues on policy alternatives and administrative implementation. The workshop's participants included 16 widely recognized scientists, whose origins were about equally divided between Britain and overseas; from this group the workshop's organizers expertly drew ideas for refining British urban riverine flood hazard management and for cultivating links among researchers everywhere. Such intellectual exchange should be of keen interest to flood hazard program managers around the world, to students of comparative institutional performance, to those who make policy on protecting people from hazards, and to hydrologists and other geophysicists who must communicate descriptive information for bureaucratic, political, and public decision- making.

  14. Validation of a Global Hydrodynamic Flood Inundation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, P. D.; Smith, A.; Sampson, C. C.; Alfieri, L.; Neal, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    In this work we present first validation results for a hyper-resolution global flood inundation model. We use a true hydrodynamic model (LISFLOOD-FP) to simulate flood inundation at 1km resolution globally and then use downscaling algorithms to determine flood extent and depth at 90m spatial resolution. Terrain data are taken from a custom version of the SRTM data set that has been processed specifically for hydrodynamic modelling. Return periods of flood flows along the entire global river network are determined using: (1) empirical relationships between catchment characteristics and index flood magnitude in different hydroclimatic zones derived from global runoff data; and (2) an index flood growth curve, also empirically derived. Bankful return period flow is then used to set channel width and depth, and flood defence impacts are modelled using empirical relationships between GDP, urbanization and defence standard of protection. The results of these simulations are global flood hazard maps for a number of different return period events from 1 in 5 to 1 in 1000 years. We compare these predictions to flood hazard maps developed by national government agencies in the UK and Germany using similar methods but employing detailed local data, and to observed flood extent at a number of sites including St. Louis, USA and Bangkok in Thailand. Results show that global flood hazard models can have considerable skill given careful treatment to overcome errors in the publicly available data that are used as their input.

  15. Flooding and forest succession in a modified stretch along the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yin, Yao

    1998-01-01

    This research examines the effect of a rare flood on floodplain forest regeneration in a 102-km stretch of the Mississippi River beginning 21 km above the mouth of the Ohio River. The river has been restricted by levees and navigation structures and subjected to sediment dredging to maintain a stable navigation channel. Because the bank erosion-accretion process has been slowed or eliminated, cottonwood (Populus spp.) and willow (Salix spp.) communities regenerate poorly in the modified river environment. An unusually large flood in 1993 destroyed the entire ground vegetation layer, killing 77.2% of the saplings and 32.2% of the trees. The flood created an alternative mechanism for cottonwood and willow to regenerate under canopy openings, enabling the community type composition of the present-day forest to be sustained for the next 50 years. Over time, however, the forest will likely exhibit considerable compositional fluctuation.

  16. Severe Flooding in India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Floods devestated parts of eastern India along the Brahmaputra River in June 2000. In some tributaries of the Brahmaputra, the water reached more than 5 meters (16.5 feet) above flood stage. At least 40 residents died, and the flood waters destroyed a bridge linking the region to the rest of India. High water also threatened endangered Rhinos in Kaziranga National Park. Flooded areas are shown in red in the above image. The map was derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data taken on June 15, 2000. For more information on observing floods with satellites, see: Using Satellites to Keep our Head above Water and the Dartmouth Flood Observatory Image by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory

  17. 33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection.... Regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Army for the maintenance and operation of local...

  18. 33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection.... Regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Army for the maintenance and operation of local...

  19. 33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection.... Regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Army for the maintenance and operation of local...

  20. 33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection.... Regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Army for the maintenance and operation of local...

  1. 33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection.... Regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Army for the maintenance and operation of local...

  2. Early-season flooding for insect pest control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Wisconsin, there is much interest in the spring flood as a means to not only reduce pest populations, but also to facilitate marsh sanitation and provide frost protection. A large-scale field study was undertaken in 2011 to examine how a 30-40 hour spring flood (late May) would affect key insect ...

  3. Raising risk preparedness by flood risk communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidl, E.; Buchecker, M.

    2015-07-01

    During the last decade, most European countries have produced hazard maps of natural hazards, but little is known about how to communicate these maps most efficiently to the public. In October 2011, Zurich's local authorities informed owners of buildings located in the urban flood hazard zone about potential flood damage, the probability of flood events and protection measures. The campaign was based on the assumptions that informing citizens increases their risk awareness and that citizens who are aware of risks are more likely to undertake actions to protect themselves and their property. This study is intended as a contribution to better understand the factors that influence flood risk preparedness, with a special focus on the effects of such a one-way risk communication strategy. We conducted a standardized mail survey of 1500 property owners in the hazard zones in Zurich (response rate main survey: 34 %). The questionnaire included items to measure respondents' risk awareness, risk preparedness, flood experience, information-seeking behaviour, knowledge about flood risk, evaluation of the information material, risk acceptance, attachment to the property and trust in local authorities. Data about the type of property and socio-demographic variables were also collected. Multivariate data analysis revealed that the average level of risk awareness and preparedness was low, but the results confirmed that the campaign had a statistically significant effect on the level of preparedness. The main influencing factors on the intention to prepare for a flood were the extent to which respondents evaluated the information material positively as well as their risk awareness. Respondents who had never taken any previous interest in floods were less likely to read the material. For future campaigns, we therefore recommend repeated communication that is tailored to the information needs of the target population.

  4. Combined Wave and Surge Overtopping of Levees: Flow Hydrodynamics and Articulated Concrete Mat Stability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    crest , the discharge per unit width of levee is computed by the generally accepted equation for flow over a broad - crested weir given by open...presented an empirical form of the broad - crested weir discharge formula that compensates for frictional losses across the paved crest , i.e., /fq C...might be laminar in a small-scale physical model. Surface friction is another potential scale effect . Surface roughness affects water

  5. Levee Safety: Army Corps and FEMA Have Made Little Progress in Carrying Out Required Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    damage from the hurricane cost the federal government more than $16 billion in disaster relief, according to data from the Federal Emergency Management ...Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) have made little progress in implementing key national levee-safety-related activities required in the Water Resources...Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) information. | GAO-16-709 View GAO-16-709. For more information- contact Anne-Marie Fennell at (202) 512-3841 or

  6. Origin and architecture of deep-water levee deposits: Insight from the ancient rock record and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Zishann

    Although levee deposits make up a significant part of modern and ancient deep-marine slope systems, details of their internal lithological composition and stratal architecture remain poorly documented. At the Castle Creek study area, strata of the Neoproterozoic Isaac Formation (Windermere Supergroup) crop out superbly in a kilometre-scale section through a sinuous deep-water channel-levee system (ICC3). Levee deposits near the outer bend of the channel consist of sandstone-rich (sandstone-to-mudstone ratio of 68:42), medium- to thick-bedded turbidites interstratified with thinly-bedded turbidites. Structureless sandstone (T a), planar laminated sandstone (Tb), non-climbing ripple cross-stratified sandstone (Tc) and massive and laminated siltstone (Td) are common. Thick beds generally thicken and then thin and fine laterally over about 300 m. Thin-bedded strata, in contrast, thin and fine negligibly over similar distances. In the distal part of the outer-bend levee (up to 700 m laterally away from the channel) strata consist predominantly of thin-bedded Tcd turbidites with a much lower sandstone-to-mudstone ratio (35:65). On the opposite side of the channel, inner-bend levee deposits are mudstone-rich, locally as low as 15:85, and consist mostly of thin-bedded, Tcd turbidites, although thicker-bedded, Ta-d turbidites are more common in the lower part of the section. Lateral thinning and fining of beds is more rapid than their outer-bend counterpart. Levee deposits of ICC3 comprise three stacked decametre-scale upward-thinning and -fining successions. Each is interpreted to record a depositional history consisting of lateral channel migration, levee deposition, channel filling, and distal levee deposition. During the early stage of increasing levee relief it is proposed that the termini of individual beds progressively backstep towards the channel margin resulting in an overall lateral thinning of the stratal profile. This interpretation notably contrasts the common

  7. Estimating insured residential losses from large flood scenarios on the Tone River, Japan - a data integration approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, T.; McAneney, K. J.; Chen, K.

    2011-12-01

    Flooding on the Tone River, which drains the largest catchment area in Japan and is now home to 12 million people, poses significant risk to the Greater Tokyo Area. In April 2010, an expert panel in Japan, the Central Disaster Prevention Council, examined the potential for large-scale flooding and outlined possible mitigation measures in the Greater Tokyo Area. One of the scenarios considered closely mimics the pattern of flooding that occurred with the passage of Typhoon Kathleen in 1947 and would potentially flood some 680 000 households above floor level. Building upon that report, this study presents a Geographical Information System (GIS)-based data integration approach to estimate the insurance losses for residential buildings and contents as just one component of the potential financial cost. Using a range of publicly available data - census information, location reference data, insurance market information and flood water elevation data - this analysis finds that insurance losses for residential property alone could reach approximately 1 trillion JPY (US 12.5 billion). Total insurance losses, including commercial and industrial lines of business, are likely to be at least double this figure with total economic costs being much greater again. The results are sensitive to the flood scenario assumed, position of levee failures, local flood depths and extents, population and building heights. The Average Recurrence Interval (ARI) of the rainfall following Typhoon Kathleen has been estimated to be on the order of 200 yr; however, at this juncture it is not possible to put an ARI on the modelled loss since we cannot know the relative or joint probability of the different flooding scenarios. It is possible that more than one of these scenarios could occur simultaneously or that levee failure at one point might lower water levels downstream and avoid a failure at all other points. In addition to insurance applications, spatial analyses like that presented here have

  8. 24 CFR 1000.38 - What flood insurance requirements are applicable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What flood insurance requirements..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.38 What flood insurance requirements are applicable? Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, as amended (42...

  9. 13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flood-plain and wetlands... Flood-plain and wetlands management. (a) All loans must conform to requirements of Executive Orders 11988, “Flood Plain Management” (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 117) and 11990, “Protection of Wetlands” (3...

  10. 24 CFR 1000.38 - What flood insurance requirements are applicable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What flood insurance requirements..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.38 What flood insurance requirements are applicable? Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, as amended (42...

  11. 24 CFR 1000.38 - What flood insurance requirements are applicable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What flood insurance requirements..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.38 What flood insurance requirements are applicable? Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, as amended (42...

  12. 24 CFR 1000.38 - What flood insurance requirements are applicable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What flood insurance requirements..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.38 What flood insurance requirements are applicable? Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, as amended (42...

  13. 13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flood-plain and wetlands... Flood-plain and wetlands management. (a) All loans must conform to requirements of Executive Orders 11988, “Flood Plain Management” (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 117) and 11990, “Protection of Wetlands” (3...

  14. 24 CFR 1000.38 - What flood insurance requirements are applicable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What flood insurance requirements..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.38 What flood insurance requirements are applicable? Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, as amended (42...

  15. 13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flood-plain and wetlands... Flood-plain and wetlands management. (a) All loans must conform to requirements of Executive Orders 11988, “Flood Plain Management” (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 117) and 11990, “Protection of Wetlands” (3...

  16. 13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flood-plain and wetlands... Flood-plain and wetlands management. (a) All loans must conform to requirements of Executive Orders 11988, “Flood Plain Management” (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 117) and 11990, “Protection of Wetlands” (3...

  17. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for La Lima, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of La Lima that would be inundated by Rio Chamelecon with a discharge of 500 cubic meters per second, the approximate capacity of the river channel through the city of La Lima. The 50-year flood (2,400 cubic meters per second), the original design flow to be mapped, would inundate the entire area surveyed for this municipality. Because water-surface elevations of the 50-year flood could not be mapped properly without substantially expanding the area of the survey, the available data were used instead to estimate the channel capacity of Rio Chamelecon in La Lima by trial-and-error runs of different flows in a numerical model and to estimate the increase in height of levees needed to contain flows of 1,000 and 2,400 cubic meters per second. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of La Lima as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for various discharges on Rio Chamelecon at La Lima were determined using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area and ground surveys at three bridges. Top-of-levee or top-of-channel-bank elevations and locations at the cross sections were critical to estimating the channel capacity of Rio Chamelecon

  18. Climate change and non-stationary flood risk for the upper Truckee River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condon, L. E.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Pruitt, T.

    2015-01-01

    Future flood frequency for the upper Truckee River basin (UTRB) is assessed using non-stationary extreme value models and design-life risk methodology. Historical floods are simulated at two UTRB gauge locations, Farad and Reno, using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model and non-stationary Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) models. The non-stationary GEV models are fit to the cool season (November-April) monthly maximum flows using historical monthly precipitation totals and average temperature. Future cool season flood distributions are subsequently calculated using downscaled projections of precipitation and temperature from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP-5) archive. The resulting exceedance probabilities are combined to calculate the probability of a flood of a given magnitude occurring over a specific time period (referred to as flood risk) using recent developments in design-life risk methodologies. This paper provides the first end-to-end analysis using non-stationary GEV methods coupled with contemporary downscaled climate projections to demonstrate the evolution of a flood risk profile over typical design life periods of existing infrastructure that are vulnerable to flooding (e.g., dams, levees, bridges and sewers). Results show that flood risk increases significantly over the analysis period (from 1950 through 2099). This highlights the potential to underestimate flood risk using traditional methodologies that do not account for time-varying risk. Although model parameters for the non-stationary method are sensitive to small changes in input parameters, analysis shows that the changes in risk over time are robust. Overall, flood risk at both locations (Farad and Reno) is projected to increase 10-20% between the historical period 1950 to 1999 and the future period 2000 to 2050 and 30-50% between the same historical period and a future period of 2050 to 2099.

  19. 75 FR 81889 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation... modifications are made pursuant to section 201 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42 U.S.C. 4105,...

  20. Wetland hydrology and tree distribution of the Apalachicola River flood plain, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leitman, H.M.; Sohm, J.E.; Franklin, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Apalachicola River is part of a 50,800-square-kilometer drainage basin in northwest Florida, Alabama, and Georgia. The river is formed by the confluence of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers at Jim Woodruff Dam and flows 171 kilometers to Apalachicola Bay in the Gulf of Mexico. Its flood plain supports 450 square kilometers of bottom-land hardwood and tupelco-cypress forests. The most common trees, constituting 62 percent of the total basal area, were five wet-site species; water tupelo, Ogeeche tupelo, baldcypress, Carolina ash, and swamp tupelo. Other common species were sweetgum, overcup oak, planertree, green ash, water hickory, sugarberry, and diamond-leaf oak. Five forest types were defined based on species predominance by basal area. Biomass increased downstream and was greatest in forests growing on permanently saturated soils. Water and tree relations varied with river location because range in water-level fluctuation and topographic relief in the flood plain diminished downstream. Heights of natural riverbank levees and size and distribution of breaks in levees had a major controlling effect on flood-plain hydrology. Depth of water, duration of inundation and saturation, and river location, but not water velocity, were very highly correlated with forest types. (USGS)

  1. SeCom - Serious Community 2.0 prevent flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komma, Juergen; Breuer, Roman; Sewilam, Hani; Concia, Francesca; Aliprandi, Bruno; Siegmund, Sabine; Goossens, Jannis

    2013-04-01

    There is a significant need for raising the awareness and building the capacity of water professionals in different water sectors cross Europe. There is also a need for qualified graduates to implement the EU Flood Risk Directive (FRD). The main aim of this work is to prepare and build the capacity of both groups in flood risk management through identifying synergies, sharing knowledge, and strengthen partnerships between universities and different stakeholders(mainly water professionals). The specific objectives are to develop; a) Development of a dynamic and active tool that allows all target-groups/users to assess their knowledge about flood risk management. b) Development of an innovative, active and problem-based learning methodology for flood risk education and training. c)Development of flood related Vocational Education & Training (VET) modules for water professionals (involving the students to gain practical experience). This will include some modules for undergraduate students on flood risk management and protection.

  2. 77 FR 44650 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42 U.S.C. 4104, and 44 CFR 67.4(a). These... sciences established to review conflicting scientific and technical data and provide recommendations for... Richmond Street, Giddings, TX 78942. Town of Lexington City Hall, 604 Wheatley Street, Lexington, TX...

  3. 78 FR 78995 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42 U.S.C. 4104, and 44 CFR 67.4(a). These... sciences established to review conflicting scientific and technical data and provide recommendations for... preliminaryfloodhazarddata City of Richmond City Hall, 50 North 5th Street, Richmond, IN 47374. Town of Cambridge City...

  4. 76 FR 8978 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42 U.S.C. 4104, and 44 CFR 67.4(a). These.... Approximate None +287 ly 1,000 feet upstream of the most upstream State Highway 2017 crossing Pennypack...

  5. 76 FR 5769 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42 U.S.C. 4104, and 44 CFR 67.4(a). These..., KS 66090. City of White Cloud Maps are available for inspection at City Hall, 2017 Main Street,...

  6. 76 FR 39011 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42 U.S.C. 4104, and 44 CFR part 67. FEMA has... Maps are available for inspection at 311 West Main Street, Bozeman, MT 59771. Wood County, Ohio, and... downstream of State Wood County. Highway 51. At State Highway 51...... + 609 Maumee River At the Lucas...

  7. 78 FR 36217 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1325, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42 U.S.C. 4104, and 44 CFR 67.4(a)....

  8. 78 FR 32678 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500... notification. This final notice is issued in accordance with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act... Narragansett Town Hall, Engineering Department, 25 5th Avenue, Narragansett, RI 02882. Town of New Shoreham...

  9. 78 FR 32679 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1309, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42 U.S.C. 4104, and 44 CFR 67.4(a)....

  10. 78 FR 36222 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ..., identified by Docket No. FEMA-B-1326, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal..., Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and Mitigation Administration, FEMA, 500 C Street SW... section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42 U.S.C. 4104, and 44 CFR 67.4(a)....

  11. 78 FR 20341 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... Docket No. FEMA-B-1303, to Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management Branch, Federal Insurance and....Rodriguez3@fema.dhs.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Luis Rodriguez, Chief, Engineering Management... the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42 U.S.C. 4104, and 44 CFR 67.4(a). These proposed...

  12. Farms adaptation to changes in flood risk: a management approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivot, Jean-Marc; Martin, Philippe

    2002-10-01

    Creating flood expansion areas e.g. for the protection of urban areas from flooding involves a localised increase in risk which may require farmers to be compensated for crop damage or other losses. With this in mind, the paper sets out the approach used to study the problem and gives results obtained from a survey of farms liable to flooding in central France. The approach is based on a study of decisions made by farmers in situations of uncertainty, using the concept of 'model of action'. The results show that damage caused to farming areas by flooding should be considered both at field level and at farm level. The damage caused to the field depends on the flood itself, the fixed characteristics of the field, and the plant species cultivated. However, the losses to the farm taken as a whole can differ considerably from those for the flooded field, due to 'knock-on' effects on farm operations which depend on the internal organization, the availability of production resources, and the farmer's objectives, both for the farm as a whole and for its individual enterprises. Three main strategies regarding possible flood events were identified. Reasons for choosing one of these include the way the farmer perceives the risk and the size of the area liable to flooding. Finally, the formalisation of farm system management in the face of uncertainty, especially due to flooding, enables compensation to be calculated for farmers whose land is affected by the creation of flood expansion areas.

  13. Modeling and analysis of the vertical roots distribution in levees - a case study of the third Rhone correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianetta, Ivan; Schwarz, Massimiliano; Glenz, Christian; Lammeranner, Walter

    2013-04-01

    In recent years the effects of roots on river banks and levees have been the subject of major discussions. The main issue about the presence of woody vegetation on levees is related to the possibility that roots increase internal erosion processes and the superimposed load of large trees compromise the integrity of these structures. However, ecologists and landscape managers argue that eliminating the natural vegetation from the riverbanks also means eliminating biotopes, strengthening anthropisation of the landscape, as well as limiting recreations areas. In the context of the third correction of the Rhone in Switzerland, the discussion on new levee geometries and the implementation of woody vegetation on them, lead to a detailed analysis of this issue for this specific case. The objective of this study was to describe quantitatively the processes and factors that influence the root distribution on levees and test modeling approaches for the simulation of vertical root distribution with laboratory and field data. An extension of an eco-hydrological analytic model that considers climatic and pedological condition for the quantification of vertical root distribution was validated with data provided by the University of Vienna (BOKU) of willows' roots (Salix purpurea) grown under controlled conditions. Furthermore, root distribution data of four transversal sections of a levee near Visp (canton Wallis, Switzerland) was used to validate the model. The positions of the levee's sections were chosen based on the species and dimensions of the woody vegetation. The dominant species present in the sections were birch (Betula pendula) and poplar (Populus nigra). For each section a grid of 50x50 cm was created to count and measure the roots. The results show that vertical distribution of root density under controlled growing conditions has an exponential form, decreasing with increasing soil depth, and can be well described by the eco-hydrological model. Vice versa, field

  14. Flood Warning and Forecasting System in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leskova, Danica

    2016-04-01

    In 2015, it finished project Flood Warning and Forecasting System (POVAPSYS) as part of the flood protection in Slovakia till 2010. The aim was to build POVAPSYS integrated computerized flood forecasting and warning system. It took a qualitatively higher level of output meteorological and hydrological services in case of floods affecting large territorial units, as well as local flood events. It is further unfolding demands on performance and coordination of meteorological and hydrological services, troubleshooting observation, evaluation of data, fast communication, modeling and forecasting of meteorological and hydrological processes. Integration of all information entering and exiting to and from the project POVAPSYS provides Hydrological Flood Forecasting System (HYPOS). The system provides information on the current hydrometeorological situation and its evolution with the generation of alerts and notifications in case of exceeding predefined thresholds. HYPOS's functioning of the system requires flawless operability in critical situations while minimizing the loss of its key parts. HYPOS is a core part of the project POVAPSYS, it is a comprehensive software solutions based on a modular principle, providing data and processed information including alarms, in real time. In order to achieve full functionality of the system, in proposal, we have put emphasis on reliability, robustness, availability and security.

  15. RASOR flood modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, Joost; Buckman, Lora; Bachmann, Daniel; Visser, Martijn; Tollenaar, Daniel; Vatvani, Deepak; Kramer, Nienke; Goorden, Neeltje

    2015-04-01

    Decision making in disaster management requires fast access to reliable and relevant information. We believe that online information and services will become increasingly important in disaster management. Within the EU FP7 project RASOR (Rapid Risk Assessment and Spatialisation of Risk) an online platform is being developed for rapid multi-hazard risk analyses to support disaster management anywhere in the world. The platform will provide access to a plethora of GIS data that are relevant to risk assessment. It will also enable the user to run numerical flood models to simulate historical and newly defined flooding scenarios. The results of these models are maps of flood extent, flood depths and flow velocities. The RASOR platform will enable to overlay historical event flood maps with observations and Earth Observation (EO) imagery to fill in gaps and assess the accuracy of the flood models. New flooding scenarios can be defined by the user and simulated to investigate the potential impact of future floods. A series of flood models have been developed within RASOR for selected case study areas around the globe that are subject to very different flood hazards: • The city of Bandung in Indonesia, which is prone to fluvial flooding induced by heavy rainfall. The flood hazard is exacerbated by land subsidence. • The port of Cilacap on the south coast of Java, subject to tsunami hazard from submarine earthquakes in the Sunda trench. • The area south of city of Rotterdam in the Netherlands, prone to coastal and/or riverine flooding. • The island of Santorini in Greece, which is subject to tsunamis induced by landslides. Flood models have been developed for each of these case studies using mostly EO data, augmented by local data where necessary. Particular use was made of the new TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement) product from the German Aerospace centre (DLR) and EADS Astrium. The presentation will describe the flood models and the

  16. Geohazards (floods and landslides) in the Ndop plain, Cameroon volcanic line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wotchoko, Pierre; Bardintzeff, Jacques-Marie; Itiga, Zénon; Nkouathio, David Guimolaire; Guedjeo, Christian Suh; Ngnoupeck, Gerald; Dongmo, Armand Kagou; Wandji, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    The Ndop Plain, located along the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL), is a volcano-tectonic plain, formed by a series of tectonic movements, volcanic eruptions and sedimentation phases. Floods (annually) and landslides (occasionally) occur with devastating environmental effects. However, this plain attracts a lot of inhabitants owing to its fertile alluvial soils. With demographic explosion in the plain, the inhabitants (143,000 people) tend to farm and inhabit new zones which are prone to these geohazards. In this paper, we use field observations, laboratory analyses, satellite imagery and complementary methods using appropriate software to establish hazard (flood and landslide) maps of the Ndop Plain. Natural factors as well as anthropogenic factors are considered. The hazard maps revealed that 25% of the area is exposed to flood hazard (13% exposed to high flood hazard, 12% to moderate) and 5% of the area is exposed to landslide hazard (2% exposed to high landslide hazard, 3% to moderate). Some mitigation measures for floods (building of artificial levees, raising foundations of buildings and the meticulous regulation of the flood guards at Bamendjing Dam) and landslides (slope terracing, planting of trees, and building retaining walls) are proposed.

  17. Estimating magnitude and frequency of floods using the PeakFQ 7.0 program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veilleux, Andrea G.; Cohn, Timothy A.; Flynn, Kathleen M.; Mason, Jr., Robert R.; Hummel, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    Flood-frequency analysis provides information about the magnitude and frequency of flood discharges based on records of annual maximum instantaneous peak discharges collected at streamgages. The information is essential for defining flood-hazard areas, for managing floodplains, and for designing bridges, culverts, dams, levees, and other flood-control structures. Bulletin 17B (B17B) of the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data (IACWD; 1982) codifies the standard methodology for conducting flood-frequency studies in the United States. B17B specifies that annual peak-flow data are to be fit to a log-Pearson Type III distribution. Specific methods are also prescribed for improving skew estimates using regional skew information, tests for high and low outliers, adjustments for low outliers and zero flows, and procedures for incorporating historical flood information. The authors of B17B identified various needs for methodological improvement and recommended additional study. In response to these needs, the Advisory Committee on Water Information (ACWI, successor to IACWD; http://acwi.gov/, Subcommittee on Hydrology (SOH), Hydrologic Frequency Analysis Work Group (HFAWG), has recommended modest changes to B17B. These changes include adoption of a generalized method-of-moments estimator denoted the Expected Moments Algorithm (EMA) (Cohn and others, 1997) and a generalized version of the Grubbs-Beck test for low outliers (Cohn and others, 2013). The SOH requested that the USGS implement these changes in a user-friendly, publicly accessible program.

  18. Effect of Sampling Period on Flood Frequency Distributions in the Susquehanna Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargar, M.; Beighley, R. E.

    2010-12-01

    Flooding is a devastating natural hazard that claims many human lives and significantly impact regional economies each year. Given the magnitude of flooding impacts, significant resources are dedicated to the development of forecasting models for early warning and evacuation planning, construction of flood defenses (levees/dams) to limit flooding, and the design of civil infrastructure (bridges, culverts, storm sewers) to convey flood flows without failing. In all these cases, it is particularly important to understand the potential flooding risk in terms of both recurrence interval (i.e., return period) and magnitude. Flood frequency analysis (FFA) is a form of risk analysis used to extrapolate the return periods of floods beyond the gauged record. The technique involves using observed annual peak flow discharge data to calculate statistical information such as mean values, standard deviations, skewness, and recurrence intervals. Since discharge data for most catchments have been collected for periods of time less than 100 years, the estimation of the design discharge requires a degree of extrapolation. This study focuses on the assessment and modifications of flood frequency based discharges for sites with limited sampling periods. Here, limited sampling period is intended to capture two issues: (1) limited number of observations to adequately capture the flood frequency signal (i.e., minimum number of annual peaks needed) and (2) climate variability (i.e., sampling period contains primarily “wet” or “dry” periods only). Total of 34 gauges (more than 70 years of data) spread throughout the Susquehanna River basin (71,000 sq km) were used to investigate the impact of sampling period on flood frequency distributions. Data subsets ranging from 10 years to the total number of years available were created from the data for each gauging station. To estimate the flood frequency, the Log Pearson Type III distribution was fit to the logarithms of instantaneous

  19. Flood of September 3, 1972, in Hillsboro, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waite, Loyd A.

    1973-01-01

    Four deaths, two persons seriously injured, and property damage estimated at $846,500 resulted from a flood that struck the village of Hillsboro, N. Mex. during the early morning hours of September 3, 1972. Hillsboro is situated at the confluence of Percha Creek and its main tributary, North Percha Creek. Heavy rainfall in the drainage basin upstream from Hillsboro occurred during the night of September 2-3. Peak discharge computed by slope-area measurements indicated that Percha Creek carried a maximum flow of 12,200 cubic feet per second (346 cubic meters per second) and that North Percha Creek carried a flow of 20,900 cubic feet per second (592 cubic meters per second) at points just upstream from Hillsboro. Flood-control facilities in Hillsboro consisting of levees on the south bank of Percha Creek failed and flood waters reached depths of 6 feet (1.8 meters) in Hillsboro. Hillsboro was declared a disaster area by Governor Bruce King and by President Richard Nixon.

  20. The Thames Gateway: planning policy and flood risk scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldridge, Jillian; Horn, Diane

    2010-05-01

    The Thames Gateway, currently Europe's largest regeneration project, presents a valuable case study area in which to examine the interrelated issues of planning policy, flood risk and insurance loss potential. The region is typified by a significant exposure to flooding due to its location, which as developments proceed, could result in increased areas of vulnerability with consequential insurance loss and hotspots of risk. With 160,000 new homes planned by 2016, positive use of planning policy is fundamental in minimising potential flood risk as well as ensuring long term economic and social goals can be met. This project focuses on several planning scenarios within the Gateway for the areas of Barking and Medway, and models flood risk using a commercial flood model to develop the flood risk under alternative planning policy scenarios. The two areas chosen demonstrate major regeneration and redevelopment sites located on Thames tidal floodplain. The areas are protected by flood defences although are both downstream of the Thames Barrier. However, it is expected that defences will be maintained and upgraded over the next several years, particularly in the Medway, which is currently protected to a lower level than most other areas in the Thames Gateway. The progress of development is more advanced in Barking with the major regeneration site, Barking Riverside, hosting 2000 new homes. The study sites have been chosen based on their location and proximity to the Thames and allow for an analysis of planning policy and its influence in minimising risk into the future. The reflected change in flood risk due to both the planned developments and flood defences will help to understand change in risk over time and the intricacies expected with delivering planning policy in a multi-governed area subject to conflicting objectives. Flood risk for both sites are modelled using a commercial flood model to estimate flood risk based on several flood scenarios for both current and

  1. Flood Summary Report, Nooksack, Skagit and Snohomish River Basins November 1990 Events

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-18

    elevation of Avenue "A", with a staff gauge reading of 3.5 feet above flood stage. b. The Stilliguamish from Stanwood to Oso was observed. C. Russ...River. Mr. Sass accompanied COE personnel as they continued to inspect levees and a washed out bridge downstream to Oso . Two bridges might qualify for...how bmTOM underrnined by walor Mod roads Hervue affected by landslides now cleared. SlWkormnmn Mum Lem break cmW Carnation flooft in Slowsh River

  2. Erosional and depositional patterns associated with the 1993 Missouri River floods inferred from SIR-C and TOPSAR radar data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izenberg, N.R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Brackett, R.A.; Saatchi, S.S.; Osburn, G.R.; Dohrenwend, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Missouri River floods of 1993 caused significant and widespread damage to the floodplains between Kansas City and St. Louis. Immediately downstream of levee breaks, flood waters scoured the bottoms. As the floodwaters continued, they spread laterally and deposited massive amounts of sand as crevasse splays on top of agricultural fields. We explore the use of radar interferometry and backscatter data for quantitative estimation of scour and deposition for Jameson Island/Arrow Rock Bottoms and Lisbon Bottoms, two bottoms that were heavily damaged during the floods and subsequently abandoned. Shuttle imaging radar C (SIR-C) L band (24 cm) HH (horizontally transmitted and horizontally received) radar backscatter data acquired in October 1994 were used together with a distorted Born approximation canopy scattering model to determine that the abundance of natural leafy forbs controlled the magnitude of backscatter for former agricultural fields. Forb areal density was found to be inversely correlated with thickness of sand deposited during the floods, presumably because thick sands prevented roots from reaching nutrient rich, moist bottoms soils. Using the inverse relationship, a lower bound for the mass of sand added was found to be 6.3 million metric tons over the 17 km2 study area. Digital elevation data from topographic synthetic aperture radar (TOPSAR) C band (5.6 cm) interferometric observations acquired in August 1994 were compared to a series of elevation profiles collected on the ground. Vertical errors in TOPSAR were estimated to range from 1 to 2 m, providing enough accuracy to generate an estimate of total mass (4.7 million metric tons) removed during erosion of levees and scour of the bottoms terrains. Net accretion of material to the study areas is consistent with the geologic record of major floods where sediment-laden floodwaters crested over natural levees, initially scoured into the bottoms, and then deposited sands as crevasse splays as the flows

  3. Erosional and depositional patterns associated with the 1993 Missouri River floods inferred from SIR-C and TOPSAR radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izenberg, N. R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Brackett, R. A.; Saatchi, S. S.; Osburn, G. R.; Dohrenwend, J.

    1996-10-01

    The Missouri River floods of 1993 caused significant and widespread damage to the floodplains between Kansas City and St. Louis. Immediately downstream of levee breaks, flood waters scoured the bottoms. As the floodwaters continued, they spread laterally and deposited massive amounts of sand as crevasse splays on top of agricultural fields. We explore the use of radar interferometry and backscatter data for quantitative estimation of scour and deposition for Jameson Island/Arrow Rock Bottoms and Lisbon Bottoms, two bottoms that were heavily damaged during the floods and subsequently abandoned. Shuttle imaging radar C (SIR-C) L band (24 cm) HH (horizontally transmitted and horizontally received) radar backscatter data acquired in October 1994 were used together with a distorted Born approximation canopy scattering model to determine that the abundance of natural leafy forbs controlled the magnitude of backscatter for former agricultural fields. Forb areal density was found to be inversely correlated with thickness of sand deposited during the floods, presumably because thick sands prevented roots from reaching nutrient rich, moist bottoms soils. Using the inverse relationship, a lower bound for the mass of sand added was found to be 6.3 million metric tons over the 17 km2 study area. Digital elevation data from topographic synthetic aperture radar (TOPSAR) C band (5.6 cm) interferometric observations acquired in August 1994 were compared to a series of elevation profiles collected on the ground. Vertical errors in TOPSAR were estimated to range from 1 to 2 m, providing enough accuracy to generate an estimate of total mass (4.7 million metric tons) removed during erosion of levees and scour of the bottoms terrains. Net accretion of material to the study areas is consistent with the geologic record of major floods where sediment-laden floodwaters crested over natural levees, initially scoured into the bottoms, and then deposited sands as crevasse splays as the flows

  4. The geomorphic effectiveness of a large flood on the Rio Grande in the Big Bend region: insights on geomorphic controls and post-flood geomorphic response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, David J.; Schmidt, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1940s, the Rio Grande in the Big Bend region has undergone long periods of channel narrowing, which have been occasionally interrupted by rare, large floods that widen the channel (termed a channel reset). The most recent channel reset occurred in 2008 following a 17-year period of extremely low stream flow and rapid channel narrowing. Flooding was caused by precipitation associated with the remnants of tropical depression Lowell in the Rio Conchos watershed, the largest tributary to the Rio Grande. Floodwaters approached 1500 m3/s (between a 13 and 15 year recurrence interval) and breached levees, inundated communities, and flooded the alluvial valley of the Rio Grande; the wetted width exceeding 2.5 km in some locations. The 2008 flood had the 7th largest magnitude of record, however, conveyed the largest volume of water than any other flood. Because of the narrow pre-flood channel conditions, record flood stages occurred. We used pre- and post-flood aerial photographs, channel and floodplain surveys, and 1-dimensional hydraulic models to quantify the magnitude of channel change, investigate the controls of flood-induced geomorphic changes, and measure the post-flood response of the widened channel. These analyses show that geomorphic changes included channel widening, meander migration, avulsions, extensive bar formation, and vertical floodplain accretion. Reach-averaged channel widening between 26 and 52% occurred, but in some localities exceeded 500%. The degree and style of channel response was related, but not limited to, three factors: 1) bed-load supply and transport, 2) pre-flood channel plan form, and 3) rapid declines in specific stream power downstream of constrictions and areas of high channel bed slope. The post-flood channel response has consisted of channel contraction through the aggradation of the channel bed and the formation of fine-grained benches inset within the widened channel margins. The most significant post-flood geomorphic

  5. Glacier generated floods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walder, J.S.; Fountain, A.G.; ,

    1997-01-01

    Destructive floods result from drainage of glacier-dammed lakes and sudden release of water stored within glaciers. There is a good basis - both empirical and theoretical - for predicting the magnitude of floods from ice-dammed lakes, although some aspects of flood initiation need to be better understood. In contrast, an understanding of floods resulting from release of internally stored water remains elusive, owing to lack of knowledge of how and where water is stored and to inadequate understanding of the complex physics of the temporally and spatially variable subglacial drainage system.Destructive floods result from drainage of glacier-dammed lakes and sudden release of water stored within glaciers. There is a good basis - both empirical and theoretical - for predicting the magnitude of floods from ice-dammed lakes, although some aspects of flood initiation need to be better understood. In contrast, an understanding of floods resulting from release of internally stored water remains elusive, owing to lack of knowledge of how and where water is stored and to inadequate understanding of the complex physics of the temporally and spatially variable subglacial drainage system.

  6. Discover Floods Educators Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Now available as a Download! This valuable resource helps educators teach students about both the risks and benefits of flooding through a series of engaging, hands-on activities. Acknowledging the different roles that floods play in both natural and urban communities, the book helps young people gain a global understanding of this common--and…

  7. The Spokane flood controversy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, V. R.

    1978-01-01

    An enormous plexus of proglacial channels that eroded into the loess and basalt of the Columbia Plateau, eastern Washington is studied. This channeled scabland contained erosional and depositional features that were unique among fluvial phenomena. Documentation of the field relationships of the region explains the landforms as the product of a relatively brief, but enormous flood, then so-called the Spokane flood.

  8. Structural, Material, and Geotechnical Solutions to Levee and Floodwall Construction and Retrofitting - Physical Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    Physical Modeling G eo te ch n ic al a n d S tr u ct u re s La b or at or y Wipawi Vanadit-Ellis, Eric W. Smith , Landris T. Lee, and Jared S. Case...Solutions to Levee and Floodwall Construction and Retrofitting – Physical Modeling Wipawi Vanadit-Ellis, Eric W. Smith , and Landris T. Lee...Manager for Water Resources Infrastructure. The Project Leader was Wipawi Vanadit-Ellis, assisted by Eric W. Smith , and Landris T. Lee, all of the

  9. Characterizing the impacts of water resources infrastructure, humans, and hydrologic nonstationarity on changes in flood risk across the Himalaya region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tullos, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    As flood control infrastructure reaches its design life, and climate change, population growth, and urban migration increase flood risk, the historical paradigm of store-then-release floodwaters behind rigid infrastructure is of decreasing physical and socioeconomic value. Instead, a new paradigm of sustainable flood management is emerging, which can be framed in the context of three elements that can contribute to and/or mitigate flood risk: 1) water resources infrastructure, 2) policies and socioeconomics, and 3) changing climates and land use. In this presentation, I present the results of analysis on the role of these three elements in contributing to flood risk of the Sutlej River (India) and the Koshi River (Nepal) basins for six historical flood events. The Himalaya region was selected based on the a) increasing intensity of monsoonal rains, b) increasing prevalence of glacial lake outburst floods, c) water resources management that achieves short-term development goals but lacks long-term sustainability, and d) other socio-economic, environmental, and geopolitical factors. I develop and apply a flood risk management framework that is based on metrics for characterizing the losses associated with the three elements contributing to major floods in the Himalaya region. Derived from a variety of data sources, results highlight how, across different hydrogeologic settings and various flood magnitudes, the largest influences on high flood losses are associated with inflexible water resources infrastructure and inappropriate development and flood management policies. Particularly for the most destructive events, which are generally associated with landslides and other natural hazards in this region, the effectiveness of some types of traditional and inflexible flood management infrastructure, including large dams and levees, is limited. As opposed to the probability of a particular flood event, findings illustrate the importance of the damages side of the flood

  10. Rural Community Flood Protection Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Baucus, Max [D-MT

    2011-04-13

    04/13/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Environment and Public Works. (text of measure as introduced: CR S2448) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Land-use change and floods: what do we need most, research or management?

    PubMed

    Tollan, Arne

    2002-01-01

    Land-cover change (urbanisation, deforestation, and cultivation) results in increased flood frequency and severity. Mechanisms include reduced infiltration capacity, lower soil porosity, loss of vegetation, and forest clearing, meaning lower evapotranspiration. Major research challenges lie in quantification of effects in terms of flood characteristics under various conditions, ascertaining the combined effects of gradual changes over long time periods, and developing model tools suitable for land-use management. Large floods during the 1990s gave a new focus on these problems. Reference is made to the Norwegian HYDRA research programme on human impacts on floods and flood damage. The paper concludes that land-use change effects on floods are most pronounced at small scale and for frequent flood magnitudes. Model simulations of effects of land-use change can now be used to reduce flood risk. Modern flood management strategies have abandoned the position that dams and dikes are the only answers to mitigating flood disasters. Today, the strategic approach is more often: do not keep the water away from the people, keep people away from the water. Flood management strategies should include flood warnings, efficient communication, risk awareness, civil protection and flood preparedness routines, effective land-use policies, flood risk mapping, ... as well as structural measures.

  12. 78 FR 5821 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  13. 78 FR 21143 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  14. 78 FR 52953 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  15. 78 FR 52954 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  16. 78 FR 5820 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  17. Validation of a global hydrodynamic flood inundation model against high resolution observation data of urban flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Paul; Sampson, Chris; Smith, Andy; Neal, Jeff

    2015-04-01

    In this work we present further validation results for a hyper-resolution global flood inundation model. We use a true hydrodynamic model that uses highly efficient numerical algorithms (LISFLOOD-FP) to simulate flood inundation at ~1km resolution globally and then use downscaling algorithms to determine flood extent and water depth at 3 seconds of arc spatial resolution (~90m at the equator). The global model has ~150 million cells and requires ~180 hours of CPU time for a 10 year simulation period. Terrain data are taken from a custom version of the SRTM data set that has been processed specifically for hydrodynamic modelling. Return periods of flood flows along the entire global river network are determined using: (1) empirical relationships between catchment characteristics and index flood magnitude in different hydroclimatic zones derived from global runoff data; and (2) an index flood growth curve, also empirically derived. Bankful return period flow is then used to set channel width and depth, and flood defence impacts are modelled using empirical relationships between GDP, urbanization and defence standard of protection. The results of these simulations are global flood hazard maps for a number of different return period events from 1 in 5 to 1 in 1000 years. This method has already been show to compare well to return period flood hazard maps derived from models built with high resolution and accuracy local data (Sampson et al., submitted), yet the output from the global flood model has not yet been compared to real flood observations. Whilst the spatial resolution of the global model is high given the size of the model domain, ~1km resolution is still coarse compared to the models typically used to simulate urban flooding and the data typically used to validate these (~25m or less). Comparison of the global model to real-world observations or urban flooding therefore represents an exceptionally stringent test of model skill. In this paper we therefore

  18. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  19. Iowa Flood Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, I.; Krajewski, W. F.; Goska, R.; Mantilla, R.; Weber, L. J.; Young, N.

    2011-12-01

    The Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS) is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts both short-term and seasonal, flood-related data, information and interactive visualizations for communities in Iowa. The key element of the system's architecture is the notion of community. Locations of the communities, those near streams and rivers, define basin boundaries. The IFIS provides community-centric watershed and river characteristics, weather (rainfall) conditions, and streamflow data and visualization tools. Interactive interfaces allow access to inundation maps for different stage and return period values, and flooding scenarios with contributions from multiple rivers. Real-time and historical data of water levels, gauge heights, and rainfall conditions are available in the IFIS by streaming data from automated IFC bridge sensors, USGS stream gauges, NEXRAD radars, and NWS forecasts. Simple 2D and 3D interactive visualizations in the IFIS make the data more understandable to general public. Users are able to filter data sources for their communities and selected rivers. The data and information on IFIS is also accessible through web services and mobile applications. The IFIS is optimized for various browsers and screen sizes to provide access through multiple platforms including tablets and mobile devices. The IFIS includes a rainfall-runoff forecast model to provide a five-day flood risk estimate for around 500 communities in Iowa. Multiple view modes in the IFIS accommodate different user types from general public to researchers and decision makers by providing different level of tools and details. River view mode allows users to visualize data from multiple IFC bridge sensors and USGS stream gauges to follow flooding condition along a river. The IFIS will help communities make better-informed decisions on the occurrence of floods, and will alert communities

  20. Flood Insurance in Canada: Implications for Flood Management and Residential Vulnerability to Flood Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oulahen, Greg

    2015-03-01

    Insurance coverage of damage caused by overland flooding is currently not available to Canadian homeowners. As flood disaster losses and water damage claims both trend upward, insurers in Canada are considering offering residential flood coverage in order to properly underwrite the risk and extend their business. If private flood insurance is introduced in Canada, it will have implications for the current regime of public flood management and for residential vulnerability to flood hazards. This paper engages many of the competing issues surrounding the privatization of flood risk by addressing questions about whether flood insurance can be an effective tool in limiting exposure to the hazard and how it would exacerbate already unequal vulnerability. A case study investigates willingness to pay for flood insurance among residents in Metro Vancouver and how attitudes about insurance relate to other factors that determine residential vulnerability to flood hazards. Findings indicate that demand for flood insurance is part of a complex, dialectical set of determinants of vulnerability.

  1. Flood insurance in Canada: implications for flood management and residential vulnerability to flood hazards.

    PubMed

    Oulahen, Greg

    2015-03-01

    Insurance coverage of damage caused by overland flooding is currently not available to Canadian homeowners. As flood disaster losses and water damage claims both trend upward, insurers in Canada are considering offering residential flood coverage in order to properly underwrite the risk and extend their business. If private flood insurance is introduced in Canada, it will have implications for the current regime of public flood management and for residential vulnerability to flood hazards. This paper engages many of the competing issues surrounding the privatization of flood risk by addressing questions about whether flood insurance can be an effective tool in limiting exposure to the hazard and how it would exacerbate already unequal vulnerability. A case study investigates willingness to pay for flood insurance among residents in Metro Vancouver and how attitudes about insurance relate to other factors that determine residential vulnerability to flood hazards. Findings indicate that demand for flood insurance is part of a complex, dialectical set of determinants of vulnerability.

  2. Supervised Classification Method with Efficient Filter Techniques to Detect Anomalies on Earthen Levees Using Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marapareddy, Ramakalavathi; Anastoos, James V.; Younan, Nicolas H.

    2016-08-01

    The dynamics of surface and subsurface water events can lead to slope instability resulting in slough slides or other anomalies on earthen levees. These slough slides are the primary cause for creating levee areas which are vulnerable to seepage and failure during high water events. Early detection of these anomalies by a remote sensing approach could save time versus direct assessment. In this paper, we implemented a supervised classification algorithm the minimum distance classifier with a majority filter and morphology filter for the identification of anomalies on levees using polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (polSAR) data. This study employed remote sensing data from the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL's) Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) instrument, using its fully quad-polarimetric L-band polSAR data. The study area is a section of the lower Mississippi River in the southern USA.

  3. Flood Response Along a Drainage Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meierdiercks, K. L.; Smith, J. A.; Miller, A. J.; Baeck, M.

    2007-12-01

    Flooding in urban areas is complex. As water overtops stream banks, it comes into contact with structural obstacles on the land surface, such as bridge constrictions, that dominate flow pathways. Furthermore, at small, or local, spatial scales, other hydraulic controls such as pipe surcharge and stormwater management ponds play a significant role in flood response. A major obstacle towards a better understanding of how these controls impact flood response is the scarcity of data available to characterize them. One watershed where both hydraulic and hydrologic data is available is the Dead Run watershed in Metropolitan Baltimore, Maryland. Dead Run is a research watershed of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES), part of the Long Term Ecological Research network established by the National Science Foundation. Dead Run geospatial data is available through the BES and Baltimore County; hydrologic data was collected by the authors during field campaigns in the 2003-2005 field seasons; and hydraulic information including storm drain pipes, stormwater management ponds, and bridge constrictions was digitized by the author. The availability of this data in Dead Run allows us to detail not only the impact of impervious surfaces and hydrologic forcing on flood response, but also structural aspects of the urban drainage network. In this study, we integrate the three types of observations - geospatial, hydrologic, and hydraulic - to characterize drainage network structure along Dead Run's tributaries. We use these characterizations and the Environmental Protection Agency's Stormwater Management Model (EPA SWMM) to estimate the 10- and 100-year floods over the drainage network. Analyses focus on two extreme floods in Dead Run: the 7 July 2004 and 28 June 2005 events. Results highlight the importance of incorporating drainage network structure into the models we use to predict flooding in urban environments.

  4. Development of flood index by characterisation of flood hydrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Biswa; Suman, Asadusjjaman

    2015-04-01

    In recent years the world has experienced deaths, large-scale displacement of people, billions of Euros of economic damage, mental stress and ecosystem impacts due to flooding. Global changes (climate change, population and economic growth, and urbanisation) are exacerbating the severity of flooding. The 2010 floods in Pakistan and the 2011 floods in Australia and Thailand demonstrate the need for concerted action in the face of global societal and environmental changes to strengthen resilience against flooding. Due to climatological characteristics there are catchments where flood forecasting may have a relatively limited role and flood event management may have to be trusted upon. For example, in flash flood catchments, which often may be tiny and un-gauged, flood event management often depends on approximate prediction tools such as flash flood guidance (FFG). There are catchments fed largely by flood waters coming from upstream catchments, which are un-gauged or due to data sharing issues in transboundary catchments the flow of information from upstream catchment is limited. Hydrological and hydraulic modelling of these downstream catchments will never be sufficient to provide any required forecasting lead time and alternative tools to support flood event management will be required. In FFG, or similar approaches, the primary motif is to provide guidance by synthesising the historical data. We follow a similar approach to characterise past flood hydrographs to determine a flood index (FI), which varies in space and time with flood magnitude and its propagation. By studying the variation of the index the pockets of high flood risk, requiring attention, can be earmarked beforehand. This approach can be very useful in flood risk management of catchments where information about hydro-meteorological variables is inadequate for any forecasting system. This paper presents the development of FI and its application to several catchments including in Kentucky in the USA

  5. Nogales flood detention study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, Laura M.; Levick, Lainie; Guertin, D. Phillip; Callegary, James; Guadarrama, Jesus Quintanar; Anaya, Claudia Zulema Gil; Prichard, Andrea; Gray, Floyd; Castellanos, Edgar; Tepezano, Edgar; Huth, Hans; Vandervoet, Prescott; Rodriguez, Saul; Nunez, Jose; Atwood, Donald; Granillo, Gilberto Patricio Olivero; Ceballos, Francisco Octavio Gastellum

    2010-01-01

    Flooding in Ambos Nogales often exceeds the capacity of the channel and adjacent land areas, endangering many people. The Nogales Wash is being studied to prevent future flood disasters and detention features are being installed in tributaries of the wash. This paper describes the application of the KINEROS2 model and efforts to understand the capacity of these detention features under various flood and urbanization scenarios. Results depict a reduction in peak flow for the 10-year, 1-hour event based on current land use in tributaries with detention features. However, model results also demonstrate that larger storm events and increasing urbanization will put a strain on the features and limit their effectiveness.

  6. Reconstruction of flood events based on documentary data and transnational flood risk analysis of the Upper Rhine and its French and German tributaries since AD 1480

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himmelsbach, I.; Glaser, R.; Schoenbein, J.; Riemann, D.; Martin, B.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the long-term analysis of flood occurrence along the southern part of the Upper Rhine River system and of 14 of its tributaries in France and Germany covering the period starting from 1480 BC. Special focus is given on the temporal and spatial variations of flood events and their underlying meteorological causes over time. Examples are presented of how long-term information about flood events and knowledge about the historical aspect of flood protection in a given area can help to improve the understanding of risk analysis and therefor transnational risk management. Within this context, special focus is given to flood vulnerability while comparing selected historical and modern extreme events, establishing a common evaluation scheme. The transnational aspect becomes especially evident analyzing the tributaries: on this scale, flood protection developed impressively different on the French and German sides. We argue that comparing high technological standards of flood protection, which were initiated by the dukes of Baden on the German side starting in the early 19th century, misled people to the common belief that the mechanical means of flood protection like dams and barrages can guarantee the security from floods and their impacts. This lead to widespread settlements and the establishment of infrastructure as well as modern industries in potentially unsafe areas until today. The legal status in Alsace on the French side of the Rhine did not allow for continuous flood protection measurements, leading to a constant - and probably at last annoying - reminder that the floodplains are a potentially unsafe place to be. From a modern perspective of flood risk management, this leads to a significant lower aggregation of value in the floodplains of the small rivers in Alsace compared to those on the Baden side - an interesting fact - especially if the modern European Flood directive is taken into account.

  7. Winter water; the flooding at Boise, Idaho, January 11-12, 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, Robert William; Hubbard, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    On January 11 and 12, 1979, unseasonally warm temperatures and rain on several inches of snow lying on frozen ground caused widespread flooding in and around Boise, Idaho. Streams north of Boise crested on January 11, flooding neighborhoods in and adjacent to the mountain foothills. On January 12, streams south and west of the city reached their highest stages. Flooding was confined to ground levels and basements of homes and businesses in low-lying areas. The U.S. Geological Survey made indirect measurements of peak dicharges at selected sites on streams that had the worst flooding. The peak discharges were relatively low in comparison with data from historic floods. Much more severe flooding than this event is likely to occur in the future. More data are needed on the occurrence of flooding in Boise Valley to aid in flood-protection planning. (USGS)

  8. Topographic effect on Radio-Magnetotelluric and Slingram signals: application to a levee along the Loire river, France.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duval, Rodolphe; Fauchard, Cyrille; Antoine, Raphael

    2014-05-01

    We study the influence of the topography of a levee on the electric and magnetic signals obtained with the Radio-Magnetotelluric method (RMT) and the Slingram method, respectively. For the RMT method, field measurements have been modelled with a finite element commercial software (AC/DC and Radio-Frequency modules of Comsol Multiphysics). A levee situated in Orléans (France) along the Loire river has been considered in order to design a model taking into account the skin depth and the incident wavelength. The effect of the incident electromagnetic field direction has been assessed with two different incident wave directions: BBC 5 from Salford (UK) and France-Inter from Allouis (France). The simulations highlight the tri-dimensional effects of the topography in the apparent resistivity, observed on the crest of the levee, depending on the incident field direction and topography. For the Slingram method, the magnetic field has been simulated using the AC/DC module of Comsol. The ratio of the primary magnetic field on the secondary one, received in a loop is determined above a straight levee. The study aims to show the various responses obtained in function of both vertical and horizontal coil configurations. We show that the signal also depends on the topography and the right configuration of the coils alignment with respect to the levee stretch direction. In this study, a buried gas pipe is also characterized by the two methods. Numerical modelling of 3D electromagnetic effects on geophysical signals helps to interpret the field measurements and offers to the stakeholder an optimized methodology for geophysical surveys on levees.

  9. Integrating Fluvial and Oceanic Drivers in Operational Flooding Forecasts for San Francisco Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herdman, Liv; Erikson, Li; Barnard, Patrick; Kim, Jungho; Cifelli, Rob; Johnson, Lynn

    2016-04-01

    The nine counties that make up the San Francisco Bay area are home to 7.5 million people and these communties are susceptible to flooding along the bay shoreline and inland creeks that drain to the bay. A forecast model that integrates fluvial and oceanic drivers is necessary for predicting flooding in this complex urban environment. The U.S. Geological Survey ( USGS) and National Weather Service (NWS) are developing a state-of-the-art flooding forecast model for the San Francisco Bay area that will predict watershed and ocean-based flooding up to 72 hours in advance of an approaching storm. The model framework for flood forecasts is based on the USGS-developed Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) that was applied to San Francisco Bay under the Our Coast Our Future project. For this application, we utilize Delft3D-FM, a hydrodynamic model based on a flexible mesh grid, to calculate water levels that account for tidal forcing, seasonal water level anomalies, surge and in-Bay generated wind waves from the wind and pressure fields of a NWS forecast model, and tributary discharges from the Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (RDHM), developed by the NWS Office of Hydrologic Development. The flooding extent is determined by overlaying the resulting water levels onto a recently completed 2-m digital elevation model of the study area which best resolves the extensive levee and tidal marsh systems in the region. Here we present initial pilot results of hindcast winter storms in January 2010 and December 2012, where the flooding is driven by oceanic and fluvial factors respectively. We also demonstrate the feasibility of predicting flooding on an operational time scale that incorporates both atmospheric and hydrologic forcings.

  10. Improvements in fast-response flood modeling: desktop parallel computing and domain tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Judi, David R; Mcpherson, Timothy N; Burian, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly important to have the ability to accurately forecast flooding, as flooding accounts for the most losses due to natural disasters in the world and the United States. Flood inundation modeling has been dominated by one-dimensional approaches. These models are computationally efficient and are considered by many engineers to produce reasonably accurate water surface profiles. However, because the profiles estimated in these models must be superimposed on digital elevation data to create a two-dimensional map, the result may be sensitive to the ability of the elevation data to capture relevant features (e.g. dikes/levees, roads, walls, etc...). Moreover, one-dimensional models do not explicitly represent the complex flow processes present in floodplains and urban environments and because two-dimensional models based on the shallow water equations have significantly greater ability to determine flow velocity and direction, the National Research Council (NRC) has recommended that two-dimensional models be used over one-dimensional models for flood inundation studies. This paper has shown that two-dimensional flood modeling computational time can be greatly reduced through the use of Java multithreading on multi-core computers which effectively provides a means for parallel computing on a desktop computer. In addition, this paper has shown that when desktop parallel computing is coupled with a domain tracking algorithm, significant computation time can be eliminated when computations are completed only on inundated cells. The drastic reduction in computational time shown here enhances the ability of two-dimensional flood inundation models to be used as a near-real time flood forecasting tool, engineering, design tool, or planning tool. Perhaps even of greater significance, the reduction in computation time makes the incorporation of risk and uncertainty/ensemble forecasting more feasible for flood inundation modeling (NRC 2000; Sayers et al

  11. Geophysical Characterization of the American River Levees, Sacramento, California, using Electromagnetics, Capacitively Coupled Resistivity, and DC Resistivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asch, Theodore H.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria; Burton, Bethany L.; Ball, Lyndsay B.

    2008-01-01

    A geophysical characterization of a portion of American River levees in Sacramento, California was conducted in May, 2007. Targets of interest included the distribution and thickness of sand lenses that underlie the levees and the depth to a clay unit that underlies the sand. The concern is that the erosion of these sand lenses can lead to levee failure in highly populated areas of Sacramento. DC resistivity (Geometric?s OhmMapper and Advanced Geosciences, Inc.?s SuperSting R8 systems) and electromagnetic surveys (Geophex?s GEM-2) were conducted over a 6 mile length of the levee on roads and bicycle and horse trails. 2-D inversions were conducted on all the geophysical data. The OhmMapper and SuperSting surveys produced consistent inversion results that delineated potential sand and clay units. GEM-2 apparent resistivity data were consistent with the DC inversion results. However, the GEM-2 data could not be inverted due to low electromagnetic response levels, high ambient electromagnetic noise, and large system drifts. While this would not be as large a problem in conductive terrains, it is a problem for a small induction number electromagnetic profiling system such as the GEM-2 in a resistive terrain (the sand lenses). An integrated interpretation of the geophysical data acquired in this investigation is presented in this report that includes delineation of those areas consisting of predominantly sand and those areas consisting predominantly of clay. In general, along most of this part of the American River levee system, sand lenses are located closest to the river and clay deposits are located further away from the river. The interpreted thicknesses of the detected sand deposits are variable and range from 10 ft up to 60 ft. Thus, despite issues with the GEM-2 inversion, this geophysical investigation successfully delineated sand lenses and clay deposits along the American River levee system and the approximate depths to underlying clay zones. The results of

  12. Characterizing land surface change and levee stability in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta using UAVSAR radar imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, C.; Bawden, G.; Deverel, S.; Dudas, J.; Hensley, S.

    2011-01-01

    The islands of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta have been subject to subsidence since they were first reclaimed from the estuary marshlands starting over 100 years ago, with most of the land currently lying below mean sea level. This area, which is the primary water resource of the state of California, is under constant threat of inundation from levee failure. Since July 2009, we have been imaging the area using the quad-polarimetric UAVSAR L-band radar, with eighteen data sets collected as of April 2011. Here we report results of our polarimetric and differential interferometric analysis of the data for levee deformation and land surface change. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  13. Agricultural damages and losses from ARkStorm scenario flooding in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wein, Anne; David Mitchell,; Peters, Jeff; John Rowden,; Johnny Tran,; Alessandra Corsi,; Dinitz, Laura B.

    2016-01-01

    Scientists designed the ARkStorm scenario to challenge the preparedness of California communities for widespread flooding with a historical precedence and increased likelihood under climate change. California is an important provider of vegetables, fruits, nuts, and other agricultural products to the nation. This study analyzes the agricultural damages and losses pertaining to annual crops, perennial crops, and livestock in California exposed to ARkStorm flooding. Statewide, flood damage is incurred on approximately 23% of annual crop acreage, 5% of perennial crop acreage, and 5% of livestock, e.g., dairy, feedlot, and poultry, acreage. The sum of field repair costs, forgone income, and product replacement costs span $3.7 and $7.1 billion (2009) for a range of inundation durations. Perennial crop loss estimates dominate, and the vulnerability of orchards and vineyards has likely increased with recent expansion. Crop reestablishment delays from levee repair and dewatering more than double annual crop losses in the delta islands, assuming the fragile system does not remain permanently flooded. The exposure of almost 200,000 dairy cows to ARkStorm flooding poses livestock evacuation challenges. Read More: http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/%28ASCE%29NH.1527-6996.0000174

  14. Hydraulic analysis of measures for flood mitigation in floodplain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentova, J.; Valenta, P.; Weyskrabova, L.; Dostal, T.

    2012-04-01

    The question of possible flood control and flood mitigation measures and their effects is still challenging. While the effect of purely technical flood control measures such as dams or levees is sufficiently described by using any of widely spread or more specific models, the effectiveness of close-to-nature ones (river restoration, appropriate land use, landscape structure regeneration, etc.) is not adequately verified and quantified. On that account, the benefits and feasibility of integration of the natural potential of floodplains to absorb and transform flood wave is being discussed. In addition, there are many side benefits of close-to-nature measures which are hard to evaluate and include into decision making processes. This contribution presents a part of the study related to river and floodplain restoration and revitalization measures in catchments and their flood-control effect. In the study the possibilities of using one-dimensional (HEC-RAS) and two-dimensional hydraulic mathematical models (FAST2D, DIFEM2D) of steady and unsteady flow for estimation of transformation effects of a floodplain were compared. The comparison of used models was made with respect to computed results and also to the availability of input data, mathematical stability, processes and accuracy demands and time requirements. The above mentioned methods of hydraulic modelling were applied to three case study localities in the Czech Republic. The parts of river channels and their floodplain differ in terms of morphology, river channel form and training situation and land-use. Case study areas were selected to represent the main types of floodplains within the Czech Republic for their further classification related to flood wave transformation potential. The transformation effect is compared not only for the natural state of the floodplain, but also for various theoretical scenarios in each locality. Keywords Hydraulic modelling, flood control, floodplain, storage capacity, river

  15. Hydrology, vegetation, and soils of four north Florida River flood plains with an evaluation of state and federal wetland determinations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Light, H.M.; Darst, M.R.; MacLaughlin, M.T.; Sprecher, S.W.

    1993-01-01

    A study of hydrologic conditions, vegetation, and soils was made in wetland forests of four north Florida streams from 1987 to 1990. The study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation to support State and Federal efforts to improve wetland delineation methodology in flood plains. Plant communities and soils were described and related to topographic position and long-term hydrologic conditions at 10 study plots located on 4 streams. Detailed appendixes give average duration, frequency, and depth of flooding; canopy, subcanopy, and ground-cover vegetation; and taxonomic classification, series, and profile descriptions of soils for each plot. Topographic relief, range in stage, and depth of flooding were greatest on the alluvial flood plain of the Ochlockonee River, the largest of the four streams. Soils were silty in the lower elevations of the flood plain, and tree communities were distinctly different in each topographic zone. The Aucilla River flood plain was dominated by levees and terraces with very few depressions or low backwater areas. Oaks dominated the canopy of both lower and upper terraces of the Aucilla flood plain. Telogia Creek is a blackwater stream that is a major tributary of the Ochlockonee River. Its low, wet flood plain was dominated by Wyssa ogeche (Ogeechee tupelo) trees, had soils with mucky horizons, and was inundated by frequent floods of very short duration. The St. Marks River, a spring-fed stream with high base flow, had the least topographic relief and lowest range in stage of the four streams. St. Marks soils had a higher clay content than the other streams, and limestone bedrock was relatively close to the surface. Wetland determinations of the study plots based on State and Federal regulatory criteria were evaluated. Most State and Federal wetland determinations are based primarily on vegetation and soil characteristics because hydrologic records are usually not

  16. Flood hazard assessment in areas prone to flash flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvočka, Davor; Falconer, Roger A.; Bray, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    Contemporary climate projections suggest that there will be an increase in the occurrence of high-intensity rainfall events in the future. These precipitation extremes are usually the main cause for the emergence of extreme flooding, such as flash flooding. Flash floods are among the most unpredictable, violent and fatal natural hazards in the world. Furthermore, it is expected that flash flooding will occur even more frequently in the future due to more frequent development of extreme weather events, which will greatly increase the danger to people caused by flash flooding. This being the case, there will be a need for high resolution flood hazard maps in areas susceptible to flash flooding. This study investigates what type of flood hazard assessment methods should be used for assessing the flood hazard to people caused by flash flooding. Two different types of flood hazard assessment methods were tested: (i) a widely used method based on an empirical analysis, and (ii) a new, physically based and experimentally calibrated method. Two flash flood events were considered herein, namely: the 2004 Boscastle flash flood and the 2007 Železniki flash flood. The results obtained in this study suggest that in the areas susceptible to extreme flooding, the flood hazard assessment should be conducted using methods based on a mechanics-based analysis. In comparison to standard flood hazard assessment methods, these physically based methods: (i) take into account all of the physical forces, which act on a human body in floodwater, (ii) successfully adapt to abrupt changes in the flow regime, which often occur for flash flood events, and (iii) rapidly assess a flood hazard index in a relatively short period of time.

  17. Flooding the market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Diane; McShane, Michael

    2013-11-01

    A flood insurance market with risk-based prices in the UK will only stimulate climate change adaptation if it is part of a wider strategy that includes land-use planning, building regulations and water management.

  18. Floods and Mold Growth

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Mold growth may be a problem after flooding. Excess moisture in the home is cause for concern about indoor air quality primarily because it provides breeding conditions for pests, molds and other microorganisms.

  19. Localized Flood Management

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    practitioners will cover a range of practices that can help communities build flood resilience, from small scale interventions such as rain gardens and permeable pavement to coordinated open space and floodplain preservation

  20. Japan: Tsunami Flooding

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Lingering Floods from Tohoku-oki Earthquake Tsunami     View Larger Image The March 11, 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake triggered a deadly and destructive tsunami whose impacts were felt ...

  1. Emotions, trust, and perceived risk: affective and cognitive routes to flood preparedness behavior.

    PubMed

    Terpstra, Teun

    2011-10-01

    Despite the prognoses of the effects of global warming (e.g., rising sea levels, increasing river discharges), few international studies have addressed how flood preparedness should be stimulated among private citizens. This article aims to predict Dutch citizens' flood preparedness intentions by testing a path model, including previous flood hazard experiences, trust in public flood protection, and flood risk perceptions (both affective and cognitive components). Data were collected through questionnaire surveys in two coastal communities (n= 169, n= 244) and in one river area community (n= 658). Causal relations were tested by means of structural equation modeling (SEM). Overall, the results indicate that both cognitive and affective mechanisms influence citizens' preparedness intentions. First, a higher level of trust reduces citizens' perceptions of flood likelihood, which in turn hampers their flood preparedness intentions (cognitive route). Second, trust also lessens the amount of dread evoked by flood risk, which in turn impedes flood preparedness intentions (affective route). Moreover, the affective route showed that levels of dread were especially influenced by citizens' negative and positive emotions related to their previous flood hazard experiences. Negative emotions most often reflected fear and powerlessness, while positive emotions most frequently reflected feelings of solidarity. The results are consistent with the affect heuristic and the historical context of Dutch flood risk management. The great challenge for flood risk management is the accommodation of both cognitive and affective mechanisms in risk communications, especially when most people lack an emotional basis stemming from previous flood hazard events.

  2. Environmental Consequences of the Failure of the New Orleans Levee System During Hurricane Katrina; Microbiological Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    A major oil spill occurred at the Murphy Oil Corporation in Chalmette when a storage tank slid from its foundation during the flood. To address...storage tank at the Murphy Oil Corporation site was breached and completely failed, and the entire site was flooded. Near the ERDC/EL TR-07-7 11...contaminants in the Lower Ninth Ward and the Chalmette area. Undisturbed sediment cores were collected from ditches draining the Murphy Oil

  3. Flood Risk Assessments of Architectural Heritage - Case of Changgyeonggung Palace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyosang; Kim, Ji-sung; Lee, Ho-jin

    2014-05-01

    The risk of natural disasters such as flood and earthquake has increased due to recent extreme weather events. Therefore, the necessity of the risk management system to protect architectural properties, a cultural heritage of humanity, from natural disasters has been consistently felt. The solutions for managing flood risk focusing on architectural heritage are suggested and applied to protect Changgyeonggung Palace, a major palace heritage in Seoul. After the probable rainfall scenario for risk assessment (frequency: 100 years, 200 years, and 500 years) and the scenario of a probable maximum precipitation (PMP) are made and a previous rainfall event (from July 26th to 28th in 2011) is identified, they are used for the model (HEC-HMS, SWMM) to assess flood risk of certain areas covering Changgyeonggung Palace to do flood amount. Such flood amount makes it possible to identify inundation risks based on GIS models to assess flood risk of individual architectural heritage. The results of assessing such risk are used to establish the disaster risk management system that managers of architectural properties can utilize. According to the results of assessing flood risk of Changgyeonggung Palace, inundation occurs near outlets of Changgyeonggung Palace and sections of river channel for all scenarios of flood risk but the inundation risk of major architectural properties was estimated low. The methods for assessing flood risk of architectural heritage proposed in this study and the risk management system for Changgyeonggung Palace using the methods show thorough solutions for flood risk management and the possibility of using the solutions seems high. A comprehensive management system for architectural heritage will be established in the future through the review on diverse factors for disasters.

  4. Probable maximum flood control; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeGabriele, C.E.; Wu, C.L.

    1991-11-01

    This study proposes preliminary design concepts to protect the waste-handling facilities and all shaft and ramp entries to the underground from the probable maximum flood (PMF) in the current design configuration for the proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) repository protection provisions were furnished by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR) or developed from USSR data. Proposed flood protection provisions include site grading, drainage channels, and diversion dikes. Figures are provided to show these proposed flood protection provisions at each area investigated. These areas are the central surface facilities (including the waste-handling building and waste treatment building), tuff ramp portal, waste ramp portal, men-and-materials shaft, emplacement exhaust shaft, and exploratory shafts facility.

  5. Linking the historic 2011 Mississippi River flood to coastal wetland sedimentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falcini, Federico; Khan, Nicole S.; Macelloni, Leonardo; Horton, Benjamin P.; Lutken, Carol B.; McKee, Karen L.; Santoleri, Rosalia; Colella, Simone; Li, Chunyan; Volpe, Gianluca; D’Emidio, Marco; Salusti, Alessandro; Jerolmack, Douglas J.

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands in the Mississippi River deltaic plain are deteriorating in part because levees and control structures starve them of sediment. In Spring of 2011 a record-breaking flood brought discharge on the lower Mississippi River to dangerous levels, forcing managers to divert up to 3500 m3/s-1 of water to the Atchafalaya River Basin. Here we quantify differences between the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River inundation and sediment-plume patterns using field-calibrated satellite data, and assess the impact these outflows had on wetland sedimentation. We characterize hydrodynamics and suspended sediment patterns of the Mississippi River plume using in-situ data collected during the historic flood. We show that the focused, high-momentum jet from the leveed Mississippi delivered sediment far offshore. In contrast, the plume from the Atchafalaya was more diffuse; diverted water inundated a large area; and sediment was trapped within the coastal current. Maximum sedimentation (up to several centimetres) occurred in the Atchafalaya Basin despite the larger sediment load carried by the Mississippi. Minimum accumulation occurred along the shoreline between these river sources. Our findings provide a mechanistic link between river-mouth dynamics and wetland sedimentation patterns that is relevant for plans to restore deltaic wetlands using artificial diversions.

  6. Linking the historic 2011 Mississippi River flood to coastal wetland sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcini, Federico; Khan, Nicole S.; Macelloni, Leonardo; Horton, Benjamin P.; Lutken, Carol B.; McKee, Karen L.; Santoleri, Rosalia; Colella, Simone; Li, Chunyan; Volpe, Gianluca; D'Emidio, Marco; Salusti, Alessandro; Jerolmack, Douglas J.

    2012-11-01

    Wetlands in the Mississippi River deltaic plain are deteriorating in part because levees and control structures starve them of sediment. In spring 2011 a record-breaking flood brought discharge on the lower Mississippi River to dangerous levels, forcing managers to divert up to 3,500m3s-1 of water to the Atchafalaya River Basin. Here we use field-calibrated satellite data to quantify differences in inundation and sediment-plume patterns between the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River. We assess the impact of these extreme outflows on wetland sedimentation, and use in situ data collected during the historic flood to characterize the Mississippi plume's hydrodynamics and suspended sediment. We show that a focused, high-momentum jet emerged from the leveed Mississippi, and delivered sediment far offshore. In contrast, the plume from the Atchafalaya was more diffuse; diverted water inundated a large area, and sediment was trapped within the coastal current. The largest sedimentation, of up to several centimetres, occurred in the Atchafalaya Basin despite the larger sediment load carried by the Mississippi. Sediment accumulation was lowest along the shoreline between the two river sources. We conclude that river-mouth hydrodynamics and wetland sedimentation patterns are mechanistically linked, providing results that are relevant for plans to restore deltaic wetlands using artificial diversions.

  7. Preparing for floods: flood forecasting and early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloke, Hannah

    2016-04-01

    Flood forecasting and early warning has continued to stride ahead in strengthening the preparedness phases of disaster risk management, saving lives and property and reducing the overall impact of severe flood events. For example, continental and global scale flood forecasting systems such as the European Flood Awareness System and the Global Flood Awareness System provide early information about upcoming floods in real time to various decisionmakers. Studies have found that there are monetary benefits to implementing these early flood warning systems, and with the science also in place to provide evidence of benefit and hydrometeorological institutional outlooks warming to the use of probabilistic forecasts, the uptake over the last decade has been rapid and sustained. However, there are many further challenges that lie ahead to improve the science supporting flood early warning and to ensure that appropriate decisions are made to maximise flood preparedness.

  8. Flood resilience and uncertainty in flood risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beven, K.; Leedal, D.; Neal, J.; Bates, P.; Hunter, N.; Lamb, R.; Keef, C.

    2012-04-01

    Flood risk assessments do not normally take account of the uncertainty in assessing flood risk. There is no requirement in the EU Floods Directive to do so. But given the generally short series (and potential non-stationarity) of flood discharges, the extrapolation to smaller exceedance potentials may be highly uncertain. This means that flood risk mapping may also be highly uncertainty, with additional uncertainties introduced by the representation of flood plain and channel geometry, conveyance and infrastructure. This suggests that decisions about flood plain management should be based on exceedance probability of risk rather than the deterministic hazard maps that are common in most EU countries. Some examples are given from 2 case studies in the UK where a framework for good practice in assessing uncertainty in flood risk mapping has been produced as part of the Flood Risk Management Research Consortium and Catchment Change Network Projects. This framework provides a structure for the communication and audit of assumptions about uncertainties.

  9. A Methodology For Flood Vulnerability Analysis In Complex Flood Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, R.; Martina, M. L. V.; Dottori, F.

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, flood risk management is gaining importance in order to mitigate and prevent flood disasters, and consequently the analysis of flood vulnerability is becoming a key research topic. In this paper, we propose a methodology for large-scale analysis of flood vulnerability. The methodology is based on a GIS-based index, which considers local topography, terrain roughness and basic information about the flood scenario to reproduce the diffusive behaviour of floodplain flow. The methodology synthetizes the spatial distribution of index values into maps and curves, used to represent the vulnerability in the area of interest. Its application allows for considering different levels of complexity of flood scenarios, from localized flood defence failures to complex hazard scenarios involving river reaches. The components of the methodology are applied and tested in two floodplain areas in Northern Italy recently affected by floods. The results show that the methodology can provide an original and valuable insight of flood vulnerability variables and processes.

  10. Variability in form and growth of sediment waves on turbidite channel levees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Normark, W.R.; Piper, D.J.W.; Posamentier, H.; Pirmez, C.; Migeon, S.

    2002-01-01

    Fine-grained sediment waves have been observed in many modern turbidite systems, generally restricted to the overbank depositional element. Sediment waves developed on six submarine fan systems are compared using high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, sediment core samples (including ODP drilling), multibeam bathymetry, 3D seismic-reflection imaging (including examples of burried features), and direct measurements of turbidity currents that overflow their channels. These submarine fan examples extend over more than three orders of magnitude in physical scale. The presence or absence of sediment waves is not simply a matter of either the size of the turbidite channel-levee systems or the dominant initiation process for the turbidity currents that overflow the channels to form the wave fields. Both sediment-core data and seismic-reflection profiles document the upslope migration of the wave forms, with thicker and coarser beds deposited on the up-current flank of the waves. Some wave fields are orthogonal to channel trend and were initiated by large flows whose direction was controlled by upflow morphology, whereas fields subparallel to channel levees resulted from local spillover. In highly meandering systems, sediment waves may mimic meander planform. Larger sediment waves form on channel-levee systems with thicker overflow of turbidity currents, but available data indicate that sediment waves can be maintaned during conditions of relatively thin overflow. Coarser-grained units in sediment waves are typically laminated and thin-bedded sand as much as several centimetres thick, but sand beds as thick as several tens of centimetres have been documented from both modern and buried systems. Current production of hydrocarbons from sediment-wave deposits suggests that it is important to develop criteria for recognising this overbank element in outcrop exposures and borehole data, where the wavelength of typical waves (several kilometres) generally exceeds outcrop

  11. Uncertainty and sensitivity assessment of flood risk assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Moel, H.; Aerts, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    Floods are one of the most frequent and costly natural disasters. In order to protect human lifes and valuable assets from the effect of floods many defensive structures have been build. Despite these efforts economic losses due to catastrophic flood events have, however, risen substantially during the past couple of decades because of continuing economic developments in flood prone areas. On top of that, climate change is expected to affect the magnitude and frequency of flood events. Because these ongoing trends are expected to continue, a transition can be observed in various countries to move from a protective flood management approach to a more risk based flood management approach. In a risk based approach, flood risk assessments play an important role in supporting decision making. Most flood risk assessments assess flood risks in monetary terms (damage estimated for specific situations or expected annual damage) in order to feed cost-benefit analysis of management measures. Such flood risk assessments contain, however, considerable uncertainties. This is the result from uncertainties in the many different input parameters propagating through the risk assessment and accumulating in the final estimate. Whilst common in some other disciplines, as with integrated assessment models, full uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of flood risk assessments are not so common. Various studies have addressed uncertainties regarding flood risk assessments, but have mainly focussed on the hydrological conditions. However, uncertainties in other components of the risk assessment, like the relation between water depth and monetary damage, can be substantial as well. This research therefore tries to assess the uncertainties of all components of monetary flood risk assessments, using a Monte Carlo based approach. Furthermore, the total uncertainty will also be attributed to the different input parameters using a variance based sensitivity analysis. Assessing and visualizing the

  12. Meteorology-hydrology study targets Typhoon Nari and Taipei flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiung Sui, Chung; Huang, Ching-Yuang; Tsai, Yi-Ben; Chen, Ching-Sen; Lin, Pay-Liam; Shieh, Shinn-Liang; Li, Ming-Hsu; Liou, Yuei-An; Wang, Tai-Chi Chen; Wu, Ray-Shyan; Liu, Gin-Rong; Chu, Yen-Hsyang

    Typhoon Nari struck Taiwan on 16 September 2001, taking 92 lives. Analysis reveals that the storm's heavy rains were due to warmer ocean temperatures, Nari's unique track and slow-moving speed, and the terrain of Taiwan. Analysis further suggests that the heavy rains in Nari contained many small raindrops. The typhoon rains overwhelmed existing flood protection capacities downstream of the Chi-Lung River in a part of Taipei that has no regulatory reservoirs, resulting in major flooding. Preliminary findings underscore several key issues for future study, the goal of which will be to improve quantitative precipitation estimation/prediction, hydrologic modeling, and flood prediction.

  13. Conceptual classification model for Sustainable Flood Retention Basins.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Miklas; Sadowski, Adam J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to recommend a rapid conceptual classification model for Sustainable Flood Retention Basins (SFRB) used to control runoff in a temperate climate. An SFRB is an aesthetically pleasing retention basin predominantly used for flood protection adhering to sustainable drainage and best management practices. The classification model was developed on the basis of a database of 141 SFRB using the River Rhine catchment in Baden (part of Baden-Württemberg, Germany) as a case study. It is based on an agglomerative cluster analysis and is intended to be used by engineers and scientists to adequately classify the following different types of SFRB: Hydraulic Flood Retention Basin, Traditional Flood Retention Basin, Sustainable Flood Retention Wetland, Aesthetic Flood Retention Wetland, Integrated Flood Retention Wetland and Natural Flood Retention Wetland. The selection of classification variables was supported by a principal component analysis. The identification of SFRB in the data set was based on a Ward cluster analysis of 34 weighted classification variables. Scoring tables were defined to enable the assignment of the six SFRB definitions to retention basins in the data set. The efficiency of these tables was based on a scoring system which gave the conceptual model for the example case study sites an overall efficiency of approximately 60% (as opposed to 17% by chance). This conceptual classification model should be utilized to improve communication by providing definitions for SFRB types. The classification definitions are likely to be applicable for other regions with both temperate oceanic and temperate continental climates.

  14. Snagging and Clearing for Flood Control, Snake River, Minnesota.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    range from a high of 1080F to a low of -490F. Frost-free days, as observed at the University of Minnesota Experiment Station at Crookston, Minnesota...American plum, and black willow (Salix nigra). Further away from the river a shrub layer is present consisting of chokecherry, raspberry (Rubus strigosus...flood-prone areas or erection of emergency * flood protection. 6.04 The National Weather Service currently provides area officials and local news

  15. Sediment waves on the Monterey fan levee: a preliminary physical interpretation.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Normark, W.R.; Hess, G.R.; Stow, D.A.V.; Bowen, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed survey of a 30 km2 area of abyssal-depth sediment waves associated with the levee of the Monterey fan valley shows a pattern of sinuous crests and troughs with parallel, well-bedded internal structure. Material in the upper 1 m of sediment consists predominantly of bioturbated, muddy coccolith ooze. A single thin, silty horizon can be correlated between adjoining waves. The sediment waves are considered to be formed most likely by low-velocity (10 cm/s), low-concentration turbidity flows approximately 100-800 m thick. This interpretation emphasizes the role of low-speed, low-concentration turbidity currents in the downslope movement of fine-grained material.- from Authors

  16. Decision-Support System for Mitigating Long-Term Flood Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, H. R.; van Delden, H.; Newman, J. P.; Riddell, G. A.; Zecchin, A. C.; Dandy, G. C.; Newland, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term flood risk in urban areas is expected to increase as a result of a number of factors, such as an increase in the severity of flood events due to the impact of climate change and the exposure of a larger number of people to flooding as a result of population growth. In order to facilitate the development of long-term flood mitigation plans, a framework for a decision-support system (DSS) is presented in this paper. The framework consists of an integrated model (see Figure) consisting of dynamic, spatially distributed land-use and flood inundation models. It also enables the impact of various flood mitigation strategies to be assessed, such as spatial planning, land management, structural measures (e.g. levees, changes in building codes), and community education. The framework considers a number of external drivers that are represented in the form of long-term planning scenarios. These include the impact of climate drivers on the extent of flooding via the flood inundation model and the impact of population and economic drivers on the size and distribution of the population via the land use allocation model. Using this framework, a DSS is being developed and applied to the Greater Adelaide region of South Australia. This DSS includes an intuitive, user-friendly interface for enabling different planning scenarios and mitigation portfolios to be selected, as well as temporal changes in flood risk maps under each of these scenarios to be observed. Changes in flood risk maps are investigated over a 30-year period with climate drivers represented by different representative concentration pathways, population drivers represented by different population projections and economic drivers represented by different employment rates. The impact of different combinations of mitigation measures is also investigated. The results indicate that climate, population and economic drivers have a significant impact on the temporal evolution of flood risk for the case study area

  17. Flood-plain areas of the Mississippi River, mile 866.8 to mile 888.0, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, George H.; Gue, Lowell C.

    1980-01-01

    Profiles of the regional flood, 500-year flood, and flood-protection elevation have been developed for a 21-mile reach of the Mississippi River. Areas flooded by the regional flood and by the 500-year flood were delineated by photogrammetric mapping techniques and are shown on seven large-scale map sheets. Over 1,300 acres of flood plain are included in the cities of Anoka, Champlin, Coon Rapids, Dayton, Ramsey and Elk River, and in unincorporated areas of Wright County. The flood-outline maps and flood profiles comprise data needed by local units of government to adopt, enforce, and administer flood-plain management regulations along the Mississippi River throughout the study reach. Streamflow data from two gaging stations provided the basis for definition of the regional and 500-year floods. Cross-section data obtained at 83 locations were used to develop a digital computer model of the river. Flood elevation and discharge data from the 1965 flood provided a basis for adjusting the computer model. Information relating the history of floods, formation of ice jams, and duration of flood elevations at Anoka and at Elk River are included.

  18. Improvements in the Weeding of Levee Slope of Terraced Paddy Fields with Statutory Regulation of Places of Scenic Beauty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchikawa, Yoshiyuki; Kimura, Kazuhiro; Hirata, Ayumi

    A growing number of terraced paddy fields in Japan are being conserved as cultural assets like places of scenic beauty. This has meant that the task of weeding levee slope of these terraced paddy fields has become increasingly important, not only for general maintenance of the terraced paddy fields, but also because of the impact landscape, vegetation and the surrounding environment. However, the steep gradient of the levee slope and lack of footholds mean that the workability and safety associated with this weeding work is problematic. In addition, in the event that an area has been designated as a cultural asset, there are restrictions regarding how it can be modified and local farmers are reluctant to change their traditional farming methods in such cases. This study therefore sought to clarify the actual condition of the levee slope weeding work undertaken in the places of scenic beauty Obasute Tanada district. Empirical validations of potential measures for reforming the work environment were evaluated based on the findings of this investigation. We demonstrated that it is possible to modify current work practices while still maintaining and preserving the terraced paddy fields, even in designated scenic locations. To improve the working environment for levee slope weeding, we propose creating berms to serve as footholds at the toes of slopes.

  19. The Routing and Re-Routing of Difficult Knowledge: Social Studies Teachers Encounter "When the Levees Broke"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, H. James

    2011-01-01

    The author explores the articulations of six social studies student/teachers after a viewing of "When the Levees Broke: A Requiem in Four Acts". The film, a documentary about the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina on the people in and around New Orleans, constitutes an encounter with what Deborah Britzman (1998) calls "difficult…

  20. Repair, Evaluation, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation Research Program: The Effects of Vegetation on these Structural Integrity of Sandy Levees.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    filled and spurted through channels and conduits in the levees ( Cedergren 1967). Channels left by either rotted roots or burrowing animals were...1925-1940, Boston Society of Civil Engineers, Boston, MA, pp 295-335. Cedergren , H. R. 1967. Seepage, Drainage and Flcw Nets, 1st ed., John Wiley

  1. Losses of surface runoff, total solids, and nitrogen during bermudagrass establishment on levee embankments.

    PubMed

    Burwell, Robert W; Beasley, Jeffrey S; Gaston, Lewis A; Borst, Steven M; Sheffield, Ron E; Strahan, Ron E; Munshaw, Gregg C

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient and sediment runoff from newly constructed levee embankments pose a threat to water quality during soft armor vegetation establishment. Research was initiated in 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the effect of bermudagrass ( L.) coverage and N source on nutrient and sediment runoff from levee embankments during establishment. Bermudagrass plots were seeded at 195.3 kg pure live seed ha and fertilized at 50 kg N ha using a water-soluble N source, urea or NH-NO, or slow-release N source, S-coated urea (SCU) or urea formaldehyde (UF), with controls unfertilized. Vegetative cover percentage, time until the onset of runoff, runoff volume, and total solids (TS), NO-N, and NH-N concentrations were measured from simulated and natural rainfall events for 70 d in 2008 and 56 d in 2009. Bermudagrass at 90% grass cover delayed the onset of runoff an additional 441 to 538 s and reduced runoff volumes 74 to 84% of that exhibited at 10% grass cover. Nitrogen fertilizers did not accelerate bermudagrass growth sufficiently, however, to reduce TS loading compared with unfertilized bermudagrass in either year of the study. The application of urea and SCU resulted in cumulative N losses of 2.45 and 3.13 kg ha compared with 1.59 kg ha from the unfertilized bermudagrass in 2008, and 1.73 kg ha from NH-NO vs. 0.24 kg ha from controls in 2009. Only UF increased bermudagrass establishment without increasing cumulative N losses compared with unfertilized bermudagrass. Therefore, the benefit of greater erosion and runoff resistance expected from N-accelerated vegetative growth did not occur but had the unintended consequence of higher N losses when water-soluble N and SCU fertilizers were applied.

  2. Possibilities for Using LIDAR and Photogrammetric Data Obtained with AN Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Levee Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakuła, K.; Ostrowski, W.; Szender, M.; Plutecki, W.; Salach, A.; Górski, K.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the possibilities for using an unmanned aerial system for evaluation of the condition of levees. The unmanned aerial system is equipped with two types of sensor. One is an ultra-light laser scanner, integrated with a GNSS receiver and an INS system; the other sensor is a digital camera that acquires data with stereoscopic coverage. Sensors have been mounted on the multirotor, unmanned platform the Hawk Moth, constructed by MSP company. LiDAR data and images of levees the length of several hundred metres were acquired during testing of the platform. Flights were performed in several variants. Control points measured with the use of the GNSS technique were considered as reference data. The obtained results are presented in this paper; the methodology of processing the acquired LiDAR data, which increase in accuracy when low accuracy of the navigation systems occurs as a result of systematic errors, is also discussed. The Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm, as well as measurements of control points, were used to georeference the LiDAR data. Final accuracy in the order of centimetres was obtained for generation of the digital terrain model. The final products of the proposed UAV data processing are digital elevation models, an orthophotomap and colour point clouds. The authors conclude that such a platform offers wide possibilities for low-budget flights to deliver the data, which may compete with typical direct surveying measurements performed during monitoring of such objects. However, the biggest advantage is the density and continuity of data, which allows for detection of changes in objects being monitored.

  3. Mitigating flood exposure

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, James M; McLean, Andrew; Herberman Mash, Holly B; Rosen, Alexa; Kelly, Fiona; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Youngs Jr, Georgia A; Jensen, Jessica; Bernal, Oscar; Neria, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. In 2011, following heavy winter snowfall, two cities bordering two rivers in North Dakota, USA faced major flood threats. Flooding was foreseeable and predictable although the extent of risk was uncertain. One community, Fargo, situated in a shallow river basin, successfully mitigated and prevented flooding. For the other community, Minot, located in a deep river valley, prevention was not possible and downtown businesses and one-quarter of the homes were inundated, in the city’s worst flood on record. We aimed at contrasting the respective hazards, vulnerabilities, stressors, psychological risk factors, psychosocial consequences, and disaster risk reduction strategies under conditions where flood prevention was, and was not, possible. Methods. We applied the “trauma signature analysis” (TSIG) approach to compare the hazard profiles, identify salient disaster stressors, document the key components of disaster risk reduction response, and examine indicators of community resilience. Results. Two demographically-comparable communities, Fargo and Minot, faced challenging river flood threats and exhibited effective coordination across community sectors. We examined the implementation of disaster risk reduction strategies in situations where coordinated citizen action was able to prevent disaster impact (hazard avoidance) compared to the more common scenario when unpreventable disaster strikes, causing destruction, harm, and distress. Across a range of indicators, it is clear that successful mitigation diminishes both physical and psychological impact, thereby reducing the trauma signature of the event. Conclusion. In contrast to experience of historic flooding in Minot, the city of Fargo succeeded in reducing the trauma signature by way of reducing risk through mitigation. PMID:28228985

  4. The August 2002 flood in Salzburg / Austria experience gained and lessons learned from the ``Flood of the century''?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesenegger, H.

    2003-04-01

    On the {12th} of August 2002 a low pressure system moved slowly from northern Italy towards Slovakia. It continuously carried moist air from the Mediterranean towards the northern rim of the Alps with the effect of wide-spread heavy rainfall in Salzburg and other parts of Austria. Daily precipitation amounts of 100 - 160 mm, in some parts even more, as well as rainfall intensities of 5 - 10 mm/h , combined with well saturated soils lead to a rare flood with a return period of 100 years and more. This rare hydrological event not only caused a national catastrophe with damages of several Billion Euro, but also endangered more than 200,000 people, and even killed some. As floods are dangerous, life-threatening, destructive, and certainly amongst the most frequent and costly natural disasters in terms of human hardship as well as economic loss, a great effort, therefore, has to be made to protect people against negative impacts of floods. In order to achieve this objective, various regulations in land use planning (flood maps), constructive measurements (river regulations and technical constructions) as well as flood warning systems, which are not suitable to prevent big floods, but offer in-time-warnings to minimize the loss of human lives, are used in Austria. HYDRIS (Hydrological Information System for flood forecasting in Salzburg), a modular river basin model, developed at Technical University Vienna and operated by the Hydrological Service of Salzburg, was used during the August 2002 flood providing accurate 3 to 4 hour forecasts within 3 % of the real peak discharge of the fast flowing River Salzach. The August {12^th}} flood was in many ways an exceptional, very fast happening event which took many people by surprise. At the gauging station Salzburg / Salzach (catchment area 4425 {km^2}) it took only eighteen hours from mean annual discharge (178 {m3/s}) to the hundred years flood (2300 {m3/s}). The August flood made clear, that there is a strong need for

  5. Flood-prone areas and land-use planning; selected examples from the San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waananen, Arvi O.; Limerinos, J.T.; Kockelman, W.J.; Spangle, W.E.; Blair, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    The common goal of flood-plain regulation and use is protecting life, minimizing public expenditures, and reducing flood loss. A comprehensive program combining structural and nonstructural measures can yield substantial benefits and may present a practical approach for managing a flood plain. A review of flood-plain planning, management, and regulation in the San Francisco Bay region, Calif., as shown by a study of Napa County , demonstrates complex multijurisdictional involvements. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Coastal flood events in the Maldives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadey, Matthew; Nicholls, Robert J.; Brown, Sally; Haigh, Ivan; McCabe, Maurice

    2016-04-01

    The Maldives are low lying (mostly < 1m above mean sea level) coral islands in the Indian Ocean that are threatened by coastal flooding and sea-level rise (SLR). Protection of low-lying islands and climate change adaptation is optimum where physical systems are understood, yet there is a lack of basic physical information and data about coastal flooding and its causes in the Maldives, which this study addresses. We primarily focus upon an artificial island (Hulhumalé) built 2m above mean sea level to relieve population pressure on the nearby capital Malé. Records show that two severe coastal flood events affected the islands (although not Hulhumalé) in recent decades during April 1987 and May 2007. The primary data source was time series of still water levels at 3 tide gauges which span over 800km north-south across the archipelago (covering 1987-present). Wave conditions (2006-2014) were extracted from a model hindcast, since observational records are not available. The sea-level and wave data were analysed in relation to land heights and SLR, and by applying an overtopping model. This illustrated how the fundamental cause of the 1987 and 2007 floods was south-westerly swell events with wave periods of up to 20s combined with spring tides. Overtopping simulations based upon present-day extremes and projected SLR scenarios, suggest that a relatively small variation of background still water level can drastically increase overtopping and worsen flood impacts. This is partly due to the flatness of the island, although also highlights the sensitivity of flood risk in these islands to mean SLR. In this context of extreme events, projected SLR, and population growth, we briefly discuss adaptation in the context of socio-economic and environmental change. Recommendations are made for future data collection and monitoring.

  7. Multifractal Flood Frequency Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.

    2007-12-01

    Hydrology and more generally sciences involved in water resources management, researches and technological or operational development face a fundamental difficulty: the extreme variability of hydrological fields. It clearly appears today that this variability is a function of the observation scale and yield natural hazards such as floods or droughts. The estimation of return periods for extreme precipitation and flooding events requires a model of the natural (unperturbed) statistical behaviour of the probability tails and the possible clustering (including possible long-range dependencies) of the extremes. Appropriate approaches for handling such non classical variability over wide ranges of time and space scale do exist. They are based on a fundamental property of the non-linear equations: scale invariance. Its specific framework is that of multifractals. In this framework hydrological variability builds up scale by scale leading to non-classical statistics; this provides the key element needed to better understand and predict floods. Scaling is a verifiable physical principle which can be exploited to model hydrological processes and estimate their statistics over wide ranges of space-time scales. We first present the Multifractal Flood Frequency Analysis (MFFA) tool and illustrate some results of its application to a large database (for more than 16000 selected stations over USA and Canada). We then discuss its efficiency by showing how the mean flow information - coupled with universal multifractal parametrizations with power law tails - can be used to estimate return times for extreme flood events.

  8. A Methodology to Support Decision Making in Flood Plan Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biscarini, C.; di Francesco, S.; Manciola, P.

    2009-04-01

    The focus of the present document is on specific decision-making aspects of flood risk analysis. A flood is the result of runoff from rainfall in quantities too great to be confined in the low-water channels of streams. Little can be done to prevent a major flood, but we may be able to minimize damage within the flood plain of the river. This broad definition encompasses many possible mitigation measures. Floodplain management considers the integrated view of all engineering, nonstructural, and administrative measures for managing (minimizing) losses due to flooding on a comprehensive scale. The structural measures are the flood-control facilities designed according to flood characteristics and they include reservoirs, diversions, levees or dikes, and channel modifications. Flood-control measures that modify the damage susceptibility of floodplains are usually referred to as nonstructural measures and may require minor engineering works. On the other hand, those measures designed to modify the damage potential of permanent facilities are called non-structural and allow reducing potential damage during a flood event. Technical information is required to support the tasks of problem definition, plan formulation, and plan evaluation. The specific information needed and the related level of detail are dependent on the nature of the problem, the potential solutions, and the sensitivity of the findings to the basic information. Actions performed to set up and lay out the study are preliminary to the detailed analysis. They include: defining the study scope and detail, the field data collection, a review of previous studies and reports, and the assembly of needed maps and surveys. Risk analysis can be viewed as having many components: risk assessment, risk communication and risk management. Risk assessment comprises an analysis of the technical aspects of the problem, risk communication deals with conveying the information and risk management involves the decision process

  9. Taming the Mighty Mississippi: Integrating paleo-flood data and modeling to understand the patterns and causes of extreme floods on a major river system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, Samuel; Giosan, Liviu; Jeffrey, Donnelly; Dee, Sylvia; Shen, Zhixiong

    2016-04-01

    The Mississippi River is an economic artery of the United States that is heavily managed to provide flood control and maintain a navigable shipping channel. The current system of levees and spillway structures was conceived in the early 20th century, but the ability of this system to withstand the altered hydroclimatic conditions projected for the next century is poorly understood. Here, we present initial results from a project that integrates new sedimentary records from floodplain lakes with analyses of sediment geochemistry and climate model simulations to better understand the causes of extreme floods on the lower Mississippi River. In our sedimentary paleoflood records, flood event beds are characterized by an upward fining sequence from deposition of the bedload and suspended load during overbank floods, identified here using high-resolution laser particle-size analysis and elemental composition (XRF), and dated using radioisotopes (137Cs, 210Pb, 14C) and optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) on quartz. Grain-size descriptors and elemental ratios of Zr/Fe and Fe/Rb are highly correlated, and are used alongside historical discharge records to develop a statistical model for reconstructing flood magnitude in prehistoric contexts. Geochemical analyses of sediments from the floodplains of major tributaries of the Mississippi are used to assess the systematics of 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd, 206Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb across the basin, enabling identification of the synoptic patterns of individual paleo-flood events. We investigate the dynamical drivers of past floods on the lower Mississippi using both reanalysis data and the last millennium simulation from NCAR model CESM1 to find that increased likelihoods of extreme floods on the lower Mississippi River are associated with enhanced moisture flux over midcontinental North America that is controlled by the interaction of seasonally variable soil moisture over major tributaries with inter-annual (e.g., ENSO) and

  10. Fews-Risk: A step towards risk-based flood forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Daniel; Eilander, Dirk; de Leeuw, Annemargreet; Diermanse, Ferdinand; Weerts, Albrecht; de Bruijn, Karin; Beckers, Joost; Boelee, Leonore; Brown, Emma; Hazlewood, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Operational flood prediction and the assessment of flood risk are important components of flood management. Currently, the model-based prediction of discharge and/or water level in a river is common practice for operational flood forecasting. Based on the prediction of these values decisions about specific emergency measures are made within operational flood management. However, the information provided for decision support is restricted to pure hydrological or hydraulic aspects of a flood. Information about weak sections within the flood defences, flood prone areas and assets at risk in the protected areas are rarely used in a model-based flood forecasting system. This information is often available for strategic planning, but is not in an appropriate format for operational purposes. The idea of FEWS-Risk is the extension of existing flood forecasting systems with elements of strategic flood risk analysis, such as probabilistic failure analysis, two dimensional flood spreading simulation and the analysis of flood impacts and consequences. Thus, additional information is provided to the decision makers, such as: • Location, timing and probability of failure of defined sections of the flood defence line; • Flood spreading, extent and hydraulic values in the hinterland caused by an overflow or a breach flow • Impacts and consequences in case of flooding in the protected areas, such as injuries or casualties and/or damages to critical infrastructure or economy. In contrast with purely hydraulic-based operational information, these additional data focus upon decision support for answering crucial questions within an operational flood forecasting framework, such as: • Where should I reinforce my flood defence system? • What type of action can I take to mend a weak spot in my flood defences? • What are the consequences of a breach? • Which areas should I evacuate first? This presentation outlines the additional required workflows towards risk-based flood

  11. Flood-resilient waterfront development in New York City: bridging flood insurance, building codes, and flood zoning.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Jeroen C J H; Botzen, W J Wouter

    2011-06-01

    Waterfronts are attractive areas for many-often competing-uses in New York City (NYC) and are seen as multifunctional locations for economic, environmental, and social activities on the interface between land and water. The NYC waterfront plays a crucial role as a first line of flood defense and in managing flood risk and protecting the city from future climate change and sea-level rise. The city of New York has embarked on a climate adaptation program (PlaNYC) outlining the policies needed to anticipate the impacts of climate change. As part of this policy, the Department of City Planning has recently prepared Vision 2020: New York City Comprehensive Waterfront Plan for the over 500 miles of NYC waterfront (NYC-DCP, 2011). An integral part of the vision is to improve resilience to climate change and sea-level rise. This study seeks to provide guidance for advancing the goals of NYC Vision 2020 by assessing how flood insurance, flood zoning, and building code policies can contribute to waterfront development that is more resilient to climate change.

  12. The role of Natural Flood Management in managing floods in large scale basins during extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Paul; Owen, Gareth; ODonnell, Greg; Nicholson, Alex; Hetherington, David

    2016-04-01

    There is a strong evidence database showing the negative impacts of land use intensification and soil degradation in NW European river basins on hydrological response and to flood impact downstream. However, the ability to target zones of high runoff production and the extent to which we can manage flood risk using nature-based flood management solution are less known. A move to planting more trees and having less intense farmed landscapes is part of natural flood management (NFM) solutions and these methods suggest that flood risk can be managed in alternative and more holistic ways. So what local NFM management methods should be used, where in large scale basin should they be deployed and how does flow is propagate to any point downstream? Generally, how much intervention is needed and will it compromise food production systems? If we are observing record levels of rainfall and flow, for example during Storm Desmond in Dec 2015 in the North West of England, what other flood management options are really needed to complement our traditional defences in large basins for the future? In this paper we will show examples of NFM interventions in the UK that have impacted at local scale sites. We will demonstrate the impact of interventions at local, sub-catchment (meso-scale) and finally at the large scale. These tools include observations, process based models and more generalised Flood Impact Models. Issues of synchronisation and the design level of protection will be debated. By reworking observed rainfall and discharge (runoff) for observed extreme events in the River Eden and River Tyne, during Storm Desmond, we will show how much flood protection is needed in large scale basins. The research will thus pose a number of key questions as to how floods may have to be managed in large scale basins in the future. We will seek to support a method of catchment systems engineering that holds water back across the whole landscape as a major opportunity to management water

  13. 77 FR 18842 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  14. 78 FR 5824 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  15. 77 FR 18846 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  16. 78 FR 21143 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  17. 77 FR 18839 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  18. 77 FR 18844 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  19. 78 FR 48701 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  20. 77 FR 18835 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  1. 78 FR 5822 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  2. 77 FR 74859 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  3. 78 FR 5826 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  4. 78 FR 49277 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  5. 78 FR 49278 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  6. 77 FR 18841 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  7. Impacts of dyke development in flood prone areas in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta to downstream flood hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanh Triet Nguyen, Van; Dung Nguyen, Viet; Fujii, Hideto; Kummu, Matti; Merz, Bruno; Apel, Heiko

    2016-04-01

    The Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD) plays an important role in food security and socio-economic development of the country. Being a low-lying coastal region, the VMD is particularly susceptible to both riverine and tidal floods, which provide, on (the) one hand, the basis for the rich agricultural production and the livelihood of the people, but on the other hand pose a considerable hazard depending on the severity of the floods. But despite of potentially hazardous flood, the area remain active as a rice granary due to its nutrient-rich soils and sediment input, and dense waterways, canals and the long standing experience of the population living with floods. In response to both farmers' requests and governmental plans, the construction of flood protection infrastructure in the delta progressed rapidly in the last twenty years, notably at areas prone to deep flooding, i.e. the Plain of Reeds (PoR) and Long Xuyen Quadrangle (LXQ). Triple rice cropping becomes possible in farmlands enclosed by "full-dykes", i.e. dykes strong and high enough to prevent flooding of the flood plains for most of the floods. In these protected flood plains rice can be grown even during the peak flood period (September to November). However, little is known about the possibly (and already alleged) negative impacts of this fully flood protection measure to downstream areas. This study aims at quantifying how the flood regime in the lower part of the VMD (e.g. Can Tho, My Thuan, …) has been changed in the last 2 recent "big flood" events of 2000 and 2011 due to the construction of the full-dyke system in the upper part. First, an evaluation of 35 years of daily water level data was performed in order to detect trends at key gauging stations: Kratie: upper boundary of the Delta, Tan Chau and Chau Doc: areas with full-dyke construction, Can Tho and My Thuan: downstream. Results from the Mann-Kendall (MK) test show a decreasing trend of the annual maximum water level at 3 stations Kratie, Tan

  8. Production and decomposition of forest litter fall on the Apalachicola River flood plain, Florida: Chapter B, Apalachicola River quality assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elder, John F.; Cairns, Duncan J.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of litter fall (leaves and other particulate organic material) and leaf decomposition were made on the bottom-land hardwood swamp of the Apalachicola River flood plain in 1979-80. Litter fall was collected monthly from nets located in 16 study plots. The plots represented five forest types in the swamp and levee areas of the Apalachicola River flood plain. Forty-three species of trees, vines, and other plants contributed to the total litter fall, but more than 90 percent of the leaf material originated from 12 species. Nonleaf material made up 42 percent of the total litter fall. Average litter fall was determined to be 800 grams per square meter per year, resulting in an annual deposition of 3.6 ? 105 metric tons of organic material in the 454-square-kilometer flood plain. The levee communities have less tree biomass but greater tree diversity than do swamp communities. The levee vegetation, containing less tree biomass, produces slightly more litter fall per unit of ground surface area than does the swamp vegetation. The swamps are dominated by three genera: tupelo (Nyssa), cypress (Taxodium) and ash (Fraxinus). These genera account for more than 50 percent of the total leaf fall in the flood plain, but they are the least productive, on a weight-perbiomass basis, of any of the 12 major leaf producers. Decomposition rates of leaves from five common floodplain tree species were measured using a standard leaf-bag technique. Leaf decomposition was highly species dependent. Tupelo (Nyssa spp.) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) leaves decomposed completely in 6 months when flooded by river water. Leaves of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) and diamond-leaf oak (Quercus laurifolia) were much more resistant. Water hickory (Carya aquatica) leaves showed intermediate decomposition rates. Decomposition of all species was greatly reduced in dry environments. Carbon and biomass loss rates from the leaves were nearly linear over a 6-month period, but nitrogen

  9. Proposal of global flood vulnerability scenarios for evaluating future potential flood losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Y.; Tanoue, M.; Watanabe, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Flooding is one of the most hazardous and damaging natural disasters causing serious economic loss and casualties across the world (Jongman et al., 2015). Previous studies showed that the global temperature increase affects regional weather pattern, and several general circulation model (GCM) simulations suggest the increase of flood events in both frequency and magnitude in many parts of the world (Hirabayashi et al., 2013). Effective adaptation to potential flood risks under the warming climate requires an in-depth understanding of both the physical and socioeconomic contributors of the flood risk. To assess the realistic future potential flood risk, future sophisticated vulnerability scenarios associated with the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) are necessary. In this study we propose a new future vulnerability scenarios in mortality. Our vulnerability scenarios are constructed based on the modeled flood exposure (population potentially suffered by flooding) and a past from 1980 to 2005. All the flood fatality data were classified according to four income levels (high, mid-high, mid-low and low). Our proposed scenarios have three pathways regarding to SSPs; High efficiency (HE) scenario (SSP1, SSP4 (rich country) and SSP5), Medium efficiency (ME) scenario (SSP2), and Low efficiency (LE) scenario (SSP3 and SSP4 (poor country)). The maximum mortality protection level on each category was detected by applying exponential curve fitting with offset term. Slopes in the HE scenario are assumed to be equal to slopes estimated by regression analysis in each category. The slope in the HE scenario is defined by the mean value of all countries' slope value that is approximately -0.33 mortality decreases per year. The EM-DAT mortality data shows a decreasing trend in time in almost all of the countries. Although mortalities in some countries show an increasing trend, this is because these countries were affected by once-in-hundred-years floods after 1990's. The slope in

  10. Probabilistic Flash Flood Forecasting using Stormscale Ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, J.; Gourley, J. J.; Kain, J. S.; Clark, A.; Novak, D.; Hong, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Flash flooding is one of the most costly and deadly natural hazards in the US and across the globe. The loss of life and property from flash floods could be mitigated with better guidance from hydrological models, but these models have limitations. For example, they are commonly initialized using rainfall estimates derived from weather radars, but the time interval between observations of heavy rainfall and a flash flood can be on the order of minutes, particularly for small basins in urban settings. Increasing the lead time for these events is critical for protecting life and property. Therefore, this study advances the use of quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) from a stormscale NWP ensemble system into a distributed hydrological model setting to yield basin-specific, probabilistic flash flood forecasts (PFFFs). Rainfall error characteristics of the individual members are first diagnosed and quantified in terms of structure, amplitude, and location (SAL; Wernli et al., 2008). Amplitude and structure errors are readily correctable due to their diurnal nature, and the fine scales represented by the CAPS QPF members are consistent with radar-observed rainfall, mainly showing larger errors with afternoon convection. To account for the spatial uncertainty of the QPFs, we use an elliptic smoother, as in Marsh et al. (2012), to produce probabilistic QPFs (PQPFs). The elliptic smoother takes into consideration underdispersion, which is notoriously associated with stormscale ensembles, and thus, is good for targeting the approximate regions that may receive heavy rainfall. However, stormscale details contained in individual members are still needed to yield reasonable flash flood simulations. Therefore, on a case study basis, QPFs from individual members are then run through the hydrological model with their predicted structure and corrected amplitudes, but the locations of individual rainfall elements are perturbed within the PQPF elliptical regions using Monte

  11. The Significance of the Record Length in Flood Frequency Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senarath, S. U.

    2013-12-01

    Of all of the potential natural hazards, flood is the most costly in many regions of the world. For example, floods cause over a third of Europe's average annual catastrophe losses and affect about two thirds of the people impacted by natural catastrophes. Increased attention is being paid to determining flow estimates associated with pre-specified return periods so that flood-prone areas can be adequately protected against floods of particular magnitudes or return periods. Flood frequency analysis, which is conducted by using an appropriate probability density function that fits the observed annual maximum flow data, is frequently used for obtaining these flow estimates. Consequently, flood frequency analysis plays an integral role in determining the flood risk in flood prone watersheds. A long annual maximum flow record is vital for obtaining accurate estimates of discharges associated with high return period flows. However, in many areas of the world, flood frequency analysis is conducted with limited flow data or short annual maximum flow records. These inevitably lead to flow estimates that are subject to error. This is especially the case with high return period flow estimates. In this study, several statistical techniques are used to identify errors caused by short annual maximum flow records. The flow estimates used in the error analysis are obtained by fitting a log-Pearson III distribution to the flood time-series. These errors can then be used to better evaluate the return period flows in data limited streams. The study findings, therefore, have important implications for hydrologists, water resources engineers and floodplain managers.

  12. A vulnerability function for Mediterranean flash flood risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Hübl, Johannes; Thaler, Thomas; Fuchs, Sven

    2014-05-01

    Flood risk is a major type of environmental hazard jeopardizing human development, and is usually defined as a functional relation between the hazard, such as the physical and statistical aspects of flooding (e.g. return period of a certain flow height, spatial extend of inundation), and the associated vulnerability, i.e. the exposure of people and assets to floods and the susceptibility of the elements at risk to suffer from flood damage. The assessment of vulnerability -from the quantitative point of view- expresses vulnerability as the expected degree of loss for a given element at risk as a consequence of a certain event. It is ranges on a scale from 0 (no damage) to 1 (complete destruction) and focuses on direct flood loss which is estimated by damage or loss functions. A methodology for the development of a vulnerability curve for Mediterranean flash flood risk assessment is presented. This curve is based on a relationship between the intensity of the process and the associated degree of loss of elements at risk. The computation procedure is based on a method combining spatially explicit loss data, data on the value of exposed elements at risk and data on flood intensities on an individual building scale (local scale). The developed methodology is applied for the district of East Attica in Greece, a Mediterranean region influenced by mountain and coastal characteristics of land development. The aim of the study is to provide a valuable tool for the local authorities and the decision makers, a necessary implementation of flood risk management emerging from the requirements laid down in the European Flood Directive, as well as for an assessment of potential costs emerging from future flood events in order to protect individual households.

  13. Effects of anthropogenic land-subsidence on river flood hazard: a case study in Ravenna, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carisi, Francesca; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio

    2015-04-01

    Can differential land-subsidence significantly alter the river flooding dynamics, and thus flood risk in flood prone areas? Many studies show how the lowering of the coastal areas is closely related to an increase in the flood-hazard due to more important tidal flooding and see level rise. On the contrary, the literature on the relationship between differential land-subsidence and possible alterations to riverine flood-hazard of inland areas is still sparse, while several areas characterized by significant land-subsidence rates during the second half of the 20th century experienced an intensification in both inundation magnitude and frequency. This study investigates the possible impact of a significant differential ground lowering on flood hazard in proximity of Ravenna, which is one of the oldest Italian cities, former capital of the Western Roman Empire, located a few kilometers from the Adriatic coast and about 60 km south of the Po River delta. The rate of land-subsidence in the area, naturally in the order of a few mm/year, dramatically increased up to 110 mm/year after World War II, primarily due to groundwater pumping and a number of deep onshore and offshore gas production platforms. The subsidence caused in the last century a cumulative drop larger than 1.5 m in the historical center of the city. Starting from these evidences and taking advantage of a recent digital elevation model of 10m resolution, we reconstructed the ground elevation in 1897 for an area of about 65 km2 around the city of Ravenna. We referred to these two digital elevation models (i.e. current topography and topographic reconstruction) and a 2D finite-element numerical model for the simulation of the inundation dynamics associated with several levee failure scenarios along embankment system of the river Montone. For each scenario and digital elevation model, the flood hazard is quantified in terms of water depth, speed and dynamics of the flooding front. The comparison enabled us to

  14. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    SciTech Connect

    Van Ootegem, Luc; Verhofstadt, Elsy; Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom

    2015-09-15

    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks.

  15. Epic Flooding in Georgia, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gotvald, Anthony J.; McCallum, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    Metropolitan Atlanta-September 2009 Floods The epic floods experienced in the Atlanta area in September 2009 were extremely rare. Eighteen streamgages in the Metropolitan Atlanta area had flood magnitudes much greater than the estimated 0.2-percent (500-year) annual exceedance probability. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) reported that 23 counties in Georgia were declared disaster areas due to this flood and that 16,981 homes and 3,482 businesses were affected by floodwaters. Ten lives were lost in the flood. The total estimated damages exceed $193 million (H.E. Longenecker, Federal Emergency Management Agency, written commun., November 2009). On Sweetwater Creek near Austell, Ga., just north of Interstate 20, the peak stage was more than 6 feet higher than the estimated peak stage of the 0.2-percent (500-year) flood. Flood magnitudes in Cobb County on Sweetwater, Butler, and Powder Springs Creeks greatly exceeded the estimated 0.2-percent (500-year) floods for these streams. In Douglas County, the Dog River at Ga. Highway 5 near Fairplay had a peak stage nearly 20 feet higher than the estimated peak stage of the 0.2-percent (500-year) flood. On the Chattahoochee River, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gage at Vinings reached the highest level recorded in the past 81 years. Gwinnett, De Kalb, Fulton, and Rockdale Counties also had record flooding.South Georgia March and April 2009 FloodsThe March and April 2009 floods in South Georgia were smaller in magnitude than the September floods but still caused significant damage. No lives were lost in this flood. Approximately $60 million in public infrastructure damage occurred to roads, culverts, bridges and a water treatment facility (Joseph T. McKinney, Federal Emergency Management Agency, written commun., July 2009). Flow at the Satilla River near Waycross, exceeded the 0.5-percent (200-year) flood. Flows at seven other stations in South Georgia exceeded the 1-percent (100-year) flood.

  16. Flood Hazards: Communicating Hydrology and Complexity to the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, R. R.; Blanchard, S. F.; Mason, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    Floods have a major impact on society and the environment. Since 1952, approximately 1,233 of 1,931 (64%) Federal disaster declarations were due directly to flooding, with an additional 297 due to hurricanes which had associated flooding. Although the overall average annual number of deaths due to flooding has decreased in the United States, the average annual flood damage is rising. According to the Munich Reinsurance Company in their publication “Schadenspiegel 3/2005”, during 1990s the world experienced as much as $500 billion in economic losses due to floods, highlighting the serious need for continued emphasis on flood-loss prevention measures. Flood-loss prevention has two major elements: mitigation (including structural flood-control measures and land-use planning and regulation) and risk awareness. Of the two, increasing risk awareness likely offers the most potential for protecting lives over the near-term and long-term sustainability in the coming years. Flood-risk awareness and risk-aware behavior is dependent on communication, involving both prescriptive and educational measures. Prescriptive measures (for example, flood warnings and stormwater ordinances) are and have been effective, but there is room for improvement. New communications technologies, particularly social media utilizing mobile, smart phones and text devices, for example, could play a significant role in increasing public awareness of long-term risk and near-term flood conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), for example, the Federal agency that monitors the Nation’s rivers, recently released a new service that can better connect the to the public to information about flood hazards. The new service, WaterAlert (URL: http://water.usgs.gov/wateralert/), allows users to set flood notification thresholds of their own choosing for any USGS real-time streamgage. The system then sends emails or text messages to subscribers whenever the threshold conditions are met, as often as the

  17. Summary of floods in the United States during 1969

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, J.K.

    1975-01-01

    The most outstanding floods in the United States during 1969 are described in chronological order. The areas most seriously affected by flooding were: Central and southern California (January and February); the upper Midwestern States of North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Illinois (April); north-central Ohio (July); Mississippi, Alabama, and Virginia (Hurricane Camille in August); and Florida and Georgia (September). Severe floods in central and southern California were caused by three storms during January and February. At least 60 lives were lost. Homes and property were destroyed or damaged, by rainstorms, floods, and mudflows. Many floods approached or exceeded the maximum known. The severe flood damage was due partly to recent home construction in floodprone areas. The April floods in the upper Midwestern States of North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Illinois were expected because of a large accumulation of snow containing as much as 8 inches of water. Flood-protection procedures, together with cool temperatures, had a mitigating effect on the flood. The floods were the largest since the late 1800's, and their recurrence intervals exceeded 50 years at many of the gaged sites. Estimates of flood damage were about $147 million. More than a million acres of rich agricultural land were inundated, thousands of culverts and bridges were washed out, 23,000 people were forced from their homes and 11 lives were lost in the six-State flood area. Intense rainstorms and wind with gusts as much as 100 miles per hour, July 4-5, caused record floods in north-central Ohio, July 4-8. The storm and floods left trees uprooted, more than $66 million in damage, and 41 deaths. In many places the floods were the largest of record. Together with the wind and rainstorm, the hydrologic conditions were among the most significant experienced in the area. Hurricane Camille was the most intense hurricane on record to enter the United States

  18. The interplay between human population dynamics and flooding in Bangladesh: a spatial analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Baldassarre, G.; Yan, K.; Ferdous, MD. R.; Brandimarte, L.

    2014-09-01

    In Bangladesh, socio-economic and hydrological processes are both extremely dynamic and inter-related. Human population patterns are often explained as a response, or adaptation strategy, to physical events, e.g. flooding, salt-water intrusion, and erosion. Meanwhile, these physical processes are exacerbated, or mitigated, by diverse human interventions, e.g. river diversion, levees and polders. In this context, this paper describes an attempt to explore the complex interplay between floods and societies in Bangladeshi floodplains. In particular, we performed a spatially-distributed analysis of the interactions between the dynamics of human settlements and flood inundation patterns. To this end, we used flooding simulation results from inundation modelling, LISFLOOD-FP, as well as global datasets of population distribution data, such as the Gridded Population of the World (20 years, from 1990 to 2010) and HYDE datasets (310 years, from 1700 to 2010). The outcomes of this work highlight the behaviour of Bangladeshi floodplains as complex human-water systems and indicate the need to go beyond the traditional narratives based on one-way cause-effects, e.g. climate change leading to migrations.

  19. Management of hazardous waste at RCRA facilities during the flood of `93 -- Methods used and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, T.; Jacko, R.B.

    1996-11-01

    During the summer of 1993, the state of Iowa experienced severe flooding that caused the release of many hazardous materials into the environment. Six months after the flood, the Iowa section of the RCRA branch, US EPA Region 7, sent inspectors to survey every RCRA facility in Iowa. Information was gathered through questionnaires to determine the flood`s impact and to learn potential lessons that could be beneficial in future flood disasters. The objective of this project was to use the information gathered to determine effective storage methods and emergency procedures for handling hazardous material during flood disasters. Additional data were obtained through record searches, phone interviews, and site visits. Data files and statistics were analyzed, then the evident trends and specific insights observed were utilized to create recommendations for RCRA facilities in the flood plain and for the federal EPA and state regulatory agencies. The recommendations suggest that RCRA regulated facilities in the flood plain should: employ the safest storage methods possible; have a flood emergency plan that includes the most effective release prevention available; and take advantage of several general suggestions for flood protection. The recommendations suggest that the federal EPA and state regulatory agencies consider: including a provision requiring large quantity generators of hazardous waste in the flood plain to include flood procedures in the contingency plans; establishing remote emergency storage areas during the flood disasters; encouraging small quantity generators (SQGs) within the flood plain to establish flood contingency plans; and promoting sound flood protection engineering practices for all RCRA facilities in the flood plain.

  20. Evaluation of the use of reach transmissivity to quantify leakage beneath Levee 31N, Miami-Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nemeth, Mark S.; Wilcox, Walter M.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.

    2000-01-01

    A coupled ground- and surface-water model (MODBRANCH) was developed to estimate ground-water flow beneath Levee 31N in Miami-Dade County, Florida, and to simulate hydrologic conditions in the surrounding area. The study included compilation of data from monitoring stations, measurement of vertical seepage rates in wetlands, and analysis of the hydrogeologic properties of the ground-water aquifer within the study area. In addition, the MODBRANCH code was modified to calculate the exchange between surface-water channels and ground water using a relation based on the concept of reach transmissivity. The modified reach-transmissivity version of the MODBRANCH code was successfully tested on three simple problems with known analytical solutions. It was also tested and determined to function adequately on one field problem that had previously been solved using the unmodified version of the software. The modified version of MODBRANCH was judged to have performed satisfactorily, and it required about 60 percent as many iterations to reach a solution. Additionally, its input parameters are more physically-based and less dependent on model-grid spacing. A model of the Levee 31N area was developed and used with the original and modified versions of MODBRANCH, which produced similar output. The mean annual modeled ground-water heads differed by only 0.02 foot, and the mean annual canal discharge differed by less than 1.0 cubic foot per second. Seepage meters were used to quantify vertical seepage rates in the Everglades wetlands area west of Levee 31N. A comparison between results from the seepage meters and from the computer model indicated substantial differences that seemed to be a result of local variations in the hydraulic properties in the topmost part of the Biscayne aquifer. The transmissivity of the Biscayne aquifer was estimated to be 1,400,000 square feet per day in the study area. The computer model was employed to simulate seepage of ground water beneath Levee 31N