Science.gov

Sample records for floor field cellular

  1. Some properties of the floor field cellular automata evacuation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwizdałła, Tomasz M.

    2015-02-01

    We study the process of evacuation of pedestrians from the room with the given arrangement of doors and obstacles by using the cellular automata technique. The technique which became quite popular is characterized by the discretization of time as well as space. For such a discretized space we use so-called floor field model which generally corresponds to the description of every cell by some monotonic function of distance between this cell and the closest exit. We study several types of effects. We start from some general features of model like the kind of a neighborhood or the factors disrupting the motion. Then we analyze the influence of asymmetry and size on the evacuation time. Finally we show characteristics concerning different arrangements of exits and include a particular approach to the proxemics effects. The scaling analyses help us to distinguish these cases which just reflect the geometry of the system and those which depend also on the simulation properties. All calculations are performed for a wide range of initial densities corresponding to different occupation rates as described by the typical crowd counting techniques.

  2. A floor field cellular automaton for crowd evacuation considering different walking abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zhijian; Zhou, Xiaodong; Zhu, Kongjin; Chen, Yanqiu; Zhuang, Yifan; Hu, Yuqi; Yang, Lizhong; Chen, Changkun; Li, Jian

    2015-02-01

    It has been hard to model a crowd evacuation process considering different walking abilities using a synchronous cellular automaton. That is because the cross and the overlaps of routes have to be taken into consideration and the conflicts resolution between pedestrians is more complex. However, the desired velocities of evacuees might be quite different due to the discrepancies of the physiological function, including age, gender, physical state, and the psychological behavior, such as the perception and reflection to the dangers. Additionally, an evacuee might change his desired velocity constantly to adapt to the changing evacuation environment. Thus, a multi-velocities floor field cellular automaton model was established in this paper. Using little CPU time, a dense crowd evacuation simulation with tiny varied velocity can be conducted very well. Significant discrepancies between the single-velocity evacuation and the multi-velocities evacuation were observed. The plateaus, where the exit flow rate is rather low, can be well predicted by a dimensionless parameter describing the congestion level of the evacuation system. The crowd evacuation time almost depends on the low desired velocity evacuees, though the proportion is not high. We also observed that faster evacuees make the evacuation system easily approaching to the jam.

  3. Crater Floor Dune Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    Our final dune image shows a small dune field inside an unnamed crater south of Nili Fossae.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 20.6, Longitude 79 East (281 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  4. Potential field cellular automata model for pedestrian flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Jian, Xiao-Xia; Wong, S. C.; Choi, Keechoo

    2012-02-01

    This paper proposes a cellular automata model of pedestrian flow that defines a cost potential field, which takes into account the costs of travel time and discomfort, for a pedestrian to move to an empty neighboring cell. The formulation is based on a reconstruction of the density distribution and the underlying physics, including the rule for resolving conflicts, which is comparable to that in the floor field cellular automaton model. However, we assume that each pedestrian is familiar with the surroundings, thereby minimizing his or her instantaneous cost. This, in turn, helps reduce the randomness in selecting a target cell, which improves the existing cellular automata modelings, together with the computational efficiency. In the presence of two pedestrian groups, which are distinguished by their destinations, the cost distribution for each group is magnified due to the strong interaction between the two groups. As a typical phenomenon, the formation of lanes in the counter flow is reproduced.

  5. Influence of electric field on cellular migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guido, Isabella; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    Cells have the ability to detect continuous current electric fields (EFs) and respond to them with a directed migratory movement. Dictyostelium discoideum (D.d.) cells, a key model organism for the study of eukaryotic chemotaxis, orient and migrate toward the cathode under the influence of an EF. The underlying sensing mechanism and whether it is shared by the chemotactic response pathway remains unknown. Whereas genes and proteins that mediate the electric sensing as well as that define the migration direction have been previously investigated in D.d. cells, a deeper knowledge about the cellular kinematic effects caused by the EF is still lacking. Here we show that besides triggering a directional bias the electric field influences the cellular kinematics by accelerating the movement of cells along their path. We found that the migratory velocity of the cells in an EF increases linearly with the exposure time. Through the analysis of the PI3K and Phg2 distribution in the cytosol and of the cellular adherence to the substrate we aim at elucidating whereas this speed up effect in the electric field is due to either a molecular signalling or the interaction with the substrate. This work is part of the MaxSynBio Consortium which is jointly funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany and the Max Planck Society.

  6. Experimental Investigation of Porous-floor Effects on Cavity Flow Fields at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a passive-venting system to modify the flow field characteristics of a rectangular-box cavity at supersonic speeds. The passive-venting system consists of a porous floor with a vent chamber beneath the floor. For certain cavity length-to-height ratios, this configuration allowed high-pressure air at the rear of the cavity to vent to the forward part of the cavity, thereby modifying the cavity flow field. The wind-tunnel model consisted of a flat plate that housed a cavity mounted on a balance such that only the cavity drag was measured. The cavity height remained constant, and the length varied with rectangular-block inserts. Both solid-and porous-floor cavities were tested for comparison at Mach numbers of 1.60, 1.90, 2.16, and 2.86. These results showed that the passive-venting system did modify the cavity flow field. In order to determine the type flow field which existed for the porous-floor configuration, pressures were measured inside the cavity at the same conditions and for the same configurations as those used in the drag tests. Pressure data were also obtained with stores mounted in the cavity. These results, along with Schlieren photographs and the tabulated data, are presented to document the porous-floor cavity flow field.

  7. Cellular response to modulated radiation fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claridge Mackonis, E.; Suchowerska, N.; Zhang, M.; Ebert, M.; McKenzie, D. R.; Jackson, M.

    2007-09-01

    Cell survival following exposure to spatially modulated beams, as created by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), is investigated. In vitro experiments were performed using malignant melanoma cells (MM576) exposed to a therapeutic megavoltage photon beam. We compared cell survival in modulated fields with cell survival in uniform control fields. Three different spatial modulations of the field were used: a control 'uniform' field in which all cells in a flask were uniformly exposed; a 'quarter' field in which 25% of cells at one end of the flask were exposed and a 'striped' field in which 25% of cells were exposed in three parallel stripes. The cell survival in both the shielded and unshielded regions of the modulated fields, as determined by a clonogenic assay, were compared to the cell survival in the uniform field. We have distinguished three ways in which cell survival is influenced by the fate of neighbouring cells. The first of these (type I effect) is the previously reported classical Bystander effect, where cell survival is reduced when communicating with irradiated cells. We find two new types of Bystander effect. The type II effect is an observed increase in cell survival when nearby cells receive a lethal dose. The type III effect is an increase in the survival of cells receiving a high dose of radiation, when nearby cells receive a low dose. These observations of the Bystander effects emphasize the need for improved radiobiological models, which include communicated effects and account for the effects of modulated dose distribution.

  8. Induced static magnetic field by a cellular phone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einat, M.; Yahalom, A.

    2011-08-01

    Recent claims regarding the safety of cellular phones suggest that weak static magnetic fields are induced around the phone, and this field and its gradients may pose a health risk to the user. An experiment was conducted to measure the induced static magnetic field around a cellular phone. 65 μT variations and 18 μT/cm gradients were measured in the magnetic field at 6 cm from the phone. An analytical model is derived to explain the results. The influence that the measured magnetic fields may have on the user is beyond the scope of this research.

  9. Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Cellular Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eftekhari, Beheshte; Wilson, James; Masood, Samina

    2012-10-01

    The interaction of organisms with environmental magnetic fields at the cellular level is well documented, yet not fully understood. We review the existing experimental results to understand the physics behind the effects of ambient magnetic fields on the growth, metabolism, and proliferation of in vitro cell cultures. Emphasis is placed on identifying the underlying physical principles responsible for alterations to cell structure and behavior.

  10. Cellular studies and interaction mechanisms of extremely low frequency fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liburdy, Robert P.

    1995-01-01

    Worldwide interest in the biological effects of ELF (extremely low frequency, <1 kHz) electromagnetic fields has grown significantly. Health professionals and government administrators and regulators, scientists and engineers, and, importantly, an increasing number of individuals in the general public are interested in this health issue. The goal of research at the cellular level is to identify cellular responses to ELF fields, to develop a dose threshold for such interactions, and with such information to formulate and test appropriate interaction mechanisms. This review is selective and will discuss the most recent cellular studies directed at these goals which relate to power line, sinusoidal ELF fields. In these studies an interaction site at the cell membrane is by consensus a likely candidate, since changes in ion transport, ligand-receptor events such as antibody binding, and G protein activation have been reported. These changes strongly indicate that signal transduction (ST) can be influenced. Also, ELF fields are reported to influence enzyme activation, gene expression, protein synthesis, and cell proliferation, which are triggered by earlier ST events at the cell membrane. The concept of ELF fields altering early cell membrane events and thereby influencing intracellular cell function via the ST cascade is perhaps the most plausible biological framework currently being investigated for understanding ELF effects on cells. For example, the consequence of an increase due to ELF fields in mitogenesis, the final endpoint of the ST cascade, is an overall increase in the probability of mutagenesis and consequently cancer, according to the Ames epigenetic model of carcinogenesis. Consistent with this epigenetic mechanism and the ST pathway to carcinogenesis is recent evidence that ELF fields can alter breast cancer cell proliferation and can act as a copromoter in vitro. The most important dosimetric question being addressed currently is whether the electric (E

  11. Measurement of low frequency magnetic fields from digital cellular telephones

    SciTech Connect

    Linde, T.; Mild, K.H.

    1997-05-01

    All previous discussions about possible health effects in connection with the use of digital cellular telephones have been focused on the microwaves. However, the pulsed transmitting mode causes pulsed currents in the phone and the battery pack, which give rise to concomitant magnetic fields. Digital cellular telephones using the GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) transmit information in bursts of microwaves. This pulsed transmitting mode causes the battery current and currents in the electronics of the apparatus to be pulsed. These pulsed currents produce corresponding pulsed magnetic fields near the phones. A study to determine the magnitude of these fields involved two models of digital telephones. The highest value of the magnetic flux density was 1.8 {micro}T (rms).

  12. Is it possible to detect large ocean floor structures in the gravity field of Europa?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauer, M.; Breuer, D.

    2006-12-01

    The data provided by the Galileo mission suggested the existence of a deep water ocean at the Jupiter's moon Europa. This fact motivates the future plans for the Outer Solar System exploration because the presence of water and inner energy of this satellite - which is likely a consequence of the tidal heating from Jupiter - gives a chance for primitive life-forms to evolve. A part of the internal energy is released through the tectonic activity observed on the ice shell which surrounds that subsurface ocean. However, another part of the inner energy could drive the tectonics also on the oceanic floor, i.e. on the water/silicate boundary. If we find a way how to look underneath the top ice/water layer we could learn about the structures present on this boundary, e.g. volcanoes, rifts, etc. One of the possible ways to do that is the inversion of the gravity field, which reflects the mass distribution within the moon. Our study focus on a possibility to detect such large ocean floor features in the gravity data from some future Europa obiter mission. We test various tectonic structures (different in size and compensation state) based on the real planetary topography analogs to obtain the minimum size of those features which could be recovered from the gravity field inversion. We also study the needed resolution of the gravity data and the accuracy of the anticipated measurements. Finally, we test the inversion procedure on the global synthetic topography with embedded tectonic features to check the results in the presence of the observation noise.

  13. Effects of nanosecond pulse electric fields on cellular elasticity.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Diganta; Asmar, Anthony; Stacey, Michael

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the effects of a single 60 nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) of low (15 kV/cm) and high (60 kV/cm) field strengths on cellular morphology and membrane elasticity in Jurkat cells using fluorescent microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We performed force displacement measurements on cells using AFM and calculated the Young's modulus for membrane elasticity. Differential effects were observed depending upon pulsing conditions. We found that a single nsPEF of low field strength did not induce any apparent cytoskeletal breakdown and had minor morphological changes. Interestingly, force measurements and calculation of Young's modulus showed a significant decrease in membrane elasticity. A single nsPEF of high field strength induced stark morphological changes due to disruption of the actin cytoskeleton and a marked decrease in elasticity likely caused by irreversible membrane damage. We suggest that the cellular morphology is mainly dependent on stabilization by the actin cytoskeleton, while the elasticity changes are partially dependent on the cytoskeletal integrity.

  14. Magnetogenetics: Remote Control of Cellular Signaling with Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Jeremy P.

    Means for temporally regulating gene expression and cellular activity are invaluable for elucidating the underlying physiological processes and have therapeutic implications. Here we report the development of a system for remote regulation of gene expression by low frequency radiowaves (RF) or by a static magnetic field. We accomplished this by first adding iron oxide nanoparticles - either exogenously or as genetically encoded ferritin/ferric oxyhydroxide particle. These particles have been designed with affinity to the plasma membrane ion channel Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) by a conjugated antibody. Application of a magnetic field stimulates the particle to gate the ion channel and this, in turn, initiates calcium-dependent transgene expression. We first demonstrated in vitro that TRPV1 can be actuated to cause calcium flux into the cell by directly applying a localized magnetic field. In mice expressing these genetically encoded components, application of external magnetic field caused remote stimulation of insulin transgene expression and significantly lowered blood glucose. In addition, we are investigating mechanisms by which iron oxide nanoparticles can absorb RF, and transduce this energy to cause channel opening. This robust, repeatable method for remote cellular regulation in vivo may ultimately have applications in basic science, as well as in technology and therapeutics.

  15. GPU-based parallel method of temperature field analysis in a floor heater with a controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forenc, Jaroslaw

    2016-06-01

    A parallel method enabling acceleration of the numerical analysis of the transient temperature field in an air floor heating system is presented in this paper. An initial-boundary value problem of the heater regulated by an on/off controller is formulated. The analogue model is discretized using the implicit finite difference method. The BiCGStab method is used to compute the obtained system of equations. A computer program implementing simultaneous computations on CPUand GPU(GPGPUtechnology) was developed. CUDA environment and linear algebra libraries (CUBLAS and CUSPARSE) are used by this program. The time of computations was reduced eight times in comparison with a program executed on the CPU only. Results of computations are presented in the form of time profiles and temperature field distributions. An influence of a model of the heat transfer coefficient on the simulation of the system operation was examined. The physical interpretation of obtained results is also presented.Results of computations were verified by comparing them with solutions obtained with the use of a commercial program - COMSOL Mutiphysics.

  16. The Sea-Floor Mapping Facility at the U.S. Geological Survey Woods Hole Field Center, Woods Hole, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deusser, Rebecca E.; Schwab, William C.; Denny, Jane F.

    2002-01-01

    Researchers of the sea-floor mapping facility at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Woods Hole Field Center in Woods Hole, Mass., use state-of-the-art technology to produce accurate geologic maps of the sea floor. In addition to basic bathymetry and morphology, sea-floor maps may contain information about the distribution of sand resources, patterns of coastal erosion, pathways of pollutant transport, and geologic controls on marine biological habitats. The maps may also show areas of human impacts, such as disturbance by bottom fishing and pollution caused by offshore waste disposal. The maps provide a framework for scientific research and provide critical information to decisionmakers who oversee resources in the coastal ocean.

  17. CFD wind tunnel test: Field velocity patterns of wind on a building with a refuge floor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, C. K.; Yuen, K. K.; Lam, K. M.; Lo, S. M.

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports a CFD wind tunnel study of wind patterns on a square-plan building with a refuge floor at its mid-height level. In this study, a technique of using calibrated power law equations of velocity and turbulent intensity applied as the boundary conditions in CFD wind tunnel test is being evaluated by the physical wind tunnel data obtained by the Principal Author with wind blowing perpendicularly on the building without a refuge floor. From the evaluated results, an optimised domain of flow required to produce qualitative agreement between the wind tunnel data and simulated results is proposed in this paper. Simulated results with the evaluated technique are validated by the wind tunnel data obtained by the Principal Author. The results contribute to an understanding of the fundamental behaviour of wind flow in a refuge floor when wind is blowing perpendicularly on the building. Moreover, the results reveal that the designed natural ventilation of a refuge floor may not perform desirably when the wind speed on the level is low. Under this situation, the refuge floor may become unsafe if smoke was dispersed in the leeward side of the building at a level immediately below the refuge floor.

  18. A Sea Floor Survey of the Sleipner Field to Monitor CO2 Migration

    SciTech Connect

    Mark A. Zumberge

    2005-12-31

    In the North Sea natural gas production field at Sleipner, CO{sub 2} is being separated from natural gas and injected into an underground saline aquifer, known as the Utsira formation, for environmental purposes. In this study, gravity measurements were made over the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection site in 2002 and again in 2005 on top of 30 concrete benchmarks on the seafloor to study the behavior and physical properties of the injected CO{sub 2}. As the gas is injected, pore space water is replaced by gas, altering the bulk density of the formation. This results in a change in gravitational acceleration observed on the overlying sea floor. Our gravity measurements show a repeatability of 4.3 {micro}Gal for 2003 and 3.5 {micro}Gal for 2005. Forward models of the gravity change are calculated based on both 3-D seismic data and reservoir simulation models from other studies. These forward models indicate that the magnitude of maximum gravity change is primarily related to CO{sub 2} density rather than flow geometry. The time-lapse gravity observations best fit a high temperature forward model based on the seismically determined CO{sub 2} geometry, suggesting that the 3-D reflection seismics are imaging the geometry of the injected CO{sub 2}, and that the in situ CO{sub 2} density is around 530 kg/m{sup 3}. Uncertainty in determining the average density using this technique is estimated to be {+-}65 kg/m{sup 3} (95% confidence), however, additional seismic surveys are needed before final conclusions can be drawn. Future gravity measurements will put better constraints on the CO{sub 2} density and continue to map out the CO{sub 2} flow.

  19. Precipitation-generated oscillations in open cellular cloud fields.

    PubMed

    Feingold, Graham; Koren, Ilan; Wang, Hailong; Xue, Huiwen; Brewer, Wm Alan

    2010-08-12

    Cloud fields adopt many different patterns that can have a profound effect on the amount of sunlight reflected back to space, with important implications for the Earth's climate. These cloud patterns can be observed in satellite images of the Earth and often exhibit distinct cell-like structures associated with organized convection at scales of tens of kilometres. Recent evidence has shown that atmospheric aerosol particles-through their influence on precipitation formation-help to determine whether cloud fields take on closed (more reflective) or open (less reflective) cellular patterns. The physical mechanisms controlling the formation and evolution of these cells, however, are still poorly understood, limiting our ability to simulate realistically the effects of clouds on global reflectance. Here we use satellite imagery and numerical models to show how precipitating clouds produce an open cellular cloud pattern that oscillates between different, weakly stable states. The oscillations are a result of precipitation causing downward motion and outflow from clouds that were previously positively buoyant. The evaporating precipitation drives air down to the Earth's surface, where it diverges and collides with the outflows of neighbouring precipitating cells. These colliding outflows form surface convergence zones and new cloud formation. In turn, the newly formed clouds produce precipitation and new colliding outflow patterns that are displaced from the previous ones. As successive cycles of this kind unfold, convergence zones alternate with divergence zones and new cloud patterns emerge to replace old ones. The result is an oscillating, self-organized system with a characteristic cell size and precipitation frequency.

  20. A Computational Model of Cellular Response to Modulated Radiation Fields

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, Stephen J.; Butterworth, Karl T.; McGarry, Conor K.; Trainor, Colman; O'Sullivan, Joe M.; Hounsell, Alan R.; Prise, Kevin M.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To develop a model to describe the response of cell populations to spatially modulated radiation exposures of relevance to advanced radiotherapies. Materials and Methods: A Monte Carlo model of cellular radiation response was developed. This model incorporated damage from both direct radiation and intercellular communication including bystander signaling. The predictions of this model were compared to previously measured survival curves for a normal human fibroblast line (AGO1522) and prostate tumor cells (DU145) exposed to spatially modulated fields. Results: The model was found to be able to accurately reproduce cell survival both in populations which were directly exposed to radiation and those which were outside the primary treatment field. The model predicts that the bystander effect makes a significant contribution to cell killing even in uniformly irradiated cells. The bystander effect contribution varies strongly with dose, falling from a high of 80% at low doses to 25% and 50% at 4 Gy for AGO1522 and DU145 cells, respectively. This was verified using the inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor aminoguanidine to inhibit the bystander effect in cells exposed to different doses, which showed significantly larger reductions in cell killing at lower doses. Conclusions: The model presented in this work accurately reproduces cell survival following modulated radiation exposures, both in and out of the primary treatment field, by incorporating a bystander component. In addition, the model suggests that the bystander effect is responsible for a significant portion of cell killing in uniformly irradiated cells, 50% and 70% at doses of 2 Gy in AGO1522 and DU145 cells, respectively. This description is a significant departure from accepted radiobiological models and may have a significant impact on optimization of treatment planning approaches if proven to be applicable in vivo.

  1. Quantitative investigation of cellular growth in directional solidification by phase-field simulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhijun; Wang, Jincheng; Li, Junjie; Yang, Gencang; Zhou, Yaohe

    2011-10-01

    Using a quantitative phase-field model, a systematic investigation of cellular growth in directional solidification is carried out with emphasis on the selection of cellular tip undercooling, tip radius, and cellular spacing. Previous analytical models of cellular growth are evaluated according to the phase-field simulation results. The results show that cellular tip undercooling and tip radius not only depend on the pulling velocity and thermal gradient, but also depend on the cellular interaction related to the cellular spacing. The cellular interaction results in a finite stable range of cellular spacing. The lower limit is determined by the submerging mechanism while the upper limit comes from the tip splitting instability corresponding to the absence of the cellular growth solution, both of which can be obtained from phase-field simulation. Further discussions on the phase-field results also present an analytical method to predict the lower limit. Phase-field simulations on cell elimination between cells with equal spacing validate the finite range of cellular spacing and give deep insight into the cellular doublon and oscillatory instability between cell elimination and tip splitting.

  2. The Effect of Gravity Fields on Cellular Gene Expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie

    1999-01-01

    Early theoretical analysis predicted that microgravity effects on the isolated cell would be minuscule at the subcellular level; however, these speculations have not proven true in the real world. Astronauts experience a significant bone and muscle loss in as little as 2 weeks of spaceflight and changes are seen at the cellular level soon after exposure to microgravity. Changes in biological systems may be primarily due to the lack of gravity and the resulting loss of mechanical stress on tissues and cells. Recent ground and flight studies examining the effects of gravity or mechanical stress on cells demonstrate marked changes in gene expression when relatively small changes in mechanical forces or gravity fields were made. Several immediate early genes (IEG) like c-fos and c-myc are induced by mechanical stimulation within minutes. In contrast, several investigators report that the absence of mechanical forces during space flight result in decreased sera response element (SRE) activity and attenuation of expression of IEGs such as c-fos, c-jun and cox-2 mRNAs. Clearly, these early changes in gene expression may have long term consequences on mechanically sensitive cells. In our early studies on STS-56, we reported four major changes in the osteoblast; 1) prostaglandin synthesis in flight, 2) changes in cellular morphology, 3) altered actin cytoskeleton and 4) reduced osteoblast growth after four days exposure to microgravity. Initially, it was believed that changes in fibronectin (FN) RNA, FN protein synthesis or subsequent FN matrix formation might account for the changes in cytoskeleton and/ or reduction of growth. However our recent studies on Biorack (STS-76, STS-81 and STS-84), using ground and in-flight 1-G controls, demonstrated that fibronectin synthesis and matrix formation were normal in microgravity. In addition, in our most recent Biorack paper, our laboratory has documented that relative protein synthesis and mRNA synthesis are not changed after 24

  3. Reprogramming of Fibroblasts From Older Women With Pelvic Floor Disorders Alters Cellular Behavior Associated With Donor Age

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Prachi; Zhou, Lu; Baer, Tom; Phadnis, Smruti Madan; Reijo Pera, Renee A.; Chen, Bertha

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to derive induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from vaginal fibroblasts from older women with pelvic organ prolapse. We examined the effect of donor age on iPSCs and on the cells redifferentiated from these iPSCs. Vaginal fibroblasts were isolated from younger and older subjects for reprogramming. iPSCs were generated simultaneously using an excisable polycistronic lentiviral vector expressing Oct4, Klf4, Sox2, and cMyc. The pluripotent markers of iPSCs were confirmed by immunocytochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Spectral karyotyping was performed. The ability of the iPSCs to differentiate into three germ layers was confirmed by embryoid body and teratoma formation. Senescence marker (p21, p53, and Bax) expressions were determined by qRT-PCR and Western blot. The iPSCs were redifferentiated to fibroblasts and were evaluated with senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA) activity and mitotic index using time-lapse dark-field microscopy. iPSCs derived from both the younger and older subjects expressed pluripotency markers and showed normal karyotype and positive teratoma assays. There was no significant difference in expression of senescence and apoptosis markers (p21, p53, and Bax) in iPSCs derived from the younger subject compared with the older subject. Furthermore, fibroblasts redifferentiated from these iPSCs did not differ in SA activity or mitotic index. We report successful derivation of iPSCs from women with pelvic organ prolapse. Older age did not interfere with successful reprogramming. Donor age differences were not observed in these iPSCs using standard senescence markers, and donor age did not appear to affect cell mitotic activity in fibroblasts redifferentiated from iPSCs. PMID:23341439

  4. Error Field in Ideal Magnetically Symmetric Tokamaks Generated through Asymmetric Shadows Cast by Neutral Beams on Divertor Floor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Hironori; Fredrickson, Eric; Gerhardt, Stefan

    2012-10-01

    The neutral beam intersects open field lines as it traverses the Scrape-Off-Layer (SOL), and casts its ``shadows'' on the divertor floor, where beam particles and heat lost in transit are deposited. These shadows are toroidally asymmetric in shape, reflecting the localized nature of the beam geometry and, unlike in the main plasma, a lack of symmetrizing field-line property (irrational surfaces) in the SOL. Thermoelectrically driven Scrape-Off-Layer Current (SOLC) due to a Te difference between these shadows is also toroidally asymmetric, and, when considered on a single flux-surface basis, generates an error field in an otherwise ideal magnetically symmetric tokamak. Spreading of the SOLC over flux surfaces has a symmetrizing effect on magnetic field produced due to field-line shear, except around a ``sweet spot'' midway between primary and secondary separatrices, necessitating calculations along the entire SOL beam path for a reliable field estimate. This study explores the possibility that error field due to a SOLC in the beam shadows may contribute to strong plasma rotation braking often observed when the SOL magnetic structure rapidly evolves in an early discharge phase. Similar considerations may apply to pellet paths, gas puff clouds, and other operational asymmetries.

  5. Third Floor Plan, Second Floor Plan, First Floor Plan, Ground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Third Floor Plan, Second Floor Plan, First Floor Plan, Ground Floor Plan, West Bunkhouse - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  6. Mercury isotopic composition of hydrothermal systems in the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field and Guaymas Basin sea-floor rift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherman, L.S.; Blum, J.D.; Nordstrom, D.K.; McCleskey, R.B.; Barkay, T.; Vetriani, C.

    2009-01-01

    To characterize mercury (Hg) isotopes and isotopic fractionation in hydrothermal systems we analyzed fluid and precipitate samples from hot springs in the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field and vent chimney samples from the Guaymas Basin sea-floor rift. These samples provide an initial indication of the variability in Hg isotopic composition among marine and continental hydrothermal systems that are controlled predominantly by mantle-derived magmas. Fluid samples from Ojo Caliente hot spring in Yellowstone range in δ202Hg from - 1.02‰ to 0.58‰ (± 0.11‰, 2SD) and solid precipitate samples from Guaymas Basin range in δ202Hg from - 0.37‰ to - 0.01‰ (± 0.14‰, 2SD). Fluid samples from Ojo Caliente display mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) of Hg from the vent (δ202Hg = 0.10‰ ± 0.11‰, 2SD) to the end of the outflow channel (&delta202Hg = 0.58‰ ± 0.11‰, 2SD) in conjunction with a decrease in Hg concentration from 46.6pg/g to 20.0pg/g. Although a small amount of Hg is lost from the fluids due to co-precipitation with siliceous sinter, we infer that the majority of the observed MDF and Hg loss from waters in Ojo Caliente is due to volatilization of Hg0(aq) to Hg0(g) and the preferential loss of Hg with a lower δ202Hg value to the atmosphere. A small amount of mass-independent fractionation (MIF) was observed in all samples from Ojo Caliente (Δ199Hg = 0.13‰ ±1 0.06‰, 2SD) but no significant MIF was measured in the sea-floor rift samples from Guaymas Basin. This study demonstrates that several different hydrothermal processes fractionate Hg isotopes and that Hg isotopes may be used to better understand these processes.

  7. Free Quantum Field Theory from Quantum Cellular Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Tosini, Alessandro

    2015-10-01

    After leading to a new axiomatic derivation of quantum theory (see D'Ariano et al. in Found Phys, 2015), the new informational paradigm is entering the domain of quantum field theory, suggesting a quantum automata framework that can be regarded as an extension of quantum field theory to including an hypothetical Planck scale, and with the usual quantum field theory recovered in the relativistic limit of small wave-vectors. Being derived from simple principles (linearity, unitarity, locality, homogeneity, isotropy, and minimality of dimension), the automata theory is quantum ab-initio, and does not assume Lorentz covariance and mechanical notions. Being discrete it can describe localized states and measurements (unmanageable by quantum field theory), solving all the issues plaguing field theory originated from the continuum. These features make the theory an ideal framework for quantum gravity, with relativistic covariance and space-time emergent solely from the interactions, and not assumed a priori. The paper presents a synthetic derivation of the automata theory, showing how the principles lead to a description in terms of a quantum automaton over a Cayley graph of a group. Restricting to Abelian groups we show how the automata recover the Weyl, Dirac and Maxwell dynamics in the relativistic limit. We conclude with some new routes about the more general scenario of non-Abelian Cayley graphs. The phenomenology arising from the automata theory in the ultra-relativistic domain and the analysis of corresponding distorted Lorentz covariance is reviewed in Bisio et al. (Found Phys 2015, in this same issue).

  8. A SEA FLOOR GRAVITY SURVEY OF THE SLEIPNER FIELD TO MONITOR CO2 MIGATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Zumberge

    2003-06-13

    At the Sleipner gas field, excess CO{sub 2} is sequestered and injected underground into a porous saline aquifer 1000 m below the seafloor. A high precision micro-gravity survey was carried out on the seafloor to monitor the injected CO{sub 2}. A repeatability of 5 {micro}Gal in the station averages was observed. This is considerably better than pre-survey expectations. These data will serve as the baseline for time-lapse gravity monitoring of the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection site. Simple modeling of the first year data give inconclusive results, thus a more detailed approach is needed. Work towards this is underway.

  9. ELF (extremely-low-frequency) field interactions at the animal, tissue and cellular levels

    SciTech Connect

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1990-10-01

    A description is given of the fundamental physical properties of extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields, and the mechanisms through which these fields interact with the human body at a macroscopic level. Biological responses to ELF fields at the tissue, cellular and molecular levels are summarized, including new evidence that ELF field exposure produces alterations in gene expression and the cytoplasmic concentrations of specific proteins.

  10. A Sea Floor Gravity Survey of the Sleipner Field to Monitor CO2 Migration

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Zumberge

    2011-09-30

    Carbon dioxide gas (CO{sub 2}) is a byproduct of many wells that produce natural gas. Frequently the CO{sub 2} separated from the valuable fossil fuel gas is released into the atmosphere. This adds to the growing problem of the climatic consequences of greenhouse gas contamination. In the Sleipner North Sea natural gas production facility, the separated CO{sub 2} is injected into an underground saline aquifer to be forever sequestered. Monitoring the fate of such sequestered material is important - and difficult. Local change in Earth's gravity field over the injected gas is one way to detect the CO{sub 2} and track its migration within the reservoir over time. The density of the injected gas is less than that of the brine that becomes displaced from the pore space of the formation, leading to slight but detectable decrease in gravity observed on the seafloor above the reservoir. Using equipment developed at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, we have been monitoring gravity over the Sleipner CO{sub 2} sequestration reservoir since 2002. We surveyed the field in 2009 in a project jointly funded by a consortium of European oil and gas companies and the US Department of Energy. The value of gravity at some 30 benchmarks on the seafloor, emplaced at the beginning of the monitoring project, was observed in a week-long survey with a remotely operated vehicle. Three gravity meters were deployed on the benchmarks multiple times in a campaign-style survey, and the measured gravity values compared to those collected in earlier surveys. A clear signature in the map of gravity differences is well correlated with repeated seismic surveys.

  11. A Sea Floor Gravity Survey of the Sleipner Field to Monitor CO2 Migration

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Zumberge; Scott Nooner

    2005-12-13

    Since 1996, excess CO{sub 2} from the Sleipner natural gas field has been sequestered and injected underground into a porous saline aquifer 1000 m below the seafloor. In 2002, we carried out a high precision micro-gravity survey on the seafloor in order to monitor the injected CO{sub 2}. A repeatability of 4.3 {micro}Gal in the station averages was observed. This is considerably better than pre-survey expectations. These data will serve as the baseline for time-lapse gravity monitoring of the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection site. This report covers 3/19/05 to 9/18/05. During this time, gravity and pressure modeling were completed and graduate student Scott Nooner finished his Ph.D. dissertation, of which this work is a major part. Three new ROVDOG (Remotely Operated Vehicle deployable Deep Ocean Gravimeter) instruments were also completed with funding from Statoil. The primary changes are increased instrument precision and increased data sampling rate. A second gravity survey was carried out from August to September of 2005, allowing us to begin examining the time-lapse gravity changes caused by the injection of CO{sub 2} into the underground aquifer, known as the Utsira formation. Preliminary processing indicates a repeatability of 3.6 {micro}Gal, comparable to the baseline survey.

  12. A SEA FLOOR GRAVITY SURVEY OF THE SLEIPNER FIELD TO MONITOR CO2 MIGRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Zuberge; Scott Nooner; Glenn Sasagawa

    2003-11-17

    Since 1996, excess CO{sub 2} from the Sleipner natural gas field has been sequestered and injected underground into a porous saline aquifer 1000 m below the seafloor. In 2002, we carried out a high precision micro-gravity survey on the seafloor in order to monitor the injected CO{sub 2}. A repeatability of 5 {micro}Gal in the station averages was observed. This is considerably better than pre-survey expectations. These data will serve as the baseline for time-lapse gravity monitoring of the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection site. A three-week trip to Statoil Research Centre in Trondheim, Norway, was made in the summer of 2003. This visit consisted of gathering data and collaborating with scientists working on the Sleipner project. The trip ended with a presentation of the seafloor gravity results to date at a SACS2 (Saline Aquifer CO{sub 2} Storage 2) meeting. This meeting provided the perfect opportunity to meet and gather information from the world's experts on the Sleipner project.

  13. A SEA FLOOR GRAVITY SURVEY OF THE SLEIPNER FIELD TO MONITOR CO2 MIGRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Zumberge; Scott Nooner

    2005-07-11

    Since 1996, excess CO{sub 2} from the Sleipner natural gas field has been sequestered and injected underground into a porous saline aquifer 1000 m below the seafloor. In 2002, we carried out a high precision micro-gravity survey on the seafloor in order to monitor the injected CO{sub 2}. A repeatability of 5 {micro}Gal in the station averages was observed. This is considerably better than pre-survey expectations. These data will serve as the baseline for time-lapse gravity monitoring of the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection site. A repeat survey has been scheduled for the summer of 2005. This report covers 9/19/04 to 3/18/05. During this time, gravity and pressure modeling were completed and work graduate student Scott Nooner began writing his Ph.D. dissertation, of which this work is a the major part. Improvements to the gravimeters are also underway that will hopefully increase the measurement precision.

  14. A SEA FLOOR GRAVITY SURVEY OF THE SLEIPNER FIELD TO MONITOR CO2 MIGRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Zumberge; Scott Nooner; Ola Eiken

    2004-11-29

    Since 1996, excess CO{sub 2} from the Sleipner natural gas field has been sequestered and injected underground into a porous saline aquifer 1000 m below the seafloor. In 2002, we carried out a high precision micro-gravity survey on the seafloor in order to monitor the injected CO{sub 2}. A repeatability of 5 {micro}Gal in the station averages was observed. This is considerably better than pre-survey expectations. These data will serve as the baseline for time-lapse gravity monitoring of the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection site. A repeat survey has been scheduled for the summer of 2005. This report covers 3/18/04 to 9/19/04. During this time, we participated in several CO{sub 2} sequestration-related meetings and conferences. On March 29, 2004, we participated in the 2004 Carbon Sequestration Project Review Meeting for the Department of Energy in Pittsburgh, PA. During the week of May 2, 2004, we attended and presented at the Third Annual Conference on Carbon Capture and Sequestration in Alexandria, VA. Finally, during the week of August 8, 2004, we took part in the U.S.-Norway, CO{sub 2} Summer School in Santa Fe, NM. Additional modeling was also completed, examining the seismic velocity pushdown estimates from the gravity models and the expected deformation of the seafloor due to the injected CO{sub 2}.

  15. Defining the Molecular-Cellular-Field Continuum of Mercury Detoxification

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Susan M.

    2014-09-04

    Hg is of special interest to DOE due to past use at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Its facile redox [Hg2+/0] chemistry, bonding to carbon [e.g. MeHg+] and unique physical properties [e.g., Hg0 volatility] underlie a complex global Hg cycle involving biotic and abiotic chemical and physical transport and transformations in soils, sediments, waterways and the atmosphere. Facultative and anaerobic bacteria make MeHg+, which is neurotoxic to wildlife and humans. Sustainable stewardship requires eliminating both MeHg+ and even more toxic Hg2+, which is also the substrate for methylation. The proteins encoded by the mer locus in aerobic and facultative mercury resistant (HgR) bacteria convert soil or waterborne Hg2+ or MeHg+ to less toxic, gaseous Hg0. HgR microbes live in highly Hg-contaminated sites and depress MeHg+ formation >500-fold in such zones. So, enhancing the capacity of natural HgR microbes to remove Hg2+/MeHg+ from wetlands and waterways is a logical component of contaminated site stewardship. To apply enhancement in the field requires knowing how the HgR pathway works including the metabolic demands it makes on the cell, i.e., the entire cell is the relevant catalytic unit. HgR loci occur in metabolically diverse bacteria and unique mer-host co-evolution has been found. In this project we extended our previous studies of mer enzymes in γ-proteobacteria, which are abundant in high Hg areas of the ORR to include studies of mer enzymes from HgR α-proteobacteria and HgR actinobacteria, which also increase in the high Hg regions of the ORR. Specifically, we (1) examined interactions between structural compoenents of MerA and MerB enzymes from γ-proteobacteria, (2) investigated effects of mutations on kinetic efficiency of Hg2+ reduction by γ-proteobacterial MerA, (3) cloned and performed initital characterization of MerA and MerB enzymes from Streptomyces lividans, an actinobacterium, (4) cloned and performed initial characterization of a fused Mer

  16. A SEA FLOOR GRAVITY SURVEY OF THE SLEIPNER FIELD TO MONITOR CO2 MIGRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Zumberge; Scott Nooner; Glenn Sasagawa

    2004-05-19

    Since 1996, excess CO{sub 2} from the Sleipner natural gas field has been sequestered and injected underground into a porous saline aquifer 1000 m below the seafloor. In 2002, we carried out a high precision micro-gravity survey on the seafloor in order to monitor the injected CO{sub 2}. A repeatability of 5 {micro}Gal in the station averages was observed. This is considerably better than pre-survey expectations. These data will serve as the baseline for time-lapse gravity monitoring of the Sleipner CO{sub 2} injection site. A repeat survey has been scheduled for the summer of 2005. This report covers 9/19/03 to 3/18/04. During this time, significant advancement in the 3-D gravity forward modeling code was made. Testing of the numerical accuracy of the code was undertaken using both a sheet of mass and a frustum of a cone for test cases. These were chosen because of our ability to do an analytic calculation of gravity for comparison. Tests were also done to determine the feasibility of using point mass approximations rather than cuboids for the forward modeling code. After determining that the point mass approximation is sufficient (and over six times faster computationally), several CO{sub 2} models were constructed and the time-lapse gravity signal was calculated from each. From these models, we expect to see a gravity change ranging from 3-16 {micro}Gal/year, depending on reservoir conditions and CO{sub 2} geometry. While more detailed modeling needs to be completed, these initial results show that we may be able to learn a great deal about the state of the CO{sub 2} from the time-lapse gravity results. Also, in December of 2003, we presented at the annual AGU meeting in San Francisco.

  17. Valley Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-529, 30 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the floor of an ancient valley located near the Pyrrhae Chaos region of Mars. This valley might have been carved by liquid water, but today no evidence remains that a fluid ever flowed through it. Long after the valley formed, its floor was covered by large, windblown, ripple-like dunes. This picture is located near 13.0oS, 31.2oW. The image is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  18. Modeling fusion of cellular aggregates in biofabrication using phase field theories.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Mironov, Vladimir; Wang, Qi

    2012-06-21

    A mathematical model based on the phase field formulation is developed to study fusion of cellular aggregates/clusters. In a novel biofabrication process known as bioprinting (Mironov et al., 2009a), live multicellular aggregates/clusters are used to make tissue or organ constructs via the layer-by-layer deposition technique, in which the printed bio-constructs are embedded in hydrogels rich in maturogens and placed in bioreactors to undergo the fusion process of self-assembly, maturation, and differentiation to form the desired functional tissue or organ products. We formulate the mathematical model to study the morphological development of the printed bio-constructs during fusion by exploring the chemical-mechanical interaction among the cellular aggregates involved. Specifically, we treat the cellular aggregates and the surrounding hydrogels as two immiscible complex fluids in the time scale comparable to cellular aggregate fusion and then develop an effective mean-field potential that incorporates the long-range, attractive interaction between cells as well as the short-range, repulsive interaction due to immiscibility between the cell and the hydrogel. We then implement the model using a high order spectral method to simulate the making of a set of tissues/organs in simple yet fundamental geometries like a ring, a sheet of tissues, and a Y-shaped, bifurcating vascular junction by the layer-by-layer deposition of spheroidal cellular clusters in the bioprinting technology.

  19. Antoniadi's Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 February 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows landforms on the floor of Antoniadi Crater. The circular features were once meteor impact craters that have been almost completely eroded away.

    Location near: 21.6oN, 297.4oW Image width: 3.0 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Northern Summer

  20. Trough Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    3 March 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows boulders on the floor of a wide trough in Memnonia Fossae.

    Location near: 18.8oS, 150.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  1. Cooling Floor AC Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Lu; Hao, Ding; Hong, Zhang; Ce, Gao Dian

    The present HVAC equipments for the residential buildings in the Hot-summer-and-Cold-winter climate region are still at a high energy consuming level. So that the high efficiency HVAC system is an urgently need for achieving the preset government energy saving goal. With its advantage of highly sanitary, highly comfortable and uniform of temperature field, the hot-water resource floor radiation heating system has been widely accepted. This paper has put forward a new way in air-conditioning, which combines the fresh-air supply unit and such floor radiation system for the dehumidification and cooling in summer or heating in winter. By analyze its advantages and limitations, we found that this so called Cooling/ Heating Floor AC System can improve the IAQ of residential building while keep high efficiency quality. We also recommend a methodology for the HVAC system designing, which will ensure the reduction of energy cost of users.

  2. Floor Chemical Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the issues to consider when selecting floor-care chemicals, including the floor-finish systems for hard-surface floors and the care of carpeted floors. Provides thoughts on cleaning chemical usage and environmental awareness. (GR)

  3. Floors: Selection and Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Bernard

    Flooring for institutional, commercial, and industrial use is described with regard to its selection, care, and maintenance. The following flooring and subflooring material categories are discussed--(1) resilient floor coverings, (2) carpeting, (3) masonry floors, (4) wood floors, and (5) "formed-in-place floors". The properties, problems,…

  4. Occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields during tasks at ground or floor level at 110 kV substations in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Korpinen, Leena; Pääkkönen, Rauno

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to investigate occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields during tasks at ground or floor level at 110 kV substations in Finland and to compare the measured values to Directive 2013/35/EU. Altogether, 347 electric field measurements and 100 magnetic field measurements were performed. The average value of all electric fields was 2.3 kV/m (maximum 6.4 kV/m) and that of magnetic fields was 5.8 µT (maximum 51.0 µT). It can be concluded that the electric and magnetic field exposure at ground or floor level is typically below the low action levels of Directive 2013/35/EU. The transposition of the directive will not create new needs to modify the work practice of the evaluated tasks, which can continue to be performed as before. However, for workers with medical implants, the exposure may be high enough to cause interference. PMID:27075421

  5. Scalloped Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    13 July 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows erosional remnants of layered rock and large windblown ripples on the floor of a crater in the Tyrrhena Terra region of Mars. The layered rocks are most likely sedimentary.

    Location near: 15.5oS, 270.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

  6. Tiled Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    30 April 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a variety of materials found on the floor of an impact crater northwest of Hellas Planitia. The discontinuous, dark-toned ridges, typically running diagonally across the scene, are windblown ripples which overlie light-toned rock that is heavily fractured and cratered.

    Location near: 25.0oS, 322.9oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  7. Cellular and molecular pathways of extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic field interactions with living systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1992-06-01

    There is growing evidence that environmental electric and magnetic fields in the extremely-low-frequency (ELF) band below 300 Hz can influence biological functions by mechanisms that are only poorly understood at the present time. The primary objectives of this paper are to review the physical properties of ELF fields, their interactions with living systems at the tissue, cellular, and subcellular levels, and the key role of cell membranes ;in the transduction of signals from imposed ELF fields. Topics of discussion include signal-to-noise ratios for single cells and cell aggregates, resonance phenomena involving a combination of static and ELF magnetic fields, and the possible influence of ELF fields on molecular signaling pathways that involve membrane receptors and cytoplasmic second messengers.

  8. Far-field 2.45 GHz irradiation system for cellular monolayers in vitro.

    PubMed

    Harrison, G H; McCulloch, D; Balcer-Kubiczek, E K; Robinson, J E

    1985-01-01

    A 2.45-GHz microwave exposure facility was developed for long-term TEM irradiation of cellular monolayers. Culture flasks with cells attached to the inside bottom surface were filled with medium, submerged in a 60 X 60 X 12-cm water bath on the field central axis, and exposed in the far-field 2 m below the ceiling-mounted antenna. A quarter-wave transformer plate increased the power transmitted into the water bath, and treatment temperatures were maintained by closed circulation with an external temperature control reservoir. Power density mapped below the quarter-wave plate indicated uniform TEM fields in the 25 X 25-cm region where flasks were located. With 1 kW of forward power to the antenna, the SAR [W/kg] = 45 exp(-0.607d) where d [cm] is the depth in water at any point within this area.

  9. Chronic pelvic floor dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Dee; Sarton, Julie

    2014-10-01

    The successful treatment of women with vestibulodynia and its associated chronic pelvic floor dysfunctions requires interventions that address a broad field of possible pain contributors. Pelvic floor muscle hypertonicity was implicated in the mid-1990s as a trigger of major chronic vulvar pain. Painful bladder syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, and temporomandibular jaw disorder are known common comorbidities that can cause a host of associated muscular, visceral, bony, and fascial dysfunctions. It appears that normalizing all of those disorders plays a pivotal role in reducing complaints of chronic vulvar pain and sexual dysfunction. Though the studies have yet to prove a specific protocol, physical therapists trained in pelvic dysfunction are reporting success with restoring tissue normalcy and reducing vulvar and sexual pain. A review of pelvic anatomy and common findings are presented along with suggested physical therapy management.

  10. Effect of Floor Space Allowance on Pig Productivity across Stages of Growth: A Field-scale Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joon H.; Choi, Hong L.; Heo, Yong J.; Chung, Yoon P.

    2016-01-01

    A total of 152 pig farms were randomly selected from the five provinces in South Korea. During the experiment, the average temperature and relative humidity was 24.7°C and 74% in summer and 2.4°C and 53% in winter, respectively. The correlation between floor space allowance (FSA) and productivity index was analyzed, including non-productive sow days (NPD), number of weaners (NOW), survival rate (SR), appearance rate of A-grade pork (ARA), and days at a slaughter weight of 110 kg (d-SW) at different growth stages. The objectives of the present study were i) to determine the effect of FSA on the pig productivity index and ii) to suggest the minimum FSA for pigs based on scientific baseline data. For the pregnant sow, NPD could be decreased if pregnant sows were raised with a medium level (M) of FSA (3.10 to 3.67 m2/head) while also keeping the pig house clean which improves hygiene, and operating the ventilation system properly. For the farrowing sows, the NOW tended to decrease as the FSA increased. Similarly, a high level of FSA (H) is significantly negative with weaner SR of farrowing sows (p-value = 0.017), indicating this FSA tends to depress SR. Therefore, a FSA of 2.30 to 6.40 m2/head (very low) could be appropriate for weaners because a limited space can provide a sense of security and protection from external interruptions. The opposite trend was observed that an increase in floor space (>1.12 m2/head) leads to increase the SR of growing pigs. For the fattening pigs, H level of FSA was negatively correlated with SR, but M level of FSA was positively correlated with SR, indicating that SR tended to increase with the FSA of 1.10 to 1.27 m2/head. In contrast, ARA of male fattening pigs showed opposite results. H level of FSA (1.27 to 1.47 m2/head) was suggested to increase productivity because ARA was most affected by H level of space allowance with positive correlation (R2 = 0.523). The relationship between the FSA and d-SW of fattening pigs was hard to

  11. Hypersensitivity to RF fields emitted from CDMA cellular phones: a provocation study.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ki Chang; Lee, Ju Hyung; Noh, Hyung Wook; Cha, Eun Jong; Kim, Nam Hyun; Kim, Deok Won

    2009-12-01

    With the number of cellular phone users rapidly increasing, there is a considerable amount of public concern regarding the effects that electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from cellular phones have on health. People with self-attributed electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) complain of subjective symptoms such as headaches, insomnia, and memory loss, and attribute these symptoms to radio frequency (RF) radiation from cellular phones and/or base stations. However, EHS is difficult to diagnose because it relies on a person's subjective judgment. Various provocation studies have been conducted on EHS caused by Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) phones in which heart rate and blood pressure or subjective symptoms were investigated. However, there have been few sham-controlled provocation studies on EHS with Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) phones where physiological parameters, subjective symptoms, and perception of RF radiation for EHS and non-EHS groups were simultaneously investigated. In this study, two volunteer groups of 18 self-reported EHS and 19 non-EHS persons were tested for both sham and real RF exposure from CDMA cellular phones with a 300 mW maximum exposure that lasted half an hour. We investigated not only the physiological parameters such as heart rate, respiration rate, and heart rate variability (HRV), but also various subjective symptoms and the perception of EMF. In conclusion, RF exposure did not have any effects on physiological parameters or subjective symptoms in either group. As for EMF perception, there was no evidence that the EHS group better perceived EMF than the non-EHS group.

  12. Quantum field as a quantum cellular automaton: The Dirac free evolution in one dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Bisio, Alessandro; D’Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Tosini, Alessandro

    2015-03-15

    We present a quantum cellular automaton model in one space-dimension which has the Dirac equation as emergent. This model, a discrete-time and causal unitary evolution of a lattice of quantum systems, is derived from the assumptions of homogeneity, parity and time-reversal invariance. The comparison between the automaton and the Dirac evolutions is rigorously set as a discrimination problem between unitary channels. We derive an exact lower bound for the probability of error in the discrimination as an explicit function of the mass, the number and the momentum of the particles, and the duration of the evolution. Computing this bound with experimentally achievable values, we see that in that regime the QCA model cannot be discriminated from the usual Dirac evolution. Finally, we show that the evolution of one-particle states with narrow-band in momentum can be efficiently simulated by a dispersive differential equation for any regime. This analysis allows for a comparison with the dynamics of wave-packets as it is described by the usual Dirac equation. This paper is a first step in exploring the idea that quantum field theory could be grounded on a more fundamental quantum cellular automaton model and that physical dynamics could emerge from quantum information processing. In this framework, the discretization is a central ingredient and not only a tool for performing non-perturbative calculation as in lattice gauge theory. The automaton model, endowed with a precise notion of local observables and a full probabilistic interpretation, could lead to a coherent unification of a hypothetical discrete Planck scale with the usual Fermi scale of high-energy physics. - Highlights: • The free Dirac field in one space dimension as a quantum cellular automaton. • Large scale limit of the automaton and the emergence of the Dirac equation. • Dispersive differential equation for the evolution of smooth states on the automaton. • Optimal discrimination between the

  13. Floor of Baldet Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 13 June 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image shows a remarkable array of dunes on the floor of a large impact crater named Baldet located near 22.8o N. Many of the dunes in this region are isolated features, with large, sand-free 'interdune' surfaces between the individual dunes. These isolated dunes typically occur in regions where there is a limited supply of sand. Any sand that is present moves rapidly across the interdune surfaces, which in many cases are hardened surfaces over which the sand can easily bounce, or 'saltate.' When this loose sand lands on a dune it cannot travel as quickly and is trapped within the dune. In some areas within this sand mass the dunes have grown together to form crescent dunes and dune ridges. The dunes in this image are likely active today, slowly migrating across the crater floor. THEMIS will re-image this and other dunes throughout the Mars Odyssey mission to search for any evidence of dune motion over time. Based on the asymmetrical shape of the dunes, the wind direction over much of the dune field appears to be from the right (west) or upper right (northwest). However, the topography of the crater floor apparently produces complex wind patterns within the dune field, as can be seen by the different orientations of the dunes. For example the dunes in the lower portion of the image appear to be somewhat symmetrical and aligned east-west, suggesting that the wind in this region blows from both the north (top) and south (bottom). The Story A fuzzy 'carpet' of sand dunes covers the floor of a large impact crater, which you can see almost in full in the context image to the right. While the dunes give this area a plush, tufted look, there actually isn't a lot of sand in this area. How can you tell? Large, sand-free spaces exist in between the dunes, and those usually occur when sand particles are sparse. You can see these 'interdune spaces' better if you click on the image for the more detailed view. The sand that

  14. Enhanced labeling of microalgae cellular lipids by application of an electric field generated by alternating current.

    PubMed

    Su, Li-Chien; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Wang, Hsiang-Yu

    2012-05-01

    An alternating current was used to generate an electric field to enhance the fluorescent labeling of microalgae cellular lipids with Nile red and LipidTOX. The decay of the fluorescence intensity of Chlorella vulgaris cells in 0 V/cm was more than 50% after 10 min, and the intensity variation was as high as 7% in 20s. At 2000 V/cm, the decay rate decreased to 1.22% per minute and the intensity fluctuation was less than 1% for LipidTOX-labeled cells. For Spirulina sp. cells at 0 V/cm, the fluorescence intensity increased by 10% after 10 min, whereas at 2000 V/cm, labeling was more rapid and fluorescence intensity doubled. These results show that applying an electric field can improve the quality of fluorescence detection by alleviating decay and fluctuation or by enhancing signal intensity.

  15. Cellular target of weak magnetic fields: ionic conduction along actin filaments of microvilli.

    PubMed

    Gartzke, Joachim; Lange, Klaus

    2002-11-01

    The interaction of weak electromagnetic fields (EMF) with living cells is a most important but still unresolved biophysical problem. For this interaction, thermal and other types of noise appear to cause severe restrictions in the action of weak signals on relevant components of the cell. A recently presented general concept of regulation of ion and substrate pathways through microvilli provides a possible theoretical basis for the comprehension of physiological effects of even extremely low magnetic fields. The actin-based core of microfilaments in microvilli is proposed to represent a cellular interaction site for magnetic fields. Both the central role of F-actin in Ca2+ signaling and its polyelectrolyte nature eliciting specific ion conduction properties render the microvillar actin filament bundle an ideal interaction site for magnetic and electric fields. Ion channels at the tip of microvilli are connected with the cytoplasm by a bundle of microfilaments forming a diffusion barrier system. Because of its polyelectrolyte nature, the microfilament core of microvilli allows Ca2+ entry into the cytoplasm via nonlinear cable-like cation conduction through arrays of condensed ion clouds. The interaction of ion clouds with periodically applied EMFs and field-induced cation pumping through the cascade of potential barriers on the F-actin polyelectrolyte follows well-known physical principles of ion-magnetic field (MF) interaction and signal discrimination as described by the stochastic resonance and Brownian motor hypotheses. The proposed interaction mechanism is in accord with our present knowledge about Ca2+ signaling as the biological main target of MFs and the postulated extreme sensitivity for coherent excitation by very low field energies within specific amplitude and frequency windows. Microvillar F-actin bundles shielded by a lipid membrane appear to function like electronic integration devices for signal-to-noise enhancement; the influence of coherent signals

  16. Neuronal cellular responses to extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure: implications regarding oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Reale, Marcella; Kamal, Mohammad A; Patruno, Antonia; Costantini, Erica; D'Angelo, Chiara; Pesce, Miko; Greig, Nigel H

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases comprise both hereditary and sporadic conditions characterized by an identifying progressive nervous system dysfunction and distinctive neuopathophysiology. The majority are of non-familial etiology and hence environmental factors and lifestyle play key roles in their pathogenesis. The extensive use of and ever increasing worldwide demand for electricity has stimulated societal and scientific interest on the environmental exposure to low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on human health. Epidemiological studies suggest a positive association between 50/60-Hz power transmission fields and leukemia or lymphoma development. Consequent to the association between EMFs and induction of oxidative stress, concerns relating to development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease (AD), have been voiced as the brain consumes the greatest fraction of oxygen and is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress. Exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF)-EMFs are reported to alter animal behavior and modulate biological variables, including gene expression, regulation of cell survival, promotion of cellular differentiation, and changes in cerebral blood flow in aged AD transgenic mice. Alterations in inflammatory responses have also been reported, but how these actions impact human health remains unknown. We hence evaluated the effects of an electromagnetic wave (magnetic field intensity 1 mT; frequency, 50-Hz) on a well-characterized immortalized neuronal cell model, human SH-SY5Y cells. ELF-EMF exposure elevated the expession of NOS and O2(-), which were countered by compensatory changes in antioxidant catylase (CAT) activity and enzymatic kinetic parameters related to CYP-450 and CAT activity. Actions of ELF-EMFs on cytokine gene expression were additionally evaluated and found rapidly modified. Confronted with co-exposure to H2O2-induced oxidative stress, ELF-EMF proved not as well counteracted and resulted in a decline in CAT

  17. Magnetic fields and cancer: Animal and cellular evidence--an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Holmberg, B.

    1995-03-01

    A few animal studies on the possible carcinogenic effect of magnetic fields have been published. They have been designed to reveal a possible tumor promotion obtained by applying continuous or pulsed alternating fields at flux densities varying between 0.5 {mu}T and 30 mT on mice or rats initiated with different initiators. One study with 2 mT applied on DMBA-initiated mice may suggest a copromotive effect together with the promoter TPA. Another study on rats suggests an inhibitory effect by a magnetic field on rat liver foci formation, induced with DENA. Cell studies show that magnetic fields at some frequencies, amplitudes, and wave forms interact with biological systems. Thus effects have been seen, e.g., on enzymes related to growth regulation, on calcium balance in the cell, on gene expression, and on pineal metabolism and its excretion of the oncostatic melatonin. Cellular and physiologic studies thus suggest effects that may be related to cell multiplication and tumor promotion. 64 refs.

  18. Theoretical analyses of cellular transmembrane voltage in suspensions induced by high-frequency fields.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yong; Wang, Changzhen; Peng, Ruiyun; Wang, Lifeng; Hu, Xiangjun

    2015-04-01

    A change of the transmembrane voltage is considered to cause biophysical and biochemical responses in cells. The present study focuses on the cellular transmembrane voltage (Δφ) induced by external fields. We detail analytical equations for the transmembrane voltage induced by external high-frequency (above the relaxation frequency of the cell membrane) fields on cells of a spherical shape in suspensions and layers. At direct current (DC) and low frequencies, the cell membrane was assumed to be non-conductive under physiologic conditions. However, with increasing frequency, the permittivity of the cytoplasm/extracellular medium and conductivity of the membrane must be accounted for. Our main work is to extend application of the analytical solution of Δφ to the high-frequency range. We first introduce the transmembrane voltage generated by DC and low-frequency exposures on a single cell. Then, we focus on cell suspensions exposed to high-frequency fields. Using the effective medium theory and the reasonable assumption, the approximate analytical solution of Δφ on cells in suspensions and layers can be derived. Phenomenological effective medium theory equations cannot be used to calculate the local electric field of cell suspensions, so we raised a possible solution based on the Bergman theory.

  19. Exposure to high static or pulsed magnetic fields does not affect cellular processes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Anton-Leberre, Veronique; Haanappel, Evert; Marsaud, Nathalie; Trouilh, Lidwine; Benbadis, Laurent; Boucherie, Helian; Massou, Sophie; François, Jean M

    2010-01-01

    We report results of a study of the effects of strong static (up to 16 T for 8 h) and pulsed (up to 55 T single-shot and 4 x 20 T repeated shots) magnetic fields on Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures in the exponential phase of growth. In contrast to previous reports restricted to only a limited number of cellular parameters, we have examined a wide variety of cellular processes: genome-scale gene expression, proteome profile, cell viability, morphology, and growth, metabolic and fermentation activity after magnetic field exposure. None of these cellular activities were impaired in response to static or pulsed magnetic field exposure. Our results confirm and extend previous reports on the absence of magnetic field effects on yeast and support the hypothesis that magnetic fields have no impact on the transcriptional machinery and on the integrity of unicellular biological systems.

  20. Signal processing for molecular and cellular biological physics: an emerging field

    PubMed Central

    Little, Max A.; Jones, Nick S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in our ability to watch the molecular and cellular processes of life in action—such as atomic force microscopy, optical tweezers and Forster fluorescence resonance energy transfer—raise challenges for digital signal processing (DSP) of the resulting experimental data. This article explores the unique properties of such biophysical time series that set them apart from other signals, such as the prevalence of abrupt jumps and steps, multi-modal distributions and autocorrelated noise. It exposes the problems with classical linear DSP algorithms applied to this kind of data, and describes new nonlinear and non-Gaussian algorithms that are able to extract information that is of direct relevance to biological physicists. It is argued that these new methods applied in this context typify the nascent field of biophysical DSP. Practical experimental examples are supplied. PMID:23277603

  1. Elucidating the Function of Penetratin and a Static Magnetic Field in Cellular Uptake of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Suman; Smith, Carol Anne; del Pino, Pablo; de la Fuente, Jesus M.; Mullin, Margaret; Hursthouse, Andrew; Stirling, David; Berry, Catherine C.

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology plays an increasingly important role in the biomedical arena. In particular, magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) have become important tools in molecular diagnostics, in vivo imaging and improved treatment of disease, with the ultimate aim of producing a more theranostic approach. Due to their small sizes, the nanoparticles can cross most of the biological barriers such as the blood vessels and the blood brain barrier, thus providing ubiquitous access to most tissues. In all biomedical applications maximum nanoparticle uptake into cells is required. Two promising methods employed to this end include functionalization of mNPs with cell-penetrating peptides to promote efficient translocation of cargo into the cell and the use of external magnetic fields for enhanced delivery. This study aimed to compare the effect of both penetratin and a static magnetic field with regards to the cellular uptake of 200 nm magnetic NPs and determine the route of uptake by both methods. Results demonstrated that both techniques increased particle uptake, with penetratin proving more cell specific. Clathrin- medicated endocytosis appeared to be responsible for uptake as shown via PCR and western blot, with Pitstop 2 (known to selectively block clathrin formation) blocking particle uptake. Interestingly, it was further shown that a magnetic field was able to reverse or overcome the blocking, suggesting an alternative route of uptake. PMID:24275948

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Dynamic Pelvic Floor

    MedlinePlus

    ... a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce detailed pictures of the pelvic floor, ... powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, ...

  3. Neuronal cellular responses to extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure: implications regarding oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Reale, Marcella; Kamal, Mohammad A; Patruno, Antonia; Costantini, Erica; D'Angelo, Chiara; Pesce, Miko; Greig, Nigel H

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases comprise both hereditary and sporadic conditions characterized by an identifying progressive nervous system dysfunction and distinctive neuopathophysiology. The majority are of non-familial etiology and hence environmental factors and lifestyle play key roles in their pathogenesis. The extensive use of and ever increasing worldwide demand for electricity has stimulated societal and scientific interest on the environmental exposure to low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on human health. Epidemiological studies suggest a positive association between 50/60-Hz power transmission fields and leukemia or lymphoma development. Consequent to the association between EMFs and induction of oxidative stress, concerns relating to development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease (AD), have been voiced as the brain consumes the greatest fraction of oxygen and is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress. Exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF)-EMFs are reported to alter animal behavior and modulate biological variables, including gene expression, regulation of cell survival, promotion of cellular differentiation, and changes in cerebral blood flow in aged AD transgenic mice. Alterations in inflammatory responses have also been reported, but how these actions impact human health remains unknown. We hence evaluated the effects of an electromagnetic wave (magnetic field intensity 1 mT; frequency, 50-Hz) on a well-characterized immortalized neuronal cell model, human SH-SY5Y cells. ELF-EMF exposure elevated the expession of NOS and O2(-), which were countered by compensatory changes in antioxidant catylase (CAT) activity and enzymatic kinetic parameters related to CYP-450 and CAT activity. Actions of ELF-EMFs on cytokine gene expression were additionally evaluated and found rapidly modified. Confronted with co-exposure to H2O2-induced oxidative stress, ELF-EMF proved not as well counteracted and resulted in a decline in CAT

  4. Neuronal Cellular Responses to Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure: Implications Regarding Oxidative Stress and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Reale, Marcella; Kamal, Mohammad A.; Patruno, Antonia; Costantini, Erica; D'Angelo, Chiara; Pesce, Miko; Greig, Nigel H.

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases comprise both hereditary and sporadic conditions characterized by an identifying progressive nervous system dysfunction and distinctive neuopathophysiology. The majority are of non-familial etiology and hence environmental factors and lifestyle play key roles in their pathogenesis. The extensive use of and ever increasing worldwide demand for electricity has stimulated societal and scientific interest on the environmental exposure to low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on human health. Epidemiological studies suggest a positive association between 50/60-Hz power transmission fields and leukemia or lymphoma development. Consequent to the association between EMFs and induction of oxidative stress, concerns relating to development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease (AD), have been voiced as the brain consumes the greatest fraction of oxygen and is particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress. Exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF)-EMFs are reported to alter animal behavior and modulate biological variables, including gene expression, regulation of cell survival, promotion of cellular differentiation, and changes in cerebral blood flow in aged AD transgenic mice. Alterations in inflammatory responses have also been reported, but how these actions impact human health remains unknown. We hence evaluated the effects of an electromagnetic wave (magnetic field intensity 1mT; frequency, 50-Hz) on a well-characterized immortalized neuronal cell model, human SH-SY5Y cells. ELF-EMF exposure elevated the expession of NOS and O2−, which were countered by compensatory changes in antioxidant catylase (CAT) activity and enzymatic kinetic parameters related to CYP-450 and CAT activity. Actions of ELF-EMFs on cytokine gene expression were additionally evaluated and found rapidly modified. Confronted with co-exposure to H2O2-induced oxidative stress, ELF-EMF proved not as well counteracted and resulted in a decline in CAT

  5. An extended cost potential field cellular automata model considering behavior variation of pedestrian flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fang; Li, Xingli; Kuang, Hua; Bai, Yang; Zhou, Huaguo

    2016-11-01

    The original cost potential field cellular automata describing normal pedestrian evacuation is extended to study more general evacuation scenarios. Based on the cost potential field function, through considering the psychological characteristics of crowd under emergencies, the quantitative formula of behavior variation is introduced to reflect behavioral changes caused by psychology tension. The numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effects of the magnitude of behavior variation, the different pedestrian proportions with different behavior variation and other factors on the evacuation efficiency and process in a room. The spatiotemporal dynamic characteristic during the evacuation process is also discussed. The results show that compared with the normal evacuation, the behavior variation under an emergency does not necessarily lead to the decrease of the evacuation efficiency. At low density, the increase of the behavior variation can improve the evacuation efficiency, while at high density, the evacuation efficiency drops significantly with the increasing amplitude of the behavior variation. In addition, the larger proportion of pedestrian affected by the behavior variation will prolong the evacuation time.

  6. Quantum field as a quantum cellular automaton: The Dirac free evolution in one dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Tosini, Alessandro

    2015-03-01

    We present a quantum cellular automaton model in one space-dimension which has the Dirac equation as emergent. This model, a discrete-time and causal unitary evolution of a lattice of quantum systems, is derived from the assumptions of homogeneity, parity and time-reversal invariance. The comparison between the automaton and the Dirac evolutions is rigorously set as a discrimination problem between unitary channels. We derive an exact lower bound for the probability of error in the discrimination as an explicit function of the mass, the number and the momentum of the particles, and the duration of the evolution. Computing this bound with experimentally achievable values, we see that in that regime the QCA model cannot be discriminated from the usual Dirac evolution. Finally, we show that the evolution of one-particle states with narrow-band in momentum can be efficiently simulated by a dispersive differential equation for any regime. This analysis allows for a comparison with the dynamics of wave-packets as it is described by the usual Dirac equation. This paper is a first step in exploring the idea that quantum field theory could be grounded on a more fundamental quantum cellular automaton model and that physical dynamics could emerge from quantum information processing. In this framework, the discretization is a central ingredient and not only a tool for performing non-perturbative calculation as in lattice gauge theory. The automaton model, endowed with a precise notion of local observables and a full probabilistic interpretation, could lead to a coherent unification of a hypothetical discrete Planck scale with the usual Fermi scale of high-energy physics.

  7. Cleaning up Floor Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Richard; McLean, Doug

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how educational-facility maintenance departments can cut costs in floor cleaning through careful evaluation of floor equipment and products. Tips for choosing carpet detergents are highlighted. (GR)

  8. Mixed-Up Floors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Examines the maintenance management problems inherent in cleaning multiple flooring materials revealing the need for school officials to keep it simple when choosing flooring types. Also highlighted is a carpet recycling program used by Wright State University (Ohio). (GR)

  9. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE SECOND FLOOR HALL. SHOWING THE IRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE SECOND FLOOR HALL. SHOWING THE IRON RAILING. NOTE THE TONGUE-AND-GROOVE WOOD FLOORING AND SINGLE PANEL DOORS. VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type C, 208 Second Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  10. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE SECOND FLOOR STAIR HALL. NOTE THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE SECOND FLOOR STAIR HALL. NOTE THE TONGUE-AND-GROOVE WOOD FLOORING AND THE WINDOW ABOVE THE STAIR LANDING. VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type D, 111 Beard Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  11. Interior view of groundfloor porch showing exposed concrete floor slab ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of ground-floor porch showing exposed concrete floor slab system, facing west. - Albrook Air Force Station, Field Officer's Quarters, West side of Dargue Avenue Circle, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  12. FIRST FLOOR FRONT ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FIRST FLOOR FRONT ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED-- NOTE PRESENCE OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS (THE LATTER FLOOR WAS REMOVED MANY YEARS AGO), See also PA-1436 B-12 - Kid-Physick House, 325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. Active and relict sea-floor hydrothermal mineralization at the TAG hydrothermal field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Rona, P.A. . Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Labs.); Hannington, M.D. ); Raman, C.V. ); Thompson, G.; Tivey, M.K.; Humphris, S.E. ); Lalou, C. . Lab. CNRS-CEA); Petersen, S. Aachen Univ. of Technology )

    1993-12-01

    The TAG hydrothermal field is a site of major active and inactive volcanic-hosted hydrothermal mineralization in the rift valley of the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 26[degree]N. The axial high is the principal locus of present magmatic intrusions. The TAG field contains three main areas of present and past hydrothermal activity: (1) an actively venting high-temperature sulfide mound; (2) two former high-temperature vent areas; (3) a zone of low-temperature venting and precipitation of Fe and Mn oxide deposits. The volcanic centers occur at the intersections between ridge axis-parallel normal faults and projected axis-transverse transfer faults. The intersections of these active fault systems may act as conduits both for magmatic intrusions from sources beneath the axial high that build the volcanic centers and for hydrothermal upwelling that taps the heat sources. Radiometric dating of sulfide samples and manganese crusts in the hydrothermal zones and dating of sediments intercalated with pillow lava flows in the volcanic center adjacent to the active sulfide mound indicate multiple episodes of hydrothermal activity throughout the field driven by heat supplied by episodic intrusions over a period of at least 140 [times] 10[sup 3] yr. The sulfide deposits are built by juxtaposition and superposition during relatively long residence times near episodic axial heat sources counterbalanced by mass wasting in the tectonically active rift valley of the slow-spreading oceanic ridge. Hydrothermal reworking of a relict hydrothermal zone by high-temperature hydrothermal episodes has recrystallized sulfides and concentrated the first visible primary gold reported in a deposit at an oceanic ridge.

  14. [Effects of electromagnetic field from cellular phones on selected central nervous system functions: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Bak, Marek; Zmyślony, Marek

    2010-01-01

    In the opinion of some experts, a growing emission of man-made electromagnetic fields (EMF), also known as electromagnetic is a source of continuously increasing health hazards to the general population. Due to their large number and very close proximity to the user's head, mobile phones deserve special attention. This work is intended to give a systematic review of objective studies, assessing the effects of mobile phone EMF on the functions of the central nervous system (CNS) structures. Our review shows that short exposures to mobile phone EMF, experienced by telephone users during receiving calls, do not affect the cochlear function. Effects of GSM mobile phone EMF on the conduction of neural impulses from the inner car neurons to the brainstem auditory centres have not been detected either. If Picton's principle, saying that P300 amplitude varies with the improbability of the targets and its latency varies with difficulty of discriminating the target stimulus from standard stimuli, is true, EMF changes the improbability of the targets without hindering their discrimination. Experiments with use of indirect methods do not enable unequivocal verification of EMF effects on the cognitive functions due to the CNS anatomical and functional complexity. Thus, it seems advisable to develop a model of EMF effects on the excitable brain structures at the cellular level. PMID:21452571

  15. Magnetic field-enhanced cellular uptake of doxorubicin loaded magnetic nanoparticles for tumor treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, Indu; Pernal, Sebastian; Duproz, Alexandra; Bentley, Jeromy; Engelhard, Herbert; Linninger, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Cancer remains the second most common cause of death in the US, accounting for nearly 1 out of every 4 deaths. In recent years, several varieties of nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized with the intent of being utilized as tumor drug delivery vehicles. We have produced superparamagnetic, gold-coated magnetite (Fe3O4@Au) NPs and loaded them with the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX) for magnetic drug targeting (MDT) of tumors. The synthetic strategy uses the food thickening agent gellan gum (Phytagel) as a negatively charged shell around the Fe3O4@Au NP onto which the positively charged DOX molecules are loaded via electrostatic attraction. The resulting DOX-loaded magnetic nanoparticles (DOX-MNPs) were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, surface area electron diffraction, zeta potential measurements, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy as well as UV/Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. Cytotoxicity of the DOX-MNPs was demonstrated using the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay on C6 glioma cells. Cellular uptake of DOX-MNPs was enhanced with magnetic fields, which was quantitatively determined using flow cytometry. This improved uptake also led to greater tumor cell death, which was measured using MTT assay. These MDT results are promising for a new therapy for cancer.

  16. Approaching clinical proteomics: current state and future fields of application in cellular proteomics.

    PubMed

    Apweiler, Rolf; Aslanidis, Charalampos; Deufel, Thomas; Gerstner, Andreas; Hansen, Jens; Hochstrasser, Dennis; Kellner, Roland; Kubicek, Markus; Lottspeich, Friedrich; Maser, Edmund; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Meyer, Helmut E; Müllner, Stefan; Mutter, Wolfgang; Neumaier, Michael; Nollau, Peter; Nothwang, Hans G; Ponten, Fredrik; Radbruch, Andreas; Reinert, Knut; Rothe, Gregor; Stockinger, Hannes; Tárnok, Attila; Taussig, Mike J; Thiel, Andreas; Thiery, Joachim; Ueffing, Marius; Valet, Günther; Vandekerckhove, Joel; Wagener, Christoph; Wagner, Oswald; Schmitz, Gerd

    2009-10-01

    Recent developments in proteomics technology offer new opportunities for clinical applications in hospital or specialized laboratories including the identification of novel biomarkers, monitoring of disease, detecting adverse effects of drugs, and environmental hazards. Advanced spectrometry technologies and the development of new protein array formats have brought these analyses to a standard, which now has the potential to be used in clinical diagnostics. Besides standardization of methodologies and distribution of proteomic data into public databases, the nature of the human body fluid proteome with its high dynamic range in protein concentrations, its quantitation problems, and its extreme complexity present enormous challenges. Molecular cell biology (cytomics) with its link to proteomics is a new fast moving scientific field, which addresses functional cell analysis and bioinformatic approaches to search for novel cellular proteomic biomarkers or their release products into body fluids that provide better insight into the enormous biocomplexity of disease processes and are suitable for patient stratification, therapeutic monitoring, and prediction of prognosis. Experience from studies of in vitro diagnostics and especially in clinical chemistry showed that the majority of errors occurs in the preanalytical phase and the setup of the diagnostic strategy. This is also true for clinical proteomics where similar preanalytical variables such as inter- and intra-assay variability due to biological variations or proteolytical activities in the sample will most likely also influence the results of proteomics studies. However, before complex proteomic analysis can be introduced at a broader level into the clinic, standardization of the preanalytical phase including patient preparation, sample collection, sample preparation, sample storage, measurement, and data analysis is another issue which has to be improved. In this report, we discuss the recent advances and

  17. Quality Matters: Systematic Analysis of Endpoints Related to "Cellular Life" in Vitro Data of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure.

    PubMed

    Simkó, Myrtill; Remondini, Daniel; Zeni, Olga; Scarfi, Maria Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    Possible hazardous effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) at low exposure levels are controversially discussed due to inconsistent study findings. Therefore, the main focus of the present study is to detect if any statistical association exists between RF-EMF and cellular responses, considering cell proliferation and apoptosis endpoints separately and with both combined as a group of "cellular life" to increase the statistical power of the analysis. We searched for publications regarding RF-EMF in vitro studies in the PubMed database for the period 1995-2014 and extracted the data to the relevant parameters, such as cell culture type, frequency, exposure duration, SAR, and five exposure-related quality criteria. These parameters were used for an association study with the experimental outcome in terms of the defined endpoints. We identified 104 published articles, from which 483 different experiments were extracted and analyzed. Cellular responses after exposure to RF-EMF were significantly associated to cell lines rather than to primary cells. No other experimental parameter was significantly associated with cellular responses. A highly significant negative association with exposure condition-quality and cellular responses was detected, showing that the more the quality criteria requirements were satisfied, the smaller the number of detected cellular responses. According to our knowledge, this is the first systematic analysis of specific RF-EMF bio-effects in association to exposure quality, highlighting the need for more stringent quality procedures for the exposure conditions.

  18. Quality Matters: Systematic Analysis of Endpoints Related to “Cellular Life” in Vitro Data of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Simkó, Myrtill; Remondini, Daniel; Zeni, Olga; Scarfi, Maria Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    Possible hazardous effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) at low exposure levels are controversially discussed due to inconsistent study findings. Therefore, the main focus of the present study is to detect if any statistical association exists between RF-EMF and cellular responses, considering cell proliferation and apoptosis endpoints separately and with both combined as a group of “cellular life” to increase the statistical power of the analysis. We searched for publications regarding RF-EMF in vitro studies in the PubMed database for the period 1995–2014 and extracted the data to the relevant parameters, such as cell culture type, frequency, exposure duration, SAR, and five exposure-related quality criteria. These parameters were used for an association study with the experimental outcome in terms of the defined endpoints. We identified 104 published articles, from which 483 different experiments were extracted and analyzed. Cellular responses after exposure to RF-EMF were significantly associated to cell lines rather than to primary cells. No other experimental parameter was significantly associated with cellular responses. A highly significant negative association with exposure condition-quality and cellular responses was detected, showing that the more the quality criteria requirements were satisfied, the smaller the number of detected cellular responses. According to our knowledge, this is the first systematic analysis of specific RF-EMF bio-effects in association to exposure quality, highlighting the need for more stringent quality procedures for the exposure conditions. PMID:27420084

  19. Quality Matters: Systematic Analysis of Endpoints Related to "Cellular Life" in Vitro Data of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure.

    PubMed

    Simkó, Myrtill; Remondini, Daniel; Zeni, Olga; Scarfi, Maria Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    Possible hazardous effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) at low exposure levels are controversially discussed due to inconsistent study findings. Therefore, the main focus of the present study is to detect if any statistical association exists between RF-EMF and cellular responses, considering cell proliferation and apoptosis endpoints separately and with both combined as a group of "cellular life" to increase the statistical power of the analysis. We searched for publications regarding RF-EMF in vitro studies in the PubMed database for the period 1995-2014 and extracted the data to the relevant parameters, such as cell culture type, frequency, exposure duration, SAR, and five exposure-related quality criteria. These parameters were used for an association study with the experimental outcome in terms of the defined endpoints. We identified 104 published articles, from which 483 different experiments were extracted and analyzed. Cellular responses after exposure to RF-EMF were significantly associated to cell lines rather than to primary cells. No other experimental parameter was significantly associated with cellular responses. A highly significant negative association with exposure condition-quality and cellular responses was detected, showing that the more the quality criteria requirements were satisfied, the smaller the number of detected cellular responses. According to our knowledge, this is the first systematic analysis of specific RF-EMF bio-effects in association to exposure quality, highlighting the need for more stringent quality procedures for the exposure conditions. PMID:27420084

  20. Sea floor magnetic observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korepanov, V.; Prystai, A.; Vallianatos, F.; Makris, J.

    2003-04-01

    The electromagnetic precursors of seismic hazards are widely accepted as strong evidence of the approaching earthquake or volcano eruption. The monitoring of these precursors are of main interest in densely populated areas, what creates serious problems to extract them at the strong industrial noise background. An interesting possibility to improve signal-to-noise ratio gives the installation of the observation points in the shelf zones near the possible earthquake places, what is fairly possible in most seismically active areas in Europe, e. g. in Greece and Italy. The serious restriction for this is the cost of the underwater instrumentation. To realize such experiments it requires the unification of efforts of several countries (e. g., GEOSTAR) or of the funds of some great companies (e. g., SIO magnetotelluric instrument). The progress in electronic components development as well as the appearance of inexpensive watertight glass spheres made it possible to decrease drastically the price of recently developed sea floor magnetic stations. The autonomous vector magnetometer LEMI-301 for sea bed application is described in the report. It is produced on the base of three-component flux-gate sensor. Non-magnetic housing and minimal magnetism of electronic components enable the instrument to be implemented as a monoblock construction where the electronic unit is placed close to the sensor. Automatic circuit provides convenient compensation of the initial field offset and readings of full value (6 digits) of the measured field. Timing by internal clock provides high accuracy synchronization of data. The internal flash memory assures long-term autonomous data storage. The system also has two-axes tilt measurement system. The methodological questions of magnetometer operation at sea bed were studied in order to avoid two types of errors appearing at such experimental cases. First is sea waving influence and second one magnetometer orientation at its random positioning on

  1. Effects of 900 MHz electromagnetic field emitted by cellular phones on electrocardiograms of guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Meral, I; Tekintangac, Y; Demir, H

    2014-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by cellular phones (CPs) on electrocardiograms (ECGs) of guinea pigs. A total of 30 healthy guinea pigs weighing 500-800 g were used. After 1 week of adaptation period, animals were randomly divided into two groups: control group (n = 10) and EMF-exposed group (n = 20). Control guinea pigs were housed in a separate room without exposing them to EMFs of CPs. Animals in second group were exposed to 890-915 MHz EMF (217 Hz of pulse rate, 2 W of maximum peak power and 0.95 wt kg(-1) of specific absorption rate) for 12 h day(-1) (11 h 45 min stand-by and 15 min speaking mode) for 30 days. ECGs of guinea pigs in both the groups were recorded by a direct writing electrocardiograph at the beginning and 10th, 20th and 30th days of the experiment. All ECGs were standardized at 1 mV = 10 mm and with a chart speed of 50 mm sec(-1). Leads I, II, III, lead augmented vector right (aVR), lead augmented vector left (aVL) and lead augmented vector foot (aVF) were recorded. The durations and amplitudes of waves on the trace were measured in lead II. The data were expressed as mean with SEM. It was found that 12 h day(-1) EMF exposure for 30 days did not have any significant effects on ECG findings of guinea pigs. However, this issue needed to be further investigated in a variety of perspectives, such as longer duration of exposure to be able to elucidate the effects of mobile phone-induced EMFs on cardiovascular functions.

  2. Electric currents and fields induced in cells in the human brain by radiation from hand-held cellular telephones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Ronold W. P.

    2000-01-01

    After a review of recent work on the interaction of electromagnetic fields from cellular telephones with the human head, the structural and radiating properties of two common types of transceivers are determined. These include the impedance and current amplitude distribution of the antennas. The tangential electric field maintained by the antennas on the adjacent surface of the head is next determined. From this, the electric field propagating through the skull into the brain is analyzed and, from it, the electric field in spherical and long cylindrical cells is determined. It ranges from 27 to 13.5 V/m in the first 3 cm inside the skull. Of interest is the fact that the induced field in the interior of all cells, regardless of their shape, is the same as the incident field in the brain. It is hoped that biomedical scientists will review these results and determine possible biological effects.

  3. Effect of GO-Fe3O4 and rotating magnetic field on cellular metabolic activity of mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Urbas, Karolina; Jedrzejczak-Silicka, Magdalena; Rakoczy, Rafal; Zaborski, Daniel; Mijowska, Ewa

    2016-04-01

    The effect of hybrid material-graphene flakes with Fe3O4 nanospheres (GO-Fe3O4), graphene oxide (GO) and magnetite nanospheres (Fe3O4) in rotating magnetic field on mammalian cells metabolism has been studied. Several reports shown that exposure to magnetic field may have influence on cellular membrane permeability. Thus, the aim of presented study was to determine the cellular response of L929 fibroblast cells to nanomaterials and rotating magnetic field for 8-h exposure experiment. The GO had tendency to adsorb proteins, thus cell metabolism was decreased and the effect of that mechanism was enhanced by impact of nanospheres and rotating magnetic field. The highest reduction of cellular metabolism was recorded for WST-1 and NR assays at concentration 100 µg/mL of all tested nanomaterials and magnetic induction value 10.06 mT. The lactate dehydrogenase leakage assay has shown significant changes in membrane permeability. Further studies need to be carried out to precisely determine the mechanism of that process. PMID:26809700

  4. Effect of Surface Modification on Cellular Internalization of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles in Strong Static Magnetic Field.

    PubMed

    Lei, Wang; Min, Wang; Hui, Dai; Yun, Liu; An, Xu

    2015-07-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) controlled by alternating mangetic field (AMF) are widely investigated in biomedical applications, while the effects of strong static magnetic field (SMFs) on mammalian cells with MNPs for drug-delivery, magnetic resource imaging and magnetofection have been evaluated poorly. Although surface modifications provide a suitable system for expanding the bioapplication of MNPs, the viability and the cellular internalization of modified MNPs which stands for their biocompatibility and efficiency in application need to be examined urgently. In present study, human lung cancer cells (A549), a well-known epithelial cell model for drug metabolism research, were used to evaluate the effects of strong SMFs on cellular internalization and cell viability of Fe3O4 MNPs modified by chitosan, dextran, polyacrylamide, polyethylene glycol, phosphatidylcholine, cationic-charged and anionic-charged. The cationic-charged and phosphatidylcholine-coated Fe3O4 MNPs could increase the cellular uptaken in a dose dependent manner and the particles caused a vacuolar appearance in A549 cells. With exposure to 8.5 T SMF, the assay of ATP content showed that anionic-charged and phosphatidylcholine-coated Fe3O4 MNPs changed the energy metabolism of A549 cells, which might be consistent with the observation in cellular internalization. The cell viability and proliferation of A549 cells were all slightly affected by various modified MNPs with or without 8.5 T SMF exposure. PMID:26373103

  5. Floors: Care and Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post Office Dept., Washington, DC.

    Guidelines, methods and policies regarding the care and maintenance of post office building floors are overviewed in this handbook. Procedures outlined are concerned with maintaining a required level of appearance without wasting manpower. Flooring types and characteristics and the particular cleaning requirements of each type are given along with…

  6. School Flooring Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, John

    2012-01-01

    With all of the hype that green building is receiving throughout the school facility-management industry, it's easy to overlook some elements that may not be right in front of a building manager's nose. It is helpful to examine the role floor covering plays in a green building project. Flooring is one of the most significant and important systems…

  7. Maximizing Hard Floor Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steger, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Explains the maintenance options available for hardwood flooring that can help ensure long life cycles and provide inviting spaces. Developing a maintenance system, knowing the type of traffic that the floor must endure, using entrance matting, and adhering to manufacturers guidelines are discussed. Daily, monthly or quarterly, and long-term…

  8. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED-- NOTE PRESENCE OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS AT LEFT. See also PA-1436 B-6 - Kid-Physick House, 325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED-- NOTE PRESENCE OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS AT LEFT. See also PA-1436 B-13 - Kid-Physick House, 325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. Urinary neopterin, a non-invasive marker of mammalian cellular immune activation, is highly stable under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Heistermann, Michael; Higham, James P

    2015-01-01

    Studying immunity and immune function in ecology and evolution requires field studies, but there has been a dearth of non-invasive markers of immune activation available for studying large wild mammals. Recently, we analytically and biologically validated the measurement of urinary neopterin (NEO), a biomarker of cellular immune activation, in captive macaques. However, applying this to free-ranging settings is complicated by issues involving sample collection, processing, storage, and transport. Here, we collected urine samples from captive macaques and undertook experiments simulating common field issues. We tested the effects on urinary NEO sample measurements following: dirt and faecal contamination; storage at room temperature; differences in processing and long-term storage methods (freezing, lyophilising, blotting onto filter paper); and freeze-thaw cycles. Our results show that concentrations of urinary NEO are highly stable--they are not affected by soil or faecal contamination, can be collected on filter paper and stored for many months frozen or lyophilised with minimal effect, and are resistant to multiple 24 hr freeze-thaws. With the addition of a biocidal preservative, concentrations are even stable at room temperature for long periods. Urinary NEO is remarkably resilient, and is highly suitable for non-invasive field studies of cellular immune responses in wild large mammals.

  11. Urinary neopterin, a non-invasive marker of mammalian cellular immune activation, is highly stable under field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Heistermann, Michael; Higham, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Studying immunity and immune function in ecology and evolution requires field studies, but there has been a dearth of non-invasive markers of immune activation available for studying large wild mammals. Recently, we analytically and biologically validated the measurement of urinary neopterin (NEO), a biomarker of cellular immune activation, in captive macaques. However, applying this to free-ranging settings is complicated by issues involving sample collection, processing, storage, and transport. Here, we collected urine samples from captive macaques and undertook experiments simulating common field issues. We tested the effects on urinary NEO sample measurements following: dirt and faecal contamination; storage at room temperature; differences in processing and long-term storage methods (freezing, lyophilising, blotting onto filter paper); and freeze-thaw cycles. Our results show that concentrations of urinary NEO are highly stable – they are not affected by soil or faecal contamination, can be collected on filter paper and stored for many months frozen or lyophilised with minimal effect, and are resistant to multiple 24 hr freeze-thaws. With the addition of a biocidal preservative, concentrations are even stable at room temperature for long periods. Urinary NEO is remarkably resilient, and is highly suitable for non-invasive field studies of cellular immune responses in wild large mammals. PMID:26549509

  12. Nonlinear heart rate variability measures under electromagnetic fields produced by GSM cellular phones.

    PubMed

    Parazzini, Marta; Ravazzani, Paolo; Thuroczy, György; Molnar, Ferenc B; Ardesi, Gianluca; Sacchettini, Alessio; Mainardi, Luca Tommaso

    2013-06-01

    This study was designed to assess the nonlinear dynamics of heart rate variability (HRV) during exposure to low-intensity EMFs. Twenty-six healthy young volunteers were subjected to a rest-to-stand protocol to evaluate autonomic nervous system in quiet condition (rest, vagal prevalence) and after a sympathetic activation (stand). The procedure was conducted twice in a double-blind design: once with a genuine EMFs exposure (GSM cellular phone at 900 MHz, 2 W) and once with a sham exposure (at least 24 h apart). During each session, three-lead electrocardiograms were recorded and RR series extracted off-line. The RR series were analyzed by nonlinear deterministic techniques in every phase of the protocol and during the different exposures. The analysis of the data shows there was no statistically significant effect due to GSM exposure on the nonlinear dynamics of HRV.

  13. Increased cellular uptake of biocompatible superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles into malignant cells by an external magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Prijic, Sara; Scancar, Janez; Romih, Rok; Cemazar, Maja; Bregar, Vladimir B; Znidarsic, Andrej; Sersa, Gregor

    2010-07-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are used as delivery systems for different therapeutics including nucleic acids for magnetofection-mediated gene therapy. The aim of our study was to evaluate physicochemical properties, biocompatibility, cellular uptake and trafficking pathways of the custom-synthesized SPIONs for their potential use in magnetofection. Custom-synthesized SPIONs were tested for size, shape, crystalline composition and magnetic behavior using a transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffractometer and magnetometer. SPIONs were dispersed in different aqueous media to obtain ferrofluids, which were tested for pH and stability using a pH meter and zetameter. Cytotoxicity was determined using the MTS and clonogenic assays. Cellular uptake and trafficking pathways were qualitatively evaluated by transmission electron microscopy and quantitatively by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. SPIONs were composed of an iron oxide core with a diameter of 8-9 nm, coated with a 2-nm-thick layer of silica. SPIONs, dispersed in 0.9% NaCl solution, resulted in a stable ferrofluid at physiological pH for several months. SPIONs were not cytotoxic in a broad range of concentrations and were readily internalized into different cells by endocytosis. Exposure to neodymium-iron-boron magnets significantly increased the cellular uptake of SPIONs, predominantly into malignant cells. The prepared SPIONs displayed adequate physicochemical and biomedical properties for potential use in magnetofection. Their cellular uptake was dependent on the cell type, and their accumulation within the cells was dependent on the duration of exposure to an external magnetic field. PMID:20602230

  14. Increased Cellular Uptake of Biocompatible Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles into Malignant Cells by an External Magnetic Field

    PubMed Central

    Prijic, Sara; Scancar, Janez; Romih, Rok; Cemazar, Maja; Bregar, Vladimir B.; Znidarsic, Andrej

    2010-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are used as delivery systems for different therapeutics including nucleic acids for magnetofection-mediated gene therapy. The aim of our study was to evaluate physicochemical properties, biocompatibility, cellular uptake and trafficking pathways of the custom-synthesized SPIONs for their potential use in magnetofection. Custom-synthesized SPIONs were tested for size, shape, crystalline composition and magnetic behavior using a transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffractometer and magnetometer. SPIONs were dispersed in different aqueous media to obtain ferrofluids, which were tested for pH and stability using a pH meter and zetameter. Cytotoxicity was determined using the MTS and clonogenic assays. Cellular uptake and trafficking pathways were qualitatively evaluated by transmission electron microscopy and quantitatively by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. SPIONs were composed of an iron oxide core with a diameter of 8–9 nm, coated with a 2-nm-thick layer of silica. SPIONs, dispersed in 0.9% NaCl solution, resulted in a stable ferrofluid at physiological pH for several months. SPIONs were not cytotoxic in a broad range of concentrations and were readily internalized into different cells by endocytosis. Exposure to neodymium-iron-boron magnets significantly increased the cellular uptake of SPIONs, predominantly into malignant cells. The prepared SPIONs displayed adequate physicochemical and biomedical properties for potential use in magnetofection. Their cellular uptake was dependent on the cell type, and their accumulation within the cells was dependent on the duration of exposure to an external magnetic field. PMID:20602230

  15. Modulation of hydrogen peroxide production in cellular systems by low level magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Martino, Carlos F; Castello, Pablo R

    2011-01-01

    Increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and an altered redox status have long been observed in cancer cells, suggesting that ROS might be involved in the development of these cells. However, recent studies suggest that inducing an excess of ROS in cancer cells can be exploited for therapeutic benefits. Cancer cells in advanced stage tumors frequently exhibit multiple genetic alterations and high oxidative stress, suggesting that it might be possible to preferentially modulate the development of these cells by controlling their ROS production. Low levels of ROS are also important for the development and survival of normal cells. In this manuscript, we present data on the influence of the suppression of the Earth's magnetic field (low level magnetic fields or LLF) which magnitudes range from 0.2 µT to 2 µT on the modulation of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in human fibrosarcoma cancer cell line HT1080, pancreatic AsPC-1 cancer cell line, and bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC) exposed to geomagnetic field (control; 45 µT-60 µT). Reduction of the Earth's magnetic field suppressed H(2)O(2) production in cancer cells and PAEC. The addition of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic MnTBAP inhibited the magnetic field effect. Modulating ROS production by magnetic fields may open new venues of biomedical research and therapeutic strategies. PMID:21887222

  16. Mitochondria-targeting nanoplatform with fluorescent carbon dots for long time imaging and magnetic field-enhanced cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Shen, Yajing; Teng, Xiyao; Yan, Manqing; Bi, Hong; Morais, Paulo Cesar

    2015-05-20

    In this study, a biocompatible nanoplatform has been constructed on the basis of magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (Fe3O4@mSiO2) via surface modification of triphenylphospine (TPP) and then conjugation with fluorescent carbon dots (CDs). The as-prepared Fe3O4@mSiO2-TPP/CDs nanoplatform shows a very low cytotoxicity and apoptosis rate in various cell lines such as A549, CHO, HeLa, SH-SY5Y, HFF, and HMEC-1. More importantly, this nanoplatform integrates long time cell imaging, mitochondria-targeting, and magnetic field-enhanced cellular uptake functionalities into an all-in-one system. Time-dependent mitochondrial colocalization in all of the cell lines has been proved by using confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry, while the multicolored fluorescence of the Fe3O4@mSiO2-TPP/CDs could remain bright and stable after coincubation for 24 h. In addition, the cellular uptake efficiency could be enhanced in a short time as a static magnetic field of 0.30 T was applied to the coincubation system of A549 and HFF cell lines. This bionanoplatform may have potential applications in targeted drug delivery for mitochondria diseases as well as early cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Cellular behavior as a dynamic field for exploring bone bioengineering: a closer look at cell-biomaterial interface.

    PubMed

    Gemini-Piperni, Sara; Takamori, Esther Rieko; Sartoretto, Suelen Cristina; Paiva, Katiúcia B S; Granjeiro, José Mauro; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso; Zambuzzi, Willian Fernando

    2014-11-01

    Bone is a highly dynamic and specialized tissue, capable of regenerating itself spontaneously when afflicted by minor injuries. Nevertheless, when major lesions occur, it becomes necessary to use biomaterials, which are not only able to endure the cellular proliferation and migration, but also to substitute the original tissue or integrate itself to it. With the life expectancy growth, regenerative medicine has been gaining constant attention in the reconstructive field of dentistry and orthopedy. Focusing on broadening the therapeutic possibilities for the regeneration of injured organs, the development of biomaterials allied with the applicability of gene therapy and bone bioengineering has been receiving vast attention over the recent years. The progress of cellular and molecular biology techniques gave way to new-guided therapy possibilities. Supported by multidisciplinary activities, tissue engineering combines the interaction of physicists, chemists, biologists, engineers, biotechnologist, dentists and physicians with common goals: the search for materials that could promote and lead cell activity. A well-oriented combining of scaffolds, promoting factors, cells, together with gene therapy advances may open new avenues to bone healing in the near future. In this review, our target was to write a report bringing overall concepts on tissue bioengineering, with a special attention to decisive biological parameters for the development of biomaterials, as well as to discuss known intracellular signal transduction as a new manner to be explored within this field, aiming to predict in vitro the quality of the host cell/material and thus contributing with the development of regenerative medicine. PMID:24976174

  18. Electric Field Modulation of Semiconductor Quantum Dot Photoluminescence: Insights Into the Design of Robust Voltage-Sensitive Cellular Imaging Probes.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Clare E; Susumu, Kimihiro; Stewart, Michael H; Oh, Eunkeu; Mäkinen, Antti J; O'Shaughnessy, Thomas J; Kushto, Gary; Wolak, Mason A; Erickson, Jeffrey S; Efros, Alexander L; Huston, Alan L; Delehanty, James B

    2015-10-14

    The intrinsic properties of quantum dots (QDs) and the growing ability to interface them controllably with living cells has far-reaching potential applications in probing cellular processes such as membrane action potential. We demonstrate that an electric field typical of those found in neuronal membranes results in suppression of the QD photoluminescence (PL) and, for the first time, that QD PL is able to track the action potential profile of a firing neuron with millisecond time resolution. This effect is shown to be connected with electric-field-driven QD ionization and consequent QD PL quenching, in contradiction with conventional wisdom that suppression of the QD PL is attributable to the quantum confined Stark effect.

  19. Bacterial growth rates are influenced by cellular characteristics of individual species when immersed in electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Tessaro, Lucas W E; Murugan, Nirosha J; Persinger, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) have negative effects on the rate of growth of bacteria. In the present study, two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative species were exposed to six magnetic field conditions in broth cultures. Three variations of the 'Thomas' pulsed frequency-modulated pattern; a strong-static "puck" magnet upwards of 5000G in intensity; a pair of these magnets rotating opposite one another at ∼30rpm; and finally a strong dynamic magnetic field generator termed the 'Resonator' with an average intensity of 250μT were used. Growth rate was discerned by optical density (OD) measurements every hour at 600nm. ELF-EMF conditions significantly affected the rates of growth of the bacterial cultures, while the two static magnetic field conditions were not statistically significant. Most interestingly, the 'Resonator' dynamic magnetic field increased the rates of growth of three species (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli), while slowing the growth of one (Serratia marcescens). We suggest that these effects are due to individual biophysical characteristics of the bacterial species.

  20. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Comments on 'Cellular response to modulated radiation fields'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, C. K.; Klassen, N. V.

    2009-03-01

    The authors of a recent paper (Claridge Mackonis et al 2007 Phys. Med. Biol. 52 5469-82) measured cell survival in spatially modulated radiation fields. They claim to have identified two new types of radiation-induced bystander effect. We conclude that their claims are not supported by their data.

  1. Cellular basis for singing motor pattern generation in the field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer)

    PubMed Central

    Schöneich, Stefan; Hedwig, Berthold

    2012-01-01

    The singing behavior of male crickets allows analyzing a central pattern generator (CPG) that was shaped by sexual selection for reliable production of species-specific communication signals. After localizing the essential ganglia for singing in Gryllus bimaculatus, we now studied the calling song CPG at the cellular level. Fictive singing was initiated by pharmacological brain stimulation. The motor pattern underlying syllables and chirps was recorded as alternating spike bursts of wing-opener and wing-closer motoneurons in a truncated wing nerve; it precisely reflected the natural calling song. During fictive singing, we intracellularly recorded and stained interneurons in thoracic and abdominal ganglia and tested their impact on the song pattern by intracellular current injections. We identified three interneurons of the metathoracic and first unfused abdominal ganglion that rhythmically de- and hyperpolarized in phase with the syllable pattern and spiked strictly before the wing-opener motoneurons. Depolarizing current injection in two of these opener interneurons caused additional rhythmic singing activity, which reliably reset the ongoing chirp rhythm. The closely intermeshing arborizations of the singing interneurons revealed the dorsal midline neuropiles of the metathoracic and three most anterior abdominal neuromeres as the anatomical location of singing pattern generation. In the same neuropiles, we also recorded several closer interneurons that rhythmically hyper- and depolarized in the syllable rhythm and spiked strictly before the wing-closer motoneurons. Some of them received pronounced inhibition at the beginning of each chirp. Hyperpolarizing current injection in the dendrite revealed postinhibitory rebound depolarization as one functional mechanism of central pattern generation in singing crickets. PMID:23170234

  2. Cellular response to exogenous electromagnetic fields. Annual report, October 1986-September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, R.; Henderson, A.S.

    1987-09-21

    This research has determined that extremely-low-frequency (ELF) (100-Hz) electromagnetic (EM) fields induce alterations in transcription and translation in dipteran (Drosophila, Sciara) and human (HL60, IB4) cells. Transcriptional autoradiography and endoreplicated chromosomes, as well as analyses of sucrose density-gradient profiles, shows increased uptake of /sup 3/H uridine into RNA following exposure of cells to sinusoidal and asymmetric quasi-rectangular signals for time periods up to 60 minutes. Biochemical analyses (sucrose density gradients, oligo (d) T columns) have demonstrated that the RNA affected by signal stimulation is in the messenger-RNA size class. Quantitative and qualitative alterations also occur in polypeptide synthesis following EM-field stimulation. Major differences are noted from control among all sets analyzed with respect to new and augmented, as well as suppressed and deleted polypeptides. Using hybridization analysis, there is preliminary evidence that cell-specific transcripts are augmented.

  3. Cross-linking reconsidered: binding and cross-linking fields and the cellular response.

    PubMed Central

    Sulzer, B; De Boer, R J; Perelson, A S

    1996-01-01

    We analyze a model for the reversible cross-linking of cell surface receptors by a collection of bivalent ligands with different affinities for the receptor as would be found in a polyclonal anti-receptor serum. We assume that the amount of cross-linking determines, via a monotonic function, the rate at which cells become activated and divide. In addition to the density of receptors on the cell surface, two quantities, the binding field and the cross-linking field, are needed to characterize the cross-linking curve, i.e., the equilibrium concentration of cross-linked receptors plotted as a function of the total ligand site concentration. The binding field is the sum of all ligand site concentrations weighted by their respective binding affinities, and the cross-linking field is the sum of all ligand site concentrations weighted by the product of their respective binding and cross-linking affinity and the total receptor density. Assuming that the cross-linking affinity decreases if the binding affinity decreases, we find that the height of the cross-linking curve decreases, its width narrows, and its center shifts to higher ligand site concentrations as the affinities decrease. Moreover, when we consider cross-linking-induced proliferation, we find that there is a minimum cross-linking affinity that must be surpassed before a clone can expand. We also show that under many circumstances a polyclonal antiserum would be more likely than a monoclonal antibody to lead to cross-linking-induced proliferation. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 5 PMID:8785275

  4. In vitro testing of cellular response to ultra high frequency electromagnetic field radiation.

    PubMed

    Pavicic, Ivan; Trosic, Ivancica

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether low-level, ultra high frequency (UHF) irradiation of 935 MHz influences the cell structure and growth of V79 cells. UHF field was generated inside a Gigahertz Transversal Electromagnetic Mode cell (GTEM-cell) with a Hewlett-Packard signal generator. The electric field strength was 8.2+/-0.3 V/cm and the average specific absorption rate (SAR) was calculated to be 0.12 W/kg. Cell samples were cultivated in a humidified atmosphere at 37 degrees C with 5% CO2. Prepared cell samples were exposed to a 935 MHz continuous wave frequency field for 1, 2, and 3 h. The structure of microtubule proteins has been determined using the immunocytochemical method. Cell growth was determined by cell counts for each hour of exposure during five post-exposure days. Negative- and positive-cell controls were included into the experimental procedure. In comparison with control cells, the microtubule structure clearly altered after 3h of irradiation (p<0.05). Significantly decreased growth was noted in cells exposed for 3h three days after irradiation (p<0.05). It seems that the 935 MHz, low-level UHF radiation affects microtubule proteins, which consequently may obstruct cell growth.

  5. 5. Interior, second floor. Pressed metal ceiling, and wooden floors ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Interior, second floor. Pressed metal ceiling, and wooden floors visible. Overhead light source toward rear of building indicates location of skylight. - 25-27 East Hanover Street (Commercial Building), 25-27 East Hanover Street, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  6. Two and Three Bedroom Units: First Floor Plan, Second Floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Two and Three Bedroom Units: First Floor Plan, Second Floor Plan, South Elevation (As Built), North Elevation (As Built), East Elevation (As Built), East Elevation (Existing), North Elevation (Existing) - Aluminum City Terrace, East Hill Drive, New Kensington, Westmoreland County, PA

  7. STIRLING'S QUARTERS SMALL BARN: FIRST FLOOR PLAN; SECOND FLOOR PLAN; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STIRLING'S QUARTERS SMALL BARN: FIRST FLOOR PLAN; SECOND FLOOR PLAN; SOUTH ELEVATION; EAST ELEVATION; NORTH ELEVATION; WEST ELEVATION. - Stirling's Quarters, 555 Yellow Springs Road, Tredyffrin Township, Valley Forge, Chester County, PA

  8. 16. STATIC TEST TOWER REMOVABLE FLOOR LEVEL VIEW OF FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. STATIC TEST TOWER REMOVABLE FLOOR LEVEL VIEW OF FLOOR THAT FOLDS BACK TO ALLOW ROCKET PLACEMENT. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  9. Advances in cellular technology in the hematology field: What have we learned so far?

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Gustavo Torres; Maranduba, Claudinéia Pereira; de Souza, Camila Maurmann; do Amaral, Danielle Luciana Aurora Soares; da Guia, Francisco Carlos; Zanette, Rafaella de Souza Salomão; Rettore, João Vitor Paes; Rabelo, Natana Chaves; Nascimento, Lucas Mendes; Pinto, Ícaro França Navarro; Farani, Júlia Boechat; Neto, Abrahão Elias Hallack; Silva, Fernando de Sá; Maranduba, Carlos Magno da Costa; Atalla, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advances in the hematology field, blood transfusion-related iatrogenesis is still a major issue to be considered during such procedures due to blood antigenic incompatibility. This places pluripotent stem cells as a possible ally in the production of more suitable blood products. The present review article aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the state-of-the-art concerning the differentiation of both embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells to hematopoietic cell lines. Here, we review the most recently published protocols to achieve the production of blood cells for future application in hemotherapy, cancer therapy and basic research. PMID:25621110

  10. Advances in cellular technology in the hematology field: What have we learned so far?

    PubMed

    de Souza, Gustavo Torres; Maranduba, Claudinéia Pereira; de Souza, Camila Maurmann; do Amaral, Danielle Luciana Aurora Soares; da Guia, Francisco Carlos; Zanette, Rafaella de Souza Salomão; Rettore, João Vitor Paes; Rabelo, Natana Chaves; Nascimento, Lucas Mendes; Pinto, Ícaro França Navarro; Farani, Júlia Boechat; Neto, Abrahão Elias Hallack; Silva, Fernando de Sá; Maranduba, Carlos Magno da Costa; Atalla, Angelo

    2015-01-26

    Despite the advances in the hematology field, blood transfusion-related iatrogenesis is still a major issue to be considered during such procedures due to blood antigenic incompatibility. This places pluripotent stem cells as a possible ally in the production of more suitable blood products. The present review article aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the state-of-the-art concerning the differentiation of both embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells to hematopoietic cell lines. Here, we review the most recently published protocols to achieve the production of blood cells for future application in hemotherapy, cancer therapy and basic research.

  11. Dynamical studies of model membrane and cellular response to nanosecond, high-intensity pulsed electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qin

    The dynamics of electroporation of biological cells subjected to nanosecond, high intensity pulses are studied based on a coupled scheme involving the current continuity and Smoluchowski equations. The improved pore formation energy model includes a dependence on pore population and density. It also allows for variable surface tension and incorporates the effects of finite conductivity on the electrostatic correction term, which was not considered by the simple energy models in the literature. It is shown that E(r) becomes self-adjusting with variations in its magnitude and profile. The whole scheme is self-consistent and dynamic. An electromechanical analysis based on thin-shell theory is presented to analyze cell shape changes in response to external electric fields. The calculations demonstrate that at large fields, the spherical cell geometry can be modified, and even ellipsoidal forms may not be appropriate to account for the resulting shape. It is shown that, in keeping with reports in the literature, the final shape depends on membrane thickness. This has direct implications for tissues in which significant molecular restructuring can occur. This study is also focused on obtaining qualitative predictions of pulse width dependence to apoptotic cell irreversibility that has been observed experimentally. The analysis couples a distributed electrical model for current flow with the Smoluchowski equation to provide self-consistent, time-dependent transmembrane voltages. The model captures the essence of the experimentally observed pulse-width dependence, and provides a possible physical picture that depends only on the electrical trigger. Different cell responses of normal and malignant (Farage) tonsillar B-cell are also compared and discussed. It is shown that subjecting a cell to an ultrashort, high-intensity electric pulse is the optimum way for reversible intracellular manipulation. Finally, a simple but physical atomistic model is presented for molecular

  12. CAST FLOOR WITH VIEW OF TORPEDO LADLE (BENEATH CAST FLOOR) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CAST FLOOR WITH VIEW OF TORPEDO LADLE (BENEATH CAST FLOOR) AND KEEPERS OF THE CAST HOUSE FLOOR, S.L. KIMBROUGH AND DAVID HOLMES. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Blast Furnace No. 8, North of Valley Road, West of Ensley-Pleasant Grove Road, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

  13. INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 1, SECOND FLOOR. NOTE THE ORIGINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 1, SECOND FLOOR. NOTE THE ORIGINAL MOSAIC PATTERN FLOOR TILE, TILE WAINSCOT, CERAMIC ACCESSORIES, AND SINGLE-PANEL DOOR TO LINEN CLOSET. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type K, 304 Sixth Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  14. INTERIOR VIEW OF SECOND FLOOR STAIR HALL. SHOWING THE IRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF SECOND FLOOR STAIR HALL. SHOWING THE IRON STAIR RAILS AND NEWEL POSTS WITH INCISED LINES. NOTE THE TONGUE-AND-GROOVE WOOD FLOORING. VIEW FACING EAST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type L, 702 Julian Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  15. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE SECOND FLOOR HALL. SHOWING THE IRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE SECOND FLOOR HALL. SHOWING THE IRON RAIL, TONGUE-AND-GROOVE WOOD FLOOR, AND THE SLIDING WINDOW TO BEDROOM 3. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type N, 204B Second Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  16. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE SECOND FLOOR HALL. NOTE THE STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE SECOND FLOOR HALL. NOTE THE STORAGE CLOSET (OPEN DOOR) WITH A PARTIAL VIEW OF THE CONCRETE TILE GRILLE AND TONGUE-AND-GROOVE WOOD FLOORING. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type P, 403K Signer Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  17. 9. Photographic copy of first and second floor plans, undated, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photographic copy of first and second floor plans, undated, Department of the Air Force, Air Defense Command Installations, Washington, D.C., in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. FLOOR PLANS. - Selfridge Field, Building No. 509, Sugarbush Road east of West Perimeter Road, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  18. 6. Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated August 18, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated August 18, 1968, Department of the Air Force Air Defense Command Installations, in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. FLOOR PLAN BLDG. 1585. - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1585, South of East Joy Boulevard, west of Taxiway C, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  19. Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated March 7, 1968, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated March 7, 1968, Department of the Air Force Air Defense Command Installations, in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. FLOOR PLAN BLDG. 1575 - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1575, South of East Joy Boulevard, west of Taxiway C, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  20. 7. Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated September 26, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated September 26, 1975, Selfridge ANG Base, in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. FLOOR PLAN BLDG. 1583. - Selfridge Field, Building Nos. 1582, 1583, 1584, South of East Joy Boulevard, west of Taxiway C, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  1. 6. Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated August 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated August 10, 1968, Selfridge ANG Base, in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. FLOOR PLANS BLDGS. 1582 & 1584. - Selfridge Field, Building Nos. 1582, 1583, 1584, South of East Joy Boulevard, west of Taxiway C, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  2. High frequency application of nanosecond pulsed electric fields alters cellular membrane disruption and fluorescent dye uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steelman, Zachary A.; Tolstykh, Gleb P.; Beier, Hope T.; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2016-03-01

    Cells exposed to nanosecond-pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) exhibit a wide variety of nonspecific effects, including blebbing, swelling, intracellular calcium bursts, apoptotic and necrotic cell death, formation of nanopores, and depletion of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP2) to induce activation of the inositol trisphosphate/diacylglycerol pathway. While several studies have taken place in which multiple pulses were delivered to cells, the effect of pulse repetition rate (PRR) is not well understood. To better understand the effects of PRR, a laser scanning confocal microscope was used to observe CHO-K1 cells exposed to ten 600ns, 200V pulses at varying repetition rates (5Hz up to 500KHz) in the presence of either FM 1-43, YO-PRO-1, or Propidium Iodide (PI) fluorescent dyes, probes frequently used to indicate nanoporation or permeabilization of the plasma membrane. Dye uptake was monitored for 30 seconds after pulse application at a rate of 1 image/second. In addition, a single long pulse of equivalent energy (200V, 6 μs duration) was applied to test the hypothesis that very fast PRR will approximate the biological effects of a single long pulse of equal energy. Upon examination of the data, we found strong variation in the relationship between PRR and uptake in each of the three dyes. In particular, PI uptake showed little frequency dependence, FM 1-43 showed a strong inverse relationship between frequency and internal cell fluorescence, and YO-PRO-1 exhibited a "threshold" point of around 50 KHz, after which the inverse trend observed in FM 1-43 was seen to reverse itself. Further, a very high PRR of 500 KHz only approximated the biological effects of a single 6 μs pulse in cells stained with YO-PRO-1, suggesting that uptake of different dyes may proceed by different physical mechanisms.

  3. Polygons on Crater Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-357, 11 May 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a pattern of polygons on the floor of a northern plains impact crater. These landforms are common on crater floors at high latitudes on Mars. Similar polygons occur in the arctic and antarctic regions of Earth, where they indicate the presence and freeze-thaw cycling of ground ice. Whether the polygons on Mars also indicate water ice in the ground is uncertain. The image is located in a crater at 64.8oN, 292.7oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  4. Floor of Hellas Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    With a diameter of roughly 2000 km and a depth of over 7 km, the Hellas Basin is the largest impact feature on Mars. Because of its great depth, there is significantly more atmosphere to peer through in order to see its floor, reducing the quality of the images taken from orbit. This THEMIS image straddles a scarp between the Hellas floor and an accumulation of material at least a half kilometer thick that covers much of the floor. The southern half of the image contains some of this material. Strange ovoid landforms are present here that give the appearance of flow. It is possible that water ice or even liquid water was present in the deposits and somehow responsible for the observed landscape. The floor of Hellas remains a poorly understood portion of the planet that should benefit from the analysis of new THEMIS data.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in

  5. Modular Flooring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thate, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The modular flooring system (MFS) was developed to provide a portable, modular, durable carpeting solution for NASA fs Robotics Alliance Project fs (RAP) outreach efforts. It was also designed to improve and replace a modular flooring system that was too heavy for safe use and transportation. The MFS was developed for use as the flooring for various robotics competitions that RAP utilizes to meet its mission goals. One of these competitions, the FIRST Robotics Competition (FRC), currently uses two massive rolls of broadloom carpet for the foundation of the arena in which the robots are contained during the competition. The area of the arena is approximately 30 by 72 ft (approximately 9 by 22 m). This carpet is very cumbersome and requires large-capacity vehicles, and handling equipment and personnel to transport and deploy. The broadloom carpet sustains severe abuse from the robots during a regular three-day competition, and as a result, the carpet is not used again for competition. Similarly, broadloom carpets used for trade shows at convention centers around the world are typically discarded after only one use. This innovation provides a green solution to this wasteful practice. Each of the flooring modules in the previous system weighed 44 lb (.20 kg). The improvements in the overall design of the system reduce the weight of each module by approximately 22 lb (.10 kg) (50 %), and utilize an improved "module-to-module" connection method that is superior to the previous system. The MFS comprises 4-by-4-ft (.1.2-by- 1.2-m) carpet module assemblies that utilize commercially available carpet tiles that are bonded to a lightweight substrate. The substrate surface opposite from the carpeted surface has a module-to-module connecting interface that allows for the modules to be connected, one to the other, as the modules are constructed. This connection is hidden underneath the modules, creating a smooth, co-planar flooring surface. The modules are stacked and strapped

  6. Crater Wall and Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    3D Projection onto MOLA data [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The impact crater observed in this THEMIS image taken in Terra Cimmeria suggests sediments have filled the crater due to the flat and smooth nature of the floor compared to rougher surfaces at higher elevations. The abundance of several smaller impact craters on the floor of the larger crater indicate however that the flat surface has been exposed for an extended period of time. The smooth surface of the crater floor and rougher surfaces at higher elevations are observed in the 3-D THEMIS image that is draped over MOLA topography (2X vertical exaggeration).

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -22.9, Longitude 155.7 East (204.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  7. Reull Vallis Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the odd patterns of erosion on the floor of Reull Vallis, a major valley system east of the Hellas Basin in the martian southern hemisphere. Somewhat circular features in this image may have once been meteor craters that were eroded and deformed by erosive processes. This image is located near 42.1oS, 254.5oW. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  8. Mesas on Depression Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    3 August 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows mesas and buttes on the floor of a depression in the Labyrinthus Noctis region of Mars. This is part of the western Valles Marineris. Each mesa is a remnant of a formerly more extensive sequence of rock. The image is located near 7.0oS, 99.2oW. It covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  9. Rippled Valley Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    15 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a ripple-covered valley floor in the Hyblaeus Fossae region. Winds blowing up and down the length of the valley have helped to concentrate windblown grains to form these large, megaripples.

    Location near: 26.3oN, 225.1oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  10. Crater Floor Yardangs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    1 December 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a group of semi-parallel ridges--yardangs--etched by wind into layered sedimentary rock on the floor of an unnamed crater in Terra Cimmeria. Many craters on Mars have been the sites of sedimentation. Over time, these sediments have become lithified. This picture is located near 31.3oS, 214.6oW. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/upper left.

  11. Concentric Crater Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    8 July 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the interior of a typical crater in northern Acidalia Planitia. The floor is covered by material that forms an almost concentric pattern. In this case, the semi-concentric rings might be an expression of eroded layered material, although this interpretation is uncertain. The crater is located near 44.0oN, 27.7oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  12. [Pelvic floor muscle training and pelvic floor disorders in women].

    PubMed

    Thubert, T; Bakker, E; Fritel, X

    2015-05-01

    Our goal is to provide an update on the results of pelvic floor rehabilitation in the treatment of urinary incontinence and genital prolapse symptoms. Pelvic floor muscle training allows a reduction of urinary incontinence symptoms. Pelvic floor muscle contractions supervised by a healthcare professional allow cure in half cases of stress urinary incontinence. Viewing this contraction through biofeedback improves outcomes, but this effect could also be due by a more intensive and prolonged program with the physiotherapist. The place of electrostimulation remains unclear. The results obtained with vaginal cones are similar to pelvic floor muscle training with or without biofeedback or electrostimulation. It is not known whether pelvic floor muscle training has an effect after one year. In case of stress urinary incontinence, supervised pelvic floor muscle training avoids surgery in half of the cases at 1-year follow-up. Pelvic floor muscle training is the first-line treatment of post-partum urinary incontinence. Its preventive effect is uncertain. Pelvic floor muscle training may reduce the symptoms associated with genital prolapse. In conclusion, pelvic floor rehabilitation supervised by a physiotherapist is an effective short-term treatment to reduce the symptoms of urinary incontinence or pelvic organ prolapse.

  13. 9. LOOKING FROM FLOOR 1 UP THROUGH OPENING TO FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. LOOKING FROM FLOOR 1 UP THROUGH OPENING TO FLOOR 2; OPENING IN THE FLOOR IS TO ALLOW THE RUNNER STONES TO BE FLIPPED OVER FOR SHARPENING; AT THE FIRST FLOOR ARE THE POSTS SUPPORTING THE BRIDGEBEAMS ON WHICH THE BRIDGE TREES PIVOT; THE CENTER POST RISES ABOVE THE STONES TO RECEIVE THE FOOT BEARING OF THE UPRIGHT SHAFT; ALSO SEEN ARE THE STONE SPINDLWS, UNDER SIDES OF THE BED STONES, STONE NUT AND GREAT SPUR WHEEL. - Pantigo Windmill, James Lane, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  14. INTERIOR VIEW OF SECOND FLOOR HALL. SHOWING THE IRON RAILING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF SECOND FLOOR HALL. SHOWING THE IRON RAILING AND DOUBLE FLUSH WOOD DOORS TO THE LINEN CLOSET. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type C, 208 Second Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  15. INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRY. SHOWING THE STAINED CONCRETE FLOOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF ENTRY. SHOWING THE STAINED CONCRETE FLOOR AND WINDOW WITH DIAMOND PATTERN MUNTINS. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type F, 602 Beard Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  16. Photographic copy of floor plan, undated, Civil Engineers Office, in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of floor plan, undated, Civil Engineers Office, in possession of Selfridge Base Civil Engineers Office, Mt. Clemens, Michigan - Selfridge Field, Building No. 833, West of Mulberry Street north of George Avenue, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  17. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING ORIGINAL TONGUEANDGROOVE WOOD FLOOR IN THE HALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING ORIGINAL TONGUE-AND-GROOVE WOOD FLOOR IN THE HALL CLOSET. NOTE THE TYPICAL FIVE-PANEL DOORS. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Hickam Field, NCO Housing Type 3, 213 Tenth Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  18. INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 1 SHOWING THE MOSAICPATTERN TILE FLOOR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF BATHROOM 1 SHOWING THE MOSAIC-PATTERN TILE FLOOR. CERAMIC TILE WAINSCOT, AND CERAMIC ACCESSORIES. VIEW FACING NORTH. - Hickam Field, Officers' Housing Type H, 208 Sixth Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  19. 7. GROUND FLOOR, NORTHEAST PARLOR, LOOKING TOWARD EAST WALL, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. GROUND FLOOR, NORTHEAST PARLOR, LOOKING TOWARD EAST WALL, VIEW SHOWING WOODEN FLOORBOARDS, FIREPLACE AND MANTEL, OVERMANTEL, CORNICE AND PILASTER STRIPS AND FURNISHINGS - Clover Fields, Forman's Lodge Road, Wye Mills, Talbot County, MD

  20. Canyon Floor Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03598 Canyon Floor Deposits

    The layered and wind eroded deposits seen in this VIS image occur on the floor of Chandor Chasma.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 5.2S, Longitude 283.4E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  1. Floor of Juventae Chasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 30 May 2002) Juventae Chasma is an enormous box canyon (250 km X 100 km) which opens to the north and forms the outflow channel Maja Vallis. Most Martian outflow channels such as Maja, Kasei, and Ares Valles begin at point sources such as box canyons and chaotic terrain and then flow unconfined into a basin region. This image captures a portion of the western floor of Juventae Chasma and shows a wide variety of landforms. Conical hills, mesas, buttes and plateaus of layered material dominate this scene and seem to be 'swimming' in vast sand sheets. The conical hills have a spur and gully topography associated with them while the flat topped buttes and mesas do not. This may be indicative of different materials that compose each of these landforms or it could be that the flat-topped layer has been completely eroded off of the conical hills thereby exposing a different rock type. Both the conical hills and flat-topped buttes and mesas have extensive scree slopes (heaps of eroded rock and debris). Ripples, which are inferred to be dunes, can also be seen amongst the hills. No impact craters can be seen in this image, indicating that the erosion and transport of material down the canyon wall and across the floor is occurring at a relatively rapid rate, so that any craters that form are rapidly buried or eroded.

  2. Fretted Terrain Valley Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    30 December 2003 This December 2003 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows lineated textures on the floor of a valley in the Deuteronilus region of Mars. Deuteronilus, and neighboring Protonilus and Nilosyrtis, have been known since the Mariner 9 mission as regions of 'fretted terrain.' In this context, 'fretted' does not mean 'worried,' it means 'eroded.' The fretted terrains of Mars are regions along the boundary between cratered highlands and northern lowland plains that have been broken-down into mesas, buttes, and valleys. On the floors of some of these valleys occurs a distinctive lineated and pitted texture--like the example shown here. The cause of the textures is not known, although for decades some scientists have speculated that ice is involved. While this is possible, it is far from a demonstrated fact. This picture is located near 40.1oN, 335.1oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide; sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  3. Candor Chasma Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03080 Candor Chasma Floor

    This VIS image shows part of the layered and wind sculpted deposit that occurs on the floor of Candor Chasma.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 6.6S, Longitude 284.4E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  4. Spallanzani Cr. Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03632 Spallanzani Cr. Floor

    This image was taken by one of the Mars Student Imaging Project (MSIP) teams. Their target is the unusual floor deposits in Spallanzani Crater. The wind may have affected the surface of the layered deposit. Small dunes have formed near the southern margin.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 57.9S, Longitude 86.5E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises

    MedlinePlus

    Kegel exercises ... Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are recommended for: Women with urinary stress incontinence Men with urinary stress incontinence after prostate surgery People who have fecal ...

  6. 18. MAIN FLOOR HOLDING TANKS Main floor, looking at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. MAIN FLOOR - HOLDING TANKS Main floor, looking at holding tanks against the west wall, from which sluice gates are seen protruding. Right foreground-wooden holding tanks. Note narrow wooden flumes through which fish were sluiced into holding and brining tanks. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  7. Floor Plans: Section "AA", Section "BB"; Floor Framing Plans: Section ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Floor Plans: Section "A-A", Section "B-B"; Floor Framing Plans: Section "A-A", Section "B-B" - Fort Washington, Fort Washington Light, Northeast side of Potomac River at Fort Washington Park, Fort Washington, Prince George's County, MD

  8. 18. FOURTH FLOOR BLDG. 28, RAISED CONCRETE SLAB FLOOR WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. FOURTH FLOOR BLDG. 28, RAISED CONCRETE SLAB FLOOR WITH BLOCKS AND PULLEYS OVERHEAD LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  9. 13. Bottom floor, tower interior showing concrete floor and cast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Bottom floor, tower interior showing concrete floor and cast iron bases for oil butts (oil butts removed when lighthouse lamp was converted to electric power.) - Block Island Southeast Light, Spring Street & Mohegan Trail at Mohegan Bluffs, New Shoreham, Washington County, RI

  10. Stochastic multi-scale models of competition within heterogeneous cellular populations: Simulation methods and mean-field analysis.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Roberto de la; Guerrero, Pilar; Spill, Fabian; Alarcón, Tomás

    2016-10-21

    We propose a modelling framework to analyse the stochastic behaviour of heterogeneous, multi-scale cellular populations. We illustrate our methodology with a particular example in which we study a population with an oxygen-regulated proliferation rate. Our formulation is based on an age-dependent stochastic process. Cells within the population are characterised by their age (i.e. time elapsed since they were born). The age-dependent (oxygen-regulated) birth rate is given by a stochastic model of oxygen-dependent cell cycle progression. Once the birth rate is determined, we formulate an age-dependent birth-and-death process, which dictates the time evolution of the cell population. The population is under a feedback loop which controls its steady state size (carrying capacity): cells consume oxygen which in turn fuels cell proliferation. We show that our stochastic model of cell cycle progression allows for heterogeneity within the cell population induced by stochastic effects. Such heterogeneous behaviour is reflected in variations in the proliferation rate. Within this set-up, we have established three main results. First, we have shown that the age to the G1/S transition, which essentially determines the birth rate, exhibits a remarkably simple scaling behaviour. Besides the fact that this simple behaviour emerges from a rather complex model, this allows for a huge simplification of our numerical methodology. A further result is the observation that heterogeneous populations undergo an internal process of quasi-neutral competition. Finally, we investigated the effects of cell-cycle-phase dependent therapies (such as radiation therapy) on heterogeneous populations. In particular, we have studied the case in which the population contains a quiescent sub-population. Our mean-field analysis and numerical simulations confirm that, if the survival fraction of the therapy is too high, rescue of the quiescent population occurs. This gives rise to emergence of resistance

  11. Stripped Crater Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    10 February 2004 This full-resolution Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows details on the floor of an ancient meteor crater in the northeastern part of Noachis Terra. After the crater formed, layers of material--perhaps sediment--were deposited in the crater. These materials became somewhat solidified, but later were eroded to form the patterns shown here. Many windblown ripples in the scene indicate the presence of coarse-grained sediment that was not completely stripped away by wind. The picture is located near 22.1oS, 307.0oW. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the left/upper left; the image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  12. Floor-plan radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falconer, David G.; Ueberschaer, Ronald M.

    2000-07-01

    Urban-warfare specialists, law-enforcement officers, counter-drug agents, and counter-terrorism experts encounter operational situations where they must assault a target building and capture or rescue its occupants. To minimize potential casualties, the assault team needs a picture of the building's interior and a copy of its floor plan. With this need in mind, we constructed a scale model of a single- story house and imaged its interior using synthetic-aperture techniques. The interior and exterior walls nearest the radar set were imaged with good fidelity, but the distal ones appear poorly defined and surrounded by ghosts and artifacts. The latter defects are traceable to beam attenuation, wavefront distortion, multiple scattering, traveling waves, resonance phenomena, and other effects not accounted for in the traditional (noninteracting, isotropic point scatterer) model for radar imaging.

  13. Flow Along Valley Floors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 9 May 2003

    Lines indicative of flow in a valley floor (east to west) cut across similar lines in a slightly smaller valley (southeast to northwest), indicating both that material flowed along the valley floor (as opposed to across it) and that relative flow ages may be determined from crosscutting relationships.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 39.6, Longitude 31.1East (328.9). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  14. What's New in Floor Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, William R.

    1999-01-01

    Examines some of the new equipment, chemicals, and procedures in floor care to help educational facility managers develop floor care programs and improve performance. Trends include more mechanization, higher concentrations and environmentally preferable products for cleaning, and the use of written cleaning procedures. (GR)

  15. The Ocean Floor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Paul J.

    Over a relatively short period of time Bruce Heezen made significant, imaginative and timely contributions to our understanding of the processes that govern the origin and evolution of oceanic crust in space and time. It is certainly fitting that someone of Heezen's stature be honored by a memorial volume and the collection of papers in The Ocean Floor were gathered together for this purpose. Bruce was a gifted scientist with a wide-ranging appetite for all facets of earth science, and in this respect he would have appreciated the pot pourri of marine geological topics covered in the book (e.g., continental margin investigations, sedimentological processes, plate tectonic models). Unfortunately, the book does not have an overall impact that measures up to the man that it commemorates. Too many of the papers read as if the authors, after having agreed to contribute to the volume, reached deep into their files to dredge up a neglected manuscript on one subject or another. As a consequence, many of the papers lack zest and fail to stimulate interest beyond their narrowly focused themes.

  16. Waterproof Raised Floor Makes Utility Lines Accessible

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. M.

    1984-01-01

    Floor for laboratories, hospitals and factories waterproof yet allows access to subfloor utilities. Elevated access floor system designed for installations with multitude of diverse utility systems routed under and up through floor and requirement of separation of potentially conflicting utility services. Floor covered by continuous sheet of heat resealable vinyl. Floor system cut open when changes are made in utility lines and ducts. After modifications, floor covering resealed to protect subfloor utilities from spills and leaks.

  17. Low floor mass transit vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Emmons, J. Bruce; Blessing, Leonard J.

    2004-02-03

    A mass transit vehicle includes a frame structure that provides an efficient and economical approach to providing a low floor bus. The inventive frame includes a stiff roof panel and a stiff floor panel. A plurality of generally vertical pillars extend between the roof and floor panels. A unique bracket arrangement is disclosed for connecting the pillars to the panels. Side panels are secured to the pillars and carry the shear stresses on the frame. A unique seating assembly that can be advantageously incorporated into the vehicle taking advantage of the load distributing features of the inventive frame is also disclosed.

  18. 21. VIEW OF THE FIRST FLOOR PLAN. THE FIRST FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW OF THE FIRST FLOOR PLAN. THE FIRST FLOOR WAS USED FOR DEPLETED AND ENRICHED URANIUM FABRICATION. THE ORIGINAL DRAWING HAS BEEN ARCHIVED ON MICROFILM. THE DRAWING WAS REPRODUCED AT THE BEST QUALITY POSSIBLE. LETTERS AND NUMBERS IN THE CIRCLES INDICATE FOOTER AND/OR COLUMN LOCATIONS. - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  19. 22. VIEW OF THE SECOND FLOOR PLAN. THE SECOND FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW OF THE SECOND FLOOR PLAN. THE SECOND FLOOR CONTAINS THE AIR PLENUM ND SOME OFFICE SPACE. THE ORIGINAL DRAWING HAS BEEN ARCHIVED ON MICROFILM. THE DRAWING WAS REPRODUCED AT THE BEST QUALITY POSSIBLE. LETTERS AND NUMBERS IN THE CIRCLES INDICATE FOOTER AND/OR COLUMN LOCATIONS. - Rocky Flats Plant, Uranium Rolling & Forming Operations, Southeast section of plant, southeast quadrant of intersection of Central Avenue & Eighth Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  20. Channel Floor Yardangs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 19 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    The yardangs in this image are forming in channel floor deposits. The channel itself is funneling the wind to cause the erosion.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 4.5, Longitude 229.7 East (133.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are

  1. Tangential Floor in a Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marti, Leyla

    2012-01-01

    This article examines floor management in two classroom sessions: a task-oriented computer lesson and a literature lesson. Recordings made in the computer lesson show the organization of floor when a task is given to students. Temporary or "incipient" side floors (Jones and Thornborrow, 2004) emerge beside the main floor. In the literature lesson,…

  2. 49 CFR 393.84 - Floors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Floors. 393.84 Section 393.84 Transportation Other... Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.84 Floors. The flooring in all motor vehicles shall be substantially... fumes, exhaust gases, or fire. Floors shall not be permeated with oil or other substances likely...

  3. 49 CFR 393.84 - Floors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Floors. 393.84 Section 393.84 Transportation Other... Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.84 Floors. The flooring in all motor vehicles shall be substantially... fumes, exhaust gases, or fire. Floors shall not be permeated with oil or other substances likely...

  4. Gravitational signatures of lunar floor-fractured craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorey, Clément; Michaut, Chloé; Wieczorek, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Lunar floor-fractured craters are impact craters characterized by distinctive shallow floors crossed by important networks of fractures. Different scenarios have been proposed to explain their formations but recent studies showed that the intrusion of magma at depth below the crater floor is the most plausible explanation. The intrusion of dense magma within the light upper-most part of the lunar crust should have left a positive signature in the gravity field. This study takes advantage of the unprecedented resolution of the lunar gravity field obtained from the NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, in combination with topographic data obtained from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument, to investigate the gravitational signatures of both normal and floor-fractured craters. Despite the large variability in their gravitational signatures, the floor-fractured and normal craters in the Highlands show significant differences: the gravitational anomalies are significantly larger at floor-fractured craters. The anomaly amplitudes for floor-fractured craters are in agreement with synthetic gravity anomalies based on the predicted intrusion shapes from a theoretical flow model. Our results are consistent with magmatic intrusions intruding a crust characterized by a 12% porosity and where the intrusion has no porosity. Similar studies have been carried out in the lunar maria and South Pole-Aikten basin. Although the average gravitational signature of floor-fractured craters is larger than at normal craters in these regions, they cannot be distinguished statistically due to the small number of craters and the large variability of the anomalies. In general, a better characterization of the signal due solely to the initial impact crater is needed to isolate the magmatic intrusion signal and characterize the density contrast between the magma and crust.

  5. 17 CFR 1.62 - Contract market requirement for floor broker and floor trader registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for floor broker and floor trader registration. 1.62 Section 1.62 Commodity and Securities Exchanges....62 Contract market requirement for floor broker and floor trader registration. (a)(1) Each contract... granted a temporary license as a floor broker; or (ii) Purchase or sell solely for such person's...

  6. 17 CFR 1.62 - Contract market requirement for floor broker and floor trader registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for floor broker and floor trader registration. 1.62 Section 1.62 Commodity and Securities Exchanges....62 Contract market requirement for floor broker and floor trader registration. (a)(1) Each contract... granted a temporary license as a floor broker; or (ii) Purchase or sell solely for such person's...

  7. Functional anatomy of pelvic floor.

    PubMed

    Rocca Rossetti, Salvatore

    2016-03-31

    Generally, descriptions of the pelvic floor are discordant, since its complex structures and the complexity of pathological disorders of such structures; commonly the descriptions are sectorial, concerning muscles, fascial developments, ligaments and so on. On the contrary to understand completely nature and function of the pelvic floor it is necessary to study it in the most unitary view and in the most global aspect, considering embriology, philogenesy, anthropologic development and its multiple activities others than urological, gynaecological and intestinal ones. Recent acquirements succeeded in clarifying many aspects of pelvic floor activity, whose musculature has been investigated through electromyography, sonography, magnetic resonance, histology, histochemistry, molecular research. Utilizing recent research concerning not only urinary and gynecologic aspects but also those regarding statics and dynamics of pelvis and its floor, it is now possible to study this important body part as a unit; that means to consider it in the whole body economy to which maintaining upright position, walking and behavior or physical conduct do not share less than urinary, genital, and intestinal functions. It is today possible to consider the pelvic floor as a musclefascial unit with synergic and antagonistic activity of muscular bundles, among them more or less interlaced, with multiple functions and not only the function of pelvic cup closure.

  8. Analytical prediction of the interior noise for cylindrical models of aircraft fuselages for prescribed exterior noise fields. Phase 2: Models for sidewall trim, stiffened structures and cabin acoustics with floor partition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, L. D.; Wilby, E. G.

    1982-01-01

    An airplane interior noise prediction model is developed to determine the important parameters associated with sound transmission into the interiors of airplanes, and to identify apropriate noise control methods. Models for stiffened structures, and cabin acoustics with floor partition are developed. Validation studies are undertaken using three test articles: a ring stringer stiffened cylinder, an unstiffened cylinder with floor partition, and ring stringer stiffened cylinder with floor partition and sidewall trim. The noise reductions of the three test articles are computed using the heoretical models and compared to measured values. A statistical analysis of the comparison data indicates that there is no bias in the predictions although a substantial random error exists so that a discrepancy of more than five or six dB can be expected for about one out of three predictions.

  9. 26. VIEW OF CUT AWAY FLOOR BUILDING 23 2ND FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. VIEW OF CUT AWAY FLOOR BUILDING 23 2ND FLOOR SHOWING TYPICAL MILL CONSTRUCTION (SECTION OF FLOOR CONTAMINATED WITH HAZARDOUS MATERIAL WAS REMOVED FOR DISPOSAL) - Bryant Electric Company, 1421 State Street, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  10. Lack of effects on key cellular parameters of MRC-5 human lung fibroblasts exposed to 370 mT static magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Stefania; Sannino, Anna; Scarfì, Maria Rosaria; Massa, Rita; d'Angelo, Raffaele; Zeni, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The last decades have seen increased interest toward possible adverse effects arising from exposure to intense static magnetic fields. This concern is mainly due to the wider and wider applications of such fields in industry and clinical practice; among them, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) facilities are the main sources of exposure to static magnetic fields for both general public (patients) and workers. In recent investigations, exposures to static magnetic fields have been demonstrated to elicit, in different cell models, both permanent and transient modifications in cellular endpoints critical for the carcinogenesis process. The World Health Organization has therefore recommended in vitro investigations as important research need, to be carried out under strictly controlled exposure conditions. Here we report on the absence of effects on cell viability, reactive oxygen species levels and DNA integrity in MRC-5 human foetal lung fibroblasts exposed to 370 mT magnetic induction level, under different exposure regimens. Exposures have been performed by using an experimental apparatus designed and realized for operating with the static magnetic field generated by permanent magnets, and confined in a magnetic circuit, to allow cell cultures exposure in absence of confounding factors like heating or electric field components. PMID:26762783

  11. Lack of effects on key cellular parameters of MRC-5 human lung fibroblasts exposed to 370 mT static magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Stefania; Sannino, Anna; Scarfì, Maria Rosaria; Massa, Rita; d’Angelo, Raffaele; Zeni, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The last decades have seen increased interest toward possible adverse effects arising from exposure to intense static magnetic fields. This concern is mainly due to the wider and wider applications of such fields in industry and clinical practice; among them, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) facilities are the main sources of exposure to static magnetic fields for both general public (patients) and workers. In recent investigations, exposures to static magnetic fields have been demonstrated to elicit, in different cell models, both permanent and transient modifications in cellular endpoints critical for the carcinogenesis process. The World Health Organization has therefore recommended in vitro investigations as important research need, to be carried out under strictly controlled exposure conditions. Here we report on the absence of effects on cell viability, reactive oxygen species levels and DNA integrity in MRC-5 human foetal lung fibroblasts exposed to 370 mT magnetic induction level, under different exposure regimens. Exposures have been performed by using an experimental apparatus designed and realized for operating with the static magnetic field generated by permanent magnets, and confined in a magnetic circuit, to allow cell cultures exposure in absence of confounding factors like heating or electric field components. PMID:26762783

  12. Effects of AC/DC magnetic fields, frequency, and nanoparticle aspect ratio on cellular transfection of gene vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Kris; Mair, Lamar; Fisher, Mike; Rowshon Alam, Md.; Juliano, Rudolph; Superfine, Richard

    2008-10-01

    In order to make non-viral gene delivery a useful tool in the study and treatment of genetic disorders, it is imperative that these methodologies be further refined to yield optimal results. Transfection of magnetic nanoparticles and nanorods are used as non-viral gene vectors to transfect HeLa EGFP-654 cells that stably express a mutated enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. We deliver antisense oligonucleotides to these cells designed to correct the aberrant splicing caused by the mutation in the EGFP gene. We also transfect human bronchial endothelial cells and immortalized WI-38 lung cells with pEGFP-N1 vectors. To achieve this we bind the genes to magnetic nanoparticles and nanorods and introduce magnetic fields to effect transfection. We wish to examine the effects of magnetic fields on the transfection of these particles and the benefits of using alternating (AC) magnetic fields in improving transfection rates over direct (DC) magnetic fields. We specifically look at the frequency dependence of the AC field and particle aspect ratio as it pertains to influencing transfection rate. We posit that the increase in angular momentum brought about by the AC field and the high aspect ratio of the nanorod particles, is vital to generating the force needed to move the particle through the cell membrane.

  13. Ploughing the deep sea floor.

    PubMed

    Puig, Pere; Canals, Miquel; Company, Joan B; Martín, Jacobo; Amblas, David; Lastras, Galderic; Palanques, Albert

    2012-09-13

    Bottom trawling is a non-selective commercial fishing technique whereby heavy nets and gear are pulled along the sea floor. The direct impact of this technique on fish populations and benthic communities has received much attention, but trawling can also modify the physical properties of seafloor sediments, water–sediment chemical exchanges and sediment fluxes. Most of the studies addressing the physical disturbances of trawl gear on the seabed have been undertaken in coastal and shelf environments, however, where the capacity of trawling to modify the seafloor morphology coexists with high-energy natural processes driving sediment erosion, transport and deposition. Here we show that on upper continental slopes, the reworking of the deep sea floor by trawling gradually modifies the shape of the submarine landscape over large spatial scales. We found that trawling-induced sediment displacement and removal from fishing grounds causes the morphology of the deep sea floor to become smoother over time, reducing its original complexity as shown by high-resolution seafloor relief maps. Our results suggest that in recent decades, following the industrialization of fishing fleets, bottom trawling has become an important driver of deep seascape evolution. Given the global dimension of this type of fishery, we anticipate that the morphology of the upper continental slope in many parts of the world’s oceans could be altered by intensive bottom trawling, producing comparable effects on the deep sea floor to those generated by agricultural ploughing on land. PMID:22951970

  14. Flooring for Schools: Unsightly Walkways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Many mattress manufacturers recommend that consumers rotate their mattresses at least twice a year to help prevent soft spots from developing and increase the product's life span. It's unfortunate that the same kind of treatment can't be applied to flooring for schools, such as carpeting, especially in hallways. Being able to flip or turn a carpet…

  15. Ploughing the deep sea floor.

    PubMed

    Puig, Pere; Canals, Miquel; Company, Joan B; Martín, Jacobo; Amblas, David; Lastras, Galderic; Palanques, Albert

    2012-09-13

    Bottom trawling is a non-selective commercial fishing technique whereby heavy nets and gear are pulled along the sea floor. The direct impact of this technique on fish populations and benthic communities has received much attention, but trawling can also modify the physical properties of seafloor sediments, water–sediment chemical exchanges and sediment fluxes. Most of the studies addressing the physical disturbances of trawl gear on the seabed have been undertaken in coastal and shelf environments, however, where the capacity of trawling to modify the seafloor morphology coexists with high-energy natural processes driving sediment erosion, transport and deposition. Here we show that on upper continental slopes, the reworking of the deep sea floor by trawling gradually modifies the shape of the submarine landscape over large spatial scales. We found that trawling-induced sediment displacement and removal from fishing grounds causes the morphology of the deep sea floor to become smoother over time, reducing its original complexity as shown by high-resolution seafloor relief maps. Our results suggest that in recent decades, following the industrialization of fishing fleets, bottom trawling has become an important driver of deep seascape evolution. Given the global dimension of this type of fishery, we anticipate that the morphology of the upper continental slope in many parts of the world’s oceans could be altered by intensive bottom trawling, producing comparable effects on the deep sea floor to those generated by agricultural ploughing on land.

  16. Imaging Green Fluorescent Protein-tagged Receptor Molecules in Cellular Membranes with Near-field Scanning Optical Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwabuchi, Shinichiro; Hwang, Jeeseong; Goldner, Lori S.; Heinz, William; Edidin, Michael

    2001-03-01

    We report on near-field imaging of the major histocompatibility complex Class I (MHC-1) molecules in membranes of mammalian cells. The MHC-1 molecules are genetically modified to contain a green fluorescent protein moiety. Using near-field fluorescence imaging, we explore the distribution of MHC-1 molecules with resolution significantly better than what can be achieved with an ordinary microscope. We find submicron size features that are associated with the redistribution of MHC-1 proteins on the plasma membrane. Our NSOM for cell biology uses an aperture probe and permits the simultaneous optical and topographic imaging of samples both in air and in aqueous solution.

  17. Impact of mitochondrial electric field on modal occupancy in the Fröhlich model of cellular electromagnetism.

    PubMed

    Šrobár, Fedor

    2013-09-01

    Fröhlich model describes emission of electromagnetic field in the interior of biological cells by oscillating polar units, now mostly identified with microtubule filaments. Central element of this theory is the system of rate equations for the quantum occupancy numbers n i of collective oscillation modes. These equations describe both linear and nonlinear properties of the system; presence of the latter can lead to condensation of the incoming energy into the lowest frequency mode - a phenomenon deemed to be of major importance for cell's biochemistry, because the excited mode can engage in chemical reactions while the major part of the system remains near the equilibrium, not exposed to energetic stress. This paper explores, using a simple model, the influence of strong static electric field created by mitochondria flanking the microtubules on nonlinear interactions and, in turn, on occupancy numbers. The computed results show that simultaneous presence of both sufficient metabolic pumping and adequately elevated static electric field is necessary for the full unfolding of the hallmark properties of the Fröhlich model. It is suggested that cancer-related mitochondrial dysfunction leading to metabolic transformation has additional adverse effect mediated by diminution of static fields which in turn reduces the nonlinear processes in the Fröhlich systems, essential for energy condensation in the fundamental mode.

  18. Raise the Floor When Remodeling Science Labs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    A new remodeling idea adopts the concept of raised floor covering gas, water, electrical, and drain lines. The accessible floor has removable panels set into an adjustable support frame 24 inches above a concrete subfloor. (Author)

  19. Sea-Floor Spreading and Transform Faults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Ronald E.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents the Crustal Evolution Education Project (CEEP) instructional module on Sea-Floor Spreading and Transform Faults. The module includes activities and materials required, procedures, summary questions, and extension ideas for teaching Sea-Floor Spreading. (SL)

  20. 49 CFR 38.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Floor surfaces. 38.59 Section 38.59 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.59 Floor surfaces. Floor surfaces on aisles, places for standees, and...

  1. 14 CFR 25.793 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Floor surfaces. 25.793 Section 25.793 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 25.793 Floor surfaces. The floor surface of...

  2. 49 CFR 38.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Floor surfaces. 38.59 Section 38.59 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.59 Floor surfaces. Floor surfaces on aisles, places for standees, and...

  3. 49 CFR 38.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Floor surfaces. 38.59 Section 38.59 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.59 Floor surfaces. Floor surfaces on aisles, places for standees, and...

  4. 7 CFR 2902.39 - Floor strippers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Floor strippers. (a) Definition. Products that are formulated to loosen waxes, resins, or varnishes from floor surfaces. They can be in either liquid or gel form, and may also be used with or without... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Floor strippers. 2902.39 Section 2902.39...

  5. 7 CFR 993.107 - Floor inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Floor inspection. 993.107 Section 993.107 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 993.107 Floor inspection. Floor inspection means inspection...

  6. 7 CFR 993.505 - Floor inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Floor inspection. 993.505 Section 993.505 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Pack Specification as to Size Definitions § 993.505 Floor inspection. Floor inspection means...

  7. 49 CFR 38.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Floor surfaces. 38.59 Section 38.59 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.59 Floor surfaces. Floor...

  8. 7 CFR 993.505 - Floor inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Floor inspection. 993.505 Section 993.505 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Pack Specification as to Size Definitions § 993.505 Floor inspection. Floor inspection means...

  9. 14 CFR 25.793 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Floor surfaces. 25.793 Section 25.793 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Floor surfaces. The floor surface of all areas which are likely to become wet in service must have...

  10. 7 CFR 993.107 - Floor inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Floor inspection. 993.107 Section 993.107 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Administrative Rules and Regulations Definitions § 993.107 Floor inspection. Floor inspection means inspection...

  11. 36 CFR 1192.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Floor surfaces. 1192.59 Section 1192.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE... Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.59 Floor surfaces. Floor surfaces on aisles, places for standees,...

  12. 14 CFR 25.793 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Floor surfaces. 25.793 Section 25.793 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Floor surfaces. The floor surface of all areas which are likely to become wet in service must have...

  13. 36 CFR 1192.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Floor surfaces. 1192.59 Section 1192.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE... Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.59 Floor surfaces. Floor surfaces on aisles, places for standees,...

  14. 49 CFR 38.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Floor surfaces. 38.59 Section 38.59 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.59 Floor surfaces. Floor...

  15. 5. HINDS PUMPING FLOOR FROM WEST END TOP OF UNIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. HINDS PUMPING FLOOR FROM WEST END TOP OF UNIT #9 (LENS STOPPED DOWN ALL THE WAY FOR DEPTH OF FIELD ENHANCEMENT). - Hinds Pump Plant, East of Joshua Tree National Monument, 5 miles north of Route 10, Hayfield, Riverside County, CA

  16. 7. Photographic copy of floor plan sketch, undated, Selfridge Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photographic copy of floor plan sketch, undated, Selfridge Air National Guard Base Civil Engineers Office in possession of Selfridge Base Civil Engineers Office, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1514, Schoolhouse Road north of South Perimeter Road, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  17. Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated August 10, 1968, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated August 10, 1968, Department of the Air Force Air Defense Command Installations, in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1580, South of East Joy Boulevard, west of Taxiway C, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  18. 6. Photographic copy of floor plan, dated August 10, 1968, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of floor plan, dated August 10, 1968, Department of the Air Force Air Defense Command Installation, in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1576, South of East Joy Boulevard, west of Taxiway C, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  19. 7. Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated August 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photographic copy of floor plan drawing, dated August 10, 1968, Department of the Air Force Air Defense Command Installations, in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. - Selfridge Field, Building No. 592, South of East Joy Boulevard, west of Taxiway C, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  20. 18. Photographic copy of floor plan, dated January 5, 1958, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photographic copy of floor plan, dated January 5, 1958, Howard, Needled, Tammen & Bergendoff, Architects-Engineers, Kansas City, in possession of Selfridge Base Museum, Mt. Clemens, Michigan. ALERT HANGAR 566 GENERAL PLAN AND SECTION (SHEET 22 OF 43). - Selfridge Field, Building No. 3566, Ammo Road northeast of Taxiway A, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  1. Compact plane illumination plugin device to enable light sheet fluorescence imaging of multi-cellular organisms on an inverted wide-field microscope.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zeyi; Lee, Juhyun; Jiang, Hao; Dong, Siyan; Jen, Nelson; Hsiai, Tzung; Ho, Chih-Ming; Fei, Peng

    2016-01-01

    We developed a compact plane illumination plugin (PIP) device which enabled plane illumination and light sheet fluorescence imaging on a conventional inverted microscope. The PIP device allowed the integration of microscope with tunable laser sheet profile, fast image acquisition, and 3-D scanning. The device is both compact, measuring approximately 15 by 5 by 5 cm, and cost-effective, since we employed consumer electronics and an inexpensive device molding method. We demonstrated that PIP provided significant contrast and resolution enhancement to conventional microscopy through imaging different multi-cellular fluorescent structures, including 3-D branched cells in vitro and live zebrafish embryos. Imaging with the integration of PIP greatly reduced out-of-focus contamination and generated sharper contrast in acquired 2-D plane images when compared with the stand-alone inverted microscope. As a result, the dynamic fluid domain of the beating zebrafish heart was clearly segmented and the functional monitoring of the heart was achieved. Furthermore, the enhanced axial resolution established by thin plane illumination of PIP enabled the 3-D reconstruction of the branched cellular structures, which leads to the improvement on the functionality of the wide field microscopy. PMID:26819828

  2. Compact plane illumination plugin device to enable light sheet fluorescence imaging of multi-cellular organisms on an inverted wide-field microscope

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zeyi; Lee, Juhyun; Jiang, Hao; Dong, Siyan; Jen, Nelson; Hsiai, Tzung; Ho, Chih-Ming; Fei, Peng

    2015-01-01

    We developed a compact plane illumination plugin (PIP) device which enabled plane illumination and light sheet fluorescence imaging on a conventional inverted microscope. The PIP device allowed the integration of microscope with tunable laser sheet profile, fast image acquisition, and 3-D scanning. The device is both compact, measuring approximately 15 by 5 by 5 cm, and cost-effective, since we employed consumer electronics and an inexpensive device molding method. We demonstrated that PIP provided significant contrast and resolution enhancement to conventional microscopy through imaging different multi-cellular fluorescent structures, including 3-D branched cells in vitro and live zebrafish embryos. Imaging with the integration of PIP greatly reduced out-of-focus contamination and generated sharper contrast in acquired 2-D plane images when compared with the stand-alone inverted microscope. As a result, the dynamic fluid domain of the beating zebrafish heart was clearly segmented and the functional monitoring of the heart was achieved. Furthermore, the enhanced axial resolution established by thin plane illumination of PIP enabled the 3-D reconstruction of the branched cellular structures, which leads to the improvement on the functionality of the wide field microscopy. PMID:26819828

  3. Ridged Terrain on the Floor Melas Chasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Are these dunes? One of the most puzzling findings of the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera investigation has been the discovery of many surfaces of sharp, parallel ridges and grooves that--at first glance--look like dunes, but upon closer inspection turn out to be something else. They aren't dunes because they occur too close together, their crests are too sharp, and their slopes are too symmetrical. In most places that they occur on Mars, they appear to be occurring within a specific layer of (usually) dark material. Exactly what processes make these ridges is a mystery, but it clearly involves some sort of erosion. Dark mesas in this picture of the floor of Melas Chasma in the Valles Marineris system are developing sharp, parallel troughs and pits that appear to eventually erode to become the fields of ridges seen throughout the rest of the image. Dark, ridged surfaces like this are common in the central floors of Valles Marineris and elsewhere in the equatorial regions of Mars, and present a type of surface that may need to be avoided by future Mars landers. This image, illuminated by sunlight from the left, covers an area 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) wide and 14.5 kilometers (9 miles) long. The scene is located near 8.8oS, 76.8oW and was acquired on March 22, 1999.

  4. Cellular regulation of extension and retraction of pseudopod-like blebs produced by nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF).

    PubMed

    Rassokhin, Mikhail A; Pakhomov, Andrei G

    2014-07-01

    Recently we described a new phenomenon of anodotropic pseudopod-like blebbing in U937 cells exposed to nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF). In Ca(2+)-free buffer such exposure initiates formation of pseudopod-like blebs (PLBs), protrusive cylindrical cell extensions that are distinct from apoptotic and necrotic blebs. PLBs nucleate predominantly on anode-facing cell pole and extend toward anode during nsPEF exposure. Bleb extension depends on actin polymerization and availability of actin monomers. Inhibition of intracellular Ca(2+), cell contractility, and RhoA produced no effect on PLB initiation. Meanwhile, inhibition of WASP by wiskostatin causes dose-dependent suppression of PLB growth. Soon after the end of nsPEF exposure PLBs lose directionality of growth and then retract. Microtubule toxins nocodazole and paclitaxel did not show immediate effect on PLBs; however, nocodazole increased mobility of intracellular components during PLB extension and retraction. Retraction of PLBs is produced by myosin activation and the corresponding increase in PLB cortex contractility. Inhibition of myosin by blebbistatin reduces retraction while inhibition of RhoA-ROCK pathway by Y-27632 completely prevents retraction. Contraction of PLBs can produce cell translocation resembling active cell movement. Overall, the formation, properties, and life cycle of PLBs share common features with protrusions associated with ameboid cell migration. PLB life cycle may be controlled through activation of WASP by its upstream effectors such as Cdc42 and PIP2, and main ROCK activator-RhoA. Parallels between pseudopod-like blebbing and motility blebbing may provide new insights into their underlying mechanisms.

  5. [Functional aspects of pelvic floor surgery].

    PubMed

    Wagenlehner, F M E; Gunnemann, A; Liedl, B; Weidner, W

    2009-11-01

    Pelvic floor dysfunctions are frequently seen in females. The human pelvic floor is a complex structure and heavily stressed throughout female life. Recent findings in the functional anatomy of the pelvic floor have led to a much better understand-ing, on the basis of which enormous improvements in the therapeutic options have arisen. The pelvic floor activity is regulated by three main muscular forces that are responsible for vaginal tension and suspension of the pelvic floor -organs, bladder and rectum. For different reasons laxity in the vagina or its supporting ligaments as a result of altered connective tissue can distort this functional anatomy. A variety of symptoms can derive from these pelvic floor dysfunctions, such as urinary urge and stress incontinence, abnormal bladder emptying, faecal incontinence, obstructive bowel disease syndrome and pelvic pain. Pelvic floor reconstruction is nowadays driven by the concept that in the case of pelvic floor symptoms restoration of the anatomy will translate into restoration of the physiology and ultimately improve the patients' symptoms. The exact surgical reconstruction of the anatomy is there-fore almost exclusively focused on the restoration of the lax pelvic floor ligaments. An exact identification of the anatomic lesions preoperatively is eminently necessary, to allow for an exact anatomic reconstruction with respect to the muscular forces of the pelvic floor.

  6. Scaling on a limestone flooring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona-Quiroga, P. M.; Blanco-Varela, M. T.; Martínez-Ramírez, S.

    2012-04-01

    Natural stone can be use on nearly every surface, inside and outside buildings, but decay is more commonly reported from the ones exposed to outdoor aggressively conditions. This study instead, is an example of limestone weathering of uncertain origin in the interior of a residential building. The stone, used as flooring, started to exhibit loss of material in the form of scaling. These damages were observed before the building, localized in the South of Spain (Málaga), was inhabited. Moreover, according to the company the limestone satisfies the following European standards UNE-EN 1341: 2002, UNE-EN 1343: 2003; UNE-EN 12058: 2004 for floorings. Under these circumstances the main objective of this study was to assess the causes of this phenomenon. For this reason the composition of the mortar was determined and the stone was characterized from a mineralogical and petrological point of view. The last material, which is a fossiliferous limestone from Egypt with natural fissure lines, is mainly composed of calcite, being quartz, kaolinite and apatite minor phases. Moreover, under different spectroscopic and microscopic techniques (FTIR, micro-Raman, SEM-EDX, etc) samples of the weathered, taken directly from the buildings, and unweathered limestone tiles were examined and a new mineralogical phase, trona, was identified at scaled areas which are connected with the natural veins of the stone. In fact, through BSE-mapping the presence of sodium has been detected in these veins. This soluble sodium carbonate would was dissolved in the natural waters from which limestone was precipitated and would migrate with the ascendant capilar humidity and crystallized near the surface of the stone starting the scaling phenomenon which in historic masonry could be very damaging. Therefore, the weathering of the limestone would be related with the hygroscopic behaviour of this salt, but not with the constructive methods used. This makes the limestone unable to be used on restoration

  7. A rapid and accurate quantification method for real-time dynamic analysis of cellular lipids during microalgal fermentation processes in Chlorella protothecoides with low field nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Zejian; Tian, Xiwei; Yang, Yi; Guo, Meijin; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping

    2016-05-01

    The rapid and real-time lipid determination can provide valuable information on process regulation and optimization in the algal lipid mass production. In this study, a rapid, accurate and precise quantification method of in vivo cellular lipids of Chlorella protothecoides using low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) was newly developed. LF-NMR was extremely sensitive to the algal lipids with the limits of the detection (LOD) of 0.0026g and 0.32g/L in dry lipid samples and algal broth, respectively, as well as limits of quantification (LOQ) of 0.0093g and 1.18g/L. Moreover, the LF-NMR signal was specifically proportional to the cellular lipids of C. protothecoides, thus the superior regression curves existing in a wide detection range from 0.02 to 0.42g for dry lipids and from 1.12 to 8.97gL(-1) of lipid concentration for in vivo lipid quantification were obtained with all R(2) higher than 0.99, irrespective of the lipid content and fatty acids profile variations. The accuracy of this novel method was further verified to be reliable by comparing lipid quantification results to those obtained by GC-MS. And the relative standard deviation (RSD) of LF-NMR results were smaller than 2%, suggesting the precision of this method. Finally, this method was successfully used in the on-line lipid monitoring during the algal lipid fermentation processes, making it possible for better understanding of the lipid accumulation mechanism and dynamic bioprocess control. PMID:26948045

  8. Crash Tests of Protective Airplane Floors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, H. D.

    1986-01-01

    Energy-absorbing floors reduce structural buckling and impact forces on occupants. 56-page report discusses crash tests of energy-absorbing aircraft floors. Describes test facility and procedures; airplanes, structural modifications, and seats; crash dynamics; floor and seat behavior; and responses of anthropometric dummies seated in airplanes. Also presents plots of accelerations, photographs and diagrams of test facility, and photographs and drawings of airplanes before, during, and after testing.

  9. Effects of electromagnetic field stimulation on cellular signal transduction mechanisms: Analyses of the effects of low frequency electromagnetic fields on calcium spiking in ROS 17/2.8 cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sisken, B.F.; Sisken, J.E.

    1997-12-01

    The general goals of this work were to determine whether resting levels of cellular second messengers, especially calcium, are affected by low-level electromagnetic fields and the mechanisms that could lead to such changes. The work performed was directed at (1) verifying the report of McLeod et al (1990) that low frequency sinusoidal EMF can alter basal calcium fluctuations in cultured ROS 17/2.8 osteoblast-like cells and (2) reproducing the findings of Luben et al (1982) that pulsed electromagnetic fields can affect PTH-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in osteoblasts. Initially a system was constructed so that cells could be exposed to sinusoidal electric fields using platinum electrodes. In this system, the electrodes were separated from the cells and culture medium by agar barriers. A series of experiments indicated that this system was subject to a significant, though little-known artifact in which a not well understood interaction between the electrodes and sodium ions in the medium or in plain salt solutions led to frequency and amplitude dependent emission of photons that are recorded by the detection system. They therefore designed and constructed an air gap reactor system that utilizes a ferromagnetic core to direct the magnetic flux generated by a sinusoidal coil. Studies on the effects of a 15 Hz pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on cyclic AMP metabolism were performed on ROS 17/2.8 and MC3T3 cells.

  10. Pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation using biofeedback.

    PubMed

    Newman, Diane K

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic floor muscle exercises have been recommended for urinary incontinence since first described by obstetrician gynecologist Dr. Arnold Kegel more than six decades ago. These exercises are performed to strengthen pelvic floor muscles, provide urethral support to prevent urine leakage, and suppress urgency. In clinical urology practice, expert clinicians also teach patients how to relax the muscle to improve bladder emptying and relieve pelvic pain caused by muscle spasm. When treating lower urinary tract symptoms, an exercise training program combined with biofeedback therapy has been recommended as first-line treatment. This article provides clinical application of pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation using biofeedback as a technique to enhance pelvic floor muscle training.

  11. Side Elevation; 1/4 Plans of Floor Framing, Floor Planking, Roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Side Elevation; 1/4 Plans of Floor Framing, Floor Planking, Roof Framing and Roof; Longitudinal Section, Cross Section, End Elevation - Eames Covered Bridge, Spanning Henderson Creek, Oquawka, Henderson County, IL

  12. 17. 4th floor roof, view south, 4th and 5th floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. 4th floor roof, view south, 4th and 5th floor setback to left and atrium structure to right - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  13. Eastern Floor of Holden Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 15 April 2002) The Science Today's THEMIS image covers territory on the eastern floor of Holden Crater, which is located in region of the southern hemisphere called Noachis Terra. Holden Crater is 154 km in diameter and named after American Astronomer Edward Holden (1846-1914). This image shows a mottled surface with channels, hills, ridges and impact craters. The largest crater seen in this image is 5 km in diameter. This crater has gullies and what appears to be horizontal layers in its walls. The Story With its beautiful symmetry and gullies radially streaming down to the floor, the dominant crater in this image is an impressive focal point. Yet, it is really just a small crater within a much larger one named Holden Crater. Take a look at the context image to the right to see just how much bigger Holden Crater is. Then come back to the image strip that shows the mottled surface of Holden Crater's eastern floor in greater detail, and count how many hills, ridges, channels, and small impact craters can be seen. No perfectly smooth terrain abounds there, that's for sure. The textured terrain of Holden Crater has been particularly intriguing ever since the Mars Orbital Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft found evidence of sedimentary rock layers there that might have formed in lakes or shallow seas in Mars' ancient past. This finding suggests that Mars may have been more like Earth long ago, with water on its surface. Holden Crater might even have held a lake long ago. No one knows for sure, but it's an exciting possibility. Why? If water was once on the surface of Mars long enough to form sedimentary materials, maybe it was there long enough for microbial life to have developed too. (Life as we know it just isn't possible without the long-term presence of liquid water.) The question of life on the red planet is certainly tantalizing, but scientists will need to engage in a huge amount of further investigation to begin to know the answer. That

  14. Image processing with cellular nonlinear networks implemented on field-programmable gate arrays for real-time applications in nuclear fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzo, S.; Murari, A.; Vagliasindi, G.; Arena, P.; Mazon, D.; de Maack, A.; Jet-Efda Contributors

    2010-08-01

    In the past years cameras have become increasingly common tools in scientific applications. They are now quite systematically used in magnetic confinement fusion, to the point that infrared imaging is starting to be used systematically for real-time machine protection in major devices. However, in order to guarantee that the control system can always react rapidly in case of critical situations, the time required for the processing of the images must be as predictable as possible. The approach described in this paper combines the new computational paradigm of cellular nonlinear networks (CNNs) with field-programmable gate arrays and has been tested in an application for the detection of hot spots on the plasma facing components in JET. The developed system is able to perform real-time hot spot recognition, by processing the image stream captured by JET wide angle infrared camera, with the guarantee that computational time is constant and deterministic. The statistical results obtained from a quite extensive set of examples show that this solution approximates very well an ad hoc serial software algorithm, with no false or missed alarms and an almost perfect overlapping of alarm intervals. The computational time can be reduced to a millisecond time scale for 8 bit 496×560-sized images. Moreover, in our implementation, the computational time, besides being deterministic, is practically independent of the number of iterations performed by the CNN—unlike software CNN implementations.

  15. Towards a validation of a cellular biomarker suite in native and transplanted zebra mussels: a 2-year integrative field study of seasonal and pollution-induced variations.

    PubMed

    Guerlet, Edwige; Ledy, Karine; Meyer, Antoinette; Giambérini, Laure

    2007-03-30

    Two of the questions raised in the validation process of biomarkers are their relevance in the identification and discrimination of environmental perturbations, and the influence of seasonal factors on these biological endpoints. Determining the advantages and restrictions associated with the use of native or transplanted animals and comparing their responses is also needed. To obtain this information, a 2-year integrative field study was conducted in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant in northeastern France. A station was located in the reservoir receiving the cooling waters of the plant, and two other sites were studied 2 km upstream and 5 km downstream from the reservoir's discharge in the Moselle river. Elevated temperatures, copper contamination and a 1.4-fold-concentration factor of dissolved salts affected water quality of the reservoir. Native and transplanted zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were collected monthly and their digestive glands were processed for histochemical determinations of the lysosomal and peroxisomal systems and of the lipofuscin and neutral lipid contents. The responses were quantified using automated image analysis and stereology. Apart from neutral lipid contents, there were no systematic seasonal patterns in mussel populations or from 1 year to another. Principal Component Analyses showed a general higher discrimination potential of biological responses in transplanted organisms compared to native ones. They also pointed out the relationships between the cellular and physiological markers and abiotic factors. The present multiple biomarker integrative approach in transplanted D. polymorpha brings promising elements in their validation process as relevant biomonitoring tools.

  16. Architected Cellular Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaedler, Tobias A.; Carter, William B.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing enables fabrication of materials with intricate cellular architecture, whereby progress in 3D printing techniques is increasing the possible configurations of voids and solids ad infinitum. Examples are microlattices with graded porosity and truss structures optimized for specific loading conditions. The cellular architecture determines the mechanical properties and density of these materials and can influence a wide range of other properties, e.g., acoustic, thermal, and biological properties. By combining optimized cellular architectures with high-performance metals and ceramics, several lightweight materials that exhibit strength and stiffness previously unachievable at low densities were recently demonstrated. This review introduces the field of architected materials; summarizes the most common fabrication methods, with an emphasis on additive manufacturing; and discusses recent progress in the development of architected materials. The review also discusses important applications, including lightweight structures, energy absorption, metamaterials, thermal management, and bioscaffolds.

  17. Views of the Sea Floor in Northern Monterey Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Finlayson, David P.

    2008-01-01

    A sonar survey that produced unprecedented high-resolution images of the sea floor in northern Monterey Bay was conducted in 2005 and 2006. The survey, performed over 14 days by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), consisted of 172 tracklines and over 300 million soundings and covered an area of 12.2 km2 (4.7 mi2). The goals of this survey were to collect high-resolution bathymetry (depth to the sea floor) and acoustic backscatter data (amount of sound energy bounced back from the sea floor, which provides information on sea-floor hardness and texture) from the inner continental shelf. These data will provide a baseline for future change analyses, geologic mapping, sediment- and contaminant-transport studies, benthic-habitat delineation, and numerical modeling efforts. The survey shows that the inner shelf in this area is extremely varied in nature, encompassing flat sandy areas, faults, boulder fields, and complex bedrock ridges that support rich marine ecosystems. Furthermore, many of these complex bedrock ridges form the ?reefs? that result in a number of California?s classic surf breaks.

  18. 16. THIRD FLOOR BLDG. 28A, DETAIL CUTOUT IN FLOOR FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. THIRD FLOOR BLDG. 28A, DETAIL CUTOUT IN FLOOR FOR WOOD BLOCK FLOORING LOOKING EAST. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  19. [Functional rehabilitation of the pelvic floor].

    PubMed

    Minschaert, M

    2003-09-01

    Pelvic floor revalidation is devoted to conserve perineal functions as statics, urinary continence and sexual harmony. The therapeutics includes preventive and curative actions, and is based upon muscular and neuromuscular properties of pelvic floor. The different steps are: information, local muscular work, behavioral education, biofeedback, functional electrostimulation, intraabdominal pressure control. The therapeutics is only continued if clinical improvement is demonstrated after 10 sessions.

  20. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Concrete flooring. 91.26 Section 91.26... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.26 Concrete flooring. (a) Pens aboard an ocean vessel shall have a 3 inch concrete pavement, proportioned and mixed to give 2000...

  1. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Concrete flooring. 91.26 Section 91.26... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.26 Concrete flooring. (a) Pens aboard an ocean vessel shall have a 3 inch concrete pavement, proportioned and mixed to give 2000...

  2. Floor Time: Rethinking Play in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kordt-Thomas, Chad; Lee, Ilene M.

    2006-01-01

    Floor time is a play-based, one-to-one approach to helping children develop relationships, language, and thinking. Developed by child psychiatrist Stanley Greenspan, floor time is helpful not only for children with special needs but also for children who are developing typically. It can be used by teachers, caregivers, and families in brief…

  3. Learning4Life on the Exhibit Floor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    The exhibit floor is a wealth of knowledge. One can read, view, and listen to information presented in many formats. Somewhere on the exhibit floor there are experts on every topic, ready and waiting for one's questions. But like any research topic, frequently a structured search is required to find the best answers. This article discusses how to…

  4. 36 CFR 910.60 - Gross floor area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gross floor area. 910.60... DEVELOPMENT AREA Glossary of Terms § 910.60 Gross floor area. Gross floor area is defined in section 1201... of the several floors from the ground floor up of all buildings of a development occurring on a...

  5. 25. INTERIOR VIEW ON THE GENERATOR FLOOR OF THE SOAPSTONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. INTERIOR VIEW ON THE GENERATOR FLOOR OF THE SOAPSTONE PANELS THAT CONTAIN INSTRUMENTS TO MONITIOR AND CONTROL THE OUTPUT OF THE GENERTATORS. IN THE FOREGROUND RIGHT ARE ADJUSTABLE FIELD RESISTORS TO CONTROL THE OVERALL POWER OUTPUT OF THE MAIN GENERATOR VIA THE EXCITER GENERATOR. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  6. Male pelvic floor: history and update.

    PubMed

    Dorey, Grace

    2005-08-01

    Our understanding of the male pelvic floor has evolved over more than 2,000 years. Gradually medical science has sought to dispel ancient myths and untruths. The male pelvic floor has many diverse functions. Importantly, it helps to support the abdominal contents, maintains urinary and fecal continence, and plays a major role in gaining and maintaining penile erection. Weakness of the male pelvic floor muscles may cause urinary and fecal incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Function may be restored in each of these areas by a comprehensive pelvic floor muscle training program. Spasm of the pelvic floor muscles may produce pain and require relaxation techniques. Additional research is needed to add further evidence to our knowledge base.

  7. Reducing the in-vitro electromagnetic field effect of cellular phones on human DNA and the intensity of their emitted radiation.

    PubMed

    Syldona, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated detrimental effects of cellular phone radiation on in-vitro biological systems. This article introduces a novel in-vitro method for demonstrating conformational changes in human DNA induced by a 5 minute exposure to cellular phone radiation emitted by an actual contemporary cellular phone. Dynamic changes in DNA conformation was determined in real-time by measuring the rate of DNA rewinding (in a spectrophotometer) following exposure to heat which causes the unwinding of the two strands of the helix. Cellular phone radiation produced a 40% increase in the rate of DNA rewinding. This effect was 95% attenuated when the experiment was repeated with the same cellular phone to which was attached a commercially available shielding disk shaped sheet containing a paramagnetic mineral. In a separate series of experiments the intensity of the cellular phone radiation was measured using an electromagnetic frequency spectrum analyzer. The intensity was reduced by approximately 50% in the presence of the shielding disk. Taken together these studies indicate the efficacy of a shielding disk to protect the body from cellular phone radiation.

  8. Migration of DEHP and DINP into dust from PVC flooring products at different surface temperature.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seunghwan; Kim, Ki-Tae; Choi, Kyungho

    2016-03-15

    Phthalates are important endocrine disrupting chemicals that have been linked to various adverse human health effects. Phthalates are ubiquitously present in indoor environment and could enter humans. Vinyl or PVC floorings have been recognized as one of important sources of phthalate release to indoor environment including house dust. In the present study, we estimated the migration of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) from the flooring materials into the dust under different heating conditions. For this purpose, a small chamber specifically designed for the present study and a Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC) were used, and four major types of PVC flooring samples including two UV curing paint coated, an uncoated residential, and a wax-coated commercial type were tested. Migration of DEHP was observed for an uncoated residential type and a wax-coated commercial type flooring. After 14 days of incubation, the levels of DEHP in the dust sample was determined at room temperature on average (standard deviation) at 384 ± 19 and 481 ± 53 μg/g, respectively. In contrast, migration of DINP was not observed. The migration of DEHP was strongly influenced by surface characteristics such as UV curing coating. In the residential flooring coated with UV curing paint, migration of DEHP was not observed at room temperature. But under the heated condition, the release of DEHP was observed in the dust in the FLEC. Migration of DEHP from flooring materials increased when the flooring was heated (50 °C). In Korea, heated flooring system, or 'ondol', is very common mode of heating in residential setting, therefore the contribution of PVC flooring to the total indoor DEHP exposure among general population is expected to be greater especially during winter season when the floor is heated.

  9. Migration of DEHP and DINP into dust from PVC flooring products at different surface temperature.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seunghwan; Kim, Ki-Tae; Choi, Kyungho

    2016-03-15

    Phthalates are important endocrine disrupting chemicals that have been linked to various adverse human health effects. Phthalates are ubiquitously present in indoor environment and could enter humans. Vinyl or PVC floorings have been recognized as one of important sources of phthalate release to indoor environment including house dust. In the present study, we estimated the migration of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) from the flooring materials into the dust under different heating conditions. For this purpose, a small chamber specifically designed for the present study and a Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC) were used, and four major types of PVC flooring samples including two UV curing paint coated, an uncoated residential, and a wax-coated commercial type were tested. Migration of DEHP was observed for an uncoated residential type and a wax-coated commercial type flooring. After 14 days of incubation, the levels of DEHP in the dust sample was determined at room temperature on average (standard deviation) at 384 ± 19 and 481 ± 53 μg/g, respectively. In contrast, migration of DINP was not observed. The migration of DEHP was strongly influenced by surface characteristics such as UV curing coating. In the residential flooring coated with UV curing paint, migration of DEHP was not observed at room temperature. But under the heated condition, the release of DEHP was observed in the dust in the FLEC. Migration of DEHP from flooring materials increased when the flooring was heated (50 °C). In Korea, heated flooring system, or 'ondol', is very common mode of heating in residential setting, therefore the contribution of PVC flooring to the total indoor DEHP exposure among general population is expected to be greater especially during winter season when the floor is heated. PMID:26824397

  10. Ultrasonic Inspection Of The LTAB Floor

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G

    2001-07-31

    The National Ignition Facility's (NIF) floor is damaged by transporter operations. Two basic operations, rotating the wheels in place and traversing the floor numerous times can cause failure in the grout layer. The floor is composed of top wear surface (Stonhard) and an osmotic grout layer on top of concrete, Fig. 1. An ultrasonic technique was implemented to assess the condition of the floor as part of a study to determine the damage mechanisms. The study considered damage scenarios and ways to avoid the damage. A possible solution is to install thin steel plates where the transporter traverses on the floor. These tests were conducted with a fully loaded transporter that applies up to 1300 psi loads to the floor. A contact ultrasonic technique evaluated the condition of the grout layer in NIF's floor. Figure 1 displays the configuration of the ultrasonic transducer on the floor. We inspected the floor after wheel rotation damage and after wheel traversal damage. Figure 2a and 2b are photographs of the portable ultrasonic system and data acquisition. We acquired ultrasonic signals in a known pristine area and a damaged area to calibrate the inspection. Figure 3 is a plot of the typical ultrasonic response from an undamaged area (black) overlapped with a signal (red) from a damaged area. The damage area data was acquired at a location next to a hole in the floor that was caused by the transporter. Five megahertz pulses are propagated from the transducer and through a Plexiglas buffer rod into the floor. The ultrasonic pulse reflects from each discontinuity in the floor. The ultrasonic signal reflects from the top surface, the Stonhard-to-grout interface, and the grout to concrete interface. We expect to see reflections from each of these interfaces in an undamaged floor. If the grout layer pulverizes then the high frequency signal cannot traverse the layer and the grout to concrete interface signal will decrease or vanish. The more damage to the grout the more the

  11. 41. Ground level photograph of two floors of skeleton complete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Ground level photograph of two floors of skeleton complete with 3rd and 4th floors being started,upper floors of county bldg visible - Chicago City Hall, 121 North LaSalle Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  12. Typical Newel Post, First Floor Newel Post, Typical Baluster, Typical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Typical Newel Post, First Floor Newel Post, Typical Baluster, Typical Nosing, First Floor Stringer Profile, Second Floor Stringer Profile - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers - Battle Mountain Sanitarium, Treasurer's Quarters, 500 North Fifth Street, Hot Springs, Fall River County, SD

  13. Pelvic floor and sexual male dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Pischedda, Antonella; Fusco, Ferdinando; Curreli, Andrea; Grimaldi, Giovanni; Pirozzi Farina, Furio

    2013-04-19

    The pelvic floor is a complex multifunctional structure that corresponds to the genito-urinary-anal area and consists of muscle and connective tissue. It supports the urinary, fecal, sexual and reproductive functions and pelvic statics. The symptoms caused by pelvic floor dysfunction often affect the quality of life of those who are afflicted, worsening significantly more aspects of daily life. In fact, in addition to providing support to the pelvic organs, the deep floor muscles support urinary continence and intestinal emptying whereas the superficial floor muscles are involved in the mechanism of erection and ejaculation. So, conditions of muscle hypotonia or hypertonicity may affect the efficiency of the pelvic floor, altering both the functionality of the deep and superficial floor muscles. In this evolution of knowledge it is possible imagine how the rehabilitation techniques of pelvic floor muscles, if altered and able to support a voiding or evacuative or sexual dysfunction, may have a role in improving the health and the quality of life.

  14. Dunes in a Crater Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 6 August 2003

    This image shows the floor of a crater just north of the Argyre basin in the southern hemisphere. Dark dunes have been pushed up against the northeastern interior rim of the crater, indicating that the prevailing winds blow from the southwest.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -35.7, Longitude 324.1 East (35.9 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. Ultrasound Imaging of the Pelvic Floor.

    PubMed

    Stone, Daniel E; Quiroz, Lieschen H

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the background and appraisal of endoluminal ultrasound of the pelvic floor. It provides a detailed anatomic assessment of the muscles and surrounding organs of the pelvic floor. Different anatomic variability and pathology, such as prolapse, fecal incontinence, urinary incontinence, vaginal wall cysts, synthetic implanted material, and pelvic pain, are easily assessed with endoluminal vaginal ultrasound. With pelvic organ prolapse in particular, not only is the prolapse itself seen but the underlying cause related to the anatomic and functional abnormalities of the pelvic floor muscle structures are also visualized.

  16. This photocopy of an engineering drawing shows the floor plan ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    This photocopy of an engineering drawing shows the floor plan of the Liner Lab, including room functions. Austin, Field & Fry, Architects Engineers, 22311 West Third Street, Los Angeles 57, California: Edwards Test Station Complex Phase II, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Edwards Air Force Base, Edwards, California: "Liner Laboratory, Floor Plan and Schedules," drawing no. E33/4-2, 26 June 1962. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering: engineering drawings of structures at JPL Edwards Facility. Drawings on file at JPL Plant Engineering, Pasadena, California. California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Plant Engineering: engineering drawings of structures at JPL Edwards Facility. Drawings on file at JPL Plant Engineering, Pasadena, California - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Liner Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. The effect of softening on the bearing capacity of mine floors

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, G.G.; Choi, S.H.

    1998-12-31

    Based on analyzing case history data in the Illinois Coal Basin, it was determined that mine collapse resulting in surface subsidence can occur from floor softening. In other words, certain materials present in the mine floor can soften after coal extraction and fail when bearing pillars. The softening mechanisms considered are: (1) slaking/swelling due to moisture exposure, and (2) creep or strain softening due to sustained loads. In some case histories, the effect of floor slaking or swelling on floor stability is a fairly dramatic event by the occurrence of pooling of mine water and subsequent surface subsidence in the are a of pooling. In other cases, the time factor is greater. The effect of softening on the ultimate bearing capacity of the mine floor was assessed by modeling representative conditions using FEM and elasto-plastic elements. In the models, the properties of softened mine floor were determined from results from subsurface exploration work in floor areas which were stable and others which had failed. The zone of softening was established on stress-field analysis.

  18. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... composite material diagonally scored one-half inch deep may be used on iron decks instead of wooden flooring... aft with flat side down, and so placed as to provide in-between spaces of 12, 14, 26, and 14...

  19. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... composite material diagonally scored one-half inch deep may be used on iron decks instead of wooden flooring... aft with flat side down, and so placed as to provide in-between spaces of 12, 14, 26, and 14...

  20. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... composite material diagonally scored one-half inch deep may be used on iron decks instead of wooden flooring... aft with flat side down, and so placed as to provide in-between spaces of 12, 14, 26, and 14...

  1. Floor Fractured Craters around Syrtis Major, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamberg, M.; Jaumann, R.; Asche, H.

    2012-04-01

    Craters around Syrtis Major are eroded and/or refilled. Syrtis Major is one of the large Hesperian-aged volcanic regions on Mars. Basaltic deposits originating from nearby Syrtis Major cover the floor of impact craters. In particular some craters exhibit a fractured floor. Floor Fractured Craters can be divided in types. The grade of erosion and the geologic process, which formed the crater, can be different. Type 1: Crater floor affected by pit chains or narrow crevices which are sometimes discontinuous. Type 2: More developed and dense networks of crevices as type 1. Crevices are wide and deep enough to be detected. A circular moat starts to develop as crevices concentrate along the rim. Type 3: Mainly distinguished from type 2 by the presence of a fully developed circular moat. The flat central part is divided into several blocks by crevices. Type 4: They show also a continuous moat along the rim but the central part consists of many flat-top blocks and small conical mounds. Type 5: Crater floor has many mounds of irregular sizes, but the flattop blocks are absent. It should be noted that the knobby surface shows typical characteristics of chaotic terrains and could be alternatively classified as such. Type 6: Crater without a circular moat, crevices are not fully developed, flat-top blocks are present. Fractured floor could have been reshaped through geologic processes. Floor fractured craters can be found in three different areas. The first area is located in the south-eastern part of Syrtis Major, bordering to the highlands. Volcanic features like lava flow fronts, lava flows and wrinkle ridges dominate this region. The crater floor is separated in sharp-edged plates and the interior seems to be flooded by basaltic material. The second area is in the north of Syrtis Major and transcend to the chaotic terrain further north. Near the martian dichotomy boundary fluvial activity was the decisive process. The crater rims are highly eroded, channels are cutting

  2. [Epidermoid cyst of the mouth floor].

    PubMed

    Sanjuán Rodríguez, S; Morán Penco, J M; Ruiz Orpez, A; Santamaria Ossorio, J I; Berchi García, F J

    2003-07-01

    The epidermoid cysts are frequent during childhood, however mouth floor location are very unusual, because of their more difficult diagnosis and therapeutic approach. We present a 5 years old male, symptoms free until a week before, when his parents noticed a well defined mass in the mouth floor. A physical examination leaded to the diagnosis of possible epidermoid cyst. The tumor was excised through an introral approach. A review of different diagnostic means and surgical management are undertaken.

  3. [Functional rehabilitation of the pelvic floor].

    PubMed

    Minschaert, M

    2003-09-01

    Pelvic floor revalidation is devoted to conserve perineal functions as statics, urinary continence and sexual harmony. The therapeutics includes preventive and curative actions, and is based upon muscular and neuromuscular properties of pelvic floor. The different steps are: information, local muscular work, behavioral education, biofeedback, functional electrostimulation, intraabdominal pressure control. The therapeutics is only continued if clinical improvement is demonstrated after 10 sessions. PMID:14606287

  4. Physical therapy for female pelvic floor disorders.

    PubMed

    Bourcier, A P

    1994-08-01

    Non-surgical, non-pharmacological treatment for female pelvic floor dysfunction is represented by rehabilitation in urogynecology. Since Kegel, in 1948, who proposed the concept of functional restoration of the perineal muscles, no specific term has actually been established. Owing to the number of specialists involved in the management of female pelvic floor disorders (such as gynecologists, urologists, coloproctologists, and neurologists) and the different types of health care providers concerned (such as physicians, physical therapists, nurses, and midwives), it is difficult to make the proper choice between 'physical therapy for pelvic floor', 'pelvic floor rehabilitation', 'pelvic muscle re-education', and 'pelvic floor training'. Because muscle re-education is under the control of physical therapists, we have chosen the term of physical therapy for female pelvic floor disorders. Muscle re-education has an important role in the primary treatment of lower urinary tract dysfunction. A multidisciplinary collaboration may be of particular interest, and a thorough evaluation is useful for a proper selection of patients.

  5. Urinary incontinence, pelvic floor dysfunction, exercise and sport.

    PubMed

    Bø, Kari

    2004-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is defined as "the complaint of any involuntary leakage of urine" and is a common problem in the female population with prevalence rates varying between 10% and 55% in 15- to 64-year-old women. The most frequent form of urinary incontinence in women is stress urinary incontinence, defined as "involuntary leakage on effort or exertion, or on sneezing or coughing". The aim of this article is to systematically review the literature on urinary incontinence and participation in sport and fitness activities with a special emphasis on prevalence and treatment in female elite athletes. Stress urinary incontinence is a barrier to women's participation in sport and fitness activities and, therefore, it may be a threat to women's health, self-esteem and well-being. The prevalence during sports among young, nulliparous elite athletes varies between 0% (golf) and 80% (trampolinists). The highest prevalence is found in sports involving high impact activities such as gymnastics, track and field, and some ball games. A 'stiff' and strong pelvic floor positioned at an optimal level inside the pelvis may be a crucial factor in counteracting the increases in abdominal pressure occurring during high-impact activities. There are no randomised controlled trials or reports on the effect of any treatment for stress urinary incontinence in female elite athletes. However, strength training of the pelvic floor muscles has been shown to be effective in treating stress urinary incontinence in parous females in the general population. In randomised controlled trials, reported cure rates, defined as <2g of leakage on pad tests, varied between 44% and 69%. Pelvic floor muscle training has no serious adverse effects and has been recommended as first-line treatment in the general population. Use of preventive devices such as vaginal tampons or pessaries can prevent leakage during high impact physical activity. The pelvic floor muscles need to be much stronger in elite athletes

  6. ETRA, TRA642. ON BASEMENT FLOOR. IBEAM COLUMNS SUPPORTING CONSOLE FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETRA, TRA-642. ON BASEMENT FLOOR. I-BEAM COLUMNS SUPPORTING CONSOLE FLOOR HAVE BEEN SURROUNDED BY CONCRETE IN RECTANGULAR PILLARS. BASEMENT FLOOR IS BEING PREPARED FOR PLACEMENT OF CONCRETE. ABOVE CEILING IS CONSOLE FLOOR, IN WHICH CUT-OUT HAS PRESERVED SPACE FOR REACTOR AND ITS SHIELDING. CIRCULAR FORM IN REACTOR AREA IS CONCRETE FORMING. NOTE VERTICAL CONDUIT AT INTERVALS AROUND REACTOR PITS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-1237. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 4/17/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. Refinishing contamination floors in Spent Nuclear Fuels storage basins

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, F.F.; Moore, F.W.

    1997-07-11

    The floors of the K Basins at the Hanford Site are refinished to make decontamination easier if spills occur as the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is being unloaded from the basins for shipment to dry storage. Without removing the contaminated existing coating, the basin floors are to be coated with an epoxy coating material selected on the basis of the results of field tests of several paint products. The floor refinishing activities must be reviewed by a management review board to ensure that work can be performed in a controlled manner. Major documents prepared for management board review include a report on maintaining radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable, a waste management plan, and reports on hazard classification and unreviewed safety questions. To protect personnel working in the radiation zone, Operational Health Physics prescribed the required minimum protective methods and devices in the radiological work permit. Also, industrial hygiene safety must be analyzed to establish respirator requirements for persons working in the basins. The procedure and requirements for the refinishing work are detailed in a work package approved by all safety engineers. After the refinishing work is completed, waste materials generated from the refinishing work must be disposed of according to the waste management plan.

  8. 2. VIEW OF LOWER MILL FLOOR FOUNDATION, SHOWING, LEFT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF LOWER MILL FLOOR FOUNDATION, SHOWING, LEFT TO RIGHT, EDGE OF MILLING FLOOR, TABLE FLOOR, VANNING FLOOR, LOADING LEVEL, TAILINGS POND IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. VIEW IS LOOKING FROM THE NORTHWEST - Mountain King Gold Mine & Mill, 4.3 Air miles Northwest of Copperopolis, Copperopolis, Calaveras County, CA

  9. Indirect orbital floor fractures: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Mithra O; Durairaj, Vikram D

    2010-04-01

    Orbit fractures are common in the context of orbital trauma. Fractures of the orbital floor without orbital rim involvement are known as indirect orbital floor fractures, pure internal floor fractures, and orbital blowout fractures. In this paper, we have reported a meta-analysis of orbital floor fractures focusing on indications and timing of surgical repair, outcomes, and complications. PMID:20616920

  10. 76 FR 7098 - Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 120 and 121 Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program to make available 7(a) loan guaranties for lines of credit that provide floor plan financing. This new Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program was created in the Small Business...

  11. ETR, TRA642. FLOOR PLAN UNDER BALCONY ON CONSOLE FLOOR. MOTORGENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. FLOOR PLAN UNDER BALCONY ON CONSOLE FLOOR. MOTOR-GENERATOR SETS AND OTHER ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT. PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY ETR-D-1781, 7/1960. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-706-020384, REV. 1. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. Total pelvic floor ultrasound for pelvic floor defaecatory dysfunction: a pictorial review.

    PubMed

    Hainsworth, Alison J; Solanki, Deepa; Schizas, Alexis M P; Williams, Andrew B

    2015-01-01

    Total pelvic floor ultrasound is used for the dynamic assessment of pelvic floor dysfunction and allows multicompartmental anatomical and functional assessment. Pelvic floor dysfunction includes defaecatory, urinary and sexual dysfunction, pelvic organ prolapse and pain. It is common, increasingly recognized and associated with increasing age and multiparity. Other options for assessment include defaecation proctography and defaecation MRI. Total pelvic floor ultrasound is a cheap, safe, imaging tool, which may be performed as a first-line investigation in outpatients. It allows dynamic assessment of the entire pelvic floor, essential for treatment planning for females who often have multiple diagnoses where treatment should address all aspects of dysfunction to yield optimal results. Transvaginal scanning using a rotating single crystal probe provides sagittal views of bladder neck support anteriorly. Posterior transvaginal ultrasound may reveal rectocoele, enterocoele or intussusception whilst bearing down. The vaginal probe is also used to acquire a 360° cross-sectional image to allow anatomical visualization of the pelvic floor and provides information regarding levator plate integrity and pelvic organ alignment. Dynamic transperineal ultrasound using a conventional curved array probe provides a global view of the anterior, middle and posterior compartments and may show cystocoele, enterocoele, sigmoidocoele or rectocoele. This pictorial review provides an atlas of normal and pathological images required for global pelvic floor assessment in females presenting with defaecatory dysfunction. Total pelvic floor ultrasound may be used with complementary endoanal ultrasound to assess the sphincter complex, but this is beyond the scope of this review. PMID:26388109

  13. ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA648. FLOOR PLANS FOR FIRST FLOOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA-648. FLOOR PLANS FOR FIRST FLOOR AND BASEMENT. SECTIONS. KAISER ETR-5528-MTR-648-A-2, 12/1955. INL INDEX NO. 532-0648-00-486-101402, REV. 6. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. 24. FIFTH FLOOR BLDG. 28B, DETAIL WOOD BLOCK FLOORING LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. FIFTH FLOOR BLDG. 28B, DETAIL WOOD BLOCK FLOORING LOOKING NORTH. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  15. 23. FIFTH FLOOR BLDG. 28B, DETAIL WOOD BLOCK FLOORING LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. FIFTH FLOOR BLDG. 28B, DETAIL WOOD BLOCK FLOORING LOOKING WEST. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  16. LOFT, TAN650. Service building preamp tower, top three floors. Floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOFT, TAN-650. Service building pre-amp tower, top three floors. Floor plan, cable mazes, duct labyrinth. Borated water tank enclosure on roof. Kaiser engineers 6413-11-STEP/LOFT-650-A-3. Date: October 1964. INEEL index code no. 036-650-00-486-122215 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Evaluation of cage floor systems for production of commercial broilers.

    PubMed

    Akpobome, G O; Fanguy, R C

    1992-02-01

    Flooring materials evaluated consisted of three types of mesh (wire, steel, and plastic), three types of perforated floor (wood, styrofoam, and plastic), and three types of doweling (rigid, rotating, and padded). A solid wood floor with wood shavings litter served as a control. Parameters measured included body weight at 4, 6, and 8 wk and dressed carcass weight. Breast blisters, feather soilage, broken bones, feed consumption, percentage abdominal fat, and mortality rate for each floor type were also evaluated. Birds grown on wire mesh floors experienced a significant reduction in live body weight at 6 and 8 wk of age when compared with all other floor types tested. The remaining experimental floor types were comparable to the litter floor control group when using body weight as the performance criterion. The mesh floors experienced the highest incidence of breast blisters and the padded dowel group experienced the least. Feather soilage was a problem only with the perforated wood and styrofoam floor systems. Abdominal fat did not seem to be related to experimental floor type. The incidence of wing breakage during processing was significantly greater than leg breakage for all floor systems tested. Mortality was only a problem with the birds reared on wire mesh floors. The overall data suggests that a padded dowel floor system can be used to produce cage broilers about 2,500 g in weight without leg or breast damage and that these birds will be equivalent to those currently produced by the industry on a litter floor system.

  18. Expansion orbitotomy: another approach to the orbital floor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Ha; Kim, Sung-Eun; Kim, Tae Gon; Lee, Junho

    2013-07-01

    Surgeons encounter obstacles on the orbital floor reconstruction because of its narrow operative field. In particular, such procedure tends to be more difficult when the orbital contents are stuck between bone defects and are not easily restored. Tugging the soft tissue using forceps or mosquitoes could injure the soft tissues. Tessier infraorbital marginotomy could be helpful to solve such problem. However, his method is too invasive and cannot be easily applied. In this study, we describe a modification of Tessier inferior orbitotomy. Our method is to expand the fractured hole through osteotomy of fractured margin. Advantages of this technique are simpler and less invasive when the orbital contents are stuck between bone fragments.

  19. Synthetic biomaterials for pelvic floor reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Karlovsky, Matthew E; Kushner, Leslie; Badlani, Gopal H

    2005-09-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence increase with age. The increasing proportion of the aging female population is likely to result in a demand for care of pelvic floor prolapse and incontinence. Experimental evidence of altered connective tissue metabolism may predispose to pelvic floor dysfunction, supporting the use of biomaterials, such as synthetic mesh, to correct pelvic fascial defects. Re-establishing pelvic support and continence calls for a biomaterial to be inert, flexible, and durable and to simultaneously minimize infection and erosion risk. Mesh as a biomaterial has evolved considerably throughout the past half century to the current line that combines ease of use, achieves good outcomes, and minimizes risk. This article explores the biochemical basis for pelvic floor attenuation and reviews various pelvic reconstructive mesh materials, their successes, failures, complications, and management.

  20. Pathophysiology of pelvic floor hypertonic disorders.

    PubMed

    Butrick, Charles W

    2009-09-01

    The pelvic floor represents the neuromuscular unit that provides support and functional control for the pelvic viscera. Its integrity, both anatomic and functional, is the key in some of the basic functions of life: storage of urine and feces, evacuation of urine and feces, support of pelvic organs, and sexual function. When this integrity is compromised, the results lead to many of the problems seen by clinicians. Pelvic floor dysfunction can involve weakness and result in stress incontinence, fecal incontinence, and pelvic organ prolapse. Pelvic floor dysfunction can also involve the development of hypertonic, dysfunctional muscles. This article discusses the pathophysiology of hypertonic disorders that often result in elimination problems, chronic pelvic pain, and bladder disorders that include bladder pain syndromes, retention, and incontinence. The hypertonic disorders are very common and are often not considered in the evaluation and management of patients with these problems.

  1. Forest floor decomposition, metal exchangeability, and metal bioaccumulation by exotic earthworms: Amynthas agrestis and Lumbricus rubellus.

    PubMed

    Richardson, J B; Görres, J H; Friedland, A J

    2016-09-01

    Earthworms have the potential to reduce the retention of pollutant and plant essential metals in the forest floor (organic horizons) by decomposing organic matter and increasing exchangeability of metals. We conducted a laboratory experiment to investigate the effects of two exotic earthworms, Amynthas agrestis and Lumbricus rubellus, on forest floor decomposition, metal exchangeability, and metal bioaccumulation. Eighty-one pots containing homogenized forest floor material were incubated for 20, 40, or 80 days under three treatments: no earthworms, A. agrestis added, or L. rubellus added. For earthworm treatments, A. agrestis and L. rubellus were stocked at densities observed in previous field studies. Pots containing either A. agrestis or L. rubellus had lost more forest floor mass than the control plots after 40 and 80 days of incubation. Forest floor pots containing A. agrestis had significantly lower % C (16 ± 1.5 %) than control pots (21 ± 1.2 %) after 80 days. However, L. rubellus consumed more forest floor and C mass than A. agrestis, when evaluated on a per earthworm biomass basis. Exchangeable (0.1 M KCl + 0.01 M AcOH extractable) and stable (15 M HNO3+ 10 M HCl extractable) concentrations of Al, Ca, Cd, Cu, Mg, Mn, Pb, and Zn in forest floor material were measured. Stable concentrations and % exchangeable metals in forest floor material were similar among treatments. Although exchangeable metal concentrations varied significantly for most metals among treatments (except Mg and Zn), we conclude that earthworms did not increase or decrease the exchangeability of metals. However, earthworms bioaccumulated Cu, Cd, Zn, and Mg and had potentially hazardous tissue concentrations of Al and Pb. This was best illustrated by calculating bioaccumulation factors using exchangeable concentrations rather than total concentrations. Future research is needed to understand the effect of earthworms on metals in other soil types. PMID:27272919

  2. Exchange of volatile organic compounds in the boreal forest floor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaltonen, Hermanni; Bäck, Jaana; Pumpanen, Jukka; Pihlatie, Mari; Hakola, Hannele; Hellén, Heidi; Aalto, Juho; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Kajos, Maija K.; Kolari, Pasi; Taipale, Risto; Vesala, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems, mainly plants, emit large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. In addition to plants, VOCs also have less-known sources, such as soil. VOCs are a very diverse group of reactive compounds, including terpenoids, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones. Due to their high reactivity, VOCs take part in formation and growth of secondary organic aerosols in the atmosphere and thus affect also Earth's radiation balance (Kulmala et al. 2004). We have studied boreal soil and forest floor VOC fluxes with chamber and snow gradient techniques we were developed. Spatial and temporal variability in VOC fluxes was studied with year-round measurements in the field and the sources of boreal soil VOCs in the laboratory with fungal isolates. Determination of the compounds was performed mass spectrometrically. Our results reveal that VOCs from soil are mainly emitted by living roots, above- and belowground litter and microbes. The strongest source appears to be litter, in which both plant residuals and decomposers play a role in the emissions. Soil fungi showed high emissions of lighter VOCs, like acetone, acetaldehyde and methanol, from isolates. Temperature and moisture are the most critical physical factors driving VOC fluxes. Since the environment in boreal forests undergoes strong seasonal changes, the VOC flux strength of the forest floor varies markedly during the year, being highest in spring and autumn. The high spatial heterogeneity of the forest floor was also clearly visible in VOC fluxes. The fluxes of other trace gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) from soil, which are also related to the soil biological activity and physical conditions, did not show correlations with the VOC fluxes. These results indicate that emissions of VOCs from the boreal forest floor account for as much as several tens of percent, depending on the season, of the total forest ecosystem VOC emissions. This emphasises that forest floor compartment should be taken into

  3. Spreading of the ocean floor: new evidence.

    PubMed

    Vine, F J

    1966-12-16

    It is suggested that the entire history of the ocean basins, in terms of oceanfloor spreading,is contained frozen in the oceanic crust. Variations in the intensity and polarity of Earth's magnetic field are considered to be recorded in the remanent magnetism of the igneous rocks as they solidified and cooled through the Curie temperature at the crest of an oceanic ridge, and subsequently spread away from it at a steady rate. The hypothesis is supported by the extreme linearity and continuity of oceanic magnetic anomalies and their symmetry about the axes of ridges. If the proposed reversal time scale for the last 4 million years is combined with the model, computed anomaly profiles show remarkably good agreement with those observed, and one can deduce rates of spreading for all active parts of the midoceanic ridge system for which magnetic profilesor surveys are available. The rates obtained are in exact agreement with those needed to account for continental drift. An exceptionally high rate of spreading (approximately 4.5 cm/year) in the South Pacific enables one to deduce by extrapolation considerable details of the reversal time scale back to 11.5 million years ago. Again, this scale can be applied to other parts of the ridge system. Thus one isled to the suggestion that the crest of the East Pacific Rise in the northeast Pacific has been overridden and modified by the westward drift of North America, with the production of the anomalous width and unique features of the American cordillera in the western United States. The oceanicmagnetic anomalies also indicate that there was a change in derection of crustal spreading in this region during Pliocene time from eastwest to southeast-northwest. A profile from the crest to the boundary of the East Pacific Rise, and the difference between axial-zone and flank anomalies over ridges, suggest increase in the frequency of reversal of Earth's magnetic field, together, possibly, with decrease in its intensity

  4. Sand Sheet on Crater Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    As with yesterday's image, this dune field is located inside a crater, in this case an unnamed crater at 26 degrees North latitude. In this VIS image the dunes are coalescing into a sand sheet, note the lack of dune forms to the north of the small hills. The presence of ridges and hills in the area is affecting the dune shapes.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 26.4, Longitude 62.7 East (297.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology

  5. Foxj1 regulates floor plate cilia architecture and modifies the response of cells to sonic hedgehog signalling

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Catarina; Ribes, Vanessa; Kutejova, Eva; Cayuso, Jordi; Lawson, Victoria; Norris, Dominic; Stevens, Jonathan; Davey, Megan; Blight, Ken; Bangs, Fiona; Mynett, Anita; Hirst, Elizabeth; Chung, Rachel; Balaskas, Nikolaos; Brody, Steven L.; Marti, Elisa; Briscoe, James

    2010-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog signalling is essential for the embryonic development of many tissues including the central nervous system, where it controls the pattern of cellular differentiation. A genome-wide screen of neural progenitor cells to evaluate the Shh signalling-regulated transcriptome identified the forkhead transcription factor Foxj1. In both chick and mouse Foxj1 is expressed in the ventral midline of the neural tube in cells that make up the floor plate. Consistent with the role of Foxj1 in the formation of long motile cilia, floor plate cells produce cilia that are longer than the primary cilia found elsewhere in the neural tube, and forced expression of Foxj1 in neuroepithelial cells is sufficient to increase cilia length. In addition, the expression of Foxj1 in the neural tube and in an Shh-responsive cell line attenuates intracellular signalling by decreasing the activity of Gli proteins, the transcriptional mediators of Shh signalling. We show that this function of Foxj1 depends on cilia. Nevertheless, floor plate identity and ciliogenesis are unaffected in mouse embryos lacking Foxj1 and we provide evidence that additional transcription factors expressed in the floor plate share overlapping functions with Foxj1. Together, these findings identify a novel mechanism that modifies the cellular response to Shh signalling and reveal morphological and functional features of the amniote floor plate that distinguish these cells from the rest of the neuroepithelium. PMID:21098568

  6. Cellular: Toward personal communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heffernan, Stuart

    1991-09-01

    The cellular industry is one of the fastest growing segment of the telecommunications industry. With an estimated penetration rate of 20 percent in the near future, cellular is becoming an ubiquitous telecommunications service in the U.S. In this paper we will examine the major advancements in the cellular industry: customer equipment, cellular networks, engineering tools, customer support, and nationwide seamless service.

  7. A&M. TAN607 floor plans. Shows three floor levels of pool, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. TAN-607 floor plans. Shows three floor levels of pool, hot shop, and warm shop. Includes view of pool vestibule, personnel labyrinth, location of floor rails, and room numbers of office areas, labs, instrument rooms, and stairways. This drawing was re-drawn to show as-built features in 1993. Ralph M. Parsons 902-3-ANP-607-A 96. Date of original: December 1952. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 034-0607-00-693-106748 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. Sea Floor off San Diego, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Peter; Gibbons, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Ocean-floor image generated from multibeam-bathymetry data acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; Scripps Institution of Oceanography; California State University, Monterey Bay; and Fugro Pelagos. To learn more, visit http://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/2007/2959/.

  9. 36 CFR 1192.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Floor surfaces. 1192.59 Section 1192.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.59...

  10. 36 CFR 1192.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Floor surfaces. 1192.59 Section 1192.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.59...

  11. 36 CFR 1192.59 - Floor surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Floor surfaces. 1192.59 Section 1192.59 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.59...

  12. Lead exposures from varnished floor refinishing.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Joseph; Havlena, Jeff; Jacobs, David E; Dixon, Sherry; Ikens, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the presence of lead in varnish and factors predicting lead exposure from floor refinishing and inexpensive dust suppression control methods. Lead in varnish, settled dust, and air were measured using XRF, laboratory analysis of scrape and wipe samples, and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 7300, respectively, during refinishing (n = 35 homes). Data were analyzed using step-wise logistic regression. Compared with federal standards, no lead in varnish samples exceeded 1.0 mg/cm(2), but 52% exceeded 5000 ppm and 70% of settled dust samples after refinishing exceeded 40 μg/ft(2). Refinishing pre-1930 dwellings or stairs predicted high lead dust on floors. Laboratory analysis of lead in varnish was significantly correlated with airborne lead (r = 0.23, p = 0.014). Adding dust collection bags into drum sanders and HEPA vacuums to edgers and buffers reduced mean floor lead dust by 8293 μg Pb/ft(2) (p<0.05) on floors and reduced most airborne lead exposures to less than 50 μg/m(3). Refinishing varnished surfaces in older housing produces high but controllable lead exposures. PMID:22494405

  13. Seeing Results in Flooring for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Operations staffs at education facilities of all sizes are tasked with selecting a hard floor cleaning program that is cost-effective, efficient and highly productive. With an increased focus on the sustainability of an environment, facility managers also must select a program that meets sustainability goals while maintaining a healthful, safe…

  14. Building Trades. Block III. Floor Framing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This document contains three units of a course on floor framing to be used as part of a building trades program. Each unit consists, first, of an informational lesson, with complete lesson plan for the teacher's use. Included in each lesson plan are the lesson aim; lists of teaching aids, materials, references, and prerequisites for students;…

  15. Concentric Crater Floor Deposits in Daedalia Planum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 3 September 2003

    Concentric crater floor deposits in Daedalia Planum. Lava flows appear to be converging on this crater from the northeast as well as on the crater floor. The concentric floor deposits may be the result of exposed and eroded layers of sediment that make up the crater floor.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -22.3, Longitude 221.5 East (138.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  16. Performance Support on the Shop Floor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasvi, Jyrki J. J.; Vartiainen, Matti

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of performance support on the shop floor highlights four support systems for assembly lines that incorporate personal computer workstations in local area networks and use multimedia documents. Considers new customer-focused production paradigms; organizational learning; knowledge development; and electronic performance support systems…

  17. Nontraumatic orbital floor fracture after nose blowing.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Ranjit S; Shah, Akash D

    2016-03-01

    A 40-year-old woman with no history of trauma or prior surgery presented to the emergency department with headache and left eye pain after nose blowing. Noncontrast maxillofacial computed tomography examination revealed an orbital floor fracture that ultimately required surgical repair. There are nontraumatic causes of orbital blowout fractures, and imaging should be obtained irrespective of trauma history. PMID:26973725

  18. Side-scan sonar and submersible observations: New techniques for gleaning more information from sea-floor outcrops

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, J.; Hams, J.E.; Buck, S.P. )

    1990-05-01

    Advances in high resolution side-scan sonar imaging technology are so effective at imaging sea-floor geology that they have greatly improved the efficiency of a bottom sampling program The traditional sea-floor geology methodology of shooting a high-resolution seismic survey and sampling along the seismic grid was considered successful if outcrops were sampled on 20% of the attempts. A submersible was used sparingly because of the inability to consistently locate sea-floor outcrops. Side-scan sonar images have increased the sampling success ratio to 70-95% and allow the cost-effective use of a submersible even in areas of sparse sea-floor outcrops. In offshore basins this new technology has been used in consolidated and semiconsolidated rock terranes. When combined with observations from a two-man submersible, SCUBA traverses, seismic data, and traditional sea-floor bottom sampling techniques, enough data are provided to develop an integrated sea-floor geologic interpretation. On individual prospects, side-scan sonar has aided the establishment of critical dip in poor seismic data areas, located seeps and tar mounds, and determined erosional breaching of a prospect. Over a mature producing field, side-scan sonar has influenced the search for field extension by documenting the orientation and location of critical trapping cross faults. These relatively inexpensive techniques can provide critical data in any marine basin where rocks crop out on the sea floor.

  19. Effects of ELF magnetic field in combination with Iron(III) chloride (FeCl3) on cellular growth and surface morphology of Escherichia coli (E. coli).

    PubMed

    Esmekaya, Meric A; Acar, S Ipek; Kıran, Fadime; Canseven, Ayşe G; Osmanagaoglu, Ozlem; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field with/without iron(III) chloride (FeCl3) on bacterial growth and morphology. The ELF exposures were carried out using a pair of Helmholtz coil-based ELF exposure system which was designed to generate 50 Hz sinusoidal magnetic field. The field was approximately uniform throughout the axis of the coil pair. The samples which were treated or non-treated with different concentrations FeCl3 were exposed to 50 Hz, 2 millitesla (mT) magnetic field for 24 h. ELF effect on viability was assessed in terms of viable colony counts (in colony-forming unit per milliliter) with the standard plate count technique. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the magnetic field effect on surface morphology of Escherichia coli. No significant results were seen in terms of cell viability between ELF and sham-exposed bacterial strains. Similarly, FeCl3 treatment did not change cell viability of E. coli samples. However, we observed some morphological changes on E. coli cell surfaces. Pore formations and membrane destruction were seen on the surface of 24 h ELF field-exposed cells. We concluded that ELF magnetic field exposure at 2 mT does not affect cell viability; however, it may affect bacterial surface morphology.

  20. Application of low-frequency alternating current electric fields via interdigitated electrodes: effects on cellular viability, cytoplasmic calcium, and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    McCullen, Seth D; McQuilling, John P; Grossfeld, Robert M; Lubischer, Jane L; Clarke, Laura I; Loboa, Elizabeth G

    2010-12-01

    Electric stimulation is known to initiate signaling pathways and provides a technique to enhance osteogenic differentiation of stem and/or progenitor cells. There are a variety of in vitro stimulation devices to apply electric fields to such cells. Herein, we describe and highlight the use of interdigitated electrodes to characterize signaling pathways and the effect of electric fields on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). The advantage of the interdigitated electrode configuration is that cells can be easily imaged during short-term (acute) stimulation, and this identical configuration can be utilized for long-term (chronic) studies. Acute exposure of hASCs to alternating current (AC) sinusoidal electric fields of 1 Hz induced a dose-dependent increase in cytoplasmic calcium in response to electric field magnitude, as observed by fluorescence microscopy. hASCs that were chronically exposed to AC electric field treatment of 1 V/cm (4 h/day for 14 days, cultured in the osteogenic differentiation medium containing dexamethasone, ascorbic acid, and β-glycerol phosphate) displayed a significant increase in mineral deposition relative to unstimulated controls. This is the first study to evaluate the effects of sinusoidal AC electric fields on hASCs and to demonstrate that acute and chronic electric field exposure can significantly increase intracellular calcium signaling and the deposition of accreted calcium under osteogenic stimulation, respectively.

  1. FLOOR PLAN OF MAIN PROCESSING BUILDING (CPP601), SECOND FLOOR SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FLOOR PLAN OF MAIN PROCESSING BUILDING (CPP-601), SECOND FLOOR SHOWING PROCESS MAKEUP AREA AND EIGHTEEN CELLS AND ADJOINING REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP-627) SHOWING COLD LAB, DECONTAMINATION ROOM, MULTICURIE CELL ROOM, AND OFFICES. TO LEFT ARE LABORATORY BUILDING (CPP-602) AND MAINTENANCE BUILDING (CPP-630). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0601-00-706-051980. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER CPP-E-1980. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. FLOOR PLAN OF MAIN PROCESSING BUILDING (CPP601), FIRST FLOOR SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FLOOR PLAN OF MAIN PROCESSING BUILDING (CPP-601), FIRST FLOOR SHOWING SAMPLE CORRIDORS AND EIGHTEEN CELLS AND ADJOINING REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP-627) SHOWING REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITIES LAB, DECONTAMINATION ROOM, AND MULTICURIE CELL ROOM. TO LEFT ARE LABORATORY BUILDING (CPP-602) AND MAINTENANCE BUILDING (CPP-630). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0601-00-706-051979. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER CPP-E-1979. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. 27 CFR 46.233 - Payment of floor stocks tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Filing Requirements § 46.233 Payment of floor stocks tax....

  4. 27 CFR 46.231 - Floor stocks tax return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette....28T09, 2009 Floor Stocks Tax Return—Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes, is available...

  5. 27 CFR 46.231 - Floor stocks tax return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette....28T09, 2009 Floor Stocks Tax Return—Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes, is available...

  6. 27 CFR 46.233 - Payment of floor stocks tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Filing Requirements § 46.233 Payment of floor stocks tax....

  7. 27 CFR 46.231 - Floor stocks tax return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette....28T09, 2009 Floor Stocks Tax Return—Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes, is available...

  8. 27 CFR 46.233 - Payment of floor stocks tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Filing Requirements § 46.233 Payment of floor stocks tax....

  9. 27 CFR 46.231 - Floor stocks tax return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette....28T09, 2009 Floor Stocks Tax Return—Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes, is available...

  10. 27 CFR 46.233 - Payment of floor stocks tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Filing Requirements § 46.233 Payment of floor stocks tax....

  11. 27 CFR 46.231 - Floor stocks tax return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette....28T09, 2009 Floor Stocks Tax Return—Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes, is available...

  12. 5. EAST SECTION OF BUILDING, FIRST FLOOR, WEST ROOM. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EAST SECTION OF BUILDING, FIRST FLOOR, WEST ROOM. NOTE OVEN AT LEFT. All construction original except wood flooring, plumbing and electricity. - Ralph Izard House, Kitchen Building, 110 Broad Street, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  13. 12. TRIPLE WINDOW, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTH SIDE. Typical for all ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. TRIPLE WINDOW, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTH SIDE. Typical for all triple windows on first and second floors. Note single swing jib door - John Joyner Smith House, 400 Wilmington Street, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  14. 11. BUILDING 1: FIRST FLOOR (Center Section), WEST AND NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. BUILDING 1: FIRST FLOOR (Center Section), WEST AND NORTH WALLS, SHOWING TWO TIERS OF COLUMNS WITH SECOND FLOOR REMOVED - Boston Beer Company, 225-249 West Second Street, South Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  15. Portable flooring protects finished surfaces, is easily moved

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmody, R. J.

    1964-01-01

    To protect curved, finished surface and provide support for workmen, portable flooring has been made from rigid plastic foam blocks, faced with aluminum strips. Held together by nylon webbing, the flooring can be rolled up for easy carrying.

  16. 23. GRAINELEVATOR SECTION, FIRST FLOOR, INTERIOR, DETAIL OF FRAMING IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. GRAIN-ELEVATOR SECTION, FIRST FLOOR, INTERIOR, DETAIL OF FRAMING IN SOUTHWEST CORNER SUPPORTING GRAIN STORAGE CRIBS ON FLOORS ABOVE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Standard Mill, 116-118 Portland Avenue South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  17. Refrigeration Plant, North Elevation, Second Floor Plan, East Elevation, Ground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Refrigeration Plant, North Elevation, Second Floor Plan, East Elevation, Ground Floor Plan, Section A-A - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  18. 15. View northeast, interior, second floor, central hallway (door to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View northeast, interior, second floor, central hallway (door to northwest bedroom at left, doorway to second floor porch at right in photograph) - Abraham Cyrus Farmstead, Farmhouse, 3271 Cyrus Road (County Road 1/6), Cyrus, Wayne County, WV

  19. 25. Interior view, second floor, showing numerous spouts and Simpson ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Interior view, second floor, showing numerous spouts and Simpson Rotex sifter (Orville Simpson, Co; Cincinnati) on floor in middle-foreground. - Fisher-Fallgatter Mill, Waupaca, Waupaca County, WI

  20. 30. GENERAL TEST ROOM IN 1946 ADDITION, FOURTH FLOOR, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. GENERAL TEST ROOM IN 1946 ADDITION, FOURTH FLOOR, LOOKING WEST. ORIGINALLY HAD SUSPENDED ACOUSTICAL CEILINGS WITH FLOURESCENT LIGHTING AND ASPHALT MASTIC TILE FLOORS - Underwriters' Laboratories, 207-231 East Ohio Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  1. CAR MACHINE SHOP, SECOND FLOOR, PAINT SPRAY ROOM EXTERIOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CAR MACHINE SHOP, SECOND FLOOR, PAINT SPRAY ROOM EXTERIOR AND ATTIC FLOOR SUPPORT COLUMNS AND BEAMS, LOOKING WEST. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Car Machine Shop, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  2. 3. MILK BARN, INTERIOR VIEW OF GROUND FLOOR, LOOKING 132 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. MILK BARN, INTERIOR VIEW OF GROUND FLOOR, LOOKING 132 DEGREES SOUTHEAST, SHOWING RAISED FLOOR OF CENTRAL AISLE. - Hudson-Cippa-Wolf Ranch, Milk Barn, Sorento Road, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  3. 50. Ground floor, looking northwest at former location of ground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Ground floor, looking northwest at former location of ground floor (bottom) level of milk room - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  4. 27. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTH ENTRANCE, SOUTH LOBBY, DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, SOUTH ENTRANCE, SOUTH LOBBY, DETAIL OF BRONZE SEAL IN FLOOR (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 3. FIRST FLOOR, FRONT SOUTHWEST CORNER ROOM WITH STAIRWAY TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. FIRST FLOOR, FRONT SOUTHWEST CORNER ROOM WITH STAIRWAY TO SECOND FLOOR - Penn School Historic District, Benezet House, 1 mile South of Frogmore, Route 37, St Helena Island, Frogmore, Beaufort County, SC

  6. 33. Third floor, looking north, elevator and central stair to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Third floor, looking north, elevator and central stair to the right (original ice manufacturing floor) - Sheffield Farms Milk Plant, 1075 Webster Avenue (southwest corner of 166th Street), Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  7. 71. FIRST FLOOR, SENATE OFFICE HALLWAY IN 1902 ADDITION, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. FIRST FLOOR, SENATE OFFICE HALLWAY IN 1902 ADDITION, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING ITALIAN MARBLE TILE FLOOR, PILASTERS, WAINSCOATING, DOOR SURROUND AND PLASTER CORNICE - Maryland State House, State Circle, Annapolis, Anne Arundel County, MD

  8. View of double floor boards with mortises cross beams, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of double floor boards with mortises cross beams, showing spikes and flooring nails (Lower board layer exposed) - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  9. 8. DETAIL: GENERATOR FLOOR DIABLO POWERHOUSE SHOWING BUTTERFLY VALVE CONTROL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL: GENERATOR FLOOR DIABLO POWERHOUSE SHOWING BUTTERFLY VALVE CONTROL, MOSAIC TILE FLOOR, AS SEEN FROM VISITORS GALLERY, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  10. 8. DETAIL OF EAST FRONT, SHOWING FIRST FLOOR STOREFRONT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL OF EAST FRONT, SHOWING FIRST FLOOR STOREFRONT AND SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS. VIEW TO WEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Dubuque Seed Company Warehouse, 169-171 Iowa Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  11. 5. Light tower, stairs to second floor, looking northeast from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Light tower, stairs to second floor, looking northeast from first floor - Little River Light Station, East end of Little River Island, at mouth of Little River & entrance to Cutler Harbor, Cutler, Washington County, ME

  12. Detail of first floor of loading dock showing composition tile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of first floor of loading dock showing composition tile over wood floor/basement ceiling - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  13. 32. Coffee bean sluiceway on ground floor showing chute bringing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Coffee bean sluiceway on ground floor showing chute bringing beans from first floor hopper. HAER PR, 6-MAGU, 1B-17 - Hacienda Buena Vista, PR Route 10 (Ponce to Arecibo), Magueyes, Ponce Municipio, PR

  14. 20. View of second floor to the Cherry Hill lettuce ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. View of second floor to the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking at floor area - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  15. Formaldehyde and TVOC emission behavior of laminate flooring by structure of laminate flooring and heating condition.

    PubMed

    An, Jae-Yoon; Kim, Sumin; Kim, Hyun-Joong

    2011-03-15

    Formaldehyde was measured with a desiccator, a 20 L chamber and the FLEC method. The formaldehyde emission rate from laminate was the highest at 32 °C using the desiccator, which then decreased with time. The formaldehyde emission using the 20 L small chamber and FLEC showed a similar tendency. There was a strong correlation between the formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) with both types of floorings using the two different methods. The formaldehyde emission rate and TVOC results were higher when tested using the FLEC method than with the 20 L small chamber method. The emission rate was affected by the joint edge length in laminate flooring. Toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene were the main VOCs emitted from laminate flooring, and there were more unidentified VOCs emitted than identified VOCs. The samples heated with a floor heating system emitted more formaldehyde than those heated using an air circulation system due to the temperature difference between the bottom panel and flooring. The TVOC emission level of the samples was higher when an air circulation system was used than when a floor heating system was used due to the high ventilation rate.

  16. 13. INTERIOR VIEW, FIRST FLOOR SHOWING THE ELEVATORS FEEDING GRAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR VIEW, FIRST FLOOR SHOWING THE ELEVATORS FEEDING GRAIN FROM THE SECOND FLOOR TO THE GRINDING STONES, WITH GRAIN ELEVATORS IN BACKGROUND (NOTE OUTLINE ON THE FLOOR WHERE ROLLER MILLS WERE ORIGINALLY PLACED) - Schech's Mill, Beaver Creek State Park, La Crescent, Houston County, MN

  17. 17. Same floor as hot water vats looking towards the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Same floor as hot water vats looking towards the front of the building. These have to do with grain from upper floor judging from ceiling to floor progression. Note nice iron work. - Tivoli-Union Brewery, 1320-1348 Tenth Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

  18. 48. GROUND FLOOR OF 1852 WING LOOKING WEST. NOTE THAT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. GROUND FLOOR OF 1852 WING LOOKING WEST. NOTE THAT THERE ARE FIVE ROWS OF COLUMNS ON THIS FLOOR. ROWS 1, 3, AND 5 ARE CAST IRON. ROWS 2 AND 4 ARE SOUTHERN PINE. FLOORS ABOVE HAVE ONLY 2 ROWS OF CAST IRON COLUMNS. - Boston Manufacturing Company, 144-190 Moody Street, Waltham, Middlesex County, MA

  19. What Do You Really Know About Floor Finishes & Strippers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirth, T. J.

    1972-01-01

    An independent testing laboratory reveals the results of comparative studies done on vinyl flooring and the question of to wax or not to wax'' and which waxes work best with what flooring; and provides six evaluation tips on floor strippers. (EA)

  20. 62. Photocopied August 1978. 'CARBIDE' OR SECOND FLOOR LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Photocopied August 1978. 'CARBIDE' OR SECOND FLOOR LOOKING EAST FROM WEST END, OCTOBER 29, 1902. THE STAIRS TO THE POWER COMPANY'S SUPPLEMENTAL THIRD FLOOR APPEARS AT THE RIGHT; THE HOLLOW TILES WHICH FORMED THIS FLOOR AT THE TOP. (435) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  1. 36 CFR 1192.79 - Floors, steps and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Floors, steps and thresholds... Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.79 Floors, steps and thresholds. (a) Floor surfaces on aisles, step treads, places for standees, and areas where wheelchair and mobility aid users are to...

  2. 36 CFR 1192.117 - Floors, steps and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Floors, steps and thresholds... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.117 Floors, steps and thresholds. (a) Floor surfaces on aisles, step.... (b) All step edges and thresholds shall have a band of color(s) running the full width of the step...

  3. 36 CFR 1192.99 - Floors, steps and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Floors, steps and thresholds... Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.99 Floors, steps and thresholds. (a) Floor surfaces on aisles, step... shall be slip-resistant. (b) All thresholds and step edges shall have a band of color(s) running...

  4. 49 CFR 38.117 - Floors, steps and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Floors, steps and thresholds. 38.117 Section 38...) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.117 Floors, steps and thresholds. (a) Floor surfaces on aisles, step treads and areas where wheelchair and mobility...

  5. 49 CFR 38.99 - Floors, steps and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Floors, steps and thresholds. 38.99 Section 38.99... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.99 Floors, steps and thresholds. (a) Floor surfaces on aisles, step treads, places for standees, and areas where wheelchair...

  6. 49 CFR 38.79 - Floors, steps and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Floors, steps and thresholds. 38.79 Section 38.79... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.79 Floors, steps and thresholds. (a) Floor surfaces on aisles, step treads, places for standees, and areas where wheelchair...

  7. 36 CFR 1192.79 - Floors, steps and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Floors, steps and thresholds... Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 1192.79 Floors, steps and thresholds. (a) Floor surfaces on aisles, step treads, places for standees, and areas where wheelchair and mobility aid users are to...

  8. 49 CFR 38.79 - Floors, steps and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Floors, steps and thresholds. 38.79 Section 38.79... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.79 Floors, steps and thresholds. (a) Floor surfaces on aisles, step treads, places for standees, and areas where wheelchair...

  9. 36 CFR 1192.99 - Floors, steps and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Floors, steps and thresholds... Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.99 Floors, steps and thresholds. (a) Floor surfaces on aisles, step... shall be slip-resistant. (b) All thresholds and step edges shall have a band of color(s) running...

  10. 49 CFR 38.117 - Floors, steps and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Floors, steps and thresholds. 38.117 Section 38...) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 38.117 Floors, steps and thresholds. (a) Floor surfaces on aisles, step treads and areas where wheelchair and mobility...

  11. 36 CFR 1192.117 - Floors, steps and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Floors, steps and thresholds... Intercity Rail Cars and Systems § 1192.117 Floors, steps and thresholds. (a) Floor surfaces on aisles, step.... (b) All step edges and thresholds shall have a band of color(s) running the full width of the step...

  12. 49 CFR 38.99 - Floors, steps and thresholds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Floors, steps and thresholds. 38.99 Section 38.99... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Commuter Rail Cars and Systems § 38.99 Floors, steps and thresholds. (a) Floor surfaces on aisles, step treads, places for standees, and areas where wheelchair...

  13. Elevations and Floor Plan of Shed No. 1, Elevations and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevations and Floor Plan of Shed No. 1, Elevations and Floor Plan of Work Shed, Elevations and Floor Plan of Garage - Roberts-Dolezal Farmstead, 75 miles northeast of the intersection of CR27 and FM 1722, Garrett, Ellis County, TX

  14. 27 CFR 46.195 - Floor stocks requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Floor stocks requirements... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 General § 46.195 Floor stocks requirements. (a) Take inventory....

  15. 29 CFR 1926.855 - Manual removal of floors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Manual removal of floors. 1926.855 Section 1926.855 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Demolition § 1926.855 Manual removal of floors. (a) Openings cut in a floor shall extend the full span of the arch between supports. (b) Before demolishing...

  16. 75 FR 70061 - Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... ADMINISTRATION Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION... agenda for a meeting regarding the Dealer Floor Plan Pilot Program established in the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES: The Dealer Floor Plan Pilot...

  17. 27 CFR 46.195 - Floor stocks requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Floor stocks requirements... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 General § 46.195 Floor stocks requirements. (a) Take inventory....

  18. 29 CFR 1926.855 - Manual removal of floors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manual removal of floors. 1926.855 Section 1926.855 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Demolition § 1926.855 Manual removal of floors. (a) Openings cut in a floor shall extend the full span of the arch between supports. (b) Before demolishing...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.855 - Manual removal of floors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Manual removal of floors. 1926.855 Section 1926.855 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Demolition § 1926.855 Manual removal of floors. (a) Openings cut in a floor...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.855 - Manual removal of floors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Manual removal of floors. 1926.855 Section 1926.855 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Demolition § 1926.855 Manual removal of floors. (a) Openings cut in a floor...

  1. RFID Data Cleaning for Shop Floor Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziekow, Holger; Ivantysynova, Lenka; Günter, Oliver

    In several case studies we found that shop-floor applications in manufacturing pose special challenges to cleaning RFID data. The underlying problem in many scenarios is the uncertainty about the exact location of observed RFID tags. Simple filter s provided in common middleware solutions do not cope well with these challenges. Therefore we have developed an approach based on maximum-likelihood estimation to infer a tag's location within the reader range. This enables improved RFID data cleaning in a number of application scenarios. We stress the benefits of our approach along exemplary application scenarios that we found in manufacturing. In simulations and experiments with real world data we show that our approach outperforms existing solutions. Our approach can extend RFID middleware or reader firmware, to improve the use of RFID in a range of shop-floor applications.

  2. Cellular Phone Towers

    MedlinePlus

    ... the call. How are people exposed to the energy from cellular phone towers? As people use cell ... where people can be exposed to them. The energy from a cellular phone tower antenna, like that ...

  3. Concrete floor-bovine claw contact pressures related to floor roughness and deformation of the claw.

    PubMed

    Franck, A; De Belie, N

    2006-08-01

    The intention of this research was to study the impact of concrete floor surface roughness on a bovine claw model and to assess the deformation of the bovine claw model under load. The pressure distribution between the floor and the claw is the key method in this research. Monitoring foot-to-ground pressure distributions may provide insight into the relation between high local pressures and foot lesions. Concrete floor samples were made with 5 different finishing methods. Their roughness was determined by measuring the heights of the "peaks and the valleys" of the surface with a high-precision laser beam. The smoothest surface was the sample finished with a metal float (surface roughness R(a) = 0.062 mm) and the roughest surface occurred with the heavily sandblasted sample (surface roughness R(a) = 0.488 mm). The roughness of the concrete floor samples was related to the mean and peak contact pressures that can occur in a laboratory test bench between floor and bovine claw. It was found that the claw itself has approximately 2 times more effect on these contact pressures than the surface roughness. Peak pressures found were high enough (up to 111 MPa) to cause damage to the bovine claw sole horn. The strains occurring in the horn wall were measured and related to the floor-finishing method and the load. Strain gauge measurements indicated that it is difficult to predict what kind of deformation of the claw wall will occur at a certain location. Different strains will occur for different floor-finishing methods. The corresponding stresses in the horn wall did not exceed the yield stress (14 and 11 MPa for dorsal and abaxial wall horn, respectively).

  4. Ocean floor mounting of wave energy converters

    DOEpatents

    Siegel, Stefan G

    2015-01-20

    A system for mounting a set of wave energy converters in the ocean includes a pole attached to a floor of an ocean and a slider mounted on the pole in a manner that permits the slider to move vertically along the pole and rotate about the pole. The wave energy converters can then be mounted on the slider to allow adjustment of the depth and orientation of the wave energy converters.

  5. Pelvic floor hypertonic disorders: identification and management.

    PubMed

    Butrick, Charles W

    2009-09-01

    Patients with hypertonic pelvic floor disorders can present with pelvic pain or dysfunction. Each of the various syndromes will be discussed including elimination disorders, bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC), vulvodynia, vaginismus, and chronic pelvic pain. The symptoms and objective findings on physical examination and various diagnostic studies will be reviewed. Therapeutic options including physical therapy, pharmacologic management, and trigger point injections, as well as botulinum toxin injections will be reviewed in detail.

  6. Pelvic Floor Disorders and Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    James, Rebecca; Frasure, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite recent efforts to educate multiple sclerosis (MS) health-care providers about the importance of pelvic floor disorders (urinary, bowel, and sexual dysfunction), no data are currently available to assess outcomes of these efforts in terms of patient satisfaction. Methods: As part of the fall 2010 North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis survey, we conducted a prospective, survey-based cohort study (N = 14,268) to evaluate patient satisfaction with the current evaluation and treatment of pelvic floor disorders. Patients were queried about 1) bother from bladder, bowel, or sexual symptoms; 2) whether they had been evaluated by a health-care provider for pelvic floor issues in the last 12 months; and 3) satisfaction with the evaluation and treatment they received, on a 5-point Likert scale. Patients were also asked whether these treatments had affected their quality of life (7-point Likert scale). Results: A total of 9397 responses were received (response rate of 65.9%); respondents were primarily white (89%) and female (77.4%). Moderate-to-severe pelvic floor symptoms were reported by one-third of patients (bladder, 41%; bowel, 30%; sexual, 42%). Most respondents had been asked about bladder (61%) or bowel (50%) issues by their health-care providers, but only 20% had been queried about sexual dysfunction. Most respondents were moderately to very satisfied with the management of their bladder and bowel disorders but significantly less satisfied with that of sexual dysfunction. Conclusions: While MS patients are generally satisfied with current management of bladder and bowel dysfunction, improvement is needed in that of sexual dysfunction. PMID:24688351

  7. Experimental and analytical studies on the vibration serviceability of pre-stressed cable RC truss floor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xuhong; Cao, Liang; Chen, Y. Frank; Liu, Jiepeng; Li, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    The developed pre-stressed cable reinforced concrete truss (PCT) floor system is a relatively new floor structure, which can be applied to various long-span structures such as buildings, stadiums, and bridges. Due to the lighter mass and longer span, floor vibration would be a serviceability concern problem for such systems. In this paper, field testing and theoretical analysis for the PCT floor system were conducted. Specifically, heel-drop impact and walking tests were performed on the PCT floor system to capture the dynamic properties including natural frequencies, mode shapes, damping ratios, and acceleration response. The PCT floor system was found to be a low frequency (<10 Hz) and low damping (damping ratio<2 percent) structural system. The comparison of the experimental results with the AISC's limiting values indicates that the investigated PCT system exhibits satisfactory vibration perceptibility, however. The analytical solution obtained from the weighted residual method agrees well with the experimental results and thus validates the proposed analytical expression. Sensitivity studies using the analytical solution were also conducted to investigate the vibration performance of the PCT floor system.

  8. Helping the Blind to Find the Floor of Destination in Multistory Buildings Using a Barometer

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yicheng; Jia, Wenyan; Zhang, Hong; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2013-01-01

    Propelled by rapid technological advances in smart phones and other mobile devices, indoor navigation for the blind and visually impaired individuals has become an active field of research. A reliable positioning and navigation system will reduce suffering of these individuals, help them live more independently, and promote their employment. Although much progress has been made, localization of the floor level in a multistory building is largely an unsolved problem despite its high significance in helping the blind to find their ways. In this paper, we present a novel approach using a miniature barometer in the form of a low-cost MEMS chip. The relationships among the atmospheric pressure, the absolute height, and the floor location are described along with a real-time calibration method and a hardware platform design. Our experiments in a building of twelve floors have shown high performance of our approach. PMID:24110793

  9. Basaltic injections into floored silicic magma chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, R. A.

    Recent studies have provided compelling evidence that many large accumulations of silicic volcanic rocks erupted from long-lasting, floored chambers of silicic magma that were repeatedly injected by basaltic magma. These basaltic infusions are commonly thought to play an important role in the evolution of the silicic systems: they have been proposed as a cause for explosive silicic eruptions [Sparks and Sigurdsson, 1977], compositional variation in ash-flow sheets [Smith, 1979], mafic magmatic inclusions in silicic volcanic rocks [Bacon, 1986], and mixing of mafic and silicic magmas [Anderson, 1976; Eichelberger, 1978]. If, as seems likely, floored silicic magma chambers have frequently been invaded by basalt, then plutonic bodies should provide records of these events. Although plutonic evidence for mixing and commingling of mafic and silicic magmas has been recognized for many years, it has been established only recently that some intrusive complex originated through multiple basaltic injections into floored chambers of silicic magma [e.g., Wiebe, 1974; Michael, 1991; Chapman and Rhodes, 1992].

  10. Floor of Lake Tahoe, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Peter; Gibbons, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Lake-floor depths shown by color, from light tan (shallowest) to blue (deepest). Arrows on map (C) show orientations of perspective views. A, view toward McKinney Bay over blocks tumbled onto the lake floor by a massive landslide 10s to 100s of thousands of years ago; dark triangular block near center is approximately 1.5 km (0.9 mi) across and 120 m (390 ft) high. B, view toward South Lake Tahoe and Emerald Bay (on right) over sediment waves as much as 10 m (30 ft) high, created by sediment flowing down the south margin of the lake. Slopes appear twice as steep as they are. Lake-floor imagery from U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) multibeam bathymetric data and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers bathymetric lidar data. Land imagery generated by overlaying USGS digital orthophoto quadrangles (DOQs) on USGS digital elevation models (DEMs). All data available at http://tahoe.usgs.gov/.

  11. Hierarchical cellular materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, L.J.

    1991-12-31

    In this paper a method for estimating the contributions of both the composite and the cellular microstructures to the overall material properties and the mechanical efficiency of natural cellular solids will be described. The method will be demonstrated by focusing on the Young`s modulus; similar techniques can be used for other material properties. The results suggest efficient microstructures for engineered cellular materials.

  12. Hierarchical cellular materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, L.J.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a method for estimating the contributions of both the composite and the cellular microstructures to the overall material properties and the mechanical efficiency of natural cellular solids will be described. The method will be demonstrated by focusing on the Young's modulus; similar techniques can be used for other material properties. The results suggest efficient microstructures for engineered cellular materials.

  13. 40 CFR 427.70 - Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos floor tile subcategory. 427.70 Section 427.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Asbestos Floor Tile Subcategory § 427.70 Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory... manufacture of asbestos floor tile....

  14. 40 CFR 427.70 - Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... asbestos floor tile subcategory. 427.70 Section 427.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Asbestos Floor Tile Subcategory § 427.70 Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory... manufacture of asbestos floor tile....

  15. 112. Stage level floor structure. Generial view from downstage left, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    112. Stage level floor structure. Generial view from downstage left, facing northeast, showing structural supports for the stage floor after some of the flooring was removed. Openings in the stage floor could be made by rolling eight movable sections to the side and down under the fixed floor (see sheet 4 of 9, notes 1A and 1B). Once opened, another floor section of the same size as the opening could be raised to stage level by a hydraulic ram (type D1). The movable section in the foreground is in the retracted position, with its top surface below the flange of the beam supporting the fixed floor. Compare it to the height of the un-retracted section to the left (see sheet 6 of 9, notes 2A and 2B). - Auditorium Building, 430 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  16. 76 FR 30656 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... American Hardwood Parity is comprised of Anderson Hardwood Floors, LLC, Award Hardwood Floors, Baker's Creek Wood Floors, Inc., From the Forest, Howell Hardwood Flooring, Mannington Mills, Inc., Nydree.... Floors LLC. The Department initiated an antidumping duty investigation of multilayered wood flooring...

  17. Disturbance of the immune system by electromagnetic fields-A potentially underlying cause for cellular damage and tissue repair reduction which could lead to disease and impairment.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Olle

    2009-08-01

    A number of papers dealing with the effects of modern, man-made electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on the immune system are summarized in the present review. EMFs disturb immune function through stimulation of various allergic and inflammatory responses, as well as effects on tissue repair processes. Such disturbances increase the risks for various diseases, including cancer. These and the EMF effects on other biological processes (e.g. DNA damage, neurological effects, etc.) are now widely reported to occur at exposure levels significantly below most current national and international safety limits. Obviously, biologically based exposure standards are needed to prevent disruption of normal body processes and potential adverse health effects of chronic exposure. Based on this review, as well as the reviews in the recent Bioinitiative Report [http://www.bioinitiative.org/] [C.F. Blackman, M. Blank, M. Kundi, C. Sage, D.O. Carpenter, Z. Davanipour, D. Gee, L. Hardell, O. Johansson, H. Lai, K.H. Mild, A. Sage, E.L. Sobel, Z. Xu, G. Chen, The Bioinitiative Report-A Rationale for a Biologically-based Public Exposure Standard for Electromagnetic Fields (ELF and RF), 2007)], it must be concluded that the existing public safety limits are inadequate to protect public health, and that new public safety limits, as well as limits on further deployment of untested technologies, are warranted.

  18. MTRETR MAINTENANCE SHOP, TRA653. FLOOR PLAN FOR FIRST FLOOR: MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR-ETR MAINTENANCE SHOP, TRA-653. FLOOR PLAN FOR FIRST FLOOR: MACHINE SHOP, ELECTRICAL AND INSTRUMENT SHOP, TOOL CRIB, ELECTRONIC SHOP, LOCKER ROOM, SPECIAL TEMPERATURE CONTROLLED ROOM, AND OFFICES. "NEW" ON DRAWING REFERS TO REVISION OF 11/1956 DRAWING ON WHICH AREAS WERE DESIGNATED AS "FUTURE." HUMMEL HUMMEL & JONES 810-MTR-ETR-653-A-7, 5/1957. INL INDEX NO. 532-0653-00-381-101839, REV. 2. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. A&M. TAN607 floor plan for first floor. Shows stepped door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. TAN-607 floor plan for first floor. Shows stepped door plug design from hot shop into special services cubicle, cubicle windows, and other details. This drawing was re-drawn to show as-built conditions in 1985. Ralph M. Parsons 902-3-ANP-607-A 99. Date of original: January 1955. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 034-0607-00-693-106751 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. Interoceptive Ability Predicts Survival on a London Trading Floor.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Garfinkel, Sarah N; Page, Lionel; Hardy, Ben; Critchley, Hugo D; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John M

    2016-01-01

    Interoception is the sensing of physiological signals originating inside the body, such as hunger, pain and heart rate. People with greater sensitivity to interoceptive signals, as measured by, for example, tests of heart beat detection, perform better in laboratory studies of risky decision-making. However, there has been little field work to determine if interoceptive sensitivity contributes to success in real-world, high-stakes risk taking. Here, we report on a study in which we quantified heartbeat detection skills in a group of financial traders working on a London trading floor. We found that traders are better able to perceive their own heartbeats than matched controls from the non-trading population. Moreover, the interoceptive ability of traders predicted their relative profitability, and strikingly, how long they survived in the financial markets. Our results suggest that signals from the body - the gut feelings of financial lore - contribute to success in the markets. PMID:27641692

  1. Sea floor classification with satellite data and airborne lidar bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulldahl, H. Michael; Philipson, Petra; Kautsky, Hans; Wikström, Sofia A.

    2013-06-01

    While land maps of vegetation cover and substrate types exist, similar underwater maps are rare or almost non-existing. We developed the use of airborne bathymetric lidar mapping and high resolution satellite data to a combined method for shallow sea floor classification. A classification accuracy of about 80% is possible for six classes of substrate and vegetation, when validated against field data taken from underwater video recordings. The method utilizes lidar data directly (topography, slopes) and as means for correction of image data for water depth and turbidity. In this paper we present results using WorldView-2 imagery and data from the HawkEye II lidar system in a Swedish archipelago area.

  2. Interoceptive Ability Predicts Survival on a London Trading Floor

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Garfinkel, Sarah N.; Page, Lionel; Hardy, Ben; Critchley, Hugo D.; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Interoception is the sensing of physiological signals originating inside the body, such as hunger, pain and heart rate. People with greater sensitivity to interoceptive signals, as measured by, for example, tests of heart beat detection, perform better in laboratory studies of risky decision-making. However, there has been little field work to determine if interoceptive sensitivity contributes to success in real-world, high-stakes risk taking. Here, we report on a study in which we quantified heartbeat detection skills in a group of financial traders working on a London trading floor. We found that traders are better able to perceive their own heartbeats than matched controls from the non-trading population. Moreover, the interoceptive ability of traders predicted their relative profitability, and strikingly, how long they survived in the financial markets. Our results suggest that signals from the body - the gut feelings of financial lore - contribute to success in the markets. PMID:27641692

  3. Disruption of ant-aphid mutualism in canopy enhances the abundance of beetles on the forest floor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Yuxin; Ma, Keming

    2012-01-01

    Ant-aphid mutualism is known to play a key role in the structure of the arthropod community in the tree canopy, but its possible ecological effects for the forest floor are unknown. We hypothesized that aphids in the canopy can increase the abundance of ants on the forest floor, thus intensifying the impacts of ants on other arthropods on the forest floor. We tested this hypothesis in a deciduous temperate forest in Beijing, China. We excluded the aphid-tending ants Lasius fuliginosus from the canopy using plots of varying sizes, and monitored the change in the abundance of ants and other arthropods on the forest floor in the treated and control plots. We also surveyed the abundance of ants and other arthropods on the forest floor to explore the relationships between ants and other arthropods in the field. Through a three-year experimental study, we found that the exclusion of ants from the canopy significantly decreased the abundance of ants on the forest floor, but increased the abundance of beetles, although the effect was only significant in the large ant-exclusion plot (80*60 m). The field survey showed that the abundance of both beetles and spiders was negatively related to the abundance of ants. These results suggest that aphids located in the tree canopy have indirect negative effects on beetles by enhancing the ant abundance on the forest floor. Considering that most of the beetles in our study are important predators, the ant-aphid mutualism can have further trophic cascading effects on the forest floor food web.

  4. Deflection of resilient materials for reduction of floor impact sound.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Jong-Mun

    2014-01-01

    Recently, many residents living in apartment buildings in Korea have been bothered by noise coming from the houses above. In order to reduce noise pollution, communities are increasingly imposing bylaws, including the limitation of floor impact sound, minimum thickness of floors, and floor soundproofing solutions. This research effort focused specifically on the deflection of resilient materials in the floor sound insulation systems of apartment houses. The experimental program involved conducting twenty-seven material tests and ten sound insulation floating concrete floor specimens. Two main parameters were considered in the experimental investigation: the seven types of resilient materials and the location of the loading point. The structural behavior of sound insulation floor floating was predicted using the Winkler method. The experimental and analytical results indicated that the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor significantly increased with increasing the tangent modulus of resilient material. The deflection of the floating concrete floor loaded at the side of the specimen was much greater than that of the floating concrete floor loaded at the center of the specimen. The Winkler model considering the effect of modulus of resilient materials was able to accurately predict the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor.

  5. Deflection of Resilient Materials for Reduction of Floor Impact Sound

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Jong-Mun

    2014-01-01

    Recently, many residents living in apartment buildings in Korea have been bothered by noise coming from the houses above. In order to reduce noise pollution, communities are increasingly imposing bylaws, including the limitation of floor impact sound, minimum thickness of floors, and floor soundproofing solutions. This research effort focused specifically on the deflection of resilient materials in the floor sound insulation systems of apartment houses. The experimental program involved conducting twenty-seven material tests and ten sound insulation floating concrete floor specimens. Two main parameters were considered in the experimental investigation: the seven types of resilient materials and the location of the loading point. The structural behavior of sound insulation floor floating was predicted using the Winkler method. The experimental and analytical results indicated that the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor significantly increased with increasing the tangent modulus of resilient material. The deflection of the floating concrete floor loaded at the side of the specimen was much greater than that of the floating concrete floor loaded at the center of the specimen. The Winkler model considering the effect of modulus of resilient materials was able to accurately predict the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor. PMID:25574491

  6. Deflection of resilient materials for reduction of floor impact sound.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Jong-Mun

    2014-01-01

    Recently, many residents living in apartment buildings in Korea have been bothered by noise coming from the houses above. In order to reduce noise pollution, communities are increasingly imposing bylaws, including the limitation of floor impact sound, minimum thickness of floors, and floor soundproofing solutions. This research effort focused specifically on the deflection of resilient materials in the floor sound insulation systems of apartment houses. The experimental program involved conducting twenty-seven material tests and ten sound insulation floating concrete floor specimens. Two main parameters were considered in the experimental investigation: the seven types of resilient materials and the location of the loading point. The structural behavior of sound insulation floor floating was predicted using the Winkler method. The experimental and analytical results indicated that the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor significantly increased with increasing the tangent modulus of resilient material. The deflection of the floating concrete floor loaded at the side of the specimen was much greater than that of the floating concrete floor loaded at the center of the specimen. The Winkler model considering the effect of modulus of resilient materials was able to accurately predict the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor. PMID:25574491

  7. Physical activity and the pelvic floor.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Ingrid E; Shaw, Janet M

    2016-02-01

    Pelvic floor disorders are common, with 1 in 4 US women reporting moderate to severe symptoms of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, or fecal incontinence. Given the high societal burden of these disorders, identifying potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial. Physical activity is one such potentially modifiable risk factor; the large number of girls and women participating in sport and strenuous training regimens increases the need to understand associated risks and benefits of these exposures. The aim of this review was to summarize studies reporting the association between physical activity and pelvic floor disorders. Most studies are cross-sectional and most include small numbers of participants. The primary findings of this review include that urinary incontinence during exercise is common and is more prevalent in women during high-impact sports. Mild to moderate physical activity, such as brisk walking, decreases both the odds of having and the risk of developing urinary incontinence. In older women, mild to moderate activity also decreases the odds of having fecal incontinence; however, young women participating in high-intensity activity are more likely to report anal incontinence than less active women. Scant data suggest that in middle-aged women, lifetime physical activity increases the odds of stress urinary incontinence slightly and does not increase the odds of pelvic organ prolapse. Women undergoing surgery for pelvic organ prolapse are more likely to report a history of heavy work than controls; however, women recruited from the community with pelvic organ prolapse on examination report similar lifetime levels of strenuous activity as women without this examination finding. Data are insufficient to determine whether strenuous activity while young predisposes to pelvic floor disorders later in life. The existing literature suggests that most physical activity does not harm the pelvic floor and does provide numerous health benefits for

  8. Physical activity and the pelvic floor.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Ingrid E; Shaw, Janet M

    2016-02-01

    Pelvic floor disorders are common, with 1 in 4 US women reporting moderate to severe symptoms of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, or fecal incontinence. Given the high societal burden of these disorders, identifying potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial. Physical activity is one such potentially modifiable risk factor; the large number of girls and women participating in sport and strenuous training regimens increases the need to understand associated risks and benefits of these exposures. The aim of this review was to summarize studies reporting the association between physical activity and pelvic floor disorders. Most studies are cross-sectional and most include small numbers of participants. The primary findings of this review include that urinary incontinence during exercise is common and is more prevalent in women during high-impact sports. Mild to moderate physical activity, such as brisk walking, decreases both the odds of having and the risk of developing urinary incontinence. In older women, mild to moderate activity also decreases the odds of having fecal incontinence; however, young women participating in high-intensity activity are more likely to report anal incontinence than less active women. Scant data suggest that in middle-aged women, lifetime physical activity increases the odds of stress urinary incontinence slightly and does not increase the odds of pelvic organ prolapse. Women undergoing surgery for pelvic organ prolapse are more likely to report a history of heavy work than controls; however, women recruited from the community with pelvic organ prolapse on examination report similar lifetime levels of strenuous activity as women without this examination finding. Data are insufficient to determine whether strenuous activity while young predisposes to pelvic floor disorders later in life. The existing literature suggests that most physical activity does not harm the pelvic floor and does provide numerous health benefits for

  9. Osteolipoma of floor of the mouth.

    PubMed

    Raghunath, Vandana; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha

    2015-01-01

    Lipomas are benign soft tissue tumours composed mainly of mature adipose tissue. Histological variants of lipomas have been named according to the type of tissue present and they include fibrolipoma, angiolipoma, osteolipoma, chondrolipoma and others. Osteolipoma, a classic lipoma with osseous metaplasia, is a very rare histological variant. Owing to the rarity of oral osteolipomas, we report an uncommon case of osteolipoma located on the floor of the mouth of a 20-year-old female patient and include a review of the literature.

  10. Sea-floor geology of Long Island Sound north of Duck Pond Point, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Danforth, W.W.; Blackwood, D.S.; Schaer, J.D.; Glomb, K.A.; Doran, E.F.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection are mapping the sea floor in coastal areas of the northeastern United States. As part of the project, more than 100 square kilometers of multibeam-echosounder data, 23 sediment samples, bottom video, and 86 still photographs were obtained from an area in Long Island Sound north of Duck Pond Point, New York, in the study area of NOAA survey H11999. This report delineates the sediment types and sea-floor features found within this area in order to better understand the sea-floor processes occurring in this part of Long Island Sound. The sea floor in the study area is dominated by ubiquitous sand-wave fields and three northeast-southwest trending bathymetric depressions. Barchanoid and transverse sand waves, including sinusoidal, bifurcating, arced, and straight-crested morphologies, are variably present. Asymmetrical sand-wave profiles indicate a westward to southwestward direction of sediment transport in most of the study area; current ripples and megaripples on the stoss slopes of the sand waves indicate transport is ongoing. The majority of the sediment on the sea floor is sand, although bouldery, gravelly, and muddy sediments are also present. Gray, cohesive mud crops out on the walls of some of the scour depressions associated with the troughs of large sand waves. Clasts of the muddy sediment scattered on the sea floor around the depressions demonstrate the intensity of the scour and suggest erosion of the underlying distal deltaic sediments.

  11. Overview of cellular CDMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, William C. Y.

    1991-05-01

    A general description of code division multiple access (CDMA) is presented. This overview of CDMA highlights the potential of increasing capacity in future cellular communications. The author describes the mobile radio environment and its impact on narrowband and wideband propagation. The advantage of having CDMA in cellular systems is discussed, and the concept of radio capacity in cellular is introduced. The power control schemes in CDMA are analyzed in detail.

  12. Sea urchin coelomocytes as a novel cellular biosensor of environmental stress: a field study in the Tremiti Island Marine Protected Area, Southern Adriatic Sea, Italy.

    PubMed

    Pinsino, A; Della Torre, C; Sammarini, V; Bonaventura, R; Amato, E; Matranga, V

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate on the suitability of the sea urchin as a sentinel organism for the assessment of the macro-zoobenthos health state in bio-monitoring programmes. A field study was carried out during two oceanographic campaigns using immuno-competent cells, the coelomocytes, from sea urchins living in a marine protected area. In particular, coelomocytes subpopulations ratio and heat shock protein 70 (HSC70) levels were measured in specimens of Paracentrotus lividus (Lamark, 1816) collected in two sampling sites, namely Pianosa and Caprara Islands, both belonging to the Tremiti Island Marine Protected Area (MPA) in the Southern Adriatic Sea, Italy. By density gradients separation performed on board the Astrea boat, we found an evident increase in red amoebocytes, a subpopulation increasing upon stress, in those specimens collected around Pianosa (strictly protected area with no human activities allowed), unlike those collected around Caprara (low restrictions for human activities). Likewise, we found higher HSC70 protein levels in the low impacted site (Pianosa) by Western blots on total coelomocyte lysates. The apparent paradox could be explained by the presence in the Pianosa sampling area of contaminating remains from Second World War conventional ammunitions and a merchant boat wreck. Metal determination performed using sea urchin gonads by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) revealed higher Fe and lower Zn levels around Pianosa with respect to Caprara, in accordance with the persistent contaminating metal sources, and thus calling for remediation measures. Taken all together, our results confirm the feasibility of using sea urchin coelomocytes as biosensors of environmental stress. PMID:18228151

  13. 115. Stage Level floor structure. Detail of the ends of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    115. Stage Level floor structure. Detail of the ends of three movable stage floor sections. An inclined steel angle track attached to the web of the floor beam allows the sections to roll under the fixed floor. The upper section of the inclined track is hinged so it can be moved upward by a cam mechanism to raise the end of the movable section level with the stage floor. A similar mechanism was used to open and close the floor sections for the star lifts (see sheet 4 of 9, note 6; sheet 8 of 9, details 5, 6A and 6B; sheet 6 of 9, notes 2A, 2B, and 3; and photo IL-1007-120). The pulley, and tongue extending out from the end of the movable section, were used to move the sections back and forth. - Auditorium Building, 430 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  14. Tension myalgia of the pelvic floor.

    PubMed

    Sinaki, M; Merritt, J L; Stillwell, G K

    1977-11-01

    The clinical picture in and efficacy of physical treatment for pelvic floor myalgia were reviewed. The medical records of patients having a diagnosis of pyriformis syndrome, coccygodynia, levator ani spasm syndrome, proctalgia fugax, or rectal pain who had been seen at the Mayo Clinic and treated in the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation from 1970 through 1975 were retrieved. Adequate information and follow-up were available for 94 patients. Seventy-eight patients were women and 16 were men, whose ages ranged from 26 to 72 years. All patients had tenderness of the pelvic floor muscles on rectal examination. The most common associated findings were poor posture, deconditioned abdominal muscles, and generalized muscle attachment tenderness. The most effective therapeutic regimen was a combination of rectal diathermy, Thiele's massage, and relaxation exercises. Of the 94 patients, 30 had complete resolution of their symptoms, 19 had marked improvement, 17 had moderate improvement, and 14 had mild improvement. Only 14 patients had no change and 1 patient was worse after treatment.

  15. Internet impact felt on plant floor

    SciTech Connect

    Mikles, L.

    1997-06-01

    While the Internet has gone from relative obscurity to being included in Microsoft Word`s spell checker in about four years. Its true power has yet to be realized. The Internet acts today as a low-cost, simple communication vehicle for one-to-one or many-to-many relationships through e-mail and the World Wide Web (WWW). Its future power lies with terms like {open_quotes}distributed computing,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}object orientation,{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}network computers.{close_quotes} While pushing the factory onto the information superhighway might not make the most sense today, taking advantage of the tools and approaches developed for the Internet to create an internal Internet, or intranet, may be key. Implemented properly, an Internet approach will deliver exciting opportunities to the plant floor to increase flexibility, speed up information flow, and improve decision making. While the Internet offers tremendous power through global connectivity, the communication security and reliability risks are still too great for connecting plant-floor operations without expensive firewall configurations. The tools developed for using the Internet, on the other hand, offer tremendous opportunity for secure internal operations until the security issues can be worked out. 4 figs.

  16. The cellular memory disc of reprogrammed cells.

    PubMed

    Anjamrooz, Seyed Hadi

    2013-04-01

    The crucial facts underlying the low efficiency of cellular reprogramming are poorly understood. Cellular reprogramming occurs in nuclear transfer, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) formation, cell fusion, and lineage-switching experiments. Despite these advances, there are three fundamental problems to be addressed: (1) the majority of cells cannot be reprogrammed, (2) the efficiency of reprogramming cells is usually low, and (3) the reprogrammed cells developed from a patient's own cells activate immune responses. These shortcomings present major obstacles for using reprogramming approaches in customised cell therapy. In this Perspective, the author synthesises past and present observations in the field of cellular reprogramming to propose a theoretical picture of the cellular memory disc. The current hypothesis is that all cells undergo an endogenous and exogenous holographic memorisation such that parts of the cellular memory dramatically decrease the efficiency of reprogramming cells, act like a barrier against reprogramming in the majority of cells, and activate immune responses. Accordingly, the focus of this review is mainly to describe the cellular memory disc (CMD). Based on the present theory, cellular memory includes three parts: a reprogramming-resistance memory (RRM), a switch-promoting memory (SPM) and a culture-induced memory (CIM). The cellular memory arises genetically, epigenetically and non-genetically and affects cellular behaviours. [corrected].

  17. 48. STAIRWAY TO THE SECOND FLOOR, SOUTH END OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. STAIRWAY TO THE SECOND FLOOR, SOUTH END OF THE EAST WING. STAIRWAY AND WOODEN DECK ADDED IN 1976. WOODEN DECK FILLS A CIRCULAR HOLE LEFT IN THE FLOOR FOR THE POSSIBLE ADDITION OF A THIRD BISCUIT AND KILN. A SMALLER HOLE WAS LEFT IN THE WEST WING FLOOR TO ALLOW CONSTRUCTION OF AN ADDITIONAL GLAZE KILN. NEITHER EXTRA KILN WAS BUILT. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  18. 26 CFR 52.4682-4 - Floor stocks tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Floor stocks tax. 52.4682-4 Section 52.4682-4...) Tax imposed on January 1, 1990. In the case of the floor stocks tax imposed on January l, 1990, the... 1990—(1) In general. In the case of the floor stocks tax imposed on January 1 of a calendar year...

  19. 26 CFR 52.4682-4 - Floor stocks tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Floor stocks tax. 52.4682-4 Section 52.4682-4...) Tax imposed on January 1, 1990. In the case of the floor stocks tax imposed on January l, 1990, the... 1990—(1) In general. In the case of the floor stocks tax imposed on January 1 of a calendar year...

  20. 26 CFR 52.4682-4 - Floor stocks tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Floor stocks tax. 52.4682-4 Section 52.4682-4...) Tax imposed on January 1, 1990. In the case of the floor stocks tax imposed on January l, 1990, the... 1990—(1) In general. In the case of the floor stocks tax imposed on January 1 of a calendar year...

  1. 13. VIEW INTO BLOCK AREA SHOWING KEY MECHANISM, NOTE FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW INTO BLOCK AREA SHOWING KEY MECHANISM, NOTE FLOOR SEPARATION AT THRESHOLD AND KEY-WINDING MECHANISM - Montgomery County Jail, Washington & Spring Streets, Crawfordsville, Montgomery County, IN

  2. 11. SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR, SHOWING EAST BALCONY AND BASKETBALL COURT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR, SHOWING EAST BALCONY AND BASKETBALL COURT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Fort David A. Russell, Gymnasium, Randall Avenue between Fourth & Fifth Streets, Cheyenne, Laramie County, WY

  3. 22. DETAIL, WOOD BLOCK FLOOR Delaware, Lackawanna & Western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL, WOOD BLOCK FLOOR - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  4. Attic floor; view west showing roof structural system North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Attic floor; view west showing roof structural system - North Philadelphia Station, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. 13. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM, SHOWING CLERESTORY. VIEW TO SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. FOURTH FLOOR ROASTING ROOM, SHOWING CLERESTORY. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, McFadden Coffee & Spice Company, Factory & Warehouse, 145 First Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  6. INTERIOR SECOND FLOOR EAST ENGINEERING DESIGN AREA DETAIL VIEW, FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR SECOND FLOOR EAST ENGINEERING DESIGN AREA DETAIL VIEW, FACING NORTH. - NASA Industrial Plant, Systems Integration & Checkout Facility, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. Interior view of second floor sleeping area; camera facing south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of second floor sleeping area; camera facing south. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Barracks, Cedar Avenue, west side between Twelfth & Fourteenth Streets, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  8. INTERIOR OF SECOND FLOOR AIRFIELD MANAGEMENT SUPERINTENDENT'S OFFICE. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF SECOND FLOOR AIRFIELD MANAGEMENT SUPERINTENDENT'S OFFICE. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Base Operations Building, Idaho at Alabama Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  9. 95. ROOM 402 (LAW LIBRARY), EAST WING, FOURTH FLOOR, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. ROOM 402 (LAW LIBRARY), EAST WING, FOURTH FLOOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. Effects of rubberized flooring on Asian elephant behavior in captivity.

    PubMed

    Meller, Camie L; Croney, Candace C; Shepherdson, David

    2007-01-01

    Six Asian elephants at the Oregon Zoo were observed to determine the effects of a poured rubber flooring substrate on captive Asian elephant behavior. Room utilization also was evaluated in seven rooms used for indoor housing, including Front and Back observation areas. Data were collected in three phases. Phase I (Baseline Phase) examined elephant behavior on old concrete floors. In Phase II (Choice Phase), elephant behavior was observed in the Back observation area where room sizes were comparable and when a choice of flooring substrates was available. Phase III (Final Phase) examined elephant behavior when all rooms in both observation areas, Front and Back, were converted to rubberized flooring. Room use in both observation areas remained stable throughout the study, suggesting that flooring substrate did not affect room use choice. However, there was a clear pattern of decreased discomfort behaviors on the new rubber flooring. Normal locomotion as well as stereotypic locomotion increased on the new rubber flooring. In addition, resting behavior changed to more closely reflect the resting behavior of wild elephants, which typically sleep standing up, and spend very little time in lateral recumbence. Overall, these findings suggest that the rubber flooring may have provided a more comfortable surface for locomotion as well as standing resting behavior. It is suggested that poured rubber flooring may be a beneficial addition to similar animal facilities. Zoo Biol 0:1-11, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. 9. FIRST FLOOR CAR BARN SPACE. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. FIRST FLOOR CAR BARN SPACE. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Key City Electric Street Railroad, Powerhouse & Storage Barn, Eighth & Washington Streets, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  12. 19. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST OF FIRST FLOOR SHOWING CONVEYOR FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST OF FIRST FLOOR SHOWING CONVEYOR FOR MOVING MATERIAL TO SECOND FLOOR. (NOTE: THIS IS NOT AN ORIGINAL CONVEYOR FOR MOVING BODY PARTS) STAIRS IN BACKGROUND LEAD TO SECOND FLOOR VIA TOILET ROOM NO. 4 AND COAT ROOM AT MEZZANINES LEVEL SITUATED BETWEEN THE TWO SETS OF STAIRS. THERE ARE THREE OTHER TOILET/COAT ROOM MEZZANINES TO THE NORTH LOCATED ALONG THE WALL BETWEEN THE FIRST AND SECOND FLOORS, BEHIND AND TO THE LEFT OF THE STAIRS IS A FREIGHT ELEVATOR SHAFT. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  13. 18. First floor, sun porch room, looking north Veterans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. First floor, sun porch room, looking north - Veterans Administration Center, Officers Duplex Quarters, 5302 East Kellogg (Legal Address); 5500 East Kellogg (Common Address), Wichita, Sedgwick County, KS

  14. 15. FIRST FLOOR WAREHOUSE SPACE, SHOWING COLUMN / BEAM CONNECTION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. FIRST FLOOR WAREHOUSE SPACE, SHOWING COLUMN / BEAM CONNECTION. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Dubuque Seed Company Warehouse, 169-171 Iowa Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  15. 14. SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING SOUTHSOUTHEAST AT CABINETS CONTAINING HIGH VOLTAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST AT CABINETS CONTAINING HIGH VOLTAGE EQUIPMENT - Portland General Electric Company, Stephens Substation, 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  16. 8. FIRST FLOOR POWERHOUSE SPACE. VIEW TO NORTH. Commercial ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. FIRST FLOOR POWERHOUSE SPACE. VIEW TO NORTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Key City Electric Street Railroad, Powerhouse & Storage Barn, Eighth & Washington Streets, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  17. INTERIOR FIRST FLOOR WEST CENTRAL ELEVATOR LOBBY DETAIL VIEW, FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR FIRST FLOOR WEST CENTRAL ELEVATOR LOBBY DETAIL VIEW, FACING SOUTHEAST. - NASA Industrial Plant, Systems Integration & Checkout Facility, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. statement of significance, site plan, floor plan, elevations, perspective, exploded ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    statement of significance, site plan, floor plan, elevations, perspective, exploded construction diagram, door detail, hardware detail. - Floral Hall, City Park, Conneaut Avenue, Bowling Green, Wood County, OH

  19. Perspective view of second floor landing from northeast National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of second floor landing from northeast - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Danville Branch, Directors' House, 1900 and 2000 East Main Street , Danville, Vermilion County, IL

  20. Hijacking cellular garbage cans.

    PubMed

    Welsch, Sonja; Locker, Jacomine Krijnse

    2010-06-25

    Viruses are perfect opportunists that have evolved to modify numerous cellular processes in order to complete their replication cycle in the host cell. An article by Reggiori and coworkers in this issue of Cell Host & Microbe reveals how coronaviruses can divert a cellular quality control pathway that normally functions in degradation of mis-folded proteins to replicate the viral genome. PMID:20542246

  1. Floors and Toilets: Association of Floors and Sanitation Practices with Fecal Contamination in Peruvian Amazon Peri-Urban Households.

    PubMed

    Exum, Natalie G; Olórtegui, Maribel Paredes; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Davis, Meghan F; Heaney, Christopher D; Kosek, Margaret; Schwab, Kellogg J

    2016-07-19

    Over two billion people worldwide lack access to an improved sanitation facility that adequately retains or treats feces. This results in the potential for fecal material containing enteric pathogens to contaminate the environment, including household floors. This study aimed to assess how floor type and sanitation practices impacted the concentration of fecal contamination on household floors. We sampled 189 floor surfaces within 63 households in a peri-urban community in Iquitos, Peru. All samples were analyzed for colony forming units (CFUs) of E. coli, and households were evaluated for their water, sanitation, and hygiene characteristics. Results of multivariate linear regression indicated that households with improved sanitation and cement floors in the kitchen area had reduced fecal contamination to those with unimproved sanitation and dirt floors (Beta: -1.18 log10 E. coli CFU/900 cm(2); 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.77, -0.60). Households that did not versus did share their sanitation facility also had less contaminated kitchen floors (Beta: -0.65 log10 E. coli CFU/900 cm(2); 95% CI: -1.15, -0.16). These findings suggest that the sanitation facilities of a home may impact the microbial load found on floors, contributing to the potential for household floors to serve as an indirect route of fecal pathogen transmission to children. PMID:27338564

  2. The effect of sub-floor heating on house-dust-mite populations on floors and in furniture.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Rob

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that dehydrating conditions for house dust mites can be created by simply raising the temperature, causing loss of body water and eventually death. Thus, it can be expected that conditions for dust mites are less favourable on floors supplied with sub-floor heating. This was examined in a study of 16 houses with sub-floor heating and 21 without. The pattern of changes in air humidity and temperature on the floors was investigated and compared to known data of the tolerance of dust mites. Also the resident mite populations were compared. Floors with sub-floor heating had, on average, fewer mites, but the difference with unheated floors was small. It was remarkable that mite numbers were also lower in upholstered furniture. Another important observation was that some houses with sub-floor heating had high mite numbers, indicating that this type of heating is compatible with a thriving mite population. Temperature and humidity conditions of heated floors may allow mites not only to survive, but also to remain active in winter. A moderate increase in temperature, a moderate decrease in (absolute) air humidity, or a combination of both, will suffice to keep the humidity all winter below the Critical Equilibrium Humidity, the level of air humidity that is critical for mite growth and reproduction, hence for allergen production. However, it is argued that measures to suppress allergen production by house dust mites are likely to be far more effective if taken in summer rather than in winter.

  3. Floors and Toilets: Association of Floors and Sanitation Practices with Fecal Contamination in Peruvian Amazon Peri-Urban Households.

    PubMed

    Exum, Natalie G; Olórtegui, Maribel Paredes; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Davis, Meghan F; Heaney, Christopher D; Kosek, Margaret; Schwab, Kellogg J

    2016-07-19

    Over two billion people worldwide lack access to an improved sanitation facility that adequately retains or treats feces. This results in the potential for fecal material containing enteric pathogens to contaminate the environment, including household floors. This study aimed to assess how floor type and sanitation practices impacted the concentration of fecal contamination on household floors. We sampled 189 floor surfaces within 63 households in a peri-urban community in Iquitos, Peru. All samples were analyzed for colony forming units (CFUs) of E. coli, and households were evaluated for their water, sanitation, and hygiene characteristics. Results of multivariate linear regression indicated that households with improved sanitation and cement floors in the kitchen area had reduced fecal contamination to those with unimproved sanitation and dirt floors (Beta: -1.18 log10 E. coli CFU/900 cm(2); 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.77, -0.60). Households that did not versus did share their sanitation facility also had less contaminated kitchen floors (Beta: -0.65 log10 E. coli CFU/900 cm(2); 95% CI: -1.15, -0.16). These findings suggest that the sanitation facilities of a home may impact the microbial load found on floors, contributing to the potential for household floors to serve as an indirect route of fecal pathogen transmission to children.

  4. Improving the cleaning procedure to make kitchen floors less slippery.

    PubMed

    Quirion, F; Poirier, P; Lehane, P

    2008-12-01

    This investigation shows that, in most cases, the floor cleaning procedure of typical restaurants could be improved, resulting in a better cleaning efficiency and a better floor friction. This simple approach could help reduce slips and falls in the workplace. Food safety officers visited ten European style restaurants in the London Borough of Bromley (UK) to identify their floor cleaning procedure in terms of the cleaning method, the concentration and type of floor cleaner and the temperature of the wash water. For all 10 restaurants visited, the cleaning method was damp mopping. Degreasers were used in three sites while neutral floor cleaners were used in seven sites. Typically, the degreasers were over diluted and the neutrals were overdosed. The wash water temperature ranged from 10 to 72 degrees C. The on-site cleaning procedures were repeated in the laboratory for the removal of olive oil from new and sealed quarry tiles, fouled and worn quarry tiles and new porcelain tiles. It is found that in 24 out of 30 cases, cleaning efficiency can be improved by simple changes in the floor cleaning procedure and that these changes result in a significant improvement of the floor friction. The nature of the improved floor cleaning procedure depends on the flooring type. New and properly sealed flooring tiles can be cleaned using damp mopping with a degreaser diluted as recommended by the manufacturer in warm or hot water (24 to 50 degrees C). But as the tiles become worn and fouled, a more aggressive floor cleaning is required such as two-step mopping with a degreaser diluted as recommended by the manufacturer in warm water (24 degrees C).

  5. Floor tile and mastic removal project report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    A test program was developed and coordinated with State and Federal Regulators and carried out at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. This program was carefully designed to create the worst conditions in order to evaluate whether asbestos fibers are released when asbestos containing floor tile and mastic are removed. There were over 1,000 samples taken and analyzed during the execution of the program. The conclusions reached were based upon analysis of the critical samples using the Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) technology. Additionally, the TEM procedures were used to evaluate personnel samples to determine whether those fibers found were asbestos or other materials. Most of the (TEM) samples were analyzed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory in Cincinnati, Ohio.

  6. Seismic resistance of composite floor diaphragms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, M. L.; Greimann, L. F.

    1980-05-01

    The behavioral and strength characteristics of composite steel deck floor slab diaphragms are reported. Principal characteristics investigated include maximum load, ductility, stiffness, and failure mode. The addition of studs increases the flexural load capacity of one-way steel deck reinforced slabs by 10 to 30 percent. Non-studded specimens ultimately fail because of loss of interfacial force in the shear span. Studded specimens ultimately fail due to tearing of the deck near the stud. Two analysis procedures were used, a contributing forces approach and a shear-bond approach. The former was found to be a potential analysis procedure, and results from the shear-bond increase approach demonstrated its feasibility for studded specimens.

  7. Active vibration control of lightweight floor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baader, J.; Fontana, M.

    2016-04-01

    Wide-span and lightweight floors are often prone to structural vibrations due to their low resonance frequency and poor material damping. Their dynamic behaviour can be improved using passive, semi-active or active vibration control devices. The following article proposes a novel method for the controller synthesis for active vibration control. An existing passive TMD (tuned mass damper) is modelled and equipped with an actuator in order to provide more efficient damping. Using an iterative optimization approach under constraints, an optimal controller is found which minimizes a quadratic cost function in frequency domain. A simulation of an existing test bench shows that the active vibration control device is able to provide increased damping compared to the passive TMD.

  8. Cellular Reflectarray Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    The cellular reflectarray antenna is intended to replace conventional parabolic reflectors that must be physically aligned with a particular satellite in geostationary orbit. These arrays are designed for specified geographical locations, defined by latitude and longitude, each called a "cell." A particular cell occupies nominally 1,500 square miles (3,885 sq. km), but this varies according to latitude and longitude. The cellular reflectarray antenna designed for a particular cell is simply positioned to align with magnetic North, and the antenna surface is level (parallel to the ground). A given cellular reflectarray antenna will not operate in any other cell.

  9. Female Pelvic Floor Anatomy: The Pelvic Floor, Supporting Structures, and Pelvic Organs

    PubMed Central

    Herschorn, Sender

    2004-01-01

    The development of novel, less invasive therapies for stress urinary incontinence in women requires a thorough knowledge of the relationship between the pathophysiology of incontinence and anatomy. This article provides a review of the anatomy of the pelvic floor and lower urinary tract. Also discussed is the hammock hypothesis, which describes urethral support within the pelvis and provides an explanation of the continence mechanism. PMID:16985905

  10. 27 CFR 46.221 - Floor stocks tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette... Floor stocks tax rate Small cigars $48.502 per thousand. Small cigarettes 30.83 per thousand. Large cigarettes 61/2 inch or less in length 64.74 per thousand. Large cigarettes more than 61/2 inch in length...

  11. 27 CFR 46.221 - Floor stocks tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette... Floor stocks tax rate Small cigars $48.502 per thousand. Small cigarettes 30.83 per thousand. Large cigarettes 6½ inch or less in length 64.74 per thousand. Large cigarettes more than 6½ inch in length...

  12. 27 CFR 46.221 - Floor stocks tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette... Floor stocks tax rate Small cigars $48.502 per thousand. Small cigarettes 30.83 per thousand. Large cigarettes 6½ inch or less in length 64.74 per thousand. Large cigarettes more than 6½ inch in length...

  13. 27 CFR 46.221 - Floor stocks tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette... Floor stocks tax rate Small cigars $48.502 per thousand. Small cigarettes 30.83 per thousand. Large cigarettes 61/2 inch or less in length 64.74 per thousand. Large cigarettes more than 61/2 inch in length...

  14. 27 CFR 46.221 - Floor stocks tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette... Floor stocks tax rate Small cigars $48.502 per thousand. Small cigarettes 30.83 per thousand. Large cigarettes 6½ inch or less in length 64.74 per thousand. Large cigarettes more than 6½ inch in length...

  15. 26. Elevator no. 2: floor 4, rollers for south conveyor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Elevator no. 2: floor 4, rollers for south conveyor belt, showing top openings of grain bins on floor, with bin number on ceiling above, facing east - Washburn Crosby Company Elevators No. 2 & 3, 900 & 1000 Second Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  16. 24. Elevator no. 2: floor 4, turnhead distributor and rollers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Elevator no. 2: floor 4, turnhead distributor and rollers for south conveyor belt; east and south walls of control room (floor 5) in background; facing northeast - Washburn Crosby Company Elevators No. 2 & 3, 900 & 1000 Second Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  17. 1. VIEW SOUTHEAST OF BUILDING 24 ON ORGAN STREET; FLOORS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW SOUTHEAST OF BUILDING 24 ON ORGAN STREET; FLOORS 1 AND 2 HOUSED PACKING AND SHIPPING DEPARTMENTS; FLOORS 3 AND 4 WERE PLASTIC COMPOUNDING AND INJECTION MOLDING DEPARTMENTS - Bryant Electric Company, Building No. 24, 80 Organ Street, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  18. 11. INTERIOR VIEW OF THIRD FLOOR OF ORIGINAL FACTORY, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR VIEW OF THIRD FLOOR OF ORIGINAL FACTORY, LOOKING NORTHWEST. THIS SECTION OF THE FACTORY WAS USED FOR STORAGE; THE STAIRWAY LEADS DOWN TO THE SECOND FLOOR WHICH WAS THE LOCATION OF THE COMPANY OFFICE AND EMPLOYEE CHANGE ROOM. - Illinois Pure Aluminum Company, 109 Holmes Street, Lemont, Cook County, IL

  19. 22. DETAIL OF TRIPLE WINDOW, SOUTHEAST ROOM, FIRST FLOOR. Typical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL OF TRIPLE WINDOW, SOUTHEAST ROOM, FIRST FLOOR. Typical for all triple windows on first and second floors. Single swing jib door under center sash opening out. Door thickness measures from flush with exterior siding to 3/4' inside bottom sash. See also Photo 12. SC-291-12. - John Joyner Smith House, 400 Wilmington Street, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  20. INTERIOR VIEW ON SEVENTH FLOOR ALONG EAST (CLAY STREET) FRONT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW ON SEVENTH FLOOR ALONG EAST (CLAY STREET) FRONT. TYPICAL INTERIOR CONDITIONS OF PARTIAL DEMOLITION; SUSPENDED CEILING AND MOVABLE PARTITION WALLS REMOVED, REMAINS OF DEMOLISHED SHEET METAL CORNICE FROM BUILDING EXTERIOR VISIBLE ON FLOOR - John Breuner & Company Building, 1515 Clay Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  1. 44. SECOND FLOOR 'ANNEX' INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST: Interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. SECOND FLOOR 'ANNEX' - INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST: Interior view towards southwest on second floor of the powerhouse 'annex.' Note the steel column and beam construction and the old shunt car formerly used to move cable cars around the yard. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. 45. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST ON SECOND FLOOR: Interior view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST ON SECOND FLOOR: Interior view towards southwest on second floor of main portion of the powerhouse and car barn. This space is used for repair and storage of cable cars. Note wooden trussed roof. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  3. 46. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTH ON SECOND FLOOR: Interior view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTH ON SECOND FLOOR: Interior view looking south along the east wall on the second floor of the powerhouse and car barn. Note the cable car truck in the foreground. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. 1. BUILDING No. 4 SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BUILDING No. 4 - SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR - DETAIL OF WOOD ROOF STRUCTURE IN SMALL RAISED FLOOR SECTION - BRACED (TRUSSED) RIDGE GIRDER AND TRUSSED BEAMS ALSO SHOWN - Whiting-Plover Paper Mill, Building No. 4, 3243 Whiting Road, Whiting, Portage County, WI

  5. Short communication: Flooring preferences of dairy cows at calving.

    PubMed

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the flooring preference during the 30 h before parturition in Holstein dairy cows housed individually in a maternity pen. Seventeen multiparous cows were moved, on average, 2 d before expected calving date into an individual maternity pen with 3 different flooring surfaces: 10 cm of sand, pebble-top rubber mats, or concrete flooring, each covered with 15 cm of straw. Calving location, lying time, and total time and number of lying bouts on each of the floor types were recorded during 2 periods: precalving (24 to 29 h before calving) and at calving (0 to 5h before calving). Ten cows calved on sand, 6 on concrete, and 1 on the rubber mat. Lying bouts increased during the hours closest to calving, regardless of flooring. The number of lying bouts did not differ between flooring types precalving but cows had more lying bouts on sand and concrete compared with rubber at calving. Cows spent more time lying down on sand and concrete compared with rubber precalving, but lying times did not differ between treatments at calving. Cows that calved on sand spent more time lying on sand at calving compared with the other 2 flooring types. Cows that calved on concrete did not show a flooring preference at calving. These results indicate that rubber mats are the least preferred by dairy cows in the maternity pens, even when covered with a deep layer of straw.

  6. Effects of roughness and compressibility of flooring on cow locomotion.

    PubMed

    Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M

    2006-08-01

    We examined the effects of roughness and degree of compressibility of flooring on the locomotion of dairy cows. We observed 16 cows walking down specially constructed walkways with materials that differed in surface roughness and degree of compressibility. Use of a commercially available soft rubber flooring material decreased slipping, number of strides, and time to traverse the corridor. These effects were most apparent at difficult sections of the corridor, such as at the start, at a right-angle turn, and across a gutter. Covering the walkway with a thin layer of slurry increased frequency of slipping, number of strides, and time taken to traverse the walkway. Effects of adding slurry were not overcome by increasing surface roughness or compressibility. Placing more compressible materials under a slip-resistant material reduced the time and number of steps needed to traverse the corridor but did not reduce slips, and the effects on cow locomotion varied nonlinearly with the degree of compressibility of the floor. Use of commercially available rubber floors improved cow locomotion compared with concrete floors. However, standard engineering measures of the floor properties may not predict effects of the floor on cow behavior well. Increasing compressibility of the flooring on which cows walk, independently of the roughness of the surface, can improve cow locomotion.

  7. MTR BUILDING AND BALCONY FLOORS. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY. PHOTOGRAPHER DID ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING AND BALCONY FLOORS. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY. PHOTOGRAPHER DID NOT EXPLAIN DARK CLOUD. MTR WING WILL ATTACH TO GROUND FLOOR. INL NEGATIVE NO. 1567. Unknown Photographer, 2/28/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. 16. INTERIOR DETAIL, SECOND FLOOR OF ADDITION AT SOUTH WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR DETAIL, SECOND FLOOR OF ADDITION AT SOUTH WALL OF TOILET ROOM, SHOWING LARGER, DIFFERENT STYLE RADIATOR THAN AT FIRST FLOOR, AND TONGUE AND GROOVE WAINSCOTING WITH WOOD CAP TRIM. - Mills Hall, Mills College, 5000 MacArthur Boulevard, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  9. Floor Hockey---Is It a Safe Sport for Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Gary R.

    1989-01-01

    Guidelines under which floor hockey should be taught to prevent avoidable injuries are presented. Three court cases involving floor hockey related injuries are reviewed, and issues of responsibility and liability on the part of physical educators and schools are discussed. (IAH)

  10. 76 FR 76435 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... Register on June 9, 2011 (76 FR 33782). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on October 12, 2011, and... COMMISSION Multilayered Wood Flooring From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... China of multilayered wood flooring, provided for in subheadings 4409.10, 4409.29, 4412.31,...

  11. 78 FR 30329 - Multilayered Wood Flooring from China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly revised Commission... COMMISSION Multilayered Wood Flooring from China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... and 731-TA-1179 (Final) concerning multilayered wood flooring (``MLWF'') from China. For...

  12. 75 FR 79019 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... the notice in the Federal Register of October 27, 2010 (75 FR 66126). The conference was held in... COMMISSION Multilayered Wood Flooring From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... reason of imports from China of multilayered wood flooring, provided for in subheadings 4409.10,...

  13. MTR MAIN FLOOR. MTR TRACTOR IS IN CENTER OF VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR MAIN FLOOR. MTR TRACTOR IS IN CENTER OF VIEW AMIDST AN ACCUMULATION OF CLUTTER ON THE FLOOR. TRACTOR HAD ATTACHMENTS IN FRONT TO FACILITATE MOVING OF COFFINS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3027. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 9/17/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. Interior view of loading dock, main floor, looking east. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of loading dock, main floor, looking east. View shows roof truss system, elevated dock floor, and metal roll-up doors with metal casement windows above them - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  15. 7 CFR 3201.81 - Floor coverings (non-carpet).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... designation can be found in the Comprehensive Procurement Guideline, 40 CFR 247.17. ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Floor coverings (non-carpet). 3201.81 Section 3201.81... Designated Items § 3201.81 Floor coverings (non-carpet). (a) Definition. Products, other than carpet...

  16. Efficient systems of sound insulating floors. [multilayer soundproofing materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giurgiu, I. I.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments are summerized on dwelling houses with a view to the creation of efficient warm floors. The experiments concern the types of floors built in Rumania with currently produced materials. At the present time experiments are continuing with solutions based on concrete slabs equipped with a PVC carpet and placed on an elastic layer.

  17. 7 CFR 3201.81 - Floor coverings (non-carpet).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... designation can be found in the Comprehensive Procurement Guideline, 40 CFR 247.17. ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Floor coverings (non-carpet). 3201.81 Section 3201.81... Designated Items § 3201.81 Floor coverings (non-carpet). (a) Definition. Products, other than carpet...

  18. Rubber Flooring Impact on Production and Herdlife of Dairy Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of rubber flooring in dairies has become popular because of perceived cow comfort. The overall objective of this longitudinal study was to evaluate production, reproduction, and retention of first and second lactations of cows assigned to either rubber (RUB) or concrete (CON) flooring at the fe...

  19. Interior view, ground floor passage crossing the main corridor at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, ground floor passage crossing the main corridor at its center, looking east through the doorway linking the two perpendicular axes. The door at the end of the passage opens onto a passage running under the entrance portico bearing ground floor exterior doors at each end. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. FLOOR COVERING--PART 1, RESILIENT COVERINGS. WORKBOOK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUTTER, RALPH; AND OTHERS

    THE INFORMATION IN THIS STUDY GUIDE WAS DEVELOPED FOR USE IN RELATED TECHNICAL INSTRUCTION IN APPRENTICE TRAINING FOR THE FLOOR COVERING TRADE. THE MATERIAL WAS WRITTEN BY TRADE INSTRUCTORS AND JOURNEYMEN UNDER THE DIRECTION AND COORDINATION OF THE STATE EDUCATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR THE FLOOR COVERING TRADE AND OTHERS. THE UNITS ARE (1)…

  1. 50. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTH AT FIRST FLOOR MACHINE SHOP: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTH AT FIRST FLOOR MACHINE SHOP: Interior view towards south of the machine shop located on the first floor of the powerhouse and car barn. Compare this view with CA-12-74, taken seventeen years earlier. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. 10. INTERIOR VIEW OF DECONTAMINATION ROOM ON MAIN FLOOR. CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR VIEW OF DECONTAMINATION ROOM ON MAIN FLOOR. CAMERA FACING SOUTH. NOTE DRAIN PAN ON FLOOR. THIS WAS THE ONLY PROCESS-RELATED ROOM ACCESSIBLE TO PHOTOGRAPHER. INEEL PROOF SHEET NOT NUMBERED. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. Pelvic floor muscle training in males: practical applications.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Andrew L

    2014-07-01

    The pelvic floor muscles are vital to male genitourinary health. Pelvic floor muscle training may prove helpful in a variety of clinical circumstances: stress urinary incontinence that follows prostate surgery, overactive bladder, postvoid dribbling, erectile dysfunction, ejaculation issues including premature ejaculation, and pelvic pain due to levator muscle spasm.

  4. 13. Missile site control building, third and fourth floor interior, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Missile site control building, third and fourth floor interior, showing east corner and former electrical equipment area, room #306. This building was salvaged and sealed in the 1970's; the lower floors also suffered flooding - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  5. 32. LARGE LADLE, BOX FLOOR, GREY IRON FOUNDRY IS USED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. LARGE LADLE, BOX FLOOR, GREY IRON FOUNDRY IS USED TO CARRY LARGE BATCHES OF IRON FROM THE CUPOLA AREAS TO THE LARGE MOLDS MADE ON BOX FLOOR AREA. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  6. STEEL BEAMS FOR FIRST FLOOR BEING READIED FOR CONCRETE POUR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STEEL BEAMS FOR FIRST FLOOR BEING READIED FOR CONCRETE POUR UNDER WEATHER SHELTER DURING COLD WINTER. NOTE ABUNDANCE OF BEAMS; THE FLOOR WILL SUPPORT HEAVY LOADS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 1175. Unknown Photographer, 12/20/1950 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. 46 CFR 171.109 - Watertight floors in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watertight floors in double bottoms. 171.109 Section 171.109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... Watertight floors in double bottoms. If a vessel is required to have a double bottom, a watertight...

  8. 46 CFR 171.109 - Watertight floors in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watertight floors in double bottoms. 171.109 Section 171.109 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY... Watertight floors in double bottoms. If a vessel is required to have a double bottom, a watertight...

  9. 49 CFR 229.119 - Cabs, floors, and passageways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... position in the cab. (See also, Safety Glazing Standards, 49 CFR part 223, 44 FR 77348, Dec. 31, 1979.) (c... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cabs, floors, and passageways. 229.119 Section 229... Cab Equipment § 229.119 Cabs, floors, and passageways. (a) Cab seats shall be securely mounted...

  10. 22. TRANSPORTING STEEL FLOOR PLATES ON HAND CART TO NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. TRANSPORTING STEEL FLOOR PLATES ON HAND CART TO NORTH END OF BRIDGE. NOTE RETAINING ANGLE FOR SURFACING AT CUT-SIDE EDGE OF FLOOR PLATES. NOTE TUNNELS IN TOP OF ROCK FACE FOR MAIN CABLES - Kaibab Trail Suspension Bridge, Spanning Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

  11. DETAIL VIEW OF FLOOR BEAM AND STRINGER SYSTEM; INNER END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF FLOOR BEAM AND STRINGER SYSTEM; INNER END CONNECTION OF BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING AT UPPER LEFT; FLOOR BEAM CAMBER RODS AND CAMBER SHOE AT L3, AT RIGHT. VIEW LOOKING NORTH. - Henszey's Wrought-Iron Arch Bridge, Spanning Ontelaunee Creek at Kings Road, Wanamakers, Lehigh County, PA

  12. 5. VIEW OF INTERIOR OF BUILDING 220, DECORATIVE FLOOR AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF INTERIOR OF BUILDING 220, DECORATIVE FLOOR AT ENTRANCE. VINYL TILE INLAID FLOOR WITH A RED BACKGROUND, GREEN EMBLEM, BROWN AND WHITE EAGLE, RED AND WHITE SHIELD, BLACK ANCHOR, RED ARROWS AND LETTERING. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Brig, Neville Way near Ninth Street at Marine Barracks, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. 4. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHSOUTHWEST, OF BUILDING 371 GROUND FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST, OF BUILDING 371 GROUND FLOOR UNDER CONSTRUCTION. THE GROUND FLOOR, WHICH CONTAINS THE MAJORITY OF THE PLUTONIUM RECOVERY PROCESSING EQUIPMENT, IS DIVIDED INTO COMPARTMENTS BY FIREWALLS, AIRLOCKS, AND USE OF NEGATIVE AIR PRESSURE. (1/7/75) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. 46 CFR 171.109 - Watertight floors in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Watertight floors in double bottoms. 171.109 Section 171... Watertight floors in double bottoms. If a vessel is required to have a double bottom, a watertight transverse division must be located in the double bottom under each main transverse watertight bulkhead or as near...

  15. 46 CFR 171.109 - Watertight floors in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Watertight floors in double bottoms. 171.109 Section 171... Watertight floors in double bottoms. If a vessel is required to have a double bottom, a watertight transverse division must be located in the double bottom under each main transverse watertight bulkhead or as near...

  16. 46 CFR 171.109 - Watertight floors in double bottoms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Watertight floors in double bottoms. 171.109 Section 171... Watertight floors in double bottoms. If a vessel is required to have a double bottom, a watertight transverse division must be located in the double bottom under each main transverse watertight bulkhead or as near...

  17. 6. Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator spout floormayo spouts distribution floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator spout floor-mayo spouts distribution floor looking roughly west to east. - Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator, Workhouse, South side of first slip, north from outer end of Rice's Point, east of Garfield Avenue, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  18. 24. Interior view of third floor attic of 1896 south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Interior view of third floor attic of 1896 south section of building. Note steel truss supports and wooden roof. Top floor round window in seen from outside in photo WA-116-A-2. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Pattern Shop, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  19. 29. FLOOR PLAN OF WASTE CALCINATION FACILITY SHOWING MAIN ABOVEGRADE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. FLOOR PLAN OF WASTE CALCINATION FACILITY SHOWING MAIN ABOVE-GRADE FLOOR LEVEL. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106354. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-A-4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. 12. INTERIOR OF COVERED WALKWAY BEHIND SECOND FLOOR APARTMENTS FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR OF COVERED WALKWAY BEHIND SECOND FLOOR APARTMENTS FROM OPPOSITE VIEW OF CA-XXX-11. DOOR AT PHOTO LEFT OPENS INTO THE KITCHEN OF THE WEST SIDE SECOND FLOOR APARTMENT. VIEW TO EAST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  1. Localization of wood floor structure by infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochior Plescanu, C.; Klein, M.; Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; Bendada, A.; Maldague, X.

    2008-03-01

    One of our industrial partners, Assek Technologie, is interested in developing a technique that would improve the drying process of wood floor in basements after flooding. In order to optimize the procedure, the floor structure and the damaged (wet) area extent must first be determined with minimum intrusion (minimum or no dismantling). The present study presents the use of infrared thermography to reveal the structure of (flooded) wood floors. The procedure involves opening holes in the floor. Injecting some hot air through those holes reveals the framing structure even if the floor is covered by vinyl or ceramic tiles. This study indicates that thermal imaging can also be used as a tool to validate the decontamination process after drying. Thermal images were obtained on small-scale models and in a demonstration room.

  2. Recognition and Management of Nonrelaxing Pelvic Floor Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Faubion, Stephanie S.; Shuster, Lynne T.; Bharucha, Adil E.

    2012-01-01

    Nonrelaxing pelvic floor dysfunction is not widely recognized. Unlike in pelvic floor disorders caused by relaxed muscles (eg, pelvic organ prolapse or urinary incontinence, both of which often are identified readily), women affected by nonrelaxing pelvic floor dysfunction may present with a broad range of nonspecific symptoms. These may include pain and problems with defecation, urination, and sexual function, which require relaxation and coordination of pelvic floor muscles and urinary and anal sphincters. These symptoms may adversely affect quality of life. Focus on the global symptom complex, rather than the individual symptoms, may help the clinician identify the condition. The primary care provider is in a position to intervene early, efficiently, and effectively by (1) recognizing the range of symptoms that might suggest nonrelaxing pelvic floor dysfunction, (2) educating patients, (3) performing selective tests when needed to confirm the diagnosis, and (4) providing early referral for physical therapy. PMID:22305030

  3. The spastic pelvic floor syndrome. A cause of constipation.

    PubMed

    Kuijpers, H C; Bleijenberg, G

    1985-09-01

    In 12 patients with constipation, it was detected by defecography that, during straining, the anorectal angle did not increase, but remained at 90 degrees. These patients were unable to excrete barium. Since the anorectal angle is a measure of activity of the pelvic floor musculature, a dysfunction of this muscle was suspected. In order to determine whether this abnormality represented a true functional disorder or just a voluntary contraction of the pelvic floor muscles due to embarrassment, we performed electromyographic, manometric, and transit time studies in these patients. The electromyographic studies confirmed the persistent contraction during defecation straining. Both manometry and electromyography revealed normal muscle function at rest and during squeezing. Colonic transit time studies demonstrated rectal retention in nine of 12 patients, indicating outlet obstruction. Persistent contraction of the pelvic floor muscles, for which we propose the name "spastic pelvic floor syndrome," represents a functional disorder of normal pelvic floor muscles, causing a functional outlet obstruction.

  4. [Main Cellular Redox Couples].

    PubMed

    Bilan, D S; Shokhina, A G; Lukyanov, S A; Belousov, V V

    2015-01-01

    Most of the living cells maintain the continuous flow of electrons, which provides them by energy. Many of the compounds are presented in a cell at the same time in the oxidized and reduced states, forming the active redox couples. Some of the redox couples, such as NAD+/NADH, NADP+/NADPH, oxidized/reduced glutathione (GSSG/GSH), are universal, as they participate in adjusting of many cellular reactions. Ratios of the oxidized and reduced forms of these compounds are important cellular redox parameters. Modern research approaches allow setting the new functions of the main redox couples in the complex organization of cellular processes. The following information is about the main cellular redox couples and their participation in various biological processes.

  5. Nanostructured cellular networks.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, P; Taylor, M D R; Brust, M

    2002-12-01

    Au nanocrystals spin-coated onto silicon from toluene form cellular networks. A quantitative statistical crystallography analysis shows that intercellular correlations drive the networks far from statistical equilibrium. Spin-coating from hexane does not produce cellular structure, yet a strong correlation is retained in the positions of nanocrystal aggregates. Mechanisms based on Marangoni convection alone cannot account for the variety of patterns observed, and we argue that spinodal decomposition plays an important role in foam formation.

  6. Cellular aging and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hornsby, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Aging is manifest in a variety of changes over time, including changes at the cellular level. Cellular aging acts primarily as a tumor suppressor mechanism, but also may enhance cancer development under certain circumstances. One important process of cellular aging is oncogene-induced senescence, which acts as an important anti-cancer mechanism. Cellular senescence resulting from damage caused by activated oncogenes prevents the growth or potentially neoplastic cells. Moreover, cells that have entered senescence appear to be targets for elimination by the innnate immune system. In another aspect of cellular aging, the absence of telomerase activity in normal tissues results in such cells lacking a telomere maintenance mechanism. One consequence is that in aging there is an increase in cells with shortened telomeres. In the presence of active oncogenes that cause expansion of a neoplastic clone, shortening of telomeres leading to telomere dysfunction prevents the indefinite expansion of the clone because the cells enter crisis. Crisis results from fusions and other defects caused by dysfunctional telomeres and is a terminal state of the neoplastic clone. In this way the absence of telomerase in human cells, while one cause of cellular aging, also acts as an anti-cancer mechanism. PMID:20705476

  7. Sea-Floor geology and character of Eastern Rhode Island Sound West of Gay Head, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, L.J.; McMullen, K.Y.; Ackerman, S.D.; Blackwood, D.S.; Irwin, B.J.; Schaer, J.D.; Forrest, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Gridded multibeam bathymetry covers approximately 102 square kilometers of sea floor in eastern Rhode Island Sound west of Gay Head, Massachusetts. Although originally collected for charting purposes during National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration hydrographic survey H11922, these acoustic data and the sea-floor stations subsequently occupied to verify them (1) show the composition and terrain of the seabed, (2) provide information on sediment transport and benthic habitat, and (3) are part of an expanding series of studies that provide a fundamental framework for research and management activities (for example, windfarms and fisheries) along the Massachusetts inner continental shelf. Most of the sea floor in the study area has an undulating to faintly rippled appearance and is composed of bioturbated muddy sand, reflecting processes associated with sediment sorting and reworking. Shallower areas are composed of rippled sand and, where small fields of megaripples are present, indicate sedimentary environments characterized by processes associated with coarse bedload transport. Boulders and gravel were found on the floors of scour depressions and on top of an isolated bathymetric high where erosion has removed the Holocene marine sediments and exposed the underlying relict lag deposits of Pleistocene drift. The numerous scour depressions, which formed during storm-driven events, result in the juxtaposition of sea-floor areas with contrasting sedimentary environments and distinct gravel, sand, and muddy sand textures. This textural heterogeneity in turn creates a complex patchwork of habitats. Our observations of local variations in community structure suggest that this small-scale textural heterogeneity adds dramatically to the sound-wide benthic biological diversity.

  8. The Generation of Building Floor Plans Using Portable and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Mapping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, G. J.; Chen, Y. L.; Chiang, K. W.; Lai, Y. C.

    2016-06-01

    Indoor navigation or positioning systems have been widely developed for Location-Based Services (LBS) applications and they come along with a keen demand of indoor floor plans for displaying results even improving the positioning performance. Generally, the floor plans produced by robot mapping focus on perceiving the environment to avoid obstacles and using the feature landmarks to update the robot position in the relative coordinate frame. These maps are not accurate enough to incorporate to the indoor positioning system. This study aims at developing Indoor Mobile Mapping System (Indoor MMS) and concentrates on generating the highly accurate floor plans based on the robot mapping technique using the portable, robot and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) platform. The proposed portable mapping system prototype can be used in the chest package and the handheld approach. In order to evaluate and correct the generated floor plans from robot mapping techniques, this study builds the testing and calibration field using the outdoor control survey method implemented in the indoor environments. Based on control points and check points from control survey, this study presents the map rectification method that uses the affine transformation to solve the scale and deformation problems and also transfer the local coordinate system into world standard coordinate system. The preliminary results illustrate that the final version of the building floor plan reach 1 meter absolute positioning accuracy using the proposed mapping systems that combines with the novel map rectification approach proposed. These maps are well geo-referenced with world coordinate system thus it can be applied for future seamless navigation applications including indoor and outdoor scenarios.

  9. Knowledge of the pelvic floor in nulliparous women

    PubMed Central

    Neels, Hedwig; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques; Tjalma, Wiebren A. A.; De Wachter, Stefan; Wyndaele, Michel; Vermandel, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Proper pelvic floor function is important to avoid serious dysfunctions including incontinence, prolapse, and sexual problems. The current study evaluated the knowledge of young nulliparous women about their pelvic floor and identified what additional information they wanted. [Subjects and Methods] In this cross-sectional survey, a validated, 36 item questionnaire was distributed to 212 nulliparous women. The questionnaire addressed demography, pelvic floor muscles, pelvic floor dysfunction, and possible information sources. Descriptive statistics were generated for all variables. Stability and validity testing were performed using Kappa statistics and intra class correlation coefficients to define agreement for each question. The study was approved by the ethics Committee (B300201318334). [Results] Using a VAS scale (0 to 10), the women rated their knowledge about the pelvic floor as a mean of 2.4 (SD 2.01). A total of 93% of the women were insufficiently informed and requested more information; 25% had concerns about developing urinary incontinence, and 14% about fecal incontinence. Many of the women were unaware what pelvic floor training meant. [Conclusion] There was a significant lack of knowledge about pelvic floor function among nulliparous women. The majority of nulliparous women expressed a need for education, which might offer a way to reduce dysfunction. PMID:27313364

  10. Pelvic floor muscle functioning in women with vulvar vestibulitis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reissing, E D; Brown, C; Lord, M J; Binik, Y M; Khalifé, S

    2005-06-01

    Vaginal sEMG biofeedback and pelvic floor physical therapists' manual techniques are being increasingly included in the treatment of vulvar vestibulitis syndrome (VVS). Successful treatment outcomes have generated hypotheses concerning the role of pelvic floor pathology in the etiology of VVS. However, no data on pelvic floor functioning in women with VVS compared to controls are available. Twenty-nine women with VVS were matched to 29 women with no pain with intercourse. Two independent, structured pelvic floor examinations were carried out by physical therapists blind to the diagnostic status of the participants. Results indicated that therapists reached almost perfect agreement in their diagnosis of pelvic floor pathology. A series of significant correlations demonstrated the reliability of assessment results across muscle palpation sites. Women with VVS demonstrated significantly more vaginal hypertonicity, lack of vaginal muscle strength, and restriction of the vaginal opening, compared to women with no pain with intercourse. Anal palpation could not confirm generalized hypertonicity of the pelvic floor. We suggest that pelvic floor pathology in women with VVS is reactive in nature and elicited with palpations that result in VVS-type pain. Treatment interventions need to recognize the critical importance of addressing the conditioned, protective muscle guarding response in women with VVS.

  11. Analysis of Potential Concerete Floor Decontamination Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    M. A. Ebadian

    1997-08-06

    During the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities to be conducted at the Femald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), contaminated concrete waste will be generated from the D&D of approximately 200 buildings and other structures [1]. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owns the Fernald site. The site is a contractor-operated federal facility that produced high-purity uranium metal products for the DOE and its predecessor agency, the Atomic Energy Commission, from 1952 to 1989. Thorium being ores were also processed at FEMP, but on a smaller scale. Production activities ceased in 1989, and the production mission of the facility ended formally in 1991. FEMP was included on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List in 1989. The current mission of the site is environmental restoration according to the requirements specified by CERCLA [1]. Decontamination and decommissioning activities require the treatment of concrete floors to segregate technetium-99 contaminated concrete from the remainder of the concrete. Many proven commercial stiace removal technologies are available. These processes vary in aggressiveness, stiety requirements, waste generation, capital requirements, and operating and maintenance costs.

  12. Automated sea floor extraction from underwater video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Lauren; Rahmes, Mark; Stiver, James; McCluskey, Mike

    2016-05-01

    Ocean floor mapping using video is a method to simply and cost-effectively record large areas of the seafloor. Obtaining visual and elevation models has noteworthy applications in search and recovery missions. Hazards to navigation are abundant and pose a significant threat to the safety, effectiveness, and speed of naval operations and commercial vessels. This project's objective was to develop a workflow to automatically extract metadata from marine video and create image optical and elevation surface mosaics. Three developments made this possible. First, optical character recognition (OCR) by means of two-dimensional correlation, using a known character set, allowed for the capture of metadata from image files. Second, exploiting the image metadata (i.e., latitude, longitude, heading, camera angle, and depth readings) allowed for the determination of location and orientation of the image frame in mosaic. Image registration improved the accuracy of mosaicking. Finally, overlapping data allowed us to determine height information. A disparity map was created using the parallax from overlapping viewpoints of a given area and the relative height data was utilized to create a three-dimensional, textured elevation map.

  13. Diversity of life in ocean floor basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorseth, I. H.; Torsvik, T.; Torsvik, V.; Daae, F. L.; Pedersen, R. B.

    2001-12-01

    Electron microscopy and biomolecular methods have been used to describe and identify microbial communities inhabiting the glassy margins of ocean floor basalts. The investigated samples were collected from a neovolcanic ridge and from older, sediment-covered lava flows in the rift valley of the Knipovich Ridge at a water depth around 3500 m and an ambient seawater temperature of -0.7°C. Successive stages from incipient microbial colonisation, to well-developed biofilms occur on fracture surfaces in the glassy margins. Observed microbial morphologies are various filamentous, coccoidal, oval, rod-shaped and stalked forms. Etch marks in the fresh glass, with form and size resembling the attached microbes, are common. Precipitation of alteration products around microbes has developed hollow subspherical and filamentous structures. These precipitates are often enriched in Fe and Mn. The presence of branching and twisted stalks that resemble those of the iron-oxidising Gallionella, indicate that reduced iron may be utilised in an energy metabolic process. Analysis of 16S-rRNA gene sequences from microbes present in the rock samples, show that the bacterial population inhabiting these samples cluster within the γ- and ɛ-Proteobacteria and the Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroides subdivision of the Bacteria, while the Archaea all belong to the Crenarchaeota kingdom. This microbial population appears to be characteristic for the rock and their closest relatives have previously been reported from cold marine waters in the Arctic and Antarctic, deep-sea sediments and hydrothermal environments.

  14. 117. Stage mezzanine level floor structure. North rams, facing south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. Stage mezzanine level floor structure. North rams, facing south. The left hand ram is the same one visible from above in IL-1007-114. A hinged slot in the mezzanine floor corresponding to the slot in the stage floor above is visible in the center of the photo (also visible from below in IL-1007-119). To the right, the top of one of the lowered, smaller, downstage rams (type C) is visible. - Auditorium Building, 430 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  15. 113. Stage level floor structure. In addition to the movable ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. Stage level floor structure. In addition to the movable sections, there were hinged slots that could be opened in the stage floor (see sheet 4 of 9, note 4; sheet 5 of 9, note 2; and sheet 7 of 9, note 1). A remaining cast iron bracket is visible in the left foreground of the photograph. The actual structure for a hinged section is visible in the background, to the right of center. The hydraulic ram (type D) visible below the floor level is the south ram in the middle row; the view is facing north. - Auditorium Building, 430 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  16. Origins of cellular geometry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cells are highly complex and orderly machines, with defined shapes and a startling variety of internal organizations. Complex geometry is a feature of both free-living unicellular organisms and cells inside multicellular animals. Where does the geometry of a cell come from? Many of the same questions that arise in developmental biology can also be asked of cells, but in most cases we do not know the answers. How much of cellular organization is dictated by global cell polarity cues as opposed to local interactions between cellular components? Does cellular structure persist across cell generations? What is the relationship between cell geometry and tissue organization? What ensures that intracellular structures are scaled to the overall size of the cell? Cell biology is only now beginning to come to grips with these questions. PMID:21880160

  17. Epigenetics and Cellular Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenyi; Wang, Fengzhong; Yu, Zhongsheng; Xin, Fengjiao

    2016-01-01

    Living eukaryotic systems evolve delicate cellular mechanisms for responding to various environmental signals. Among them, epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, etc.) is the hub in transducing external stimuli into transcriptional response. Emerging evidence reveals the concept that epigenetic signatures are essential for the proper maintenance of cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolite, a main environmental input, can also influence the processing of epigenetic memory. Here, we summarize the recent research progress in the epigenetic regulation of cellular metabolism and discuss how the dysfunction of epigenetic machineries influences the development of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity; then, we focus on discussing the notion that manipulating metabolites, the fuel of cell metabolism, can function as a strategy for interfering epigenetic machinery and its related disease progression as well. PMID:27695375

  18. Epigenetics and Cellular Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenyi; Wang, Fengzhong; Yu, Zhongsheng; Xin, Fengjiao

    2016-01-01

    Living eukaryotic systems evolve delicate cellular mechanisms for responding to various environmental signals. Among them, epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation, histone modifications, microRNAs, etc.) is the hub in transducing external stimuli into transcriptional response. Emerging evidence reveals the concept that epigenetic signatures are essential for the proper maintenance of cellular metabolism. On the other hand, the metabolite, a main environmental input, can also influence the processing of epigenetic memory. Here, we summarize the recent research progress in the epigenetic regulation of cellular metabolism and discuss how the dysfunction of epigenetic machineries influences the development of metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity; then, we focus on discussing the notion that manipulating metabolites, the fuel of cell metabolism, can function as a strategy for interfering epigenetic machinery and its related disease progression as well.

  19. Benchmark study between FIDAP and a cellular automata code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akau, R. L.; Stockman, H. W.

    A fluid flow benchmark exercise was conducted to compare results between a cellular automata code and FIDAP. Cellular automata codes are free from gridding constraints, and are generally used to model slow (Reynolds number approximately 1) flows around complex solid obstacles. However, the accuracy of cellular automata codes at higher Reynolds numbers, where inertial terms are significant, is not well-documented. In order to validate the cellular automata code, two fluids problems were investigated. For both problems, flow was assumed to be laminar, two-dimensional, isothermal, incompressible and periodic. Results showed that the cellular automata code simulated the overall behavior of the flow field.

  20. Measurement with verification of stationary signals and noise in extremely quiet environments: Measuring below the noise floor

    PubMed Central

    Ellingson, Roger M.; Gallun, Frederick J.; Bock, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    It can be problematic to measure stationary acoustic sound pressure level in any environment when the target level approaches or lies below the minimum measureable sound pressure level of the measurement system itself. This minimum measureable level, referred to as the inherent measurement system noise floor, is generally established by noise emission characteristics of measurement system components such as microphones, preamplifiers, and other system circuitry. In this paper, methods are presented and shown accurate measuring stationary levels within 20 dB above and below this system noise floor. Methodology includes (1) measuring inherent measurement system noise, (2) subtractive energy based, inherent noise adjustment of levels affected by system noise floor, and (3) verifying accuracy of inherent noise adjustment technique. While generalizable to other purposes, the techniques presented here were specifically developed to quantify ambient noise levels in very quiet rooms used to evaluate free-field human hearing thresholds. Results obtained applying the methods to objectively measure and verify the ambient noise level in an extremely quiet room, using various measurement system noise floors and analysis bandwidths, are presented and discussed. The verified results demonstrate the adjustment method can accurately extend measurement range to 20 dB below the measurement system noise floor, and how measurement system frequency bandwidth can affect accuracy of reported noise levels. PMID:25786932

  1. 19. 110 SANSOM STREET, FIRST FLOOR FRONT ROOM LOOKING NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. 110 SANSOM STREET, FIRST FLOOR FRONT ROOM LOOKING NORTHWEST (Note chimney breast closet and fragment of paneling.) - James McCrea Houses, 108-110 Sansom Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. 24. 110 SANSOM STREET, FIREPLACE WALL IN SECOND FLOOR FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. 110 SANSOM STREET, FIREPLACE WALL IN SECOND FLOOR FRONT ROOM (Closet at left is a later addition covering a chimney breast closet.) - James McCrea Houses, 108-110 Sansom Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. 21. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, MOTOR ROOM, SWITCHING PANEL, ELECTRICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, MOTOR ROOM, SWITCHING PANEL, ELECTRICAL POWER ENTRY. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  4. 13. Jet Lowe, Photographer, June 1979. FIRST FLOOR, INTERIOR LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Jet Lowe, Photographer, June 1979. FIRST FLOOR, INTERIOR LOOKING SOUTH. SHOWING GRIST MILL, SALEM MACHINE WORKS' WHEAT ROLLER MILLS AND FLOUR BAGGER/COMPACTOR. - Womack's Mill, Yanceyville, Caswell County, NC

  5. 27. Credit JTL. Second floor, detail of Eureka horizontal wheat ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Credit JTL. Second floor, detail of Eureka horizontal wheat scourer, by S. Howes Co., (Silver Creek, NY). After leaving scourer, grain passed directly to the Midget Marvel Machine. - Bunker Hill Mill, County Route 26, Bunker Hill, Berkeley County, WV

  6. 15. Jet Lowe, Photographer, June 1979. FIRST FLOOR, INTERIOR, EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Jet Lowe, Photographer, June 1979. FIRST FLOOR, INTERIOR, EAST SIDE. DETAIL OF SALEM MACHINE WORKS' FLOUR BAGGER/COMPACTOR. WHEAT ROLLER MILLS IN BACKGROUND. - Womack's Mill, Yanceyville, Caswell County, NC

  7. 17. Jet Lowe, Photographer, June 1979. SECOND FLOOR, INTERIOR, SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Jet Lowe, Photographer, June 1979. SECOND FLOOR, INTERIOR, SOUTH END, SHOWING REMAINS OF GRAIN ELEVATORS, FLOUR AND WHEAT BINS, PLATFORM FLOUR SIFTER, AND SPROUT, WALDRON AND CO. CENTRIFUGAL REEL. - Womack's Mill, Yanceyville, Caswell County, NC

  8. 12. Jet Lowe, Photographer, June 1979. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Jet Lowe, Photographer, June 1979. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR LOOKING NORTH. SHOWING SELF-RISING FLOUR BIN AND SALEM MACHINE WORKS' WHEAT ROLLER MILLS AND FLOUR BAGGER/COMPACTOR. - Womack's Mill, Yanceyville, Caswell County, NC

  9. 10. Jet Lowe, Photographer, June 1979. FIRST FLOOR, INTERIOR. LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Jet Lowe, Photographer, June 1979. FIRST FLOOR, INTERIOR. LOOKING NORTHWEST SHOWING SALEM MACHINE WORKS' WHEAT ROLLER MILLS AND FLOUR BAGGER/COMPACTOR. - Womack's Mill, Yanceyville, Caswell County, NC

  10. Interior, second floor north side of building toward east end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, second floor north side of building toward east end - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Open Air Tuberculosis Ward, West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street Southwest Corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  11. Interior, first floor southeast side of building, showing french doors ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, first floor southeast side of building, showing french doors and interior windows - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Open Air Tuberculosis Ward, West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street Southwest Corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  12. Interior, second floor south side of building toward east end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, second floor south side of building toward east end - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Open Air Tuberculosis Ward, West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street Southwest Corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  13. Exterior doorway detail south side of building (first floor) east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior doorway detail south side of building (first floor) east inset porch; interior staircase visible in background - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Open Air Tuberculosis Ward, West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street Southwest Corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  14. 65. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WING 1100 EAST, AUDITORIUM (CONFERENCE HALL), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WING 1100 EAST, AUDITORIUM (CONFERENCE HALL), DETAIL OF CEILING DECORATION - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. 108. INTERIOR, FIFTH FLOOR, WING 5100 WEST, ROOM 5160, SECRETARY'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. INTERIOR, FIFTH FLOOR, WING 5100 WEST, ROOM 5160, SECRETARY'S CONFERENCE ROOM (AFTER REMODELING), DETAIL OF CEILING DECORATION - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. 16. VIEW OF FIRST FLOOR EAST OPERATING GALLERY. NOTE THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF FIRST FLOOR EAST OPERATING GALLERY. NOTE THE SERIES OF MANIPULATOR ARMS ALONG THE LEFT WALL. - Nevada Test Site, Engine Maintenance Assembly & Disassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  17. FIRST FLOOR, A view from the northeast corner of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FIRST FLOOR, A view from the northeast corner of the clean room (Room 54) looking southwest - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Isolated Building (I Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  18. 5. Building I interior, third floor, western portion looking southwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Building I interior, third floor, western portion looking southwest, showing evidence of altered roofline. - Daniel F. Waters Germantown Dye Works, Building I, 37-55 East Wister Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. Detail of window on second floor of south elevation; camera ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of window on second floor of south elevation; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  20. Detail of windows on first floor, east elevation; camera facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of windows on first floor, east elevation; camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA