Science.gov

Sample records for floor field cellular

  1. Calibrating floor field cellular automaton models for pedestrian dynamics by using likelihood function optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovreglio, Ruggiero; Ronchi, Enrico; Nilsson, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    The formulation of pedestrian floor field cellular automaton models is generally based on hypothetical assumptions to represent reality. This paper proposes a novel methodology to calibrate these models using experimental trajectories. The methodology is based on likelihood function optimization and allows verifying whether the parameters defining a model statistically affect pedestrian navigation. Moreover, it allows comparing different model specifications or the parameters of the same model estimated using different data collection techniques, e.g. virtual reality experiment, real data, etc. The methodology is here implemented using navigation data collected in a Virtual Reality tunnel evacuation experiment including 96 participants. A trajectory dataset in the proximity of an emergency exit is used to test and compare different metrics, i.e. Euclidean and modified Euclidean distance, for the static floor field. In the present case study, modified Euclidean metrics provide better fitting with the data. A new formulation using random parameters for pedestrian cellular automaton models is also defined and tested.

  2. Simulation study of overtaking in pedestrian flow using floor field cellular automaton model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zhijian; Xia, Liang; Yang, Hongtai; Liu, Xiaobo; Ma, Jian; Luo, Lin; Yang, Lizhong; Chen, Junmin

    Properties of pedestrian may change along the moving path, for example, as a result of fatigue or injury, which has never been properly investigated in the past research. The paper attempts to study tactical overtaking in pedestrian flow. That is difficult to be modeled using a microscopic discrete model because of the complexity of the detailed overtaking behavior, and crossing/overlaps of pedestrian routes. Thus, a multi-velocity floor field cellular automaton model explaining the detailed psychical process of overtaking decision was proposed. Pedestrian can be either in normal state or in tactical overtaking state. Without tactical decision, pedestrians in normal state are driven by the floor field. Pedestrians make their tactical overtaking decisions by evaluating the walking environment around the overtaking route (the average velocity and density around the route, visual field of pedestrian) and obstructing conditions (the distance and velocity difference between the overtaking pedestrian and the obstructing pedestrian). The effects of tactical overtaking ratio, free velocity dispersion, and visual range on fundamental diagram, conflict density, and successful overtaking ratio were explored. Besides, the sensitivity analysis of the route factor relative intensity was performed.

  3. A floor field cellular automaton for crowd evacuation considering different walking abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zhijian; Zhou, Xiaodong; Zhu, Kongjin; Chen, Yanqiu; Zhuang, Yifan; Hu, Yuqi; Yang, Lizhong; Chen, Changkun; Li, Jian

    2015-02-01

    It has been hard to model a crowd evacuation process considering different walking abilities using a synchronous cellular automaton. That is because the cross and the overlaps of routes have to be taken into consideration and the conflicts resolution between pedestrians is more complex. However, the desired velocities of evacuees might be quite different due to the discrepancies of the physiological function, including age, gender, physical state, and the psychological behavior, such as the perception and reflection to the dangers. Additionally, an evacuee might change his desired velocity constantly to adapt to the changing evacuation environment. Thus, a multi-velocities floor field cellular automaton model was established in this paper. Using little CPU time, a dense crowd evacuation simulation with tiny varied velocity can be conducted very well. Significant discrepancies between the single-velocity evacuation and the multi-velocities evacuation were observed. The plateaus, where the exit flow rate is rather low, can be well predicted by a dimensionless parameter describing the congestion level of the evacuation system. The crowd evacuation time almost depends on the low desired velocity evacuees, though the proportion is not high. We also observed that faster evacuees make the evacuation system easily approaching to the jam.

  4. Crater Floor Dune Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    Our final dune image shows a small dune field inside an unnamed crater south of Nili Fossae.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 20.6, Longitude 79 East (281 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. The Floor in the Solar Wind Magnetic Field Revisited

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-07

    Paper 3 . DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 Oct 2007 – 10 Nov 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Floor in the Solar Wind Magnetic Field Revisited...magnitude [B] had a floor of ≈ 4.6 nT in yearly averages, a value which the interplanetary magnetic - field [IMF] strength returned to, or approached, at...is implicit in the work of Owens and Crooker (2006, 2007) who simulated the interplanetary magnetic - field strength in terms of a constant open-flux

  6. Potential field cellular automata model for pedestrian flow.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Jian, Xiao-Xia; Wong, S C; Choi, Keechoo

    2012-02-01

    This paper proposes a cellular automata model of pedestrian flow that defines a cost potential field, which takes into account the costs of travel time and discomfort, for a pedestrian to move to an empty neighboring cell. The formulation is based on a reconstruction of the density distribution and the underlying physics, including the rule for resolving conflicts, which is comparable to that in the floor field cellular automaton model. However, we assume that each pedestrian is familiar with the surroundings, thereby minimizing his or her instantaneous cost. This, in turn, helps reduce the randomness in selecting a target cell, which improves the existing cellular automata modelings, together with the computational efficiency. In the presence of two pedestrian groups, which are distinguished by their destinations, the cost distribution for each group is magnified due to the strong interaction between the two groups. As a typical phenomenon, the formation of lanes in the counter flow is reproduced.

  7. Magnetic fields, radicals and cellular activity.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Ryan D

    2017-01-01

    Some effects of low-intensity magnetic fields on the concentration of radicals and their influence on cellular functions are reviewed. These fields have been implicated as a potential modulator of radical recombination rates. Experimental evidence has revealed a tight coupling between cellular function and radical pair chemistry from signaling pathways to damaging oxidative processes. The effects of externally applied magnetic fields on biological systems have been extensively studied, and the observed effects lack sufficient mechanistic understanding. Radical pair chemistry offers a reasonable explanation for some of the molecular effects of low-intensity magnetic fields, and changes in radical concentrations have been observed to modulate specific cellular functions. Applied external magnetic fields have been shown to induce observable cellular changes such as both inhibiting and accelerating cell growth. These and other mechanisms, such as cell membrane potential modulation, are of great interest in cancer research due to the variations between healthy and deleterious cells. Radical concentrations demonstrate similar variations and are indicative of a possible causal relationship. Radicals, therefore, present a possible mechanism for the modulation of cellular functions such as growth or regression by means of applied external magnetic fields.

  8. A field assessment of floor slipperiness in a student cafeteria.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ruifeng; Li, Kai Way

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of floor slipperiness is critical in studying the risk of slips and falls. This research conducted friction measurements and employee survey on floor slipperiness in a student cafeteria in a university in China in order to study the correlation between the two types of floor slipperiness measure. It was found that the fryer area in kitchen 1 and the meat defrost sink in kitchen 2 had significantly the lowest coefficient of friction (COF) values among all areas in the same kitchen. The results showed that the levels of friction on the floors in different areas in each kitchen were significantly different. Employee perceptions of floor slipperiness among areas were also significantly different. The level of friction and employee perception of floor slipperiness was highly correlated (ρ = 0.87). This implies a good agreement between the two measures. A linear regression model was established to describe the relationship between the perceived floor slipperiness and the measured COF. The model was significant at p < 0.0001 with an R (2) of 0.59.

  9. Influence of electric field on cellular migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guido, Isabella; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    Cells have the ability to detect continuous current electric fields (EFs) and respond to them with a directed migratory movement. Dictyostelium discoideum (D.d.) cells, a key model organism for the study of eukaryotic chemotaxis, orient and migrate toward the cathode under the influence of an EF. The underlying sensing mechanism and whether it is shared by the chemotactic response pathway remains unknown. Whereas genes and proteins that mediate the electric sensing as well as that define the migration direction have been previously investigated in D.d. cells, a deeper knowledge about the cellular kinematic effects caused by the EF is still lacking. Here we show that besides triggering a directional bias the electric field influences the cellular kinematics by accelerating the movement of cells along their path. We found that the migratory velocity of the cells in an EF increases linearly with the exposure time. Through the analysis of the PI3K and Phg2 distribution in the cytosol and of the cellular adherence to the substrate we aim at elucidating whereas this speed up effect in the electric field is due to either a molecular signalling or the interaction with the substrate. This work is part of the MaxSynBio Consortium which is jointly funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany and the Max Planck Society.

  10. Experimental Investigation of Porous-floor Effects on Cavity Flow Fields at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a passive-venting system to modify the flow field characteristics of a rectangular-box cavity at supersonic speeds. The passive-venting system consists of a porous floor with a vent chamber beneath the floor. For certain cavity length-to-height ratios, this configuration allowed high-pressure air at the rear of the cavity to vent to the forward part of the cavity, thereby modifying the cavity flow field. The wind-tunnel model consisted of a flat plate that housed a cavity mounted on a balance such that only the cavity drag was measured. The cavity height remained constant, and the length varied with rectangular-block inserts. Both solid-and porous-floor cavities were tested for comparison at Mach numbers of 1.60, 1.90, 2.16, and 2.86. These results showed that the passive-venting system did modify the cavity flow field. In order to determine the type flow field which existed for the porous-floor configuration, pressures were measured inside the cavity at the same conditions and for the same configurations as those used in the drag tests. Pressure data were also obtained with stores mounted in the cavity. These results, along with Schlieren photographs and the tabulated data, are presented to document the porous-floor cavity flow field.

  11. Cellular response to modulated radiation fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claridge Mackonis, E.; Suchowerska, N.; Zhang, M.; Ebert, M.; McKenzie, D. R.; Jackson, M.

    2007-09-01

    Cell survival following exposure to spatially modulated beams, as created by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), is investigated. In vitro experiments were performed using malignant melanoma cells (MM576) exposed to a therapeutic megavoltage photon beam. We compared cell survival in modulated fields with cell survival in uniform control fields. Three different spatial modulations of the field were used: a control 'uniform' field in which all cells in a flask were uniformly exposed; a 'quarter' field in which 25% of cells at one end of the flask were exposed and a 'striped' field in which 25% of cells were exposed in three parallel stripes. The cell survival in both the shielded and unshielded regions of the modulated fields, as determined by a clonogenic assay, were compared to the cell survival in the uniform field. We have distinguished three ways in which cell survival is influenced by the fate of neighbouring cells. The first of these (type I effect) is the previously reported classical Bystander effect, where cell survival is reduced when communicating with irradiated cells. We find two new types of Bystander effect. The type II effect is an observed increase in cell survival when nearby cells receive a lethal dose. The type III effect is an increase in the survival of cells receiving a high dose of radiation, when nearby cells receive a low dose. These observations of the Bystander effects emphasize the need for improved radiobiological models, which include communicated effects and account for the effects of modulated dose distribution.

  12. Induced static magnetic field by a cellular phone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einat, M.; Yahalom, A.

    2011-08-01

    Recent claims regarding the safety of cellular phones suggest that weak static magnetic fields are induced around the phone, and this field and its gradients may pose a health risk to the user. An experiment was conducted to measure the induced static magnetic field around a cellular phone. 65 μT variations and 18 μT/cm gradients were measured in the magnetic field at 6 cm from the phone. An analytical model is derived to explain the results. The influence that the measured magnetic fields may have on the user is beyond the scope of this research.

  13. A Field of Small Pitted Cones on the Floor of Coprates Chasma: Volcanism inside Valles Marineris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauber, E.; Broz, P.; Rossi, A. P.; Michael, G.

    2015-10-01

    We present observations of a field of >100 pitted cones and mounds situated on the floor of Coprates Chasma (part of Valles Marineris (VM); Fig. 1), which display similarities to terrestrial and martian scoria cones. If these cones are indeed volcanic in origin, they will significantly expand our knowledge about the morphometry of pyroclastic cones on Mars. Moreover, a magmatic origin, which would necessarily post-date the opening of the main VM troughs, would contribute to our understanding of the volcano-tectonic evolution of VM.

  14. Effects of static magnetic fields at the cellular level.

    PubMed

    Miyakoshi, Junji

    2005-01-01

    There have been few studies on the effects of static magnetic fields at the cellular level, compared to those of extremely low frequency magnetic fields. Past studies have shown that a static magnetic field alone does not have a lethal effect on the basic properties of cell growth and survival under normal culture conditions, regardless of the magnetic density. Most but not all studies have also suggested that a static magnetic field has no effect on changes in cell growth rate. It has also been shown that cell cycle distribution is not influenced by extremely strong static magnetic fields (up to a maximum of 10 T). A further area of interest is whether static magnetic fields cause DNA damage, which can be evaluated by determination of the frequency of micronucleus formation. The presence or absence of such micronuclei can confirm whether a particular treatment damages cellular DNA. This method has been used to confirm that a static magnetic field alone has no such effect. However, the frequency of micronucleus formation increases significantly when certain treatments (e.g., X-irradiation) are given prior to exposure to a 10 T static magnetic field. It has also been reported that treatment with trace amounts of ferrous ions in the cell culture medium and exposure to a static magnetic field increases DNA damage, which is detected using the comet assay. In addition, many studies have found a strong magnetic field that can induce orientation phenomena in cell culture.

  15. Study of bottleneck effect at an emergency evacuation exit using cellular automata model, mean field approximation analysis, and game theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Jun; Hagishima, Aya; Tanaka, Yasukaka

    2010-12-01

    An improved cellular automaton model for pedestrian dynamics was established, where both static floor field and collision effect derived from game theory were considered. Several model parameters were carefully determined by previous studies. Results obtained through model-based simulation and analytical approach (derived from mean field approximation) proved that outflow rate from an evacuation exit, which is usually estimated using outflow coefficient in building codes in Japan, can be improved by placing an appropriate obstacle in front of the exit. This can reduce collision probability at the exit by increasing collisions around the obstacles ahead of the exit.

  16. Cellular studies and interaction mechanisms of extremely low frequency fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liburdy, Robert P.

    1995-01-01

    Worldwide interest in the biological effects of ELF (extremely low frequency, <1 kHz) electromagnetic fields has grown significantly. Health professionals and government administrators and regulators, scientists and engineers, and, importantly, an increasing number of individuals in the general public are interested in this health issue. The goal of research at the cellular level is to identify cellular responses to ELF fields, to develop a dose threshold for such interactions, and with such information to formulate and test appropriate interaction mechanisms. This review is selective and will discuss the most recent cellular studies directed at these goals which relate to power line, sinusoidal ELF fields. In these studies an interaction site at the cell membrane is by consensus a likely candidate, since changes in ion transport, ligand-receptor events such as antibody binding, and G protein activation have been reported. These changes strongly indicate that signal transduction (ST) can be influenced. Also, ELF fields are reported to influence enzyme activation, gene expression, protein synthesis, and cell proliferation, which are triggered by earlier ST events at the cell membrane. The concept of ELF fields altering early cell membrane events and thereby influencing intracellular cell function via the ST cascade is perhaps the most plausible biological framework currently being investigated for understanding ELF effects on cells. For example, the consequence of an increase due to ELF fields in mitogenesis, the final endpoint of the ST cascade, is an overall increase in the probability of mutagenesis and consequently cancer, according to the Ames epigenetic model of carcinogenesis. Consistent with this epigenetic mechanism and the ST pathway to carcinogenesis is recent evidence that ELF fields can alter breast cancer cell proliferation and can act as a copromoter in vitro. The most important dosimetric question being addressed currently is whether the electric (E

  17. Quantum cellular automata and free quantum field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo

    2017-02-01

    In a series of recent papers [1-4] it has been shown how free quantum field theory can be derived without using mechanical primitives (including space-time, special relativity, quantization rules, etc.), but only considering the easiest quantum algorithm encompassing a countable set of quantum systems whose network of interactions satisfies the simple principles of unitarity, homogeneity, locality, and isotropy. This has opened the route to extending the axiomatic information-theoretic derivation of the quantum theory of abstract systems [5, 6] to include quantum field theory. The inherent discrete nature of the informational axiomatization leads to an extension of quantum field theory to a quantum cellular automata theory, where the usual field theory is recovered in a regime where the discrete structure of the automata cannot be probed. A simple heuristic argument sets the scale of discreteness to the Planck scale, and the customary physical regime where discreteness is not visible is the relativistic one of small wavevectors. In this paper we provide a thorough derivation from principles that in the most general case the graph of the quantum cellular automaton is the Cayley graph of a finitely presented group, and showing how for the case corresponding to Euclidean emergent space (where the group resorts to an Abelian one) the automata leads to Weyl, Dirac and Maxwell field dynamics in the relativistic limit. We conclude with some perspectives towards the more general scenario of non-linear automata for interacting quantum field theory.

  18. GPU-based parallel method of temperature field analysis in a floor heater with a controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forenc, Jaroslaw

    2016-06-01

    A parallel method enabling acceleration of the numerical analysis of the transient temperature field in an air floor heating system is presented in this paper. An initial-boundary value problem of the heater regulated by an on/off controller is formulated. The analogue model is discretized using the implicit finite difference method. The BiCGStab method is used to compute the obtained system of equations. A computer program implementing simultaneous computations on CPUand GPU(GPGPUtechnology) was developed. CUDA environment and linear algebra libraries (CUBLAS and CUSPARSE) are used by this program. The time of computations was reduced eight times in comparison with a program executed on the CPU only. Results of computations are presented in the form of time profiles and temperature field distributions. An influence of a model of the heat transfer coefficient on the simulation of the system operation was examined. The physical interpretation of obtained results is also presented.Results of computations were verified by comparing them with solutions obtained with the use of a commercial program - COMSOL Mutiphysics.

  19. The Sea-Floor Mapping Facility at the U.S. Geological Survey Woods Hole Field Center, Woods Hole, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deusser, Rebecca E.; Schwab, William C.; Denny, Jane F.

    2002-01-01

    Researchers of the sea-floor mapping facility at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Woods Hole Field Center in Woods Hole, Mass., use state-of-the-art technology to produce accurate geologic maps of the sea floor. In addition to basic bathymetry and morphology, sea-floor maps may contain information about the distribution of sand resources, patterns of coastal erosion, pathways of pollutant transport, and geologic controls on marine biological habitats. The maps may also show areas of human impacts, such as disturbance by bottom fishing and pollution caused by offshore waste disposal. The maps provide a framework for scientific research and provide critical information to decisionmakers who oversee resources in the coastal ocean.

  20. Magnetogenetics: Remote Control of Cellular Signaling with Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Jeremy P.

    Means for temporally regulating gene expression and cellular activity are invaluable for elucidating the underlying physiological processes and have therapeutic implications. Here we report the development of a system for remote regulation of gene expression by low frequency radiowaves (RF) or by a static magnetic field. We accomplished this by first adding iron oxide nanoparticles - either exogenously or as genetically encoded ferritin/ferric oxyhydroxide particle. These particles have been designed with affinity to the plasma membrane ion channel Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) by a conjugated antibody. Application of a magnetic field stimulates the particle to gate the ion channel and this, in turn, initiates calcium-dependent transgene expression. We first demonstrated in vitro that TRPV1 can be actuated to cause calcium flux into the cell by directly applying a localized magnetic field. In mice expressing these genetically encoded components, application of external magnetic field caused remote stimulation of insulin transgene expression and significantly lowered blood glucose. In addition, we are investigating mechanisms by which iron oxide nanoparticles can absorb RF, and transduce this energy to cause channel opening. This robust, repeatable method for remote cellular regulation in vivo may ultimately have applications in basic science, as well as in technology and therapeutics.

  1. Effects of nanosecond pulse electric fields on cellular elasticity

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Diganta; Asmar, Anthony; Stacey, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a single 60 nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) of low (15kV/cm) and high (60 kV/cm) field strengths on cellular morphology and membrane elasticity in Jurkat cells using fluorescent microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We performed force displacement measurements on cells using AFM and calculated the Young’s modulus for membrane elasticity. Differential effects were observed dependent upon pulsing conditions. We found that a single nsPEF of low field strength did not induce any apparent cytoskeletal breakdown and had minor morphological changes. Interestingly, force measurements and calculation of Young’s modulus showed a significant decrease in membrane elasticity. A single nsPEF of high field strength induced stark morphological changes due to disruption of the actin cytoskeleton and a marked decrease in elasticity likely caused by irreversible membrane damage. We suggest that the cellular morphology is mainly dependent on stabilization by the actin cytoskeleton, while the elasticity changes are partially dependent on the cytoskeletal integrity. PMID:25732004

  2. Out Flow in a Virtual Mtr Station Using a Local View Floor Field Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Biao; Wang, Jianyuan; Zhao, Xiaoxi; Fang, Jun; Xiong, Zhang

    2013-06-01

    The floor field (FF) model, up until now, has been the most widely used simulation in pedestrian flow dynamics for simple based scenarios. This paper presents an improvement on and upon the local view FF model by simulating pedestrian flow in more complex scenarios with typical goals and obstacles that may block or assist the sight of the pedestrian. In addition this model will also provide a detailed analysis entailing the simulation of multi-goal selections. This involves the visibility information on each cell being set, and a dynamic priority list of goals for every pedestrian being updated as he/she moves. The pedestrians select the convenient goal according to the priority of goals, the distances to the candidate goals and the degree of congestion. To aid in the theory of this and to make a better understanding of reality, a simulation scenario is conducted on a virtual MTR station, where parameter settings are discussed and some regular phenomena helpful to the designers of stations is put forward.

  3. CFD wind tunnel test: Field velocity patterns of wind on a building with a refuge floor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, C. K.; Yuen, K. K.; Lam, K. M.; Lo, S. M.

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports a CFD wind tunnel study of wind patterns on a square-plan building with a refuge floor at its mid-height level. In this study, a technique of using calibrated power law equations of velocity and turbulent intensity applied as the boundary conditions in CFD wind tunnel test is being evaluated by the physical wind tunnel data obtained by the Principal Author with wind blowing perpendicularly on the building without a refuge floor. From the evaluated results, an optimised domain of flow required to produce qualitative agreement between the wind tunnel data and simulated results is proposed in this paper. Simulated results with the evaluated technique are validated by the wind tunnel data obtained by the Principal Author. The results contribute to an understanding of the fundamental behaviour of wind flow in a refuge floor when wind is blowing perpendicularly on the building. Moreover, the results reveal that the designed natural ventilation of a refuge floor may not perform desirably when the wind speed on the level is low. Under this situation, the refuge floor may become unsafe if smoke was dispersed in the leeward side of the building at a level immediately below the refuge floor.

  4. Cellular Automaton Simulation of Vegetated Dune Field Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nield, J. M.; Baas, A. C.

    2007-12-01

    Vegetated aeolian dune fields develop through non-linear interactions between physical geomorphic processes and ecological vegetation growth and response into complex ecogeomorphic systems that are sensitive to both climatic and environmental variations. We present a Discrete Ecogeomorphic Aeolian Landscape (DECAL) cellular automaton model that replicates the self-organisation of vegetated dune systems and enables the investigation of conditions necessary for long-walled (hairpin) parabolic dune and nebkha formation in coastal and semi-arid environments over various temporal and spatial scales. The algorithm utilises simple transport rules and mutual feedback between geomorphic and ecological components to investigate vegetation pattern formation and how and why this influences dune dynamics. We examine ecogeomorphic interactions both by exploring system mechanics via dune mobility and by more descriptive numerical state variables, facilitating the investigation of trajectories and potential attractors as a function of environmental parameters and system perturbations and leading to the identification of possible system sensitivities and thresholds. The model simulations elucidate possible dune field responses to anthropogenic impacts and palaeo and future climate variations and highlight the ability of vegetation to impart a characteristic length-scale on a landscape. This simple vegetated dune model illustrates the power and versatility of a cellular automaton approach for exploring ecological and geomorphic interactions in complex earth surface systems.

  5. A Sea Floor Survey of the Sleipner Field to Monitor CO2 Migration

    SciTech Connect

    Mark A. Zumberge

    2005-12-31

    In the North Sea natural gas production field at Sleipner, CO{sub 2} is being separated from natural gas and injected into an underground saline aquifer, known as the Utsira formation, for environmental purposes. In this study, gravity measurements were made over the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection site in 2002 and again in 2005 on top of 30 concrete benchmarks on the seafloor to study the behavior and physical properties of the injected CO{sub 2}. As the gas is injected, pore space water is replaced by gas, altering the bulk density of the formation. This results in a change in gravitational acceleration observed on the overlying sea floor. Our gravity measurements show a repeatability of 4.3 {micro}Gal for 2003 and 3.5 {micro}Gal for 2005. Forward models of the gravity change are calculated based on both 3-D seismic data and reservoir simulation models from other studies. These forward models indicate that the magnitude of maximum gravity change is primarily related to CO{sub 2} density rather than flow geometry. The time-lapse gravity observations best fit a high temperature forward model based on the seismically determined CO{sub 2} geometry, suggesting that the 3-D reflection seismics are imaging the geometry of the injected CO{sub 2}, and that the in situ CO{sub 2} density is around 530 kg/m{sup 3}. Uncertainty in determining the average density using this technique is estimated to be {+-}65 kg/m{sup 3} (95% confidence), however, additional seismic surveys are needed before final conclusions can be drawn. Future gravity measurements will put better constraints on the CO{sub 2} density and continue to map out the CO{sub 2} flow.

  6. A Computational Model of Cellular Response to Modulated Radiation Fields

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, Stephen J.; Butterworth, Karl T.; McGarry, Conor K.; Trainor, Colman; O'Sullivan, Joe M.; Hounsell, Alan R.; Prise, Kevin M.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To develop a model to describe the response of cell populations to spatially modulated radiation exposures of relevance to advanced radiotherapies. Materials and Methods: A Monte Carlo model of cellular radiation response was developed. This model incorporated damage from both direct radiation and intercellular communication including bystander signaling. The predictions of this model were compared to previously measured survival curves for a normal human fibroblast line (AGO1522) and prostate tumor cells (DU145) exposed to spatially modulated fields. Results: The model was found to be able to accurately reproduce cell survival both in populations which were directly exposed to radiation and those which were outside the primary treatment field. The model predicts that the bystander effect makes a significant contribution to cell killing even in uniformly irradiated cells. The bystander effect contribution varies strongly with dose, falling from a high of 80% at low doses to 25% and 50% at 4 Gy for AGO1522 and DU145 cells, respectively. This was verified using the inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor aminoguanidine to inhibit the bystander effect in cells exposed to different doses, which showed significantly larger reductions in cell killing at lower doses. Conclusions: The model presented in this work accurately reproduces cell survival following modulated radiation exposures, both in and out of the primary treatment field, by incorporating a bystander component. In addition, the model suggests that the bystander effect is responsible for a significant portion of cell killing in uniformly irradiated cells, 50% and 70% at doses of 2 Gy in AGO1522 and DU145 cells, respectively. This description is a significant departure from accepted radiobiological models and may have a significant impact on optimization of treatment planning approaches if proven to be applicable in vivo.

  7. The Effect of Gravity Fields on Cellular Gene Expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie

    1999-01-01

    Early theoretical analysis predicted that microgravity effects on the isolated cell would be minuscule at the subcellular level; however, these speculations have not proven true in the real world. Astronauts experience a significant bone and muscle loss in as little as 2 weeks of spaceflight and changes are seen at the cellular level soon after exposure to microgravity. Changes in biological systems may be primarily due to the lack of gravity and the resulting loss of mechanical stress on tissues and cells. Recent ground and flight studies examining the effects of gravity or mechanical stress on cells demonstrate marked changes in gene expression when relatively small changes in mechanical forces or gravity fields were made. Several immediate early genes (IEG) like c-fos and c-myc are induced by mechanical stimulation within minutes. In contrast, several investigators report that the absence of mechanical forces during space flight result in decreased sera response element (SRE) activity and attenuation of expression of IEGs such as c-fos, c-jun and cox-2 mRNAs. Clearly, these early changes in gene expression may have long term consequences on mechanically sensitive cells. In our early studies on STS-56, we reported four major changes in the osteoblast; 1) prostaglandin synthesis in flight, 2) changes in cellular morphology, 3) altered actin cytoskeleton and 4) reduced osteoblast growth after four days exposure to microgravity. Initially, it was believed that changes in fibronectin (FN) RNA, FN protein synthesis or subsequent FN matrix formation might account for the changes in cytoskeleton and/ or reduction of growth. However our recent studies on Biorack (STS-76, STS-81 and STS-84), using ground and in-flight 1-G controls, demonstrated that fibronectin synthesis and matrix formation were normal in microgravity. In addition, in our most recent Biorack paper, our laboratory has documented that relative protein synthesis and mRNA synthesis are not changed after 24

  8. The Effect of Gravity Fields on Cellular Gene Expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie

    1999-01-01

    Early theoretical analysis predicted that microgravity effects on the isolated cell would be minuscule at the subcellular level; however, these speculations have not proven true in the real world. Astronauts experience a significant bone and muscle loss in as little as 2 weeks of spaceflight and changes are seen at the cellular level soon after exposure to microgravity. Changes in biological systems may be primarily due to the lack of gravity and the resulting loss of mechanical stress on tissues and cells. Recent ground and flight studies examining the effects of gravity or mechanical stress on cells demonstrate marked changes in gene expression when relatively small changes in mechanical forces or gravity fields were made. Several immediate early genes (IEG) like c-fos and c-myc are induced by mechanical stimulation within minutes. In contrast, several investigators report that the absence of mechanical forces during space flight result in decreased sera response element (SRE) activity and attenuation of expression of IEGs such as c-fos, c-jun and cox-2 mRNAs. Clearly, these early changes in gene expression may have long term consequences on mechanically sensitive cells. In our early studies on STS-56, we reported four major changes in the osteoblast; 1) prostaglandin synthesis in flight, 2) changes in cellular morphology, 3) altered actin cytoskeleton and 4) reduced osteoblast growth after four days exposure to microgravity. Initially, it was believed that changes in fibronectin (FN) RNA, FN protein synthesis or subsequent FN matrix formation might account for the changes in cytoskeleton and/ or reduction of growth. However our recent studies on Biorack (STS-76, STS-81 and STS-84), using ground and in-flight 1-G controls, demonstrated that fibronectin synthesis and matrix formation were normal in microgravity. In addition, in our most recent Biorack paper, our laboratory has documented that relative protein synthesis and mRNA synthesis are not changed after 24

  9. Funky Floors

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-11-08

    The material covering the floors of these two craters looks very different from the surrounds. The unusual markings of the floor material indicates that a volatile, such as ice, has affected the appearance of the surface

  10. Transient electrical field across cellular membranes: pulsed electric field treatment of microbial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timoshkin, I. V.; MacGregor, S. J.; Fouracre, R. A.; Crichton, B. H.; Anderson, J. G.

    2006-02-01

    The pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment of liquid and pumpable products contaminated with microorganisms has attracted significant interest from the pulsed power and bioscience research communities particularly because the inactivation mechanism is non-thermal, thereby allowing retention of the original nutritional and flavour characteristics of the product. Although the biological effects of PEF have been studied for several decades, the physical mechanisms of the interaction of the fields with microorganisms is still not fully understood. The present work is a study of the dynamics of the electrical field both in a PEF treatment chamber with dielectric barriers and in the plasma (cell) membrane of a microbial cell. It is shown that the transient process can be divided into three physical phases, and models for these phases are proposed and briefly discussed. The complete dynamics of the time development of the electric field in a spherical dielectric shell representing the cellular membrane is then obtained using an analytical solution of the Ohmic conduction problem. It was found that the field in the membrane reaches a maximum value that could be two orders of magnitude higher than the original Laplacian electrical field in the chamber, and this value was attained in a time comparable to the field relaxation time in the chamber. Thus, the optimal duration of the field during PEF treatment should be equal to such a time.

  11. Third Floor Plan, Second Floor Plan, First Floor Plan, Ground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Third Floor Plan, Second Floor Plan, First Floor Plan, Ground Floor Plan, West Bunkhouse - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  12. Mercury isotopic composition of hydrothermal systems in the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field and Guaymas Basin sea-floor rift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherman, L.S.; Blum, J.D.; Nordstrom, D.K.; McCleskey, R.B.; Barkay, T.; Vetriani, C.

    2009-01-01

    To characterize mercury (Hg) isotopes and isotopic fractionation in hydrothermal systems we analyzed fluid and precipitate samples from hot springs in the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field and vent chimney samples from the Guaymas Basin sea-floor rift. These samples provide an initial indication of the variability in Hg isotopic composition among marine and continental hydrothermal systems that are controlled predominantly by mantle-derived magmas. Fluid samples from Ojo Caliente hot spring in Yellowstone range in δ202Hg from - 1.02‰ to 0.58‰ (± 0.11‰, 2SD) and solid precipitate samples from Guaymas Basin range in δ202Hg from - 0.37‰ to - 0.01‰ (± 0.14‰, 2SD). Fluid samples from Ojo Caliente display mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) of Hg from the vent (δ202Hg = 0.10‰ ± 0.11‰, 2SD) to the end of the outflow channel (&delta202Hg = 0.58‰ ± 0.11‰, 2SD) in conjunction with a decrease in Hg concentration from 46.6pg/g to 20.0pg/g. Although a small amount of Hg is lost from the fluids due to co-precipitation with siliceous sinter, we infer that the majority of the observed MDF and Hg loss from waters in Ojo Caliente is due to volatilization of Hg0(aq) to Hg0(g) and the preferential loss of Hg with a lower δ202Hg value to the atmosphere. A small amount of mass-independent fractionation (MIF) was observed in all samples from Ojo Caliente (Δ199Hg = 0.13‰ ±1 0.06‰, 2SD) but no significant MIF was measured in the sea-floor rift samples from Guaymas Basin. This study demonstrates that several different hydrothermal processes fractionate Hg isotopes and that Hg isotopes may be used to better understand these processes.

  13. First and Second Floor Window Sills; First Floor, Second Floor, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    First and Second Floor Window Sills; First Floor, Second Floor, and Third Floor Door Jambs; Stair and Second Floor Baseboards; First Floor Window Jamb - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers - Battle Mountain Sanitarium, Treasurer's Quarters, 500 North Fifth Street, Hot Springs, Fall River County, SD

  14. Effects of a magnetic field on pelvic floor muscle function in women with stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Jonathan; Robertson, Jack R; Elia, Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic fields have been found to affect neuromuscular function. To study the effect of a magnetic field on measurements of urethral function in women with stress urinary incontinence. Observational comparative study. Consecutive patients in a continence center. Twenty-six consecutive women with diagnosis of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). History and physical examination, neurologic exam, urethrocystoscopy, urodynamic testing with water-filling cystometry, urethral profilometry at rest, during coughing, and during coughing while performing a levator ani contraction (knack maneuver). The same urodynamic procedures were performed again after the subjects were asked to step on specifically designed magnets (magnetic cushion device). Two-tailed student t test. Urethral pressure at rest, during coughing, and during coughing while performing a levator ani contraction. Mean age was 58.3 years (range: 36-81), mean parity 2.8 (range: 0-8). The urodynamic parameters measured without and with the use of the magnetic cushion device were not found to be different except for the knack maneuver. The pressure in the urethra during the knack maneuver while the subjects were stepping on the magnetic device was significantly higher than the 1 obtained without the magnetic field. In our patient population, a magnetic field increases the efficacy of voluntary levator ani contractions.

  15. Free Quantum Field Theory from Quantum Cellular Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Tosini, Alessandro

    2015-10-01

    After leading to a new axiomatic derivation of quantum theory (see D'Ariano et al. in Found Phys, 2015), the new informational paradigm is entering the domain of quantum field theory, suggesting a quantum automata framework that can be regarded as an extension of quantum field theory to including an hypothetical Planck scale, and with the usual quantum field theory recovered in the relativistic limit of small wave-vectors. Being derived from simple principles (linearity, unitarity, locality, homogeneity, isotropy, and minimality of dimension), the automata theory is quantum ab-initio, and does not assume Lorentz covariance and mechanical notions. Being discrete it can describe localized states and measurements (unmanageable by quantum field theory), solving all the issues plaguing field theory originated from the continuum. These features make the theory an ideal framework for quantum gravity, with relativistic covariance and space-time emergent solely from the interactions, and not assumed a priori. The paper presents a synthetic derivation of the automata theory, showing how the principles lead to a description in terms of a quantum automaton over a Cayley graph of a group. Restricting to Abelian groups we show how the automata recover the Weyl, Dirac and Maxwell dynamics in the relativistic limit. We conclude with some new routes about the more general scenario of non-Abelian Cayley graphs. The phenomenology arising from the automata theory in the ultra-relativistic domain and the analysis of corresponding distorted Lorentz covariance is reviewed in Bisio et al. (Found Phys 2015, in this same issue).

  16. A SEA FLOOR GRAVITY SURVEY OF THE SLEIPNER FIELD TO MONITOR CO2 MIGATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Zumberge

    2003-06-13

    At the Sleipner gas field, excess CO{sub 2} is sequestered and injected underground into a porous saline aquifer 1000 m below the seafloor. A high precision micro-gravity survey was carried out on the seafloor to monitor the injected CO{sub 2}. A repeatability of 5 {micro}Gal in the station averages was observed. This is considerably better than pre-survey expectations. These data will serve as the baseline for time-lapse gravity monitoring of the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection site. Simple modeling of the first year data give inconclusive results, thus a more detailed approach is needed. Work towards this is underway.

  17. A Sea Floor Gravity Survey of the Sleipner Field to Monitor CO2 Migration

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Zumberge

    2011-09-30

    Carbon dioxide gas (CO{sub 2}) is a byproduct of many wells that produce natural gas. Frequently the CO{sub 2} separated from the valuable fossil fuel gas is released into the atmosphere. This adds to the growing problem of the climatic consequences of greenhouse gas contamination. In the Sleipner North Sea natural gas production facility, the separated CO{sub 2} is injected into an underground saline aquifer to be forever sequestered. Monitoring the fate of such sequestered material is important - and difficult. Local change in Earth's gravity field over the injected gas is one way to detect the CO{sub 2} and track its migration within the reservoir over time. The density of the injected gas is less than that of the brine that becomes displaced from the pore space of the formation, leading to slight but detectable decrease in gravity observed on the seafloor above the reservoir. Using equipment developed at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, we have been monitoring gravity over the Sleipner CO{sub 2} sequestration reservoir since 2002. We surveyed the field in 2009 in a project jointly funded by a consortium of European oil and gas companies and the US Department of Energy. The value of gravity at some 30 benchmarks on the seafloor, emplaced at the beginning of the monitoring project, was observed in a week-long survey with a remotely operated vehicle. Three gravity meters were deployed on the benchmarks multiple times in a campaign-style survey, and the measured gravity values compared to those collected in earlier surveys. A clear signature in the map of gravity differences is well correlated with repeated seismic surveys.

  18. ELF (extremely-low-frequency) field interactions at the animal, tissue and cellular levels

    SciTech Connect

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1990-10-01

    A description is given of the fundamental physical properties of extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields, and the mechanisms through which these fields interact with the human body at a macroscopic level. Biological responses to ELF fields at the tissue, cellular and molecular levels are summarized, including new evidence that ELF field exposure produces alterations in gene expression and the cytoplasmic concentrations of specific proteins.

  19. A SEA FLOOR GRAVITY SURVEY OF THE SLEIPNER FIELD TO MONITOR CO2 MIGRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Zuberge; Scott Nooner; Glenn Sasagawa

    2003-11-17

    Since 1996, excess CO{sub 2} from the Sleipner natural gas field has been sequestered and injected underground into a porous saline aquifer 1000 m below the seafloor. In 2002, we carried out a high precision micro-gravity survey on the seafloor in order to monitor the injected CO{sub 2}. A repeatability of 5 {micro}Gal in the station averages was observed. This is considerably better than pre-survey expectations. These data will serve as the baseline for time-lapse gravity monitoring of the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection site. A three-week trip to Statoil Research Centre in Trondheim, Norway, was made in the summer of 2003. This visit consisted of gathering data and collaborating with scientists working on the Sleipner project. The trip ended with a presentation of the seafloor gravity results to date at a SACS2 (Saline Aquifer CO{sub 2} Storage 2) meeting. This meeting provided the perfect opportunity to meet and gather information from the world's experts on the Sleipner project.

  20. A SEA FLOOR GRAVITY SURVEY OF THE SLEIPNER FIELD TO MONITOR CO2 MIGRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Zumberge; Scott Nooner; Ola Eiken

    2004-11-29

    Since 1996, excess CO{sub 2} from the Sleipner natural gas field has been sequestered and injected underground into a porous saline aquifer 1000 m below the seafloor. In 2002, we carried out a high precision micro-gravity survey on the seafloor in order to monitor the injected CO{sub 2}. A repeatability of 5 {micro}Gal in the station averages was observed. This is considerably better than pre-survey expectations. These data will serve as the baseline for time-lapse gravity monitoring of the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection site. A repeat survey has been scheduled for the summer of 2005. This report covers 3/18/04 to 9/19/04. During this time, we participated in several CO{sub 2} sequestration-related meetings and conferences. On March 29, 2004, we participated in the 2004 Carbon Sequestration Project Review Meeting for the Department of Energy in Pittsburgh, PA. During the week of May 2, 2004, we attended and presented at the Third Annual Conference on Carbon Capture and Sequestration in Alexandria, VA. Finally, during the week of August 8, 2004, we took part in the U.S.-Norway, CO{sub 2} Summer School in Santa Fe, NM. Additional modeling was also completed, examining the seismic velocity pushdown estimates from the gravity models and the expected deformation of the seafloor due to the injected CO{sub 2}.

  1. A Sea Floor Gravity Survey of the Sleipner Field to Monitor CO2 Migration

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Zumberge; Scott Nooner

    2005-12-13

    Since 1996, excess CO{sub 2} from the Sleipner natural gas field has been sequestered and injected underground into a porous saline aquifer 1000 m below the seafloor. In 2002, we carried out a high precision micro-gravity survey on the seafloor in order to monitor the injected CO{sub 2}. A repeatability of 4.3 {micro}Gal in the station averages was observed. This is considerably better than pre-survey expectations. These data will serve as the baseline for time-lapse gravity monitoring of the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection site. This report covers 3/19/05 to 9/18/05. During this time, gravity and pressure modeling were completed and graduate student Scott Nooner finished his Ph.D. dissertation, of which this work is a major part. Three new ROVDOG (Remotely Operated Vehicle deployable Deep Ocean Gravimeter) instruments were also completed with funding from Statoil. The primary changes are increased instrument precision and increased data sampling rate. A second gravity survey was carried out from August to September of 2005, allowing us to begin examining the time-lapse gravity changes caused by the injection of CO{sub 2} into the underground aquifer, known as the Utsira formation. Preliminary processing indicates a repeatability of 3.6 {micro}Gal, comparable to the baseline survey.

  2. A SEA FLOOR GRAVITY SURVEY OF THE SLEIPNER FIELD TO MONITOR CO2 MIGRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Zumberge; Scott Nooner; Glenn Sasagawa

    2004-05-19

    Since 1996, excess CO{sub 2} from the Sleipner natural gas field has been sequestered and injected underground into a porous saline aquifer 1000 m below the seafloor. In 2002, we carried out a high precision micro-gravity survey on the seafloor in order to monitor the injected CO{sub 2}. A repeatability of 5 {micro}Gal in the station averages was observed. This is considerably better than pre-survey expectations. These data will serve as the baseline for time-lapse gravity monitoring of the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection site. A repeat survey has been scheduled for the summer of 2005. This report covers 9/19/03 to 3/18/04. During this time, significant advancement in the 3-D gravity forward modeling code was made. Testing of the numerical accuracy of the code was undertaken using both a sheet of mass and a frustum of a cone for test cases. These were chosen because of our ability to do an analytic calculation of gravity for comparison. Tests were also done to determine the feasibility of using point mass approximations rather than cuboids for the forward modeling code. After determining that the point mass approximation is sufficient (and over six times faster computationally), several CO{sub 2} models were constructed and the time-lapse gravity signal was calculated from each. From these models, we expect to see a gravity change ranging from 3-16 {micro}Gal/year, depending on reservoir conditions and CO{sub 2} geometry. While more detailed modeling needs to be completed, these initial results show that we may be able to learn a great deal about the state of the CO{sub 2} from the time-lapse gravity results. Also, in December of 2003, we presented at the annual AGU meeting in San Francisco.

  3. The role of field coupling in nano-scale cellular nonlinear networks.

    PubMed

    Porod, Wolfgang; Csaba, Gyorgy; Csurgay, Arpad

    2003-12-01

    We review some of our previous work on field-coupling in nano-scale cellular arrays. Electronic devices based on metallic and magnetic nanoscale dots and molecular structures have been suggested, however, no technologically viable architecture for nanoelectronic circuit integration has emerged so far. A natural architecture on the nanoscale appears to be near-neighbor cellular networking, and we explore promising alternative ways of integrating nanodevices by direct physical field coupling, i.e. either by Coulomb or by magnetic interactions. We review new architectures for such field-coupled nanocircuits.

  4. Defining the Molecular-Cellular-Field Continuum of Mercury Detoxification

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, Anne O.

    2016-04-25

    Hg is of special interest to DOE due to past intensive use in manufacture of nuclear weapons at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Because of its facile oxidation/reduction [Hg(II)/Hg(0)] chemistry, ability to bond to carbon [as in highly toxic methylmercury: MeHg(I)] and its unique physical properties [e.g., volatility of Hg(0)], Hg has a complex environmental cycle involving soils, sediments, waterways and the atmosphere and including biotic and abiotic chemical and physical transport and transformations.1 Understanding such processes well enough to design stewardship plans that minimize negative impacts in diverse ecological settings requires rich knowledge of the contributing abiotic and biotic processes. Prokaryotes are major players in the global Hg cycle. Facultative and anaerobic bacteria can form MeHg(I) with consequent intoxication of wildlife and humans. Sustainable stewardship of Hg-contaminated sites requires eliminating not only MeHg(I) but also the Hg(II) substrate for methylation. Fortunately, a variety of mercury resistant (HgR) aerobic and facultative bacteria and archaea can do both things. Prokaryotes harboring narrow or broad Hg resistance (mer) loci detoxify Hg(II) or RHg(I), respectively, to relatively inert, less toxic, volatile Hg(0). HgR microbes are enriched in highly contaminated sites and extensive field data show they depress levels of MeHg >500-fold in such zones2. So, enhancing the natural capacity of indigenous HgR microbes to remove Hg(II) and RHg(I) from soils, sediments and waterways is a logical component of a comprehensive plan for clean up and stewardship of contaminated sites.

  5. Defining the Molecular-Cellular-Field Continuum of Mercury Detoxification

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Susan M.

    2014-09-04

    Hg is of special interest to DOE due to past use at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Its facile redox [Hg2+/0] chemistry, bonding to carbon [e.g. MeHg+] and unique physical properties [e.g., Hg0 volatility] underlie a complex global Hg cycle involving biotic and abiotic chemical and physical transport and transformations in soils, sediments, waterways and the atmosphere. Facultative and anaerobic bacteria make MeHg+, which is neurotoxic to wildlife and humans. Sustainable stewardship requires eliminating both MeHg+ and even more toxic Hg2+, which is also the substrate for methylation. The proteins encoded by the mer locus in aerobic and facultative mercury resistant (HgR) bacteria convert soil or waterborne Hg2+ or MeHg+ to less toxic, gaseous Hg0. HgR microbes live in highly Hg-contaminated sites and depress MeHg+ formation >500-fold in such zones. So, enhancing the capacity of natural HgR microbes to remove Hg2+/MeHg+ from wetlands and waterways is a logical component of contaminated site stewardship. To apply enhancement in the field requires knowing how the HgR pathway works including the metabolic demands it makes on the cell, i.e., the entire cell is the relevant catalytic unit. HgR loci occur in metabolically diverse bacteria and unique mer-host co-evolution has been found. In this project we extended our previous studies of mer enzymes in γ-proteobacteria, which are abundant in high Hg areas of the ORR to include studies of mer enzymes from HgR α-proteobacteria and HgR actinobacteria, which also increase in the high Hg regions of the ORR. Specifically, we (1) examined interactions between structural compoenents of MerA and MerB enzymes from γ-proteobacteria, (2) investigated effects of mutations on kinetic efficiency of Hg2+ reduction by γ-proteobacterial MerA, (3) cloned and performed initital characterization of MerA and MerB enzymes from Streptomyces lividans, an actinobacterium, (4) cloned and performed initial characterization of a fused Mer

  6. High-frequency electric field and radiation characteristics of cellular microtubule network.

    PubMed

    Havelka, D; Cifra, M; Kučera, O; Pokorný, J; Vrba, J

    2011-10-07

    Microtubules are important structures in the cytoskeleton, which organizes the cell. Since microtubules are electrically polar, certain microtubule normal vibration modes efficiently generate oscillating electric field. This oscillating field may be important for the intracellular organization and intercellular interaction. There are experiments which indicate electrodynamic activity of variety of cells in the frequency region from kHz to GHz, expecting the microtubules to be the source of this activity. In this paper, results from the calculation of intensity of electric field and of radiated electromagnetic power from the whole cellular microtubule network are presented. The subunits of microtubule (tubulin heterodimers) are approximated by elementary electric dipoles. Mechanical oscillation of microtubule is represented by the spatial function which modulates the dipole moment of subunits. The field around oscillating microtubules is calculated as a vector superposition of contributions from all modulated elementary electric dipoles which comprise the cellular microtubule network. The electromagnetic radiation and field characteristics of the whole cellular microtubule network have not been theoretically analyzed before. For the perspective experimental studies, the results indicate that macroscopic detection system (antenna) is not suitable for measurement of cellular electrodynamic activity in the radiofrequency region since the radiation rate from single cells is very low (lower than 10⁻²⁰ W). Low noise nanoscopic detection methods with high spatial resolution which enable measurement in the cell vicinity are desirable in order to measure cellular electrodynamic activity reliably. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Valley Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-529, 30 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the floor of an ancient valley located near the Pyrrhae Chaos region of Mars. This valley might have been carved by liquid water, but today no evidence remains that a fluid ever flowed through it. Long after the valley formed, its floor was covered by large, windblown, ripple-like dunes. This picture is located near 13.0oS, 31.2oW. The image is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  8. Abnormal expression of p27kip1 protein in levator ani muscle of aging women with pelvic floor disorders – a relationship to the cellular differentiation and degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bukovsky, Antonin; Copas, Pleas; Caudle, Michael R; Cekanova, Maria; Dassanayake, Tamara; Asbury, Bridgett; Van Meter, Stuart E; Elder, Robert F; Brown, Jeffrey B; Cross, Stephanie B

    2001-01-01

    Background Pelvic floor disorders affect almost 50% of aging women. An important role in the pelvic floor support belongs to the levator ani muscle. The p27/kip1 (p27) protein, multifunctional cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, shows changing expression in differentiating skeletal muscle cells during development, and relatively high levels of p27 RNA were detected in the normal human skeletal muscles. Methods Biopsy samples of levator ani muscle were obtained from 22 symptomatic patients with stress urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, and overlaps (age range 38–74), and nine asymptomatic women (age 31–49). Cryostat sections were investigated for p27 protein expression and type I (slow twitch) and type II (fast twitch) fibers. Results All fibers exhibited strong plasma membrane (and nuclear) p27 protein expression. cytoplasmic p27 expression was virtually absent in asymptomatic women. In perimenopausal symptomatic patients (ages 38–55), muscle fibers showed hypertrophy and moderate cytoplasmic p27 staining accompanied by diminution of type II fibers. Older symptomatic patients (ages 57–74) showed cytoplasmic p27 overexpression accompanied by shrinking, cytoplasmic vacuolization and fragmentation of muscle cells. The plasma membrane and cytoplasmic p27 expression was not unique to the muscle cells. Under certain circumstances, it was also detected in other cell types (epithelium of ectocervix and luteal cells). Conclusions This is the first report on the unusual (plasma membrane and cytoplasmic) expression of p27 protein in normal and abnormal human striated muscle cells in vivo. Our data indicate that pelvic floor disorders are in perimenopausal patients associated with an appearance of moderate cytoplasmic p27 expression, accompanying hypertrophy and transition of type II into type I fibers. The patients in advanced postmenopause show shrinking and fragmentation of muscle fibers associated with strong cytoplasmic p27 expression. PMID:11696252

  9. Effect of electromagnetic field emitted by cellular phones on fetal heart rate patterns.

    PubMed

    Celik, Onder; Hascalik, Seyma

    2004-01-15

    The study was planned to determine the effects of electromagnetic fields produced by cellular phones on baseline fetal heart rate, acceleration and deceleration. Forty pregnant women undergoing non-stress test were admitted to the study. Non-stress test was obtained while the subjects were holding the CP on stand by mode and on dialing mode, each for 5 min. Similar recordings were taken while there were no phones around for 10 min. Electromagnetic fields produced by cellular phones do not cause any demonstrable affect in fetal heart rate, acceleration and deceleration.

  10. Visual field attention is reduced by concomitant hands-free conversation on a cellular telephone.

    PubMed

    Barkana, Yaniv; Zadok, David; Morad, Yair; Avni, Isaac

    2004-09-01

    To quantify the central attention-diverting effect of hands-free cellular phone conversation on visual field awareness. Experimental study. Twenty male and 21 female healthy participants performed a pretest and baseline Esterman visual field examinations with the Humphrey Systems Visual Field Analyzer II. During the consequent third examination, each participant engaged in a hands-free conversation using a cellular phone. The conversation was the same for all participants. Visual field performance parameters were compared between the second (baseline) examination, and the third (test) examination for each eye. During phone conversation, missed points increased from mean 1.0 +/- 1.5 to 2.6 +/- 3.4 (P < or =.001) in the right eye and from 1.1 +/- 1.53 to 3.0 +/- 3.4 (P <.001) in the left eye. Fixation loss increased from mean 7.8% to 27.4% (P <.0001) and from 7.2% to 34.8% (P <.0001) for the right and left eyes, respectively. Test duration increased by a mean of 0.28 seconds (15%) per stimulus (P <.0001). Approximately half of missed points were inside the central 30 degrees. There was no significant difference in the performance of male and female participants. We describe a new model for the quantification of the attention-diverting effect of cellular-phone conversation on the visual field. In the current study, cellular hands-free conversation caused some subjects to miss significantly more points, react slower to each stimulus, and perform with reduced precision. Legislative restrictions on concomitant cellular-phone conversation and driving may need to be based on individual performance rather than a general ban on cellular phone usage.

  11. [Cellular radio systems. Problems faced in assessing exposure to electromagnetic fields].

    PubMed

    Zmyślony, M

    2000-01-01

    Over twenty years of its existence, cellular radio systems have become one of the major sources of human exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF) of high frequency. With the increasing number of cellular phones, the interest in health effects of exposure to EMF emitted by them continues to grow. At present, there is a general opinion that thermal effect (change of electromagnetic energy into thermal energy) is an essential mechanism of possible biological effects. The majority of world standards for exposure to EMF are based on this effect. The author presents Polish standards and those of the International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) for EMF of frequencies used in cellular radio systems, both basic that limits SAR (Specific Absorption Rate), and derived that limits the power density, as well as intensity of electric and magnetic fields. Attention was also turned to the problems concerning the application of cellular phones and those resulting from the character of the field emitted by them to which their users are exposed. Bearing in mind the results of the laboratory analyses of SAR values occurring in the user's head, and measurements of power density in the vicinity of the base station antennas, it can be stated that, in view of binding and recommended standards, cellular phones do not present any hazard to their users (private or professional). However, it should be stressed that standards adopted protect the user's head against the thermal effect, whereas the question on whether they also protect against non-thermal effects still remains without answer.

  12. Cooling Floor AC Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Lu; Hao, Ding; Hong, Zhang; Ce, Gao Dian

    The present HVAC equipments for the residential buildings in the Hot-summer-and-Cold-winter climate region are still at a high energy consuming level. So that the high efficiency HVAC system is an urgently need for achieving the preset government energy saving goal. With its advantage of highly sanitary, highly comfortable and uniform of temperature field, the hot-water resource floor radiation heating system has been widely accepted. This paper has put forward a new way in air-conditioning, which combines the fresh-air supply unit and such floor radiation system for the dehumidification and cooling in summer or heating in winter. By analyze its advantages and limitations, we found that this so called Cooling/ Heating Floor AC System can improve the IAQ of residential building while keep high efficiency quality. We also recommend a methodology for the HVAC system designing, which will ensure the reduction of energy cost of users.

  13. Occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields during tasks at ground or floor level at 110 kV substations in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Korpinen, Leena; Pääkkönen, Rauno

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to investigate occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields during tasks at ground or floor level at 110 kV substations in Finland and to compare the measured values to Directive 2013/35/EU. Altogether, 347 electric field measurements and 100 magnetic field measurements were performed. The average value of all electric fields was 2.3 kV/m (maximum 6.4 kV/m) and that of magnetic fields was 5.8 µT (maximum 51.0 µT). It can be concluded that the electric and magnetic field exposure at ground or floor level is typically below the low action levels of Directive 2013/35/EU. The transposition of the directive will not create new needs to modify the work practice of the evaluated tasks, which can continue to be performed as before. However, for workers with medical implants, the exposure may be high enough to cause interference. PMID:27075421

  14. Floors: Selection and Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Bernard

    Flooring for institutional, commercial, and industrial use is described with regard to its selection, care, and maintenance. The following flooring and subflooring material categories are discussed--(1) resilient floor coverings, (2) carpeting, (3) masonry floors, (4) wood floors, and (5) "formed-in-place floors". The properties, problems,…

  15. Floors: Selection and Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Bernard

    Flooring for institutional, commercial, and industrial use is described with regard to its selection, care, and maintenance. The following flooring and subflooring material categories are discussed--(1) resilient floor coverings, (2) carpeting, (3) masonry floors, (4) wood floors, and (5) "formed-in-place floors". The properties, problems,…

  16. Zinc oxide nanorod field effect transistor for long-time cellular force measurement

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Xianli; Zhu, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical forces generated by cells are known to influence a vast range of cellular functions ranging from receptor signaling and transcription to differentiation and proliferation. We report a novel measurement approach using zinc oxide nanorods as a peeping transducer to monitor dynamic mechanical behavior of cellular traction on surrounding substrate. We develop a ZnO nanorod field effect transistor (FET) as an ultrasensitive force sensor to realize long-time, unstained, and in-situ detection of cell cycle phases, including attachment, spread, and mitosis. Excellent biocompatibility and ultra-sensitivity of the biomechanical measurement is ensured by coating a parylene film on the FET sensor as a concealment, which provides complete electronic isolation between the sensor and cell. With unique features of ultra-sensitivity, label-free, easy handling, and good biocompatibility, the force sensor allows feasible for tracking cellular dynamics in physiological contexts and understanding their contribution to biological processes. PMID:28272551

  17. Scalloped Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    13 July 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows erosional remnants of layered rock and large windblown ripples on the floor of a crater in the Tyrrhena Terra region of Mars. The layered rocks are most likely sedimentary.

    Location near: 15.5oS, 270.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

  18. Cellular and molecular pathways of extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic field interactions with living systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1992-06-01

    There is growing evidence that environmental electric and magnetic fields in the extremely-low-frequency (ELF) band below 300 Hz can influence biological functions by mechanisms that are only poorly understood at the present time. The primary objectives of this paper are to review the physical properties of ELF fields, their interactions with living systems at the tissue, cellular, and subcellular levels, and the key role of cell membranes ;in the transduction of signals from imposed ELF fields. Topics of discussion include signal-to-noise ratios for single cells and cell aggregates, resonance phenomena involving a combination of static and ELF magnetic fields, and the possible influence of ELF fields on molecular signaling pathways that involve membrane receptors and cytoplasmic second messengers.

  19. Cellular and molecular pathways of extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic field interactions with living systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1992-06-01

    There is growing evidence that environmental electric and magnetic fields in the extremely-low-frequency (ELF) band below 300 Hz can influence biological functions by mechanisms that are only poorly understood at the present time. The primary objectives of this paper are to review the physical properties of ELF fields, their interactions with living systems at the tissue, cellular, and subcellular levels, and the key role of cell membranes ;in the transduction of signals from imposed ELF fields. Topics of discussion include signal-to-noise ratios for single cells and cell aggregates, resonance phenomena involving a combination of static and ELF magnetic fields, and the possible influence of ELF fields on molecular signaling pathways that involve membrane receptors and cytoplasmic second messengers.

  20. Effects of 60-Hz electric fields on specific humoral and cellular components of the immune system

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J.E.; Phillips, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    Humoral and cellular functions of the immune system of Swiss-Webster mice were evaluated after exposure to 60-Hz electric fields at 100 kV/m. No significant differences were observed in primary antibody response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (precipitating antibody levels) between exposed (30 or 60 days) and control mice, nor were there significant changes in mitogen-stimulation response of spleen cells from mice similarly exposed for 90 or 150 days when compared to sham-exposed animals.

  1. Electromagnetic field therapy delays cellular senescence and death by enhancement of the heat shock response.

    PubMed

    Perez, Felipe P; Zhou, Ximing; Morisaki, Jorge; Jurivich, Donald

    2008-04-01

    Hormesis may result when mild repetitive stress increases cellular defense against diverse injuries. This process may also extend in vitro cellular proliferative life span as well as delay and reverse some of the age-dependent changes in both replicative and non-replicative cells. This study evaluated the potential hormetic effect of non-thermal repetitive electromagnetic field shock (REMFS) and its impact on cellular aging and mortality in primary human T lymphocytes and fibroblast cell lines. Unlike previous reports employing electromagnetic radiation, this study used a long wave length, low energy, and non-thermal REMFS (50MHz/0.5W) for various therapeutic regimens. The primary outcomes examined were age-dependent morphological changes in cells over time, cellular death prevention, and stimulation of the heat shock response. REMFS achieved several biological effects that modified the aging process. REMFS extended the total number of population doublings of mouse fibroblasts and contributed to youthful morphology of cells near their replicative lifespan. REMFS also enhanced cellular defenses of human T cells as reflected in lower cell mortality when compared to non-treated T cells. To determine the mechanism of REMFS-induced effects, analysis of the cellular heat shock response revealed Hsp90 release from the heat shock transcription factor (HSF1). Furthermore, REMFS increased HSF1 phosphorylation, enhanced HSF1-DNA binding, and improved Hsp70 expression relative to non-REMFS-treated cells. These results show that non-thermal REMFS activates an anti-aging hormetic effect as well as reduces cell mortality during lethal stress. Because the REMFS configuration employed in this study can potentially be applied to whole body therapy, prospects for translating these data into clinical interventions for Alzheimer's disease and other degenerative conditions with aging are discussed.

  2. Precise Estimation of Cellular Radio Electromagnetic Field in Elevators and EMI Impact on Implantable Cardiac Pacemakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Louis-Ray; Hikage, Takashi; Nojima, Toshio

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possible impact of cellular phones' signals on implantable cardiac pacemakers in elevators. This is achieved by carrying out precise numerical simulations based on the Finite-Difference-Time-Domain method to examine the electromagnetic fields in elevator models. In order to examine the realistic and complicated situations where humans are present in the elevator, we apply the realistic homogeneous human phantom and cellular radios operating in the frequency bands 800MHz, 1.5GHz and 2GHz. These computed results of field strength inside the elevator are compared with a certain reference level determined from the experimentally obtained maximum interference distance of implantable cardiac pacemakers. This enables us to carry out a quantitative evaluation of the EMI risk to pacemakers by cellular radio transmission. The results show that for the case when up to 5 mobile radio users are present in the elevator model used, there is no likelihood of pacemaker malfunction for the frequency bands 800MHz, 1.5GHz and 2GHz.

  3. Effects of 60-Hz electric fields on cellular elongation and radial expansion growth in cucurbit roots.

    PubMed

    Brayman, A A; Miller, M W; Cox, C

    1987-01-01

    Serial longitudinal and transverse sections were prepared from roots of Cucumis sativus and Cucurbita maxima that had been exposed/sham-exposed to 60-Hz electric fields for 0-2 days. Field exposures were selected to produce a 10-20% or a 70-80% growth inhibition in whole roots of both species. Cortical cell length and diameter were measured using a microscope and eyepiece micrometer; measurements were conducted "blind." In both species, inhibition of cellular elongation was associated with exposure to electric fields (EF). Cellular radial expansion was apparently unaffected by exposure to electric fields. The diameters of radially unexpanded or fully expanded C. sativus cortical cells were about 25-30% smaller than those of comparable cells in C. maxima roots. Previous studies of the relationship between rates of root growth and applied EF strength showed that the response thresholds of C. sativus and C. maxima differed by a similar relative amount. These results are consistent with the postulate that EF-induced effects in roots are elicited by induced transmembrane potentials.

  4. Pelvic Floor Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Pelvic Floor Disorders: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is the pelvic floor? The term "pelvic floor" refers to the group ...

  5. Effect of Floor Space Allowance on Pig Productivity across Stages of Growth: A Field-scale Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon H; Choi, Hong L; Heo, Yong J; Chung, Yoon P

    2016-05-01

    A total of 152 pig farms were randomly selected from the five provinces in South Korea. During the experiment, the average temperature and relative humidity was 24.7°C and 74% in summer and 2.4°C and 53% in winter, respectively. The correlation between floor space allowance (FSA) and productivity index was analyzed, including non-productive sow days (NPD), number of weaners (NOW), survival rate (SR), appearance rate of A-grade pork (ARA), and days at a slaughter weight of 110 kg (d-SW) at different growth stages. The objectives of the present study were i) to determine the effect of FSA on the pig productivity index and ii) to suggest the minimum FSA for pigs based on scientific baseline data. For the pregnant sow, NPD could be decreased if pregnant sows were raised with a medium level (M) of FSA (3.10 to 3.67 m(2)/head) while also keeping the pig house clean which improves hygiene, and operating the ventilation system properly. For the farrowing sows, the NOW tended to decrease as the FSA increased. Similarly, a high level of FSA (H) is significantly negative with weaner SR of farrowing sows (p-value = 0.017), indicating this FSA tends to depress SR. Therefore, a FSA of 2.30 to 6.40 m(2)/head (very low) could be appropriate for weaners because a limited space can provide a sense of security and protection from external interruptions. The opposite trend was observed that an increase in floor space (>1.12 m(2)/head) leads to increase the SR of growing pigs. For the fattening pigs, H level of FSA was negatively correlated with SR, but M level of FSA was positively correlated with SR, indicating that SR tended to increase with the FSA of 1.10 to 1.27 m(2)/head. In contrast, ARA of male fattening pigs showed opposite results. H level of FSA (1.27 to 1.47 m(2)/head) was suggested to increase productivity because ARA was most affected by H level of space allowance with positive correlation (R(2) = 0.523). The relationship between the FSA and d-SW of fattening pigs was

  6. Chronic pelvic floor dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Dee; Sarton, Julie

    2014-10-01

    The successful treatment of women with vestibulodynia and its associated chronic pelvic floor dysfunctions requires interventions that address a broad field of possible pain contributors. Pelvic floor muscle hypertonicity was implicated in the mid-1990s as a trigger of major chronic vulvar pain. Painful bladder syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, and temporomandibular jaw disorder are known common comorbidities that can cause a host of associated muscular, visceral, bony, and fascial dysfunctions. It appears that normalizing all of those disorders plays a pivotal role in reducing complaints of chronic vulvar pain and sexual dysfunction. Though the studies have yet to prove a specific protocol, physical therapists trained in pelvic dysfunction are reporting success with restoring tissue normalcy and reducing vulvar and sexual pain. A review of pelvic anatomy and common findings are presented along with suggested physical therapy management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A simple cellular model to quantify controls on aeolian dune-field pattern development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastwood, E. N.; Nield, J. M.; Baas, A. C.; Kocurek, G.

    2009-12-01

    A second-generation, source-to-sink cellular automaton model captures and quantifies many of the factors controlling the evolution of aeolian dune-field patterns by varying only a small number of parameters. Our model quantifies the role of sediment supply, sediment availability, and transport capacity in the development and evolution of an aeolian dune-field pattern over long time scales. Simulation results produced by varying the sediment supply and transport capacity identified seven dune-field patterns. A new clustered dune-field pattern is identified and used to propose an alternative mechanism for the formation of superimposed dunes. Bedforms are hypothesized to cluster together, simultaneously forming two spatial scales of bedforms without first developing a large basal dune and small superimposed dunes. Sediment supply and transport capacity control the type and frequency of dune interactions, the sediment availability of the system, and ultimately the development of dune-field patterns. Our model allows predictions about the range of sediment supply and wind strengths required to produce many of the dune-field patterns seen in the real world. This simple model demonstrates the dominant control of aeolian sediment state on the construction and evolution of aeolian dune-field patterns.

  8. An ignimbrite caldera from the bottom up: Exhumed floor and fill of the resurgent Bonanza caldera, Southern Rocky Mountain volcanic field, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, Peter W.; Zimmerer, Matthew J.; McIntosh, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Among large ignimbrites, the Bonanza Tuff and its source caldera in the Southern Rocky Mountain volcanic field display diverse depositional and structural features that provide special insights concerning eruptive processes and caldera development. In contrast to the nested loci for successive ignimbrite eruptions at many large multicyclic calderas elsewhere, Bonanza caldera is an areally isolated structure that formed in response to a single ignimbrite eruption. The adjacent Marshall caldera, the nonresurgent lava-filled source for the 33.9-Ma Thorn Ranch Tuff, is the immediate precursor for Bonanza, but projected structural boundaries of two calderas are largely or entirely separate even though the western topographic rim of Bonanza impinges on the older caldera. Bonanza, source of a compositionally complex regional ignimbrite sheet erupted at 33.12 ± 0.03 Ma, is a much larger caldera system than previously recognized. It is a subequant structure ∼20 km in diameter that subsided at least 3.5 km during explosive eruption of ∼1000 km3 of magma, then resurgently domed its floor a similar distance vertically. Among its features: (1) varied exposure levels of an intact caldera due to rugged present-day topography—from Paleozoic and Precambrian basement rocks that are intruded by resurgent plutons, upward through precaldera volcanic floor, to a single thickly ponded intracaldera ignimbrite (Bonanza Tuff), interleaved landslide breccia, and overlying postcollapse lavas; (2) large compositional gradients in the Bonanza ignimbrite (silicic andesite to rhyolite ignimbrite; 60%–76% SiO2); (3) multiple alternations of mafic and silicic zones within a single ignimbrite, rather than simple upward gradation to more mafic compositions; (4) compositional contrasts between outflow sectors of the ignimbrite (mainly crystal-poor rhyolite to east, crystal-rich dacite to west); (5) similarly large compositional diversity among postcollapse caldera-fill lavas and resurgent

  9. Role of cytoskeleton and elastic moduli in cellular response to nanosecond pulsed electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Gary L.; Roth, Caleb; Tolstykh, Gleb; Kuipers, Marjorie; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2013-02-01

    Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) are known to increase cell membrane permeability to small molecules in accordance with dosages. As previous work has focused on nsPEF exposures in whole cells, electrodeformation may contribute to this induced-permeabilization in addition to other biological mechanisms. Here, we hypothesize that cellular elasticity, based upon the cytoskeleton, affects nsPEF-induced decrease in cellular viability. Young's moduli of various types of cells have been calculated from atomic force microscopy (AFM) force curve data, showing that CHO cells are stiffer than non-adherent U937 and Jurkat cells, which are more susceptible to nsPEF exposure. To distinguish any cytoskeletal foundation for these observations, various cytoskeletal reagents were applied. Inhibiting actin polymerization significantly decreased membrane integrity, as determined by relative propidium uptake and phosphatidylserine externalization, upon exposure at 150 kV/cm with 100 pulses of 10 ns pulse width. Exposure in the presence of other drugs resulted in insignificant changes in membrane integrity and 24-hour viability. However, Jurkat cells showed greater lethality than latrunculin-treated CHO cells of comparable elasticity. From these results, it is postulated that cellular elasticity rooted in actin-membrane interaction is only a minor contributor to the differing responses of adherent and non-adherent cells to nsPEF insults.

  10. Hypersensitivity to RF fields emitted from CDMA cellular phones: a provocation study.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki Chang; Lee, Ju Hyung; Noh, Hyung Wook; Cha, Eun Jong; Kim, Nam Hyun; Kim, Deok Won

    2009-12-01

    With the number of cellular phone users rapidly increasing, there is a considerable amount of public concern regarding the effects that electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from cellular phones have on health. People with self-attributed electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) complain of subjective symptoms such as headaches, insomnia, and memory loss, and attribute these symptoms to radio frequency (RF) radiation from cellular phones and/or base stations. However, EHS is difficult to diagnose because it relies on a person's subjective judgment. Various provocation studies have been conducted on EHS caused by Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) phones in which heart rate and blood pressure or subjective symptoms were investigated. However, there have been few sham-controlled provocation studies on EHS with Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) phones where physiological parameters, subjective symptoms, and perception of RF radiation for EHS and non-EHS groups were simultaneously investigated. In this study, two volunteer groups of 18 self-reported EHS and 19 non-EHS persons were tested for both sham and real RF exposure from CDMA cellular phones with a 300 mW maximum exposure that lasted half an hour. We investigated not only the physiological parameters such as heart rate, respiration rate, and heart rate variability (HRV), but also various subjective symptoms and the perception of EMF. In conclusion, RF exposure did not have any effects on physiological parameters or subjective symptoms in either group. As for EMF perception, there was no evidence that the EHS group better perceived EMF than the non-EHS group.

  11. Quantum field as a quantum cellular automaton: The Dirac free evolution in one dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Bisio, Alessandro; D’Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Tosini, Alessandro

    2015-03-15

    We present a quantum cellular automaton model in one space-dimension which has the Dirac equation as emergent. This model, a discrete-time and causal unitary evolution of a lattice of quantum systems, is derived from the assumptions of homogeneity, parity and time-reversal invariance. The comparison between the automaton and the Dirac evolutions is rigorously set as a discrimination problem between unitary channels. We derive an exact lower bound for the probability of error in the discrimination as an explicit function of the mass, the number and the momentum of the particles, and the duration of the evolution. Computing this bound with experimentally achievable values, we see that in that regime the QCA model cannot be discriminated from the usual Dirac evolution. Finally, we show that the evolution of one-particle states with narrow-band in momentum can be efficiently simulated by a dispersive differential equation for any regime. This analysis allows for a comparison with the dynamics of wave-packets as it is described by the usual Dirac equation. This paper is a first step in exploring the idea that quantum field theory could be grounded on a more fundamental quantum cellular automaton model and that physical dynamics could emerge from quantum information processing. In this framework, the discretization is a central ingredient and not only a tool for performing non-perturbative calculation as in lattice gauge theory. The automaton model, endowed with a precise notion of local observables and a full probabilistic interpretation, could lead to a coherent unification of a hypothetical discrete Planck scale with the usual Fermi scale of high-energy physics. - Highlights: • The free Dirac field in one space dimension as a quantum cellular automaton. • Large scale limit of the automaton and the emergence of the Dirac equation. • Dispersive differential equation for the evolution of smooth states on the automaton. • Optimal discrimination between the

  12. Emergency evacuation models based on cellular automata with route changes and group fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, L. A.; Burgarelli, D.; Duczmal, L. H.; Cruz, F. R. B.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an extension of cellular automata models applied to emergency evacuation pedestrian dynamics. The new extensions are the route change probabilities and group fields. The first extension allows for pedestrians to change direction when necessary to access an alternate exit route. The second extension adds a field that makes groups of pedestrians always walk close to each other and exit together. Several experiments were conducted to study the effects of these new extensions, first to verify the associated collective phenomena and to verify the effect with the security performance measures, more precisely, in the evacuation time, as well as to perform comparisons with other previous models. The main conclusions are that the effects of these new extensions effectively modify the security performance measures and can therefore be important for improving the models and providing better estimates.

  13. Enhanced labeling of microalgae cellular lipids by application of an electric field generated by alternating current.

    PubMed

    Su, Li-Chien; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Wang, Hsiang-Yu

    2012-05-01

    An alternating current was used to generate an electric field to enhance the fluorescent labeling of microalgae cellular lipids with Nile red and LipidTOX. The decay of the fluorescence intensity of Chlorella vulgaris cells in 0 V/cm was more than 50% after 10 min, and the intensity variation was as high as 7% in 20s. At 2000 V/cm, the decay rate decreased to 1.22% per minute and the intensity fluctuation was less than 1% for LipidTOX-labeled cells. For Spirulina sp. cells at 0 V/cm, the fluorescence intensity increased by 10% after 10 min, whereas at 2000 V/cm, labeling was more rapid and fluorescence intensity doubled. These results show that applying an electric field can improve the quality of fluorescence detection by alleviating decay and fluctuation or by enhancing signal intensity.

  14. Theoretical analyses of cellular transmembrane voltage in suspensions induced by high-frequency fields.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yong; Wang, Changzhen; Peng, Ruiyun; Wang, Lifeng; Hu, Xiangjun

    2015-04-01

    A change of the transmembrane voltage is considered to cause biophysical and biochemical responses in cells. The present study focuses on the cellular transmembrane voltage (Δφ) induced by external fields. We detail analytical equations for the transmembrane voltage induced by external high-frequency (above the relaxation frequency of the cell membrane) fields on cells of a spherical shape in suspensions and layers. At direct current (DC) and low frequencies, the cell membrane was assumed to be non-conductive under physiologic conditions. However, with increasing frequency, the permittivity of the cytoplasm/extracellular medium and conductivity of the membrane must be accounted for. Our main work is to extend application of the analytical solution of Δφ to the high-frequency range. We first introduce the transmembrane voltage generated by DC and low-frequency exposures on a single cell. Then, we focus on cell suspensions exposed to high-frequency fields. Using the effective medium theory and the reasonable assumption, the approximate analytical solution of Δφ on cells in suspensions and layers can be derived. Phenomenological effective medium theory equations cannot be used to calculate the local electric field of cell suspensions, so we raised a possible solution based on the Bergman theory.

  15. Magnetic fields and cancer: Animal and cellular evidence--an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Holmberg, B.

    1995-03-01

    A few animal studies on the possible carcinogenic effect of magnetic fields have been published. They have been designed to reveal a possible tumor promotion obtained by applying continuous or pulsed alternating fields at flux densities varying between 0.5 {mu}T and 30 mT on mice or rats initiated with different initiators. One study with 2 mT applied on DMBA-initiated mice may suggest a copromotive effect together with the promoter TPA. Another study on rats suggests an inhibitory effect by a magnetic field on rat liver foci formation, induced with DENA. Cell studies show that magnetic fields at some frequencies, amplitudes, and wave forms interact with biological systems. Thus effects have been seen, e.g., on enzymes related to growth regulation, on calcium balance in the cell, on gene expression, and on pineal metabolism and its excretion of the oncostatic melatonin. Cellular and physiologic studies thus suggest effects that may be related to cell multiplication and tumor promotion. 64 refs.

  16. Neuronal cellular responses to extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure: implications regarding oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Reale, Marcella; Kamal, Mohammad A; Patruno, Antonia; Costantini, Erica; D'Angelo, Chiara; Pesce, Miko; Greig, Nigel H

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases comprise both hereditary and sporadic conditions characterized by an identifying progressive nervous system dysfunction and distinctive neuopathophysiology. The majority are of non-familial etiology and hence environmental factors and lifestyle play key roles in their pathogenesis. The extensive use of and ever increasing worldwide demand for electricity has stimulated societal and scientific interest on the environmental exposure to low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on human health. Epidemiological studies suggest a positive association between 50/60-Hz power transmission fields and leukemia or lymphoma development. Consequent to the association between EMFs and induction of oxidative stress, concerns relating to development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease (AD), have been voiced as the brain consumes the greatest fraction of oxygen and is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress. Exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF)-EMFs are reported to alter animal behavior and modulate biological variables, including gene expression, regulation of cell survival, promotion of cellular differentiation, and changes in cerebral blood flow in aged AD transgenic mice. Alterations in inflammatory responses have also been reported, but how these actions impact human health remains unknown. We hence evaluated the effects of an electromagnetic wave (magnetic field intensity 1 mT; frequency, 50-Hz) on a well-characterized immortalized neuronal cell model, human SH-SY5Y cells. ELF-EMF exposure elevated the expession of NOS and O2(-), which were countered by compensatory changes in antioxidant catylase (CAT) activity and enzymatic kinetic parameters related to CYP-450 and CAT activity. Actions of ELF-EMFs on cytokine gene expression were additionally evaluated and found rapidly modified. Confronted with co-exposure to H2O2-induced oxidative stress, ELF-EMF proved not as well counteracted and resulted in a decline in CAT

  17. Cellular responses and disease expression in oysters (Crassostrea virginica) exposed to suspended field contaminated sediments.

    PubMed

    Chu, Fu-Lin E; Volety, Aswani K; Hale, Robert C; Huang, Yongqin

    2002-02-01

    Exposure of oysters to water soluble fractions derived from field-contaminated sediments (FCS) containing predominantly lower molecular weight organic aromatic compounds, has been previously demonstrated to enhance pre-existing infections caused by the protozoan parasite, Perkinsus marinus (Dermo), and the prevalence of experimentally induced infections. To further explore the role of pollution on the onset and progression of disease, effects of suspended FCS from an estuarine creek in Virginia, USA, dominated by higher molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on cellular responses and Dermo disease expression in oysters (Crassostrea virginica) were examined. Sediments were collected from a PAH polluted estuarine creek in Virginia, USA. To test effects on cellular response, oysters from Maine were exposed daily to 0, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 g suspended FCS (corresponding to 0, 70.2, 105, or 140 microg PAHs, respectively) for 5, 10, 20, and 40 days. Hemocyte activities and plasma lipid, protein and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were then measured. Exposure stimulated neutral red uptake, MTT reduction, and 3H-leucine incorporation in oyster hemocytes at various exposure times, but did not affect the plasma protein, lipid and LDH levels. To test effects on Dermo expression, oysters from a Dermo enzootic area, with an initial estimated infection prevalence of 39%, were exposed daily to 0, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 g suspended FCS (corresponding to 0, 75.0, 113, or 150 microg PAHs, respectively) for 30 days. Exposure enhanced disease expression in oysters. However, no significant change was noted in any measured cellular or humoral parameters.

  18. Effect of electromagnetic fields emitted by cellular phones on the latency of evoked electrodermal activity.

    PubMed

    Esen, F; Esen, H

    2006-03-01

    The widespread use of cellular phones raises the question of their possible adverse biological effects, especially on the central nervous system (CNS). Therefore, the authors examined the effect of electromagnetic fields emitted by cellular phones (CPEMFs) on the evoked neuronal activity of CNS relating to generation and representation of electrodermal activity (EDA), an index of sympathetic nervous system activity. EDA (skin resistance response; SRR) latency was lengthened approximately 200 ms with CPEMFs exposure irrespective of the head site next to mobile phone used. Hemispheric asymmetry of EDA-2 pathway, which is represented by shorter SRR latency in the right hand of the right hand responders, was also distorted with CPEMFs. Because the CNS regions including EDA-2 are also involved in tasks of motor timing and time estimation, delayed response in this neuronal network due to CPEMFs exposure may increase the response time of mobile phone users. Therefore, the findings point to the potential risks of mobile phones on the function of CNS and consequently, possible increase in the risk of phone-related driving hazards.

  19. Signal processing for molecular and cellular biological physics: an emerging field

    PubMed Central

    Little, Max A.; Jones, Nick S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in our ability to watch the molecular and cellular processes of life in action—such as atomic force microscopy, optical tweezers and Forster fluorescence resonance energy transfer—raise challenges for digital signal processing (DSP) of the resulting experimental data. This article explores the unique properties of such biophysical time series that set them apart from other signals, such as the prevalence of abrupt jumps and steps, multi-modal distributions and autocorrelated noise. It exposes the problems with classical linear DSP algorithms applied to this kind of data, and describes new nonlinear and non-Gaussian algorithms that are able to extract information that is of direct relevance to biological physicists. It is argued that these new methods applied in this context typify the nascent field of biophysical DSP. Practical experimental examples are supplied. PMID:23277603

  20. Elucidating the Function of Penetratin and a Static Magnetic Field in Cellular Uptake of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Suman; Smith, Carol Anne; del Pino, Pablo; de la Fuente, Jesus M.; Mullin, Margaret; Hursthouse, Andrew; Stirling, David; Berry, Catherine C.

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology plays an increasingly important role in the biomedical arena. In particular, magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) have become important tools in molecular diagnostics, in vivo imaging and improved treatment of disease, with the ultimate aim of producing a more theranostic approach. Due to their small sizes, the nanoparticles can cross most of the biological barriers such as the blood vessels and the blood brain barrier, thus providing ubiquitous access to most tissues. In all biomedical applications maximum nanoparticle uptake into cells is required. Two promising methods employed to this end include functionalization of mNPs with cell-penetrating peptides to promote efficient translocation of cargo into the cell and the use of external magnetic fields for enhanced delivery. This study aimed to compare the effect of both penetratin and a static magnetic field with regards to the cellular uptake of 200 nm magnetic NPs and determine the route of uptake by both methods. Results demonstrated that both techniques increased particle uptake, with penetratin proving more cell specific. Clathrin- medicated endocytosis appeared to be responsible for uptake as shown via PCR and western blot, with Pitstop 2 (known to selectively block clathrin formation) blocking particle uptake. Interestingly, it was further shown that a magnetic field was able to reverse or overcome the blocking, suggesting an alternative route of uptake. PMID:24275948

  1. Static Magnetic Field Exposure Reproduces Cellular Effects of the Parkinson's Disease Drug Candidate ZM241385

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiyun; Che, Pao-Lin; Du, Jian; Ha, Barbara; Yarema, Kevin J.

    2010-01-01

    Background This study was inspired by coalescing evidence that magnetic therapy may be a viable treatment option for certain diseases. This premise is based on the ability of moderate strength fields (i.e., 0.1 to 1 Tesla) to alter the biophysical properties of lipid bilayers and in turn modulate cellular signaling pathways. In particular, previous results from our laboratory (Wang et al., BMC Genomics, 10, 356 (2009)) established that moderate strength static magnetic field (SMF) exposure altered cellular endpoints associated with neuronal function and differentiation. Building on this background, the current paper investigated SMF by focusing on the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) in the PC12 rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cell line that displays metabolic features of Parkinson's disease (PD). Methodology and Principal Findings SMF reproduced several responses elicited by ZM241385, a selective A2AR antagonist, in PC12 cells including altered calcium flux, increased ATP levels, reduced cAMP levels, reduced nitric oxide production, reduced p44/42 MAPK phosphorylation, inhibited proliferation, and reduced iron uptake. SMF also counteracted several PD-relevant endpoints exacerbated by A2AR agonist CGS21680 in a manner similar to ZM241385; these include reduction of increased expression of A2AR, reversal of altered calcium efflux, dampening of increased adenosine production, reduction of enhanced proliferation and associated p44/42 MAPK phosphorylation, and inhibition of neurite outgrowth. Conclusions and Significance When measured against multiple endpoints, SMF elicited qualitatively similar responses as ZM241385, a PD drug candidate. Provided that the in vitro results presented in this paper apply in vivo, SMF holds promise as an intriguing non-invasive approach to treat PD and potentially other neurological disorders. PMID:21079735

  2. Inhibition of cellular proliferation and enhancement of hydrogen peroxide production in fibrosarcoma cell line by weak radio frequency magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Castello, Pablo R; Hill, Iain; Sivo, Frank; Portelli, Lucas; Barnes, Frank; Usselman, Robert; Martino, Carlos F

    2014-12-01

    This study presents experimental data for the effects of weak radio frequency (RF) magnetic fields on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production and cellular growth rates of fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells in vitro. Cells were exposed either to 45 µT static magnetic fields (SMFs)-oriented vertical to the plane of growth or to SMFs combined with weak 5 and 10 MHz RF magnetic fields of 10 µTRMS intensity perpendicular to the static field. Cell numbers were reduced up to 30% on Day 2 for the cells exposed to the combination of SMF and a 10 MHz RF magnetic field compared with the SMF control cells. In addition, cells exposed to 10 MHz RF magnetic fields for 8 h increased H2O2 production by 55%. The results demonstrate an overall magnetic field-induced biological effect that shows elevated H2O2 levels with accompanying decrease in cellular growth rates.

  3. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE SECOND FLOOR STAIR HALL. NOTE THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE SECOND FLOOR STAIR HALL. NOTE THE TONGUE-AND-GROOVE WOOD FLOORING AND THE WINDOW ABOVE THE STAIR LANDING. VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type D, 111 Beard Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  4. Interior view of groundfloor porch showing exposed concrete floor slab ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of ground-floor porch showing exposed concrete floor slab system, facing west. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  5. Neuronal Cellular Responses to Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure: Implications Regarding Oxidative Stress and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Reale, Marcella; Kamal, Mohammad A.; Patruno, Antonia; Costantini, Erica; D'Angelo, Chiara; Pesce, Miko; Greig, Nigel H.

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases comprise both hereditary and sporadic conditions characterized by an identifying progressive nervous system dysfunction and distinctive neuopathophysiology. The majority are of non-familial etiology and hence environmental factors and lifestyle play key roles in their pathogenesis. The extensive use of and ever increasing worldwide demand for electricity has stimulated societal and scientific interest on the environmental exposure to low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on human health. Epidemiological studies suggest a positive association between 50/60-Hz power transmission fields and leukemia or lymphoma development. Consequent to the association between EMFs and induction of oxidative stress, concerns relating to development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease (AD), have been voiced as the brain consumes the greatest fraction of oxygen and is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress. Exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF)-EMFs are reported to alter animal behavior and modulate biological variables, including gene expression, regulation of cell survival, promotion of cellular differentiation, and changes in cerebral blood flow in aged AD transgenic mice. Alterations in inflammatory responses have also been reported, but how these actions impact human health remains unknown. We hence evaluated the effects of an electromagnetic wave (magnetic field intensity 1mT; frequency, 50-Hz) on a well-characterized immortalized neuronal cell model, human SH-SY5Y cells. ELF-EMF exposure elevated the expession of NOS and O2−, which were countered by compensatory changes in antioxidant catylase (CAT) activity and enzymatic kinetic parameters related to CYP-450 and CAT activity. Actions of ELF-EMFs on cytokine gene expression were additionally evaluated and found rapidly modified. Confronted with co-exposure to H2O2-induced oxidative stress, ELF-EMF proved not as well counteracted and resulted in a decline in CAT

  6. An extended cost potential field cellular automata model considering behavior variation of pedestrian flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fang; Li, Xingli; Kuang, Hua; Bai, Yang; Zhou, Huaguo

    2016-11-01

    The original cost potential field cellular automata describing normal pedestrian evacuation is extended to study more general evacuation scenarios. Based on the cost potential field function, through considering the psychological characteristics of crowd under emergencies, the quantitative formula of behavior variation is introduced to reflect behavioral changes caused by psychology tension. The numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effects of the magnitude of behavior variation, the different pedestrian proportions with different behavior variation and other factors on the evacuation efficiency and process in a room. The spatiotemporal dynamic characteristic during the evacuation process is also discussed. The results show that compared with the normal evacuation, the behavior variation under an emergency does not necessarily lead to the decrease of the evacuation efficiency. At low density, the increase of the behavior variation can improve the evacuation efficiency, while at high density, the evacuation efficiency drops significantly with the increasing amplitude of the behavior variation. In addition, the larger proportion of pedestrian affected by the behavior variation will prolong the evacuation time.

  7. Mixed-Up Floors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Examines the maintenance management problems inherent in cleaning multiple flooring materials revealing the need for school officials to keep it simple when choosing flooring types. Also highlighted is a carpet recycling program used by Wright State University (Ohio). (GR)

  8. Cleaning up Floor Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Richard; McLean, Doug

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how educational-facility maintenance departments can cut costs in floor cleaning through careful evaluation of floor equipment and products. Tips for choosing carpet detergents are highlighted. (GR)

  9. Mixed-Up Floors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Examines the maintenance management problems inherent in cleaning multiple flooring materials revealing the need for school officials to keep it simple when choosing flooring types. Also highlighted is a carpet recycling program used by Wright State University (Ohio). (GR)

  10. Cleaning up Floor Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Richard; McLean, Doug

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how educational-facility maintenance departments can cut costs in floor cleaning through careful evaluation of floor equipment and products. Tips for choosing carpet detergents are highlighted. (GR)

  11. FIRST FLOOR FRONT ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FIRST FLOOR FRONT ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED-- NOTE PRESENCE OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS (THE LATTER FLOOR WAS REMOVED MANY YEARS AGO), See also PA-1436 B-12 - Kid-Physick House, 325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. Cellular processes involved in human epidermal cells exposed to extremely low frequency electric fields.

    PubMed

    Collard, J-F; Hinsenkamp, M

    2015-05-01

    We observed on different tissues and organisms a biological response after exposure to pulsed low frequency and low amplitude electric or electromagnetic fields but the precise mechanism of cell response remains unknown. The aim of this publication is to understand, using bioinformatics, the biological relevance of processes involved in the modification of gene expression. The list of genes analyzed was obtained after microarray protocol realized on cultures of human epidermal explants growing on deepidermized human skin exposed to a pulsed low frequency electric field. The directed acyclic graph on a WebGestalt Gene Ontology module shows six categories under the biological process root: "biological regulation", "cellular process", "cell proliferation", "death", "metabolic process" and "response to stimulus". Enriched derived categories are coherent with the type of in vitro culture, the stimulation protocol or with the previous results showing a decrease of cell proliferation and an increase of differentiation. The Kegg module on WebGestalt has highlighted "cell cycle" and "p53 signaling pathway" as significantly involved. The Kegg website brings out interactions between FoxO, MAPK, JNK, p53, p38, PI3K/Akt, Wnt, mTor or NF-KappaB. Some genes expressed by the stimulation are known to have an exclusive function on these pathways. Analyses performed with Pathway Studio linked cell proliferation, cell differentiation, apoptosis, cell cycle, mitosis, cell death etc. with our microarrays results. Medline citation generated by the software and the fold change variation confirms a diminution of the proliferation, activation of the differentiation and a less well-defined role of apoptosis or wound healing. Wnt and DKK functional classes, DKK1, MACF1, ATF3, MME, TXNRD1, and BMP-2 genes proposed in previous publications after a manual analysis are also highlighted with other genes after Pathway Studio automatic procedure. Finally, an analysis conducted on a list of genes

  13. Magnetic field-enhanced cellular uptake of doxorubicin loaded magnetic nanoparticles for tumor treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, Indu; Pernal, Sebastian; Duproz, Alexandra; Bentley, Jeromy; Engelhard, Herbert; Linninger, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Cancer remains the second most common cause of death in the US, accounting for nearly 1 out of every 4 deaths. In recent years, several varieties of nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized with the intent of being utilized as tumor drug delivery vehicles. We have produced superparamagnetic, gold-coated magnetite (Fe3O4@Au) NPs and loaded them with the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX) for magnetic drug targeting (MDT) of tumors. The synthetic strategy uses the food thickening agent gellan gum (Phytagel) as a negatively charged shell around the Fe3O4@Au NP onto which the positively charged DOX molecules are loaded via electrostatic attraction. The resulting DOX-loaded magnetic nanoparticles (DOX-MNPs) were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, surface area electron diffraction, zeta potential measurements, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy as well as UV/Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. Cytotoxicity of the DOX-MNPs was demonstrated using the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay on C6 glioma cells. Cellular uptake of DOX-MNPs was enhanced with magnetic fields, which was quantitatively determined using flow cytometry. This improved uptake also led to greater tumor cell death, which was measured using MTT assay. These MDT results are promising for a new therapy for cancer.

  14. [Effects of electromagnetic field from cellular phones on selected central nervous system functions: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Bak, Marek; Zmyślony, Marek

    2010-01-01

    In the opinion of some experts, a growing emission of man-made electromagnetic fields (EMF), also known as electromagnetic is a source of continuously increasing health hazards to the general population. Due to their large number and very close proximity to the user's head, mobile phones deserve special attention. This work is intended to give a systematic review of objective studies, assessing the effects of mobile phone EMF on the functions of the central nervous system (CNS) structures. Our review shows that short exposures to mobile phone EMF, experienced by telephone users during receiving calls, do not affect the cochlear function. Effects of GSM mobile phone EMF on the conduction of neural impulses from the inner car neurons to the brainstem auditory centres have not been detected either. If Picton's principle, saying that P300 amplitude varies with the improbability of the targets and its latency varies with difficulty of discriminating the target stimulus from standard stimuli, is true, EMF changes the improbability of the targets without hindering their discrimination. Experiments with use of indirect methods do not enable unequivocal verification of EMF effects on the cognitive functions due to the CNS anatomical and functional complexity. Thus, it seems advisable to develop a model of EMF effects on the excitable brain structures at the cellular level.

  15. Residual Separation of Magnetic Fields Using a Cellular Neural Network Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albora, A. M.; Özmen, A.; Uçan, O. N.

    - In this paper, a Cellular Neural Network (CNN) has been applied to a magnetic regional/residual anomaly separation problem. CNN is an analog parallel computing paradigm defined in space and characterized by the locality of connections between processing neurons. The behavior of the CNN is defined by the template matrices A, B and the template vector I. We have optimized weight coefficients of these templates using Recurrent Perceptron Learning Algorithm (RPLA). The advantages of CNN as a real-time stochastic method are that it introduces little distortion to the shape of the original image and that it is not effected significantly by factors such as the overlap of power spectra of residual fields. The proposed method is tested using synthetic examples and the average depth of the buried objects has been estimated by power spectrum analysis. Next the CNN approach is applied to magnetic data over the Golalan chromite mine in Elazig which lies East of Turkey. This area is among the largest and richest chromite masses of the world. We compared the performance of CNN to classical derivative approaches.

  16. Quality Matters: Systematic Analysis of Endpoints Related to “Cellular Life” in Vitro Data of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Simkó, Myrtill; Remondini, Daniel; Zeni, Olga; Scarfi, Maria Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    Possible hazardous effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) at low exposure levels are controversially discussed due to inconsistent study findings. Therefore, the main focus of the present study is to detect if any statistical association exists between RF-EMF and cellular responses, considering cell proliferation and apoptosis endpoints separately and with both combined as a group of “cellular life” to increase the statistical power of the analysis. We searched for publications regarding RF-EMF in vitro studies in the PubMed database for the period 1995–2014 and extracted the data to the relevant parameters, such as cell culture type, frequency, exposure duration, SAR, and five exposure-related quality criteria. These parameters were used for an association study with the experimental outcome in terms of the defined endpoints. We identified 104 published articles, from which 483 different experiments were extracted and analyzed. Cellular responses after exposure to RF-EMF were significantly associated to cell lines rather than to primary cells. No other experimental parameter was significantly associated with cellular responses. A highly significant negative association with exposure condition-quality and cellular responses was detected, showing that the more the quality criteria requirements were satisfied, the smaller the number of detected cellular responses. According to our knowledge, this is the first systematic analysis of specific RF-EMF bio-effects in association to exposure quality, highlighting the need for more stringent quality procedures for the exposure conditions. PMID:27420084

  17. Quality Matters: Systematic Analysis of Endpoints Related to "Cellular Life" in Vitro Data of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure.

    PubMed

    Simkó, Myrtill; Remondini, Daniel; Zeni, Olga; Scarfi, Maria Rosaria

    2016-07-12

    Possible hazardous effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) at low exposure levels are controversially discussed due to inconsistent study findings. Therefore, the main focus of the present study is to detect if any statistical association exists between RF-EMF and cellular responses, considering cell proliferation and apoptosis endpoints separately and with both combined as a group of "cellular life" to increase the statistical power of the analysis. We searched for publications regarding RF-EMF in vitro studies in the PubMed database for the period 1995-2014 and extracted the data to the relevant parameters, such as cell culture type, frequency, exposure duration, SAR, and five exposure-related quality criteria. These parameters were used for an association study with the experimental outcome in terms of the defined endpoints. We identified 104 published articles, from which 483 different experiments were extracted and analyzed. Cellular responses after exposure to RF-EMF were significantly associated to cell lines rather than to primary cells. No other experimental parameter was significantly associated with cellular responses. A highly significant negative association with exposure condition-quality and cellular responses was detected, showing that the more the quality criteria requirements were satisfied, the smaller the number of detected cellular responses. According to our knowledge, this is the first systematic analysis of specific RF-EMF bio-effects in association to exposure quality, highlighting the need for more stringent quality procedures for the exposure conditions.

  18. Effects of 900 MHz electromagnetic field emitted by cellular phones on electrocardiograms of guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Meral, I; Tekintangac, Y; Demir, H

    2014-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by cellular phones (CPs) on electrocardiograms (ECGs) of guinea pigs. A total of 30 healthy guinea pigs weighing 500-800 g were used. After 1 week of adaptation period, animals were randomly divided into two groups: control group (n = 10) and EMF-exposed group (n = 20). Control guinea pigs were housed in a separate room without exposing them to EMFs of CPs. Animals in second group were exposed to 890-915 MHz EMF (217 Hz of pulse rate, 2 W of maximum peak power and 0.95 wt kg(-1) of specific absorption rate) for 12 h day(-1) (11 h 45 min stand-by and 15 min speaking mode) for 30 days. ECGs of guinea pigs in both the groups were recorded by a direct writing electrocardiograph at the beginning and 10th, 20th and 30th days of the experiment. All ECGs were standardized at 1 mV = 10 mm and with a chart speed of 50 mm sec(-1). Leads I, II, III, lead augmented vector right (aVR), lead augmented vector left (aVL) and lead augmented vector foot (aVF) were recorded. The durations and amplitudes of waves on the trace were measured in lead II. The data were expressed as mean with SEM. It was found that 12 h day(-1) EMF exposure for 30 days did not have any significant effects on ECG findings of guinea pigs. However, this issue needed to be further investigated in a variety of perspectives, such as longer duration of exposure to be able to elucidate the effects of mobile phone-induced EMFs on cardiovascular functions.

  19. Electric currents and fields induced in cells in the human brain by radiation from hand-held cellular telephones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Ronold W. P.

    2000-01-01

    After a review of recent work on the interaction of electromagnetic fields from cellular telephones with the human head, the structural and radiating properties of two common types of transceivers are determined. These include the impedance and current amplitude distribution of the antennas. The tangential electric field maintained by the antennas on the adjacent surface of the head is next determined. From this, the electric field propagating through the skull into the brain is analyzed and, from it, the electric field in spherical and long cylindrical cells is determined. It ranges from 27 to 13.5 V/m in the first 3 cm inside the skull. Of interest is the fact that the induced field in the interior of all cells, regardless of their shape, is the same as the incident field in the brain. It is hoped that biomedical scientists will review these results and determine possible biological effects.

  20. School Flooring Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, John

    2012-01-01

    With all of the hype that green building is receiving throughout the school facility-management industry, it's easy to overlook some elements that may not be right in front of a building manager's nose. It is helpful to examine the role floor covering plays in a green building project. Flooring is one of the most significant and important systems…

  1. School Flooring Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, John

    2012-01-01

    With all of the hype that green building is receiving throughout the school facility-management industry, it's easy to overlook some elements that may not be right in front of a building manager's nose. It is helpful to examine the role floor covering plays in a green building project. Flooring is one of the most significant and important systems…

  2. Floors: Care and Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post Office Dept., Washington, DC.

    Guidelines, methods and policies regarding the care and maintenance of post office building floors are overviewed in this handbook. Procedures outlined are concerned with maintaining a required level of appearance without wasting manpower. Flooring types and characteristics and the particular cleaning requirements of each type are given along with…

  3. Maximizing Hard Floor Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steger, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Explains the maintenance options available for hardwood flooring that can help ensure long life cycles and provide inviting spaces. Developing a maintenance system, knowing the type of traffic that the floor must endure, using entrance matting, and adhering to manufacturers guidelines are discussed. Daily, monthly or quarterly, and long-term…

  4. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED-- NOTE PRESENCE OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS AT LEFT. See also PA-1436 B-6 - Kid-Physick House, 325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED-- NOTE PRESENCE OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS AT LEFT. See also PA-1436 B-13 - Kid-Physick House, 325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. Cellular and Organizational Responses to Combined Kilohertz and Other Nonionizing Electromagnetic Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-12

    apparatus. The carrier frequency is determined by setting a rotary dial on the Wavetek #188 oscillator and calibrated by a Fluke #1925A frequency meter...rat liver : extremely rapid turnover of ornithine decarboxylase. Molec. Pharm. 5: 253-262. 67 ONR Contract N00014-84-K-03933 CELLULAR AND ORGANISMAL

  7. Osteocytes exposed to far field of therapeutic ultrasound promotes osteogenic cellular activities in pre-osteoblasts through soluble factors.

    PubMed

    Fung, Chak-Hei; Cheung, Wing-Hoi; Pounder, Neill M; Harrison, Andrew; Leung, Kwok-Sui

    2014-07-01

    Low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) was reported to accelerate the rate of fracture healing. When LIPUS is applied to fractures transcutaneously, bone tissues at different depths are exposed to different ultrasound fields. Measurement of LIPUS shows pressure variations in near field (nearby transducer); uniform profile was found beyond it (far field). Moreover, we have reported that the therapeutic effect of LIPUS is dependent on the axial distance of ultrasound beam in rat fracture model. However, the mechanisms of how different axial distances of LIPUS influence the mechanotransduction of bone cells are not understood. To understand the cellular mechanisms underlying far field LIPUS on enhanced fracture healing in rat model, the present study investigated the effect of ultrasound axial distances on (1) osteocyte, the mechanosensor, and (2) mechanotransduction between osteocyte and pre-osteoblast (bone-forming cell) through paracrine signaling. We hypothesized that far field LIPUS could enhance the osteogenic activities of osteoblasts via paracrine factors secreted from osteocytes. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of axial distances of LIPUS on osteocytes and osteocyte-osteoblast mechanotransduction. In this study, LIPUS (plane; 2.2 cm in diameter, 1.5MHz sine wave, ISATA=30 mW/cm(2)) was applied to osteocytes (mechanosensor) at three axial distances: 0mm (near field), 60mm (mid-near field) and 130 mm (far field). The conditioned medium of osteocytes (OCM) collected from these three groups were used to culture pre-osteoblasts (effector cell). In this study, (1) the direct effect of ultrasound fields on the mechanosensitivity of osteocytes; and (2) the osteogenic effect of different OCM treatments on pre-osteoblasts were assessed. The immunostaining results indicated the ultrasound beam at far field resulted in more β-catenin nuclear translocation in osteocytes than all other groups. This indicated that osteocytes could detect the

  8. Changes in the topography of cellular components in pea root statocytes exposed to high gradient magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyavskaya, Ninel A.; Polishchuk, Olexandr V.; Kondrachuk, Alexander V.

    2005-08-01

    High-gradient magnetic field (HGMF) is one of methods, by which gravitropism in plants is studied. The aim of our study was elucidation of HGMF effects on topography of cellular components in root statocytes of 4- day Pisum sativum L. seedlings in comparison to gravistimulation. Under gravistimulation during 5, 30 and 60 min seedlings were rotated 45o; magnetostimulation was carried out along gap between two NdFeB magnets (0.7 T). Morphometric measurements were made from images of whole statocytes, for upper, middle and lower thirds of cells, and proximal and distal halves of cells. Morphometric analysis revealed that HGMF resulted in the redistribution of all cellular components in statocytes. The correlation in the amyloplast distribution between gravistimulation and magnetostimulation was established.

  9. A Sea Floor Penetrometer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    processed through an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter, and stored in the memory of a mini-computer. Computer algorithms are applied to the deceleration data to provide real-time sea floor classification.

  10. Crater Wall and Floor

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-02-18

    The impact crater observed in this NASA Mars Odyssey image taken in Terra Cimmeria suggests sediments have filled the crater due to the flat and smooth nature of the floor compared to rougher surfaces at higher elevations.

  11. Urinary neopterin, a non-invasive marker of mammalian cellular immune activation, is highly stable under field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Heistermann, Michael; Higham, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Studying immunity and immune function in ecology and evolution requires field studies, but there has been a dearth of non-invasive markers of immune activation available for studying large wild mammals. Recently, we analytically and biologically validated the measurement of urinary neopterin (NEO), a biomarker of cellular immune activation, in captive macaques. However, applying this to free-ranging settings is complicated by issues involving sample collection, processing, storage, and transport. Here, we collected urine samples from captive macaques and undertook experiments simulating common field issues. We tested the effects on urinary NEO sample measurements following: dirt and faecal contamination; storage at room temperature; differences in processing and long-term storage methods (freezing, lyophilising, blotting onto filter paper); and freeze-thaw cycles. Our results show that concentrations of urinary NEO are highly stable – they are not affected by soil or faecal contamination, can be collected on filter paper and stored for many months frozen or lyophilised with minimal effect, and are resistant to multiple 24 hr freeze-thaws. With the addition of a biocidal preservative, concentrations are even stable at room temperature for long periods. Urinary NEO is remarkably resilient, and is highly suitable for non-invasive field studies of cellular immune responses in wild large mammals. PMID:26549509

  12. [Effects of electromagnetic fields emitted by cellular phone on auditory and vestibular labyrinth].

    PubMed

    Sievert, U; Eggert, S; Goltz, S; Pau, H W

    2007-04-01

    It is the subject of this study to investigate the biological effect of the HF radiation produced by the Global System for Mobile Communications-( GSM)-mobile phone on the inner ear with its sensors of the vestibular and auditive systems. Thermographic investigations made on various model materials and on the human temporal bone should show whether mobile phone does induce any increases of temperature which would lead to a relevant stimulus for the auditive and vestibular system or not. We carried out video-nystagmographic recordings of 13 subjects, brainstem electric response audiometry of 24 ears, and recordings of distorsion products of otoacoustic emissions of 20 ears. All tests were made with and without a mobile phone in use. The data was then analyzed for variation patterns in the functional parameters of the hearing and balance system that are subject to the (non)existence of electromagnetic radiation from the mobile phone. The thermographic investigations suggest that the mobile phone does not induce any increases of temperature which would lead to a relevant stimulus for the auditive and vestibular system. Video-nystagmographic recordings under field effect do not furnish any indication of vestibular reactions generated by field effects. Compared with the recording without field, the brainstem electric response audiometry under field effect did not reveal any changes of the parameters investigated, i. e. absolute latency of the peaks I, III, V and the interpeak latency between the peaks I and V. The distorsion products of otoacoustic emissions do not indicate, comparing the three measuring situations, i. e. before field effect, pulsed field and continuous field, any possible impacts of the HF field on the spectrum or levels of emissions for none of the probands. The investigations made show that the electromagnetic fields generated in using the mobile phone do not have an effect on the inner ear and auditive system to the colliculus inferior in the

  13. Nonlinear heart rate variability measures under electromagnetic fields produced by GSM cellular phones.

    PubMed

    Parazzini, Marta; Ravazzani, Paolo; Thuroczy, György; Molnar, Ferenc B; Ardesi, Gianluca; Sacchettini, Alessio; Mainardi, Luca Tommaso

    2013-06-01

    This study was designed to assess the nonlinear dynamics of heart rate variability (HRV) during exposure to low-intensity EMFs. Twenty-six healthy young volunteers were subjected to a rest-to-stand protocol to evaluate autonomic nervous system in quiet condition (rest, vagal prevalence) and after a sympathetic activation (stand). The procedure was conducted twice in a double-blind design: once with a genuine EMFs exposure (GSM cellular phone at 900 MHz, 2 W) and once with a sham exposure (at least 24 h apart). During each session, three-lead electrocardiograms were recorded and RR series extracted off-line. The RR series were analyzed by nonlinear deterministic techniques in every phase of the protocol and during the different exposures. The analysis of the data shows there was no statistically significant effect due to GSM exposure on the nonlinear dynamics of HRV.

  14. Increased Cellular Uptake of Biocompatible Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles into Malignant Cells by an External Magnetic Field

    PubMed Central

    Prijic, Sara; Scancar, Janez; Romih, Rok; Cemazar, Maja; Bregar, Vladimir B.; Znidarsic, Andrej

    2010-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are used as delivery systems for different therapeutics including nucleic acids for magnetofection-mediated gene therapy. The aim of our study was to evaluate physicochemical properties, biocompatibility, cellular uptake and trafficking pathways of the custom-synthesized SPIONs for their potential use in magnetofection. Custom-synthesized SPIONs were tested for size, shape, crystalline composition and magnetic behavior using a transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffractometer and magnetometer. SPIONs were dispersed in different aqueous media to obtain ferrofluids, which were tested for pH and stability using a pH meter and zetameter. Cytotoxicity was determined using the MTS and clonogenic assays. Cellular uptake and trafficking pathways were qualitatively evaluated by transmission electron microscopy and quantitatively by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. SPIONs were composed of an iron oxide core with a diameter of 8–9 nm, coated with a 2-nm-thick layer of silica. SPIONs, dispersed in 0.9% NaCl solution, resulted in a stable ferrofluid at physiological pH for several months. SPIONs were not cytotoxic in a broad range of concentrations and were readily internalized into different cells by endocytosis. Exposure to neodymium-iron-boron magnets significantly increased the cellular uptake of SPIONs, predominantly into malignant cells. The prepared SPIONs displayed adequate physicochemical and biomedical properties for potential use in magnetofection. Their cellular uptake was dependent on the cell type, and their accumulation within the cells was dependent on the duration of exposure to an external magnetic field. PMID:20602230

  15. [Pelvic floor and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Fritel, X

    2010-05-01

    Congenital factor, obesity, aging, pregnancy and childbirth are the main risk factors for female pelvic floor disorders (urinary incontinence, anal incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, dyspareunia). Vaginal delivery may cause injury to the pudendal nerve, the anal sphincter, or the anal sphincter. However the link between these injuries and pelvic floor symptoms is not always determined and we still ignore what might be the ways of prevention. Of the many obstetrical methods proposed to prevent postpartum symptoms, episiotomy, delivery in vertical position, delayed pushing, perineal massage, warm pack, pelvic floor rehabilitation, results are disappointing or limited. Caesarean section is followed by less postnatal urinary incontinence than vaginal childbirth. However this difference tends to disappear with time and following childbirth. Limit the number of instrumental extractions and prefer the vacuum to forceps could reduce pelvic floor disorders after childbirth. Ultrasound examination of the anal sphincter after a second-degree perineal tear is useful to detect and repair infra-clinic anal sphincter lesions. Scientific data is insufficient to justify an elective cesarean section in order to avoid pelvic floor symptoms in a woman without previous disorders.

  16. Bacterial growth rates are influenced by cellular characteristics of individual species when immersed in electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Tessaro, Lucas W E; Murugan, Nirosha J; Persinger, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) have negative effects on the rate of growth of bacteria. In the present study, two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative species were exposed to six magnetic field conditions in broth cultures. Three variations of the 'Thomas' pulsed frequency-modulated pattern; a strong-static "puck" magnet upwards of 5000G in intensity; a pair of these magnets rotating opposite one another at ∼30rpm; and finally a strong dynamic magnetic field generator termed the 'Resonator' with an average intensity of 250μT were used. Growth rate was discerned by optical density (OD) measurements every hour at 600nm. ELF-EMF conditions significantly affected the rates of growth of the bacterial cultures, while the two static magnetic field conditions were not statistically significant. Most interestingly, the 'Resonator' dynamic magnetic field increased the rates of growth of three species (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli), while slowing the growth of one (Serratia marcescens). We suggest that these effects are due to individual biophysical characteristics of the bacterial species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Electric Field Modulation of Semiconductor Quantum Dot Photoluminescence: Insights Into the Design of Robust Voltage-Sensitive Cellular Imaging Probes.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Clare E; Susumu, Kimihiro; Stewart, Michael H; Oh, Eunkeu; Mäkinen, Antti J; O'Shaughnessy, Thomas J; Kushto, Gary; Wolak, Mason A; Erickson, Jeffrey S; Efros, Alexander L; Huston, Alan L; Delehanty, James B

    2015-10-14

    The intrinsic properties of quantum dots (QDs) and the growing ability to interface them controllably with living cells has far-reaching potential applications in probing cellular processes such as membrane action potential. We demonstrate that an electric field typical of those found in neuronal membranes results in suppression of the QD photoluminescence (PL) and, for the first time, that QD PL is able to track the action potential profile of a firing neuron with millisecond time resolution. This effect is shown to be connected with electric-field-driven QD ionization and consequent QD PL quenching, in contradiction with conventional wisdom that suppression of the QD PL is attributable to the quantum confined Stark effect.

  18. The Transition Rules of 2D Linear Cellular Automata Over Ternary Field and Self-Replicating Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Uḡur; Uguz, Selman; Akin, Hasan

    In this paper we start with two-dimensional (2D) linear cellular automata (CA) in relation with basic mathematical structure. We investigate uniform linear 2D CA over ternary field, i.e. ℤ3. Present work is related to theoretical and imaginary investigations of 2D linear CA. Even though the basic construction of a CA is a discrete model, its macroscopic level behavior at large times and on large scales could be a close approximation to a continuous system. Considering some statistical properties, someone may also study geometrical aspects of patterns generated by cellular automaton evolution. After iteratively applying the linear rules, CA have been shown capable of producing interesting complex behaviors. Some examples of CA produce remarkably regular behavior on finite configurations. Using some simple initial configurations, the produced pattern can be self-replicating regarding some linear rules. Here we deal with the theory 2D uniform periodic, adiabatic and reflexive boundary CA (2D PB, AB and RB) over the ternary field ℤ3 and the applications of image processing for patterns generation. From the visual appearance of the patterns, it is seen that some rules display sensitive dependence on boundary conditions and their rule numbers.

  19. Rapporteur report: cellular, animal and epidemiological studies of the effects of static magnetic fields relevant to human health.

    PubMed

    Leszczynski, Dariusz

    2005-01-01

    Three talks were presented in the session on "Cellular, Animal and Epidemiological Studies of the Effects of Static Magnetic Fields Relevant to Human Health". The first talk presented the in vitro effects of static magnetic fields on cell cultures. The second talk presented the in vivo evidence obtained from animal studies. The final, third talk, presented the evidence obtained from epidemiological studies. The overall conclusion of the three presentations and the following general discussion was that the scientific evidence available to date is weak and contains large gaps in knowledge either due to the poor quality of published studies or because of the lack of published research on certain health-related topics. It was emphasized that the rapid development of new technological applications of static magnetic fields (e.g. magnetic levitation trains or magnetic resonance imaging-MRI) results in the human population at large, in certain occupations, and in a selected population of clinical patients being exposed to ever increasing static magnetic field strengths. It is of concern that the knowledge presently available concerning the health effects of these strong static magnetic fields is lagging a long way behind technological development. In conclusion, it was suggested that there is an urgent need to perform new studies in all research areas (in vitro, in vivo and epidemiology) in order to fill the present gaps in knowledge and provide assurance that this technology will not cause any unwanted and unexpected health side effects.

  20. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Comments on 'Cellular response to modulated radiation fields'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, C. K.; Klassen, N. V.

    2009-03-01

    The authors of a recent paper (Claridge Mackonis et al 2007 Phys. Med. Biol. 52 5469-82) measured cell survival in spatially modulated radiation fields. They claim to have identified two new types of radiation-induced bystander effect. We conclude that their claims are not supported by their data.

  1. Cellular basis for singing motor pattern generation in the field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer)

    PubMed Central

    Schöneich, Stefan; Hedwig, Berthold

    2012-01-01

    The singing behavior of male crickets allows analyzing a central pattern generator (CPG) that was shaped by sexual selection for reliable production of species-specific communication signals. After localizing the essential ganglia for singing in Gryllus bimaculatus, we now studied the calling song CPG at the cellular level. Fictive singing was initiated by pharmacological brain stimulation. The motor pattern underlying syllables and chirps was recorded as alternating spike bursts of wing-opener and wing-closer motoneurons in a truncated wing nerve; it precisely reflected the natural calling song. During fictive singing, we intracellularly recorded and stained interneurons in thoracic and abdominal ganglia and tested their impact on the song pattern by intracellular current injections. We identified three interneurons of the metathoracic and first unfused abdominal ganglion that rhythmically de- and hyperpolarized in phase with the syllable pattern and spiked strictly before the wing-opener motoneurons. Depolarizing current injection in two of these opener interneurons caused additional rhythmic singing activity, which reliably reset the ongoing chirp rhythm. The closely intermeshing arborizations of the singing interneurons revealed the dorsal midline neuropiles of the metathoracic and three most anterior abdominal neuromeres as the anatomical location of singing pattern generation. In the same neuropiles, we also recorded several closer interneurons that rhythmically hyper- and depolarized in the syllable rhythm and spiked strictly before the wing-closer motoneurons. Some of them received pronounced inhibition at the beginning of each chirp. Hyperpolarizing current injection in the dendrite revealed postinhibitory rebound depolarization as one functional mechanism of central pattern generation in singing crickets. PMID:23170234

  2. Cellular response to exogenous electromagnetic fields. Annual report, October 1986-September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, R.; Henderson, A.S.

    1987-09-21

    This research has determined that extremely-low-frequency (ELF) (100-Hz) electromagnetic (EM) fields induce alterations in transcription and translation in dipteran (Drosophila, Sciara) and human (HL60, IB4) cells. Transcriptional autoradiography and endoreplicated chromosomes, as well as analyses of sucrose density-gradient profiles, shows increased uptake of /sup 3/H uridine into RNA following exposure of cells to sinusoidal and asymmetric quasi-rectangular signals for time periods up to 60 minutes. Biochemical analyses (sucrose density gradients, oligo (d) T columns) have demonstrated that the RNA affected by signal stimulation is in the messenger-RNA size class. Quantitative and qualitative alterations also occur in polypeptide synthesis following EM-field stimulation. Major differences are noted from control among all sets analyzed with respect to new and augmented, as well as suppressed and deleted polypeptides. Using hybridization analysis, there is preliminary evidence that cell-specific transcripts are augmented.

  3. Evaluation of RF electromagnetic field exposure levels from cellular base stations in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Chan; Park, Seong-Ook

    2010-09-01

    This article presents the measurement results of human exposure to CDMA800 and CDMA1800 signals at locations in Korea where the general public has expressed concern. Measurements were performed at 50 locations across the country to compare the electromagnetic field levels with the general public exposure compliance limits. At each site, the distances between the nearest single or co-located base station and measurement positions were within a range of approximately 32-422 m. The measured exposure levels were very low compared with the international standard and the Korean human protection notice. The highest field level was 1.5 V/m, which corresponds to 0.15% of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines for human exposure. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. 16. STATIC TEST TOWER REMOVABLE FLOOR LEVEL VIEW OF FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. STATIC TEST TOWER REMOVABLE FLOOR LEVEL VIEW OF FLOOR THAT FOLDS BACK TO ALLOW ROCKET PLACEMENT. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  5. Two and Three Bedroom Units: First Floor Plan, Second Floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Two and Three Bedroom Units: First Floor Plan, Second Floor Plan, South Elevation (As Built), North Elevation (As Built), East Elevation (As Built), East Elevation (Existing), North Elevation (Existing) - Aluminum City Terrace, East Hill Drive, New Kensington, Westmoreland County, PA

  6. 45. SECOND FLOOR WAREHOUSE, WITH CRANE AND WOODEN BLOCK FLOORING. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. SECOND FLOOR WAREHOUSE, WITH CRANE AND WOODEN BLOCK FLOORING. VIEW TO NORTH. - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 16. SANDSORTING BUILDING, FIRST FLOOR, MEZZANINE ON LEFT (BELOW FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. SAND-SORTING BUILDING, FIRST FLOOR, MEZZANINE ON LEFT (BELOW FLOOR ARE CONCRETE AND STORAGE BINS), LOOKING NORTH - Mill "C" Complex, Sand-Sorting Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  8. Floor of Juventae Chasma

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-06-17

    Juventae Chasma is an enormous box canyon which opens to the north and forms the outflow channel Maja Vallis. This image from NASA Mars Odyssey spacecraft captures a portion of the western floor of Juventae Chasma and shows a wide variety of landforms.

  9. Advances in cellular technology in the hematology field: What have we learned so far?

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Gustavo Torres; Maranduba, Claudinéia Pereira; de Souza, Camila Maurmann; do Amaral, Danielle Luciana Aurora Soares; da Guia, Francisco Carlos; Zanette, Rafaella de Souza Salomão; Rettore, João Vitor Paes; Rabelo, Natana Chaves; Nascimento, Lucas Mendes; Pinto, Ícaro França Navarro; Farani, Júlia Boechat; Neto, Abrahão Elias Hallack; Silva, Fernando de Sá; Maranduba, Carlos Magno da Costa; Atalla, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advances in the hematology field, blood transfusion-related iatrogenesis is still a major issue to be considered during such procedures due to blood antigenic incompatibility. This places pluripotent stem cells as a possible ally in the production of more suitable blood products. The present review article aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the state-of-the-art concerning the differentiation of both embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells to hematopoietic cell lines. Here, we review the most recently published protocols to achieve the production of blood cells for future application in hemotherapy, cancer therapy and basic research. PMID:25621110

  10. Abnormal responses of electronic pocket dosimeters caused by high frequency electromagnetic fields emitted from digital cellular telephones.

    PubMed

    Deji, Shizuhiko; Nishizawa, Kunihide

    2005-09-01

    High frequency electromagnetic fields emitted from digital cellular telephones (cell phones) occasionally cause abnormally high and erroneous indicated dose readings on electronic pocket dosimeters (EPDs). Electric field strength distribution around a cell phone transmitting 1.5 GHz band with a maximum power of 0.8 W was analyzed by using an isotropic probe with tri-axial dipole antennas. Five types of EPDs were exposed to the fields for 50 s under configurations relative to the cell phone. The electric field distribution expanded around the phone's antenna and had a maximum electric field strength of 36.5 +/- 0.3 V m(-1). The cell phone gave rise to erroneous indicated dose readings on four out of five EPDs. The maximum value of erroneous indicated dosage for 50 s reached 1,283 microSv, which was about 2.6% of the annual effective dose limit of 50 mSv. The electromagnetic susceptibility of the EPDs was higher in the sections where the semiconductor detectors or electric circuit boards were located. The distance required to prevent electromagnetic interference differed for each EPD and ranged from 2.0 to 21.0 cm from the cell phone. The electric and magnetic field immunity levels of the EPDs varied from 9.2 V m(-1) to greater than 37.6 V m(-1), and from 0.03 A m(-1) to greater than 0.51 A m(-1). The EPDs displayed erroneous dose readings during exposure but recovered their normal performance after the cell phone ceased transmitting. The electromagnetic immunity levels of the EPDs were either equal to or greater than the IEC-standard. The immunity levels should be enhanced greater than the IEC-standard from the standpoint of radiation protection. The simplest and most reliable measure to prevent potential malfunction is to prohibit the radiation workers from carrying cell phones to their workplace.

  11. Experiments on the low frequency barrier characteristics of cellular metamaterial panels in a diffuse sound field.

    PubMed

    Varanasi, Srinivas; Bolton, J Stuart; Siegmund, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The metamaterial under investigation here consists of a periodic arrangement of unit plates in a grid-like frame such that there is a contrast in the local areal mass between cell interior and cell wall. In the low frequency range and under normal incidence this metamaterial panel exhibits a sound transmission loss significantly larger than the transmission loss of an unstructured panel with the same homogeneous mass per unit area. However, when the incident sound field is diffuse, the relative advantage of the metamaterial barrier is reduced or eliminated. A sequence of experiments is documented to demonstrate that the relative advantage of the metamaterial barrier can be realized even in a diffuse sound field by creating a hybrid barrier system which embeds the metamaterial layer between a normalizing waveguide layer on the incident side and an absorbing layer on the transmitted side. The sound normalizing waveguide layer is a lattice structure, and the absorbing layer is high performance glass fiber mat. By using measurements of the transmission loss of a 1.2 m square panel system the role of each of these components is demonstrated.

  12. Regulation of cellular function via electromagnetic field frequency and extracellular environment: A theoretical- experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghian, Toloo; Sheikh, Abdul; Narmoneva, Daria; Kogan, Andrei

    2015-03-01

    Application of external electric field (EF) as a non-pharmacological, non-invasive tool to control cell function is of great therapeutic interest. We developed a theoretical-experimental approach to investigate the biophysical mechanisms of EF interaction with cells in electrode-free physiologically-relevant configuration. Our numerical results demonstrated that EF frequency is the major parameter to control cell response to EF. Non-oscillating or low-frequency EF leads to charge accumulation on the cell surface membrane that may mediate membrane initiated cell responses. In contrast, high-frequency EF penetrates the cell membrane and reaches cell cytoplasm, where it may directly activate intracellular responses. The theoretical predictions were confirmed in our experimental studies of the effects of applied EF on vascular cell function. Results show that non-oscillating EF increases vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression while field polarity controls cell adhesion rate. High-frequency, but not low frequency, EF provides differential regulation of cytoplasmic focal adhesion kinase and VEGF expression depending on the substrate, with increased expression in cells cultured on RGD-rich synthetic hydrogels, and decreased expression for matrigel culture. The authors acknowledge the financial support from the NSF (DMR-1206784 & DMR-0804199 to AK); the NIH (1R21 DK078814-01A1 to DN) and the University of Cincinnati (Interdisciplinary Faculty Research Support Grant to DN and AK).

  13. Pelvic Organ Prolapse: New Concepts in Pelvic Floor Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Pedro A; Wai, Clifford Y

    2016-03-01

    As the field of reconstructive pelvic surgery continues to evolve, with descriptions of new procedures to repair pelvic organ prolapse, it remains imperative to maintain a functional understanding of pelvic floor anatomy and support. The goal of this review was to provide a focused, conceptual approach to differentiating anatomic defects contributing to prolapse in the various compartments of the vagina. Rather than provide exhaustive descriptions of pelvic floor anatomy, basic pelvic floor anatomy is reviewed, new and historical concepts of pelvic floor support are discussed, and relevance to the surgical management of specific anatomic defects is addressed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Field measurement analysis to validate lane-changing behavior in a cellular automaton model.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Eriko; Tanimoto, Jun; Iwamura, Yoshiro; Nakamura, Kosuke; Mitsuhiro Akimoto

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, we analyzed field measurement data obtained for a Japanese expressway and used it as a data set for the validation of microscopic simulation models. Consequently, in accordance with previous studies, we confirmed the common features depicted by the fundamental diagram (flux vs density relation) and lane-usage ratio vs density diagram. We found two things regarding lane-changing behavior: (1) a lane change occurs asymmetrically, where a lane change from a slow to a fast lane differs from that from a fast to a slow lane; and (2) the so-called incentive criterion in the case of small gaps between the preceding vehicles in both slow and fast lanes refers to the velocities and /or the relative velocities with respect to the preceding vehicles, whereas that for relatively large gaps refers to the distances to the preceding vehicles is cast into the above incentive criterion in addition to the two factors mentioned above.

  15. Field measurement analysis to validate lane-changing behavior in a cellular automaton model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Eriko; Tanimoto, Jun; Iwamura, Yoshiro; Nakamura, Kosuke; Mitsuhiro Akimoto

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, we analyzed field measurement data obtained for a Japanese expressway and used it as a data set for the validation of microscopic simulation models. Consequently, in accordance with previous studies, we confirmed the common features depicted by the fundamental diagram (flux vs density relation) and lane-usage ratio vs density diagram. We found two things regarding lane-changing behavior: (1) a lane change occurs asymmetrically, where a lane change from a slow to a fast lane differs from that from a fast to a slow lane; and (2) the so-called incentive criterion in the case of small gaps between the preceding vehicles in both slow and fast lanes refers to the velocities and /or the relative velocities with respect to the preceding vehicles, whereas that for relatively large gaps refers to the distances to the preceding vehicles is cast into the above incentive criterion in addition to the two factors mentioned above.

  16. Wide-field multiphoton imaging of cellular dynamics in thick tissue by temporal focusing and patterned illumination

    PubMed Central

    Therrien, O. D.; Aubé, B.; Pagès, S.; Koninck, P. De; Côté, D.

    2011-01-01

    Wide-field temporal focusing is a novel technique that provides optical sectioning for imaging without the need for beam scanning. However, illuminating over large areas greatly reduces the photon density which limits the technique applicability to small regions, precluding functional imaging of cellular networks. Here we present a strategy that combines beam shaping and temporal focusing of amplified pulses (>1 µJ/pulse) for fast imaging of cells from the central nervous system in acute slices. Multiphoton video-rate imaging over total areas as wide as 4800 µm2 with an optical sectioning under 10 µm at 800 nm is achieved with our setup, leading to imaging of calcium dynamics of multiple cells simultaneously in thick tissue. PMID:21412473

  17. The Floor of Saha E

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-10-27

    Diverse textures on the floor of Saha E which could be the result of impact melt coating boulders and other deposits on the floor of the crater on the lunar farside in this image taken by NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  18. 6. Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated August 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated August 10, 1968, Selfridge ANG Base, in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. FLOOR PLANS BLDGS. 1582 & 1584. - Selfridge Field, Building Nos. 1582, 1583, 1584, South of East Joy Boulevard, west of Taxiway C, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  19. 7. Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated September 26, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated September 26, 1975, Selfridge ANG Base, in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. FLOOR PLAN BLDG. 1583. - Selfridge Field, Building Nos. 1582, 1583, 1584, South of East Joy Boulevard, west of Taxiway C, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  20. Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated March 7, 1968, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated March 7, 1968, Department of the Air Force Air Defense Command Installations, in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. FLOOR PLAN BLDG. 1575 - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1575, South of East Joy Boulevard, west of Taxiway C, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  1. 9. Photographic copy of first and second floor plans, undated, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photographic copy of first and second floor plans, undated, Department of the Air Force, Air Defense Command Installations, Washington, D.C., in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. FLOOR PLANS. - Selfridge Field, Building No. 509, Sugarbush Road east of West Perimeter Road, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  2. 6. Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated August 18, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated August 18, 1968, Department of the Air Force Air Defense Command Installations, in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. FLOOR PLAN BLDG. 1585. - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1585, South of East Joy Boulevard, west of Taxiway C, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  3. INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 1, SECOND FLOOR. NOTE THE ORIGINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 1, SECOND FLOOR. NOTE THE ORIGINAL MOSAIC PATTERN FLOOR TILE, TILE WAINSCOT, CERAMIC ACCESSORIES, AND SINGLE-PANEL DOOR TO LINEN CLOSET. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type K, 304 Sixth Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  4. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE SECOND FLOOR HALL. SHOWING THE IRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE SECOND FLOOR HALL. SHOWING THE IRON RAIL, TONGUE-AND-GROOVE WOOD FLOOR, AND THE SLIDING WINDOW TO BEDROOM 3. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type N, 204B Second Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  5. Cellular behavior as a dynamic field for exploring bone bioengineering: a closer look at cell-biomaterial interface.

    PubMed

    Gemini-Piperni, Sara; Takamori, Esther Rieko; Sartoretto, Suelen Cristina; Paiva, Katiúcia B S; Granjeiro, José Mauro; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso; Zambuzzi, Willian Fernando

    2014-11-01

    Bone is a highly dynamic and specialized tissue, capable of regenerating itself spontaneously when afflicted by minor injuries. Nevertheless, when major lesions occur, it becomes necessary to use biomaterials, which are not only able to endure the cellular proliferation and migration, but also to substitute the original tissue or integrate itself to it. With the life expectancy growth, regenerative medicine has been gaining constant attention in the reconstructive field of dentistry and orthopedy. Focusing on broadening the therapeutic possibilities for the regeneration of injured organs, the development of biomaterials allied with the applicability of gene therapy and bone bioengineering has been receiving vast attention over the recent years. The progress of cellular and molecular biology techniques gave way to new-guided therapy possibilities. Supported by multidisciplinary activities, tissue engineering combines the interaction of physicists, chemists, biologists, engineers, biotechnologist, dentists and physicians with common goals: the search for materials that could promote and lead cell activity. A well-oriented combining of scaffolds, promoting factors, cells, together with gene therapy advances may open new avenues to bone healing in the near future. In this review, our target was to write a report bringing overall concepts on tissue bioengineering, with a special attention to decisive biological parameters for the development of biomaterials, as well as to discuss known intracellular signal transduction as a new manner to be explored within this field, aiming to predict in vitro the quality of the host cell/material and thus contributing with the development of regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. External stimulation by nanosecond pulsed electric fields to enhance cellular uptake of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, Samantha; Beier, Hope T.; Ibey, Bennett L.; Nash, Kelly

    2015-03-01

    As an increasing number of studies use gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for potential medicinal, biosensing and therapeutic applications, the synthesis and use of readily functional, bio-compatible nanoparticles is receiving much interest. For these efforts, the particles are often taken up by the cells to allow for optimum sensing or therapeutic measures. This process typically requires incubation of the particles with the cells for an extended period. In an attempt to shorten and control this incubation, we investigated whether nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) exposure of cells will cause a controlled uptake of the particles. NsPEF are known to induce the formation of nanopores in the plasma membrane, so we hypothesized that by controlling the number, amplitude or duration of the nsPEF exposure, we could control the size of the nanopores, and thus control the particle uptake. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells were incubated sub-10 nm AuNPs with and without exposure to 600-ns electrical pulses. Contrary to our hypothesis, the nsPEF exposure was found to actually decrease the particle uptake in the exposed cells. This result suggests that the nsPEF exposure may be affecting the endocytotic pathway and processes due to membrane disruption.

  7. High frequency application of nanosecond pulsed electric fields alters cellular membrane disruption and fluorescent dye uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steelman, Zachary A.; Tolstykh, Gleb P.; Beier, Hope T.; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2016-03-01

    Cells exposed to nanosecond-pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) exhibit a wide variety of nonspecific effects, including blebbing, swelling, intracellular calcium bursts, apoptotic and necrotic cell death, formation of nanopores, and depletion of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP2) to induce activation of the inositol trisphosphate/diacylglycerol pathway. While several studies have taken place in which multiple pulses were delivered to cells, the effect of pulse repetition rate (PRR) is not well understood. To better understand the effects of PRR, a laser scanning confocal microscope was used to observe CHO-K1 cells exposed to ten 600ns, 200V pulses at varying repetition rates (5Hz up to 500KHz) in the presence of either FM 1-43, YO-PRO-1, or Propidium Iodide (PI) fluorescent dyes, probes frequently used to indicate nanoporation or permeabilization of the plasma membrane. Dye uptake was monitored for 30 seconds after pulse application at a rate of 1 image/second. In addition, a single long pulse of equivalent energy (200V, 6 μs duration) was applied to test the hypothesis that very fast PRR will approximate the biological effects of a single long pulse of equal energy. Upon examination of the data, we found strong variation in the relationship between PRR and uptake in each of the three dyes. In particular, PI uptake showed little frequency dependence, FM 1-43 showed a strong inverse relationship between frequency and internal cell fluorescence, and YO-PRO-1 exhibited a "threshold" point of around 50 KHz, after which the inverse trend observed in FM 1-43 was seen to reverse itself. Further, a very high PRR of 500 KHz only approximated the biological effects of a single 6 μs pulse in cells stained with YO-PRO-1, suggesting that uptake of different dyes may proceed by different physical mechanisms.

  8. Effects of acute exposure to the radiofrequency fields of cellular phones on plasma lipid peroxide and antioxidase activities in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Y M; Moustafa, R M; Belacy, A; Abou-El-Ela, S H; Ali, F M

    2001-11-01

    Radiofrequency fields of cellular phones may affect biological systems by increasing free radicals, which appear mainly to enhance lipid peroxidation, and by changing the antioxidase activities of human blood thus leading to oxidative stress. To test this, we have investigated the effect of acute exposure to radiofrequency fields of commercially available cellular phones on some parameters indicative of oxidative stress in 12 healthy adult male volunteers. Each volunteer put the phone in his pocket in standby position with the keypad facing the body. The parameters measured were lipid peroxide and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), total glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase. The results obtained showed that the plasma level of lipid peroxide was significantly increased after 1, 2 and 4 h of exposure to radiofrequency fields of the cellular phone in standby position. Moreover, the activities of SOD and GSH-Px in human erythrocytes showed significant reduction while the activity of catalase in human erythrocytes did not decrease significantly. These results indicate that acute exposure to radiofrequency fields of commercially available cellular phones may modulate the oxidative stress of free radicals by enhancing lipid peroxidation and reducing the activation of SOD and GSH-Px, which are free radical scavengers. Therefore, these results support the interaction of radiofrequency fields of cellular phones with biological systems.

  9. Floor of Hellas Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    With a diameter of roughly 2000 km and a depth of over 7 km, the Hellas Basin is the largest impact feature on Mars. Because of its great depth, there is significantly more atmosphere to peer through in order to see its floor, reducing the quality of the images taken from orbit. This THEMIS image straddles a scarp between the Hellas floor and an accumulation of material at least a half kilometer thick that covers much of the floor. The southern half of the image contains some of this material. Strange ovoid landforms are present here that give the appearance of flow. It is possible that water ice or even liquid water was present in the deposits and somehow responsible for the observed landscape. The floor of Hellas remains a poorly understood portion of the planet that should benefit from the analysis of new THEMIS data.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in

  10. Modular Flooring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thate, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The modular flooring system (MFS) was developed to provide a portable, modular, durable carpeting solution for NASA fs Robotics Alliance Project fs (RAP) outreach efforts. It was also designed to improve and replace a modular flooring system that was too heavy for safe use and transportation. The MFS was developed for use as the flooring for various robotics competitions that RAP utilizes to meet its mission goals. One of these competitions, the FIRST Robotics Competition (FRC), currently uses two massive rolls of broadloom carpet for the foundation of the arena in which the robots are contained during the competition. The area of the arena is approximately 30 by 72 ft (approximately 9 by 22 m). This carpet is very cumbersome and requires large-capacity vehicles, and handling equipment and personnel to transport and deploy. The broadloom carpet sustains severe abuse from the robots during a regular three-day competition, and as a result, the carpet is not used again for competition. Similarly, broadloom carpets used for trade shows at convention centers around the world are typically discarded after only one use. This innovation provides a green solution to this wasteful practice. Each of the flooring modules in the previous system weighed 44 lb (.20 kg). The improvements in the overall design of the system reduce the weight of each module by approximately 22 lb (.10 kg) (50 %), and utilize an improved "module-to-module" connection method that is superior to the previous system. The MFS comprises 4-by-4-ft (.1.2-by- 1.2-m) carpet module assemblies that utilize commercially available carpet tiles that are bonded to a lightweight substrate. The substrate surface opposite from the carpeted surface has a module-to-module connecting interface that allows for the modules to be connected, one to the other, as the modules are constructed. This connection is hidden underneath the modules, creating a smooth, co-planar flooring surface. The modules are stacked and strapped

  11. Cell viability studies and operation in cellular culture medium of n-type organic field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barra, M.; Viggiano, D.; Di Capua, R.; Di Girolamo, F.; Santoro, F.; Taglialatela, M.; Cassinese, A.

    2012-02-01

    The possibility of the fabrication of organic devices suitable to be applied in bio-sensing fields depends largely on the availability of organic compounds displaying robust electrical properties even in aqueous solutions and effective biocompatibility features. In this paper, we report about the good cellular biocompatibility and the electrical response stability in an ionic medium of n-type organic transistors based on the recently developed PDI-8CN2 oligomer. The biocompatibility has been tested by analyzing the adhesion and viability of two different cell lines, human epithelial HeLa cells and murine neuronal F11 cells, on PDI-8CN2 films grown by organic molecular beam deposition (OMBD) on SiO2 substrates. The effect of film thickness on cell attachment was also tested. Uncoated SiO2 substrates were used as control surfaces and sexithiophene (T6) as device testing control. Moreover, the possible toxicity of -CN groups of PDI-8CN2 was tested on HeLa cell cultures, using PDI-8 and T6 molecules as controls. Results showed that, although at high concentration these organic compounds are toxic in solution, if they are presented in form of film, cell lines can attach and grow on them. The electrical response stability of PDI-8CN2 transistors in a cellular culture medium characterized by high concentrations of ionic species has been also investigated. For this purpose, low-voltage operation devices with VGS ranging from -5 V to 5 V, able to strongly reduce the influence of Faradaic currents coming from the electrical operation in an highly ionic environment, have been fabricated on 35 nm thick SiO2 layers and electrically characterized. These results are useful to experimentally define the main critical issues to be further addressed for the fabrication of reliable bio-sensors based on organic transistors.

  12. Photographic copy of floor plan, undated, Civil Engineers Office, in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of floor plan, undated, Civil Engineers Office, in possession of Selfridge Base Civil Engineers Office, Mt. Clemens, Michigan - Selfridge Field, Building No. 833, West of Mulberry Street north of George Avenue, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  13. INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRY. SHOWING THE STAINED CONCRETE FLOOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRY. SHOWING THE STAINED CONCRETE FLOOR AND WINDOW WITH DIAMOND PATTERN MUNTINS. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type F, 602 Beard Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  14. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE STAIRWAY TO THE SECOND FLOOR IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE STAIRWAY TO THE SECOND FLOOR IN THE LIVING ROOM. SHOWING THE IRON RAILING AND RECESSED BOOKCASE. VIEW FACING WEST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type M, 113 Beard Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  15. BATHROOM OFF BEDROOM AT NORTHEAST CORNER OF GROUND FLOOR, NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BATHROOM OFF BEDROOM AT NORTHEAST CORNER OF GROUND FLOOR, NORTH WING. SHOWERS STAND SEPARATELY FROM BATHTUBS IN FACILITY NO. 299 - Hamilton Field, Base Commander's Quarters, 299 Casa Grande Real, Novato, Marin County, CA

  16. INTERIOR VIEW OF SECOND FLOOR HALL. SHOWING THE IRON RAILING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF SECOND FLOOR HALL. SHOWING THE IRON RAILING AND DOUBLE FLUSH WOOD DOORS TO THE LINEN CLOSET. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type C, 208 Second Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  17. Building No. 909, stairway between first and second floors (typical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building No. 909, stairway between first and second floors (typical for barracks) - Presidio of San Francisco, Enlisted Men's Barracks Type, West end of Crissy Field, between Pearce & Maudlin Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. Building No. 909, first floor lavatory (typical for barracks) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building No. 909, first floor lavatory (typical for barracks) - Presidio of San Francisco, Enlisted Men's Barracks Type, West end of Crissy Field, between Pearce & Maudlin Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. 7. GROUND FLOOR, NORTHEAST PARLOR, LOOKING TOWARD EAST WALL, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. GROUND FLOOR, NORTHEAST PARLOR, LOOKING TOWARD EAST WALL, VIEW SHOWING WOODEN FLOORBOARDS, FIREPLACE AND MANTEL, OVERMANTEL, CORNICE AND PILASTER STRIPS AND FURNISHINGS - Clover Fields, Forman's Lodge Road, Wye Mills, Talbot County, MD

  20. 15. Photographic copy of floor plan, not dated, in possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photographic copy of floor plan, not dated, in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1050, Northwest corner of Doolittle Avenue & D Street; Harrison Township, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  1. Crater Wall and Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    3D Projection onto MOLA data [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The impact crater observed in this THEMIS image taken in Terra Cimmeria suggests sediments have filled the crater due to the flat and smooth nature of the floor compared to rougher surfaces at higher elevations. The abundance of several smaller impact craters on the floor of the larger crater indicate however that the flat surface has been exposed for an extended period of time. The smooth surface of the crater floor and rougher surfaces at higher elevations are observed in the 3-D THEMIS image that is draped over MOLA topography (2X vertical exaggeration).

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -22.9, Longitude 155.7 East (204.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  2. Mesas on Depression Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    3 August 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows mesas and buttes on the floor of a depression in the Labyrinthus Noctis region of Mars. This is part of the western Valles Marineris. Each mesa is a remnant of a formerly more extensive sequence of rock. The image is located near 7.0oS, 99.2oW. It covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  3. [Pelvic floor muscle training and pelvic floor disorders in women].

    PubMed

    Thubert, T; Bakker, E; Fritel, X

    2015-05-01

    Our goal is to provide an update on the results of pelvic floor rehabilitation in the treatment of urinary incontinence and genital prolapse symptoms. Pelvic floor muscle training allows a reduction of urinary incontinence symptoms. Pelvic floor muscle contractions supervised by a healthcare professional allow cure in half cases of stress urinary incontinence. Viewing this contraction through biofeedback improves outcomes, but this effect could also be due by a more intensive and prolonged program with the physiotherapist. The place of electrostimulation remains unclear. The results obtained with vaginal cones are similar to pelvic floor muscle training with or without biofeedback or electrostimulation. It is not known whether pelvic floor muscle training has an effect after one year. In case of stress urinary incontinence, supervised pelvic floor muscle training avoids surgery in half of the cases at 1-year follow-up. Pelvic floor muscle training is the first-line treatment of post-partum urinary incontinence. Its preventive effect is uncertain. Pelvic floor muscle training may reduce the symptoms associated with genital prolapse. In conclusion, pelvic floor rehabilitation supervised by a physiotherapist is an effective short-term treatment to reduce the symptoms of urinary incontinence or pelvic organ prolapse.

  4. Use of moving optical gradient fields for analysis of apoptotic cellular responses in a chronic myeloid leukemia cell model.

    PubMed

    Forster, Anita H; Wang, Mark M; Butler, William F; Chachisvilis, Mirianas; Chung, Thomas D Y; Esener, Sadik C; Hall, Jeffrey M; Kibar, Osman; Lykstad, Kristie; Marchand, Philippe J; Mercer, Elinore M; Pestana, Luis M; Sur, Sudipto; Tu, Eugene; Yang, Rong; Zhang, Haichuan; Kariv, Ilona

    2004-04-01

    To facilitate quantitation of cellular apoptotic responses to various antineoplastic agents, a laser-based technology, Optophoresis, has been developed to provide analysis of cells without any need for labeling or cell processing. Optophoresis is defined as the analysis of the motion of cells, where the motion is either induced or modified by a moving optical gradient field, which produces radiation pressure forces on the cells in an aqueous suspension. Quantitation of the induced motion provides a basis for distinguishing one population of cells from another. One Optophoretic technique, Fast Scan, measures the distribution of distances traversed by a population of cells when exposed to a fast-moving optical gradient. Fast Scan was validated using a cell-based model of chronic myeloid leukemia treated with Gleevec, a specific inhibitor of aberrant Bcr-Abl protein kinase. The Optophoretic measurements were quantitatively comparable to reference assays with regard to drug selectivity and potency and to target specificity, demonstrating the suitability of this technology for pharmaceutical and clinical applications.

  5. Fine structure of the spectra of the Kondo lattice model: Two-site cellular dynamical mean-field theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osolin, Žiga; Žitko, Rok

    2017-01-01

    We study the antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic Kondo insulator phases of the Kondo lattice model on the cubic lattice at half filling using the cellular dynamical mean-field theory (CDMFT) with the numerical renormalization group (NRG) as the impurity solver, focusing on the fine details of the spectral function and self-energy. We find that the nonlocal correlations increase the gap in both the antiferromagnetic and Kondo insulator phases and shrink the extent of the antiferromagnetic phase in the phase diagram but do not alter any properties qualitatively. The agreement between the numerical CDMFT results and those within a simple hybridization picture, which adequately describes the overall band structure of the system but neglects all effects on the inelastic-scattering processes, is similar to that of the single-site DMFT results; there are deviations that are responsible for the additional fine structure, in particular for the asymmetric spectral resonances or dips that become more pronounced in the strong-coupling regime close to the antiferromagnet-paramagnetic quantum phase transition. These features appear broader in the CDMFT mostly due to numerical artifacts linked to more aggressive state truncation required in the NRG.

  6. Effect of 900MHz electromagnetic fields emitted from cellular phones on fracture healing: an experimental study on rats.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Ahmet; Atay, Tolga; Gülle, Kanat; Kırdemir, Vecihi; Ozden, Ahmet; Çömlekçi, Selçuk; Aydoğan, Nevres Hürriyet

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) at 900 MHz frequencies on bone fracture healing. The study included 30 adult male Wistar albino rats (average weight: 256 g) divided into two equal groups. Transverse fracture was created manually by pressing a finger on the right tibias of all rats and fractures were fixed intramedullary using a K-wire. Rats in Group 1 were exposed to EMF at 900 MHz frequency 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week for 8 weeks. Group 2, the control group, was kept under the same experimental conditions without EMF exposure. Radiological, mechanical and histological examination of tibial fracture healing was performed. There was a significant difference between radiological, histological and manual biomechanical scores of the study and control groups (p=0.020, p=0.006 and p=0.032, respectively). All scores were lower in the study group than the control group. Results of this study demonstrate that EMF at 900 MHz of frequency emitted from cellular phones has a significantly negative effect on bone fracture healing in a rat tibia model.

  7. Floor of Juventae Chasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 30 May 2002) Juventae Chasma is an enormous box canyon (250 km X 100 km) which opens to the north and forms the outflow channel Maja Vallis. Most Martian outflow channels such as Maja, Kasei, and Ares Valles begin at point sources such as box canyons and chaotic terrain and then flow unconfined into a basin region. This image captures a portion of the western floor of Juventae Chasma and shows a wide variety of landforms. Conical hills, mesas, buttes and plateaus of layered material dominate this scene and seem to be 'swimming' in vast sand sheets. The conical hills have a spur and gully topography associated with them while the flat topped buttes and mesas do not. This may be indicative of different materials that compose each of these landforms or it could be that the flat-topped layer has been completely eroded off of the conical hills thereby exposing a different rock type. Both the conical hills and flat-topped buttes and mesas have extensive scree slopes (heaps of eroded rock and debris). Ripples, which are inferred to be dunes, can also be seen amongst the hills. No impact craters can be seen in this image, indicating that the erosion and transport of material down the canyon wall and across the floor is occurring at a relatively rapid rate, so that any craters that form are rapidly buried or eroded.

  8. Floor of Juventae Chasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 30 May 2002) Juventae Chasma is an enormous box canyon (250 km X 100 km) which opens to the north and forms the outflow channel Maja Vallis. Most Martian outflow channels such as Maja, Kasei, and Ares Valles begin at point sources such as box canyons and chaotic terrain and then flow unconfined into a basin region. This image captures a portion of the western floor of Juventae Chasma and shows a wide variety of landforms. Conical hills, mesas, buttes and plateaus of layered material dominate this scene and seem to be 'swimming' in vast sand sheets. The conical hills have a spur and gully topography associated with them while the flat topped buttes and mesas do not. This may be indicative of different materials that compose each of these landforms or it could be that the flat-topped layer has been completely eroded off of the conical hills thereby exposing a different rock type. Both the conical hills and flat-topped buttes and mesas have extensive scree slopes (heaps of eroded rock and debris). Ripples, which are inferred to be dunes, can also be seen amongst the hills. No impact craters can be seen in this image, indicating that the erosion and transport of material down the canyon wall and across the floor is occurring at a relatively rapid rate, so that any craters that form are rapidly buried or eroded.

  9. Candor Chasma Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03080 Candor Chasma Floor

    This VIS image shows part of the layered and wind sculpted deposit that occurs on the floor of Candor Chasma.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 6.6S, Longitude 284.4E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  10. Canyon Floor Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03598 Canyon Floor Deposits

    The layered and wind eroded deposits seen in this VIS image occur on the floor of Chandor Chasma.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 5.2S, Longitude 283.4E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. Spallanzani Cr. Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03632 Spallanzani Cr. Floor

    This image was taken by one of the Mars Student Imaging Project (MSIP) teams. Their target is the unusual floor deposits in Spallanzani Crater. The wind may have affected the surface of the layered deposit. Small dunes have formed near the southern margin.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 57.9S, Longitude 86.5E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  12. Floor Plans: Section "AA", Section "BB"; Floor Framing Plans: Section ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Floor Plans: Section "A-A", Section "B-B"; Floor Framing Plans: Section "A-A", Section "B-B" - Fort Washington, Fort Washington Light, Northeast side of Potomac River at Fort Washington Park, Fort Washington, Prince George's County, MD

  13. 4. STAIR, FROM SECOND FLOOR TO THIRD FLOOR, FROM NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. STAIR, FROM SECOND FLOOR TO THIRD FLOOR, FROM NORTHEAST. Plan of stair is elliptical, the inside well measuring 54' on major axis and 14' on minor axis. ALSO NOTE HIGH REEDED WAINSCOT - Saltus-Habersham House, 802 Bay Street, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  14. 18. FOURTH FLOOR BLDG. 28, RAISED CONCRETE SLAB FLOOR WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. FOURTH FLOOR BLDG. 28, RAISED CONCRETE SLAB FLOOR WITH BLOCKS AND PULLEYS OVERHEAD LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  15. 18. Interior view, middle floor, showing concrete floor beams and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Interior view, middle floor, showing concrete floor beams and original openings for cables, looking west. - New York, New Haven, & Hartford Railroad, Shell Interlocking Tower, New Haven Milepost 16, approximately 100 feel east of New Rochelle Junction, New Rochelle, Westchester County, NY

  16. 13. Bottom floor, tower interior showing concrete floor and cast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Bottom floor, tower interior showing concrete floor and cast iron bases for oil butts (oil butts removed when lighthouse lamp was converted to electric power.) - Block Island Southeast Light, Spring Street & Mohegan Trail at Mohegan Bluffs, New Shoreham, Washington County, RI

  17. 18. MAIN FLOOR HOLDING TANKS Main floor, looking at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. MAIN FLOOR - HOLDING TANKS Main floor, looking at holding tanks against the west wall, from which sluice gates are seen protruding. Right foreground-wooden holding tanks. Note narrow wooden flumes through which fish were sluiced into holding and brining tanks. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  18. VIEW OF WIDE STAIR TO SECOND FLOOR FROM GROUND FLOOR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF WIDE STAIR TO SECOND FLOOR FROM GROUND FLOOR. VIEW FACING SOUTH - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. Stochastic multi-scale models of competition within heterogeneous cellular populations: Simulation methods and mean-field analysis.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Roberto de la; Guerrero, Pilar; Spill, Fabian; Alarcón, Tomás

    2016-10-21

    We propose a modelling framework to analyse the stochastic behaviour of heterogeneous, multi-scale cellular populations. We illustrate our methodology with a particular example in which we study a population with an oxygen-regulated proliferation rate. Our formulation is based on an age-dependent stochastic process. Cells within the population are characterised by their age (i.e. time elapsed since they were born). The age-dependent (oxygen-regulated) birth rate is given by a stochastic model of oxygen-dependent cell cycle progression. Once the birth rate is determined, we formulate an age-dependent birth-and-death process, which dictates the time evolution of the cell population. The population is under a feedback loop which controls its steady state size (carrying capacity): cells consume oxygen which in turn fuels cell proliferation. We show that our stochastic model of cell cycle progression allows for heterogeneity within the cell population induced by stochastic effects. Such heterogeneous behaviour is reflected in variations in the proliferation rate. Within this set-up, we have established three main results. First, we have shown that the age to the G1/S transition, which essentially determines the birth rate, exhibits a remarkably simple scaling behaviour. Besides the fact that this simple behaviour emerges from a rather complex model, this allows for a huge simplification of our numerical methodology. A further result is the observation that heterogeneous populations undergo an internal process of quasi-neutral competition. Finally, we investigated the effects of cell-cycle-phase dependent therapies (such as radiation therapy) on heterogeneous populations. In particular, we have studied the case in which the population contains a quiescent sub-population. Our mean-field analysis and numerical simulations confirm that, if the survival fraction of the therapy is too high, rescue of the quiescent population occurs. This gives rise to emergence of resistance

  20. Floor-plan radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falconer, David G.; Ueberschaer, Ronald M.

    2000-07-01

    Urban-warfare specialists, law-enforcement officers, counter-drug agents, and counter-terrorism experts encounter operational situations where they must assault a target building and capture or rescue its occupants. To minimize potential casualties, the assault team needs a picture of the building's interior and a copy of its floor plan. With this need in mind, we constructed a scale model of a single- story house and imaged its interior using synthetic-aperture techniques. The interior and exterior walls nearest the radar set were imaged with good fidelity, but the distal ones appear poorly defined and surrounded by ghosts and artifacts. The latter defects are traceable to beam attenuation, wavefront distortion, multiple scattering, traveling waves, resonance phenomena, and other effects not accounted for in the traditional (noninteracting, isotropic point scatterer) model for radar imaging.

  1. Ocean floor boundaries.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, H D

    1979-04-13

    The base of the continental slope, combined with the concepts of a boudary zone, a technical advisory boundary commission, and special treatment for restricted seas, offers a readily attainable, natural, practicable, and equitable boundary between national and international jurisdiction over the ocean floor. There is no point in bringing into the boundary formula the unnecessary added complication of thickness of sediments, as recently proposed. Review of the U.S. offshore brings out the critical importance with respect to energy resources of proper choice of boundary principles and proper determination of the base-of-continent line about our shores. The advice of the pertinent science and technology community should urgently be sought and contributed to decisions on offshore boundaries.

  2. Flow Along Valley Floors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 9 May 2003

    Lines indicative of flow in a valley floor (east to west) cut across similar lines in a slightly smaller valley (southeast to northwest), indicating both that material flowed along the valley floor (as opposed to across it) and that relative flow ages may be determined from crosscutting relationships.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 39.6, Longitude 31.1East (328.9). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. What's New in Floor Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, William R.

    1999-01-01

    Examines some of the new equipment, chemicals, and procedures in floor care to help educational facility managers develop floor care programs and improve performance. Trends include more mechanization, higher concentrations and environmentally preferable products for cleaning, and the use of written cleaning procedures. (GR)

  4. Laparoscopy for pelvic floor disorders.

    PubMed

    Van Geluwe, B; Wolthuis, A; D'Hoore, A

    2014-02-01

    Surgical treatment of pelvic floor disorders has significantly evolved during the last decade, with increasing understanding of anatomy, pathophysiology and the minimally-invasive 'revolution' of laparoscopic surgery. Laparoscopic pelvic floor repair requires a thorough knowledge of pelvic floor anatomy and its supportive components before repair of defective anatomy is possible. Several surgical procedures have been introduced and applied to treat rectal prolapse syndromes. Transabdominal procedures include a variety of rectopexies with the use of sutures or prosthesis and with or without resection of redundant sigmoid colon. Unfortunately there is lack of one generally accepted standard treatment technique. This article will focus on recent advances in the management of pelvic floor disorders affecting defecation, with a brief overview of contemporary concepts in pelvic floor anatomy and different laparoscopic treatment options.

  5. Low floor mass transit vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Emmons, J. Bruce; Blessing, Leonard J.

    2004-02-03

    A mass transit vehicle includes a frame structure that provides an efficient and economical approach to providing a low floor bus. The inventive frame includes a stiff roof panel and a stiff floor panel. A plurality of generally vertical pillars extend between the roof and floor panels. A unique bracket arrangement is disclosed for connecting the pillars to the panels. Side panels are secured to the pillars and carry the shear stresses on the frame. A unique seating assembly that can be advantageously incorporated into the vehicle taking advantage of the load distributing features of the inventive frame is also disclosed.

  6. Making A Precisely Level Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, William G.; Walker, William H.; Cather, Jim; Burch, John B.; Clark, Keith M.; Johnston, Dwight; Henderson, David E.

    1989-01-01

    Floor-pouring procedure yields large surface level, smooth, and hard. Floor made of self-leveling, slow-curing epoxy with added black pigment. Epoxy poured to thickness no greater than 0.33 in. (0.84 cm) on concrete base. Base floor seasoned, reasonably smooth and level, and at least 4 in. (10cm) thick. Base rests on thermal barrier of gravel or cinders and contains no steel plates, dividers, or bridges to minimize thermal distortion. Metal retaining wall surrounds base.

  7. Making A Precisely Level Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, William G.; Walker, William H.; Cather, Jim; Burch, John B.; Clark, Keith M.; Johnston, Dwight; Henderson, David E.

    1989-01-01

    Floor-pouring procedure yields large surface level, smooth, and hard. Floor made of self-leveling, slow-curing epoxy with added black pigment. Epoxy poured to thickness no greater than 0.33 in. (0.84 cm) on concrete base. Base floor seasoned, reasonably smooth and level, and at least 4 in. (10cm) thick. Base rests on thermal barrier of gravel or cinders and contains no steel plates, dividers, or bridges to minimize thermal distortion. Metal retaining wall surrounds base.

  8. 21. VIEW OF THE FIRST FLOOR PLAN. THE FIRST FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW OF THE FIRST FLOOR PLAN. THE FIRST FLOOR WAS USED FOR DEPLETED AND ENRICHED URANIUM FABRICATION. THE ORIGINAL DRAWING HAS BEEN ARCHIVED ON MICROFILM. THE DRAWING WAS REPRODUCED AT THE BEST QUALITY POSSIBLE. LETTERS AND NUMBERS IN THE CIRCLES INDICATE FOOTER AND/OR COLUMN LOCATIONS. - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  9. 23. VIEW OF THE FIRST FLOOR PLAN. THE FIRST FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW OF THE FIRST FLOOR PLAN. THE FIRST FLOOR HOUSED ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICES, THE CENTRAL COMPUTING, UTILITY SYSTEMS, ANALYTICAL LABORATORIES, AND MAINTENANCE SHOPS. THE ORIGINAL DRAWING HAS BEEN ARCHIVED ON MICROFILM. THE DRAWING WAS REPRODUCED AT THE BEST QUALITY POSSIBLE. LETTERS AND NUMBERS IN THE CIRCLES INDICATE FOOTER AND/OR COLUMN LOCATIONS. - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  10. 22. VIEW OF THE SECOND FLOOR PLAN. THE SECOND FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW OF THE SECOND FLOOR PLAN. THE SECOND FLOOR CONTAINS THE AIR PLENUM ND SOME OFFICE SPACE. THE ORIGINAL DRAWING HAS BEEN ARCHIVED ON MICROFILM. THE DRAWING WAS REPRODUCED AT THE BEST QUALITY POSSIBLE. LETTERS AND NUMBERS IN THE CIRCLES INDICATE FOOTER AND/OR COLUMN LOCATIONS. - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  11. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22258946 . Dumoulin C, Hay-Smith J. Pelvic floor muscle training versus no treatment, ... nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20091581 . Herderschee R, Hay-Smith EJC, Herbison GP, Roovers JP, Heineman MJ. Feedback ...

  12. The 1.5 GHz electromagnetic near-field used for cellular phones does not promote rat liver carcinogenesis in a medium-term liver bioassay.

    PubMed

    Imaida, K; Taki, M; Watanabe, S; Kamimura, Y; Ito, T; Yamaguchi, T; Ito, N; Shirai, T

    1998-10-01

    We have recently established that local exposure to a 929.2 MHz electromagnetic near-field, used for cellular phones, does not promote rat liver carcinogenesis in a medium-term bioassay system. In the present study, a 1.439 GHz electromagnetic near-field (EMF), another microwave band employed for cellular phones in Japan, was similarly investigated. Time division multiple access (TDMA) signals for the Personal Digital Cellular (PDC) Japanese cellular telephone standard system were directed to rats through a quarter-wavelength monopole antenna. Numerical dosimetry showed that the peak SARs within the liver were 1.91-0.937 W/kg, while the whole-body average specific absorption rates (SARs) were 0.680-0.453 W/kg, when the time-averaged antenna radiation power was 0.33 W. Exposure was for 90 min a day, 5 days a week, over 6 weeks, to male F344 rats given a single dose of diethylnitrosamine (200 mg/kg, i.p.) 2 weeks previously. At week 3, all rats were subjected to a two-thirds partial hepatectomy. At week 8, the experiment was terminated and the animals were killed. Carcinogenic potential was scored by comparing the numbers and areas of the induced glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive foci in the livers of exposed (48) and sham-exposed rats (48). Despite increased serum levels of corticosterone, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and melatonin, the numbers and the areas of GST-P-positive foci were not significantly altered by the exposure. These findings clearly indicated that local body exposure to a 1.439 GHz EMF, as in the case of a 929.2 MHz field, has no promoting effect on rat liver carcinogenesis in the present model.

  13. Electromagnetic cellular interactions.

    PubMed

    Cifra, Michal; Fields, Jeremy Z; Farhadi, Ashkan

    2011-05-01

    Chemical and electrical interaction within and between cells is well established. Just the opposite is true about cellular interactions via other physical fields. The most probable candidate for an other form of cellular interaction is the electromagnetic field. We review theories and experiments on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields generally, and if the cell-generated electromagnetic field can mediate cellular interactions. We do not limit here ourselves to specialized electro-excitable cells. Rather we describe physical processes that are of a more general nature and probably present in almost every type of living cell. The spectral range included is broad; from kHz to the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. We show that there is a rather large number of theories on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields and discuss experimental evidence on electromagnetic cellular interactions in the modern scientific literature. Although small, it is continuously accumulating.

  14. Gravitational signatures of lunar floor-fractured craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorey, Clément; Michaut, Chloé; Wieczorek, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Lunar floor-fractured craters are impact craters characterized by distinctive shallow floors crossed by important networks of fractures. Different scenarios have been proposed to explain their formations but recent studies showed that the intrusion of magma at depth below the crater floor is the most plausible explanation. The intrusion of dense magma within the light upper-most part of the lunar crust should have left a positive signature in the gravity field. This study takes advantage of the unprecedented resolution of the lunar gravity field obtained from the NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, in combination with topographic data obtained from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument, to investigate the gravitational signatures of both normal and floor-fractured craters. Despite the large variability in their gravitational signatures, the floor-fractured and normal craters in the Highlands show significant differences: the gravitational anomalies are significantly larger at floor-fractured craters. The anomaly amplitudes for floor-fractured craters are in agreement with synthetic gravity anomalies based on the predicted intrusion shapes from a theoretical flow model. Our results are consistent with magmatic intrusions intruding a crust characterized by a 12% porosity and where the intrusion has no porosity. Similar studies have been carried out in the lunar maria and South Pole-Aikten basin. Although the average gravitational signature of floor-fractured craters is larger than at normal craters in these regions, they cannot be distinguished statistically due to the small number of craters and the large variability of the anomalies. In general, a better characterization of the signal due solely to the initial impact crater is needed to isolate the magmatic intrusion signal and characterize the density contrast between the magma and crust.

  15. Field validation of a free-agent cellular automata model of fire spread with fire–atmosphere coupling

    Treesearch

    Gary Achtemeier

    2012-01-01

    A cellular automata fire model represents ‘elements’ of fire by autonomous agents. A few simple algebraic expressions substituted for complex physical and meteorological processes and solved iteratively yield simulations for ‘super-diffusive’ fire spread and coupled surface-layer (2-m) fire–atmosphere processes. Pressure anomalies, which are integrals of the thermal...

  16. Channel Floor Yardangs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 19 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    The yardangs in this image are forming in channel floor deposits. The channel itself is funneling the wind to cause the erosion.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 4.5, Longitude 229.7 East (133.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are

  17. Tangential Floor in a Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marti, Leyla

    2012-01-01

    This article examines floor management in two classroom sessions: a task-oriented computer lesson and a literature lesson. Recordings made in the computer lesson show the organization of floor when a task is given to students. Temporary or "incipient" side floors (Jones and Thornborrow, 2004) emerge beside the main floor. In the literature lesson,…

  18. Functional anatomy of pelvic floor.

    PubMed

    Rocca Rossetti, Salvatore

    2016-03-31

    Generally, descriptions of the pelvic floor are discordant, since its complex structures and the complexity of pathological disorders of such structures; commonly the descriptions are sectorial, concerning muscles, fascial developments, ligaments and so on. On the contrary to understand completely nature and function of the pelvic floor it is necessary to study it in the most unitary view and in the most global aspect, considering embriology, philogenesy, anthropologic development and its multiple activities others than urological, gynaecological and intestinal ones. Recent acquirements succeeded in clarifying many aspects of pelvic floor activity, whose musculature has been investigated through electromyography, sonography, magnetic resonance, histology, histochemistry, molecular research. Utilizing recent research concerning not only urinary and gynecologic aspects but also those regarding statics and dynamics of pelvis and its floor, it is now possible to study this important body part as a unit; that means to consider it in the whole body economy to which maintaining upright position, walking and behavior or physical conduct do not share less than urinary, genital, and intestinal functions. It is today possible to consider the pelvic floor as a musclefascial unit with synergic and antagonistic activity of muscular bundles, among them more or less interlaced, with multiple functions and not only the function of pelvic cup closure.

  19. Analytical prediction of the interior noise for cylindrical models of aircraft fuselages for prescribed exterior noise fields. Phase 2: Models for sidewall trim, stiffened structures and cabin acoustics with floor partition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, L. D.; Wilby, E. G.

    1982-01-01

    An airplane interior noise prediction model is developed to determine the important parameters associated with sound transmission into the interiors of airplanes, and to identify apropriate noise control methods. Models for stiffened structures, and cabin acoustics with floor partition are developed. Validation studies are undertaken using three test articles: a ring stringer stiffened cylinder, an unstiffened cylinder with floor partition, and ring stringer stiffened cylinder with floor partition and sidewall trim. The noise reductions of the three test articles are computed using the heoretical models and compared to measured values. A statistical analysis of the comparison data indicates that there is no bias in the predictions although a substantial random error exists so that a discrepancy of more than five or six dB can be expected for about one out of three predictions.

  20. Pulsed electric field mediated in vitro cellular response of fibroblast and osteoblast-like cells on conducting austenitic stainless steel substrate.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Ashutosh Kumar; Agrawal, Parnika; Misra, R Devesh Kumar; Basu, Bikramjit

    2013-07-01

    This article reports the intermittent pulse electric field stimulus mediated in vitro cellular response of L929 mouse fibroblast/SaOS2 osteoblast-like cells on austenitic steel substrates in reference to the field strength dependent behavior. The cellular density and morphometric analyses revealed that the optimal electric (E) fields for the maximum cell density of adhered L929 (~270 % to that of untreated sample) and SaOS2 (~280 % to that of untreated sample) cells are 1 V (0.33 V/cm) and 2 V (0.67 V/cm), respectively. The trend in aspect ratio of elongated SaOS2 cells did not indicate any significant difference among the untreated and treated (up to 3.33 V/cm) cells. The average cell and nucleus areas (for SaOS2 cells) were increased with an increase in the applied voltage up to 8 V (2.67 V/cm) and reduced thereafter. However, the ratio of nucleus to total cell area was increased significantly on the application of higher voltages (2-10 V), indicating the possible influence of E-field on cell growth. Further, the cell density results were compared with earlier results obtained with sintered Hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA-BaTiO3 composites and such comparison revealed that the enhanced cell density on steel sample occurs upon application of much lower field strength and stimulation time. This indicates the possible role of substrate conductivity towards cell growth in pulsed E-field mediated culture conditions.

  1. Pelvic Floor Ultrasound: A Review.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Hans Peter

    2017-03-01

    Female pelvic floor dysfunction encompasses a number of prevalent conditions and includes pelvic organ prolapse, urinary and fecal incontinence, obstructed defecation, and sexual dysfunction. In most cases neither etiology nor pathophysiology are well understood. Imaging has great potential to enhance both research and clinical management capabilities, and to date this potential is underutilized. Of the available techniques such as x-ray, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound, the latter is generally superior for pelvic floor imaging, especially in the form of perineal or translabial imaging. The technique is safe, simple, cheap, easily accessible and provides high spatial and temporal resolutions.

  2. Lack of effects on key cellular parameters of MRC-5 human lung fibroblasts exposed to 370 mT static magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Stefania; Sannino, Anna; Scarfì, Maria Rosaria; Massa, Rita; d’Angelo, Raffaele; Zeni, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The last decades have seen increased interest toward possible adverse effects arising from exposure to intense static magnetic fields. This concern is mainly due to the wider and wider applications of such fields in industry and clinical practice; among them, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) facilities are the main sources of exposure to static magnetic fields for both general public (patients) and workers. In recent investigations, exposures to static magnetic fields have been demonstrated to elicit, in different cell models, both permanent and transient modifications in cellular endpoints critical for the carcinogenesis process. The World Health Organization has therefore recommended in vitro investigations as important research need, to be carried out under strictly controlled exposure conditions. Here we report on the absence of effects on cell viability, reactive oxygen species levels and DNA integrity in MRC-5 human foetal lung fibroblasts exposed to 370 mT magnetic induction level, under different exposure regimens. Exposures have been performed by using an experimental apparatus designed and realized for operating with the static magnetic field generated by permanent magnets, and confined in a magnetic circuit, to allow cell cultures exposure in absence of confounding factors like heating or electric field components. PMID:26762783

  3. Lack of effects on key cellular parameters of MRC-5 human lung fibroblasts exposed to 370 mT static magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Stefania; Sannino, Anna; Scarfì, Maria Rosaria; Massa, Rita; d'Angelo, Raffaele; Zeni, Olga

    2016-01-14

    The last decades have seen increased interest toward possible adverse effects arising from exposure to intense static magnetic fields. This concern is mainly due to the wider and wider applications of such fields in industry and clinical practice; among them, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) facilities are the main sources of exposure to static magnetic fields for both general public (patients) and workers. In recent investigations, exposures to static magnetic fields have been demonstrated to elicit, in different cell models, both permanent and transient modifications in cellular endpoints critical for the carcinogenesis process. The World Health Organization has therefore recommended in vitro investigations as important research need, to be carried out under strictly controlled exposure conditions. Here we report on the absence of effects on cell viability, reactive oxygen species levels and DNA integrity in MRC-5 human foetal lung fibroblasts exposed to 370 mT magnetic induction level, under different exposure regimens. Exposures have been performed by using an experimental apparatus designed and realized for operating with the static magnetic field generated by permanent magnets, and confined in a magnetic circuit, to allow cell cultures exposure in absence of confounding factors like heating or electric field components.

  4. Lack of effects on key cellular parameters of MRC-5 human lung fibroblasts exposed to 370 mT static magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, Stefania; Sannino, Anna; Scarfì, Maria Rosaria; Massa, Rita; D’Angelo, Raffaele; Zeni, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The last decades have seen increased interest toward possible adverse effects arising from exposure to intense static magnetic fields. This concern is mainly due to the wider and wider applications of such fields in industry and clinical practice; among them, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) facilities are the main sources of exposure to static magnetic fields for both general public (patients) and workers. In recent investigations, exposures to static magnetic fields have been demonstrated to elicit, in different cell models, both permanent and transient modifications in cellular endpoints critical for the carcinogenesis process. The World Health Organization has therefore recommended in vitro investigations as important research need, to be carried out under strictly controlled exposure conditions. Here we report on the absence of effects on cell viability, reactive oxygen species levels and DNA integrity in MRC-5 human foetal lung fibroblasts exposed to 370 mT magnetic induction level, under different exposure regimens. Exposures have been performed by using an experimental apparatus designed and realized for operating with the static magnetic field generated by permanent magnets, and confined in a magnetic circuit, to allow cell cultures exposure in absence of confounding factors like heating or electric field components.

  5. An advanced approach for the generation of complex cellular material representative volume elements using distance fields and level sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonon, B.; François, B.; Massart, T. J.

    2015-08-01

    A general and widely tunable method for the generation of representative volume elements for cellular materials based on distance and level set functions is presented. The approach is based on random tessellations constructed from random inclusion packings. A general methodology to obtain arbitrary-shaped tessellations to produce disordered foams is presented and illustrated. These tessellations can degenerate either in classical Voronoï tessellations potentially additively weighted depending on properties of the initial inclusion packing used, or in Laguerre tessellations through a simple modification of the formulation. A versatile approach to control the particular morphology of the obtained foam is introduced. Specific local features such as concave triangular Plateau borders and non-constant thickness heterogeneous coatings can be built from the tessellation in a straightforward way and are tuned by a small set of parameters with a clear morphological interpretation.

  6. Effects of AC/DC magnetic fields, frequency, and nanoparticle aspect ratio on cellular transfection of gene vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Kris; Mair, Lamar; Fisher, Mike; Rowshon Alam, Md.; Juliano, Rudolph; Superfine, Richard

    2008-10-01

    In order to make non-viral gene delivery a useful tool in the study and treatment of genetic disorders, it is imperative that these methodologies be further refined to yield optimal results. Transfection of magnetic nanoparticles and nanorods are used as non-viral gene vectors to transfect HeLa EGFP-654 cells that stably express a mutated enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. We deliver antisense oligonucleotides to these cells designed to correct the aberrant splicing caused by the mutation in the EGFP gene. We also transfect human bronchial endothelial cells and immortalized WI-38 lung cells with pEGFP-N1 vectors. To achieve this we bind the genes to magnetic nanoparticles and nanorods and introduce magnetic fields to effect transfection. We wish to examine the effects of magnetic fields on the transfection of these particles and the benefits of using alternating (AC) magnetic fields in improving transfection rates over direct (DC) magnetic fields. We specifically look at the frequency dependence of the AC field and particle aspect ratio as it pertains to influencing transfection rate. We posit that the increase in angular momentum brought about by the AC field and the high aspect ratio of the nanorod particles, is vital to generating the force needed to move the particle through the cell membrane.

  7. The pelvic floor in health and disease.

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, A A; Welton, M L

    1997-01-01

    Normal pelvic floor function involves a set of learned and reflex responses that are essential for the normal control and evacuation of stool. A variety of functional disturbances of the pelvic floor, including incontinence and constipation, are not life threatening, but can cause significant distress to affected patients. Understanding the normal anatomy and physiology of the pelvic floor is essential to understanding and treating these disorders of defecation. This article describes the normal function of the pelvic floor, the diagnostic tools available to investigate pelvic floor dysfunction, and the etiology, diagnosis, and management of the functional pelvic floor disorders that lead to incontinence and constipation. Images Figure 1. PMID:9291746

  8. Flooring for Schools: Unsightly Walkways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Many mattress manufacturers recommend that consumers rotate their mattresses at least twice a year to help prevent soft spots from developing and increase the product's life span. It's unfortunate that the same kind of treatment can't be applied to flooring for schools, such as carpeting, especially in hallways. Being able to flip or turn a carpet…

  9. Ploughing the deep sea floor.

    PubMed

    Puig, Pere; Canals, Miquel; Company, Joan B; Martín, Jacobo; Amblas, David; Lastras, Galderic; Palanques, Albert

    2012-09-13

    Bottom trawling is a non-selective commercial fishing technique whereby heavy nets and gear are pulled along the sea floor. The direct impact of this technique on fish populations and benthic communities has received much attention, but trawling can also modify the physical properties of seafloor sediments, water–sediment chemical exchanges and sediment fluxes. Most of the studies addressing the physical disturbances of trawl gear on the seabed have been undertaken in coastal and shelf environments, however, where the capacity of trawling to modify the seafloor morphology coexists with high-energy natural processes driving sediment erosion, transport and deposition. Here we show that on upper continental slopes, the reworking of the deep sea floor by trawling gradually modifies the shape of the submarine landscape over large spatial scales. We found that trawling-induced sediment displacement and removal from fishing grounds causes the morphology of the deep sea floor to become smoother over time, reducing its original complexity as shown by high-resolution seafloor relief maps. Our results suggest that in recent decades, following the industrialization of fishing fleets, bottom trawling has become an important driver of deep seascape evolution. Given the global dimension of this type of fishery, we anticipate that the morphology of the upper continental slope in many parts of the world’s oceans could be altered by intensive bottom trawling, producing comparable effects on the deep sea floor to those generated by agricultural ploughing on land.

  10. Flooring for Schools: Unsightly Walkways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Many mattress manufacturers recommend that consumers rotate their mattresses at least twice a year to help prevent soft spots from developing and increase the product's life span. It's unfortunate that the same kind of treatment can't be applied to flooring for schools, such as carpeting, especially in hallways. Being able to flip or turn a carpet…

  11. Impact of mitochondrial electric field on modal occupancy in the Fröhlich model of cellular electromagnetism.

    PubMed

    Šrobár, Fedor

    2013-09-01

    Fröhlich model describes emission of electromagnetic field in the interior of biological cells by oscillating polar units, now mostly identified with microtubule filaments. Central element of this theory is the system of rate equations for the quantum occupancy numbers n i of collective oscillation modes. These equations describe both linear and nonlinear properties of the system; presence of the latter can lead to condensation of the incoming energy into the lowest frequency mode - a phenomenon deemed to be of major importance for cell's biochemistry, because the excited mode can engage in chemical reactions while the major part of the system remains near the equilibrium, not exposed to energetic stress. This paper explores, using a simple model, the influence of strong static electric field created by mitochondria flanking the microtubules on nonlinear interactions and, in turn, on occupancy numbers. The computed results show that simultaneous presence of both sufficient metabolic pumping and adequately elevated static electric field is necessary for the full unfolding of the hallmark properties of the Fröhlich model. It is suggested that cancer-related mitochondrial dysfunction leading to metabolic transformation has additional adverse effect mediated by diminution of static fields which in turn reduces the nonlinear processes in the Fröhlich systems, essential for energy condensation in the fundamental mode.

  12. Bio-Inspired Concepts: Studies of Biological Response to External Electric Fields for Cellular Manipulation and Diagnostics - Modeling and Experimentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-03

    Dielectric Spectroscopy," IEEE trans. On Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation 8, 253 (2001). 8. M. Smoluchowski, "Drei vortrage uber diffusion...Intensity Electric Fields," IEEE Conf. On Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation (Bio- Electrics Workshop), Cancun, Mexico , Oct. 2002 (invited

  13. The excretion of 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate in healthy young men exposed to electromagnetic fields emitted by cellular phone -- an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Bortkiewicz, Alicja; Pilacik, Bozena; Gadzicka, Elzbieta; Szymczak, Wieslaw

    2002-04-01

    It is quite likely that non-visible electromagnetic fields (EMF) may affect melatonin production. Some studies confirmed this hypothesis and showed that extremely low EMF altered pineal function in animals and humans. Thus, it is reasonable to suppose that EMF emitted by cellular phones may also influence secretion of melatonin. The present study sought to evaluate possible effect of the exposure to EMF emitted by cellular phone on 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (6-OHMS) excretion, which reflects melatonin levels in blood. The examined group consisted of 9 healthy males aged 19-29 years. The experiment was performed under controlled conditions (the light intensity-50 lx till midnight and 0 lx during night). Each person was examined twice: on a day without exposure (control day, C-day) and on a day with continuous exposure (60 min. exposure from cellular phone, frequency 900 MHz, pulsed with 217 Hz, pulse with 576 micros, SAR 1.23 W/kg, E-day). From 7 p.m. to 8 p.m. they used a cellular phone. The subjects did not know which day was E-day, and which was C-day. From 8 p.m. till midnight the subjects listened to music and than they slept till 7 a.m. next day. Urine samples were collected at 7 p.m., at midnight, and at 7 a.m. in the same way in C-day as in E-day. Sample were frozen for later ELISA analysis of 6-OHMS. The 6-OHMS ELISA kit from Immuno-Biological Laboratories (Hamburg) was used for measurement of 6-OHMS. The data were analysed using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test for each subject and for the whole group. We compared 6-OHMS level on the E-day and on the C-day separately for 3 time-points - 7 p.m., midnight, 7 a.m. Mean 6-OHMS level in both experiments did not differ significantly for any of the respective time points. Circadian variations of 6-OHMS level were detected in all subjects. The results of our investigation has demonstrated that EMF emitted by cellular phones has no distinct influence on the melatonin level.

  14. Hospital Room Floors May Harbor 'Superbugs'

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163886.html Hospital Room Floors May Harbor 'Superbugs' But that area often overlooked when it comes ... Hospital room floors may be more of a "superbug" threat than many hospital staffers realize, new research ...

  15. Sea-Floor Spreading and Transform Faults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Ronald E.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents the Crustal Evolution Education Project (CEEP) instructional module on Sea-Floor Spreading and Transform Faults. The module includes activities and materials required, procedures, summary questions, and extension ideas for teaching Sea-Floor Spreading. (SL)

  16. Raise the Floor When Remodeling Science Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    A new remodeling idea adopts the concept of raised floor covering gas, water, electrical, and drain lines. The accessible floor has removable panels set into an adjustable support frame 24 inches above a concrete subfloor. (Author)

  17. How Are Pelvic Floor Disorders Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How are pelvic floor disorders diagnosed? Skip sharing on social media links ... fee ). This test is used to evaluate the pelvic floor and rectum while the patient is having a ...

  18. Using hyperspectral imagery to estimate forest floor consumption from wildfire in boreal forests of Alaska, USA

    Treesearch

    Sarah A. Lewis; Andrew T. Hudak; Roger D. Ottmar; Peter R. Robichaud; Leigh B. Lentile; Sharon M. Hood; James B. Cronan; Penny Morgan

    2011-01-01

    Wildfire is a major forest disturbance in interior Alaska that can both directly and indirectly alter ecological processes. We used a combination of pre- and post-fire forest floor depths and post-fire ground cover assessments measured in the field, and high-resolution airborne hyperspectral imagery, to map forest floor conditions after the 2004 Taylor Complex in...

  19. 7. Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated August 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated August 10, 1968, Department of the Air Force Air Defense Command Installations, in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. - Selfridge Field, Building No. 592, South of East Joy Boulevard, west of Taxiway C, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  20. 6. Photographic copy of floor plan, dated August 10, 1968, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of floor plan, dated August 10, 1968, Department of the Air Force Air Defense Command Installation, in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1576, South of East Joy Boulevard, west of Taxiway C, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  1. Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated August 10, 1968, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated August 10, 1968, Department of the Air Force Air Defense Command Installations, in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1580, South of East Joy Boulevard, west of Taxiway C, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  2. 7. Photographic copy of floor plan sketch, undated, Selfridge Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photographic copy of floor plan sketch, undated, Selfridge Air National Guard Base Civil Engineers Office in possession of Selfridge Base Civil Engineers Office, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1514, Schoolhouse Road north of South Perimeter Road, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  3. 5. HINDS PUMPING FLOOR FROM WEST END TOP OF UNIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. HINDS PUMPING FLOOR FROM WEST END TOP OF UNIT #9 (LENS STOPPED DOWN ALL THE WAY FOR DEPTH OF FIELD ENHANCEMENT). - Hinds Pump Plant, East of Joshua Tree National Monument, 5 miles north of Route 10, Hayfield, Riverside County, CA

  4. INTERIOR VIEW OF STAIRS TO SECOND FLOOR SHOWING THE IRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF STAIRS TO SECOND FLOOR SHOWING THE IRON VERTICAL RAILS AND THE WOOD NEWEL POSTS WITH INCISED LINES. NOTE THE TELEPHONE NICHE AND DOORWAY TO THE KITCHEN IN BACKGROUND. VIEW FACING WEST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type J, 701 Beard Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  5. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE STAIRWAY TO THE SECOND FLOOR. SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE STAIRWAY TO THE SECOND FLOOR. SHOWING THE IRON RAILING ON TOP OF THE HALF-WALL. THE THREE-LIGHT OVER SINGLE-PANEL DOOR AT THE BASE OF THE STAIRS LEADS TO THE LANAI. VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type D, 111 Beard Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  6. 17. Photographic copy of floor plan, dated June 19, 1951, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photographic copy of floor plan, dated June 19, 1951, Schley and Ward Architects-Engineers, Detroit, in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan, ALERT HANGAR 566 MECHANICAL HEATERS POCKETS 3, 4, 5, 6, (SHEET 29 OF 42). - Selfridge Field, Building No. 3566, Ammo Road northeast of Taxiway A, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  7. Are the young more sensitive than adults to the effects of radiofrequency fields? An examination of relevant data from cellular and animal studies.

    PubMed

    Marino, Carmela; Lagroye, Isabelle; Scarfì, Maria Rosaria; Sienkiewicz, Zenon

    2011-12-01

    It has sometimes been assumed that children are more sensitive than adults to the effects of radiofrequency (RF) fields associated with cellular wireless telephones. However, relatively few in vitro or animal models have examined this possibility. In vitro studies have used several cell types, from both humans and rodents, including primary cells, embryonic cell lines, undifferentiated cancer cell lines, and stem cells. Overall, the balance of evidence does not suggest that field-related effects occur in any cell type: gene and protein expression were not significantly changed by exposure in nine out of 15 studies; genotoxicity was evaluated in 13 papers and in most, of these studies, no damage to DNA was detected; eight studies failed to demonstrate induction of apoptosis; and three studies reported lack of oxidative stress induction by RF-exposures. Five of eight studies investigating the effects of combined exposures to RF fields and chemical or physical agents reported a lack of field-related effects. In addition, few papers have been published on the effects of low level exposure of immature animals. The available results are very limited, both in terms of signals used and biological endpoints investigated, but the evidence does not indicate that prenatal or early postnatal exposures are associated with acute adverse responses or the development of detrimental changes in the long-term. Overall, this suggests that young animals may not be significantly more sensitive than adults, but there is clearly a need for further studies to be carried out.

  8. Distribution of maple strip flooring in 1969

    Treesearch

    William C. Miller; William C. Miller

    1971-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series on the residential and commercial hardwood flooring industry. Unlike the first paper in the series, which dealt with oak strip flooring industry, this paper analyzes several qualitative questions pertaining to the maple flooring industry. The next paper planned for this series will analyze quantitative as well as qualitative...

  9. Distribution of parquet flooring during 1969

    Treesearch

    William C. Miller; William C. Miller

    1972-01-01

    This is the third in a series of papers dealing with the residential and commercial hardwood flooring industry. The first two paper are: PHYSICAL DISTRIBUTIOONF OAK STRIP FLOORING IN 1969 (U.S.D.A. Forest Serv. Res. Paper NE-207) and DISTRIBUTION OF MAPLE STRIP FLOORING IN 1969. (U.S.D.A. Forest Serv. Res. Paper NE-215).

  10. 14 CFR 25.793 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Floor surfaces. 25.793 Section 25.793 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Floor surfaces. The floor surface of all areas which are likely to become wet in service must have...

  11. 49 CFR 38.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Floor surfaces. 38.59 Section 38.59 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.59 Floor surfaces. Floor...

  12. 36 CFR 1192.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Floor surfaces. 1192.59 Section 1192.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE... Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.59 Floor surfaces. Floor surfaces on aisles, places for standees,...

  13. Use of hardwood flooring in mobile homes

    Treesearch

    David G. Martens; Leonard J. Koenick; Leonard J. Koenick

    1970-01-01

    The hardwood flooring industry is losing a new and vigorous market by default. The mobile-home industry produced over 250 million square feet of single-family housing space last year, and very little of this floor space was covered with hardwood flooring. A preliminary glance at this situation seems to uncover an industry that offers many opportunities for hardwood...

  14. TINY FEET NO TREAT TO FLOORS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SMALLEY, DAVE E.

    A DISCUSSION OF FLOOR MAINTENANCE AND CARE INTERMS OF BROKEN, WARPED, AND OTHERWISE DAMAGED CONDITIONS WHICH OFTEN REQUIRE REPLACEMENTS GIVES SUGGESTIONS FOR VARIOUS TYPES OF FLOORING MATERIAL. WOOD FLOOR CONDITIONS MAY INCLUDE--(1) CUPPED BOARDS, (2) BUCKLING BOARDS, AND (3) BROKEN BOARDS. A DETAILED DISCUSSION IS GIVEN OF METHODS FOR REMOVING…

  15. Design issues for floor control protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dommel, Hans-Peter; Garcia-Luna-Aceves, Jose J.

    1995-03-01

    Floor control allows users of networked multimedia applications to remotely share resources like cursors, data views, video and audio channels, or entire applications without access conflicts. Floors are mutually exclusive permissions, granted dynamically to collaborating users, mitigating race conditions and guaranteeing fair and deadlock- free resource access. Although floor control is an early concept within computer-supported cooperative work, no framework exists and current floor control mechanisms are often limited to simple objects. While small-scale collaboration can be facilitated by social conventions, the importance of floors becomes evident for large-scale application sharing and teleconferencing orchestration. In this paper, the concept of a scalable session protocol is enhanced with floor control. Characteristics of collaborative environments are discussed, and session and floor control are discerned. The system's and user's requirements perspectives are discussed, including distributed storage policies, packet structure and user-interface design for floor presentation, manipulation, and triggering conditions for floor migration. Interaction stages between users, and scenarios of participant withdrawal, late joins, and establishment of subgroups are elicited with respect to floor generation, bookkeeping, and passing. An API is proposed to standardize and integrate floor control among shared applications. Finally, a concise classification for existing systems with a notion of floor control is introduced.

  16. TINY FEET NO TREAT TO FLOORS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SMALLEY, DAVE E.

    A DISCUSSION OF FLOOR MAINTENANCE AND CARE INTERMS OF BROKEN, WARPED, AND OTHERWISE DAMAGED CONDITIONS WHICH OFTEN REQUIRE REPLACEMENTS GIVES SUGGESTIONS FOR VARIOUS TYPES OF FLOORING MATERIAL. WOOD FLOOR CONDITIONS MAY INCLUDE--(1) CUPPED BOARDS, (2) BUCKLING BOARDS, AND (3) BROKEN BOARDS. A DETAILED DISCUSSION IS GIVEN OF METHODS FOR REMOVING…

  17. 14 CFR 25.793 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Floor surfaces. 25.793 Section 25.793 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Floor surfaces. The floor surface of all areas which are likely to become wet in service must have slip...

  18. 49 CFR 38.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Floor surfaces. 38.59 Section 38.59 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.59 Floor surfaces. Floor surfaces...

  19. 49 CFR 38.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Floor surfaces. 38.59 Section 38.59 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.59 Floor surfaces. Floor surfaces...

  20. 14 CFR 25.793 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Floor surfaces. 25.793 Section 25.793 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Floor surfaces. The floor surface of all areas which are likely to become wet in service must have slip...

  1. 36 CFR 1192.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Floor surfaces. 1192.59 Section 1192.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE... Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.59 Floor surfaces. Floor surfaces on aisles, places for standees, and...

  2. 49 CFR 38.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Floor surfaces. 38.59 Section 38.59 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.59 Floor surfaces. Floor surfaces...

  3. 14 CFR 25.793 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Floor surfaces. 25.793 Section 25.793 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Floor surfaces. The floor surface of all areas which are likely to become wet in service must have slip...

  4. 14 CFR 25.793 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Floor surfaces. 25.793 Section 25.793 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Floor surfaces. The floor surface of all areas which are likely to become wet in service must have slip...

  5. 49 CFR 38.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Floor surfaces. 38.59 Section 38.59 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.59 Floor surfaces. Floor surfaces...

  6. 36 CFR 1192.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Floor surfaces. 1192.59 Section 1192.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE... Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.59 Floor surfaces. Floor surfaces on aisles, places for standees, and...

  7. 36 CFR 1192.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Floor surfaces. 1192.59 Section 1192.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE... Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.59 Floor surfaces. Floor surfaces on aisles, places for standees, and...

  8. Cell Type-Dependent Induction of DNA Damage by 1800 MHz Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields Does Not Result in Significant Cellular Dysfunctions

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shanshan; Chen, Guangdi; Chen, Chunjing; Sun, Chuan; Zhang, Danying; Murbach, Manuel; Kuster, Niels; Zeng, Qunli; Xu, Zhengping

    2013-01-01

    Background Although IARC clarifies radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) as possible human carcinogen, the debate on its health impact continues due to the inconsistent results. Genotoxic effect has been considered as a golden standard to determine if an environmental factor is a carcinogen, but the currently available data for RF-EMF remain controversial. As an environmental stimulus, the effect of RF-EMF on cellular DNA may be subtle. Therefore, more sensitive method and systematic research strategy are warranted to evaluate its genotoxicity. Objectives To determine whether RF-EMF does induce DNA damage and if the effect is cell-type dependent by adopting a more sensitive method γH2AX foci formation; and to investigate the biological consequences if RF-EMF does increase γH2AX foci formation. Methods Six different types of cells were intermittently exposed to GSM 1800 MHz RF-EMF at a specific absorption rate of 3.0 W/kg for 1 h or 24 h, then subjected to immunostaining with anti-γH2AX antibody. The biological consequences in γH2AX-elevated cell type were further explored with comet and TUNEL assays, flow cytometry, and cell growth assay. Results Exposure to RF-EMF for 24 h significantly induced γH2AX foci formation in Chinese hamster lung cells and Human skin fibroblasts (HSFs), but not the other cells. However, RF-EMF-elevated γH2AX foci formation in HSF cells did not result in detectable DNA fragmentation, sustainable cell cycle arrest, cell proliferation or viability change. RF-EMF exposure slightly but not significantly increased the cellular ROS level. Conclusions RF-EMF induces DNA damage in a cell type-dependent manner, but the elevated γH2AX foci formation in HSF cells does not result in significant cellular dysfunctions. PMID:23355902

  9. Cell type-dependent induction of DNA damage by 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields does not result in significant cellular dysfunctions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shanshan; Chen, Guangdi; Chen, Chunjing; Sun, Chuan; Zhang, Danying; Murbach, Manuel; Kuster, Niels; Zeng, Qunli; Xu, Zhengping

    2013-01-01

    Although IARC clarifies radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) as possible human carcinogen, the debate on its health impact continues due to the inconsistent results. Genotoxic effect has been considered as a golden standard to determine if an environmental factor is a carcinogen, but the currently available data for RF-EMF remain controversial. As an environmental stimulus, the effect of RF-EMF on cellular DNA may be subtle. Therefore, more sensitive method and systematic research strategy are warranted to evaluate its genotoxicity. To determine whether RF-EMF does induce DNA damage and if the effect is cell-type dependent by adopting a more sensitive method γH2AX foci formation; and to investigate the biological consequences if RF-EMF does increase γH2AX foci formation. Six different types of cells were intermittently exposed to GSM 1800 MHz RF-EMF at a specific absorption rate of 3.0 W/kg for 1 h or 24 h, then subjected to immunostaining with anti-γH2AX antibody. The biological consequences in γH2AX-elevated cell type were further explored with comet and TUNEL assays, flow cytometry, and cell growth assay. Exposure to RF-EMF for 24 h significantly induced γH2AX foci formation in Chinese hamster lung cells and Human skin fibroblasts (HSFs), but not the other cells. However, RF-EMF-elevated γH2AX foci formation in HSF cells did not result in detectable DNA fragmentation, sustainable cell cycle arrest, cell proliferation or viability change. RF-EMF exposure slightly but not significantly increased the cellular ROS level. RF-EMF induces DNA damage in a cell type-dependent manner, but the elevated γH2AX foci formation in HSF cells does not result in significant cellular dysfunctions.

  10. Temperature-mediated variations in cellular membrane fatty acid composition of Staphylococcus aureus in resistance to pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lang-Hong; Wang, Man-Sheng; Zeng, Xin-An; Liu, Zhi-Wei

    2016-08-01

    Effects of growth temperature on cell membrane fatty acid composition, fluidity and lethal and sublethal injury by pulsed electric fields (PEF) in Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300 (S. aureus) in the stationary phase were investigated. Analysis of the membrane fatty acids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed that branched chain fatty acids (iso C14:0, iso C15:0, anteiso C15:0 and anteiso C17:0) and straight chain fatty acids (C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C17:0 and C18:0) were primary constituents in the membrane. The S. aureus changed its membrane fatty acid composition and its overall fluidity when exposed to different temperatures. The PEF lethal and sublethal effects were assessed, and results suggested that the degree of inactivation depended on the cell membrane structure, electric field strength and treatment time. The PEF inactivation kinetics including lethal and sublethal injury fractions were fitted with non-linear Weibull distribution, suggesting that inactivation of the first log cycle of S. aureus population was significantly affected by growth temperature, and the membrane of cells became more fluid, and easier to induce electroportion in low temperatures. Moreover, the morphology of S. aureus cells were investigated by electron microscopy, showing that various temperature-modified cells were distorted to differing extents and some even collapsed due to deep irreversible electroporation after PEF treatment.

  11. Obesity and pelvic floor dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Kalaivani; Monga, Ash

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is associated with a high prevalence of pelvic floor disorders. Patients with obesity present with a range of urinary, bowel and sexual dysfunction problems as well as uterovaginal prolapse. Urinary incontinence, faecal incontinence and sexual dysfunction are more prevalent in patients with obesity. Uterovaginal prolapse is also more common than in the non-obese population. Weight loss by surgical and non-surgical methods plays a major role in the improvement of these symptoms in such patients. The treatment of symptoms leads to an improvement in their quality of life. However, surgical treatment of these symptoms may be accompanied by an increased risk of complications in obese patients. A better understanding of the mechanism of obesity-associated pelvic floor dysfunction is essential.

  12. [Surgical dilemmas. Sinus floor elevation].

    PubMed

    ten Bruggenkate, C M; Schulten, E A J M; Zijderveld, S A

    2008-12-01

    Limited alveolar bone height prevents the placement of dental implants. Sinus floor elevation is an internal augmentation of the maxillary sinus that allows implants to be placed. The principle of this surgical procedure is the preparation of a 'top hinge door', that is raised together with the Schneiderian membrane in the cranial direction. The space which created under this lid is filled with a bone transplant. Autogenous bone is the standard transplant material, despite the fact that a second surgery site is necessary. Under certain circumstances bone substitutes can be used, with a longer healing phase. If sufficient alveolar bone height is available to secure implant stability, simultaneous implantation and sinus floor elevation are possible. Considering the significant anatomical variation in the region of the maxillary sinus, a sound knowledge of the anatomy is of great importance.

  13. Compact plane illumination plugin device to enable light sheet fluorescence imaging of multi-cellular organisms on an inverted wide-field microscope.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zeyi; Lee, Juhyun; Jiang, Hao; Dong, Siyan; Jen, Nelson; Hsiai, Tzung; Ho, Chih-Ming; Fei, Peng

    2016-01-01

    We developed a compact plane illumination plugin (PIP) device which enabled plane illumination and light sheet fluorescence imaging on a conventional inverted microscope. The PIP device allowed the integration of microscope with tunable laser sheet profile, fast image acquisition, and 3-D scanning. The device is both compact, measuring approximately 15 by 5 by 5 cm, and cost-effective, since we employed consumer electronics and an inexpensive device molding method. We demonstrated that PIP provided significant contrast and resolution enhancement to conventional microscopy through imaging different multi-cellular fluorescent structures, including 3-D branched cells in vitro and live zebrafish embryos. Imaging with the integration of PIP greatly reduced out-of-focus contamination and generated sharper contrast in acquired 2-D plane images when compared with the stand-alone inverted microscope. As a result, the dynamic fluid domain of the beating zebrafish heart was clearly segmented and the functional monitoring of the heart was achieved. Furthermore, the enhanced axial resolution established by thin plane illumination of PIP enabled the 3-D reconstruction of the branched cellular structures, which leads to the improvement on the functionality of the wide field microscopy.

  14. Compact plane illumination plugin device to enable light sheet fluorescence imaging of multi-cellular organisms on an inverted wide-field microscope

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zeyi; Lee, Juhyun; Jiang, Hao; Dong, Siyan; Jen, Nelson; Hsiai, Tzung; Ho, Chih-Ming; Fei, Peng

    2015-01-01

    We developed a compact plane illumination plugin (PIP) device which enabled plane illumination and light sheet fluorescence imaging on a conventional inverted microscope. The PIP device allowed the integration of microscope with tunable laser sheet profile, fast image acquisition, and 3-D scanning. The device is both compact, measuring approximately 15 by 5 by 5 cm, and cost-effective, since we employed consumer electronics and an inexpensive device molding method. We demonstrated that PIP provided significant contrast and resolution enhancement to conventional microscopy through imaging different multi-cellular fluorescent structures, including 3-D branched cells in vitro and live zebrafish embryos. Imaging with the integration of PIP greatly reduced out-of-focus contamination and generated sharper contrast in acquired 2-D plane images when compared with the stand-alone inverted microscope. As a result, the dynamic fluid domain of the beating zebrafish heart was clearly segmented and the functional monitoring of the heart was achieved. Furthermore, the enhanced axial resolution established by thin plane illumination of PIP enabled the 3-D reconstruction of the branched cellular structures, which leads to the improvement on the functionality of the wide field microscopy. PMID:26819828

  15. Drilling cores on the sea floor with the remote-controlled sea floor drilling rig MeBo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freudenthal, T.; Wefer, G.

    2013-12-01

    The sea floor drill rig MeBo (acronym for Meeresboden-Bohrgerät, German for sea floor drill rig) is a robotic drill rig that is deployed on the sea floor and operated remotely from the research vessel to drill up to 80 m into the sea floor. It was developed at the MARUM Research Center for Marine Environmental Sciences at Bremen University. The complete system - comprising the drill rig, winch, control station, and the launch and recovery system - is transported in six containers and can be deployed worldwide from German and international research ships. It was the first remote-controlled deep sea drill rig to use a wireline coring technique. Compared to drilling vessels this technology has the advantage of operating from a stable platform at the sea bed, which allows for optimal control over the drilling process. Especially for shallow drillings in the range of tens to hundreds of metres, sea bed drill rigs are time-efficient since no drill string has to be assembled from the ship to the sea floor before the first core can be taken. The MeBo has been successfully operated, retrieving high-quality cores at the sea bed for a variety of research fields, including slope stability studies and palaeoclimate reconstructions. Based on experience with the MeBo, a rig is now being built that will be able to drill to a depth of 200 m.

  16. A tool for hearing aid and cochlear implant users to judge the usability of cellular telephones in field conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deer, Maria Soledad

    The auditory experience of using a hearing aid or a cochlear implant simultaneously with a cell phone is driven by a number of factors. These factors are: radiofrequency and baseband interference, speech intelligibility, sound quality, handset design, volume control and signal strength. The purpose of this study was to develop a tool to be used by hearing aid and cochlear implant users in retail stores as they try cell phones before buying them. This tool is meant to be an efficient, practical and systematic consumer selection tool that will capture and document information on all the domains that play a role in the auditory experience of using a cell phone with a hearing aid or cochlear implant. The development of this consumer tool involved three steps as follows: preparation, verification and measurement of success according to a predefined criterion. First, the consumer tool, consisting of a comparison chart and speech material, was prepared. Second, the consumer tool was evaluated by groups of subjects in a two-step verification process. Phase I was conducted in a controlled setting and it was followed by Phase II which took place in real world (field) conditions. In order to perform a systematic evaluation of the consumer tool two questionnaires were developed: one questionnaire for each phase. Both questionnaires involved five quantitative variables scored with the use of ratings scales. These ratings were averaged yielding an Overall Consumer Performance Score. A qualitative performance category corresponding to the Mean Opinion Score (MOS) was allocated to each final score within a scale ranging from 1 to 5 (where 5 = excellent and 1 = bad). Finally, the consumer tool development was determined to be successful if at least 80% of the participants in verification Phase II rated the comparison chart as excellent or good according to the qualitative MOS score. The results for verification Phase II (field conditions) indicated that the Overall Consumer

  17. Cellular detection of 50 Hz magnetic fields and weak blue light: effects on superoxide levels and genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Höytö, Anne; Herrala, Mikko; Luukkonen, Jukka; Juutilainen, Jukka; Naarala, Jonne

    2017-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the effects of 50 Hz magnetic fields (MFs) on superoxide levels and genotoxicity depend on the presence of blue light. Human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were exposed to a 50 Hz, 100 μT MF with or without non-phototoxic level of blue light for 24 h. We also studied whether these treatments alter responses to menadione, an agent that induces mitochondrial superoxide (O2(• -)) production and DNA damage. Micronuclei, proliferation, viability, cytosolic and mitochondrial O2(• -) levels were assessed. MF (without blue light) increased cytosolic O2(• -) production and blue light suppressed this effect. Mitochondrial O2(• -) production was reduced by both MF and blue light, but these effects were not additive. Micronucleus frequency was not affected by blue light or MF alone, but blue light (significantly when combined with MF) enhanced menadione-induced micronuclei. The original simple hypothesis (blue light is needed for MF effects) was not supported, but interaction of MF and blue light was nevertheless observed. The results are consistent with MF effects on light-independent radical reactions.

  18. Cellular automaton model for evacuation process with obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varas, A.; Cornejo, M. D.; Mainemer, D.; Toledo, B.; Rogan, J.; Muñoz, V.; Valdivia, J. A.

    2007-08-01

    A bidimensional cellular automaton model is used to simulate the process of evacuation of pedestrians in a room with fixed obstacles. A floor field is defined so that moving to a cell with lower floor field means approaching an exit door. The model becomes non-deterministic by introducing a “panic” parameter, given by a probability of not moving, and by a random choice to resolve conflicts in the update of pedestrian positions. Two types of exit doors are considered: single (where only one person can pass) and double (two persons can pass simultaneously). For a double door, the longest evacuation time turns out to occur for a very traditional location of the door. The optimum door position is determined. Replacing the double door by two single doors does not improve evacuation times noticeably. On the other hand, for a room without obstacles, a simple scaling law is proposed to model the dependence of evacuation time with the number of persons and exit width. This model fails when obstacles are present, as their presence introduces local bottlenecks whose effect outweighs the benefits of increasing door width beyond a certain threshold.

  19. Cellular immunotherapies for cancer.

    PubMed

    Berraondo, Pedro; Labiano, Sara; Minute, Luna; Etxeberria, Iñaki; Vasquez, Marcos; Sanchez-Arraez, Alvaro; Teijeira, Alvaro; Melero, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    Lessons learned over decades on the use of gene and cell therapies have found clinical applicability in the field of cancer immunotherapy. On December 16(th), 2016 a symposium was held in Pamplona (Spain) to analyze and discuss the critical points for the clinical success of adoptive cell transfer strategies in cancer immunotherapy. Cellular immunotherapy is being currently exploited for the development of new cancer vaccines using ex vivo manipulated dendritic cells or to enhance the number of effector cells, transferring reinvigorated NK cells or T cells. In this meeting report, we summarize the main topics covered and provide an overview of the field of cellular immunotherapy.

  20. Building No. 918, N.C.O.'s Room on second floor (typical of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building No. 918, N.C.O.'s Room on second floor (typical of barracks) - Presidio of San Francisco, Enlisted Men's Barracks Type, West end of Crissy Field, between Pearce & Maudlin Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. Scaling on a limestone flooring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona-Quiroga, P. M.; Blanco-Varela, M. T.; Martínez-Ramírez, S.

    2012-04-01

    Natural stone can be use on nearly every surface, inside and outside buildings, but decay is more commonly reported from the ones exposed to outdoor aggressively conditions. This study instead, is an example of limestone weathering of uncertain origin in the interior of a residential building. The stone, used as flooring, started to exhibit loss of material in the form of scaling. These damages were observed before the building, localized in the South of Spain (Málaga), was inhabited. Moreover, according to the company the limestone satisfies the following European standards UNE-EN 1341: 2002, UNE-EN 1343: 2003; UNE-EN 12058: 2004 for floorings. Under these circumstances the main objective of this study was to assess the causes of this phenomenon. For this reason the composition of the mortar was determined and the stone was characterized from a mineralogical and petrological point of view. The last material, which is a fossiliferous limestone from Egypt with natural fissure lines, is mainly composed of calcite, being quartz, kaolinite and apatite minor phases. Moreover, under different spectroscopic and microscopic techniques (FTIR, micro-Raman, SEM-EDX, etc) samples of the weathered, taken directly from the buildings, and unweathered limestone tiles were examined and a new mineralogical phase, trona, was identified at scaled areas which are connected with the natural veins of the stone. In fact, through BSE-mapping the presence of sodium has been detected in these veins. This soluble sodium carbonate would was dissolved in the natural waters from which limestone was precipitated and would migrate with the ascendant capilar humidity and crystallized near the surface of the stone starting the scaling phenomenon which in historic masonry could be very damaging. Therefore, the weathering of the limestone would be related with the hygroscopic behaviour of this salt, but not with the constructive methods used. This makes the limestone unable to be used on restoration

  2. Vernal Crater Floor - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-28

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of the floor of Vernal Crater. Dark blue in this band configuration often indicates sand or basaltic materials. Orbit Number: 39099 Latitude: 5.48217 Longitude: 355.532 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2010-10-07 18:17 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20768

  3. A rapid and accurate quantification method for real-time dynamic analysis of cellular lipids during microalgal fermentation processes in Chlorella protothecoides with low field nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Zejian; Tian, Xiwei; Yang, Yi; Guo, Meijin; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping

    2016-05-01

    The rapid and real-time lipid determination can provide valuable information on process regulation and optimization in the algal lipid mass production. In this study, a rapid, accurate and precise quantification method of in vivo cellular lipids of Chlorella protothecoides using low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) was newly developed. LF-NMR was extremely sensitive to the algal lipids with the limits of the detection (LOD) of 0.0026g and 0.32g/L in dry lipid samples and algal broth, respectively, as well as limits of quantification (LOQ) of 0.0093g and 1.18g/L. Moreover, the LF-NMR signal was specifically proportional to the cellular lipids of C. protothecoides, thus the superior regression curves existing in a wide detection range from 0.02 to 0.42g for dry lipids and from 1.12 to 8.97gL(-1) of lipid concentration for in vivo lipid quantification were obtained with all R(2) higher than 0.99, irrespective of the lipid content and fatty acids profile variations. The accuracy of this novel method was further verified to be reliable by comparing lipid quantification results to those obtained by GC-MS. And the relative standard deviation (RSD) of LF-NMR results were smaller than 2%, suggesting the precision of this method. Finally, this method was successfully used in the on-line lipid monitoring during the algal lipid fermentation processes, making it possible for better understanding of the lipid accumulation mechanism and dynamic bioprocess control.

  4. Measurement of mobility and damping of floors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. F.; Liasjø, K. H.

    1982-04-01

    Point mobility and damping (loss factor) were measured for different types of wooden and concrete floors in occupied buildings. A vertically applied excitation force was used. Various types of woodworking machines and workshop equipment were present during the tests in order to give a practical measure of floor damping. For comparison, the characteristics of a free concrete slab with point supports at each corner, a newly constructed unfurnished office building, and an experimental floating floor were also measured. Measurements were made in three frequency bands in the range from 5 to 1600 Hz. For concrete floors maximum point mobility was typically in the region 10 -4-10 -7 m/N s, and for wooden floors, typically 10 -2-10 -4 m/N s. Loss factors were typically in the region 0.01-0.6, depending on floor construction and frequency.

  5. An ultrastructural analysis of cellular death in the CA1 field in the rat hippocampus after transient forebrain ischemia followed by 2, 4 and 10 days of reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, Eliane Roseli; Charcansky, Alexandre; Faccioni-Heuser, M Cristina; Netto, Carlos Alexandre; Achaval, Matilde

    2006-10-01

    An ultrastructural study was performed to investigate the type of cellular death that occurs in hippocampal CA1 field pyramidal neurons after 10 and 20 min of transient cerebral ischemia in the male adult Wistar rats, followed by 2, 4 and 10 days of reperfusion. The four-vessel occlusion method was used to induce ischemic insult for either 10 or 20 min, following which the animals were submitted to either 2, 4 or 10 days of reperfusion. The animals were then anaesthetised, and their brains removed, dehydrated, embedded, sectioned and examined under a transmission electron microscope. After ischemic insult, neurons from the CA1 field presented alterations, corresponding to the initial, intermediate and final stages of the degenerative process. The only difference observed between the 10 and 20 min ischemic groups was the degree of damage; the reaction was stronger in 20 min groups than in the 10 min groups. While neurons were found in the different stages of oncotic necrosis in all groups, differences were found between the groups in relation to prevalent stages. In both ischemic groups, after 2 days of reperfusion, the initial stage of oncotic necrosis was prevalent and large numbers of neurons appeared normal. In both groups, after 4 days of reperfusion, most of the neurons showed more advanced alterations, typical of an intermediate stage. In both groups, after 10 days of reperfusion, alterations corresponding to the intermediate and final stages of oncotic necrosis were also predominant. However, few intact neurons were identified and the neuropile appeared more organised, with numerous glial cells. In summary, the pyramidal neurons of the CA1 field displayed selective vulnerability and exhibited a morphological death pattern corresponding exclusively to an oncotic necrotic pathway.

  6. Crash Tests of Protective Airplane Floors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, H. D.

    1986-01-01

    Energy-absorbing floors reduce structural buckling and impact forces on occupants. 56-page report discusses crash tests of energy-absorbing aircraft floors. Describes test facility and procedures; airplanes, structural modifications, and seats; crash dynamics; floor and seat behavior; and responses of anthropometric dummies seated in airplanes. Also presents plots of accelerations, photographs and diagrams of test facility, and photographs and drawings of airplanes before, during, and after testing.

  7. Crash Tests of Protective Airplane Floors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, H. D.

    1986-01-01

    Energy-absorbing floors reduce structural buckling and impact forces on occupants. 56-page report discusses crash tests of energy-absorbing aircraft floors. Describes test facility and procedures; airplanes, structural modifications, and seats; crash dynamics; floor and seat behavior; and responses of anthropometric dummies seated in airplanes. Also presents plots of accelerations, photographs and diagrams of test facility, and photographs and drawings of airplanes before, during, and after testing.

  8. Effects of electromagnetic field stimulation on cellular signal transduction mechanisms: Analyses of the effects of low frequency electromagnetic fields on calcium spiking in ROS 17/2.8 cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sisken, B.F.; Sisken, J.E.

    1997-12-01

    The general goals of this work were to determine whether resting levels of cellular second messengers, especially calcium, are affected by low-level electromagnetic fields and the mechanisms that could lead to such changes. The work performed was directed at (1) verifying the report of McLeod et al (1990) that low frequency sinusoidal EMF can alter basal calcium fluctuations in cultured ROS 17/2.8 osteoblast-like cells and (2) reproducing the findings of Luben et al (1982) that pulsed electromagnetic fields can affect PTH-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in osteoblasts. Initially a system was constructed so that cells could be exposed to sinusoidal electric fields using platinum electrodes. In this system, the electrodes were separated from the cells and culture medium by agar barriers. A series of experiments indicated that this system was subject to a significant, though little-known artifact in which a not well understood interaction between the electrodes and sodium ions in the medium or in plain salt solutions led to frequency and amplitude dependent emission of photons that are recorded by the detection system. They therefore designed and constructed an air gap reactor system that utilizes a ferromagnetic core to direct the magnetic flux generated by a sinusoidal coil. Studies on the effects of a 15 Hz pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on cyclic AMP metabolism were performed on ROS 17/2.8 and MC3T3 cells.

  9. A Cellular Automaton model for pedestrian counterflow with swapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Y. Z.; Dong, L. Y.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a new floor field Cellular Automaton (CA) model with considering the swapping behaviors of pedestrians. The neighboring pedestrians in opposite directions take swapping in a probability decided by the linear density of pedestrian flow. The swapping which happens simultaneously with the normal movement is introduced to eliminate the gridlock in low density region. Numerical results show that the fundamental diagram is in good agreement with the measured data. Then the model is applied to investigate the counterflow and four typical states such as free flow, lane, intermediate and congestion states are found. More attention is paid on the intermediate state which lane-formation and local congestions switch in an irregular manner. The swapping plays a vital role in reducing the gridlock. Furthermore, the influence of the corridor size and individual's eyesight on counterflow are discussed in detail.

  10. Pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation using biofeedback.

    PubMed

    Newman, Diane K

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic floor muscle exercises have been recommended for urinary incontinence since first described by obstetrician gynecologist Dr. Arnold Kegel more than six decades ago. These exercises are performed to strengthen pelvic floor muscles, provide urethral support to prevent urine leakage, and suppress urgency. In clinical urology practice, expert clinicians also teach patients how to relax the muscle to improve bladder emptying and relieve pelvic pain caused by muscle spasm. When treating lower urinary tract symptoms, an exercise training program combined with biofeedback therapy has been recommended as first-line treatment. This article provides clinical application of pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation using biofeedback as a technique to enhance pelvic floor muscle training.

  11. The floor plate: multiple cells, multiple signals.

    PubMed

    Placzek, Marysia; Briscoe, James

    2005-03-01

    One of the key organizers in the CNS is the floor plate - a group of cells that is responsible for instructing neural cells to acquire distinctive fates, and that has an important role in establishing the elaborate neuronal networks that underlie the function of the brain and spinal cord. In recent years, considerable controversy has arisen over the mechanism by which floor plate cells form. Here, we describe recent evidence that indicates that discrete populations of floor plate cells, with characteristic molecular properties, form in different regions of the neuraxis, and we discuss data that imply that the mode of floor plate induction varies along the anteroposterior axis.

  12. Side Elevation; 1/4 Plans of Floor Framing, Floor Planking, Roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Side Elevation; 1/4 Plans of Floor Framing, Floor Planking, Roof Framing and Roof; Longitudinal Section, Cross Section, End Elevation - Eames Covered Bridge, Spanning Henderson Creek, Oquawka, Henderson County, IL

  13. Views of the Sea Floor in Northern Monterey Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Finlayson, David P.

    2008-01-01

    A sonar survey that produced unprecedented high-resolution images of the sea floor in northern Monterey Bay was conducted in 2005 and 2006. The survey, performed over 14 days by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), consisted of 172 tracklines and over 300 million soundings and covered an area of 12.2 km2 (4.7 mi2). The goals of this survey were to collect high-resolution bathymetry (depth to the sea floor) and acoustic backscatter data (amount of sound energy bounced back from the sea floor, which provides information on sea-floor hardness and texture) from the inner continental shelf. These data will provide a baseline for future change analyses, geologic mapping, sediment- and contaminant-transport studies, benthic-habitat delineation, and numerical modeling efforts. The survey shows that the inner shelf in this area is extremely varied in nature, encompassing flat sandy areas, faults, boulder fields, and complex bedrock ridges that support rich marine ecosystems. Furthermore, many of these complex bedrock ridges form the ?reefs? that result in a number of California?s classic surf breaks.

  14. Switch floor plants for restructurable VLSI/WSI

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.B.

    1986-01-01

    An electrically programmable switch has become a promising interconection technique for Restructurable VLSI/WSI systems because of its desirable properties, such as field reprogrammability, conventional fabrication technology and ease of changing the target architecture. However, the electrically programmable switch presents several problems to be solved, including long intermodule communication delay due to switches; the intermodule communication delay degrades VLSI/WSI system performance, particularly when it is a dominant factor in determining system speed. In this research, switch floor planning strategies (called switch floor plans) are proposed. The goal of those switch floor plans is to reduce the average intermodule communication delay and the total number of switches in the system. An ICT (Initial Configuration of Target architecture) design concept and the heterogeneous switch blocks over the target/host architecture are used to achieve such a goal. The ICT design is compared to other conventional-yield-enhancement methods by a combinatorial analysis. The proposed switch floor plans are evaluated by a computer simulation. Results show the desirability of the ICT design and the heterogeneous switches in the RVLSI/WSI system design.

  15. Eastern Floor of Holden Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 15 April 2002) The Science Today's THEMIS image covers territory on the eastern floor of Holden Crater, which is located in region of the southern hemisphere called Noachis Terra. Holden Crater is 154 km in diameter and named after American Astronomer Edward Holden (1846-1914). This image shows a mottled surface with channels, hills, ridges and impact craters. The largest crater seen in this image is 5 km in diameter. This crater has gullies and what appears to be horizontal layers in its walls. The Story With its beautiful symmetry and gullies radially streaming down to the floor, the dominant crater in this image is an impressive focal point. Yet, it is really just a small crater within a much larger one named Holden Crater. Take a look at the context image to the right to see just how much bigger Holden Crater is. Then come back to the image strip that shows the mottled surface of Holden Crater's eastern floor in greater detail, and count how many hills, ridges, channels, and small impact craters can be seen. No perfectly smooth terrain abounds there, that's for sure. The textured terrain of Holden Crater has been particularly intriguing ever since the Mars Orbital Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft found evidence of sedimentary rock layers there that might have formed in lakes or shallow seas in Mars' ancient past. This finding suggests that Mars may have been more like Earth long ago, with water on its surface. Holden Crater might even have held a lake long ago. No one knows for sure, but it's an exciting possibility. Why? If water was once on the surface of Mars long enough to form sedimentary materials, maybe it was there long enough for microbial life to have developed too. (Life as we know it just isn't possible without the long-term presence of liquid water.) The question of life on the red planet is certainly tantalizing, but scientists will need to engage in a huge amount of further investigation to begin to know the answer. That

  16. Study of the effect of ceramic Ta2O5 nanoparticle distribution on cellular dose enhancement in a kilovoltage photon field.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, Sally; Engels, Elette; Tehei, Moeava; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Corde, Stéphanie; Oktaria, Sianne; Incerti, Sebastien; Lerch, Michael; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Guatelli, Susanna

    2016-10-01

    The application of nanoparticles (NPs) in radiotherapy is an increasingly attractive technique to improve clinical outcomes. The internalisation of NPs within the tumour cells enables an increased radiation dose to critical cellular structures. The purpose of this study is to investigate, by means of Geant4 simulations, the dose enhancement within a cell population irradiated with a 150kVp photon field in the presence of a varying concentration of tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) NP aggregates, experimentally observed to form shells within tumour cells. This scenario is compared to the more traditionally simulated homogeneous solution of NP material in water with the same weight fraction of Ta2O5, as well as to a cell population without NPs present. The production of secondary electrons is enhanced by increased photoelectric effect interactions within the high-Z material and this is examined in terms of their kinetic energy spectra and linear energy transfer (LET) with various NP distributions compared to water. Our results indicate that the shell formation scenario limits the dose enhancement at 150kVp. The underlying mechanism for this limit is discussed.

  17. Towards a validation of a cellular biomarker suite in native and transplanted zebra mussels: a 2-year integrative field study of seasonal and pollution-induced variations.

    PubMed

    Guerlet, Edwige; Ledy, Karine; Meyer, Antoinette; Giambérini, Laure

    2007-03-30

    Two of the questions raised in the validation process of biomarkers are their relevance in the identification and discrimination of environmental perturbations, and the influence of seasonal factors on these biological endpoints. Determining the advantages and restrictions associated with the use of native or transplanted animals and comparing their responses is also needed. To obtain this information, a 2-year integrative field study was conducted in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant in northeastern France. A station was located in the reservoir receiving the cooling waters of the plant, and two other sites were studied 2 km upstream and 5 km downstream from the reservoir's discharge in the Moselle river. Elevated temperatures, copper contamination and a 1.4-fold-concentration factor of dissolved salts affected water quality of the reservoir. Native and transplanted zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were collected monthly and their digestive glands were processed for histochemical determinations of the lysosomal and peroxisomal systems and of the lipofuscin and neutral lipid contents. The responses were quantified using automated image analysis and stereology. Apart from neutral lipid contents, there were no systematic seasonal patterns in mussel populations or from 1 year to another. Principal Component Analyses showed a general higher discrimination potential of biological responses in transplanted organisms compared to native ones. They also pointed out the relationships between the cellular and physiological markers and abiotic factors. The present multiple biomarker integrative approach in transplanted D. polymorpha brings promising elements in their validation process as relevant biomonitoring tools.

  18. Image processing with cellular nonlinear networks implemented on field-programmable gate arrays for real-time applications in nuclear fusion.

    PubMed

    Palazzo, S; Murari, A; Vagliasindi, G; Arena, P; Mazon, D; De Maack, A

    2010-08-01

    In the past years cameras have become increasingly common tools in scientific applications. They are now quite systematically used in magnetic confinement fusion, to the point that infrared imaging is starting to be used systematically for real-time machine protection in major devices. However, in order to guarantee that the control system can always react rapidly in case of critical situations, the time required for the processing of the images must be as predictable as possible. The approach described in this paper combines the new computational paradigm of cellular nonlinear networks (CNNs) with field-programmable gate arrays and has been tested in an application for the detection of hot spots on the plasma facing components in JET. The developed system is able to perform real-time hot spot recognition, by processing the image stream captured by JET wide angle infrared camera, with the guarantee that computational time is constant and deterministic. The statistical results obtained from a quite extensive set of examples show that this solution approximates very well an ad hoc serial software algorithm, with no false or missed alarms and an almost perfect overlapping of alarm intervals. The computational time can be reduced to a millisecond time scale for 8 bit 496560-sized images. Moreover, in our implementation, the computational time, besides being deterministic, is practically independent of the number of iterations performed by the CNN-unlike software CNN implementations.

  19. Revealing the cellular metabolism and microstructural changes in vivo in senescing Acer saccharum leaves using two-photon FLIM and full-field OCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Anna, Tulsi; Kuo, Wen-Chuan; Chiou, Arthur

    2016-10-01

    Seasonal as well as climate changes have immense effect on bud burst, leaf color and leaf abscission. Autumn phenology of leaves is clearly distinguishable in deciduous plant leaves where the leaf color changes from green to red (leaf senescence). In this work, two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (2P-FLIM) and full-field optical coherence microscopy (FF-OCM) were applied to study mitochondrial activity and microstructural changes, respectively, in the senescence of Acer saccharum (Sugar maple) leaves. Fluorescence lifetime of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate [NAD(P)H] was recorded using 2P-FLIM to quantify the cellular metabolic changes. Compared to the green leaves, the red leaves showed a 19% increase (P < 0.05) in the average fluorescence lifetime of NAD(P)H, and a 52% decrease (p < 0.005) in the free to protein-bound NAD(P)H ratio. This infers a significant change in mitochondrial metabolic regulation in red leaves in contrast to green leaves. Additionally, en-face sectional images at 0.8 μm axial resolutions of the green and the red color Acer saccharum leaves via FF-OCM using white light emitting diode (WLED) showed a well-defined microstructure of epicuticular waxy layer in green leaves as compared to red leaves where disintegrated microstructure was observed. Our approach can potentially be used to correlate mitochondrial activity with epicuticular microstructural changes in senescing leaves and other biological tissues.

  20. Combined effects of 60 Hz electromagnetic field exposure with various stress factors on cellular transformation in NIH3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae-June; Jin, Yeung Bae; Lee, Jae Seon; Choi, Jong-Il; Lee, Ju-Woon; Myung, Sung Ho; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2012-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) are associated with an increased incidence of cancer. Studies using in vitro systems have reported mixed results for the effects of ELF-MF alone, and the World Health Organization (WHO) Research Agenda published in 2007 suggested that high priority research should include an evaluation of the co-carcinogenic effects of ELF-MF exposure using in vitro models. Here, the carcinogenic potential of ELF-MF exposure alone and in combination with various stress factors was investigated in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts using an in vitro cellular transformation assay. NIH3T3 cells were exposed to a 60 Hz ELF-MF (1 mT) alone or in combination with ionizing radiation (IR), hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), or c-Myc overexpression, and the resulting number of anchorage-independent colonies was counted. A 4 h exposure of NIH3T3 cells to ELF-MF alone produced no cell transformation. Moreover, ELF exposure did not influence the transformation activity of IR, H₂O₂, or activated c-Myc in our in vitro assay system, suggesting that 1 mT ELF-MF did not affect any additive or synergistic transformation activities in combination with stress factors such as IR, H₂O₂, or activated c-Myc in NIH3T3 cells.

  1. [The electromagnetic fields of cellular phones and the health of children and of teenagers (the situation requiring to take an urgent measure)].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, Iu G

    2005-01-01

    The problem of the influence of electromagnetic fields (EMF) of cellular phones (CP) on the health of children and teenagers is considered in this article. The results of the researchs indicate the increased sensitivity of the children and of the teenagers to this kind of radiation. Direct indicators of electromagnetic influence can be infringement of sleep, decrease of the memory, fatigue, breach of a blood-brain barrier permeability, changes in nervous cells of a brain. As the remote consequences the development of tumors of a brain and acoustic nerve are predicted. However all these results require the realization of independent repeated researches. WHO (World Health Organization) recommends to use "Precautionary principle" with the purposes of decreasing of the risk. Russian National Committee of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection recommended to limit the use of CP by children and teenagers under 16 years old (2002, February 2004). The corresponding recommendations were included into SunPin H2.1.8/2.2.4.1190-03/(2003).

  2. Image processing with cellular nonlinear networks implemented on field-programmable gate arrays for real-time applications in nuclear fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzo, S.; Murari, A.; Vagliasindi, G.; Arena, P.; Mazon, D.; de Maack, A.; Jet-Efda Contributors

    2010-08-01

    In the past years cameras have become increasingly common tools in scientific applications. They are now quite systematically used in magnetic confinement fusion, to the point that infrared imaging is starting to be used systematically for real-time machine protection in major devices. However, in order to guarantee that the control system can always react rapidly in case of critical situations, the time required for the processing of the images must be as predictable as possible. The approach described in this paper combines the new computational paradigm of cellular nonlinear networks (CNNs) with field-programmable gate arrays and has been tested in an application for the detection of hot spots on the plasma facing components in JET. The developed system is able to perform real-time hot spot recognition, by processing the image stream captured by JET wide angle infrared camera, with the guarantee that computational time is constant and deterministic. The statistical results obtained from a quite extensive set of examples show that this solution approximates very well an ad hoc serial software algorithm, with no false or missed alarms and an almost perfect overlapping of alarm intervals. The computational time can be reduced to a millisecond time scale for 8 bit 496×560-sized images. Moreover, in our implementation, the computational time, besides being deterministic, is practically independent of the number of iterations performed by the CNN—unlike software CNN implementations.

  3. 16. THIRD FLOOR BLDG. 28A, DETAIL CUTOUT IN FLOOR FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. THIRD FLOOR BLDG. 28A, DETAIL CUTOUT IN FLOOR FOR WOOD BLOCK FLOORING LOOKING EAST. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  4. Meaningful use: Floor or ceiling?

    PubMed

    Botta, Michael D; Cutler, David M

    2014-03-01

    In 2011, federal incentive payments for meaningful use of electronic health records (EHRs) began. This study evaluates the impact of the program on hospitals and EHR vendors, identifying how it affects EHR planning and development. Specifically, it assesses whether vendors and Chief Information Officers (CIOs) are viewing the meaningful use requirements as a floor - the minimally acceptable level of implementation, upon which development continues - or as a ceiling - the upper-bound on EHR development and implementation. The study combines interviews with EHR vendors and hospital CIOs with EHR adoption data from American Hospital Association surveys. Results from interviews with 17 hospital and system CIOs (representing 144 individual acute-care hospitals) and 8 EHR development executives (representing two-thirds of installations) are detailed. Furthermore, it compares adoption of two key EHR functions, BCMA and CPOE, which are treated differently under stage 1 of the incentive program. Three key findings emerge from the study. First, meaningful use requirements can serve as either a floor or a ceiling, depending on the abilities of institutions implementing EHRs. Second, the increasing focus on achieving meaningful use across both hospitals and vendors risks missing the forest of health care system change through the trees of meeting discrete requirements. Third, while the meaningful use incentive program has accelerated the development and implementation of some key functions, it has also slowed development of others. Policy makers should craft subsequent stages of the incentive program to ensure smaller facilities and additional features necessary for health care system change are not left behind. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 25. INTERIOR VIEW ON THE GENERATOR FLOOR OF THE SOAPSTONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. INTERIOR VIEW ON THE GENERATOR FLOOR OF THE SOAPSTONE PANELS THAT CONTAIN INSTRUMENTS TO MONITIOR AND CONTROL THE OUTPUT OF THE GENERTATORS. IN THE FOREGROUND RIGHT ARE ADJUSTABLE FIELD RESISTORS TO CONTROL THE OVERALL POWER OUTPUT OF THE MAIN GENERATOR VIA THE EXCITER GENERATOR. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  6. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Concrete flooring. 91.26 Section 91.26... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.26 Concrete flooring. (a) Pens aboard an ocean vessel shall have a 3 inch concrete pavement, proportioned and mixed to give 2000...

  7. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Concrete flooring. 91.26 Section 91.26... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.26 Concrete flooring. (a) Pens aboard an ocean vessel shall have a 3 inch concrete pavement, proportioned and mixed to give 2000...

  8. Lightweight Integrally Armored Floor (LIAF) Ballistic Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    UHMWPE ), and a mini-core sandwich structure which serves as the walking surface of the floor system (Figure 1). Specimen details are covered in...SIDE Strike Face Backing Plate (walking surface) Ballistic Material ( UHMWPE ) Projectile Lightweight Integrally Armored Floor (LIAF

  9. On-grade insulated panel floor system

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornson, D.; Briscoe, J.; Brown, G.Z.; Fremouw, S.; Kline, J.; Northcutt, D.

    1999-07-01

    The on-grade insulated panel floor system combines floor and foundation to reduce cost, increase energy and structural performance, and provide easy dismantling and recycling upon demolition. The system uses one-sided structural insulated panels (SIPs with one layer of OSB attached to foam insulation), a compacted gravel bed, and engineered lumber for the perimeter beam. Tests show that an on-grade panel floor system of 20 ft by 36 ft (6.1 by 11.0 m) is $895 less expensive and has a 55% better insulating value than an insulated concrete slab, exceeds deflection and flatness criteria for wood and concrete slab floors and supports structural loads in excess of those in residential construction. The flexible nature of the foam and wood may also improve the standing comfort of the floor compared to a concrete slab floor. In addition, the panel and engineered wood components increase the recyclability of the floor. The system is easily adaptable to use over an existing concrete floor.

  10. Learning4Life on the Exhibit Floor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    The exhibit floor is a wealth of knowledge. One can read, view, and listen to information presented in many formats. Somewhere on the exhibit floor there are experts on every topic, ready and waiting for one's questions. But like any research topic, frequently a structured search is required to find the best answers. This article discusses how to…

  11. Physical distribution of oak strip flooring 1969

    Treesearch

    William C. Miller; William C. Miller

    1971-01-01

    As an aid to the marketing of oak strip flooring, a study was made of the distribution process for this product, from manufacture to consumer-where the flooring came from, where it went, how much was shipped, and who handled it.

  12. Male pelvic floor: history and update.

    PubMed

    Dorey, Grace

    2005-08-01

    Our understanding of the male pelvic floor has evolved over more than 2,000 years. Gradually medical science has sought to dispel ancient myths and untruths. The male pelvic floor has many diverse functions. Importantly, it helps to support the abdominal contents, maintains urinary and fecal continence, and plays a major role in gaining and maintaining penile erection. Weakness of the male pelvic floor muscles may cause urinary and fecal incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Function may be restored in each of these areas by a comprehensive pelvic floor muscle training program. Spasm of the pelvic floor muscles may produce pain and require relaxation techniques. Additional research is needed to add further evidence to our knowledge base.

  13. Nasal Floor Mucosa: New Donor Site for Mucous Membrane Grafts.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Payam V; Suh, Jeffrey D; Hwang, Catherine J

    2016-01-01

    Mucous membrane grafts are used for various indications in oculoplastics. The authors report the use of nasal floor mucosa as a new donor site for mucous membrane grafts. Following adequate anesthesia and vasoconstriction, the nasal floor is visualized with a 30° endoscope. Next, the interior turbinate is medialized, and the nasolacrimal duct is identified and preserved. Anterior, posterior, medial, and lateral incisions are made through the nasal mucosa to the nasal bone. The mucosa is dissected off the nasal bone with a periosteal elevator. Nasal saline irrigation is used postoperatively to aid healing. Histologic analysis of the harvested graft and mucosa from the inferior and middle turbinates were analyzed histologically for the number of mucin-producing cells per high power field and compared. Nasal floor mucosa provides ample tissue for grafting with little donor site morbidity. The surgery is technically easy to learn and perform. There is less risk for blood loss compared with harvesting tissue from the turbinates and less postoperative discomfort compared with buccal mucosal grafts. The grafts have been used in 9 different patients for a variety of ocular indications. Histologically, the nasal floor mucosa contains statistically more mucin-secreting cells than other nasal site, which can be helpful especially in cases of ocular surface disease. In 1 case, biopsy of the grafted tissue at postoperative year 2 showed survival of the respiratory mucin-secreting cells under histologic examination. Nasal floor mucosa should be considered a donor site when a mucous membrane graft is needed. The surgery is safe, easy to perform, and has less morbidity than either a nasal turbinate graft or a buccal mucosal graft.

  14. Migration of DEHP and DINP into dust from PVC flooring products at different surface temperature.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seunghwan; Kim, Ki-Tae; Choi, Kyungho

    2016-03-15

    Phthalates are important endocrine disrupting chemicals that have been linked to various adverse human health effects. Phthalates are ubiquitously present in indoor environment and could enter humans. Vinyl or PVC floorings have been recognized as one of important sources of phthalate release to indoor environment including house dust. In the present study, we estimated the migration of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) from the flooring materials into the dust under different heating conditions. For this purpose, a small chamber specifically designed for the present study and a Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC) were used, and four major types of PVC flooring samples including two UV curing paint coated, an uncoated residential, and a wax-coated commercial type were tested. Migration of DEHP was observed for an uncoated residential type and a wax-coated commercial type flooring. After 14 days of incubation, the levels of DEHP in the dust sample was determined at room temperature on average (standard deviation) at 384 ± 19 and 481 ± 53 μg/g, respectively. In contrast, migration of DINP was not observed. The migration of DEHP was strongly influenced by surface characteristics such as UV curing coating. In the residential flooring coated with UV curing paint, migration of DEHP was not observed at room temperature. But under the heated condition, the release of DEHP was observed in the dust in the FLEC. Migration of DEHP from flooring materials increased when the flooring was heated (50 °C). In Korea, heated flooring system, or 'ondol', is very common mode of heating in residential setting, therefore the contribution of PVC flooring to the total indoor DEHP exposure among general population is expected to be greater especially during winter season when the floor is heated.

  15. Floor temperature preference of sows at farrowing.

    PubMed

    Phillips; Fraser; Pawluczuk

    2000-03-22

    A preference testing apparatus was used to provide sows with continuous access to three identical farrowing crates, each with a different floor temperature. The concrete floor under each crate contained copper pipe through which temperature-controlled water was circulated to achieve unoccupied floor temperatures of 22 degrees C (+/-3.5), 29 degrees C (+/-1) and 35 degrees C (+/-1). Eighteen sows were tested in the apparatus. Video recording was used to determine sow position from 7 days before farrowing (Days -7 to -1) to 14 days after (Days 1 to 14). On Days -7 to -1, sows showed no significant preference among the three temperatures when selecting a resting area. Once farrowing had begun, there was a significant increase (P<0.01) in the use of the 35 degrees C floor and it became the most preferred resting area for Days 1 to 3. After this interval, use of the 35 degrees C floor declined significantly (P<0.01), and use of the cooler floors increased, resulting in no significant thermal preference during Days 4 to 6. There was a further decline in the use of the 35 degrees C floor after Days 4 to 6 (P<0.01) to the extent that the coolest floor (22 degrees C) became the most preferred from Days 7 to 14. In summary, sows showed a pronounced increase in preference for a warm floor during the 3 days after the start of farrowing. This change in preference may explain how free-living sows select a suitable thermal environment for their young, and why sows try to avoid metal flooring at the time of farrowing.

  16. Detection of diffuse sea floor venting using structured light imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inglis, G.; Smart, C.; Roman, C.; Carey, S.

    2011-12-01

    images over active vents are compared to typical sea floor images, allowing for allowing areas of venting to be identified from sequences of images taken during a standard grid survey over the vent field. The use of structured light laser image offers potential for broad area vehicle surveys. The method would also complement direct visual surveys and other acoustic coherence methods that are used to identify the location of fluid flow.

  17. Architected Cellular Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaedler, Tobias A.; Carter, William B.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing enables fabrication of materials with intricate cellular architecture, whereby progress in 3D printing techniques is increasing the possible configurations of voids and solids ad infinitum. Examples are microlattices with graded porosity and truss structures optimized for specific loading conditions. The cellular architecture determines the mechanical properties and density of these materials and can influence a wide range of other properties, e.g., acoustic, thermal, and biological properties. By combining optimized cellular architectures with high-performance metals and ceramics, several lightweight materials that exhibit strength and stiffness previously unachievable at low densities were recently demonstrated. This review introduces the field of architected materials; summarizes the most common fabrication methods, with an emphasis on additive manufacturing; and discusses recent progress in the development of architected materials. The review also discusses important applications, including lightweight structures, energy absorption, metamaterials, thermal management, and bioscaffolds.

  18. Reducing the in-vitro electromagnetic field effect of cellular phones on human DNA and the intensity of their emitted radiation.

    PubMed

    Syldona, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated detrimental effects of cellular phone radiation on in-vitro biological systems. This article introduces a novel in-vitro method for demonstrating conformational changes in human DNA induced by a 5 minute exposure to cellular phone radiation emitted by an actual contemporary cellular phone. Dynamic changes in DNA conformation was determined in real-time by measuring the rate of DNA rewinding (in a spectrophotometer) following exposure to heat which causes the unwinding of the two strands of the helix. Cellular phone radiation produced a 40% increase in the rate of DNA rewinding. This effect was 95% attenuated when the experiment was repeated with the same cellular phone to which was attached a commercially available shielding disk shaped sheet containing a paramagnetic mineral. In a separate series of experiments the intensity of the cellular phone radiation was measured using an electromagnetic frequency spectrum analyzer. The intensity was reduced by approximately 50% in the presence of the shielding disk. Taken together these studies indicate the efficacy of a shielding disk to protect the body from cellular phone radiation.

  19. 5. INTERIOR, CENTRAL BLOCK, FIRST FLOOR, VIEW THROUGH DOORWAY IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR, CENTRAL BLOCK, FIRST FLOOR, VIEW THROUGH DOORWAY IN EAST WALL OF NORTHEAST ROOM, SHOWING (EAST) WALL OF EAST ROOM (FIRST AND SECOND FLOORS), AND SECOND FLOOR JOISTS - Bulows Minde Estate House, Bulows Minde, Bulows Minde, St. Croix, VI

  20. 23. FIRST AND SECOND FLOOR: STAIRCASE AND MAIN ENTRY WAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. FIRST AND SECOND FLOOR: STAIRCASE AND MAIN ENTRY WAY ON FIRST AND SECOND FLOOR FROM LANDING BETWEEN FIRST AND SECOND FLOOR LOOKING EAST - Masonic Temple, 1111-1119 Eleventh Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  1. 41. Ground level photograph of two floors of skeleton complete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Ground level photograph of two floors of skeleton complete with 3rd and 4th floors being started,upper floors of county bldg visible - Chicago City Hall, 121 North LaSalle Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  2. Typical Newel Post, First Floor Newel Post, Typical Baluster, Typical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Typical Newel Post, First Floor Newel Post, Typical Baluster, Typical Nosing, First Floor Stringer Profile, Second Floor Stringer Profile - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers - Battle Mountain Sanitarium, Treasurer's Quarters, 500 North Fifth Street, Hot Springs, Fall River County, SD

  3. Interior view of first floor with elevator in background. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of first floor with elevator in background. Note that floor was originally two feet higher, but was dug out for new concrete floor. - Bates Hoist Machine, 1512 Fleet Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  4. Influence of electromagnetic fields emitted by GSM-900 cellular telephones on the circadian patterns of gonadal, adrenal and pituitary hormones in men.

    PubMed

    Djeridane, Yasmina; Touitou, Yvan; de Seze, René

    2008-03-01

    The potential health risks of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMFs) emitted by mobile phones are currently of considerable public interest. The present study investigated the effect of exposure to 900 MHz GSM radiofrequency radiation on steroid (cortisol and testosterone) and pituitary (thyroid-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, prolactin and adrenocorticotropin) hormone levels in 20 healthy male volunteers. Each subject was exposed to RF EMFs through the use of a cellular phone for 2 h/day, 5 days/ week, for 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected hourly during the night and every 3 h during the day. Four sampling sessions were performed at 15-day intervals: before the beginning of the exposure period, at the middle and the end of the exposure period, and 15 days later. Parameters evaluated included the maximum serum concentration, the time of this maximum, and the area under the curve for hormone circadian patterns. Each individual's pre-exposure hormone concentration was used as his control. All hormone concentrations remained within normal physiological ranges. The circadian profiles of prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropin and testosterone were not disrupted by RF EMFs emitted by mobile phones. For growth hormone and cortisol, there were significant decreases of about 28% and 12%, respectively, in the maximum levels when comparing the 2-week (for growth hormone and cortisol) and 4-week (for growth hormone) exposure periods to the pre-exposure period, but no difference persisted in the postexposure period. Our data show that the 900 MHz EMF exposure, at least under our experimental conditions, does not appear to affect endocrine functions in men.

  5. Glycan profiling analysis using evanescent-field fluorescence-assisted lectin array: Importance of sugar recognition for cellular uptake of exosomes from mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Asako; Tahara, Yoshiro; Sawada, Shin-Ichi; Sasaki, Yoshihiro; Akiyoshi, Kazunari

    2017-09-23

    Studies involving the functional analysis of exosomal contents including proteins, DNA, and RNA have been reported. Most membrane proteins and lipids are glycosylated, which controls their physical properties and functions, but little is known about glycans on exosomes owing to the difficulty of analysing them. To shed light on these issues, we collected exosomes from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from human adipose tissue for glycan profiling using evanescent-field fluorescence-assisted lectin array as well as analysis of their uptake in vivo. Initial analyses showed that the mean diameter of the collected exosomes was 178 nm and they presented with typical exosomal and MSC markers. Regarding the glycan profiling, exosomes interacted more strongly than the membrane of the original MSCs did with a range of lectins, especially sialic acid-binding lectins. The findings also showed that cellular exosome uptake involved recognition by HeLa cell-surface-bound sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin (Ig)-like lectins (siglecs). Confirming this siglec-related uptake, in vivo experiments involving subcutaneous injection of the fluorescently labelled exosomes into mice showed their transport into lymph nodes and internalization by antigen-presenting cells, particularly those expressing CD11b. Closer analysis revealed the colocalization of the exosomes with siglecs, indicating their involvement in the uptake. These findings provide us with an improved understanding of the importance of exosomal transport and targeting in relation to glycans on exosomal surfaces, potentially enabling us to standardize exosomes when using them for therapeutic purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dunes in a Crater Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 6 August 2003

    This image shows the floor of a crater just north of the Argyre basin in the southern hemisphere. Dark dunes have been pushed up against the northeastern interior rim of the crater, indicating that the prevailing winds blow from the southwest.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -35.7, Longitude 324.1 East (35.9 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Neurourology and pelvic floor dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Madersbacher, H

    2004-08-01

    The levator ani muscles, endopelvic fascia, and muscular structures of the sphincter and the pelvic floor musculature (PFM) comprise one system. The physiological organization of Onuf's nuclei and of levator ani motorneurons as well as the reflex control of the tonic activity, that is essential for the generation of maintained force in slow-twitch muscle fibers, is an important part of the normal function of this system. In the human the motor cortex is crucial in voluntary motor control also of PFM, but other areas in the brain are involved in activities of the PFM related to emotional behavior e.g. micturition. Coordination between the urinary bladder, the urethra and the PFM is mediated by multiple reflex pathways organized in the brain and spinal cord. Some reflexes promote urine storage, whereas others facilitate voiding. It is also possible that individual reflexes might be linked together in a serial manner to create complex feedback mechanisms. The control of striated muscle in neurological lesions of the lower urinary tract is an active area of research and is producing results that are relevant to the problems of the neurogenic and idiopathic overactive bladder, whether these are caused by central nervous system or peripheral nerve lesions.

  8. This photocopy of an engineering drawing shows the floor plan ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    This photocopy of an engineering drawing shows the floor plan of the Liner Lab, including room functions. Austin, Field & Fry, Architects Engineers, 22311 West Third Street, Los Angeles 57, California: Edwards Test Station Complex Phase II, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Edwards Air Force Base, Edwards, California: "Liner Laboratory, Floor Plan and Schedules," drawing no. E33/4-2, 26 June 1962. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering: engineering drawings of structures at JPL Edwards Facility. Drawings on file at JPL Plant Engineering, Pasadena, California. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering: engineering drawings of structures at JPL Edwards Facility. Drawings on file at JPL Plant Engineering, Pasadena, California - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Liner Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  9. Pulsations, interpulsations, and sea-floor spreading.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pessagno, E. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    It is postulated that worldwide transgressions (pulsations) and regressions (interpulsations) through the course of geologic time are related to the elevation and subsidence of oceanic ridge systems and to sea-floor spreading. Two multiple working hypotheses are advanced to explain major transgressions and regressions and the elevation and subsidence of oceanic ridge systems. One hypothesis interrelates the sea-floor spreading hypothesis to the hypothesis of sub-Mohorovicic serpentinization. The second hypothesis relates the sea-floor spreading hypothesis to a hypothesis involving thermal expansion and contraction.

  10. Pulsations, interpulsations, and sea-floor spreading.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pessagno, E. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    It is postulated that worldwide transgressions (pulsations) and regressions (interpulsations) through the course of geologic time are related to the elevation and subsidence of oceanic ridge systems and to sea-floor spreading. Two multiple working hypotheses are advanced to explain major transgressions and regressions and the elevation and subsidence of oceanic ridge systems. One hypothesis interrelates the sea-floor spreading hypothesis to the hypothesis of sub-Mohorovicic serpentinization. The second hypothesis relates the sea-floor spreading hypothesis to a hypothesis involving thermal expansion and contraction.

  11. Ultrasound Imaging of the Pelvic Floor.

    PubMed

    Stone, Daniel E; Quiroz, Lieschen H

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the background and appraisal of endoluminal ultrasound of the pelvic floor. It provides a detailed anatomic assessment of the muscles and surrounding organs of the pelvic floor. Different anatomic variability and pathology, such as prolapse, fecal incontinence, urinary incontinence, vaginal wall cysts, synthetic implanted material, and pelvic pain, are easily assessed with endoluminal vaginal ultrasound. With pelvic organ prolapse in particular, not only is the prolapse itself seen but the underlying cause related to the anatomic and functional abnormalities of the pelvic floor muscle structures are also visualized.

  12. The effect of softening on the bearing capacity of mine floors

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, G.G.; Choi, S.H.

    1998-12-31

    Based on analyzing case history data in the Illinois Coal Basin, it was determined that mine collapse resulting in surface subsidence can occur from floor softening. In other words, certain materials present in the mine floor can soften after coal extraction and fail when bearing pillars. The softening mechanisms considered are: (1) slaking/swelling due to moisture exposure, and (2) creep or strain softening due to sustained loads. In some case histories, the effect of floor slaking or swelling on floor stability is a fairly dramatic event by the occurrence of pooling of mine water and subsequent surface subsidence in the are a of pooling. In other cases, the time factor is greater. The effect of softening on the ultimate bearing capacity of the mine floor was assessed by modeling representative conditions using FEM and elasto-plastic elements. In the models, the properties of softened mine floor were determined from results from subsurface exploration work in floor areas which were stable and others which had failed. The zone of softening was established on stress-field analysis.

  13. Sinus floor bone failures in maxillary sinus floor augmentation: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Arthur Rodriguez Gonzalez; Pinheiro, Lucas Rodrigues; Cavalcanti, Marcelo Gusmão Paraíso; Arita, Emiko Saito; Tamimi, Faleh

    2015-04-01

    Extreme bone resorption in posterior maxilla may lead to absence of part of the sinus floor. This phenomenon has been termed sinus floor bone failure, and may compromise sinus floor augmentation. The present article aims to evaluate risk factors related to sinus floor bone failures and to evaluate the influence of these failures in sinus floor augmentation outcomes in patients with severely atrophic posterior maxilla. In this case-control study, patients were selected among those referred for sinus floor augmentation. Only patients presenting a ridge bone height of less than 3 mm were included. Cases were defined as presenting sinus floor bone failure, whereas controls did not present any interruption in the sinus floor bone. Information collected included clinical dental records and computed tomographic assessment of sinus width, septa, and schneiderian membrane. Risk estimates for sinus floor bone failures were calculated as adjusted odds ratios (AORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using conditional logistic regression analyses. A p value under 0.05 was considered statistically significant. In addition, sinus floor augmentation outcomes of both groups were also assessed. In all, 23 cases and 58 controls were included in the study. Sinus floor bone failures were significantly associated with the number of missing posterior teeth (AOR 3.67; 95% CI 0.86 to 15.63; p = .046) and a history of periodontitis (AOR 6.39; 95% CI 1.86 to 21.95; p = .002). Of the total, 15 cases and 27 controls underwent sinus floor augmentation. Schneiderian membrane perforation occurred during the surgery of two cases and of one control. No implants were lost during a mean postsurgical follow-up of 20 months. The number of missing posterior teeth and a history of periodontitis may be considered as risk factors for sinus floor bone failures. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Floor of Alexey Tolstoy Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The circular, polar orbit of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) achieved in early 1999 has begun to provide many opportunities to examine features in the martian southern hemisphere at high resolution. One of our favorite examples (thus far) is this picture of a small portion of the floor of Alexey Tolstoy Crater.

    The top of the image shows a dark surface that is extremely rough and rocky. The rest of the image shows a brighter, smoother material. It appears that the bright material has been eroded back, exposing the lower, darker surface. The small crater that dominates this picture is only about 850 meters (930 yards) wide and has also been partly exhumed/exposed from beneath the bright, smooth material. Illumination is from the upper left.

    Alexey (or Aleksey) Tolstoy Crater, in which the small unnamed crater seen in this picture occurs, was named by the International Astronomical Union in 1982 to honor the Soviet writer who died in 1945. It is one of only a few craters on Mars designated by both the first and last names of the honored person. The Alexey Tolstoy Crater has a diameter of 94 kilometers (58 miles) and is centered at 47.6oS latitude, 234.6oW longitude in eastern Promethei Terra.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  15. Generation of airborne listeria from floor drains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Listeria monocytogenes can colonize floor drains in poultry processing and further processing facilities remaining even after cleaning and disinfection. Therefore, during wash down, workers exercise caution to prevent escape and transfer of drain microflora to food contact surfaces. The objective ...

  16. Sedimentary Rock Layers on a Crater Floor

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-20

    This image from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter covers layered sedimentary rocks on the floor of an impact crater north of Eberswalde Crater. There may have been a lake in this crater billions of years ago.

  17. Floor Maintenance: Tips from the Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Shannon

    2001-01-01

    Presents advice from three university maintenance directors on what they see as the most important parts involved in keeping floors in top shape. Training, staff motivation, flexible scheduling, and proper use of supplies are addressed. (GR)

  18. Impact evaluation of composite floor sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boitnott, Richard L.; Fasanella, Edwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Graphite-epoxy floor sections representative of aircraft fuselage construction were statically and dynamically tested to evaluate their response to crash loadings. These floor sections were fabricated using a frame-stringer design typical of present aluminum aircraft without features to enhance crashworthiness. The floor sections were tested as part of a systematic research program developed to study the impact response of composite components of increasing complexity. The ultimate goal of the research program is to develop crashworthy design features for future composite aircraft. Initially, individual frames of six-foot diameter were tested both statically and dynamically. The frames were then used to construct built-up floor sections for dynamic tests at impact velocities of approximately 20 feet/sec to simulate survivable crash velocities. In addition, static tests were conducted to gain a better understanding of the failure mechanisms seen in the dynamic tests.

  19. Floor Fractured Craters around Syrtis Major, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamberg, M.; Jaumann, R.; Asche, H.

    2012-04-01

    Craters around Syrtis Major are eroded and/or refilled. Syrtis Major is one of the large Hesperian-aged volcanic regions on Mars. Basaltic deposits originating from nearby Syrtis Major cover the floor of impact craters. In particular some craters exhibit a fractured floor. Floor Fractured Craters can be divided in types. The grade of erosion and the geologic process, which formed the crater, can be different. Type 1: Crater floor affected by pit chains or narrow crevices which are sometimes discontinuous. Type 2: More developed and dense networks of crevices as type 1. Crevices are wide and deep enough to be detected. A circular moat starts to develop as crevices concentrate along the rim. Type 3: Mainly distinguished from type 2 by the presence of a fully developed circular moat. The flat central part is divided into several blocks by crevices. Type 4: They show also a continuous moat along the rim but the central part consists of many flat-top blocks and small conical mounds. Type 5: Crater floor has many mounds of irregular sizes, but the flattop blocks are absent. It should be noted that the knobby surface shows typical characteristics of chaotic terrains and could be alternatively classified as such. Type 6: Crater without a circular moat, crevices are not fully developed, flat-top blocks are present. Fractured floor could have been reshaped through geologic processes. Floor fractured craters can be found in three different areas. The first area is located in the south-eastern part of Syrtis Major, bordering to the highlands. Volcanic features like lava flow fronts, lava flows and wrinkle ridges dominate this region. The crater floor is separated in sharp-edged plates and the interior seems to be flooded by basaltic material. The second area is in the north of Syrtis Major and transcend to the chaotic terrain further north. Near the martian dichotomy boundary fluvial activity was the decisive process. The crater rims are highly eroded, channels are cutting

  20. Acceleration response spectrum for predicting floor vibration due to occupant walking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Xu, Ruotian; Zhang, Mengshi

    2014-07-01

    Annoying vibrations caused by occupant walking is an important serviceability problem for long-span floors. At the design stage the floor's structural arrangement may frequently change to cater for the owner's varying requirements. An efficient and accurate approach for predicting a floor's acceleration response is thus of great significance. This paper presents a design-oriented acceleration response spectrum for calculating a floor's response given the floor's modal characteristics and a specified confidence level. 2204 measured footfall traces from 61 test subjects were used to generate 10 s peak root-mean-square acceleration response spectra, on which a piecewise mathematical representation is based. The proposed response spectrum consists of three main parts: the first harmonic plateau ranging from 1.5 to 2.5 Hz, the second harmonic plateau ranging from 3.0 to 5.0 Hz and the descending part going with frequencies from 5.0 to 10.0 Hz. The representative value of each plateau and the mathematical representation for the descending curve were determined statistically for different confidence levels. Furthermore, the effects of factors, such as floor span, occupant stride length, higher modes of vibration, boundary conditions and peak acceleration response, on the proposed spectrum have been investigated and a modification measure for each factor is suggested. A detailed application procedure for the proposed spectrum approach is presented and has been applied to four existing floors to predict their acceleration responses. Comparison between predicted and field measured responses shows that the measured accelerations of the four floors are generally close to or slightly higher than the predicted values for the 75 percent confidence level, but are all lower than the predicted values for the 95 percent confidence level. Therefore the suggested spectrum-based approach can be used for predicting a floor's response subject to a single person walking.

  1. [Epidermoid cyst of the mouth floor].

    PubMed

    Sanjuán Rodríguez, S; Morán Penco, J M; Ruiz Orpez, A; Santamaria Ossorio, J I; Berchi García, F J

    2003-07-01

    The epidermoid cysts are frequent during childhood, however mouth floor location are very unusual, because of their more difficult diagnosis and therapeutic approach. We present a 5 years old male, symptoms free until a week before, when his parents noticed a well defined mass in the mouth floor. A physical examination leaded to the diagnosis of possible epidermoid cyst. The tumor was excised through an introral approach. A review of different diagnostic means and surgical management are undertaken.

  2. Late extrusion of alloplastic orbital floor implants.

    PubMed

    Brown, A E; Banks, P

    1993-06-01

    Complications following the use of alloplastic orbital floor implants are well documented but it is not widely recognised that these can occur many years after initial treatment. Three patients who presented with late extrusion of an implant through the facial skin are reported. This complication occurred 10, 16 and 17 years respectively after treatment of the orbital floor fracture. The tissue reaction to silicone rubber and Teflon inplants is reviewed and the possible cause for this late complication is discussed.

  3. [Functional anatomy of the female pelvic floor: interdisciplinary continence and pelvic floor surgery].

    PubMed

    Muctar, S; Schmidt, W U; Batzill, W; Westphal, J

    2011-07-01

    Knowledge of functional anatomy is a prerequisite for the safe and targeted reconstructive therapy of incontinence and the prolapse syndrome of the female pelvic floor. We illustrate the interaction of muscles and connective tissue of the pelvic floor with anatomical illustrations and demonstrate their impact on the function of the urethra, bladder, vagina, uterus and rectum. Examples for the therapeutic rationale for a surgical reconstruction of the pelvic floor are defined and justified from their functional anatomy.

  4. Female sexual function and pelvic floor disorders.

    PubMed

    Handa, Victoria L; Cundiff, Geoffrey; Chang, Howard H; Helzlsouer, Kathy J

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that pelvic floor disorders are associated with female sexual problems, independently of other related factors. The study population included 301 adult women seeking outpatient gynecologic and urogynecologic care. Pelvic floor disorders were assessed with the Pelvic Floor Disorders Inventory-20 (PFDI-20) and the pelvic organ prolapse quantification examination. Sexual function was assessed with the Personal Experiences Questionnaire. Using ordinal regression analysis, we identified characteristics and conditions associated with decreased libido, infrequent orgasm, decreased arousal, and dyspareunia. Sexual function was poorer among 78 women (26%) without a current sexual partner than among 223 with a partner (P<.01). Among the 223 with a current partner, women with a high Pelvic Floor Disorders Inventory score were significantly more likely to report decreased arousal (P<.01), infrequent orgasm (P<.01), and increased dyspareunia (P<.01). A similar pattern was observed for the urinary, colorectal-anal, and prolapse scales of the Pelvic Floor Disorders Inventory, although some associations were marginally significant. Stage III-IV prolapse was significantly associated with infrequent orgasm (P=.02), but other sexual complaints were not more common with increasing prolapse stage. Pelvic floor symptoms are significantly associated with reduced sexual arousal, infrequent orgasm, and dyspareunia. We conclude that sexual function is worse in women with symptomatic prolapse but not in women with asymptomatic prolapse. II.

  5. ETRA, TRA642. ON BASEMENT FLOOR. IBEAM COLUMNS SUPPORTING CONSOLE FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETRA, TRA-642. ON BASEMENT FLOOR. I-BEAM COLUMNS SUPPORTING CONSOLE FLOOR HAVE BEEN SURROUNDED BY CONCRETE IN RECTANGULAR PILLARS. BASEMENT FLOOR IS BEING PREPARED FOR PLACEMENT OF CONCRETE. ABOVE CEILING IS CONSOLE FLOOR, IN WHICH CUT-OUT HAS PRESERVED SPACE FOR REACTOR AND ITS SHIELDING. CIRCULAR FORM IN REACTOR AREA IS CONCRETE FORMING. NOTE VERTICAL CONDUIT AT INTERVALS AROUND REACTOR PITS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-1237. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 4/17/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. 76 FR 7098 - Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 120 and 121 Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program to make available 7(a) loan guaranties for lines of credit that provide floor plan financing. This new Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program was created in the Small Business...

  7. 9 CFR 354.222 - Floors, walls, ceilings, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Floors, walls, ceilings, etc. 354.222 Section 354.222 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Facilities § 354.222 Floors, walls, ceilings, etc. (a) Floors. All floors in rooms where exposed products...

  8. Sub-cellular partitioning of essential and non-essential metals in a freshwater mollusc, Pyganodon grandis, collected in the field along a polymetallic environmental gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonneris, E.; Giguère, A.; Masson, S.; Campbell, P. G. C.

    2003-05-01

    The cellular alterations normally induced by metals at high concentrations can be prevented by detoxification processes [1] such as sequestration into cellular compartments (calcium concretions, lysosomes, etc.) or their binding to specifie cellular ligands like metallothionein [2]. The aim of this project was to study and compare the subcellular partitioning of three metals (Cd, Cu, Zn) in gills of a freshwater mollusc, Pyganodon grandis, collected along a polymetallic environmental gradient (nine lakes in the Rouyn-Noranda area, Abitibi, QC, Canada). Differential centrifugation was used to partition metals among different subcellular fractions. In the gills, along the environmental metal gradient, total tissue metal concentrations were positively correlated with concentrations in the granule fraction; gill tissues contained high amounts of calcium concretions, which acted as preferential sites for sequestration of the three metals. An increase in Cd concentration was observed in the heat stable proteins fraction (including metallothionein), but not in the heat-denatured proteins fraction, suggesting that Cd-induced cell injury could be prevented by the involement of multiple cellular compartments in a protective role.

  9. [Aging-related changes of the female pelvic floor].

    PubMed

    Scheiner, David; Betschart, Cornelia; Perucchini, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    The pelvic floor as lower closure of the abdominal cavity has to withstand the abdominal pressure. Meanwhile, the pelvic floor has to allow physiologic functions like micturition, defecation, sexual function and reproduction. But while pregnancy and vaginal delivery damage the pelvic floor directly, chronic stress like caugh, heavy lifting, or obesity lead to a chronic overstraining of the pelvic floor. Aging, structural changes, and possibly estrogen deficiency have a negative impact on the pelvic floor.

  10. Total pelvic floor ultrasound for pelvic floor defaecatory dysfunction: a pictorial review.

    PubMed

    Hainsworth, Alison J; Solanki, Deepa; Schizas, Alexis M P; Williams, Andrew B

    2015-01-01

    Total pelvic floor ultrasound is used for the dynamic assessment of pelvic floor dysfunction and allows multicompartmental anatomical and functional assessment. Pelvic floor dysfunction includes defaecatory, urinary and sexual dysfunction, pelvic organ prolapse and pain. It is common, increasingly recognized and associated with increasing age and multiparity. Other options for assessment include defaecation proctography and defaecation MRI. Total pelvic floor ultrasound is a cheap, safe, imaging tool, which may be performed as a first-line investigation in outpatients. It allows dynamic assessment of the entire pelvic floor, essential for treatment planning for females who often have multiple diagnoses where treatment should address all aspects of dysfunction to yield optimal results. Transvaginal scanning using a rotating single crystal probe provides sagittal views of bladder neck support anteriorly. Posterior transvaginal ultrasound may reveal rectocoele, enterocoele or intussusception whilst bearing down. The vaginal probe is also used to acquire a 360° cross-sectional image to allow anatomical visualization of the pelvic floor and provides information regarding levator plate integrity and pelvic organ alignment. Dynamic transperineal ultrasound using a conventional curved array probe provides a global view of the anterior, middle and posterior compartments and may show cystocoele, enterocoele, sigmoidocoele or rectocoele. This pictorial review provides an atlas of normal and pathological images required for global pelvic floor assessment in females presenting with defaecatory dysfunction. Total pelvic floor ultrasound may be used with complementary endoanal ultrasound to assess the sphincter complex, but this is beyond the scope of this review.

  11. ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA648. FLOOR PLANS FOR FIRST FLOOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA-648. FLOOR PLANS FOR FIRST FLOOR AND BASEMENT. SECTIONS. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-648-A-2, 12/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0648-00-486-101402, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. The cleaning of ward floors and the bacteriological study of floor-cleaning machines

    PubMed Central

    Bate, J. G.

    1961-01-01

    Current trends in ward flooring materials and cleaning methods are considered from the point of view of the hospital bacteriologist. Methods employed in an investigation into the bacteriological safety of a number of floor-cleaning machines are described, and some considerations governing the choice of vacuum cleaners for ward use are discussed. Images PMID:13687726

  13. 24. FIFTH FLOOR BLDG. 28B, DETAIL WOOD BLOCK FLOORING LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. FIFTH FLOOR BLDG. 28B, DETAIL WOOD BLOCK FLOORING LOOKING NORTH. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  14. 23. FIFTH FLOOR BLDG. 28B, DETAIL WOOD BLOCK FLOORING LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. FIFTH FLOOR BLDG. 28B, DETAIL WOOD BLOCK FLOORING LOOKING WEST. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  15. 17 CFR 1.62 - Contract market requirement for floor broker and floor trader registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contract market requirement for floor broker and floor trader registration. 1.62 Section 1.62 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Miscellaneous § 1...

  16. ETR, TRA642. FLOOR PLAN UNDER BALCONY ON CONSOLE FLOOR. MOTORGENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. FLOOR PLAN UNDER BALCONY ON CONSOLE FLOOR. MOTOR-GENERATOR SETS AND OTHER ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT. PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY ETR-D-1781, 7/1960. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-706-020384, REV. 1. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. LOFT, TAN650. Service building preamp tower, top three floors. Floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOFT, TAN-650. Service building pre-amp tower, top three floors. Floor plan, cable mazes, duct labyrinth. Borated water tank enclosure on roof. Kaiser engineers 6413-11-STEP/LOFT-650-A-3. Date: October 1964. INEEL index code no. 036-650-00-486-122215 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. Evaluation of cage floor systems for production of commercial broilers.

    PubMed

    Akpobome, G O; Fanguy, R C

    1992-02-01

    Flooring materials evaluated consisted of three types of mesh (wire, steel, and plastic), three types of perforated floor (wood, styrofoam, and plastic), and three types of doweling (rigid, rotating, and padded). A solid wood floor with wood shavings litter served as a control. Parameters measured included body weight at 4, 6, and 8 wk and dressed carcass weight. Breast blisters, feather soilage, broken bones, feed consumption, percentage abdominal fat, and mortality rate for each floor type were also evaluated. Birds grown on wire mesh floors experienced a significant reduction in live body weight at 6 and 8 wk of age when compared with all other floor types tested. The remaining experimental floor types were comparable to the litter floor control group when using body weight as the performance criterion. The mesh floors experienced the highest incidence of breast blisters and the padded dowel group experienced the least. Feather soilage was a problem only with the perforated wood and styrofoam floor systems. Abdominal fat did not seem to be related to experimental floor type. The incidence of wing breakage during processing was significantly greater than leg breakage for all floor systems tested. Mortality was only a problem with the birds reared on wire mesh floors. The overall data suggests that a padded dowel floor system can be used to produce cage broilers about 2,500 g in weight without leg or breast damage and that these birds will be equivalent to those currently produced by the industry on a litter floor system.

  19. Forest floor decomposition, metal exchangeability, and metal bioaccumulation by exotic earthworms: Amynthas agrestis and Lumbricus rubellus.

    PubMed

    Richardson, J B; Görres, J H; Friedland, A J

    2016-09-01

    Earthworms have the potential to reduce the retention of pollutant and plant essential metals in the forest floor (organic horizons) by decomposing organic matter and increasing exchangeability of metals. We conducted a laboratory experiment to investigate the effects of two exotic earthworms, Amynthas agrestis and Lumbricus rubellus, on forest floor decomposition, metal exchangeability, and metal bioaccumulation. Eighty-one pots containing homogenized forest floor material were incubated for 20, 40, or 80 days under three treatments: no earthworms, A. agrestis added, or L. rubellus added. For earthworm treatments, A. agrestis and L. rubellus were stocked at densities observed in previous field studies. Pots containing either A. agrestis or L. rubellus had lost more forest floor mass than the control plots after 40 and 80 days of incubation. Forest floor pots containing A. agrestis had significantly lower % C (16 ± 1.5 %) than control pots (21 ± 1.2 %) after 80 days. However, L. rubellus consumed more forest floor and C mass than A. agrestis, when evaluated on a per earthworm biomass basis. Exchangeable (0.1 M KCl + 0.01 M AcOH extractable) and stable (15 M HNO3+ 10 M HCl extractable) concentrations of Al, Ca, Cd, Cu, Mg, Mn, Pb, and Zn in forest floor material were measured. Stable concentrations and % exchangeable metals in forest floor material were similar among treatments. Although exchangeable metal concentrations varied significantly for most metals among treatments (except Mg and Zn), we conclude that earthworms did not increase or decrease the exchangeability of metals. However, earthworms bioaccumulated Cu, Cd, Zn, and Mg and had potentially hazardous tissue concentrations of Al and Pb. This was best illustrated by calculating bioaccumulation factors using exchangeable concentrations rather than total concentrations. Future research is needed to understand the effect of earthworms on metals in other soil types.

  20. Exchange of volatile organic compounds in the boreal forest floor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaltonen, Hermanni; Bäck, Jaana; Pumpanen, Jukka; Pihlatie, Mari; Hakola, Hannele; Hellén, Heidi; Aalto, Juho; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Kajos, Maija K.; Kolari, Pasi; Taipale, Risto; Vesala, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems, mainly plants, emit large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. In addition to plants, VOCs also have less-known sources, such as soil. VOCs are a very diverse group of reactive compounds, including terpenoids, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones. Due to their high reactivity, VOCs take part in formation and growth of secondary organic aerosols in the atmosphere and thus affect also Earth's radiation balance (Kulmala et al. 2004). We have studied boreal soil and forest floor VOC fluxes with chamber and snow gradient techniques we were developed. Spatial and temporal variability in VOC fluxes was studied with year-round measurements in the field and the sources of boreal soil VOCs in the laboratory with fungal isolates. Determination of the compounds was performed mass spectrometrically. Our results reveal that VOCs from soil are mainly emitted by living roots, above- and belowground litter and microbes. The strongest source appears to be litter, in which both plant residuals and decomposers play a role in the emissions. Soil fungi showed high emissions of lighter VOCs, like acetone, acetaldehyde and methanol, from isolates. Temperature and moisture are the most critical physical factors driving VOC fluxes. Since the environment in boreal forests undergoes strong seasonal changes, the VOC flux strength of the forest floor varies markedly during the year, being highest in spring and autumn. The high spatial heterogeneity of the forest floor was also clearly visible in VOC fluxes. The fluxes of other trace gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) from soil, which are also related to the soil biological activity and physical conditions, did not show correlations with the VOC fluxes. These results indicate that emissions of VOCs from the boreal forest floor account for as much as several tens of percent, depending on the season, of the total forest ecosystem VOC emissions. This emphasises that forest floor compartment should be taken into

  1. Female sexual function and pelvic floor disorders

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Victoria L.; Cundiff, Geoffrey; Chang, Howard H.; Helzlsouer, Kathy J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Sexual function is an important dimension of adult life and yet very little is known about the relationships between female sexuality and chronic health conditions, including pelvic floor disorders. Our goal was to investigate the hypothesis that pelvic floor disorders are associated with female sexual problems, independent of other related factors. Methods The study population included 301 adult women seeking outpatient gynecologic and urogynecologic care. Pelvic floor disorders were assessed with the Pelvic Floor Disorders Inventory-20 (PFDI) and the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification examination. Sexual function was assessed with the Personal Experiences Questionnaire. Using ordinal regression analysis, we identified characteristics and conditions associated with decreased libido, infrequent orgasm, decreased arousal, and dyspareunia. Results Sexual function was poorer among 78 women (26%) without a current sexual partner than among 223 with a partner (p<0.01). Among the 223 with a current partner, women with a high PFDI score were significantly more likely to report decreased arousal (p<0.01), infrequent orgasm (p<0.01) and increased dyspareunia (p<0.01). A similar pattern was observed for the urinary, colorectal-anal, and prolapse scales of the PFDI, although some associations were marginally significant. Stage III–IV prolapse was significantly associated with infrequent orgasm (p=0.02), but other sexual complaints were not more common with increasing prolapse stage. Conclusion Pelvic floor symptoms are significantly associated with reduced sexual arousal, infrequent orgasm, and dyspareunia. Clinicians who care for women with pelvic floor disorders should be aware of this association and should specifically address sexual concerns with women seeking treatment of incontinence and prolapse. PMID:18448734

  2. Anatomical aspects of sinus floor elevations.

    PubMed

    van den Bergh, J P; ten Bruggenkate, C M; Disch, F J; Tuinzing, D B

    2000-06-01

    Inadequate bone height in the lateral part of the maxilla forms a contra-indication for implant surgery. This condition can be treated with an internal augmentation of the maxillary sinus floor. This sinus floor elevation, formerly called sinus lifting, consists of a surgical procedure in which a top hinge door in the lateral maxillary sinus wall is prepared and internally rotated to a horizontal position. The new elevated sinus floor, together with the inner maxillary mucosa, will create a space that can be filled with graft material. Sinus lift procedures depend greatly on fragile structures and anatomical variations. The variety of anatomical modalities in shape of the inner aspect of the maxillary sinus defines the surgical approach. Conditions such as sinus floor convolutions, sinus septum, transient mucosa swelling and narrow sinus may form a (usually relative) contra-indication for sinus floor elevation. Absolute contra-indications are maxillary sinus diseases (tumors) and destructive former sinus surgery (like the Caldwell-Luc operation). The lateral sinus wall is usually a thin bone plate, which is easily penetrated with rotating or sharp instruments. The fragile Schneiderian membrane plays an important role for the containment of the bonegraft. The surgical procedure of preparing the trap door and luxating it, together with the preparation of the sinus mucosa, may cause a mucosa tear. Usually, when these perforations are not too large, they will fold together when turning the trap door inward and upward, or they can be glued with a fibrin sealant, or they can be covered with a resorbable membrane. If the perforation is too large, a cortico-spongious block graft can be considered. However, in most cases the sinus floor elevation will be deleted. Perforations may also occur due to irregularities in the sinus floor or even due to immediate contact of sinus mucosa with oral mucosa. Obstruction of the antro-nasal foramen is, due to its high location, not a

  3. Spreading of the ocean floor: new evidence.

    PubMed

    Vine, F J

    1966-12-16

    It is suggested that the entire history of the ocean basins, in terms of oceanfloor spreading,is contained frozen in the oceanic crust. Variations in the intensity and polarity of Earth's magnetic field are considered to be recorded in the remanent magnetism of the igneous rocks as they solidified and cooled through the Curie temperature at the crest of an oceanic ridge, and subsequently spread away from it at a steady rate. The hypothesis is supported by the extreme linearity and continuity of oceanic magnetic anomalies and their symmetry about the axes of ridges. If the proposed reversal time scale for the last 4 million years is combined with the model, computed anomaly profiles show remarkably good agreement with those observed, and one can deduce rates of spreading for all active parts of the midoceanic ridge system for which magnetic profilesor surveys are available. The rates obtained are in exact agreement with those needed to account for continental drift. An exceptionally high rate of spreading (approximately 4.5 cm/year) in the South Pacific enables one to deduce by extrapolation considerable details of the reversal time scale back to 11.5 million years ago. Again, this scale can be applied to other parts of the ridge system. Thus one isled to the suggestion that the crest of the East Pacific Rise in the northeast Pacific has been overridden and modified by the westward drift of North America, with the production of the anomalous width and unique features of the American cordillera in the western United States. The oceanicmagnetic anomalies also indicate that there was a change in derection of crustal spreading in this region during Pliocene time from eastwest to southeast-northwest. A profile from the crest to the boundary of the East Pacific Rise, and the difference between axial-zone and flank anomalies over ridges, suggest increase in the frequency of reversal of Earth's magnetic field, together, possibly, with decrease in its intensity

  4. The Sea Floor: A Living Learning Residential Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guentzel, J. L.; Rosch, E.; Stoughton, M. A.; Bowyer, R.; Mortensen, K.; Smith, M.

    2016-02-01

    Living learning communities are collaborations between university housing and academic departments designed to enhance the overall student experience by integrating classroom/laboratory learning, student life and extracurricular activities. At Coastal Carolina University, the residential community associated with the Marine Science program is known as the Sea Floor. Students selected to become members of the Sea Floor remain "in residence" for two consecutive semesters. These students are first-time freshman that share a common course connection. This course is usually Introduction to Marine Science (MSCI 111) or MSCI 399s, which are one credit field/laboratory centered internships. The common course connection is designed so residents can establish and maintain an educational dialog with their peers. Activities designed to enhance the students' networking skills and educational and social development skills include monthly lunches with marine science faculty and dinner seminars with guest speakers from academia, industry and government. Additionally, each semester several activities outside the classroom are planned so that students can more frequently interact with themselves and their faculty and staff partners. These activities include field trips to regional aquariums, local boat trips that include water sample collection and analysis, and an alternative spring break trip to the Florida Keys to study the marine environment firsthand. The resident advisor that supervises the Sea Floor is usually a sophomore or junior marine science major. This provides the residents with daily communication and mentoring from a marine science major that is familiar with the marine science program and residence life. Assessment activities include: a university housing community living survey, student interest housing focus groups, fall to spring and fall to fall retention, and evaluation of program advisors and program activities.

  5. Cellular automaton simulation of unidirectional pedestrians flow in a corridor to reproduce the unique velocity profile of Hagen-Poiseuille flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaji, Masaru; Inohara, Takehiro

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we conduct simulations and compare results with experimental ones from previous work. It was reported that the velocity profile of pedestrians in a corridor had similar characteristics to that of an incompressible and Newtonian fluid in laminar flow, which is called Hagen-Poiseuille flow. To reproduce this pedestrian dynamics phenomenon, we hypothesized that the velocity profile is formed because of the intentions of pedestrians. We used the improved cellular automaton model integrating the multi-grid method and static floor field method to consider various rules regarding the characteristics of pedestrians, space, and algorithms. Simulation results show excellent agreement with results from previous study.

  6. Sand Sheet on Crater Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    As with yesterday's image, this dune field is located inside a crater, in this case an unnamed crater at 26 degrees North latitude. In this VIS image the dunes are coalescing into a sand sheet, note the lack of dune forms to the north of the small hills. The presence of ridges and hills in the area is affecting the dune shapes.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 26.4, Longitude 62.7 East (297.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology

  7. A&M. TAN607 floor plans. Shows three floor levels of pool, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. TAN-607 floor plans. Shows three floor levels of pool, hot shop, and warm shop. Includes view of pool vestibule, personnel labyrinth, location of floor rails, and room numbers of office areas, labs, instrument rooms, and stairways. This drawing was re-drawn to show as-built features in 1993. Ralph M. Parsons 902-3-ANP-607-A 96. Date of original: December 1952. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 034-0607-00-693-106748 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. Side-scan sonar and submersible observations: New techniques for gleaning more information from sea-floor outcrops

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, J.; Hams, J.E.; Buck, S.P. )

    1990-05-01

    Advances in high resolution side-scan sonar imaging technology are so effective at imaging sea-floor geology that they have greatly improved the efficiency of a bottom sampling program The traditional sea-floor geology methodology of shooting a high-resolution seismic survey and sampling along the seismic grid was considered successful if outcrops were sampled on 20% of the attempts. A submersible was used sparingly because of the inability to consistently locate sea-floor outcrops. Side-scan sonar images have increased the sampling success ratio to 70-95% and allow the cost-effective use of a submersible even in areas of sparse sea-floor outcrops. In offshore basins this new technology has been used in consolidated and semiconsolidated rock terranes. When combined with observations from a two-man submersible, SCUBA traverses, seismic data, and traditional sea-floor bottom sampling techniques, enough data are provided to develop an integrated sea-floor geologic interpretation. On individual prospects, side-scan sonar has aided the establishment of critical dip in poor seismic data areas, located seeps and tar mounds, and determined erosional breaching of a prospect. Over a mature producing field, side-scan sonar has influenced the search for field extension by documenting the orientation and location of critical trapping cross faults. These relatively inexpensive techniques can provide critical data in any marine basin where rocks crop out on the sea floor.

  9. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... aboard an ocean vessel shall have a 3 inch concrete pavement, proportioned and mixed to give 2000 psi... composite material diagonally scored one-half inch deep may be used on iron decks instead of wooden flooring... aft with flat side down, and so placed as to provide in-between spaces of 12, 14, 26, and 14 inches...

  10. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... aboard an ocean vessel shall have a 3 inch concrete pavement, proportioned and mixed to give 2000 psi... composite material diagonally scored one-half inch deep may be used on iron decks instead of wooden flooring... aft with flat side down, and so placed as to provide in-between spaces of 12, 14, 26, and 14 inches...

  11. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... aboard an ocean vessel shall have a 3 inch concrete pavement, proportioned and mixed to give 2000 psi... composite material diagonally scored one-half inch deep may be used on iron decks instead of wooden flooring... aft with flat side down, and so placed as to provide in-between spaces of 12, 14, 26, and 14 inches...

  12. Maple Flooring - How Architects View it

    Treesearch

    Gary R. Lindell

    1971-01-01

    In a study of architects'' opinions of maple flooring versus vinyl asbestos tile for school gymnasuims, resiliency and durability were found to be important factors favoring maple whereas vinyl asbestos tile was felt to be less costly and more dimesionally stable.

  13. Performance Support on the Shop Floor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasvi, Jyrki J. J.; Vartiainen, Matti

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of performance support on the shop floor highlights four support systems for assembly lines that incorporate personal computer workstations in local area networks and use multimedia documents. Considers new customer-focused production paradigms; organizational learning; knowledge development; and electronic performance support systems…

  14. Organizational Learning in Shop Floor Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Che Keung; Geng, Shuang; Chuah, Kong Bieng; Chau, Yiu Chung; Kwong, Kar Fai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present the result of the pilot run of a research project which aims at evaluating the applicability of project-based action learning (PAL) to shop floor organizational learning (OL) component in a manufacturing company in Dongguan, China. How the PAL framework was introduced and implemented is described. The factors…

  15. Generation of airborne listeria from floor drain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Listeria monocytogenes can colonize in floor drains in poultry processing plants and further throughout processing facilities, remaining present even after cleaning and disinfection of the plant. Therefore, during wash down, workers exercise caution to prevent escape and transfer of drain microflor...

  16. Sea Floor off San Diego, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Peter; Gibbons, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Ocean-floor image generated from multibeam-bathymetry data acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; Scripps Institution of Oceanography; California State University, Monterey Bay; and Fugro Pelagos. To learn more, visit http://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/2007/2959/.

  17. Extending the sub-sea-floor biosphere.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Erwan G; Bonavita, Marie-Anne Cambon; Querellou, Joël; Cragg, Barry A; Webster, Gordon; Prieur, Daniel; Parkes, R John

    2008-05-23

    Sub-sea-floor sediments may contain two-thirds of Earth's total prokaryotic biomass. However, this has its basis in data extrapolation from ~500-meter to 4-kilometer depths, whereas the deepest documented prokaryotes are from only 842 meters. Here, we provide evidence for low concentrations of living prokaryotic cells in the deepest (1626 meters below the sea floor), oldest (111 million years old), and potentially hottest (~100 degrees C) marine sediments investigated. These Newfoundland margin sediments also have DNA sequences related to thermophilic and/or hyperthermophilic Archaea. These form two unique clusters within Pyrococcus and Thermococcus genera, suggesting unknown, uncultured groups are present in deep, hot, marine sediments (~54 degrees to 100 degrees C). Sequences of anaerobic methane-oxidizing Archaea were also present, suggesting a deep biosphere partly supported by methane. These findings demonstrate that the sub-sea-floor biosphere extends to at least 1600 meters below the sea floor and probably deeper, given an upper temperature limit for prokaryotic life of at least 113 degrees C and increasing thermogenic energy supply with depth.

  18. Building Trades. Block III. Floor Framing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This document contains three units of a course on floor framing to be used as part of a building trades program. Each unit consists, first, of an informational lesson, with complete lesson plan for the teacher's use. Included in each lesson plan are the lesson aim; lists of teaching aids, materials, references, and prerequisites for students;…

  19. Organizational Learning in Shop Floor Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Che Keung; Geng, Shuang; Chuah, Kong Bieng; Chau, Yiu Chung; Kwong, Kar Fai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present the result of the pilot run of a research project which aims at evaluating the applicability of project-based action learning (PAL) to shop floor organizational learning (OL) component in a manufacturing company in Dongguan, China. How the PAL framework was introduced and implemented is described. The factors…

  20. Performance Support on the Shop Floor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasvi, Jyrki J. J.; Vartiainen, Matti

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of performance support on the shop floor highlights four support systems for assembly lines that incorporate personal computer workstations in local area networks and use multimedia documents. Considers new customer-focused production paradigms; organizational learning; knowledge development; and electronic performance support systems…

  1. Concentric Crater Floor Deposits in Daedalia Planum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 3 September 2003

    Concentric crater floor deposits in Daedalia Planum. Lava flows appear to be converging on this crater from the northeast as well as on the crater floor. The concentric floor deposits may be the result of exposed and eroded layers of sediment that make up the crater floor.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -22.3, Longitude 221.5 East (138.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. Seeing Results in Flooring for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Operations staffs at education facilities of all sizes are tasked with selecting a hard floor cleaning program that is cost-effective, efficient and highly productive. With an increased focus on the sustainability of an environment, facility managers also must select a program that meets sustainability goals while maintaining a healthful, safe…

  3. Building Trades. Block III. Floor Framing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This document contains three units of a course on floor framing to be used as part of a building trades program. Each unit consists, first, of an informational lesson, with complete lesson plan for the teacher's use. Included in each lesson plan are the lesson aim; lists of teaching aids, materials, references, and prerequisites for students;…

  4. Effects of ELF magnetic field in combination with Iron(III) chloride (FeCl3) on cellular growth and surface morphology of Escherichia coli (E. coli).

    PubMed

    Esmekaya, Meric A; Acar, S Ipek; Kıran, Fadime; Canseven, Ayşe G; Osmanagaoglu, Ozlem; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field with/without iron(III) chloride (FeCl3) on bacterial growth and morphology. The ELF exposures were carried out using a pair of Helmholtz coil-based ELF exposure system which was designed to generate 50 Hz sinusoidal magnetic field. The field was approximately uniform throughout the axis of the coil pair. The samples which were treated or non-treated with different concentrations FeCl3 were exposed to 50 Hz, 2 millitesla (mT) magnetic field for 24 h. ELF effect on viability was assessed in terms of viable colony counts (in colony-forming unit per milliliter) with the standard plate count technique. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the magnetic field effect on surface morphology of Escherichia coli. No significant results were seen in terms of cell viability between ELF and sham-exposed bacterial strains. Similarly, FeCl3 treatment did not change cell viability of E. coli samples. However, we observed some morphological changes on E. coli cell surfaces. Pore formations and membrane destruction were seen on the surface of 24 h ELF field-exposed cells. We concluded that ELF magnetic field exposure at 2 mT does not affect cell viability; however, it may affect bacterial surface morphology.

  5. Application of low-frequency alternating current electric fields via interdigitated electrodes: effects on cellular viability, cytoplasmic calcium, and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    McCullen, Seth D; McQuilling, John P; Grossfeld, Robert M; Lubischer, Jane L; Clarke, Laura I; Loboa, Elizabeth G

    2010-12-01

    Electric stimulation is known to initiate signaling pathways and provides a technique to enhance osteogenic differentiation of stem and/or progenitor cells. There are a variety of in vitro stimulation devices to apply electric fields to such cells. Herein, we describe and highlight the use of interdigitated electrodes to characterize signaling pathways and the effect of electric fields on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). The advantage of the interdigitated electrode configuration is that cells can be easily imaged during short-term (acute) stimulation, and this identical configuration can be utilized for long-term (chronic) studies. Acute exposure of hASCs to alternating current (AC) sinusoidal electric fields of 1 Hz induced a dose-dependent increase in cytoplasmic calcium in response to electric field magnitude, as observed by fluorescence microscopy. hASCs that were chronically exposed to AC electric field treatment of 1 V/cm (4 h/day for 14 days, cultured in the osteogenic differentiation medium containing dexamethasone, ascorbic acid, and β-glycerol phosphate) displayed a significant increase in mineral deposition relative to unstimulated controls. This is the first study to evaluate the effects of sinusoidal AC electric fields on hASCs and to demonstrate that acute and chronic electric field exposure can significantly increase intracellular calcium signaling and the deposition of accreted calcium under osteogenic stimulation, respectively.

  6. FLOOR PLAN OF MAIN PROCESSING BUILDING (CPP601), SECOND FLOOR SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FLOOR PLAN OF MAIN PROCESSING BUILDING (CPP-601), SECOND FLOOR SHOWING PROCESS MAKEUP AREA AND EIGHTEEN CELLS AND ADJOINING REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP-627) SHOWING COLD LAB, DECONTAMINATION ROOM, MULTICURIE CELL ROOM, AND OFFICES. TO LEFT ARE LABORATORY BUILDING (CPP-602) AND MAINTENANCE BUILDING (CPP-630). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0601-00-706-051980. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER CPP-E-1980. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. FLOOR PLAN OF MAIN PROCESSING BUILDING (CPP601), FIRST FLOOR SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FLOOR PLAN OF MAIN PROCESSING BUILDING (CPP-601), FIRST FLOOR SHOWING SAMPLE CORRIDORS AND EIGHTEEN CELLS AND ADJOINING REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP-627) SHOWING REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITIES LAB, DECONTAMINATION ROOM, AND MULTICURIE CELL ROOM. TO LEFT ARE LABORATORY BUILDING (CPP-602) AND MAINTENANCE BUILDING (CPP-630). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0601-00-706-051979. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER CPP-E-1979. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. View of double floor boards with mortises cross beams, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of double floor boards with mortises cross beams, showing spikes and flooring nails (Lower board layer exposed) - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  9. 32. Coffee bean sluiceway on ground floor showing chute bringing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Coffee bean sluiceway on ground floor showing chute bringing beans from first floor hopper. HAER PR, 6-MAGU, 1B-17 - Hacienda Buena Vista, PR Route 10 (Ponce to Arecibo), Magueyes, Ponce Municipio, PR

  10. 73. STAIR PASSAGE LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SECOND FLOOR, LOCATED AT EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. STAIR PASSAGE LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SECOND FLOOR, LOCATED AT EAST END OF HOUSE OVER FIRST FLOOR KITCHEN WING, BETWEEN TWO BEDROOMS - Carter's Grove, U.S. Route 60 vicinity, Williamsburg, Williamsburg, VA

  11. 5. EAST SECTION OF BUILDING, FIRST FLOOR, WEST ROOM. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EAST SECTION OF BUILDING, FIRST FLOOR, WEST ROOM. NOTE OVEN AT LEFT. All construction original except wood flooring, plumbing and electricity. - Ralph Izard House, Kitchen Building, 110 Broad Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  12. 3. FIRST FLOOR, FRONT SOUTHWEST CORNER ROOM WITH STAIRWAY TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. FIRST FLOOR, FRONT SOUTHWEST CORNER ROOM WITH STAIRWAY TO SECOND FLOOR - Penn School Historic District, Benezet House, 1 mile South of Frogmore, Route 37, St Helena Island, Frogmore, Beaufort County, SC

  13. 30. GENERAL TEST ROOM IN 1946 ADDITION, FOURTH FLOOR, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. GENERAL TEST ROOM IN 1946 ADDITION, FOURTH FLOOR, LOOKING WEST. ORIGINALLY HAD SUSPENDED ACOUSTICAL CEILINGS WITH FLOURESCENT LIGHTING AND ASPHALT MASTIC TILE FLOORS - Underwriters' Laboratories, 207-231 East Ohio Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  14. 27 CFR 46.231 - Floor stocks tax return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette....28T09, 2009 Floor Stocks Tax Return—Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes, is available for...

  15. 27 CFR 46.233 - Payment of floor stocks tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Filing Requirements § 46.233 Payment of floor stocks tax. (a...

  16. 27 CFR 46.231 - Floor stocks tax return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette....28T09, 2009 Floor Stocks Tax Return—Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes, is available for...

  17. 27 CFR 46.231 - Floor stocks tax return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette....28T09, 2009 Floor Stocks Tax Return—Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes, is available for...

  18. 27 CFR 46.233 - Payment of floor stocks tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Filing Requirements § 46.233 Payment of floor stocks tax. (a...

  19. 27 CFR 46.233 - Payment of floor stocks tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Filing Requirements § 46.233 Payment of floor stocks tax. (a...

  20. 27 CFR 46.231 - Floor stocks tax return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette....28T09, 2009 Floor Stocks Tax Return—Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes, is available for...

  1. 27 CFR 46.233 - Payment of floor stocks tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Filing Requirements § 46.233 Payment of floor stocks tax. (a...

  2. 27. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTH ENTRANCE, SOUTH LOBBY, DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTH ENTRANCE, SOUTH LOBBY, DETAIL OF BRONZE SEAL IN FLOOR (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. 21. REMAINS OF HOP BAILING CHUTE ON SECOND FLOOR; THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. REMAINS OF HOP BAILING CHUTE ON SECOND FLOOR; THIS CHUTE EXTENDS TO THE GROUND FLOOR. - James W. Seavey Hop Driers, 0.6 mile East from junction of Highway 99 & Alexander Avenue, Corvallis, Benton County, OR

  4. 20. REMAINS OF HOP BAILING CHUTE ON GROUND FLOOR; THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. REMAINS OF HOP BAILING CHUTE ON GROUND FLOOR; THIS CHUTE EXTENDS TO THE SECOND FLOOR. - James W. Seavey Hop Driers, 0.6 mile East from junction of Highway 99 & Alexander Avenue, Corvallis, Benton County, OR

  5. 27 CFR 46.231 - Floor stocks tax return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette....28T09, 2009 Floor Stocks Tax Return—Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes, is available...

  6. 18. 1925 Main Factory building, interior, second floor, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. 1925 Main Factory building, interior, second floor, view looking northeast at opening in the floor for dropping warp rolls - North Star Woolen Mill, 109 Portland Avenue South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  7. 71. FIRST FLOOR, SENATE OFFICE HALLWAY IN 1902 ADDITION, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. FIRST FLOOR, SENATE OFFICE HALLWAY IN 1902 ADDITION, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING ITALIAN MARBLE TILE FLOOR, PILASTERS, WAINSCOATING, DOOR SURROUND AND PLASTER CORNICE - Maryland State House, State Circle, Annapolis, Anne Arundel County, MD

  8. 11. BUILDING 1: FIRST FLOOR (Center Section), WEST AND NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. BUILDING 1: FIRST FLOOR (Center Section), WEST AND NORTH WALLS, SHOWING TWO TIERS OF COLUMNS WITH SECOND FLOOR REMOVED - Boston Beer Company, 225-249 West Second Street, South Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  9. 33. Third floor, looking north, elevator and central stair to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Third floor, looking north, elevator and central stair to the right (original ice manufacturing floor) - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  10. 46. NORTHEAST CORNER OF SECOND FLOOR WAREHOUSE, WITH DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. NORTHEAST CORNER OF SECOND FLOOR WAREHOUSE, WITH DETAIL OF WOODEN BLOCK FLOORING. VIEW TO NORTH. - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 8. DETAIL: GENERATOR FLOOR DIABLO POWERHOUSE SHOWING BUTTERFLY VALVE CONTROL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL: GENERATOR FLOOR DIABLO POWERHOUSE SHOWING BUTTERFLY VALVE CONTROL, MOSAIC TILE FLOOR, AS SEEN FROM VISITORS GALLERY, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  12. 5. Light tower, stairs to second floor, looking northeast from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Light tower, stairs to second floor, looking northeast from first floor - Little River Light Station, East end of Little River Island, at mouth of Little River & entrance to Cutler Harbor, Cutler, Washington County, ME

  13. Refrigeration Plant, North Elevation, Second Floor Plan, East Elevation, Ground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Refrigeration Plant, North Elevation, Second Floor Plan, East Elevation, Ground Floor Plan, Section A-A - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  14. Complex Volcanism at Lunar Floor-Fractured Crater Oppenheimer U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaddis, L. R.; Bennett, K.; Horgan, B.; McBride, M.; Stopar, J.; Lawrence, S.; Gustafson, J. O.; Giguere, T.

    2017-05-01

    Here we examine the floor of Oppenheimer U Crater and show evidence for multiple eruptive episodes, resulting in a pyroclastic deposit with compositional diversity within a single floor-fractured crater.

  15. 66. SECOND FLOOR, SHIPPING COURT, CONVEYORS AND SPIRAL SLIDES, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. SECOND FLOOR, SHIPPING COURT, CONVEYORS AND SPIRAL SLIDES, VIEW FROM SECOND TO THIRD FLOOR - Sears Roebuck & Company Mail Order Plant, Merchandise Building, 924 South Homan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  16. 42. SECOND FLOOR, SECTION P, GENERAL VIEW OF WAREHOUSE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. SECOND FLOOR, SECTION P, GENERAL VIEW OF WAREHOUSE AT SECOND FLOOR INCLUDING CARTS - Sears Roebuck & Company Mail Order Plant, Merchandise Building, 924 South Homan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  17. 25. FIRST FLOOR, EAST DRAWING ROOM MANTLE. Details of mantle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. FIRST FLOOR, EAST DRAWING ROOM MANTLE. Details of mantle are copied in the major first floor rooms on the door and window cornices and architraves. - Charles Edmonston House, 21 East Battery Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  18. NORTHEAST ELEVATION SHOWING THE COVERED PROMENADE AT THE FIRST FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHEAST ELEVATION SHOWING THE COVERED PROMENADE AT THE FIRST FLOOR AND THREE WINDOWS (BOARDED) AT THE SECOND FLOOR. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Theater, Hornet Avenue between Enterprise & Pokomoke Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. CAR MACHINE SHOP, SECOND FLOOR, PAINT SPRAY ROOM EXTERIOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CAR MACHINE SHOP, SECOND FLOOR, PAINT SPRAY ROOM EXTERIOR AND ATTIC FLOOR SUPPORT COLUMNS AND BEAMS, LOOKING WEST. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Car Machine Shop, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  20. 3. MILK BARN, INTERIOR VIEW OF GROUND FLOOR, LOOKING 132 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. MILK BARN, INTERIOR VIEW OF GROUND FLOOR, LOOKING 132 DEGREES SOUTHEAST, SHOWING RAISED FLOOR OF CENTRAL AISLE. - Hudson-Cippa-Wolf Ranch, Milk Barn, Sorento Road, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  1. 50. Ground floor, looking northwest at former location of ground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Ground floor, looking northwest at former location of ground floor (bottom) level of milk room - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  2. 8. DETAIL OF EAST FRONT, SHOWING FIRST FLOOR STOREFRONT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL OF EAST FRONT, SHOWING FIRST FLOOR STOREFRONT AND SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS. VIEW TO WEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Dubuque Seed Company Warehouse, 169-171 Iowa Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  3. 20. View of second floor to the Cherry Hill lettuce ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. View of second floor to the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking at floor area - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  4. Formaldehyde and TVOC emission behavior of laminate flooring by structure of laminate flooring and heating condition.

    PubMed

    An, Jae-Yoon; Kim, Sumin; Kim, Hyun-Joong

    2011-03-15

    Formaldehyde was measured with a desiccator, a 20 L chamber and the FLEC method. The formaldehyde emission rate from laminate was the highest at 32 °C using the desiccator, which then decreased with time. The formaldehyde emission using the 20 L small chamber and FLEC showed a similar tendency. There was a strong correlation between the formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) with both types of floorings using the two different methods. The formaldehyde emission rate and TVOC results were higher when tested using the FLEC method than with the 20 L small chamber method. The emission rate was affected by the joint edge length in laminate flooring. Toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene were the main VOCs emitted from laminate flooring, and there were more unidentified VOCs emitted than identified VOCs. The samples heated with a floor heating system emitted more formaldehyde than those heated using an air circulation system due to the temperature difference between the bottom panel and flooring. The TVOC emission level of the samples was higher when an air circulation system was used than when a floor heating system was used due to the high ventilation rate.

  5. STS-61 air-bearing floor training in bldg 9N with Astronaut Jeff Hoffman

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-06-07

    Making use of the air-bearing floor in JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory, Astronaut Jeffrey A. Hoffman practices working with the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field/Planetary Camera (WF/PC). Changing out the large camera is one of several jobs to be performed by STS-61.

  6. An empirical assessment of forest floor carbon stock components across the United States

    Treesearch

    Christopher W. Woodall; Charles H. Perry; James A. Westfall

    2012-01-01

    Despite its prevalent reporting in regional/national greenhouse gas inventories (NGHGI), forest floor (FF) carbon (C) stocks (including litter, humus, and fine woody debris [FWD]) have not been empirically measured using a consistent approach across forests of the US. The goal of this study was to use the first national field inventory of litter and humic layer depths...

  7. STS-61 air-bearing floor training in bldg 9N with Astronaut Jeff Hoffman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Making use of the air-bearing floor in JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory, Astronaut Jeffrey A. Hoffman practices working with the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field/Planetary Camera (WF/PC). Changing out the large camera is one of several jobs to be performed by STS-61.

  8. 75 FR 70061 - Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... ADMINISTRATION Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION... agenda for a meeting regarding the Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program established in the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES: The Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program...

  9. Factors affecting the use of hardwood flooring in urban rehabilitation

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Jr. Nevel; Robert L. Jr. Nevel

    1973-01-01

    The continued use of hardwood flooring in urban rehabilitation is being threatened. A study of the influences that determine the choice of flooring indicates that economic, physical, or technological factors dominate. Most factors affecting the use of hardwood flooring are related to cost, availability, and compatibility. Of these factors, time and cost of installation...

  10. 26 CFR 52.4682-4 - Floor stocks tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Floor stocks tax. 52.4682-4 Section 52.4682-4... TAXES (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES § 52.4682-4 Floor stocks tax. (a) Overview. This section provides rules for identifying ozone-depleting chemicals (ODCs) that are subject to the floor stocks tax...

  11. 27 CFR 46.195 - Floor stocks requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Floor stocks requirements... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 General § 46.195 Floor stocks requirements. (a) Take inventory....

  12. What Do You Really Know About Floor Finishes & Strippers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirth, T. J.

    1972-01-01

    An independent testing laboratory reveals the results of comparative studies done on vinyl flooring and the question of to wax or not to wax'' and which waxes work best with what flooring; and provides six evaluation tips on floor strippers. (EA)

  13. What Do You Really Know About Floor Finishes & Strippers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirth, T. J.

    1972-01-01

    An independent testing laboratory reveals the results of comparative studies done on vinyl flooring and the question of to wax or not to wax'' and which waxes work best with what flooring; and provides six evaluation tips on floor strippers. (EA)

  14. 27 CFR 46.195 - Floor stocks requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Floor stocks requirements... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 General § 46.195 Floor stocks requirements. (a) Take inventory....

  15. 27 CFR 46.195 - Floor stocks requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Floor stocks requirements... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 General § 46.195 Floor stocks requirements. (a) Take inventory....

  16. 27 CFR 46.233 - Payment of floor stocks tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Payment of floor stocks tax... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Filing Requirements § 46.233 Payment of floor stocks tax....

  17. 27 CFR 46.195 - Floor stocks requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Floor stocks requirements... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 General § 46.195 Floor stocks requirements. (a) Take inventory....

  18. 27 CFR 46.195 - Floor stocks requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Floor stocks requirements... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 General § 46.195 Floor stocks requirements. (a) Take inventory....

  19. 21. NONSLOW BURN CONSTRUCTION DETAIL, SECOND FLOOR OF 1816 MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. NON-SLOW BURN CONSTRUCTION DETAIL, SECOND FLOOR OF 1816 MILL LOOKING WEST-SOUTHWEST; MOST FLOORS IN THE 1814 AND 1816 MILLS HAD ORIGINAL FLOORING REPLACED WITH SLOW BURN CONSTRUCTION. - Boston Manufacturing Company, 144-190 Moody Street, Waltham, Middlesex County, MA

  20. 36 CFR § 1192.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Floor surfaces. § 1192.59 Section § 1192.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.59 Floor surfaces. Floor surfaces on aisles, places for standees...

  1. 36 CFR 1192.117 - Floors, steps and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Floors, steps and thresholds. 1192.117 Section 1192.117 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.117 Floors, steps and thresholds. (a) Floor surfaces on aisles,...

  2. 62. Photocopied August 1978. 'CARBIDE' OR SECOND FLOOR LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Photocopied August 1978. 'CARBIDE' OR SECOND FLOOR LOOKING EAST FROM WEST END, OCTOBER 29, 1902. THE STAIRS TO THE POWER COMPANY'S SUPPLEMENTAL THIRD FLOOR APPEARS AT THE RIGHT; THE HOLLOW TILES WHICH FORMED THIS FLOOR AT THE TOP. (435) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  3. 36 CFR 910.60 - Gross floor area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the several floors from the ground floor up of all buildings of a development occurring on a lot. Gross floor area shall be measured from the exterior faces of exterior walls and from the center line of walls separating two buildings. ...

  4. 36 CFR 910.60 - Gross floor area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the several floors from the ground floor up of all buildings of a development occurring on a lot. Gross floor area shall be measured from the exterior faces of exterior walls and from the center line of walls separating two buildings. ...

  5. Experimental and analytical studies on the vibration serviceability of pre-stressed cable RC truss floor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xuhong; Cao, Liang; Chen, Y. Frank; Liu, Jiepeng; Li, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    The developed pre-stressed cable reinforced concrete truss (PCT) floor system is a relatively new floor structure, which can be applied to various long-span structures such as buildings, stadiums, and bridges. Due to the lighter mass and longer span, floor vibration would be a serviceability concern problem for such systems. In this paper, field testing and theoretical analysis for the PCT floor system were conducted. Specifically, heel-drop impact and walking tests were performed on the PCT floor system to capture the dynamic properties including natural frequencies, mode shapes, damping ratios, and acceleration response. The PCT floor system was found to be a low frequency (<10 Hz) and low damping (damping ratio<2 percent) structural system. The comparison of the experimental results with the AISC's limiting values indicates that the investigated PCT system exhibits satisfactory vibration perceptibility, however. The analytical solution obtained from the weighted residual method agrees well with the experimental results and thus validates the proposed analytical expression. Sensitivity studies using the analytical solution were also conducted to investigate the vibration performance of the PCT floor system.

  6. Helping the Blind to Find the Floor of Destination in Multistory Buildings Using a Barometer

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yicheng; Jia, Wenyan; Zhang, Hong; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2013-01-01

    Propelled by rapid technological advances in smart phones and other mobile devices, indoor navigation for the blind and visually impaired individuals has become an active field of research. A reliable positioning and navigation system will reduce suffering of these individuals, help them live more independently, and promote their employment. Although much progress has been made, localization of the floor level in a multistory building is largely an unsolved problem despite its high significance in helping the blind to find their ways. In this paper, we present a novel approach using a miniature barometer in the form of a low-cost MEMS chip. The relationships among the atmospheric pressure, the absolute height, and the floor location are described along with a real-time calibration method and a hardware platform design. Our experiments in a building of twelve floors have shown high performance of our approach. PMID:24110793

  7. Helping the blind to find the floor of destination in multistory buildings using a barometer.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yicheng; Jia, Wenyan; Zhang, Hong; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2013-01-01

    Propelled by rapid technological advances in smart phones and other mobile devices, indoor navigation for the blind and visually impaired individuals has become an active field of research. A reliable positioning and navigation system will reduce suffering of these individuals, help them live more independently, and promote their employment. Although much progress has been made, localization of the floor level in a multistory building is largely an unsolved problem despite its high significance in helping the blind to find their ways. In this paper, we present a novel approach using a miniature barometer in the form of a low-cost MEMS chip. The relationships among the atmospheric pressure, the absolute height, and the floor location are described along with a real-time calibration method and a hardware platform design. Our experiments in a building of twelve floors have shown high performance of our approach.

  8. Imaging of pediatric floor of mouth lesions.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Rachael M; Chapman, Teresa; Horn, David L; Paladin, Angelisa M; Iyer, Ramesh S

    2013-03-01

    There is a vast spectrum of pathology that afflicts the floor of mouth in children. These span inflammatory conditions, vascular malformations, developmental anomalies, benign tumors and malignancies. While this area is readily evaluated on clinical exam, imaging is often performed to better characterize the disorder prior to management. The imaging modalities most frequently utilized are US, CT and MR. The purpose of this article is to describe the primary conditions that occur in this location in children so that radiologists may provide an appropriate differential diagnosis. These include ranula, venolymphatic malformation, dermoid, teratoma, foregut duplication cyst, hairy polyp, thyroglossal duct cyst and rhabdomyosarcoma. For each pathological condition, there will be a focus on describing its imaging manifestation. Floor of mouth anatomy, imaging approach during both prenatal and postnatal life and etiologies will be discussed. Surgical considerations and operative photographs will also be presented.

  9. Laparoscopic herniorrhaphy. Transabdominal preperitoneal floor repair.

    PubMed

    Felix, E L; Michas, C A; McKnight, R L

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of a laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) approach to inguinal hernia repair which dissected the entire inguinal floor and repaired the indirect, direct, and femoral areas in all patients without tension. In our series, 183 patients had 205 hernia repairs and were followed for more than 6 months. Of this group, 128 hernias were indirect, 55 direct, 22 pantaloon, 26 recurrent, and 22 bilateral. All 12 females and the first 11 males had a single-buttress repair with polypropylene mesh. The other 160 male patients had a double-buttress repair. With median follow-up of 12 months, ranging from 6 to 21 months, no recurrences were found. Patients returned to normal activity in an average of 1 week. Dissection and buttressing of the entire inguinal floor with mesh appeared to solve the problem of early recurrence first seen in laparoscopic herniorrhaphy.

  10. Ocean floor mounting of wave energy converters

    DOEpatents

    Siegel, Stefan G

    2015-01-20

    A system for mounting a set of wave energy converters in the ocean includes a pole attached to a floor of an ocean and a slider mounted on the pole in a manner that permits the slider to move vertically along the pole and rotate about the pole. The wave energy converters can then be mounted on the slider to allow adjustment of the depth and orientation of the wave energy converters.

  11. Orbital floor dermoid: An unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Yeola (Pate), Meenakshi; Joharapurkar, S R; Bhole, A M; Chawla, Manisha; Chopra, Sumit; Paliwal, Anup

    2009-01-01

    Dermoid cysts are developmental abnormal arrangement of tissues and are often evident soon after birth. Its occurrence in the orbit is relatively rare. We report a case of orbital floor dermoid in an 18-year-old female patient who presented with progressive, painless swelling in the lower eyelid associated with mild proptosis of three months duration. The lesion was excised completely, and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of dermoid cyst. PMID:19075411

  12. The Medusa Sea Floor Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, F. T.; Schultz, A.; Gupta, M.; Powers, L.; Klinkhammer, G.

    2004-12-01

    The Medusa Sea Floor Monitoring System (MSMS) is a technology development project that is designed to enable fundamental research into understanding the potential for and limits to chemolithoautotrophic life. This is life within which inorganic carbon is converted to organic carbon and where only inorganic compounds serve as electron acceptors and electron donors. Such life forms are postulated to be capable of surviving in a Europan ocean. If we can prove that such life forms exist on Earth it would provide credence to the hypothesis that they might exist on other planets or moons in our Solar System. It has been hypothesized that one environment which might foster such life is associated with sub-seafloor hydrothermal vent structures. The goal of the MSMS project is to develop an instrument capable of testing this hypothesis. The MSMS instrument is an evolution of a sea floor monitoring system developed by Dr. Adam Schultz. Its design is the result of many generations of hardware and dive programs. Medusa provides the capability to measure and sample effluent and influent sea floor hydraulic flows associated with hydrothermal vent structures, active sea mounds, and sea floor bore holes. Through this proposal we are developing the next generation Medusa system and initiating the integration of several select chemical and biological sensors into the Medusa backbone. These sensors are an in situ flow-through spectral chemistry system, a cavity ringdown 12C/13C system, and an intrinsic fluorescence instrument. der way. This instrument can be used to target and discriminate between biological samples for automated sample collection

  13. [Pelvic floor disorders from the surgeon's viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Schiedeck, T H

    2013-10-01

    Pelvic floor disorders present very differently with regard to symptoms and manifestation. Both diagnostic and treatment options require specific experience and an interdisciplinary approach. Diagnostic work-up is primarily based on medical history, physical examination and procto-rectoscopy. Furthermore, endosonography and perineal sonography have also gained importance. In almost all cases following these basic examinations conservative therapy options should be considered. As the interdisciplinary concept is very important, for careful diagnosis of pelvic floor disorders it became crucial to find an adequate form of treatment. Every decision for surgical therapy should not only focus on the results of previous examinations but should also consider the individual situation of each patient. In pelvic floor disorders a large variety of symptoms are confronted with a vast number of different and often highly specific procedures. The decisions on who to treat and how to treat are not only based on individual patient requests and desires but also on the experience and preference of the surgeon.

  14. Floor of Lake Tahoe, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Peter; Gibbons, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Lake-floor depths shown by color, from light tan (shallowest) to blue (deepest). Arrows on map (C) show orientations of perspective views. A, view toward McKinney Bay over blocks tumbled onto the lake floor by a massive landslide 10s to 100s of thousands of years ago; dark triangular block near center is approximately 1.5 km (0.9 mi) across and 120 m (390 ft) high. B, view toward South Lake Tahoe and Emerald Bay (on right) over sediment waves as much as 10 m (30 ft) high, created by sediment flowing down the south margin of the lake. Slopes appear twice as steep as they are. Lake-floor imagery from U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) multibeam bathymetric data and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers bathymetric lidar data. Land imagery generated by overlaying USGS digital orthophoto quadrangles (DOQs) on USGS digital elevation models (DEMs). All data available at http://tahoe.usgs.gov/.

  15. Possible Layers on Floor of Suzhi Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-14

    This image shows the floor of Suzhi Crater, an approximately 25-kilometer diameter impact crater located northeast of Hellas Planitia. The crater floor is mostly covered by dark-toned deposits; however some patches of the underlying light-toned bedrock are now exposed, like in this Context Camera image. This enhanced-color infrared image shows a close up of the exposed bedrock on the floor of the crater. Here we can see the lighter-toned bedrock partially covered up by darker-toned bedrock and a few wind-blown bedforms. The lighter-toned bedrock appears to lie over yet another type of bedrock in our image, which appears to be yellowish and heavily fractured. What complex tale of Martian geologic and climate history might these rocks tell us if we were able to sample them in person? Perhaps, one day we'll know. The University of Arizona, Tucson, operates HiRISE, which was http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21273

  16. Basaltic injections into floored silicic magma chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, R. A.

    Recent studies have provided compelling evidence that many large accumulations of silicic volcanic rocks erupted from long-lasting, floored chambers of silicic magma that were repeatedly injected by basaltic magma. These basaltic infusions are commonly thought to play an important role in the evolution of the silicic systems: they have been proposed as a cause for explosive silicic eruptions [Sparks and Sigurdsson, 1977], compositional variation in ash-flow sheets [Smith, 1979], mafic magmatic inclusions in silicic volcanic rocks [Bacon, 1986], and mixing of mafic and silicic magmas [Anderson, 1976; Eichelberger, 1978]. If, as seems likely, floored silicic magma chambers have frequently been invaded by basalt, then plutonic bodies should provide records of these events. Although plutonic evidence for mixing and commingling of mafic and silicic magmas has been recognized for many years, it has been established only recently that some intrusive complex originated through multiple basaltic injections into floored chambers of silicic magma [e.g., Wiebe, 1974; Michael, 1991; Chapman and Rhodes, 1992].

  17. Pelvic floor dysfunction in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Bondurri, A; Maffioli, A; Danelli, P

    2015-12-01

    Advances in tailored medical therapy and introduction of biologic agents for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treatment have ensured long-term disease remission. Some patients, however, still report defecatory symptoms. Patients present with a wide spectrum of conditions - anal incontinence, obstructed defecation and pelvic pain among the most frequent - that have a great impact on their quality of life. Due to IBD diagnosis, little relevance is attributed to this type of symptoms and their epidemiologic distribution is unknown. Pathogenetic hypotheses are currently under investigation. Routine diagnostic workflow and therapeutic options in pelvic floor service are often underused. The evaluation of these disorders starts with an endoscopy to rule out ongoing disease; the following diagnostic workflow is the same as in patients without IBD. For fecal incontinence and obstructed defecation, simple conservative therapy with dietary modifications and appropriate fluid intake is effective in most cases. In non-responding patients, anorectal physiology tests and imaging are required to select patients for pelvic floor muscle training and biofeedback. These treatments have been proven effective in IBD patients. Some new minimally invasive alternative strategies are available for IBD patients, as sacral nerve and posterior tibial nerve stimulation; for other ones (e.g., bulking agent implantation) IBD still remains an exclusion criterion. In order to preserve anatomical areas that could be useful for future reconstructive techniques, surgical options to cure pelvic floor dysfunction are indicated only in a small group of IBD patients, due to the high risk of failure in wound healing and to the possible side effects of surgery, which can lead to anal incontinence or to a possible proctectomy. A particular issue among defecatory symptoms in patients with IBD is paradoxical puborectalis contraction after restorative proctocolectomy: if this disorder is properly diagnosed, a

  18. 112. Stage level floor structure. Generial view from downstage left, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    112. Stage level floor structure. Generial view from downstage left, facing northeast, showing structural supports for the stage floor after some of the flooring was removed. Openings in the stage floor could be made by rolling eight movable sections to the side and down under the fixed floor (see sheet 4 of 9, notes 1A and 1B). Once opened, another floor section of the same size as the opening could be raised to stage level by a hydraulic ram (type D1). The movable section in the foreground is in the retracted position, with its top surface below the flange of the beam supporting the fixed floor. Compare it to the height of the un-retracted section to the left (see sheet 6 of 9, notes 2A and 2B). - Auditorium Building, 430 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  19. Chronic exposure to a 1.439 GHz electromagnetic field used for cellular phones does not promote N-ethylnitrosourea induced central nervous system tumors in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Tomoyuki; Kawabe, Mayumi; Ichihara, Toshio; Fujiwara, Osamu; Taki, Masao; Watanabe, So-ichi; Wake, Kanako; Yamanaka, Yukio; Imaida, Katsumi; Asamoto, Makoto; Tamano, Seiko

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate whether a 2 year exposure to an electromagnetic field (EMF) equivalent to that generated by cellular phones can accelerate tumor development in the central nervous system (CNS) of rats. Brain tumorigenesis was initiated by an intrauterine exposure to N-ethylnitrosourea (ENU) on gestational day 18. A total of 500 pups were divided into five groups, each composed of 50 males and 50 females: Group 1, untreated control; Group 2, ENU alone; Groups 3-5, ENU + EMF (sham exposure and 2 exposure levels). A 1.439 GHz time division multiple access (TDMA) signal for the Personal Digital Cellular (PDC), Japanese standard cellular system was used for the exposure of the rat head starting from 5 weeks of age, 90 min a day, 5 days a week, for 104 weeks. Brain average specific absorption rate (SAR) was 0.67 and 2.0 W/kg for low and high exposures, respectively: whole body average SAR was less than 0.4 W/kg. There were no inter-group differences in body weights, food consumption, and survival rates. No increase in the incidences or numbers per group of brain and/or spinal cord tumors, either in the males or females, was detected in the EMF exposed groups. In addition, no clear changes in tumor types were evident. Thus, under the present experimental conditions, 1.439 GHz EMF exposure to the heads of rats for a 2 year period was not demonstrated to accelerate or affect ENU initiated brain tumorigenesis. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Interoceptive Ability Predicts Survival on a London Trading Floor.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Garfinkel, Sarah N; Page, Lionel; Hardy, Ben; Critchley, Hugo D; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John M

    2016-09-19

    Interoception is the sensing of physiological signals originating inside the body, such as hunger, pain and heart rate. People with greater sensitivity to interoceptive signals, as measured by, for example, tests of heart beat detection, perform better in laboratory studies of risky decision-making. However, there has been little field work to determine if interoceptive sensitivity contributes to success in real-world, high-stakes risk taking. Here, we report on a study in which we quantified heartbeat detection skills in a group of financial traders working on a London trading floor. We found that traders are better able to perceive their own heartbeats than matched controls from the non-trading population. Moreover, the interoceptive ability of traders predicted their relative profitability, and strikingly, how long they survived in the financial markets. Our results suggest that signals from the body - the gut feelings of financial lore - contribute to success in the markets.

  1. Interoceptive Ability Predicts Survival on a London Trading Floor

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Garfinkel, Sarah N.; Page, Lionel; Hardy, Ben; Critchley, Hugo D.; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Interoception is the sensing of physiological signals originating inside the body, such as hunger, pain and heart rate. People with greater sensitivity to interoceptive signals, as measured by, for example, tests of heart beat detection, perform better in laboratory studies of risky decision-making. However, there has been little field work to determine if interoceptive sensitivity contributes to success in real-world, high-stakes risk taking. Here, we report on a study in which we quantified heartbeat detection skills in a group of financial traders working on a London trading floor. We found that traders are better able to perceive their own heartbeats than matched controls from the non-trading population. Moreover, the interoceptive ability of traders predicted their relative profitability, and strikingly, how long they survived in the financial markets. Our results suggest that signals from the body - the gut feelings of financial lore - contribute to success in the markets. PMID:27641692

  2. [The comparative characteristics of the bone marrow cellular composition in rats after the prolonged continuous or interrupted action of a low geomagnetic field].

    PubMed

    Azarenko, V V; Smirnov, R V

    1992-01-01

    Bone marrow cell composition in male Wistar rats exposed to long-term continuous (Run 1) or interrupted (Run 2) hypo-geomagnetic field (HGMF) with an attenuation coefficient of 172.5 generating in a permalloic chamber has been studied. When comparing the rat myelograms of the two test runs, a significant increase of lymphoid cell content, less pronounced during an interrupted exposure to HGMF by 10.1 and 6.5%, respectively, was noted. Analysis of myeloid cell response indicated that on a continuous exposure to HGMF the percentage of neutrophilic promyelocytes and myelocytes is somewhat declined. The levels of mature relating to stab and nuclear-segmental neutrophils in bone marrow during both modes of HGMF exposures practically remained unchanged. A certain decrease in cell fractions of erythroblastic shoot (chiefly at the cost of polychromatophilic normocytes), to a lesser extent manifested during an interrupted exposure to HGMF (by 5.8 and 2.4%, respectively) was noted. Long-term exposure of the animals to a weak terrestrial magnetic field causes a particular eosinophilia of bone marrow due to an increased fraction of mature eosinophils approximately similar on both HGMF profiles (by 2.1 and 2.0% respectively). On an interrupted HGMF exposure there was a significant myelogram elevation of the mast cell counts by 1.4%.

  3. Cellular Phone Towers

    MedlinePlus

    ... the call. How are people exposed to the energy from cellular phone towers? As people use cell ... where people can be exposed to them. The energy from a cellular phone tower antenna, like that ...

  4. Disruption of Ant-Aphid Mutualism in Canopy Enhances the Abundance of Beetles on the Forest Floor

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Keming

    2012-01-01

    Ant-aphid mutualism is known to play a key role in the structure of the arthropod community in the tree canopy, but its possible ecological effects for the forest floor are unknown. We hypothesized that aphids in the canopy can increase the abundance of ants on the forest floor, thus intensifying the impacts of ants on other arthropods on the forest floor. We tested this hypothesis in a deciduous temperate forest in Beijing, China. We excluded the aphid-tending ants Lasius fuliginosus from the canopy using plots of varying sizes, and monitored the change in the abundance of ants and other arthropods on the forest floor in the treated and control plots. We also surveyed the abundance of ants and other arthropods on the forest floor to explore the relationships between ants and other arthropods in the field. Through a three-year experimental study, we found that the exclusion of ants from the canopy significantly decreased the abundance of ants on the forest floor, but increased the abundance of beetles, although the effect was only significant in the large ant-exclusion plot (80*60 m). The field survey showed that the abundance of both beetles and spiders was negatively related to the abundance of ants. These results suggest that aphids located in the tree canopy have indirect negative effects on beetles by enhancing the ant abundance on the forest floor. Considering that most of the beetles in our study are important predators, the ant-aphid mutualism can have further trophic cascading effects on the forest floor food web. PMID:22558156

  5. Modelling Sea Floor Spreading Initiation and Depth Dependent Stretching at Rifted Continental Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusznir, N. J.; Tymms, V.

    2003-12-01

    Depth dependent stretching, in which upper crustal extension is much less than that of the lower crust and lithospheric mantle, has been observed at both non-volcanic and volcanic margins and is not predicted by existing quantitative models of rifted margin formation which are usually based on intra-continental rift models subjected to very large stretching factors. New conceptual and quantitative models of rifted margin formation are required. The timing of depth dependent stretching on the Norwegian margin suggests that depth dependent stretching of continental rifted margin lithosphere occurs during early sea-floor spreading rather than during pre-breakup rifting. These observations suggest that the main thinning of rifted margin lithosphere occurs during early sea-floor spreading rather than during pre-breakup rifting. Single-phase fluid-flow models have been applied successfully to sea-floor spreading at ocean ridges. A single-phase fluid-flow model of sea-floor spreading initiation has been developed to determine rifted continental margin lithosphere thinning and thermal evolution resulting from early sea-floor spreading. The ocean-ridge initiation model uses an isoviscous corner-flow stream-function solution (Batchelor 1967) to predict the divergent lithospheric and asthenospheric fluid-flow field associated with early sea-floor spreading. The thinning of the rifted continental lithosphere is calculated by material advection in the newly initiated ocean ridge fluid-flow field. The model may also include the effects of pre-breakup pure-shear stretching of continental lithosphere. Rifted margin lithosphere thinning and thermal evolution is dependent on ocean-ridge spreading rate (Vx), the mantle upwelling velocity beneath the ridge axis (Vz), and the pre-breakup lithosphere beta stretching factor. The developed model predicts the thinning of the upper crust, lower crust and lithospheric mantle of the continental margin, and the history of rifted margin

  6. MTRETR MAINTENANCE SHOP, TRA653. FLOOR PLAN FOR FIRST FLOOR: MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR-ETR MAINTENANCE SHOP, TRA-653. FLOOR PLAN FOR FIRST FLOOR: MACHINE SHOP, ELECTRICAL AND INSTRUMENT SHOP, TOOL CRIB, ELECTRONIC SHOP, LOCKER ROOM, SPECIAL TEMPERATURE CONTROLLED ROOM, AND OFFICES. "NEW" ON DRAWING REFERS TO REVISION OF 11/1956 DRAWING ON WHICH AREAS WERE DESIGNATED AS "FUTURE." HUMMEL HUMMEL & JONES 810-MTR-ETR-653-A-7, 5/1957. INL INDEX NO. 532-0653-00-381-101839, REV. 2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. A&M. TAN607 floor plan for first floor. Shows stepped door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. TAN-607 floor plan for first floor. Shows stepped door plug design from hot shop into special services cubicle, cubicle windows, and other details. This drawing was re-drawn to show as-built conditions in 1985. Ralph M. Parsons 902-3-ANP-607-A 99. Date of original: January 1955. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 034-0607-00-693-106751 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. Hierarchical cellular materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, L.J.

    1991-12-31

    In this paper a method for estimating the contributions of both the composite and the cellular microstructures to the overall material properties and the mechanical efficiency of natural cellular solids will be described. The method will be demonstrated by focusing on the Young`s modulus; similar techniques can be used for other material properties. The results suggest efficient microstructures for engineered cellular materials.

  9. Hierarchical cellular materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, L.J.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a method for estimating the contributions of both the composite and the cellular microstructures to the overall material properties and the mechanical efficiency of natural cellular solids will be described. The method will be demonstrated by focusing on the Young's modulus; similar techniques can be used for other material properties. The results suggest efficient microstructures for engineered cellular materials.

  10. Deflection of resilient materials for reduction of floor impact sound.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Jong-Mun

    2014-01-01

    Recently, many residents living in apartment buildings in Korea have been bothered by noise coming from the houses above. In order to reduce noise pollution, communities are increasingly imposing bylaws, including the limitation of floor impact sound, minimum thickness of floors, and floor soundproofing solutions. This research effort focused specifically on the deflection of resilient materials in the floor sound insulation systems of apartment houses. The experimental program involved conducting twenty-seven material tests and ten sound insulation floating concrete floor specimens. Two main parameters were considered in the experimental investigation: the seven types of resilient materials and the location of the loading point. The structural behavior of sound insulation floor floating was predicted using the Winkler method. The experimental and analytical results indicated that the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor significantly increased with increasing the tangent modulus of resilient material. The deflection of the floating concrete floor loaded at the side of the specimen was much greater than that of the floating concrete floor loaded at the center of the specimen. The Winkler model considering the effect of modulus of resilient materials was able to accurately predict the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor.

  11. Deflection of Resilient Materials for Reduction of Floor Impact Sound

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Jong-Mun

    2014-01-01

    Recently, many residents living in apartment buildings in Korea have been bothered by noise coming from the houses above. In order to reduce noise pollution, communities are increasingly imposing bylaws, including the limitation of floor impact sound, minimum thickness of floors, and floor soundproofing solutions. This research effort focused specifically on the deflection of resilient materials in the floor sound insulation systems of apartment houses. The experimental program involved conducting twenty-seven material tests and ten sound insulation floating concrete floor specimens. Two main parameters were considered in the experimental investigation: the seven types of resilient materials and the location of the loading point. The structural behavior of sound insulation floor floating was predicted using the Winkler method. The experimental and analytical results indicated that the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor significantly increased with increasing the tangent modulus of resilient material. The deflection of the floating concrete floor loaded at the side of the specimen was much greater than that of the floating concrete floor loaded at the center of the specimen. The Winkler model considering the effect of modulus of resilient materials was able to accurately predict the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor. PMID:25574491

  12. Buffing, burnishing, and stripping of vinyl asbestos floor tile

    SciTech Connect

    Hollett, B.A.; Edwards, A.; Clark, P.J.

    1995-10-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate airborne asbestos concentrations during the three principal types of preventative maintenance (low-speed spray-buffing, ultra high-speed burnishing, and wet-stripping) used on asbestos-containing floor tiles. These were done under pre-existing and prepared levels of floor care maintenance. Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured before and during each floor care procedure to determine the magnitude of the increase in airborne asbestos levels during each procedure. Airborne total fiber concentrations were also measured for comparison with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration`s (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 0.1 f/cm{sup 3}. Low-speed spray-buffing and wet-stripping were evaluated on pre-existing floor conditions and three levels of prepared floor care conditions (poor, medium, and good). Ultra high-speed burnishing and wet-stripping were evaluated on two levels of prepared floor care conditions (poor and good). Floor care conditions were defined in consultation with the Chemical Specialty Manufacturers Association and other representatives of floor-care chemical manufacturers. Controlled studies were conducted in an unoccupied building at the decommissioned Chanute Air Force Base in Rantoul, Illinois, with the cooperation of the U.S. Air Force. The building offered approximately 8600 ft{sup 2} of open floor space tiled with 9-inch by 9-inch resilient floor tile containing approximately 5% chrysotile asbestos.

  13. Sea-floor geology of Long Island Sound north of Duck Pond Point, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Danforth, W.W.; Blackwood, D.S.; Schaer, J.D.; Glomb, K.A.; Doran, E.F.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection are mapping the sea floor in coastal areas of the northeastern United States. As part of the project, more than 100 square kilometers of multibeam-echosounder data, 23 sediment samples, bottom video, and 86 still photographs were obtained from an area in Long Island Sound north of Duck Pond Point, New York, in the study area of NOAA survey H11999. This report delineates the sediment types and sea-floor features found within this area in order to better understand the sea-floor processes occurring in this part of Long Island Sound. The sea floor in the study area is dominated by ubiquitous sand-wave fields and three northeast-southwest trending bathymetric depressions. Barchanoid and transverse sand waves, including sinusoidal, bifurcating, arced, and straight-crested morphologies, are variably present. Asymmetrical sand-wave profiles indicate a westward to southwestward direction of sediment transport in most of the study area; current ripples and megaripples on the stoss slopes of the sand waves indicate transport is ongoing. The majority of the sediment on the sea floor is sand, although bouldery, gravelly, and muddy sediments are also present. Gray, cohesive mud crops out on the walls of some of the scour depressions associated with the troughs of large sand waves. Clasts of the muddy sediment scattered on the sea floor around the depressions demonstrate the intensity of the scour and suggest erosion of the underlying distal deltaic sediments.

  14. Do stages of menopause affect the outcomes of pelvic floor muscle training?

    PubMed

    Tosun, Özge Çeliker; Mutlu, Ebru Kaya; Tosun, Gökhan; Ergenoğlu, Ahmet Mete; Yeniel, Ahmet Özgur; Malkoç, Mehtap; Aşkar, Niyazi; İtil, İsmail Mete

    2015-02-01

    least responsive to pelvic floor muscle strength training. Further studies in this field are needed.

  15. Cellular Scale Anisotropic Topography Guides Schwann Cell Motility

    PubMed Central

    Mitchel, Jennifer A.; Hoffman-Kim, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Directed migration of Schwann cells (SC) is critical for development and repair of the peripheral nervous system. Understanding aspects of motility specific to SC, along with SC response to engineered biomaterials, may inform strategies to enhance nerve regeneration. Rat SC were cultured on laminin-coated microgrooved poly(dimethyl siloxane) platforms that were flat or presented repeating cellular scale anisotropic topographical cues, 30 or 60 µm in width, and observed with timelapse microscopy. SC motion was directed parallel to the long axis of the topography on both the groove floor and the plateau, with accompanying differences in velocity and directional persistence in comparison to SC motion on flat substrates. In addition, feature dimension affected SC morphology, alignment, and directional persistence. Plateaus and groove floors presented distinct cues which promoted differential motility and variable interaction with the topographical features. SC on the plateau surfaces tended to have persistent interactions with the edge topography, while SC on the groove floors tended to have infrequent contact with the corners and walls. Our observations suggest the capacity of SC to be guided without continuous contact with a topographical cue. SC exhibited a range of distinct motile morphologies, characterized by their symmetry and number of extensions. Across all conditions, SC with a single extension traveled significantly faster than cells with more or no extensions. We conclude that SC motility is complex, where persistent motion requires cellular asymmetry, and that anisotropic topography with cellular scale features can direct SC motility. PMID:21949703

  16. Osteolipoma of floor of the mouth

    PubMed Central

    Raghunath, Vandana; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha

    2015-01-01

    Lipomas are benign soft tissue tumours composed mainly of mature adipose tissue. Histological variants of lipomas have been named according to the type of tissue present and they include fibrolipoma, angiolipoma, osteolipoma, chondrolipoma and others. Osteolipoma, a classic lipoma with osseous metaplasia, is a very rare histological variant. Owing to the rarity of oral osteolipomas, we report an uncommon case of osteolipoma located on the floor of the mouth of a 20-year-old female patient and include a review of the literature. PMID:26113591

  17. Osteolipoma of floor of the mouth.

    PubMed

    Raghunath, Vandana; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha

    2015-06-25

    Lipomas are benign soft tissue tumours composed mainly of mature adipose tissue. Histological variants of lipomas have been named according to the type of tissue present and they include fibrolipoma, angiolipoma, osteolipoma, chondrolipoma and others. Osteolipoma, a classic lipoma with osseous metaplasia, is a very rare histological variant. Owing to the rarity of oral osteolipomas, we report an uncommon case of osteolipoma located on the floor of the mouth of a 20-year-old female patient and include a review of the literature. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  18. Physical activity and the pelvic floor.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Ingrid E; Shaw, Janet M

    2016-02-01

    Pelvic floor disorders are common, with 1 in 4 US women reporting moderate to severe symptoms of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, or fecal incontinence. Given the high societal burden of these disorders, identifying potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial. Physical activity is one such potentially modifiable risk factor; the large number of girls and women participating in sport and strenuous training regimens increases the need to understand associated risks and benefits of these exposures. The aim of this review was to summarize studies reporting the association between physical activity and pelvic floor disorders. Most studies are cross-sectional and most include small numbers of participants. The primary findings of this review include that urinary incontinence during exercise is common and is more prevalent in women during high-impact sports. Mild to moderate physical activity, such as brisk walking, decreases both the odds of having and the risk of developing urinary incontinence. In older women, mild to moderate activity also decreases the odds of having fecal incontinence; however, young women participating in high-intensity activity are more likely to report anal incontinence than less active women. Scant data suggest that in middle-aged women, lifetime physical activity increases the odds of stress urinary incontinence slightly and does not increase the odds of pelvic organ prolapse. Women undergoing surgery for pelvic organ prolapse are more likely to report a history of heavy work than controls; however, women recruited from the community with pelvic organ prolapse on examination report similar lifetime levels of strenuous activity as women without this examination finding. Data are insufficient to determine whether strenuous activity while young predisposes to pelvic floor disorders later in life. The existing literature suggests that most physical activity does not harm the pelvic floor and does provide numerous health benefits for

  19. Integrated cellular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Jason C.

    The generation of new three-dimensional (3D) matrices that enable integration of biomolecular components and whole cells into device architectures, without adversely altering their morphology or activity, continues to be an expanding and challenging field of research. This research is driven by the promise that encapsulated biomolecules and cells can significantly impact areas as diverse as biocatalysis, controlled delivery of therapeutics, environmental and industrial process monitoring, early warning of warfare agents, bioelectronics, photonics, smart prosthetics, advanced physiological sensors, portable medical diagnostic devices, and tissue/organ replacement. This work focuses on the development of a fundamental understanding of the biochemical and nanomaterial mechanisms that govern the cell directed assembly and integration process. It was shown that this integration process relies on the ability of cells to actively develop a pH gradient in response to evaporation induced osmotic stress, which catalyzes silica condensation within a thin 3D volume surrounding the cells, creating a functional bio/nano interface. The mechanism responsible for introducing functional foreign membrane-bound proteins via proteoliposome addition to the silica-lipid-cell matrix was also determined. Utilizing this new understanding, 3D cellular immobilization capabilities were extended using sol-gel matrices endowed with glycerol, trehalose, and media components. The effects of these additives, and the metabolic phase of encapsulated S. cerivisiase cells, on long-term viability and the rate of inducible gene expression was studied. This enabled the entrapment of cells within a novel microfluidic platform capable of simultaneous colorimetric, fluorescent, and electrochemical detection of a single analyte, significantly improving confidence in the biosensor output. As a complementary approach, multiphoton protein lithography was utilized to engineer 3D protein matrices in which to

  20. A Field of Hollows

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-01

    Mercury's hollows are among its most distinctive -- and unusual -- surface features. In this stunning view, we see a field of hollows in the western portion of the floor of Zeami impact basin. Hollows populate much of the rest of the basin's interior, with large concentrations several kilometers across occurring in the north and northeast parts of the floor. Individual hollows, however, can be as small as a couple of hundred meters in width. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19267

  1. Female pelvic floor anatomy: the pelvic floor, supporting structures, and pelvic organs.

    PubMed

    Herschorn, Sender

    2004-01-01

    The development of novel, less invasive therapies for stress urinary incontinence in women requires a thorough knowledge of the relationship between the pathophysiology of incontinence and anatomy. This article provides a review of the anatomy of the pelvic floor and lower urinary tract. Also discussed is the hammock hypothesis, which describes urethral support within the pelvis and provides an explanation of the continence mechanism.

  2. Female pelvic floor dysfunction--an imaging perspective.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Hans Peter

    2011-12-20

    Female pelvic floor dysfunction encompasses a range of morbidities, including urinary incontinence, female pelvic organ prolapse, anal incontinence and obstructed defecation. Patients often present with symptoms covered by several specialties including gastroenterology, colorectal surgery, urology and gynecology. Imaging can therefore bring clinicians from multiple specialties together by revealing that we frequently deal with different aspects of one underlying problem or pathophysiological process. This article provides an interdisciplinary imaging perspective on the pelvic floor. Modern pelvic floor imaging comprises defecation proctography, translabial and endorectal ultrasound, and static and dynamic MRI. This Perspectives focuses on the potential use of translabial ultrasound, including 3D and 4D applications, for diagnosis of pelvic floor disorders. Over the next decade, pelvic floor imaging will most likely be integrated into mainstream diagnostics in obstetrics and gynecology and colorectal surgery. Using imaging to facilitate communication between different specialties has the potential to greatly improve the multidisciplinary management of complex pelvic floor disorders.

  3. 115. Stage Level floor structure. Detail of the ends of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    115. Stage Level floor structure. Detail of the ends of three movable stage floor sections. An inclined steel angle track attached to the web of the floor beam allows the sections to roll under the fixed floor. The upper section of the inclined track is hinged so it can be moved upward by a cam mechanism to raise the end of the movable section level with the stage floor. A similar mechanism was used to open and close the floor sections for the star lifts (see sheet 4 of 9, note 6; sheet 8 of 9, details 5, 6A and 6B; sheet 6 of 9, notes 2A, 2B, and 3; and photo IL-1007-120). The pulley, and tongue extending out from the end of the movable section, were used to move the sections back and forth. - Auditorium Building, 430 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  4. Gut microbiota composition is correlated to grid floor induced stress and behavior in the BALB/c mouse.

    PubMed

    Bangsgaard Bendtsen, Katja Maria; Krych, Lukasz; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Pang, Wanyong; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Josefsen, Knud; Hansen, Lars H; Sørensen, Søren J; Hansen, Axel Kornerup

    2012-01-01

    Stress has profound influence on the gastro-intestinal tract, the immune system and the behavior of the animal. In this study, the correlation between gut microbiota composition determined by Denaturing Grade Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and tag-encoded 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing (454/FLX) and behavior in the Tripletest (Elevated Plus Maze, Light/Dark Box, and Open Field combined), the Tail Suspension Test, and Burrowing in 28 female BALB/c mice exposed to two weeks of grid floor induced stress was investigated. Cytokine and glucose levels were measured at baseline, during and after exposure to grid floor. Stressing the mice clearly changed the cecal microbiota as determined by both DGGE and pyrosequencing. Odoribacter, Alistipes and an unclassified genus from the Coriobacteriaceae family increased significantly in the grid floor housed mice. Compared to baseline, the mice exposed to grid floor housing changed the amount of time spent in the Elevated Plus Maze, in the Light/Dark Box, and burrowing behavior. The grid floor housed mice had significantly longer immobility duration in the Tail Suspension Test and increased their number of immobility episodes from baseline. Significant correlations were found between GM composition and IL-1α, IFN-γ, closed arm entries of Elevated Plus Maze, total time in Elevated Plus Maze, time spent in Light/Dark Box, and time spent in the inner zone of the Open Field as well as total time in the Open Field. Significant correlations were found to the levels of Firmicutes, e.g. various species of Ruminococccaceae and Lachnospiraceae. No significant difference was found for the evaluated cytokines, except an overall decrease in levels from baseline to end. A significant lower level of blood glucose was found in the grid floor housed mice, whereas the HbA1c level was significantly higher. It is concluded that grid floor housing changes the GM composition, which seems to influence certain anxiety-related parameters.

  5. Gut Microbiota Composition Is Correlated to Grid Floor Induced Stress and Behavior in the BALB/c Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Bangsgaard Bendtsen, Katja Maria; Krych, Lukasz; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Pang, Wanyong; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Josefsen, Knud; Hansen, Lars H.; Sørensen, Søren J.; Hansen, Axel Kornerup

    2012-01-01

    Stress has profound influence on the gastro-intestinal tract, the immune system and the behavior of the animal. In this study, the correlation between gut microbiota composition determined by Denaturing Grade Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and tag-encoded 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing (454/FLX) and behavior in the Tripletest (Elevated Plus Maze, Light/Dark Box, and Open Field combined), the Tail Suspension Test, and Burrowing in 28 female BALB/c mice exposed to two weeks of grid floor induced stress was investigated. Cytokine and glucose levels were measured at baseline, during and after exposure to grid floor. Stressing the mice clearly changed the cecal microbiota as determined by both DGGE and pyrosequencing. Odoribacter, Alistipes and an unclassified genus from the Coriobacteriaceae family increased significantly in the grid floor housed mice. Compared to baseline, the mice exposed to grid floor housing changed the amount of time spent in the Elevated Plus Maze, in the Light/Dark Box, and burrowing behavior. The grid floor housed mice had significantly longer immobility duration in the Tail Suspension Test and increased their number of immobility episodes from baseline. Significant correlations were found between GM composition and IL-1α, IFN-γ, closed arm entries of Elevated Plus Maze, total time in Elevated Plus Maze, time spent in Light/Dark Box, and time spent in the inner zone of the Open Field as well as total time in the Open Field. Significant correlations were found to the levels of Firmicutes, e.g. various species of Ruminococccaceae and Lachnospiraceae. No significant difference was found for the evaluated cytokines, except an overall decrease in levels from baseline to end. A significant lower level of blood glucose was found in the grid floor housed mice, whereas the HbA1c level was significantly higher. It is concluded that grid floor housing changes the GM composition, which seems to influence certain anxiety-related parameters. PMID

  6. Venus - Multiple-Floored, Irregular Impact Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-09-26

    NASA' sMagellan imaged this multiple-floored, irregular impact crater at latitude 16.4 degrees north, longitude 352.1 degrees east, during orbits 481 and 482 on 27 September 1990. This crater, about 9.2 kilometers in maximum diameter, was formed on what appears to be a slightly fractured, radar-dark (smooth) plain. The abundant, low viscosity flows associated with this cratering event have, however, filled local, fault-controlled troughs (called graben). These shallow graben are well portrayed on this Magellan image but would be unrecognizable but for their coincidental infilling by the radar-bright crater flows. This fortuitous enhancement by the crater flows of fault structures that are below the resolution of the Magellan synthetic aperture radar is providing the Magellan Science Team with valuable geologic information. The flow deposits from the craters are thought to consist primarily of shock melted rock and fragmented debris resulting from the nearly simultaneous impacts of two projectile fragments into the hot (800 degrees Fahrenheit) surface rocks of Venus. The presence of the various floors of this irregular crater is interpreted to be the result of crushing, fragmentation, and eventual aerodynamic dispersion of a single entry projectile during passage through the dense Venusian atmosphere. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00462

  7. Nonsyndromic palate Synechia with floor of mouth

    PubMed Central

    Naidoo, Sharan; Bütow, Kurt W.

    2015-01-01

    To discuss the embryological basis, sequela and management of intraoral synechia, and to report on the incidence of this condition at a facial cleft deformity clinic (FCDC), with specific attention to two rare cases of mucosal bands involving the floor of the mouth and palate. Review of the literature and a retrospective analysis of FCDC and case report of two cases. During the period of 30 years (1983–2013), the FCDC - University of Pretoria has managed in excess of 4000 cases. A review of the clinic statistics revealed only six cases in which intraoral synechiae occurred. The rarity of this condition at the FCDC is in keeping with the rare incidence in the international literature. Four syndromic cases were identified. Three cases were cleft palate lateral synechia syndrome, and one was an orofacial digital syndrome. Two nonsyndromic cases were identified, and both cases involved the floor of the mouth and palate. The attending physicians and surgeons should be aware of the most appropriate timing for management of this condition, in order to avoid unwanted sequelae. Supportive care should be provided, and emergency airway protocol should be available for all cases. A differential diagnosis should be considered which includes syndromic conditions. PMID:26389045

  8. 48. STAIRWAY TO THE SECOND FLOOR, SOUTH END OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. STAIRWAY TO THE SECOND FLOOR, SOUTH END OF THE EAST WING. STAIRWAY AND WOODEN DECK ADDED IN 1976. WOODEN DECK FILLS A CIRCULAR HOLE LEFT IN THE FLOOR FOR THE POSSIBLE ADDITION OF A THIRD BISCUIT AND KILN. A SMALLER HOLE WAS LEFT IN THE WEST WING FLOOR TO ALLOW CONSTRUCTION OF AN ADDITIONAL GLAZE KILN. NEITHER EXTRA KILN WAS BUILT. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  9. Lack of viable seeds in the forest floor after clearcutting

    Treesearch

    Robert M. Frank; Lawrence O. Safford

    1970-01-01

    The viability of seeds o[ northern conifers apparently does not persist in the forest floor for more than one year. A set of forest-floor samples collected two years alter a heavy seed crop and one year alter a seedcrop failure did not produce any conifer germinants, regardless of whether or not the surfaces of the samples were disturbed. A second set of forest-floor...

  10. 13. VIEW INTO BLOCK AREA SHOWING KEY MECHANISM, NOTE FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW INTO BLOCK AREA SHOWING KEY MECHANISM, NOTE FLOOR SEPARATION AT THRESHOLD AND KEY-WINDING MECHANISM - Montgomery County Jail, Washington & Spring Streets, Crawfordsville, Montgomery County, IN

  11. INTERIOR OF SECOND FLOOR AIRFIELD MANAGEMENT SUPERINTENDENT'S OFFICE. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF SECOND FLOOR AIRFIELD MANAGEMENT SUPERINTENDENT'S OFFICE. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Base Operations Building, Idaho at Alabama Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  12. 13. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM, SHOWING CLERESTORY. VIEW TO SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM, SHOWING CLERESTORY. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, McFadden Coffee & Spice Company, Factory & Warehouse, 145 First Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  13. 19. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST OF FIRST FLOOR SHOWING CONVEYOR FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST OF FIRST FLOOR SHOWING CONVEYOR FOR MOVING MATERIAL TO SECOND FLOOR. (NOTE: THIS IS NOT AN ORIGINAL CONVEYOR FOR MOVING BODY PARTS) STAIRS IN BACKGROUND LEAD TO SECOND FLOOR VIA TOILET ROOM NO. 4 AND COAT ROOM AT MEZZANINES LEVEL SITUATED BETWEEN THE TWO SETS OF STAIRS. THERE ARE THREE OTHER TOILET/COAT ROOM MEZZANINES TO THE NORTH LOCATED ALONG THE WALL BETWEEN THE FIRST AND SECOND FLOORS, BEHIND AND TO THE LEFT OF THE STAIRS IS A FREIGHT ELEVATOR SHAFT. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  14. 19. CLASSROOM 312 (SECOND FLOOR). VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. OTHER CENTRAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. CLASSROOM 312 (SECOND FLOOR). VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. OTHER CENTRAL (SOUTH) BLOCK CLASSROOMS ARE SIMILAR - Frederika Bremer Intermediate School, 1214 Lowry Avenue North, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  15. [Use of bone blocks by sinus floor lifting].

    PubMed

    Nazarian, D N; Karaian, A S; Zakharov, G K; Seniuk, A N; Aliev, S E

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents clinical cases illustrating two sinus floor lifting technique performed for dental implant placement in areas with maxillary sinus floor atrophy: bone block fixation for vertical augmentation (used for immediate implant placement by sinus floor atrophy to 1 mm thickness) and perforation closure. Sinus floor perforations wider than 5 mm were repaired by mandible bone graft providing the possibility of immediate implantation. Bone block was fixed between cortical layers of the maxilla with no internal fixation. Free bone blocks provide additional primary stability of dental implants.

  16. 11. SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR, SHOWING EAST BALCONY AND BASKETBALL COURT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR, SHOWING EAST BALCONY AND BASKETBALL COURT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Fort David A. Russell, Gymnasium, Randall Avenue between Fourth & Fifth Streets, Cheyenne, Laramie County, WY

  17. Distinct modes of floor plate induction in the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Patten, Iain; Kulesa, Paul; Shen, Michael M; Fraser, Scott; Placzek, Marysia

    2003-10-01

    To begin to reconcile models of floor plate formation in the vertebrate neural tube, we have performed experiments aimed at understanding the development of the early floor plate in the chick embryo. Using real-time analyses of cell behaviour, we provide evidence that the principal contributor to the early neural midline, the future anterior floor plate, exists as a separate population of floor plate precursor cells in the epiblast of the gastrula stage embryo, and does not share a lineage with axial mesoderm. Analysis of the tissue interactions associated with differentiation of these cells to a floor plate fate reveals a role for the nascent prechordal mesoderm, indicating that more than one inductive event is associated with floor plate formation along the length of the neuraxis. We show that Nr1, a chick nodal homologue, is expressed in the nascent prechordal mesoderm and we provide evidence that Nodal signalling can cooperate with Shh to induce the epiblast precursors to a floor-plate fate. These results indicate that a shared lineage with axial mesoderm cells is not a pre-requisite for floor plate differentiation and suggest parallels between the development of the floor plate in amniote and anamniote embryos.

  18. INTERIOR SECOND FLOOR EAST ENGINEERING DESIGN AREA DETAIL VIEW, FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR SECOND FLOOR EAST ENGINEERING DESIGN AREA DETAIL VIEW, FACING NORTH. - NASA Industrial Plant, Systems Integration & Checkout Facility, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. Interior view of second floor sleeping area; camera facing south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of second floor sleeping area; camera facing south. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Barracks, Cedar Avenue, west side between Twelfth & Fourteenth Streets, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  20. 18. First floor, sun porch room, looking north Veterans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. First floor, sun porch room, looking north - Veterans Administration Center, Officers Duplex Quarters, 5302 East Kellogg (Legal Address); 5500 East Kellogg (Common Address), Wichita, Sedgwick County, KS

  1. 9. FIRST FLOOR CAR BARN SPACE. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. FIRST FLOOR CAR BARN SPACE. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Key City Electric Street Railroad, Powerhouse & Storage Barn, Eighth & Washington Streets, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  2. Ergonomic Assessment of Floor-based and Overhead Lifts

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Thomas R.; Dick, Robert; Lowe, Brian; Werren, Dwight; Parsons, Kelley

    2015-01-01

    Manual full-body vertical lifts of patients have high risk for developing musculoskeletal disorders. Two primary types of battery-powered lift assist devices are available for these tasks: floor-based and overhead-mounted devices. Studies suggest that the operation of floor-based devices may require excessive pushing and pulling forces and that overhead-mounted devices are safer and require lower operating forces. This study evaluated required operating hand forces and resulting biomechanical spinal loading for overhead-mounted lifts versus floor-based lifts across various floor surfaces and patient weight conditions. We did not examine differences in how operators performed the tasks, but rather focused on differences in required operating forces and estimated biomechanical loads across various exposure conditions for a typical operator. Findings show that the floor-based lifts exceeded recommended exposure limits for pushing and pulling for many of the floor/weight conditions and that the overhead-mounted lifts did not. As expected, forces and spinal loads were greater for nonlinoleum floor surfaces compared with linoleum floors. Based on these findings, it is suggested that overhead-mounted devices be used whenever possible, particularly in instances where carpeted floors would be encountered. PMID:26550545

  3. 23. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, ELEVATOR SHAFT SAFETY NET ACCESS, NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, ELEVATOR SHAFT SAFETY NET ACCESS, NORTHWEST ELEVATOR LOADING DOOR. - Bates Manufacturing Company, Storehouse, Northeast corner of Chestnut Street & Hines Alley, Lewiston, Androscoggin County, ME

  4. 5. GENERAL VIEW, SECOND FLOOR, SHOWING TYPICAL WINDOW TRIM AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW, SECOND FLOOR, SHOWING TYPICAL WINDOW TRIM AND THE PRESSED METAL CEILING, VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST. - 443 Seventh Street, Northwest (Commercial Building), Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. INTERIOR FIRST FLOOR WEST CENTRAL ELEVATOR LOBBY DETAIL VIEW, FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR FIRST FLOOR WEST CENTRAL ELEVATOR LOBBY DETAIL VIEW, FACING SOUTHEAST. - NASA Industrial Plant, Systems Integration & Checkout Facility, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. site plan, floor plan, southeast and east elevations, detail showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    site plan, floor plan, southeast and east elevations, detail showing original front entrance, interior detail showing fireplace in elevation - Neiman House, 1930 Providence Road, Charlotte, Mecklenburg County, NC

  7. 13. SECOND FLOOR, CHILDREN'S LIBRARY, LUNETTE PAINTING 'INVENTION' BY DAVID ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SECOND FLOOR, CHILDREN'S LIBRARY, LUNETTE PAINTING 'INVENTION' BY DAVID HUTCHINSON, WEST HALF, LOOKING WEST - Yonkers Public Library, Nepperhan Avenue & South Broadway, Yonkers, Westchester County, NY

  8. 14. SECOND FLOOR, CHILDREN'S LIBRARY, LUNETTE PAINTING 'INVENTION' BY DAVID ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. SECOND FLOOR, CHILDREN'S LIBRARY, LUNETTE PAINTING 'INVENTION' BY DAVID HUTCHINSON, NORTH HALF LOOKING NORTH - Yonkers Public Library, Nepperhan Avenue & South Broadway, Yonkers, Westchester County, NY

  9. 22. DETAIL, WOOD BLOCK FLOOR Delaware, Lackawanna & Western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL, WOOD BLOCK FLOOR - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  10. 22. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, TOP VIEW OF ELEVATOR WITH WINCHING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, TOP VIEW OF ELEVATOR WITH WINCHING MECHANISM, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Bates Manufacturing Company, Storehouse, Northeast corner of Chestnut Street & Hines Alley, Lewiston, Androscoggin County, ME

  11. 24. VIEW FIRST FLOOR ELEVATOR PLATFORM, LOOKING DOWN THE MAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW FIRST FLOOR ELEVATOR PLATFORM, LOOKING DOWN THE MAIN HALLWAY, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Bates Manufacturing Company, Storehouse, Northeast corner of Chestnut Street & Hines Alley, Lewiston, Androscoggin County, ME

  12. 21. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, ELEVATOR SHAFT, TOP ELEVATOR SUPPORT, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, ELEVATOR SHAFT, TOP ELEVATOR SUPPORT, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Bates Manufacturing Company, Storehouse, Northeast corner of Chestnut Street & Hines Alley, Lewiston, Androscoggin County, ME

  13. 20. VIEW OF ELEVATOR SHAFT FROM FIRST FLOOR TO SKYLIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW OF ELEVATOR SHAFT FROM FIRST FLOOR TO SKYLIGHT, LOOKING SKYWARD, NORTH - Bates Manufacturing Company, Storehouse, Northeast corner of Chestnut Street & Hines Alley, Lewiston, Androscoggin County, ME

  14. 95. ROOM 402 (LAW LIBRARY), EAST WING, FOURTH FLOOR, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. ROOM 402 (LAW LIBRARY), EAST WING, FOURTH FLOOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. 13. DISPATCHER'S OFFICE OF SECOND FLOOR HEAD HOUSE. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DISPATCHER'S OFFICE OF SECOND FLOOR HEAD HOUSE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad Freight Depot, Sixth & White Streets, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  16. 14. DISPATCHER'S OFFICE OF SECOND FLOOR HEAD HOUSE. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DISPATCHER'S OFFICE OF SECOND FLOOR HEAD HOUSE. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad Freight Depot, Sixth & White Streets, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  17. 15. FIRST FLOOR WAREHOUSE SPACE, SHOWING COLUMN / BEAM CONNECTION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. FIRST FLOOR WAREHOUSE SPACE, SHOWING COLUMN / BEAM CONNECTION. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Dubuque Seed Company Warehouse, 169-171 Iowa Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  18. Interior view of second floor brace shop partition walls and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of second floor brace shop partition walls and cobbler's bench, facing west. - Gorgas Hospital, Administration & Clinics Building, Culebra Road, Balboa Heights, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  19. Cellular models for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Falkenburger, Björn H; Saridaki, Theodora; Dinter, Elisabeth

    2016-10-01

    Developing new therapeutic strategies for Parkinson's disease requires cellular models. Current models reproduce the two most salient changes found in the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease: The degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and the existence of protein aggregates consisting mainly of α-synuclein. Cultured cells offer many advantages over studying Parkinson's disease directly in patients or in animal models. At the same time, the choice of a specific cellular model entails the requirement to focus on one aspect of the disease while ignoring others. This article is intended for researchers planning to use cellular models for their studies. It describes for commonly used cell types the aspects of Parkinson's disease they model along with technical advantages and disadvantages. It might also be helpful for researchers from other fields consulting literature on cellular models of Parkinson's disease. Important models for the study of dopaminergic neuron degeneration include Lund human mesencephalic cells and primary neurons, and a case is made for the use of non-dopaminergic cells to model pathogenesis of non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. With regard to α-synuclein aggregates, this article describes strategies to induce and measure aggregates with a focus on fluorescent techniques. Cellular models reproduce the two most salient changes of Parkinson's disease, the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and the existence of α-synuclein aggregates. This article is intended for researchers planning to use cellular models for their studies. It describes for commonly used cell types and treatments the aspects of Parkinson's disease they model along with technical advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, this article describes strategies to induce and measure aggregates with a focus on fluorescent techniques. This article is part of a special issue on Parkinson disease.

  20. Factors influencing restaurant worker perception of floor slipperiness.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Theodore K; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Verma, Santosh K; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Li, Kai Way; Filiaggi, Alfred J

    2006-11-01

    Falls are responsible for a substantial injury burden in the global workplace. Restaurant environments are particularly challenged by slips, trips, and falls. This study explored those factors that could influence workers' self-reports of slipperiness in U.S. fast-food restaurants. One hundred and twenty-six workers employed in 10 fast-food restaurants in the northeastern United States participated in the study representing a study-wide response rate of 87.5%. Participants' ratings of floor slipperiness and occupational slip history within the past 4 weeks were collected through written questionnaire. Additional factors collected by questionnaire included age, gender, shift length, and shoe type. Shoe condition (wear) and shoe contamination were visually assessed by the investigators. Floor friction was also measured. Lower restaurant mean coefficient of friction and the presence of contamination on workers' shoe soles were environmental factors significantly associated with workers reporting more slippery conditions. A recent workplace history of slipping with or without a subsequent fall was also significantly associated with workers reporting more slippery conditions. Workers over the age of 45 reported conditions to be significantly less slippery than younger workers. The results suggest that worker ratings of slipperiness are influenced not only by the actual level of friction but also by the other individual and environmental factors noted above. Recommendations for future studies would include a longitudinal design to better capture the temporal sequence between these variables. More field research is needed to better understand the association between workplace conditions, worker perception of slipperiness, and slipping at work.