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Sample records for flood protection levees

  1. The influence of woody plants on the seepage of flood protection levees: Experiences from a test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammeranner, W.; Meixner, H.; Florineth, F.

    2009-04-01

    The past flood events have once more drawn the attention to the stability and maintenance of flood protection levees. The attention has also been focused on the relationship between vegetation and the structural integrity of dikes. Current standards regard dense turf to be safest vegetation cover for dikes. Many guidelines ban woody vegetation from dikes and levees to provide structural integrity, visual inspection and unhindered flood-fight access. The refusal of woody plants is mainly based on the argument that root penetration of woody plants facilitates water movement along their path. Within the frame of a research project carried out by the Institute of Soil Bioengineering and Landscape Construction (University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna), focusing on woody plants on levees, the effects of small to medium growing woody (shrubby) plants on the seepage are tested. Data are drawn from two natural-scaled research levees. The homogenous levees consist of a mineral silt-sand-gravel and have a fill height of 2.7 m and a slope inclination of 2:3. The tests investigate the impact of woody plants (living brush mattress - transversal) in comparison to compact turf (jute netting mulch seeding). Measured plant parameters, characterising the vegetation structures were shoot lengths, shoot diameters, and above ground biomass. Root growth is investigated in an extra plot area allowing excavation of the plants. Percolation is monitored using seepage monitoring pipes, soil moisture sensors and soil temperature probes, which were build into the embankment during construction. The proposed contribution discusses the effects of woody plants (shrubs) on seepage of flood protection levees. Methodology of research and results after three initial seepage tests are presented.

  2. Evidence of an Emerging Disturbance of Earthen Levees Causing Disastrous Floods in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlandini, S.; Moretti, G.; Albertson, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    A levee failure occurred along the Secchia River, Northern Italy, on January 19, 2014, resulting in flood damage in excess of $500 Million (Figure). In response to this failure, immediate surveillance of other levees in the region led to the identification of a second breach developing on the neighboring Panaro River, where rapid mitigation efforts were successful in averting a full levee failure. The paired breach events that occurred along the Secchia and Panaro Rivers provided an excellent window on an emerging disturbance of levees and related failure mechanism. In the Secchia River, by combining the information content of photographs taken from helicopters in the early stage of breach development and 10-cm resolution aerial photographs taken in 2010 and 2012, animal burrows were found to exist in the precise levee location where the breach originated. In the Panaro River, internal erosion was observed to occur at a location where a crested porcupine den was known to exist and this erosion led to the collapse of the levee top. Evidence collected suggested that it is quite likely that the levee failure of the Secchia River was of a similar mechanism as the observed failure of the Panaro River. Detailed numerical modeling of rainfall, river flow, and variably saturated flow occurring in disturbed levees in response to complex hydroclimatic forcing indicated that the levee failure of the Secchia River may have been triggered by direct river inflow into the den system or collapse of a hypothetical den separated by a 1-m earthen wall from the levee riverside, which saturated during the hydroclimatic event. It is important to bring these processes to the attention of hydrologists and geotechnical engineers as well as to trigger an interdisciplinary discussion on habitat fragmentation and wildlife shifts due to development and climate pressures. These disturbances come together with changes in extreme events to inform the broader concern of risk analysis due to floods.

  3. Evidence of an emerging levee failure mechanism causing disastrous floods in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlandini, Stefano; Moretti, Giovanni; Albertson, John D.

    2015-10-01

    A levee failure occurred along the Secchia River, Northern Italy, on 19 January 2014, resulting in flood damage in excess of $500 million. In response to this failure, immediate surveillance of other levees in the region led to the identification of a second breach developing on the neighboring Panaro River, where rapid mitigation efforts were successful in averting a full levee failure. The paired breach events that occurred along the Secchia and Panaro Rivers provided an excellent window on an emerging levee failure mechanism. In the Secchia River, by combining the information content of photographs taken from helicopters in the early stage of breach development and 10 cm resolution aerial photographs taken in 2010 and 2012, animal burrows were found to exist in the precise levee location where the breach originated. In the Panaro River, internal erosion was observed to occur at a location where a crested porcupine den was known to exist and this erosion led to the collapse of the levee top. This paper uses detailed numerical modeling of rainfall, river flow, and variably saturated flow in the levee to explore the hydraulic and geotechnical mechanisms that were triggered along the Secchia and Panaro Rivers by activities of burrowing animals leading to levee failures. As habitats become more fragmented and constrained along river corridors, it is possible that this failure mechanism could become more prevalent and, therefore, will demand greater attention in both the design and maintenance of earthen hydraulic structures as well as in wildlife management.

  4. Aggradation of Leveed Channels and Their Flood Plains in Arroyo Bottoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, K. R.

    2005-12-01

    the emerging flood plain became dominated by silt (or clay) while the levees next to the channel remained dominated by fine or very fine sand. Furthermore, the channel and floodplain aggraded at similar rates and thus had come into geomorphic equilibrium. Vertical accretion of the channel banks, which are the flanks of channel-margin levees, was accomplished by deposition of inclined lamina and very thin beds dominated by silt that have fairly uniform thickness. This may have been promoted by rapid infiltration of stream water into the banks, filtering fine suspended sediment at the solid interface.

  5. Monitoring of levees, bridges, pipelines, and other critical infrastructure during the 2011 flooding in the Mississippi River Basin: Chapter J in 2011 floods of the central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, Brenda K.; Burton, Bethany L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Cannia, James C.; Huizinga, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    During the 2011 Mississippi River Basin flood, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated aspects of critical river infrastructure at the request of and in support of local, State, and Federal Agencies. Geotechnical and hydrographic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at numerous locations were able to provide needed information about 2011 flood effects to those managing the critical infrastructure. These data were collected and processed in a short time frame to provide managers the ability to make a timely evaluation of the safety of the infrastructure and, when needed, to take action to secure and protect critical infrastructure. Critical infrastructure surveyed by the U.S. Geological Survey included levees, bridges, pipeline crossings, power plant intakes and outlets, and an electrical transmission tower. Capacitively coupled resistivity data collected along the flood-protection levees surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City power plant (Missouri River Levee Unit R573), mapped the near-subsurface electrical properties of the levee and the materials immediately below it. The near-subsurface maps provided a better understanding of the levee construction and the nature of the lithology beneath the levee. Comparison of the capacitively coupled resistivity surveys and soil borings indicated that low-resistivity value material composing the levee generally is associated with lean clay and silt to about 2 to 4 meters below the surface, overlying a more resistive layer associated with sand deposits. In general, the resistivity structure becomes more resistive to the south and the southern survey sections correlate well with the borehole data that indicate thinner clay and silt at the surface and thicker sand sequences at depth in these sections. With the resistivity data Omaha Public Power District could focus monitoring efforts on areas with higher resistivity values (coarser-grained deposits or more loosely compacted section), which typically are

  6. Monitoring of levees, bridges, pipelines, and other critical infrastructure during the 2011 flooding in the Mississippi River Basin: Chapter J in 2011 floods of the central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, Brenda K.; Burton, Bethany L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Cannia, James C.; Huizinga, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    During the 2011 Mississippi River Basin flood, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated aspects of critical river infrastructure at the request of and in support of local, State, and Federal Agencies. Geotechnical and hydrographic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at numerous locations were able to provide needed information about 2011 flood effects to those managing the critical infrastructure. These data were collected and processed in a short time frame to provide managers the ability to make a timely evaluation of the safety of the infrastructure and, when needed, to take action to secure and protect critical infrastructure. Critical infrastructure surveyed by the U.S. Geological Survey included levees, bridges, pipeline crossings, power plant intakes and outlets, and an electrical transmission tower. Capacitively coupled resistivity data collected along the flood-protection levees surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City power plant (Missouri River Levee Unit R573), mapped the near-subsurface electrical properties of the levee and the materials immediately below it. The near-subsurface maps provided a better understanding of the levee construction and the nature of the lithology beneath the levee. Comparison of the capacitively coupled resistivity surveys and soil borings indicated that low-resistivity value material composing the levee generally is associated with lean clay and silt to about 2 to 4 meters below the surface, overlying a more resistive layer associated with sand deposits. In general, the resistivity structure becomes more resistive to the south and the southern survey sections correlate well with the borehole data that indicate thinner clay and silt at the surface and thicker sand sequences at depth in these sections. With the resistivity data Omaha Public Power District could focus monitoring efforts on areas with higher resistivity values (coarser-grained deposits or more loosely compacted section), which typically are

  7. Risk-based planning analysis for a single levee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Rui; Jachens, Elizabeth; Lund, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Traditional risk-based analysis for levee planning focuses primarily on overtopping failure. Although many levees fail before overtopping, few planning studies explicitly include intermediate geotechnical failures in flood risk analysis. This study develops a risk-based model for two simplified levee failure modes: overtopping failure and overall intermediate geotechnical failure from through-seepage, determined by the levee cross section represented by levee height and crown width. Overtopping failure is based only on water level and levee height, while through-seepage failure depends on many geotechnical factors as well, mathematically represented here as a function of levee crown width using levee fragility curves developed from professional judgment or analysis. These levee planning decisions are optimized to minimize the annual expected total cost, which sums expected (residual) annual flood damage and annualized construction costs. Applicability of this optimization approach to planning new levees or upgrading existing levees is demonstrated preliminarily for a levee on a small river protecting agricultural land, and a major levee on a large river protecting a more valuable urban area. Optimized results show higher likelihood of intermediate geotechnical failure than overtopping failure. The effects of uncertainty in levee fragility curves, economic damage potential, construction costs, and hydrology (changing climate) are explored. Optimal levee crown width is more sensitive to these uncertainties than height, while the derived general principles and guidelines for risk-based optimal levee planning remain the same.

  8. Elemental chemistry of sand-boil discharge used to trace variable pathways of seepage beneath levees during the 2011 Mississippi River flood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water samples were collected from the Mississippi River, from sand boils near the toe of the levee on the Mississippi side of the river, and from actively flowing relief wells shortly after peak stage of the 2011 Mississippi River flood. Two distinct pathways for seepage under the levee were identif...

  9. Morphological Analyses and Simulated Flood Elevations in a Watershed with Dredged and Leveed Stream Channels, Wheeling Creek, Eastern Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherwood, James M.; Huitger, Carrie A.; Ebner, Andrew D.; Koltun, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    The USGS, in cooperation with the Ohio Emergency Management Agency, conducted a study in the Wheeling Creek Basin to (1) evaluate and contrast land-cover characteristics from 2001 with characteristics from 1979 and 1992; (2) compare current streambed elevation, slope, and geometry with conditions present in the late 1980s; (3) look for evidence of channel filling and over widening in selected undredged reaches; (4) estimate flood elevations for existing conditions in both undredged and previously dredged reaches; (5) evaluate the height of the levees required to contain floods with selected recurrence intervals in previously dredged reaches; and (6) estimate flood elevations for several hypothetical dredging and streambed aggradation scenarios in undredged reaches. The amount of barren land in the Wheeling Creek watershed has decreased from 20 to 1 percent of the basin area based on land-cover characteristics from 1979 and 2001. Barren lands appear to have been converted primarily to pasture, presumably as a result of surface-mine reclamation. Croplands also decreased from 13 to 8 percent of the basin area. The combined decrease in barren lands and croplands is approximately offset by the increase in pasture. Stream-channel surveys conducted in 1987 and again in 2006 at 21 sites in four previously dredged reaches of Wheeling Creek indicate little change in the elevation, slope, and geometry of the channel at most sites. The mean change in width-averaged bed and thalweg elevations for the 21 cross sections was 0.1 feet. Bankfull widths, mean depths, and cross-sectional areas measured at 12 sites in undredged reaches were compared to estimates determined from regional equations. The mean percentage difference between measured and estimated bankfull widths was -0.2 percent, suggesting that bankfull widths in the Wheeling Creek Basin are generally about the same as regional averages for undisturbed basins of identical drainage area. For bankfull mean depth and cross

  10. 33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section... Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent...) Existing flood protection. Each Project Implementation Report shall include appropriate analyses,...

  11. 33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section... Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent...) Existing flood protection. Each Project Implementation Report shall include appropriate analyses,...

  12. 33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section... Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent...) Existing flood protection. Each Project Implementation Report shall include appropriate analyses,...

  13. 33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flood protection. 385.37 Section... Flood protection. (a) General. In accordance with section 601 of WRDA 2000, flood protection, consistent...) Existing flood protection. Each Project Implementation Report shall include appropriate analyses,...

  14. Geophysical applications for levee assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chlaib, Hussein Khalefa

    Levees are important engineering structures that build along the rivers to protect the human lives and shield the communities as well as agriculture lands from the high water level events. Animal burrows, subsurface cavities, and low density (high permeability) zones are weakness features within the levee body that increase its risk of failure. To prevent such failure, continuous monitoring of the structure integrity and early detection of the weakness features must be conducted. Application of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Capacitively Coupled Resistivity (CCR) methods were found to be very effective in assessing the levees and detect zones of weakness within the levee body. GPR was implemented using multi-frequency antennas (200, 400, and 900 MHz) with survey cart/wheel and survey vehicle. The (CCR) method was applied by using a single transmitter and three receivers. Studying the capability and the effectiveness of these methods in levee monitoring, subsurface weakness feature detection, and studying the structure integrity of levees were the main tasks of this dissertation. A set of laboratory experiments was conducted at the Geophysics Laboratory of the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR) to analyze the polarity change in GPR signals in the presence of subsurface voids and water-filled cavities. Also three full scale field expeditions at the Big Dam Bridge (BDB) Levee, Lollie Levee, and Helena Levee in Arkansas were conducted using the GPR technique. This technique was effective in detecting empty, water, and clay filled cavities as well as small scale animal burrows (small rodents). The geophysical work at BDB and Lollie Levees expressed intensive subsurface anomalies which might decrease their integrity while the Helena Levee shows less subsurface anomalies. The compaction of levee material is a key factor affecting piping phenomenon. The structural integrity of the levee partially depends on the density/compaction of the soil layers. A

  15. National Levee Database: monitoring, vulnerability assessment and management in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbetta, Silvia; Camici, Stefania; Maccioni, Pamela; Moramarco, Tommaso

    2015-04-01

    A properly designed and constructed levees system can often be an effective device for repelling floodwaters and provide barriers against inundation to protect urbanized and industrial areas. However, the delineation of flooding-prone areas and the related hydraulic hazard mapping taking account of uncertainty (Apel et al., 2008) are usually developed with a scarce consideration of the possible occurrence of levee failures along river channels (Mazzoleni et al., 2014). Indeed, it is well known that flooding is frequently the result of levee failures that can be triggered by several factors, as: (1) overtopping, (2) scouring of the foundation, (3) seepage/piping of levee body/foundation, and (4) sliding of the foundation. Among these failure mechanisms that are influenced by the levee's geometrical configuration, hydraulic conditions (e.g. river level and seepage), and material properties (e.g. permeability, cohesion, porosity, compaction), the piping caused by seepage (ICOLD, http://www.icold-cigb.org) is considered one of the most dominant levee failure mechanisms (Colleselli F., 1994; Wallingford H. R., 2003). The difficulty of estimating the hydraulic parameters to properly describe the seepage line within the body and foundation of the levee implies that the study of the critical flood wave routing is typically carried out by assuming that the levee system is undamaged during the flood event. In this context, implementing and making operational a National Levee Database (NLD), effectively structured and continuously updated, becomes fundamental to have a searchable inventory of information about levees available as a key resource supporting decisions and actions affecting levee safety. The ItaliaN LEvee Database (INLED) has been recently developed by the Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection (IRPI) for the Civil Protection Department of the Presidency of Council of Ministers. INLED has the main focus of collecting comprehensive information about

  16. Large-scale flooding analysis in the suburbs of Tokyo Metropolis caused by levee breach of the Tone River using a 2D hydrodynamic model.

    PubMed

    Hai, Pham T; Magome, J; Yorozuya, A; Inomata, H; Fukami, K; Takeuchi, K

    2010-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of climate change on flood disasters in urban areas, we applied a two dimensional finite element hydrodynamic model (2D-FEM) to simulate flood processes for the case analysis of levee breach caused by Kathleen Typhoon on 16 September 1947 in Kurihashi reach of Tone River, upstream of Tokyo area. The purpose is to use the model to simulate flood inundation processes under the present topography and land-use conditions with impending extreme flood scenarios due to climate change for mega-urban areas like Tokyo. Simulation used 100 m resolution topographic data (in PWRI), which was derived from original LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data, and levee breach hydrographic data in 1947. In this paper, we will describe the application of the model with calibration approach and techniques when applying for such fine spatial resolution in urban environments. The fine unstructured triangular FEM mesh of the model appeared to be the most capable of introducing of constructions like roads/levees in simulations. Model results can be used to generate flood mapping, subsequently uploaded to Google Earth interface, making the modeling and presentation process much comprehensible to the general public.

  17. Reintroduction of flooding and change in denitrification rates on a leveed Midwestern floodplain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, C. H.; Stanley, E.; Wilson, K.; Finlay, J.

    2005-05-01

    We examined the response of soil denitrification to a floodplain restoration project that reintroduced controlled flooding to a previously isolated 900 hectare site adjacent to the Baraboo River, Wisconsin. Monthly June-August for one year prior and two years post restoration we measured denitrification in static cores (SC μgN2O-N/kgsoil-hr) and potential denitrification in carbon and nitrate amended soil slurry samples (DEA μgN2O-N/kgsoil-hr). Rates showed high temporal and spatial variability. Individual sample SC rates ranged widely (0.00 to 16.7) with a mean value of 1.10 (SD = 3.02). DEA rates were in the same general range (0.00 to 15.0) but with a slightly higher mean (mean 1.41, comparison p<0.05). Denitrification was not highly correlated with soil nutrient content. However, the difference in rates between SC and DEA samples pre-restoration was higher than post-restoration, suggesting that denitrification was less limited after the reintroduction of flooding. Vegetation type and history of flooding were better predictors of denitrification than current soil water content. Despite large variability in measured rates, these results demonstrate that there is potential for denitrification to remove significant amounts nitrate from river systems. Management of water levels to provide adequate exchange between river and floodplain is important to this process.

  18. Combined Resistivity and Shear Wave Velocity Soil-type Estimation Beneath a Coastal Protection Levee.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo, J. M.; Goff, D.; Hayashi, K.

    2015-12-01

    Unconsolidated Holocene deltaic sediments comprise levee foundation soils in New Orleans, USA. Whereas geotechnical tests at point locations are indispensable for evaluating soil stability, the highly variable sedimentary facies of the Mississippi delta create difficulties to predict soil conditions between test locations. Combined electrical resistivity and seismic shear wave studies, calibrated to geotechnical data, may provide an efficient methodology to predict soil types between geotechnical sites at shallow depths (0- 10 m). The London Avenue Canal levee flank of New Orleans, which failed in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, 2005, presents a suitable site in which to pioneer these geophysical relationships. Preliminary cross-plots show electrically resistive, high-shear-wave velocity areas interpreted as low-permeability, resistive silt. In brackish coastal environments, low-resistivity and low-shear-wave-velocity areas may indicate both saturated, unconsolidated sands and low-rigidity clays. Via a polynomial approximation, soil sub-types of sand, silt and clay can be estimated by a cross-plot of S-wave velocity and resistivity. We confirm that existent boring log data fit reasonably well with the polynomial approximation where 2/3 of soil samples fall within their respective bounds—this approach represents a new classification system that could be used for other mid-latitude, fine-grained deltas.

  19. Spatiotemporal characteristics of flood protection level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanoue, M.; Ikeuchi, H.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Flooding is the most frequent natural hazard and its global impacts will be rising associated with climate change and socioeconomic growth. So, the understanding of the physical and spatial-temporal patterns of risk drivers (exposure, damage, and flood protection level) are required to conduct effective adaptation and reduce the negative impacts of flooding. Although the understanding of exposure and damage has greatly improved using a combination of numerical model simulation and spatiotemporal distributions of population and asset, that of flood protection level is still lacking in particular spatial patterns. Previous research clarifies its temporal variation and relationship with per-capita income, however they do not consider its spatial variation. Flood protection level was associated with geographical characteristics (e.g., soil type and tectonic zone etc). This study tried to estimate spatiotemporal of flood protection level at country level and discuss about relationship between its spatial patterns and geographical characteristics. Mortality rate (percentage of fatalities in modeled exposed population) and loss rate (percentage of losses in modeled exposed GDP) to fluvial river flooding across the world suggested by Jongmann et al. (2015) were estimated from modeled flood exposure and damage statistics taken from the International Emergency Disasters Database. The result indicated that mortality rate reduced across the world from 1990 to 2005. The degree of its reduction decreased with increasing per-capita income level. On the other hand, loss rate at high income and middle low income levels reduced, while that at middle high income and low income levels drastically increased between 1995 and 2000 due to growth economic and occurrence of serious fluvial river flooding. Spatial distribution of mortality and loss rates were high in East Asia, the western part of South America, and the eastern part of Europe. These regions seem to be corresponded to the

  20. Screening of Earthen Levees Using Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aanstoos, J. V.; O'Hara, C.; Prasad, S.; Dabbiru, L.; Nobrega, R.; Lee, M.

    2009-12-01

    Earthen levees protect large areas of populated and cultivated land in the US from flooding. As shown recently with hurricanes Katrina and Ike and the recent floods in the Midwest, the potential loss of life and property associated with the catastrophic failure of levees can be extremely large. Over the entire US, there are over 100,000 miles of levee structures of varying designs and conditions. Currently, there are limited processes in place to prioritize the monitoring of large numbers of dam and levee structures. Levee managers and federal agencies need to assess levee health rapidly with robust techniques that identify, classify and prioritize levee vulnerabilities with lower costs than traditional soil-boring programs, which can cost many of millions of dollars and provide information about the subsurface only in the immediate vicinity of a small-diameter borehole. This paper reports preliminary results of a project studying the use of airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) as an aid to the levee screening process. The SAR sensor being studied is the NASA UAVSAR (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle SAR), a fully polarimetric L-band SAR which is specifically designed to acquire airborne repeat track SAR data for differential interferometric measurements. The instrument is capable of sub-meter ground sample distance. NASA has imaged with this instrument 230 km of levees along the lower Mississippi River for use in this study. SAR interferometric mode is capable of identifying vertical displacements on the order of a few millimeters. Its multipolarization measurements can penetrate soil to as much as one meter depth. Thus it is valuable in detecting changes in levees that will be key inputs to a levee vulnerability classification system. Once vulnerable levee reaches have been identified, further actions such as more detailed examination or repairs can be focused on these higher-priority sections. We report on the use of various feature detection algorithms being applied

  1. 33 CFR 385.37 - Flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Natural System and Water Availability Consistent With the Goals and Purpose of the Plan § 385.37... enactment of section 601 of WRDA 2000; and (2) Are in accordance with applicable law, will not be reduced by... water-related needs of the region, including water supply and flood protection. As appropriate,...

  2. Mississippi River Flood of 2011 and the Activation of the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway: Observations and Modeling of a Levee Breach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, R. R.; Koenig, T. A.; McDonald, R. R.; Nelson, J. M.; Simoes, F. J.

    2011-12-01

    During 2011, record flooding has occurred in many parts of the central United States. As the flooding reached record levels for the Mississippi-Ohio River confluence at Cairo, Illinois, the 61 kilometer long and 8 kilometer wide Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway (Floodway) was activated to provide a lowering of upstream water levels through a controlled demolition of approximately 3,300 meters of levee at 10:00 PM on May 2, 2011. Prior to activation of the Floodway, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed 38 self-contained stage sensors throughout the Floodway to capture the change in water elevation through time at various locations. From April 29, 2011 to May 24, 2011, daily streamflow measurements were made upstream of the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, within the Floodway opening and outlets, and on the Mississippi River downstream of the Floodway opening. Additionally, velocity and bathymetric data were collected immediately downstream of the Floodway opening at Birds Point to characterize scour in the Floodway. The data provide a unique look at the impact of a controlled levee breach on river flows and hydraulics. The activation of the Floodway lowered the water level at Cairo, Illinois by 0.44 meters in the first 14 hours, while increasing the streamflow of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers in vicinity of Cairo, Illinois by 9,200 cubic meters per second. On May 2, prior to the activation of the Floodway, the measured combined streamflow of the upper Mississippi and Ohio Rivers at Cairo, Illinois was 52,900 cubic meters per second with the Ohio River contributing 27,700 cubic meters per second. Following the controlled breach of the Birds Point levee (immediately downstream of Cairo, Illinois on the right descending bank) the night of May 2, 2011, the measured combined streamflow at Cairo, Illinois on May 3, 2011 increased to 62,100 cubic meters per second with the Ohio River increasing to 38,100 cubic meters per second, an increase of 10

  3. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Flood plain management... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands along waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause loss of...

  4. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Flood plain management... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands along waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause loss of...

  5. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flood plain management... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands along waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause loss of...

  6. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Flood plain management... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands along waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause loss of...

  7. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Flood plain management... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands along waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause loss of...

  8. Flood protection diversification to reduce probabilities of extreme losses.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qian; Lambert, James H; Karvetski, Christopher W; Keisler, Jeffrey M; Linkov, Igor

    2012-11-01

    Recent catastrophic losses because of floods require developing resilient approaches to flood risk protection. This article assesses how diversification of a system of coastal protections might decrease the probabilities of extreme flood losses. The study compares the performance of portfolios each consisting of four types of flood protection assets in a large region of dike rings. A parametric analysis suggests conditions in which diversifications of the types of included flood protection assets decrease extreme flood losses. Increased return periods of extreme losses are associated with portfolios where the asset types have low correlations of economic risk. The effort highlights the importance of understanding correlations across asset types in planning for large-scale flood protection. It allows explicit integration of climate change scenarios in developing flood mitigation strategy.

  9. 25 CFR 286.9 - Environmental and flood disaster protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental and flood disaster protection. 286.9... BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.9 Environmental and flood disaster protection. Grant funds will not be advanced until there is assurance of compliance with any applicable provisions of the Flood...

  10. 24 CFR 574.640 - Flood insurance protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... National Flood Insurance Program and the regulations thereunder (44 CFR parts 59 through 79); or (2) Less... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Flood insurance protection. 574.640... Requirements § 574.640 Flood insurance protection. No property to be assisted under this part may be located...

  11. 25 CFR 286.9 - Environmental and flood disaster protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Environmental and flood disaster protection. 286.9... BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.9 Environmental and flood disaster protection. Grant funds will not be advanced until there is assurance of compliance with any applicable provisions of the Flood...

  12. 24 CFR 574.640 - Flood insurance protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... National Flood Insurance Program and the regulations thereunder (44 CFR parts 59 through 79); or (2) Less... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flood insurance protection. 574.640... Requirements § 574.640 Flood insurance protection. No property to be assisted under this part may be located...

  13. 25 CFR 286.9 - Environmental and flood disaster protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental and flood disaster protection. 286.9... BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.9 Environmental and flood disaster protection. Grant funds will not be advanced until there is assurance of compliance with any applicable provisions of the Flood...

  14. 24 CFR 574.640 - Flood insurance protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... National Flood Insurance Program and the regulations thereunder (44 CFR parts 59 through 79); or (2) Less... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Flood insurance protection. 574.640... Requirements § 574.640 Flood insurance protection. No property to be assisted under this part may be located...

  15. 25 CFR 286.9 - Environmental and flood disaster protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Environmental and flood disaster protection. 286.9 Section... BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.9 Environmental and flood disaster protection. Grant funds will not be advanced until there is assurance of compliance with any applicable provisions of the Flood...

  16. 24 CFR 574.640 - Flood insurance protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... National Flood Insurance Program and the regulations thereunder (44 CFR parts 59 through 79); or (2) Less... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Flood insurance protection. 574.640... Requirements § 574.640 Flood insurance protection. No property to be assisted under this part may be located...

  17. 25 CFR 286.9 - Environmental and flood disaster protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental and flood disaster protection. 286.9... BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.9 Environmental and flood disaster protection. Grant funds will not be advanced until there is assurance of compliance with any applicable provisions of the Flood...

  18. 24 CFR 574.640 - Flood insurance protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... National Flood Insurance Program and the regulations thereunder (44 CFR parts 59 through 79); or (2) Less... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Flood insurance protection. 574.640... Requirements § 574.640 Flood insurance protection. No property to be assisted under this part may be located...

  19. Geotechnical reconnaissance of the Mississippi River Delta flood-protection system after Hurricane Katrina: Chapter 3C in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luna, Ronaldo; Summers, David; Hoffman, David; Rogers, J. David; Sevi, Adam; Witt, Emitt C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the post-Hurricane Katrina conditions of the flood-protection system of levees and floodwalls that failed in the environs of the Mississippi River Delta and New Orleans, La. Damage conditions and suggested mechanisms of failure are presented from the geotechnical point of view.

  20. 33 CFR 203.51 - Levee owner's manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Maintenance Manual specified by 33 CFR 208.10(a)(10) will fulfill the requirement of providing a levee owner's... Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and...

  1. 33 CFR 203.51 - Levee owner's manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Maintenance Manual specified by 33 CFR 208.10(a)(10) will fulfill the requirement of providing a levee owner's... Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and...

  2. 33 CFR 203.51 - Levee owner's manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Maintenance Manual specified by 33 CFR 208.10(a)(10) will fulfill the requirement of providing a levee owner's... Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and...

  3. 33 CFR 203.51 - Levee owner's manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Maintenance Manual specified by 33 CFR 208.10(a)(10) will fulfill the requirement of providing a levee owner's... Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and...

  4. 33 CFR 203.51 - Levee owner's manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Maintenance Manual specified by 33 CFR 208.10(a)(10) will fulfill the requirement of providing a levee owner's... Assistance for Flood Control Works Damaged by Flood or Coastal Storm: The Corps Rehabilitation and...

  5. FLOPROS: an evolving global database of flood protection standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scussolini, Paolo; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.; Jongman, Brenden; Bouwer, Laurens M.; Winsemius, Hessel C.; de Moel, Hans; Ward, Philip J.

    2016-05-01

    With projected changes in climate, population and socioeconomic activity located in flood-prone areas, the global assessment of flood risk is essential to inform climate change policy and disaster risk management. Whilst global flood risk models exist for this purpose, the accuracy of their results is greatly limited by the lack of information on the current standard of protection to floods, with studies either neglecting this aspect or resorting to crude assumptions. Here we present a first global database of FLOod PROtection Standards, FLOPROS, which comprises information in the form of the flood return period associated with protection measures, at different spatial scales. FLOPROS comprises three layers of information, and combines them into one consistent database. The design layer contains empirical information about the actual standard of existing protection already in place; the policy layer contains information on protection standards from policy regulations; and the model layer uses a validated modelling approach to calculate protection standards. The policy layer and the model layer can be considered adequate proxies for actual protection standards included in the design layer, and serve to increase the spatial coverage of the database. Based on this first version of FLOPROS, we suggest a number of strategies to further extend and increase the resolution of the database. Moreover, as the database is intended to be continually updated, while flood protection standards are changing with new interventions, FLOPROS requires input from the flood risk community. We therefore invite researchers and practitioners to contribute information to this evolving database by corresponding to the authors.

  6. Capacitively coupled resistivity survey of the levee surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City Power Plant, June 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Bethany L.; Cannia, James C.

    2011-01-01

    This report is a release of digital data from a capacitively coupled resistivity survey conducted on June 13, 2011, on the flood-protection levees surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City power plant. The U.S. Geological Survey Crustal Geophysics and Geochemistry Science Center and the Nebraska Water Science Center performed the survey in response to a flood on the Missouri River. A single line of resistivity profiling was completed along the center line of the section of levee 573 that surrounds the power plant.

  7. Using ground penetrating radar in levee assessment to detect small scale animal burrows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chlaib, Hussein K.; Mahdi, Hanan; Al-Shukri, Haydar; Su, Mehmet M.; Catakli, Aycan; Abd, Najah

    2014-04-01

    Levees are civil engineering structures built to protect human lives, property, and agricultural lands during flood events. To keep these important structures in a safe condition, continuous monitoring must be performed regularly and thoroughly. Small rodent burrows are one of the major defects within levees; however, their early detection and repair helps in protecting levees during flooding events. A set of laboratory experiments was conducted to analyze the polarity change in GPR signals in the presence of subsurface voids and water-filled cavities. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys using multi frequency antennas (400 MHz and 900 MHz) were conducted along an 875 meter section of the Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, USA, to assess the levee's structural integrity. Many subsurface animal burrows, water-filled cavities, clay clasts, and metallic objects were investigated and identified. These anomalies were located at different depths and have different sizes. To ground truth the observations, hand dug trenches were excavated to confirm several anomalies. Results show an excellent match between GPR interpreted anomalies and the observed features. In-situ dielectric constant measurements were used to calculate the feature depths. The results of this research show that the 900 MHz antenna has more advantages over the 400 MHz antenna.

  8. Unit 3, upstream from footbridge Johnstown Local Flood Protection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 3, upstream from footbridge - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  9. FLOPROS: A global database of flood protection standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scussolini, Paolo; Aerts, Jeroen; Jongman, Brenden; Bouwer, Laurens; Winsemius, Hessel; de Moel, Hans; Ward, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Flood risk is increasing due denser population and socioeconomic activity in flood-prone areas, and to ongoing changes in climate. As emphasized in the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, we need to improve understanding of risk for developing risk-informed policies in disaster risk reduction (priority 3). While (Sub)Global flood risk models provide applicable risk information, the accuracy of their results is greatly limited by the lack of information on standards of protection to flood currently in place. Studies therefore either neglect this aspect or apply crude assumptions. Here we present a first global database of FLOod PROtection Standards, FLOPROS, that includes information at different spatial scales. It comprises three layers of information, combining them into one consistent database: 1) the Design layer contains empirical information about the actual standard of protection in place; 2) the Policy layer contains intended protection standards from normative documents; 3) the Model layer uses a validated numerical approach to calculate protection standards for the areas otherwise not covered. FLOPROS can be used by entities conducting risk assessment across scales to produce more reliable results, and also to monitor progress in flood protection standards, as required by the Sendai Framework. We invite the risk community to participate in strategies to further extend and increase resolution and accuracy of this first version of FLOPROS. As the database should be continually updated to reflect new interventions, we invite researchers and practitioners to contribute information.

  10. Protecting Coastal Areas from Flooding by Injecting Solids into the Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germanovich, L. N.; Murdoch, L.

    2008-12-01

    Subsidence and sea level rise conspire to increase the risk of flooding in coastal cities throughout the world, and these processes were key contributors to the devastation of New Orleans by hurricane Katrina. Constructing levees and placing fill to raise ground elevations are currently the main options for reducing flooding risks in coastal areas, and both of these options have drawbacks. We suggest that hydromechanical injection of solid compounds suspended in liquid can be used to lift the ground surface and thereby expand the options for protecting such coastal cities as New Orleans, Venice, and Shanghai from flooding. These techniques are broadly related to hydraulic fracturing and compensation grouting, where solid compounds are injected as slurries and cause upward displacements at the ground surface. The equipment and logistics required for hydromechanical solid injection and ground lifting are readily available from current geotechnical and petroleum operations. Hydraulic fractures are routinely created in the upper tens of meters of sediments, where they are filled with a wide range of different proppants for environmental applications. At shallow depths, many of these fractures are sub-parallel to the ground surface and lift their overburden by a few mm to cm, although lifting is not the objective of these fractures. Much larger, vertical displacements, of the order of several meters, could be created in low-cohesion sediments over areas as large as square kilometers. This would be achieved as a result of multiple injections. Injecting solid particulates provides the benefits of a permanent displacement supported by the solids. We have demonstrated that hydraulic fractures will lift the ground surface at shallow depths in Texas near the Sabine River, where the geological setting is generally similar to that of New Orleans (and where, incidentally, hurricane Rita landed in 2005). In these regions, the soft surficial sediments are underlain by relatively

  11. Flood Bypass Capacity Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siclari, A.; Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Large river flows can damage adjacent flood-prone areas, by exceeding river channel and levee capacities. Particularly large floods are difficult to contain in leveed river banks alone. Flood bypasses often can efficiently reduce flood risks, where excess river flow is diverted over a weir to bypasses, that incur much less damage and cost. Additional benefits of bypasses include ecosystem protection, agriculture, groundwater recharge and recreation. Constructing or expanding an existing bypass costs in land purchase easements, and levee setbacks. Accounting for such benefits and costs, this study develops a simple mathematical model for optimizing flood bypass capacity using benefit-cost and risk analysis. Application to the Yolo Bypass, an existing bypass along the Sacramento River in California, estimates optimal capacity that economically reduces flood damage and increases various benefits, especially for agriculture. Land availability is likely to limit bypass expansion. Compensation for landowners could relax such limitations. Other economic values could affect the optimal results, which are shown by sensitivity analysis on major parameters. By including land geography into the model, location of promising capacity expansions can be identified.

  12. Levee Health Monitoring With Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. E.; Bawden, G. W.; Deverel, S. J.; Dudas, J.; Hensley, S.; Yun, S.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing offers the potential to augment current levee monitoring programs by providing rapid and consistent data collection over large areas irrespective of the ground accessibility of the sites of interest, at repeat intervals that are difficult or costly to maintain with ground-based surveys, and in rapid response to emergency situations. While synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has long been used for subsidence measurements over large areas, applying this technique directly to regional levee monitoring is a new endeavor, mainly because it requires both a wide imaging swath and fine spatial resolution to resolve individual levees within the scene, a combination that has not historically been available. Application of SAR remote sensing directly to levee monitoring has only been attempted in a few pilot studies. Here we describe how SAR remote sensing can be used to assess levee conditions, such as seepage, drawing from the results of two levee studies: one of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta levees in California that has been ongoing since July 2009 and a second that covered the levees near Vicksburg, Mississippi, during the spring 2011 floods. These studies have both used data acquired with NASA's UAVSAR L-band synthetic aperture radar, which has the spatial resolution needed for this application (1.7 m single-look), sufficiently wide imaging swath (22 km), and the longer wavelength (L-band, 0.238 m) required to maintain phase coherence between repeat collections over levees, an essential requirement for applying differential interferometry (DInSAR) to a time series of repeated collections for levee deformation measurement. We report the development and demonstration of new techniques that employ SAR polarimetry and differential interferometry to successfully assess levee health through the quantitative measurement of deformation on and near levees and through detection of areas experiencing seepage. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta levee study, which covers

  13. A global, open-source database of flood protection standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scussolini, Paolo; Aerts, Jeroen; Jongman, Brenden; Bouwer, Laurens; Winsemius, Hessel; de Moel, Hans; Ward, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Accurate flood risk estimation is pivotal in that it enables risk-informed policies in disaster risk reduction, as emphasized in the recent Sendai framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. To improve our understanding of flood risk, models are now capable to provide actionable risk information on the (sub)global scale. Still the accuracy of their results is greatly limited by the lack of information on standards of protection to flood that are actually in place; and researchers thus take large assumptions on the extent of protection. With our work we propose a first global, open-source database of FLOod PROtection Standards, FLOPROS, covering a range of spatial scales. FLOPROS is structured in three layers of information, and merges them into one consistent database: 1) the Design layer contains empirical information about the standard of protection presently in place; 2) the Policy layer contains intended protection standards from normative documents; 3) the Model layer uses a validated numerical approach to calculate protection standards for areas not covered in the other layers. The FLOPROS database can be used for more accurate risk assessment exercises across scales. As the database should be continually updated to reflect new interventions, we invite researchers and practitioners to contribute information. Further, we look for partners within the risk community to participate in additional strategies to implement the amount and accuracy of information contained in this first version of FLOPROS.

  14. Information support systems for cultural heritage protection against flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedvedova, K.; Pergl, R.

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this paper is to present use of different kind of software applications to create complex support system for protection of cultural heritage against flooding. The project is very complex and it tries to cover the whole area of the problem from prevention to liquidation of aftermath effects. We used GIS for mapping the risk areas, ontology systems for vulnerability assessment application and the BORM method (Business Object Relation Modelling) for flood protection system planning guide. Those modern technologies helped us to gather a lot of information in one place and provide the knowledge to the broad audience.

  15. When the levee breaks - public policy and holistic risk management - lessons from Katrina for coastal cities faced with rising storm surge flood risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muir-Wood, R.

    2009-04-01

    In a period of accelerating sea level rise and increased tropical cyclone intensities, extreme 100 year coastal flood levels are rising rapidly along a number of tropical and subtropical coastlines. Meanwhile, whether from natural megadelta consolidation, post glacial rebound or overpumping of shallow aquifers, many coastal cities are sinking even faster than mean sea level is rising. Without significant investment in continually improved flood defence inevitably this means the risk of catastrophic flooding is rising, for many cities quite steeply. The experience of Hurricane Katrina and New Orleans may become seen as iconic for 21st Century catastrophe risk as more and more coastal cities are subject to similar calamities. The story of New Orleans also highlights many aspects of catastrophe risk management failures before and after extreme events. The city of New Orleans had already been flooded three times by storm surges in the 100 years before Katrina. After each flood, investments were made in improved flood defences but these investments dwindled through time as there appeared to be a reduced imperative to divert money to support abstract risk reduction. Meanwhile land subsidence and rising sea levels and storm surges meant that risk levels continued to rise, until the inevitable time when the city once again was flooded. As the city increasingly sinks below mean sea level the impact of each flood has become increasingly catastrophic, both in terms of areas flooded, property damage and casualties. While a major program of investment in improved flood defences has once again followed the catastrophic 2005 flood, Federal government agencies have given no assurance that levels of flood risk will be maintained below some designated threshold long term. Therefore another cycle of rising flood risk has now started that will inevitably eventually to lead to the city becoming reflooded. This cycle can only end with the eventual abandonment of much of the city area

  16. Changes in Benefits of Flood Protection Standard under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, W. H.; Koirala, S.; Yamazaki, D.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Kanae, S.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding potential risk of river flooding under future climate scenarios might be helpful for developing risk management strategies (including mitigation, adaptation). Such analyses are typically performed at the macro scales (e.g., regional, global) where the climate model output could support (e.g., Hirabayashi et al., 2013, Arnell and Gosling, 2014). To understand the potential benefits of infrastructure upgrading as part of climate adaptation strategies, it is also informative to understand the potential impact of different flood protection standards (in terms of return periods) on global river flooding under climate change. In this study, we use a baseline period (forced by observed hydroclimate conditions) and CMIP5 model output (historic and future periods) to drive a global river routing model called CaMa-Flood (Yamazaki et al., 2011) and simulate the river water depth at a spatial resolution of 15 min x 15 min. From the simulated results of baseline period, we use the annual maxima river water depth to fit the Gumbel distribution and prepare the return period-flood risk relationship (involving population and GDP). From the simulated results of CMIP5 model, we also used the annual maxima river water depth to obtain the Gumbel distribution and then estimate the exceedance probability (historic and future periods). We apply the return period-flood risk relationship (above) to the exceedance probability and evaluate the potential risk of river flooding and changes in the benefits of flood protection standard (e.g., 100-year flood of the baseline period) from the past into the future (represented by the representative concentration pathways). In this presentation, we show our preliminary results. References: Arnell, N.W, Gosling, S., N., 2014. The impact of climate change on river flood risk at the global scale. Climatic Change 122: 127-140, doi: 10.1007/s10584-014-1084-5. Hirabayashi et al., 2013. Global flood risk under climate change. Nature Climate

  17. Natural levee formation along a large and regulated river: The Danube in the National Park Donau-Auen, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klasz, Gerhard; Reckendorfer, Walter; Gabriel, Hannes; Baumgartner, Christian; Schmalfuss, Roland; Gutknecht, Dieter

    2014-06-01

    We investigated overbank deposition and natural levee formation along the Danube east of Vienna based on airborne laserscan data (ALS) combined with historical information. The analyses of equally spaced cross sections, hypsographic curves and point elevations revealed the significance of the distance from the river bank, the floodplain width and the floodplain flow situation (inflow/outflow sections) for the spatial variability of sediment deposition. Deposition was high near the banks (natural levee formation), in wide floodplain sections and in inflow areas. The overall pattern was modified by the presence of side-channels and the micro-relief of the floodplain. From the derived sedimentation rates (averaged for the past 120 years over the reach) of about 11.0 mm yr- 1 at the natural levee and about 0.3 mm yr- 1 at the flood protection dyke, we can estimate an overbank deposit rate of 416,000 m3 yr- 1 for the entire free-flowing reach (between river-km 1921 and 1880), that is, between 18 and 20% of the annual transported suspended load. An analysis of historical cross sections showed that there was no natural levee along the riverbanks shortly after the regulation, about 100 years ago. We thus assume that natural levee formation is a consequence of the Danube regulation in the late 19th century. Under natural conditions overbank deposition was balanced and limited by side erosion and lateral channel migration. After stabilization of the banks the overbank deposits were not eroded, and distinct ‘natural’ levees formed. These levees will develop and grow further and affect flood protection and floodplain ecology. We discuss the interplay between floodplain deposition and lateral bank migration under the concept of dynamic equilibrium.

  18. Using geophysics to characterize levee stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, Laura M.

    Shallow slough slides have occurred along the river side slope of Mississippi River Levees for over sixty years. Shallow slough slides also occur along smaller levees that protect tributaries of the Mississippi River. This investigation takes place along a section of the Coldwater River Levee, a tributary levee of the Mississippi River. Field observation, soil samples, and geophysical data were collected at two field sites located on the border of Tate and Tunica County, MS. The first site consists of a developed shallow slough slide that had occurred that has not yet been repaired and the second site is a potential slide area. Electromagnetic induction and electrical resistivity tomography were the geophysical methods used to define subsurface conditions that make a levee vulnerable to failure. These electrical methods are sensitive to the electrical conductivity of the soil and therefore depend upon: soil moisture, clay content, pore size distribution as well as larger scale structures at depth such as cracks and fissures. These same physical properties of the soil are also important to assessing the vulnerability of a levee to slough slides. Soil tests and field observations were also implemented in this investigation to describe and classify the soil composition of the levee material. The problem of slough slide occurrence can potentially be reduced if vulnerabilities are located with the help of geophysical techniques.

  19. The impact of different soil bioengineering techniques on the surface erosion of levees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammeranner, W.; Meixner, H.; Florineth, F.

    2009-04-01

    The recent flood events have once more drawn attention to the stability and maintenance of river levees. Subsequently, the attention has also been focused on the prevention of erosion by hydraulic forces in case of flooding or overtopping. Vegetation can limit the soil detaching capacity of flowing water, by their retarding effects on runoff and velocity as well as the physical protection of the levee surface. At low discharge intensity vegetation stands rigid and unsubmerged, reducing velocity below required for soil particle entrainment (Coppin and Richards, 1990). At higher discharge capacities flexible vegetation tend to lay down, dissipating energy and providing resistance to scour (Henderson and Shields, 1984). Roots increase the shear strength of the soil (Schiechtl, 1980) and can create a fibrous mat that resists detachment of the surrounding soil matrix (Henderson and Shields, 1984). The erosive capacity of surface water flow is dependant to type and pattern of vegetation. The denser the vegetation, the better the soil surface is protected against erosion. Sets of regulations regard compact turf to be the best vegetation cover for river levees. A contentious issue are woody plants, and many guidelines (DIN 19712, 1997; FEMA, 2005; USACE, 2000) ban woody vegetation from levees for several reasons. So, the planting of woody plants is not an accepted policy by any agency. Within the frame of a research project carried out by the Institute of Soil Bioengineering and Landscape Construction (University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna), focusing on woody plants on levees, the effects of small to medium growing woody (shrubby) plants on erosion while hydraulic forces (overtopping) are tested. Data are drawn from two natural-scaled research levees. The homogenous levees consist of a mineral silt-sand-gravel and have a fill height of 2.7 m and a slope inclination of 2:3. The tests investigate erosion resistance with respect to four different

  20. Game theory and risk-based leveed river system planning with noncooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Rui; Lund, Jay R.; Madani, Kaveh

    2016-01-01

    Optimal risk-based levee designs are usually developed for economic efficiency. However, in river systems with multiple levees, the planning and maintenance of different levees are controlled by different agencies or groups. For example, along many rivers, levees on opposite riverbanks constitute a simple leveed river system with each levee designed and controlled separately. Collaborative planning of the two levees can be economically optimal for the whole system. Independent and self-interested landholders on opposite riversides often are willing to separately determine their individual optimal levee plans, resulting in a less efficient leveed river system from an overall society-wide perspective (the tragedy of commons). We apply game theory to simple leveed river system planning where landholders on each riverside independently determine their optimal risk-based levee plans. Outcomes from noncooperative games are analyzed and compared with the overall economically optimal outcome, which minimizes net flood cost system-wide. The system-wide economically optimal solution generally transfers residual flood risk to the lower-valued side of the river, but is often impractical without compensating for flood risk transfer to improve outcomes for all individuals involved. Such compensation can be determined and implemented with landholders' agreements on collaboration to develop an economically optimal plan. By examining iterative multiple-shot noncooperative games with reversible and irreversible decisions, the costs of myopia for the future in making levee planning decisions show the significance of considering the externalities and evolution path of dynamic water resource problems to improve decision-making.

  1. Advances in urban-drainage management and flood protection.

    PubMed

    Verworn, Hans-Reinhard

    2002-07-15

    Since the beginning of modern urban drainage in the 19th century, the sole objective has been to get rid of sewage and storm water in the best possible way and design the systems according to accepted standards. In recent decades, advanced methods have been developed not only to refine the design but also especially to enable the assessment of hydraulic performance and pollutant emissions. Consequently, urban drainage has become part of an integrated approach concerning flood protection as well as ecological aspects for whole watersheds. Another major change concerns the management of urban systems: simple structural maintenance has been replaced by interactive operational management and control of the systems in order to make better use of the facilities. Rehabilitation has become a multi-objective task. This paper looks at today's basic principles of urban drainage and tomorrow's potential advances, and deals with their relevance to flood protection.

  2. Advances in urban-drainage management and flood protection.

    PubMed

    Verworn, Hans-Reinhard

    2002-07-15

    Since the beginning of modern urban drainage in the 19th century, the sole objective has been to get rid of sewage and storm water in the best possible way and design the systems according to accepted standards. In recent decades, advanced methods have been developed not only to refine the design but also especially to enable the assessment of hydraulic performance and pollutant emissions. Consequently, urban drainage has become part of an integrated approach concerning flood protection as well as ecological aspects for whole watersheds. Another major change concerns the management of urban systems: simple structural maintenance has been replaced by interactive operational management and control of the systems in order to make better use of the facilities. Rehabilitation has become a multi-objective task. This paper looks at today's basic principles of urban drainage and tomorrow's potential advances, and deals with their relevance to flood protection. PMID:12804259

  3. Flood Risk and Global Change: Future Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra-Llobet, A.

    2014-12-01

    Global flood risk is increasing in response to population growth in flood-prone areas, human encroachment into natural flood paths (exacerbating flooding in areas formerly out of harm's way), and climate change (which alters variables driving floods). How will societies respond to and manage flood risk in coming decades? Analysis of flood policy evolution in the EU and US demonstrates that changes occurred in steps, in direct response to disasters. After the flood produced by the collapse of Tous Dam in 1982, Spain initiated a systematic assessment of areas of greatest flood risk and civil protection response. The devastating floods on the Elbe and elsewhere in central Europe in 2002 motivated adoption of the EU Floods Directive (2007), which requires member states to develop systematic flood risk maps (now due) and flood risk management plans (due in 2015). The flooding of New Orleans by Hurricane Katrina in 2005 resulted in a nationwide levee-safety assessment and improvements in communicating risk, but overall less fundamental change in US flood management than manifest in the EU since 2007. In the developing world, large (and increasing) concentrations of populations in low-lying floodplains, deltas, and coasts are increasingly vulnerable, and governments mostly ill-equipped to implement fundamental changes in land use to prevent future increases in exposure, nor to develop responses to the current threats. Even in the developed world, there is surprisingly little research on how well residents of flood-prone lands understand their true risk, especially when they are 'protected' by '100-year' levees. Looking ahead, researchers and decision makers should prioritize improvements in flood risk perception, river-basin-scale assessment of flood runoff processes (under current and future climate and land-use conditions) and flood management alternatives, and bridging the disconnect between national and international floodplain management policies and local land

  4. Tree growth and recruitment in a leveed floodplain forest in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, Hugo K.W.; King, Sammy L.; Keim, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Flooding is a defining disturbance in floodplain forests affecting seed germination, seedling establishment, and tree growth. Globally, flood control, including artificial levees, dams, and channelization has altered flood regimes in floodplains. However, a paucity of data are available in regards to the long-term effects of levees on stand establishment and tree growth in floodplain forests. In this study, we used dendrochronological techniques to reconstruct tree recruitment and tree growth over a 90-year period at three stands within a ring levee in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (MAV) and to evaluate whether recruitment patterns and tree growth changed following levee construction. We hypothesized that: (1) sugarberry is increasing in dominance and overcup oak (Quercus lyrata) is becoming less dominant since the levee, and that changes in hydrology are playing a greater role than canopy disturbance in these changes in species dominance; and (2) that overcup oak growth has declined following construction of the levee and cessation of overbank flooding whereas that of sugarberry has increased. Recruitment patterns shifted from flood-tolerant overcup oak to flood-intolerant sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) after levee construction. None of the 122 sugarberry trees cored in this study established prior to the levee, but it was the most common species established after the levee. The mechanisms behind the compositional change are unknown, however, the cosmopolitan distribution of overcup oak during the pre-levee period and sugarberry during the post-levee period, the lack of sugarberry establishment in the pre-levee period, and the confinement of overcup oak regeneration to the lowest areas in each stand after harvest in the post-levee period indicate that species-specific responses to flooding and light availability are forcing recruitment patterns. Overcup oak growth was also affected by levee construction, but in contrast to our hypothesis, growth actually

  5. Game Theory and Risk-Based Levee System Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.; Madani, K.

    2014-12-01

    Risk-based analysis has been developed for optimal levee design for economic efficiency. Along many rivers, two levees on opposite riverbanks act as a simple levee system. Being rational and self-interested, land owners on each river bank would tend to independently optimize their levees with risk-based analysis, resulting in a Pareto-inefficient levee system design from the social planner's perspective. Game theory is applied in this study to analyze decision making process in a simple levee system in which the land owners on each river bank develop their design strategies using risk-based economic optimization. For each land owner, the annual expected total cost includes expected annual damage cost and annualized construction cost. The non-cooperative Nash equilibrium is identified and compared to the social planner's optimal distribution of flood risk and damage cost throughout the system which results in the minimum total flood cost for the system. The social planner's optimal solution is not feasible without appropriate level of compensation for the transferred flood risk to guarantee and improve conditions for all parties. Therefore, cooperative game theory is then employed to develop an economically optimal design that can be implemented in practice. By examining the game in the reversible and irreversible decision making modes, the cost of decision making myopia is calculated to underline the significance of considering the externalities and evolution path of dynamic water resource problems for optimal decision making.

  6. Levee Breach Experiment by Overflow at the Full Scale Experimental Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, T.; Yokoyama, H.

    2010-12-01

    The increased occurrence of storm disasters caused by typhoons and local downpours in recent years has given rise to concerns over the possibility of large-scale floods resulting from river overflow. Levee breaches cause particularly severe damage, and in Japan, more than 80% of such accidents in the past have been attributed to overflow. Studies on levee breach by overflow have been conducted from various viewpoints using diverse methods. However, the mechanism of three-dimensional levee breach by overflow has not been clarified in past studies. Elucidation of this mechanism is very important for disaster prevention as well as for the future progress of studies on levee breach by overflow. Levees (levee crown width; 3m, levee height; 3m, levee length; 80m) were built in the Chiyoda Experimental Channel (full-scale experimental channel; width is 30m, length is 1,300m, maximum discharge is 170t/s) in Hokkaido Japan in 2010, and a three-dimensional experiment on levee breach by overflow. The findings of the experiment are as follows: After the beginning of overflow, levee breach widening did not begin until after most of the levee section had collapsed. It was also considered that, even if overflow occurred, extremely serious damage (e.g., sudden increase in levee breach width and overflow discharge) was unlikely unless the majority of the levee section collapsed.

  7. 44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rates based on a flood... EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.12 Rates based on a flood protection system...

  8. 44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Rates based on a flood... EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.12 Rates based on a flood protection system...

  9. 44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rates based on a flood... EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.12 Rates based on a flood protection system...

  10. 44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rates based on a flood... EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.12 Rates based on a flood protection system...

  11. 44 CFR 61.12 - Rates based on a flood protection system involving Federal funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rates based on a flood... EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program INSURANCE COVERAGE AND RATES § 61.12 Rates based on a flood protection system...

  12. Mapping Flood Protection Benefits from Restored Wetlands at the Urban-Suburban Interface

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urbanization exacerbates flooding by increasing runoff and decreasing surface water storage. Restoring wetlands can enhance flood protection while providing a suite of co-benefits such as temperature regulation and access to open space. Spatial modeling of the delivery of flood p...

  13. Flooding and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, flooding is the nation's most common natural disaster. Some floods develop slowly during an extended period of rain or in a warming trend following a heavy snow. Flash floods can occur quickly, without any visible sign of rain. Catastrophic floods are associated with burst dams and levees,…

  14. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact for completion of flood protection works, Bannister Road Federal Complex, Kansas City, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-18

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to provide partial funding to the Corps of Engineers (COE) for the completion of the flood protection works at the Bannister Road Federal Complex in Kansas City, Missouri. The DOE Kansas City Plant is a major tenant of the Complex. COE has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the project which includes the construction of levees, floodwalls, and drainage ditches. DOE has adopted the EA prepared by COE (DOE/EA-0509), this report. Based on the analyses in this EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  15. Citizens' Perceptions of Flood Hazard Adjustments: An Application of the Protective Action Decision Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terpstra, Teun; Lindell, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Although research indicates that adoption of flood preparations among Europeans is low, only a few studies have attempted to explain citizens' preparedness behavior. This article applies the Protective Action Decision Model (PADM) to explain flood preparedness intentions in the Netherlands. Survey data ("N" = 1,115) showed that…

  16. Floods

    MedlinePlus

    Floods are common in the United States. Weather such as heavy rain, thunderstorms, hurricanes, or tsunamis can ... is breached, or when a dam breaks. Flash floods, which can develop quickly, often have a dangerous ...

  17. Unit 6, STA. 207+00+RB, dikecontext Johnstown Local Flood Protection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 6, STA. 207+00+RB, dike-context - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  18. Unit 6, STA. 207+00+RB, dikedetail Johnstown Local Flood Protection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 6, STA. 207+00+RB, dike-detail - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  19. Health protection and risks for rescuers in cases of floods.

    PubMed

    Janev Holcer, Nataša; Jeličić, Pavle; Grba Bujević, Maja; Važanić, Damir

    2015-03-01

    Floods can pose a number of safety and health hazards for flood-affected populations and rescuers and bring risk of injuries, infections, and diseases due to exposure to pathogenic microorganisms and different biological and chemical contaminants. The risk factors and possible health consequences for the rescuers involved in evacuation and rescuing operations during the May 2014 flood crisis in Croatia are shown, as well as measures for the prevention of injuries and illnesses. In cases of extreme floods, divers play a particularly important role in rescuing and first-response activities. Rescuing in contaminated floodwaters means that the used equipment such as diving suits should be disinfected afterwards. The need for securing the implementation of minimal health and safety measures for involved rescuers is paramount. Data regarding injuries and disease occurrences among rescuers are relatively scarce, indicating the need for medical surveillance systems that would monitor and record all injuries and disease occurrences among rescuers in order to ensure sound epidemiological data. The harmful effects of flooding can be reduced by legislation, improvement of flood forecasting, establishing early warning systems, and appropriate planning and education. PMID:25741935

  20. Flooding and Flood Management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, K.N.; Fallon, J.D.; Lorenz, D.L.; Stark, J.R.; Menard, Jason; Easter, K.W.; Perry, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Floods result in great human disasters globally and nationally, causing an average of $4 billion of damages each year in the United States. Minnesota has its share of floods and flood damages, and the state has awarded nearly $278 million to local units of government for flood mitigation projects through its Flood Hazard Mitigation Grant Program. Since 1995, flood mitigation in the Red River Valley has exceeded $146 million. Considerable local and state funding has been provided to manage and mitigate problems of excess stormwater in urban areas, flooding of farmlands, and flood damages at road crossings. The cumulative costs involved with floods and flood mitigation in Minnesota are not known precisely, but it is safe to conclude that flood mitigation is a costly business. This chapter begins with a description of floods in Minneosta to provide examples and contrasts across the state. Background material is presented to provide a basic understanding of floods and flood processes, predication, and management and mitigation. Methods of analyzing and characterizing floods are presented because they affect how we respond to flooding and can influence relevant practices. The understanding and perceptions of floods and flooding commonly differ among those who work in flood forecasting, flood protection, or water resource mamnagement and citizens and businesses affected by floods. These differences can become magnified following a major flood, pointing to the need for better understanding of flooding as well as common language to describe flood risks and the uncertainty associated with determining such risks. Expectations of accurate and timely flood forecasts and our ability to control floods do not always match reality. Striving for clarity is important in formulating policies that can help avoid recurring flood damages and costs.

  1. The protection of RIVERLIFE by mitigation of flood damages RIVERLIFE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, M. J.

    2003-04-01

    The long-term development objective of the RIVERLIFE project is to contribute to sustainable human end economic development in the Timis-Bega river basin area as part of the Danube River Basin (DRB), through reinforcing the capacities of Romanian central and local authorities to develop effective mechanisms and tools for integrated river basin management in the Timis-Bega basin. The overall objective of the project is to assist the country in the EU enlargement and accession process to meet the EU requirements of water related Directives with emphasis on the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). The specific objective of the project is to support the WFD implementation process at the level of a sub-unit within the limits of the DRB, through the development of a River Basin Management Plan (RBMP). The project will also facilitate the implementation of the Danube River Protection Convention (DRPC) as an essential element in the implementation of the Directive in the transboundary river basins. Expected outcomes in the recipient country consist of (i) responding to a real hazard problem, which affects the quality of life of many citizens, and (ii) improvement in the environmental conditions in the targeted areas. Flooding is one of the major natural hazards to human society and an important influence on social and economic development for Romania causing financially greater losses per annum on average than any other natural hazard. One key concept of the WFD is the coordination, organization and regulation of water management at the level of river basins. Therefore, river basin districts are shaped in such a way as to include not only the surface run-off through streams and rivers to the sea, but the total area of land and sea together with the associated groundwater and coastal waters. The concept allows even for the small river basins directly discharging into the sea to be combined into one river basin district. As a principle, the complex decisions on the use or

  2. Design of flood protection for transportation alignments on alluvial fans

    SciTech Connect

    French, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    The method of floodplain delineation on alluvial fans developed for the national flood insurance program is modified to provide estimates of peak flood flows at transportation alignments crossing an alluvial fan. The modified methodology divides the total alignment length into drainage design segments and estimates the peak flows that drainage structures would be required to convey as a function of the length of the drainage design segment, the return period of the event, and the location of the alignment on the alluvial fan. An example of the application of the methodology is provided. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Flood control failure: San Lorenzo River, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griggs, Gary B.; Paris, Lance

    1982-09-01

    The San Lorenzo River on the central California coast was the site of a major US Army Corps of Engineers flood control project in 1959. By excavating the channel below its natural grade and constructing levees, the capacity of the river was increased in order to contain approximately the 100 year flood. Production and transport of large volumes of sediment from the river's urbanizing watershed has filled the flood control project with sand and silt. The natural gradient has been re-established, and flood protection has been reduced to containment of perhaps the 30 year flood. In order for the City of Santa Cruz, which is situated on the flood plain, to be protected from future flooding,it must either initiate an expensive annual dredging program, or replan and rebuild the inadequately designed flood control channel. It has become clear, here and elsewhere, that the problem of flooding cannot simply be resolved by engineering. Large flood control projects provide a false sense of security and commonly produce unexpected channel changes.

  4. Process of Levee Breach by Overflow at the Full Scale Chiyoda Experimental Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, T.; Yokoyama, H.

    2011-12-01

    The increased occurrence of storm disasters caused by typhoons and local downpours in recent years has given rise to concerns over the possibility of large-scale floods resulting from river overflow. Levee breaches cause particularly severe damage, and in Japan, more than 80% of such accidents in the past have been attributed to overflow. Previous studies on overflow-induced levee breaches have not revealed the mechanisms of these issues on a full-scale 3D basis (i.e., side-overflow taking river flow on the riverside land into consideration). It is important to clarify these mechanisms in terms of disaster prevention and for the purpose of bringing progress in future studies on overflow-induced failure. Levees (levee crown width is 3m in 2010 and 6m in 2011, levee height is 3m, levee length is 80m) were built in the Chiyoda Experimental Channel (full-scale experimental channel; width is 30m, length is 1,300m, maximum discharge is 170t/s) in Hokkaido Japan, and a three-dimensional experiment on levee breach by overflow. The findings of the experiment are as follows: After the beginning of overflow, levee breach widening did not begin until after most of the levee section had collapsed. And in case of 6m of the levee crown width, that time in becomes long. It was also considered that, even if overflow occurred, extremely serious damage (e.g., sudden increase in levee breach width and overflow discharge) was unlikely unless the majority of the levee section collapsed.

  5. Strategic floodplain reconnection for the Lower Tisza River, Hungary: Opportunities for flood-height reduction and floodplain-wetland reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guida, Ross J.; Swanson, Taylor L.; Remo, Jonathan W. F.; Kiss, Timea

    2015-02-01

    During the late 19th Century, the Tisza River's vast floodplain-wetland system was largely disconnected by levees, facilitating "reclamation" for agriculture and resulting in an estimated loss of over 90% of historical wetlands. While levees have been successful in preventing catastrophic flooding for a century, Lower Tisza flood stage records have been set repeatedly during the last 15 years. The decrease in the Tisza's current floodway carrying capacity has reduced the flood-protection level of the Tisza's aging levee system. Recently in Hungary, "Room for the River" policies have gained more prominence. To explore the possibilities of a room for the river approach along the Lower Tisza, we assess eight potential floodplain-reconnection scenarios between Csongrád, Hungary and the Hungary-Serbia border. A novel framework using hydrodynamic and geospatial modeling was used to perform planning-level evaluations of the tradeoffs between floodplain-reconnection scenarios and enhancement of the existing levee system. The scenarios evaluated include levee removal and levee setbacks to strategically reconnect significant historical wetlands while reducing flood levels. Scenario costs and human population impacts are also assessed. Impacts of reconnecting the Lower Tisza floodplain are compared to heightening levees, the prevailing strategy over the previous century. From a purely construction-cost perspective, heightening Lower Tisza levees is potentially the most cost-effective and politically expedient solution (i.e., impacts the least number of people). However, levee-heightening does not solve the long-term problem of reduced flood conveyance, which has been attributed to aggradation and increased floodplain roughness, nor does it result in wetland reconnection or enhancement of other floodplain ecosystem services. The suite of reconnection options we evaluate provides engineers, planners, and decision makers a framework from which they can further evaluate

  6. Developing a Graphical User Interface to Automate the Estimation and Prediction of Risk Values for Flood Protective Structures using Artificial Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, M.; Helal, A.; Gabr, M.

    2014-12-01

    In this project, we focus on providing a computer-automated platform for a better assessment of the potential failures and retrofit measures of flood-protecting earth structures, e.g., dams and levees. Such structures play an important role during extreme flooding events as well as during normal operating conditions. Furthermore, they are part of other civil infrastructures such as water storage and hydropower generation. Hence, there is a clear need for accurate evaluation of stability and functionality levels during their service lifetime so that the rehabilitation and maintenance costs are effectively guided. Among condition assessment approaches based on the factor of safety, the limit states (LS) approach utilizes numerical modeling to quantify the probability of potential failures. The parameters for LS numerical modeling include i) geometry and side slopes of the embankment, ii) loading conditions in terms of rate of rising and duration of high water levels in the reservoir, and iii) cycles of rising and falling water levels simulating the effect of consecutive storms throughout the service life of the structure. Sample data regarding the correlations of these parameters are available through previous research studies. We have unified these criteria and extended the risk assessment in term of loss of life through the implementation of a graphical user interface to automate input parameters that divides data into training and testing sets, and then feeds them into Artificial Neural Network (ANN) tool through MATLAB programming. The ANN modeling allows us to predict risk values of flood protective structures based on user feedback quickly and easily. In future, we expect to fine-tune the software by adding extensive data on variations of parameters.

  7. Refuge management analyses: levee alternatives at Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Auble, Gregor T.; Hamilton, David B.; Roelle, James E.

    1984-01-01

    Do not maintain a levee so that the Refuge will flood directly with river stage. Repair of the major breaks in the levee, but not the more general wave damage, was considered as a short term alternative. Participants first specified the habitats and management controls desired at Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge. These were centered around attaining the maximum feasible development and management of moist soil units. Levee alternatives were evaluated in terms of their ability to provide the desired habitats and management controls. Preliminary cost estimates were prepared for each alternative, and the qualitative consequences of each alternative identified for the full set of outputs from the Refuge Master Plan. The alternative of improving the existing levee by raising the height was unanimously preferred on purely “biological” grounds (with cost not considered). Repairing the levee with no change in elevation was unanimously selected as the most cost effective alternative.

  8. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... shall revise the FIRM, in accordance with 44 CFR Part 67, and shall remove the flood control restoration... restoration project must complete restoration or meet the requirements of 44 CFR 61.12 within a specified... defined in 44 CFR 59.1, including areas that would be subject to coastal high hazards as a result of...

  9. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shall revise the FIRM, in accordance with 44 CFR Part 67, and shall remove the flood control restoration... restoration project must complete restoration or meet the requirements of 44 CFR 61.12 within a specified... defined in 44 CFR 59.1, including areas that would be subject to coastal high hazards as a result of...

  10. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... shall revise the FIRM, in accordance with 44 CFR Part 67, and shall remove the flood control restoration... restoration project must complete restoration or meet the requirements of 44 CFR 61.12 within a specified... defined in 44 CFR 59.1, including areas that would be subject to coastal high hazards as a result of...

  11. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... shall revise the FIRM, in accordance with 44 CFR Part 67, and shall remove the flood control restoration... restoration project must complete restoration or meet the requirements of 44 CFR 61.12 within a specified... defined in 44 CFR 59.1, including areas that would be subject to coastal high hazards as a result of...

  12. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... shall revise the FIRM, in accordance with 44 CFR Part 67, and shall remove the flood control restoration... restoration project must complete restoration or meet the requirements of 44 CFR 61.12 within a specified... defined in 44 CFR 59.1, including areas that would be subject to coastal high hazards as a result of...

  13. Probably maximum flood of the Sava River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilly, Mitja; Vidmar, Andrej; Raj, Mojca Å.

    2010-05-01

    The Nuclear Power Plant Krško (NEK) situated on the left bank of the Save River close to the border of Croatia. Probably Maximum Flood, on the location of the NEK could result in combination of probably maximum precipitation, sequential storm before PMP or snowmelt on the Sava River watershed. Mediterranean climate characterises very high precipitation and temporary high snow pack. The HBV-96 model as Integrated Hydrological Modelling System (IHMS) used for modelling. Model was calibrated and verification for daily time step at first for time period 1190-2006. Calibration and verification for hourly time step was done for period 1998-1999. The stream routing parameters were calibrated for flood event in years 1998 and 2007 and than verification for flood event in 1990. Discharge routing data analysis shown that possible inundation of Ljubljana and Savinja valley was not properly estimated. The flood areas are protected with levees and water does not spread over flooded areas in events used for calibration. Inundated areas in Ljubljana valley and Savinja valley are protected by levees and model could not simulate properly inundation of PMF. We recalibrate parameters controlled inundation on those areas for the worst scenario. Calculated PMF values drop down tramendosly after recalibration.

  14. Towards modelling flood protection investment as a coupled human and natural system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, P. E.; O'Donnell, G.

    2014-01-01

    Due to a number of recent high-profile flood events and the apparent threat from global warming, governments and their agencies are under pressure to make proactive investments to protect people living in floodplains. However, adopting a proactive approach as a universal strategy is not affordable. It has been argued that delaying expensive and essentially irreversible capital decisions could be a prudent strategy in situations with high future uncertainty. This paper firstly uses Monte Carlo simulation to explore the performance of proactive and reactive investment strategies using a rational cost-benefit approach in a natural system with varying levels of persistence/interannual variability in annual maximum floods. It is found that, as persistence increases, there is a change in investment strategy optimality from proactive to reactive. This could have implications for investment strategies under the increasingly variable climate that is expected with global warming. As part of the emerging holistic approaches to flood risk management, there is increasing emphasis on stakeholder participation in determining where and when flood protection investments are made, and so flood risk management is becoming more people-centred. As a consequence, multiple actors are involved in the decision-making process, and the social sciences are assuming an increasingly important role in flood risk management. There is a need for modelling approaches which can couple the natural and human system elements. It is proposed that coupled human and natural system (CHANS) modelling could play an important role in understanding the motivations, actions and influence of citizens and institutions and how these impact on the effective delivery of flood protection investment. A framework for using agent-based modelling of human activities leading to flood investments is outlined, and some of the challenges associated with implementation are discussed.

  15. Towards modelling flood protection investment as a coupled human and natural system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, P. E.; O'Donnell, G.

    2013-06-01

    Due to a number of recent high profile flood events and the apparent threat from global warming, governments and their agencies are under pressure to make proactive investments to protect people living in floodplains. However, adopting a proactive approach as a universal strategy is not affordable. It has been argued that delaying expensive and essentially irreversible capital decisions could be a prudent strategy in situations with high future uncertainty. This paper firstly uses Monte Carlo simulation to explore the performance of proactive and reactive investment strategies using a rational cost-benefit approach in a natural system with varying levels of persistence/interannual variability in Annual Maximum Floods. It is found that, as persistence increases, there is a change in investment strategy optimality from proactive to reactive. This could have implications for investment strategies under the increasingly variable climate that is expected with global warming. As part of the emerging holistic approaches to flood risk management, there is increasing emphasis on stakeholder participation in determining where and when flood protection investments are made, and so flood risk management is becoming more people-centred. As a consequence, multiple actors are involved in the decision-making process, and the social sciences are assuming an increasingly important role in flood risk management. There is a need for modelling approaches which can couple the natural and human system elements. It is proposed that Coupled Human and Natural System (CHANS) modelling could play an important role in understanding the motivations, actions and influence of citizens and institutions and how these impact on the effective delivery of flood protection investment. A framework for using Agent Based Modelling of human activities leading to flood investments is outlined, and some of the challenges associated with implementation are discussed.

  16. An assessment of two methods for identifying undocumented levees using remotely sensed data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czuba, Christiana R.; Williams, Byron K.; Westman, Jack; LeClaire, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Many undocumented and commonly unmaintained levees exist in the landscape complicating flood forecasting, risk management, and emergency response. This report describes a pilot study completed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to assess two methods to identify undocumented levees by using remotely sensed, high-resolution topographic data. For the first method, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers examined hillshades computed from a digital elevation model that was derived from light detection and ranging (lidar) to visually identify potential levees and then used detailed site visits to assess the validity of the identifications. For the second method, the U.S. Geological Survey applied a wavelet transform to a lidar-derived digital elevation model to identify potential levees. The hillshade method was applied to Delano, Minnesota, and the wavelet-transform method was applied to Delano and Springfield, Minnesota. Both methods were successful in identifying levees but also identified other features that required interpretation to differentiate from levees such as constructed barriers, high banks, and bluffs. Both methods are complementary to each other, and a potential conjunctive method for testing in the future includes (1) use of the wavelet-transform method to rapidly identify slope-break features in high-resolution topographic data, (2) further examination of topographic data using hillshades and aerial photographs to classify features and map potential levees, and (3) a verification check of each identified potential levee with local officials and field visits.

  17. Flood Management and Protection from the Social Point of View: Case Study from Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manukalo, V.; Gerasymenko, H.

    2012-12-01

    to their regions of residence (low- or high- flood risk areas, cities or villages), education level; c) a lot of peoples don't know distribution of duties between governmental bodies on central and local levels in the field of flood management and protection; d) the most of peoples don't know which Ukrainian governmental bodies are responsible for the elaboration of National adaptation strategy to the expected climate change; e) many recipient estimate as inefficient activities of Ukrainian authorities on local, national and international levels as well as a public participation in the flood management and protection policy. The results of this study have been rather unexpected for Ukrainian central and local governmental bodies responsible for flood management and protection policies. This underlines the importance of having the alternative flood risk management and protection policies studied not only from aspects of technical and economic rational, but also from that of social acceptability, before any decision is made. Practical Application Results of study have been used in preparation of: a) the State Program on the protection against floods in the Dniester, Prut and Siret river basins; b) of the "National Action Plan for Adaptation to Climate Change for period 2011-2015".

  18. Global assessment of river flood protection benefits and corresponding residual risks under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Wee Ho; Yamazaki, Dai; Koirala, Sujan; Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Kanae, Shinjiro; Dadson, Simon J.; Hall, Jim W.

    2016-04-01

    Global warming increases the water-holding capacity of the atmosphere and this could lead to more intense rainfalls and possibly increasing natural hazards in the form of flooding in some regions. This implies that traditional practice of using historical hydrological records alone is somewhat limited for supporting long-term water infrastructure planning. This has motivated recent global scale studies to evaluate river flood risks (e.g., Hirabayashi et al., 2013, Arnell and Gosling, 2014, Sadoff et al., 2015) and adaptations benefits (e.g., Jongman et al., 2015). To support decision-making in river flood risk reduction, this study takes a further step to examine the benefits and corresponding residual risks for a range of flood protection levels. To do that, we channelled runoff information of a baseline period (forced by observed hydroclimate conditions) and each CMIP5 model (historic and future periods) into a global river routing model called CaMa-Flood (Yamazaki et al., 2011). We incorporated the latest global river width data (Yamazaki et al., 2014) into CaMa-Flood and simulate the river water depth at a spatial resolution of 15 min x 15 min. From the simulated results of baseline period, we use the annual maxima river water depth to fit the Gumbel distribution and prepare the return period-flood risk relationship (involving population and GDP). From the simulated results of CMIP5 model, we also used the annual maxima river water depth to obtain the Gumbel distribution and then estimate the exceedance probability (historic and future periods). We apply the return period-flood risk relationship (above) to the exceedance probability and evaluate the flood protection benefits. We quantify the corresponding residual risks using a mathematical approach that is consistent with the modelling structure of CaMa-Flood. Globally and regionally, we find that the benefits of flood protection level peak somewhere between 20 and 500 years; residual risks diminish

  19. Effects of rock riprap design parameters on flood protection costs for uranium tailings impoundments

    SciTech Connect

    Ecker, R.M.

    1984-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is studying the problem of long-term protection of earthen covers on decommissioned uranium tailings impoundments. The major erosive forces acting on these covers will be river flooding and overland flow from rainfall-runoff. For impoundments adjacent to rivers, overbank flooding presents the greater potential for significant erosion. To protect the earthen covers against flood erosion, rock riprap armoring will be placed over the cover surface. Because of the large size rock usually required for riprap, the quarrying, transport, and placement of the rock could be a significant part of the decommissioning cost. This report examines the sensitivity of riprap protection costs to certain design parameters at tailings impoundments. The parameters include flood discharge, riprap materials, impoundment side slopes, and an added safety factor. Two decommissioned tailings impoundments are used as case studies for the evaluation. These are the Grand Junction, Colorado, impoundment located adjacent to the Colorado River and the Slickrock, Colorado, impoundment located adjacent to the Dolores River. The evaluation considers only the cost of riprap protection against flood erosion. The study results show that embankment side slope and rock specific gravity can have optimum values or ranges at a specific site. For both case study sites the optimum side slope is about 5H:1V. Of the rock sources considered at Grand Junction, the optimum specific gravity would be about 2.50; however, an optimum rock specific gravity for the Slickrock site could not be determined. Other results indicate that the arbitrary safety factor usually added in riprap design can lead to large increases in protection costs. 22 references, 19 figures, 15 tables.

  20. Methods for Estimating Magnitude and Frequency of Floods in Rural Basins in the Southeastern United States: South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feaster, Toby D.; Gotvald, Anthony J.; Weaver, J. Curtis

    2009-01-01

    For more than 50 years, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been developing regional regression equations that can be used to estimate flood magnitude and frequency at ungaged sites. Flood magnitude relates to the volume of flow that occurs over some period of time and usually is presented in cubic feet per second. Flood frequency relates to the probability of occurrence of a flood; that is, on average, what is the likelihood that a flood with a specified magnitude will occur in any given year (1 percent chance, 10 percent chance, 50 percent chance, and so on). Such flood estimates are needed for the efficient design of bridges, highway embankments, levees, and other structures near streams. In addition, these estimates are needed for the effective planning and management of land and water resources, to protect lives and property in flood-prone areas, and to determine flood-insurance rates.

  1. Floods of December 1961 in Mississippi and adjoining states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shell, James D.

    1962-01-01

    Widespread floods occurred over parts of Mississippi, Louisiana, and Alabama after heavy rains during December 18, 1961. A series of low-pressure systems produced as much as 19 inches of rainfall in some areas. Heavy rainfall, 7 to 11 inches, on December 10 resulted in outstanding floods on small streams in southern Mississippi and southwestern Alabama. Subsequent rains produced multiple floods on small streams and outstanding floods of prolonged duration along the Big Black, upper Pearl, and lower Tombigbee Rivers in Mississippi. At Jackson, Miss., the Pearl River reached the highest stage known. Along the east bank, flood waters topped or breached some of the levee system protecting the Flowood industrial area, but other parts were saved by extensive reinforcement and by emergency operation of the partially completed dam 10 miles upstream. Additional heavy damage to commercial and industrial property was prevented as a result of these measures. Elsewhere, damage was restricted primarily to secondary highways and bridges. Two lives were lost.

  2. After the flood is before the next flood - post event review of the Central European Floods of June 2013. Insights, recommendations and next steps for future flood prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szoenyi, Michael; Mechler, Reinhard; McCallum, Ian

    2015-04-01

    perception and understanding of risk in the population. • Residual risk and the levee shadow effect - why the population "felt safe." • What is the overload case and how to implement it in flood protection systems? • Decision-making for the future under uncertainty - how to design to acceptable flood protection levels if we haven't seen yet what's physically possible. 3. How to protect - practical examples Finally, we outline practical examples for reducing the loss burden and risk over time. • "Flood protection hierarchy" - from location choice under a hazard perspective to mobile flood protection. • Risk-based approach and identification of critical infrastructure. • Integrated flood risk management in theory and practical application. • Role of insurance.

  3. The Impact of Corps Flood Control Reservoirs in the June 2008 Upper Mississippi Flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charley, W. J.; Stiman, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers is responsible for a multitude of flood control project on the Mississippi River and its tributaries, including levees that protect land from flooding, and dams to help regulate river flows. The first six months of 2008 were the wettest on record in the upper Mississippi Basin. During the first 2 weeks of June, rainfall over the Midwest ranged from 6 to as much as 16 inches, overwhelming the flood protection system, causing massive flooding and damage. Most severely impacted were the States of Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, and Wisconsin. In Iowa, flooding occurred on almost every river in the state. On the Iowa River, record flooding occurred from Marshalltown, Iowa, downstream to its confluence with the Mississippi River. At several locations, flooding exceeded the 500-year event. The flooding affected agriculture, transportation, and infrastructure, including homes, businesses, levees, and other water-control structures. It has been estimated that there was at least 7 billion dollars in damages. While the flooding in Iowa was extraordinary, Corps of Engineers flood control reservoirs helped limit damage and prevent loss of life, even though some reservoirs were filled beyond their design capacity. Coralville Reservoir on the Iowa River, for example, filled to 135% of its design flood storage capacity, with stage a record five feet over the crest of the spillway. In spite of this, the maximum reservoir release was limited to 39,500 cfs, while a peak inflow of 57,000 cfs was observed. CWMS, the Corps Water Management System, is used to help regulate Corps reservoirs, as well as track and evaluate flooding and flooding potential. CWMS is a comprehensive data acquisition and hydrologic modeling system for short-term decision support of water control operations in real time. It encompasses data collection, validation and transformation, data storage, visualization, real time model simulation for decision-making support, and data

  4. Flood Protection Decision Making Within a Coupled Human and Natural System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Greg; O'Connell, Enda

    2013-04-01

    Due to the perceived threat from climate change, prediction under changing climatic and hydrological conditions has become a dominant theme of hydrological research. Much of this research has been climate model-centric, in which GCM/RCM climate projections have been used to drive hydrological system models to explore potential impacts that should inform adaptation decision-making. However, adaptation fundamentally involves how humans may respond to increasing flood and drought hazards by changing their strategies, activities and behaviours which are coupled in complex ways to the natural systems within which they live and work. Humans are major agents of change in hydrological systems, and representing human activities and behaviours in coupled human and natural hydrological system models is needed to gain insight into the complex interactions that take place, and to inform adaptation decision-making. Governments and their agencies are under pressure to make proactive investments to protect people living in floodplains from the perceived increasing flood hazard. However, adopting this as a universal strategy everywhere is not affordable, particularly in times of economic stringency and given uncertainty about future climatic conditions. It has been suggested that the assumption of stationarity, which has traditionally been invoked in making hydrological risk assessments, is no longer tenable. However, before the assumption of hydrologic nonstationarity is accepted, the ability to cope with the uncertain impacts of global warming on water management via the operational assumption of hydrologic stationarity should be carefully examined. Much can be learned by focussing on natural climate variability and its inherent changes in assessing alternative adaptation strategies. A stationary stochastic multisite flood hazard model has been developed that can exhibit increasing variability/persistence in annual maximum floods, starting with the traditional assumption of

  5. Agricultural aircraft and thermal imaging - from detecting sand boils at the levee to irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal imaging has many potential uses from aerial platforms. A thermal imaging camera was brought into service to detect potential leakage and sand boils at the Mississippi River levee during the flood period of April and May, 2011. This camera was mounted on an agricultural aircraft and operated ...

  6. Time-lapse seismic study of levees in southern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivanov, J.; Miller, R.D.; Stimac, N.; Ballard, R.F.; Dunbar, J. Joseph; Smullen, S. Steve

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of this work was to measure changes in compressional- (Vp) and shear-wave (Vs) velocities in an earthen levee during a ponding experiment designed to simulate flood conditions on the Rio Grande in south New Mexico. Although similar to such experiment, performed an year earlier on the Rio Grande in south Texas, the levee seismic response results are different. This work was similar to previous Preliminary testing at three levee sites, all within a 1 km radius and each with unique physical, EM, and core characteristics, was completed and a single low-conductivity, highly fractured site was selected for investigation. Several different types of seismic data were recorded. Seismic data analysis techniques appraised included P-refraction tomography and Rayleigh surface-wave analysis using multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW). P-wave velocity change (decrease) was rapid and isolated to one section within the pool confines, which already had anomalously high velocity most likely related to burrowing animals modification of the levee structure. S-wave velocity change was gradual and could be observed along the whole width of the pond within and below the levee. The results within the levee sand core were consistent with the observations of sand S-wave velocity changed due to saturation. ?? 2005 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  7. Robust, multifunctional flood protection zones in the Dutch Rural Riverine area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon-Steensma, J. M.; Vellinga, P.

    2013-08-01

    This paper reviews the possible functions of robust dikes in the rural riverine areas of the Netherlands. It furthermore reviews and analyses strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats associated with robust, multifunctional flood defense zones in rural riverine zones. The study focused on recent plans and ideas for innovative dike reinforcement at five locations in the Netherlands, supplemented with information obtained in semi-structured interviews with experts and stakeholders. At each of the five locations, suitable robust flood defenses could be identified that would contribute to the envisaged functions and ambitions for the respective areas. Primary strengths of the robust, multifunctional approach were identified as combined uses of limited space, a longer-term focus, and greater safety. The new approach offers opportunities as well, in particular, with regard to tasks, problems, and objectives related to infrastructure, land-use planning, nature and landscape protection, and development. These provide possibilities for co-financing as well.

  8. Protection from annual flooding is correlated with increased cholera prevalence in Bangladesh: a zero-inflated regression analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Alteration of natural or historical aquatic flows can have unintended consequences for regions where waterborne diseases are endemic and where the epidemiologic implications of such change are poorly understood. The implementation of flood protection measures for a portion of an intensely monitored population in Matlab, Bangladesh, allows us to examine whether cholera outcomes respond positively or negatively to measures designed to control river flooding. Methods Using a zero inflated negative binomial model, we examine how selected covariates can simultaneously account for household clusters reporting no cholera from those with positive counts as well as distinguishing residential areas with low counts from areas with high cholera counts. Our goal is to examine how residence within or outside a flood protected area interacts with the probability of cholera presence and the effect of flood protection on the magnitude of cholera prevalence. Results In Matlab, living in a household that is protected from annual monsoon flooding appears to have no significant effect on whether the household experiences cholera, net of other covariates. However, counter-intuitively, among households where cholera is reported, living within the flood protected region significantly increases the number of cholera cases. Conclusions The construction of dams or other water impoundment strategies for economic or social motives can have profound and unanticipated consequences for waterborne disease. Our results indicate that the construction of a flood control structure in rural Bangladesh is correlated with an increase in cholera cases for residents protected from annual monsoon flooding. Such a finding requires attention from both the health community and from governments and non-governmental organizations involved in ongoing water management schemes. PMID:20307294

  9. 75 FR 18238 - United States Section; Final Environmental Impact Statement, Flood Control Improvements and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ..., overtopping, piping/sand boils, under-seepage, and severe surface and slope erosion. The flooding also potentially compromised the integrity of the levee foundation within several levee segments, primarily at... extensive flooding. In response to the September 2008 flooding damage, the USIBWC developed...

  10. California Levee Risk, Now and in the Future:Identifying Research and Tool Development Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Newmark, R L; Hanemann, M; Farber, D

    2006-11-28

    The Center for Catastrophic Risk Management (CCRM) and the California Center for Environmental Law and Policy (CCELP) at UC Berkeley and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) joined together to cosponsor a workshop to define research requirements to mitigate the hazards facing the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Levee system. The Workshop was intended to provide a forum to (1) Report assessments of current vulnerabilities facing the levees, such as structural failure, seismic loading, flooding, terrorism; (2) Consider longer term challenges such as climate change, sea level rise; and (3) Define research requirements to fill gaps in knowledge and reduce uncertainties in hazard assessments.

  11. Application of InSAR to detection of localized subsidence and its effects on flood protection infrastructure in the New Orleans area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Cathleen; Blom, Ronald; Latini, Daniele

    2014-05-01

    The vulnerability of the United States Gulf of Mexico coast to inundation has received increasing attention in the years since hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Flood protection is a challenge throughout the area, but the population density and cumulative effect of historic subsidence makes it particularly difficult in the New Orleans area. Analysis of historical and continuing geodetic measurements identifies a surprising degree of complexity in subsidence (Dokka 2011), including regions that are subsiding at rates faster than those considered during planning for hurricane protection and for coastal restoration projects. Improved measurements are possible through combining traditional single point, precise geodetic data with interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) observations for to obtain geographically dense constraints on surface deformation. The Gulf Coast environment is very challenging for InSAR techniques, especially with systems not designed for interferometry. We are applying pair-wise InSAR to longer wavelength (L-band, 24 cm) synthetic aperture radar data acquired with the airborne UAVSAR instrument (http://uavsar.jpl.nasa.gov/) to detect localized change impacting flood protection infrastructure in the New Orleans area during the period from 2009 - 2013. Because aircraft motion creates large-scale image artifacts across the scene, we focus on localized areas on and near flood protection infrastructure to identify anomalous change relative to the surrounding area indicative of subsidence, structural deformation, and/or seepage (Jones et al., 2011) to identify areas where problems exist. C-band and particularly X-band radar returns decorrelate over short time periods in rural or less urbanized areas and are more sensitive to atmospheric affects, necessitating more elaborate analysis techniques or, at least, a strict limit on the temporal baseline. The new generation of spaceborne X-band SAR acquisitions ensure relatively high frequency of

  12. Geomorphic Response to Global Warming in the Anthropocene: Levee Breaches in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florsheim, J. L.; Dettinger, M.; Malamud-Roam, F.; Ingram, B.; Mount, J.

    2006-12-01

    Geomorphic processes in rivers are likely to be influenced by global warming through alterations of flood, erosion, and sedimentation processes and rates. In California's Sierra Nevada, warming scenarios imply future increases in magnitudes and durations (and changes in timing) of floods as snow packs diminish and rainfall runoff increasingly dominates flow into the Central Valley fluvial system. Geomorphic processes are likely to differ from processes that dominated during the Holocene due to the influence both of projected global warming and land use alterations including levee construction that narrows and separates Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers and tributaries from floodplains and flow regulation downstream of numerous large dams. Whereas Holocene floods induced overbank flow and avulsion processes that led to vertical floodplain accretion and variability of stages in aggrading multiple-channel systems, modern floods largely transport flow and sediment within incised channels confined by levees. Because the scenarios of warming are developed at coarse scales, only an understanding of the relations between large-scale hydrology and climate on the one hand, and the incidence of levee breaches on the other, will make it possible to project likely geomorphic responses to future warming and flooding. A historical record of catastrophic levee breaks on the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers has been developed to allow analyses of these connections. In the current work, we develop statistical relations between historical levee break events and flow discharge, as well as with climatic phenomena such as El Nino and La Nina phases of the ENSO cycle, positive and negative phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and seasonal propensities towards "pineapple-express" storms. Preliminary results suggest strong relations between levee breaches and discharge, but poor relations to ENSO. Further investigation of these data will provide insight to help inform models and river

  13. Perspectives on screening winter-flood-tolerant woody species in the riparian protection forests of the three gorges reservoir.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ). Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora) might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress and recover well

  14. Perspectives on Screening Winter-Flood-Tolerant Woody Species in the Riparian Protection Forests of the Three Gorges Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ). Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora) might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress and recover well

  15. Advanced Unsupervised Classification Methods to Detect Anomalies on Earthen Levees Using Polarimetric SAR Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Marapareddy, Ramakalavathi; Aanstoos, James V.; Younan, Nicolas H.

    2016-01-01

    Fully polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (polSAR) data analysis has wide applications for terrain and ground cover classification. The dynamics of surface and subsurface water events can lead to slope instability resulting in slough slides on earthen levees. Early detection of these anomalies by a remote sensing approach could save time versus direct assessment. We used L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to screen levees for anomalies. SAR technology, due to its high spatial resolution and soil penetration capability, is a good choice for identifying problematic areas on earthen levees. Using the parameters entropy (H), anisotropy (A), alpha (α), and eigenvalues (λ, λ1, λ2, and λ3), we implemented several unsupervised classification algorithms for the identification of anomalies on the levee. The classification techniques applied are H/α, H/A, A/α, Wishart H/α, Wishart H/A/α, and H/α/λ classification algorithms. In this work, the effectiveness of the algorithms was demonstrated using quad-polarimetric L-band SAR imagery from the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s (JPL’s) Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR). The study area is a section of the lower Mississippi River valley in the Southern USA, where earthen flood control levees are maintained by the US Army Corps of Engineers. PMID:27322270

  16. Advanced Unsupervised Classification Methods to Detect Anomalies on Earthen Levees Using Polarimetric SAR Imagery.

    PubMed

    Marapareddy, Ramakalavathi; Aanstoos, James V; Younan, Nicolas H

    2016-01-01

    Fully polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (polSAR) data analysis has wide applications for terrain and ground cover classification. The dynamics of surface and subsurface water events can lead to slope instability resulting in slough slides on earthen levees. Early detection of these anomalies by a remote sensing approach could save time versus direct assessment. We used L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to screen levees for anomalies. SAR technology, due to its high spatial resolution and soil penetration capability, is a good choice for identifying problematic areas on earthen levees. Using the parameters entropy (H), anisotropy (A), alpha (α), and eigenvalues (λ, λ₁, λ₂, and λ₃), we implemented several unsupervised classification algorithms for the identification of anomalies on the levee. The classification techniques applied are H/α, H/A, A/α, Wishart H/α, Wishart H/A/α, and H/α/λ classification algorithms. In this work, the effectiveness of the algorithms was demonstrated using quad-polarimetric L-band SAR imagery from the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL's) Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR). The study area is a section of the lower Mississippi River valley in the Southern USA, where earthen flood control levees are maintained by the US Army Corps of Engineers.

  17. Advanced Unsupervised Classification Methods to Detect Anomalies on Earthen Levees Using Polarimetric SAR Imagery.

    PubMed

    Marapareddy, Ramakalavathi; Aanstoos, James V; Younan, Nicolas H

    2016-01-01

    Fully polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (polSAR) data analysis has wide applications for terrain and ground cover classification. The dynamics of surface and subsurface water events can lead to slope instability resulting in slough slides on earthen levees. Early detection of these anomalies by a remote sensing approach could save time versus direct assessment. We used L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to screen levees for anomalies. SAR technology, due to its high spatial resolution and soil penetration capability, is a good choice for identifying problematic areas on earthen levees. Using the parameters entropy (H), anisotropy (A), alpha (α), and eigenvalues (λ, λ₁, λ₂, and λ₃), we implemented several unsupervised classification algorithms for the identification of anomalies on the levee. The classification techniques applied are H/α, H/A, A/α, Wishart H/α, Wishart H/A/α, and H/α/λ classification algorithms. In this work, the effectiveness of the algorithms was demonstrated using quad-polarimetric L-band SAR imagery from the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL's) Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR). The study area is a section of the lower Mississippi River valley in the Southern USA, where earthen flood control levees are maintained by the US Army Corps of Engineers. PMID:27322270

  18. Cost estimates for flood resilience and protection strategies in New York City.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Jeroen C J H; Botzen, W J Wouter; de Moel, Hans; Bowman, Malcolm

    2013-08-01

    In the aftermaths of Hurricanes Irene, in 2011, and Sandy, in 2012, New York City has come to recognize the critical need to better prepare for future storm surges and to anticipate future trends, such as climate change and socio-economic developments. The research presented in this report assesses the costs of six different flood management strategies to anticipate long-term challenges the City will face. The proposed strategies vary from increasing resilience by upgrading building codes and introducing small scale protection measures, to creating green infrastructure as buffer zones and large protective engineering works such as storm surge barriers. The initial investment costs of alternative strategies vary between $11.6 and $23.8 bn, maximally. We show that a hybrid solution, combining protection of critical infrastructure and resilience measures that can be upgraded over time, is less expensive. However, with increasing risk in the future, storm surge barriers may become cost-effective, as they can provide protection to the largest areas in both New York and New Jersey.

  19. Stakeholders and public involvement for flood protection: traditional river management organisations for a better consideration of local knowledge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utz, Stephan; Lane, Stuart; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    This research explores participatory processes in the domain of river management in Switzerland. The main objective is to understand how traditional, highly participatory, local organisations for flood protection have been institutionalised into current river management policy, and to what extent this has impacted on wider participatory processes of producing knowledge. Traditionally, flood protection strategies have been based upon scientific knowledge but have often ignored the capacities of local actors to contribute to the development of the policy. Thus, there may be a gap between scientists, stakeholders and the public that favours controversies and leads to opposition to flood protection projects. In order to reduce this gap and to increase incorporation of local knowledge, participatory processes are set up. They are considered as allowing the integration of all the actors concerned by flood risks to discuss their positions and to develop alternative solutions. This is a particularly important goal in the Swiss political system where direct democracy (the possibility of calling the decision of any level of government into question through a popular vote) means that a reasonable level of project acceptance is a necessary element of project. In order to support implementation of participatory processes, federal funding includes a special grant to cover the additional costs due to these actions. It is considered that, since its introduction in 2008, this grant certainly furthered participatory processes for flood protection projects and fostered water management policy implementation. However, the implication of stakeholders and public in decision-making processes is much well-established than modern river management often assumes. In some regions, flood protection tasks have been traditionally assumed by local organisations such as dyke corporations (DCs). These comprise land and property owners who are DC members and have to participate in flood protection

  20. Adige river in Trento flooding map, 1892: private or public risk transfer?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranzi, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    For the determination of the flood risk hydrologist and hydraulic engineers focuse their attention mainly to the estimation of physical factors determining the flood hazard, while economists and experts of social sciences deal mainly with the estimation of vulnerability and exposure. The fact that flood zoning involves both hydrological and socio-economic aspects, however, was clear already in the XIX century when the impact of floods on inundated areas started to appear in flood maps, for instance in the UK and in Italy. A pioneering 'flood risk' map for the Adige river in Trento, Italy, was already published in 1892, taking into account in detail both hazard intensity in terms of velocity and depth, frequency of occurrence, vulnerability and economic costs for flood protection with river embankments. This map is likely to be the reinterpreted certainly as a pioneering, and possibly as the first flood risk map for an Italian river and worldwide. Risk levels were divided in three categories and seven sub-categories, depending on flood water depth, velocity, frequency and damage costs. It is interesting to notice the fact that at that time the map was used to share the cost of levees' reparation and enhancement after the severe September 1882 flood as a function of the estimated level of protection of the respective areas against the flood risk. The sharing of costs between public bodies, the railway company and private owners was debated for about 20 years and at the end the public sustained the major costs. This shows how already at that time the economic assessment of structural flood protections was based on objective and rational cost-benefit criteria, that hydraulic risk mapping was perceived by the society as fundamental for the design of flood protection systems and that a balanced cost sharing between public and private was an accepted approach although some protests arose at that time.

  1. Operational tools to help stakeholders to protect and alert municipalities facing uncertainties and changes in karst flash floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrell Estupina, V.; Raynaud, F.; Bourgeois, N.; Kong-A-Siou, L.; Collet, L.; Haziza, E.; Servat, E.

    2015-06-01

    Flash floods are often responsible for many deaths and involve many material damages. Regarding Mediterranean karst aquifers, the complexity of connections, between surface and groundwater, as well as weather non-stationarity patterns, increase difficulties in understanding the basins behaviour and thus warning and protecting people. Furthermore, given the recent changes in land use and extreme rainfall events, knowledge of the past floods is no longer sufficient to manage flood risks. Therefore the worst realistic flood that could occur should be considered. Physical and processes-based hydrological models are considered among the best ways to forecast floods under diverse conditions. However, they rarely match with the stakeholders' needs. In fact, the forecasting services, the municipalities, and the civil security have difficulties in running and interpreting data-consuming models in real-time, above all if data are uncertain or non-existent. To face these social and technical difficulties and help stakeholders, this study develops two operational tools derived from these models. These tools aim at planning real-time decisions given little, changing, and uncertain information available, which are: (i) a hydrological graphical tool (abacus) to estimate flood peak discharge from the karst past state and the forecasted but uncertain intense rainfall; (ii) a GIS-based method (MARE) to estimate the potential flooded pathways and areas, accounting for runoff and karst contributions and considering land use changes. Then, outputs of these tools are confronted to past and recent floods and municipalities observations, and the impacts of uncertainties and changes on planning decisions are discussed. The use of these tools on the recent 2014 events demonstrated their reliability and interest for stakeholders. This study was realized on French Mediterranean basins, in close collaboration with the Flood Forecasting Services (SPC Med-Ouest, SCHAPI, municipalities).

  2. Possible Weakening Processes Imposed on California's Earthen Levees under Protracted Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, J. D.; Vahedifard, F.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2015-12-01

    California is currently suffering from a multiyear extreme drought and the impacts of the drought are anticipated to worsen in a warming climate. The resilience of critical infrastructure under extreme drought conditions is a major concern which has not been well understood. Thus, there is a crucial need to improve our understanding about the potential threats of drought on infrastructure and take subsequent actions in a timely manner to mitigate these threats and adopt our infrastructure for forthcoming extreme events. The need is more pronounced for earthen levees, since their functionality to protect limited water resources and dryland is more critical during drought. A significant amount of California's levee systems are currently operating under a high risk condition. Protracted drought can further threaten the structural competency of these already at-risk levee systems through several thermo-hydro mechanical weakening processes that undermine their stability. Viable information on the implications of these weakening processes, particularly on California's earthen levees, is relatively incomplete. This article discusses, from a geotechnical engineering perspective, how California's protracted drought might threaten the integrity of levee systems through the imposition of several thermo-hydro mechanical weakening processes. Pertinent facts and statistics regarding the drought in California are presented and discussed. Catastrophic levee failures and major damages resulting from drought-induce weakening processes such as shear strength reduction, desiccation cracking, land subsidence and surface erosion, fissuring and soil softening, and soil carbon oxidation are discussed to illustrate the devastating impacts that the California drought might impose on existing earthen levees. This article calls for further research in light of these potential drought-inducing weakening mechanisms to support mitigation strategies for reducing future catastrophic levee failures.

  3. Numerical Modeling of the Effect of Woody Vegetation on Seepage in Levees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracy, F. T.; Corcoran, M. K.

    2011-12-01

    A remarkable number and diversity of levees exist in the United States. One controversial and complicated concern is the effect of woody vegetation on the performance of levees. Some really appreciate the trees on levees because they are beautiful and great for the environment and habitat. However, others do not like trees on levees because they can cause defects and get in the way of doing maintenance, especially during the time of floods. This poster will focus on two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) numerical modeling of seepage in levees to determine the effect of woody vegetation on piping and internal erosion of the foundation of the levee. The finite element method is the modeling tool that is used. The approach in the overall modeling study was to select several levees around the country for further analysis. Then for each levee, trees were placed at different locations on the levee. A given root zone from a tree was modeled in three ways: (1) a 6 ft X 5 ft constant hydraulic conductivity zone where the original hydraulic conductivity of the zone was varied from 0.01 to 100.0 times its original value, (2) a randomly generated macropore heterogeneous zone where the hydraulic conductivity was varied from 0.01 to 100.0 times its original value for each finite element in the zone, and (3) a defect in actual root shapes embedded into the root zone where the hydraulic conductivity of the defect was chosen to be 100.0 times that of its original value without the defect. Both steady-state and transient flow simulations were done. Output from the models consisted of equipotentials, velocities, pore pressures, and isosurfaces of potential. From these data, the likelihood of the initiation of sand boils and internal erosion of the levee foundation was determined. Data generated with and without the presence of trees were compared to see possible helpful or detrimental effects of the woody vegetation. A 3-D finite element model was generated by taking a 2

  4. Review Article: Structural flood-protection measures referring to several European case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryžanowski, A.; Brilly, M.; Rusjan, S.; Schnabl, S.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a review of structural measures that were taken to cope with floods in some cities along the Danube River, such as Vienna, Bratislava, and Belgrade. These cities were also considered as case studies within the KULTURisk project. The structural measures are reviewed and compared to each other according to the type, duration of application, the return period of the design flood event, how the project measures are integrated into spatial planning and the problems that occur in the flood defences today. Based on this review, some suggestions are given on how to improve the flood risk management in flood-prone areas.

  5. Lessons from Katrina: Flood Management Technology Strategies for the US.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, Gerald

    2006-04-01

    Coastal and riverine flooding and hurricane-driven storms have long plagued those in the United States who live or work on or near the shoreline or the rivers edge. The devastation wrought by Hurricane Katrina brought the challenge of protecting against such events to the political and technical forefront. The predicted impacts of global warming strongly suggest that our floodplains and coastlines could be at greatly increased risk. This presentation will review the development of the U.S. program for providing structural protection, discuss the effectiveness of employing levees, dams, floodways, beach nourishment and storm barriers in this struggle, highlight the changes over the last two decades that have gradually shifted the focus from a structural-only approach to one that includes the non-structural approaches such as wise land use, wetland restoration, relocations, insurance, floodproofing, and emergency warning and evacuation. Using post-Katrina planning as an example, it will explore what new approaches can be taken. Should New Orleans take a 'levees only' approach to its protection? or should attention to New Orleans be part of a coastal Louisiana integrated flood damage reduction and coastal restoration strategy. The nation needs to make changes in its water resources policies and investment strategy to deal with the new threat that it now faces.

  6. Integrating adaptive behaviour in large-scale flood risk assessments: an Agent-Based Modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haer, Toon; Aerts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    Between 1998 and 2009, Europe suffered over 213 major damaging floods, causing 1126 deaths, displacing around half a million people. In this period, floods caused at least 52 billion euro in insured economic losses making floods the most costly natural hazard faced in Europe. In many low-lying areas, the main strategy to cope with floods is to reduce the risk of the hazard through flood defence structures, like dikes and levees. However, it is suggested that part of the responsibility for flood protection needs to shift to households and businesses in areas at risk, and that governments and insurers can effectively stimulate the implementation of individual protective measures. However, adaptive behaviour towards flood risk reduction and the interaction between the government, insurers, and individuals has hardly been studied in large-scale flood risk assessments. In this study, an European Agent-Based Model is developed including agent representatives for the administrative stakeholders of European Member states, insurers and reinsurers markets, and individuals following complex behaviour models. The Agent-Based Modelling approach allows for an in-depth analysis of the interaction between heterogeneous autonomous agents and the resulting (non-)adaptive behaviour. Existing flood damage models are part of the European Agent-Based Model to allow for a dynamic response of both the agents and the environment to changing flood risk and protective efforts. By following an Agent-Based Modelling approach this study is a first contribution to overcome the limitations of traditional large-scale flood risk models in which the influence of individual adaptive behaviour towards flood risk reduction is often lacking.

  7. Experimental analysis of the levees safety based on geophysical monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Enzo; Valeria, Giampaolo; Mario, Votta; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Moramarco, Tommaso; Aricò, Costanza; Camici, S.; Morbidelli, Renato; Sinagra, M.; Tucciarelli, T.

    2010-05-01

    Several flood events brought river levees into the focus of attention for some disasters due to their collapse. This phenomena is quite complex to investigate, because of different factors that can affect the stability of levees, among them the non uniformity of material properties, which influencing the permeability of the embankment, might induce high percolation velocity of flux thus triggering the unstability. Thus, to apply a fast and integrate investigation methods with a non-destructive characteristics should have a large interest, if they are able to furnish ready and usable information necessary to hydrogeological models. In order to achieve this goal, the University of Perugia (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering) and the National Research Council (IRPI and IMAA research institutes) developed a collaborating project on the study of the internal structure of the river embankment by carrying out experiments in laboratory. The purpose of this study is to show the preliminary results of the experimental investigation. The laboratory embankment was built using material coming from a real levee and gathered inside a 1.5m x 1.2m plexiglas box. The box has two compartments: a water reservoir at one hand where a constant water head was reached after some time and a soil simulating the presence of levee. We perform a geoelectrical multichannel acquisition system with three parallel profiles characterized by 16 mini-electrodes connected to georesistivimeter Syscal Pro. An automatic acquisition protocol has been performed to obtain time slice electrical tomographies during the experiments. The geophysical results show the effect of the water table inside the embankment during the wetting and emptying. In order to assess the capability of the geophysical monitoring for addressing the soil parameters estimate, the resistivity results are investigated by using two analytical and one hydraulic numerical models. The analytical models represent a linear

  8. Managing floodplain-forest restoration in European river landscapes combining ecological and flood-protection issues.

    PubMed

    Leyer, Ilona; Mosner, Eva; Lehmann, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Throughout Europe the demands for improved flood protection on the one hand and the requirements to maintain and enhance floodplain forests on the other are perceived as conflicting goals in river-basin management, revealing the urgent need for strategies to combine both issues. We developed an interdisciplinary approach for floodplain-forest restoration identifying sites suitable for reforestations from both an ecological and hydraulic point of view. In the ecological module, habitat-distribution models are developed providing information on ecologically suitable sites. In the hydraulic module, a two-dimensional hydrodynamic-numerical model (2D-HN model) delivers the requested hydraulic information. The output of the two models is intersected. Subsequently, in an iterative procedure, the potential of plantings without exceeding critical water levels can be identified by hydraulic evaluation using the 2D-HN-model. The approach is exemplified using two reforestation scenarios at the Elbe River, Germany, showing considerable potential for softwood forest establishment without negative hydraulic effects. The approach reported here provides a solution for a severe conflict in river-basin management that hampers the reestablishment of the strongly threatened floodplain forests in Europe. Alternative measures to enhance floodplain-forest regeneration feasible under certain preconditions are discussed in the context of the current state of European large rivers.

  9. Delivery of Ecosystem Benefits at the Urban-Suburban Interface: A Case Study of Flood Protection in the Woonasquatucket River Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urbanization exacerbates flooding by increasing surface runoff and decreasing surface roughness. Restoring wetlands can enhance flood protection while providing a suite of co-benefits such as temperature regulation and access to open space. Spatial modeling of the delivery of flo...

  10. Flood information for flood-plain planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bue, Conrad D.

    1967-01-01

    Floods are natural and normal phenomena. They are catastrophic simply because man occupies the flood plain, the highwater channel of a river. Man occupies flood plains because it is convenient and profitable to do so, but he must purchase his occupancy at a price-either sustain flood damage, or provide flood-control facilities. Although large sums of money have been, and are being, spent for flood control, flood damage continues to mount. However, neither complete flood control nor abandonment of the flood plain is practicable. Flood plains are a valuable resource and will continue to be occupied, but the nature and degree of occupancy should be compatible with the risk involved and with the degree of protection that is practicable to provide. It is primarily to meet the needs for defining the risk that the flood-inundation maps of the U.S. Geological Survey are prepared.

  11. Utilizing Radar Remote Sensing to Assess the Water Extent along River Levees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laygo, K.; Madson, A.; O'Connell, K.; Jones, C. E.; Holt, B.

    2012-12-01

    Every spring, precipitation and snowmelt in the central U.S. leads to high water levels in the Mississippi River and its tributaries, with concurrent flooding and levee damage a near-yearly event. In the spring of 2011, historic water levels led to extensive flooding from Mississippi County, Missouri, to southern Louisiana, necessitating the opening of three major spillways, including the Morganza Spillway north of New Orleans, which diverts water from the Mississippi River through the Atchafalaya Basin of central Louisiana and had not been used since 1973. There is value to NOAA, the agency responsible for flood prediction, and the Army Corp. of Engineers, the agency responsible for flood control, in the application of remote sensing to flood mapping and soil moisture mapping, both along the main rivers and levee systems. We plan to use high resolution radar (NASA UAVSAR - Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar), with a particular focus on increased soil moisture mapping in order to determine how quickly and accurately areas of increased soil moisture content associated with levee seepage and sandboils can be delineated. We have several UAVSAR data sets collected along the Mississippi River during June 2009, April and June 2011, which we have analyzed for soil moisture detection algorithm development during the Spring 2012 term. Our goal for part 2 of the study is to develop an algorithm to detect areas of increased soil moisture, and to finalize flood map end products for decision makers based on an easily applied algorithm that utilizes a standard analysis package for water extent measurement along waterways, which will be usable by non-experts with widely available software.River Gage Datat; As mentioned in the section above, river gage data was utilized to help determine the best UAVSAR datset to use for algorithm and processing methodology creation. The table below shows river gage readings with their corresponding UAVSAR flight ID. The datasets

  12. Floods and Societies: Dynamic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Baldassarre, G.; Viglione, A.; Carr, G.; Kuil, L., Jr.; Brandimarte, L.; Bloeschl, G.

    2014-12-01

    There is growing concern that future flood losses and fatalities might increase significantly in many regions of the world because of rapid urbanization in deltas and floodplains, in addition to sea level rise and climate change. To better anticipate long-term trajectories of future flood risk, there is a need to treat floodplains and deltas as fully coupled human-physical systems. Here we propose a novel approach to explore the long-term behavior emerging from the mutual interactions and feedbacks between physical and social systems. The implementation of our modeling framework shows that green societies, which cope with flooding by resettling out of floodplains, are more resilient to increasing flood frequency than technological societies, which deal with flooding by building levees. Also, we show that when coupled dynamics are accounted for, flood-poor periods could (paradoxically) be more dangerous than flood-rich periods.

  13. Risk to life due to flooding in post-Katrina New Orleans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, A.; Jonkman, S. N.; Van Ledden, M.

    2015-01-01

    Since the catastrophic flooding of New Orleans due to Hurricane Katrina in 2005, the city's hurricane protection system has been improved to provide protection against a hurricane load with a 1/100 per year exceedance frequency. This paper investigates the risk to life in post-Katrina New Orleans. In a flood risk analysis the probabilities and consequences of various flood scenarios have been analyzed for the central area of the city (the metro bowl) to give a preliminary estimate of the risk to life in the post-Katrina situation. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model has been used to simulate flood characteristics of various breaches. The model for estimation of fatality rates is based on the loss of life data for Hurricane Katrina. Results indicate that - depending on the flood scenario - the estimated loss of life in case of flooding ranges from about 100 to nearly 500, with the highest life loss due to breaching of the river levees leading to large flood depths. The probability and consequence estimates are combined to determine the individual risk and societal risk for New Orleans. When compared to risks of other large-scale engineering systems (e.g., other flood prone areas, dams and the nuclear sector) and acceptable risk criteria found in literature, the risks for the metro bowl are found to be relatively high. Thus, despite major improvements to the flood protection system, the flood risk to life of post-Katrina New Orleans is still expected to be significant. Indicative effects of reduction strategies on the risk level are discussed as a basis for further evaluation and discussion.

  14. Insights from socio-hydrology modelling on dealing with flood risk: roles of collective memory, risk-taking attitude and trust (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viglione, A.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Brandimarte, L.; Kuil, L.; Carr, G.; Salinas, J.; Scolobig, A.

    2013-12-01

    The risk coping culture of a community plays a major role in decision making in urban flood plains. While flood awareness is not necessarily linked to being prepared to face flooding at an individual level, the connection at the community level seems to be stronger through creating policy and initiating protection works. In this work we analyse, in a conceptual way, the interplay of community risk coping culture, flooding damage and economic growth. We particularly focus on three aspects: (i) collective memory, i.e., the capacity of the community to keep the awareness of flooding high; (ii) risk-taking attitude, i.e., the amount of risk a community is collectively willing to expose themselves to; and (iii) trust of people in risk protection measures. We use a dynamic model that represents the feedbacks between the hydrological and social system components. The model results indicate that, on one hand, by under perceiving the risk of flooding (because of short collective memory and too much trust in flood protection structures) in combination with a high risk-attitude, community survival is severely limited because of destruction caused by flooding. On the other hand, high perceived risk (long memory and lack of trust in flood protection structures) relative to the actual risk leads to lost economic opportunities and recession. There are many optimal scenarios for survival and economic growth, but greater certainty of survival plus economic growth can be achieved by ensuring community has accurate risk perception (memory neither too long nor too short and trust in flood protection neither too great nor too low) combined with a low to moderate risk-taking attitude. Interestingly, the model gives rise to situations in which the development of the community in the floodplain is path dependent, i.e., the history of flooding may lead to its growth or recession. Schematic of human adjustments to flooding: (a) settling away from the river; (b) raising levees/dikes.

  15. 11-14 November 2012 Umbria Region (Central Italy) flood event: from prediction to management for civil protection purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berni, Nicola; Pandolfo, Claudia; Stelluti, Marco; Zauri, Renato; Ponziani, Francesco; Francioni, Marco; Governatori Leonardi, Federico; Formica, Alessandro; Natazzi, Loredana; Costantini, Sandro

    2013-04-01

    Following laws and regulations concerning extreme natural events management, the Italian national hydrometeorological early warning system is composed by 21 regional offices (Functional Centres - CF). Umbria Region CF is located in Central Italy and provides early warning, monitoring and decision support systems (DSS) when significant flood/landslide events occur. The alert system is based on hydrometric and rainfall thresholds with detailed procedures for the management of critical events in which different roles of authorities and institutions involved are defined. For the real time flood forecasting system, at the CF several operational hydrological and hydraulic models were developed and implemented for a "dynamic" hazard/risk scenario assessment for Civil Protection DSS, useful also for the development of Flood Risk Management Plans according to the European "Floods Directive" 2007/60. In the period 11th-14th November 2012, a significant flood event occurred in Umbria (as well as Tuscany and northern Lazio). The territory was interested by intense and persistent rainfall; the hydro-meteorological monitoring network recorded locally rainfall depth over 300 mm in 72 hours and, generally, values greater than the seasonal averages all over the region. In the most affected area the recorded rainfall depths correspond to centenarian return period: one-third of the annual mean precipitation occurred in 2-3 days. Almost all rivers in Umbria have been involved, exceeding hydrometric thresholds, and several ones overflowed. Furthermore, in some cases, so high water levels have never been recorded by the hydrometric network. As in the major flood events occurred in the last years, dams (Montedoglio and Corbara dams along Tiber River and Casanuova dam along Chiascio River) and other hydraulic works for flood defense (e.g. along Chiani stream) played a very important mitigation role, storing high water volumes and avoiding the overlap of peak discharges downstream. During

  16. Effect of bank protection measures, Stehekin River, Chelan County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    An investigation of the lower Stehekin River was conducted to study the effects on flood elevations and velocities from four bank protection and flood prevention measures that are being contemplated as a means of reducing erosional losses of river bank property. These measures are: bank armoring, armored revetment levees, spur dikes, and redevelopment of old cutoff channels. The banks at seven study sites could be armored without adverse effect on the flood velocities and elevations. The largest increases due to armoring--up to 1.6 ft/sec in velocity and 1 ft in elevation--occurred in the vicinity of sites 5, 6, and 7 where the gradient of the river channel is about 50 ft/mi and the velocities are high to begin with (about 6 to 13 ft/sec). The use of a levee in conjunction with armoring on the northeast bank from sites 5 to 7 would increase the velocities as much as 2.8 ft/sec and increase the elevation as much as 1 ft, but it would also provide some flood protection to the east bank, which is frequently inundated. Spur dikes were considered a practical alternative only at site 3, where reduced bank erosion may occur without aggravating flood inundation or erosion elsewhere. The rerouting of flood flow through an old cutoff channel near site 1 increased the velocity by 3.2 ft/sec and the elevation by 1 ft for the 100-year flood; however, it would move floodwater away from residential property where bank erosion is a problem. The few other old channels that shortcut river bends where much erosion occurs are apparently already part of the channel during floods. (Author 's abstract)

  17. The flood of 2011 in the lower Chao Phraya valley, Thailand: Study of a long-duration flood through satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, Soo Chin; Gupta, Avijit; Chia, Aik Song; Ang, Wu Chye

    2016-06-01

    The paper illustrates application of satellite images for studying the anatomy of a long-duration, extensive, and slow flood on the Chao Phraya River in 2011 that inundated Bangkok in its lower reach. The spread of floods in the valley was mapped with MODIS, month by month, from July 2011 to February 2012. A subsampled WorldView-2 mosaic was used to observe part of the valley in detail. The flood in Bangkok was studied with four higher-resolution images from Spot 4, WorldView-2, and GeoEye-1 satellites. We suspect that the floodwaters jumped the banks of the Chao Phraya south of Chai Nat, and then travelled overland and along river channels. The overland passage made it difficult to protect settlements. We also studied sedimentation from the images of this shallow overland flow across the country, which was complicated by the presence of preexisting embankments, other anthropogenic structures, and smaller stream channels. This is a descriptive study but it highlights the nature of flooding that is likely to be repeated in this low flat valley from high rainfall. The pattern of flooding was similar to that of a previous large flood in 1996 recorded in a SPOT 2 image. These floods impact Bangkok periodically, a city of about 10 million people, which started on a levee in a low flat delta, then expanded into backswamps, and is marked with local depressions from groundwater extraction. These slow extensive floods can be mapped from satellite images and properly recorded as an early step in analysis of large floods. Mapping of such floods on ground is logistically impossible. Slow, extensive, and long-lasting floods affect lower valleys and deltas of a number of major rivers, impacting agricultural fields and large populations. These floods are especially disastrous for cities located on low deltas. We submit that basic exercises on satellite images provide valuable introductory information for understanding geomorphology of such floods, and also for structuring plans

  18. Relationship between canal and levee density and coastal land loss in Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.E.

    1987-12-01

    Nearly 1% of Louisiana's coastal land becomes water each year. This land loss affects everything from wildlife, fisheries, and recreation to the economy and culture. A part of this loss results from natural, unmanageable factors, but manageable factors are also responsible. This report discusses one of the manageable factors: canals and their dredged-material levees. In coastal Louisiana wetlands, canals are constructed primarily to facilitate navigation and oil and gas recovery. The density of canals in this region is now about equal to the natural network of bayous and creeks. The primary effect of these canals and associated levees is to alter the process of flooding and drainage. The influence of canals and their levees on coastal Louisiana erosion rates are modified by local geologic, hydrologic, and biologic interactions. The empirical relationship between canals and erosion is, however, clear; land loss is directly related to canal density. Comparisons with mosquito ditches, which are smaller analogues of canals, reveal similar patterns of wetland changes and suggest management options.

  19. Flood Hazards - A National Threat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    In the late summer of 2005, the remarkable flooding brought by Hurricane Katrina, which caused more than $200 billion in losses, constituted the costliest natural disaster in U.S. history. However, even in typical years, flooding causes billions of dollars in damage and threatens lives and property in every State. Natural processes, such as hurricanes, weather systems, and snowmelt, can cause floods. Failure of levees and dams and inadequate drainage in urban areas can also result in flooding. On average, floods kill about 140 people each year and cause $6 billion in property damage. Although loss of life to floods during the past half-century has declined, mostly because of improved warning systems, economic losses have continued to rise due to increased urbanization and coastal development.

  20. A New Approach to Monitoring Coastal Marshes for Persistent Flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalcic, M. T.; Underwood, L. W.; Fletcher, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    Many areas in coastal Louisiana are below sea level and protected from flooding by a system of natural and man-made levees. Flooding is common when the levees are overtopped by storm surge or rising rivers. Many levees in this region are further stressed by erosion and subsidence. The floodwaters can become constricted by levees and trapped, causing prolonged inundation. Vegetative communities in coastal regions, from fresh swamp forest to saline marsh, can be negatively affected by inundation and changes in salinity. As saltwater persists, it can have a toxic effect upon marsh vegetation causing die off and conversion to open water types, destroying valuable species habitats. The length of time the water persists and the average annual salinity are important variables in modeling habitat switching (cover type change). Marsh type habitat switching affects fish, shellfish, and wildlife inhabitants, and can affect the regional ecosystem and economy. There are numerous restoration and revitalization projects underway in the coastal region, and their effects on the entire ecosystem need to be understood. For these reasons, monitoring persistent saltwater intrusion and inundation is important. For this study, persistent flooding in Louisiana coastal marshes was mapped using MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series of a Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). The time series data were derived for 2000 through 2009, including flooding due to Hurricane Rita in 2005 and Hurricane Ike in 2008. Using the NDWI, duration and extent of flooding can be inferred. The Time Series Product Tool (TSPT), developed at NASA SSC, is a suite of software developed in MATLAB® that enables improved-quality time series images to be computed using advanced temporal processing techniques. This software has been used to compute time series for monitoring temporal changes in environmental phenomena, (e.g. NDVI times series from MODIS), and was modified and used to

  1. A New Approach to Monitoring Coastal Marshes for Persistent Flooding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalcic, M. T.; Undersood, Lauren W.; Fletcher, Rose

    2012-01-01

    Many areas in coastal Louisiana are below sea level and protected from flooding by a system of natural and man-made levees. Flooding is common when the levees are overtopped by storm surge or rising rivers. Many levees in this region are further stressed by erosion and subsidence. The floodwaters can become constricted by levees and trapped, causing prolonged inundation. Vegetative communities in coastal regions, from fresh swamp forest to saline marsh, can be negatively affected by inundation and changes in salinity. As saltwater persists, it can have a toxic effect upon marsh vegetation causing die off and conversion to open water types, destroying valuable species habitats. The length of time the water persists and the average annual salinity are important variables in modeling habitat switching (cover type change). Marsh type habitat switching affects fish, shellfish, and wildlife inhabitants, and can affect the regional ecosystem and economy. There are numerous restoration and revitalization projects underway in the coastal region, and their effects on the entire ecosystem need to be understood. For these reasons, monitoring persistent saltwater intrusion and inundation is important. For this study, persistent flooding in Louisiana coastal marshes was mapped using MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series of a Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). The time series data were derived for 2000 through 2009, including flooding due to Hurricane Rita in 2005 and Hurricane Ike in 2008. Using the NDWI, duration and extent of flooding can be inferred. The Time Series Product Tool (TSPT), developed at NASA SSC, is a suite of software developed in MATLAB(R) that enables improved-quality time series images to be computed using advanced temporal processing techniques. This software has been used to compute time series for monitoring temporal changes in environmental phenomena, (e.g. NDVI times series from MODIS), and was modified and used to

  2. Risk to life due to flooding in post-Katrina New Orleans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, A.; Jonkman, S. N.; Van Ledden, M.

    2014-01-01

    After the catastrophic flooding of New Orleans due to hurricane Katrina in the year 2005, the city's hurricane protection system has been improved to provide protection against a hurricane load with a 1/100 per year exceedance frequency. This paper investigates the risk to life in post-Katrina New Orleans. In a risk-based approach the probabilities and consequences of various flood scenarios have been analyzed for the central area of the city (the metro bowl) to give a preliminary estimate of the risk to life in the post-Katrina situation. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model has been used to simulate flood characteristics of various breaches. The model for estimation of fatality rates is based on the loss of life data for Hurricane Katrina. Results indicate that - depending on the flood scenario - the estimated loss of life in case of flooding ranges from about 100 to nearly 500, with the highest life loss due to breaching of the river levees leading to large flood depths. The probability and consequence estimates are combined to determine the individual risk and societal risk for New Orleans. When compared to risks of other large scale engineering systems (e.g. other flood prone areas, dams and the nuclear sector) and acceptable risk criteria found in literature, the risks for the metro bowl are found to be relatively high. Thus, despite major improvements to the flood protection system, the flood risk of post-Katrina New Orleans is still expected to be significant. Effects of reduction strategies on the risk level are discussed as a basis for further evaluation.

  3. Optimized Radar Remote Sensing for Levee Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Cathleen E.

    2013-01-01

    Radar remote sensing offers great potential for high resolution monitoring of ground surface changes over large areas at one time to detect movement on and near levees and for location of seepage through levees. Our NASA-funded projects to monitor levees in the Sacramento Delta and the Mississippi River have developed and demonstrated methods to use radar remote sensing to measure quantities relevant to levee health and of great value to emergency response. The DHS-funded project will enable us is to define how to optimally monitor levees in this new way and set the stage for transition to using satellite SAR (synthetic aperture radar) imaging for better temporal and spatial coverage at lower cost to the end users.

  4. Flood trends and river engineering on the Mississippi River system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pinter, N.; Jemberie, A.A.; Remo, J.W.F.; Heine, R.A.; Ickes, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    Along >4000 km of the Mississippi River system, we document that climate, land-use change, and river engineering have contributed to statistically significant increases in flooding over the past 100-150 years. Trends were tested using a database of >8 million hydrological measurements. A geospatial database of historical engineering construction was used to quantify the response of flood levels to each unit of engineering infrastructure. Significant climate- and/or land use-driven increases in flow were detected, but the largest and most pervasive contributors to increased flooding on the Mississippi River system were wing dikes and related navigational structures, followed by progressive levee construction. In the area of the 2008 Upper Mississippi flood, for example, about 2 m of the flood crest is linked to navigational and flood-control engineering. Systemwide, large increases in flood levels were documented at locations and at times of wing-dike and levee construction. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Application of ground penetrating radar in detecting the hazards and risks of termites and ants in soil levees.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiuhao; Henderson, Gregg; Mao, Lixin; Evans, Ahmad

    2009-08-01

    A ground penetrating radar (GPR) technique was used to detect Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus) and red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) hazards and risks (targets) in a soil levee at the London Avenue Canal in New Orleans, LA. To make this assessment, GPR signal scans were examined for features produced by termite or ant activities and potential sources of food and shelter such as nests, tree roots, and voids (tunnels). The total scanned length of the soil levee was 4,125 m. The average velocity and effective depth of the radar penetration was 0.080 m/ns and 0.61 m, respectively. Four hundred twenty-seven targets were identified. Tree roots (38), voids (31), fire ant nests (209), and metal objects (149) were detected, but no Formosan termite carton nests were identified. The lack of identified termite nests may be related to drowning events at the time to the flood. Based on the target density (TD), the two new floodwall and levee sections that were rebuilt or reinforced after they were destroyed by Hurricane Katrina in 2005 were determined to be at low potential risk from termites and ants. A merging target density (MTD) method indicated a high potential risk near one of the breached sections still remains. Foraging and nesting activity of Formosan subterranean termites and red imported fire ants may be a contributory factor to the levee failure at the London Avenue Canal. PMID:19689906

  6. Precipitation based hydrometeorological services of the Deutscher Wetterdienst for water management and flood protection in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, T.; Gratzki, A.; Rudolf, B.

    2009-04-01

    Inland water management agencies of the German "Länder" address flood forecast and prevention in order to mitigate flood risks. Additionally their risk management activities also address assessment of low flow situations (droughts) and freshwater resources availability. Hydrometeorological services for these hydrological applications are operationally provided by the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) and comprise: High spatially and temporally resoluted observational monitoring products and quantitative predictions of precipitation, evaporation and snow cover (storage and melting). The DWD hydrometeorological services processing chain spans from in situ and remotely sensed observations via numerical weather forecast to runoff models. The best precipitation analysis for Germany is achieved by combining weather radar and in situ observations; this QPE product 'RADOLAN' is available near-realtime on an hourly basis. It is currently being spatially extended to cover transboundary river basins in the hydrological catchment area of Germany and will also be used in nowcasting mode. The NWP model COSMO-DE uses RADOLAN precipitation analysis products and provides precipitation forecasts in 2.8 km spatial resolution. Ensemble based weather predictions providing forecast uncertainty information are more and more accepted by hydrological users. The model SNOW uses precipitation observations in order to improve snow melt forecasts. Time series of precipitation and extreme value statistics complete the hydrometeorological services supporting risk management and climate change assessment in Germany.

  7. Three-dimensional imaging, change detection, and stability assessment during the centerline trench levee seepage experiment using terrestrial light detection and ranging technology, Twitchell Island, California, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bawden, Gerald W.; Howle, James; Bond, Sandra; Shriro, Michelle; Buck, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A full scale field seepage test was conducted on a north-south trending levee segment of a now bypassed old meander belt on Twitchell Island, California, to understand the effects of live and decaying root systems on levee seepage and slope stability. The field test in May 2012 was centered on a north-south trench with two segments: a shorter control segment and a longer seepage test segment. The complete length of the trench area measured 40.4 meters (m) near the levee centerline with mature trees located on the waterside and landside of the levee flanks. The levee was instrumented with piezometers and tensiometers to measure positive and negative porewater pressures across the levee after the trench was flooded with water and held at a constant hydraulic head during the seepage test—the results from this component of the experiment are not discussed in this report. We collected more than one billion three-dimensional light detection and ranging (lidar) data points before, during, and after the centerline seepage test to assess centimeter-scale stability of the two trees and the levee crown. During the seepage test, the waterside tree toppled (rotated 20.7 degrees) into the water. The landside tree rotated away from the levee by 5 centimeters (cm) at a height of 2 m on the tree. The paved surface of the levee crown had three regions that showed subsidence on the waterside of the trench—discussed as the northern, central, and southern features. The northern feature is an elongate region that subsided 2.1 cm over an area with an average width of 1.35 m that extends 15.8 m parallel to the trench from the northern end of the trench to just north of the trench midpoint, and is associated with a crack 1 cm in height that formed during the seepage test on the trench wall. The central subsidence feature is a semicircular region on the waterside of the trench that subsided by as much as 6.2 cm over an area 3.4 m wide and 11.2 m long. The southern feature is an elongate

  8. Overtopping breaching of river levees constructed with cohesive sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hongyan; Yu, Minghui; Wang, Dangwei; Li, Yitian

    2016-07-01

    Experiments were conducted in a bend flume to study the overtopping breaching process and the corresponding overflow rates of river levees constructed with cohesive sediments. The river and land regions were separated by the constructed levee in the bend flume. Results showed that the levee breaching process can be subdivided into a slope erosion stage, a headcut retreat stage and a breach widening stage. Mechanisms such as flow shear erosion, impinging jet erosion, side slope erosion and cantilever collapse were discovered in the breaching process. The erosion characteristics were determined by both flow and soil properties. Finally, a depth-averaged 2-D flow model was used to simulate the levee breaching flow rates, which is well expressed by the broad-crested weir flow formula. The deduced discharge coefficient was smaller than that of common broad-crested rectangular weirs because of the shape and roughness of the breach.

  9. Cibola High Levee Pond Annual Report 2003. Interim Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, G.A.; Carpenter, J.; Marsh, P.C.; Minckley, C.O.

    2003-01-01

    Bonytail and razorback sucker have once again spawned and produced swim-up larvae in Cibola High Levee Pond (CHLP). CHLP continues to support annual recruitment of bonytail while recent razorback sucker recruitment remains elusive. Thus far, razorbacks have experienced intermittent years of spawning success. Both native species were observed spawning on, or near, the riprap on the river levee. Razorbacks spawned from late January until mid-March over gravel and large cobble along the levee toe (2-3 m depth) and bonytail spawned along the levee shoreline during mid-April. Razorback suckers rapidly fin during the reproductive act, which flushes fines from the substrate and leaves gravel relatively clean. Bonytail on the other hand, appear to spawn over or on substrate that has been disturbed by beaver activity. Substrate scour or disturbance appears to be an important factor in spawning site selectiona?|

  10. Shallow (0-10) seismic investigation of a distressed earthen levee, New Orleans, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo, J. M.; Hicks, J.; Vera, E. E.

    2009-12-01

    Both deep- and near-surface hydrogeologic processes can contribute to the structural failure of artificial earthen levees. Recently, seismic geophysical methods have attempted to develop a proxy for engineering shear strength, by mapping changes in the transmission velocity of shear waves. High fluid content may indicate both weak, under-compacted materials and/or organic-rich sediments. In the absence of electromagnetic methods, Vp/Vs ratios can be used as good indicators of variations in the fluid (water, and air or gas) saturation. Cone penetration borehole tests measure the resistance of soils to penetration of the cone tip and its frictional sliding that can be correlated to sediment types and their physical properties. A distressed section of an artificial earthen levee, suitable for seismic investigation, lies ~15 km S of the city of New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Open curvilinear fissures, 10 cm wide, 30 cm deep, and up to 100 m in length, exist along the crest at two sites. Between September 2007 and February 2008 we collect horizontally (SH) polarized shear and compressional wave (P) data in pseudo-walkaway tests for the upper 100 m of the subsurface along the protected (west) side of the earthen levee, within 30 m of its crest. One profile lies parallel and adjacent to the damaged levee crest and, for reference, two profiles lie nearby adjacent to undamaged portions of the artificial earthen levee. In the first ~30 m of sediment below the lower delta plain of the Greater New Orleans area, a complex and dynamic interaction of freshwater and marine sedimentary environments juxtaposes a diverse set of facies. We combine of Vp and Vs velocity maps, sedimentary environment interpretations, and cone-penetration-derived sediment/soil and laboratory-derived physical properties to locate possible zones of high fluid concentration, (and perhaps seepage), weak engineering materials, and natural foundation soil shear strength. Under the distressed portion of the

  11. Flood risk changes emerging from the feedbacks between physical and social processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viglione, Alberto; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Carr, Gemma; Kuil, Linda; Yan, Kun; Brandimarte, Luigia; Blöschl, Günter

    2015-04-01

    To explore changes in flood risk, we propose a novel approach whereby the mutual interactions and continuous feedbacks between floods and societies are explicitly accounted for. We apply this approach by using a socio-hydrological model and simulate the behavior of societies that cope with flooding by either building levees or dikes or resettling out of flood-prone areas. We show that this novel approach is able to capture (and explain) spontaneous dynamics, such as adaptation and levee effects, which often emerge from the interplay between physical and social processes. Moreover, the implementation of this approach provides fascinating insights for flood risk management. For instance, when coupled dynamics are accounted for, flood-poor periods can be more dangerous for societies than flood-rich periods because they lower the collective memory of flooding and therefore reduce societal resilience to flooding.

  12. Hydrologic effects of area B flood control plan on urbanization of Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kohout, F.A.; Hartwell, J.H.

    1967-01-01

    Swampy low land (Area B) that fringes the Everglades west of Metropolitan Miami, Florida (Area A) probably will be urbanized in the future. Area B will be protected from flooding by huge pumps that will pump water westward from Area B over a levee system into Conservation Area 3B. The total capacity of the pumps will be about 13,400 cubic feet per second which is sufficient to lower water levels 2 inches per day in the 203 square miles of Area B. As this capacity is about equal to the highest gravity-flow discharge to the ocean through existing canals of the Miami area, a great potential. will exist, not only for control of floods, but also for beneficial control and management of a major segment of the water resources in southeastern Florida.

  13. Assessment of the effectiveness of flood adaptation strategies for HCMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasage, R.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; de Moel, H.; Van, T. C.; Phi, H. L.; Vellinga, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2014-06-01

    Coastal cities are vulnerable to flooding, and flood risk to coastal cities will increase due to sea-level rise. Moreover, Asian cities in particular are subject to considerable population growth and associated urban developments, increasing this risk even more. Empirical data on vulnerability and the cost and benefits of flood risk reduction measures are therefore paramount for sustainable development of these cities. This paper presents an approach to explore the impacts of sea-level rise and socio-economic developments on flood risk for the flood-prone District 4 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and to develop and evaluate the effects of different adaptation strategies (new levees, dry- and wet proofing of buildings and elevating roads and buildings). A flood damage model was developed to simulate current and future flood risk using the results from a household survey to establish stage-damage curves for residential buildings. The model has been used to assess the effects of several participatory developed adaptation strategies to reduce flood risk, expressed in expected annual damage (EAD). Adaptation strategies were evaluated assuming combinations of both sea-level scenarios and land-use scenarios. Together with information on costs of these strategies, we calculated the benefit-cost ratio and net present value for the adaptation strategies until 2100, taking into account depreciation rates of 2.5% and 5%. The results of this modelling study indicate that the current flood risk in District 4 is USD 0.31 million per year, increasing up to USD 0.78 million per year in 2100. The net present value and benefit-cost ratios using a discount rate of 5 % range from USD -107 to -1.5 million, and from 0.086 to 0.796 for the different strategies. Using a discount rate of 2.5% leads to an increase in both net present value and benefit-cost ratio. The adaptation strategies wet-proofing and dry-proofing generate the best results using these economic indicators. The information

  14. The Central European Flood in June 2013: Experiences from a Near-Real Time Disaster Analysis in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröter, Kai; Khazai, Bijan; Mühr, Bernhard; Elmer, Florian; Bessel, Tina; Möhrle, Stella; Dittrich, André; Kreibich, Heidi; Fohringer, Joachim; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Trieselmann, Werner; Kunz, Michael; Merz, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    The central European flood in June 2013 once again revealed that complete flood protection is not possible. Inundations caused severe damage to buildings, infrastructure and agricultural lands. Official estimates of total damage in Germany amount to approx. 8bn € which is lower than the damage caused by the August 2002 flood - the most expensive natural hazard experienced so far in Germany. Repeated and long lasting precipitation in combination with extremely adverse preconditions induced a large scale flood event. In Germany, particularly the catchment areas of the Danube and Elbe were affected. The June 2013 flood has been the most severe flood event in terms of spatial extent and magnitude of flood peaks in Germany during the last 60 years. Large scale inundation occurred as a consequence of levee breaches near Deggendorf (Danube), Groß Rosenau and Fischbeck (Elbe). The flood has had a great impact on people, transportation and the economy. In many areas more than 50,000 thousand people were evacuated. Electrical grid and local water supply utilities failed during the floods. Furthermore, traffic was disrupted in the interregional transportation network including federal highways and long distance railways. CEDIM analysed and assessed the flood event within its current research activity on near real time forensic disaster analysis (CEDIM FDA: www.cedim.de). This contribution gives an overview about the CEDIM FDA analyses' results. It describes the key hydro-meteorological factors that triggered this extraordinary event and draws comparisons to major flood events in August 2002 and July 1954. Further, it shows the outcomes of a rapid initial impact assessment on the district level using social, economic and institutional indicators which are supplemented with information on the number of people evacuated and transportation disruptions and combined with the magnitude of the event.

  15. Vertical Accretion of the Rain Forest Floodplains and Levees: the Formation of Rias from Interaction of Black and White River Types in the Amazon River System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ori, G.; Franzinelli, E.

    2006-12-01

    The Amazon river system is dominated by the presence of rias, that is plaeovalleys paretially filled by sediment and harbouring almost standing bodies of water. Since the seminal work of Harald Sioli, it has been clear the paleovalleys have been formed in rivers (black type) poor in sediment and rich in organic matter during low stand periods of the sea level. Subsequently, the rivers rich in sediment (white type) damming of their mouths by the vertical accretion of the rivers rich in sediments (white type). This pattern is present in other rain forest fluvial systems and a good example is the Murray Lake in Papua New Guinea. These relations show that of the flood plain in tropical rain forest systems is strongly dominated by vertical accretion. This fact is also confirmed by the ubiquitous presence of levees inside channels (e.g. Rio Trombettas). Levees accrete vertically by the addition of single layers of sediment mostly entrapped by vegetation. The formation of permanent crevasse splays is also contributing to the levee accretion. Secondary channels are perched over the floodplain interface and totally bounded by levees. Consequently, the floodplain is dominated by lakes, permanent crevasse splays and levees assembled in vertical stacked bodies. The geological record shows examples of rain forest floodplains with similar facies and stratigraphic patterns..

  16. Extent and frequency of floods on Delaware River in vicinity of Belvidere, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farlekas, George M.

    1966-01-01

    A stream overflowing its banks is a natural phenomenon. This natural phenomenon of flooding has occurred on the Delaware River in the past and will occur in the future. T' o resulting inundation of large areas can cause property damage, business losses and possible loss of life, and may result in emergency costs for protection, rescue, and salvage work. For optimum development of the river valley consistent with the flood risk, an evaluation of flood conditions is necessary. Basic data and the interpretation of the data on the regimen of the streams, particularly the magnitude of floods to be expected, the frequency of their occurrence, and the areas inundated, are essential for planning and development of flood-prone areas.This report presents information relative to the extent, depth, and frequency of floods on the Delaware River and its tributaries in the vicinity of Belvidere, N.J. Flooding on the tributaries detailed in the report pertains only to the effect of backwater from the Delaware River. Data are presented for several past floods with emphasis given to the floods of August 19, 1955 and May 24, 1942. In addition, information is given for a hypothetical flood based on the flood of August 19, 1955 modified by completed (since 1955) and planned flood-control works.By use of relations presented in this report the extent, depth, and frequency of flooding can be estimated for any site along the reach of the Delaware River under study. Flood data and the evaluation of the data are presented so that local and regional agencies, organizations, and individuals may have a technical basis for making decisions on the use of flood-prone areas. The Delaware River Basin Commission and the U.S. Geological Survey regard this program of flood-plain inundation studies as a positive step toward flood-damage prevention. Flood-plain inundation studies, when followed by appropriate land-use regulations, are a valuable and economical supplement to physical works for flood

  17. The assessment of river basin and flood management from early twentieth century to the present on the lower Siret River (Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salit, F.; Beltrando, B.; Zaharia, L.

    2012-04-01

    The river basin management and flood depends on the politico-historical, economic and environmental context in which it is thought. There is a similar evolution in Romania, where political developments have had as much impact on flood management than hydro-climatic events. The aim of this work is to understand of management systems in a diachronic logic in Romania from the beginning of the 20th century to the Communist period and to accession to the European Union. This work focuses on the lower Siret River. The Siret catchment is one of the last major tributaries of the Danube River east of the Carpathians and the most important of Romania in terms of flow and drainage area. To study the assessment of river basin management, a GIS was constructed using a series of Romanian and Russian topographic maps extending over the period 1916-1990 and Google earth images from 2009 and 2010. The study of the current period was enhanced by field observations (records of existing dykes, testimonials ...) from 2010-2011. Finally, this study is based on the technical literature for the regularization of rivers and the various reports made over this period. Three periods were identified: the major floods of 1970 and 2005 marked a turning point in the logical management of river basin and especially in the fight against flood. From the beginning of the period to 1970, dyke protection was sporadic: they are intended primarily to protect the villages directly threatened by recurrent flood. In 1970 a major flood (3500 m3/s) occurred on the lower Siret and other minor floods in succession from 1970 to 1975. By 1976 a national plan was drawn up to fight against the harmful effects of water. The entire sector of the lower Siret River and its major tributaries is arranged, a network of levees protects not only the villages but also all economic assets in this sector, namely the agricultural land, the main wealth of the region. In 2005 an exceptionally large flood (4650 m3/s) affected the

  18. Optimal and centralized reservoir management for drought and flood protection via Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming on the Upper Seine-Aube River system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiavico, Mattia; Raso, Luciano; Dorchies, David; Malaterre, Pierre-Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Seine river region is an extremely important logistic and economic junction for France and Europe. The hydraulic protection of most part of the region relies on four controlled reservoirs, managed by EPTB Seine-Grands Lacs. Presently, reservoirs operation is not centrally coordinated, and release rules are based on empirical filling curves. In this study, we analyze how a centralized release policy can face flood and drought risks, optimizing water system efficiency. The optimal and centralized decisional problem is solved by Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP) method, minimizing an operational indicator for each planning objective. SDDP allows us to include into the system: 1) the hydrological discharge, specifically a stochastic semi-distributed auto-regressive model, 2) the hydraulic transfer model, represented by a linear lag and route model, and 3) reservoirs and diversions. The novelty of this study lies on the combination of reservoir and hydraulic models in SDDP for flood and drought protection problems. The study case covers the Seine basin until the confluence with Aube River: this system includes two reservoirs, the city of Troyes, and the Nuclear power plant of Nogent-Sur-Seine. The conflict between the interests of flood protection, drought protection, water use and ecology leads to analyze the environmental system in a Multi-Objective perspective.

  19. Modeling flood dynamics along the superelevated channel belt of the Yellow River over the last 3000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yunzhen; Overeem, Irina; Kettner, Albert J.; Gao, Shu; Syvitski, James P. M.

    2015-07-01

    The Yellow River, China, experienced >1000 levee breaches during the last 3000 years. A reduced-complexity model is developed in this study to explore the effects of climate change and human activity on flood levels, levee breaches, and river avulsions. The model integrates yearly morphological change along a channel belt with daily river fluxes and hourly evolution of levee breaches. Model sensitivity analysis reveals that under natural conditions, superelevation of the channel belt dominates flood frequency. When there is significant human-accelerated basin erosion and breach repair, the dominant factors shift to a combination of mean annual precipitation, superelevation, critical shear stress of weak channel banks, and the time interval between breach initiation and its repair. The effect of precipitation on flood frequency is amplified by land use changes in the hinterland, particularly in the erodible Loess Plateau. Uncertainty analysis estimates the most likely values of the dominant factors for six historical periods between 850 B.C. and A.D. 1839, which are used to quantitatively reconstruct flood dynamics. During 850 B.C. to A.D. 1839, when the sediment load increased fourfold, the breach recurrence interval was shortened from more than 500 years to less than 6 years, and the breach outflow rate increased ~27 times. River management practices during A.D. 1579 to A.D. 1839 focused on levees and triggered a severe positive feedback of increased levee heights and flood hazard exacerbation. Raising the levee heights proved to be ineffective for sustainable flood management.

  20. Ontogeny of a flood plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, J.A.; Pizzuto, J.E.; Meade, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    The ontogeny of five flood-plain segments is described for a period of 18 yr following a major flood in 1978 on the Powder River in southeastern Montana. The flood plains developed on relatively elevated sand and gravel deposits left within the channel by the 1978 flood. In cross section, the flood plains resemble benches with well-developed natural levees. Flood-plain growth occurred as sediment was draped onto preexisting surfaces in layers of sand and mud a few centimeters to decimeters thick, resulting in some lateral, but mostly vertical accretion. Annual and biannual measurements indicated that, as the flood-plain segments grew upward, the annual rate of vertical accretion decreased as the partial duration recurrence interval for the threshold or bankfull discharge increased from 0.16 to 1.3 yr. It is clear that a constant recurrence interval for overbank flow cannot be meaningfully assigned to this type of flood-plain ontogeny. These flood plains did not grow on migrating point bars, and vertical accretion at least initially occurred within the channel, rather than across the valley flat during extensive overbank flows. Sediments of these flood plains define narrow, elongated stratigraphic units that border the active channel and onlap older flood-plain deposits. These characteristics are considerably different from those of many facies models for meandering river deposits. Facies similar to those described in this paper are likely to be preserved, thereby providing important evidence in the geologic record for episodes of periodic channel expansion by ancient rivers.

  1. Retention of Afforestation Areas as Part of Flood Protection - Research Site and Methodology for Headwater Watershad in Poland / Retencja Leśna Zlewni Jako Element Ochrony Przeciwpowodziowej

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orczykowski, Tomasz; Tiukało, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Land use is considered as a non-structural, ecologically beneficial flood protection measure. Forest as one of the land use types has many useful applications which can be observed in detail on www.nwrm.eu website project. It is scientifically proved that afforestation influences flood events with high probability of occurrence. However, it is still to be argued how to measure land use impact on the hydrological response of watershed and how it should be measured in an efficient and quantifiable way. Having the tool for such an impact measurement, we can build efficient land management strategies. It is difficult to observe the impact of land use on flood events in the field.Therefore, one of the possible solutions is to observe this impact indirectly by means of hydrological rainfall-runoff models as a proxy for the reality. Such experiments were conducted in the past. Our study aims to work on the viability assessment, methodology and tools that allow to observe this impact with use of selected hydrological models and readily available data in Poland. Our first reaserch site is located within headwaters of the Kamienna river watershed. This watershed has been affected by ecological disaster, which resulted in loss of 65% of forest coverage. Our proposed methodology is to observe this transformation and its effect on the watershed response to heavy precipitation and therefore change in the flood risk.

  2. Earthflow yield strength constrained by lateral levee morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nereson, A. L.; Finnegan, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Slow-moving landslides, or earthflows, are characterized by persistent, flow-like motion that is commonly modeled using various viscous and viscoplastic rheologies. One of the manifestations of viscoplastic flow down a slope is the emergence of stationary bodies of fluid at the margins of the flow (i.e. lateral levees). These levees are common signatures of earthflow morphology and, while they are frequently used to outline boundaries for mapping purposes, they have received little attention for what they may indicate about the history and properties of the flow itself. In contrast, lateral levees along lava flows have long been used by physical volcanologists as tools to learn about their non-Newtonian rheologies and chemical compositions. Hulme (1974) was the first to note that, for a given slope, levee width may be characteristic of a fluids's yield strength and his methodology has been subsequently used to infer properties of lavas on the Earth, the Moon, and Mars. Using these lavas as analogies, we apply Hulme's approach to earthflows in a variety of settings globally. We find that calculated yield strengths for individual earthflows fall within a relatively narrow range between 101-102 kPa. In addition, individual earthflow complexes often preserve multiple generations of levees, which in some cases may record apparent reductions in yield strength over time for a given flow, possibly from weakening of previously failed material. Knowledge of earthflow yield strength permits the calculation of a critical earthflow thickness below which there will be no downslope motion for a given slope angle. Thicknesses calculated in this manner could thus be used to estimate the flux of landslide material for earthflows without direct depth constraints, provided that surface velocity measurements are obtained by other methods (e.g. InSAR, GPS, manual feature tracking).

  3. Quantifying Floods of a Flood Regime in Space and Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whipple, A. A.; Fleenor, W. E.; Viers, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Interaction between a flood hydrograph and floodplain topography results in spatially and temporally variable conditions important for ecosystem process and function. Individual floods whose frequency and dimensionality comprise a river's flood regime contribute to that variability and in aggregate are important drivers of floodplain ecosystems. Across the globe, water management actions, land use changes as well as hydroclimatic change associated with climate change have profoundly affected natural flood regimes and their expression within the floodplain landscape. Homogenization of riverscapes has degraded once highly diverse and productive ecosystems. Improved understanding of the range of flood conditions and spatial variability within floodplains, or hydrospatial conditions, is needed to improve water and land management and restoration activities to support the variable conditions under which species adapted. This research quantifies the flood regime of a floodplain site undergoing restoration through levee breaching along the lower Cosumnes River of California. One of the few lowland alluvial rivers of California with an unregulated hydrograph and regular floodplain connectivity, the Cosumnes River provides a useful test-bed for exploring river-floodplain interaction. Representative floods of the Cosumnes River are selected from previously-established flood types comprising the flood regime and applied within a 2D hydrodynamic model representing the floodplain restoration site. Model output is analyzed and synthesized to quantify and compare conditions in space and time, using metrics such as depth and velocity. This research establishes methods for quantifying a flood regime's floodplain inundation characteristics, illustrates the role of flow variability and landscape complexity in producing heterogeneous floodplain conditions, and suggests important implications for managing more ecologically functional floodplains.

  4. The President`s Floodplan Management Action Plan: Formulating a watershed and ecosystem approach to flood hazard mitigation and resource protection

    SciTech Connect

    McShane, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Great Midwest Flood of 1993 focused the attention of the Nation on the human and environmental costs associated with decades of efforts to control flooding, unwise land-use decisions, and the loss and degradation of the natural resources and functions of floodplains. The disaster can also be attributed to the single purpose decision-making process and fragmented planning at all levels of government, inconsistent statutory madates, and conflicting jurisdictional responsibilities. The Executive Office of the President established a Floodplain Management Review Committee to determine the major causes and consequences of the flood and to evaluate the performance of existing floodplain management and related watershed programs. The report, Sharing the Challenge: Floodplain Management into the 21st Century, included 90 recommendations to improve floodplain management and water resources planning including the need for a more comprehensive, coordinated approach to floodplain and watershed management. Preparation of the 1994 document A Unified National Program for Floodplain Management commenced prior to the Midwest Flood of 1993 and was completed, coincidentally, concurrently with the Review Committee`s report Sharing the Challenge. Both reports urge the formulation of a more comprehensive, watershed approach to managing human activities and protecting natural systems to ensure the long term viability of riparian ecosystems and the sustainable development of riverine communities. Both reports recognize that effective floodplain management will reduce the financial burdens placed upon all levels of government to compensate property owners and governments for flood losses caused by unwise land use decisions by individuals, as well as governments. This paper focuses on the fundamental changes in Federal floodplain management policies and programs that are emerging that will affect how as a Nation manage and use our floodplain resources into the 21st Century.

  5. Flood Stress as a Technique to Assess Preventive Insecticide and Fungicide Treatments for Protecting Trees against Ambrosia Beetles.

    PubMed

    Ranger, Christopher M; Schultz, Peter B; Reding, Michael E; Frank, Steven D; Palmquist, Debra E

    2016-01-01

    Ambrosia beetles tunnel into the heartwood of trees where they cultivate and feed upon a symbiotic fungus. We assessed the effectiveness of flood stress for making Cercis canadensis L. and Cornus florida L. trees attractive to attack as part of insecticide and fungicide efficacy trials conducted in Ohio and Virginia. Since female ambrosia beetles will not begin ovipositing until their symbiotic fungus is established within the host, we also assessed pre-treatment of trees with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite on fungal establishment and beetle colonization success. Permethrin reduced attacks on flooded trees, yet no attacks occurred on any of the non-flooded trees. Fewer galleries created within flooded trees pre-treated with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite contained the purported symbiotic fungus; foundress' eggs were only detected in flooded but untreated trees. While pre-treatment with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite can disrupt colonization success, maintaining tree health continues to be the most effective and sustainable management strategy. PMID:27548230

  6. Sulforhodamine B interacts with albumin to lower surface tension and protect against ventilation injury of flooded alveoli.

    PubMed

    Kharge, Angana Banerjee; Wu, You; Perlman, Carrie E

    2015-02-01

    In the acute respiratory distress syndrome, alveolar flooding by proteinaceous edema liquid impairs gas exchange. Mechanical ventilation is used as a supportive therapy. In regions of the edematous lung, alveolar flooding is heterogeneous, and stress is concentrated in aerated alveoli. Ventilation exacerbates stress concentrations and injuriously overexpands aerated alveoli. Injury degree is proportional to surface tension, T. Lowering T directly lessens injury. Furthermore, as heterogeneous flooding causes the stress concentrations, promoting equitable liquid distribution between alveoli should, indirectly, lessen injury. We present a new theoretical analysis suggesting that liquid is trapped in discrete alveoli by a pressure barrier that is proportional to T. Experimentally, we identify two rhodamine dyes, sulforhodamine B and rhodamine WT, as surface active in albumin solution and investigate whether the dyes lessen ventilation injury. In the isolated rat lung, we micropuncture a surface alveolus, instill albumin solution, and obtain an area with heterogeneous alveolar flooding. We demonstrate that rhodamine dye addition lowers T, reduces ventilation-induced injury, and facilitates liquid escape from flooded alveoli. In vitro we show that rhodamine dye is directly surface active in albumin solution. We identify sulforhodamine B as a potential new therapeutic agent for the treatment of the acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  7. Flood Stress as a Technique to Assess Preventive Insecticide and Fungicide Treatments for Protecting Trees against Ambrosia Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Ranger, Christopher M.; Schultz, Peter B.; Reding, Michael E.; Frank, Steven D.; Palmquist, Debra E.

    2016-01-01

    Ambrosia beetles tunnel into the heartwood of trees where they cultivate and feed upon a symbiotic fungus. We assessed the effectiveness of flood stress for making Cercis canadensis L. and Cornus florida L. trees attractive to attack as part of insecticide and fungicide efficacy trials conducted in Ohio and Virginia. Since female ambrosia beetles will not begin ovipositing until their symbiotic fungus is established within the host, we also assessed pre-treatment of trees with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite on fungal establishment and beetle colonization success. Permethrin reduced attacks on flooded trees, yet no attacks occurred on any of the non-flooded trees. Fewer galleries created within flooded trees pre-treated with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite contained the purported symbiotic fungus; foundress’ eggs were only detected in flooded but untreated trees. While pre-treatment with permethrin, azoxystrobin, and potassium phosphite can disrupt colonization success, maintaining tree health continues to be the most effective and sustainable management strategy. PMID:27548230

  8. Study of Extreme Hydrometeorological Events under Consideration of Climate Change in terms of Flood Protection Design Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, B.-Z.

    2012-04-01

    common frequencies to rare frequencies. Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) is defined as the greatest depth of precipitation for a given duration meteorologically possible for a design watershed or a given storm area at a particular location at a particular time of year, with no allowance made for long-term climate trends (WMO, 2009). The PMP has been widely used by many hydrologists to determine the probable maximum flood (PMF) critical to the design of a variety of hydrological structures and other high profile infrastructures such as nuclear power-generation station with respect to flood-protection, for which a high level safety is required. What is the impact of climate change on PMP estimation? Actually, in the definition of PMP, there is "no allowance made for long-term climate trends" (WMO, 2009). However, when people are talking about impact of climate change on PMP estimation, two things may be taken into account practically: (1) To affect the precipitable water as a result of increase of SST; (2) Effect on the selection of the transposed storm because more extreme storms would occur due to climate change and more potential candidates to be used for storm transposition. The occurrence of a severe rainfall storm could alter the PMP estimates. A good example is the lashing of the Typhoon Morakot of 8 - 10 Aug. 2009 on Taiwan Island that set up new rainfall picture. What is the effect of topography on rainfall is another big issue in PMP estimation. Many observations of precipitation in mountainous areas show a general increase in precipitation with elevation. Practically, the effect of topography on rainfall should be taken into account in PMP estimation and implemented by the storm separation technique. The Step-Duration-Orographic-Intensification-Factor (SDOIF) Method, which was developed based on statistics analysis of extreme rainfalls in the storm area, can practically be used as storm separation technique to decouple the Morakot storm rainfalls into two

  9. Three dimensional numerical modeling of flow and pollutant transport in a flooding area of 2008 US Midwest Flood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents the development and application of a three-dimensional numerical model for simulating the flow field and pollutant transport in a flood zone near the confluence of the Mississippi River and Iowa River in Oakville, Iowa. Due to a levee breaching along the Iowa River during the US ...

  10. Flood stress as a technicque to assess preventive insecticide and fungicide treatments for protecting trees against ambrosia beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exotic ambrosia beetles Xylosandrus germanus, Xylosandrus crassiusculus, and Xylosandrus compactus tunnel into the heartwood of trees where they cultivate and feed upon a symbiotic fungus. We assessed the effectiveness of flood stress as a tactic for making trees attractive and vulnerable to att...

  11. Analyses of water, core material, and elutriate samples collected near New Orleans, Louisiana (Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, and vicinity hurricane protection project)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leone, Harold L.

    1976-01-01

    When a hurricane approaches the New Orleans, Louisiana area, the accompanying tides and heavy rainfall increase the level of water in Lake Borgne, Mississippi Sound, and Lake Pontchartrain and pose a major threat of water damage to the populated areas. During Hurricane Betsy (1965), for example, the level of Lake Pontchartrain rose as much as 13 feet. Nineteen core-material-sampling sites were chosen by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers as possible borrow areas for fill material to be used in levee construction for flood protection around Lake Pontchartrain. Twenty-three receiving-water sites were also selected to represent the water that will contact the proposed levees. Selected nutrients, metals, pesticides, and other organic constituents were analyzed from bed-material and native-water samples as well as upon elutriate samples of specific core material-receiving water systems. The results of these analyses are presented without interpretation. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Flood-inundation maps for a 6.5-mile reach of the Kentucky River at Frankfort, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lant, Jeremiah G.

    2013-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.5-mile reach of Kentucky River at Frankfort, Kentucky, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Frankfort Office of Emergency Management. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage Kentucky River at Lock 4 at Frankfort, Kentucky (station no. 03287500). Current conditions for the USGS streamgage may be obtained online at the USGS National Water Information System site (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/inventory?agency_code=USGS&site_no=03287500). In addition, the information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often colocated at USGS streamgages. The forecasted peak-stage information, also available on the Internet, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the Kentucky River reach by using HEC–RAS, a one-dimensional step-backwater model developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current (2013) stage-discharge relation for the Kentucky River at Lock 4 at Frankfort, Kentucky, in combination with streamgage and high-water-mark measurements collected for a flood event in May 2010. The calibrated model was then used to calculate 26 water-surface profiles for a sequence of flood stages, at 1-foot intervals, referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from a stage near bankfull to the elevation that breached the levees protecting the City of Frankfort. To delineate the flooded area at

  13. Watershed basin management and agriculture practices: an application case for flooding areas in Piemonte.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, G.; Franzi, L.; Valvassore, U.

    2009-04-01

    Watershed basin management in Piemonte (Italy) is a challenging issue that forces the local Authorities to a careful land planning in the frame of a sustainable economy. Different and contrasting objectives should be taken into account and balanced in order to find the best or the most "reasonable" choice under many constraints. Frequently the need for flood risk reduction and the demand for economical exploitation of floodplain areas represent the most conflicting aspects that influence watershed management politics. Actually, flood plains have been the preferred places for socio-economical activities, due to the availability of water, fertility of soil and the easiness of agricultural soil exploitation. Sometimes the bed and planform profile adjustments of a river, as a consequence of natural processes, can impede some anthropogenic activities in agriculture, such as the erosion of areas used for crops, the impossibility of water diversion, the deposition of pollutants on the ground, with effects on the economy and on the social life of local communities. In these cases watershed basin management should either balance the opposite demands, as the protection of economic activities (that implies generally canalized rivers and levees construction) and the need of favouring the river morphological stability, allowing the flooding in the inundation areas. In the paper a case study in Piemonte region (Tortona irrigation district) is shown and discussed. The effects of the Scrivia river planform adjustment on water diversion and soil erodibility force the local community and the authority of the irrigation district to ask for flood protection and river bed excavation. A mathematical model is also applied to study the effects of local river channel excavation on flood risk. Some countermeasures are also suggested to properly balance the opposite needs in the frame of a watershed basin management.

  14. Coastal flood protection by a combined nature-based and engineering approach: Modeling the effects of marsh geometry and surrounding dikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Jeroen; Plancke, Yves; Ides, Stefaan; Meire, Patrick; Temmerman, Stijn

    2016-06-01

    As ecosystem-based adaptation to global change is gaining ground, strategies to protect coastal and estuarine areas from increasing flood hazards are starting to consist of natural tidal wetland conservation and restoration in addition to conventional coastal defense structures. In this study, the capacity of tidal wetlands to locally attenuate peak water levels during storm tides is analyzed using a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model (TELEMAC2D) for a 3000 ha intertidal marsh (SW Netherlands). Model results indicate that peak water level reduction largely varies between individual flooding events and between different locations in the marsh. Model scenarios with variable dike positions show that attenuation rates can be minimized by blockage and set up of water levels against dikes or other structures confining the marsh size. This blockage only affects peak water level attenuation across wetlands if the duration of the flood wave is long compared to the marsh size. A minimum marsh width of 6-10 km is required to completely avoid blockage effects for the storm tidal cases assessed in this study. If blockage does not affect flood wave propagation, variations in attenuation rates between different locations in the marsh and between tides with varying high water levels can be explained with a single relationship based on the ratio between the water volume on the marsh platform and the total water volume on the platform and in the channels. Attenuation starts to occur when this ratio exceeds 0.2-0.4 and increases from there on up to a maximum of 29 cm/km for a ratio of about 0.85. Furthermore, model scenarios with varying marsh channel depth show that marsh scale attenuation rates increase by up to 4 cm/km if the channel elevation is raised by 0.7 m on average. Conversely, marsh scale attenuation rates decrease by up to 2 cm/km for scenarios in which the channels are lowered by 0.9 m on average. The marsh platform elevation has little effect on the maximum attenuation

  15. Anthropogenic impact on flood-risk: a large-scale assessment for planning controlled inundation strategies along the River Po

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeneghetti, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio; Brath, Armando

    2013-04-01

    The European Flood Directive (2007/60/EC) has fostered the development of innovative and sustainable approaches and methodologies for flood-risk mitigation and management. Furthermore, concerning flood-risk mitigation, the increasing awareness of how the anthropogenic pressures (e.g. demographic and land-use dynamics, uncontrolled urban and industrial expansion on flood-prone area) could strongly increase potential flood damages and losses has triggered a paradigm shift from "defending the territory against flooding" (e.g. by means of levee system strengthening and heightening) to "living with floods" (e.g. promoting compatible land-uses or adopting controlled flooding strategies of areas located outside the main embankments). The assessment of how socio-economic dynamics may influence flood-risk represents a fundamental skill that should be considered for planning a sustainable industrial and urban development of flood-prone areas, reducing their vulnerability and therefore minimizing socio-economic and ecological losses due to large flood events. These aspects, which are of fundamental importance for Institutions and public bodies in charge of Flood Directive requirements, need to be considered through a holistic approach at river basin scale. This study focuses on the evaluation of large-scale flood-risk mitigation strategies for the middle-lower reach of River Po (~350km), the longest Italian river and the largest in terms of streamflow. Due to the social and economical importance of the Po River floodplain (almost 40% of the total national gross product results from this area), our study aims at investigating the potential of combining simplified vulnerability indices with a quasi-2D model for the definition of sustainable and robust flood-risk mitigation strategies. Referring to past (1954) and recent (2006) land-use data sets (e.g. CORINE) we propose simplified vulnerability indices for assessing potential flood-risk of industrial and urbanized flood prone

  16. Cartographic evidence of the disastrous ice flood of 1809 and its aftermath (Danube River, Slovakia).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pišút, P.

    2009-04-01

    local manuscript maps depict the river before and after this event. Combined with written literary reports, the maps allow us to describe the course, the devastating effects and the aftermath consequences of the 1809 flood precisely, particularly as to the territory of the city of Bratislava itself. Moreover, many of these maps comprise a wealth of information about flood in their detailed explanatory legends and remarks. The most important maps and plans are those currently deposited in the National Archives of Hungary (= maps from the collection of former Governing Council, the central supervisory authority of the Habsburgs for the Hungarian Kingdom), in the Municipial Archives of Bratislava and the Slovak National Archives, respectively. Effects of the 1809 ice flood, as evidenced by historical maps and plans, can be generally summarised as follows: a) direct destruction (by ice floes) or collapse of houses, bridges, buildings, boat mills, groynes and bank revetments b) heavy lateral erosion of the river channel during this single event (then referred to as „damage to banks") c) breaches of protective dikes d) formation of new water bodies - temporary lakes - created by spilled water on the landside of levees e) reactivation of upstream entrances of some side channels f) pronounced changes of flooplain configuration g) damage to floodplain forest. This research was supported by the Slovak Scientific Grant agency VEGA (Project N. 1/0362/09).

  17. Effect of a levee setback on aquatic resources using two-dimensional flow and bioenergetics models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Black, Robert W.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Magirl, Christopher S.; McCarthy, Sarah; Berge, Hans; Comanor, Kyle

    2016-04-05

    Watershed restoration is the focus of many resource managers and can include a multitude of restoration actions each with specific restoration objectives. For the White River flowing through the cities of Pacific and Sumner, Washington, a levee setback has been proposed to reconnect the river with its historical floodplain to help reduce flood risks, as well as provide increased habitat for federally listed species of salmonids. The study presented here documents the use of a modeling framework that integrates two-dimensional hydraulic modeling with process-based bioenergetics modeling for predicting how changes in flow from reconnecting the river with its floodplain affects invertebrate drift density and the net rate of energy intake of juvenile salmonids. Modeling results were calculated for flows of 25.9 and 49.3 cubic meters per second during the spring, summer, and fall. Predicted hypothetical future mean velocities and depths were significantly lower and more variable when compared to current conditions. The abundance of low energetic cost and positive growth locations for salmonids were predicted to increase significantly in the study reach following floodplain reconnection, particularly during the summer. This modeling framework presents a viable approach for evaluating the potential fisheries benefits of reconnecting a river to its historical floodplain that integrates our understanding of hydraulic, geomorphology, and organismal biology.

  18. Rethinking the relationship between flood risk perception and flood management.

    PubMed

    Birkholz, S; Muro, M; Jeffrey, P; Smith, H M

    2014-04-15

    Although flood risk perceptions and their concomitant motivations for behaviour have long been recognised as significant features of community resilience in the face of flooding events, there has, for some time now, been a poorly appreciated fissure in the accompanying literature. Specifically, rationalist and constructivist paradigms in the broader domain of risk perception provide different (though not always conflicting) contexts for interpreting evidence and developing theory. This contribution reviews the major constructs that have been applied to understanding flood risk perceptions and contextualises these within broader conceptual developments around risk perception theory and contemporary thinking around flood risk management. We argue that there is a need to re-examine and re-invigorate flood risk perception research, in a manner that is comprehensively underpinned by more constructivist thinking around flood risk management as well as by developments in broader risk perception research. We draw attention to an historical over-emphasis on the cognitive perceptions of those at risk to the detriment of a richer understanding of a wider range of flood risk perceptions such as those of policy-makers or of tax-payers who live outside flood affected areas as well as the linkages between these perspectives and protective measures such as state-supported flood insurance schemes. Conclusions challenge existing understandings of the relationship between risk perception and flood management, particularly where the latter relates to communication strategies and the extent to which those at risk from flooding feel responsible for taking protective actions.

  19. 77 FR 9637 - Process for Requesting a Variance From Vegetation Standards for Levees and Floodwalls; Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... requesting a variance from vegetation standards for levees and floodwalls to reflect organizational changes... as armoring or overbuilt sections) intended to preserve system reliability and resiliency...

  20. 75 FR 6364 - Process for Requesting a Variance From Vegetation Standards for Levees and Floodwalls

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... requesting a variance from vegetation standards for levees and floodwalls to reflect organizational changes...) intended to preserve system reliability and resiliency by preventing or mitigating vegetation impacts....

  1. The 1965 Mississippi River flood in Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwob, Harian H.; Myers, Richard E.

    1965-01-01

    Flood data compiled for the part of the River along the eastern border include flood discharges, flood elevations, and the frequency of floods of varying magnitudes. They also include the daily or more frequent stage and discharge data for both the Mississippi River and the downstream gaging stations on Iowa tributaries for the period March-May 1965. Sufficient data are presented to permit studied for preparation of plans for protective works and plans for zoning or for flood plain regulation.

  2. 25 CFR 256.24 - Will I need flood insurance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Will I need flood insurance? 256.24 Section 256.24... Will I need flood insurance? You will need flood insurance if your dwelling is located in an area identified as having special flood hazards under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Pub. L....

  3. 25 CFR 256.24 - Will I need flood insurance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will I need flood insurance? 256.24 Section 256.24... Will I need flood insurance? You will need flood insurance if your dwelling is located in an area identified as having special flood hazards under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Pub. L....

  4. 25 CFR 256.24 - Will I need flood insurance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Will I need flood insurance? 256.24 Section 256.24 Indians... need flood insurance? You will need flood insurance if your dwelling is located in an area identified as having special flood hazards under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Pub. L. 93-234,...

  5. 25 CFR 256.24 - Will I need flood insurance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Will I need flood insurance? 256.24 Section 256.24... Will I need flood insurance? You will need flood insurance if your dwelling is located in an area identified as having special flood hazards under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Pub. L....

  6. 25 CFR 256.24 - Will I need flood insurance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Will I need flood insurance? 256.24 Section 256.24... Will I need flood insurance? You will need flood insurance if your dwelling is located in an area identified as having special flood hazards under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Pub. L....

  7. A Framework for Flood Risk Analysis and Benefit Assessment of Flood Control Measures in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chaochao; Cheng, Xiaotao; Li, Na; Du, Xiaohe; Yu, Qian; Kan, Guangyuan

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk analysis is more complex in urban areas than that in rural areas because of their closely packed buildings, different kinds of land uses, and large number of flood control works and drainage systems. The purpose of this paper is to propose a practical framework for flood risk analysis and benefit assessment of flood control measures in urban areas. Based on the concept of disaster risk triangle (hazard, vulnerability and exposure), a comprehensive analysis method and a general procedure were proposed for urban flood risk analysis. Urban Flood Simulation Model (UFSM) and Urban Flood Damage Assessment Model (UFDAM) were integrated to estimate the flood risk in the Pudong flood protection area (Shanghai, China). S-shaped functions were adopted to represent flood return period and damage (R-D) curves. The study results show that flood control works could significantly reduce the flood risk within the 66-year flood return period and the flood risk was reduced by 15.59%. However, the flood risk was only reduced by 7.06% when the flood return period exceeded 66-years. Hence, it is difficult to meet the increasing demands for flood control solely relying on structural measures. The R-D function is suitable to describe the changes of flood control capacity. This frame work can assess the flood risk reduction due to flood control measures, and provide crucial information for strategy development and planning adaptation. PMID:27527202

  8. A Framework for Flood Risk Analysis and Benefit Assessment of Flood Control Measures in Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaochao; Cheng, Xiaotao; Li, Na; Du, Xiaohe; Yu, Qian; Kan, Guangyuan

    2016-01-01

    Flood risk analysis is more complex in urban areas than that in rural areas because of their closely packed buildings, different kinds of land uses, and large number of flood control works and drainage systems. The purpose of this paper is to propose a practical framework for flood risk analysis and benefit assessment of flood control measures in urban areas. Based on the concept of disaster risk triangle (hazard, vulnerability and exposure), a comprehensive analysis method and a general procedure were proposed for urban flood risk analysis. Urban Flood Simulation Model (UFSM) and Urban Flood Damage Assessment Model (UFDAM) were integrated to estimate the flood risk in the Pudong flood protection area (Shanghai, China). S-shaped functions were adopted to represent flood return period and damage (R-D) curves. The study results show that flood control works could significantly reduce the flood risk within the 66-year flood return period and the flood risk was reduced by 15.59%. However, the flood risk was only reduced by 7.06% when the flood return period exceeded 66-years. Hence, it is difficult to meet the increasing demands for flood control solely relying on structural measures. The R-D function is suitable to describe the changes of flood control capacity. This frame work can assess the flood risk reduction due to flood control measures, and provide crucial information for strategy development and planning adaptation. PMID:27527202

  9. A Framework for Flood Risk Analysis and Benefit Assessment of Flood Control Measures in Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaochao; Cheng, Xiaotao; Li, Na; Du, Xiaohe; Yu, Qian; Kan, Guangyuan

    2016-08-05

    Flood risk analysis is more complex in urban areas than that in rural areas because of their closely packed buildings, different kinds of land uses, and large number of flood control works and drainage systems. The purpose of this paper is to propose a practical framework for flood risk analysis and benefit assessment of flood control measures in urban areas. Based on the concept of disaster risk triangle (hazard, vulnerability and exposure), a comprehensive analysis method and a general procedure were proposed for urban flood risk analysis. Urban Flood Simulation Model (UFSM) and Urban Flood Damage Assessment Model (UFDAM) were integrated to estimate the flood risk in the Pudong flood protection area (Shanghai, China). S-shaped functions were adopted to represent flood return period and damage (R-D) curves. The study results show that flood control works could significantly reduce the flood risk within the 66-year flood return period and the flood risk was reduced by 15.59%. However, the flood risk was only reduced by 7.06% when the flood return period exceeded 66-years. Hence, it is difficult to meet the increasing demands for flood control solely relying on structural measures. The R-D function is suitable to describe the changes of flood control capacity. This frame work can assess the flood risk reduction due to flood control measures, and provide crucial information for strategy development and planning adaptation.

  10. New Orleans and Hurricane Katrina. IV: Orleans East Bank (Metro) protected basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seed, R.B.; Bea, R.G.; Athanasopoulos-Zekkos, A.; Boutwell, G.P.; Bray, J.D.; Cheung, C.; Cobos-Roa, D.; Cohen-Waeber, J.; Collins, B.D.; Harder, L.F.; Kayen, R.E.; Pestana, J.M.; Riemer, M.F.; Rogers, J.D.; Storesund, R.; Vera-Grunauer, X.; Wartman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses damage caused by Hurricane Katrina to the main Orleans East Bank protected basin. This basin represented the heart of New Orleans, and contained the main downtown area, the historic French Quarter, the Garden District, and the sprawling Lakefront and Canal Districts. Nearly half of the loss of life during this hurricane, and a similar fraction of the overall damages, occurred in this heavily populated basin. There are a number of important geotechnical lessons, as well as geo-forensic lessons, associated with the flooding of this basin. These include the difficulties associated with the creation and operation of regional-scale flood protection systems requiring federal and local cooperation and funding over prolonged periods of time. There are also a number of engineering and policy lessons regarding (1) the accuracy and reliability of current analytical methods; (2) the shortcomings and potential dangers involved in decisions that reduced short-term capital outlays in exchange for increased risk of potential system failures; (3) the difficulties associated with integrating local issues with a flood risk reduction project; and (4) the need to design and maintain levees as systems; with each of the many individual project elements being required to mesh seamlessly. These lessons are of interest and importance for similar flood protection systems throughout numerous other regions of the United States and the world. ?? 2008 ACSE.

  11. CONSEQUENCES OF HUMAN-ALTERED FLOODS: LEVEES, FLOODS, AND FLOODPLAIN FORESTS ALONG THE WISCONSIN RIVER. (R826600)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  12. Flood risk analysis in the Tokyo metropolitan area for climate change adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2011-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. In particular, the Tokyo metropolitan area is highly vulnerable to flood, because densely populated area is located along mouth of major rivers. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. We aim to evaluate potential flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use change, land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. For this purpose, it is necessary to build up a consistent flood database system, which contains long-term consistent flood data for the past. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published "Statistics of flood", which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. Based on these flood data documented in "Statistics of flood", we construct a flood database system for Tokyo metropolitan area for the period from 1961 to 2008 by using ArcGIS software. In this database, each flood record is linked to municipal polygons. By using this flood database, we can refer to a specific flood record for each year at small municipal level. We can also calculate total amount of damage for each flood cause such as innuduation inside the levee, over flow,innunduation by river water. First, we analyze long-term variations of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area based on this flood database. Then, we aim to evaluate influence of socio-economic and climatic change on flood risk variations by comparing flood variations in the past with rainfall data and socio-economic indicators. Finally, we construct a flood risk curve representing exceedance probability for total damage of flood by using past flood data. Based on the flood risk curve, we discuss potential vulnerability to flooding and risk of economic losses in Tokyo metropolitan area for climate change adaptation.

  13. Pakistan Flooding

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Flooding in Pakistan     View Larger Image In late July 2010, flooding caused by heavy monsoon rains began in several regions of Pakistan, ... and Aug 11, 2010 Images:  Pakistan Flood location:  Asia thumbnail:  ...

  14. Balancing Play, Meaning and Reality: The Design Philosophy of LEVEE PATROLLER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harteveld, Casper; Guimaraes, Rui; Mayer, Igor S.; Bidarra, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Most serious games have been developed without a proper and comprehensive design theory. To contribute to the development of such a theory, this article presents the underlying design philosophy of LEVEE PATROLLER, a game to train levee patrollers in the Netherlands. This philosophy stipulates that the design of a digital serious game is a…

  15. A Model for Variable Levee Formation Rates in an Active Lava Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaze, L. S.; Baloga, S. M.; Mouginis-Mark, P.; Crisp, J.

    2004-01-01

    Channelized lava flows on Mars and the Earth often feature levees and collateral margins that change in volume along the path of the flow. Consistent with field observations of terrestrial flows, this suggests that the rate of levee formation varies with distance and other factors. Previous models have assumed a constant rate of levee growth, specified by a single parameter, lambda. The rate of levee formation for lava flows is a good indicator of the mass eruption rate and rheology of the flow. Insight into levee formation will help us better understand whether or not the effusion rate was constant during an eruption, and once local topography is considered, allows us to look at cooling and/or rheology changes downslope. Here we present a more realistic extension of the levee formation model that treats the rate of levee growth as a function of distance along the flow path. We show how this model can be used with a terrestrial flow and a long lava flow on Mars. The key statement of the new formulation is the rate of transfer from the active component to the levees (or other passive components) through an element dx along the path of the flow. This volumetric transfer equation is presented.

  16. Documenting Tragedy and Resilience: The Importance of Spike Lee's "When the Levees Broke"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Kevin Michael; Blakes, Tifani; McKay, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    Spike Lee's documentary, "When the Levees Broke," provides an informative, enduring, and alternative presentation surrounding the human and man-made debacle associated with Hurricane Katrina. Levees centers the voices of survivors and others involved in the weeks during and after the hurricane, historicizes residents' understandings and reactions,…

  17. Flood inundation map library, Fort Kent, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2012-01-01

    Severe flooding occurred in northern Maine from April 28 to May 1, 2008, and damage was extensive in the town of Fort Kent (Lombard, 2010). Aroostook County was declared a Federal disaster area on May 9, 2008. The extent of flooding on both the Fish and St. John Rivers during this event showed that the current Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Study (FIS) and Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) (Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1979) were out of date. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study to develop a flood inundation map library showing the areas and depths for a range of flood stages from bankfull to the flood of record for Fort Kent to complement an updated FIS (Federal Emergency Management Agency, in press). Hydrologic analyses that support the maps include computer models with and without the levee and with various depths of backwater on the Fish River. This fact sheet describes the methods used to develop the maps and describes how the maps can be accessed.

  18. Flood management on the lower Yellow River: hydrological and geomorphological perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Li; Finlayson, Brian

    1993-05-01

    The Yellow River, known also as "China's Sorrow", has a long history of channel changes and disastrous floods in its lower reaches. Past channel positions can be identified from historical documentary records and geomorphological and sedimentological evidence. Since 1947, government policy has been aimed at containing the floods within artificial levees and preventing the river from changing its course. Flood control is based on flood-retarding dams and off-stream retention basins as well as artificial levees lining the channel. The design flood for the system has a recurrence interval of only around 60 years and floods of this and larger magnitudes can be generated downstream of the main flood control dams at Sanmenxia and Xiaolangdi. Rapid sedimentation along the river causes problems for storage and has raised the bed of the river some 10 m above the surrounding floodplain. The present management strategy is probably not viable in the long term and to avoid a major disaster a new management approach is required. The most viable option would appear to be to breach the levees at predetermined points coupled with advanced warning and evacuation of the population thus put at risk.

  19. Study of Movement and Seepage Along Levees Using DINSAR and the Airborne UAVSAR Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Cathleen E.; Bawden, Gerald; Deverel, Steven; Dudas, Joel; Hensley, Scott

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the utility of high resolution SAR (synthetic aperture radar) for levee monitoring using UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar) data collected along the dikes and levees in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and along the lower Mississippi River. Our study has focused on detecting and tracking changes that are indicative of potential problem spots, namely deformation of the levees, subsidence along the levee toe, and seepage through the levees, making use of polarimetric and interferometric SAR techniques. Here was present some results of those studies, which show that high resolution, low noise SAR imaging could supplement more traditional ground-based monitoring methods by providing early indicators of seepage and deformation.

  20. Levee crest elevation profiles derived from airborne lidar-based high resolution digital elevation models in south Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Thatcher, Cindy A.; Barras, John A.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the feasibility of using airborne lidar surveys to derive high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) and develop an automated procedure to extract levee longitudinal elevation profiles for both federal levees in Atchafalaya Basin and local levees in Lafourche Parish. Generally, the use of traditional manual surveying methods to map levees is a costly and time consuming process that typically produces cross-levee profiles every few hundred meters, at best. The purpose of our paper is to describe and test methods for extracting levee crest elevations in an efficient, comprehensive manner using high resolution lidar generated DEMs. In addition, the vertical uncertainty in the elevation data and its effect on the resultant estimate of levee crest heights is addressed in an assessment of whether the federal levees in our study meet the USACE minimum height design criteria.

  1. Reconciling environmental and flood control goals on an arid-zone river: case study of the limitrophe region of the lower colorado river in the United States and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Edward P; Hucklebridge, Kate; Hinojosa-Huerta, Osvel; Nagler, Pamela L; Pitt, Jennifer

    2008-03-01

    Arid zone rivers have highly variable flow rates, and flood control projects are needed to protect adjacent property from flood damage. On the other hand, riparian corridors provide important wildlife habitat, especially for birds, and riparian vegetation is adapted to the natural variability in flows on these rivers. While environmental and flood control goals might appear to be at odds, we show that both goals can be accommodated in the Limitrophe Region (the shared border between the United States and Mexico) on the Lower Colorado River. In 1999, the International Boundary and Water Commission proposed a routine maintenance project to clear vegetation and create a pilot channel within the Limitrophe Region to improve flow capacity and delineate the border. In 2000, however, Minute 306 to the international water treaty was adopted, which calls for consideration of environmental effects of IBWC actions. We conducted vegetation and bird surveys within the Limitrophe and found that this river segment is unusually rich in native cottonwood and willow trees, marsh habitat, and resident and migratory birds compared to flow-regulated segments of river. A flood-frequency analysis showed that the existing levee system can easily contain a 100 year flood even if vegetation is not removed, and the existing braided channel system has greater carrying capacity than the proposed pilot channel. PMID:18167018

  2. Floods in the United States: Magnitude and Frequency

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarvis, Clarence S.; ,

    1936-01-01

    promoted by the adoption of measures for protection and control. It should be borne clearly in mind, however, that probably no single method of flood control will insure the protection of a large drainage basin. 'The improvement of natural channels; the building of reservoirs - sometimes well adapted for purposes of irrigation and power; the construction of levees, such as now exist along the lower Mississippi; reforestation and a Change in certain areas from tilled crops to grass crops, may all playa part in slowing down the rush of water to the sea, or in keeping it away from cities, towns, and valuable lands.' (Mississippi Valley Committee Report, 2d ed., p. 3, 1934.) 'Consideration of a national flood-control policy must necessarily recognize that the flood-control aspects of a project, be it a major purpose or an incidental one, must be evaluated in the light of a broad study which takes into account all other purposes or possibilities involved. Among such other purposes may be power, navigation, irrigation; may be low-water control, water supply, sewage, or waste disposal. Wherever more than one purpose is indicated, each must be considered in its full relation to all the others. Only by such procedure can a well-coordinated project be evolved.' (Idem, p. 27.) In planning public works for the con trol of floods, and in relating such works to effective utilization of river waters for the various purposes enumerated above, two basic requirements are (1) accurate and reliable records of the stage and discharge of past floods, and (2) development of methods for the analysis of such data, to determine the frequency of floods heretofore experienced and to estimate the magnitude and frequency of future floods. It is the purpose of this study to present for certain rivers in the United States much of the basic information of this sort now available. Engineers generally agree that a large part of the flood destruction in this country could have been pre

  3. 13 CFR 120.170 - Flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section... to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.170 Flood insurance. Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Sec. 205(b) of Pub. L. 93-234; 87 Stat. 983 (42...

  4. 13 CFR 120.170 - Flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section... to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.170 Flood insurance. Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Sec. 205(b) of Pub. L. 93-234; 87 Stat. 983 (42...

  5. 13 CFR 120.170 - Flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section... to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.170 Flood insurance. Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Sec. 205(b) of Pub. L. 93-234; 87 Stat. 983 (42...

  6. 13 CFR 120.170 - Flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section... to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.170 Flood insurance. Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Sec. 205(b) of Pub. L. 93-234; 87 Stat. 983 (42...

  7. 13 CFR 120.170 - Flood insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flood insurance. 120.170 Section... to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.170 Flood insurance. Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (Sec. 205(b) of Pub. L. 93-234; 87 Stat. 983 (42...

  8. Floods n' Dams: A Watershed Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Andrew; Etches, John

    1996-01-01

    Describes an activity meant to illustrate flooding in a watershed as it impinges on human activities. Shows how flood protection can be provided using the natural holding capacity of basins elsewhere in the water system to reduce the impact on the settled flood plain. The activity works well with intermediate and senior level students but can be…

  9. Terrestrial Lidar Datasets of New Orleans, Louisiana, Levee Failures from Hurricane Katrina, August 29, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Brian D.; Kayen, Robert; Minasian, Diane L.; Reiss, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina made landfall with the northern Gulf Coast on August 29, 2005, as one of the strongest hurricanes on record. The storm damage incurred in Louisiana included a number of levee failures that led to the inundation of approximately 85 percent of the metropolitan New Orleans area. Whereas extreme levels of storm damage were expected from such an event, the catastrophic failure of the New Orleans levees prompted a quick mobilization of engineering experts to assess why and how particular levees failed. As part of this mobilization, civil engineering members of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) performed terrestrial lidar topographic surveys at major levee failures in the New Orleans area. The focus of the terrestrial lidar effort was to obtain precise measurements of the ground surface to map soil displacements at each levee site, the nonuniformity of levee height freeboard, depth of erosion where scour occurred, and distress in structures at incipient failure. In total, we investigated eight sites in the New Orleans region, including both earth and concrete floodwall levee breaks. The datasets extend from the 17th Street Canal in the Orleans East Bank area to the intersection of the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway (GIWW) with the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet (MRGO) in the New Orleans East area. The lidar scan data consists of electronic files containing millions of surveyed points. These points characterize the topography of each levee's postfailure or incipient condition and are available for download through online hyperlinks. The data serve as a permanent archive of the catastrophic damage of Hurricane Katrina on the levee systems of New Orleans. Complete details of the data collection, processing, and georeferencing methodologies are provided in this report to assist in the visualization and analysis of the data by future users.

  10. Late Pleistocene channel-levee development on Monterey submarine fan, central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Normark, W.R.

    1999-01-01

    Much of the modern upper (proximal) Monterey fan is a channel-levee complex, the Upper Turbidite Sequence (UTS), that was deeply eroded after the channel breached a volcanic ridge to reach a deeper base level. Ages of sediment samples collected with the ALVIN submersible from the deepest outcrop within the channel-levee system, 390 m below the adjacent western levee crest, indicate that the UTS deposits accumulated at ???1 m ka-1 during the last 500 ka. Neogene and Early Pleistocene sediment accumulation on the fan prior to the UTS was much slower (<0.03 m ka-1), and underlying turbidite systems(?) had substantially different morphologic expression(s).

  11. Flood management along the Lower Mississippi and Rhine Rivers (The Netherlands) and the continuum of geomorphic adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Paul F.; Middelkoop, Hans; Stouthamer, Esther

    2008-10-01

    Flood management alters fundamental fluvial processes that have geomorphic consequences for rivers and floodplains. The Lower Mississippi and Rhine Rivers (The Netherlands) are two important examples of intensively regulated large rivers. Understanding the magnitude and direction of change caused by flood management requires a long-term perspective. This is particularly true of large lowland fluvial systems because of substantial lag-times required for adjustment to be manifest in the floodplain geomorphology. This study is a historical analysis and synthesis of the impacts of flood management on the Lower Mississippi and Rhine Rivers (The Netherlands), and investigates the interrelations of flood management with floodplain geomorphology. Although flood management varies between the Rhine and Mississippi on many accounts, the actual techniques of flood (and river) management are somewhat similar, and primarily include dikes, groynes, cutoffs, and bank protection. The implementation and history of these specific types of activities, however, varies considerably. Historical flood management along the Lower Mississippi can be characterized as abrupt, with the major options imposed within about five decades, while historical flood management along the Rhine River in The Netherlands is characterized as incremental and adaptive, with the major options imposed over about eight centuries. Conversely, modern flood management plans are implemented much more promptly along the Dutch Rhine than the Lower Mississippi. Changes to the Lower Mississippi include channel adjustment (width and incision) caused by meander bend cutoffs. The majority of the knickpoint incision in response to cutoffs occurred by 1963. Channel adjustment in some reaches is likely constrained by the presence of resistant alluvium and lithology. Floodplain geomorphic changes include the creation of new oxbow lakes within an embanked floodplain. Embanked floodplain sedimentation of oxbow lakes created from

  12. Flood marks of the 1813 flood in the Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miklanek, Pavol; Pekárová, Pavla; Halmová, Dana; Pramuk, Branislav; Bačová Mitková, Veronika

    2014-05-01

    was by 38 cm lower in May 2010 than during the 1813 flood, but by 5 cm higher than in 1903, and also higher than all the other catastrophic floods that hit Cracow during the last 200 years. The analysis of documentary information is a contribution to the growing pool of material on pre-instrumental floods in Central and Eastern Europe. The long-term flood records may reduce uncertainty in hydrological analyses and contribute to reducing losses of human lives and property. Some historical cases may be used as analogues of the recent floods and very well documented recent events are important for complex understanding of similar past floods Acknowledgement This work was supported by the Science and Technology Assistance Agency under contract No. APVV-0015-10. The paper was prepared during the "Centre of excellence for integrated flood protection of land" (ITMS 26240120004) project implementation supported by the Research & Development Operational Programme funded by the ERDF.

  13. Application of High Resolution Multispectral Imagery for Levee Slide Detection and Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hossain, A. K. M. Azad; Easson, Greg

    2007-01-01

    The objective is to develop methods to detect and monitor levee slides using commercially available high resolution multispectral imagery. High resolution multispectral imagery like IKONOS and QuickBird are suitable for detecting and monitoring levee slides. IKONOS is suitable for visual inspection, image classification and Tasseled Cap transform based slide detection. Tasseled Cap based model was found to be the best method for slide detection. QuickBird was suitable for visual inspection and image classification.

  14. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions...

  15. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions...

  16. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions...

  17. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions...

  18. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions...

  19. An integrated modeling approach to predict flooding on urban basin.

    PubMed

    Dey, Ashis Kumar; Kamioka, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    Correct prediction of flood extents in urban catchments has become a challenging issue. The traditional urban drainage models that consider only the sewerage-network are able to simulate the drainage system correctly until there is no overflow from the network inlet or manhole. When such overflows exist due to insufficient drainage capacity of downstream pipes or channels, it becomes difficult to reproduce the actual flood extents using these traditional one-phase simulation techniques. On the other hand, the traditional 2D models that simulate the surface flooding resulting from rainfall and/or levee break do not consider the sewerage network. As a result, the correct flooding situation is rarely addressed from those available traditional 1D and 2D models. This paper presents an integrated model that simultaneously simulates the sewerage network, river network and 2D mesh network to get correct flood extents. The model has been successfully applied into the Tenpaku basin (Nagoya, Japan), which experienced severe flooding with a maximum flood depth more than 1.5 m on September 11, 2000 when heavy rainfall, 580 mm in 28 hrs (return period > 100 yr), occurred over the catchments. Close agreements between the simulated flood depths and observed data ensure that the present integrated modeling approach is able to reproduce the urban flooding situation accurately, which rarely can be obtained through the traditional 1D and 2D modeling approaches.

  20. Uncorrected land-use planning highlighted by flooding: the Alba case study (Piedmont, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luino, F.; Turconi, L.; Petrea, C.; Nigrelli, G.

    2012-07-01

    more recent urbanisation. Despite recurrent severe flooding of the Tanaro River and its tributaries, areas along the riverbed and its paleochannels have been increasingly used for infrastructure and building (e.g., roads, a municipal dump, a prison, natural aggregate plants, a nomad camp), which has often interfered with the natural spread of the floodwaters. Since the 1994 flood, many remedial projects have been completed along the Tanaro and its tributaries, including levees, bank protection, concrete walls and floodway channels. In spite of these costly projects, some areas remain at high risk for flooding. The method used, which considered historical data, river corridors identified by hydraulic calculations, geomorphological aspects and land-use planning, can indicate with good accuracy flood-prone areas and in consequence to be an useful tool for the coherent planning of urban expansion and the mitigation of flood risk.

  1. Assessment of big floods in the Eastern Black Sea Basin of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yüksek, Ömer; Kankal, Murat; Üçüncü, Osman

    2013-01-01

    In this study, general knowledge and some details of the floods in Eastern Black Sea Basin of Turkey are presented. Brief hydro-meteorological analysis of selected nine floods and detailed analysis of the greatest flood are given. In the studied area, 51 big floods have taken place between 1955-2005 years, causing 258 deaths and nearly US $500,000,000 of damage. Most of the floods have occurred in June, July and August. It is concluded that especially for the rainstorms that have caused significantly damages, the return periods of the rainfall heights and resultant flood discharges have gone up to 250 and 500 years, respectively. A general agreement is observed between the return periods of rains and resultant floods. It is concluded that there has been no significant climate change to cause increases in flood harms. The most important human factors to increase the damage are determined as wrong and illegal land use, deforestation and wrong urbanization and settlement, psychological and technical factors. Some structural and non-structural measures to mitigate flood damages are also included in the paper. Structural measures include dykes and flood levees. Main non-structural measures include flood warning system, modification of land use, watershed management and improvement, flood insurance, organization of flood management studies, coordination between related institutions and education of the people and informing of the stakeholders.

  2. The integrated local flood warning system: A look at the flood response system

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, D.M.; Lee, R.

    1988-01-01

    Local Flood Warning Systems are instituted and maintained at a local level. They consist of two parts: (1) the flood forecast system, and (2) the flood response system. The flood forecast system is primarily built around the technology used to predict flooding. In this paper, we stress two points about local flood warning systems. First, the system must be integrated. Specifically, collecting data, transmitting data, forecasting the flood, informing local officials, warning local residents, and taking protective action (including evacuation of residents) must all occur in an integrated fashion if the whole system is to succeed. Second, we outline some important organizational characteristics that should be improved when developing a local flood response system. Key organizational characteristics include experience, networks, communications, decision making, everyday disaster task overlap. By focusing upon experience (including learning from the past flood or disaster experience or participating in drills and exercises) and by improving preparedness can be inexpensively improved. 6 refs.,

  3. Flood Risk and Flood hazard maps - Visualisation of hydrological risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spachinger, Karl; Dorner, Wolfgang; Metzka, Rudolf; Serrhini, Kamal; Fuchs, Sven

    2008-11-01

    Hydrological models are an important basis of flood forecasting and early warning systems. They provide significant data on hydrological risks. In combination with other modelling techniques, such as hydrodynamic models, they can be used to assess the extent and impact of hydrological events. The new European Flood Directive forces all member states to evaluate flood risk on a catchment scale, to compile maps of flood hazard and flood risk for prone areas, and to inform on a local level about these risks. Flood hazard and flood risk maps are important tools to communicate flood risk to different target groups. They provide compiled information to relevant public bodies such as water management authorities, municipalities, or civil protection agencies, but also to the broader public. For almost each section of a river basin, run-off and water levels can be defined based on the likelihood of annual recurrence, using a combination of hydrological and hydrodynamic models, supplemented by an analysis of historical records and mappings. In combination with data related to the vulnerability of a region risk maps can be derived. The project RISKCATCH addressed these issues of hydrological risk and vulnerability assessment focusing on the flood risk management process. Flood hazard maps and flood risk maps were compiled for Austrian and German test sites taking into account existing national and international guidelines. These maps were evaluated by eye-tracking using experimental graphic semiology. Sets of small-scale as well as large-scale risk maps were presented to test persons in order to (1) study reading behaviour as well as understanding and (2) deduce the most attractive components that are essential for target-oriented risk communication. A cognitive survey asking for negative and positive aspects and complexity of each single map complemented the experimental graphic semiology. The results indicate how risk maps can be improved to fit the needs of different user

  4. Assessment of flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, J.; Dairaku, K.

    2013-12-01

    Flood is one of the most significant natural hazards in Japan. The Tokyo metropolitan area has been affected by several large flood disasters. Therefore, investigating potential flood risk in Tokyo metropolitan area is important for development of adaptation strategy for future climate change. We aim to develop a method for evaluating flood risk in Tokyo Metropolitan area by considering effect of historical land use and land cover change, socio-economic change, and climatic change. Ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism in Japan published 'Statistics of flood', which contains data for flood causes, number of damaged houses, area of wetted surface, and total amount of damage for each flood at small municipal level. By using these flood data, we estimated damage by inundation inside a levee for each prefecture based on a statistical method. On the basis of estimated damage, we developed flood risk curves in the Tokyo metropolitan area, representing relationship between damage and exceedance probability of flood for the period 1976-2008 for each prefecture. Based on the flood risk curve, we attempted evaluate potential flood risk in the Tokyo metropolitan area and clarify the cause for regional difference of flood risk. By analyzing flood risk curves, we found out regional differences of flood risk. We identified high flood risk in Tokyo and Saitama prefecture. On the other hand, flood risk was relatively low in Ibaraki and Chiba prefecture. We found that these regional differences of flood risk can be attributed to spatial distribution of entire property value and ratio of damaged housing units in each prefecture.We also attempted to evaluate influence of climate change on potential flood risk by considering variation of precipitation amount and precipitation intensity in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Results shows that we can evaluate potential impact of precipitation change on flood risk with high accuracy by using our methodology. Acknowledgments

  5. Urban sprawl and flooding in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rantz, S.E.

    1970-01-01

    The floods of January 1969 in south-coastal California provide a timely example of the effect of urban sprawl on flood damage. Despite recordbreaking, or near recordbreaking, stream discharges, damage was minimal in the older developed areas that are protected against inundation and debris damage by carefully planned flood-control facilities, including debris basins and flood-conveyance channels. By contrast, heavy damage occurred in areas of more recent urban sprawl, where the hazards of inundation and debris or landslide damage have not been taken into consideration, and where the improvement and development of drainage or flood-control facilities have not kept pace with expanding urbanization.

  6. Residual flood-risk: assessing the effectiveness of alternative large-scale mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carisi, Francesca; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio

    2016-04-01

    The EU Flood Directive (2007/60/CE) requires institutions and public bodies, in order to formulate robust flood-risk management strategies for large European rivers, to address several fundamental tasks. For instance, they have to address the problem of flood-risk mitigation from a global perspective (i.e., entire middle-lower river reaches) by identifying critical reaches, inundation areas and corresponding overflow volumes. To this aim, we focus on the identification of large-scale flood risk mitigation strategies for the middle-lower reach of the Po river, the longest Italian river and the largest in terms of streamflow. We refer to the so-called residual flood-risk and in particular to its portion referring to the possibility to experience events associated with larger return periods than the reference one (e.g. ~200 years in our case). In particular, being a further levee heightening not technically viable nor economically conceivable for the case study, the study develops and tests the applicability of a quasi-2D hydraulic model for the identification of large-scale flood-risk mitigation strategies relative to a 500-year flood event. In particular, we consider and model in the study different geometrical configurations of the main embankment system for a ~400km reach stretching from Isola S.Antonio to the Po river delta in the Adriatic Sea: overtopping without levee breaching, overtopping and natural levee breaching, overtopping and forced levee breaching. The simulations enable the assessment of the overflowed volumes and water depths on flooded areas. Expected damages are estimated using simplified graphical tools, which we termed "Vulnerability Hypsometric Curves" (HVCs) and report the extent of the area for a given land use category that is located below a certain elevation. The analysis aims at finding the optimal configuration that minimizes the expected damages in the areas prone to flood. The outcomes of our study indicate that coupling a large

  7. Crowdsourcing detailed flood data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walliman, Nicholas; Ogden, Ray; Amouzad*, Shahrzhad

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade the average annual loss across the European Union due to flooding has been 4.5bn Euros, but increasingly intense rainfall, as well as population growth, urbanisation and the rising costs of asset replacements, may see this rise to 23bn Euros a year by 2050. Equally disturbing are the profound social costs to individuals, families and communities which in addition to loss of lives include: loss of livelihoods, decreased purchasing and production power, relocation and migration, adverse psychosocial effects, and hindrance of economic growth and development. Flood prediction, management and defence strategies rely on the availability of accurate information and flood modelling. Whilst automated data gathering (by measurement and satellite) of the extent of flooding is already advanced it is least reliable in urban and physically complex geographies where often the need for precise estimation is most acute. Crowdsourced data of actual flood events is a potentially critical component of this allowing improved accuracy in situations and identifying the effects of local landscape and topography where the height of a simple kerb, or discontinuity in a boundary wall can have profound importance. Mobile 'App' based data acquisition using crowdsourcing in critical areas can combine camera records with GPS positional data and time, as well as descriptive data relating to the event. This will automatically produce a dataset, managed in ArcView GIS, with the potential for follow up calls to get more information through structured scripts for each strand. Through this local residents can provide highly detailed information that can be reflected in sophisticated flood protection models and be core to framing urban resilience strategies and optimising the effectiveness of investment. This paper will describe this pioneering approach that will develop flood event data in support of systems that will advance existing approaches such as developed in the in the UK

  8. The spatial and temporal variability of residential real estate values in response to flooding.

    PubMed

    Montz, B E; Tobin, G A

    1988-12-01

    A relationship between residential property values and the incidence of flooding is represented, using a case study of two Californian communities that were flooded following a levee break. Analysis of the real estate market before and after the flood shows that the flood was capitalized into housing values, whereby both list and selling prices dropped immediately and have recently begun to recover. However, recovery of the market is not uniform throughout the floodplain. Houses that suffered eighteen inches of water recovered to near pre-flood values in less than one year. In contrast, houses that had approximately ten feet of water in them have not recovered to the same extent, indicating that capitalization and recovery do not occur evenly. These findings suggest that policies and programs should address these spatial and temporal differences in recovery, which are expected to vary with different flood frequencies and magnitudes.

  9. Methods to quantify seepage beneath Levee 30, Miami-Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonenshein, R.S.

    2001-01-01

    A two-dimensional, cross-sectional, finite-difference, ground-water flow model and a simple application of Darcy?s law were used to quantify ground-water flow (from a wetlands) beneath Levee 30 in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Geologic and geophysical data, vertical seepage data from the wetlands, canal discharge data, ground-water-level data, and surface-water-stage data collected during 1995 and 1996 were used as boundary conditions and calibration data for the ground-water flow model and as input for the analytical model. Vertical seepage data indicated that water from the wetlands infiltrated the subsurface, near Levee 30, at rates ranging from 0.033 to 0.266 foot per day when the gates at the control structures along Levee 30 canal were closed. During the same period, stage differences between the wetlands (Water Conservation Area 3B) and Levee 30 canal ranged from 0.11 to 1.27 feet. A layer of low-permeability limestone, located 7 to 10 feet below land surface, restricts vertical flow between the surface water in the wetlands and the ground water. Based on measured water-level data, ground-water flow appears to be generally horizontal, except in the direct vicinity of the canal. The increase in discharge rate along a 2-mile reach of the Levee 30 canal ranged from 9 to 30 cubic feet per second per mile and can be attributed primarily to ground-water inflow. Flow rates in Levee 30 canal were greatest when the gates at the control structures were open. The ground-water flow model data were compared with the measured ground-water heads and vertical seepage from the wetlands. Estimating the horizontal ground-water flow rate beneath Levee 30 was difficult owing to the uncertainty in the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the main flow zone of the Biscayne aquifer. Measurements of ground-water flows into Levee 30 canal, a substantial component of the water budget, were also uncertain, which lessened the ability to validate the model results. Because of vertical

  10. Root Development of Salix purpurea L. on Heavily Compacted Levee Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammeranner, W.

    2012-04-01

    The effect of woody vegetation on levee stability is discussed controversially. On the one hand woody plants improve slope stability, prevent erosion failures and may aid in levee stability. On the other hand it is believed that woody vegetation has negative impacts which are largely related to the rooting system. Hence, root penetration can facilitate water movement - seepage or piping - as well as living and decaying roots can lead to voids and threaten the structural integrity of levees. In general root architecture is known for many plant species, but specific root characteristics and their interaction with soils are influenced by many factors, and therefore poorly understood. Consequently the current research investigates the rooting performance of woody vegetation by singling out a special type of vegetation which is often used within soil bioengineering techniques at river embankments. This vegetation type is a dense stand of shrubby willows (Salix purpurea L.), implemented with brush mattresses. The data is collected from a test site constructed in 2007, 5 km northeast of Vienna, Austria. Part of the test site is a research levee built true to natural scale. The fill material of the levee is a mineral silt-sand-gravel compound classified as silty sand, which was compacted to a dry density of 1.86 g/cm3. The planting of vegetation was applied directly to the compacted levee body using only a thin layer (2-4 cm) of humus topsoil. In 2009 the studies were supplemented with a lysimeter-like setup consisting of a total of 20 containers. The lysimeters were filled homogenously with the same soil as the levees and were consolidated to the same degree of compaction. They were planted similar to the research levees. Within the investigations a comprehensive annual vegetation monitoring program was carried out. Measured aboveground parameters were shoot diameter, shoot length, biomass and leaf area index (LAI). Monitored rooting parameters - examined by excavation

  11. Hydraulic modelling for flood mapping and prevention: the case study of Cerfone River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Francesco, Silvia; Venturi, Sara; Manciola, Piergiorgio

    2016-04-01

    The research focuses on the hydraulic risk evaluation and danger estimation for different extreme flood events, in order to correctly implement mitigation measures in an anthropized basin. The Cerfone River (Tuscany, Italy), due to the several floods that have affected the neighbouring villages in recent years, is selected as case of study. A finite volume numerical model that solves the shallow water equations all over the computational domain, was used to simulate the unsteady evolution of the maximum extent of flooded areas for different scenarios. The one - dimensional approach (still widespread in engineering projects) can be inaccurate in complex flows, which are often two or three dimensional and sometimes does not manage to capture the flood spatial extents in terms of flow depth and velocity. The use of a two-dimensional numerical model seems to be the suitable instrument in terms of computational efficiency and adequacy of results. In fact it overcomes the limits of a one-dimensional modeling in terms of prediction of hydraulic variables with a less computational effort respect to a full 3d model. An accurate modeling of the river basin leads to the evaluation of the present hydraulic risk. Structural and non- structural measures are then studied, simulated and compared in order to define the optimal risk reduction plan for the area of study. At this aim, different flooding scenarios were simulated through the 2D mathematical model: i) existing state of the river and floodplain areas; ii) design of a levee to protect the most vulnerable populated areas against the flooding risk; iii) use of off - stream detention basins that strongly amplify the lamination capacity of floodplains. All these scenarios were simulated for different return periods: 50, 100, 200 and 500 years. The inputs of the hydraulic models are obtained in accordance with the legislative requirement of Tuscany Region; in particular discharge hydrographs are evaluate through the ALTo

  12. A Hybrid Model for Leveed Lava Flows: Implications for Eruption Styles on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Baloga, Stephen M.; Garry, W. Brent; Fagents, Sarah A.; Parcheta, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Many cehannelized lava flows on the plains of Mars have substantial embanking margins and levees inferred to have been stationary while the central channel was active. Levee formation can be attributed to two end-member processes during emplacement; construction during passage of the flow front and growth along the entire length of the flow while it is active. It is shown here that the amount of lava that can be deposited by the flow front alone is limited. Estimates of the levee volume for many Mars plains flows exceed this limit and must have formed by processes that continued after the passage of the front. Experimental studies of analogous laboratory flows also indicate a combination of both modes of emplacement. A model that combines both modes of levee formation. is presented, including a method for estimating volumetric flow rate, eruption duration, and viscosity. Six lava flows on the plains of the Tharsis volcanic province are used as illustrative examples. Crustal thicknesses for the six flows examined range from 9 to 23 m. Estimated emplacement times required to cool crusts of these thicknesses range from I year to 10 years. Correspondini viscosities are on the order of 10 5-106 Pa s. Effusion rates range from 25 to 840 m 3 s - and are all within the range of terrestrial observations. Therefore, the large leveed plains flows on Mars are not dramatically different in eruption rate or lava viscosity from large terrestrial analogs.

  13. Assessment of floodplain vulnerability during extreme Mississippi River flood 2011.

    PubMed

    Goodwell, Allison E; Zhu, Zhenduo; Dutta, Debsunder; Greenberg, Jonathan A; Kumar, Praveen; Garcia, Marcelo H; Rhoads, Bruce L; Holmes, Robert R; Parker, Gary; Berretta, David P; Jacobson, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    Regional change in the variability and magnitude of flooding could be a major consequence of future global climate change. Extreme floods have the capacity to rapidly transform landscapes and expose landscape vulnerabilities through highly variable spatial patterns of inundation, erosion, and deposition. We use the historic activation of the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway during the Mississippi and Ohio River Flooding of 2011 as a scientifically unique stress experiment to analyze indicators of floodplain vulnerability. We use pre- and postflood airborne Light Detection and Ranging data sets to locate erosional and depositional hotspots over the 540 km(2) agricultural Floodway. While riparian vegetation between the river and the main levee breach likely prevented widespread deposition, localized scour and deposition occurred near the levee breaches. Eroded gullies nearly 1 km in length were observed at a low ridge of a relict meander scar of the Mississippi River. Our flow modeling and spatial mapping analysis attributes this vulnerability to a combination of erodible soils, flow acceleration associated with legacy fluvial landforms, and a lack of woody vegetation to anchor soil and enhance flow resistance. Results from this study could guide future mitigation and adaptation measures in cases of extreme flooding.

  14. Assessment of floodplain vulnerability during extreme Mississippi River flood 2011.

    PubMed

    Goodwell, Allison E; Zhu, Zhenduo; Dutta, Debsunder; Greenberg, Jonathan A; Kumar, Praveen; Garcia, Marcelo H; Rhoads, Bruce L; Holmes, Robert R; Parker, Gary; Berretta, David P; Jacobson, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    Regional change in the variability and magnitude of flooding could be a major consequence of future global climate change. Extreme floods have the capacity to rapidly transform landscapes and expose landscape vulnerabilities through highly variable spatial patterns of inundation, erosion, and deposition. We use the historic activation of the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway during the Mississippi and Ohio River Flooding of 2011 as a scientifically unique stress experiment to analyze indicators of floodplain vulnerability. We use pre- and postflood airborne Light Detection and Ranging data sets to locate erosional and depositional hotspots over the 540 km(2) agricultural Floodway. While riparian vegetation between the river and the main levee breach likely prevented widespread deposition, localized scour and deposition occurred near the levee breaches. Eroded gullies nearly 1 km in length were observed at a low ridge of a relict meander scar of the Mississippi River. Our flow modeling and spatial mapping analysis attributes this vulnerability to a combination of erodible soils, flow acceleration associated with legacy fluvial landforms, and a lack of woody vegetation to anchor soil and enhance flow resistance. Results from this study could guide future mitigation and adaptation measures in cases of extreme flooding. PMID:24512322

  15. Assessment of floodplain vulnerability during extreme Mississippi River flood 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodwell, Allison E.; Zhu, Zhenduo; Dutta, Debsunder; Greenberg, Jonathan A.; Kumar, Praveen; Garcia, Marcelo H.; Rhoads, Bruce L.; Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Parker, Gary; Berretta, David P.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Regional change in the variability and magnitude of flooding could be a major consequence of future global climate change. Extreme floods have the capacity to rapidly transform landscapes and expose landscape vulnerabilities through highly variable spatial patterns of inundation, erosion, and deposition. We use the historic activation of the Birds Point-New Madrid Floodway during the Mississippi and Ohio River Flooding of 2011 as a scientifically unique stress experiment to analyze indicators of floodplain vulnerability. We use pre- and postflood airborne Light Detection and Ranging data sets to locate erosional and depositional hotspots over the 540 km2 agricultural Floodway. While riparian vegetation between the river and the main levee breach likely prevented widespread deposition, localized scour and deposition occurred near the levee breaches. Eroded gullies nearly 1 km in length were observed at a low ridge of a relict meander scar of the Mississippi River. Our flow modeling and spatial mapping analysis attributes this vulnerability to a combination of erodible soils, flow acceleration associated with legacy fluvial landforms, and a lack of woody vegetation to anchor soil and enhance flow resistance. Results from this study could guide future mitigation and adaptation measures in cases of extreme flooding.

  16. Geophysical characterization of the Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, using capacitively coupled resistivity, coring, and direct push logging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillip, Jonathan A.; Payne, Jason D.

    2011-01-01

    A geophysical characterization of Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, was conducted in February 2011. A capacitively coupled resistivity survey (using Geometric's OhmMapper) was completed along the top and toe of the 6.7-mile levee. Two-dimensional inversions were conducted on the geophysical data. As a quality-control measure, cores and direct push logs were taken at approximately 1-mile intervals along the levee. The capacitively coupled resistivity survey, the coring, and the direct push logs were used to characterize the geologic materials. Comparison of the cores and the direct push log data, along with published resistivity values, indicates that resistivity values of 200 Ohm-meters or greater represent relatively clean sand, with decreasing resistivity values occurring with increasing silt and clay content. The cores indicated that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of sand, silt, and clay. The capacitively coupled resistivity sections confirm that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of high and low resistivity materials and show that the composition of the levee varies spatially. The geologic materials underlying the levee vary spatially as a result of the geologic processes that deposited them. In general, the naturally deposited geologic materials underlying the levee contain a greater amount of low resistivity materials in the southern extent of the levee.

  17. Time scales of change in chemical and biological parameters after engineered levee breaches adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Wood, Tamara M.; Parcheso, Francis; Cameron, Jason M.; Asbill, Jessica R.; Carlson, Rick A.; Fend, Steven V.

    2012-01-01

    Eight sampling trips were coordinated after engineered levee breaches hydrologically reconnected both Upper Klamath Lake and Agency Lake, Oregon, to adjacent wetlands. The reconnection, by a series of explosive blasts, was coordinated by The Nature Conservancy to reclaim wetlands that had for approximately seven decades been leveed for crop production. Sets of nonmetallic porewater profilers (U.S. Patent 8,051,727 B1; November 8, 2011; http://www.uspto.gov/web/patents/patog/ week45/OG/html/1372-2/US08051727-20111108.html.) were deployed during these trips in November 2007, June 2008, May 2009, July 2009, May 2010, August 2010, June 2011, and July 2011 (table 1). Deployments temporally spanned the annual cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and spatially involved three lake and four wetland sites. Spatial and temporal variation in solute benthic flux was determined by the field team, using the profilers, over an approximately 4-year period beginning 3 days after the levee breaches. The highest flux to the water column of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was detected in the newly flooded wetland, contrasting negative or insignificant DOC fluxes at adjacent lake sites. Over the multiyear study, DOC benthic fluxes dissipated in the reconnected wetlands, converging to values similar to those for established wetlands and to the adjacent lake (table 2). In contrast to DOC, benthic sources of soluble reactive phosphorus, ammonium, dissolved iron and manganese from within the reconnected wetlands were consistently elevated (that is, significant in magnitude relative to riverine and established-wetland sources) indicating a multi-year time scale for certain chemical changes after the levee breaches (table 2). Colonization of the reconnected wetlands by aquatic benthic invertebrates during the study trended toward the assemblages in established wetlands, providing further evidence of a multiyear transition of this area to permanent aquatic habitat (table 3). Both the

  18. Decreasing flood risk perception in Porto Alegre - Brazil and its influence on water resource management decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allasia, D. G.; Tassi, R.; Bemfica, D.; Goldenfum, J. A.

    2015-06-01

    Porto Alegre is the capital and largest city in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul in Southern Brazil with approximately 1.5 million inhabitants. The city lies on the eastern bank of the Guaiba Lake, formed by the convergence of five rivers and leading to the Lagoa dos Patos, a giant freshwater lagoon navigable by even the largest of ships. This river junction has become an important alluvial port as well as a chief industrial and commercial centre. However, this strategic location resulted in severe damage because of its exposure to flooding from the river system, affecting the city in the years 1873, 1928, 1936, 1941 and 1967. In order to reduce flood risk, a complex system of levees and pump stations was implemented during 1960s and 1970s. Since its construction, not a single large flood event occurred. However, in recent years, the levees in the downtown region of Porto Alegre were severally criticized by city planners and population. Several projects have been proposed to demolish the Mauá Wall due to the false perception of lack of flood risk. Similar opinions and reactions against flood infrastructure have been observed in other cities in Brazil, such as Itajaí and Blumenau, with disastrous consequences. This paper illustrates how the perception of flood risk in Porto Alegre has changed over recent years as a result of flood infrastructure, and how such changes in perceptions can influence water management decisions.

  19. Erosion and sedimentation during the September 2015 flooding of the Kinu River, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan Matsumoto; Sawai, Yuki; Yamada, Masaki; Namegaya, Yuichi; Shinozaki, Tetsuya; Takeda, Daisuke; Fujino, Shigehiro; Tanigawa, Koichiro; Nakamura, Atsunori; Pilarczyk, Jessica E.

    2016-09-01

    Erosional and sedimentary features associated with flooding have been documented in both modern and past cases. However, only a few studies have demonstrated the relationship between these features and the corresponding hydraulic conditions that produced them, making it difficult to evaluate the magnitude of paleo-flooding. This study describes the characteristics associated with inundation depth and flow direction, as well as the erosional and sedimentary features resulting from the disastrous flooding of the Kinu River, central Japan, in September 2015. Water levels rose rapidly due to heavy rainfall that eventually overtopped, and subsequently breached, a levee in Joso City, causing destructive flooding on the surrounding floodplain. Distinctive erosional features are found next to the breached levee, while depositional features, such as a sandy crevasse-splay deposit are found further away from the breach. The deposit can be divided into three units based on sedimentary facies. The vertical and lateral changes of these sedimentary facies may be the result of temporal and spatial changes associated with flow during the single flooding event. These observations and quantitative data provide information that can be used to reveal the paleohydrology of flood deposits in the stratigraphic record, leading to improved mitigation of future flooding disasters.

  20. Erosion and sedimentation during the September 2015 flooding of the Kinu River, central Japan

    PubMed Central

    Dan Matsumoto; Sawai, Yuki; Yamada, Masaki; Namegaya, Yuichi; Shinozaki, Tetsuya; Takeda, Daisuke; Fujino, Shigehiro; Tanigawa, Koichiro; Nakamura, Atsunori; Pilarczyk, Jessica E.

    2016-01-01

    Erosional and sedimentary features associated with flooding have been documented in both modern and past cases. However, only a few studies have demonstrated the relationship between these features and the corresponding hydraulic conditions that produced them, making it difficult to evaluate the magnitude of paleo-flooding. This study describes the characteristics associated with inundation depth and flow direction, as well as the erosional and sedimentary features resulting from the disastrous flooding of the Kinu River, central Japan, in September 2015. Water levels rose rapidly due to heavy rainfall that eventually overtopped, and subsequently breached, a levee in Joso City, causing destructive flooding on the surrounding floodplain. Distinctive erosional features are found next to the breached levee, while depositional features, such as a sandy crevasse-splay deposit are found further away from the breach. The deposit can be divided into three units based on sedimentary facies. The vertical and lateral changes of these sedimentary facies may be the result of temporal and spatial changes associated with flow during the single flooding event. These observations and quantitative data provide information that can be used to reveal the paleohydrology of flood deposits in the stratigraphic record, leading to improved mitigation of future flooding disasters. PMID:27677769

  1. The Global Flood Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P.; Huddelston, M.; Michel, G.; Thompson, S.; Heynert, K.; Pickering, C.; Abbott Donnelly, I.; Fewtrell, T.; Galy, H.; Sperna Weiland, F.; Winsemius, H.; Weerts, A.; Nixon, S.; Davies, P.; Schiferli, D.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, a Global Flood Model (GFM) initiative has been proposed by Willis, UK Met Office, Esri, Deltares and IBM. The idea is to create a global community platform that enables better understanding of the complexities of flood risk assessment to better support the decisions, education and communication needed to mitigate flood risk. The GFM will provide tools for assessing the risk of floods, for devising mitigation strategies such as land-use changes and infrastructure improvements, and for enabling effective pre- and post-flood event response. The GFM combines humanitarian and commercial motives. It will benefit: - The public, seeking to preserve personal safety and property; - State and local governments, seeking to safeguard economic activity, and improve resilience; - NGOs, similarly seeking to respond proactively to flood events; - The insurance sector, seeking to understand and price flood risk; - Large corporations, seeking to protect global operations and supply chains. The GFM is an integrated and transparent set of modules, each composed of models and data. For each module, there are two core elements: a live "reference version" (a worked example) and a framework of specifications, which will allow development of alternative versions. In the future, users will be able to work with the reference version or substitute their own models and data. If these meet the specification for the relevant module, they will interoperate with the rest of the GFM. Some "crowd-sourced" modules could even be accredited and published to the wider GFM community. Our intent is to build on existing public, private and academic work, improve local adoption, and stimulate the development of multiple - but compatible - alternatives, so strengthening mankind's ability to manage flood impacts. The GFM is being developed and managed by a non-profit organization created for the purpose. The business model will be inspired from open source software (eg Linux): - for non-profit usage

  2. Floods in Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Follansbee, Robert; Sawyer, Leon R.

    1948-01-01

    resulting from a cloudburst rises so quickly that it is usually described as a 'wall of water.' It has a peak duration of only a few minutes, followed by a rapid subsidence. Nearly 90 cloudburst floods in Colorado are described in varying detail in this report. The earliest recorded cloudburst--called at that time a waterspout--occurred in Golden Gate Gulch, July 14, 1872. The 'wall of water' was described as a 'perpendicular breast of 10 or 12 feet.' A cloudburst flood on Kiowa Creek in May 1878 caused the loss of a standard-gage locomotive, and although search was made by means of long metallic rods, the locomotive was never recovered, as bedrock was about 50 feet below the creek bed. All available information relative to floods in Colorado, beginning with the flood of 1826 on the Arkansas River, is presented in this report, although for many of the earlier floods estimates of discharge are lacking. Floods throughout a large part of the State have occurred in 1844, June 1864, June 1884, May 1894, and June 1921. The highest floods of record were on the larger streams and occurred as follows: South Platte River, June 1921; Rio Grande, June 1927; Colorado River, June and July 1884; San Juan River, October 1911. The greatest floods on the plains streams occurred during May and June 1935 and were caused by cloudbursts. Ranchers living in the vicinity noted rainfalls as high as 24 inches in a 13-hour period, measurements being made in a stock tank. The effect of settlement on channel capacities can be clearly traced. When settlement began, and with it the beginning of the livestock industry, the plains were thickly covered with a luxuriant growth of grasses. With the development of the livestock industry the grass cover was grazed so closely that it afforded little protection against erosion during the violent rains and resulting floods. The intensive grazing packed the soil so hard as to increase greatly the percentage of rainfall that entered the streams. This co

  3. Urban flood risk assessment using sewer flooding databases.

    PubMed

    Caradot, Nicolas; Granger, Damien; Chapgier, Jean; Cherqui, Frédéric; Chocat, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable water management is a global challenge for the 21st century. One key aspect remains protection against urban flooding. The main objective is to ensure or maintain an adequate level of service for all inhabitants. However, level of service is still difficult to assess and the high-risk locations difficult to identify. In this article, we propose a methodology, which (i) allows water managers to measure the service provided by the urban drainage system with regard to protection against urban flooding; and (ii) helps stakeholders to determine effective strategies for improving the service provided. One key aspect of this work is to use a database of sewer flood event records to assess flood risk. Our methodology helps urban water managers to assess the risk of sewer flooding; this approach does not seek to predict flooding but rather to inform decision makers on the current level of risk and on actions which need to be taken to reduce the risk. This work is based on a comprehensive definition of risk, including territorial vulnerability and perceptions of urban water stakeholders. This paper presents the results and the methodological contributions from implementing the methodology on two case studies: the cities of Lyon and Mulhouse.

  4. From flood management systems to flood resilient systems: integration of flood resilient technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salagnac, J.-L.; Diez, J.; Tourbier, J.

    2012-04-01

    Flooding has always been a major risk world-wide. Humans chose to live and develop settlements close to water (rivers, seas) due to the resources water brings, i.e. food, energy, capacity to economically transport persons and goods, and recreation. However, the risk from flooding, including pluvial flooding, often offsets these huge advantages. Floods sometimes have terrible consequences from both a human and economic point of view. The permanence and growth of urban areas in flood-prone zones despite these risks is a clear indication of the choices of concerned human groups. The observed growing concentration of population along the sea shore, the increase of urban population worldwide, the exponential growth of the world population and possibly climate change are factors that confirm flood will remain a major issue for the next decades. Flood management systems are designed and implemented to cope with such situations. In spite of frequent events, lessons look to be difficult to draw out and progresses are rather slow. The list of potential triggers to improve flood management systems is nevertheless well established: information, education, awareness raising, alert, prevention, protection, feedback from events, ... Many disciplines are concerned which cover a wide range of soft and hard sciences. A huge amount of both printed and electronic literature is available. Regulations are abundant. In spite of all these potentially favourable elements, similar questions spring up after each new significant event: • Was the event forecast precise enough? • Was the alert system efficient? • Why were buildings built in identified flood prone areas? • Why did the concerned population not follow instructions? • Why did the dike break? • What should we do to avoid it happens again? • What about damages evaluation, wastes and debris evacuation, infrastructures and buildings repair, activity recovery, temporary relocation of inhabitants, health concerns, insurance

  5. Total flavonoid of Litsea coreana leve exerts anti-oxidative effects and alleviates focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Shuying; Tong, Xuhui; Li, Jun; Huang, Cheng; Hu, Chengmu; Jiao, Hao; Gu, Yuchen

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that total flavonoid of Litsea coreana leve (TFLC) protects against focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. TFLC (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) was administered orally to a rat model of focal ischemia/reperfusion injury, while the free radical scavenging agent, edaravone, was used as a positive control drug. Results of neurological deficit scoring, 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining, hematoxylin-eosin staining and biochemical tests showed that TFLC at different doses significantly alleviated cerebral ischemia-induced neurological deficits and histopathological changes, and reduced infarct volume. Moreover, it suppressed the increase in the levels of nitrates plus nitrites, malondialdehyde and lactate dehydrogenase, and it diminished the reduction in gluta-thione, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in-jury. Compared with edaravone, the protective effects of TFLC at low and medium doses (25, 50 mg/kg) against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury were weaker, while the protective effects at high dose (100 mg/kg) were similar. Our experimental findings suggest that TFLC exerts neuroprotective effects against focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats, and that the effects may be asso-ciated with its antioxidant activities. PMID:25206640

  6. 76 FR 25310 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Zoar Levee and Diversion Dam, Dam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... Levee and Diversion Dam, Dam Safety Modification Study, Tuscarawas County, OH AGENCY: Department of the... with Zoar Levee and Diversion Dam. These high hazard structures do not meet current performance... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: 1. Authority: Investigation and justification of modifications for dam...

  7. Level-I Trauma Center Effects on Return-to-Work Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prada, Sergio I.; Salkever, David; MacKenzie, Ellen J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Injury is the leading cause of death for persons aged 1-44 years in the United States. Injuries have a substantial economic cost. For that reason, regional systems of trauma care in which the more acutely injured patients are transported to Level-I (L-I) trauma centers (TCs) has been widely advocated. However, the cost of TC care is…

  8. 76 FR 78015 - Revised Analysis and Mapping Procedures for Non-Accredited Levees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Revised Analysis and Mapping Procedures for Non-Accredited Levees AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Emergency... Division, Office of Chief Counsel, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Room 835, 500 C Street...

  9. 75 FR 11147 - Process for Requesting a Variance From Vegetation Standards for Levees and Floodwalls

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... period. SUMMARY: In the February 9, 2010 issue of the Federal Register (75 FR 6364), the U.S. Army Corps... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers Process for Requesting a Variance From Vegetation Standards for... from vegetation standards for levees and floodwalls for public comment. In that notice, the...

  10. The use of seismic tomograms for the identification of internal problems with earthen dams and levees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    According to the National Inventory of dams (NID, 2009), out of the 84,134 dams in the US, more than 87% (73,423) are earthen dams. The majority of these earthen dams are past or approaching their design life expectancy of 50 years. According to the National committee on Levee Safety (NCLS, 2009),...

  11. Somerset County Flood Information System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoppe, Heidi L.

    2007-01-01

    The timely warning of a flood is crucial to the protection of lives and property. One has only to recall the floods of August 2, 1973, September 16 and 17, 1999, and April 16, 2007, in Somerset County, New Jersey, in which lives were lost and major property damage occurred, to realize how costly, especially in terms of human life, an unexpected flood can be. Accurate forecasts and warnings cannot be made, however, without detailed information about precipitation and streamflow in the drainage basin. Since the mid 1960's, the National Weather Service (NWS) has been able to forecast flooding on larger streams in Somerset County, such as the Raritan and Millstone Rivers. Flooding on smaller streams in urban areas was more difficult to predict. In response to this problem the NWS, in cooperation with the Green Brook Flood Control Commission, installed a precipitation gage in North Plainfield, and two flash-flood alarms, one on Green Brook at Seeley Mills and one on Stony Brook at Watchung, in the early 1970's. In 1978, New Jersey's first countywide flood-warning system was installed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Somerset County. This system consisted of a network of eight stage and discharge gages equipped with precipitation gages linked by telephone telemetry and eight auxiliary precipitation gages. The gages were installed throughout the county to collect precipitation and runoff data that could be used to improve flood-monitoring capabilities and flood-frequency estimates. Recognizing the need for more detailed hydrologic information for Somerset County, the USGS, in cooperation with Somerset County, designed and installed the Somerset County Flood Information System (SCFIS) in 1990. This system is part of a statewide network of stream gages, precipitation gages, weather stations, and tide gages that collect data in real time. The data provided by the SCFIS improve the flood forecasting ability of the NWS and aid Somerset County and municipal agencies in

  12. Tsunami flooding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, Eric; Jones, Henry; McBride, Mark; Fedors, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Panel 5 focused on tsunami flooding with an emphasis on Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) as derived from its counterpart, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) that determines seismic ground-motion hazards. The Panel reviewed current practices in PTHA and determined the viability of extending the analysis to extreme design probabilities (i.e., 10-4 to 10-6). In addition to earthquake sources for tsunamis, PTHA for extreme events necessitates the inclusion of tsunamis generated by submarine landslides, and treatment of the large attendant uncertainty in source characterization and recurrence rates. Tsunamis can be caused by local and distant earthquakes, landslides, volcanism, and asteroid/meteorite impacts. Coastal flooding caused by storm surges and seiches is covered in Panel 7. Tsunamis directly tied to earthquakes, the similarities with (and path forward offered by) the PSHA approach for PTHA, and especially submarine landslide tsunamis were a particular focus of Panel 5.

  13. Grain-size segregation and levee formation in geophysical mass flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.G.; Kokelaar, B.P.; Iverson, R.M.; Logan, M.; LaHusen, R.G.; Gray, J.M.N.T.

    2012-01-01

    Data from large-scale debris-flow experiments are combined with modeling of particle-size segregation to explain the formation of lateral levees enriched in coarse grains. The experimental flows consisted of 10 m3 of water-saturated sand and gravel, which traveled ~80 m down a steeply inclined flume before forming an elongated leveed deposit 10 m long on a nearly horizontal runout surface. We measured the surface velocity field and observed the sequence of deposition by seeding tracers onto the flow surface and tracking them in video footage. Levees formed by progressive downslope accretion approximately 3.5 m behind the flow front, which advanced steadily at ~2 m s-1 during most of the runout. Segregation was measured by placing ~600 coarse tracer pebbles on the bed, which, when entrained into the flow, segregated upwards at ~6–7.5 cm s-1. When excavated from the deposit these were distributed in a horseshoe-shaped pattern that became increasingly elevated closer to the deposit termination. Although there was clear evidence for inverse grading during the flow, transect sampling revealed that the resulting leveed deposit was strongly graded laterally, with only weak vertical grading. We construct an empirical, three-dimensional velocity field resembling the experimental observations, and use this with a particle-size segregation model to predict the segregation and transport of material through the flow. We infer that coarse material segregates to the flow surface and is transported to the flow front by shear. Within the flow head, coarse material is overridden, then recirculates in spiral trajectories due to size-segregation, before being advected to the flow edges and deposited to form coarse-particle-enriched levees.

  14. Flow and solute transport through a levee separating fluids with different densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooker, Andrew M. H.; Townley, Lloyd R.

    1994-06-01

    Steady seepage through a levee or a dam separating reservoirs with different levels and densities is shown to result in five possible flow configurations. If densities are equal, the problem reduces to the classical problem of flow through a dam. If the lower reservoir is less dense, a stationary wedge may or may not form inside the levee near the downgradient reservoir level. If the lower reservoir is more dense, a wedge forms near the toe of the levee, as in the classical problem of saltwater intrusion. Another possibility is that the dense wedge can connect the two reservoirs, thus allowing bidirectional flow. Conditions are derived which define when these different flow configurations occur. For the case of a rectangular dam with vertical walls a closed form solution is obtained for the net mass flux between the reservoirs. Net volumetric flux is determined analytically for all flow configurations except the case of bidirectional flow. The expression for volumetric flux is a generalization of a result based on the Dupuit assumption for the case of constant density. A range of parameters is identified in which net volumetric flux is in one direction and net mass flux in the other. A numerical model based on the boundary integral equation method allows calculation of net volumetric flux for the case of bidirectional flow and also allows simulation of more complex levee geometries. The solution has direct application to levees separating ponds in solar salt production, to the causeway across the Great Salt Lake in Utah, and to the role of exchange flows in the genesis of evaporites in nearshore lagoons.

  15. 44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... requirement described in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section, may be approved. Appropriate engineering... paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section, may be approved. Appropriate engineering analyses demonstrating... are structural parts of the system during operation and design according to sound engineering...

  16. 44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., the freeboard must be established at one foot above the height of the one percent wave or the maximum wave runup (whichever is greater) associated with the 100-year stillwater surge elevation at the site.... Particular emphasis must be placed on the effects of wave attack and overtopping on the stability of...

  17. 44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., the freeboard must be established at one foot above the height of the one percent wave or the maximum wave runup (whichever is greater) associated with the 100-year stillwater surge elevation at the site.... Particular emphasis must be placed on the effects of wave attack and overtopping on the stability of...

  18. 44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., the freeboard must be established at one foot above the height of the one percent wave or the maximum wave runup (whichever is greater) associated with the 100-year stillwater surge elevation at the site.... Particular emphasis must be placed on the effects of wave attack and overtopping on the stability of...

  19. 44 CFR 65.10 - Mapping of areas protected by levee systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., the freeboard must be established at one foot above the height of the one percent wave or the maximum wave runup (whichever is greater) associated with the 100-year stillwater surge elevation at the site.... Particular emphasis must be placed on the effects of wave attack and overtopping on the stability of...

  20. Flood risk changes over centuries in Rome: an empirical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Saccà, Smeralda; Tito Aronica, Giuseppe; Grimaldi, Salvatore; Crisci, Massimiliano

    2015-04-01

    Over centuries, the development of the historical city of Rome -close to one of the largest Italian rivers, the Tiber- has been intertwined with the magnitude and frequency of flooding events. The ancient Rome mostly developed on the (seven) hills, while the Tiber's floodplain was mainly exploited for agricultural purposes. A few small communities did settle in the riparian areas of the Tiber, but they had a relatively peaceful relationships with the frequent occurrence of flooding events. Nowadays, numerous people live in modern districts in the Tiber's floodplain, unaware of their exposure to potentially catastrophic flooding. The main goal of this research is to explore the dynamics of changing flood risk over the centuries between these two extreme pictures of the ancient and contemporary Rome. To this end, we carried out a socio-hydrological study by exploiting long time series of physical (flooding, river morphology) and social (urbanization, population dynamics) processes together with information about human interactions with the environment (flood defense structures). This empirical analysis showed how human and physical systems have been co-evolving over time, while being abruptly altered by the occurrence of extreme events. For instance, a large flooding event occurred in 1870 and contributed to the constructions of levees, which in turn facilitated the development of new urban areas in the Tiber's floodplain, while changed the societal memory of floods as well as the communities' perception of risk. This research work was also used to test the hypotheses of recent-developed models conceptualizing the interplay between floods and societies and simulating the long-term behavior of coupled human-water systems. The outcomes of this test provided interesting insights about the dynamics of flood risk, which are expected to support a better anticipation of future changes.

  1. 33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. (a) Regulations for the operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved by the Secretary of the Army under...

  2. 33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. (a) Regulations for the operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved by the Secretary of the Army under...

  3. 33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. (a) Regulations for the operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved by the Secretary of the Army under...

  4. 33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. (a) Regulations for the operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved by the Secretary of the Army under...

  5. 33 CFR 209.300 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.300 Flood control regulations. (a) Regulations for the operation and maintenance of local flood protection works approved by the Secretary of the Army under...

  6. Space geodesy: subsidence and flooding in New Orleans.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Timothy H; Amelung, Falk; Ferretti, Alessandro; Novali, Fabrizio; Rocca, Fabio; Dokka, Roy; Sella, Giovanni; Kim, Sang-Wan; Wdowinski, Shimon; Whitman, Dean

    2006-06-01

    It has long been recognized that New Orleans is subsiding and is therefore susceptible to catastrophic flooding. Here we present a new subsidence map for the city, generated from space-based synthetic-aperture radar measurements, which reveals that parts of New Orleans underwent rapid subsidence in the three years before Hurricane Katrina struck in August 2005. One such area is next to the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet (MRGO) canal, where levees failed during the peak storm surge: the map indicates that this weakness could be explained by subsidence of a metre or more since their construction.

  7. Perception of floods as an important aspect of quality of life and territorial changes in flood areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemešová, Kamila; Andráško, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    The quality of life in many municipalities in the Czech Republic is affected by coming floods. Since 1997 when a great part of Moravia was affected by an extreme flood situation, much closer attention is paid to floods and flood protection. Flood management is based, besides others, on European flood legislation but it still does not reflect the social perception of flood situations as a common part of the evaluation of flood risk. However, this very perception strongly influences future implementation of flood measures, territorial and social development of the municipality and indirectly the quality of life in the municipality. One of the main problems in flood issue is the financing of anti-flood measures. In view of the fact that financial resources in environmental sphere are limited, preventive anti-flood measures, that can eliminate the impacts of future floods and are not so expensive, assume more importance. Such kind of measures is often suggested for local needs. The necessity to research the social perception of flood in this context is supported by some studies pointing out a still insufficient use of preventive anti-flood measures in the Czech Republic in spite of several extreme floods in the past 20 years. This paper aims at presenting the results of a research which has been done in a model area affected by floods. The aim of this research was to point out the main factors that influence the life in the municipality after flood (including suggested anti-flood measures) and the possibilities and willingness of the inhabitants to change them. The research results have subsequently been supplemented with the same evaluation by the members of local administrations who are important players in post-flood development of the municipality and in dealings with citizens about the suggested anti-flood measures.

  8. Future flood losses in major coastal cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallegatte, Stephane; Green, Colin; Nicholls, Robert J.; Corfee-Morlot, Jan

    2013-09-01

    Flood exposure is increasing in coastal cities owing to growing populations and assets, the changing climate, and subsidence. Here we provide a quantification of present and future flood losses in the 136 largest coastal cities. Using a new database of urban protection and different assumptions on adaptation, we account for existing and future flood defences. Average global flood losses in 2005 are estimated to be approximately US$6billion per year, increasing to US$52billion by 2050 with projected socio-economic change alone. With climate change and subsidence, present protection will need to be upgraded to avoid unacceptable losses of US$1trillion or more per year. Even if adaptation investments maintain constant flood probability, subsidence and sea-level rise will increase global flood losses to US$60-63billion per year in 2050. To maintain present flood risk, adaptation will need to reduce flood probabilities below present values. In this case, the magnitude of losses when floods do occur would increase, often by more than 50%, making it critical to also prepare for larger disasters than we experience today. The analysis identifies the cities that seem most vulnerable to these trends, that is, where the largest increase in losses can be expected.

  9. Flood-inundation map and water-surface profiles for floods of selected recurrence intervals, Consumnes River and Deer Creek, Sacramento County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guay, Joel R.; Harmon, Jerry G.; McPherson, Kelly R.

    1998-01-01

    The damage caused by the January 1997 floods along the Cosumnes River and Deer Creek generated new interest in planning and managing land use in the study area. The 1997 floodflow peak, the highest on record and considered to be a 150-year flood, caused levee failures at 24 locations. In order to provide a technical basis for floodplain management practices, the U.S. Goelogical Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency, completed a flood-inundation map of the Cosumnes River and Deer Creek drainage from Dillard Road bridge to State Highway 99. Flood frequency was estimated from streamflow records for the Cosumnes River at Michigan Bar and Deer Creek near Sloughhouse. Cross sections along a study reach, where the two rivers generally flow parallel to one another, were used with a step-backwater model (WSPRO) to estimate the water-surface profile for floods of selected recurrence intervals. A flood-inundation map was developed to show flood boundaries for the 100-year flood. Water-surface profiles were developed for the 5-, 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods.

  10. The August 2002 flood in Prague

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marešová, I.; Mareš, K.; Vogel, T.

    2003-04-01

    In August 2002 the Czech Republic was struck by the largest flood in its history with the destruction of more than 1000 houses, tens of km of roads and dozens of bridges. The reconstruction of the country will take more than 2 years. The catastrophic flood was caused by two rainfall events following rapidly one after the other. Saturated basins and full river channels after the first rainstorm caused the highest water stages and discharges ever recorded in a number of river profiles in the country. In Prague two floods coincided, with run-off from the Vltava river cascade meeting the flood wave from the Berounka river. The floods in the Czech Republic and in Prague are still being assessed. The water level of this flood surpassed the flood marks from the last century by 70 - 100 cm. At the present time the value of the discharge in Prague is evaluated as 5200 {m^3 s-1}, whereas {Q100} is considered to be 3700 {m3s-1}. The Vltava in Prague is a trained river, protected by embankments ({Q50} and {Q20}) and protective dykes ({Q100} and {Q20}). In addition, a significant role in the flood protection of Prague was played by the manipulation of the dams of the Vltava river cascade, and by a new element - mobile walls protecting the historically valuable Old Town of Prague on the right bank of the Vltava. A conception for improving the flood protection of Prague was ready in the form of a design at the end of the {20th} century. It was ready for use in 2000, when the way in which it should be built was also checked. The calculation for the level of the mobile wall was based on mathematical modeling of the course of a hundred year flood in Prague. However, the mobile walls were constructed 50 cm higher than the calculated flood levels. During the flood, the water levels reached about 20 cm, and in some places only about 5 cm, below the top of the mobile walls, but the mobile walls were not overtopped. Mobile walls were not used on the left bank of the Prague city center

  11. Hydrodynamic Modeling of Flood Dynamics and Restoration Potential of Lower Missouri River Floodplains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    Lower Missouri River floodplains have the potential to provide multiple ecosystem services including agricultural production, floodwater storage, nutrient processing, and provision of habitats. In this research, a 2-dimensional hydrodynamic model of a representative looped floodplain bottom of approximately 20 km is utilized to explore how floodplain inundation contributes to ecosystem benefits and costs. High resolution 2-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling provides insights into the way velocities, flood stages, residence times, and transported constituents (sediment, nutrients, and fish larvae, for example) are affected by levee geometry, floodplain vegetation patterns, and flood magnitude and duration. The utility of 2-dimensional numerical hydraulic models to represent the channel and floodplain are demonstrated at a scale relevant to understanding processes that control channel/floodplain dynamics. The sensitivity of model response to alternative land use scenarios, including levee setbacks and variable overbank roughness, is quantified using hydraulic parameters such as velocity, water level, conveyance, and residence time. The 2-dimensional models are calibrated to existing 1-dimensional modeling solutions and field measurements of water surface from 1993 and 2007 for the 2-year, 5-year, and 10-year recurrence intervals. Calibration runs with current levee configurations are matched to approximately ±0.1 meters. Simulations of alternative land use scenarios demonstrate the tradeoffs between ecological restoration and flood risk reductions. Levee setbacks with low hydraulic roughness associated with traditional row crop agriculture on the floodplains have the greatest potential for flood stage reductions, while native plant communities with higher roughness can negate the effects of the setbacks by increasing water levels due to enhanced frictional resistance. Residence times, which are presumed to be related to ecosystem services, demonstrate increasingly

  12. Creating Flood Inundation Maps Using 1D Hydrologic Model and GIS for Lower Meric River Basin, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonmez, O.; Dogan, E.; Demir, I.

    2012-12-01

    In Turkey, one of the areas facing the danger of flooding is Lower Meric River basin, the part between Edirne and Enos, Turkey. Despite being in the flood zone, the region is used widely as an agricultural and settlement land. The State Hydraulic Works (DSI) has built levees to prevent flood damages on the Lower Evros River Basin. However, having floods in the region reaching areas behind levees, clearly showed the need for reviewing and updating the cross-sections of the critical areas in the river bed. In this study, determination of floodplains for various stream-flow values in any cross sections of the river is aimed. The study area is divided into two sections (Study Area 1 & Study Area 2). Available stream flow gauging station data, which is located in study areas, are used in model. Model created using HEC-RAS, is calibrated with 2006 flood which occurred in the study area. After calibration, floodplain maps are created for 1000 m3/s flows from 1000 to6000 m3/s flows for Study Area1. For Study Area 2, floodplain maps are created for 2, 5, 10, 50, 100 years return periods. The models can illustrate the extent of flooding under different conditions allowing residents in the area to see how predicted flood levels could affect their property, and help them make informed decisions.

  13. Ground-water flow beneath levee 35A from conservation area 2B, Broward County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swayze, L.J.

    1988-01-01

    Conservation Area 2B is an area of recharge for the surficial aquifer system in Broward County. Water stored in the conservation area provides the hydraulic potential for downward flow to the high permeability zone of the Biscayne aquifer. A 5.64 ft head differential (average for the period of record) between water levels in Conservation Area 2B and water levels in the adjacent levee 35A borrow canal causes water to leak into the canal at an average rate of about 0.0022 cu ft per sec per lineal foot of canal and accounts for a loss of 0.013 foot per day of surface water from Conservation Area 2B. Amounts of canal leakage and underflow are constantly changing and are dependent upon the head differential between Conservation Area 2B and the levee 35A borrow canal. (Author 's abstract)

  14. Implementing the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC) in Austria: Flood Risk Management Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhold, Clemens

    2013-04-01

    he Directive 2007/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2007 on the assessment and management of flood risks (EFD) aims at the reduction of the adverse consequences for human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activity associated with floods in the Community. This task is to be achieved based on three process steps (1) preliminary flood risk assessment (finalised by the end of 2011), (2) flood hazard maps and flood risk maps (due 2013) and (3) flood risk management plans (due 2015). Currently, an interdisciplinary national working group is defining the methodological framework for flood risk management plans in Austria supported by a constant exchange with international bodies and experts. Referring to the EFD the components of the flood risk management plan are (excerpt): 1. conclusions of the preliminary flood risk assessment 2. flood hazard maps and flood risk maps and the conclusions that can be drawn from those maps 3. a description of the appropriate objectives of flood risk management 4. a summary of measures and their prioritisation aiming to achieve the appropriate objectives of flood risk management The poster refers to some of the major challenges in this process, such as the legal provisions, coordination of administrative units, definition of public relations, etc. The implementation of the EFD requires the harmonisation of legal instruments of various disciplines (e.g. water management, spatial planning, civil protection) enabling a coordinated - and ideally binding - practice of flood risk management. This process is highly influenced by the administrative organisation in Austria - federal, provincial and municipality level. The Austrian approach meets this organisational framework by structuring the development of the flood risk management plan into 3 time-steps: (a) federal blueprint, (b) provincial editing and (c) federal finishing as well as reporting to the European Commission. Each time

  15. Floods, flood control, and bottomland vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, Jonathan M.; Auble, Gregor T.

    2000-01-01

    Bottomland plant communities are typically dominated by the effects of floods. Floods create the surfaces on which plants become established, transport seeds and nutrients, and remove establish plants. Floods provide a moisture subsidy that allows development of bottomland forests in arid regions and produce anoxic soils, which can control bottomland plant distribution in humid regions. Repeated flooding produces a mosaic of patches of different age, sediment texture, and inundation duration; this mosaic fosters high species richness.

  16. Flood risks and willingness to purchase flood insurance.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karlinger, M.R.; Attanasi, E.D.

    1980-01-01

    Computer simulation experiments were conducted to determine the effects of alternative sources of uncertainty on the willingness to pay for flood insurance. Two alternative insurance protection schemes were investigated: coinsurance and fixed coverage. The question investigated is to what extent does the insurance scheme influence how purchasers respond to risks? Floods were assumed to be log normally distributed and the effects on the purchase of insurance of uncertainties in the parameters of the distribution were explored using response surface analysis. Results indicate that fixed coverage insurance provisions shift most of the uncertainty in the physical parameters governing natural disaster occurrences away from the insuree and onto the insurer. The results also show that the form of the damage function has little effect on the demand for flood insurance.- Authors

  17. 44 CFR 65.13 - Mapping and map revisions for areas subject to alluvial fan flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. 65.13 Section 65.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL... areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. This section describes the procedures to be followed and the... provides protection from the base flood in an area subject to alluvial fan flooding. This information...

  18. 44 CFR 65.13 - Mapping and map revisions for areas subject to alluvial fan flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. 65.13 Section 65.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL... areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. This section describes the procedures to be followed and the... provides protection from the base flood in an area subject to alluvial fan flooding. This information...

  19. 44 CFR 65.13 - Mapping and map revisions for areas subject to alluvial fan flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. 65.13 Section 65.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL... areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. This section describes the procedures to be followed and the... provides protection from the base flood in an area subject to alluvial fan flooding. This information...

  20. 44 CFR 65.13 - Mapping and map revisions for areas subject to alluvial fan flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. 65.13 Section 65.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL... areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. This section describes the procedures to be followed and the... provides protection from the base flood in an area subject to alluvial fan flooding. This information...

  1. 44 CFR 65.13 - Mapping and map revisions for areas subject to alluvial fan flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. 65.13 Section 65.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL... areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. This section describes the procedures to be followed and the... provides protection from the base flood in an area subject to alluvial fan flooding. This information...

  2. Simulations of Flooding on Pea River and Whitewater Creek in the Vicinity of the Proposed Elba Bypass at Elba, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedgecock, T. Scott

    2003-01-01

    A two-dimensional finite-element surface-water model was used to study the effects of proposed modifications to the State Highway 203 corridor (proposed Elba Bypass/relocated U.S. Highway 84) on water-surface elevations and flow distributions during flooding in the Pea River and Whitewater Creek Basins at Elba, Coffee County, Alabama. Flooding was first simulated for the March 17, 1990, flood, using the 1990 flood-plain conditions to calibrate the model to match measured data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers after the flood. After model calibration, the effects of flooding were simulated for four scenarios: (1) floods having the 50- and 100-year recurrence intervals for the existing flood-plain, bridge, highway, and levee conditions; (2) floods having the 50- and 100-year recurrence intervals for the existing flood-plain and levee conditions with the State Highway 203 embankment and bridge removed; (3) floods having the 50- and 100-year recurrence intervals for the existing flood-plain, bridge, and highway conditions with proposed modifications (elevating) to the levee; and (4) floods having the 50- and 100-year recurrence intervals for the proposed conditions reflecting the Elba Bypass and modified levee. The simulation of floodflow for the Pea River and Whitewater Creek flood of March 17, 1990, in the study reach compared closely to flood profile data obtained after the flood. The flood of March 17, 1990, had an estimated peak discharge of 58,000 cubic feet per second at the gage (just below the confluence) and was estimated to be between a 50-year and 100-year flood event. The estimated peak discharge for Pea River and Whitewater Creek was 40,000 and 42,000 cubic feet per second, respectively. Simulation of floodflows for the 50-year flood (51,400 cubic feet per second) at the gage for existing flood-plain, bridge, highway, and levee conditions indicated that about 31 percent of the peak flow was conveyed by the State

  3. Fine-grained linings of leveed channels facilitate runout of granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokelaar, B. P.; Graham, R. L.; Gray, J. M. N. T.; Vallance, J. W.

    2014-01-01

    Catastrophic dense granular flows, such as occur in rock avalanches, debris flows and pyroclastic flows, move as fully shearing mixtures that have approximately 60 vol.% solids and tend to segregate to form coarse-grained fronts and leveed channels. Levees restrict spreading of unconfined flows and form as coarse particles that become concentrated in the top of the flow are transported to the front and then advect to the sides in the flow head. Channels from which most material has drained away down slope are commonly lined with fine-grained deposit, widely thought to remain from the tail of the waning flow. We show how segregation in experimental dense flows of carborundum or sand (300-425 μm) mixed with spherical fine ballotini (150-250 μm), on rough slopes of 27-29°, produces fine-grained channel linings that are deposited with the levees, into which they grade laterally. Maximum runout distance is attained with mixtures containing 30-40% sand, just sufficient to segregate and form levees that are adequately robust to restrict the spreading attributable to the low-friction fines. Resin impregnation and serial sectioning of deliberately arrested experimental flows shows how fines-lined levees form from the flow head; the flows create their own stable ‘conduit’ entirely from the front, which in a geophysical context can play an important mechanistic role in facilitating runout. The flow self-organization ensures that low-friction fines at the base of the segregated channel flow shear over fine-grained substrate in the channel, thus reducing frictional energy losses. We propose that in pyroclastic flows and debris flows, which have considerable mobility attributable to pore-fluid pressures, such fine-grained flow-contact zones form similarly and not only reduce frictional energy losses but also reduce flow-substrate permeability so as to enhance pore-fluid pressure retention. Thus the granular flow self-organization that produces fine-grained channel linings

  4. Multilevel integrated flood management aproach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilly, Mitja; Rusjan, Simon

    2013-04-01

    The optimal solution for complex flood management is integrated approach. Word »integration« used very often when we try to put something together, but should distinguish full multiple integrated approach of integration by parts when we put together and analyse only two variables. In doing so, we lost complexity of the phenomenon. Otherwise if we try to put together all variables we should take so much effort and time and we never finish the job properly. Solution is in multiple integration captures the essential factors, which are different on a case-by-case (Brilly, 2000). Physical planning is one of most important activity in which flood management should be integrated. The physical planning is crucial for vulnerability and its future development and on other hand our structural measures must be incorporate in space and will very often dominated in. The best solution is if space development derived on same time with development of structural measures. There are good examples with such approach (Vienna, Belgrade, Zagreb, and Ljubljana). Problems stared when we try incorporating flood management in already urbanised area or we would like to decrease risk to some lower level. Looking to practice we learn that middle Ages practices were much better than to day. There is also »disaster by design« when hazard increased as consequence of upstream development or in stream construction or remediation. In such situation we have risk on areas well protected in the past. Good preparation is essential for integration otherwise we just lost time what is essential for decision making and development. We should develop clear picture about physical characteristics of phenomena and possible solutions. We should develop not only the flood maps; we should know how fast phenomena could develop, in hour, day or more. Do we need to analyse ground water - surface water relations, we would like to protected area that was later flooded by ground water. Do we need to take care about

  5. Floods in Colombia (2009-2011): rethinking our response to climatic variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canon Barriga, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    predict or forecast; 4) levees and invasive channel works create a false sense of security and require better local specifications and studies (i.e., of discharge, sediment loads and geomorphological evolution in a non-stationary framework), as well as maintenance, constant monitoring and law enforcement to protect floodplain areas; 5) mountain reforestation is essential to mitigate these impacts, along with river-friendly solutions, including the relocation of communities and incentives for changes in the vocational use of land toward practices that harmonize with the ecosystems and with the seasonal nature of floods. These lessons would likely also apply to other countries in tropical regions characterized by similar weather patterns and levels of social development.

  6. Experimental modelling of outburst flood - bed interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrivick, J. L.; Xie, Z.; Sleigh, A.; Hubbard, M.

    2009-04-01

    Outburst floods are a sudden release and advancing wave of water and sediment, with a peak discharge that is often several orders of magnitude greater than perennial flows. Common outburst floods from natural sources include those from glacial and moraine-impounded lakes, freshwater dyke and levee bursts, volcanic debris dams, landslides, avalanches, coastal bay-bars, and those from tree or vegetation dams. Outburst flood hazards are regularly incorporated into risk assessments for urban, coastal and mountainous areas, for example. Outburst flood hazards are primarily due to direct impacts, caused by a frontal surge wave, from debris within a flow body, and from the mass and consistency of the flows. A number of secondary impacts also pose hazards, including widespread deposition of sediment and blocked tributary streams. It is rapid landscape change, which is achieved the mobilization and redistribution of sediment that causes one of the greatest hazards due to outburst floods. The aim of this project is therefore to parameterise hydrodynamic - sedimentary interactions in experimental outburst floods. Specifically, this project applies laboratory flume modelling, which offers a hitherto untapped opportunity for examining complex interactions between water and sediment within outburst floods. The experimental set-up is of a tradition lock-gate design with a straight 4 m long tank. Hydraulics are scaled at 1:20 froude scale and the following controls on frontal wave flow-bed interactions and hence on rapid landscape change are being investigated: 1. Pre-existing mobile sediment effects, fixed bed roughness effects, sediment concentration effects, mobile bed effects. An emphasis is being maintained on examining the downstream temporal and spatial change in physical character of the water / sediment frontal wave. Facilities are state-of-the-art with a fully-automated laser bed-profiler to measure bed elevation after a run, Seatek arrays to measure transient flow

  7. Flood Loss Model for Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punčochář, P.; Podlaha, A.

    2012-04-01

    A new flood model for Austria quantifying fluvial flood losses based on probabilistic event set developed by Impact Forecasting (Aon Benfield's model development centre) was released in June 2011. It was successfully validated with two serious past flood events - August 2002 and August 2005. The model is based on 10 meters cell size digital terrain model with 1cm vertical step and uses daily mean flows from 548 gauge stations of series of average length ~ 60 years. The even set is based on monthly maxima flows correlation, generating 12 stochastic events per year and allows to calculate annual and occurrence exceedance probability loss estimates. The model contains flood extents for more than 24,000 km of modelled river network compatible with HORA project (HOchwasserRisikoflächen Austria) for design flows ranging from 2 to 10,000 years. Model is primarily constructed to work with postal level resolution insurance data reducing positional uncertainty by weighting over more than 2.5 millions address points from Austria Post's ACGeo database. Countrywide flood protections were provided by the Austrian Ministry of Environment. The model was successfully tested with property portfolios of 8 global and local insurance companies and was also successfully validated with August 2002 and August 2005 past events evaluating their return period on the probabilistic simulation basis.

  8. 100-Year Flood-It's All About Chance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Dinicola, Karen

    2010-01-01

    In the 1960's, the United States government decided to use the 1-percent annual exceedance probability (AEP) flood as the basis for the National Flood Insurance Program. The 1-percent AEP flood was thought to be a fair balance between protecting the public and overly stringent regulation. Because the 1-percent AEP flood has a 1 in 100 chance of being equaled or exceeded in any 1 year, and it has an average recurrence interval of 100 years, it often is referred to as the '100-year flood'. The term '100-year flood' is part of the national lexicon, but is often a source of confusion by those not familiar with flood science and statistics. This poster is an attempt to explain the concept, probabilistic nature, and inherent uncertainties of the '100-year flood' to the layman.

  9. 3-D hydrodynamic modelling of flood impacts on a building and indoor flooding processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gems, Bernhard; Mazzorana, Bruno; Hofer, Thomas; Sturm, Michael; Gabl, Roman; Aufleger, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Given the current challenges in flood risk management and vulnerability assessment of buildings exposed to flood hazards, this study presents three-dimensional numerical modelling of torrential floods and its interaction with buildings. By means of a case study application, the FLOW-3D software is applied to the lower reach of the Rio Vallarsa torrent in the village of Laives (Italy). A single-family house on the flood plain is therefore considered in detail. It is exposed to a 300-year flood hydrograph. Different building representation scenarios, including an entire impervious building envelope and the assumption of fully permeable doors, light shafts and windows, are analysed. The modelling results give insight into the flooding process of the building's interior, the impacting hydrodynamic forces on the exterior and interior walls, and further, they quantify the impact of the flooding of a building on the flow field on the surrounding flood plain. The presented study contributes to the development of a comprehensive physics-based vulnerability assessment framework. For pure water floods, this study presents the possibilities and limits of advanced numerical modelling techniques within flood risk management and, thereby, the planning of local structural protection measures.

  10. Sand boils induced by the 1993 Mississippi River flood: Could they one day be misinterpreted as earthquake-induced liquefaction?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Y.; Craven, J.; Schweig, E.S.; Obermeier, S.F.

    1996-01-01

    In areas that are seismically active but lacking clear surficial faulting, many paleoearthquake studies depend on the interpretation of ancient liquefaction features (sand blows) as indicators of prehistoric seismicity. Sand blows, however, can be mimicked by nonseismic sand boils formed by water seeping beneath levees during floods. We examined sand boils induced by the Mississippi River flood of 1993 in order to compare their characteristics with sand blows of the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-1812. We found a number of criteria that allow a distinction between the two types of deposits. (1) Earthquake-induced liquefaction deposits are broadly distributed about an epicentral area, whereas flood-induced sand boils are limited to a narrow band along a river's levee. (2) The conduits of most earthquake-induced sand blows are planar dikes, whereas the conduits of flood-induced sand boils are most commonly tubular. (3) Depression of the preearthquake ground surface is usual for sand blows, not for sand boils. (4) Flood-induced sand boils tend to be better sorted and much finer than sand-blow deposits. (5) Source beds for earthquake-induced deposits occur at a wide range of depths, whereas the source bed for sand boils is always near surface. (6) Materials removed from the walls surrounding the vent of a sand blow are seen inside sand blows, but are rarely seen inside sand boils. In general, flood-induced sand boils examined are interpreted to represent a less-energetic genesis than earthquake-induced liquefaction.

  11. Flood loss reduction of private households due to building precautionary measures -- lessons learned from the Elbe flood in August 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreibich, H.; Thieken, A. H.; Petrow, Th.; Müller, M.; Merz, B.

    2005-01-01

    Building houses in inundation areas is always a risk, since absolute flood protection is impossible. Where settlements already exist, flood damage must be kept as small as possible. Suitable means are precautionary measures such as elevated building configuration or flood adapted use. However, data about the effects of such measures are rare, and consequently, the efficiency of different precautionary measures is unclear. To improve the knowledge about efficient precautionary measures, approximately 1200 private households, which were affected by the 2002 flood at the river Elbe and its tributaries, were interviewed about the flood damage of their buildings and contents as well as about their precautionary measures. The affected households had little flood experience, i.e. only 15% had experienced a flood before. 59% of the households stated that they did not know, that they live in a flood prone area. Thus, people were not well prepared, e.g. just 11% had used and furnished their house in a flood adapted way and only 6% had a flood adapted building structure. Building precautionary measures are mainly effective in areas with frequent small floods. But also during the extreme flood event in 2002 building measures reduced the flood loss. From the six different building precautionary measures under study, flood adapted use and adapted interior fitting were the most effective ones. They reduced the damage ratio for buildings by 46% and 53%, respectively. The damage ratio for contents was reduced by 48% due to flood adapted use and by 53% due to flood adapted interior fitting. The 2002 flood motivated a relatively large number of people to implement private precautionary measures, but still much more could be done. Hence, to further reduce flood losses, people's motivation to invest in precaution should be improved. More information campaigns and financial incentives should be issued to encourage precautionary measures.

  12. Feedback on flood risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, K.; Roumagnac, A.

    2009-09-01

    For several years, as floods were increasing in South of France, local communities felt deprive to assume their mission of protection and information of citizens, and were looking for assistance in flood management. In term of flood disaster, the fact is that physical protection is necessary but inevitably limited. Tools and structures of assistance to anticipation remain slightly developed. To manage repeated crisis, local authorities need to be able to base their policy against flood on prevention, warnings, post-crisis analysis and feedback from former experience. In this objective, after 3 years of test and improvement since 2003, the initiative Predict-Services was developed in South of France: it aims at helping communities and companies to face repeated flood crisis. The principle is to prepare emergency plans, to organize crisis management and reduce risks; to help and assist communities and companies during crisis to activate and adapt their emergency plans with enough of anticipation; and to analyse floods effects and improve emergency plans afterwards. With the help of Meteo France datas and experts, Predict services helps local communities and companies in decision making for flood management. In order to reduce risks, and to keep the benefits of such an initiative, local communities and companies have to maintain the awareness of risk of the citizens and employees. They also have to maintain their safety plans to keep them constantly operational. This is a part of the message relayed. Companies, Local communities, local government authorities and basin stakeholders are the decision makers. Companies and local communities have to involve themselves in the elaboration of safety plans. They are also completely involved in their activation that is their own responsability. This applies to other local government authorities, like districts one's and basin stakeholders, which participle in the financing community safety plans and adminitrative district which

  13. Hydraulic analyses of water-surface profiles in the vicinity of the Coamo Dam and Highway 52 Bridge, southern Puerto Rico; flood analyses as related to the flood of October 7, 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, K.G.; Quinones-Marquez, Ferdinand; Gonzalez, Ralph

    1987-01-01

    The magnitude, frequency and extent of the flood of October 7, 1985 at the Rio Coamo in the vicinity of the Coamo Dam and Highway 52 bridge in southern Puerto Rico, were investigated. The observed flood profiles were used to calibrate a step-backwater model. The calibrated model was then used to investigate several alternative flow conditions in the vicinity of the bridge. The peak discharge of the flood at the Highway 52 bridge was 72,000 cu ft/sec. This peak discharge was determined from the peak computed at a reach in the vicinity of the Banos de Coamo, about 1.2 mi upstream from the bridge. The computed discharge at the Banos de Coamo of 66,000 cu ft/sec was adjusted to the dam and bridge location by multiplying it by the ratio of the drainage areas raised to the 0.83 power. The flood had a recurrence interval of about 100 yr, exceeding all previously known floods at the site. The flood overtopped the spillway and levee of the Coamo Dam just upstream of Highway 52. The flow over the spillway was 54,000 cu ft/sec. Flow over the levee was about 18,000 cu ft/sec. About 10,000 cu ft/sec of the flow over the levee returned to the main channel at the base of the embankment at the northeast approach to the bridge. The remaining 8,000 cu ft/sec flowed south through the underpass on Highway 153. The embankment and shoulder on the northern span of the bridge were eroded with the eventual collapse of the approach slab. (Author 's abstract)

  14. Biogeochemical and metabolic responses to the flood pulse in a semiarid floodplain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valett, H.M.; Baker, M.A.; Morrice, J.A.; Crawford, C.S.; Molles, M.C.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Moyer, D.L.; Thibault, J.R.; Ellis, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    Flood pulse inundation of riparian forests alters rates of nutrient retention and organic matter processing in the aquatic ecosystems formed in the forest interior. Along the Middle Rio Grande (New Mexico, USA), impoundment and levee construction have created riparian forests that differ in their inter-flood intervals (IFIs) because some floodplains are still regularly inundated by the flood pulse (i.e., connected), while other floodplains remain isolated from flooding (i.e., disconnected). This research investigates how ecosystem responses to the flood pulse relate to forest IFI by quantifying nutrient and organic matter dynamics in the Rio Grande floodplain during three years of experimental flooding of the disconnected floodplain and during a single year of natural flooding of the connected floodplain. Surface and subsurface conditions in paired sites (control, flood) established in the two floodplain types were monitored to address metabolic and biogeochemical responses. Compared to dry controls, rates of respiration in the flooded sites increased by up to three orders of magnitude during the flood pulse. In the disconnected forest, month-long experimental floods produced widespread anoxia of four-week duration during each of the three years of flooding. In contrast, water in the connected floodplain remained well oxygenated (3-8 ppm). Material budgets for experimental floods showed the disconnected floodplain to be a sink for inorganic nitrogen and suspended solids, but a potential source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Compared to the main stem of the Rio Grande, flood-water on the connected floodplain contained less nitrate, but comparable concentrations of DOC, phosphate-phosphorus, and ammonium-nitrogen. Results suggest that floodplain IFI drives metabolic and biogeochemical responses during the flood pulse. Impoundment and fragmentation have altered floodplains from a mosaic of patches with variable IFI to a bimodal distribution. Relatively predictable

  15. Subsurface imaging of flood embankment erosional-piping collapse using a combined MASW and ERI approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Martin

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, non-destructive investigations and management of civil engineering structures is increasingly improving, and assessments are now supported by national and international standards. However, the literature on the applicability of different geophysical techniques to the problem of levee and river embankment monitoring is still limited. Accurate flood levee embankment stability assessment is critically important because embankments and earth dams are subject to water infiltration and internal erosion, which may lead to mechanical weakness and breaching. This study includes a 2D analysis of the instability of an earthen levee, using multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and electrical resistivity imaging (ERI), along with direct observations of the site engineering geology and geomorphology. Both the modeled Vs and Ω indicate a horizontally-layered subsurface with rapid vertical transitions in both stiffness and conductivity. This conclusion is supported by a covariance analysis of Vs and Ω at varying depths and chainages along the levee. Together with a geomorphic assessment, this indicates that the structure is being destabilized by water infiltration, which is causing erosional-piping, leading to surface subsidence. While the key reason for applying various types of geophysical methods to embankment stability assessment is to undertake a safety examination of the embankment, a secondary reason is to compare and contrast the efficacy of the geophysical methods. To this end, it was found that the integration of covariance analysis of 2D geophysical datasets, alongside sedimentary and topographic data, can help the rapid location of anomalous zones in sub-levee soils between geotechnical boreholes.

  16. Feedback on flood risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, K.; Roumagnac, A.

    2009-09-01

    For several years, as floods were increasing in South of France, local communities felt deprive to assume their mission of protection and information of citizens, and were looking for assistance in flood management. In term of flood disaster, the fact is that physical protection is necessary but inevitably limited. Tools and structures of assistance to anticipation remain slightly developed. To manage repeated crisis, local authorities need to be able to base their policy against flood on prevention, warnings, post-crisis analysis and feedback from former experience. In this objective, after 3 years of test and improvement since 2003, the initiative Predict-Services was developped in South of France: it aims at helping communities and companies to face repeated flood crisis. The principle is to prepare emergency plans, to organize crisis management and reduce risks; to help and assist communities and companies during crisis to activate and adapt their emergency plans with enough of anticipation; and to analyse floods effects and improve emergency plans afterwards. In order to reduce risks, and to keep the benefits of such an initiative, local communities and companies have to maintain the awareness of risk of the citizens and employees. They also have to maintain their safety plans to keep them constantly operational. This is a part of the message relayed. Companies, Local communities, local government authorities and basin stakeholders are the decision makers. Companies and local communities have to involve themselves in the elaboration of safety plans. They are also completely involved in their activation that is their own responsability. This applies to other local government authorities, like districts one's and basin stakeholders, which participle in the financing community safety plans and adminitrative district which are responsible of the transmission of meteorological alert and of rescue actions. In the crossing of the géo-information stemming from the

  17. Products of a Subglacial Flood Basalt Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorny, C. F.; White, J. D. L.; Gudmundsson, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    The Snæbýlisheiði unit, SE Iceland, is a ca. 26 km³ elongate, flat-topped ridge of volcaniclastic debris coupled with and intruded by coherent basalt stretching over 34 km from the eruption site perpendicular to the rift fissure source. It formed from a single subglacial flood basalt eruption during a recent glaciation, and its elongation reflects glacial control on dispersal via the hydraulic potential gradient at the glacier's base, which drove towards the glacier terminus the meltwater+debris formed during the eruption by quenching and fragmentation. High magma discharge and outgassing drove segregation of magma into down-flow propagating intrusions. Edifice growth was mediated by the extent of ice melting, extent and efficiency of meltwater+debris drainage, and hydraulic gradients locally favoring meltwater accumulation. Eruption style reflected magma flux, edifice stability, and accessibility of water to the vent area via flooding or infiltration. Deposits reflect these competing factors in their chaotic internal organization and stratigraphy, limited lithofacies continuity, and diverse particle populations from multiple source vents. Linear growth of the ridge down-gradient from the eruption site was driven primarily by propagation and continuous fragmentation of shoaling intrusions that formed an interconnected intrusive complex with extensive peperites. Advance was along gently meandering and locally bifurcating sub-ice conduits within hyaloclastite with sheet-lobe levees and lobate fingered intrusions. Irregular dikes, apophyses, horns, and tendrils extended from the main body and generated voluminous lapilli tuff and contorticlasts while providing additional heat to the system. Prolonged transport and deposition of debris produced complexly bedded volcaniclastic deposits derived from and intruded by the basalt sheet. The bedding and depositional features of volcaniclastic debris and relationship to their adjacent intrusions suggest transport and

  18. Channel, floodplain, and wetland responses to floods and overbank sedimentation, 1846-2006, Halfway Creek Marsh, Upper Mississippi Valley, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, F.A.; Knox, J.C.; Schubauer-Berigan, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Conversion of upland forest and prairie vegetation to agricultural land uses, following Euro-American settlement in the Upper Mississippi River System, led to accelerated runoff and soil erosion that subsequently transformed channels, floodplains, and wetlands on bottomlands. Halfway Creek Marsh, at the junction of Halfway Creek and the Mississippi River on Wisconsin's western border, is representative of such historical transformation. This marsh became the focus of a 2005-2006 investigation by scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, the University of Wisconsin- Madison, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, who used an understanding of the historical transformation to help managers identify possible restoration alternatives for Halfway Creek Marsh. Field-scale topographic surveys and sediment cores provided data for reconstructing patterns and rates of historical overbank sedimentation in the marsh. Information culled from historical maps, aerial photographs, General Land Offi ce Survey notes, and other historical documents helped establish the timing of anthropogenic disturbances and document changes in channel patterns. Major human disturbances, in addition to agricultural land uses, included railroad and road building, construction of artifi cial levees, drainage alterations, and repeated dam failures associated with large floods. A volume of approximately 1,400,000 m3, involving up to 2 m of sandy historical overbank deposition, is stored through the upper and lower marshes and along the adjacent margins of Halfway Creek and its principal tributary, Sand Lake Coulee. The estimated overbank sedimentation rate for the entire marsh is ??3,000 m3 yr-1 for the recent period 1994-2006. In spite of reduced surface runoff and soil erosion in recent years, this recent sedimentation rate still exceeds by ??4 times the early settlement (1846-1885) rate of 700 m3 yr-1, when anthropogenic acceleration of upland surface runoff and soil erosion was beginning

  19. Flooding and schools: experiences in Hull in 2007.

    PubMed

    Convery, Ian; Carroll, Bob; Balogh, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Hull, a city in the East Riding of Yorkshire, United Kingdom, suffered severe flooding in June 2007, affecting some 8,600 households and most schools. Despite the potential for damage in such disasters, no studies of the effects of floods on teachers and schools in the UK appear to have been published previously. This study analysed the impacts of the floods on teachers in Hull in two stages: first through correspondence with Hull City Council and a mailed questionnaire to 91 head teachers of primary, secondary, and special schools; and second, through in-depth interviews with head teachers from six flooded schools, representing different degrees of flood experience, and a questionnaire completed by eight teachers from the same schools. The findings reveal the importance and the complexity of the role of the school in the wider community in a time of crisis. The study highlights issues concerning preparedness for floods, support for schools, and flood protection for schools.

  20. Global River Flood Exposure Assessment Under Climate Change: How Many Asians Are Affected By Flood in the Future?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Y.; Iwami, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Physical exposure assessment in this study shows a methodological possibility to be used as a preliminary case study based on a global approach for flood risk assessment consisting of hazard, exposure, and vulnerability. The purpose of this preliminary study is to estimate potential flood inundation areas as a hazard (both present and future condition), and flood exposure change over the Asia region with consideration of climate change impacts. A flood hazard was characterized by inundation area at the high-resolution of 500 m, location (lowland around rivers), and probability (floods with the 50-year return period). This study introduced a new approach to moderate the global flood hazard and the exposure calculation with significant limitations of current models for continental-scale flood risk assessment by using the flood inundation depth (FID) model based on Manning's steady, uniform flow resistance formula in extreme case during 25-year simulations based on the global BTOP distributed hydrological model using precipitations from the MRI-AGCM 3.2S with SRES A1B emissions scenarios for present-day (daily data from 1980 to 2004), and end-of-the-21st century (daily data from 2075 to 2099). It effectively simplified the complexity between hydrological and topological variables in a flood risk-prone area with assumption of the effects of natural or artificial levees. Exposure was obtained by combining the hazards at the same resolution to identify affected population by calculating with urbanization ratio and population change ratio of Asian countries from a distributed data of global population (Landscan by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory). As a result of the physical exposure assessment from present to the end-of-the-21st century, potential hazards area and affected population are projected to increase 4.2 % (approximately 75,900 km2) and 3.4 % (approximately 35.1 million people) respectively, because Asian population increases about 43% in the future. We found

  1. Impact Assessment of Large Scale Floods Using Imaging Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, D.; Goodwell, A. E.; Umar, M.; Greenberg, J.; Kumar, P.; Darmody, R.; Garvey, J. E.; Jacobson, R. B.; Berretta, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Lower Mississippi River experienced an extreme flood event during April-May 2011 due to springtime snowmelt and excessive rainfall. In order to protect the city of Cairo the US Army Corps of Engineers breached a two mile long levee on the Birds Point New Madrid (BPNM) floodway inundating about 527 sq. kms of farmland. The entire operation was coordinated with a number of data collection activities in terms of stage and discharge measurements at inflow and outflow points and various other locations in the floodway. Subsequently LiDAR, Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) flights and soil sample were collected after the floodwaters receded. IKONOS and Worldview 2 images show large plumes of sediments originating in the O'Bryan's ridge of the BPNM floodway and extending to more than 20 km downstream. We postulate imaging spectroscopy will enable us to identify various surface constituents and help us in characterizing a flooding event of such a large spatial extent in extensive detail. This has not been explored before. In this study we have used AVIRIS remote sensing data to explore and quantify the landscape characteristics of the floodway using different indices and spectral signatures of materials. Atmospherically corrected surface reflectance values were obtained from the AVIRIS at sensor radiance values using ATCOR 4 incorporating the MODTRAN radiative transfer model. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and moisture stress index values computed from the AVIRIS data shows strong signals of high moisture stress and very low NDVI values in the zones of heavy scouring such as O Bryan's ridge and it is possible to spatially map those locations even in absence of topographic data. This is further substantiated by the available post flood topographic LiDAR data. Laboratory physical and chemical characterization of soil samples and their GIS analyses indicate soils most vulnerable to erosion were along a straight flow path from the

  2. Topographic effect on Radio-Magnetotelluric and Slingram signals: application to a levee along the Loire river, France.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duval, Rodolphe; Fauchard, Cyrille; Antoine, Raphael

    2014-05-01

    We study the influence of the topography of a levee on the electric and magnetic signals obtained with the Radio-Magnetotelluric method (RMT) and the Slingram method, respectively. For the RMT method, field measurements have been modelled with a finite element commercial software (AC/DC and Radio-Frequency modules of Comsol Multiphysics). A levee situated in Orléans (France) along the Loire river has been considered in order to design a model taking into account the skin depth and the incident wavelength. The effect of the incident electromagnetic field direction has been assessed with two different incident wave directions: BBC 5 from Salford (UK) and France-Inter from Allouis (France). The simulations highlight the tri-dimensional effects of the topography in the apparent resistivity, observed on the crest of the levee, depending on the incident field direction and topography. For the Slingram method, the magnetic field has been simulated using the AC/DC module of Comsol. The ratio of the primary magnetic field on the secondary one, received in a loop is determined above a straight levee. The study aims to show the various responses obtained in function of both vertical and horizontal coil configurations. We show that the signal also depends on the topography and the right configuration of the coils alignment with respect to the levee stretch direction. In this study, a buried gas pipe is also characterized by the two methods. Numerical modelling of 3D electromagnetic effects on geophysical signals helps to interpret the field measurements and offers to the stakeholder an optimized methodology for geophysical surveys on levees.

  3. Flooding and forest succession in a modified stretch along the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yin, Yao

    1998-01-01

    This research examines the effect of a rare flood on floodplain forest regeneration in a 102-km stretch of the Mississippi River beginning 21 km above the mouth of the Ohio River. The river has been restricted by levees and navigation structures and subjected to sediment dredging to maintain a stable navigation channel. Because the bank erosion-accretion process has been slowed or eliminated, cottonwood (Populus spp.) and willow (Salix spp.) communities regenerate poorly in the modified river environment. An unusually large flood in 1993 destroyed the entire ground vegetation layer, killing 77.2% of the saplings and 32.2% of the trees. The flood created an alternative mechanism for cottonwood and willow to regenerate under canopy openings, enabling the community type composition of the present-day forest to be sustained for the next 50 years. Over time, however, the forest will likely exhibit considerable compositional fluctuation.

  4. Geophysical Characterization of the American River Levees, Sacramento, California, using Electromagnetics, Capacitively Coupled Resistivity, and DC Resistivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asch, Theodore H.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria; Burton, Bethany L.; Ball, Lyndsay B.

    2008-01-01

    A geophysical characterization of a portion of American River levees in Sacramento, California was conducted in May, 2007. Targets of interest included the distribution and thickness of sand lenses that underlie the levees and the depth to a clay unit that underlies the sand. The concern is that the erosion of these sand lenses can lead to levee failure in highly populated areas of Sacramento. DC resistivity (Geometric?s OhmMapper and Advanced Geosciences, Inc.?s SuperSting R8 systems) and electromagnetic surveys (Geophex?s GEM-2) were conducted over a 6 mile length of the levee on roads and bicycle and horse trails. 2-D inversions were conducted on all the geophysical data. The OhmMapper and SuperSting surveys produced consistent inversion results that delineated potential sand and clay units. GEM-2 apparent resistivity data were consistent with the DC inversion results. However, the GEM-2 data could not be inverted due to low electromagnetic response levels, high ambient electromagnetic noise, and large system drifts. While this would not be as large a problem in conductive terrains, it is a problem for a small induction number electromagnetic profiling system such as the GEM-2 in a resistive terrain (the sand lenses). An integrated interpretation of the geophysical data acquired in this investigation is presented in this report that includes delineation of those areas consisting of predominantly sand and those areas consisting predominantly of clay. In general, along most of this part of the American River levee system, sand lenses are located closest to the river and clay deposits are located further away from the river. The interpreted thicknesses of the detected sand deposits are variable and range from 10 ft up to 60 ft. Thus, despite issues with the GEM-2 inversion, this geophysical investigation successfully delineated sand lenses and clay deposits along the American River levee system and the approximate depths to underlying clay zones. The results of

  5. Characterizing land surface change and levee stability in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta using UAVSAR radar imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, C.; Bawden, G.; Deverel, S.; Dudas, J.; Hensley, S.

    2011-01-01

    The islands of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta have been subject to subsidence since they were first reclaimed from the estuary marshlands starting over 100 years ago, with most of the land currently lying below mean sea level. This area, which is the primary water resource of the state of California, is under constant threat of inundation from levee failure. Since July 2009, we have been imaging the area using the quad-polarimetric UAVSAR L-band radar, with eighteen data sets collected as of April 2011. Here we report results of our polarimetric and differential interferometric analysis of the data for levee deformation and land surface change. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  6. Analyses of water, core material, and elutriate samples collected near Sicily Island, Louisiana (Sicily Island area levee project)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demcheck, Dennis K.; Dupuy, Alton J.

    1980-01-01

    Samples consisting of composited core material were collected from five areas by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide data on the impact of proposed channel excavation and levee construction in the Sicily Island area, Louisiana. Samples of receiving water from the five areas, selected to represent the water that will contact the proposed dredged material of the levee fill material, also were collected. Chemical and physical analyses were performed on samples of core material and native water and on elutriate samples of specific core material-receiving water mixtures. The results of these analyses are presented without interpretation. (USGS)

  7. Flood Problematic of the City of Ljubljana and the September 2010 Flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilly, M.; Rusjan, S.; Vidmar, A.

    2012-04-01

    In the contribution, the flood protection problematic of the capital of the Republic of Slovenia, the Ljubljana city, is presented. Ljubljana lies in the southern part of the Ljubljana basin, crossing the moor on the south and the north of Ljubljana field. The tectonic subsidence of the area in the geological past has made it an important confluence of the rivers. The area of the City of Ljubljana has a long history of various flood protection measures (e.g. first waterworks in the Ljubljanica River channel by the Romans, Grubar flood canal excavation in 1780 for diversion of Ljubljanica moor floodwaters away from the city center, weir construction on the Ljubljanica River in 1950s for floodwater manipulation and extended widening of the Mali graben channel in the 1970s). However, despite the abovementioned flood protection efforts, many parts of the urban area of the City of Ljubljana is presently heavily threatened by the floods as the one experienced in September 2010. The southern part of the city, particularly in the Ljubljana moor, is exposed to a risk of catastrophic, medium and even small flood events. In the northern part of Ljubljana, at the Sava River area, there is a risk of catastrophic medium floods events. Most heavily endangered is the southern part of the city in the vicinity of the Ljubljanica River and its tributaries. The western part between Podutik and Rožna dolina is endangered by Glinščica stream high waters and its tributaries, south western part of of the city (the whole Vič area) by Gradaščica with Horjulka, southern part of the Rudnik suburbs with moor floodwaters and the central and northern part of the Rudnik by tributaries from Golovec and inland waters. The main reasons for the present insufficient flood protection of the City of Ljubljana lies especially in the discontinuities and mutual exclusion of flood protection measures planning and overall spatial development of the urbanized areas. As a consequence, some of the past

  8. Variability in form and growth of sediment waves on turbidite channel levees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Normark, W.R.; Piper, D.J.W.; Posamentier, H.; Pirmez, C.; Migeon, S.

    2002-01-01

    Fine-grained sediment waves have been observed in many modern turbidite systems, generally restricted to the overbank depositional element. Sediment waves developed on six submarine fan systems are compared using high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, sediment core samples (including ODP drilling), multibeam bathymetry, 3D seismic-reflection imaging (including examples of burried features), and direct measurements of turbidity currents that overflow their channels. These submarine fan examples extend over more than three orders of magnitude in physical scale. The presence or absence of sediment waves is not simply a matter of either the size of the turbidite channel-levee systems or the dominant initiation process for the turbidity currents that overflow the channels to form the wave fields. Both sediment-core data and seismic-reflection profiles document the upslope migration of the wave forms, with thicker and coarser beds deposited on the up-current flank of the waves. Some wave fields are orthogonal to channel trend and were initiated by large flows whose direction was controlled by upflow morphology, whereas fields subparallel to channel levees resulted from local spillover. In highly meandering systems, sediment waves may mimic meander planform. Larger sediment waves form on channel-levee systems with thicker overflow of turbidity currents, but available data indicate that sediment waves can be maintaned during conditions of relatively thin overflow. Coarser-grained units in sediment waves are typically laminated and thin-bedded sand as much as several centimetres thick, but sand beds as thick as several tens of centimetres have been documented from both modern and buried systems. Current production of hydrocarbons from sediment-wave deposits suggests that it is important to develop criteria for recognising this overbank element in outcrop exposures and borehole data, where the wavelength of typical waves (several kilometres) generally exceeds outcrop

  9. Flood Impact Modelling and Natural Flood Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Gareth; Quinn, Paul; ODonnell, Greg

    2016-04-01

    Local implementation of Natural Flood Management methods are now being proposed in many flood schemes. In principal it offers a cost effective solution to a number of catchment based problem as NFM tackles both flood risk and WFD issues. However within larger catchments there is the issue of which subcatchments to target first and how much NFM to implement. If each catchment has its own configuration of subcatchment and rivers how can the issues of flood synchronisation and strategic investment be addressed? In this study we will show two key aspects to resolving these issues. Firstly, a multi-scale network water level recorder is placed throughout the system to capture the flow concentration and travel time operating in the catchment being studied. The second is a Flood Impact Model (FIM), which is a subcatchment based model that can generate runoff in any location using any hydrological model. The key aspect to the model is that it has a function to represent the impact of NFM in any subcatchment and the ability to route that flood wave to the outfall. This function allows a realistic representation of the synchronisation issues for that catchment. By running the model in interactive mode the user can define an appropriate scheme that minimises or removes the risk of synchornisation and gives confidence that the NFM investment is having a good level of impact downstream in large flood events.

  10. Flood Hazard Management: British and International Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, L. Douglas

    This proceedings of an international workshop at the Flood Hazard Research Centre (Queensway, Enfield, Middlesex, U.K.) begins by noting how past British research on flood problems concentrated on refining techniques to implement established policy. In contrast, research covered in North American and Australian publications involved normative issues on policy alternatives and administrative implementation. The workshop's participants included 16 widely recognized scientists, whose origins were about equally divided between Britain and overseas; from this group the workshop's organizers expertly drew ideas for refining British urban riverine flood hazard management and for cultivating links among researchers everywhere. Such intellectual exchange should be of keen interest to flood hazard program managers around the world, to students of comparative institutional performance, to those who make policy on protecting people from hazards, and to hydrologists and other geophysicists who must communicate descriptive information for bureaucratic, political, and public decision- making.

  11. Severe Flooding in India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Floods devestated parts of eastern India along the Brahmaputra River in June 2000. In some tributaries of the Brahmaputra, the water reached more than 5 meters (16.5 feet) above flood stage. At least 40 residents died, and the flood waters destroyed a bridge linking the region to the rest of India. High water also threatened endangered Rhinos in Kaziranga National Park. Flooded areas are shown in red in the above image. The map was derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data taken on June 15, 2000. For more information on observing floods with satellites, see: Using Satellites to Keep our Head above Water and the Dartmouth Flood Observatory Image by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory

  12. Validation of a Global Hydrodynamic Flood Inundation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, P. D.; Smith, A.; Sampson, C. C.; Alfieri, L.; Neal, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    In this work we present first validation results for a hyper-resolution global flood inundation model. We use a true hydrodynamic model (LISFLOOD-FP) to simulate flood inundation at 1km resolution globally and then use downscaling algorithms to determine flood extent and depth at 90m spatial resolution. Terrain data are taken from a custom version of the SRTM data set that has been processed specifically for hydrodynamic modelling. Return periods of flood flows along the entire global river network are determined using: (1) empirical relationships between catchment characteristics and index flood magnitude in different hydroclimatic zones derived from global runoff data; and (2) an index flood growth curve, also empirically derived. Bankful return period flow is then used to set channel width and depth, and flood defence impacts are modelled using empirical relationships between GDP, urbanization and defence standard of protection. The results of these simulations are global flood hazard maps for a number of different return period events from 1 in 5 to 1 in 1000 years. We compare these predictions to flood hazard maps developed by national government agencies in the UK and Germany using similar methods but employing detailed local data, and to observed flood extent at a number of sites including St. Louis, USA and Bangkok in Thailand. Results show that global flood hazard models can have considerable skill given careful treatment to overcome errors in the publicly available data that are used as their input.

  13. Estimating insured residential losses from large flood scenarios on the Tone River, Japan - a data integration approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, T.; McAneney, K. J.; Chen, K.

    2011-12-01

    Flooding on the Tone River, which drains the largest catchment area in Japan and is now home to 12 million people, poses significant risk to the Greater Tokyo Area. In April 2010, an expert panel in Japan, the Central Disaster Prevention Council, examined the potential for large-scale flooding and outlined possible mitigation measures in the Greater Tokyo Area. One of the scenarios considered closely mimics the pattern of flooding that occurred with the passage of Typhoon Kathleen in 1947 and would potentially flood some 680 000 households above floor level. Building upon that report, this study presents a Geographical Information System (GIS)-based data integration approach to estimate the insurance losses for residential buildings and contents as just one component of the potential financial cost. Using a range of publicly available data - census information, location reference data, insurance market information and flood water elevation data - this analysis finds that insurance losses for residential property alone could reach approximately 1 trillion JPY (US 12.5 billion). Total insurance losses, including commercial and industrial lines of business, are likely to be at least double this figure with total economic costs being much greater again. The results are sensitive to the flood scenario assumed, position of levee failures, local flood depths and extents, population and building heights. The Average Recurrence Interval (ARI) of the rainfall following Typhoon Kathleen has been estimated to be on the order of 200 yr; however, at this juncture it is not possible to put an ARI on the modelled loss since we cannot know the relative or joint probability of the different flooding scenarios. It is possible that more than one of these scenarios could occur simultaneously or that levee failure at one point might lower water levels downstream and avoid a failure at all other points. In addition to insurance applications, spatial analyses like that presented here have

  14. Sediment waves on the Monterey fan levee: a preliminary physical interpretation.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Normark, W.R.; Hess, G.R.; Stow, D.A.V.; Bowen, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed survey of a 30 km2 area of abyssal-depth sediment waves associated with the levee of the Monterey fan valley shows a pattern of sinuous crests and troughs with parallel, well-bedded internal structure. Material in the upper 1 m of sediment consists predominantly of bioturbated, muddy coccolith ooze. A single thin, silty horizon can be correlated between adjoining waves. The sediment waves are considered to be formed most likely by low-velocity (10 cm/s), low-concentration turbidity flows approximately 100-800 m thick. This interpretation emphasizes the role of low-speed, low-concentration turbidity currents in the downslope movement of fine-grained material.- from Authors

  15. Raising risk preparedness by flood risk communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidl, E.; Buchecker, M.

    2015-07-01

    During the last decade, most European countries have produced hazard maps of natural hazards, but little is known about how to communicate these maps most efficiently to the public. In October 2011, Zurich's local authorities informed owners of buildings located in the urban flood hazard zone about potential flood damage, the probability of flood events and protection measures. The campaign was based on the assumptions that informing citizens increases their risk awareness and that citizens who are aware of risks are more likely to undertake actions to protect themselves and their property. This study is intended as a contribution to better understand the factors that influence flood risk preparedness, with a special focus on the effects of such a one-way risk communication strategy. We conducted a standardized mail survey of 1500 property owners in the hazard zones in Zurich (response rate main survey: 34 %). The questionnaire included items to measure respondents' risk awareness, risk preparedness, flood experience, information-seeking behaviour, knowledge about flood risk, evaluation of the information material, risk acceptance, attachment to the property and trust in local authorities. Data about the type of property and socio-demographic variables were also collected. Multivariate data analysis revealed that the average level of risk awareness and preparedness was low, but the results confirmed that the campaign had a statistically significant effect on the level of preparedness. The main influencing factors on the intention to prepare for a flood were the extent to which respondents evaluated the information material positively as well as their risk awareness. Respondents who had never taken any previous interest in floods were less likely to read the material. For future campaigns, we therefore recommend repeated communication that is tailored to the information needs of the target population.

  16. 33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection.... Regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Army for the maintenance and operation of local...

  17. 33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection.... Regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Army for the maintenance and operation of local...

  18. 24 CFR 570.605 - National Flood Insurance Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accordance with 24 CFR part 91), section 202(a) of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (42 U.S.C. 4106) and the regulations in 44 CFR parts 59 through 79 apply to funds provided under this part 570. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true National Flood Insurance...

  19. 33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection.... Regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Army for the maintenance and operation of local...

  20. 24 CFR 570.605 - National Flood Insurance Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... accordance with 24 CFR part 91), section 202(a) of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (42 U.S.C. 4106) and the regulations in 44 CFR parts 59 through 79 apply to funds provided under this part 570. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false National Flood Insurance...

  1. 24 CFR 570.605 - National Flood Insurance Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... accordance with 24 CFR part 91), section 202(a) of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (42 U.S.C. 4106) and the regulations in 44 CFR parts 59 through 79 apply to funds provided under this part 570. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true National Flood Insurance...

  2. 33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection.... Regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Army for the maintenance and operation of local...

  3. 24 CFR 570.605 - National Flood Insurance Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... accordance with 24 CFR part 91), section 202(a) of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (42 U.S.C. 4106) and the regulations in 44 CFR parts 59 through 79 apply to funds provided under this part 570. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false National Flood Insurance...

  4. 24 CFR 570.605 - National Flood Insurance Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... accordance with 24 CFR part 91), section 202(a) of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973 (42 U.S.C. 4106) and the regulations in 44 CFR parts 59 through 79 apply to funds provided under this part 570. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false National Flood Insurance...

  5. 33 CFR 209.220 - Flood control regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flood control regulations. 209..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE § 209.220 Flood control regulations. (a) Local protection.... Regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Army for the maintenance and operation of local...

  6. Early-season flooding for insect pest control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Wisconsin, there is much interest in the spring flood as a means to not only reduce pest populations, but also to facilitate marsh sanitation and provide frost protection. A large-scale field study was undertaken in 2011 to examine how a 30-40 hour spring flood (late May) would affect key insect ...

  7. Fifty-year flood-inundation maps for La Lima, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Mark C.; Olsen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    After the devastating floods caused by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, maps of the areas and depths of the 50-year-flood inundation at 15 municipalities in Honduras were prepared as a tool for agencies involved in reconstruction and planning. This report, which is one in a series of 15, presents maps of areas in the municipality of La Lima that would be inundated by Rio Chamelecon with a discharge of 500 cubic meters per second, the approximate capacity of the river channel through the city of La Lima. The 50-year flood (2,400 cubic meters per second), the original design flow to be mapped, would inundate the entire area surveyed for this municipality. Because water-surface elevations of the 50-year flood could not be mapped properly without substantially expanding the area of the survey, the available data were used instead to estimate the channel capacity of Rio Chamelecon in La Lima by trial-and-error runs of different flows in a numerical model and to estimate the increase in height of levees needed to contain flows of 1,000 and 2,400 cubic meters per second. Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages of the flood inundation are available on a computer in the municipality of La Lima as part of the Municipal GIS project and on the Internet at the Flood Hazard Mapping Web page (http://mitchnts1.cr.usgs.gov/projects/floodhazard.html). These coverages allow users to view the flood inundation in much more detail than is possible using the maps in this report. Water-surface elevations for various discharges on Rio Chamelecon at La Lima were determined using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional, steady-flow, step-backwater computer program. The channel and floodplain cross sections used in HEC-RAS were developed from an airborne light-detection-and-ranging (LIDAR) topographic survey of the area and ground surveys at three bridges. Top-of-levee or top-of-channel-bank elevations and locations at the cross sections were critical to estimating the channel capacity of Rio Chamelecon

  8. Possibilities for Using LIDAR and Photogrammetric Data Obtained with AN Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Levee Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakuła, K.; Ostrowski, W.; Szender, M.; Plutecki, W.; Salach, A.; Górski, K.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the possibilities for using an unmanned aerial system for evaluation of the condition of levees. The unmanned aerial system is equipped with two types of sensor. One is an ultra-light laser scanner, integrated with a GNSS receiver and an INS system; the other sensor is a digital camera that acquires data with stereoscopic coverage. Sensors have been mounted on the multirotor, unmanned platform the Hawk Moth, constructed by MSP company. LiDAR data and images of levees the length of several hundred metres were acquired during testing of the platform. Flights were performed in several variants. Control points measured with the use of the GNSS technique were considered as reference data. The obtained results are presented in this paper; the methodology of processing the acquired LiDAR data, which increase in accuracy when low accuracy of the navigation systems occurs as a result of systematic errors, is also discussed. The Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm, as well as measurements of control points, were used to georeference the LiDAR data. Final accuracy in the order of centimetres was obtained for generation of the digital terrain model. The final products of the proposed UAV data processing are digital elevation models, an orthophotomap and colour point clouds. The authors conclude that such a platform offers wide possibilities for low-budget flights to deliver the data, which may compete with typical direct surveying measurements performed during monitoring of such objects. However, the biggest advantage is the density and continuity of data, which allows for detection of changes in objects being monitored.

  9. Losses of surface runoff, total solids, and nitrogen during bermudagrass establishment on levee embankments.

    PubMed

    Burwell, Robert W; Beasley, Jeffrey S; Gaston, Lewis A; Borst, Steven M; Sheffield, Ron E; Strahan, Ron E; Munshaw, Gregg C

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient and sediment runoff from newly constructed levee embankments pose a threat to water quality during soft armor vegetation establishment. Research was initiated in 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the effect of bermudagrass ( L.) coverage and N source on nutrient and sediment runoff from levee embankments during establishment. Bermudagrass plots were seeded at 195.3 kg pure live seed ha and fertilized at 50 kg N ha using a water-soluble N source, urea or NH-NO, or slow-release N source, S-coated urea (SCU) or urea formaldehyde (UF), with controls unfertilized. Vegetative cover percentage, time until the onset of runoff, runoff volume, and total solids (TS), NO-N, and NH-N concentrations were measured from simulated and natural rainfall events for 70 d in 2008 and 56 d in 2009. Bermudagrass at 90% grass cover delayed the onset of runoff an additional 441 to 538 s and reduced runoff volumes 74 to 84% of that exhibited at 10% grass cover. Nitrogen fertilizers did not accelerate bermudagrass growth sufficiently, however, to reduce TS loading compared with unfertilized bermudagrass in either year of the study. The application of urea and SCU resulted in cumulative N losses of 2.45 and 3.13 kg ha compared with 1.59 kg ha from the unfertilized bermudagrass in 2008, and 1.73 kg ha from NH-NO vs. 0.24 kg ha from controls in 2009. Only UF increased bermudagrass establishment without increasing cumulative N losses compared with unfertilized bermudagrass. Therefore, the benefit of greater erosion and runoff resistance expected from N-accelerated vegetative growth did not occur but had the unintended consequence of higher N losses when water-soluble N and SCU fertilizers were applied. PMID:21712593

  10. Losses of surface runoff, total solids, and nitrogen during bermudagrass establishment on levee embankments.

    PubMed

    Burwell, Robert W; Beasley, Jeffrey S; Gaston, Lewis A; Borst, Steven M; Sheffield, Ron E; Strahan, Ron E; Munshaw, Gregg C

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient and sediment runoff from newly constructed levee embankments pose a threat to water quality during soft armor vegetation establishment. Research was initiated in 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the effect of bermudagrass ( L.) coverage and N source on nutrient and sediment runoff from levee embankments during establishment. Bermudagrass plots were seeded at 195.3 kg pure live seed ha and fertilized at 50 kg N ha using a water-soluble N source, urea or NH-NO, or slow-release N source, S-coated urea (SCU) or urea formaldehyde (UF), with controls unfertilized. Vegetative cover percentage, time until the onset of runoff, runoff volume, and total solids (TS), NO-N, and NH-N concentrations were measured from simulated and natural rainfall events for 70 d in 2008 and 56 d in 2009. Bermudagrass at 90% grass cover delayed the onset of runoff an additional 441 to 538 s and reduced runoff volumes 74 to 84% of that exhibited at 10% grass cover. Nitrogen fertilizers did not accelerate bermudagrass growth sufficiently, however, to reduce TS loading compared with unfertilized bermudagrass in either year of the study. The application of urea and SCU resulted in cumulative N losses of 2.45 and 3.13 kg ha compared with 1.59 kg ha from the unfertilized bermudagrass in 2008, and 1.73 kg ha from NH-NO vs. 0.24 kg ha from controls in 2009. Only UF increased bermudagrass establishment without increasing cumulative N losses compared with unfertilized bermudagrass. Therefore, the benefit of greater erosion and runoff resistance expected from N-accelerated vegetative growth did not occur but had the unintended consequence of higher N losses when water-soluble N and SCU fertilizers were applied.

  11. Wetland hydrology and tree distribution of the Apalachicola River flood plain, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leitman, H.M.; Sohm, J.E.; Franklin, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Apalachicola River is part of a 50,800-square-kilometer drainage basin in northwest Florida, Alabama, and Georgia. The river is formed by the confluence of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers at Jim Woodruff Dam and flows 171 kilometers to Apalachicola Bay in the Gulf of Mexico. Its flood plain supports 450 square kilometers of bottom-land hardwood and tupelco-cypress forests. The most common trees, constituting 62 percent of the total basal area, were five wet-site species; water tupelo, Ogeeche tupelo, baldcypress, Carolina ash, and swamp tupelo. Other common species were sweetgum, overcup oak, planertree, green ash, water hickory, sugarberry, and diamond-leaf oak. Five forest types were defined based on species predominance by basal area. Biomass increased downstream and was greatest in forests growing on permanently saturated soils. Water and tree relations varied with river location because range in water-level fluctuation and topographic relief in the flood plain diminished downstream. Heights of natural riverbank levees and size and distribution of breaks in levees had a major controlling effect on flood-plain hydrology. Depth of water, duration of inundation and saturation, and river location, but not water velocity, were very highly correlated with forest types. (USGS)

  12. Improvements in the Weeding of Levee Slope of Terraced Paddy Fields with Statutory Regulation of Places of Scenic Beauty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchikawa, Yoshiyuki; Kimura, Kazuhiro; Hirata, Ayumi

    A growing number of terraced paddy fields in Japan are being conserved as cultural assets like places of scenic beauty. This has meant that the task of weeding levee slope of these terraced paddy fields has become increasingly important, not only for general maintenance of the terraced paddy fields, but also because of the impact landscape, vegetation and the surrounding environment. However, the steep gradient of the levee slope and lack of footholds mean that the workability and safety associated with this weeding work is problematic. In addition, in the event that an area has been designated as a cultural asset, there are restrictions regarding how it can be modified and local farmers are reluctant to change their traditional farming methods in such cases. This study therefore sought to clarify the actual condition of the levee slope weeding work undertaken in the places of scenic beauty Obasute Tanada district. Empirical validations of potential measures for reforming the work environment were evaluated based on the findings of this investigation. We demonstrated that it is possible to modify current work practices while still maintaining and preserving the terraced paddy fields, even in designated scenic locations. To improve the working environment for levee slope weeding, we propose creating berms to serve as footholds at the toes of slopes.

  13. The Routing and Re-Routing of Difficult Knowledge: Social Studies Teachers Encounter "When the Levees Broke"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, H. James

    2011-01-01

    The author explores the articulations of six social studies student/teachers after a viewing of "When the Levees Broke: A Requiem in Four Acts". The film, a documentary about the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina on the people in and around New Orleans, constitutes an encounter with what Deborah Britzman (1998) calls "difficult…

  14. 24 CFR 1000.38 - What flood insurance requirements are applicable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What flood insurance requirements..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.38 What flood insurance requirements are applicable? Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, as amended (42...

  15. 24 CFR 1000.38 - What flood insurance requirements are applicable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What flood insurance requirements..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.38 What flood insurance requirements are applicable? Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, as amended (42...

  16. 24 CFR 1000.38 - What flood insurance requirements are applicable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What flood insurance requirements..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.38 What flood insurance requirements are applicable? Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, as amended (42...

  17. 24 CFR 1000.38 - What flood insurance requirements are applicable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What flood insurance requirements..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.38 What flood insurance requirements are applicable? Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, as amended (42...

  18. 24 CFR 1000.38 - What flood insurance requirements are applicable?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What flood insurance requirements..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.38 What flood insurance requirements are applicable? Under the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, as amended (42...

  19. 13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Flood-plain and wetlands management. (a) All loans must conform to requirements of Executive Orders 11988, “Flood Plain Management” (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 117) and 11990, “Protection of Wetlands” (3 CFR... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flood-plain and...

  20. 13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Flood-plain and wetlands management. (a) All loans must conform to requirements of Executive Orders 11988, “Flood Plain Management” (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 117) and 11990, “Protection of Wetlands” (3 CFR... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flood-plain and...

  1. 13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Flood-plain and wetlands management. (a) All loans must conform to requirements of Executive Orders 11988, “Flood Plain Management” (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 117) and 11990, “Protection of Wetlands” (3 CFR... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flood-plain and...

  2. 13 CFR 120.172 - Flood-plain and wetlands management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Flood-plain and wetlands management. (a) All loans must conform to requirements of Executive Orders 11988, “Flood Plain Management” (3 CFR, 1977 Comp., p. 117) and 11990, “Protection of Wetlands” (3 CFR... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flood-plain and...

  3. Unit 5, upstream toward incline bridge Johnstown Local Flood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 5, upstream toward incline bridge - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  4. Unit 6, downstream from Ferndale Bridge Johnstown Local Flood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 6, downstream from Ferndale Bridge - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  5. Unit 3, downstream from Point Park Johnstown Local Flood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 3, downstream from Point Park - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  6. Unit 1, downstream from Laurel Run Johnstown Local Flood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 1, downstream from Laurel Run - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  7. Elevated view of city from incline Johnstown Local Flood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevated view of city from incline - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  8. Unit 2, downstream from Coppersdale Bridge Johnstown Local Flood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Unit 2, downstream from Coppersdale Bridge - Johnstown Local Flood Protection Project, Beginning on Conemaugh River approx 3.8 miles downstream from confluence of Little Conemaugh & Stony Creek Rivers at Johnstown, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  9. Alabama district flood plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedgecock, T. Scott; Pearman, J. Leroy; Stricklin, Victor E.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this flood plan is to outline and record advance planning for flood emergencies, so that all personnel will know the general plan and have a ready-reference for necessary information. This will ensure that during any flood event, regardless of the extent or magnitude, the resources of the District can be mobilized into a maximum data collection operation with a mimimum of effort.

  10. 76 FR 70397 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... community's map repository. The respective addresses are listed in the table below. You may submit comments... with section 110 of the Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42 U.S.C. 4104, and 44 CFR 67.4(a....S.C. 601- 612, a regulatory flexibility analysis is not required. Executive Order 12866,...

  11. 77 FR 49360 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... Flood Disaster Protection Act of 1973, 42 U.S.C. 4104, and 44 CFR part 67. FEMA has developed criteria....S.C. 601- 612, a regulatory flexibility analysis is not required. Regulatory Classification. This... 12866 of September 30, 1993, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735. Executive Order...

  12. Estimating magnitude and frequency of floods using the PeakFQ 7.0 program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veilleux, Andrea G.; Cohn, Timothy A.; Flynn, Kathleen M.; Mason, Jr., Robert R.; Hummel, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    Flood-frequency analysis provides information about the magnitude and frequency of flood discharges based on records of annual maximum instantaneous peak discharges collected at streamgages. The information is essential for defining flood-hazard areas, for managing floodplains, and for designing bridges, culverts, dams, levees, and other flood-control structures. Bulletin 17B (B17B) of the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data (IACWD; 1982) codifies the standard methodology for conducting flood-frequency studies in the United States. B17B specifies that annual peak-flow data are to be fit to a log-Pearson Type III distribution. Specific methods are also prescribed for improving skew estimates using regional skew information, tests for high and low outliers, adjustments for low outliers and zero flows, and procedures for incorporating historical flood information. The authors of B17B identified various needs for methodological improvement and recommended additional study. In response to these needs, the Advisory Committee on Water Information (ACWI, successor to IACWD; http://acwi.gov/, Subcommittee on Hydrology (SOH), Hydrologic Frequency Analysis Work Group (HFAWG), has recommended modest changes to B17B. These changes include adoption of a generalized method-of-moments estimator denoted the Expected Moments Algorithm (EMA) (Cohn and others, 1997) and a generalized version of the Grubbs-Beck test for low outliers (Cohn and others, 2013). The SOH requested that the USGS implement these changes in a user-friendly, publicly accessible program.

  13. Geohazards (floods and landslides) in the Ndop plain, Cameroon volcanic line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wotchoko, Pierre; Bardintzeff, Jacques-Marie; Itiga, Zénon; Nkouathio, David Guimolaire; Guedjeo, Christian Suh; Ngnoupeck, Gerald; Dongmo, Armand Kagou; Wandji, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    The Ndop Plain, located along the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL), is a volcano-tectonic plain, formed by a series of tectonic movements, volcanic eruptions and sedimentation phases. Floods (annually) and landslides (occasionally) occur with devastating environmental effects. However, this plain attracts a lot of inhabitants owing to its fertile alluvial soils. With demographic explosion in the plain, the inhabitants (143,000 people) tend to farm and inhabit new zones which are prone to these geohazards. In this paper, we use field observations, laboratory analyses, satellite imagery and complementary methods using appropriate software to establish hazard (flood and landslide) maps of the Ndop Plain. Natural factors as well as anthropogenic factors are considered. The hazard maps revealed that 25% of the area is exposed to flood hazard (13% exposed to high flood hazard, 12% to moderate) and 5% of the area is exposed to landslide hazard (2% exposed to high landslide hazard, 3% to moderate). Some mitigation measures for floods (building of artificial levees, raising foundations of buildings and the meticulous regulation of the flood guards at Bamendjing Dam) and landslides (slope terracing, planting of trees, and building retaining walls) are proposed.

  14. Flood of September 3, 1972, in Hillsboro, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waite, Loyd A.

    1973-01-01

    Four deaths, two persons seriously injured, and property damage estimated at $846,500 resulted from a flood that struck the village of Hillsboro, N. Mex. during the early morning hours of September 3, 1972. Hillsboro is situated at the confluence of Percha Creek and its main tributary, North Percha Creek. Heavy rainfall in the drainage basin upstream from Hillsboro occurred during the night of September 2-3. Peak discharge computed by slope-area measurements indicated that Percha Creek carried a maximum flow of 12,200 cubic feet per second (346 cubic meters per second) and that North Percha Creek carried a flow of 20,900 cubic feet per second (592 cubic meters per second) at points just upstream from Hillsboro. Flood-control facilities in Hillsboro consisting of levees on the south bank of Percha Creek failed and flood waters reached depths of 6 feet (1.8 meters) in Hillsboro. Hillsboro was declared a disaster area by Governor Bruce King and by President Richard Nixon.

  15. Health Vulnerability of Households in Flooded Communities and Their Adaptation Measures: Case Study in Northeastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Srikuta, Phatcharee; Inmuong, Uraiwan; Inmuong, Yanyong; Bradshaw, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Floods adversely affect community well-being and health. This study aims to assess the present health vulnerability of households to floods in a rural flood-prone area of northeastern Thailand, as well as their adaptation measures. The participants were the representatives of 312 randomly selected households, and data were collected using an interview questionnaire. Health vulnerability was assessed in terms of flood exposure, flood sensitivity, and flood adaptive capacity. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. The results showed that 47.1% of the households had a low level of health vulnerability to flooding, while in 21.2% the level was high. Households had been adapting themselves to cope with the health impacts from flood. Their coping practices included special arrangements for the protection of property, food management, the provision of water supply and waste disposal, the elimination of sources of vector-borne diseases, family health care, the protection of family livelihood, and communication and transportation.

  16. Health Vulnerability of Households in Flooded Communities and Their Adaptation Measures: Case Study in Northeastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Srikuta, Phatcharee; Inmuong, Uraiwan; Inmuong, Yanyong; Bradshaw, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Floods adversely affect community well-being and health. This study aims to assess the present health vulnerability of households to floods in a rural flood-prone area of northeastern Thailand, as well as their adaptation measures. The participants were the representatives of 312 randomly selected households, and data were collected using an interview questionnaire. Health vulnerability was assessed in terms of flood exposure, flood sensitivity, and flood adaptive capacity. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. The results showed that 47.1% of the households had a low level of health vulnerability to flooding, while in 21.2% the level was high. Households had been adapting themselves to cope with the health impacts from flood. Their coping practices included special arrangements for the protection of property, food management, the provision of water supply and waste disposal, the elimination of sources of vector-borne diseases, family health care, the protection of family livelihood, and communication and transportation. PMID:25633112

  17. Root responses to flooding.

    PubMed

    Sauter, Margret

    2013-06-01

    Soil water-logging and submergence pose a severe threat to plants. Roots are most prone to flooding and the first to suffer from oxygen shortage. Roots are vital for plant function, however, and maintenance of a functional root system upon flooding is essential. Flooding-resistant plants possess a number of adaptations that help maintain oxygen supply to the root. Plants are also capable of initiating organogenesis to replace their original root system with adventitious roots if oxygen supply becomes impossible. This review summarizes current findings on root development and de novo root genesis in response to flooding.

  18. Flood frequency in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, J.M.

    1970-01-01

    Records of peak discharge at 183 sites were used to study flood frequency in Alaska. The vast size of Alaska, its great ranges of physiography, and the lack of data for much of the State precluded a comprehensive analysis of all flood determinants. Peak stream discharges, where gaging-station records were available, were analyzed for 2-year, 5-year, 10-year, 25-year, and 50-year average-recurrence intervals. A regional analysis of the flood characteristics by multiple-regression methods gave a set of equations that can be used to estimate floods of selected recurrence intervals up to 50 years for any site on any stream in Alaska. The equations relate floods to drainage-basin characteristics. The study indicates that in Alaska the 50-year flood can be estimated from 10-year gaging- station records with a standard error of 22 percent whereas the 50-year flood can be estimated from the regression equation with a standard error of 53 percent. Also, maximum known floods at more than 500 gaging stations and miscellaneous sites in Alaska were related to drainage-area size. An envelope curve of 500 cubic feet per second per square mile covered all but 2 floods in the State.

  19. RASOR flood modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, Joost; Buckman, Lora; Bachmann, Daniel; Visser, Martijn; Tollenaar, Daniel; Vatvani, Deepak; Kramer, Nienke; Goorden, Neeltje

    2015-04-01

    Decision making in disaster management requires fast access to reliable and relevant information. We believe that online information and services will become increasingly important in disaster management. Within the EU FP7 project RASOR (Rapid Risk Assessment and Spatialisation of Risk) an online platform is being developed for rapid multi-hazard risk analyses to support disaster management anywhere in the world. The platform will provide access to a plethora of GIS data that are relevant to risk assessment. It will also enable the user to run numerical flood models to simulate historical and newly defined flooding scenarios. The results of these models are maps of flood extent, flood depths and flow velocities. The RASOR platform will enable to overlay historical event flood maps with observations and Earth Observation (EO) imagery to fill in gaps and assess the accuracy of the flood models. New flooding scenarios can be defined by the user and simulated to investigate the potential impact of future floods. A series of flood models have been developed within RASOR for selected case study areas around the globe that are subject to very different flood hazards: • The city of Bandung in Indonesia, which is prone to fluvial flooding induced by heavy rainfall. The flood hazard is exacerbated by land subsidence. • The port of Cilacap on the south coast of Java, subject to tsunami hazard from submarine earthquakes in the Sunda trench. • The area south of city of Rotterdam in the Netherlands, prone to coastal and/or riverine flooding. • The island of Santorini in Greece, which is subject to tsunamis induced by landslides. Flood models have been developed for each of these case studies using mostly EO data, augmented by local data where necessary. Particular use was made of the new TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurement) product from the German Aerospace centre (DLR) and EADS Astrium. The presentation will describe the flood models and the

  20. SeCom - Serious Community 2.0 prevent flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komma, Juergen; Breuer, Roman; Sewilam, Hani; Concia, Francesca; Aliprandi, Bruno; Siegmund, Sabine; Goossens, Jannis

    2013-04-01

    There is a significant need for raising the awareness and building the capacity of water professionals in different water sectors cross Europe. There is also a need for qualified graduates to implement the EU Flood Risk Directive (FRD). The main aim of this work is to prepare and build the capacity of both groups in flood risk management through identifying synergies, sharing knowledge, and strengthen partnerships between universities and different stakeholders(mainly water professionals). The specific objectives are to develop; a) Development of a dynamic and active tool that allows all target-groups/users to assess their knowledge about flood risk management. b) Development of an innovative, active and problem-based learning methodology for flood risk education and training. c)Development of flood related Vocational Education & Training (VET) modules for water professionals (involving the students to gain practical experience). This will include some modules for undergraduate students on flood risk management and protection.

  1. Erosional and depositional patterns associated with the 1993 Missouri River floods inferred from SIR-C and TOPSAR radar data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izenberg, N.R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Brackett, R.A.; Saatchi, S.S.; Osburn, G.R.; Dohrenwend, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Missouri River floods of 1993 caused significant and widespread damage to the floodplains between Kansas City and St. Louis. Immediately downstream of levee breaks, flood waters scoured the bottoms. As the floodwaters continued, they spread laterally and deposited massive amounts of sand as crevasse splays on top of agricultural fields. We explore the use of radar interferometry and backscatter data for quantitative estimation of scour and deposition for Jameson Island/Arrow Rock Bottoms and Lisbon Bottoms, two bottoms that were heavily damaged during the floods and subsequently abandoned. Shuttle imaging radar C (SIR-C) L band (24 cm) HH (horizontally transmitted and horizontally received) radar backscatter data acquired in October 1994 were used together with a distorted Born approximation canopy scattering model to determine that the abundance of natural leafy forbs controlled the magnitude of backscatter for former agricultural fields. Forb areal density was found to be inversely correlated with thickness of sand deposited during the floods, presumably because thick sands prevented roots from reaching nutrient rich, moist bottoms soils. Using the inverse relationship, a lower bound for the mass of sand added was found to be 6.3 million metric tons over the 17 km2 study area. Digital elevation data from topographic synthetic aperture radar (TOPSAR) C band (5.6 cm) interferometric observations acquired in August 1994 were compared to a series of elevation profiles collected on the ground. Vertical errors in TOPSAR were estimated to range from 1 to 2 m, providing enough accuracy to generate an estimate of total mass (4.7 million metric tons) removed during erosion of levees and scour of the bottoms terrains. Net accretion of material to the study areas is consistent with the geologic record of major floods where sediment-laden floodwaters crested over natural levees, initially scoured into the bottoms, and then deposited sands as crevasse splays as the flows

  2. Flood Warning and Forecasting System in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leskova, Danica

    2016-04-01

    In 2015, it finished project Flood Warning and Forecasting System (POVAPSYS) as part of the flood protection in Slovakia till 2010. The aim was to build POVAPSYS integrated computerized flood forecasting and warning system. It took a qualitatively higher level of output meteorological and hydrological services in case of floods affecting large territorial units, as well as local flood events. It is further unfolding demands on performance and coordination of meteorological and hydrological services, troubleshooting observation, evaluation of data, fast communication, modeling and forecasting of meteorological and hydrological processes. Integration of all information entering and exiting to and from the project POVAPSYS provides Hydrological Flood Forecasting System (HYPOS). The system provides information on the current hydrometeorological situation and its evolution with the generation of alerts and notifications in case of exceeding predefined thresholds. HYPOS's functioning of the system requires flawless operability in critical situations while minimizing the loss of its key parts. HYPOS is a core part of the project POVAPSYS, it is a comprehensive software solutions based on a modular principle, providing data and processed information including alarms, in real time. In order to achieve full functionality of the system, in proposal, we have put emphasis on reliability, robustness, availability and security.

  3. Farms adaptation to changes in flood risk: a management approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivot, Jean-Marc; Martin, Philippe

    2002-10-01

    Creating flood expansion areas e.g. for the protection of urban areas from flooding involves a localised increase in risk which may require farmers to be compensated for crop damage or other losses. With this in mind, the paper sets out the approach used to study the problem and gives results obtained from a survey of farms liable to flooding in central France. The approach is based on a study of decisions made by farmers in situations of uncertainty, using the concept of 'model of action'. The results show that damage caused to farming areas by flooding should be considered both at field level and at farm level. The damage caused to the field depends on the flood itself, the fixed characteristics of the field, and the plant species cultivated. However, the losses to the farm taken as a whole can differ considerably from those for the flooded field, due to 'knock-on' effects on farm operations which depend on the internal organization, the availability of production resources, and the farmer's objectives, both for the farm as a whole and for its individual enterprises. Three main strategies regarding possible flood events were identified. Reasons for choosing one of these include the way the farmer perceives the risk and the size of the area liable to flooding. Finally, the formalisation of farm system management in the face of uncertainty, especially due to flooding, enables compensation to be calculated for farmers whose land is affected by the creation of flood expansion areas.

  4. Potential flood and debris hazards at Cottonwood Cove, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Clark County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moosburner, Otto

    1981-01-01

    At Cottonwood Cove, Nevada, most of the existing dikes at the recreation sites are effective in diverting and routing floodflows, up to and including the 100-year flood, away from people and facilities. The dikes across Ranger Residence Wash and Access Road Wash at the mouth divert floods up to the 50-year recurrence interval away from residential areas. Flow and debris damage in protected areas will be relatively minor minor for floods including the 100-year flood, whereas damage caused by sediment deposition at the mouths of the washes near Lake Mohave could be significant for floods equal to or less than the 100-year flood. The extreme flood, a flood meteorologically and hydrologically possible but so rare as to preclude a frequency estimate, could cause great damage and possible loss of life. The present dikes would be topped or breached by such flooding. (USGS)

  5. The geomorphic effectiveness of a large flood on the Rio Grande in the Big Bend region: insights on geomorphic controls and post-flood geomorphic response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, David J.; Schmidt, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1940s, the Rio Grande in the Big Bend region has undergone long periods of channel narrowing, which have been occasionally interrupted by rare, large floods that widen the channel (termed a channel reset). The most recent channel reset occurred in 2008 following a 17-year period of extremely low stream flow and rapid channel narrowing. Flooding was caused by precipitation associated with the remnants of tropical depression Lowell in the Rio Conchos watershed, the largest tributary to the Rio Grande. Floodwaters approached 1500 m3/s (between a 13 and 15 year recurrence interval) and breached levees, inundated communities, and flooded the alluvial valley of the Rio Grande; the wetted width exceeding 2.5 km in some locations. The 2008 flood had the 7th largest magnitude of record, however, conveyed the largest volume of water than any other flood. Because of the narrow pre-flood channel conditions, record flood stages occurred. We used pre- and post-flood aerial photographs, channel and floodplain surveys, and 1-dimensional hydraulic models to quantify the magnitude of channel change, investigate the controls of flood-induced geomorphic changes, and measure the post-flood response of the widened channel. These analyses show that geomorphic changes included channel widening, meander migration, avulsions, extensive bar formation, and vertical floodplain accretion. Reach-averaged channel widening between 26 and 52% occurred, but in some localities exceeded 500%. The degree and style of channel response was related, but not limited to, three factors: 1) bed-load supply and transport, 2) pre-flood channel plan form, and 3) rapid declines in specific stream power downstream of constrictions and areas of high channel bed slope. The post-flood channel response has consisted of channel contraction through the aggradation of the channel bed and the formation of fine-grained benches inset within the widened channel margins. The most significant post-flood geomorphic

  6. The Thames Gateway: planning policy and flood risk scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldridge, Jillian; Horn, Diane

    2010-05-01

    The Thames Gateway, currently Europe's largest regeneration project, presents a valuable case study area in which to examine the interrelated issues of planning policy, flood risk and insurance loss potential. The region is typified by a significant exposure to flooding due to its location, which as developments proceed, could result in increased areas of vulnerability with consequential insurance loss and hotspots of risk. With 160,000 new homes planned by 2016, positive use of planning policy is fundamental in minimising potential flood risk as well as ensuring long term economic and social goals can be met. This project focuses on several planning scenarios within the Gateway for the areas of Barking and Medway, and models flood risk using a commercial flood model to develop the flood risk under alternative planning policy scenarios. The two areas chosen demonstrate major regeneration and redevelopment sites located on Thames tidal floodplain. The areas are protected by flood defences although are both downstream of the Thames Barrier. However, it is expected that defences will be maintained and upgraded over the next several years, particularly in the Medway, which is currently protected to a lower level than most other areas in the Thames Gateway. The progress of development is more advanced in Barking with the major regeneration site, Barking Riverside, hosting 2000 new homes. The study sites have been chosen based on their location and proximity to the Thames and allow for an analysis of planning policy and its influence in minimising risk into the future. The reflected change in flood risk due to both the planned developments and flood defences will help to understand change in risk over time and the intricacies expected with delivering planning policy in a multi-governed area subject to conflicting objectives. Flood risk for both sites are modelled using a commercial flood model to estimate flood risk based on several flood scenarios for both current and

  7. Flood Finder: Mobile-based automated water level estimation and mapping during floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongsiriyaporn, B.; Jariyavajee, C.; Laoharawee, N.; Narkthong, N.; Pitichat, T.; Goldin, S. E.

    2014-02-01

    Every year, Southeast Asia faces numerous flooding disasters, resulting in very high human and economic loss. Responding to a sudden flood is difficult due to the lack of accurate and up-to- date information about the incoming water status. We have developed a mobile application called Flood Finder to solve this problem. Flood Finder allows smartphone users to measure, share and search for water level information at specified locations. The application uses image processing to compute the water level from a photo taken by users. The photo must be of a known reference object with a standard size. These water levels are more reliable and consistent than human estimates since they are derived from an algorithmic measuring function. Flood Finder uploads water level readings to the server, where they can be searched and mapped by other users via the mobile phone app or standard browsers. Given the widespread availability of smartphones in Asia, Flood Finder can provide more accurate and up-to-date information for better preparation for a flood disaster as well as life safety and property protection.

  8. European Flood Awareness System - now operational

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alionte Eklund, Cristina.; Hazlinger, Michal; Sprokkereef, Eric; Garcia Padilla, Mercedes; Garcia, Rafael J.; Thielen, Jutta; Salamon, Peter; Pappenberger, Florian

    2013-04-01

    The European Commission's Communication "Towards a Stronger European Union Disaster Response" adopted and endorsed by the Council in 2010, underpins the importance of strengthening concerted actions for natural disasters including floods, which are amongst the costliest natural disasters in the EU. The European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) contributes in the case of major flood events. to better protection of the European Citizen, the environment, property and cultural heritage. The disastrous floods in Elbe and Danube rivers in 2002 confronted the European Commission with non-coherent flood warning information from different sources and of variable quality, complicating planning and organisation of aid. Thus, the Commission initiated the development of a European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) which is now going operational. EFAS has been developed and tested at the Joint Research Centre, the Commission's in house science service, in close collaboration with the National hydrological and meteorological services, European Civil Protection through the Monitoring and Information Centre (MIC) and other research institutes. EFAS provides Pan-European overview maps of flood probabilities up to 10 days in advance as well as detailed forecasts at stations where the National services are providing real time data. More than 30 hydrological services and civil protection services in Europe are part of the EFAS network. Since 2011, EFAS is part of the COPERNICUS Emergency Management Service, (EMS) and is now an operational service since 2012. The Operational EFAS is being executed by several consortia dealing with different operational aspects: • EFAS Hydrological data collection centre —REDIAM and ELIMCO- will be collecting historic and realtime discharge and water levels data in support to EFAS • EFAS Meteorological data collection centre —outsourced but running onsite of JRC Ispra. Will be collecting historic and realtime meteorological data in support to EFAS

  9. Native fish sanctuaries of the lower Colorado River: Cibola High Levee Pond, Desert Pupfish Pond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, G.

    2005-01-01

    Isolated by high mountains and harsh deserts, its fish community developed unique and specialized traits that helped them survive raging floods and prolonged droughts. Conditions were so unique that three quarters of the fish species are found nowhere else in the world?|

  10. Evaluation of the use of reach transmissivity to quantify leakage beneath Levee 31N, Miami-Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nemeth, Mark S.; Wilcox, Walter M.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.

    2000-01-01

    A coupled ground- and surface-water model (MODBRANCH) was developed to estimate ground-water flow beneath Levee 31N in Miami-Dade County, Florida, and to simulate hydrologic conditions in the surrounding area. The study included compilation of data from monitoring stations, measurement of vertical seepage rates in wetlands, and analysis of the hydrogeologic properties of the ground-water aquifer within the study area. In addition, the MODBRANCH code was modified to calculate the exchange between surface-water channels and ground water using a relation based on the concept of reach transmissivity. The modified reach-transmissivity version of the MODBRANCH code was successfully tested on three simple problems with known analytical solutions. It was also tested and determined to function adequately on one field problem that had previously been solved using the unmodified version of the software. The modified version of MODBRANCH was judged to have performed satisfactorily, and it required about 60 percent as many iterations to reach a solution. Additionally, its input parameters are more physically-based and less dependent on model-grid spacing. A model of the Levee 31N area was developed and used with the original and modified versions of MODBRANCH, which produced similar output. The mean annual modeled ground-water heads differed by only 0.02 foot, and the mean annual canal discharge differed by less than 1.0 cubic foot per second. Seepage meters were used to quantify vertical seepage rates in the Everglades wetlands area west of Levee 31N. A comparison between results from the seepage meters and from the computer model indicated substantial differences that seemed to be a result of local variations in the hydraulic properties in the topmost part of the Biscayne aquifer. The transmissivity of the Biscayne aquifer was estimated to be 1,400,000 square feet per day in the study area. The computer model was employed to simulate seepage of ground water beneath Levee 31N

  11. The Spokane flood controversy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, V. R.

    1978-01-01

    An enormous plexus of proglacial channels that eroded into the loess and basalt of the Columbia Plateau, eastern Washington is studied. This channeled scabland contained erosional and depositional features that were unique among fluvial phenomena. Documentation of the field relationships of the region explains the landforms as the product of a relatively brief, but enormous flood, then so-called the Spokane flood.

  12. Glacier generated floods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walder, J.S.; Fountain, A.G.; ,

    1997-01-01

    Destructive floods result from drainage of glacier-dammed lakes and sudden release of water stored within glaciers. There is a good basis - both empirical and theoretical - for predicting the magnitude of floods from ice-dammed lakes, although some aspects of flood initiation need to be better understood. In contrast, an understanding of floods resulting from release of internally stored water remains elusive, owing to lack of knowledge of how and where water is stored and to inadequate understanding of the complex physics of the temporally and spatially variable subglacial drainage system.Destructive floods result from drainage of glacier-dammed lakes and sudden release of water stored within glaciers. There is a good basis - both empirical and theoretical - for predicting the magnitude of floods from ice-dammed lakes, although some aspects of flood initiation need to be better understood. In contrast, an understanding of floods resulting from release of internally stored water remains elusive, owing to lack of knowledge of how and where water is stored and to inadequate understanding of the complex physics of the temporally and spatially variable subglacial drainage system.

  13. Continental Flood Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Continental flood basalts have been receiving considerable scientific attention lately. Recent publications have focused on several particular flood-basalt provinces (Brito-Arctic, Karoo, Parana', Deccan, and Columbia Plateau), and much attention has been given to the proposed connection between flood-basalt volcanism, bolide impacts, and mass extinctions. The editor of Continental Flood Basalts, J. D. Macdougall, conceived the book to assemble in a single volume, from a vast and scattered literature, an overview of each major post-Cambrian flood-basalt province.Continental Flood Basalts has 10 chapters; nine treat individual flood-basalt provinces, and a summary chapter compares and contrasts continental flood-basalts and mid-oceanic ridge basalts. Specifically, the chapters address the Columbia River basalt, the northwest United States including the Columbia River basalt, the Ethiopian Province, the North Atlantic Tertiary Province, the Deccan Traps, the Parana' Basin, the Karoo Province, the Siberian Platform, and Cenozoic basaltic rocks in eastern China. Each chapter is written by one or more individuals with an extensive background in the province.

  14. Discover Floods Educators Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Now available as a Download! This valuable resource helps educators teach students about both the risks and benefits of flooding through a series of engaging, hands-on activities. Acknowledging the different roles that floods play in both natural and urban communities, the book helps young people gain a global understanding of this common--and…

  15. Characterizing the impacts of water resources infrastructure, humans, and hydrologic nonstationarity on changes in flood risk across the Himalaya region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tullos, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    As flood control infrastructure reaches its design life, and climate change, population growth, and urban migration increase flood risk, the historical paradigm of store-then-release floodwaters behind rigid infrastructure is of decreasing physical and socioeconomic value. Instead, a new paradigm of sustainable flood management is emerging, which can be framed in the context of three elements that can contribute to and/or mitigate flood risk: 1) water resources infrastructure, 2) policies and socioeconomics, and 3) changing climates and land use. In this presentation, I present the results of analysis on the role of these three elements in contributing to flood risk of the Sutlej River (India) and the Koshi River (Nepal) basins for six historical flood events. The Himalaya region was selected based on the a) increasing intensity of monsoonal rains, b) increasing prevalence of glacial lake outburst floods, c) water resources management that achieves short-term development goals but lacks long-term sustainability, and d) other socio-economic, environmental, and geopolitical factors. I develop and apply a flood risk management framework that is based on metrics for characterizing the losses associated with the three elements contributing to major floods in the Himalaya region. Derived from a variety of data sources, results highlight how, across different hydrogeologic settings and various flood magnitudes, the largest influences on high flood losses are associated with inflexible water resources infrastructure and inappropriate development and flood management policies. Particularly for the most destructive events, which are generally associated with landslides and other natural hazards in this region, the effectiveness of some types of traditional and inflexible flood management infrastructure, including large dams and levees, is limited. As opposed to the probability of a particular flood event, findings illustrate the importance of the damages side of the flood

  16. Rural Community Flood Protection Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Baucus, Max [D-MT

    2011-04-13

    04/13/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Environment and Public Works. (text of measure as introduced: CR S2448) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. The role of floodplain restoration in mitigating flood risk, Lower Missouri River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Lindner, Garth; Bitner, Chance

    2009-01-01

    Recent extreme floods on the Lower Missouri River have reinvigorated public policy debate about the potential role of floodplain restoration in decreasing costs of floods and possibly increasing other ecosystem service benefits. The first step to addressing the benefits of floodplain restoration is to understand the interactions of flow, floodplain morphology, and land cover that together determine the biophysical capacity of the floodplain. In this article we address interactions between ecological restoration of floodplains and flood-risk reduction at 3 scales. At the scale of the Lower Missouri River corridor (1300 km) floodplain elevation datasets and flow models provide first-order calculations of the potential for Missouri River floodplains to store floods of varying magnitude and duration. At this same scale assessment of floodplain sand deposition from the 2011 Missouri River flood indicates the magnitude of flood damage that could potentially be limited by floodplain restoration. At the segment scale (85 km), 1-dimensional hydraulic modeling predicts substantial stage reductions with increasing area of floodplain restoration; mean stage reductions range from 0.12 to 0.66 m. This analysis also indicates that channel widening may contribute substantially to stage reductions as part of a comprehensive strategy to restore floodplain and channel habitats. Unsteady 1-dimensional flow modeling of restoration scenarios at this scale indicates that attenuation of peak discharges of an observed hydrograph from May 2007, of similar magnitude to a 10 % annual exceedance probability flood, would be minimal, ranging from 0.04 % (with 16 % floodplain restoration) to 0.13 % (with 100 % restoration). At the reach scale (15–20 km) 2-dimensional hydraulic models of alternative levee setbacks and floodplain roughness indicate complex processes and patterns of flooding including substantial variation in stage reductions across floodplains depending on topographic complexity

  18. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  19. 78 FR 52954 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  20. 78 FR 52953 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  1. 78 FR 5820 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  2. 78 FR 5821 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final Notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  3. 78 FR 21143 - Final Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Final Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY: Flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of Base Flood Elevations (BFEs), base flood depths, Special Flood Hazard...

  4. Land-use change and floods: what do we need most, research or management?

    PubMed

    Tollan, Arne

    2002-01-01

    Land-cover change (urbanisation, deforestation, and cultivation) results in increased flood frequency and severity. Mechanisms include reduced infiltration capacity, lower soil porosity, loss of vegetation, and forest clearing, meaning lower evapotranspiration. Major research challenges lie in quantification of effects in terms of flood characteristics under various conditions, ascertaining the combined effects of gradual changes over long time periods, and developing model tools suitable for land-use management. Large floods during the 1990s gave a new focus on these problems. Reference is made to the Norwegian HYDRA research programme on human impacts on floods and flood damage. The paper concludes that land-use change effects on floods are most pronounced at small scale and for frequent flood magnitudes. Model simulations of effects of land-use change can now be used to reduce flood risk. Modern flood management strategies have abandoned the position that dams and dikes are the only answers to mitigating flood disasters. Today, the strategic approach is more often: do not keep the water away from the people, keep people away from the water. Flood management strategies should include flood warnings, efficient communication, risk awareness, civil protection and flood preparedness routines, effective land-use policies, flood risk mapping, ... as well as structural measures.

  5. Validation of a global hydrodynamic flood inundation model against high resolution observation data of urban flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Paul; Sampson, Chris; Smith, Andy; Neal, Jeff

    2015-04-01

    In this work we present further validation results for a hyper-resolution global flood inundation model. We use a true hydrodynamic model that uses highly efficient numerical algorithms (LISFLOOD-FP) to simulate flood inundation at ~1km resolution globally and then use downscaling algorithms to determine flood extent and water depth at 3 seconds of arc spatial resolution (~90m at the equator). The global model has ~150 million cells and requires ~180 hours of CPU time for a 10 year simulation period. Terrain data are taken from a custom version of the SRTM data set that has been processed specifically for hydrodynamic modelling. Return periods of flood flows along the entire global river network are determined using: (1) empirical relationships between catchment characteristics and index flood magnitude in different hydroclimatic zones derived from global runoff data; and (2) an index flood growth curve, also empirically derived. Bankful return period flow is then used to set channel width and depth, and flood defence impacts are modelled using empirical relationships between GDP, urbanization and defence standard of protection. The results of these simulations are global flood hazard maps for a number of different return period events from 1 in 5 to 1 in 1000 years. This method has already been show to compare well to return period flood hazard maps derived from models built with high resolution and accuracy local data (Sampson et al., submitted), yet the output from the global flood model has not yet been compared to real flood observations. Whilst the spatial resolution of the global model is high given the size of the model domain, ~1km resolution is still coarse compared to the models typically used to simulate urban flooding and the data typically used to validate these (~25m or less). Comparison of the global model to real-world observations or urban flooding therefore represents an exceptionally stringent test of model skill. In this paper we therefore

  6. Characterizing Land Surface Change and Levee Stability in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Using UAVSAR Radar Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Cathleen; Bawden, Gerald; Deverel, Steven; Dudas, Joel; Hensley, Scott

    2011-01-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is one of the primary water sources for the state of California and represents a complex geographical area comprised of tidal marshland, levee rimmed islands that are used primarily for agriculture, and urban encroachment. Land subsidence has dropped many of the Delta islands 3 to >7 meters below mean sea level and requires nearly 1700 km of levees to maintain the integrity of the islands and flow of water through the Delta. The current average subsidence rates for each island varies, with 1.23 cm/yr on Sherman Island and 2.2 cm/yr for Bacon Island, as determined by ground-based instruments located at isolated points in the Delta. The Delta's status as the most critical water resource for the state, an endangered ecosystem, and an area continuously threatened with levee breakage from hydrostatic pressure and the danger of earthquakes on several major faults in the San Francisco area make it a focus of monitoring efforts by both the state and national government. This activity is now almost entirely done by ground-based efforts, but the benefits of using remote sensing for wide scale spatial coverage and frequent temporal coverage is obvious. The UAVSAR airborne polarimetric and differential interferometric L-band synthetic aperture radar system has been used to collected monthly images of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and much of the adjacent Suisun Marsh since July 2009 to characterize levee stability, image spatially varied subsidence, and assess how well the UAVSAR performs in an area with widespread agriculture production.

  7. Operational flood forecasting: further lessons learned form a recent inundation in Tuscany, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caparrini, F.; Castelli, F.; di Carlo, E.

    2010-09-01

    After a few years of experimental setup, model refinement and parameters calibration, a distributed flood forecasting system for the Tuscany region was promoted to operational use in early 2008. The hydrologic core of the system, MOBIDIC, is a fully distributed soil moisture accounting model, with sequential assimilation of hydrometric data. The model is forced by the real-time dense hydrometeorological network of the Regional Hydrologic Service as well from the QPF products of a number of different limited area meteorological models (LAMI, WRF+ECMWF, WRF+GFS). Given the relatively short response time of the Tuscany basins, the river flow forecasts based on ground measured precipitation are operationally used mainly as a monitoring tool, while the true usable predictions are necessarily based on the QPF input. The first severe flooding event the system had to face occurred in late December 2009, when a failure of the right levee of the Serchio river caused an extensive inundation (on December 25th). In the days following the levee breaking, intensive monitoring and forecast was needed (another flood peak occurred on the night between December 29th and January 1st 2010) as a support for decisions regarding the management of the increased vulnerability of the area and the planning of emergency reparation works at the river banks. The operational use of the system during such a complex event, when both the meteorological and the hydrological components may be said to have performed well form a strict modeling point of view, brought to attention a number of additional issues about the system as a whole. The main of these issues may be phrased in terms of additional system requirements, namely: the ranking of different QPF products in terms of some likelihood measure; the rapid redefinition of alarm thresholds due to sudden changes in the river flow capacity; the supervised prediction for evaluating the consequences of different management scenarios for reservoirs

  8. Flood insurance in Canada: implications for flood management and residential vulnerability to flood hazards.

    PubMed

    Oulahen, Greg

    2015-03-01

    Insurance coverage of damage caused by overland flooding is currently not available to Canadian homeowners. As flood disaster losses and water damage claims both trend upward, insurers in Canada are considering offering residential flood coverage in order to properly underwrite the risk and extend their business. If private flood insurance is introduced in Canada, it will have implications for the current regime of public flood management and for residential vulnerability to flood hazards. This paper engages many of the competing issues surrounding the privatization of flood risk by addressing questions about whether flood insurance can be an effective tool in limiting exposure to the hazard and how it would exacerbate already unequal vulnerability. A case study investigates willingness to pay for flood insurance among residents in Metro Vancouver and how attitudes about insurance relate to other factors that determine residential vulnerability to flood hazards. Findings indicate that demand for flood insurance is part of a complex, dialectical set of determinants of vulnerability.

  9. Flood Insurance in Canada: Implications for Flood Management and Residential Vulnerability to Flood Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oulahen, Greg

    2015-03-01

    Insurance coverage of damage caused by overland flooding is currently not available to Canadian homeowners. As flood disaster losses and water damage claims both trend upward, insurers in Canada are considering offering residential flood coverage in order to properly underwrite the risk and extend their business. If private flood insurance is introduced in Canada, it will have implications for the current regime of public flood management and for residential vulnerability to flood hazards. This paper engages many of the competing issues surrounding the privatization of flood risk by addressing questions about whether flood insurance can be an effective tool in limiting exposure to the hazard and how it would exacerbate already unequal vulnerability. A case study investigates willingness to pay for flood insurance among residents in Metro Vancouver and how attitudes about insurance relate to other factors that determine residential vulnerability to flood hazards. Findings indicate that demand for flood insurance is part of a complex, dialectical set of determinants of vulnerability.

  10. Nogales flood detention study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, Laura M.; Levick, Lainie; Guertin, D. Phillip; Callegary, James; Guadarrama, Jesus Quintanar; Anaya, Claudia Zulema Gil; Prichard, Andrea; Gray, Floyd; Castellanos, Edgar; Tepezano, Edgar; Huth, Hans; Vandervoet, Prescott; Rodriguez, Saul; Nunez, Jose; Atwood, Donald; Granillo, Gilberto Patricio Olivero; Ceballos, Francisco Octavio Gastellum

    2010-01-01

    Flooding in Ambos Nogales often exceeds the capacity of the channel and adjacent land areas, endangering many people. The Nogales Wash is being studied to prevent future flood disasters and detention features are being installed in tributaries of the wash. This paper describes the application of the KINEROS2 model and efforts to understand the capacity of these detention features under various flood and urbanization scenarios. Results depict a reduction in peak flow for the 10-year, 1-hour event based on current land use in tributaries with detention features. However, model results also demonstrate that larger storm events and increasing urbanization will put a strain on the features and limit their effectiveness.

  11. Regional flood frequency analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, V.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book, the fourth of a four volume set, contains five sections encompassing major aspects of regional flood frequency analysis. Each section starts usually with an invited state-of-the-art paper followed by contributed papers. The first section provides an assessment of regional flood frequency analysis. Methods for performing regional frequency analysis for ungaged watersheds are presented in Section 2. More discussion on regional frequency analysis is provided in Section 3. Selection and comparison of regional frequency methods are dealt with in Section 4; these are of great interest to the user. Increasing attention is being focused these days on paleohydrologic flood analysis. This topic is covered in Section 5.

  12. Agricultural damages and losses from ARkStorm scenario flooding in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wein, Anne; David Mitchell,; Peters, Jeff; John Rowden,; Johnny Tran,; Alessandra Corsi,; Dinitz, Laura B.

    2016-01-01

    Scientists designed the ARkStorm scenario to challenge the preparedness of California communities for widespread flooding with a historical precedence and increased likelihood under climate change. California is an important provider of vegetables, fruits, nuts, and other agricultural products to the nation. This study analyzes the agricultural damages and losses pertaining to annual crops, perennial crops, and livestock in California exposed to ARkStorm flooding. Statewide, flood damage is incurred on approximately 23% of annual crop acreage, 5% of perennial crop acreage, and 5% of livestock, e.g., dairy, feedlot, and poultry, acreage. The sum of field repair costs, forgone income, and product replacement costs span $3.7 and $7.1 billion (2009) for a range of inundation durations. Perennial crop loss estimates dominate, and the vulnerability of orchards and vineyards has likely increased with recent expansion. Crop reestablishment delays from levee repair and dewatering more than double annual crop losses in the delta islands, assuming the fragile system does not remain permanently flooded. The exposure of almost 200,000 dairy cows to ARkStorm flooding poses livestock evacuation challenges. Read More: http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/%28ASCE%29NH.1527-6996.0000174

  13. Agricultural damages and losses from ARkStorm scenario flooding in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wein, Anne; David Mitchell; Peters, Jeff; John Rowden; Johnny Tran; Alessandra Corsi; Dinitz, Laura B.

    2015-01-01

    Scientists designed the ARkStorm scenario to challenge the preparedness of California communities for widespread flooding with a historical precedence and increased likelihood under climate change. California is an important provider of vegetables, fruits, nuts, and other agricultural products to the nation. This study analyzes the agricultural damages and losses pertaining to annual crops, perennial crops, and livestock in California exposed to ARkStorm flooding. Statewide, flood damage is incurred on approximately 23% of annual crop acreage, 5% of perennial crop acreage, and 5% of livestock, e.g., dairy, feedlot, and poultry, acreage. The sum of field repair costs, forgone income, and product replacement costs span $3.7 and $7.1 billion (2009) for a range of inundation durations. Perennial crop loss estimates dominate, and the vulnerability of orchards and vineyards has likely increased with recent expansion. Crop reestablishment delays from levee repair and dewatering more than double annual crop losses in the delta islands, assuming the fragile system does not remain permanently flooded. The exposure of almost 200,000 dairy cows to ARkStorm flooding poses livestock evacuation challenges. Read More: http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/%28ASCE%29NH.1527-6996.0000174

  14. Flood data for the Sacramento River and Butte Basin, Sacramento Valley, California, 1980-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harmon, Jerry G.

    1994-01-01

    Floodflows and peak states of floods were measured and channel cross sections were surveyed at sites along the Sacramento River and in Butte Basin, Sacramento Valley, California, during 1980-90 to document magnitudes of flooding and channel changes. The study reach extends from rivermile 200 near Hamilton City to rivermile 134 near Meridian. Data were collected for each flood at about 70 sites that include streamf-flow gages, crest-stage gages, bridges and road overflows on State Highway 162 east of Butte City, and locations of historical high- water marks. Six cross sections of the river between rivermiles 193.7 near Big Chico Creek and 183.3 near Ordbend were surveyed annually during calendar years 1981-84, and 1986-90. Floodflows (peak flow 157,000 cubic feet per second) almost equaled the design flow capacity of the river at Butte City on March 2, 1983, when the peak stage of 93.0 feet was 5 feet below the top of the levee. This was the largest flood recorded at Butte City during 1980- 90. The most recent flood occurred February 18-19, 1986, when the peak stage in the river at Butte City was 92.0 feet and the peak flow was 145,000 cubic feet per second.

  15. Improvements in fast-response flood modeling: desktop parallel computing and domain tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Judi, David R; Mcpherson, Timothy N; Burian, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly important to have the ability to accurately forecast flooding, as flooding accounts for the most losses due to natural disasters in the world and the United States. Flood inundation modeling has been dominated by one-dimensional approaches. These models are computationally efficient and are considered by many engineers to produce reasonably accurate water surface profiles. However, because the profiles estimated in these models must be superimposed on digital elevation data to create a two-dimensional map, the result may be sensitive to the ability of the elevation data to capture relevant features (e.g. dikes/levees, roads, walls, etc...). Moreover, one-dimensional models do not explicitly represent the complex flow processes present in floodplains and urban environments and because two-dimensional models based on the shallow water equations have significantly greater ability to determine flow velocity and direction, the National Research Council (NRC) has recommended that two-dimensional models be used over one-dimensional models for flood inundation studies. This paper has shown that two-dimensional flood modeling computational time can be greatly reduced through the use of Java multithreading on multi-core computers which effectively provides a means for parallel computing on a desktop computer. In addition, this paper has shown that when desktop parallel computing is coupled with a domain tracking algorithm, significant computation time can be eliminated when computations are completed only on inundated cells. The drastic reduction in computational time shown here enhances the ability of two-dimensional flood inundation models to be used as a near-real time flood forecasting tool, engineering, design tool, or planning tool. Perhaps even of greater significance, the reduction in computation time makes the incorporation of risk and uncertainty/ensemble forecasting more feasible for flood inundation modeling (NRC 2000; Sayers et al

  16. Integrating Fluvial and Oceanic Drivers in Operational Flooding Forecasts for San Francisco Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herdman, Liv; Erikson, Li; Barnard, Patrick; Kim, Jungho; Cifelli, Rob; Johnson, Lynn

    2016-04-01

    The nine counties that make up the San Francisco Bay area are home to 7.5 million people and these communties are susceptible to flooding along the bay shoreline and inland creeks that drain to the bay. A forecast model that integrates fluvial and oceanic drivers is necessary for predicting flooding in this complex urban environment. The U.S. Geological Survey ( USGS) and National Weather Service (NWS) are developing a state-of-the-art flooding forecast model for the San Francisco Bay area that will predict watershed and ocean-based flooding up to 72 hours in advance of an approaching storm. The model framework for flood forecasts is based on the USGS-developed Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) that was applied to San Francisco Bay under the Our Coast Our Future project. For this application, we utilize Delft3D-FM, a hydrodynamic model based on a flexible mesh grid, to calculate water levels that account for tidal forcing, seasonal water level anomalies, surge and in-Bay generated wind waves from the wind and pressure fields of a NWS forecast model, and tributary discharges from the Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (RDHM), developed by the NWS Office of Hydrologic Development. The flooding extent is determined by overlaying the resulting water levels onto a recently completed 2-m digital elevation model of the study area which best resolves the extensive levee and tidal marsh systems in the region. Here we present initial pilot results of hindcast winter storms in January 2010 and December 2012, where the flooding is driven by oceanic and fluvial factors respectively. We also demonstrate the feasibility of predicting flooding on an operational time scale that incorporates both atmospheric and hydrologic forcings.

  17. Flood resilience technology, systems and toolls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvin, S.; Kelly, D.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years there has been a general acceptance that the risk from flooding is increasing, primarily due to increased urbanization and the impact of climate change (Zevenbergen et al, 2010). Flood resilience technology (FRe T) is a term used to describe a collection of technologies, materials and products that are used to protect and allow recovery of buildings, communities and infrastructure from flooding. River or coastal flooding is the focus of the legislation, regulation and guidance that is intended to control development and ensure the risk to new properties is low. However, the cost of building and maintaining primary flood defense systems for rivers and coasts is becoming prohibitive and as such future flood management needs to consider a range of measures to manage risk, in particular improving the resilience of buildings, infrastructure and communities. Surface water flooding is now known to cause as much damage as coastal and riverine flooding combined and is as likely to be experienced by both existing and new developments. Therefore FRe T solutions need to be adaptable and flexible. Previous research has shown that barriers exist to the acceptance and use of FRe T by a range of stakeholders. This includes the need to deploy household level items in time, the uncertainty over the performance of FRe T in actual flood situations or reluctance to adopt new or unknown solutions. Investment by public authorities in FRe Technology in recent years has typically increased in countries such as the UK. However, there has been to date little consideration of the system within which the technology has been employed and there is a lack of tools to assist decision makers. The SMARTeST project (an EU FP7 research project) is addressing the issues involved in FRe technology implementation. The findings of the research will be presented, including case studies where the integrated approaches of technology, systems and tools have been considered. SMARTeST seeks to

  18. Development of flood index by characterisation of flood hydrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Biswa; Suman, Asadusjjaman

    2015-04-01

    In recent years the world has experienced deaths, large-scale displacement of people, billions of Euros of economic damage, mental stress and ecosystem impacts due to flooding. Global changes (climate change, population and economic growth, and urbanisation) are exacerbating the severity of flooding. The 2010 floods in Pakistan and the 2011 floods in Australia and Thailand demonstrate the need for concerted action in the face of global societal and environmental changes to strengthen resilience against flooding. Due to climatological characteristics there are catchments where flood forecasting may have a relatively limited role and flood event management may have to be trusted upon. For example, in flash flood catchments, which often may be tiny and un-gauged, flood event management often depends on approximate prediction tools such as flash flood guidance (FFG). There are catchments fed largely by flood waters coming from upstream catchments, which are un-gauged or due to data sharing issues in transboundary catchments the flow of information from upstream catchment is limited. Hydrological and hydraulic modelling of these downstream catchments will never be sufficient to provide any required forecasting lead time and alternative tools to support flood event management will be required. In FFG, or similar approaches, the primary motif is to provide guidance by synthesising the historical data. We follow a similar approach to characterise past flood hydrographs to determine a flood index (FI), which varies in space and time with flood magnitude and its propagation. By studying the variation of the index the pockets of high flood risk, requiring attention, can be earmarked beforehand. This approach can be very useful in flood risk management of catchments where information about hydro-meteorological variables is inadequate for any forecasting system. This paper presents the development of FI and its application to several catchments including in Kentucky in the USA

  19. Hydraulic analysis of measures for flood mitigation in floodplain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentova, J.; Valenta, P.; Weyskrabova, L.; Dostal, T.

    2012-04-01

    The question of possible flood control and flood mitigation measures and their effects is still challenging. While the effect of purely technical flood control measures such as dams or levees is sufficiently described by using any of widely spread or more specific models, the effectiveness of close-to-nature ones (river restoration, appropriate land use, landscape structure regeneration, etc.) is not adequately verified and quantified. On that account, the benefits and feasibility of integration of the natural potential of floodplains to absorb and transform flood wave is being discussed. In addition, there are many side benefits of close-to-nature measures which are hard to evaluate and include into decision making processes. This contribution presents a part of the study related to river and floodplain restoration and revitalization measures in catchments and their flood-control effect. In the study the possibilities of using one-dimensional (HEC-RAS) and two-dimensional hydraulic mathematical models (FAST2D, DIFEM2D) of steady and unsteady flow for estimation of transformation effects of a floodplain were compared. The comparison of used models was made with respect to computed results and also to the availability of input data, mathematical stability, processes and accuracy demands and time requirements. The above mentioned methods of hydraulic modelling were applied to three case study localities in the Czech Republic. The parts of river channels and their floodplain differ in terms of morphology, river channel form and training situation and land-use. Case study areas were selected to represent the main types of floodplains within the Czech Republic for their further classification related to flood wave transformation potential. The transformation effect is compared not only for the natural state of the floodplain, but also for various theoretical scenarios in each locality. Keywords Hydraulic modelling, flood control, floodplain, storage capacity, river

  20. Flood Deposition Patterns and Channel Migration due to a 10-year flood event: the case of the Indus River flood 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettner, A. J.; Syvitski, J. P.; Overeem, I.; Brakenridge, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    Fluvial geomorphological processes evolve the landscape and are often referred to as processes that act for hundred to thousands of years before making a noticeable change in landforms. For the Indus River, landscape evolution has been intensified due to human interference. Failure in repairing its levees from previous floods led in July 2010 during a not exceptional discharge event (~10 year recurrence interval) to a large avulsion and flooding disaster that caused ~2,000 fatalities. Examining pre- and post flood maps by analyzing MODIS and ASTER-A1 data allowed us to determine the extent of sandy flood deposits and to quantify channel migration patterns. The typical pattern of inner bend deposition (due to helical flow) and outer bend erosion were less pronounced. We hypothesize that when flow exceeds bankfull conditions, deposition is more uniform and no longer constrained by the streambed geometry. We observe that the inner and the outer river bend receive similar amounts of sandy deposits (43% versus 57% respectively). Crevasse splaying was widespread and appeared to occur as a flow stripping process again both upon the point bars as well as in river outer bends. Channel activity (defined as the areal shift of the pre- and post river centerline), sinuosity, slope and lateral sediment deposition were determined for 50km river stretches. Analyzes reveal that flood deposits extend generally less than 2 km from the main channel axis. Furthermore, channel activity correlates negatively with channel sinuosity and lateral distance of sediment deposition and positively with slope. The river channel migrated over 100's of meters during the July 2010 flood event. Lateral migration averaged ~340m along a 1000km stretch of the Indus River over a period of just 52 days. Although this discharge event was not exceptional, lateral migration was significant and deposition impacts the active river floodplain. Remarkably, most sediments are deposited downstream the large

  1. Hydrology, vegetation, and soils of four north Florida River flood plains with an evaluation of state and federal wetland determinations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Light, H.M.; Darst, M.R.; MacLaughlin, M.T.; Sprecher, S.W.

    1993-01-01

    A study of hydrologic conditions, vegetation, and soils was made in wetland forests of four north Florida streams from 1987 to 1990. The study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation to support State and Federal efforts to improve wetland delineation methodology in flood plains. Plant communities and soils were described and related to topographic position and long-term hydrologic conditions at 10 study plots located on 4 streams. Detailed appendixes give average duration, frequency, and depth of flooding; canopy, subcanopy, and ground-cover vegetation; and taxonomic classification, series, and profile descriptions of soils for each plot. Topographic relief, range in stage, and depth of flooding were greatest on the alluvial flood plain of the Ochlockonee River, the largest of the four streams. Soils were silty in the lower elevations of the flood plain, and tree communities were distinctly different in each topographic zone. The Aucilla River flood plain was dominated by levees and terraces with very few depressions or low backwater areas. Oaks dominated the canopy of both lower and upper terraces of the Aucilla flood plain. Telogia Creek is a blackwater stream that is a major tributary of the Ochlockonee River. Its low, wet flood plain was dominated by Wyssa ogeche (Ogeechee tupelo) trees, had soils with mucky horizons, and was inundated by frequent floods of very short duration. The St. Marks River, a spring-fed stream with high base flow, had the least topographic relief and lowest range in stage of the four streams. St. Marks soils had a higher clay content than the other streams, and limestone bedrock was relatively close to the surface. Wetland determinations of the study plots based on State and Federal regulatory criteria were evaluated. Most State and Federal wetland determinations are based primarily on vegetation and soil characteristics because hydrologic records are usually not

  2. Linking the historic 2011 Mississippi River flood to coastal wetland sedimentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falcini, Federico; Khan, Nicole S.; Macelloni, Leonardo; Horton, Benjamin P.; Lutken, Carol B.; McKee, Karen L.; Santoleri, Rosalia; Colella, Simone; Li, Chunyan; Volpe, Gianluca; D’Emidio, Marco; Salusti, Alessandro; Jerolmack, Douglas J.

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands in the Mississippi River deltaic plain are deteriorating in part because levees and control structures starve them of sediment. In Spring of 2011 a record-breaking flood brought discharge on the lower Mississippi River to dangerous levels, forcing managers to divert up to 3500 m3/s-1 of water to the Atchafalaya River Basin. Here we quantify differences between the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River inundation and sediment-plume patterns using field-calibrated satellite data, and assess the impact these outflows had on wetland sedimentation. We characterize hydrodynamics and suspended sediment patterns of the Mississippi River plume using in-situ data collected during the historic flood. We show that the focused, high-momentum jet from the leveed Mississippi delivered sediment far offshore. In contrast, the plume from the Atchafalaya was more diffuse; diverted water inundated a large area; and sediment was trapped within the coastal current. Maximum sedimentation (up to several centimetres) occurred in the Atchafalaya Basin despite the larger sediment load carried by the Mississippi. Minimum accumulation occurred along the shoreline between these river sources. Our findings provide a mechanistic link between river-mouth dynamics and wetland sedimentation patterns that is relevant for plans to restore deltaic wetlands using artificial diversions.

  3. Reconstruction of flood events based on documentary data and transnational flood risk analysis of the Upper Rhine and its French and German tributaries since AD 1480

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himmelsbach, I.; Glaser, R.; Schoenbein, J.; Riemann, D.; Martin, B.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the long-term analysis of flood occurrence along the southern part of the Upper Rhine River system and of 14 of its tributaries in France and Germany covering the period starting from 1480 BC. Special focus is given on the temporal and spatial variations of flood events and their underlying meteorological causes over time. Examples are presented of how long-term information about flood events and knowledge about the historical aspect of flood protection in a given area can help to improve the understanding of risk analysis and therefor transnational risk management. Within this context, special focus is given to flood vulnerability while comparing selected historical and modern extreme events, establishing a common evaluation scheme. The transnational aspect becomes especially evident analyzing the tributaries: on this scale, flood protection developed impressively different on the French and German sides. We argue that comparing high technological standards of flood protection, which were initiated by the dukes of Baden on the German side starting in the early 19th century, misled people to the common belief that the mechanical means of flood protection like dams and barrages can guarantee the security from floods and their impacts. This lead to widespread settlements and the establishment of infrastructure as well as modern industries in potentially unsafe areas until today. The legal status in Alsace on the French side of the Rhine did not allow for continuous flood protection measurements, leading to a constant - and probably at last annoying - reminder that the floodplains are a potentially unsafe place to be. From a modern perspective of flood risk management, this leads to a significant lower aggregation of value in the floodplains of the small rivers in Alsace compared to those on the Baden side - an interesting fact - especially if the modern European Flood directive is taken into account.

  4. Seasonal fractal-scaling of floods in two U.S. water resources regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alipour, M. H.; Rezakhani, A. T.; Shamsai, A.

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the behavior and estimating the magnitude of floods with specific recurrence intervals are important tasks for various applications such as flood protection strategies. Fractal analysis has proven useful in characterization of flood frequency behavior. We employ a systematic fractal approach which enables dividing streamflow data into different behavior regimes and, in particular, identifying flood regimes. Since seasonality is a key factor in flood-formation scenarios, we incorporate this concept in our analysis through generating two separate streamflow data sets for summer and winter, and next performing associated fractal analysis on each. To illustrate our approach and see how it enhances our flood-magnitude estimations, we study a large number of watersheds chosen from two adjacent water resources regions in the United States. Besides improving flood-magnitude estimates, this seasonal fractal analysis can suggest patterns through which one may obtain more fine-grained information about regional behavior of floods.

  5. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    2002-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop the flooding predictor, an advanced process control strategy, into a universally useable tool that will maximize the separation yield of a distillation column.

  6. Flood hazard assessment in areas prone to flash flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvočka, Davor; Falconer, Roger A.; Bray, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    Contemporary climate projections suggest that there will be an increase in the occurrence of high-intensity rainfall events in the future. These precipitation extremes are usually the main cause for the emergence of extreme flooding, such as flash flooding. Flash floods are among the most unpredictable, violent and fatal natural hazards in the world. Furthermore, it is expected that flash flooding will occur even more frequently in the future due to more frequent development of extreme weather events, which will greatly increase the danger to people caused by flash flooding. This being the case, there will be a need for high resolution flood hazard maps in areas susceptible to flash flooding. This study investigates what type of flood hazard assessment methods should be used for assessing the flood hazard to people caused by flash flooding. Two different types of flood hazard assessment methods were tested: (i) a widely used method based on an empirical analysis, and (ii) a new, physically based and experimentally calibrated method. Two flash flood events were considered herein, namely: the 2004 Boscastle flash flood and the 2007 Železniki flash flood. The results obtained in this study suggest that in the areas susceptible to extreme flooding, the flood hazard assessment should be conducted using methods based on a mechanics-based analysis. In comparison to standard flood hazard assessment methods, these physically based methods: (i) take into account all of the physical forces, which act on a human body in floodwater, (ii) successfully adapt to abrupt changes in the flow regime, which often occur for flash flood events, and (iii) rapidly assess a flood hazard index in a relatively short period of time.

  7. Preparing for floods: flood forecasting and early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloke, Hannah

    2016-04-01

    Flood forecasting and early warning has continued to stride ahead in strengthening the preparedness phases of disaster risk management, saving lives and property and reducing the overall impact of severe flood events. For example, continental and global scale flood forecasting systems such as the European Flood Awareness System and the Global Flood Awareness System provide early information about upcoming floods in real time to various decisionmakers. Studies have found that there are monetary benefits to implementing these early flood warning systems, and with the science also in place to provide evidence of benefit and hydrometeorological institutional outlooks warming to the use of probabilistic forecasts, the uptake over the last decade has been rapid and sustained. However, there are many further challenges that lie ahead to improve the science supporting flood early warning and to ensure that appropriate decisions are made to maximise flood preparedness.

  8. Flood Risk Assessments of Architectural Heritage - Case of Changgyeonggung Palace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyosang; Kim, Ji-sung; Lee, Ho-jin

    2014-05-01

    The risk of natural disasters such as flood and earthquake has increased due to recent extreme weather events. Therefore, the necessity of the risk management system to protect architectural properties, a cultural heritage of humanity, from natural disasters has been consistently felt. The solutions for managing flood risk focusing on architectural heritage are suggested and applied to protect Changgyeonggung Palace, a major palace heritage in Seoul. After the probable rainfall scenario for risk assessment (frequency: 100 years, 200 years, and 500 years) and the scenario of a probable maximum precipitation (PMP) are made and a previous rainfall event (from July 26th to 28th in 2011) is identified, they are used for the model (HEC-HMS, SWMM) to assess flood risk of certain areas covering Changgyeonggung Palace to do flood amount. Such flood amount makes it possible to identify inundation risks based on GIS models to assess flood risk of individual architectural heritage. The results of assessing such risk are used to establish the disaster risk management system that managers of architectural properties can utilize. According to the results of assessing flood risk of Changgyeonggung Palace, inundation occurs near outlets of Changgyeonggung Palace and sections of river channel for all scenarios of flood risk but the inundation risk of major architectural properties was estimated low. The methods for assessing flood risk of architectural heritage proposed in this study and the risk management system for Changgyeonggung Palace using the methods show thorough solutions for flood risk management and the possibility of using the solutions seems high. A comprehensive management system for architectural heritage will be established in the future through the review on diverse factors for disasters.

  9. Probable maximum flood control; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeGabriele, C.E.; Wu, C.L.

    1991-11-01

    This study proposes preliminary design concepts to protect the waste-handling facilities and all shaft and ramp entries to the underground from the probable maximum flood (PMF) in the current design configuration for the proposed Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) repository protection provisions were furnished by the United States Bureau of Reclamation (USSR) or developed from USSR data. Proposed flood protection provisions include site grading, drainage channels, and diversion dikes. Figures are provided to show these proposed flood protection provisions at each area investigated. These areas are the central surface facilities (including the waste-handling building and waste treatment building), tuff ramp portal, waste ramp portal, men-and-materials shaft, emplacement exhaust shaft, and exploratory shafts facility.

  10. Regionalization of flood hydrograph parameters in the Kolubara River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobnjak, Aleksandar; Zlatanovic, Nikola; Bozovic, Nikola; Stojkovic, Milan; Orlic Momcilovic, Aleksandra; Jelovac, Milena; Prohaska, Stevan

    2016-04-01

    The Kolubara River basin is located in the western part of Serbia. There are several hydrological and rainfall gauging stations in the basin, while a large part of the basin is ungauged. In recent years in this area floods have been a common occurrence, so it is necessary to improve the system of flood protection. The research that is presented in this study represents a hydrological aspect to strengthening flood protection. This study presents the procedure of regionalization of basic flood hydrograph parameters in the Kolubara river basin. All significant observed flood waves in the basin over the past 50 years were collected, assimilated and analyzed. In this research, the method applied was based on the separation of flood hydrograph parameters, for each hydrological station: time to peak (time from the beginning of the hydrograph to its peak) (Tp), time of recession (time from the peak to the end of the recession limb) (Tr), retention time of rainfall in the catchment (tp) and time of concentration (Tc). Using these parameters and morphological characteristics of the basin, such as catchment area, the distance weighted channel slope, length of the main stream, the distance of the center of basin to the profile of each hydrological stations, regional dependencies were established. Parameters of flood hydrograph were analyzed as dependent variables, while the morphological characteristics of the basin represent independent variables. The final goal of this work is to use the obtained regional dependence for flood hydrograph parameter estimation at ungauged locations, with the end goal of improving flood protection in the Kolubara river basin.

  11. 12 CFR 760.9 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. 760.9 Section 760.9 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION... special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement. When... flood insurance purchase requirements set forth in section 102(b) of the Flood Disaster Protection...

  12. 12 CFR 760.9 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. 760.9 Section 760.9 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION... special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement. When... flood insurance purchase requirements set forth in section 102(b) of the Flood Disaster Protection...

  13. Decision-Support System for Mitigating Long-Term Flood Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, H. R.; van Delden, H.; Newman, J. P.; Riddell, G. A.; Zecchin, A. C.; Dandy, G. C.; Newland, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term flood risk in urban areas is expected to increase as a result of a number of factors, such as an increase in the severity of flood events due to the impact of climate change and the exposure of a larger number of people to flooding as a result of population growth. In order to facilitate the development of long-term flood mitigation plans, a framework for a decision-support system (DSS) is presented in this paper. The framework consists of an integrated model (see Figure) consisting of dynamic, spatially distributed land-use and flood inundation models. It also enables the impact of various flood mitigation strategies to be assessed, such as spatial planning, land management, structural measures (e.g. levees, changes in building codes), and community education. The framework considers a number of external drivers that are represented in the form of long-term planning scenarios. These include the impact of climate drivers on the extent of flooding via the flood inundation model and the impact of population and economic drivers on the size and distribution of the population via the land use allocation model. Using this framework, a DSS is being developed and applied to the Greater Adelaide region of South Australia. This DSS includes an intuitive, user-friendly interface for enabling different planning scenarios and mitigation portfolios to be selected, as well as temporal changes in flood risk maps under each of these scenarios to be observed. Changes in flood risk maps are investigated over a 30-year period with climate drivers represented by different representative concentration pathways, population drivers represented by different population projections and economic drivers represented by different employment rates. The impact of different combinations of mitigation measures is also investigated. The results indicate that climate, population and economic drivers have a significant impact on the temporal evolution of flood risk for the case study area

  14. A comparison of large 18th-century floods on Danube: Vienna - Bratislava - Budapest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea; Parajka, Juraj

    2013-04-01

    and morphological conditions, but the importance of human impact (e.g. different types and levels of flood protection in the towns, large-scale changes of land use in the catchment area) have to be as well emphasised.

  15. The August 2002 flood in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sercl, P.; Stehlik, J.

    2003-04-01

    course of the flood has been analysed. It is clear that the cascade cannot protect Prague during such an extreme flood. Below the confluence of the Moldau and Elbe rivers the flood wave propagated in the Elbe and flooded a large area along the river. Therefore the peak discharge decreased a little. The flood caused enormous damage and losses in all regions including the towns of Budweis, Pilsen and Prague. About 100 towns and villages were completely flooded and 350 were partly flooded. 1.6 million people were affected by the flood, 220 thousand were moved from their houses, 15 people died. The total losses are assessed to be 2 to 3 billion Euro. The Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) is a governmental institution responsible for monitoring and forecasting the weather and hydrological conditions in the Czech Republic. During the flood in August 2002, the CHMI was continually preparing information, forecasts and reports for decision-making bodies, the public and the rescue system. Overall, the flood protection and rescue system worked very well and many protective measures were performed during the flood, including the evacuation of people. In general, the system was more effective than it was during the previous catastrophic flood in 1997 in the Oder basin. The experience from the 1997 event and the adoption of new laws on crisis management and the integrated rescue system had a positive influence the response of people.

  16. Impact of the Three-Gorges Dam and water transfer project on Changjiang floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Tadanobu; Shankman, David

    2013-01-01

    Increasing frequency of severe floods on the middle and lower Changjiang (Yangtze) River during the past few decades can be attributed to both abnormal monsoon rainfall and landscape changes that include extensive deforestation affecting river sedimentation, and shrinking lakes and levee construction that reduced the areas available for floodwater storage. The Three-Gorges Dam (TGD) and the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP) will also affect frequency and intensity of severe floods in the Poyang Lake region of the middle Changjiang. Process-based National Integrated Catchment-based Eco-hydrology (NICE) model predicts that the TGD will increase flood risk during the early summer monsoon against the original justifications for building the dam, relating to complex river-lake-groundwater interactions. Several scenarios predict that morphological change will increase flood risk around the lake. This indicates the importance of managing both flood discharge and sediment deposition for the entire basin. Further, the authors assessed the impact of sand mining in the lake after its prohibition on the Changjiang, and clarified that alternative scenario of sand mining in lakes currently disconnected from the mainstream would reduce the flood risk to a greater extent than intensive dredging along junction channel. Because dry biomasses simulated by the model were linearly related to the Time-Integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (TINDVI) estimated from satellite images, its decadal gradient during 1982-1999 showed a spatially heterogeneous distribution and generally decreasing trends beside the lakes, indicating that the increases in lake reclamation and the resultant decrease in rice productivity are closely related to the hydrologic changes. This integrated approach could help to minimize flood damage and promote better decisions addressing sustainable development.

  17. Flooding in Bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Masakazu; Matumoto, Aoki

    2010-05-01

    Edo River to diverge from Tone River on the right side flows away through Tokyo downtown, and into Tokyo Bay. Tone River of main stream flows through the north region of Kanto into Chiba prefecture of rural aria. Tone River originally flowed through present Edo River into Tokyo downtown. So when Tokyo (Edo era) became the political center of Japan 400 years ago, this place had been suffered from flood caused by augmenting downstream flowing of rainfall over watershed catchment area. Edo Government extended near independent small rivers and connected with Tone River and led away most of flood water transportation into Chiba prefecture to be a rural reason. The present rout of the river has been determined in the mass during the 16th century. Created artificial Edo River experimentally divided into 40 percentage and artificial Tone River divided into 60 percentage of flood water transportation. After that Japanese Government confirmed a safety against flood and confirmed to be a safety Tokyo by using SFM (storage function method) and SNFM (steady non-uniform flow method). Japanese Government estimated Plan High Water Discharge 17,500m3/s at upstream of the divergent point and Edo river flowing through 40 percentage (7,000m3/s) of 17,500m3/s which was same ratio as Edo era. But SFM and SNFM could not explain dynamic flow phenomena. We surveyed how many channel storage amount were there in this river by using UFM (unsteady flow method). We reproduce real flowing shape and carried out more detail dynamic phenomena. In this research, we had taken up diverse and various 11floods from 1981. These floods were confirmed that Edo River to be bifurcated less than 40 percentages. Large flood are not always high ratio of diversion in to Edo River. It's almost smaller ratio rather than higher ratio. For example, peak discharge 11,117m3/s, Aug. 1982 flood was bifurcated into Edo river flowing through 20 percentage of 11,117m3/s. Small flood peak discharge 1,030m3/s, Aug. 1992

  18. A Methodology to Support Decision Making in Flood Plan Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biscarini, C.; di Francesco, S.; Manciola, P.

    2009-04-01

    The focus of the present document is on specific decision-making aspects of flood risk analysis. A flood is the result of runoff from rainfall in quantities too great to be confined in the low-water channels of streams. Little can be done to prevent a major flood, but we may be able to minimize damage within the flood plain of the river. This broad definition encompasses many possible mitigation measures. Floodplain management considers the integrated view of all engineering, nonstructural, and administrative measures for managing (minimizing) losses due to flooding on a comprehensive scale. The structural measures are the flood-control facilities designed according to flood characteristics and they include reservoirs, diversions, levees or dikes, and channel modifications. Flood-control measures that modify the damage susceptibility of floodplains are usually referred to as nonstructural measures and may require minor engineering works. On the other hand, those measures designed to modify the damage potential of permanent facilities are called non-structural and allow reducing potential damage during a flood event. Technical information is required to support the tasks of problem definition, plan formulation, and plan evaluation. The specific information needed and the related level of detail are dependent on the nature of the problem, the potential solutions, and the sensitivity of the findings to the basic information. Actions performed to set up and lay out the study are preliminary to the detailed analysis. They include: defining the study scope and detail, the field data collection, a review of previous studies and reports, and the assembly of needed maps and surveys. Risk analysis can be viewed as having many components: risk assessment, risk communication and risk management. Risk assessment comprises an analysis of the technical aspects of the problem, risk communication deals with conveying the information and risk management involves the decision process

  19. Taming the Mighty Mississippi: Integrating paleo-flood data and modeling to understand the patterns and causes of extreme floods on a major river system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, Samuel; Giosan, Liviu; Jeffrey, Donnelly; Dee, Sylvia; Shen, Zhixiong

    2016-04-01

    The Mississippi River is an economic artery of the United States that is heavily managed to provide flood control and maintain a navigable shipping channel. The current system of levees and spillway structures was conceived in the early 20th century, but the ability of this system to withstand the altered hydroclimatic conditions projected for the next century is poorly understood. Here, we present initial results from a project that integrates new sedimentary records from floodplain lakes with analyses of sediment geochemistry and climate model simulations to better understand the causes of extreme floods on the lower Mississippi River. In our sedimentary paleoflood records, flood event beds are characterized by an upward fining sequence from deposition of the bedload and suspended load during overbank floods, identified here using high-resolution laser particle-size analysis and elemental composition (XRF), and dated using radioisotopes (137Cs, 210Pb, 14C) and optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) on quartz. Grain-size descriptors and elemental ratios of Zr/Fe and Fe/Rb are highly correlated, and are used alongside historical discharge records to develop a statistical model for reconstructing flood magnitude in prehistoric contexts. Geochemical analyses of sediments from the floodplains of major tributaries of the Mississippi are used to assess the systematics of 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd, 206Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb across the basin, enabling identification of the synoptic patterns of individual paleo-flood events. We investigate the dynamical drivers of past floods on the lower Mississippi using both reanalysis data and the last millennium simulation from NCAR model CESM1 to find that increased likelihoods of extreme floods on the lower Mississippi River are associated with enhanced moisture flux over midcontinental North America that is controlled by the interaction of seasonally variable soil moisture over major tributaries with inter-annual (e.g., ENSO) and

  20. Coastal flood events in the Maldives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadey, Matthew; Nicholls, Robert J.; Brown, Sally; Haigh, Ivan; McCabe, Maurice

    2016-04-01

    The Maldives are low lying (mostly < 1m above mean sea level) coral islands in the Indian Ocean that are threatened by coastal flooding and sea-level rise (SLR). Protection of low-lying islands and climate change adaptation is optimum where physical systems are understood, yet there is a lack of basic physical information and data about coastal flooding and its causes in the Maldives, which this study addresses. We primarily focus upon an artificial island (Hulhumalé) built 2m above mean sea level to relieve population pressure on the nearby capital Malé. Records show that two severe coastal flood events affected the islands (although not Hulhumalé) in recent decades during April 1987 and May 2007. The primary data source was time series of still water levels at 3 tide gauges which span over 800km north-south across the archipelago (covering 1987-present). Wave conditions (2006-2014) were extracted from a model hindcast, since observational records are not available. The sea-level and wave data were analysed in relation to land heights and SLR, and by applying an overtopping model. This illustrated how the fundamental cause of the 1987 and 2007 floods was south-westerly swell events with wave periods of up to 20s combined with spring tides. Overtopping simulations based upon present-day extremes and projected SLR scenarios, suggest that a relatively small variation of background still water level can drastically increase overtopping and worsen flood impacts. This is partly due to the flatness of the island, although also highlights the sensitivity of flood risk in these islands to mean SLR. In this context of extreme events, projected SLR, and population growth, we briefly discuss adaptation in the context of socio-economic and environmental change. Recommendations are made for future data collection and monitoring.

  1. Flood-plain areas of the Mississippi River, mile 866.8 to mile 888.0, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, George H.; Gue, Lowell C.

    1980-01-01

    Profiles of the regional flood, 500-year flood, and flood-protection elevation have been developed for a 21-mile reach of the Mississippi River. Areas flooded by the regional flood and by the 500-year flood were delineated by photogrammetric mapping techniques and are shown on seven large-scale map sheets. Over 1,300 acres of flood plain are included in the cities of Anoka, Champlin, Coon Rapids, Dayton, Ramsey and Elk River, and in unincorporated areas of Wright County. The flood-outline maps and flood profiles comprise data needed by local units of government to adopt, enforce, and administer flood-plain management regulations along the Mississippi River throughout the study reach. Streamflow data from two gaging stations provided the basis for definition of the regional and 500-year floods. Cross-section data obtained at 83 locations were used to develop a digital computer model of the river. Flood elevation and discharge data from the 1965 flood provided a basis for adjusting the computer model. Information relating the history of floods, formation of ice jams, and duration of flood elevations at Anoka and at Elk River are included.

  2. Production and decomposition of forest litter fall on the Apalachicola River flood plain, Florida: Chapter B, Apalachicola River quality assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elder, John F.; Cairns, Duncan J.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of litter fall (leaves and other particulate organic material) and leaf decomposition were made on the bottom-land hardwood swamp of the Apalachicola River flood plain in 1979-80. Litter fall was collected monthly from nets located in 16 study plots. The plots represented five forest types in the swamp and levee areas of the Apalachicola River flood plain. Forty-three species of trees, vines, and other plants contributed to the total litter fall, but more than 90 percent of the leaf material originated from 12 species. Nonleaf material made up 42 percent of the total litter fall. Average litter fall was determined to be 800 grams per square meter per year, resulting in an annual deposition of 3.6 ? 105 metric tons of organic material in the 454-square-kilometer flood plain. The levee communities have less tree biomass but greater tree diversity than do swamp communities. The levee vegetation, containing less tree biomass, produces slightly more litter fall per unit of ground surface area than does the swamp vegetation. The swamps are dominated by three genera: tupelo (Nyssa), cypress (Taxodium) and ash (Fraxinus). These genera account for more than 50 percent of the total leaf fall in the flood plain, but they are the least productive, on a weight-perbiomass basis, of any of the 12 major leaf producers. Decomposition rates of leaves from five common floodplain tree species were measured using a standard leaf-bag technique. Leaf decomposition was highly species dependent. Tupelo (Nyssa spp.) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) leaves decomposed completely in 6 months when flooded by river water. Leaves of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) and diamond-leaf oak (Quercus laurifolia) were much more resistant. Water hickory (Carya aquatica) leaves showed intermediate decomposition rates. Decomposition of all species was greatly reduced in dry environments. Carbon and biomass loss rates from the leaves were nearly linear over a 6-month period, but nitrogen

  3. Estimating the Response of Physical Processes in the South San Francisco Bay for Flood Stage Frequency Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andes, L.; Wu, F.; MacWilliams, M.; Lu, C.; Lo, J.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal flooding in the far south San Francisco Bay (SSFB) can be a function of astronomical tide, residual tide, in-bay wind speed and direction and fluvial discharge. These physical processes and coastal levee failure were considered as input parameters into a Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) to estimate coastal flood stage frequency in the SSFB. Limited data is available in the SSFB to estimate the contribution of these physical processes to coastal flood statistics. Over 100 years of measured water surface elevation (WSE) is available at the San Francisco tide station which can be used as input to hydrodynamic model simulations to estimate the WSE response in the SSFB. Data sampling criteria have been developed to select significant events at the San Francisco tide station for data transfer to the project site and statistical analysis. The coincidently sampled astronomical and residual tides at the San Francisco tide station were analyzed to cover the full range of the combinations of astronomical and residual tides that contribute to coastal flood statistics at the project site. A look-up table of astronomical and residual tide in the form of WSE responses at the project site from the hydrodynamic simulations was established for the interpolation in the MCS. The hydrodynamic model simulations indicated that the higher-high astronomical tides between 5.15 and 7.25 feet MLLW amplifies with a factor of 1.40 to 1.90 as a function of tidal frequency and water depth, including tidal range. The residual tide varies minimally as it propagates into the SSFB. In-Bay wind set-up from a significant event was found to contribute on the order of one foot to the total WSE in the SSFB; however, wind events with strong magnitudes along the primary axis of the bay occur infrequently making an insignificant contribution to the overall flood statistics. The fluvial discharges of Guadalupe River and Coyote Creek were considered in the hydrodynamic simulations as they are located

  4. Evaluating the Effects of Constriction by Levees on a Dynamic Gravel-Bed River through Morphological Sediment Budgeting and Bed Mobility Studies, Snake River, WY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, C.; Legleiter, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    High-energy gravel-bed rivers are subject to a range of management practices used to control the system's dynamic behavior. The Snake River, near Jackson, WY, offers an opportunity to study the morphological effects of management practices through a comparison of a reach confined by levees to an unmanaged reach just upstream within Grand Teton National Park (GTNP). I hypothesize that levees have reduced sediment supply by disconnecting the river from its banks and increased transport capacity by increasing flow velocity. Together, these effects accentuate the sediment deficit in the leveed reach. To test this I am developing a morphological sediment budget from GTNP to Wilson, WY, using LiDAR data from 2007 and 2012. This analysis will yield insight as to how sediment transport varies between the relatively natural reach in GTNP and the leveed reach downstream. A problem inherent to morphological budgets is the inability to decipher when change occurs within the budget timeframe. To combat this, a partial mobility study was executed using 300 PIT tagged gravels within the leveed reach. Gravels were relocated to decipher how bed mobility and sediment transport varied with grain size under a range of hydraulic conditions. These results are then used to estimate a critical discharge representing the inception of bed motion and geomorphic change. The critical discharge will be used to reconstruct the timing of bed mobility based on streamflow records and thus deconvolve when morphological change occurred during the sediment budget period. I further hypothesize that a greater imbalance between transport capacity and sediment supply in the leveed reach causes the bed to armor, resulting in larger critical shear stresses and implying that the bed will be mobilized only during greater discharge events. To test this hypothesis I will measure armor ratios within the leveed reach and examine how bed mobility differs between the two reaches by comparing the results of our

  5. Flood-prone areas and land-use planning; selected examples from the San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waananen, Arvi O.; Limerinos, J.T.; Kockelman, W.J.; Spangle, W.E.; Blair, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    The common goal of flood-plain regulation and use is protecting life, minimizing public expenditures, and reducing flood loss. A comprehensive program combining structural and nonstructural measures can yield substantial benefits and may present a practical approach for managing a flood plain. A review of flood-plain planning, management, and regulation in the San Francisco Bay region, Calif., as shown by a study of Napa County , demonstrates complex multijurisdictional involvements. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Application of Ground Penetrating Radar Surveys and GPS Surveys for Monitoring the Condition of Levees and Dykes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanajewski, Dariusz; Bakuła, Mieczysław

    2016-08-01

    This paper analyses the possibility of using integrated GPS (Global Positioning System) surveys and ground penetrating radar surveys to precisely locate damages to levees, particularly due to the activity of small fossorial mammals. The technology of intercommunication between ground penetrating radar (GPR) and an RTK (Real-Time Kinematic) survey unit, and the method of data combination, are presented. The errors which may appear during the survey work are also characterized. The procedure for processing the data so that the final results have a spatial character and are ready to be implemented in digital maps and geographic information systems (GIS) is also described.

  7. An experimental investigation of the dynamics of submarine leveed channel initiation as sediment-laden density currents experience sudden unconfinement

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, Joel C; Hilley, George E; Fildani, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Leveed submarine channels play a critical role in the transfer of sediment from the upper continental slopes to interslope basins and ultimately deepwater settings. Despite a reasonable understanding of how these channels grow once established, how such channels initiate on previously unchannelized portions of the seafloor remains poorly understood. We conducted a series of experiments that elucidate the influence of excess density relative to flow velocity on the dynamics of, and depositional morphologies arising from, density currents undergoing sudden unconfinement across a sloped bed. Experimental currents transported only suspended sediment across a non-erodible substrate. Under flow conditions ranging from supercritical to subcritical (bulk Richardson numbers of 0.02 to 1.2) our experiments failed to produce deposits resembling or exhibiting the potential to evolve into self-formed leveed channels. In the absence of excess density, a submerged sediment-laden flow produced sharp crested lateral deposits bounding the margins of the flow for approximately a distance of two outlet widths down basin. These lateral deposits terminated in a centerline deposit that greatly exceeded marginal deposits in thickness. As excess density increased relative to the outlet velocity, the rate of lateral spreading of the flow increased relative to the downstream propagation of the density current, transitioning from a narrow flow aligned with the channel outlet to a broad radially expanding flow. Coincident with these changes in flow dynamics, the bounding lateral deposits extended for shorter distances, had lower, more poorly defined crests that were increasingly wider in separation than the initial outlet, and progressively became more oblong rather than linear. Based on our results, we conclude that leveed channels cannot initiate from sediment-laden density currents under strictly depositional conditions. Partial confinement of these currents appears to be necessary to

  8. Flood-resilient waterfront development in New York City: bridging flood insurance, building codes, and flood zoning.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Jeroen C J H; Botzen, W J Wouter

    2011-06-01

    Waterfronts are attractive areas for many-often competing-uses in New York City (NYC) and are seen as multifunctional locations for economic, environmental, and social activities on the interface between land and water. The NYC waterfront plays a crucial role as a first line of flood defense and in managing flood risk and protecting the city from future climate change and sea-level rise. The city of New York has embarked on a climate adaptation program (PlaNYC) outlining the policies needed to anticipate the impacts of climate change. As part of this policy, the Department of City Planning has recently prepared Vision 2020: New York City Comprehensive Waterfront Plan for the over 500 miles of NYC waterfront (NYC-DCP, 2011). An integral part of the vision is to improve resilience to climate change and sea-level rise. This study seeks to provide guidance for advancing the goals of NYC Vision 2020 by assessing how flood insurance, flood zoning, and building code policies can contribute to waterfront development that is more resilient to climate change.

  9. The role of Natural Flood Management in managing floods in large scale basins during extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Paul; Owen, Gareth; ODonnell, Greg; Nicholson, Alex; Hetherington, David

    2016-04-01

    There is a strong evidence database showing the negative impacts of land use intensification and soil degradation in NW European river basins on hydrological response and to flood impact downstream. However, the ability to target zones of high runoff production and the extent to which we can manage flood risk using nature-based flood management solution are less known. A move to planting more trees and having less intense farmed landscapes is part of natural flood management (NFM) solutions and these methods suggest that flood risk can be managed in alternative and more holistic ways. So what local NFM management methods should be used, where in large scale basin should they be deployed and how does flow is propagate to any point downstream? Generally, how much intervention is needed and will it compromise food production systems? If we are observing record levels of rainfall and flow, for example during Storm Desmond in Dec 2015 in the North West of England, what other flood management options are really needed to complement our traditional defences in large basins for the future? In this paper we will show examples of NFM interventions in the UK that have impacted at local scale sites. We will demonstrate the impact of interventions at local, sub-catchment (meso-scale) and finally at the large scale. These tools include observations, process based models and more generalised Flood Impact Models. Issues of synchronisation and the design level of protection will be debated. By reworking observed rainfall and discharge (runoff) for observed extreme events in the River Eden and River Tyne, during Storm Desmond, we will show how much flood protection is needed in large scale basins. The research will thus pose a number of key questions as to how floods may have to be managed in large scale basins in the future. We will seek to support a method of catchment systems engineering that holds water back across the whole landscape as a major opportunity to management water

  10. Fews-Risk: A step towards risk-based flood forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Daniel; Eilander, Dirk; de Leeuw, Annemargreet; Diermanse, Ferdinand; Weerts, Albrecht; de Bruijn, Karin; Beckers, Joost; Boelee, Leonore; Brown, Emma; Hazlewood, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Operational flood prediction and the assessment of flood risk are important components of flood management. Currently, the model-based prediction of discharge and/or water level in a river is common practice for operational flood forecasting. Based on the prediction of these values decisions about specific emergency measures are made within operational flood management. However, the information provided for decision support is restricted to pure hydrological or hydraulic aspects of a flood. Information about weak sections within the flood defences, flood prone areas and assets at risk in the protected areas are rarely used in a model-based flood forecasting system. This information is often available for strategic planning, but is not in an appropriate format for operational purposes. The idea of FEWS-Risk is the extension of existing flood forecasting systems with elements of strategic flood risk analysis, such as probabilistic failure analysis, two dimensional flood spreading simulation and the analysis of flood impacts and consequences. Thus, additional information is provided to the decision makers, such as: • Location, timing and probability of failure of defined sections of the flood defence line; • Flood spreading, extent and hydraulic values in the hinterland caused by an overflow or a breach flow • Impacts and consequences in case of flooding in the protected areas, such as injuries or casualties and/or damages to critical infrastructure or economy. In contrast with purely hydraulic-based operational information, these additional data focus upon decision support for answering crucial questions within an operational flood forecasting framework, such as: • Where should I reinforce my flood defence system? • What type of action can I take to mend a weak spot in my flood defences? • What are the consequences of a breach? • Which areas should I evacuate first? This presentation outlines the additional required workflows towards risk-based flood

  11. 78 FR 5822 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  12. 77 FR 18846 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  13. 77 FR 18844 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  14. 77 FR 18841 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  15. 78 FR 5826 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  16. 78 FR 5824 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  17. 78 FR 49278 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  18. 78 FR 21143 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  19. 77 FR 18839 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  20. 77 FR 18842 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  1. 77 FR 18835 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  2. 78 FR 49277 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  3. 77 FR 18837 - Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Proposed Flood Hazard Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Comments are requested on proposed flood hazard determinations, which may include additions or modifications of any Base Flood Elevation (BFE), base flood...

  4. Effects of anthropogenic land-subsidence on river flood hazard: a case study in Ravenna, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carisi, Francesca; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Castellarin, Attilio

    2015-04-01

    Can differential land-subsidence significantly alter the river flooding dynamics, and thus flood risk in flood prone areas? Many studies show how the lowering of the coastal areas is closely related to an increase in the flood-hazard due to more important tidal flooding and see level rise. On the contrary, the literature on the relationship between differential land-subsidence and possible alterations to riverine flood-hazard of inland areas is still sparse, while several areas characterized by significant land-subsidence rates during the second half of the 20th century experienced an intensification in both inundation magnitude and frequency. This study investigates the possible impact of a significant differential ground lowering on flood hazard in proximity of Ravenna, which is one of the oldest Italian cities, former capital of the Western Roman Empire, located a few kilometers from the Adriatic coast and about 60 km south of the Po River delta. The rate of land-subsidence in the area, naturally in the order of a few mm/year, dramatically increased up to 110 mm/year after World War II, primarily due to groundwater pumping and a number of deep onshore and offshore gas production platforms. The subsidence caused in the last century a cumulative drop larger than 1.5 m in the historical center of the city. Starting from these evidences and taking advantage of a recent digital elevation model of 10m resolution, we reconstructed the ground elevation in 1897 for an area of about 65 km2 around the city of Ravenna. We referred to these two digital elevation models (i.e. current topography and topographic reconstruction) and a 2D finite-element numerical model for the simulation of the inundation dynamics associated with several levee failure scenarios along embankment system of the river Montone. For each scenario and digital elevation model, the flood hazard is quantified in terms of water depth, speed and dynamics of the flooding front. The comparison enabled us to

  5. Flood of support.

    PubMed

    Musgrave, Shonagh

    A year on from the torrential floods that struck Cumbria, many people are still unable to return to their homes. A team of therapists is helping people to cope with the stress and frustration. The January 2005 floods came four years after foot and mouth disease hit Cumbria. The region depends on agriculture, hill walking and tourism for revenue. Therapists offer residents a choice of eight, different complementary therapies. Users of the service say the therapies reduce stress and help them relax. PMID:16629105

  6. Socio-economic impacts on flooding: a 4000-year history of the Yellow River, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yunzhen; Syvitski, James P M; Gao, Shu; Overeem, Irina; Kettner, Albert J

    2012-11-01

    We analyze 4000-year flood history of the lower Yellow River and the history of agricultural development in the middle river by investigating historical writings and quantitative time series data of environmental changes in the river basin. Flood dynamics are characterized by positive feedback loops, critical thresholds of natural processes, and abrupt transitions caused by socio-economic factors. Technological and organizational innovations were dominant driving forces of the flood history. The popularization of iron plows and embarkment of the lower river in the 4th century BC initiated a positive feedback loop on levee breaches. The strength of the feedback loop was enhanced by farming of coarse-sediment producing areas, steep hillslope cultivation, and a new river management paradigm, and finally pushed the flood frequency to its climax in the seventeenth century. The co-evolution of river dynamics and Chinese society is remarkable, especially farming and soil erosion in the middle river, and central authority and river management in the lower river.

  7. Effects of rating-curve uncertainty on probabilistic flood mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeneghetti, A.; Vorogushyn, S.; Castellarin, A.; Merz, B.; Brath, A.

    2012-08-01

    Comprehensive flood risk assessment studies should quantify the global uncertainty in flood hazard estimation, for instance by mapping inundation extents together with their confidence intervals. This appears of particular importance in case of flood hazard assessments along dike-protected reaches where the possibility of occurrence of dike failures may considerably enhance the uncertainty. We present a methodology to derive probabilistic flood maps in dike-protected flood prone areas, where several sources of uncertainty are taken into account. In particular, this paper focuses on a 50 km reach of River Po (Italy) and three major sources of uncertainty in hydraulic modelling and flood mapping: uncertainties in the (i) upstream and (ii) downstream boundary conditions, and (iii) uncertainties in dike failures. Uncertainties in the definition of upstream boundary conditions (i.e. design-hydrographs) are assessed by applying different bivariate copula families to model the frequency regime of flood peaks and volumes. Uncertainties in the definition of downstream boundary conditions are characterised by associating the rating-curve used as downstream boundary condition with confidence intervals which reflect discharge measurements errors and interpolation errors. The effects of uncertainties in boundary conditions and randomness of dike failures are assessed by means of the Inundation Hazard Assessment Model (IHAM), a recently proposed hybrid probabilistic-deterministic model that considers three different failure mechanisms: overtopping, piping and micro-instability due to seepage. The results of the study show that the IHAM-based analysis enables probabilistic flood hazard mapping and provides decision makers with a fundamental piece of information for devising and implementing flood risk mitigation strategies in the presence of various sources of uncertainty.

  8. Impacts of dyke development in flood prone areas in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta to downstream flood hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanh Triet Nguyen, Van; Dung Nguyen, Viet; Fujii, Hideto; Kummu, Matti; Merz, Bruno; Apel, Heiko

    2016-04-01

    The Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD) plays an important role in food security and socio-economic development of the country. Being a low-lying coastal region, the VMD is particularly susceptible to both riverine and tidal floods, which provide, on (the) one hand, the basis for the rich agricultural production and the livelihood of the people, but on the other hand pose a considerable hazard depending on the severity of the floods. But despite of potentially hazardous flood, the area remain active as a rice granary due to its nutrient-rich soils and sediment input, and dense waterways, canals and the long standing experience of the population living with floods. In response to both farmers' requests and governmental plans, the construction of flood protection infrastructure in the delta progressed rapidly in the last twenty years, notably at areas prone to deep flooding, i.e. the Plain of Reeds (PoR) and Long Xuyen Quadrangle (LXQ). Triple rice cropping becomes possible in farmlands enclosed by "full-dykes", i.e. dykes strong and high enough to prevent flooding of the flood plains for most of the floods. In these protected flood plains rice can be grown even during the peak flood period (September to November). However, little is known about the possibly (and already alleged) negative impacts of this fully flood protection measure to downstream areas. This study aims at quantifying how the flood regime in the lower part of the VMD (e.g. Can Tho, My Thuan, …) has been changed in the last 2 recent "big flood" events of 2000 and 2011 due to the construction of the full-dyke system in the upper part. First, an evaluation of 35 years of daily water level data was performed in order to detect trends at key gauging stations: Kratie: upper boundary of the Delta, Tan Chau and Chau Doc: areas with full-dyke construction, Can Tho and My Thuan: downstream. Results from the Mann-Kendall (MK) test show a decreasing trend of the annual maximum water level at 3 stations Kratie, Tan

  9. Proposal of global flood vulnerability scenarios for evaluating future potential flood losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Y.; Tanoue, M.; Watanabe, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Flooding is one of the most hazardous and damaging natural disasters causing serious economic loss and casualties across the world (Jongman et al., 2015). Previous studies showed that the global temperature increase affects regional weather pattern, and several general circulation model (GCM) simulations suggest the increase of flood events in both frequency and magnitude in many parts of the world (Hirabayashi et al., 2013). Effective adaptation to potential flood risks under the warming climate requires an in-depth understanding of both the physical and socioeconomic contributors of the flood risk. To assess the realistic future potential flood risk, future sophisticated vulnerability scenarios associated with the shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) are necessary. In this study we propose a new future vulnerability scenarios in mortality. Our vulnerability scenarios are constructed based on the modeled flood exposure (population potentially suffered by flooding) and a past from 1980 to 2005. All the flood fatality data were classified according to four income levels (high, mid-high, mid-low and low). Our proposed scenarios have three pathways regarding to SSPs; High efficiency (HE) scenario (SSP1, SSP4 (rich country) and SSP5), Medium efficiency (ME) scenario (SSP2), and Low efficiency (LE) scenario (SSP3 and SSP4 (poor country)). The maximum mortality protection level on each category was detected by applying exponential curve fitting with offset term. Slopes in the HE scenario are assumed to be equal to slopes estimated by regression analysis in each category. The slope in the HE scenario is defined by the mean value of all countries' slope value that is approximately -0.33 mortality decreases per year. The EM-DAT mortality data shows a decreasing trend in time in almost all of the countries. Although mortalities in some countries show an increasing trend, this is because these countries were affected by once-in-hundred-years floods after 1990's. The slope in

  10. Probabilistic Flash Flood Forecasting using Stormscale Ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, J.; Gourley, J. J.; Kain, J. S.; Clark, A.; Novak, D.; Hong, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Flash flooding is one of the most costly and deadly natural hazards in the US and across the globe. The loss of life and property from flash floods could be mitigated with better guidance from hydrological models, but these models have limitations. For example, they are commonly initialized using rainfall estimates derived from weather radars, but the time interval between observations of heavy rainfall and a flash flood can be on the order of minutes, particularly for small basins in urban settings. Increasing the lead time for these events is critical for protecting life and property. Therefore, this study advances the use of quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) from a stormscale NWP ensemble system into a distributed hydrological model setting to yield basin-specific, probabilistic flash flood forecasts (PFFFs). Rainfall error characteristics of the individual members are first diagnosed and quantified in terms of structure, amplitude, and location (SAL; Wernli et al., 2008). Amplitude and structure errors are readily correctable due to their diurnal nature, and the fine scales represented by the CAPS QPF members are consistent with radar-observed rainfall, mainly showing larger errors with afternoon convection. To account for the spatial uncertainty of the QPFs, we use an elliptic smoother, as in Marsh et al. (2012), to produce probabilistic QPFs (PQPFs). The elliptic smoother takes into consideration underdispersion, which is notoriously associated with stormscale ensembles, and thus, is good for targeting the approximate regions that may receive heavy rainfall. However, stormscale details contained in individual members are still needed to yield reasonable flash flood simulations. Therefore, on a case study basis, QPFs from individual members are then run through the hydrological model with their predicted structure and corrected amplitudes, but the locations of individual rainfall elements are perturbed within the PQPF elliptical regions using Monte

  11. Epic Flooding in Georgia, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gotvald, Anthony J.; McCallum, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    Metropolitan Atlanta-September 2009 Floods * The epic floods experienced in the Atlanta area in September 2009 were extremely rare. Eighteen streamgages in the Metropolitan Atlanta area had flood magnitudes much greater than the estimated 0.2-percent (500-year) annual exceedance probability. * The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) reported that 23 counties in Georgia were declared disaster areas due to this flood and that 16,981 homes and 3,482 businesses were affected by floodwaters. Ten lives were lost in the flood. The total estimated damages exceed $193 million (H.E. Longenecker, Federal Emergency Management Agency, written commun., November 2009). * On Sweetwater Creek near Austell, Ga., just north of Interstate 20, the peak stage was more than 6 feet higher than the estimated peak stage of the 0.2-percent (500-year) flood. Flood magnitudes in Cobb County on Sweetwater, Butler, and Powder Springs Creeks greatly exceeded the estimated 0.2-percent (500-year) floods for these streams. * In Douglas County, the Dog River at Ga. Highway 5 near Fairplay had a peak stage nearly 20 feet higher than the estimated peak stage of the 0.2-percent (500-year) flood. * On the Chattahoochee River, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gage at Vinings reached the highest level recorded in the past 81 years. Gwinnett, De Kalb, Fulton, and Rockdale Counties also had record flooding. South Georgia March and April 2009 Floods * The March and April 2009 floods in South Georgia were smaller in magnitude than the September floods but still caused significant damage. * No lives were lost in this flood. Approximately $60 million in public infrastructure damage occurred to roads, culverts, bridges and a water treatment facility (Joseph T. McKinney, Federal Emergency Management Agency, written commun., July 2009). * Flow at the Satilla River near Waycross, exceeded the 0.5-percent (200-year) flood. Flows at seven other stations in South Georgia exceeded the 1-percent (100-year) flood.

  12. Multivariate pluvial flood damage models

    SciTech Connect

    Van Ootegem, Luc; Verhofstadt, Elsy; Van Herck, Kristine; Creten, Tom

    2015-09-15

    Depth–damage-functions, relating the monetary flood damage to the depth of the inundation, are commonly used in the case of fluvial floods (floods caused by a river overflowing). We construct four multivariate damage models for pluvial floods (caused by extreme rainfall) by differentiating on the one hand between ground floor floods and basement floods and on the other hand between damage to residential buildings and damage to housing contents. We do not only take into account the effect of flood-depth on damage, but also incorporate the effects of non-hazard indicators (building characteristics, behavioural indicators and socio-economic variables). By using a Tobit-estimation technique on identified victims of pluvial floods in Flanders (Belgium), we take into account the effect of cases of reported zero damage. Our results show that the flood depth is an important predictor of damage, but with a diverging impact between ground floor floods and basement floods. Also non-hazard indicators are important. For example being aware of the risk just before the water enters the building reduces content damage considerably, underlining the importance of warning systems and policy in this case of pluvial floods. - Highlights: • Prediction of damage of pluvial floods using also non-hazard information • We include ‘no damage cases’ using a Tobit model. • The damage of flood depth is stronger for ground floor than for basement floods. • Non-hazard indicators are especially important for content damage. • Potential gain of policies that increase awareness of flood risks.

  13. The Significance of the Record Length in Flood Frequency Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senarath, S. U.

    2013-12-01

    Of all of the potential natural hazards, flood is the most costly in many regions of the world. For example, floods cause over a third of Europe's average annual catastrophe losses and affect about two thirds of the people impacted by natural catastrophes. Increased attention is being paid to determining flow estimates associated with pre-specified return periods so that flood-prone areas can be adequately protected against floods of particular magnitudes or return periods. Flood frequency analysis, which is conducted by using an appropriate probability density function that fits the observed annual maximum flow data, is frequently used for obtaining these flow estimates. Consequently, flood frequency analysis plays an integral role in determining the flood risk in flood prone watersheds. A long annual maximum flow record is vital for obtaining accurate estimates of discharges associated with high return period flows. However, in many areas of the world, flood frequency analysis is conducted with limited flow data or short annual maximum flow records. These inevitably lead to flow estimates that are subject to error. This is especially the case with high return period flow estimates. In this study, several statistical techniques are used to identify errors caused by short annual maximum flow records. The flow estimates used in the error analysis are obtained by fitting a log-Pearson III distribution to the flood time-series. These errors can then be used to better evaluate the return period flows in data limited streams. The study findings, therefore, have important implications for hydrologists, water resources engineers and floodplain managers.

  14. A vulnerability function for Mediterranean flash flood risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Hübl, Johannes; Thaler, Thomas; Fuchs, Sven

    2014-05-01

    Flood risk is a major type of environmental hazard jeopardizing human development, and is usually defined as a functional relation between the hazard, such as the physical and statistical aspects of flooding (e.g. return period of a certain flow height, spatial extend of inundation), and the associated vulnerability, i.e. the exposure of people and assets to floods and the susceptibility of the elements at risk to suffer from flood damage. The assessment of vulnerability -from the quantitative point of view- expresses vulnerability as the expected degree of loss for a given element at risk as a consequence of a certain event. It is ranges on a scale from 0 (no damage) to 1 (complete destruction) and focuses on direct flood loss which is estimated by damage or loss functions. A methodology for the development of a vulnerability curve for Mediterranean flash flood risk assessment is presented. This curve is based on a relationship between the intensity of the process and the associated degree of loss of elements at risk. The computation procedure is based on a method combining spatially explicit loss data, data on the value of exposed elements at risk and data on flood intensities on an individual building scale (local scale). The developed methodology is applied for the district of East Attica in Greece, a Mediterranean region influenced by mountain and coastal characteristics of land development. The aim of the study is to provide a valuable tool for the local authorities and the decision makers, a necessary implementation of flood risk management emerging from the requirements laid down in the European Flood Directive, as well as for an assessment of potential costs emerging from future flood events in order to protect individual households.

  15. Summary of floods in the United States during 1969

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, J.K.

    1975-01-01

    The most outstanding floods in the United States during 1969 are described in chronological order. The areas most seriously affected by flooding were: Central and southern California (January and February); the upper Midwestern States of North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Illinois (April); north-central Ohio (July); Mississippi, Alabama, and Virginia (Hurricane Camille in August); and Florida and Georgia (September). Severe floods in central and southern California were caused by three storms during January and February. At least 60 lives were lost. Homes and property were destroyed or damaged, by rainstorms, floods, and mudflows. Many floods approached or exceeded the maximum known. The severe flood damage was due partly to recent home construction in floodprone areas. The April floods in the upper Midwestern States of North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Illinois were expected because of a large accumulation of snow containing as much as 8 inches of water. Flood-protection procedures, together with cool temperatures, had a mitigating effect on the flood. The floods were the largest since the late 1800's, and their recurrence intervals exceeded 50 years at many of the gaged sites. Estimates of flood damage were about $147 million. More than a million acres of rich agricultural land were inundated, thousands of culverts and bridges were washed out, 23,000 people were forced from their homes and 11 lives were lost in the six-State flood area. Intense rainstorms and wind with gusts as much as 100 miles per hour, July 4-5, caused record floods in north-central Ohio, July 4-8. The storm and floods left trees uprooted, more than $66 million in damage, and 41 deaths. In many places the floods were the largest of record. Together with the wind and rainstorm, the hydrologic conditions were among the most significant experienced in the area. Hurricane Camille was the most intense hurricane on record to enter the United States

  16. Flood Hazards: Communicating Hydrology and Complexity to the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, R. R.; Blanchard, S. F.; Mason, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    Floods have a major impact on society and the environment. Since 1952, approximately 1,233 of 1,931 (64%) Federal disaster declarations were due directly to flooding, with an additional 297 due to hurricanes which had associated flooding. Although the overall average annual number of deaths due to flooding has decreased in the United States, the average annual flood damage is rising. According to the Munich Reinsurance Company in their publication “Schadenspiegel 3/2005”, during 1990s the world experienced as much as $500 billion in economic losses due to floods, highlighting the serious need for continued emphasis on flood-loss prevention measures. Flood-loss prevention has two major elements: mitigation (including structural flood-control measures and land-use planning and regulation) and risk awareness. Of the two, increasing risk awareness likely offers the most potential for protecting lives over the near-term and long-term sustainability in the coming years. Flood-risk awareness and risk-aware behavior is dependent on communication, involving both prescriptive and educational measures. Prescriptive measures (for example, flood warnings and stormwater ordinances) are and have been effective, but there is room for improvement. New communications technologies, particularly social media utilizing mobile, smart phones and text devices, for example, could play a significant role in increasing public awareness of long-term risk and near-term flood conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), for example, the Federal agency that monitors the Nation’s rivers, recently released a new service that can better connect the to the public to information about flood hazards. The new service, WaterAlert (URL: http://water.usgs.gov/wateralert/), allows users to set flood notification thresholds of their own choosing for any USGS real-time streamgage. The system then sends emails or text messages to subscribers whenever the threshold conditions are met, as often as the

  17. Hydrologic Flood Routing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heggen, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses a short classroom-based BASIC program which routes stream flow through a system of channels and reservoirs. The program is suitable for analyses of open channel conveyance systems, flood detention reservoirs, and combinations of the two. (Author/JN)

  18. After the Flood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2007-01-01

    When floodwater swept through the McVities biscuit factory in Carlisle in January 2005 few were confident that it would reopen. The factory, in the Caldewgate area of the city, was one of the first casualties of the flood, as water, nine feet deep in places, coursed trough the food preparation areas, destroying equipment and covering everything in…

  19. Regional flood probabilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troutman, B.M.; Karlinger, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    The T-year annual maximum flood at a site is defined to be that streamflow, that has probability 1/T of being exceeded in any given year, and for a group of sites the corresponding regional flood probability (RFP) is the probability that at least one site will experience a T-year flood in any given year. The RFP depends on the number of sites of interest and on the spatial correlation of flows among the sites. We present a Monte Carlo method for obtaining the RFP and demonstrate that spatial correlation estimates used in this method may be obtained with rank transformed data and therefore that knowledge of the at-site peak flow distribution is not necessary. We examine the extent to which the estimates depend on specification of a parametric form for the spatial correlation function, which is known to be nonstationary for peak flows. It is shown in a simulation study that use of a stationary correlation function to compute RFPs yields satisfactory estimates for certain nonstationary processes. Application of asymptotic extreme value theory is examined, and a methodology for separating channel network and rainfall effects on RFPs is suggested. A case study is presented using peak flow data from the state of Washington. For 193 sites in the Puget Sound region it is estimated that a 100-year flood will occur on the average every 4,5 years.

  20. Flooding on Elbe River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Heavy rains in Central Europe over the past few weeks have led to some of the worst flooding the region has witnessed in more than a century. The floods have killed more than 100 people in Germany, Russia, Austria, Hungary, and the Czech Republic and have led to as much as $20 billion in damage. This false-color image of the Elbe River and its tributaries was taken on August 20, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The floodwaters that inundated Dresden, Germany, earlier this week have moved north. As can be seen, the river resembles a fairly large lake in the center of the image just south of the town of Wittenberg. Flooding was also bad further downriver in the towns of Maqgdeburge and Hitzacker. Roughly 20,000 people were evacuated from their homes in northern Germany. Fifty thousand troops, border police, and technical assistance workers were called in to combat the floods along with 100,000 volunteers. The floodwaters are not expected to badly affect Hamburg, which sits on the mouth of the river on the North Sea. Credit:Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  1. The Stanford Flood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leighton, Philip D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes, from the flood to the start of freeze-drying operations, the preservation efforts of Stanford University regarding books damaged by water in the Green Library in November 1978. Planning, action, and mopping-up activities are chronicled, and 20 suggestions are offered as guidance in future similar situations. (JD)

  2. Missoula flood dynamics and magnitudes inferred from sedimentology of slack-water deposits on the Columbia Plateau, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.A. )

    1993-01-01

    Sedimentological study of late Wisconsin, Missoula-flood slack-water sediments deposited along the Columbia and Tucannon Rivers in southern Washington reveals important aspects of flood dynamics. Most flood facies were deposited by energetic flood surges (velocities>6 m/sec) entering protected areas along the flood tract, or flowing up and then directly out of tributary valleys. True still-water facies are less voluminous and restricted to elevations below 230 m. High flood stages attended the initial arrival of the flood wave and were not associated with subsequent hydraulic ponding upslope from channel constrictions. Among 186 flood beds studied in 12 sections, 57% have bioturbated tops, and about half of these bioturbated beds are separated from overlying flood beds by nonflood sediments. A single graded flood bed was deposited at most sites during most floods. Sequences in which 2-9 graded beds were deposited during a single flood are restricted to low elevations. These sequences imply complex, multi-peaked hydrographs in which the first flood surge was generally the largest, and subsequent surges were attenuated by water already present in slack-water areas. Slack-water - sediment stratigraphy suggests a wide range of flood discharges and volumes. Of >40 documented late Wisconsin floods that inundated the Pasco Basin, only about 20 crossed the Palouse-Snake divide. Floods younger than the set-S tephras from Mount St.Helens were generally smaller than earlier floods of late Wisconsin age, although most still crossed the Palouse-Snake divide. These late floods primarily traversed the Cheney-Palouse scabland because stratigraphy of slack-water sediment along the Columbia River implies that the largest flood volumes did not enter the Pasco Basin by way of the Columbia River. 47 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. The Transition of Benthic Nutrient Sources after Planned Levee Breaches Adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Parcheso, Francis; Cameron, Jason M.; Asbill, Jessica R.; Fend, Steven V.; Duff, John H.; Engelstad, Anita C.

    2010-01-01

    Four sampling trips were coordinated after planned levee breaches that hydrologically reconnected both Upper Klamath Lake and Agency Lake, Oregon, to adjacent wetlands. Sets of nonmetallic pore-water profilers were deployed during these trips in November 2007, June 2008, May 2009, and July 2009. Deployments temporally spanned the annual cyanophyte bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) and spatially involved three lake and four wetland sites. Profilers, typically deployed in triplicate at each lake or wetland site, provided high-resolution (centimeter-scale) estimates of the vertical concentration gradients for diffusive-flux determinations. Estimates based on molecular diffusion may underestimate benthic flux because solute transport across the sediment-water interface can be enhanced by processes including bioturbation, bioirrigation and groundwater advection. Water-column and benthic samples were also collected to help interpret spatial and temporal trends in diffusive-flux estimates. Data from these samples complement taxonomic and geochemical analyses of bottom-sediments taken from Upper Klamath Lake (UKL) in prior studies. This ongoing study provides information necessary for developing process-interdependent solute-transport models for the watershed (that is, models integrating physical, geochemical, and biological processes) and supports efforts to evaluate remediation or load-allocation strategies. To augment studies funded by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), the Department of the Interior supported an additional full deployment of pore-water profilers in November 2007 and July 2009, immediately following the levee breaches and after the crash of the annual summer AFA bloom. As observed consistently since 2006, benthic flux of 0.2-micron filtered, soluble reactive phosphorus (that is, biologically available phosphorus, primarily as orthophosphate; SRP) was consistently positive (that is, out of the sediment into the overlying water column) and

  4. Management of hazardous waste at RCRA facilities during the flood of `93 -- Methods used and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, T.; Jacko, R.B.

    1996-11-01

    During the summer of 1993, the state of Iowa experienced severe flooding that caused the release of many hazardous materials into the environment. Six months after the flood, the Iowa section of the RCRA branch, US EPA Region 7, sent inspectors to survey every RCRA facility in Iowa. Information was gathered through questionnaires to determine the flood`s impact and to learn potential lessons that could be beneficial in future flood disasters. The objective of this project was to use the information gathered to determine effective storage methods and emergency procedures for handling hazardous material during flood disasters. Additional data were obtained through record searches, phone interviews, and site visits. Data files and statistics were analyzed, then the evident trends and specific insights observed were utilized to create recommendations for RCRA facilities in the flood plain and for the federal EPA and state regulatory agencies. The recommendations suggest that RCRA regulated facilities in the flood plain should: employ the safest storage methods possible; have a flood emergency plan that includes the most effective release prevention available; and take advantage of several general suggestions for flood protection. The recommendations suggest that the federal EPA and state regulatory agencies consider: including a provision requiring large quantity generators of hazardous waste in the flood plain to include flood procedures in the contingency plans; establishing remote emergency storage areas during the flood disasters; encouraging small quantity generators (SQGs) within the flood plain to establish flood contingency plans; and promoting sound flood protection engineering practices for all RCRA facilities in the flood plain.

  5. Flood Frequency Estimates and Documented and Potential Extreme Peak Discharges in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tortorelli, Robert L.; McCabe, Lan P.

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of the magnitude and frequency of floods is required for the safe and economical design of highway bridges, culverts, dams, levees, and other structures on or near streams; and for flood plain management programs. Flood frequency estimates for gaged streamflow sites were updated, documented extreme peak discharges for gaged and miscellaneous measurement sites were tabulated, and potential extreme peak discharges for Oklahoma streamflow sites were estimated. Potential extreme peak discharges, derived from the relation between documented extreme peak discharges and contributing drainage areas, can provide valuable information concerning the maximum peak discharge that could be expected at a stream site. Potential extreme peak discharge is useful in conjunction with flood frequency analysis to give the best evaluation of flood risk at a site. Peak discharge and flood frequency for selected recurrence intervals from 2 to 500 years were estimated for 352 gaged streamflow sites. Data through 1999 water year were used from streamflow-gaging stations with at least 8 years of record within Oklahoma or about 25 kilometers into the bordering states of Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, New Mexico, and Texas. These sites were in unregulated basins, and basins affected by regulation, urbanization, and irrigation. Documented extreme peak discharges and associated data were compiled for 514 sites in and near Oklahoma, 352 with streamflow-gaging stations and 162 at miscellaneous measurements sites or streamflow-gaging stations with short record, with a total of 671 measurements.The sites are fairly well distributed statewide, however many streams, large and small, have never been monitored. Potential extreme peak-discharge curves were developed for streamflow sites in hydrologic regions of the state based on documented extreme peak discharges and the contributing drainage areas. Two hydrologic regions, east and west, were defined using 98 degrees 15 minutes longitude as the

  6. Torrent floodplain mapping and torrent flood control in Serbia in the conditions of economic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilovic, Z.; Stefanovic, M.

    2009-04-01

    Serbia is a country that is endangered by flooding of the largest European river, the Danube and its largest tributaries, as well as by countless torrents. During the 19th and 20th centuries, an imposing scope of protection structures was constructed. The existence of the protection system created the conviction that flood protection was achieved and that it should only be complemented on a great number of unregulated torrents. Such an opinion and practice are possible only in the countries with powerful economies. However, for almost two decades, Serbia has been going through the conditions of economic crisis. The floods which occurred in Serbia during that period pointed to the problem of maintenance of the existing protection system and to the impossibility of building the new projects. Floodplain mapping, although prescribed by the Law, was postponed because of the high price of the classical geodetic surveying. The postponing of this activity, in the conditions of a stable and good economic situation, was explained by the achieved flood protection on large rivers and by low probability that the system could fail. On the other hand, small torrents were partly regulated in the zones of roads and towns, so in this case also it was thought that the protection was accomplished. It was overlooked that the majority of torrents in Serbia was not regulated by any protection system. Urbanisation was progressing unrestrainedly. The State could not afford the construction of the necessary protection system, so numerous settlements remained at risk, without any protection. Floods did not forgive and forget any mistakes and the awareness of the necessity of collecting the data on floodplains and protection against floods became an indispensable task, but in the conditions of economic crisis, difficult to realise. For this reason, a rational method of floodplain mapping was searched, as well as the method of reducing the damage caused by floods, but not requiring high

  7. Flood risk management in Italy: challenges and opportunities for the implementation of the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mysiak, J.; Testella, F.; Bonaiuto, M.; Carrus, G.; De Dominicis, S.; Ganucci Cancellieri, U.; Firus, K.; Grifoni, P.

    2013-11-01

    Italy's recent history is punctuated with devastating flood disasters claiming high death toll and causing vast but underestimated economic, social and environmental damage. The responses to major flood and landslide disasters such as the Polesine (1951), Vajont (1963), Firenze (1966), Valtelina (1987), Piedmont (1994), Crotone (1996), Sarno (1998), Soverato (2000), and Piedmont (2000) events have contributed to shaping the country's flood risk governance. Insufficient resources and capacity, slow implementation of the (at that time) novel risk prevention and protection framework, embodied in the law 183/89 of 18 May 1989, increased the reliance on the response and recovery operations of the civil protection. As a result, the importance of the Civil Protection Mechanism and the relative body of norms and regulation developed rapidly in the 1990s. In the aftermath of the Sarno (1998) and Soverato (2000) disasters, the Department for Civil Protection (DCP) installed a network of advanced early warning and alerting centres, the cornerstones of Italy's preparedness for natural hazards and a best practice worth following. However, deep convective clouds, not uncommon in Italy, producing intense rainfall and rapidly developing localised floods still lead to considerable damage and loss of life that can only be reduced by stepping up the risk prevention efforts. The implementation of the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC) provides an opportunity to revise the model of flood risk governance and confront the shortcomings encountered during more than 20 yr of organised flood risk management. This brief communication offers joint recommendations towards this end from three projects funded by the 2nd CRUE ERA-NET (http://www.crue-eranet.net/) Funding Initiative: FREEMAN, IMRA and URFlood.

  8. Development of regional skews for selected flood durations for the Central Valley Region, California, based on data through water year 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamontagne, Jonathan R.; Stedinger, Jery R.; Berenbrock, Charles; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Ferris, Justin C.; Knifong, Donna L.

    2012-01-01

    Flood-frequency information is important in the Central Valley region of California because of the high risk of catastrophic flooding. Most traditional flood-frequency studies focus on peak flows, but for the assessment of the adequacy of reservoirs, levees, other flood control structures, sustained flood flow (flood duration) frequency data are needed. This study focuses on rainfall or rain-on-snow floods, rather than the annual maximum, because rain events produce the largest floods in the region. A key to estimating flood-duration frequency is determining the regional skew for such data. Of the 50 sites used in this study to determine regional skew, 28 sites were considered to have little to no significant regulated flows, and for the 22 sites considered significantly regulated, unregulated daily flow data were synthesized by using reservoir storage changes and diversion records. The unregulated, annual maximum rainfall flood flows for selected durations (1-day, 3-day, 7-day, 15-day, and 30-day) for all 50 sites were furnished by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Station skew was determined by using the expected moments algorithm program for fitting the Pearson Type 3 flood-frequency distribution to the logarithms of annual flood-duration data. Bayesian generalized least squares regression procedures used in earlier studies were modified to address problems caused by large cross correlations among concurrent rainfall floods in California and to address the extensive censoring of low outliers at some sites, by using the new expected moments algorithm for fitting the LP3 distribution to rainfall flood-duration data. To properly account for these problems and to develop suitable regional-skew regression models and regression diagnostics, a combination of ordinary least squares, weighted least squares, and Bayesian generalized least squares regressions were adopted. This new methodology determined that a nonlinear model relating regional skew to mean basin elevation

  9. Habitat conservation and creation: Invoking the flood-pulse concept to enhance fisheries in the lower Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schramm, H.L.; Eggleton, M.A.; Mayo, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of four years of growth data failed to identify a single temperature or hydrologic variable that consistently accounted for variation in annual growth of catfishes (Ictaluridae). Instead, a composite variable that measured duration of floodplain inundation when water temperature exceeded minima for active feeding was directly related to growth. Results indicated that floodplain inundation have provided little direct energetic benefit to fishes when water temperatures were sub-optimal for active feeding, but floodplain resources were exploited when thermal conditions were sufficient for active feeding and growth. Thus, the flood-pulse concept applies to the lower Mississippi River (LMR) when modified to consider temperature. Managing the existing leveed floodplain to prolong inundation, increase water temperatures during spring flooding, and maintain connectivity of floodplain habitats with the main river channel should benefit fish production in the LMR.

  10. The future of flood insurance in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Diane

    2013-04-01

    Approximately one in seven properties in the UK (3.6 million homes and businesses) are at risk of flooding. The Adaptation Sub-Committee of the UK Committee on Climate Change reported in 2012 that development on the floodplain grew at a faster rate than elsewhere in England over the past ten years, with one in five properties in the floodplain in areas of significant risk. They concluded that current levels of investment will not keep pace with the increasing risk, noting that without additional action, climate change could almost double the number of properties at significant risk by 2035. Flood insurance can contribute to risk reduction by using pricing or restrictions on availability of cover to discourage new development in flood risk areas, or to encourage the uptake of flood resilience measures. The UK insurance market currently offers flood cover as a standard feature of domestic and small business policies, with central government providing physical protection backed up by financial protection provided by the insurance industry. This approach is unusual in not passing all or part of the flood risk to government schemes. At present, flood insurance in the UK is conducted under a series of informal agreements established between the insurance industry and the Government known as the Statement of Principles. Members of the Association of British Insurers (ABI) currently agree to cover homes at risk of flooding in return for government commitment to manage flood risk. However, this arrangement is now under threat, as the insurance industry is increasingly reluctant to bear the financial burden of flooding alone. The current Statement of Principles ends on 30 June 2013 and will not be renewed. High-risk properties may be unable to obtain insurance after the Statement of Principles expires. Unusually, insurers are arguing against a free market solution, arguing that no country in the world provides universal flood cover without some form of government-led support

  11. Reinforcing flood-risk estimation.

    PubMed

    Reed, Duncan W

    2002-07-15

    Flood-frequency estimation is inherently uncertain. The practitioner applies a combination of gauged data, scientific method and hydrological judgement to derive a flood-frequency curve for a particular site. The resulting estimate can be thought fully satisfactory only if it is broadly consistent with all that is reliably known about the flood-frequency behaviour of the river. The paper takes as its main theme the search for information to strengthen a flood-risk estimate made from peak flows alone. Extra information comes in many forms, including documentary and monumental records of historical floods, and palaeological markers. Meteorological information is also useful, although rainfall rarity is difficult to assess objectively and can be a notoriously unreliable indicator of flood rarity. On highly permeable catchments, groundwater levels present additional data. Other types of information are relevant to judging hydrological similarity when the flood-frequency estimate derives from data pooled across several catchments. After highlighting information sources, the paper explores a second theme: that of consistency in flood-risk estimates. Following publication of the Flood estimation handbook, studies of flood risk are now using digital catchment data. Automated calculation methods allow estimates by standard methods to be mapped basin-wide, revealing anomalies at special sites such as river confluences. Such mapping presents collateral information of a new character. Can this be used to achieve flood-risk estimates that are coherent throughout a river basin? PMID:12804255

  12. Reinforcing flood-risk estimation.

    PubMed

    Reed, Duncan W

    2002-07-15

    Flood-frequency estimation is inherently uncertain. The practitioner applies a combination of gauged data, scientific method and hydrological judgement to derive a flood-frequency curve for a particular site. The resulting estimate can be thought fully satisfactory only if it is broadly consistent with all that is reliably known about the flood-frequency behaviour of the river. The paper takes as its main theme the search for information to strengthen a flood-risk estimate made from peak flows alone. Extra information comes in many forms, including documentary and monumental records of historical floods, and palaeological markers. Meteorological information is also useful, although rainfall rarity is difficult to assess objectively and can be a notoriously unreliable indicator of flood rarity. On highly permeable catchments, groundwater levels present additional data. Other types of information are relevant to judging hydrological similarity when the flood-frequency estimate derives from data pooled across several catchments. After highlighting information sources, the paper explores a second theme: that of consistency in flood-risk estimates. Following publication of the Flood estimation handbook, studies of flood risk are now using digital catchment data. Automated calculation methods allow estimates by standard methods to be mapped basin-wide, revealing anomalies at special sites such as river confluences. Such mapping presents collateral information of a new character. Can this be used to achieve flood-risk estimates that are coherent throughout a river basin?

  13. Review of disastrous torrent flood on the vlasina river on June 26, 1988 — Including analysis of flood and the obtained results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilovic, Zoran; Matovic, Zivorad

    A disastrous torrent flood on the Vlasina River of 26 June 1988 was of unprecedented intensity in Yugoslavia. The catchment area affected by the catastrophe covered more than 1000 km2 and the damage was estimated to one billion dollars. It is interesting to note that this area was treated with erosion control works and that percentage of eroded land (soils) was negligible. According to the experts opinion, or should we say delusion, torrent flood could not possibly occur in thus protected catchment. However, we have to admit that impossible did happen. The analysis of the flood yielded significant results that revealed that experts were mistaken in many points. Those results indicated a need to find different analytical approach because, besides visible traces, the actual records of flood were sparse. Rain gauging stations in the zone affected most seriously were completely destroyed as well as water level gauges. Since the torrent flood computations on the base of flood traces are not reliable, the causes of flood occurrence and development of flood itself had to be reconstructed. In that respect, meteorology — radar surveys were used for reconstruction of rainfalls. Using these data, as well as those obtained by torrent bed survey, by grain size analysis and by determination of peak flood on some tributaries and along the river itself, the flood could be analysed. In addition, the efficiency level of erosion control works was analysed and also the importance of torrent control as basic element of complex erosion and torrent control works.

  14. Flood Events, Discharge and Sedimentation On Floodplains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boelscher, J.; Ergenzinger, P.

    The activation of retention areas and the restoration of floodplains have great importance for flood protection and the ecological function of river landscapes. Complex interactions take place between flow velocity, sediment transport, morphology and vegetation within floodplains. This investigation, which is embedded in the framework of the EU Research Project Riparian Forest Management, focuses on these interactions and will give more detailed information about the impact of vegetation on flow field, discharge and sediment transport. Under the aspects of flood retention and river restoration the improved knowledge of these parameters is expected to assist in generating measures for the optimisation of riparian forest management. Hence the objective of this investigation is the description and analysis of : a.) duration and level of inundation b.) spatio-temporal variation of flow velocity and its intensity within the floodplain c.) roughness in the form of substrate, vegetation, morphology and its spatio- temporal variation d.) impact of morphology and vegetation on flow velocity and discharge within the floodplain d.) morphology, vegetation, substrate, sedimentation and erosion before and after subset flood events. The selected area of investigation is located at the upper Rhine, near Freiburg. The test sites within the inv estigated floodplain differ in the type of vegetation, morphology, substrate, aspect and height. These parameters were investigated before and after a longer period of floods. The spatio-temporal variations of flow velocity in the stream and on the floodplain were recorded using Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers. Simultaneously data were collected about the suspended load above the ground and below the water surface. Using a digital video camera, a first attempt was made to monitor the deformation of trees during a single flood event.

  15. Modelling muddy floods in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arévalo, S. A.; Schmidt, J.

    2012-04-01

    Muddy floods are sediment loaded runoff from agricultural land. The related flooding and mud depositions become a major problem when occuring in settling areas to cover streets, private properties, industrial areas etc. Beside of the psychological strain for the affected residents the costs for mud removal are a burden that has to be considered. Up to now, the threat of muddy floods has poorly been considered in the planing processes of settling or industrial areas. This is because there is no adequate tool to predict the exact places where the mud is transported and where it might be deposited during flash floods. At present the structures of settlements have not been considered in digital elevation models (DEM) wich are used for erosion and deposition modelling. As these structures notably influence surface runoff, it is necessary to develop a method that integrates the elements of settlements into the DEM. We use GIS to alter DEMs with informations about settlement structures (buildings, streets, sidewalks, ditches, walls etc.) and also with information about planed constructions. This altered DEM will than be applied in an event-based soil erosion model (Erosion 3D) that is able to predict both runoff and transported sediment. The aim of this study is to find out runoff and deposition patterns in settlements in case of flash floods, but also to test the impact of changes in the anthropogenic surface due to new constructions. Such a tool would be useful in the planning process of new settlements or industrial areas or to evaluate possible protection measures.

  16. Floods of Selected Streams in Arkansas, Spring 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funkhouser, Jaysson E.; Eng, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Floods can cause loss of life and extensive destruction to property. Monitoring floods and understanding the reasons for their occurrence are the responsibility of many Federal agencies. The National Weather Service, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the U.S. Geological Survey are among the most visible of these agencies. Together, these three agencies collect and analyze floodflow information to better understand the variety of mechanisms that cause floods, and how the characteristics and frequencies of floods vary with time and location. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has monitored and assessed the quantity of streamflow in our Nation's streams since the agency's inception in 1879. Because of ongoing collection and assessment of streamflow data, the USGS can provide information about a range of surface-water issues including the suitability of water for public supply and irrigation and the effects of agriculture and urbanization on streamflow. As part of its streamflow-data collection activities, the USGS measured streamflow in multiple streams during extreme flood events in Arkansas in the spring of 2008. The analysis of streamflow information collected during flood events such as these provides a scientific basis for decision making related to resource management and restoration. Additionally, this information can be used by water-resource managers to better define flood-hazard areas and to design bridges, culverts, dams, levees, and other structures. Water levels (stage) and streamflow (discharge) currently are being monitored in near real-time at approximately 150 locations in Arkansas. The streamflow-gaging stations measure and record hydrologic data at 15-minute or hourly intervals; the data then are transmitted through satellites to the USGS database and displayed on the internet every 1 to 4 hours. Streamflow-gaging stations in Arkansas are part of a network of over 7,500 active streamflow-gaging stations operated by the USGS throughout the United

  17. The hurricane-flood-landslide continuum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Negri, A.J.; Burkardt, N.; Golden, J.H.; Halverson, J.B.; Huffman, G.J.; Larsen, M.C.; McGinley, J.A.; Updike, R.G.; Verdin, J.P.; Wieczorek, G.F.

    2005-01-01

    In August 2004, representatives from NOAA, NASA, the US Geological Survey (USGS), as well as other government agencies and academic institutions convened in San Juan, Puerto Rico, at a workshop to discuss a proposed research project called the Hurricane-Flood-Landslide Continuum (HFLC). The purpose of the HFLC is to develop and integrate the multidisciplinary tools needed to issue regional guidance products for floods and landslide associated with major tropical rain systems with sufficient lead time that local emergency managers can notify vulnerable populations and protect infrastructure. The workshop sought to initiate discussion among these agencies about their highly complementary capabilities, and to establish a framework to leverage the strengths of each agency. Once a prototype system is developed, it could be adapted for use in regions that have a high frequency of tropical disturbances.

  18. Costs and benefits of adapting to river floods at the global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Philip; Aerts, Jeroen; Botzen, Wouter; Hallegatte, Stephane; Jongman, Brenden; Kind, Jarl; Scussolini, Paolo; Winsemius, Hessel

    2015-04-01

    It is well known that the economic losses associated with flooding are huge; for example in 2012 alone the economic losses from flooding exceeded 19 billion. As a result, different models have been developed to assess global scale flood risk. Recently, these have been used in several studies to assess current flood risk at the global scale, and to project how risk may increase as a result of climate change and/or socioeconomic development. In most regions, these studies show rapid increases in risk into the future, and therefore call for urgent adaptation. However, to date no studies have attempted to assess the costs of carrying out such adaptation, nor the benefits. In this paper, we therefore present the first global scale estimate of the costs and benefits of adapting to increased river flood risk caused by factors such as climate change and socioeconomic development. For this study, we concentrate on structural adaptation measures, such as dikes, designed to prevent flood hazard up to a certain design standard. We address two questions: 1. What would be the costs and benefits of maintaining current flood protection standards, accounting for future climate and socioeconomic change until 2100? 2. What flood protection standards would be required by 2100 to keep future flood risk constant at today's levels? And what would be the costs and benefits associated with this? In this paper, we will present our first global estimates of the costs and benefits of adaptation to increased flood risk, as well as maps of these findings per country and river basin. We present the results under 4 emission scenarios (RCPs), 5 socioeconomic scenarios (SSPs), and under several assumptions relating to total potential flood damages, discount rates, construction costs, maintenance costs, and so forth. The research was carried out using the GLOFRIS modelling cascade. This global flood risk model calculates flood risk in terms of annual expected damage, and has been developed and

  19. Water Quality of a Drained Wetland, Caledonia Marsh on Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, after Flooding in 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindenberg, Mary K.; Wood, Tamara M.

    2009-01-01

    The unexpected inundation of Caledonia Marsh, a previously drained wetland adjacent to Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, provided an opportunity to observe nutrient release from sediments into the water column of the flooded area and the resulting algal growth. Three sites, with differing proximity to the levee breach that reconnected the area to Upper Klamath Lake, were selected for water sample collection in the marsh. Chlorophyll a concentrations (an indicator of algal biomass) were lowest and dissolved nutrient concentrations were highest at the site farthest from the breach. At the site where chlorophyll a concentrations were lowest, dissolved organic carbon concentrations were highest, and the presence of tannic compounds was indicated by the dark brown color of the water. Both DOC and specific conductance was higher at the site farthest from the breach, which indicated less mixing with Upper Klamath Lake water at that site. Dissolved oxygen concentrations and pH were lowest at the beginning of the sampling period at the site farthest from the levee breach, coincident with the lowest algal growth. Phosphorus concentrations measured in the flooded Caledonia Marsh were greater than median concentrations in Upper Klamath Lake, indicating that phosphorus likely was released from the previously drained wetland soils of the marsh when they were flooded. However, a proportional increase in algal biomass was not measured either in the marsh or in the adjacent bay of the lake. Nitrogen to phosphorus ratios indicated that phosphorus was not limiting to algal growth at the marsh sites, and possibly was not limiting in the adjacent bay either. In terms of nutrient dynamics, wetlands normally function as nutrient sinks. In contrast, the drained wetlands around Upper Klamath Lake cannot be expected to provide that function in the short term after being flooded and may, in fact, be a source of nutrients to the lake instead. The consequences for algal growth in the lake, however

  20. Hydrologic and nutrient response of groundwater to flooding of cranberry farms in southeastern Massachusetts, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonal flooding of cranberry farms is essential for long-term sustainability of cranberry production in southeastern Massachusetts, with roughly 90% of growers flooding for fall harvesting and winter protection. Although considered a significant source of recharge to the regional unconfined aquif...

  1. First discovery of channel-levee complexes in a modern deep-water carbonate slope environment in Bahamas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, Thierry; Ducassou, Emmanuelle; Gillet, Hervé; Hanquiez, Vincent; Principaud, Mélanie; Eberli, Gregor; Kindler, Pascal; Chabaud, Ludivine; Gonthier, Eliane; Fournier, François; Léonide, Philippe; Borgomano, Jean

    2014-05-01

    New high-quality very-high-resolution seismic data along the western slope of the Great Bahama Bank reveals the presence of the first modern channel-levee complex developed in a pure carbonate setting along the western slope of the Gran Bahama Bank (Andros Island, Bahamas). This complex has presently a very subtle morphology on the actual seafloor. The last complex grew over two buried complexes separated by erosion surfaces suggesting both the continuity of downslope gravity-driven processes along this carbonate slope, and the channel migration through avulsion processes similar to what happens along a siliciclastic slope. Complex morphology and geometry are similar to analogs described in siliciclastic systems but size of the presented carbonate complex is substantially smaller (length = 9 km; width = 4 km). Both high-resolution seismics and core studies show that this complex was built by the stacking of gravity-flow deposits, including turbidites, but it is presently inactive and buried by deposits resulting from hemipelagic fallout or low-energy density processes channeled by the gully network, which are permanently reworked by along-slope bottom currents dominated by internal tides. The channel-levee surface is now covered with antidune-like bedforms probably related to density-cascading-induced downslope currents. The recent and present channel dissymmetry is probably related to the activity of the northward moving Santaren current. The discovery of channel-levee complexes has major implications both on the conceptual models describing the behavior of carbonate slope systems and on hydrocarbon exploration by enhancing the reservoir-bearing potential of carbonate slopes. In addition, these finding can have impact on living benthic biologic community (such as those occupying deep-sea carbonate mound, because a part of nutriments could be supplied by turbidity. Finally, importance of turbidity currents in remolding carbonate slope can also impact the Global

  2. Torrential floods and town and country planning in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristić, R.; Kostadinov, S.; Abolmasov, B.; Dragićević, S.; Trivan, G.; Radić, B.; Trifunović, M.; Radosavljević, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Torrential floods are the most frequent natural catastrophic events in Serbia, causing the loss of human lives and huge material damage, both in urban and rural areas. The analysis of the intra-annual distribution of maximal discharges aided in noticing that torrential floods have a seasonal character. The erosion and torrent control works (ETCWs) in Serbia began at the end of the 19th century. Effective protection from torrential floods encompasses biotechnical works on the slopes in the watershed and technical works on the torrent beds, within a precisely defined administrative and spatial framework in order to achieve maximal safety for people and their property. Cooperation to overcome the conflicts between the sectors of the water resources management, forestry, agriculture, energetics, environmental protection and local economic development groups is indispensable at the following levels: policy, spatial planning, practice, investments and education. The lowest and most effective level is through the Plans for Announcement of Erosive Regions (PAERs) and the Plans for Protection from Torrential Floods (PPTFs), with Hazard Zones (HZs) and Threatened Areas (TAs) mapping on the basis of the hydrologic, hydraulic and spatial analysis of the factors that are important for the formation of torrential floods. Solutions defined through PAERs and PPTFs have to be integrated into Spatial Plans at local and regional levels.

  3. Tidal dynamics in a changing lagoon: Flooding or not flooding the marginal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Carina L.; Dias, João M.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal lagoons are low-lying systems under permanent changes motivated by natural and anthropogenic factors. Ria de Aveiro is such an example with its margins currently threatened by the advance of the lagoonal waters recorded during the last decades. This work aims to study the tidal modifications found between 1987 and 2012 in this lagoon, motivated by the main channels deepening which induce higher inland tidal levels. Additionally it aims to study the impact that protective walls designed to protect the margins against flooding may have in those modifications under sea level rise predictions. The hydrodynamic model ELCIRC previously calibrated for Ria de Aveiro was used and tidal asymmetry, tidal ellipses and residual currents were analyzed for different scenarios, considering the mean sea level rise predicted for 2100 and the implementation of probable flood protection walls. Results evidenced that lagoon dominance remained unchanged between 1987 and 2012, but distortion decreased/increased in the deeper/shallower channels. The same trend was found under mean sea level rise conditions. Tidal currents increased over this period inducing an amplification of the water properties exchange within the lagoon, which will be stronger under mean sea level rise conditions. The deviations between scenarios with or without flood protection walls can achieve 60% for the tidal distortion and residual currents and 20% for the tidal currents, highlighting that tidal properties are extremely sensitive to the lagoon geometry. In summary, the development of numerical modelling applications dedicated to study the influence of mean sea level rise on coastal low-lying systems subjected to human influence should include structural measures designed for flood defence in order to accurately predict changes in the local tidal properties.

  4. When the Levee Breaks: Treating Adolescents and Families in the Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Cynthia L.; Liddle, Howard A.

    2008-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina brought to the surface serious questions about the capacity of the public health system to respond to community-wide disaster. The storm and its aftermath severed developmentally protective family and community ties; thus its consequences are expected to be particularly acute for vulnerable adolescents. Research confirms that…

  5. Flood insurance in Canada: implications for flood management and residential vulnerability to flood hazards.

    PubMed

    Oulahen, Greg

    2015-03-01

    Insurance coverage of damage caused by overland flooding is currently not available to Canadian homeowners. As flood disaster losses and water damage claims both trend upward, insurers in Canada are considering offering residential flood coverage in order to properly underwrite the risk and extend their business. If private flood insurance is introduced in Canada, it will have implications for the current regime of public flood management and for residential vulnerability to flood hazards. This paper engages many of the competing issues surrounding the privatization of flood risk by addressing questions about whether flood insurance can be an effective tool in limiting exposure to the hazard and how it would exacerbate already unequal vulnerability. A case study investigates willingness to pay for flood insurance among residents in Metro Vancouver and how attitudes about insurance relate to other factors that determine residential vulnerability to flood hazards. Findings indicate that demand for flood insurance is part of a complex, dialectical set of determinants of vulnerability. PMID:25526847

  6. Improving flood risk management through risk communication strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodoque, Jose Maria; Diez Herrero, Andres; Amerigo, Maria; Garcia, Juan Antonio; Olcina, Jorge; Cortes, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    A suitable level of social perception about flood risk and awareness of Civil Protection Plans are critical to minimize disasters and damages due to flash floods. In order to improve risk perception, awareness and, as a result, the effectiveness of Civil Protection Plans, it is often required the implementation of communication plans. This research proposes a guide recommendation framework to enhance local population preparedness, prevention and response when a flash flood occurs. The research setting was a village (Navaluenga) located in Central Spain with 2,027 inhabitants. It is crossed by the Alberche river and Chorreron stream (both tributaries of the Tagus river), which are prone to flash floods. In a first phase, we assessed citizens' flash-flood risk perception and level of awareness regarding some key variables of the Civil Protection Plan. To this end, a questionnaire survey was designed and 254 adults, a sample representing roughly 12% of the population census, were interviewed. Responses were analysed, comparing awareness regarding preparedness and response actions with those previously defined in the Civil Protection Plan. In addition, we carried out a latent class cluster analysis aimed at identifying the different groups present among the respondents. Next, a risk communication plan was designed and implemented. It aimed to improve the understanding of flood risk among local people; and it comprises briefings, quiz-answers, contests of stories and flood images and intergenerational workshops. Finally, participants in the first phase were reached again and a new survey was performed. The results derived from these second questionnaires were statistically treated using the same approach of the first phase. Additionally, a t-test for paired samples and Pearson Chi-Square test was implemented in order to detect possible improvements in the perception and awareness. Preliminary results indicate that in Navaluenga there is a low social perception of flood

  7. The policy and science supporting flash flood forecasting in Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranston, Michael; Maxey, Richard; Speight, Linda; Tavendale, Amy; Cole, Steven; Robson, Alice; Moore, Robert

    2013-04-01

    In 2012, the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) published its Flood Warning Strategy. The strategy aims to ensure that emerging science is at the heart of supporting its strategic aim of reducing the impact of river flooding through the provision of reliable and timely flood warnings and allowing Scotland's flood warning authority to develop forecasting approaches in areas not previously considered. One specific area of agreed commitment is in the development of methods for forecasting in rapid response or flashy catchments. Previous policies have stated that flood warning provision would not be possible without adequate hydrological response time (greater than three hours). The particular challenge with meeting this new aim is on the reliance of increasingly uncertain flooding predictions at the shorter timescale against a more cautious and traditional approach to flood warning which relies on hydrological observations and real time verification of forecasts. This therefore places increasing demands on developing hydrometeorological forecasting capabilities. This paper will present on some scientific developments supporting the latest policy. In particular on Grid-2-Grid, a distributed hydrological model, which has been in operation across Scotland for over a year (Cranston, et al., 2012) and on a specific assessment of its capabilities using high resolution and ensemble rainfall forecasts. The paper will focus on Comrie, a community in Scotland that has been devastated twice during 2012 by flash flooding and considers the various challenges in meeting this strategic aim. References Cranston, M., Maxey, R., Tavendale, A., Buchanan, P., Motion, A., Moore, R. M., Cole, S., Robson, A. and Minett, A. (2012) Countrywide flood forecasting in Scotland: challenges for hydrometeorological uncertainty and prediction. Weather Radar and Hydrology (Proceedings of a symposium held in Exeter, UK, April 2011), IAHS Publ. 351, 2012)

  8. Flooding in Central China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    During the summer of 2002, frequent, heavy rains gave rise to floods and landslides throughout China that have killed over 1,000 people and affected millions. This false-color image of the western Yangtze River and Dongting Lake in central China was acquired on August 21, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. (right) The latest flooding crisis in China centers on Dingtong Lake in the center of the image. Heavy rains have caused it to swell over its banks and swamp lakefront towns in the province of Hunan. As of August 23, 2002, more than 250,000 people have been evacuated, and over one million people have been brought in to fortify the dikes around the lake. Normally the lake would appear much smaller and more defined in the MODIS image. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC.

  9. Flooding tolerance in halophytes.

    PubMed

    Colmer, Timothy D; Flowers, Timothy J

    2008-01-01

    Flooding is a common environmental variable with salinity. Submerged organs can suffer from O(2) deprivation and the resulting energy deficits can compromise ion transport processes essential for salinity tolerance. Tolerance of soil waterlogging in halophytes, as in glycophytes, is often associated with the production of adventitious roots containing aerenchyma, and the resultant internal O(2) supply. For some species, shallow rooting in aerobic upper soil layers appears to be the key to survival on frequently flooded soils, although little is known of the anoxia tolerance in halophytes. Halophytic species that inhabit waterlogged substrates are able to regulate their shoot ion concentrations in spite of the hypoxic (or anoxic) medium in which they are rooted, this being in stark contrast with most other plants which suffer when salinity and waterlogging occur in combination. Very few studies have addressed the consequences of submergence of the shoots by saline water; these have, however, demonstrated tolerance of temporary submergence in some halophytes.

  10. Flooding tolerance in halophytes.

    PubMed

    Colmer, Timothy D; Flowers, Timothy J

    2008-01-01

    Flooding is a common environmental variable with salinity. Submerged organs can suffer from O(2) deprivation and the resulting energy deficits can compromise ion transport processes essential for salinity tolerance. Tolerance of soil waterlogging in halophytes, as in glycophytes, is often associated with the production of adventitious roots containing aerenchyma, and the resultant internal O(2) supply. For some species, shallow rooting in aerobic upper soil layers appears to be the key to survival on frequently flooded soils, although little is known of the anoxia tolerance in halophytes. Halophytic species that inhabit waterlogged substrates are able to regulate their shoot ion concentrations in spite of the hypoxic (or anoxic) medium in which they are rooted, this being in stark contrast with most other plants which suffer when salinity and waterlogging occur in combination. Very few studies have addressed the consequences of submergence of the shoots by saline water; these have, however, demonstrated tolerance of temporary submergence in some halophytes. PMID:18482227

  11. Mapping a flood before it happens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Joseph L.

    2004-01-01

    What's missing from flood forecasts? Maps—The only maps generally available today are maps used for planning. They are maps of theoretical floods, not maps of flooding forecast for an approaching storm. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Weather Service (NWS) have developed a way to bring flood forecasting and flood mapping together, producing flood maps for tomorrow's flood today...and getting them on the Internet in time for those in harm's way to react.

  12. Cerberus Flood Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 October 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows streamlined landforms carved by catastrophic floods that occurred in the eastern Cerberus region, some time in the distant martian past.

    Location near: 15.1oN, 193.5oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  13. Identification of flood-rich and flood-poor periods in flood series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediero, Luis; Santillán, David; Garrote, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Recently, a general concern about non-stationarity of flood series has arisen, as changes in catchment response can be driven by several factors, such as climatic and land-use changes. Several studies to detect trends in flood series at either national or trans-national scales have been conducted. Trends are usually detected by the Mann-Kendall test. However, the results of this test depend on the starting and ending year of the series, which can lead to different results in terms of the period considered. The results can be conditioned to flood-poor and flood-rich periods located at the beginning or end of the series. A methodology to identify statistically significant flood-rich and flood-poor periods is developed, based on the comparison between the expected sampling variability of floods when stationarity is assumed and the observed variability of floods in a given series. The methodology is applied to a set of long series of annual maximum floods, peaks over threshold and counts of annual occurrences in peaks over threshold series observed in Spain in the period 1942-2009. Mediero et al. (2014) found a general decreasing trend in flood series in some parts of Spain that could be caused by a flood-rich period observed in 1950-1970, placed at the beginning of the flood series. The results of this study support the findings of Mediero et al. (2014), as a flood-rich period in 1950-1970 was identified in most of the selected sites. References: Mediero, L., Santillán, D., Garrote, L., Granados, A. Detection and attribution of trends in magnitude, frequency and timing of floods in Spain, Journal of Hydrology, 517, 1072-1088, 2014.

  14. Flood Risk Assessment as a Part of Integrated Flood and Drought Analysis. Case Study: Southern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabnakorn, Saowanit; Suryadi, Fransiscus X.; de Fraiture, Charlotte

    2015-04-01

    Flood and drought are two main meteorological catastrophes that have created adverse consequences to more than 80% of total casualties universally, 50% by flood and 31% by drought. Those natural hazards have the tendency of increasing frequency and degree of severity and it is expected that climate change will exacerbate their occurrences and impacts. In addition, growing population and society interference are the other key factors that pressure on and exacerbate the adverse impacts. Consequently, nowadays, the loss from any disasters becomes less and less acceptable bringing about more people's consciousness on mitigation measures and management strategies and policies. In general, due to the difference in their inherent characteristics and time occurrences flood and drought mitigation and protection have been separately implemented, managed, and supervised by different group of authorities. Therefore, the objective of this research is to develop an integrated mitigation measure or a management policy able to surmount both problems to acceptable levels and is conveniently monitored by the same group of civil servants which will be economical in both short- and long-term. As aforementioned of the distinction of fundamental peculiarities and occurrence, the assessment processes of floods and droughts are separately performed using their own specific techniques. In the first part of the research flood risk assessment is focused in order to delineate the flood prone area. The study area is a river plain in southern Thailand where flooding is influenced by monsoon and depression. The work is mainly concentrated on physically-based computational modeling and an assortment of tools was applied for: data completion, areal rainfall interpolation, statistical distribution, rainfall-runoff analysis and flow model simulation. The outcome from the simulation can be concluded that the flood prone areas susceptible to inundation are along the riparian areas, particularly at the

  15. A 2D simulation model for urban flood management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Roland; van der Wielen, Jonathan; Velickov, Slavco; Galvao, Diogo

    2014-05-01

    The European Floods Directive, which came into force on 26 November 2007, requires member states to assess all their water courses and coast lines for risk of flooding, to map flood extents and assets and humans at risk, and to take adequate and coordinated measures to reduce the flood risk in consultation with the public. Flood Risk Management Plans are to be in place by 2015. There are a number of reasons for the promotion of this Directive, not least because there has been much urban and other infrastructural development in flood plains, which puts many at risk of flooding along with vital societal assets. In addition there is growing awareness that the changing climate appears to be inducing more frequent extremes of rainfall with a consequent increases in the frequency of flooding. Thirdly, the growing urban populations in Europe, and especially in the developing countries, means that more people are being put at risk from a greater frequency of urban flooding in particular. There are urgent needs therefore to assess flood risk accurately and consistently, to reduce this risk where it is important to do so or where the benefit is greater than the damage cost, to improve flood forecasting and warning, to provide where necessary (and possible) flood insurance cover, and to involve all stakeholders in decision making affecting flood protection and flood risk management plans. Key data for assessing risk are water levels achieved or forecasted during a flood. Such levels should of course be monitored, but they also need to be predicted, whether for design or simulation. A 2D simulation model (PriceXD) solving the shallow water wave equations is presented specifically for determining flood risk, assessing flood defense schemes and generating flood forecasts and warnings. The simulation model is required to have a number of important properties: -Solve the full shallow water wave equations using a range of possible solutions; -Automatically adjust the time step and

  16. Increasing resilience through participative flood risk map design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Spira, Yvonne; Stickler, Therese

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of flood hazards has shown to the European Commission and the Member States of the European Union the importance of flood risk management strategies in order to reduce losses and to protect the environment and the citizens. Exposure to floods as well as flood vulnerability might increase across Europe due to the ongoing economic development in many EU countries. Thus even without taking climate change into account an increase of flood disasters in Europe might be foreseeable. These circumstances have produced a reaction in the European Commission, and a Directive on the Assessment and Management of Flood Risks was issued as one of the three components of the European Action Programme on Flood Risk Management. Floods have the potential to jeopardise economic development, above all due to an increase of human activities in floodplains and the reduction of natural water retention by land use activities. As a result, an increase in the likelihood and adverse impacts of flood events is expected. Therefore, concentrated action is needed at the European level to avoid severe impacts on human life and property. In order to have an effective tool available for gathering information, as well as a valuable basis for priority setting and further technical, financial and political decisions regarding flood risk mitigation and management, it is necessary to provide for the establishment of flood risk maps which show the potential adverse consequences associated with different flood scenarios. So far, hazard and risk maps are compiled in terms of a top-down linear approach: planning authorities take the responsibility to create and implement these maps on different national and local scales, and the general public will only be informed about the outcomes (EU Floods Directive, Article 10). For the flood risk management plans, however, an "active involvement of interested parties" is required, which means at least some kind of multilateral

  17. Hydraulic conditions of flood flows in a Polish Carpathian river subjected to variable human impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radecki-Pawlik, Artur; Czech, Wiktoria; Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Mikuś, Paweł; Zawiejska, Joanna; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    Channel morphology of the Czarny Dunajec River, Polish Carpathians, has been considerably modified as a result of channelization and gravel-mining induced channel incision, and now it varies from a single-thread, incised or regulated channel to an unmanaged, multi-thread channel. We investigated effects of these distinct channel morphologies on the conditions for flood flows in a study of 25 cross-sections from the middle river course where the Czarny Dunajec receives no significant tributaries and flood discharges increase little in the downstream direction. Cross-sectional morphology, channel slope and roughness of particular cross-section parts were used as input data for the hydraulic modelling performed with the 1D steady-flow HEC-RAS model for discharges with recurrence interval from 1.5 to 50 years. The model for each cross-section was calibrated with the water level of a 20-year flood from May 2014, determined shortly after the flood on the basis of high-water marks. Results indicated that incised and channelized river reaches are typified by similar flow widths and cross-sectional flow areas, which are substantially smaller than those in the multi-thread reach. However, because of steeper channel slope in the incised reach than in the channelized reach, the three river reaches differ in unit stream power and bed shear stress, which attain the highest values in the incised reach, intermediate values in the channelized reach, and the lowest ones in the multi-thread reach. These patterns of flow power and hydraulic forces are reflected in significant differences in river competence between the three river reaches. Since the introduction of the channelization scheme 30 years ago, sedimentation has reduced its initial flow conveyance by more than half and elevated water stages at given flood discharges by about 0.5-0.7 m. This partly reflects a progressive growth of natural levees along artificially stabilized channel banks. By contrast, sediments of natural

  18. Swiss Re Global Flood Hazard Zones: Know your flood risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinukollu, R. K.; Castaldi, A.; Mehlhorn, J.

    2012-12-01

    Floods, among all natural disasters, have a great damage potential. On a global basis, there is strong evidence of increase in the number of people affected and economic losses due to floods. For example, global insured flood losses have increased by 12% every year since 1970 and this is expected to further increase with growing exposure in the high risk areas close to rivers and coastlines. Recently, the insurance industry has been surprised by the large extent of losses, because most countries lack reliable hazard information. One example has been the 2011 Thailand floods where millions of people were affected and the total economic losses were 30 billion USD. In order to assess the flood risk across different regions and countries, the flood team at Swiss Re based on a Geomorphologic Regression approach, developed in house and patented, produced global maps of flood zones. Input data for the study was obtained from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) elevation data, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) and HydroSHEDS. The underlying assumptions of the approach are that naturally flowing rivers shape their channel and flood plain according to basin inherent forces and characteristics and that the flood water extent strongly depends on the shape of the flood plain. On the basis of the catchment characteristics, the model finally calculates the probability of a location to be flooded or not for a defined return period, which in the current study was set to 100 years. The data is produced at a 90-m resolution for latitudes 60S to 60N. This global product is now used in the insurance industry to inspect, inform and/or insure the flood risk across the world.

  19. Floods in 2002 and 2013: comparing flood warnings and emergency measures from the perspective of affected parties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Pech, Ina; Schröter, Kai; Müller, Meike; Thieken, Annegret

    2016-04-01

    Early warning is essential for protecting people and mitigating damage in case of flood events. However, early warning is only helpful if the flood-endangered parties are reached by the warning and if they know how to react effectively. Finding suitable methods for communicating helpful warnings to the "last mile" remains a challenge, but not much information is available. Surveys were undertaken after the August 2002 and the June 2013 floods in Germany, asking affected private households and companies about warnings they received and emergency measures they undertook. Results show, that in 2002 early warning did not work well: in too many areas warnings came too late or were too imprecise and many people (27%) and companies (45%) did not receive a flood warning. Afterwards, the warning systems were significantly improved, so that in 2013 only a small share of the affected people (7%) and companies (7 %) was not reached by any warning. Additionally, private households and companies were hardly aware of the flood risk in the Elbe catchment before 2002, mainly due to a lack of flood experience. For instance, in 2002 only 14% of private households clearly knew how to protect themselves and their assets when the warning reached them, in 2013 this fraction was 46 %. Although the share of companies which had an emergency plan in place had increased from 10 % in 2002 to 26 % in 2013, and the share of those conducting regular emergency exercises had increased from 4 % to 13 %, there is still plenty of room for improvement. Therefore, integrated early warning systems from monitoring through to the reaction of the affected parties as well as effective risk and emergency communication need continuous further improvement to protect people and mitigate residual risks in case of floods.

  20. After the extreme flood in 2002: changes in preparedness, response and recovery of flood-affected residents in Germany between 2005 and 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienzler, S.; Pech, I.; Kreibich, H.; Müller, M.; Thieken, A. H.

    2015-03-01

    In the aftermath of the severe flooding in Central Europe in August 2002, a number of changes in flood policies were launched in Germany and other European countries, aiming at improved risk management. The question arises as to whether these changes have already had an impact on the residents' ability to cope with floods, and whether flood-affected private households are now better prepared than they were in 2002. Therefore, computer-aided telephone interviews with private households in Germany that suffered from property damage due to flooding in 2005, 2006, 2010 or 2011 were performed and analysed with respect to flood awareness, precaution, preparedness and recovery. The data were compared to a similar investigation conducted after the flood in 2002. After the flood in 2002, the level of private precautions taken increased considerably. One contributing factor is the fact that, in general, a larger proportion of people knew that they were at risk of flooding. The best level of precaution was found before the flood events in 2006 and 2011. The main reason for this might be that residents had more experience with flooding than residents affected in 2005 or 2010. Yet, overall, flood experience and knowledge did not necessarily result in building retrofitting or flood-proofing measures, which are considered as mitigating damages most effectively. Hence, investments still need to be stimulated in order to reduce future damage more efficiently. Early warning and emergency responses were substantially influenced by flood characteristics. In contrast to flood-affected people in 2006 or 2011, people affected by flooding in 2005 or 2010 had to deal with shorter lead times and therefore had less time to take emergency measures. Yet, the lower level of emergency measures taken also resulted from the people's lack of flood experience and insufficient knowledge of how to protect themselves. Overall, it was noticeable that these residents suffered from higher losses